UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Bureaucracy and racism : their interrelationship a case study of the co-operative home for Indian women Kelgard, Daphne Sylvia 1974

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BUREAUCRACY AND RACISM:  THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIP  A CASE STUDY OF THE CO-OPERATIVE HOME FOR INDIAN WOMEN  by DAPHNE SYLVIA KELGARD B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as confoftiiing t o th,e r e q u i r e / 1 standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1974  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  freely available  for  I agree  for  that  reference and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood t h a t copying or  of this thesis for financial written  g a i n s h a l l not be allowed w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  £./£s&>JL,s s ;  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8. Canada  publication  J*&^r/£^ Columbia  i ABSTRACT S t u d i e s of b u r e a u c r a c y a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s t u d i e s of s t r u c t u r a l  frameworks.  B u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s a r e n o t seen t o be v e h i c l e s o f i d e o l o g i c a l sion.  expres-  They are more commonly viewed as e i t h e r n e u t r a l i z i n g or as n e u t r a l  instruments.  The argument has been made t h a t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l  bureaucracies  can a c t as d e - p o l i t i c i z i n g a g e n t s , a c t u a l l y p r e v e n t i n g even t h e of the e x p r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e .  possibility  C r i t i c s o f t h i s p o s i t i o n argue  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r f e r e n c e by f u n c t i o n a r i e s b u t s u p p o r t t h e assumpt i o n t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e should i d e a l l y be a n e u t r a l one.  They t u r n  a t t e n t i o n t o ways of p r e v e n t i n g f u n c t i o n a r i e s f r o m s u b v e r t i n g t h i s I f one c o n s i d e r s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o be p r i m a r y r a t h e r the i d e a l c o n s t r u c t ,  it  ideal. than  t h e n becomes c l e a r t h a t a l l t h e s t r u c t u r e s a r e i n -  fused w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g i e s of t h e s o c i e t y . v i d u a l a c t o r s w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e s w i l l , a c t on these i d e o l o g i c a l  their  Further,  c o n s c i o u s l y or  the i n d i -  unconsciously,  perspectives.  The phenomenon of r a c i s m i s a l s o n o t commonly t r e a t e d as an i d e o l o g y .  The  more u s u a l t r e a t m e n t of r a c i s m i s as a b e r r a n t b e h a v i o u r by a l i m i t e d number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s o c i e t y . of r a c i s t b e h a v i o u r r a t h e r  I f one examines t h e s t r u c t u r a l bases  than i t s p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c  comes e v i d e n t t h a t r a c i s m i s an i d e o l o g y .  expressions,  be-  The r a c i s t a c t i o n s s i n g l e d  as d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r a r e o n l y t h e o v e r t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . f e s t a t i o n s are i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  it  out  The c o v e r t m a n i -  and u s u a l l y u n c o n s c i o u s , making them  less obvious.  These two h y p o t h e s e s , t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of t h e s o c i e t y ' s  prevailing  ii  i d e o l o g i e s , and t h a t r a c i s m i s a predominant i d e o l o g y i n a l l s o c i e t i e s , are coupled w i t h a t h i r d .  capitalist  This hypothesis i s t h a t the b e l i e f  i n the e f f i c a c y and n e u t r a l i t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s l y s t r o n g i n the. s o c i e t y and i t s members t h a t sence o f o t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l  it  sufficient-  serves t o mask t h e p r e -  practices.  These t h r e e hypotheses were developed i n the process o f a n a l y z i n g a v o l u n tary project, ticipant.  t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women i n w h i c h I was a p a r -  The m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d here i s drawn f r o m r e c o r d s and documents  i n my p o s s e s s i o n .  As I possess v i r t u a l l y a l l  the e x t a n t m a t e r i a l from the  p r o j e c t begun i n 1965 and a b r u p t l y ended i n 1967, I have g i v e n as f u l l a h i s t o r y of t h e Home as p o s s i b l e ,  i n c l u d i n g extensive quotations from the  unpublished documentation.  The f a i l u r e of t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home was a t t r i b u t e d t o d i f f e r i n g t i o n s of the u t i l i t y  percep-  of r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s by a l l  the  p a r t i e s to the e v e n t u a l d i s p u t e w h i c h caused the c l o s u r e o f t h e Home. The documentary evidence s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t  t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e Home  was due to the presence o f r a c i s t i d e o l o g y w h i c h was masked by d i s a g r e e ments over b u r e a u c r a t i c methods.  From these c o n c l u s i o n s , more  c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn c o n c e r n i n g the presence o f r a c i s t  tentative  i d e o l o g y i n most  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , complex and s i m p l e , i n any s o c i e t y w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e s the e x p l o i t a t i o n of a group of p e o p l e i d e n t i f i a b l e as a " r a c e " .  1  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract iii  T a b l e of Contents List  of T a b l e s  v  • •  vi  Acknowledgments .  Introduction Notes  1  5  CHAPTER ONE Theoretical Perspectives Bureaucracy Racism —  - A Re-examination  A D e f i n i t i o n a l .Problem  Notes  17 44 59  CHAPTER TWO The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women - Development and Original Structure The P l a n n i n g Committee  63  The R e s i d e n t s and the Community  73  The  82  Board  and t h e S t a f f o f t h e Home  Notes  96  CHAPTER THREE The  C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women - Approaching the End Notes  100  134  iv  CHAPTER FOUR U n d e r s t a n d i n g the F a i l u r e Notes  Appendices L e t t e r f r o m t h e D i r e c t o r , Vancouver I n d i a n Center  169  L e t t e r s f r o m the B.C. A r t s & W e l f a r e S o c i e t y  170  A r t i c l e f r o m t h e Vancouver Sun  173  D e s c r i p t i o n of u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s  174  B i b l i o g r a p h y of P u b l i s h e d References  175  LIST OF-TABLES  P r o j e c t e d O p e r a t i n g Statement f o r  the Year Ending June 2 1 , 1967  .  A c t u a l Income and E x p e n d i t u r e s , A p r i l 15, 1966 to June 1 , 1 9 6 6 . . . A c t u a l Income and E x p e n d i t u r e s , June 1 , 1966 to November 20, 1967  vi  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I would l i k e  to thank D r . H.B. Hawthorn f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and p e r s e v e r a n c e  i n h e l p i n g me to become what I am - a s c h o l a r his  encouragement and u n f a i l i n g  written. and  i n s p i t e of m y s e l f .  Without  support t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been  Thanks a r e a l s o due to my cognate and a f f i n a l  a s s i s t a n c e i n times of d i s t r e s s .  kin for their aid  INTRODUCTION  2  The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women was a s t u d e n t p r o j e c t begun by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of Students i n 1965.  The Home  opened i t s doors i n A p r i l of 1966 and had them f o r c i b l y shut i n May of 1967.  U n l i k e many p r o j e c t s w h i c h are v o l u n t e e r o r i g i n a t e d and c o m p l e t e l y  r e l i a n t on g r a n t s f r o m n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l f u n d i n g sources t h i s p r o j e c t n o t d i e f r o m l a c k of f u n d s .  The b a l a n c e of f u n d s r e m a i n i n g a t i t s  w i t h o u t any a d d i t i o n a l monies, would have a l l o w e d t h e Home to  did  closure,  continue  i t s f u n c t i o n as a l o n g term r e h a b i l i t a t i v e r e s i d e n c e f o r a t l e a s t one year or more.  The p r o j e c t ' s s t a t e d i n t e n t was t o p r o v i d e a r e s i d e n c e r u n on  c o - o p e r a t i v e l i n e s f o r n a t i v e women who had no a l t e r n a t i v e housing t h a t a v a i l a b l e on Skid Road.  except  The p r o j e c t began w i t h l i t t l e f a n f a r e and  muted a p p r o v a l was r e c e i v e d f r o m many s o u r c e s , p r i m a r i l y from s t u d e n t s and v o l u n t a r y agencies such as t h e Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p Center and t h e S a l v a t i o n Army.  In i t s brief history i t  f i n a l l y c l o s e d by f o r c i b l e  i n c u r r e d much w r a t h and was  eviction.  The problem I have addressed m y s e l f t o i n t h i s work i s why t h e p r o j e c t was shut down i n such a manner.  The t h e s i s I have developed over a l o n g p e r -  i o d of a n a l y s i s i s t h a t t h e charges and c o u n t e r - c h a r g e s o f  bureaucratic  b u n g l i n g and red tape were n o t t h e r e a l reasons b u t r a t h e r served t o mask t h e presence of r a c i s t i d e o l o g y as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the c l o s u r e .  My f i r s t  a t t e m p t t o a n a l y z e why a p r o j e c t w h i c h had been seen  initially  as a good work should have ended i n b i t t e r n e s s and some v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d , w i t h t h e encouragement of D r . H.B. H a w t h o r n , j e c t ended.  over one year a f t e r  The r a t i o n a l e p r o v i d e d by the AMS T r e a s u r e r i n h i s  the p r o -  report  3  t o t h e S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l c o n c e r n i n g the funds r e m a i n i n g f r o m t h e p r o j e c t d i d n o t seem s a t i s f a c t o r y .  He suggested t h a t t h e Home's f a i l u r e was due  t o i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h p r i o r t o b e g i n n i n g t h e p r o j e c t a n d , more i m p o r tantly,  t o " c r u d e e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " by a board whose b u r e a u c r a t i c  t i e s l e f t much to be d e s i r e d .  abili-  A c o u n t e r - c h a r g e i s s u e d some f o u r months  p r i o r t o t h e c l o s u r e by a p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e p r o j e c t suggested t h a t most of t h e problems t h e n experienced by t h e Home c o u l d be t r a c e d t o  "petty  b u r e a u c r a c y " on t h e p a r t of t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y ( t h e UBC s t u d e n t a s s o ciation) .  I n t h e e i g h t e e n month i n t e r r e g n u m between t h e c l o s u r e and the f i r s t  attempts  a t a n a l y s i s , my i n i t i a l r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t b u r e a u c r a c y i n some f o r m was t h e r o o t cause of the c l o s u r e was r e i n f o r c e d by two e x p e r i e n c e s . D u r i n g my t e n u r e w i t h t h e n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t o f t h e Canadian Union of S t u d e n t s , I had d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h many o t h e r forms of organization.  bureaucratic  On my r e t u r n t o UBC, I found t h e same c r i t i c i s m of AMS  b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e f f i c i e n c y r i f e i n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t had heard s i n c e I had e n t e r e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n 19 63.  I  Both e x p e r i e n c e s  caused me t o s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n the c e n t r a l r o l e assigned t o t h e b u r e a u cratic.  My e x p e r i e n c e s i n Ottawa and elsewhere i n d i c a t e d to me t h a t b u -  r e a u c r a c y per se was o n l y an outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f deeper causes o f f a i l u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s or t h e i r p r o j e c t s .  I n other words, f a i l u r e might  be due t o s t r u c t u r a l or p e r s o n a l reasons b u t t h e way o f o r g a n i z i n g s t r u c t u r e a n d / o r t h e people was n o t a major c a u s a l f a c t o r .  the  Frenkenberg's  s t u d y (1957) of t h e s t r u c t u r e of v o l u n t a r y committees i n a Welsh v i l l a g e i l l u s t r a t e s the p o i n t w e l l .  The v i l l a g e r s n e g l e c t e d t o keep m i n u t e s of  4  meetings which c o u l d be used p i n blame f o r unpopular as scapegoats cohesion.  as r e c o r d s .  T h i s p r a c t i c e enabled  them t o  s u g g e s t i o n s o r d e c i s i o n s on " o u t s i d e r s " who served  to the v i l l a g e ' s need to m a i n t a i n t h e appearance of outward  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n e f f i c i e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c techniques allowed  the v i l l a g e r s  to m a i n t a i n a f a c a d e of s o l i d a r i t y which e f f i c i e n t  bureau-  c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s would have served to expose, t o the d e t r i m e n t of t h e community.  Having determined  what the cause was n o t , I then turned t o the e x p l o r a t i o n  of what i t might be.  One of my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t the CUS s e c r e t a r i a t  i n Ottawa was human r i g h t s programming. U n i t e d N a t i o n s Human R i g h t s Year f e r e n c e s convened around  My appointment o v e r l a p p e d the  i n 1968 d u r i n g which I a t t e n d e d many con-  this topic.  Not one o f the c o n f e r e n c e s ,  federal,  p r o v i n c i a l , or l o c a l , d e a l t w i t h t h e p a t e n t d e n i a l of human r i g h t s to Canadians  of I n d i a n a n c e s t r y d e s p i t e the p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1967 o f A. Survey  of Contemporary I n d i a n s of Canada, (Hawthorn) Canadian thought  I n d i a n P a v i l l i o n a t Expo '67.  I found  and the c r e a t i o n of the c o n s i d e r a b l e food f o r  i n these o m i s s i o n s and began r e a d i n g on t h e phenomenon of r a c i s m .  Through t h i s p r o c e s s , I became convinced  t h a t t h e r e was some l i n k between  r a c i s m and the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women.  Racism i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y regarded  as a v e r y emotion-laden  charge.  I n com-  mon usage i t e i t h e r c r e a t e s g u i l t f e e l i n g s and a n o n - d e s i r a b l e s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n or a b s o l u t e d e n i a l of i t s e x i s t e n c e on t h e p a r t of those of p r a c t i c i n g i t . many assumptions  When the charge of r a c i s m i s a c c e p t e d , even about  accused  tentatively,  the i n d i v i d u a l and/or t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e c a l l e d  5  into question.  The c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w of r a c i s m a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t  the  n o t i o n t h a t r a c i s t s a r e a s m a l l m i n o r i t y of t h e s o c i e t y who a r e d e v i a n t t h e i r behaviour p a t t e r n s .  in  My knowledge of t h e a c t o r s i n the C o - o p e r a t i v e  Home f o r I n d i a n Women f o r c e d me t o d i s c a r d the c o n v e n t i o n a l n o t i o n s and search f o r more reasoned e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the phenomenon.  The search t o o k  me beyond d e f i n i t i o n s of r a c i s m t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s and t h e methods by w h i c h i t  i s p r o m u l g a t e d , t h a t i s t o say, t h e f u n c t i o n of  ideo-  logy i n a society.  I n t h e French p h i l o s o p h e r A l t h u s s e r I found a cogent  e x p l a n a t i o n of how t h e i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses o f t h e s o c i e t y f u n c t i o n p e r p e t u a t e those i d e o l o g i e s c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l , i n c l u d i n g r a c i s m , out t h e  After  to  through-  society.  e s t a b l i s h i n g an a n a l y t i c a l framework w h i c h f i t  the o b j e c t i v e  of the p r o j e c t ' s h i s t o r y I was a g a i n faced w i t h a q u e s t i o n . c o n c e n t r a t i o n on b u r e a u c r a t i c extremes and weaknesses f i t . sonable response was m u l t i - f a c e t e d .  First,  reality  How d i d  the  The most r e a -  the r a c i s t i d e o l o g y , f o r  the  m a j o r i t y , was an u n t h i n k i n g r e s p o n s e , m a i n t a i n e d a t t h a t l e v e l by t h e f r e quency w i t h w h i c h t h e n o n - I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s were c o n f r o n t e d by c o n t a c t w i t h p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m s of t h a t i d e o l o g y .  I n a d d i t i o n , i n 1965 t o 1967,  t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e was a c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n i n g t h e myth t h a t Canadians were n o t p r e j u d i c e d - t h a t was a problem s p e c i f i c t o our n e i g h b o u r s t o t h e south.  Secondly, t h e charge of r a c i s m , i f  i t had been r e c o g n i z e d as a  c a u s a l f a c t o r , was a v e r y s t r o n g one to l e v e l and i n so d o i n g t h e accuser would a l s o have had to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as t h e p r o j e c t ' s a p p r o v a l was based on u n a n i m i t y of i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  initial I t was o n l y  as the p e r s p e c t i v e s began t o d i v e r g e t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p e d .  Thirdly,  6  as P e t e r B l a u was f o r c e d to r e c o g n i z e i n h i s study of a s t a t e h i r i n g cy i n t h e USA (1963),  b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e ,  agenserve  as p e r p e t u a t o r s of the s t a t e ' s i d e o l o g i e s .  Much of the o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e c o r d s upon which t h e case study of t h e Coo p e r a t i v e Home i s based were c o l l e c t e d w h i l e I was an a c t i v e i n the p r o j e c t .  The C o - o p e r a t i v e  participant  Home p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t e d from the I n d i a n  A f f a i r s sub-committee of the l o c a l CUS Committee.  Although  I was a c t i v e  i n t h e CUS Committee d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g stage and was aware o f the d e c i s i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s around the p r o j e c t , I d i d not become d i r e c t l y ved u n t i l my appointment, j u s t p r i o r t o t h e Home's opening, person^" f o r t h e s u c c e e d i n g maintaining to  twelve months.  as CUS C h a i r -  My r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d  e s t a b l i s h e d programs, c r e a t i n g new programs, a c t i n g as a d v i s o r  the P r e s i d e n t of the AMS and o v e r s e e i n g  Home.  invol-  the p r o g r e s s of the C o - o p e r a t i v e  S h o r t l y a f t e r my term of o f f i c e ended i n A p r i l of 1967, I l e f t f o r  Ottawa t o take the p o s i t i o n w i t h  the n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t of CUS.  In my p o s s e s s i o n were t h e s e t of f i l e s  on t h e Home c o n t a i n i n g  correspon-  dence, memoranda, p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s , c o p i e s of r e p o r t s , m i n u t e s , and ext e n s i v e n o t e s , as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l statements I had brought them to my p a r e n t s ' home i n order of  the Home's Board c o u l d c o l l e c t  and newspaper  t h a t the new C h a i r p e r s o n  them c o n v e n i e n t l y .  Because of t h e t u r -  m o i l i n the p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h a t time he d i d not c o l l e c t .Home's c l o s u r e . ble  clippings.  them b e f o r e the  Thus by a c c i d e n t they remained i n my p o s s e s s i o n  f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s .  o f f i c e s was d e s t r o y e d  availa-  Almost a l l m a t e r i a l s s t o r e d i n t h e AMS  i n 1968 d u r i n g my absence from the c i t y when the  7  AMS moved f r o m t h e i r o l d o f f i c e s i n t o t h e new Student Union B u i l d i n g . A p a r t f r o m some AMS m i n u t e s , t h e adequacy o f w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapt e r T h r e e , a l l known w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s are i n my p o s s e s s i o n . cumstances, no o t h e r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t  Due t o  cir-  i n t h e p r o j e c t was a v a i l a b l e  for  i n t e r v i e w s or v e r i f i c a t i o n o f d a t a d u r i n g t h e c o m p i l i n g o f t h e case s t u d y . Most of the major p a r t i c i p a n t s have l e f t  the c i t y .  One has d i e d .  Those  few who r e m a i n a v a i l a b l e do n o t f e e l s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n f i d e n t o f t h e i r  re-  collections  I  to submit t o i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r  seven y e a r s .  As a r e s u l t ,  was f o r c e d t o r e l y on t h e e x t a n t r e c o r d s and my memory.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n poses t h e o b v i o u s q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e degree of t i v i t y p o s s i b l e and t h e v e r a c i t y of t h e s t u d y .  The q u e s t i o n o f  objec-  partici-  pant o b s e r v a t i o n as a v a l i d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach has been argued a l most as e x t e n s i v e l y as t h e q u e s t i o n of the degree o f o b j e c t i v i t y a t t a i n a b l e by an i n d i v i d u a l s t u d y .  possibly  Both d i s c u s s i o n s are d i r e c t l y  t h r o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n of how c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e s u b j e c t i v e element i s t o be p r e s e n t . within i t  It  i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t any s i n g l e endeavour  elements o f s u b j e c t i v i t y  or s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r s o n a l b i a s .  thought  contains  i n terms of e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y ,  class bias,  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t s c i e n t i f i c i t y  i t s most o b j e c t i v e l e v e l i s u n a t t a i n a b l e b u t r a t h e r t a t i o n s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l work.  related  at  to recognize the l i m i -  The a c t i v e advocacy of t h e " f l y on t h e  w a l l " p o s i t i o n on o b s e r v a t i o n h a v i n g f i n a l l y be l a i d to r e s t ,  the r e l e v a n t  d i s c u s s i o n i s the degree t o w h i c h the o b s e r v e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e a c t i v i t y being s t u d i e d .  I n t h i s sense the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t cum r e s e a r c h e r  o f t e n i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o a n a l y z e the e f f e c t  is  she or he has had on t h e  s i t u a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d t h a n t h e p a s s i v e p a r t i c i p a n t f o r whom t h e change  8  i n phenomena i s l e s s d i s t i n c t .  Z  The a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v e r i s  also  f r e q u e n t l y a b l e t o g a i n access t o i n f o r m a t i o n which i s h i d d e n f r o m the outside  observer.  3  Seven y e a r s d i s t a n c e t o g e t h e r w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l l y complete corpus of t e n m a t e r i a l have served t o l e s s e n the problem of s u b j e c t i v e  writ-  intervention.  I n many i n s t a n c e s t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d s served t o keep me honest i n my p e r sonal r e c o l l e c t i o n s .  The d e c i s i o n t o r e s p e c t the anonymity o f a l l  directly  i n v o l v e d served the secondary purpose of removing any p o t e n t i a l d e s i r e distort  t h e f a c t s t o c r e a t e v i l l a i n s and h e r o e s .  Therefore the study  as c o r r e c t as my i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s and t h e m a t e r i a l s w i l l  to is  allow.  I n c i t i n g the u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , I have used r e f e r e n c e f o o t n o t e s .  Ci-  t a t i o n s o f p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s are a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Chicago Method.  My r o l e as p a r t i c i p a n t was i n t e n s e and n o t always p l e a s a n t . f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e , t h e r e were b i t t e r as p r o d u c t i v e and p l e a s a n t ones.  As i n e v e r y  and v i r t u a l l y u n t e n a b l e t i m e s as w e l l  I was a t t r a c t e d t o the p r o j e c t  originally  because of i t s emphasis on s o c i a l a c t i o n w i t h i n t h e community r a t h e r  than  separated by p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e s as were the p r o j e c t s  espoused  by o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e w i t h whom I  served  as t r e a s u r e r i n 1965-66.  My i n v o l v e m e n t was s t r u c t u r a l l y r e i n f o r c e d  my appointment as CUS C h a i r p e r s o n .  My a c t i v i t y w i t h the p r o j e c t  with  increased  s i g n i f i c a n t l y and I prepared to succeed t h e o u t - g o i n g CUS C h a i r p e r s o n i n h i s r o l e as C h a i r p e r s o n of the Board.  When I assumed t h i s l a t t e r  posi-  t i o n , i t became obvious t o me t h a t the house mother was more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e n o n - s t u d e n t members of the Board and I found a s u i t a b l e replacement  9  f o r t h e p o s i t i o n among t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s s i t t i n g as Board members.  I  r e t a i n e d u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e p r o j e c t however, and was f o r c e d more t h a n once t o resume t h e r o l e of C h a i r p e r s o n . l e f t I found a replacement i n t h e s t a f f  When t h e house mother  person and persuaded her t o assume  charge of t h e Home.  D u r i n g t h e c o n t r o v e r s y aroused by t h e r e t u r n of the house m o t h e r , I b e came t h e f o c u s o f t h e h o s t i l i t y and d i s c o n t e n t expressed by some o f  the  s m a l l donors and f r i e n d s of t h e house mother a t what t h e y p e r c e i v e d t o be a r a d i c a l change i n p o l i c y .  T h i s o c c u r r e d i n p a r t because o f my r o l e w h i c h  rendered me u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e and i n p a r t because t h e CUS o f f i c e and t e l e p h o n e number were r e l e a s e d as t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t a c t f o r t h e Home. The - l a t t e r was done t o - p r e s e r v e the p r i v a c y of t h e r e s i d e n c e .  The v i r i l e n c e o f t h e c o m p l a i n t s shocked me as d i d c e r t a i n of t h e g e s t u r e s of good w i l l r e n d e r e d by o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s , c l u b s , and i n d i v i d u a l s .  (Dis-  c u s s i o n o f some of these g e s t u r e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n Chapter Two, S e c t i o n T h i s e x p e r i e n c e , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h my growing f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e  2.)  life  h i s t o r i e s of most o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , caused me t o b e g i n t o examine my own p r e j u d i c e s i n a way I had n o t p r e v i o u s l y had to do.  I n my e x a m i n a t i o n of  t h e m o t i v a t i o n s of o t h e r s and m y s e l f I d i d n o t , however, r e l a t e t h e exp e r i e n c e s to any a n a l y s i s o f r a c i s m or s y s t e m a t i c r a c i a l  The e x p e r i e n c e was s u f f i c i e n t l y  prejudice.  s t r o n g t o p r o v i d e impetus t o c o n t i n u e t h e  search f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n a l y s i s .  The o t h e r ,  less personal m o t i v a t i o n  t o c o n t i n u e a n a l y z i n g t h e p r o j e c t , was t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e of  the  10  venture.  The o n l y p o s s i b l y u n i q u e aspects of the p r o j e c t were t h a t  the  s t u d e n t i n i t i a t o r s a t UBC began i t b e f o r e most o t h e r campuses began t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i o n programs, and t h e s t a f f p e r s o n of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home was more p o l i t i c a l l y  s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n most young n a t i v e people a t t h a t  time.  As my search f o r a s u i t a b l e a n a l y t i c a l framework p r o g r e s s e d , o t h e r m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s developed.  Some n o t a b l e work has been done i n areas  t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e s t u d y of r a c i s m b u t the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s have, i n t h e main, neglected to c o n f r o n t the question d i r e c t l y . nivall  The work done by F u r -  (1948) and o t h e r s on c o l o n i a l i s m and i t s e f f e c t s p r o v i d e u s e f u l  r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l b u t do n o t address t h e q u e s t i o n of how r a c i s m occurs and i s i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h i n a s o c i e t y .  B a r t h ' s seminal work on e t h n i c  b o u n d a r i e s and t h e i r maintenance (1969) chooses t o i g n o r e t h e q u e s t i o n as well.  The s t u d i e s w h i c h have been done on t h e phenomenon of r a c i s m have  been done p r i m a r i l y by p s y c h o l o g i s t s on t h e one hand, who tend t o  ignore  the s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s , and by pamphleteers on t h e o t h e r , who f r e q u e n t l y s a c r i f i c e v e r a c i t y f o r p o l i t i c a l expediency. sumes t h e r e c e n t spate of p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c  (The l a t t e r c a t e g o r y subs t u d i e s of " r a c e " and i n e q u a l  r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l  writings.)  Given t h e p a u c i t y of t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l s on t h e phenomenon of r a c i s m i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a l l b u t a v e r y few of the d i s c u s s i o n s , g i c a l and n o n - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , on t h e n a t u r e of b u r e a u c r a t i c  it  anthropoloorganization  and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , have o m i t t e d any p o s s i b i l i t y of l i n k a g e between t h e two c o n c e p t s . theory.  P e t e r Blau i s one e x c e p t i o n i n t h e f i e l d of  organization  I n h i s s t u d y of s t a t e and f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s i n t h e USA (1963)  11  Blau was f o r c e d t o c o n f r o n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p b u r e a u c r a c y and r a c i s m .  (Cf.  between  Chapter One, S e c t i o n 1 f o r a f u l l  discussion  of B l a u ' s w o r k . )  The t h e s i s of my work i s t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms of t h e s t a t e and t h e i r s u b s i d i a r i e s ,  that i s the bu-  r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s l a r g e and s m a l l , and t h e phenomenon of r a c i s m . The c o n n e c t i o n between t h e two i s formed by t h e mechanism of through which s o c i a l values are m a i n t a i n e d .  ideology  Thus, i n t h e case o f  racist  i d e o l o g y , s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o i t a t i o n of a group of r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  peo-  p l e , f o r example t h e Canadian n a t i v e p e o p l e , g i v e s r i s e t o an i d e o l o g y of s u p e r i o r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y by way of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r and defense of act of e x p l o i t a t i o n .  the  T h i s i d e o l o g y i s t h e n p e r p e t u a t e d by what A l t h u s s e r  c a l l s the S t a t e I d e o l o g i c a l A p p a r a t u s e s ,  (1971) i n c l u d i n g among o t h e r s ,  the r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l , l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and communications i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the  society.  Blau i l l u s t r a t e s how b u r e a u c r a c y can p e r p e t u a t e r a c i s t i d e o l o g y w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the facade of a v a l u e - f r e e i n s t r u m e n t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l bureaucracy).  ( t h e Weberian n o t i o n o f  I n h i s example t h e employers f o r whom t h e  s t a t e operated t h e h i r i n g agency were a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y cause the b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism t o opperate i n a manner d i s t i n c t l y p r e j u d i c i a l Blacks.  The s t u d y analysed h e r e i n , o f the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r  Women, i l l u s t r a t e s  t h a t t h e i d e o l o g y of r a c i s m i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  that i t w i l l manifest i t s e l f without the s p e c i f i c powerful.  to  Indian  strong  i n t e r v e n t i o n of  the  A g a i n , however, b u r e a u c r a c y serves t o p r o v i d e a cover f o r  this  12  process.  I n t h e case of t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home, the p e r c e p t i o n s  ning the v a l i d i t y ,  concer-  n e c e s s i t y , and p r o p r i e t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c o p e r a t i o n s  a m o d i f i e d l e g a l - r a t i o n a l t y p e were s u f f i c i e n t l y  of  strong to allow both sides  i n the e v e n t u a l d i s p u t e t o express t h e i r disagreements by means of b u r e a u c r a t i c processes a l o n e .  The importance placed on v a r y i n g a s p e c t s of b u r e a u c r a c y by those  involved  i n t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home p r o j e c t n e c e s s i t a t e s a f a i r l y t h o r o u g h examinat i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory.  I have o m i t t e d r e f e r e n c e t o t h e  Scientific  Management and Human R e l a t i o n s s c h o o l s of b u r e a u c r a t i c t h e o r y as t h e y cannot be c o n s t r u e d as p e r t i n e n t  to the d i s c u s s i o n .  I have i n c l u d e d r e -  f e r e n c e t o most o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l work a r i s i n g f r o m or s t i m u l a t e d by Web e r ' s t y p o l o g y as i t p r o v i d e s the necessary framework f r o m w h i c h t o u n d e r stand t h e v a r y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of o r g a n i z a t i o n expressed by t h e i n t h e case s t u d y . t e r One.  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s found i n t h e f i r s t  The c h a p t e r  participants  s e c t i o n of Chap-  concludes w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the t h e o r y of r a c i s m .  Chapter Two b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h t o p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t e d , i n c l u d i n g some comment on t h e p l a n n i n g committee and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e i d e o l o g i c a l  perspec-  tives.  S e c t i o n 2 p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s of the Home and t h e s m a l l donors f r o m t h e community a t l a r g e .  I t d e t a i l s the i n t e r a c t i o n s of  the  r e s i d e n t s w i t h o t h e r groups i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t and p r o v i d e s some examples of the a t t i t u d e s expressed by some of the s m a l l d o n o r s .  These  13  two groups played t h e l e a s t a c t i v e p a r t s i n t h e drama w h i c h ensued.  Sec-  t i o n 3 p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e Board of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home and t h e two s t a f f members.  Some a n a l y s i s of  t h e d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s t o r a c i s m expressed by t h e two s t a f f members i s g i v e n t o g e t h e r w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e Board.  each encountered  Chapter Three i s almost e n t i r e l y concerned w i t h t h e p r o b -  lems encountered by the Board and the CUS Committee i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s t h e AMS E x e c u t i v e .  with  Some m e n t i o n i s made of the l a r g e donors and t h e i r  a t t i t u d e s t o t h e p r o j e c t as a c o n t r a s t to those expressed by the AMS and by the s m a l l d o n o r s .  I t was w i t h i n these two groups ( t h e AMS and t h e Board)  t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e over t h e Home and i t s autonomy was engaged.  Chapter  Three t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n of the changing a t t i t u d e s and i d e o l o g i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Board members as t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e person and r e s i d e n t s i n c r e a s e d .  It  also includes a d e t a i l e d  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l i n g s on b o t h s i d e s .  examination  I n Chapter Four I draw t o g e -  t h e r t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e case s t u d y t o c o n c l u d e t h a t r a c i s t d i d u n d e r l i e the c o n f l i c t .  Further,  staff  ideology  t h a t t h e c o n f l i c t d i d n o t appear a t  the Home's i n c e p t i o n because the u n t h i n k i n g i d e o l o g i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s a l l i n v o l v e d were s i m i l a r .  I t was o n l y t h r o u g h the process of  of  involvement  t h a t members of t h e Board became s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of t h e i r  assumptions  t o b e g i n t o change them, t h e r e b y e n c u r i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s .  These changes  were n o t expressed as a r e j e c t i o n of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s b u t r a t h e r as a r e t u r n i n g t o t h e o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of t h e p r o j e c t . in contrast,  The AMS E x e c u t i v e ,  c o n t i n u e d t o express t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p r o j e c t i n terms  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s d e s p i t e the p r o f e s s e d b e l i e f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was a d e s i r a b l e g o a l i n o t h e r  ventures.  among some t h a t  14  The major c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn f r o m t h i s s t u d y and B l a u ' s i s t h e need f o r p u r p o s i v e and r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s bureaucracy and r a c i s m .  between  The p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l l s o c i e t a l  g a n i z a t i o n s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y a r e reaching.  If  orfar-  these t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e v e r i f i e d , r e f u s a l to r e c o g -  n i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m a i n t a i n i n g r a c i s t s t r u c t u r e s by means of complex organizations w i l l r e s u l t  i n m u l t i p l e studies for c o n f l i c t  and t r a g e d y f o r the humans exposed t o the  structures.  theorists  15  Footnotes -  Introduction  1  At t h a t t i m e " c h a i r m a n " was used i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y to d e s i g n a t e b o t h males and f e m a l e s . The term " c h a i r p e r s o n " has been used i n t h i s work t o more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t n o n - s e x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y .  2  One of t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i e l d w o r k i s a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e v e r a c i t y of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n . Ethnography i s f i l l e d w i t h r e p o r t s of d i s c o v e r i e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by i n f o r m a n t s c o n t a i n s i n a c c u r a c i e s due to memory l a p s e , p e r c e p t u a l b i a s , or deliberate distortion. Chagnon g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Yanomamo k i n systems because of the somewhat m a l i c i o u s j o y w i t h which h i s i n f o r m a n t s p u r p o s e l y m i s l e d him f o r t h e f i r s t two months of h i s f i e l d e x p e r i e n c e . ( 1 9 6 8 : 1 0 - 1 7 . )  3  Blau comments t h a t " o b s e r v a t i o n i s n o t a r e l i a b l e method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g i l l e g a l p r a c t i c e s . . . s i n c e t h e y are concealed f r o m the o b s e r v e r . . . " (1963:59fn.)  Chapter One Theoretical  Perspectives  17  Section 1 Bureaucracy - A R e - e x a m i n a t i o n  T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  theory.  The purpose of - t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n i s n o t t o p r o v i d e a r e v i e w of the ture.  Rather, i t  litera-  i s t o r e - e x a m i n e the t h e o r e t i c a l developments i n  f i e l d u s i n g a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e .  the  Weber's d i s c u s s i o n of mo-  d e r n b u r e a u c r a c y focussed on t h e s k e l e t a l framework upon w h i c h was p l a c e d , incidentally,  t h e t i s s u e , b l o o d and c o v e r i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Sub-  sequent t h e o r i s t s c r i t i c i z e d him f o r e x c l u d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s of t h e b l o o d ( t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w ) and t h e muscle w h i c h p r o v i d e s the power. t h e l e s s , almost a l l  the l a t e r  t h e o r i s t s a c c e p t , w i t h Weber, two assumptions  about t h e "bones" of b u r e a u c r a c y .  The f i r s t assumption i s t h a t t h e s k e l e -  t a l s t r u c t u r e d e t e r m i n e s the shape of the c o v e r i n g . a d i s t o r t i o n occurs i n t h e outward shape i t  The second i s t h a t  if  i s due t o a p a t h o l o g y i n t h e  t i s s u e or b l o o d w h i c h can n e i t h e r be caused nor encouraged by the framework.  Never-  interior  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the cause because of t h e v e r y n a t u r e  18  of t h e r a t i o n a l - l e g a l s t r u c t u r e .  P h y s i o l o g y i n d i c a t e s t h a t b l o o d , bone,  and muscle a r e i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d .  Each can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t  the  no  o t h e r s b u t o n e element can d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n or shape of t h e  or-  A  ganism.  P h y s i o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t no organism can e x i s t  i n a vacuum. It  can be seen, w i t h o u t c o n t i n u i n g t h e analogy t o u s e l e s s e x t r e m e s , t h a t an  approach t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y , w h i c h excludes any aspect of the w h o l e , d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y t o some d e g r e e . complex o r g a n i z a t i o n i t  To f u l l y comprehend t h e r o l e of  i s necessary t o v i e w i t  the  in its totality.  A major  aspect of t h i s t o t a l i z i n g process i s t h e s i t u a t i n g of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , historically,  politically,  and e c o n o m i c a l l y .  T h i s l a r g e r process i s n e -  c e s s a r y u n l e s s one s u b s c r i b e s t o t h e Weberian n o t i o n t h a t  rational-legal  b u r e a u c r a c i e s do n o t p e r m i t of c u l t u r a l or s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l vention.  inter-  Seminal work i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons has been done by  C r o z i e r i n h i s s t u d y of l a r g e complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n France and t h e USA. (1963)  The one aspect of study of complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h has been e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d or o n l y h i n t e d a t i s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n . f u n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i v e a t two l e v e l s .  This  B u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e as p a r t  of  government, c h u r c h , f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , m e d i a , systems of j u s t i c e and t r a d e u n i o n s , among o t h e r s , a r e p a r t of the i d e o l o g i c a l apparatus.  ( A l t h u s s e r , 1971)  That i s to say, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t u r e s o f these systems are v a r i o u s l y shaped to b e s t r e f l e c t  the  state  struc-  functions  19  they p e r f o r m as those f u n c t i o n s a r e viewed by the s o c i e t y .  The s t r u c t u r e s  themselves thus serve as a p a r t of t h e i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f . t h e  Internally,  each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a l s o has an i d e o l o g i c a l  frame-  work more s p e c i f i c t o i t - the b e l i e f by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t s macy.  state.  legiti-  As Blau s u g g e s t s , t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n a l l o w s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  t o o p e r a t e w i t h a minimum o f c o e r c i v e f o r c e . corps w i t h i n .  I t p r o v i d e s t h e e s p r i t de  These two i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s can be viewed as synonymous  as i s t h e case i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y . s p l i t by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s or by those s e r v i n g as c l i e n t s .  They can a l s o be The p a r t i c i -  pants can v i e w t h e i n t e r n a l i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , t h a t i s t h e b e l i e f l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e work s t y l e , as l e g i t i m a t e w h i l e d i s p u t i n g t h e  larger  i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i t s r o l e as a p a r t o f s t a t e ' s apparatuses.  The c l i e n t s may s u p p o r t t h e i d e o l o g i c a l  of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n w h i l e v o c i f e r o u s l y p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  i n the  the  position solidarity  I n any o f these s i t u a t i o n s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l i s p a -  ramount.  T h e r e f o r e t h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e development o f o r g a n i z a t i o n from Weber's t y p o l o g y t h r o u g h i t s c r i t i c s discussion of i d e o l o g y .  It  theory  to Thompson and Blau and t h e i r  i s i n t e n d e d as a framework f r o m w h i c h t h e r e a -  der may o b t a i n a v i e w of the t o t a l n a t u r e o f complex o r g a n i z a t i o n  includ-  i n g the ways i n w h i c h i d e o l o g i e s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d , u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,  -  i n t o t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c process by e x t e r n a l f o r c e or by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s selves.  It  them-  i s a l s o designed t o g i v e the reader an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r o -  cesses w h i c h l e a d members o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o d e v e l o p a commitment t o a form of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e g o a l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  20  "The f u l l y developed b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism compares w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x a c t l y as does t h e machine w i t h t h e n o n - m e c h a n i c a l modes of p r o d u c t i o n . P r e c i s i o n , speed, u n a m b i g u i t y , knowledge o f the f i l e s , c o n t i n u i t y , d i s c r e t i o n , u n i t y , s t r i c t s u b o r d i n a t i o n , r e d u c t i o n of f r i c t i o n and of m a t e r i a l and p e r s o n a l c o s t s - t h e s e a r e r a i s e d to the optimum p o i n t i n t h e s t r i c t l y b u r e a u c r a t i c administration." (Weber, 1 9 5 8 : 2 1 4 . )  The a n a l o g y Weber makes between t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism and mechanized production techniques i s not a c c i d e n t a l .  He saw the development o f b u r e a u -  c r a c y as c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e most advanced i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s t states  ( 1 9 5 8 : 1 9 6 . ) f o r r a t i o n a l - l e g a l forms of b u r e a u c r a t i c  a r e b o t h necessary t o and developed f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s of  nation  organization corporate  capitalism.  There i s almost u n i v e r s a l agreement t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f  institutions  has o c c u r r e d a t e v e r y l e v e l o f modern s o c i e t y and t h a t t h i s b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n has been of t h e " r a t i o n a l " t y p e .  Beyond t h i s p o i n t of m i n i m a l a g r e e -  ment t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s t a r t s - w i t h Weber's c l a s s i c d e f i n i t i o n of b u r e a u c r a cy.  H i s c o n c e p t i o n of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e i d e a  of a s o c i a l mechanism f o r m a x i m i z i n g e f f i c i e n c y  i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a  d e s c r i p t i o n of a f o r m of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c (Blau, 1963:251.)  He e n u n c i a t e s a t y p o l o g y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i d e a l -  type b u r e a u c r a c y and a l s o a t y p o l o g y of a u t h o r i t y . t o n e a r l y a l l systems o f a u t h o r i t y i s a b e l i e f authority.  characteristics.  He argues t h a t  i n the l e g i t i m a c y of  He t h e n d i s t i n g u i s h e s among a u t h o r i t y types the  basic that  traditional,  c h a r i s m a t i c , and r a t i o n a l - l e g a l f o r m s , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e t y p e of  autho-  r i t y upon which modern b u r e a u c r a c y i s based.  The f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Weber's i d e a l - t y p e b u r e a u c r a c y a r e :  a clear-cut  21  d i v i s i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s regarded as d u t i e s i n h e r e n t i n each o f f i c e ; a system o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n t r o l s and s a n c t i o n s s t a t e d i n the r e g u l a t i o n s ; assignment o f r o l e s on the b a s i s o f t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  ascertained  t h r o u g h f o r m a l i z e d i m p e r s o n a l p r o c e d u r e s ; a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y governed by g e n e r a l , a b s t r a c t e d , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r u l e s ; and f i n a l l y t h e c r e a t i o n of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n .  (Merton,  1952:362.)  The f i r s t debate c e n t e r s around t h e i n t e n d e d meaning o f " r a t i o n a l " . s t u d e n t s o f f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r example, B l a u term as synonymous w i t h " e f f i c i e n t " .  0-956:31.)  Some  interpret  O t h e r s , such as Albrow ( 1 9 7 0 : 6 5 . )  the  con-  s i d e r " r a t i o n a l " t o mean " t h e i d e a of c o r r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n " based on norms o f recognized l e g i t i m a c y .  Weber does l i t t l e  to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n .  A read-  i n g of h i s Essays i n S o c i o l o g y (1958) i n d i c a t e s t h a t he saw no n e c e s s i t y drawing t h e f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s  the modern t h e o r i s t s deem n e c e s s a r y .  The aspect of Weber's work most m o d i f i e d and c r i t i c i z e d characterization. and p r o b l e m a t i c .  is his  ideal-type  The c r i t i c i s m s range from t h e p i c a y u n e t o t h e more s e r i o u s I n the l a t t e r c a t e g o r y a r e such s t u d e n t s of f o r m a l o r g a n i -  z a t i o n as Gouldner, M e r t o n , B l a u , C r o z i e r ,  and E t z i o n i .  Gouldner  illustrates  t h e c o n c e p t ' s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l inadequacy f o r use i n examining e i t h e r  variation  i n b u r e a u c r a t i c f o r m or i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s historically  for  specific social structures.  He suggests t h i s inadequacy i s due  t o Weber's c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e commonality o f  character-  i s t i c s which b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x h i b i t thereby d i s r e g a r d i n g temporal c a u t i o n s " .  (1952:48).  with  Both Gouldner (1952:49) and M e r t o n  make s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n f o r m a l , t h e i r r a t i o n a l , and t h e  "spatio-  (1952:364.)  dysfunctional  aspects o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s as examples o f elements e x c l u d e d by  22  Weber's i d e a l - t y p e  construct.  P e t e r B l a u ' s c r i t i c i s m of Weber c e n t e r s on the problems p r e s e n t e d by t h e n a t u r e of the i d e a l - t y p e . illustrates  Concurring w i t h F r i e d r i c h ' s c r i t i q u e (1952:27-33.)  t h e way i n w h i c h Weber's i d e a l - t y p e f a i l s  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Blau between  d e f i n i t i o n s of concepts and hypotheses about the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n g from the c o n c e p t s , b o t h o f w h i c h i t  contains.  (1963:251 f n . )  ari-  The Weberian  i d e a l - t y p e i n c l u d e s t h e c o n c e p t i o n of b u r e a u c r a c y as a mechanism t h a t m a x i m i zes e f f i c i e n c y and a l s o as a f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v i n g s p e c i f i c tics.  characteris-  These two s e t s of c r i t e r i a cannot be grouped t o g e t h e r i n t o a d e f i n i t i o n  because t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e a t t r i b u t e s of t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and  its  consequences i s t h e s u b j e c t f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e n o t  eli-  gible for inclusion in a single d e f i n i t i o n .  (1963:251)  B l a u e x t r a c t s two p o s -  s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s f r o m Weber's c o n c e p t i o n .  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on w h i c h M e r t o n ' s  and G o u l d n e r ' s c r i t i c i s m s a r e based i s t h a t Weber d e f i n e d b u r e a u c r a c y by s p e c i f y i n g f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h y p o t h e s i z e d i t s s u p e r i o r o p e r a t i n g ciency.  effi-  The o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t Weber i n t e n d e d t o d e f i n e b u r e a u c r a c y  as any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p a r a t u s t h a t maximizes e f f i c i e n c y and advanced h y p o theses c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s which m i g h t t y p i c a l l y have t h a t effect.  (1963:251.)  Blau chooses to adopt t h e second d e f i n i t i o n a l  possibili-  t y i n which " . . . b u r e a u c r a c i e s can be looked upon as i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s t r a t e g i e s f o r the achievement of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s by t h e c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t o f many o f f i c i a l s . They a r e methods o f o r g a n i z i n g s o c i a l c o n d u c t i n o r d e r t o t r a n s f o r m e x c e p t i o n a l problems i n t o r o u t i n e d u t i e s of e x p e r t s and t o e f f e c t the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s . In d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l arrangements w i l l prove most s u i t a b l e f o r these p u r p o s e s . " ( 1 9 6 3 : 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 . ) This d e f i n i t i o n provides f o r Crozier  (1963) and o t h e r s engaged i n c r o s s -  c u l t u r a l studies of b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s  a w o r k i n g and w o r k a b l e d e f i n i t i o n .  23  I t does n o t , however, p r o v i d e f o r t h e t i d y c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of w i t h i n Weber's t y p o l o g y of a u t h o r i t y t y p e s .  bureaucracies  Blau's d e f i n i t i o n a l  interpre-  t a t i o n a l l o w s f o r the presence of any o r a l l of the t r a d i t i o n a l , or l e g a l a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s i n the same h i s t o r i c a l  charismatic,  period.  By u t i l i z i n g Weber's m a t e r i a l i n t h i s manner B l a u negates much o f t h e r e c e n t debate around the terms " o r g a n i z a t i o n " and " b u r e a u c r a c y " .  M o u z e l i s chooses  t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e two terms by d e f i n i n g " o r g a n i z a t i o n " as a f o r m of  social  g r o u p i n g or a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a more or l e s s p u r p o s i v e manner f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t of s p e c i f i c g o a l s and " b u r e a u c r a c y " as an extreme t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e f u l s o l e l y f o r broad h i s t o r i c a l comparisons.  (1967:4,54.)  To m i n i m i z e the b u r e a u c r a t i c aspect i n t h i s way adds c o n f u s i o n r a t h e r  than  c l a r i t y t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a phenomenon w h i c h , as s t a t e d above, i s becoming more and more u n i v e r s a l .  F. W i l l i a m Howton, i n h i s work F u n c t i o n a r i e s , adopts a c o m p l e t e l y stance t o b u r e a u c r a c y .  perforative  He i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h t h e combined  process of d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and l o s s o f d i r e c t c o n t r o l by t h e  individual  b o t h of w h i c h he r e g a r d s as m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e and as i n h e r e n t i n b u r e a u cratic structures.  To s o l i d i f y h i s p o s i t i o n he c a l l s t h e c r i t i c i s m s  Weber's i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t a " m i s r e a d i n g " . He  of  p r e f e r s to i n t e r p r e t  the  t y p o l o g y as s e t t i n g f o r t h a " s e t of a b s t r a c t d e s c r i p t i o n s of what b u r e a u c r a c y is."  (.1969:8. emphasis i n o r i g i n a l )  He i s t h e n a b l e t o equate b u r e a u c r a c y  w i t h " t h e process by w h i c h more and more a u t h o r i t y i s taken away f r o m men and delegated to o f f i c i a l s ,  Soffer,  (sic)  r a n k upon r a n k i n descending o r d e r . "  i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , agrees w i t h B l a u  (1969:8.)  (1956:14.)  24  t h a t the term " b u r e a u c r a c y " connotes a f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s p a r t of t h e h i s t o r i c a l (Soffer,  1972:8.)  t r e n d toward " c u m u l a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l  rationalization".  Thompson f l e s h e s out t h i s p o s i t i o n by d e f i n i n g  "bureaucracy"  as "encompassing a l l modern o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e  specific  s t r u c t u r i n g t o r e f l e c t t h e g r o w t h of knowledge and s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s ,  cultu-  r a l l y determined and t r a n s m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r i o r and s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s , and a c u l t u r a l l y determined i d e o l o g y . "  (1969:3.)  E t z i o n i takes B l a u ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n one s t e p f u r t h e r by d e v e l o p i n g of power and compliance r e l a t i o n s by w h i c h t h e " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d can be c a t e g o r i z e d and then analyzed c o m p a r i t i v e l y .  typologies strategies"  E t z i o n i b e g i n s by f u n d a -  m e n t a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g Weber's d i s t i n c t i o n between power i n g e n e r a l and t h e s p e c i f i c powers r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y o f t h e r a t i o n a l b u r e a u c r a c y . Rather t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l ,  c h a r i s m a t i c , and l e g a l t y p e s o f a u t h o r i t y ,  Etzioni  d i s t i n g u i s h e s c l a s s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f economic power, s t a t u s as an e x p r e s sion  of n o r m a t i v e power, and f o r c e as an e x p r e s s i o n of c o e r c i v e power,  of w h i c h " e n j o y s equal s t a t u s " w i t h t h e o t h e r s .  Parkin (1972:42-47.)  and M i l i b a n d (1969:23 f f )  (1961:xvi,  each  xvii.)  agree w i t h t h e i n c l u s i o n o f  the t h r e e t y p e s of power b u t argue c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t  they cannot e n j o y e q u a l  s t a t u s as these a u t h o r s accept t h e t h e s i s t h a t c l a s s d i v i s i o n s a r e based on property d i v i s i o n s which, i n t u r n , p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r a l support f o r  normative  and c o e r c i v e power.  with  They would agree w i t h E t z i o n i ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s  and c r i t i c i s m s of t h e Weberian t y p o l o g y .  E t z i o n i suggests t h a t t h e expansion  o f the t y p o l o g y a l l o w s f o r "more e x t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s of t h e c o r r e l a t e s and e f f e c t s of power."  (1961:xvii.)  He a l s o p o i n t s t o the c e n t r a l i t y of f o r c e  h i s model w h i c h does n o t e n t e r i n t o Weber's t y p o l o g y o f s o c i a l o r d e r .  Most  in  25  i m p o r t a n t f o r E t z i o n i i s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between Weber's use of  legitimate  and i l l e g i t i m a t e uses of f o r c e as t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e o f  bureaucracies  and E t z i o n i ' s emphasis n o t on i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l judgements b u t on t h e o f whatever t y p e o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s u t i l i z e d by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . xvii.)  T h i s approach i m p l i e s B l a u ' s s t a t e m e n t on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  efficacy (1961:  procedure  c o n c e r n i n g t h e concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l need w h i c h  "has been h e l p f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of . . . processes of b u r e a u c r a t i c development, s i n c e i t i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e consequences of e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s and t h e emergence of new ones." (1963:252.)  E t z i o n i sees compliance as t h e " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t o f s o c i a l (1967:xvii.)  From t h i s base,and d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p h y s i c a l , m a t e r i a l ,  symbolic means employed t o g a i n t h e compliance of t h e s u b j e c t ,  three  3-9.)  or  types  2  1  o f power  order."  can be i d e n t i f i e d : c o e r c i v e , r e m u n e r a t i v e , and n o r m a t i v e .  W i t h i n these t h r e e types of power  ment: a l i e n a t i v e ,  a r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e t y p e s of  c a l c u l a t i v e , and m o r a l .  d e t e r m i n e the compliance r e l a t i o n s h i p .  (1961: involve-  These, i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h power  The term r e f e r s b o t h " t o a r e l a t i o n  i n which an a c t o r behaves i n accordance w i t h a d i r e c t i v e s u p p o r t e d by a n o t h e r a c t o r ' s power, and t o t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e d a c t o r t o t h e power applied."  (1961:8-16.)  T h i s manner of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a l l o w s i n c l u s i o n of  lower p a r t i c i p a n t s as an i m p o r t a n t segment of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . o f the t y p o l o g i e s , E t z i o n i d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  On t h e b a s i s  " h i g h e r " p a r t i c i p a n t s from "lower"  by the use o f degree o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n , commitment and " p e r f o r m a n c e o b l i g a t i o n " w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  (1961:20-21.)  He t h e r e f o r e e r a d i c a t e s t h e need f o r  d i s t i n c t i o n s between " f u n c t i o n a r i e s " and " l e a d e r s " w h i c h o t h e r particularly  theorists,  those concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h d y s f u n c t i o n a l aspects of modern  26  organizations  tend  to make.  Howton devotes an e n t i r e book to the e v i l s  f u n c t i o n a r i e s , a l t h o u g h he concedes t h a t as a l e a d e r f u n c t i o n a r y work as p a r t of h i s r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s s p e c i e s . " (1969:167.)  continues  i t "makes him  A l f o r d , not as f e a r f u l of the s p e c i e s ,  h i s study o f b u r e a u c r a c y and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the c i v i c  f a c e between f u n c t i o n a r y and  l e a d e r i s extremely c l o s e .  integrated with  routine  a k i n to  the  illustrates in  l e v e l t h a t the  s u p p o r t s E t z i o n i ' s p o s i t i o n t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of h i g h e r d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d and  to do  of  This  inter-  conclusion  p a r t i c i p a n t s are  the types of compliance r e l a t i o n s they  choose to work w i t h i n .  E t z i o n i emphasises t h a t h i s t y p o l o g i e s a r e u s e f u l h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e s but not meant to i n d i c a t e r i g i d ance r e l a t i o n s can and tralizing  distinctions i n existing organizations.  do o v e r l a p  are  Compli-  c a t e g o r i e s , sometimes to the p o i n t of neu-  their individual effect.  Rather than a d o p t i n g p a t t e r n and  two  the t y p o l o g y _in t o t o f o r t h i s study one  " p u r e " compliance  " d u a l " compliance p a t t e r n s have been chosen.  l a t i v e normative p a t t e r n i s d e f i n e d as one  The  pure o r r e -  i n which n o r m a t i v e power i s the  major s o u r c e of c o n t r o l over lower p a r t i c i p a n t s whose o r i e n t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a high  l e v e l of commitment.  s t r u c t u r e s a r e ones i n which two frequency.  ( E t z i o n i , 1961:55.)  normative-coercive,  and  compliance are l i k e l y i n time" i s i n t r o d u c e d applied f i r s t ;  (Etzioni,  patterns The  two  1961:40.)  The  dual  compliance  of compliance occur w i t h s i m i l a r  types to be c o n s i d e r e d  h e r e i n are  the n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n . As n o r m a t i v e and  to n e u t r a l i z e each o t h e r ,  the mechanism of  to l e s s e n t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y .  only when t h i s i s or seems to be  the  coercive  "segregation  Thus, "normative power i s  i n e f f e c t i v e i s there a r e s o r t  27  to coercive power."  (1961:57)  N o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compliance does n o t e n -  c o u n t e r t h i s same d i f f i c u l t y t e r of a c o n t i n u u m .  as t h i s t y p e i s more r e a d i l y l o c a t e d as t h e c e n -  (1961:63)  B l a u i n h i s s t u d y o f two government b u r e a u c r a c i e s makes some i n t e r e s t i n g v a t i o n s concerning n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compliance. suggestion that i n " w h i t e - c o l l a r " p o r t a n t b u t secondary r o l e "  He goes beyond  obser-  Etzioni's  i n d u s t r i e s normative c o n t r o l s play "an im-  (1961:32).  B l a u d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between i n f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p w h i c h "emerges i n t h e p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n among a group o f e q u a l s " and " b u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y " w h i c h bestowed n o t by t h e group b u t by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Further, "the  power of s a n c t i o n , e x t e r n a l l y bestowed, i s t h e u l t i m a t e source o f authority."  (1963:224)  trols in "white-collar"  is  official  bureaucratic  He a l s o suggests t h a t t h e presence o f n o r m a t i v e c o n i n d u s t r i e s and t h e i r absence i n " b l u e - c o l l a r "  indus-  t r i e s where u t i l i t a r i a n c o n t r o l s a r e p r i m a r y e f f e c t s t h e a b i l i t y of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s members t o respond t o change.  B l a u makes an i n t e r e s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y by f i r s t  r e f e r r i n g back t o  Weber's d e f i n i t i o n t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o t  only  t h e " p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n commands ( o r a l l commands) f r o m a g i v e n s o u r c e w i l l be obeyed by a g i v e n group o f p e r s o n s " b u t a l s o by the presence o f c e r t a i n minimum of v o l u n t a r y s u b m i s s i o n . " (Blaus 1 9 6 3 : 2 0 7 . ) He argues  that  a u t h o r i t y " r e s t s on s o c i a l l y accepted norms t h a t d e f i n e compliance w i t h t a i n o r d e r s as a s o c i a l d u t y ,  i n d e e d , o f t e n as a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n . "  "a  cer-  Authority  " i m p l i e s f i r m s o c i a l c o n t r o l , b u t i t a l s o i m p l i e s v o l u n t a r y compliance w i t h  28  directives."  (1963:226.)  T h i s v o l u n t a r y compliance i s a p r o d u c t o f  social  c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i c h on the one hand a r e i n t e r n a l i z e d and on t h e o t h e r e n f o r c e d s o c i a l l y by t h e g r o u p . historically  are  Blau i d e n t i f i e s h i s concept of a u t h o r i t y as  s p e c i f i c , h a v i n g developed from o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l  control.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from conqueror t o k i n g or from k i n g t o g o v e r n o r  requires  " t h e emergence o f s o c i a l v a l u e s t h a t l e g i t i m a t e t h e s u p e r i o r s ' p o w e r s over subordinate."  the  (227)  I n the b u r e a u c r a t i c c o n t e x t t h e l e g i t i m i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e " l e g a l  contract"  w h i c h i s e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e employees o f the b u r e a u c r a c y when t h e y accept employment i n a c o n t e x t where a u t h o r i t y of s u p e r i o r s over s u b o r d i n a t e s i s norm. ( 1 9 6 3 : 2 2 7 . )  the  T h i s argument would appear to be weakened s e v e r e l y i f  d i d n o t add the r i d e r  that the formal a u t h o r i t y c o d i f i e d i n the l e g a l  does o b l i g a t e s u b o r d i n a t e s t o accept work assignments b u t i t their w i l l i n g co-operation. the l e g a l ( u t i l i t a r i a n )  To ensure t h e l a t t e r  Blau  contract  cannot a s s u r e  t h e s u p e r i o r must  surpass  a u t h o r i t y by i n v o k i n g n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o f com-  pliance.  Blau e n r i c h e s E t z i o n i ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of u t i l i t a r i a n compliance p a t t e r n s .  E t z i o n i i n d e v e l o p i n g compliance p a t t e r n s  i s a t t e m p t i n g t o c o d i f y v a r i o u s t y p e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . of h i s s t u d i e s of two d i f f e r e n t  normative-  B l a u , on t h e b a s i s  government b u r e a u c r a c i e s , i s p r e s e n t i n g a  h y p o t h e s i s of how and why n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compliance p a t t e r n s work practice.  I n the course of t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n  in  he p r e s e n t s an i n t r i g u i n g  d e f i n i t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y w h i c h eschews s a n c t i o n s i n f a v o u r o f s o c i a l v a l u e s from w h i c h d e v i a t i o n i s as d i f f i c u l t  legitimizing  and expensive f o r  the  i n d i v i d u a l s u b o r d i n a t e b u t f o r w h i c h maintenance i s l e s s expensive and more  29  e f f e c t i v e f o r the s u p e r i o r .  He w r i t e s :  " i f t h e performance of a s u p e r v i s o r f u r t h e r s t h e c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of s u b o r d i n a t e s and commands t h e i r common r e s p e c t and l o y a l t y , s o c i a l agreement i s l i k e l y t o develop among them t h a t they owe a c o l l e c t i v e o b l i g a t i o n to h i m . To repay t h e i r j o i n t o b l i g a t i o n and m a i n t a i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s good w i l l , the group of s u b o r d i n a t e s i s under p r e s s u r e t o make compliance w i t h h i s d i r e c t i v e s p a r t of t h e common norms, w h i c h are s o c i a l l y e n f o r c e d and thus c o n s t r a i n even the i n d i v i d u a l s u b o r d i n a t e who does n o t f e e l p e r s o n a l l y o b l i gated to t h e s u p e r v i s o r t o f o l l o w h i s commands. These emergent group norms a r e the source of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y . " (1963:228) He ends h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f a u t h o r i t y by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l ( o r c h a r i s m a t i c )  authority  a u t h o r i t y , b o t h based on n o r m a t i v e c o m p l i a n c e .  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  "legitimated  by l e g a l c o n t r a c t s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and the s o c i a l norms t h a t demand compliance pervade t h e e n t i r e community."  (1963:228.)  Blau i n t h i s s t u d y of t h e Dynamics of Bureaucracy sheds new l i g h t on t h e q u e s t i o n s of b u r e a u c r a t i c d y s f u n c t i o n , c o n f o r m i t y , and a n t i p a t h y t o  inovation.  Many s t u d e n t s of b u r e a u c r a c y have emphasized these n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of modern o r g a n i z a t i o n , among t h e n M i c h e l s , M e r t o n , Gouldner, Thompson and C r o z i e r . Crozier  (1963:175-212) Merton (1952:361-371)  and Gouldner  (1952:48-51)  examine t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y q u a l i t i e s of bureaucracy w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y  result  i n breakdown o f e f f i c i e n c y caused by t h e v e r y f a c t o r s i n t r o d u c e d t o  increase  efficiency. "technicism".  These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e " r e d - t a p e " o r ,  t o use M e r t o n ' s phrase  Much of the s t u d y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s concerned w i t h  this  3 same phenomenon.  The works o f Thompson ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Howton (1969) and Belshaw  (1964) are examples o f w r i t e r s who emphasize t h e r o u t i n i z e d ,  conservative  f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t i n n o v a t i o n and change because of t h e emphasis on c o n f o r m i t y to. e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s .  30  Merton g i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e  d i s c u s s i o n to the p r o c e s s whereby adherence to  r u l e s which o r i g i n a t e as f a c i l i t a t o r s , or means to ends, a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o ends-in-themselves or " t e r m i n a l v a l u e s " . sults in rigidifying bility.  the  (1957:119-120)  Germany, argues t h a t  T h i s p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o m a t i o n  s t r u c t u r e t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g i n e f f i c i e n c y and Michels,  which are e s t a b l i s h e d  to i n s t i t u t e reforms e v e n t u a l l y  cease any  l o s e i n t e r e s t i n the p u r s u i t as  they become more and more  f l a t l y r e j e c t s the c l a i m t h a t c o n s e r v a t i s m i s i n h e r e n t  "The  widely held b e l i e f  t h a t members of b u r e a u c r a t i c  unofficially  that innovation  the course of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and  concludes  characdis-  bureaucracies  from s u p e r i o r s  and  to e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s brought about i n by  the  subordinates.  f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s from h i s d a t a t h a t members of one s t u d i e d a c t i v e l y and  necessarily  alteration a  governmental  comes both o f f i c i a l l y  through m o d i f i c a t i o n s  i n bureaucracy.  s t r u c t u r e s are  t e r i z e d by a p e r f e c t s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m , which makes any Based on h i s study of two  officials  conservative.  organizations  r e s i s t change r e s t s on the assumption t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c  illustrates  specifically  such attempt because t h e i r  Blau  Blau  inflexi-  i n h i s study of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n i m p e r i a l  those o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t u r b a n c e . " (1963:241.)  re-  v o c a l l y sought changes and  (1963:231-268.)  of the  innovations  two  He  organizations  i n their  functions  that:  "The economic as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s of members of a b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e t h a t i t assume new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s i n c e t h i s would i n c r e a s e t h e i r work s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u r t h e r t h e i r c a r e e r s . . . . These s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s produce the s u c c e s s i o n of g o a l s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the emergence of a c o n c e r n w i t h new o b j e c t i v e s once the o r i g i n a l ones have been l a r g e l y a t t a i n e d and have l o s t much of t h e i r e a r l i e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The i d e a l s beyond the i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s suggest the n a t u r e of the new ones." (1963:249.)  31  Blau i n c l u d e s among t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r w h i c h i n n o v a t i o n i s necessary s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n of t r a d e unions and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as p a r t i e s - a p o s i t i o n a n t i t h e t i c a l to that of Michels.  political  The d i c h o t o m y between  B l a u ' s p o s i t i o n and t h a t of M i c h e l s and o t h e r s i s due t o t h e l a t t e r ' s  failure  t o examine t h e l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p l a c e d . B l a u argues t h a t " i t  i s the e f f e c t i v e achievement o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  t h a t s t i m u l a t e s the s u c c e s s i o n o f more advanced o n e s " .  (1963:248.)  goals  If,  as  was t h e case w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n s M i c h e l s s t u d i e d , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t o n l y unable t o complete i t s g o a l s b u t i s t h r e a t e n e d by o u t s i d e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e p o i n t where i t s s u r v i v a l i s i n q u e s t i o n t h e r e v e r s e of i n n o v a t i o n  will  occur - t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l r e t r e n c h and m o d i f y i t s o b j e c t i v e s i n an a t t e m p t to p r o t e c t the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e .  (1963:248.)  B l a u suggests f i v e i n t e r - r e l a t e d p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r i n n o v a t i v e development an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The f i r s t  i s a minimum degree of employment s e c u r i t y ;  in  the  second i s a " p r o f e s s i o n a l " o r i e n t a t i o n toward t h e performance o f d u t i e s ;  the  t h i r d i s e s t a b l i s h e d work groups t h a t command the a l l e g i a n c e of t h e i r members; t h e f o u r t h i s t h e absence o f b a s i c c o n f l i c t between t h e work group and management; and the f i f t h i s t h e presence of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs t h a t a r e e x p e r i e n ced as d i s t u r b i n g .  (1963:256.)  The f i r s t  c r i t e r i o n , employment  security,  Blau c o n s i d e r s t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more p r o b a b l y found i n g o v e r n m e n t a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s than i n i n d u s t r i a l ones.  He p o i n t s out t h a t s t u d i e s of w o r k e r s  i n i n d u s t r i a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s , w h i c h conclude t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s inherently resistant  to change f a i l f r e q u e n t l y to c o n s i d e r  s p e c i f i c i t y of t h e i r d a t a .  the  historical  He c i t e s R o e t h l i s b e r g e r and D i c k s o n who s t u d i e d  n o n - u n i o n i z e d workers d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n i n a f a c t o r y e x p e r i e n c i n g nuous l a y - o f f s .  (1963:247.)  are  conti-  The w o r k e r s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n cannot be s a i d  32  to have had even minimal j o b s e c u r i t y .  However, even i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e the C i v i l prevails,  S e r v i c e where j o b s e c u r i t y  the a d a p t a t i o n s made by the i n d i v i d u a l may be d e l e t e r i o u s  organization  unless  B l a u ' s second c r i t e r i o n a l s o p r e v a i l s .  s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " r e f e r s to the a b i l i t y  to g a i n  This  to the  "profes-  s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e  p r o c e s s of a t t a i n i n g " p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s " because o f shared norms and  values.  T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e s back to the normative a s p e c t of a u t h o r i -  ty as do t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n he suggests as p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r a d a p t i v e or i n n o v a t i v e  development.  The p r e s e n c e of a l l e g i a n c e  ing work groups and the absence of c o n f l i c t , zational innovation,  that  t h i s point  tion.  The f i f t h c r i t e r i o n i s e s s e n -  which o p e r a t e s to m i n i m i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of complacency.  i t i s u s e f u l to examine more c l o s e l y what i s meant by i n n o v a -  B l a u seems to equote i n n o v a t i o n  These changes ( o r i n n o v a t i o n s ) for reporting  w i t h changes w i t h i n  can i n v o l v e  t o be c r e a t e d  I n the f e d e r a l b u r e a u c r a c y  by the employees were r e q u e s t s f o r new expanded  by the l e g i s l a t i v e a p p a r a t u s of the s t a t e .  does B l a u imply t h a t the eagerness f o r i n n o v a t i o n lated  the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t form  to i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new f o r m u l a .  the r e q u e s t s f o r i n n o v a t i o n tasks  organi-  there must be p r e s e n t some a s p e c t of the p r o c e s s of requirement  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  At  i f they a r e to enhance  a r e a l s o based on the premise t h a t a " p r o f e s s i o n a l "  o r i e n t a t i o n i s p r e s e n t among t h e employees. tially  command-  i n t o s p e c i f i c new p r o p o s a l s g i v e n  could  V e r y seldom  or would be t r a n s -  by the employees themselves.  V i c t o r Thompson, i n a book devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n n o v a -  33  t i o n to bureaucracy d e f i n e s i n n o v a t i o n as: " t h e g e n e r a t i o n , a c c e p t a n c e , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new i d e a s , p r o c e s s e s , and p r o d u c t s or s e r v i c e s . Innovation, t h e r e f o r e , i m p l i e s t h e c a p a c i t y t o change and a d a p t . We can have v a r i o u s degrees of i n n o v a t i v e n e s s , r a n g i n g from a c a p a c i t y t o adopt t h e good i d e a s o f o t h e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e and adopt o n e ' s own n o v e l i d e a s . A d o p t i o n i s necessary t o g e n e r a t i o n . ( 1 9 6 9 : 5 . 6 . ) Thompson c a l l s  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i m p r e c i s e b u t h e u r i s t i c a l l y u s e f u l as t h e r e  has n o t been developed a s a t i s f a c t o r y measure of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l The c r e a t i v i t y i m p l i c i t  innovation.  i n i n n o v a t i o n Thompson d e s c r i b e s as i n e f f i c i e n t  t h e v i e w p o i n t o f t h e " p r o d u c t i o n i d e o l o g y " o f most w e s t e r n b u r e a u c r a t i c  from or-  g a n i z a t i o n s because o f i t s u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and i t s r e f u s a l t o make q u i c k d e c i s i v e judgements.  (1969:10.)  Based on a number o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f  c r e a t i v i t y Thompson p r e s e n t s f i v e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h must be p r e s e n t i n o r d e r f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o be c r e a t i v e .  They a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y and f r e e -  dom, a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of i n p u t s , i n t e r n a l or p e r s o n a l commitment t o f o r a s o l u t i o n , a c e r t a i n degree of s t r u c t u r e or l i m i t s t i o n , and a c e r t a i n amount of b e n i g n c o m p e t i t i o n .  search  t o t h e search s i t u a -  (1969:70.)  Accepting  the  d i s t i n c t i o n between the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n and t h e pre-requisites for individual creativity very great.  the s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s are not  B l a u ' s r e q u i r e m e n t o f economic s e c u r i t y s u r e l y can be i n c o m -  passed i n t h e n o t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y .  Blau's other four  a r e d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h by Thompson w i t h i n the framework of t h e i d e o l o g y and s t r u c t u r e .  criteria  organization's  He d e s c r i b e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s as t h e  bodies of v a l u e s and b e l i e f s or s e t of n o r m a t i v e d e c i s i o n a l r u l e s t h a t the d e c i s i o n s .  guide  He c a u t i o n s t h a t these v a l u e s or r u l e s i n f l u e n c e b u t do n o t  d e t e r m i n e the d e c i s i o n s .  However, when d e c i s i o n s a r e r e c o n s t r u c t e d they a r e  r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n terms o f the i d e o l o g y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  (1969:3,4.)  The i d e o l o g y most common among w e s t e r n b u r e a u c r a c i e s o f a l l types i s one  34  based on  the c l a s s i c a l theory of r a t i o n a l c h o i c e , whose economic v a r i a n t i s  economic r a t i o n a l i t y . monocratic  concept  (1969:7.)  In o t h e r terms the i d e o l o g y r e f l e c t s  of o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d as  a h i e r a r c h y of s u p e r i o r - s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n s i n which the p e r s o n top (the "owner") i s assumed to be o m n i s c i e n t initiate a l l activity. cific.  A t each lower  and  i s owed from the bottom up.  l e v e l the o r d e r i s rendered  Given  responsibility  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  Mechanisms f o r s e t t l i n g  f o r c e d to operate  i n the sphere  the  more spe-  nature  l e g i t i m a t e d thus r e n d e r i n g f o r m a l b a r g a i n i n g and  t i n g d e v i c e s unnecessary. a r e thereby  (1969:14-15.)  at  i s s u e s g e n e r a l o r d e r s which  In t h i s system d i s c i p l i n e i s e n f o r c e d from above w h i l e  c o n f l i c t cannot be  the  conflict,  of non-legitimate  negotia-  such as  coalition,  activities.  (1969:16.)  The  p r o c e s s which r e n d e r s c o n f l i c t  conflict  i l l e g i t i m a t e depresses  creativity  because  i m p l i e s p l u r a l i s m or a d i s p e r s i o n of l e g i t i m a t e power which n e c e s s i -  tates searching for s o l u t i o n . o b s t a c l e s and  Only c o n c e n t r a t e d  o b j e c t i o n s . (1969:16.)  In t h i s  power can a f f o r d  sense B l a u , by h i s f o u r t h  c r i t e r i o n , i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i f i c i t y of h i s c o n c e r n . of c o n f l i c t between employee and  to i g n o r e  He  r e q u i r e s the absence  employer f o r i n n o v a t i o n to o c c u r .  Presumably  Thompson would argue t h a t a r e s o l u t i o n of t h a t v e r y c o n f l i c t , perhaps establishment  of a u n i o n  the  to f o c u s the d i s s e n t i o n , i s i n f a c t an i n n o v a t i o n  worthy of the name even w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f .  The  two  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a monocratic  r e s u l t i n an extremely  s t r u c t u r e and  a production  conservative bureaucratic orientation.  ideology  Thompson a l s o  c a l l s i t " p o l i t i c a l l y minded", t h a t i s to say, " i t i s more concerned  with  the  35  i n t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and status than with the accomplishment of the organization's goals.  I t converts  the organization into a p o l i t i c a l system  concerned with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e x t r i n s i c rewards." (1969:22.)  He sees  the necessity of the p o l i t i c a l process within the organization because, given i t s structure, "there i s no consensual or objective basis f o r d i s t r i b u t i n g the e x t r i n s i c rewards." (1969:22.)  The evaluative mechanisms of this s t r u c t u r a l and i d e o l o g i c a l type are couched i n terms of maximization of the "owner's" goals.  I t i s therefore possible to  interpret " i n e f f i c i e n c y " purely from the standpoint  of organizational i n a b i l i t y  (or refusal) to c o l l e c t the "slack" (surplus s a t i s f a c t i o n s beyond those needed to induce the necessary contributions) and pay i t to the "owner".  In this  interpretation the e f f i c i e n t organization would be "the one i n which no but the "owner" received s a t i s f a c t i o n s , i n any form, beyond what was to induce h i s contributions." (1969:30.)  one  needed  Given that innovation i s , by  this  d e f i n i t i o n , non-rational and that productive e f f i c i e n c y and economic r a t i o n a -  4 l i t y are c u l t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of most western countries,  Thompson concludes  that innovation i s at best a d i f f i c u l t process i n most western bureaucratic organizations. Since Blau's thesis of bureaucratic innovation r e l i e s heavily on the presence of the professional o r i e n t a t i o n i t i s u s e f u l to examine the notion more thoroughly.  Gouldner, i n a discussion of Weber's analysis of bureaucracy  points to the f a c t that i n i n d u s t r i a l bureaucracies  rules concerning  those  matters such as promotion and dismissal which are of most concern to the workers are of a s u f f i c i e n t l y a r b i t r a r y nature as to not permit p r e d i c t i o n by them. (1952:49.)  Gouldner goes on to suggest that "bureaucratic rules  36  fulfill  t y p i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t functions for d i f f e r e n t ranks" at least i n indus-  t r i a l bureaucracies."  (1952:49.)  The reason g i v e n f o r the maintenance of  r u l e s which render p r e d i c t i o n d i f f i c u l t  to impossible f o r the worker,  " i m p l i c i t b u t common assumption t h a t a n x i e t y and i n s e c u r i t y a r e motivators."  (Gouldner, 1 9 5 2 : 5 0 . )  is  the  effective  The m o t i v a t i o n presumably i s t o do o n e ' s  j o b w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n or a d a p t a t i o n f o r the a s s e m b l y - l i n e of t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d f a c t o r y i s not designed f o r i n n o v a t i o n b u t f o r r e p e t i t i o n . " w h i t e c o l l a r " workers Blau s t u d i e d were l a r g e l y u n i v e r s i t y educated d u a l s whose f u n c t i o n was to complete a process f r o m i t s  is applied s p e c i f i c a l l y  o r g a n i z a t i o n assumes v e r y d i f f e r e n t  than  The n o t i o n of s p e -  i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of  implications for  indivi-  inception rather  t o r e p e a t one g e s t u r e o r f u n c t i o n i n an o n - g o i n g p r o c e s s . c i a l i z a t i o n as i t  The  bureaucratic  implementation.  The " p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " Blau o f f e r s as the second c r i t e r i o n f o r t i v e b e h a v i o u r i s a l s o p r e s e n t o n l y a t s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of the  adap-  hierarchy.  A g a i n u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n e d people who a r e t a u g h t t o t h i n k of themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l develop " p r o f e s s i o n a l norms and v a l u e s " more r e a d i l y i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s who a r e encouraged t o r e m a i n i n a s t a t e o f  than  insecurity.  The o n l y group of workers w i t h whom some analogy m i g h t be drawn a r e those d e s i g n a t e d as tradesmen or c r a f t workers who by v i r t u e of t h e i r needed occupy a more secure p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l  Blau's t h i r d pre-requisite,  skills  hierarchy.  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of work groups commanding a l l e -  giance f r o m the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n them, can produce n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e v a t i o n from the e m p l o y e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e .  A l t h o u g h Blau i n t e n d s t h a t the  inno-  alle-  giance o f these groups should be t o norms and v a l u e s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e e m p l o y e r s , t h a t i s to a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t  i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e work group  37  w i l l command a l l e g i a n c e t o norms c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e by t h e e m p l o y e r s . Innumerable cases of s o l i d a r i t y o f t h i s k i n d have been documented i n of i n d u s t r i a l  studies  bureaucracies.  The f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n , an absence of b a s i c c o n f l i c t between s u b o r d i n a t e and superior, requires f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n .  Blau equates t h e presence of  w i t h t h e use of u t i l i t a r i a n or c o e r c i v e power and t h e absence of w i t h the use of n o r m a t i v e a u t h o r i t y .  I n the c i v i l  conflict  conflict  s e r v i c e employment p r o -  cedures and s a l a r y m a t t e r s a r e r e g u l a t e d by departments s e p a r a t e f r o m and n o t c o n t r o l l e d by t h e immediate s u p e r i o r ^ t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e of a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n by o n e ' s s u p e r i o r .  possibility  As w e l l , t h e " p r o f e s s i o n a l "  orienta-  t i o n and the work group based upon i t come i n t o p l a y m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t  the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e c i s i v e a c t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s t o demand changes i n c o n d i t i o n s of work.  One may conclude from t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c i n n o v a t i o n i s to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s u t i l i z i n g normative compliance.  specific  Given G o u l d n e r ' s  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c r u l e s and hence power t y p e s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d differently  t h r o u g h o u t a s i n g l e b u r e a u c r a c y one may f u r t h e r  conclude t h a t  s p e c i f i c compliance p a t t e r n u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e i s i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of i n n o v a t i v e The c r i t e r i o n f o r a t t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t  the the  practice.  s t a t u r e i n the o r g a n i -  z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y i s s t a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y by E t z i o n i as t h e degree o f formance o b l i g a t i o n " and demonstrated by B l a u ' s work t o be the  professional  o r i e n t a t i o n or a b e l i e f i n t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o n o r m a t i v e power and t h e r e f o r e n o r m a t i v e c o m p l i a n c e .  "per-  necessary  The same o r g a n i z a t i o n  • 38  can t h e r e f o r e be u t i l i z i n g a t l e a s t t w o , i f n o t t h r e e , d i f f e r e n t  compliance  p a t t e r n s ; n o r m a t i v e among h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n pure u t i l i t a r i a n among m i d d l e t o lower p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Institutions  to  such as  p r i s o n s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps, d e s i g n a t e d as c o e r c i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s whose lower p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a l i e n a t e d , w i l l e x h i b i t n o r m a t i v e compl i a n c e p a t t e r n s among h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s .  V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o can  e x h i b i t b o t h u t i l i t a r i a n compliance and, i n some extreme cases, c o e r c i v e comp l i a n c e a l t h o u g h t h o u g h t of as n o r m a t i v e i n n a t u r e .  As was p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r ,  t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h ensure n o r m a t i v e com-  p l i a n c e must be i n t e r n a l i z e d by the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as b e i n g s o c i a l l y e n f o r c e d by t h e group t o be e f f e c t i v e . a l s o change over t i m e .  The s o c i a l v a l u e s w h i c h a r e  internalized  Blau g i v e s t h e example of t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of c o n -  q u e r o r to k i n g r e q u i r i n g a change i n v a l u e s w h i c h l e g i t i m i z e s t h e change i n r o l e and i n power f r o m c o e r c i v e t o n o r m a t i v e .  The q u e s t i o n w h i c h n e x t a r i s e s i s how does b e l i e f i n g types of power a r i s e ?  i n t h e l e g i t i m a c y of  differ-  The i d e a s w h i c h i n f o r m t h e a c t of l e g i t i m i z i n g power  come from a m a t e r i a l b a s i s b u t a r e t r a n s f o r m e d . f r o m the m a t e r i a l t o b e l i e f i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f  The process of  transformation  ideology.^  " I d e o l o g y i s t h e ' l i v e d ' r e l a t i o n between (humans) and t h e i r w o r l d , o r a r e f l e c t e d f o r m o f t h i s unconscious r e l a t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e a 'philosophy', etc. I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a s c i e n c e n o t by i t s f a l s i t y , f o r i t can be c o h e r e n t and l o g i c a l ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e o l o g y ) , b u t by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r a c t i c o - s o c i a l predominates i n i t over t h e t h e o r e t i c a l , over knowledge. H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t precedes t h e s c i e n c e t h a t i s produced by making an e p i s t e m i o l o g i c a l break w i t h i t , b u t i t s u r v i v e s a l o n g s i d e s c i e n c e as an e s s e n t i a l element of e v e r y s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a s o c i a l i s t or even a communist s o c i e t y . " ( A l t h u s s e r , 1970:374) A l t h u s s e r extends h i s a n a l y s i s of i d e o l o g y t o d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c ,  historically  39  determined i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses w h i c h i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of submission t o the r u l e s of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r .  T h i s f u n c t i o n i s of  c r u c i a l importance t o the maintenance of any s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n f o r i t  provides  one of the c o n d i t i o n s by which t h e f o r m a t i o n can reproduce d a i l y t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h d e f i n e i t s (Althusser,  1971:127-186.)  existence.  The S t a t e , as t h e " i n s t a n c e " w h i c h m a i n t a i n s  the  cohesion of t h e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n i s u s u a l l y t h o u g h t of as c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o e r c i v e power because o f i t s c o n t r o l of the r e p r e s s i v e a p p a r a t u s .  to  However,  because of t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e r u l i n g i d e o l o g y , t h e i d e o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s e s , " p u b l i c " or " p r i v a t e " , more autonomous or l e s s so, can be seen as p a r t o f same system and i n f a c t a r e supported and defended by t h e r e p r e s s i v e of the S t a t e .  7  the  apparatus  To r e s t a t e i n t h e terms of E t z i o n i ' s t y p o l o g y o f power r e l a -  t i o n s , the S t a t e as t h e embodiment of the r u l i n g c l a s s has c o e r c i v e power t h r o u g h i t s r e p r e s s i v e a p p a r a t u s ; i t has n o r m a t i v e power by means of the i d e o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s e s : and i t has u t i l i t a r i a n power by means of i t s of the r e l a t i o n s of  maintenance  production.  Most concepts o f modern o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y a r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g , of n e c e s s i t y , historically specific.  Most w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t ,  i n c l u d i n g those r e -  f e r r e d to i n t h i s s t u d y , concern themselves w i t h complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s  situated  i n c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n .  the  "capitalistic  Blau s p e c i f i c a l l y  states that  s y s t e m . . . h a s f u r t h e r e d t h e advance o f b u r e a u c r a c y " i n p a r t  because of the s y s t e m ' s need f o r " t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of governments enough to m a i n t a i n o r d e r and s t a b i l i t y . "  strong  I t f u r t h e r promotes b u r e a u c r a t i c  methods w i t h i n i n d u s t r y and t h e u n i o n s w h i c h d e v e l o p as a r e s u l t of t h e m a t i o n of " t h e s e g i a n t c o r p o r a t i o n s " .  (1956:38.)  for-  Thompson w r i t e s t h a t admin-  i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a c u l t u r a l process (1969:89)  echoing C r o z i e r ' s  thesis  40  t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c f u n c t i o n and d y s f u n c t i o n i s c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c .  (1963)  S o f f e r , . i n a d i s c o u r s e u n c o n s c i o u s l y s u i t a b l e to t h e A l t h u s s e r i a n t h e s i s  states  that: "The e x i s t e n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s an aspect of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r i n s o c i e t y . Organizations are subunits of the wider s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . . . T h i s means they m u s t , i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , s t a y w i t h i n the o v e r a l l l e g a l and v a l u e framework of t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y , t h o u g h , as w i t h any o t h e r u n i t i n t h e s o c i a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , t h e r e w i l l be some s o c i a l v a l u e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y w i l l come i n t o c o n f l i c t , w h i c h they w i l l c o n t e s t , and w h i c h they w i l l help to change." (1972:4.) S o f f e r i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t t h e concept o f the c o e r c i v e power o f s t a t e as w e l l as t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r o l e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e p r o d u c i n g m i s s i o n t o t h e l e g i t i m a c y of t h e r u l i n g i d e o l o g y .  He f u r t h e r s u p p o r t s  n o t i o n i n a l a t e r passage (1972:15) where he d i s c u s s e s t h e n a t u r e of  the  sub-  this  the  modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n terms of p r o m o t i n g c o n s e r v a t i s m and t h e •defense of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s .  9  The " s o c i a l v a l u e s " , w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s " h e l p t o change" can be seen i n terms of t h e " r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n " of t h e " s u p e r s t r u c t u r e " ,  that i s ,  the d i a l e c -  t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e super s t r u c t u r a l a p p a r a t u s , r e p r e s s i v e and i d e o l o g i c a l , on t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n of  the  p o l i t i c o - l e g a l and i d e o l o g i c a l i n s t a n c e s upon the u n i t y of t h e p r o d u c t i v e ces and t h e r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n .  (Althusser,  1971:134-35.)  say t h a t t h e r u l i n g i d e o l o g y d e t e r m i n e s t h e i d e o l o g y of t h e  One c o u l d  organizations  ( i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses) w h i l e the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t u r n , " i n f o r m " ruling  It  for-  the  ideology.^  i s t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n w h i c h g r a n t s t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n or o r g a n i z a -  t i o n i t s l e g i t i m a c y t h r o u g h t h e acceptance o f t h e r e l a t i o n by t h e who compose  it.  individuals  41  Two of t h e most p e r v a s i v e b e l i e f s about the n a t u r e o f modern b u r e a u c r a c i e s a r e t h a t t h e y a r e i m p e r s o n a l and n o n - p o l i t i c a l . (or l a s t )  Gouldner was n o t t h e  first  t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e degree o f i m p e r s o n a l i t y i s n o t c o n s t a n t  a b u r e a u c r a c y , i t d i f f e r s most between s t a t u s l e v e l s (1952:50)  within  The n o t i o n o f  the n o n - p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e of b u r e a u c r a c y has been more t e n a t i o u s .  K a r l Mannheim w r i t e s i n I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a t h a t " t h e f u n d a m e n t a l tendency of a l l b u r e a u c r a t i c t h o u g h t i s t o t u r n a l l problems o f p o l i t i c s i n t o problems of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " ( 1 9 5 2 : 1 0 5 . )  Ralph M i l i b a n d  replies:  " B u t t h i s , (tendency) f o r t h e most p a r t , m e r e l y means t h a t p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and assumptions a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d , c o n s c i o u s l y or n o t , i n t o t h e 'problems of admini s t r a t i o n ' , and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y a f f e c t t h e n a t u r e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a d v i c e and a c t i o n . " ( 1 9 6 9 : 5 1 . ) A p o s i t i o n supported by Thompson,as can be seen i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f  innova-  t i o n above.  One of the government b u r e a u c r a c i e s s t u d i e d by Blau was a s t a t e department e s t a b l i s h e d as a placement s e r v i c e f o r u n s k i l l e d t e x t i l e w o r k e r s .  Many o f  the  c l i e n t s were b l a c k and Blau i n h i s f i r s t d i s c u s s i o n of t h e p o s s i b l e presence . of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e p o s i t e d t h a t d e s p i t e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t some i n t e r v i e w e r s w i t h or w i t h o u t conscious i n t e n t m i g h t t r e a t these c l i e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y w h i t e c l i e n t s because o f i n d i v i d u a l " s u b l i m i n a l b i a s " .  He goes on t o say  a l t h o u g h such t e n d e n c i e s toward r a c i a l b i a s d i d occur " s p e c i f i c mechanisms c o n s t r a i n e d i n t e r v i e w e r s concludes t h a t " i f t i c structure)  to act i m p a r t i a l l y . "  that  bureaucratic  (1963:83.)  He  o b j e c t i v e s of o v e r - r i d i n g importance ( w i t h i n t h e b u r e a u c r a -  can be made t o g o v e r n o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  be e l i m i n a t e d r e g a r d l e s s of the presence of p r e j u d i c e . no  from  The c r u c i a l p o i n t  t t h a t t h e g i v e n o b j e c t i v e i s v a l u e d more h i g h l y than p r e j u d i c e b u t  that  will is  42  preoccupation with reaching  t h i s o b j e c t i v e p r e c l u d e s the  i n t r u s i o n of  j u d i c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . " (1963:94.)  Between the i n revised  time B l a u wrote these c o n c l u s i o n s  and  .s  the r e i s s u i n g of h i s book  form the s t a t e a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n commission was  examine t h i s employment agency among o t h e r s . charge of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d by tigation."  (1963:96.)  H i s new  the i m p a r t i a l i t y of  (which B l a u had  "The  c a l l e d i n to  commission found t h a t  evidence produced i n the  the  inves-  In the l i g h t of t h i s overwhelming r e b u t t a l of h i s c o n -  c l u s i o n s B l a u r e t h o u g h t them. f u n c t i o n of  the  pre-  e a r l i e r seen as  conclusions  the p r o d u c t i o n  recognize  records  that  kept on  the  the  latent  interviewers  the o b j e c t i v e of o v e r - r i d i n g importance) to  promote or impede n o n - p r e j u d i c i a l s e r v i c e "depended on the e x t e r n a l demands" made upon the  individuals.  "A n e u t r a l i n s t r u m e n t does not  He  the p r e c i s e n a t u r e of  goes  on:  actively correct existing  i n e q u a l i t i e s but p e r p e t u a t e s them....Often, the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s of w h i t e o f f i c i a l s have t h e i r r o o t s not i n t h e i r own b i a s a g a i n s t Negroes but i n the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y demands made by the p o w e r f u l employers who make the h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s . In these c a s e s , a b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t makes o f f i c i a l s more of a n e u t r a l i n s t r u m e n t w i l l by no means a t t e n u a t e t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s ; o n l y a change i n power c o n d i t i o n s can do so. He  concludes: "The v i t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the power s t r u c t u r e and market s t r u c t u r e of the s u r r o u n d i n g community f o r b u r e a u c r a t i c o p e r a t i o n s can be i g n o r e d . . . . o n l y at (our) own p e r i l . The i n t e r n a l adjustments n e c e s s a r y to a c h i e v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s depend on c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a r e governed by powers o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and these adjustments i n t u r n , determine what u n a n t i c i p a t e d consequences b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s have....(1963:98.)  The root  v e r y n a t u r e of the b u r e a u c r a c y , f u n c t i o n i n g cause of  this result.  to maximize e f f i c i e n c y i s  U n l e s s the consequences of the a c t i o n s  impede the e f f i c i e n t f u n c t i o n i n g  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n  or u n l e s s  the  the  directly institution  43  or human c o l l e c t i v e r e c e i v i n g t h e i n e q u i t a b l e t r e a t m e n t i s i n c o n t r o l o f g r e a t e r power t h e c o n d i t i o n w i l l p e r s i s t .  The g r e a t e r power must be o f  the  c o e r c i v e or u t i l i t a r i a n t y p e f o r as Blau says " u l t i m a t e i d e a l s a r e l e s s powerf u l f o r c e s t h a n the immediate r e q u i r e m e n t s of o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y . "  (1963:117)  44  Section 2  Racism - A D e f i n i t i o n a l Problem  S e c t i o n 1 e s t a b l i s h e d the p r e s e n c e of the i d e o l o g i c a l i n b u r e a u c r a t i c structures.  I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d how  be used to i n i t i a t e and  perpetuate  a seemingly n e u t r a l instrument  a particular  ideology, racism.  2 e x p l o r e s the bases f o r the i d e o l o g y of r a c i s m . a r i s e s from i d e n t i f i a b l e , h i s t o r i c a l l y  not c o n s i d e r e d . v a r y from g u i l t theless,  The  I t i s argued t h a t r a c i s m  i n the s o c i e t y .  of r a c i s m as behaviour  Therefore  a t t i t u d e s can and  t r a n s f e r e n c e to o u t r i g h t p r o v o c a t i o n of the v i c t i m .  s i m i l a r whatever the  expression.  the  d e v i a n t from a norm i s  i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n of r a c i s t  the s t r u c t u r a l cause and  Section  specific conditions within a society.  Racism as an i d e o l o g y i s u n i v e r s a l l y p r e s e n t psychologistic explanations  could  does  Never-  the i d e o l o g y i t g i v e s r i s e t o , remain  45  I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h the s t r u c t u r a l bases of r a c i s m , i t t o examine t h e concept of r a c e . discussion.  is f i r s t  necessary  The o r i g i n s of the term seem t o be open f o r  Dunn and Dobzhansky .suggest t h a t i n 1775 t h e German s c h o l a r  Blumenbach, i m p r o v i n g on L i n n a e u s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of homo s a p i e n s , the d i v i s i o n of the human species i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t first  employed by t h e French s c i e n t i s t B u f f o n .  proposed  " r a c e s " u s i n g t h e term  (1952:109.)  Neither  Harris  (1968) nor S t o c k i n g (1968) i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s of the phenomenon m e n t i o n t h e t e r m ' s o r i g i n b u t E a r l Conrad a t t r i b u t e s i t s f i r s t usage t o L i n n a e u s ' work on taxonomy.  (1966:67.)  There i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement t h a t t h e change from t a x o n o m i c a l  classification  to h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a r a c i a l r a t i o n a l e f o r l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l development, were p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d .  differing  S t o c k i n g suggests  the change f r o m t h e concept of t h e Nobel Savage to t h a t of European (Caucas i a n ) r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e changed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , was, on the p o l i t i c a l  level  " a p a r t o f the c o n s e r v a t i v e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e g a l i t a r i a n o p t i m i s m of the French R e v o l u t i o n (and on the s o c i a l l e v e l ) a d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the i d e a of e q u a l i t y on the p a r t of groups whose t r a d i t i o n a l l y unquestioned c l a s s s u p e r i o r i t y was b e i n g u n d e r c u t by t h e s o c i a l changes of t h e n i n e teenth century." (1968:36.) He f u r t h e r  suggests t h a t t h e " e m p i r i c a l " d a t a g a t h e r e d d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i z a -  t i o n of sub-Sahara A f r i c a , " n o t o r i o u s l y s u b j e c t to i d e o l o g i c a l or d i s t o r t i o n " helped t o d e s t r o y t h e t h e o r i e s of the process of f r o m noble savage t o European c i v i l i z a t i o n .  conventional  degeneration  (1968:37.)  E a r l Conrad, i n The I n v e n t i o n of the Negro, suggests t h a t the  popularization  46  of t h e concept of h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f r a c e was begun i n t h e U.S.A. by t h e "American Statesmen" who adopted i t as s u p p o r t f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of a " c o n s t i t u t i o n of compromise" w h i c h espoused the p h i l o s o p h y o f e q u a l i t y b u t r e c o g n i z e d and excluded s l a v e s . v a t e d by the a u r a of f i n a l i t y precluded argumentation.  Conrad argues t h a t t h i s a d o p t i o n was m o t i -  i m p l i e d by t h e t e r m ' s s c i e n t i f i c  o r i g i n s which  (67-70.)  P h y s i c a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and b i o l o g i s t s  t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  continued to search f o r d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  such as s k i n p i g m e n t a -  t i o n , head shape, and body measurements, f o r c l a s s i f y i n g r a c i a l t y p e s .  This  search was augmented by the debates over monogenetic v e r s u s p o l y g e n e t i c  evo-  lution.  Harris  ( 1 9 6 8 : 8 0 - 1 0 7 . ) and S t o c k i n g ( 1 9 6 8 : 4 2 - 6 8 . ) have documented these  debates as b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l and m o r a l o v e r t o n e s .  At-  tempts to m a i n t a i n t h e p o l y g e n i s t p o s i t i o n and the l e g i t i m a c y of r a c i a l  clas-  s i f i c a t i o n have been c o n t i n u e d i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Birdsell,  Coon, J a r n , and  i n 1950, i d e n t i f i e d s i x " p u t a t i v e s t o c k s " and t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t  (Dunn and Dobyhansky,  races.  1952:110.)  D e s p i t e these h o l d - o u t s the overwhelming o p i n i o n of t h e s c i e n t i f i c on t h e q u e s t i o n of r a c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s f i r s t , human r a c e anywhere ( B o a s ,  1945:9.)  that,  community  t h e r e i s no " p u r e "  and second, t h a t t h e r e i s no  scientific  b a s i s e i t h e r f o r t y p o l o g i e s of r a c e based on b i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n or  for  t h e o r i e s of g e n e t i c i n f e r i o r i t y or s u p e r i o r i t y .  Neverthe-  (Mead, e t a l , 1 9 6 8 : 1 9 3 . )  l e s s p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s of r a c e as the b i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t of behaviour continue.  collective  The t e n a c i t y of these concepts was s u f f i c i e n t  t h e American S c i e n t i s t s '  t o cause  I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n t o convene i n 1966  47  a symposium of prominent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a n t h r o p o l o g y and t h e n a t u r a l sciences t o r e v i e w once a g a i n t h e c o n c l u s i v e evidence a g a i n s t these  theories.  A measure of t h e i r f a i l u r e to a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k they s e t themselves i s prominence g i v e n i n b o t h t h e p o p u l a r p r e s s and s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s t o  the  the  r e c e n t a t t e m p t s by such people as H e r n s t e i n , S c h o c k l e y , and Jensen t o r e - o p e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f g e n e t i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r of  racial  groupings.  The symposium's f i n d i n g s , p u b l i s h e d as Science and the Concept o f Race agreed t h a t t h e t e n a c i t y w i t h w h i c h n o n - s c i e n t i s t s c l i n g t o t h e n o t i o n of r a c e makes it  an i m p o r t a n t s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t r e q u i r i n g s e r i o u s s t u d y .  In i t s  biological  m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , however, t h e term r a c e must be r e p l a c e d by such a term as " p o p u l a t i o n " i n o r d e r t o r e s t o r e t o these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s some c l a r i t y meaning. (Mead, e t a l ,  of  1968:67.)  O l i v e r Cox i n h i s s t u d y of C a s t e , C l a s s , and Race d e f i n e s r a c e  sociologically  as "any group of people t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be and g e n e r a l l y accept e d a s , a r a c e i n any g i v e n a r e a of e t h n i c c o m p e t i t i o n " , a l t h o u g h " a n t h r o p o metrically  s p e a k i n g , t h e assumed r a c e i s n o t a r e a l r a c e . " C319.)  " e t h n i c " as " a people l i v i n g c o m p e t i t i v e l y  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p of  He d e f i n e s  superordination  or s u b o r d i n a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o some o t h e r people or peoples w i t h i n one s t a t e , c o u n t r y or economic a r e a . "  One e t h n i c must always i m p l y a n o t h e r and t h e r e f o r e  forms p a r t of a system. (1948:317.)  12  The o n l y s i t u a t i o n i n an e t h n i c system w h i c h can be d e s c r i b e d by concepts of r a c e i s when " t h e e t h n i c s r e c o g n i z e such o t h e r p h y s i c a l l y and use t h e i r s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n as a b a s i s f o r the r a t i o n a l e of t h e i r  phy-  interrelationships."  48  (1948'-317.)  I n those systems where p h y s i c a l i t y i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s i g -  n i f i c a n t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s cannot be d e s c r i b e d racial  in  terms.  Cox goes on t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e phenomenon o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s f r o m those o f ethnocentrism, intolerance,  or r a c i s m .  For Cox r a c e r e l a t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d  as " t h a t b e h a v i o u r w h i c h d e v e l o p s among peoples who a r e aware o f each o t h e r ' s a c t u a l or i m p l i e d p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s " and more s p e c i f i c a l l y " o n l y  those  c o n t a c t s t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e d e t e r m i n e d by a consciousness of " r a c i a l " d i f f e r e n c e .  (1948:320.)  He does n o t c o n s i d e r e t h n o c e n t r i s m or  t h e i n t o l e r a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l or group toward those who r e f u s e t o c o n form t o e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s of t h e s o c i e t y t o be a p a r t o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s . Racism he sees as seemingly r e f e r r i n g t o a " p h i l o s o p h y of r a c i a l or an i d e o l o g y .  (1948:321.)  He c r i t i c i z e s  antipathy"  t h e s t u d y of r a c i s m because  " u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n of the h i s t o r y of a system of z a t i o n f o r t h a t of a m a t e r i a l s o c i a l f a c t . "  rationali-  (1948:321.)  One m i g h t sympathize w i t h C o x ' s f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h l i t e r a t u r e t h a t rather than c l a r i f i e s  it  the o r i g i n s of race r e l a t i o n s .  obscures  However, one cannot  agree t h a t the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t most s t u d i e s of r a c i s m r e s u l t i n the s u b s t i t u t i o n of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r m a t e r i a l f a c t i s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n g the phenomenon. not s u f f i c i e n t  ignor-  The s t u d y of t h e m a t e r i a l b a s i s of r a c e r e l a t i o n s  t o e x p l a i n the e x i s t e n c e and p e r s i s t e n c e of r a c i s m  is  itself.  Having s a i d t h i s one must a l s o r e c o g n i z e t h a t an a n a l y s i s of r a c i s m must go beyond t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e types of r a c i s m and t h e i r p e r p e t r a t o r s  to  49  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e mechanisms w h i c h m a i n t a i n the s t e r e o t y p e s and t h e process of r a c i s m i t s e l f . does n o t do t h i s .  W i t h a few n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s t h e  literature  Popular and more s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g s a l i k e seem t o  i n t o two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s :  fall  those who concern themselves w i t h what can be d e s -  c r i b e d as i n d i v i d u a l a c t s of r a c i s m and those who a r e concerned w i t h t u t i o n a l racism.  insti-  A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e m a j o r i t y of m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n  t o t h e r i s e o f B l a c k Power i n the U.S.A. was t h a t i t d e a l t a l m o s t l y w i t h t h e o v e r t or i n d i v i d u a l r a c i s t a c t .  prior  exclusive-  Many of these c r i t i q u e s were  underscored by s t r o n g m o r a l d i s a p p r o v a l o f r a c i s m as c o n t r a r y t o t h e e t h i c o f l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y .  The i n d i v i d u a l s  ( o r groups) p e r p e t r a t i n g  these  a c t s were viewed as a b e r r a n t or d e v i a n t f r o m t h e norms of a d e m o c r a t i c ty.  By i m p l i c a t i o n these a c t s were l i m i t e d t o a few p a t h o l o g i c a l  socie-  individuals.  T h i s k i n d of a n a l y s i s of r a c i s m p r o f e r r e d by people such as Boas (1945) and Kunstler  (1966) obscured t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l r a c i s m .  A perhaps  c l a s s i c example of t h e way i n w h i c h t h i s a n a l y s i s can o b s t r u c t a r e a l s t a n d i n g of the process of r a c i s m i s the way i n w h i c h t h e murder of  under-  millions  o f human b e i n g s i n German h e l d t e r r i t o r y between 1938 and 1945 was blamed s o l e l y on a h a n d f u l of " i n s a n e " men. cal state i t  Whatever H i t l e r ' s p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i -  i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t he c o u l d have engineered a program of  such magnitude w i t h o u t a t minimum t h e p a s s i v e c o m p l i c i t y o f a f a r  larger  segment of t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  The obverse of t h i s p o s i t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d by Boggs (1970) who d e a l s almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h a c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a c i s m . socialist  His a n a l y s i s ,  supposedly  i n o r i g i n , l e a d s him t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l l w h i t e s  regardless  of d i s t i n c t i o n s of c l a s s or e t h n i c o r i g i n a r e c o n s c i o u s l y - and c o n t i n u a l l y  50  a c t i n g i n a r a c i s t manner.  His s o l u t i o n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t o  a T h i r d World r e v o l u t i o n which w i l l exclude a l l  whites.  Between these two extremes of p o s i t i o n t h e r e a r e many s c h o l a r l y ,  if  not  Most, i f  not  s i t u a t i o n found i n  the  c o m p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l , a t t e m p t s a t an a n a l y s i s of r a c i s m . of these a n a l y s e s a r e d i r e c t e d t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r  create  all,  U . S . A . , f o r example, F r a n k l i n ' s e x a m i n a t i o n of B l a c k Power as a " c o h e r e n t i d e o l o g y capable of c h a l l e n g i n g some of t h e b a s i c t e n e t s of American c a p i talism,"  ( 1 9 6 9 : 2 8 6 . ) , or Knowles and P r e w i t t ' s s t u d y of t h e s t r u c t u r a l a s -  p e c t s of r a c i s m i n the U.S.A. ' d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t B l a c k s ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  Lyman c r i t i -  c a l l y examines t h e m a j o r f i g u r e s i n American s o c i o l o g y i n v o l v e d i n c a l and e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of American B l a c k s and concludes t h a t  theoreti-  "despite  more t h a n a c e n t u r y of s t u d y , b l a c k s r e m a i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l p u z z l e . "  (1972:171.)  He o f f e r s by way of e x p l a n a t i o n a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e f o c u s of American s o c i o l o g y . " C l a s s i c a l American s o c i o l o g y d i d n o t adopt a r i g o r o u s approach t o t h e s o c i o l o g y of r a c e r e l a t i o n s b u t r a t h e r subsumed t h e s u b j e c t of r a c e development under t h e r u b r i c of e v o l u t i o n i s t and e s p e c i a l l y S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t (1972:172.)  theories."  More r e c e n t l y t h e s o c i o l o g y of r a c e r e l a t i o n s "has been c h a r a c -  t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by s t u d i e s of t h e psychology of r a c e p r e j u d i c e . "  (1972:174.)  Lyman i n c l u d e s here n o t o n l y t h e work of Adorno b u t a l s o t h a t o f D o l l a r d and Myrdal.  (1972:174.)  He s p e c i f i c a l l y c r i t i c i z e s  p s y c h o l o g i c a l because i t question."  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the  " t e n d s t o eschew t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f  the  (1972:175.)  The h i s t o r i a n Genovese has addressed h i m s e l f  t o t h e q u e s t i o n Lyman sees as  t h e f o c a l problem f o r Blacks i n t h e U.S.A. and Fanon and o t h e r s as a problem o f a l l c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e s .  T h i s problem i s the  generalize  systematic  51  d e p r i v a t i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y as a p e o p l e .  The r e s u l t i s c o n s e q u e n t i a l  for  " w i t h t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n n o t o n l y t h e p a s t b u t a l s o the, f u t u r e i s wiped o u t : ( t h e y have) n e i t h e r known p r e d e c e s s o r s t o p r o v i d e t r a d i t i o n nor unambiguously d e f i n e d successors t o i n s t i l l p r o m i s e . "  (Lyman, 1 9 7 2 : 1 8 3 . )  I n Red and B l a c k  i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f essays i n w h i c h Genovese d i s c u s s e s a number o f  issues  r e l a t e d t o the q u e s t i o n of t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y t o an oppressed people.  I n " R e b e l l i o u s n e s s and D o c i l i t y  i n t h e S l a v e " Genovese p r o v i d e s a  s t r u c t u r a l c r i t i q u e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of t h e "Sambo" s t e r e o type w h i c h draws on the Spanish and Portugese economic and l e g a l  institutions  as w e l l as the B r i t i s h and American t o conclude t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l models may o n l y be used s u g g e s t i v e l y . . . tigation."  t h e y cannot s u b s t i t u t e f o r e m p i r i c a l  inves-  (1968:96.)  Genovese, l i k e Cox, u t i l i z e s a M a r x i s t methodology. w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l bases of r a c e r e l a t i o n s . m i s s i n g i d e o l o g y , Cox f o r c e s h i m s e l f  Both men a r e concerned  However, by e x p l i c i t l y  i n t o an economic d e t e r m i n i s t  He must r e l a t e the phenomenon of r a c e r e l a t i o n s , i n a l l i t s d i r e c t l y t o an economic cause and consequence. t o reduce e v e r y t h i n g t o t h e economic was f i r s t  dis-  position.  complexities,  The f u t i l i t y o f t h e a t t e m p t • s t a t e d by Marx  himself.  Economic d e t e r m i n i s m d e n i e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y of the i s s u e and the l o g i c of lectical materialism.  The t o t a l i t y of each h i s t o r i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d  social  f o r m a t i o n i s a complex s t r u c t u r e of o b j e c t i v e and s p e c i f i c l e v e l s t h a t n o t e q u i v a l e n t and a r e r e l a t i v e l y autonomous.  in t h e l a s t  instance.  However, t o use A l t h u s s e r ' s p h r a s e , " t h e l o n e l y hour o f t h e ' l a s t Using t h i s mode of a n a l y s i s i t  are  The s t r u c t u r e i s always d e -  t e r m i n e d by t h e economic (.the mode of p r o d u c t i o n )  never comes".  dia-  instance'  i s p o s s i b l e t o comprehend the  52  complexity of the society and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s ; "the the  Again to quote Althusser,  capital-labour contradiction i s never simple, but always specified by h i s t o r i c a l l y concrete forms and circumstances i n which i t i s exercised".  13 The contradiction i s therefore always overdetermined.  Recognizing t h i s  complexity i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f a l l into the trap of regarding the r o l e of the  economic as the basis upon which i s constructed a more or l e s s ephemeral  and therefore unimportant super-structure.  The r o l e of the economic i n the  l a s t instance i s to determine which element i s to be dominant i n a given soc i a l formation but never to deny the importance of those non-economic elements. One major t h e o r e t i c a l contribution to the s t r u c t u r a l analysis of society a v a i l a b l e to Genovese but not to Cox i s the notion of hegemony developed by the I t a l i a n Marxist Antonio Gramsci. "(Hegemony i s ) an order i n which a c e r t a i n way of l i f e and thought i s dominant, i n which one concept of r e a l i t y i s diffused throughout society i n a l l i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l , and private manifestations, informing with i t s s p i r i t a l l taste, morality, customs, r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , and a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n their i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral connotations." (Genovese, 1968:406.) Hegemony i s the normative power which the dominant s o c i a l group "obtains from the  masses by v i r t u e of i t s s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l prestige and i t s supposed-  ly superior function i n the world of production." (Genovese, 1968:406)  Hegemony i s expressed through the ideologies of a society which function to p a r t i c u l a r i z e the hegemony member's world view. the  and to situate i t within the society's i n d i v i d u a l  The state i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses, (Althusser, 1971:142.)  systems of schools, churches, c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r example, are the  mechanisms f o r ensuring the voluntary acceptance of the i d e o l o g i c a l positions  53  o f the hegemony.  Only when these mechanisms e i t h e r f a i l or a r e u n a c c e p t a -  b l e t o t h e masses as i s t h e case, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n a newly c o l o n i z e d a r e a , does the c o e r c i v e power of t h e s t a t e t h r o u g h i t s r e p r e s s i v e a p p a r a t u s come into direct  play.  As Cox admits even as he d i s m i s s e s i t , i t another way, i t shared b e l i e f s . victim)  r a c i s m i s an i d e o l o g y , or t o phrase  i s a set of b e h a v i o u r consequences based on a s e t of  (Mead, e t a l , 1 9 6 8 : 6 7 . )  A l b e r t Memmi, a p a r t i c i p a n t  o b s e r v e r of r a c i s m has developed an i n c l u s i v e  (or  definition.  "Racism i s t h e g e n e r a l i z e d and f i n a l a s s i g n i n g of v a l u e s t o r e a l or i m a g i n a r y d i f f e r e n c e s , t o t h e a c c u s e r ' s b e n e f i t and a t h i s v i c t i m ' s expense, i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e f o r m e r ' s own p r i v i l e g e s or a g g r e s s i o n . " (Memmi, 1 9 6 8 : 1 8 5 . ) I n the a n a l y s i s w h i c h accompanies t h i s d e f i n i t i o n Memmi summarizes t h r e e e s s e n t i a l elements o f r a c i s m : the i n s i s t e n c e on a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r a c i s t and v i c t i m , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o a m y t h i c a l u s e , and t h e convenience of such use. ( 1 9 6 8 : 1 8 6 . )  The mechanisms f o r  d i f f e r e n c e s can be e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l or c u l t u r a l .  establishing  However, i t  i s not  the  f a c t of d i f f e r e n c e per se b u t t h e way i n w h i c h d i f f e r e n c e s a r e used t h a t  in-  14 forms r a c i s m . differences,  Memmi p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y a r e r e a l e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l or s o c i a l upon w h i c h  t h e r a c i s t adds an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or a s s i g n s a n e g a t i v e or p o s i t i v e v a l u e . I n an i n t e r e s t i n g f o o t n o t e Memmi suggests t h a t f r e q u e n t l y a genuine i n a d e quacy i n t h e v i c t i m i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n . viewing i t  But " t h e r a c i s t ,  as a r e s u l t of t h e o p p r e s s i o n to w h i c h he h i m s e l f s u b j e c t s  v i c t i m or a t l e a s t of the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h the v i c t i m endure, h o l d s t h a t inadequacy a g a i n s t h i m , as i f (1968:188.)  far  from his  i s made, t o  i t were a d e f e c t o r  He g i v e s as examples the t e c h n i c a l unpreparedness o f  the  flaw."  54  colonized  (as  a  r e s u l t of c o l o n i z a t i o n )  or the h i g h r a t e of  among w o r k i n g women ( t h e r e s u l t of t h e i r f a m i l y d u t i e s ) .  absenteeism  (1968:188.)  A  f u r t h e r v a r i a n t of t h e p r o c e s s , w h i c h Memmi o m i t s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i s  the  s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the p e r c e p t i o n i n what the v i c t i m says o f n o t i o n s o r i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h t r a n s c e n d t h e a c t u a l words s p o k e n . " ^  Memmi t h e n d i s c u s s e s t h e process by w h i c h t h e n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e v a l u e s are assigned.  The n e g a t i v e v a l u e of t h e v i c t i m s a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes t h e  p o s i t i v e v a l u e of t h e accusers who t a k e themselves as the p o i n t o f f o r the comparison.  Fanon r e i t e r a t e s  reference  t h i s p o i n t i n a q u o t a t i o n f r o m Joachim  Marcus: "One can t h e r e f o r e s t a t e t h a t , c o n t r a r y t o what i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d , i t i s t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t seeks t h e c o n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o n t e n t t h a t c r e a t e s t h e a t t i t u d e . " (1967:158 f n . ) Memmi suggests t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e i s then g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e  to-  t a l p e r s o n a l i t y of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the t o t a l i t y of members o f t h e g r o u p . T h i s element of " s o c i a l d e t e r m i n i s m " i s f i n a l and a b s o l u t e .  " I n the extreme,  r a c i s m merges i n t o m y t h " , and t h e v i c t i m becomes t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t h i n g or a symbol. ( 1 9 6 8 : 1 9 7 . )  The m y t h , however, r e f e r s back t o t h e r a c i s t f o r  i s i n t h e r a c i s t h i m s e l f t h a t the m o t i v e s f o r r a c i s m l i e . "  "it  (1968:191.)  Memmi c o n t i n u e s h i s a n a l y s i s o f r a c i s m by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of t h e v i c t i m s i s the a t t e m p t by t h e accusers t o e x p l a i n and t h e i r a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o u r toward them. j u s t i f y a c t i o n i s due to t h e g u i l t (1968:192.)  justify  T h i s need t o accuse i n o r d e r  t h e accusers f e e l toward t h e i r  T h i s concept of c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t  and i t s  to  victims.  transference i s  the  concept most f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of r a c i s m . Memmi  55  suggests t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l " c a n be tempted by t h i s c o l l e c t i v e it  reasoning;  forms p a r t o f the v a l u e s h e l d by h i s peers and r e l i e v e s him o f t h e w e i g h t  o f any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "  (1968:19.3.)  He c o n t i n u e s t h a t the a c c u s a t i o n should  suggest t h e s p e c i f i c o p p r e s s i o n w h i c h i s the r e a l cause of t h e " r a c i s t b i " based i n the socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the  ali-  society.  (1968:193-194.)  I n an essay w r i t t e n a year a f t e r  the d e f i n i t i o n of r a c i s m Mimmi and h i s  c o - a u t h o r s suggest t h a t " b e f o r e t a k i n g r o o t i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , r a c i s m has t a k e n t o o t i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s and i d e o l o g i e s a l l around h i m , i n t h e educat i o n he r e c e i v e s and t h e c u l t u r e he a c q u i r e s . "  (1968:197.)  They go on t o  e x p l a i n t h a t t h e reason so n e g a t i v e an a t t i t u d e can be so u n i v e r s a l i s b e cause r a c i s m i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t f o r w h i c h t h e r a c i s t convenient.  explanation  The v i c t i m s a r e n o t o n l y accused o f b e i n g s e c o n d - c l a s s humans,  t h e y are i n t h a t t h e y a r e d e n i e d t h e r i g h t s t h e accusers have f o r (1968:198.) oppressed.  Further, It  themselves.  t h e accuser always chooses as t h e v i c t i m t h e a l r e a d y  i s t h i s f a c t o r which e x p l a i n s the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e -  sence of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s among people themselves v i c t i m s o f r a c i s m . 200.)  It  is  (1969:  p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f what has been c a l l e d r e v e r s e r a c i s m  when the v i c t i m i s seen a l s o as a c c u s e r . a c c u s a t i o n i s to accrue b e n e f i t .  The o n l y e f f e c t i v e reason f o r  The r e a c t i o n o f t h e accuser t o  statements  and a c t i o n s r e s i s t i n g the a c c u s a t i o n can be t o speak o f r e v e r s e r a c i s m b u t f o l l o w i n g Memmi's l i n e o f argument these r e a c t i o n s can be e x p l a i n e d as r e s ponses t o the exposure o f the r a c i s m .  Rather t h a n a r e l i a n c e upon c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t as the complete e x p l a n a t i o n  for  56  r a c i s m one can go back to t h e concept o f hegemony and t h e a r i s i n g from i t .  ideologies  A l t h o u g h t h e n a t u r e of t h e hegemony i s t h a t of a c o h e -  s i v e whole the i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h a r i s e from i t and s u p p o r t i t a r e n o t consistent in their  expression.  Racism can be regarded as an i d e o l o g y c r e a t e d as a m e d i a t i o n between t h e i d e o l o g y o f democracy i m p l y i n g freedom and e q u a l i t y and t h e r e a l i t y of e x p l o i t a t i o n and o p p r e s s i o n .  socio-economic  By c r e a t i n g an i d e o l o g y w h i c h  e x p l a i n s why some groups i n t h e s o c i e t y a r e n o t e l i g i b l e f o r t h e f u l l p r e s s i o n o f democracy t h e o t h e r i d e o l o g i c a l p r e c e p t s a r e m a i n t a i n e d . i d e o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n serves a d u a l p u r p o s e .  If  exThis  t h e v i c t i m s of t h e r a c i s t  a c c u s a t i o n can be m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o b e l i e v i n g i n t h e m y t h t h e y w i l l tend t o be l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g t o t h e hegemony and t h e s t a t e i s l e s s l i k e l y t o have t o r e s o r t t o d i r e c t c o e r c i v e power t o m a i n t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n .  Secondly, i f  members of t h e s o c i e t y can be b r o u g h t t o a c c e p t t h e r a c i s t  ideology  will,  i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y ,  help to m a i n t a i n not only the  the  they ideology  b u t i t s s t r u c t u r a l bases.  I n t h i s way, one can a l s o e x p l a i n t h e o r g a n i c c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t of r a c i s m and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t .  The o v e r t a c t of  the  i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h causes i n j u r y t o a n o t h e r on t h e b a s i s of r a c i s m i s no l o n g e r condoned by t h e s o c i e t y .  It  i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e u n -  s o c i a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p e r p e t r a t o r who i s m o r a l l y , i f punished f o r i t .  The o v e r t a c t ,  seldom l e g a l l y ,  i n o t h e r w o r d s , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a m a n i -  f e s t a t i o n by an i n d i v i d u a l who i s u n a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s u b t l e t y o f ideologies involved.  The c o v e r t or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  the  a c t vrhose processes  " o p e r a t e so n o r m a l l y and n a t u r a l l y and a r e so much a p a r t of t h e  existing  57  i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y " ommission as commission.  (Boggs, 1970:147-148.)  can be as much an a c t o f  Covert r a c i s m i s t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  action  o f t h e i d e o l o g y p e r p e t r a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n d a i l y a c t i o n and by t h e c o l l e c t i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who s t a f f  the i n s t i t u t i o n s .  For example t h e  teacher i s n o t expected t o i n c l u d e i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e h i s t o r y o f Canada any d i s c u s s i o n of t h e genocide of t h e Besthuck or the processes used t o o b t a i n l a n d owned by t h e autothonous p o p u l a t i o n . to v e r b a l i z e the s t e r e o t y p e s b u t s i m p l y n e g l e c t ,  The t e a c h e r does n o t have t h r o u g h a c c i d e n t more  u s u a l l y t h a n d e s i g n , t o p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h would c o n f l i c t  with  those s t e r e o t y p e s .  As Blau was f o r c e d t o show i n h i s study of b u r e a u c r a c y r a c i s m can be p e r p e t u a t e d i n a process presumed t o be f r e e of such f u n c t i o n s as r e a d i l y as i t can be e l s e w h e r e .  The i n s t i t u t i o n can a l s o f u n c t i o n as an i n h i b i t o r  a t t e m p t s t o d i s c e r n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e problem.  of  The d i r e c t o r o f t h e s t u d y  I n d i a n s and t h e Law done by t h e Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n was t o l d by many p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s  t h a t they c o u l d not p r o v i d e him w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l  on t h e number f peoples of n a t i v e a n c e s t r y t h e y h e l d i n t h e i r 0  "because they d i d n ' t keep t h a t k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n . "  data  prisons  This despite the f a c t  t h a t t h e employees o f t h e p r i s o n s knew t h e number of n a t i v e people  incar-  .16 cerated.  What l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n and s t u d y of r a c i s m t h e r e has been i n t h i s  country,  h a v i n g s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o Canadian r a t h e r t h a n f o r e i g n p r o b l e m s , has u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y c e n t e r e d on e i t h e r t h e Jewish p o p u l a t i o n o r t h e l i m i t e d p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some r e f e r e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e west c o a s t ,  Black  to Orientals.  58  The 1966 Report t o t h e M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e of the S p e c i a l Committee on Hate Propaganda i n Canada makes m e n t i o n o f t h e Canadian I n d i a n nowhere e i t h e r the r e p o r t i t s e l f  or t h e accompanying d o c u m e n t a t i o n .  in  The c o n f e r e n c e s  and p u b l i c a t i o n s m a r k i n g Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Human R i g h t s Year i n 1967 a g a i n i g n o r e d t h e Canadian I n d i a n ? ^  The p u b l i c a t i o n of  Volume 1 of A Survey of Contemporary I n d i a n s i n Canada can be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e f i r s t major r e c o g n i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g as i t  does such damning e v i d e n c e , o f  t h e p r e j u d i c e and r a c i s m a g a i n s t the Canadian I n d i a n .  The subsequent pub-  l i c a t i o n o f s t u d i e s by C a r d i n a l (1969) and Waubageshig (1970) among o t h e r s , were i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e as s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n  to  t h e I n d i a n s ' problems l a y i n t h e a b o l i t i o n of the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s s o l u t i o n seemed t o appeal t o many members of  the  m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g n o t a few members of t h e Department i t s e l f . response by the I n d i a n people i n the "Red Paper"  ( C i t i z e n s Plus,197 0.)  Government's " W h i t e Paper" was t h e r e f o r e b e w i l d e r i n g . response i l l u s t r a t e s next chapter.  The  What t h e  to t h e  Indians'  i s t h e t h e s i s argued here and f u r t h e r documented i n t h e  I n s t i t u t i o n a l or c o v e r t r a c i s m i s an i d e o l o g i c a l  expression  o f hegemony and i s t h e r e f o r e n o t i s o l a t e d i n one f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e and cannot be e r a d i c a t e d by d i s m a n t l i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r e a l o n e .  The f a c t o f r a c i s m  is  p r e s e n t and m a i n t a i n e d t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree i n a l l t h e  structures  and i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  this  f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l , of the s o c i e t y .  Further  insti-  t u t i o n a l r a c i s m i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b t l e i n o p e r a t i o n as to f r e q u e n t l y go u n r e c o g n i z e d by those most a c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n i n g  it.  59  Footnotes: 1.  A l f o r d i n Bureaucracy and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i d e n t i f i e s two usages o f t h e term " p o w e r " , used l a r g e l y by s o c i o l o g i s t s t o i n d i c a t e the " p o s s e s s i o n of r e s o u r c e s based on i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , w e a l t h , p r o p e r t y , p u b l i c o f f i c e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p " , and power, used by p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , i s meant to i n d i c a t e " t h e use of r e sources t o g a i n i n f l u e n c e by p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . " (1969:195.) E t z i o n i ' s t y p o l o g y d i s t i n g u i s h e s two types of power, economic and c o e r c i v e w h i c h r e q u i r e p o s s e s s i o n of the r e sources g i v e n i n power, w h i l e power corresponds more c l o s e l y w i t h E t z i o n i ' s n o r m a t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a l t h o u g h a case c o u l d be made t h a t power i s i n c o r p o r a t e d , a t l e a s t on o c c a s s i o n , i n t o the. w i e l d i n g of b o t h economic and c o e r c i v e power as w e l l . In brief Alford's d i s t i n c t i o n i s between t h e presence of r e s o u r c e s and t h e way i n which the resources are u t i l i z e d .  2.  E t z i o n i d i s c r i m i n a t e s between " p u r e n o r m a t i v e " power based on " t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f esteem, p r e s t i g e , and r i t u a l i s t i c symbols" and " s o c i a l power" based on " a l l o c a t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f acceptance and p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e " b u t c l a s s e s them b o t h as n o r m a t i v e as t h e y b o t h u t i l i z e t h e same t y p e of means. (1961:6.)  3.  Howton (1969:43-44 f f . ) , C . J . Deutsch ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and D u b i n , (1952:233-240) f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the ways i n w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r f u n c t i o n a i r e s ,became d e f a c t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s because o f t h e i r c o n t r o l o f i n f o r m a t i o n flows.  4.  I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , Thompson s p e c i f i c a l l y d i s c u s s e s the phenomenon o f t h e new " s c i e n t i f i c management" or n e o - T a y l o r i s m w h i c h r e c e i v e d i n i t i a l s u p p o r t and encouragement f r o m Kennedy and Johnson i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o governmental b u r e a u c r a c i e s . (1969:53-57.)  5.  I n most c i v i l s e r v i c e s o p e r a t i o n s i n N o r t h America the h i r i n g and p r o m o t i o n i s done t h r o u g h c i v i l s e r v i c e c o m p e t i t i o n s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s i m p l y assigned t o the d e p a r t m e n t , t h e s a l a r y n e g o t i a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s a r e handled by a s e p a r a t e f i n a n c i a l s e c t i o n ( e . g . T r e a s u r y Board) and e l a b o r a t e r u l e s f o r d i s m i s s a l procedures a r e e s t a b l i s h e d elsewhere.  6.  I have chosen t o use the A l t h u s s e r i a n concept of i d e o l o g y i n p r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r s such as Mannheim, (1936) . The c h o i c e was made on the b a s i s t h a t t h e concept as Mannheim and o t h e r s see i t , i s m e t a p h y s i c a l and m y s t i f i e d to a degree w h i c h makes a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t t o c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s somewhat l e s s t h a n u s e f u l .  7.  Examples of t h i s phenomenon a r e l e g i o n . Attendence a t s c h o o l s , one of t h e p r i m a r y i d e o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s e s o f t h e S t a t e , i s r e n d e r e d comp u l s o r y by t r u a n c y l a w s .  60  8.  B u r i n i n h i s essay on "Bureaucracy and N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m " seems t o d i s p u t e t h i s when he w r i t e s t h a t " t h e Nazis s u c c e e d e d . . . i n c a s t i n g overboard the whole v a l u e system o f w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " (1952:47) Much of the evidence he s i t e s as p r o o f o f h i s statement i s used a l s o by M i l i b a n d t o argue e x a c t l y t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n , i . e . , t h a t f a s c i s m d i d not d i s r u p t the fundamental b a s i s on w h i c h " w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n " i s based. He quotes Franz Neumann, " t h e essence of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s o c i a l p o l i c y c o n s i s t s i n the acceptance and s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s c h a r a c t e r o f German s o c i e t y . " (1969:7-96.)  9.  The argument t h a t modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s a n t a g o n i s t i c t o democracy i s made l a r g e l y by those who equate democracy w i t h " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " and f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h e c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n i n t o monopoly c a p i t a l i s t s t r u c t u r e s .  10.  The e x c e p t i o n i s the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n where t h e mode and r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n are d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e r u l i n g i d e o l o g y . The i d e o l o g i c a l s t a t e apparatuses a r e i n e f f e c t i v e . (For example, t h e e a r l y r e p o r t s by t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r t h e Canadian government d i s c u s s , w i t h some bewilderment tempered w i t h a n g e r , t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e , h o s t i l i t y and a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e by n a t i v e I n d i a n s to o f f i c i a l a t t e m p t s (by government or church) t o remove t h e young t o i n s t i t u t i o n s where t h e y were " e d u c a t e d " f o r domestic s e r v i c e o r f a r m l a b o u r . ) C f . a l s o Belshaw 1964, d i s c u s s i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of " f o r e i g n d e c i s i o n makers" i n c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n s . F u r n i v a l l , i n a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o n i a l c o u n t r i e s i n South A s i a g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t i n h i s book, C o l o n i a l P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "The P l u r a l S o c i e t y . "  11.  A l t h u s s e r analyses b r i l l i a n t l y t h e mechanism whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s a r e " s u b j e c t e d " t o t h e process i n w h i c h they " f r e e l y " accept t h e i r s u b j e c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e "work a l l by t h e m s e l v e s " w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e to t h e s a n c t i o n s of r e p r e s s i v e or c o e r c i v e power. (1971:170-186.)  12.  T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s i n agreement w i t h B a r t h ' s d e f i n i t i o n of an e t h n i c group as one which "has a membership which i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f , and i s i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s , as c o n s t i t u t i n g a c a t e g o r y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of the same o r d e r . " ( 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 . )  13.  A l t h u s s e r ' s b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s of the concept of " o v e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n " ( 1 9 6 9 : 8 7 - 1 2 8 . ) a t one and the same t i m e s i m p l i f i e s the process of a n a l y s i s and a c t s t o p r e v e n t s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s .  14.  This p o i n t , which recognizes the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s but emphasizes the uses to which these d i f f e r e n c e s are put i s u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i q u e s of a number of w r i t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those c o n cerned w i t h r a c i s m i n t h e U . S . A . , who a r e c l a s s e d under the r u b r i c " l i b e r a l " and who a t t e m p t to deny any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between B l a c k s and Caucasians. Genovese, 1 9 7 1 , and many of t h e B l a c k Power advocates v i g o r o u s l y a t t a c k t h i s p o s i t i o n as r a c i s t i n i t s e l f . Their reasoning i s t h a t denying d i f f e r e n c e s these w r i t e r s a r e d e n y i n g much of the h i s t o r y of B l a c k America w h i c h must be r e c o g n i z e d .  61  15.  I am i n d e b t e d t o D r . H.B. Hawthorn  for this  notion.  16.  P e r s o n a l communication from t h e D i r e c t o r , Mr. Gene Rheaume.  17.  I had o c c a s s i o n t o a t t e n d many o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e s i n c l u d i n g t h e f e d e r a l government's opening conference a t w h i c h the t h e n - p r i m e m i n i s t e r and Nobel P r i z e w i n n e r , L e s t e r B. Pearson gave' t h e a d d r e s s . He gave a speech t h a t spoke of the need to i n c r e a s e human r i g h t s as w e l l as the p r o g r e s s which had been made i n t h e w o r l d , he c i t e d examples f r o m around the g l o b e b u t n e g l e c t e d t o m e n t i o n once the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n o f Canada.  Chapter Two The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women Development and O r i g i n a l S t r u c t u r e  63  Section 1 The P l a n n i n g Committee  The t h e o r e t i c a l framework now e s t a b l i s h e d , I b e g i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home.  The s e c t i o n opens w i t h a h i s t o r y  t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h gave impetus t o the p r o j e c t ' s members of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s  initiation.  of  The  sub-committee of CUS, here r e f e r r e d t o as  the p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , a r e examined.  The e x a m i n a t i o n i n c l u d e s  of the i n t e n d e d s t r u c t u r e of t h e p r o j e c t and i t s r a t i o n a l e .  The a n a l y s i s  of the s t r u c t u r e and r a t i o n a l e i n d i c a t e s t h e presence of r a c i s t d e s p i t e t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r  intentions.  discussion  attitudes  64  A spate of a r t i c l e s appeared i n V a n c o u v e r ' s d a i l y newspapers i n t h e autumn of 1965 on t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f young I n d i a n women who were m i g r a t i n g t o V a n couver and more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  t o Skid Road from t h e r u r a l a r e a s .  The  e s t seemed to be sparked by t h e chance r e p o r t i n g of t h e a t t e m p t e d o f a young I n d i a n woman i n t h e s k i d road a r e a .  suicide  She had thrown h e r s e l f  a h o t e l window and s u s t a i n e d i n j u r i e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n almost paralysis.  inter-  from  complete  One of t h e a r t i c l e s quoted C i t y Coronor Glen MacDonald as s a y i n g  t h a t of a p o p u l a t i o n of around 500 I n d i a n women i n t h e s k i d road a r e a , m a i n t a i n e d by steady i n - m i g r a t i o n , ^ a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 women between t h e ages of 16 and 30 d i e each y e a r .  He a t t r i b u t e d these deaths d i r e c t l y t o t h e  social  diseases of a l c o h o l i s m , drug a d d i c t i o n , and p r o s t i t u t i o n .  This l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t  i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f young I n d i a n s i n t h e c i t y  ded w i t h t h e r e t u r n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d e n t from t h e 2 8 t h Annual Congress of the Canadian Union o f Students  coinci-  delegation  (CUS) .  Almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n the Canadian Union of Students (and i t s  predecessor,  N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Canadian U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t s , NFCUS) had adopted a s t u d e n t qua s t u d e n t approach t o s o c i e t a l i s s u e s , c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f  solely  w i t h those areas n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d as of d i r e c t concern to t h e u n i v e r s i t y student.  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n was i n realm of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s b u t  a c t i v i t y was n o t r e f l e c t e d on t h e campuses.  this  The 2 8 t h Congress marked a t u r -  n i n g p o i n t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e aided by t h e h e i g h t e n e d p o l i t i c i z a t i o n of t h e Quebec members, t h e f o r m a t i o n of t h e Student Union f o r Peace A c t i o n , and the growing r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y campuses i n t h e U.S.A.  Among the i s s u e s r a i s e d f o r  s t a t u s o f t h e Canadian I n d i a n .  the f i r s t  t i m e a t t h i s m e e t i n g was t h e  R e s o l u t i o n s were passed t o h i r e an A s s o c i a t e  S e c r e t a r y f o r I n d i a n A f f a i r s as p a r t of t h e n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t  i n Ottawa,  65  t o work i n c l o s e c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e n e w l y - f o r m e d Canadian I n d i a n Y o u t h C o u n c i l and t o promote the development o f l o c a l programs concerned w i t h Indians.  On t h e b a s i s of these two events t h e UBC-Alma Mater S o c i e t y CAMS)  Committee o f CUS began d i s c u s s i o n s around t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  establishing  accomodations f o r n a t i v e women i n t h e c i t y of Vancouver.  The d e c i s i o n of the Committee t o b e g i n a p r o j e c t of t h i s t y p e was a i d e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e of one member of t h e committee who had spent t h e summer i n t e r v i e w i n g I n d i a n women i n Vancouver f o r a UBC r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t .  Her work  had p o i n t e d up t h e need f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e meager and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y accomodations p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o I n d i a n women - a l l of a h o s t e l or 'flophouse' nature.  A s m a l l committee was formed t o e x p l o r e t h e  feasibility  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e s i d e n c e s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r I n d i a n women w h i c h would p r o v i d e l o n g - t e r m accommodation away f r o m t h e s k i d r o a d e n v i r o n m e n t .  2  T h i s same member b r o u g h t i n t o t h e committee an I n d i a n woman who had r e c e n t l y severed her c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h an e a s t - e n d h o s t e l o r g a n i z a t i o n and was p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g w i t h t h e Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r .  T h i s woman was  most emphatic about t h e need f o r a r e s i d e n c e e x c l u s i v e l y f o r I n d i a n women and e q u a l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e CUS committee p r o p o s a l .  She was subse-  q u e n t l y h i r e d as house mother f o r t h e p r o j e c t .  The committee met over t h e f a l l months t o develop t h e p o l i c y and d e t e r m i n e t h e p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r t h e p r o j e c t . t h e i r p o l i c y and had i s s u e d a p r o p o s a l .  By December t h e y had e s t a b l i s h e d  The p r o j e c t was t o e s t a b l i s h a  home " t o be c o - o p e r a t i v e i n t h e sense t h a t i t  i s the r e s i d e n t g i r l s  t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of a house m o t h e r ) who w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s  (under running  66  and m a i n t e n a n c e . "  J  The p r o p o s a l s t a t e d t h a t the house would a l s o be used  as a temporary home f o r women needing emergency accomodation, f o r  which  purpose one room would be r e s e r v e d .  T h i s p r o p o s a l was used i n i n i t i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h v a r i o u s  non-governmental  s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch of t h e Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n , t h e Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e s Department, and the Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r . l a t e r made by the l a t t e r  R e f e r r a l s t o t h e Home were  three organizations although active  was f o r t h c o m i n g o n l y from the F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r .  co-operation  Of t h e n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l  s o c i a l s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , the S a l v a t i o n Army responded most g e n e r o u s l y by p r o v i d i n g much of t h e f u r n i t u r e needed f o r t h e Home.  The committee e s t a b l i s h e d a d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e .  The A d v i s o r y  Board, w h i c h a t t h e Home's i n c e p t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a sociologist,  an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t ,  a lawyer,  a home e c o n o m i s t , and a s o c i a l w o r k e r ,  was envisaged as a p a s s i v e r a t h e r t h a n an a c t i v e group who would p r o v i d e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l expertise to e i t h e r when c a l l e d upon t o do s o .  the r e s i d e n t s o r t h e Management Board  They were n o t expected t o meet r e g u l a r l y  p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t .  or  The A d v i s o r y  Board t h e r e f o r e was seen as p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c l e g i t i m a c y as " p a t r o n s " as w e l l as f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  (and f r e e )  technical advice.  The Management Board was t o c o n s i s t o f f o u r s t u d e n t s , one f a c u l t y member f r o m the School of S o c i a l Work, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e Vancouver dian Friendship Center.  In-  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e F r i e n d s h i p Center never  67  s a t on t h e B o a r d , t h e . o t h e r p o s i t i o n s were f i l l e d by November of 1965.  The  f u n c t i o n s of t h e Management Board were t o ensure t h a t the m a t e r i a l needs of t h e p r o j e c t were p r o v i d e d f o r ,  to h i r e s t a f f  f o r the p r o j e c t , and t o meet  r e g u l a r l y t o oversee the p r o j e c t ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  As w e l l as these g e n e r a l  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t h e Management Board was t o r e v i e w w i t h t h e house mother t h e m o n t h l y p r o g r e s s of each r e s i d e n t i n order t o make d e c i s i o n s as t o when each r e s i d e n t was c o n s i d e r e d ready t o leave t h e environment o f t h e Home t o e s t a b l i s h her own r e s i d e n c e .  The p h i l o s o p h y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t was t o  attract  " t h e g i r l s from Skid Row Csic) and [ p r o v i d e ] them w i t h a c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme [ i n o r d e r t o remove them] from any immediate p o s s i b i l i t y of f a l l i n g i n t o t h e same c i r c u l a r t r a p of p r o s t i t u t i o n , drug or a l c o h o l a d d i c t i o n , hence i m prisonment., r e l e a s e and back. There a r e a g r e a t number of g i r l s who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o escape but have nowhere t o escape. However, i t i s obvious t h a t removing these g i r l s from t h e i r immediate environment i s n o t a complete s o l u t i o n f o r we must ensure t h a t t h e g i r l s w i l l not r e g r e s s i n t o t h e i r former h a b i t s . " T h i s can o n l y be achieved by t h e g i r l s themselves. Theref o r e , i t i s necessary f o r t h e g i r l s t o r e a l i z e a new s t a t u s f o r themselves and i n s o c i e t y . T h i s . c a n o n l y be done i f t h e g i r l s themselves r e a l i z e what i t i s i n l i f e they want and n o t what i s wanted of them by p a t e r n a l i s t i c c h a r i t y . Furt h e r m o r e , t h e g i r l s must r e a l i z e f o r themselves t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of b e i n g a c i t i z e n ; i t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e home w i l l n o t i n any way d i c t a t e how t h e y should l i v e , except i n t h e a r e a o f c o o p e r a t i v e home l i v i n g . . However, should t h e g i r l s r e q u e s t any s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , such as p e r s o n a l grooming or e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t h e s e r v i c e s o f the r e s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to them. "The r e s i d e n t g i r l s (under the guidance of a .'house m o t h e r ' ) w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r u n n i n g and maintenance of the h o m e . . . . As w e l l as b e i n g a semi-permanent home f o r some 8 t o 10 g i r l s , t h e house w i l l be used as a temporary home f o r g i r l s j u s t r e l e a s e d from i n s t i t u t i o n s who a r e w i t h o u t l o d g i n g u n t i l a permanent r e s i d e n c e i s f o u n d . An e x t r a room w i l l be r e s e r v e d f o r such purposes."4  68  The d e c i s i o n t o use t h e home as b o t h a l o n g - t e r m and temporary and the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a house m o t h e r , b o t h had s e r i o u s later  residence,  ramifications  i n terms of t h e s t a t e d purpose of the home as a " c o - o p e r a t i v e  living  scheme".  The d u t i e s of the house mother as o u t l i n e d i n the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l were c l a s s i f i e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s : " ( a ) Home Economics: Each g i r l w i l l a l t e r n a t e l y be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i f i c d u t i e s assigned by t h e house m o t h e r . - t o a s s i s t i n b u d g e t i n g f o r m e a l s , household f u r n i s h i n g s , heat and l i g h t b i l l s , e t c . , from t h e m o n t h l y a l l o w a n c e a l l o t t e d by t h e Board, - p l a n n i n g the meals f o r the coming week i n advance, and shopping f o r t h e necessary p r o v i s i o n s . (.Instruction i n c u t s of meat, Canada Food R u l e s , e t c . , ) - p r e p a r a t i o n of meals - h o u s e c l e a n i n g , upkeep of house and y a r d , l a u n d r y . Members of CUS who a r e i n t h e F a c u l t y o f Home Economics w i l l c o u n s e l t h e house mother i n these m a t t e r s , and may g i v e occasional i n s t r u c t i o n to the g i r l s . (b) For i n s t r u c t i o n i n g r o o m i n g , d e p o r t m e n t , h y g i e n e , e t c . , v o l u n t e e r m o d e l s , h a i r - d r e s s e r s , and n u r s e s , w i l l be i n v i t e d t o g i v e o c c a s i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . ( c ) P r e s e n t i n g m o n t h l y r e p o r t s t o t h e Co-op Board; m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s , p o l i c e c o u r t s , employment agencies, volunteer groups, etc. V o l u n t e e r memberCs) of the F a c u l t y of S o c i a l Work w i l l be i n v i t e d t o a s s i s t i n c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s agencies w i t h t h e C o - o p . " 5 By A p r i l of 1966 a house had been found and f u r n i s h e d and on A p r i l t h e Home was opened w i t h s i x I n d i a n women, one s t u d e n t member o f Management Board, and the house mother as f i r s t  occupants.  15th,  the  The o p e r a t i n g  c o s t s were e s t i m a t e d a t $800 per month based on r e n t , h e a t , u t i l i t i e s ,  food,  s a l a r y f o r t h e house m o t h e r , and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s e x p e n d i t u r e s .  this  Of  sum, a p p r o x i m a t e l y $400 was t o come from t h e r e s i d e n t s , each o f whom was t o  69  pay a f i x e d r e n t per month ( f o r example, a woman on w e l f a r e would pay $50 per month or her maximum housing a l l o w a n c e ) . a $400 per month s u b s i d y .  T h i s breakdown p r o j e c t e d  6  .... •  Funding a t t h i s t i m e was v e r y i r r e g u l a r .  The AMS had donated $ 2 0 0 .  CUS committee p r o v i d e d o f f i c e space, m a t e r i a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l (as they d i d f o r the d u r a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t )  7  the  facilities  and some d o n a t i o n s ,  ranging  i n s i z e f r o m $10 to$200 were r e c e i v e d .  These d o n a t i o n s had been sought  o u t by p r i v a t e appeals t o i n d i v i d u a l s ,  t a l k s t o v a r i o u s c l u b s and o t h e r  v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a f u n d i n g appeal l e t t e r s e n t t o a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i s t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t e d i t i o n o f t h e Blue Book, as w e l l as t o g o f f i c i a l s of the academic community.  The o r g a n i z e r s of t h e p r o j e c t had a p r o f e s s e d l y a n t i - r a c i s t saw t h e p r o j e c t as p r o v i d i n g i n some measure a change f r o m  stance.  They  "paternalistic  c l a r i t y " and f r o m t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n t h e e x i s t i n g h o s t e l s where I n d i a n women were expected to work f o r t h e n o n - I n d i a n h o s t e l o c c u p a n t s .  Most o f t h e o r -  g a n i z e r s were s o c i a l democrats who viewed t h e w e l f a r e s t a t e as a d e s i r a b l e objective.  A l l of them were h o n e s t l y o u t r a g e d a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h  t h e n a t i v e women were f o r c e d to e x i s t i n t h e c i t y . t o the dilemma o f the n a t i v e woman as f i r s t  They saw t h e  solution  removal f r o m the u n d e s i r a b l e  environment o f s k i d road and second a r e c o n d i t i o n i n g process f r o m w h i c h " t h e g i r l s must r e a l i z e f o r citizen."  themselves the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f b e i n g a  N e v e r t h e l e s s i t was accepted t h a t t h e Management Board would  be the f i n a l a r b i t o r  i n t h e d e c i s i o n as to when the r e s i d e n t s had r e a l i z e d  this responsibility.  The v e h i c l e of t h e r e c o n d i t i o n i n g process was t o be  70  t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme i n w h i c h t h e g i r l s would be t a u g h t how t o shop, t h e Canada Food R u l e s , as w e l l as- d e p o r t m e n t , grooming and h y g i e n e . The r e s i d e n t s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were n o t seen as e x t e n d i n g t o such d e c i s i o n s as t o who would do what t a s k s and when as these were t o be a s s i g n e d by t h e house m o t h e r .  A l t h o u g h t h e s t u d e n t o r g a n i z e r s were e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g i t was a concept new t o a l l o f them. w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e s had been e i t h e r  endorsation of Their only  t h r o u g h r e a d i n g or d i s c u s s i o n s  contact  with  s t u d e n t s a t two o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s who were embarking on c o - o p e r a t i v e  resi-  dences as s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r housing s h o r t a g e s .  the  organizers'  C l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s of  i n e x p e r i e n c e a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e i r p r o p o s a l s quoted above.  h i r e d as house mother a woman whose o n l y e x p e r i e n c e w i t h g r o u p - l i v i n g t i o n s had been as r e s i d e n t or employee i n h i e r a r c h i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and d o r m i t o r i e s and whose d u t i e s i n c l u d e a s s i g n i n g t a s k s .  By- d e n y i n g  r e s i d e n t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n s u r i n g the r e g u l a r f u n c t i o n i n g o f Home one i s l e d t o wonder how e f f e c t i v e l y  the c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g  was t o c o n t r i b u t e to t h e process of d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l amongst t h e r e s i d e n t s .  situahostels the the  scheme  responsibility  The p l a n n e r s a l s o compromised the c o - o p e r a t i v e aspect  by p r o v i d i n g an " e x t r a room" t o s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n of a h o s t e l f o r accomodation.  They  The n e t e f f e c t of these m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o t h e  transient  co-operative  model was almost e n t i r e l y economic as s t a f f and maintenance c o s t s c o u l d be reduced by u t i l i z i n g  the l a b o u r o f the r e s i d e n t s .  The s t r u c t u r e and aims of the p r o j e c t r e v e a l a w o e f u l i g n o r a n c e of cultural patterns.  The s o c i a l i z a t i o n of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e s  native the  71  development o f a sense of Independence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as i n c l u s i o n i n t h e f a m i l y economy. CHawthorn, 1966, [2 ] : 112.): frequently result  Social  i n t h e c h i l d r e n t a k i n g a m a j o r share of the  f o r each o t h e r ' s m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g .  conditions responsibility  Knowledge of n u t r i t i o n and good c o n -  sumer p r a c t i c e s a r e u s e f u l f o r any person l i v i n g i n t h i s s o c i e t y b u t  the  assumption t h a t t h e n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s would be i n c a p a b l e of h a n d l i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e household t a s k s w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n and assignment  is  more i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e acceptance of a s t e r e o t y p e t h a n a r e f l e c t i o n of  the  reality.  Much of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z e r s based t h e i r p r o p o s a l s came f r o m the woman h i r e d as house m o t h e r .  It  i s perhaps an example of  their  complacency t h a t they so r e a d i l y accepted one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e  situation  and c u l t u r a l background of n a t i v e peoples w i t h o u t d e s i r i n g t o e i t h e r  question  i t or i n q u i r e f u r t h e r  i n t o the m a t t e r .  They were c o n t e n t t o engage on a  p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t changing the c u l t u r a l environment of a d e s i g nated group o f p e o p l e w i t h o u t any knowledge or even i n most cases any c o n t a c t w i t h the peoples t h e y were s e t t i n g out t o h e l p .  Moreover they were f o r m a l l y  a s s i g n i n g t o themselves the t a s k of d e c i d i n g when t h e h e l p i n g process was completed i n each i n d i v i d u a l case a t w h i c h t i m e the r e s i d e n t whose p r o g r e s s the house mother would r e p o r t on would be eased o u t t o make room f o r a new candidate f o r  reformation.  Despite the a n t i - r a c i s t  stance w h i c h the o r g a n i z e r s had adopted they  ted i n t h e i r own p r o p o s a l s t h e r a c i s t  s t e r e o t y p e o f the incompetent  reflecnative,  u n a l b e t o a d m i n i s t e r h i s / h e r own a f f a i r s and needing t o be p r o t e c t e d from  72  e v i l t e m p t a t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t prove o v e r w h e l m i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e . t h e p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward n a t i v e peoples because i t the n a t i v e person to a s s i m i l a t e .  They a t t a c k e d  did not help  The n a t i v e women were to be t a u g h t  the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p as d e f i n e d by t h e dominant c u l t u r e and the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h a t c u l t u r e would i n s u r e t h a t  they had  l e a r n e d t h e l e s s o n w e l l b e f o r e a l l o w i n g them t o move i n t o t h e m a i n s t r e a m .  The s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t were n o t o f these a s s u m p t i o n s .  They viewed t h e p r o j e c t as an e x t e n s i o n o f  conscious their  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y designed t o d e m o c r a t i z e t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e s i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t s t u d e n t s had t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e decisions d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l i v e s .  The puspose o f t h e p r o j e c t was  t o prepare t h e n a t i v e people t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  When I became i n v o l v e d w i t h  t h e p r o j e c t i n A p r i l o f 1965, I too accepted t h e s t r u c t u r e and t h e implicit  i n i t as v a l i d and l e g i t i m a t e .  in  ideology  73  Section 2  The Residents and the Community  The p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , p r o f e s s i n g a n t i - r a c i s t  i n t e n t i o n s , was  objectively  r a c i s t i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t and t h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r a structure. are d e s c r i b e d .  such  I n t h i s s e c t i o n the o b j e c t s of t h e i r p l a n n i n g , t h e r e s i d e n t s , The d i s c u s s i o n i s b r i e f because t h e y proved t o be t h e  i m p o r t a n t element i n the drama.  The r e s i d e n t s p r o v i d e d by t h e i r  the reason f o r t h e Home's e x i s t e n c e , b u t not f o r i t s demise.  least  presence  The s e c t i o n  a l s o i n c l u d e s some d e s c r i p t i o n and commentary on the s m a l l donors f r o m t h e community at l a r g e .  A l t h o u g h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d o n a t i o n s were m i n i m a l ,  played a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n exposing t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the and the r h e t o r i c of t h e p l a n n e r s , the Board and t h e AMS. only p a r t i c i p a n t s  they  reality  They were a l s o  the  a l b e i t p e r i p h e r a l , t o engage i n a c t s w h i c h m i g h t be d e s -  c r i b e d as o v e r t l y r a t h e r  than c o v e r t l y  racist.  74  The term " I n d i a n " has two d e f i n i t i o n s i n o f f i c i a l usage i n Canada: "The f i r s t , w h i c h r e f e r s t o what are - u s u a l l y c a l l e d ' r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s ' , i s the l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n used by t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch f o r the people who come lander t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I n d i a n A c t ; t h a t i s , those whose names a r e i n c l u d e d on t h e o f f i c i a l I n d i a n R e g i s t e r . R e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l i v e on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s ; . . . . Some of them ( i n - m a r r y i n g w i v e s ) a r e n o t of I n d i a n r a c i a l o r i g i n . L e g a l s t a t u s as an I n d i a n i s a c q u i r e d a t b i r t h i f the f a t h e r i s an I n d i a n , or by m a r r i a g e to an I n d i a n husband. I l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n of I n d i a n women a r e a l s o u s u a l l y g r a n t e d I n d i a n s t a t u s . Indian status i s g i v e n up by ' e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t ' , w h i c h i s a u t o m a t i c f o r women m a r r y i n g n o n - I n d i a n husbands, and o t h e r w i s e v o l u n t a r i l y , by a p plication. An I n d i a n woman who m a r r i e s a n o n — I n d i a n husband t h u s l o s e s her I n d i a n s t a t u s as do i n most cases any m i n o r c h i l d r e n she may a l r e a d y h a v e , and a l l c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e marriage. "A n o n - I n d i a n woman who m a r r i e s an I n d i a n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , assumes I n d i a n s t a t u s , and the c h i l d r e n of the m a r r i a g e a r e regarded as I n d i a n . "The second d e f i n i t i o n r e f e r s t o ' I n d i a n s by r a c i a l o r i g i n ' , and i s used by t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s and the D i v i s i o n of Vital Statistics. I t i n c l u d e s a l l r e s i d e n t s whose r a c i a l o r i g i n , traced through the f a t h e r , i s I n d i a n . These a r e n o t a l l r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s , nor do t h e y a l l l i v e on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . " C D u f f , 1 9 6 4 : 4 6 - 4 7 . ) The I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s encompassed n o t o n l y these o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of b u t a l s o a t h i r d , common one, i . e . ,  those p e o p l e of I n d i a n o r i g i n ,  race,  traced  t h r o u g h e i t h e r t h e f a t h e r or t h e m o t h e r , i r r e s p e c t i v e of l e g a l s t a t u s , who a r e regarded by Canadian s o c i e t y as I n d i a n .  A l l t h e l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s were r e f e r r e d t o t h e Home by t h e I n d i a n Branch, t h e C i t y W e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s , on a s s i s t a n c e o f some k i n d .  Affairs  or the F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r , and a l l were  They a l l came f r o m r u r a l a r e a s , and most had  been t r a n s i e n t f o r p e r i o d s of up to a t l e a s t two y e a r s b e f o r e coming t o i n Vancouver.  settle  Average age range was from 15 t o 20 y e a r s ; e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k -  grounds v a r i e d f r o m f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e Most ( i f n o t a l l )  to h i g h school m a t r i c u l a t i o n .  had had some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c o u r t s and many had used  e i t h e r drugs or a l c o h o l or b o t h c o n s i s t e n t l y a t some p e r i o d of t i m e .  They-  75  had a l l a t t a i n e d some s k i l l  i n basic s u r v i v a l but l i t t l e  i n the m a n i p u l a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r  their  benefit.  The women who u t i l i z e d the temporary f a c i l i t i e s average age was h i g h e r , t e r , and t h e i r  considerably.  Their  t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e c o u r t s and j a i l s much g r e a -  tendency to remain t r a n s i e n t much more pronounced.  f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , no c o n t i n u i n g economic s u p p o r t . more than one week, f r e q u e n t l y o n l y one n i g h t . o p e r a t i o n o f the Home w i t h two e x c e p t i o n s . l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s found t h e t r a n s i e n t s ' o f the l i f e - s t y l e  They r a r e l y  They h a d , stayed  They were p e r i p h e r a l t o  The f i r s t was t h a t some o f  the  presence d i s r u p t i v e , b o t h because to  The second e x c e p t i o n , c o n t a i n e d to some degree  was t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n b o t h t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e  represented  by t h e a t t e m p t t o g r a f t a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n onto a c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g tion.  the  they r e p r e s e n t e d , and because they c o n t r i b u t e d n o t h i n g  the Home or i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . i n the f i r s t ,  sophistication  T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n c o n t i n u e d to o p e r a t e w i t h i n t h e Home u n t i l  situathe  p r a c t i c e o f e n c o u r a g i n g t r a n s i e n t s ceased w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t h e house mother from t h e Home.  The debate around the h o s t e l concept c o n t i n u e d , how-  e v e r , u n t i l the p r o j e c t was c l o s e d down.  ( I t was i n f a c t "won" by t h e h o s t e l  f a c t i o n i n t h a t t h e Student C o u n c i l v o t e d t o g i v e t h e monies r e m a i n i n g f r o m the p r o j e c t  to a hostel  operation.)  The house m o t h e r , as s t a t e d above, had had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h o s t e l accommodation. situations before.  administering  She had n o t , however, encountered c o - o p e r a t i v e  living  T h i s l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e , coupled w i t h t h e apparent assump-  t i o n by the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t o r s t h a t no e x p l i c i t e d u c a t i o n on t h e concept was necessary e i t h e r f o r s t a f f or r e s i d e n t s , had i m p o r t a n t  ramifications  76  later  I n t h e development o f the home.  The house m o t h e r , r a t h e r t h a n p r o m o t i n g t h e development o f the c o - o p e r a t i v e function,  emphasized a more t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e w h i c h  encouraged the development o f c l o s e o n e - t o - o n e dependency r e l a t i o n s between t h e house mother and each r e s i d e n t . Mom.  She's a w o n d e r f u l woman.  "Mrs.  wants us t o c a l l her  She r e a l l y w o r r i e s over us  It's  like  9 coming back t o one b i g happy f a m i l y . "  T h i s s t r u c t u r e was a l s o  i n the way the housekeeping t a s k s were a s s i g n e d ; t u r n s f o r t h e c o o k i n g and c l e a n i n g .  expressed  "There are . . . no a p p o i n t e d  The g i r l s a r e reminded by M r s .  t h a t these a r e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . "  I n o t h e r areas n o t d i r e c t l y  concerned  w i t h the p h y s i c a l maintenance o f t h e home, examples c o u l d a l s o be f o u n d . "They are t o l d to be i n by 11 a t n i g h t because when t h e y s t a r t s t u d y i n g w i l l need t o g e t up f o r c l a s s e s . "  they  The house mother a l s o handled t h e r e s i d e n t s '  a s s i s t a n c e cheques, s e p a r a t i n g o u t r e n t and f o o d a l l o w a n c e s t o be d e p o s i t e d and a d m i n i s t e r i n g d a i l y t h e i r t r a n s i t a l l o w a n c e on t h e b a s i s t h a t i f  she  a l l o w e d them t o have i t m o n t h l y i n a lump sum t h e y would " g i v e i t  their  friends".^  to  Therefore, the decisions concerning the d a i l y operations of  t h e home and t h e group b e h a v i o u r of t h e r e s i d e n t s r e s t e d s o l e l y w i t h t h e house mother. When the house mother r e s i g n e d i n October of 1966, she was r e p l a c e d by a young I n d i a n woman who had been a c t i v e n a t i o n a l l y i n b o t h s t u d e n t and t h e Canadian I n d i a n Youth C o u n c i l . tical  to t h a t of her p r e d e c e s s o r .  groups  Her concept o f her r o l e was a n t i t h e -  She saw h e r s e l f as an " o l d e r s i s t e r "  r e f u s e d t o be e i t h e r an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e or d i s c i p l i n a r i a n .  but  The r e s i d e n t s  77  f o r the f i r s t  t i m e began t o make c o l l e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s about t h e home and  their activities.  Some found the new regime d i f f i c u l t  to a d j u s t t o  for  a t i m e as t h e y had come t o r e l y h e a v i l y on t h e house mother as a s u r r o g a t e m o t h e r , b u t a l l . a d a p t e d more r e a d i l y t h a n m i g h t be e x p e c t e d .  The o f f i c i a l  name of t h e home was changed f r o m " G i r l s " t o "Women" and f o r t h e f i r s t  time,  the r e s i d e n t s were i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e m e e t i n g s of Management Committee.  .  the  (Meetings had always been h e l d i n t h e home b u t r e -  s i d e n t s had been a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m a t t e n d i n g by t h e h o u s e m o t h e r , p a s s i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e d by t h e Board i t s e l f . )  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e l e c t e d by t h e  r e s i d e n t s was i n f a c t sent t o t h e Board m e e t i n g s t o speak on t h e i r By the l a t e f a l l  behalf.  t h e r e s i d e n t s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e lawyer a p p o i n t e d  t h e A d v i s o r y B o a r d , had w r i t t e n t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n i n  to  pre-  p a r a t i o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g as t h e " I n d i a n Y o u t h C o - o p e r a t i v e House" under t h e B.C. S o c i e t i e s A c t .  A p a r t from t h i s l e g a l a d v i c e t h e A d v i s o r y Board,  as c o n s t i t u t e d , was n o t c a l l e d upon by t h e r e s i d e n t s .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e s i d e n t s t o s t u d e n t s was very- tenuous w h i l e t h e house mother was employed.  The female s t u d e n t member of t h e p l a n n i n g  committee,  r e f e r r e d t o i n S e c t i o n 1, l i v e d i n t h e home a t a reduced r e n t f o r about 2 t o 3 months, t h e o r e t i c a l l y  to p r o v i d e b o t h a s s i s t a n c e i n s u p e r v i s i o n and a l i n k  between s t u d e n t s and r e s i d e n t s .  As a member of the Management Committee she  was a b l e t o express the views of t h e r e s i d e n t s t o t h e Board b u t o n l y i n an unorganized f a s h i o n f o r two r e a s o n s ; f i r s t ,  because t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l  struc-  t u r e of t h e home m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t any c l e a r e x p r e s s i o n of views on t h e p a r t of t h e r e s i d e n t s and s e c o n d l y , because t h e house mother d i d a l l she c o u l d a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n the home.''''''  to  For t h i s reason t h e  78  s t u d e n t members of t b e Board by- and l a r g e encountered t h e r e s i d e n t s b e f o r e and a f t e r Board m e e t i n g s .  only  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f ^ i n v o l v i n g o t h e r  i n some a s p e c t of t h e home was n o n - e x i s t e n t .  students  W i t h t h e change i n p e r s o n n e l  and p h i l o s o p h y came a change i n t h e atmosphere r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t s . were a c t i v e l y encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l areas of a c t i v i t y ,  Students they for-r-  med f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n f r e q u e n t - v i s i t i n g , arranged f r e e t i c k e t s t o events on t h e campus, and formed committees  to  c o - o r d i n a t e t u t o r i n g , menu p r e p a r a t i o n ( s p e c i f i c a l l y 3 s t u d e n t s i n t h e F a c u l t y o f Home Economics) and house r e p a i r s .  A CUS sponsored c o n f e r e n c e on I n -  dian a f f a i r s which brought together n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Ontario west, had t h e i r meals a t t h e home and gave a d i s p l a y of Mohawk dancing t h e r e as well.  The r e l a t i o n s , however, between t h e r e s i d e n t s and the o f f i c i a l  s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e AMS, were n o n - e x i s t e n t .  repre^  One member o f  AMS e x e c u t i v e v i s i t e d t h e home on many o c c a s i o n s b u t n o t i n any  the  official  capacity.  The Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r ,  i n v i t e d to be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e  Management B o a r d , f i g u r e d l a r g e l y w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s a g a i n o n l y a f t e r change i n p e r s o n n e l .  the  The r e s i d e n t s f r e q u e n t e d the C e n t e r , l o c a t e d near  home, f o r t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and f o r companionship o t h e r n a t i v e young p e o p l e .  That t h i s tendency grew a f t e r  the  with  t h e d e p a r t u r e of  the house mother was due l e s s t o any p o s s i b l e discouragement she m i g h t p o s s i b l y have advanced t h a n t o t h e a c t i v e encouragement t h e " o l d e r gave to t h e r e s i d e n t s t o meet w i t h and b e f r i e n d o t h e r young p e o p l e , and m a l e .  sister" female  I t was t h r o u g h t b e c o n t a c t s made a t t h e Center t h a t a young  I n d i a n man, a t t e n d i n g c h e f ' s s c h o o l , was h i r e d to cook f o r t h e home once a  79  week.  On t h e T h a n k s g i v i n g weekend, the r e s i d e n t s of the home planned and  prepared ( w i t h t h e h e l p of some s t u d e n t f r i e n d s )  a huge t u r k e y d i n n e r  f r i e n d s from the Center w h i c h ended w i t h a v i s i t  to the Center.  an u n o f f i c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n .  Officially,  for  T h i s was  the Center r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  dealt  e i t h e r w i t h t h e house mother or t h e Board and concerned themselves w i t h s t r u c u t r e and f i n a n c e s r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s .  A t t e m p t s were made by many o f t h e s e r v i c e and s o c i a l c l u b s , who had been approached by t h e house mother f o r d o n a t i o n s , t o have t o u r s and t e a s s e t up a t t h e home i n o r d e r t h a t they c o u l d see i t  first  hand.  A l l such a t t e m p t s  were p r o m p t l y quashed by t h e Management Board as p a r t o f t h e i r  philosophy  t h a t the home was t o be k e p t as a p r i v a t e r e s i d e n c e and hence a l l  donations,  i n q u i r i e s , and o f f e r s o f a i d were c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h t h e CUS o f f i c e a t UBC. Thus, the o n l y c o n t a c t t h e r e s i d e n t s had w i t h these groups was t h r o u g h r e c e i p t o f d o n a t i o n s of m a t e r i a l goods.  The d e c i s i o n n o t to p u b l i c i z e the exact l o c a t i o n o f t h e home was t a k e n t o d i s c o u r a g e the c u r i o u s and p r e s e r v e the emphasis on home r a t h e r t h a n h o s t e l , and more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  t o p r o t e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e p r o j e c t f r o m p o t e n t :  12 acts of racism.  The wisdom o f t h i s d e c i s i o n can perhaps be b e s t  t e d by events w h i c h d i d occur o f t h i s n a t u r e . incident.  One example i s t h e  An o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d t h e K i a - O r a S e r v i c e Club w r o t e  illustrafollowing  directly  t o the house mother i n r e p l y t o a t a l k she had g i v e n on the p r o j e c t . letter  the s e c r e t a r y reminded the house mother o f t h e C l u b ' s o f f e r  In  the  of  c l o t h i n g and i n c l u d e d two names and phone numbers to c o n t a c t i n t h i s r e g a r d . The house mother f o l l o w e d up t h i s o f f e r .  A f r i e n d o f t h e p r o j e c t p i c k e d up  80  two l a r g e brown paper bags of c l o t h i n g and dropped them a t t h e home w i t h o u t examining t h e c o n t e n t s .  When t h e r e s i d e n t s unpacked t h e two bags t h e y  found c l o t h i n g w h i c h was s o i l e d and i n poor r e p a i r , a p a i r of w h i t e  nurse's  13 shoes w i t h l a r g e c r a c k s i n t h e vamps, and a used douche b a g .  It  i s i m p o s s i b l e to assess t h e m o t i v a t i o n s of the m a j o r i t y of donors as t h e y  were n o t encouraged t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t .  One r a t h e r  t i n g example however does g i v e r i s e t o some q u e s t i o n s .  On August 20, 1966  a gentlemen sent a d o n a t i o n of $10 t o t h e p r o j e c t w i t h , a l e t t e r  interes-  setting  out  h i s reasons f o r t h e " g e s t u r e " . " . . . my h e a r t was s m i t t e n s o r e l y by the sad s t o r y i n t h e P r o v i n c e on J u l y 23,1965 r e g a r d i n g V i o l e t Jones a poor I n d i a n g i r l who 'had no one t o t u r n t o ' - so someone s t r a n g l e d her t o d e a t h w i t h a s t o c k i n g and t h r e w her i n t o a d i t c h . " a f t e r w a r d s , someone s a i d ' s h e ' s j u s t a w a i f . ' " I f t h e G r e e k ' s ' p i t y and t e r r o r ' mean a n y t h i n g , t h i s i s a theme and s t o r y w o r t h y of the pen of Sophocles. The t r a g e d y o f t h i s c h i l d o u t i n t o my h e a r t . " On September 1 5 t h , 1966, t h e f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r was sent by t h e same g e n t l e m a n : " F o l l o w i n g the s t o r y i n t h e P r o v i n c e i n August r e g a r d i n g t h e l a c k of funds f o r your h o s t e l , w h i c h t h e a r t i c l e s a i d was faced w i t h c l o s u r e due to l a c k of adequate f u n d s , I s e n t you a d o n a t i o n check ( s i c ) f o r $ 1 0 . 0 0 . " T h i s was on August 2 0 t h , and I have heard n o t h i n g f r o m y o u ; so should l i k e t o know i f you r e c e i v e d my d o n a t i o n a t a l l : f o r income t a x p u r p o s e s . " On September 3 0 t h a l e t t e r f r o m t h e B e t t e r Business Bureau was sent t o  the  p r o j e c t e n c l o s i n g a "Consumer E x p e r i e n c e Form" dated September 2 0 t h and completed by the same gentleman.  A r e p l y was f o r w a r d e d t o the Bureau e n c l o -  s i n g a r e c e i p t w h i c h c o u l d n o t be used f o r income t a x d e d u c t i o n s as t h e p r o j e  81  d i d n o t have such s t a t u s .  14  82  Section 3  The Board and t h e S t a f f  of the Home  The Board and t h e two s t a f f p e o p l e were b r i e f l y mentioned i n t h e section.  last  I n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, I engage i n a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of  i n t e r n a l w o r k i n g s of the Board. d i s c u s s i o n of t h e two s t a f f  The b u l k of the s e c t i o n i s composed o f a  people and some a n a l y s i s of t h e i r  personal  h i s t o r i e s by way of e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r v e r y d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s t o a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r .  the  This discussion necessarily includes  racist  reference  t o t h e d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t each had i n her r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Board and w i t h the r e s i d e n t s .  83  The s t r u c t u r e of the p r o j e c t as i t was o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 1 of Chapter Two,  o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d was  briefly  t h a t i s , an A d v i s o r y Board with, a  p u r e l y p a s s i v e r o l e and a Management Board to a c t i v e l y o v e r s e e the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s of the p r o j e c t .  The opening of the Home i n m i d - A p r i l of 1966  c o i n c i d e d with, the end of the  u n i v e r s i t y term and the b e g i n n i n g of the summer h o l i d a y season.  I t was  d e c i d e d to i n f o r m a l l y r e s t r u c t u r e the Boards d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and members of both boards who together. five.  those  were i n t e r e s t e d and a v a i l a b l e began meeting  T h i s expanded the a c t i v e board to e i g h t members from the o r i g i n a l  (No member was  ever a p p o i n t e d to the Management Board by the Van-  couver I n d i a n C e n t e r . )  T h i s s i n g l e Board was  composed of the s o c i a l  worker  from the Management Board, the lawyer and p s y c h i a t r i s t from the A d v i s o r y Board, the s t u d e n t i n r e s i d e n c e a t the Home, two o t h e r s t u d e n t s who been on the p l a n n i n g committee, of the CUS  had  and the in-coming"''and o u t - g o i n g c h a i r p e r s o n s  Committee, the l a t t e r a c t i n g as C h a i r p e r s o n o f the Board.  The  house mother a t t e n d e d meetings but d i d not have a f o r m a l v o t e .  By August  the r a t i o of s t u d e n t s to non-students had changed  from 3;5  to  5:4.  The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and the home economist from the A d v i s o r y Board began to a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y and a l l but the s t u d e n t i n r e s i d e n c e and the in-coming c h a i r p e r s o n had r e s i g n e d from the Board because Vancouver. from the CUS  Two  These  of commitments o u t s i d e  t h r e e were r e p l a c e d by o n l y two new  student appointees  Committee.  f a c t o r s which c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n both, i n the s h o r t  and i n the l o n g term were the m a j o r i t y of " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " to s t u d e n t s and  84  the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n persons who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c r e a t i n g o f the p r o j e c t ' s p h i l o s o p h y and p r i n c i p l e s .  None o f the -members had had  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e s and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h i s new board had n o t been p r i v y even to d i s c u s s i o n s on why t h i s f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n had been chosen.  F u r t h e r m o r e , none of the f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s had been i n v o l v e d w i t h  the work o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e Home a n d , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e i r  interest  i n and involvement w i t h I n d i a n peoples had been, a t m o s t , t a n g e n t i a l  to  t h e i r work and l e i s u r e .  These d e f i c i e n c i e s m i g h t have been overcome i n p a r t i f fit  the Board had seen  t o spend t i m e r e c o u n t i n g the e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the n a t u r e o f  t h e p r o j e c t and the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r a t i c u l a r m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t t h i s course o f a c t i o n . the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t o r s  First  structure.  Two t h i n g s  t h e presence of f o u r  C a l l b u t one of whom l e f t  of  i n August) w h i c h l e n t a  f a l s e sense o f u n i t y t o the Board as a w h o l e ; and second, t h e p r e s s i n g need t o f i n d f u n d i n g sources and reach o t h e r immediate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Many o f t h e d e c i s i o n s and t h e r a t i o n a l e s f o r ad hoc.  decisions.  them, c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as  The house m o t h e r , more f a m i l i a r w i t h v o l u n t e e r b o a r d s , was f r e -  q u e n t l y a b l e t o ensure d e c i s i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o her own p h i l o s o p h y and t o circumvent  It  those w i t h w h i c h she was not i n agreement.  i s at t h i s time u s e f u l t o b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e house mother h e r s e l f .  As  s t a t e d above, she was a Cree f r o m A l b e r t a who had been r a i s e d on a r e s e r v e and educated a t c h u r c h - o p e r a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s . b i t t e r l y o f t h i s p e r i o d of her l i f e ,  She o f t e n spoke  c h a r a c t e r i z i n g her e d u c a t i o n as one  where she was t a u g h t t o p r a y b u t l i t t l e  else.  16  She seemed, d u r i n g  this  85  p e r i o d , t o have i n t e r n a l i z e d much of the dominant c u l t u r e ' s s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e I n d i a n as savage, i g n o r a n t , d i r t y , and d r u n k e n , and i t s  corollary,  t h a t the I n d i a n ' s s a l v a t i o n would come t h r o u g h a process of  "whitening"  or becoming t h e a p o t h e o s i s of the w h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s . vities  t o d e s t r o y i n g the f i r s t  She devoted her  s t e r e o t y p e by a d o p t i n g t h e s e c o n d . ^  acti-  She was  thus caught i n the c o n t r a d i c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of those who would a t t e m p t assimilate.  On the one hand she was proud o f b e i n g I n d i a n b u t  to  violently  d i s l i k e d any a c t i v i t y by I n d i a n s w h i c h , t o h e r , l e n t credence t o the  racial  18 stereotype.  On the o t h e r hand a t t e m p t s t o emulate w h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s b e -  h a v i o u r c o u l d o n l y r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e because of the s t r u c t u r a l of a c h i e v i n g t h i s s t a t u s .  impossibility  A process which f r e q u e n t l y and u n d e r s t a n d a b l y  r e s u l t s i n a h a t r e d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the dominant  society.  The c o n f l i c t between condemning the s t e r e o t y p e and y e t a c c e p t i n g i t s  speci-  f i c s and h a t i n g t h e p e r p e t r a t o r s of the s t e r e o t y p e and y e t d e s i r i n g t o b e come l i k e them i s one common t o v i c t i m s o f r a c i s m .  Fanon i s perhaps the  most w i d e l y known e x p l i c a t o r o f t h i s process w h i c h a r i s e s most  frequently  i n those s i t u a t i o n s when the s t r a t e g y of the r a c i s t i s e x p r e s s l y tionist.  The a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n suggests t h a t t h e dominant  assimilasociety  i s ready t o accept the oppressed as equals b u t the oppressed themselves the m o t i v a t i o n t o improve themselves and a l t e r  their conditions.  Any r a c i s m  i s t h e r e f o r e t h e f a u l t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the oppressed and n o t of oppressers.  T h i s p o s i t i o n , when accepted by a member o f the oppressed  t u r e , leads t o contempt i f  lack  the cul-  n o t h a t r e d of those of the oppressed who are n o t  t r y i n g t o conform t o the o p p r e s s e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of what i s t o be v a l u e d . T h e i r n o n - c o - o p e r a t i o n i s seen as an a t t a c k on the a c t i o n s of those  attempting  86  t o conform t o the s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d s t a n d a r d s of the dominant s o c i e t y .  It  a l s o p r o v i d e s t h e oppressor w i t h a r a t i o n a l e f o r n o t i g r a n t i n g acceptance t o those who a r e a t t e m p t i n g e n t r a n c e .  However, the r e f u s a l o f the dominant  s o c i e t y t o g r a n t a h i g h e r s t a t u s t o t h e oppressed who has a t t e m p t e d t o conform b r i n g s w i t h i t  a h a t r e d f o r the oppresser as w e l l .  I n t h e Home her a t t i t u d e s were p u r i t a n i c a l , f o r b i d d i n g t h e use or p o s s e s s i o n o f a l c o h o l , r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w young men t o v i s i t because " t h e y o n l y want 19 one t h i n g " ,  and showing an o v e r - r i d i n g concern f o r c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r .  I n her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Board she d i s t i n g u i s h e d s h a r p l y between those she p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g l i t t l e power and those h a v i n g much power.  This  distinc-  t i o n c o u l d , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , be expressed as a d i v i s i o n between s t u d e n t and " p r o f e s s i o n a l " members.  Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h most o f t h e s t u d e n t members  were m i n i m a l and she f r e q u e n t l y i n d i c a t e d her d i s p l e a s u r e a t t h e i r  involve-  ment i n the p r o j e c t u n l e s s i t was p e r i p h e r a l t o the a c t i v i t i e s of the Home 20 itself.  Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the n o n - s t u d e n t members were much more c o r -  d i a l a l t h o u g h a g a i n her c o r d i a l i t y seemed t o i n c r e a s e w i t h t h e degree o f power she p e r c e i v e d the r e c i p i e n t  t o possess.  "The d u t i e s of the house mother may be d e f i n e d as h e l p i n g the g i r l s a d j u s t t o t h e i r home and environment as w e l l as c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e d u t i e s of the g i r l s . The house mother w i l l a s s i s t i n : 1. budgeting 2. p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n of meals 3. home management 4 . guidance The house mother w i l l a l s o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r e s e n t i n g a m o n t h l y r e p o r t t o the Management Board; m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s , p o l i c e c o u r t s , employment and v o c a t i o n a l - t r a i n i n g agencies, volunteer groups, e t c . " 2 1 Before engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s n o t s p e c i f i e d i n the j o b d e s c r i p t i o n the house mother was t o seek the a p p r o v a l of the Board.  In f a c t ,  t h e house m o t h e r ,  87  r e f e r r i n g t o h e r s e l f as " e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r " a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d funds f r o m small volunteer organizations  ( o b t a i n i n g the r e l u c t a n t acquiesance of  the  Board a f t e r t h e f a c t ) and sought out speaking engagements and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the media i n which she r e p r e s e n t e d h e r s e l f as " f o u n d e r o f a h o s t e l f o r I n d i a n women" which was "backed by the Alma Mater S o c i e t y of UBC and the Canadian Union o f  Students."  22  The Board had a p p o i n t e d two of i t s members t o engage i n f u n d r a i s i n g  with  the express i n t e n t i o n of moving away f r o m p e r s o n a l appeals t o s m a l l groups which n e t t e d o n l y $10 and $20 sums.  They were a l s o concerned t h a t the Home  n o t r e c e i v e t h e t y p e of p u b l i c i t y sought by the house mother w h i c h was based on appeals f o r c h a r i t y .  That t h e house mother chose t o i g n o r e  r u l i n g i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of her own ambivalence c o n c e r n i n g  this  Indian—non-  I n d i a n r e l a t i o n s as she had been q u i t e v o c i f e r o u s about the demeaning n a t u r e of c h a r i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t had been e x p e r i e n c e d by n a t i v e p e o p l e .  She i n t e r p r e t e d the s e c t i o n concerned w i t h l i a s o n w i t h o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s involve direct  s o c i a l work i n t h e c o u r t s and on the s t r e e t s .  She t h e r e f o r e  endeavoured t o c o n t i n u e her p r e v i o u s f r e e - l a n c e s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s w i t h those d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the Home. the p r o j e c t  to  along  Her a t t e m p t to g a i n c o n t r o l o f  t o g e t h e r w i t h t h i s s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y and the  authoritarian  23 method of r u n n i n g the Home " a p p o i n t e d " as a s s i s t a n t ,  meant she was f r a n t i c a l l y busy. a n o t h e r Cree woman.  Board (and would have met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n i f of most of her " d u t i e s " )  She t h e r e f o r e  Since she d i d n o t c o n s u l t  the  she had because of t h e n a t u r e  she and her a s s i s t a n t shared t h e s m a l l s a l a r y .  a s s i s t a n t l a s t e d o n l y f r o m June t o September a t which t i m e she  left.  The  88  The house m o t h e r ' s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e CUS Committee ( a p a r t f r o m those members of the Committee a l s o s i t t i n g on t h e Board) were a l m o s t n o n - e x i s tent.  I t became apparent t h a t she had viewed the Committee as a way o f  o b t a i n i n g a h o s t e l and saw t h e s t u d e n t s as s i m p l y p r o v i d i n g t h e funds and m a t e r i a l t o t h a t end.  She viewed any a t t e m p t by the Committee or t h e Board  t o r e f o c u s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the p r o j e c t as r a n k i n t e r f e r e n c e and t h e r e f o r e attempted t o m i n i m i z e the s t u d e n t s '  r o l e at a l l  times.  The s t u d e n t members of the Board r e a c t e d t o her h o s t i l i t y by r e t r e a t i n g as much as p o s s i b l e from any d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h h e r .  R e c o g n i z i n g her  g r e a t e r r e c e p t i v i t y t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l s on t h e Board I d e c l i n e d t h e  Chair-  p e r s o n s h i p of the Board and recommended t h e l a w y e r as the new C h a i r p e r s o n t o r e p l a c e t h e o u t - g o i n g CUS C h a i r p e r s o n . Home except f o r Board m e e t i n g s .  No Board members v i s i t e d  the  The p r o f e s s i o n a l s seemed t o o busy and the  s t u d e n t s f e l t unwelcome and t h e r e f o r e u n w i l l i n g t o t h r u s t themselves i n t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which t h e y were n o t wanted.  Some of us f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e  about  the f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h meetings were h e l d i n the Home the r e s i d e n t s were excluded f r o m d i s c u s s i o n s  (and a l s o f r o m w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n as i t  f e r r e d w i t h the d e l i b e r a t i o n s . )  inter-  None of us w e r e , however, p r e p a r e d t o  v o i c e t h i s d i s c o m f o r t t o the house m o t h e r .  The house m o t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the AMS c e n t e r e d around one i n d i v i d u a l the T r e a s u r e r .  only,  A s t u d e n t i n h i s l a s t year of law s c h o o l , he had r e t a i n e d  c o n t r o l of the f i n a n c e s of the p r o j e c t over t h e summer months.  He was com-  p l e t e l y i g n o r a n t of t h e aims of t h e p r o j e c t and o f s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t s general.  in  His l a c k o f p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d , and an absence of any  p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h I n d i a n people r e s u l t e d i n h i s u n i n f o r m e d a p p r o v a l o f  89  t h e house mother and her wishes because "she was I n d i a n h e r s e l f and e x p e r i 24 enced"  The house mother was q u i c k t o p e r c e i v e t h i s and chose t o  consult  him more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n she d i d the Board. By the September Board m e e t i n g t h e work l o a d t h e house mother had s e t  her-  s e l f had become u n t e n a b l e ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as she was i n l e s s t h a n p e r f e c t h e a l t h ) and she i n d i c a t e d she wished a t l e a s t one m o n t h ' s  leave of absence.  The q u e s t i o n of s t a f f i n g was t h e r e f o r e r a i s e d and she arranged an i n t e r v i e w w i t h an I n d i a n c o u p l e .  She t o l d t h e t h r e e Board members a t the  interview  t h a t the I n d i a n couple would have t o be h i r e d on a permanent b a s i s as t h e woman would have t o l e a v e her p r e s e n t j o b .  When pressed f o r  clarification  of her own s t a t u s i n t h e l i g h t of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e house mother r e p l i e d t h a t "perhaps someone e l s e c o u l d do a b e t t e r j o b " and t h a t she d i d n ' t  25 care who t h e y g o t t o r e p l a c e her b u t she had t o l e a v e . "  Although the cou-  p l e , when i n t e r v i e w e d , proved u n s u i t a b l e t o b o t h t h e Board and t h e house m o t h e r , she d i d indeed l e a v e by t h e end of the month. ' Before she l e f t  t h e house mother a l s o t o l d t h e Board she had p r e v i o u s l y  discussed a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r ' s Board and t h a t t h e y were w i l l i n g t o assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g and f i n a n c i n g t h e p r o j e c t .  both  One s t u d e n t and t h r e e o f  n o n - s t u d e n t members of t h e Board were mandated to meet w i t h  the  representatives  26 of t h e C e n t e r ' s Board t o d i s c u s s t h i s i s s u e .  The r e s u l t s of t h e m e e t i n g  were t h a t t h e I n d i a n Center was i n t e r e s t e d i n a f f i l i a t i n g w i t h t h e p r o j e c t b u t were i n no p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e e i t h e r  f i n a n c i a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  aid.  They would i n f a c t r e q u i r e c o n t i n u a t i o n of b o t h t h e f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h were p r e s e n t l y  operating.  90  The house m o t h e r ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h n o n - I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been b r i e f l y r e f e r r e d t o above.  She had sought them out i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n d o n a t i o n s  o f money and m a t e r i a l f o r the Home. Because of her contempt f o r t h e  structu-  r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . p l a c e d on these c o n t a c t s by the Board, she c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h many of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  L a t e r she would f a l l  on these c o n t a c t s t o muster s u p p o r t f o r her o p p o s i t i o n t o s t a f f  back  and a d m i n i s -  t r a t i v e changes.  A t t h e end of September when t h e house mother l e f t no replacement had been found.  I n t h e two weeks between her n o t i c e of l e a v i n g and her  a t t e m p t s had been made t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e c a n d i d a t e .  departure  I n my d u a l  capacity  as Board member and CUS C h a i r p e r s o n , I had c o n t a c t e d the C h a i r p e r s o n o f  the  A d v i s o r y Board of the Company o f Young Canadians t o r e q u e s t h e l p i n  finding  replacement s t a f f .  failed  t o f i n d anyone.  He agreed t o l o o k f o r p o s s i b l e replacements b u t  W i t h t h e a c t u a l d e p a r t u r e of the house mother t h e need t o  f i n d a replacement became a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l .  Because of the dependency  r e l a t i o n s the house mother had c r e a t e d the Home c o u l d n o t be l e f t s u p e r v i s i o n and g u i d a n c e . first  without  As w e l l I c o n t a c t e d the woman who had been the  n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t e S e c r e t a r y f o r I n d i a n s A f f a i r s f o r CUS and a f o u n d -  i n g member o f t h e Canadian I n d i a n Youth C o u n c i l .  She had come t o Vancouver  w i t h her i n f a n t son t o resume her u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s .  After a lengthy  dis-  c u s s i o n w i t h her I was a b l e to persuade her to move i n t o the Home and assume responsibility for i t s  functioning.  Her acceptance o f the p o s i t i o n was c o n d i t i o n a l .  She agreed t o t a k e on t h e  t a s k s o u t l i n e d i n the j o b d e s c r i p t i o n drawn up by the p r o j e c t ' s p l a n n e r s b u t  91  r e f u s e d t h e t i t l e and the model o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the house mother had e s tablished.  She wanted t o s t a b i l i z e t h e r e s i d e n c e as a r e l a t i v e l y  long-term  c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e r e q u e s t e d the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of the h o s t e l aspect of the o p e r a t i o n .  As w e l l , she accepted o n l y the f r e e room and b o a r d , d e c l i n -  i n g the s a l a r y , and i m m e d i a t e l y s e t about t o i n c r e a s e the r e s i d e n t ' s ment i n t h e d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the  involve-  project.  I n many ways the s t a f f person was t h e a n t i t h e s i s of the house m o t h e r .  Her  a n a l y s i s of racism i n d i c a t e d the f u t i l i t y  in  the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n .  and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s i n h e r e n t  She was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t  i n the new  wave o f young n a t i v e people c o n s c i o u s l y d e v e l o p i n g a p r i d e i n t h e i r  culture  and t h e l e a d e r s h i p c a p a b i l i t i e s necessary to develop t h i s consciousness others.  They r e f u s e d t o conform t o e i t h e r  the s t e r e o t y p e o f the n a t i v e or  t h e s t e r e o t y p e p r e s e n t e d t o them as the i d e a l to which t h e y should f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the dominant s o c i e t y .  in  strive  I n her own words t a k e n f r o m the  r e p o r t she p r e p a r e d on t h e Canadian I n d i a n Youth Symposium h e l d i n F e b r u a r y , 1967 a t U.B.C. and j o i n t l y  sponsored by the CIYC and the UBC-CUS Committee:  " I n t e g r a t i o n t a l k s as such s i d e - s t e p the i s s u e of unequal o p p o r t u n i t y i n Canadian S o c i e t y , as i t assumes t h e r e i s e q u a l i t y i f o n l y an i n d i v i d u a l works hard enough. The s t r e e t w i t h t h i s k i n d o f d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n i s a dead end f o r most I n d i a n s . A few 'make i t ' , and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t u r n a g a i n s t t h e i r 'humble b e g i n n i n g s ' , i n a f e r o c i o u s a t t a c k on o t h e r I n d i a n s who have not t r i e d as hard as t h e y have. I s i t r e a l l y a case o f t h r i f t and i n d u s t r y or i s i t a m a t t e r of luck? Do these few i n d i v i d u a l s r e a l i z e t h a t t h e y are the s y s t e m ' s 'chosen f e w ' , and t h a t t h e i r example o f b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l I n d i a n s p e r p e t u a t e s the f a l l a c y of t h i s k i n d of i n t e g r a t i o n . " The s t a f f  p e r s o n s ' p o l i t i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e had been i n n o n -  h i e r a r c h i c a l groups w h i c h s t r e s s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the development of l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l among n a t i v e  peoples.  92  As she d i d n o t a c c e p t t h e l e g i t i m a c y of the r a c i a l s t e r e o t y p e s she d i d not f e a r non-acceptance by the dominant s o c i e t y and was more f o r t h r i g h t a c t i o n s and demands than t h e house mother c o u l d a f f o r d t h a t t h e problems encountered  by n a t i v e p e o p l e s  to be.  i n her  She r e c o g n i z e d  i n the urban c e n t e r s c o u l d  not be overcome by t e a c h i n g them t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a c i t i z e n s h i p  they  were n o t a l l o w e d t o assume but o n l y by c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s where n a t i v e people  c o u l d p r o v i d e f o r each o t h e r the support n e c e s s a r y  r a c i s m they were e n c o u n t e r i n g .  to w i t h s t a n d t h e  From h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s t u d e n t o r g a n i z a -  t i o n s she c o u l d r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y  the weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s o f such  organ-  i z a t i o n s and worked q u i e t l y but ^ e f f e c t i v e l y to change the s t r u c t u r e of t h e Home to b e n e f i t from t h e s t r e n g t h s and compensate f o r t h e weaknesses.  Changes soon became apparent. the Board was o u t l i n e d the s t a f f person  The a l t e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p of the r e s i d e n t s t o  i n the previous s e c t i o n .  t o t h e Board  The d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of  became l e s s important  and l e s s c o n f l i c t  as the r e s i d e n t s began t o assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . p e r c e i v e d the weaknesses o f the Board tify  almost  The s t a f f  immediately  ridden  person  and began t o r e c -  the s i t u a t i o n by o r g a n i z i n g s t u d e n t s i n t o committees to work d i r e c t l y  w i t h the r e s i d e n t s .  By November, 1966, these committees had c o a l e s c e d  into  a new, f u n c t i o n i n g Management Board which met weekly to d e a l w i t h the a c t u a l concerns to  o f t h e Home and t h e members of t h e A d v i s o r y Board  their o r i g i n a l function.  had been r e t u r n e d  ( T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change had the a d d i t i o n a l  b e n e f i t of r e d u c i n g c o s t s i n terms of house r e p a i r s and food b i l l s  as s t u -  dent  areas.)  committees had been o r g a n i z e d to work w i t h r e s i d e n t s i n these  Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n was t h a t of b e g i n n i n g  the p r o c e s s of l e g a l i n c o r p o r a t i o n .  Under h e r l e a d e r s h i p the r e s i d e n t s ,  93  w i t h the h e l p o f the lawyer, drew up a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n which had as i t s Aims and O b j e c t i v e s the f o l l o w i n g f i v e p o i n t s :  i  (a) To e s t a b l i s h , m a i n t a i n , and o p e r a t e n o n - p r o f i t houses f o r I n d i a n young p e o p l e . (b) To p r o v i d e needed accommodation and to promote an e n v i r o n ment which a l l o w s the e x p r e s s i o n of independent thought and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t s , and which emphasizes mutual moral s u p p o r t , i n a d j u s t i n g to c i t y l i f e , among I n d i a n youth. (c) To c o - o p e r a t e w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , w e l f a r e and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a g e n c i e s . (d) To p r o v i d e a common forum f o r the exchange of i d e a s between I n d i a n and non-Indian youth. (e) To a c q u i r e by l e a s e , p u r c h a s e , or r e n t , premises t o be used i n accordance w i t h the o b j e c t s of t h i s Society.27 The  s t r u c t u r e i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n terms of the a s p e c t s the r e s i d e n t s  a t e d and those they o m i t t e d .  The f i r s t  incorpor-  Board of D i r e c t o r s was t o be compo-  sed of the s i g n a t o r i e s to the C o n s t i t u t i o n which would, i n e f f e c t ,  consist  of the members o f the e x i s t i n g Board p l u s a t l e a s t some of the r e s i d e n t s . They were t o s e r v e one-year  terms b u t c o u l d be r e - a p p o i n t e d .  New members  were t o be a p p o i n t e d from "members of the C o - o p e r a t i v e C o u n c i l , the e x e c u t i v e members of the Student Resource  Committee and the members of the A d v i s o r y  28 Committee." "The Canadian Union of Students Chairman a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be an ex o f f i c i o member of the Board of D i r e c t o r s and s h a l l a n n u a l l y , immediately p r i o r to the Annual G e n e r a l Meeting of the S o c i e t y i n March p r e s e n t t o the Board of D i r e c t o r s a s l a t e of nominations f o r members of the Student Resource Committee and the A d v i s o r y Committee, and the Board of D i r e c t o r s s h a l l e i t h e r approve the i n d i v i d u a l nominations o r r e q u i r e t h a t the Canadian Union of Students Chairman p r e s e n t an a l t e r n a t i v e n o m i n a t i o n or nominations."29 The Student Resource  Committee, "composed of s t u d e n t s form any a c c r e d i t e d  e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia" were t o communicate the aims and o b j e c t i v e s of the S o c i e t y t o the g e n e r a l community and t h e i r  respective  student b o d i e s , and to p r o v i d e v o l u n t e e r s when r e q u e s t e d by the C o - o p e r a t i v e  94  C o u n c i l to a s s i s t  i n the management of the House ( o r Houses).  o p e r a t i v e C o u n c i l , e l e c t e d by the Board, by the CUS Houses. of  C h a i r p e r s o n , was  The  a g a i n from nominations  presented  to be composed of r e s i d e n t s of the C o - o p e r a t i v e  T h e i r d u t i e s were to m a i n t a i n the Houses i n accordance w i t h the aims  the S o c i e t y , and  "to b r i n g  to the a t t e n t i o n of the Student  Resource  Committee and A d v i s o r y Board any needs f o r which they .require e i t h e r lized  Co-  skills  o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e " and  specia-  to promote the aims of the S o c i e t y  31 among I n d i a n youth. the  These two  groups were to p r e s e n t monthly r e p o r t s to  Board.  The A d v i s o r y Committee, e l e c t e d by the Board, was e i g h t p r o f e s s i o n a l members of the u n i v e r s i t y and t i o n s were to p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d  skills  to c o n s i s t of f i v e t o the community whose f u n c -  or p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e when c a l l e d  upon by e i t h e r the C o - o p e r a t i v e C o u n c i l or Student Resource  Committee,  and  32 to  a c t as l i a s o n w i t h the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  As w e l l as automatic membership  i n the S o c i e t y f o r a l l members of the committees o u t l i n e d above, membership was  t o have a l s o been c o n f e r r e d on o t h e r s , i n payment of a membership f e e ,  who  would then have a v o t e a t Annual  Although  Meetings.  the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n c o n t a i n e d some p r o b l e m a t i c a r e a s which  r e q u i r e d r e s o l u t i o n the r e s i d e n t s and they wished  s t a f f p e r s o n had  to implement i n the p r o j e c t  were a t t e m p t i n g affected  General  indicated clearly  the p h i l o s o p h y which the  that  students  to implement i n the u n i v e r s i t y - c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n s which  their l i v e s .  In o t h e r words they had  developed  a procedure  plementing  the i n t e n t i o n of the p r o j e c t  assumption  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  and  still  f o r im-  "to g a i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e through  " t o o r g a n i z e s i m i l a r v e n t u r e s of an undertermined  the  process"  e x t e n t , " as they were  95  expressed  i n a g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n t o the Koerner  The new s t a f f person's in  i n J u l y of 1966.  r e l a t i o n s w i t h o u t s i d e groups have been a l l u d e d t o  the previous s e c t i o n .  She o r g a n i z e d or promoted a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s  i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s and s t u d e n t groups. z a t i o n s were brought  Foundation  with  Her own l i n k s w i t h I n d i a n o r g a n i -  i n t o the Home and the r e s i d e n t s were encouraged t o  p a r t i c i p a t e i n them.  This i n c l u d e d a nation-wide  h e l d i n Vancouver i n p a r t i n the Home i t s e l f .  c o n f e r e n c e of young  Indians  She was not i n t e r e s t e d i n  c o n t i n u i n g the speaking engagements c u l t i v a t e d by the house mother, n o r were these a t a l l n e c e s s a r y  as the Home was more than a d e q u a t e l y  funded.  The  reasons why she d i d n o t m a i n t a i n a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the s t a f f a t the I n d i a n Center w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n t h e next  section.  The house mother r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver a t the end of October  and,  after  visi-  t i n g t h e Home, c o n t a c t e d t h e lawyer who was a l s o C h a i r p e r s o n of the Board at  t h i s time.  She was v o c i f e r o u s i n h e r d i s a p p r o v a l a t the way i n which t h e  Home was o p e r a t i n g b u t r e i t e r a t e d h e r i n a b i l i t y of was  illness  i n her family.  invited.  An emergency Board  In h e r p r e s e n c e ,  the Board  Home ( i t had f i n a l l y been r a i s e d  t o r e t u r n t o t h e Home because  meeting was h e l d t o which she  r e - d i s c u s s e d the p h i l o s o p h y of t h e  i n thorough  d i s c u s s i o n twice d u r i n g t h a t  month i n . c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the development of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ) and agreed yet  a g a i n t h a t the p h i l o s o p h y expounded i n the o r i g i n a l b r i e f s and advocated  by the new s t a f f p e r s o n was i n f a c t The house mother l e f t or  address  to be the modus o p e r a n d i of the p r o j e c t .  i n anger, r e f u s i n g  where she c o u l d be c o n t a c t e d .  t i o n between the Board  to l e a v e e i t h e r a telephone T h i s was t h e l a s t d i r e c t  and the house mother.  number  communica-  96  Footnotes 1.  My a t t e m p t t o f i n d c o r r o b o r a t i n g d a t a has been u n s u c c e s s f u l . Neither I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch s t a t i s t i c s nor census s t a t i s t i c s extend t o cover those i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot be d e f i n e d as of I n d i a n o r i g i n p a t r i l i n e a l l y nor are r e g i s t e r e d w i t h I . A . B . and y e t c o n s i d e r themselves and a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be I n d i a n . T h i s o m i s s i o n coupled w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n enumeration d e t a i l e d by N a g l e r , (1970:7) make almost i n s u r mountable t h e problems o f d e t e r m i n i n g the r a t e of i n - m i g r a t i o n o f native peoples.  2.  The r e c o r d of t h i s i n t e n t i s found i n M o t i o n #3 of the M i n u t e s o f t h e J o i n t Meeting of the Western R e g i o n a l and L o c a l Committee of CUS, Nov. 4, 1965. "That we accept i n p r i n c i p l e the recommendations of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Committee . . . t o s e t up a c o - o p e r a t i v e home f o r I n d i a n g i r l s . " ( S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l Document # 6 6 - 1 3 5 . )  3.  From "A C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s , A p r o p o s a l o f t h e Canadian Union o f Students f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o - o p e r a t i v e home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " , p u b l i s h e d by the UBC-AMS Committee o f t h e Canadian Union of S t u d e n t s , n . d .  4.  Taken f r o m a b r o c h u r e w r i t t e n a f t e r the " P r o p o s a l " mentioned above w h i c h was e n t i t l e d "A C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " p r i n t e d by t h e UBC-AMS CUS Committee n . d .  5.  From "A C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s , A p r o p o s a l . . . " , p p . 3 - 4 . The woman who was h i r e d as house mother had an a c t i v e p a r t i n d r a f t i n g t h i s job d e s c r i p t i o n .  6.  The amount of s u b s i d y r e q u i r e d per month dropped s u b s t a n t i a l l y as t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t proceeded.  7.  T h i s was the o n l y monetary d o n a t i o n made by the AMS. They d i d c o n t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l l y i n so f a r as AMS o f f i c e s t a f f d i d t h e bookkeeping and r e q u i r e d accountancy f o r the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home (as a p a r t of the CUS Committee) as the c e n t r a l i z e d n a t u r e o f the AMS f i n a n c i a l o p e r a t i o n required t h i s procedure.  8.  The f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s c o n t a i n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e x a c t amount and source o f funds as of A p r i l 15, 1966 have u n f o r t u n a t e l y been d e s t r o y e d by the Alma Mater S o c i e t y . However, as o f June 2 1 , 1966, the r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e s t a t e t h a t $1,790 had been r e c e i v e d . This f i g u r e i n c l u d e s an e s t i m a t e d $1200 i n t h e f o r m of a g i f t f r o m t h e G r a d u a t i n g Class of 1966. Cf. Chapter 3, S e c t i o n 2 f o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n of these monies.  9.  From an i n t e r v i e w w i t h r e s i d e n t s of the Home, Vancouver Sun, June 1 1 , 1966. as are the f o l l o w i n g two q u o t a t i o n s . I n each case emphasis added.  10.  P e r s o n a l communication t o me by the house m o t h e r .  97  11.  The f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between t h e s t u d e n t s and house mother a r e t o be found i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . :  12.  The house was s i t u a t e d i n an area zoned f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . C . f . L e t t e r from B.B. T r e v i n o , B a r r i s t e r - a t - l a w , A p r i l 18, 1966 on exact z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s meant t h a t no b i n d i n g l e a s e agreement c o u l d be signed w i t h the owner and the r e n t a l was on a m o n t h - t o - m o n t h basis. Thus, a t any time p r e s s u r e c o u l d have been b r o u g h t t o bear on t h e owner e i t h e r by the a r e a ' s r e s i d e n t s o b j e c t i n g t o t h e o c c u p a n t s , or by the c i t y f o r v i o l a t i o n of the zoning b y - l a w s . I n the l a t t e r c a s e , however, t h e p r o j e c t ' s l e g a l a d v i s o r s were p r e p a r e d t o argue t h e case i n c o u r t on t h e b a s i s of an " i n t e n t i o n a l " f a m i l y b e i n g t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a consanguine f a m i l y .  13.  I am i n p o s s e s s i o n of t h e l e t t e r and saw t h e a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b e d . No a t t e m p t i s b e i n g made t o s i n g l e o u t t h i s group f r o m o t h e r s as more c o n s c i o u s l y or o v e r t l y r a c i s t . The group was chosen because i t was one of the few w h i c h e s c a p e d ' t h e s u r v e l l a n c e o f t h e o r g a n i z e r s .  14.  From documents i n my p o s s e s s i o n .  15.  T h i s marked my o f f i c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n the p r o j e c t as incumbent person of t h e CUS Committee.  16.  C . f . H . B . Hawthorn ( e d . ) , A Survey o f t h e Contemporary I n d i a n s of Canada, P a r t 2, f o r a g e n e r a l i z e d d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i q u e of I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n .  17.  "We d o n ' t expect them t o be declared Mrs. , " I t is a We've got t o keep a t i t and i n the Sun, Vancouver, June  18.  T h i s a t t i t u d e was o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n the house m o t h e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o her replacement i n the Home, and her subsequent a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the p r o j e c t .  19.  P e r s o n a l communication.  20.  D e s p i t e t h i s , she r e f e r r e d t o the presence of the w h i t e s t u d e n t i n t h e Home as b e n e f i c i a l because the v i s i t s of h e r f r i e n d s and f a m i l y i n t r o d u c e d the " g i r l s t o a b e t t e r c l a s s of w h i t e p e o p l e . " (The s t u d e n t came f r o m a f a m i l y of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . )  21.  "A C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " , p u b l i s h e d by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of S t u d e n t s , n . d . emphasis added.  22.  Q u o t a t i o n s t a k e n f r o m an i n t e r v i e w i n the Sun, Vancouver, June 1 1 , 1966.  23.  I n the o n l y w r i t t e n r e p o r t t o the Board she made t h a t summer t h e house mother s t a t e d t h a t " G i r l s i n home need c o n s t a n t ( e x c e p t when s l e e p i n g ) s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e y have no i n i t i a t i v e . "  chair-  p u r e , w h i t e and C h r i s t i a n o v e r n i g h t , " hard t h i n g • c l i m b i n g up t h e h i l l . never l e t them d o w n . " From an i n t e r v i e w 1 1 , 1966.  98  24.  L e t t e r f r o m the T r e a s u r e r t o t h e f i r s t  Board C h a i r p e r s o n , J u l y 20, 1966.  25.  The p s y c h i a t r i s t ,  26.  M i n u t e s of the Management Board M e e t i n g , September 22, 1966. again delegated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .  27.  C o n s t i t u t i o n of the I n d i a n Youth C o - o p e r a t i v e Home, d r a f t p r i n t e d by t h e UBC-AMS Committee of CUS, n . d .  28.  Ibid.  By-Law 1.  29.  Ibid.  By-Law 3.  30.  Ibid.  By-Law 5.  31.  Ibid.  By-Law 4.  32.  Ibid.  By-Law 7.  the lawyer and I were d e l e g a t e d t o do the  interviewing. I was  The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women Approaching t h e End  100  Chapter Two focussed almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of the p r o ject.  The u n c o n s c i o u s l y r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s of the s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s  was d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r w i t h the c o n t r a s t i n g r e a c t i o n s t o r a c i s m e x h i b i t e d by t h e house mother and the s t a f f p e r s o n .  The o n l y non-members c o n s i d e r e d were  t h e s m a l l d o n o r s , a l t h o u g h p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e was made t o o t h e r agencies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e y d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t h e r e s i d e n t s . t h e presence o f r a c i s m i n t h e p r o j e c t .  Chapter Two e s t a b l i s h e d  The stage i s now s e t f o r t h e f i n a l  Chapter Three documents t h e drama p l a y e d out by t h e m a j o r p r o t a g o n i s t s ,  the  Board and the CUS Committee on t h e one s i d e and the AMS e x e c u t i v e on t h e I t begins w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f u n d i n g p o l i c i e s and l a r g e d o n o r s .  other.  After  p r e s e n t i n g a breakdown of t h e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of t h e Home a t v a r i o u s in its history,  act.  points  I p r e s e n t a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e CUS  Committee and t h e Home t o t h e AMS, f o c u s s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on t h e AMS T r e a s u r e r and h i s f r e q u e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n s .  T h i s d e t a i l e d d a t a i s necessary i n o r d e r  place i n c o r r e c t perspective the f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l i s t i c  and b u r e a u c r a t i c  to  argu-  ments a l t e r n a t e l y used by the AMS E x e c u t i v e as j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t s u n c o n stitutional interference.  The Chapter c o n t i n u e s w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n o f  the  " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " and subsequent r e p o r t done by the AMS E x e c u t i v e i n response t o the " b a d " p u b l i c i t y r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e house m o t h e r ' s p r o t e s t a t i o n s .  After  a n a l y z i n g the r e p o r t and subsequent p r e s s r e l e a s e , t h e Chapter concludes w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Board and s t a f f  person p r i o r  to the  f o r c i b l e e v i c t i o n i n A p r i l , by t h e AMS E x e c u t i v e , of the r e s i d e n t s . events u n f o l d i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t the cause o f f a i l u r e was due t o " c r u d e e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " on the p a r t of t h e Board nor b u r e a u c r a t i c ciency .  As t h e neither ineffi-  101  The s t r u c t u r e s of the two Boards and t h e i r u n o f f i c i a l m e l d i n g was d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s  chapter.  which must be d i s c u s s e d .  There a r e , however, o t h e r  interrelationships  As s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y i n b a c k -  ground i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h was n o t r e c t i f i e d nor even d e a l t w i t h u n t i l the s t a f f  change f o r c e d the Board t o c o n f r o n t the q u e s t i o n o f  whether the p r o j e c t was t o be a c o - o p e r a t i v e or a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n .  The  meld o f the two Boards,because o f i t s u n o f f i c i a l n a t u r e , r e s u l t e d i n some c o n f u s i o n about expected r o l e s .  Two of t h e n o n - s t u d e n t s o r i g i n a l l y  appointed  to the A d v i s o r y Board t o o k an a c t i v e r o l e i n the mslded Board w h i l e  others  a t t e n d e d o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y and e v i n c e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  As  interest.  suggested i n Chapter Two none o f these Board members had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h g r o u p - l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f e i t h e r a h o s t e l or c o - o p e r a t i v e t y p e .  They a l s o  seemed t o l a c k concern f o r the maintenance of good a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  practices  a l t h o u g h a t l e a s t two of them were i n b u s i n e s s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . student appointed o r i g i n a l l y  The one n o n -  t o the Management Board, a member of the  School  of S o c i a l Work a t U.B.C. was absent f o r the summer and began t o a t t e n d meeti n g s on a r e g u l a r b a s i s o n l y a f t e r  I t was t h e r e f o r e l e f t  t o t h e s t u d e n t members t o r e c t i f y  t h e Board as b e s t they c o u l d . an e f f i c i e n t ject.  the s t a r t of the f a l l academic t e r m .  the d e f i c i e n c i e s  My predecessor as CUS C h a i r p e r s o n  of  established  f i l i n g system w h i c h was m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of the p r o -  Maintenance o f the system was aided by the B o a r d ' s p o l i c y t h a t  corres-  pondence c o n c e r n i n g the Home was sent from and r e c e i v e d by the CUS o f f i c e t h e u n i v e r s i t y a l t h o u g h the p o l i c y was e s t a b l i s h e d s o l e l y t o a v o i d t h e a c t u a l address of the r e s i d e n c e i t s e l f .  at  publicizing  The p o l i c y had a f u r t h e r  result  which was t h a t the CUS C h a i r p e r s o n was p l a c e d i n a p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n i n terms  102  of a l l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t a f f , and groups and the Alma Mater  the Board, o u t s i d e  agencies  Society.  I, i n my p o s i t i o n as CUS C h a i r p e r s o n , a p p o i n t e d two new s t u d e n t s to the Board i n September o f 1966.  One was t h e T r e a s u r e r o f t h e CUS Committee,  a S e n i o r Commerce s t u d e n t , who was t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e concerns of the p r o j e c t ,  financial  a t a s k w h i c h t h e AMS T r e a s u r e r had performed p r o  tem d u r i n g the summer months.  The o t h e r s t u d e n t was a p p o i n t e d as s e c r e t a r y  and t o o k r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e p r o d u c i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e m i n u t e s of each m e e t i n g and h a n d l i n g t h e necessary correspondence.  As the agendas were  set a t t h e end of each meeting we d i d n o t f e e l t h e need t o c i r c u l a t e  written  agendas p r i o r t o each r e g u l a r - m e e t i n g a l t h o u g h two agendas were i n c l u d e d l e t t e r s sent t o a l l Board members i n November and December o f 1966. first  in  The  o f these was t o c o n s i d e r the s t a t u s of the house mother who was a c c u -  s i n g t h e Board of h a v i n g f i r e d her d u r i n g h e r absence.  The second was t o  adopt t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n as the p r e - r e q u ' i s i t e t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n as an i n d e p e n dent e n t i t y under the S o c i e t i e s  Act of  B.C.  The minutes of the meetings r e f l e c t e d the B o a r d ' s emphasis on d i s c u s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e p a s s i n g of m o t i o n s .  They more c l o s e l y resemble  transcripts  o f the d i s c u s s i o n t h a n t h e y do r e c o r d s of m o t i o n s f o r subsequent l e g a l f i c a t i o n of actions taken.  justi-  A l t h o u g h the s t y l e o f m i n u t e - t a k i n g was c a l l e d  i n t o q u e s t i o n by the Alma Mater S o c i e t y i t has proved a v a l u a b l e source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the t h i n k i n g of the Board.  The most c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of the p r o j e c t a t i t s and f o r some time a f t e r was the concern f o r adequate f u n d i n g .  inception  The p r o c e s s  103  of s e c u r i n g s u f f i c i e n t  f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e p r o j e c t began i n January  of 1966, f o u r months b e f o r e the Home opened.  A b r i e f was d r a f t e d and sent  w i t h a c o v e r i n g l e t t e r t o a l l l a r g e c o r p o r a t e concerns i n the p r o v i n c e w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o c o r p o r a t i o n s employing I n d i a n people or ing t h e i r resources. U.B.C.,  exploit-  L e t t e r s were a l s o sent t o t h e Board of Governors a t  t o a l l of the major v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t o t h e major u n i o n s .  Another l e t t e r  s t r e s s i n g t h e need f o r d o n a t i o n s i n k i n d was sent t o  s m a l l e r v o l u n t e e r groups and t o non-government s o c i a l s e r v i c e  I n response t o appeals of t h e l a t t e r  other  agencies.  s o r t thei S a l v a t i o n Army responded most  g e n e r o u s l y , p r o v i d i n g the b u l k o f t h e necessary f u r n i s h i n g s .  To those appeals  sent t o the former g r o u p , t h e l a r g e s t d o n a t i o n came f u l l y a year l a t e r i n t h e f o r m o f a 2 3 - i n c h console t e l e v i s i o n s e t complete w i t h s u i t a b l y plaque f r o m t h e Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company, L t d . r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d f r o m over 100 l e t t e r s s e n t .  inscribed  They were one of t h e  ten  Two lumber concerns and one  f i s h packer s t a t e d d i r e c t l y t h a t t h e y were " u n a b l e " t o s u p p o r t concerns of "a s o c i o l o g i c a l and w e l f a r e e f f o r t w h i c h were d i s t i l l e r i e s )  of t h i s nature"."'"  Three o t h e r s ,  s a i d t h e y had r e f e r r e d the r e q u e s t e i t h e r  (two o f to a l o c a l  2 s u b s i d i a r y or committee f r o m whom n o t h i n g f u r t h e r was h e a r d .  MacMillan  B l o e d e l and P o w e l l R i v e r L i m i t e d donated $200 and wishes f o r success.  The  3 B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company d e c l i n e d "due to b u d g e t a r y l i m i t a t i o n s " . The Vancouver Sun's d o n a t i o n s budget had been f i n a l i z e d and was n o t f l e x i b l e  4 enough t o i n c l u d e new c h a r i t a b l e d o n a t i o n s a t t h a t t i m e .  The UBC Board of  Governors, s e v e r a l members o f w h i c h were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e mentioned above, d i d n o t g r a n t any- monies. donations t o t a l l i n g  $125."'  Two -members d i d g i v e  corporations individual  104  D e s p i t e these meager c o n t r i b u t i o n s from i n d u s t r y the t o t a l d o n a t i o n s shown on the books as o f June 1, 1966 were $590  6  and by September 1, 1966, $1056.  T h i s sum i n c l u d e d many s m a l l e r d o n a t i o n s from groups  and i n d i v i d u a l s , some  as a r e s u l t of the l e t t e r s s e n t , o t h e r s as a r e s u l t of the t a l k s and i n t e r views  g i v e n by the house mother.  t r i b u t o r s below.) endorsed voted  The Students' C o u n c i l of the UBC Alma Mater  Society,  i n p r i n c i p l e t h e CUS p r o p o s a l f o r t h e p r o j e c t F e b r u a r y 7, 1966 and 7  "an amount n o t t o exceed  The Board  (Cf. f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s m a l l con-  g  $200" on March 28, 1966.  of D i r e c t o r s of t h e Vancouver I n d i a n Center S o c i e t y p l e d g e d  c o - o p e r a t i o n and on annual g r a n t to t h e p r o j e c t on January to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  26, 1966.  their Due  i t was not u n t i l May 24, 1966 t h a t they were a b l e  t o forward a cheque f o r $100 w i t h the hope o f p r o v i d i n g .regular  financial  . , 70 a s s i s t a n c e i n the f u t u r e .  C u r i o u s l y , none of the f i n a n c i a l  statements  1965-66 G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s G i f t , approved  i n c l u d e o r even a l l u d e to t h e  unanimously  by the G e n e r a l Meeting  of t h e G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s on F e b r u a r y 3, 1966. T h i s g i f t  amounted t o $2,078.80.  The o r i g i n a l reason g i v e n by t h e AMS T r e a s u r e r f o r i t s e x c l u s i o n from the statements was t h a t the exact amount was not known and c o u l d n o t be known f o r some time as the motion  g r a n t i n g the g i f t  to the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home was 12  c o n d i t i o n a l on t h e p r i o r purchase  of one 8-man and one 4-man rowing  As these s h e l l s were t o be purchased the f i n a l c o s t s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d . the o m i s s i o n was t h a t u n t i l soever c o u l d be c r e d i t e d  shell.  i n I t a l y i t would be some time b e f o r e The r a t i o n a l e used by the T r e a s u r e r f o r  t h i s matter had been f i n a l i z e d no monies what-  to the Home.  However he h i m s e l f r e f e r r e d  to a  105  guaranteed advance of $1,200 g i v e n by the G r a d u a t i n g Class i n a document w r i t t e n September 7, 1966.  13  The whole m a t t e r wouldihave been o f  less  importance were i t n o t f o r subsequent s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e T r e a s u r e r and utilized  to  t h e f u l l e s t by the house mother i n her fund r a i s i n g  activities,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e Home would have t o c l o s e due t o l a c k of f u n d s .  Their  statements were made w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y over the summer and i n t o t h e  fall  14 of 1966 i n l e t t e r s t o c o n t r i b u t o r s and memos t o board members. l i g h t o f the G r a d u a t i n g Class G i f t  I n the  these s t a t e m e n t s were m i s l e a d i n g a t  While t h e AMS T r e a s u r e r and house mother were engaged i n these  best.  activities,  the i n - c o m i n g and o u t - g o i n g C h a i r p e r s o n s of the CUS Committee were a t t e m p t i n g t o secure f u r t h e r l a r g e g r a n t s t o ensure s t a b l e l o n g - t e r m f u n d i n g of the p r o j e c t .  To t h i s end they a p p l i e d t o t h e Leon and Thea Koerner Founda-  t i o n i n J u l y o f 1966 f o r a g r a n t of $3,500 t o s u b s i d i z e the o p e r a t i o n of p r o j e c t f o r a one-year period.''""'  the  The Koerner F o u n d a t i o n r e p l i e d i n October  w i t h a g r a n t o f $2,500 " t o be used s o l e l y f o r t h e purpose d e s i g n a t e d u n l e s s s p e c i f i c p e r m i s s i o n i s r e c e i v e d from the Board of Governors of the Foundat i o n to apply i t  otherwise."^  The two members of the Board, t o g e t h e r w i t h the l a w y e r , a l s o  investigated  o t h e r f u n d i n g sources i n c l u d i n g C h i l d r e n ' s A i d (which expressed  interest  b u t made no subsequent d o n a t i o n ) , t h e C i t i z e n s h i p Branch of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e ) , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch o f t h e Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n , and t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department of t h e C i t y of Vancouver.  Neither  of t h e f e d e r a l departments were empowered t o g i v e d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a i d as f e d e r a l monies had t o be c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h p r o v i n c i a l s o u r c e s .  17  . T h i s gave  106  t h e Board i t s f i r s t  impetus t o b e g i n d i s c u s s i n g the process o f  t i o n as an independent s o c i e t y .  incorpora-  The p o s s i b i l i t y of q u a l i f y i n g f o r  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l funds was n e g l e g i b l e i f  these  the Home remained under the AMS  structure.  D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home, as w i t h most o t h e r  volunteer  p r o j e c t s of a s o c i a l a c t i o n n a t u r e , saved the f o r m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  appara-  t u s l a r g e sums of money per y e a r , the Home r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s met w i t h a l e s s than h e l p f u l r e c e p t i o n f r o m t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department of the C i t y of Vancouver.  At a m e e t i n g h e l d w i t h the d i r e c t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t and the  i n - c o m i n g and o u t - g o i n g CUS C h a i r p e r s o n s i n the summer o f 1966, the w e l f a r e officials  c o u l d o f f e r n o t h i n g i n t h e way of advice or a i d i n f i n a n c i n g  the  proj ect.  T h i s l a c k of s u p p o r t f o r t u n a t e l y proved n o t t o be a handicap, t o t h e  project,  p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e p r o j e c t e d s a l a r y disbursement of $3,600 per year was, due t o t h e s t a f f and 3)  change, reduced t o a t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e o f $ 1 , 4 5 0 .  (Tables 1  107 Table 1 P r o j e c t e d O p e r a t i n g Statement f o r the Year Ending June 2 1 , 1967. Revenue: R e n t a l s - 6 women @ 60/month $4,320.00 Expenditures: S a l a r i e s @ $300/month $3,600.00 Food, S u n d e r i e s , e t c . @ $250/month 5,000.00 Rent @ $125/month 1,500.00 U t i l i t i e s @ $50/month 600.00 T o t a l Expenditures 8,700.00 Net E x p e n d i t u r e : $4,380.00 Source: "A Submission to the P r o j e c t s Committee of the Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n " , J u l y 26, 1966.  Table 2 A c t u a l Income and E x p e n d i t u r e s A p r i l 1 5 , 1966 to June 1 , 1966. Revenue: Rentals $237.00 Donations 590.00 T o t a l Revenue Expenditures: Salary 380.40 Food, S u n d e r i e s , e t c . 251.28 Rent and U t i l i t i e s 307.65 T o t a l Expenditures Net E x p e n d i t u r e s : A  $827.00  939.33 $112.33  *Not i n c l u d i n g G r a d u a t i n g Class G i f t . Source: AMS Revenue Ledger C a r d , t o June 1 , 1966.  Table 3 A c t u a l Income and E x p e n d i t u r e s June 1 , 1966 t o November 20, 1967 Revenue: $2,888.25 Rentals Donations $2,500.00 Koerner Grant ' 1,413.00 Sundry Donations 5,991.80 2,078.80 Grad. Class G i f t T o t a l Revenue Expenditures: S a l a r y (June 15 - Sept. 30 I n c l u d i n g 1,070.39 CPP and H o l i d a y p a y . ) 1,837.17 Food, S u n d e r i e s , e t c . 2,139.35 Rent and U t i l i t i e s T o t a l Expenditures Balance r e m a i n i n g a t c l o s u r e of Home  $8,880.05  5,047.91 $3,740.81  *The Home a c t u a l l y ceased o p e r a t i o n i n May, 1967. Source: "CUS C o - o p e r a t i v e Home" r e p o r t by AMS T r e a s u r e r , November 20, 1967  108  T a k i n g a m o n t h l y average from Table 3 of the r e n t a l income and e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e n t and u t i l i t i e s and f o r f o o d and s u n d r i e s b u t e x c l u d i n g wages,  the  excess of e x p e n d i t u r e over income, t h a t i s , the subsidy needed per month i s 18 a p p r o x i m a t e l y $9.9 or $1,188 per y e a r .  A l l o w i n g a r a t e of 6% i n f l a t i o n  year w h i l e n o t c o n s i d e r i n g p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t a c c r u i n g t o the b a l a n c e , were s u f f i c i e n t  per  there  funds t o c o n t i n u e the Home a t the same r a t e of s u b s i d y  for  almost t h r e e y e a r s . Of the d o n a t i o n s r e c e i v e d the Koerner g r a n t r e p r e s e n t e d over 40% o f the and t h e G r a d u a t i n g Class G i f t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 35% of the t o t a l .  The  individual  and c o r p o r a t e d o n a t i o n s ( e x c l u s i v e of d o n a t i o n s i n k i n d ) r e p r e s e n t s more t h a n 20% o f t h e t o t a l .  More s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  outweighed  the number of i n t e r v e n t i o n s and t h e  outspoken c r i t i c i s m w h i c h many of the s m a l l donors f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the s t a f f  slightly  The t i m e expended i n s o l i c i t i n g these funds com-  pared w i t h t h a t spent i n o b t a i n i n g t h e o t h e r two l a r g e d o n a t i o n s f a r t h e amount r e c e i v e d .  total  offering,  change f a r outweighed the importance of t h e funds  c o n t r i b u t e d by them.  The r e a c t i o n o f many o f these s m a l l c o n t r i b u t o r s might have been a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s had been s o l i c i t e d e i t h e r t h r o u g h "human i n t e r e s t "  arti-  c l e s i n the p r e s s o r by t a l k s g i v e n by the house m o t h e r , b o t h of w h i c h emp h a s i z e d the h e l p l e s s n e s s r a t h e r t h a n the independence o f t h e r e s i d e n t .  When  t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p r o j e c t was b e i n g made i n t o a f u n c t i o n i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i n which the r e s i d e n t s were p r e p a r e d to t a k e a major r o l e were u p s e t .  Some a l s o r e g i s t e r e d t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l • o f  the s t a f f  they  change.  In  many of the c o n v e r s a t i o n s I had w i t h donors who t e l e p h o n e d t o c o m p l a i n about  109  the changes i n " t h e i r " p r o j e c t ,  t h e y assumed a stance o f r i g h t e o u s anger  a t our r e p l a c i n g t h e n a t i v e house mother who, by t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n , was competent t o handle n a t i v e s .  Few had b o t h e r e d t o a s c e r t a i n t h a t the house  m o t h e r ' s replacement was a l s o n a t i v e .  Some who h a d , were s t i l l  angered b e -  cause the house mother was a r e s p e c t a b l e I n d i a n w h i l e the new s t a f f was n o t because of her p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .  person  A l t h o u g h none of these p e o p l e  came t o any meetings ( n o r were t h e y i n v i t e d a t t h i s p o i n t )  they  indirectly  a f f e c t e d the c l o s u r e of the p r o j e c t by p r o v i d i n g the AMS w i t h a r a t i o n a l e bad p u b l i c i t y - f o r becoming d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the  -  project.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the l o c a l committee of the Canadian Union o f Students  to  the Alma Mater S o c i e t y was unique i n some r e s p e c t s t o a l l the committees 19  o r g a n i z e d under t h a t u m b r e l l a .  The AMS Code  s t a t e d t h a t Chairpersons  Standing Committees, of which the CUS Committee was one, " a r e  of  annually  a p p o i n t e d i n the s p r i n g a t a j o i n t m e e t i n g of o u t - g o i n g and i n - c o m i n g S t u d e n t s ' 20 21 Councillors" and "may be removed a t any t i m e by S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l " . Further, " t h e chairman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g h i s committee or sub-committee c h a i r m a n . He must be p r e p a r e d t o r e p o r t t o Students' Council from time to time. Whenever p o s s i b l e , the P r e s i d e n t s h a l l a p p o i n t S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l l o r s t o a c t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y and as a l i a s o n t o these c o m m i t t e e s . " " D e t r i m e n t a l members of committees may be removed by the chairman."22 Concerning m i n u t e s and r e p o r t s , the Code s t a t e d : " M i n u t e s and r e p o r t s of b o t h g e n e r a l and e x e c u t i v e meetings o f these committees s h a l l be f o r w a r d e d t o t h e S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the s a i d meetings f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , u l t i m a t e a p p r o v a l , amendment, or r e j e c t i o n by the S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l . " 2 3 Despite t h i s d i r e c t i v e ,  the CUS Committee was n o t expected by the AMS t o  submit r e g u l a r m i n u t e s as were o t h e r o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d as  110  standing  committees and, i n t h r e e y e a r s  o f weekly AMS minutes, t h a t i s , from  June 3, 1965 t o A p r i l 10, 1968, those minutes and r e p o r t s submitted t o S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l were " r e c e i v e d " as d i s t i n c t tees whose minutes were " c o n s i d e r e d ,  from the o t h e r  standing  approved, amended o r r e j e c t e d " .  commitThis  d i s t i n c t i o n may i n p a r t have been due to the n a t u r e o f the Canadian Union o f Students as a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n whose membership was composed o f the various  Students' Councils  President CUS,  i n Canada, t h e r e b y making the S t u d e n t s '  a l s o the p r e s i d e n t  o f the l o c a l g r o u p i n g ( o f whatever form) o f t h e  a s t r u c t u r e unique t o t h i s n a t i o n a l student  organization.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e UBC-AMS CUS Committee C h a i r p e r s o n s 1967,  Council  The c l o s e  from 1965 t o  and the n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t of CUS might a l s o have had some e f f e c t  i n the m a t t e r .  In the p e r i o d 1966-67, I as CUS C h a i r p e r s o n ,  t e r i n g some s e p a r a t e  programs, worked i n c l o s e c o n j u n c t i o n  which a d m i n i s -  with  t h e AMS  Pre-  s i d e n t , f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e c a p a c i t y of p o l i t i c a l a d v i s o r on m a t t e r s o f educat i o n , a l s o no doubt a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p vis-a-vis  the Code and C o u n c i l p r o c e d u r e .  Whatever tbe r e a s o n s , however,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p was d i s t i n c t from t h a t of o t h e r autonomy much g r e a t e r .  24  T h i s autonomy d i d n o t extend t o s e p a r a t e A l l committees and o r g a n i z a t i o n s participated AMS.  The C o - o p e r a t i v e  tax deductible  tible  budgeting o r f i n a n c i a l  status."  arrangements.  c o n s t i t u t e d under the Alma Mater  i n a c e n t r a l bookkeeping system a d m i n i s t e r e d  Society  by the s t a f f of t h e  Home, as a p r o j e c t of the CUS Committee, a l s o came  under t h i s f i n a n c i a l arrangement. not  committees and the r e l a t i v e  As such, the d o n a t i o n s to t h e Home were  s i n c e t h e AMS was not c o n s i d e r e d . e l i g i b l e f o r t a x deduc-  The AMS, a c t i n g through, the T r e a s u r e r ,  had the l e g a l a u t h o r i -  t y t o f r e e z e t h e funds i n any account which was suspected  of mismanagement.  Ill  T h i s was a measure i n c l u d e d i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of S o c i e t y from m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of i t s funds b u t was n o t i n t e n d e d t o  the  include  s i t u a t i o n s such as t h a t of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home where the S o c i e t y was a c t i n g s o l e l y as " b a n k e r " f o r o u t s i d e f u n d s .  ( T h i s p o s i t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by the  d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g AMS c o n t r o l over G r a d u a t i n g Class f u n d s . )  The d u a l r e a -  sons of f u n d i n g and f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n s by the Management Board of procedures f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e p r o j e c t as an i n d e pendent l e g a l  entity.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the AMS E x e c u t i v e and C o u n c i l , which l e d t o the demise o f t h e Home, began somewhat i n n o c u o u s l y when the newly e l e c t e d AMS T r e a s u r e r a c t e d as pro tem t r e a s u r e r of the p r o j e c t f o r t h e summer w h i l e he was on salary.  In a letter  to the f i r s t  C h a i r p e r s o n o f the B o a r d , dated May 1 8 , 1966,  he commented t h a t the house mother r e q u i r e d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h bookkeeping as she had been unable t o keep the r e n t a l s , t h e " i m p r e s t f u n d " , and h e r own money s e p a r a t e and had no r e c e i p t s f o r a n y t h i n g .  He r e q u e s t e d t h a t a p e r s o n  be assigned by t h e Board t o handle t h e f i n a n c e and a c t as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r  as  " I am s o r r y t h a t time does n o t p e r m i t me t o do t h i s and a c t as a k i n d of d i p l o m a t i c watchdog over t h e whole o p e r a t i o n . "  Because of the summer b r e a k  i t was n o t u n t i l September t h a t a competent s t u d e n t c o u l d be f o u n d .  The  T r e a s u r e r had suggested t h a t "a c l o s e and c a r e f u l r e c o r d be k e p t of a l l who s t a y a t the home and t h e c o r r e c t r e n t a l s be c o l l e c t e d . "  As p r e v i o u s l y  i n d i c a t e d , the house mother d i d n o t welcome t h i s k i n d of s c r u t i n y by s t u d e n t s and no n o n - s t u d e n t member of e i t h e r Board was w i l l i n g or indeed a b l e t o responsibility.  take  I t was hoped t h a t the s t u d e n t member of the Board r e s i d i n g  i n t h e Home c o u l d t a k e over the bookkeeping f u n c t i o n s b u t t h i s d i d n o t prove feasible.  112  I n m i d - J u l y t h e T r e a s u r e r sent another l e t t e r t h e management of the Home.  t o the C h a i r p e r s o n c o n c e r n i n g  Throughout the r a t h e r l e n g t h y l e t t e r he used  t h e pronoun " w e " , a l t h o u g h he made d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h i s "we" and t h e B o a r d , making i t  u n c l e a r whether he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f p a r t of the  o r of a body above t h e p r o j e c t . i t s manner of f u n c t i o n i n g .  His c o m p l a i n t s were a l l w i t h the Board and  He found no f a u l t w i t h the house mother b u t  r a t h e r p r a i s e d her competence. Boards were:  project  Among the c r i t i c i s m s he enumerated of  the  h a v i n g a t t e n d e d two Board meetings w i t h o u t h a v i n g met " a l l  the  B o a r d " , and n o t r e c e i v i n g agendas and p r e v i o u s m i n u t e s p r i o r t o m e e t i n g s , about w h i c h he commented t h a t "many p r o f e s s i o n a l people whom we a r e a s k i n g t o a s s i s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t do n o t w i s h t o waste t h e i r t i m e w a i t i n g f o r a m e e t i n g t o s t a r t and do n o t e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e sloppy p r o c e d u r e s , o f Agenda,  lack  etc."  The c r i t i c i s m s he l e v e l l e d were n o t c o n s i d e r e d v e r y m e a n i n g f u l . members he had not met,one had been dropped because she had never  Of the Board attended  a m e e t i n g , one had r e s i g n e d because of a j o b t r a n s f e r and the r e m a i n i n g were away f o r t h e summer, a f a c t o f w h i c h he had been i n f o r m e d p r i o r w r i t i n g of h i s l e t t e r .  The s t u d e n t members of the Board found t h i s  three  to the criti-  cisms of absenteeism and t a r d i n e s s a t meetings somewhat f r i v i l o u s as they had a t t e n d e d many summer S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l meetings w h i c h had been f o r c e d t o a d j o u r n f o r l a c k of a quorum.  The p a r t i c u l a r  i t e m he r e f e r r e d t o as  " s l o p p y p r o c e d u r e " was t h e f a i l u r e t o c i r c u l a t e m i n u t e s and agendas p r i o r to meetings.  The S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l d e a l i n g as i t  d i d w i t h many s u b s i d i a r y  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and h a v i n g agendas w i t h up t o t w e n t y housekeeping i t e m s ,  found  113  i t necessary t o c i r c u l a t e l a r g e amounts of documents.  I n t h i s same l e t t e r  the T r e a s u r e r c a s t i g a t e d the Board f o r making the house  mother c a r r y " t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n s u r i n g her own pay cheque" and f o r a l l o w i n g h e r t o a p p o i n t an a s s i s t a n t f o r whom she r e q u e s t e d of the T r e a s u r e r an i n c r e a s e i n s a l a r y .  He a g a i n i g n o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o  him p r e v i o u s l y .  He seemed t o p r e f e r the f u n d i n g s t y l e of the house mother t o t h a t adopted by the Board w h i c h was t o seek out l a r g e g r a n t s and d o n a t i o n s w h i c h would p e r m i t assured l o n g t e r m f u n d i n g .  Perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s was t h a t  the  T r e a s u r e r u n d e r t o o k t o respond p e r s o n a l l y to many of t h e s m a l l donors w i t h out i n f o r m i n g w i t h e r the Board or the CUS Committee of t h e i r h a v i n g been r e c e i v e d and w h i l e c l a i m i n g l a c k o f t i m e t o a c t as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r .  The  a c t i o n on h i s p a r t made t h e CUS Committee's a t t e m p t s t o keep good r e c o r d s of f u n d s r e c e i v e d much more  difficult.  He c o n t i n u o u s l y expressed c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e house m o t h e r ' s a b i l i t i e s s t a t e d more t h a n once t h a t she was d o i n g a good j o b . house mother o n l y on those  occasions  d e p o s i t money and d e l i v e r b i l l s  and  The T r e a s u r e r saw t h e  when she came t o the AMS o f f i c e s  to  as he d i d n o t a t t e n d meetings r e g u l a r l y  had he ever v o l u n t a r i l y v i s i t e d t h e Home or spoken t o t h e r e s i d e n t s .  nor  His  c o n f i d e n c e i n her f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s was n i l w h i c h r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f the bases f o r h i s p o s i t i v e judgement of h e r .  The most l o g i c a l  response,  which he p r o v i d e d , was t h a t she was I n d i a n and i n o r d e r n o t t o appear  racist  he would n o t q u e s t i o n her a t a l l except i n an area w h i c h many found t o be beyond t h e i r e f f i c i e n t  capabilities.  114  He concluded h i s l e t t e r by s a y i n g " I am somewhat concerned about t h e s t u d e n t funds t h a t have been committed t o t h i s p r o j e c t and i t Students'  is quite possible  C o u n c i l m i g h t c o n s i d e r suspending the p r o j e c t i f  the e n t i r e p r o j e c t are b e i n g mismanaged".  It  that  these funds and  i s n o t c l e a r on what b a s i s he  was making t h i s t h r e a t as t h e o n l y s t u d e n t funds committed t o t h e were the $200. g r a n t e d i n March o f 1966 and l o n g s i n c e s p e n t .  project  The o n l y  other  funds which f i t  t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n were t h e monies donated by the G r a d u a t i n g  Class of 1S66.  If  t h e T r e a s u r e r had a t t e m p t e d t o suspend these funds  they  would have been u l t r a v i r i e s of t h e i r own c o n s t i t u t i o n .  The T r e a s u r e r c o n t i n u e d h i s p o l i c y o f c r i t i c i z i n g t h e Board and e n c o u r a g i n g the house mother i n her a c t i v i t i e s even when t h e y went a g a i n s t t h e express p o l i c y o f the Board.  D e s p i t e h i s demands t h a t the p r o j e c t become b e t t e r  or-  ganized i n terms of the Board he f r e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d o r endorsed i n f o r m a t i o n h i m s e l f w h i c h was erroneous o r a g a i n s t t h e B o a r d ' s p o l i c i e s .  On s e v e r a l  occassions when r e p l y i n g t o donors on t h e CUS Committee's w r i t i n g b e h a l f he gave out the address of t h e r e s i d e n c e as w e l l as i n v i t a t i o n s d e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e of a s t a n d a r d l e t t e r  to v i s i t  it  of acknowledgement w h i c h s t a t e d  "We have t a k e n care n o t t o a d v e r t i s e the l o c a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f the p r i v a c y of t h e members of the Home."  He a l s o c i r c u l a t e d a p r o g r e s s r e p o r t  by t h e house mother which by o m i t t i n g m e n t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  prepared structure  i m p l i e d t h a t the p r o j e c t had no r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t s ; i n c l u d e d the Home's address and t e l e p h o n e number; and was signed by the house mother as " E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r " of the h o s t e l .  One c o n s i s t e n t i n c l u s i o n i n h i s  correspon-  dence t o donors a t t h i s time was the statement t h a t "we are p l a n n i n g t o  115  i n c o r p o r a t e the Home under the S o c i e t i e s A c t " i n the hopes of g a i n i n g g o v e r n ment f u n d i n g .  k  I n a p r o g r e s s r e p o r t authored by the T r e a s u r e r i n September, 1966 he r e p e a t e d t h i s s t a t e m e n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t " i n c o r p o r a t i o n w i l l be completed sometime October."  He mentions t h e guarantee of funds from the G r a d u a t i n g Class  the course of q u o t i n g l a r g e s e c t i o n s f r o m t h e p r e l i m i n a r y f u n d - r a i s i n g (by t h e n b a d l y out o f d a t e ) .  in in  brief  H i s o n l y s u g g e s t i o n was to i n c r e a s e t h e house  m o t h e r ' s s a l a r y by $50 t o $300 as " i t  i s unreasonable t o expect one p e r s o n  t o r u n t h i s Home on a t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r , seven day week b a s i s a t a s a l a r y of $250...."  The Board had a n t i c i p a t e d him and had a u t h o r i z e d t h e AMS t o  her s a l a r y two months p r i o r done so i t  t o the w r i t i n g of t h i s r e p o r t .  raise  That t h e y had  i n d i c a t e d by the Revenue Ledger Cards.  I n September, the incoming CUS C h a i r p e r s o n a p p o i n t e d a f o u r t h year Commerce s t u d e n t as t r e a s u r e r and s i g n i n g o f f i c e r f o r b o t h t h e CUS Committee and the Co-op Home.  T h i s s t u d e n t had headed one o f the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  committees  27 of the AMS the p r e v i o u s y e a r . as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r  The AMS T r e a s u r e r r e f u s e d to a u t h o r i z e him  f o r the p r o j e c t a l t h o u g h he gave no reason and i t was n o t  w i t h i n h i s powers t o t a k e t h i s a c t i o n .  As o u t l i n e d above, t h e  executive  a n d / o r c o u n c i l c o u l d d i s m i s s a C h a i r p e r s o n b u t had no means o t h e r t h a n v i a t h e C h a i r p e r s o n t o remove a member of a committee.  T h i s man d i d remain as  u n o f f i c i a l t r e a s u r e r and spent much t i m e w i t h t h e r e s i d e n t s and t h e new s t a f f person s e t t i n g up procedures and e x p l a i n i n g the i n t r i c a c i e s o f t o them.  bookkeeping  However, the AMS T r e a s u r e r r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f the f i n a n c i a l 28 bursements of t h e p r o j e c t t h r o u g h o u t h i s term of o f f i c e .  dis-  116  The a c t i o n s o f the T r e a s u r e r when c o n t r a s t e d t o h i s c r i t i c i s m s of the Board i m p l y a number of t h i n g s .  He seemed t o t a l l y i m p e r v i o u s of t h e added d i f f i -  c u l t i e s he was c a u s i n g the Board by h i s u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n s .  His  experience  o f groups o t h e r t h a n S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l was l i m i t e d t o the V a r s i t y  Inter-  C h r i s t i a n F e l l o w s h i p and t h e campus branch o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t League b o t h of which he had headed i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s .  He was t h e r e f o r e v e r y  inexperienced  i n d e a l i n g e i t h e r w i t h s o c i a l a c t i o n programs or w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o t h e r t h a n t h o s e of the AMS.  functions  H i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e house mother were a  good example of the t y p e o f r a c i s m w h i c h masquerades as a n t i - r a c i s m by r e f u s i n g t o admit any d i f f e r e n c e s .  He was t h e n f o r c e d t o develop  criticisms  of t h e Board, w h i c h a l t h o u g h v a l i d i n some r e s p e c t s , were n o t r e f l e c t e d  in  h i s own a c t i o n s or the b e h a v i o u r of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of w h i c h he was an executive  officer.  The second group of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who i n v o l v e d  themselves  i n t h e Home's f u n c t i o n i n g were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r by the house m o t h e r .  After  her angry d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e October Board meeting she c o n t a c t e d many of the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups t o whom she had spoken when f u n d r a i s i n g ,  the  29 m e d i a , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s , q u e s t i n g t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h t h e Board on her b e h a l f . made t h r e e c h a r g e s : t h e f i r s t  The house mother  t h a t the Board had f i r e d h e r , s e c o n d l y  the r e s i d e n t s were b e i n g m i s t r e a t e d and t h i r d l y , j e c t had been changed.  re-  that  t h a t the n a t u r e of the p r o -  She made these charges t o t h e l a w y e r i n a t e l e p h o n e  c o n v e r s a t i o n b u t d i d n o t f u r t h e r communicate w i t h t h e Board.  The CUS  C h a i r p e r s o n r e c e i v e d numerous l e t t e r s and t e l e p h o n e c a l l s i n t h e n e x t  six  weeks a l l e x p r e s s i n g some degree of concern over these c h a r g e s . Most of  117  These c a l l s were f r o m t h e donors of s m a l l sums d i s c u s s e d above.  N o t i f i c a t i o n was s e n t out a f t e r  t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y October m e e t i n g  (cf.  Chapter Two, S e c t i o n 2) o f a j o i n t m e e t i n g of t h e Management and A d v i s o r y Boards t o be h e l d November 8, 1966.  E i g h t members of t h e Vancouver  Indian  F r i e n d s h i p Center Board, one y o u t h member f r o m the c e n t e r , and t h e AMS P r e s i d e n t and T r e a s u r e r a t t e n d e d t h i s m e e t i n g as o b s e r v e r s .  The house mother  d i d not a t t e n d .  D e s p i t e t h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e m e e t i n g by t h e o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t  least  two of t h e n o n - s t u d e n t members o f the Boards, i n c l u d i n g the C h a i r p e r s o n , d i d not a t t e n d .  The b u s i n e s s of t h e m e e t i n g began w i t h a r e a d i n g of  s i g n i f i c a n t p i e c e s o f correspondence.  The f i r s t l e t t e r was the announcement  o f t h e g r a n t o f $2,500 from t h e Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n . l e t t e r was t h e f i r s t  two  The second  of a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s f r o m t h e B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and  W e l f a r e S o c i e t y c o n c e r n i n g a $100 d o n a t i o n t h e y had g i v e n t o the house mother 30 i n September, 1966.  The l e t t e r s f r o m these two o r g a n i z a t i o n s are  interes-  t i n g t o compare p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r i n g the amounts o f money i n v o l v e d each case.  in  The Leon and Thea Koerner f o u n d a t i o n made no s i m i l a r demands f o r  e x p l a n a t i o n s d e s p i t e t h e s t a t e of p u b l i c i t y i n the n e x t few months and t h e amount o f money i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r  grant.  As t h e m i n u t e s of the j o i n t Board m e e t i n g have been r e - w r i t t e n i n the AMS s t y l e which r e c o r d s o n l y m o t i o n s moved and o m i t s any r e c o r d of t h e exact procedure of the m e e t i n g i s u n a v a i l a b l e .  discussion,  However, memory and  118  o t h e r documentation make i t p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t degree.  the d i s c u s s i o n t o some  The second agenda i t e m was a r e p o r t on the Home by the new s t a f f  person and the new s t u d e n t C h a i r p e r s o n o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t e d Management Board. T h i s r e p o r t i n c l u d e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t h r e e i s s u e s w h i c h the house mother has r a i s e d as q u e r i e s .  The f i r s t was the s t a t u s of the house mother as she  was now c l a i m i n g she has been d i s m i s s e d w h i l e the Board m a i n t a i n e d t h a t resigned.  she  The second charge was t h a t t h e n a t u r e of the p r o j e c t had been  changed and t h e t h i r d was t h a t a t l e a s t some of t h e r e s i d e n t s were b e i n g 32 mistreated.  The members o f t h e I n d i a n Center Board seemed t o f i n d  the  e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n i n the r e p o r t q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y as t h e y d i d n o t pursue them f u r t h e r .  The one e x c e p t i o n was t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f t h e C e n t e r ,  a n o n - I n d i a n , who supported t h e house mother t o t a l l y  i n her advocacy o f a  h o s t e l cum c r i s i s c e n t e r and f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home s h o u l d become such a f a c i l i t y .  To t h i s end she sent a hand w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t  endix 3) t o be read a t t h e m e e t i n g .  (App-  No d i s c u s s i o n p r i o r t o or subsequent  to  t h e meeting c o u l d convince her t h a t h e r p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the Home might n o t be c o m p l e t e l y  correct.  33  A f t e r t h e f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t by t h e AMS T r e a s u r e r had been adopted i t was decided t o c a l l a n o t h e r j o i n t Board m e e t i n g f o r two weeks hence a t w h i c h time the agenda would i n c l u d e a f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s t a t u s of  the  house m o t h e r , s p e c i f i c a l l y her s t a t u s on l e a v i n g ; d i s c u s s i o n on i n c o r p o r a tion; possibility  of e l e c t i n g a c h a i r p e r s o n f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t e d A d v i s o r y  B o a r d ; and f i n a l l y , whether a p o l i c y f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e Home would be s e t and i f  so who would e s t a b l i s h the c r i t e r i a .  A d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and the  minutes of t h e November 13th and 17th Management Committee meetings and the  119  proposed agenda were sent out to a l l Board members November 17, 1966.""*  The  November 13th minutes r e c o r d among other t h i n g s : a) t h a t the I n d i a n Cen-  ter  had  benefit  been f o r m a l l y r e q u e s t e d  to e v a l u a t e each r e s i d e n t i n terms of  (or l a c k t h e r e o f ) of the environment o f f e r e d by  commend, where n e c e s s a r y , placement i n a d i f f e r e n t the Home was ity  through  now  the I n d i a n Center  passed;  the I n d i a n C e n t e r , tion  C o u n s e l l o r s (who,  that  d)  to r e although  a form of  together with Indian  the power to remove r e s i d e n t s i f they f e l t  not conducive  s t i t u t i o n was  s e t t i n g ; b)  b e i n g run by the r e s i d e n t s " t h e r e i s s t i l l  Branch c o u n s e l l o r s had u a t i o n was  the Home and  the  authorAffairs  the  sit-  to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e l l - b e i n g ) ; c) the d r a f t "The  Board i s a n x i o u s  a Hostel f o r Indian G i r l s  of the house mother.  The  Young Canadians to i n t e r e s t  to s e t up,  of the H o s t e l . "  The meeting on November 17th passed  with  direc-  has w r i t t e n to the Company of  them i n the p r o j e c t .  u n t e e r s c o u l d h e l p i n the r u n n i n g  in affiliation  to be p l a c e d under the  s t a f f person  con-  I t i s hoped t h a t CYC v o l -  35  two motions of some i n t e r e s t ,  the  first,  t h a t " v a r i o u s campus s o c i e t i e s be approached f o r v o l u n t e e r workers f o r the Home", the second, t h a t a l l p r e s s r e l e a s e s f o r the p r o j e c t be w r i t t e n by s p e c i f i e d member of the e d i t o r i a l board motion was  passed  the Students'  of the student newspaper.  i n hopes of c o n t r o l l i n g  C o u n c i l and  the news r e l e a s e s i s s u e d by  the house mother.  tage the Board hoped to stop i s the  announcement of the November 22nd  the ensuing  (Appendix  latter both  An example of the type of  Board meeting which appeared i n the Vancouver Sun.  D e s p i t e the m a i l e d n o t i c e s and  The  reporjoint  4.)  ( i f incorrect) publicity,  a  the  120  t e n Management Committee members b u t o n l y two of tbe A d v i s o r y Board members a t t e n d e d the November 22nd m e e t i n g .  These d i d n o t i n c l u d e the lawyer  the p s y c h i a t r i s t , b o t h of whom had had s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n t h e of the s t a f f  determination  change and n e i t h e r of whom n o t i f i e d t h e C h a i r p e r s o n of  i n t e n d e d absence.  Concerning t h e f i r s t  or  their  agenda i t e m , the s t a t u s o f the house  mother,  the f o l l o w i n g m o t i o n was moved by an A d v i s o r y Board member and  carried  unanimously: "As t h e r e appears t o be a g r e a t d e a l o f u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e s t a t u s of [the house mother] i n the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home . f o r I n d i a n G i r l s the Board wishes t o emphasize t h a t on no o c c a s i o n d i d t h i s board d i s m i s s [the house mother ] . [The house mother ] l e f t t h e Home h a v i n g r e c e i v e d her s a l a r y ; she r e c e i v e d h o l i d a y pay on October 3 1 . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t [the house mother ] had severed h e r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Home. " S i n c e [the house mother ] s t a t e s t h a t she i n f a c t had n o t r e s i g n e d t h e Board f e e l s t h a t she i s e n t i t l e d t o a monetary compensation t o be m u t u a l l y worked o u t between [the house m o t h e r ] and t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y as her l e g a l employer . "  The second agenda i t e m i n v o l v e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f . t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and a d i s c u s s i o n of some proposed a l t e r a t i o n s Societies Act.  t o render i t  l e g a l l y acceptable to the  The d e c i s i o n whether or n o t t o e l e c t a c h a i r p e r s o n f o r  A d v i s o r y Board was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a t t h i s time due t o the presence of  the only  two A d v i s o r y Board members.  The q u e s t i o n of c r i t e r i a f o r an admissions p o l i c y i n v o l v e d f i r s t  a report  stemming f r o m the r e q u e s t t o t h e I n d i a n Center C o u n s e l l o r s t o e v a l u a t e  the  individual residents.  that  I t was necessary to pass a m o t i o n t o the e f f e c t  the Management Board ( c a l l e d here t h e Student Resource B o a r d , a f t e r constitution)  the  draft  " c o n t a c t the r e s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s of tx^o g i r l s n o t s u i t e d  to  t h e environment of t h e Home and r e q u e s t t h a t o t h e r accommodation be f o u n d . "  121  I n the s p i r i t  of the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n i t was decided t h a t new admissions  would be accepted between Board meetings i f  they had been r e f e r r e d by a  dependable agency.  T h i s m e e t i n g , d e s p i t e i t s appearance of r a t i o n a l i t y , was c a r r i e d out i n an atmosphere of s t r a i n and t e n s i o n .  Two days a f t e r  the November 8 meeting  t h e AMS E x e c u t i v e decided t o " c o n d u c t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the CUS Co-op Home".  Each p e r s o n , known by t h e E x e c u t i v e t o have been i n v o l v e d i n the p r o -  j e c t w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a l l the r e s i d e n t s was sent a memorandum f r o m the AMS P r e s i d e n t r e q u e s t i n g a w r i t t e n r e p o r t  ( t o be r e c e i v e d by him f i v e days  a f t e r , t h e i s s u i n g of t h e memo) w h i c h was t o c o n t a i n : "A f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t t o d a t e , i n c l u d i n g comments on t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1 . B r i e f o u t l i n e o f your i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o j e c t . 2. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s and f u n c t i o n of t h e Management Board. 3. The proposed change i n p o l i c y ( s i c . ) " As w e l l the CUS C h a i r p e r s o n was r e q u e s t e d t o submit t o t h e T r e a s u r e r by the same time  limit, "1.  Composition of t h e v a r i o u s Boards s i n c e the home's inception. 2. Number of Board meetings w i t h dates and members p r e s e n t . 3. Present c o m p o s i t i o n of the Board ( s ) . 4 . A l l p a s t minutes of the B o a r d . " 3 7  The r e s u l t i n g R e p o r t , w r i t t e n by the AMS T r e a s u r e r and F i r s t  Vice-President  ( t h e AMS member mentioned i n Chapter Two, S e c t i o n 2 as v i s i t i n g t h e Home i n a p e r s o n a l c a p a c i t y ) was i s s u e d November 24, 1966, a Thursday, and s e n t t o Students'  C o u n c i l the f o l l o w i n g Monday f o r a p p r o v a l .  d i d n o t see f i t  The  "investigators"  t o a t t e n d the j o i n t Board m e e t i n g November 22 t o  t h e Boards of i t s recommendations, nor d i d t h e y g i v e e i t h e r the  appraise residents  122  or s t a f f lease.  any o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e recommendations p r i o r t o t h e i r  re-  Those most c l o s e l y concerned w i t h the Home, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r e s i -  dents and s t a f f  read of t h e d e c i s i o n s i n t e h newspapers.  The P u b l i c R e l a -  t i o n s O f f i c e of the AMS i s s u e d a p r e s s r e l e a s e November 25, 1966  (before  the C o u n c i l meeting had approved the document) w h i c h quoted l i b e r a l l y and by 38 name f r o m the supposedly c o n f i d e n t i a l r e p o r t s p e r m i s s i o n o f those t h e y q u o t e d .  w i t h o u t even o b t a i n i n g  the  S i g n i f i c a n t l y p e r h a p s , t h e y chose n o t  quote any of the " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , o n l y t h e s t u d e n t s and s t a f f  person.  The r e p o r t as p r e s e n t e d t o S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l i s reproduced b e l o w . "A l e t t e r was sent o u t under t h e s i g n a t u r e o f the P r e s i d e n t , t o v a r i o u s people i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t r e q u e s t i n g them to c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e Home and make recommendations t h e r e t o . The r e p l i e s have g e n e r a l l y been of g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e i n g i v i n g us a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t and i n g u i d i n g us i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f some recommendations. Most o f them m e r i t e d more t h a n one or two r e a d i n g s . "Some may q u e s t i o n the p r o p r i e t y of the E x e c u t i v e o r the Alma Mater S o c i e t y i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e Home b u t as i t i s l e g a l l y an AMS sponsored p r o j e c t a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e CUS Committee and has a l s o r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d e n t f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , i t j u s t i f i e s our c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t . Some i n t e r e s t and a c t i o n on our p a r t i s a l s o j u s t i f i e d because of some of the i n t e r n a l problems w h i c h have a r i s e n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e management of the Home w h i c h have caused concern amongst the p r e s s and o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t . " I t was envisaged t h a t the r o l e of the Alma Mater S o c i e t y should be r e s t r i c t e d t o a s s i s t i n g i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Home w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t the P r o j e c t m i g h t assume i n c o r p o r a t e d s t a t u s a t a l a t e r d a t e . We would hope t h a t t h i s g e n e r a l p o l i c y would c o n t i n u e . PURPOSE "The Home was o r i g i n a l l y envisaged a s : 1 . E n a b l i n g d i s p l a c e d young I n d i a n women t o f i n d a p r o p e r environment i n Vancouver i n what m i g h t be c a l l e d a " c o o p e r a t i v e " home. There has been c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n as t o whether the Home should be of a " h o s t e l " n a t u r e w i t h a s t r o n g e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l f l a v o u r , f u l l - t i m e house mother and c a t e r i n g more t o c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . Under  to  123  t h i s p o l i c y the Home tends t o accomodate s h o r t e r term occupants and has the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of a s s u ming a f l o p - h o u s e f u n c t i o n . The o t h e r v i e w advanced has proposed a more " c o - o p e r a t i v e " home f o r g i r l s who are p r o b a b l y e q u a l l y as much i n need o f such an environment b u t on a l o n g e r term and l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n alized basis. T h i s i n c o r p o r a t e s the p h i l o s o p h y o f a l l owing more d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e l i v i n g group and l e s s i n the way o f a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . I n our o p i n i o n , the l a t t e r p o l i c y , w h i c h has been adopted by the s t u d e n t s i n the p r o j e c t should be c o n t i n u e d a l t h o u g h i t must be v e r y c l e a r t h a t t h i s i s n o t a co-op f o r w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k i n g g i r l s b u t one t o a s s i s t those f r o m Skid Row, those who have j u s t touched i t , or those t h a t can and want t o b e n e f i t f r o m such an e n v i r o n m e n t . "We would urge t h a t the Board c o n t i n u e w i t h i n these terms of r e f e r e n c e b u t i t s h o u l d draw up a much c l e a r e r and more d e t a i l e d p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t . ORGANIZATION " I t was the unanimous c o n c l u s i o n o f those r e p l y i n g t h a t t h i s was t h e g r a v e s t weakness i n t h e p r o j e c t . So much so t h a t one o f the Board members ( p r o f e s s i o n a l ) has i n d i c a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o cedures must be c o r r e c t e d i f he i s t o remain a member of the Board. "We a r e v e r y conscious of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of undue i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of such a p r o j e c t and f u l l y r e c o g n i z e t h e energy and enthusiasm w h i c h s t u d e n t s are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o it. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d of performance should be expected of any committee r e l a t e d to t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y e s p e c i a l l y one where i t i s i n c o n t a c t w i t h the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and i n v o l v e d i n such a v i t a l p r o j e c t . "We t h e r e f o r e recommend t h a t of S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l , ensure t h e Home i s t i g h t e n e d up and recommend t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g  the E x e c u t i v e , w i t h the a p p r o v a l the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f functioning properly. We would m o t i o n be passed.  1. That the f o l l o w i n g be a p p o i n t e d t o the B o a r d : [Of t h e t w e l v e Board members, s i x were t o be s t u d e n t s and six non-students. Of the s t u d e n t s " a p p o i n t e d " f i v e were e x e c u t i v e members o f t h e r e - c o n s t i t u t e d Management Board and i n c l u d e d the man a p p o i n t e d T r e a s u r e r (who was i n f a c t " r e - a p p o i n t e d " T r e a s u r e r b u t who had been r e f u s e d s i g n i n g powers by the AMS T r e a s u r e r . ) The r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t a p p o i n tee was the AMS S e c r e t a r y . Of the s i x n o n - s t u d e n t s , the s t a f f person was i n c l u d e d b u t the o t h e r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Home was n o t . The f i v e r e m a i n i n g had been members of the A d v i s o r y Board w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of a c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t ]  124  2. That t h i s Board be r e c o g n i z e d as the o f f i c i a l Board and be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g those a f f a i r s of the Home which p r o p e r l y f a l l w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Further, t h a t the Board meet a t l e a s t once a month. 3. The Board d r a f t a c l e a r statement of p o l i c y f o r the Home c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the concept o f a s s i s t i n g young I n d i a n g i r l s who w i l l b e n e f i t from a c o - o p e r a t i v e home e n v i r o n ment. 4. The Board determine and implement any f u r t h e r p o l i c i e s c o n d u c t i v e ( s i c ) t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of the Home. 5. That t h e r u l e s of p r o c e d u r e and method of r e c o r d i n g minutes used by the Alma Mater S o c i e t y be adopted by the Board. 6.  That a l l minutes, documents, e t c . , be d e p o s i t e d promptly w i t h t h e Alma Mater S o c i e t y E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e c e i p t by S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l .  7. That any changes i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of the Board be based upon t h e recommendation o f the Chairman w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l . 8. That t h e Chairman be n o r m a l l y a p p o i n t e d i n March a t a j o i n t meeting o f t h e in-coming and o u t - g o i n g C o u n c i l s . " (emphasis added.) The one i s s u e c l a r i f i e d by the r e p o r t was t h a t of the "proposed change" i n policy.  As t h e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s t h e r e was no change of p o l i c y e i t h e r p r o -  posed o r e f f e c t e d .  I n the s e c t i o n " O r g a n i z a t i o n " they s t a t e t h a t  s t a n d a r d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n must be m a i n t a i n e d .  certain  An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t on  t h i s q u e s t i o n i n v o l v e s correspondence w i t h the l e g a l f i r m r e t a i n e d by the AMS c o n c e r n i n g l i c e n s e and zoning r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n  t o the proposed  l e a s e agreement between the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home and t h e l a n d l o r d 1966.  The o r i g i n a l , dated A p r i l  i n A p r i l of  18, 1966, was forwarded from the AMS  P r e s i d e n t to t h e T r e a s u r e r and a xerox copy sent t o the CUS C h a i r p e r s o n . A few weeks p r i o r  t o the i n c e p t i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the CUS C h a i r p e r s o n  asked the T r e a s u r e r f o r a copy, of t h e l e a s e agreement which he c l a i m e d had  125  been signed by t h e AMS on b e h a l f of the p r o j e c t .  A f t e r some s e a r c h i n g she  was t o l d the l e a s e agreement and r e l a t e d correspondence had been l o s t .  A  c a l l t o t h e AMS's lawyer bore out the evidence of the x e r o x copy h e l d by t h e CUS Committee t h a t , i f  f a c t , because of zoning r e g u l a t i o n s , a b i n d i n g a g r e e -  ment c o u l d n o t be s i g n e d .  40  I n d i s c u s s i n g the recommended m o t i o n no f u r t h e r  s p e c i f i c comment  need be  made on i t e m 1 . , the c o m p o s i t i o n of the Board.  I n i t e m 2 . , the phrase  " w h i c h p r o p e r l y f a l l w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n " was never c l a r i f i e d and t h e f a c t t h a t the two Boards were m e e t i n g a t o t a l o f t h r e e times p e r month (Management B o a r d , b i - m o n t h l y and t h e A d v i s o r y B o a r d , u s u a l l y i n a j o i n t meeting w i t h t h e Management B o a r d , once a month) was i g n o r e d .  Item 3 . ,  c o n c e r n i n g a c l e a r statement o f p o l i c y i g n o r e d the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n  al-  though n e i t h e r o f the two " i n v e s t i g a t o r s " c o u l d p o s s i b l y have been unaware of i t s e x i s t e n c e as c o p i e s had been sent t o them and the AMS T r e a s u r e r had made mention o f i n c o r p o r a t i o n . p r o c e e d i n g s  i n almost every p i e c e of  pondence he had s e n t out c o n c e r n i n g t h e Home.  I t e m 4. seems m e r e l y a r e p e -  t i t i o n of i t e m 2. w i t h no f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the t e r m i n o n o l y in either.  utilized  I t e m 5. had been adopted p r e v i o u s l y by b o t h Boards w i t h c o n s i -  derable loss h i s t o r i c a l l y method o f p r o c e d u r e . to t h e AMS.  corres-  i n terms of r e c o r d s o f d i s c u s s i o n excluded by  this  They had adopted t h i s r e p o r t i n g f o r m as a c o n c e s s i o n  I n i t e m 6. t h e phrase " f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e c e i p t " had been  amended from t h e d r a f t r e p o r t i s s u e d November 24, 1966, which read  "for  d i s t r i b u t i o n and a p p r o v a l " , the o n l y p o i n t conceded by the e x e c u t i v e i n a very b i t t e r  s e s s i o n between t h e e x e c u t i v e and m y s e l f the a f t e r n o o n p r i o r  to  the C o u n c i l m e e t i n g d u r i n g which many of the comments made here were r a i s e d  126  by me on b e h a l f of t h e r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f .  I t e m 7. n o t o n l y i g n o r e d the  d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n b u t had the. e f f e c t of making the p a s s i n g of such a c o n s t i t u t i o n and subsequent p r o c e e d i n g s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t much more d i f f i c u l t by demanding t h e a p p r o v a l of an u n i n f o r m e d , u n i n t e r e s t e d body, b e f o r e any changes c o u l d be made i n t h e p r o j e c t . t i n g " the p r o j e c t CUS Committee.  I t e m 8. had the e f f e c t o f  "eleva-  to the s t a t u s of a Standing Committee independent o f  The whole m o t i o n when p r e s e n t e d t o the S t u d e n t s '  the  Council  was d u l y passed a f t e r an a t t e m p t by two C o u n c i l l o r s t o t a l b e t h e m o t i o n was A  *  -  A  defeated.  41  One of t h e more n o t a b l e omissions f r o m the p r e s s r e l e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y persons concerned w i t h t h e image of t h e AMS v i s - a - v i s  for  "the general public  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , was t h e l a c k of any m e n t i o n of t h e Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation Grant.  The AMS T r e a s u r e r , however, was s t i l l making p l e a s  d o n a t i o n s t o p r e v e n t the p r o j e c t f r o m c l o s i n g . haps summed up t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s most  for  The P r e s i d e n t ' s quote p e r -  completely.  " I am happy t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e home i s making good p r o g r e s s . N a t u r a l l y , i n an a m b i t i o u s p r o j e c t of t h i s s o r t , we a r e bound t o r u n i n t o a few snags. But a c o - o p e r a t i v e , s e l f - h e l p home f o r young I n d i a n women i s w o r t h w o r k i n g f o r . The i d e a l i s m of s t u d e n t ( s i c ) , combined w i t h the d e s i r e o f the I n d i a n people t o remake t h e i r l i v e s , w i l l , I t h i n k , ensure the c o n t i n u e d success of the p r o j e c t , " he c o n t i n u e d . " I p e r s o n a l l y thank a l l the people who have helped us i n t h e p a s t , and who w i l l , I am s u r e , c o n t i n u e t o do so i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i s one of t h e few times s t u d e n t s a t UBC have o f f i c i a l l y i n v o l v e d themselves i n a major s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t o u t s i d e o f t h e immediate problems o f e d u c a t i o n . The AMS w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do e v e r y t h i n g i t can to ensure t h e c o n t i n u e d success of the p r o j e c t , " he c o n c l u d e d . " 4 2 Given these a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n s and u n t r u e comments, i t  is  interesting  t o l o o k b r i e f l y a t the major a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s e x e c u t i v e .  They,  individually  127  and c o l l e c t i v e l y , were p r i m a r i l y engaged i n the campaign f o r  democratiza-  t i o n of t h e u n i v e r s i t y w h i c h occupied much of the a c t i v i t y of the p l a n n e r s . T h e i r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s c e n t e r e d around s t u d e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e Senate and open meetings of the Board of Governors.  T h e i r r a t i o n a l e was t h a t  s t u d e n t s had t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h governed  their  lives.  These two documents, t h e r e p o r t and the p r e s s r e l e a s e bear c l o s e That the a u t h o r s of the r e p o r t f e l t  analysis.  t h e need t o p r o v i d e a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  for  t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o i t w h i c h t h e y were receiving.  The j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h e y o f f e r e d can be reduced t o t h e i r  about bad p u b l i c i t y .  concern  The f i n a n c i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n they r a i s e d c o u l d o n l y  have been based on the monies t h e p r o j e c t r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s , over which t h e y had no l e g a l c o n t r o l , as t h e AMS c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the had never gone above the o r i g i n a l $200. g i v e n t h e p r e v i o u s  project  spring.  T h i s concern about p u b l i c i t y c o u l d be regarded as a l e g i t i m a t e one.  However,  the e x e c u t i v e who endorsed the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the subsequent r e p o r t had actively participated in a  " t e n t - i n " on t h e campus to p r o t e s t t h e Vancouver  C i t y C o u n c i l ' s p o l i c y on i l l e g a l s u i t e s i n the P o i n t Grey a r e a and had a l s o made speeches on the s t e p s o f C i t y H a l l d u r i n g the o u t s i d e w o r k e r ' s  strike  p r o c l a i m i n g t h e i r s u p p o r t f o r the s t r i k e and denouncing as scabs those s t u d e n t s who were c o l l e c t i n g garbage.  The p u b l i c i t y and c r i t i c i s m s  arose f r o m these a c t i o n s was f a r more widespread and v o c a l t h a n t h e or t h e press coverage of a c t i v i t i e s s u r r o u n d i n g the p r o j e c t . events t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s of t h e i r p o s i t i o n b e g i n s t o p a l e .  which criticism  Given these  128  The g e n e r a l p o l i c y they e n u n c i a t e i n t h e r e p o r t of " r e s t r i c t i n g " . t h e AMS t o " a s s i s t i n g i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the Home" made i t s " f i r s t t h i s document.  appearance  in  A p a r t f r o m t h e two C o u n c i l motions- a p p r o v i n g t h e p r o j e c t  p r i n c i p l e and g i v i n g the $200. the AMS as such had had no i n v o l v e m e n t .  in The  T r e a s u r e r had r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the books over the p r o t e s t of t h e B o a r d , an a c t i o n to w h i c h the o t h e r e x e c u t i v e members responded w i t h the excuse of incompetence i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m a t t e r because of the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s Ithe executive.  However, t h e e f f e c t  c o r p o r a t i o n almost  of  o f t h e i r m o t i o n would be t o make i n -  impossible.  The d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e o r i g i n a l purpose of the p r o j e c t and the a u t h o r ' s c o n c e r n t h a t no " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k i n g g i r l s " should be a d m i t t e d their  indicated  l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e p r o j e c t and w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s of  people g e n e r a l l y and p a r t i c u l a r l y .  T h e i r d e s i r e t o ensure t h a t t h e  o n l y a s s i s t t h e u n f o r t u n a t e s i n t h e s o c i e t y connotes t h e k i n d of  native  project  benevolent  p a t e r n a l i s m toward n a t i v e people t o w h i c h t h e s t a f f person and many o f  the  s t u d e n t s t h e n i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t were adamantly opposed.  The members of the AMS e x e c u t i v e w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of  the T r e a s u r e r  held  t h e same k i n d of s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c w e l f a r i s t views as had t h e s t u d e n t p l a n n e r s of the p r o j e c t .  They seemed t o v i e w t h e p r o j e c t as a good s o c i a l  action  p r o j e c t a t a t i m e when i t was p o p u l a r f o r s t u d e n t s t o show t h e i r concern by engaging i n s o c i a l a c t i o n .  T h i s e x p l a i n s t h e i r b l i n d n e s s to t h e i n c o r p o r a -  t i o n process i n w h i c h t h e Board was a c t i v e l y engaged a t the t i m e of the i n vestigation.  They d i d n o t want t o l o s e the p r o j e c t i n t h i s way.  It  e x p l a i n s why they proposed a r e - s t r u c t u r i n g which would r e s u l t i n the  further project  129  becoming a s t a n d i n g committee o f t h e AMS and d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e the C o u n c i l and E x e c u t i v e i n i t s f u n c t i o n i n g .  k  '  T h e i r f a i l u r e t o i n v o l v e the r e s i d e n t s of the Home i n the process or t o even make m e n t i o n o f them except i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the types of women who would be e l i g i b l e f o r a d m i t t a n c e was an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e g a r d f o r n a t i v e , people as c h i l d r e n whom one d i d n o t need to c o n s u l t .  They focussed the e x -  c l u s i o n i n t h e r e p o r t of any d i s c u s s i o n of the s t a f f  changes w h i c h were the  cause of the p u b l i c i t y adds t o t h i s  conclusion.  The e x e c u t i v e members had a t t e m p t e d i n every way p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d c o n f r o n t i n g the race q u e s t i o n .  The c r i t i c i s m s of t h e B o a r d ' s management were no  l o n g e r a p t as was i n d i c a t e d by t h e h i g h degree of s u p p o r t b o t h p h y s i c a l , terms of committees, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , i n terms of the acceptance of c o n s t i t u t i o n drawn up by the s t a f f  the  person and r e s i d e n t s .  The members o f t h e Board had undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e changes d u r i n g tenure.  in  They had been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between  r h e t o r i c of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n and t h e i r p r a c t i c e of  their their  exclusion.  By and l a r g e t h e y had r e s o l v e d them i n f a v o u r of p r o v i d i n g b a c k i n g and mat e r i a l a i d when asked and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on e d u c a t i n g t h e n o n - I n d i a n communit y about t h e i r p r o b l e m .  The two Board ' s response t o the r e p o r t was t o comply on the s m a l l i s s u e s as s t y l e of r e p o r t i n g m i n u t e s , w h i l e d e f y i n g the C o u n c i l on the l a r g e r M i n u t e 4 of t h e " M e e t i n g of the Board o f D i r e c t o r s of the I n d i a n  (sic)  such ones.  130  C o o p e r a t i v e House", December 13, read and  circulated."  1966,  reads "AMS  Council  Minute 5 r e a d s , moved and  seconded  professionals)  •  recommendations (by  two  of  the  *•  "That the lawyer r e - d r a f t (re-word) the C o n s t i t u t i o n and t h a t i t be c i r c u l a t e d to a l l Board members and members of the AMS C o u n c i l f o r examination, w i t h i n t e n t to i n c o r p o r a t e the s o c i e t y at the next m e e t i n g . " These were h o p e f u l p l a n s never to be r e a l i z e d . "officially  involved  itself  demoralized.  d e a l t c r e d i t a b l y w i t h the ing i n new  volunteers,  u n i v e r s i t y who  the r e s i d e n t s ,  They c o n t i n u e d  contacting  By A p r i l ,  and  i n the p r o j e c t but  not  be  of  to  board members  to meet on a r e g u l a r  organizations  c o n s t i t u t i o n which would meet the d e s i r e s could  once i t had  s t a f f and  immediate problems of f i n d i n g new  were i n t e r e s t e d  s t r i c t u r e s of the AMS  executive,  i n a major s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t " , r e t u r n e d  d e m o c r a t i z i n g the u n i v e r s i t y , l e a v i n g exhausted and  The  basis  and  residents,  bring-  i n d i v i d u a l s outside  the c r e a t i o n of a  the r e s i d e n t s  the  suitable  as w e l l as  the  created.  those concerned w i t h the p r o j e c t were t h o r o u g h l y f r u s t r a t e d .  Minutes of the meeting of  the  "Board of  the  The  I n d i a n Youth C o - o p e r a t i v e House  49 for  Girls", April  11,  the  spirit  constitution despite  t i v e , and  of  the  1967  i n d i c a t e that  to b e g i n to take c o n t r o l of  example, an addendum to minute 2, that  the the  Minute 4 r e c o r d s t h a t  the  f i n a n c i a l assets  accepting  i n accordance w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s "That the House be  b l e f o r the  operation  s e t up and  list of  d e c i d e d to  problems caused by of  implement  the AMS the  execu-  Home.  the T r e a s u r e r ' s R e p o r t ,  " r e n t a l incomes b e i n g w i t h h e l d by r e s i d e n t s  bank."  7,  the Board had  have been d e p o s i t e d  For  states in a  of A d v i s o r y Board members proposed  the. C o n s t i t u t i o n were a c c e p t e d ;  on a co-op b a s i s , w i t h the r e s i d e n t s  f i n a n c i n g " , was  passed.  Minute  responsi-  Minute 8 rendered  the  131  s t a f f p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the k e e p i n g of f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f a f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t on the l a s t day of each month, a copy t o be forwarded t o the C h a i r p e r s o n of the B o a r d .  Minute 9 f o r m a l l y  established  an account a t an off-campus bank and a u t h o r i z e d two s i g n i n g o f f i c e r s clude the s t a f f  person and "two o t h e r r e s i d e n t s as may be  r e s i d e n t s from time t o time and r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the B a n k . "  to  in-  decided by the Minutes 10, 1 1 ,  and 1 2 , were o f a housekeeping n a t u r e , a u t h o r i z i n g payment o f b i l l s .  Minute  13 r e a d " T h a t t h e b a l a n c e of funds r e m a i n i n g i n the AMS account be under c o n t r o l of the i n - c o m i n g B o a r d . "  the  They p u r p o s e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d these p r o -  cedures i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e t o a l l concerned t h a t t h e y were w i t h d r a w i n g from t h e AMS b a n k i n g and a c c o u n t i n g system.  I n May of 1967 " t h e s i t u a t i o n had developed t o t h e p o i n t where t h e AMS Executive f e l t  t h e home was n o t f u l f i l l i n g i t s p u r p o s e , and steps were t a k e n t o  close i t down.""^  A more c o l o u r f u l w r i t e r m i g h t have i n s e r t e d t h e  " f o r c i b l y e v i c t the o c c u p a n t s " i n p l a c e of " c l o s e i t  down," as t h e  phrase residents  f e l t moved to c a l l i n s u p p o r t f r o m the I n d i a n y o u t h community t o r e s i s t a t t e m p t s o f t h e AMS t o c a r r y o u t t h i s s t e p .  the  N e v e r t h e l e s s the " s t e p s " were  s u c c e s s f u l and the Home was c l o s e d p e r m a n e n t l y .  The o f f i c i a l r a t i o n a l e  of  t h e r e p o r t t o C o u n c i l , November 2 0 t h , 1967, and passed by them was as f o l l o w s : "The r e s t r u c t u r e d board never r e a l l y became e f f e c t i v e , and t h e a f f a i r s of the home d r i f t e d on from month to month t h r o u g h the w i n t e r and i n t o t h e s p r i n g . The g i r l s i n the home appear t o have been making a genuine e f f o r t t o f o r m a v i a b l e c o - o p e r a t i v e group t h r o u g h o u t t h i s p e r i o d b u t t h e i r e f f o r t s were b e i n g f r u s t r a t e d though i n e x p e r i e n c e i n c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g , and an i n a b i l i t y to manage t h e i r o w n . a f f a i r s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a muddled r e l a t i o n s h i p between the co-op home, the B o a r d , the CUS Committee, aid t h e AMS, w h i c h was the r e s p o n s i b l e f i s c a l a g e n t . " (emphasis added)  132  I n f a c t t h e AMS had r e f u s e d t o t u r n over t h e funds t o the c o n t r o l of  the  Board a l t h o u g h , once a g a i n , t h e y had no l e g a l c o n t r o l over them as t h e y were n o t s t u d e n t monies.  The a u t h o r of t h i s r e p o r t ,  t h e n T r e a s u r e r o f the AMS, and former  chairperson  o f t h e l o c a l committee of the World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e , i n c l u d e d an e p i l o g u e to his b r i e f  " h i s t o r y " o f the  project.  "The f a i l u r e o f t h e I n d i a n co-op home p r o j e c t deserves some thought. A g r e a t many people p u t a l o t o f e f f o r t i n t o t h e p r o j e c t ; some of them were l e f t v e r y b i t t e r a t i t s r e s u l t . The home r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m many i n d i v i d u a l s and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Some w i l l argue t h a t s t u d e n t s have no b u s i n e s s i n v o l v i n g themselves i n a community p r o j e c t such as t h i s one. I t h i n k t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e y do. Students must present i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l s of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . Through p r o j e c t s such as the co-op home t h e y can o f f e r c h a l l e n g i n g i n n o v a t i o n s , new t e c h n i q u e s on approaches i n response t o p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l . problems. I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t many such p r o j e c t s f a i l , b u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y be c a r r i e d t h r o u g h as c a r e f u l l y and as c o m p e t e n t l y as p o s s i b l e . The I n d i a n Co-op Home was an a t t e m p t t o use a s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i a l t e c h n i q u e ( c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g ) t o s o l v e a complex c u l t u r a l problem ( i n t e g r a t i o n of young I n d i a n women i n t o a w h i t e , urban s o c i e t y ) . The f a i l u r e of t h i s p r o j e c t cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o i n a d e quate p h y s i c a l resources. Generous d o n a t i o n s of money and m a t e r i a l were a v a i l a b l e almost f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n of the p r o j e c t . I t h i n k t h a t t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e home can be a t t r i b u t e d t o two p r i m a r y c a u s e s : 1 . The p r o j e c t was never a d e q u a t e l y r e s e a r c h e d . I t s aims were n o t c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e approach were n o t f o r e s e e n . 2. The p r o j e c t d i d n o t have a c o n t i n u o u s , s t r o n g , s e n s i t i v e leadership. N e i t h e r co-op r e s i d e n c e s nor the I n d i a n c u l t u r e are amenable t o crude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t many o f t h e i n t e r n a l problems of the home i n v o l v i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r o l e of the house m o t h e r , the management of f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s ,  133  t h e development of autonomy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the a d m i s s i o n o f r e s i d e n t s , e t c . c o u l d have been a l l e v i a t e d by an a c t i v e , i n f o r m e d Board of Management. The CUS I n d i a n home i s f i n i s h e d and was c l e a r l y a f a i l u r e . What i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , n o t c l e a r i s whether i t was a f a i l u r e o f c o n c e p t i o n or i n e x e c u t i o n . " The a u t h o r o f t h i s " r e p o r t " ,  s u b t i t l e d " ' T h e o n l y good I n j u n i s a deed u n '  General C u s t e r " , chose n o t t o p r e s e n t a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a complete a c c o u n t i n g o f t h e h i s t o r y of the Home t o t h e S t u d e n t s '  Council.  His comments  were of a s u f f i c i e n t l y u n s p e c i f i c n a t u r e t o r e n d e r tham a c c e p t a b l e as an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s t o those who had no p r i o r knowledge of t h e Home. C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women f a i l e d b u t f o r v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n those g i v e n by the people who were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i t s  demise.  The reasons  134  Footnotes 1.  L e t t e r s from J.N. Hyland, Chairman, B r i t i s h Columbia Packers L i m i t e d , Columbia Lumber M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , F e b r u a r y 3, 1966, and Ian A. B a r c l a y , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and S e c r e t a r y , B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L i m i t e d , F e b r u a r y 17, 1966.  2.  These were the Truck Loggers' A s s o c i a t i o n , Lucky Lager B r e w e r i e s , L t d . , and McGuinness D i s t i l l e r s L i m i t e d .  3.  L e t t e r from J.A. Maclnnes,  4.  L e t t e r from J . J . Rooney, B u s i n e s s Manager, A p r i l 25, 1966. An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e f u s a l was a l e t t e r sent by the same p e r s o n a week p r i o r t o t h i s one c o n t a i n i n g a $100 d o n a t i o n and r e c e i v e d by me i n my c a p a c i t y as T r e a s u r e r of the UBC World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e Committee. The WUSC f u n d - r a i s i n g campaign had been begun a month a f t e r the campaign f o r the CUS p r o j e c t .  5.  One hundred d o l l a r s of t h i s sum was s o l i c i t e d by p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t from a member i n the summer months and was t h e r e f o r e t e c h n i c a l l y not a p a r t of t h i s f u n d i n g campaign.  6.  The d i s c r e p a n c y between t h i s f i g u r e and the one g i v e n i n f n . 8 of Chapter Two i s the a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1,200 g i v e n by the G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s o f 1966, d i s c u s s e d below.  7.  Minute  8.  Minute 6 of F i n a n c e Committee M i n u t e s , approved as Document #67-4 i n Minute 4, S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l meeting M i n u t e s , March 28, 1966.  9.  L e t t e r from A.H.  D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , A p r i l  10 of S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l  20,  1966.  Minutes.  Bayne, S e c r e t a r y  of the  Board.  10.  L e t t e r from W.J. M u s s e l l , P r e s i d e n t . They were unable to meet t h i s hope as they encountered f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r own.  11.  The sum appeared f i n a l l y i n the f i n a n c i a l statements of the r e p o r t t o S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l , November 20, 1967, recommending the c l o s u r e of the p r o j e c t and on the Revenue Ledger Card, A p r i l 19, 1968.  12.  The G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s monies t h a t y e a r had been i n f l a t e d due to an a c t i o n o f the 1965-66 S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l i n f r e e z i n g the G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s G i f t of the p r e v i o u s y e a r which was to have gone to the Three U n i v e r s i t i e s C a p i t a l Fund D r i v e . In the f a l l of 1965 these funds were u n f r o z e n and added to those of the 1965-66 G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s . T h i s a c t i o n on the p a r t of the C o u n c i l provoked the G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s C o u n c i l to move a motion, January 13, 1966, (#7) s e e k i n g an "amendment to the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n which w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y v e s t f i n a n c i a l autonomy over G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s C o u n c i l monies i n the G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s C o u n c i l and i t s G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s Students i n the G e n e r a l Meeting pursuant t o the Graduate C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i o n . " On January 24, 1966, Minute #10 of the S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l r e c o r d s the f o l l o w i n g motion:  135  "That S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l approve i n p r i n c i p l e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to t h e AMS Lawyer, t h e f o l l o w i n g amendment t o the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n and By-Laws:N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a n y t h i n g i n t h e AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n t o the c o n t r a r y , i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l has n o . c o n t r o l over t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f the funds o f t h e G r a d u a t i n g Students e x c e p t : i ) t o a s s u r e t h a t a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s a r e made p u r s u a n t t o the r e l e v a n t p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s ; and where an e x p e n d i t u r e has been approved by the G r a d u a t i n g Students i n G e n e r a l M e e t i n g , ii)  t o compel the c a l l i n f o f a f u r t h e r G e n e r a l Meeting o f the G r a d u a t i n g Students w i t h i n t h r e e weeks time t o r e - c o n s i d e r any proposed e x p e n d i t u r e t o which S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l o b j e c t s and any d e c i s i o n of a meeting so c a l l e d s h a l l be f i n a l and c o n c l u s i v e .  Carried." There i s no f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a t t e r i n t h e M i n u t e s o f any S t u dents' C o u n c i l Meeting except t h e a p p r o v a l oh F e b r u a r y 14, 1966 (Minute #5) o f t h e G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s G e n e r a l Meeting, F e b r u a r y 3, 1966 (Doc. #66224) which c o n t a i n e d the motion on the a p p o r t i o n i n g of t h e G r a d u a t i n g Class G i f t . The attempt t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i s i o n had been made was thwarted as the AMS had l o s t t h e p e r t i n e n t r e c o r d s . 13.  "An approach was made t o the g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s a t UBC who g e n e r o u s l y showed t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t b y g u a r a n t e e i n g an advance o f $1,200 t o t h e p r o j e c t . " from " P r o g r e s s Report: C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " , September 7, 1966, w r i t t e n by t h e T r e a s u r e r of the Alma Mater S o c i e t y . (emphasis added.)  14.  F o r example, " I n d i a n Women's Co-op House, A P r o g r e s s R e p o r t " , n.d. by the house mother, P r o v i n c e a r t i c l e , August, 1966, Sun a r t i c l e , June 11, 1966.  15.  T h i s r e q u e s t e d s u b s i d y was based  on e s t i m a t e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s w h i c h  i n c l u d e d $3,600 i n s a l a r i e s . 16.  L e t t e r from H.B. Hawthorn, S e c r e t a r y , P r o j e c t s Committee, Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n , October 28, 1966.  17.  The I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch was them empowered t o g i v e d i r e c t g r a n t s t o F r i e n d s h i p C n e t e r s and t o p r o v i n c i a l I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s b u t n o t to p r o j e c t s o t h e r than t h e s e .  18.  Based on 12 months a c t u a l occupancy from A p r i l 15, 1966 t o A p r i l , 1967.  19.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r Code i s l i s t e d as Doc. #68-87.  20.  Ibid.  A r t i c l e 3 (2) a.  i n the 1967-68 Document f i l e  o f the AMS  136  21.  Ibid.  A r t i c l e 3 (2)  (b)  viii.  22.  Ibid.  A r t i c l e 3 (2)  (b) i x ,  23.  I b i d . A r t i c l e 3 (12) emphasis added. A r t i c l e 3 (11) says t h a t a l l committees e s t a b l i s h e d under A r t i l c e 3 " s h a l l a c t i n accordance w i t h By-Law 14 of the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n " however, I was u n a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the i m p o r t of t h i s as the AMS are u n a b l e to l o c a t e a copy of the r e l e v a n t e d i t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n .  24.  The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i s i o n s of 1967 i n c l u d e d a change f r o m C h a i r p e r s o n s e l e c t e d by C o u n c i l t o an e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s O f f i c e r , ( l a t e r changed t o V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , E x t e r n a l ) e l e c t e d by the s t u d e n t s and i n c l u d i n g a l l the CUS r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p l u s those assumed by t h e CUS C h a i r p e r s o n i n 1966-77 ( e x c l u d i n g those of the Home).  25.  A few of the l a r g e r d o n a t i o n earmarked f o r the Home f r o m w e l l - k n o w n i n d i v i d u a l s were d i v e r t e d by the T r e a s u r e r t h r o u g h t h e A l u m n i Annual G i v i n g Fund, and t h e r e b y o b t a i n e d t a x e x e m p t i o n .  26.  A major f a c t o r m i l i t a t i n g a g a i n s t any person who was employed f u l l - t i m e t a k i n g on t h e j o b was t h a t t h e AMS o f f i c e hours were 10 a.m. t o 4 p.m. only.  27.  These " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t " committees i n c l u d e d F r o s h O r i e n t a t i o n , s h i p Conference, Homecoming, e t c .  28.  When t h e CUS C h a i r p e r s o n appealed to o t h e r members of the e x e c u t i v e f o r a i d i n t h i s and o t h e r m a t t e r s she was t o l d t h e y c o u l d be o f no a s s i s tance as she was more competent i n t h e "matters t h a n t h e y .  29.  V e r b a l communication t o t h e w r i t e r i n September, 1967 by t h e t h e n B.C. R e g i o n a l O f f i c e r of the C i t i z e n s h i p Branch of the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e .  30.  The B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and W e l f a r e S o c i e t y f i r s t c o n t a c t e d t h e Board C h a i r p e r s o n i n June r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o j e c t i n o r d e r t o c o n s i d e r i t f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . An e x t e n s i v e r e p l y was sent t o t h e i r Corresponding S e c r e t a r y w h i c h r e f e r r e d her t o t h e i n - c o m i n g CUS C h a i r p e r s o n f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I n l a t e September, e x e c u t i v e members of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n v i s i t e d t h e Home and p r e s e n t e d t h e House mother w i t h a cheque f o r $100. The house mother d i d n o t i n f o r m t h e Board of e i t h e r t h e v i s i t or t h e d o n a t i o n w h i c h was s i m p l y d e p o s i t e d t o t h e account w i t h t h e AMS. The S o c i e t y f o l l o w e d up t h e i r v i s i t w i t h a l e t t e r f r o m t h e Corresponding S e c r e t a r y t o the house mother which made m e n t i o n of t h e house m o t h e r ' s "endeavour t o g e t the Vancouver F r i e n d s h i p Center to t a k e an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and t o a s s i s t i n f i n a n c i n g the Co-Op House" and r e q u e s t e d w r i t t e n acknowledgement and a r e c e i p t f o r t h e d o n a t i o n . T h i s l e t t e r , w h i c h was forwarded to t h e CUS C h a i r person as i t a r r i v e d a f t e r t h e house mother had l e f t , was the f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n t h e Board r e c e i v e d of the S o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t . The l e t t e r w h i c h was read a t the November j o i n t Board m e e t i n g , was the f i r s t of t h r e e r e c e i v e d i n t h e n e x t two months. They are reproduced  x.  Leader-  137  as Appendix 2. T h i s person was t h e s t u d e n t who had moved o u t of the r e s i d e n c e and now resumed a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o j e c t when the new s t a f f person took over. One example of t h i s m i s t r e a t m e n t c i t e d by the house mother was t h a t one o f t h e young women found t h e presence of the s t a f f p e r s o n ' s n i n e month o l d baby u p s e t t i n g . On January 3 1 , 1966 she had s e n t a l e t t e r t o the CUS C h a i r p e r s o n c o n g r a t u l a t i n g t h e committee f o r i t s p r o j e c t and t h e approach w h i c h she t h e n d e s c r i b e d as " c r e a t i v e and r e f r e s h i n g " . Her i d e a s on s u p e r v i s i o n seemed, t h o u g h , t o more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l those of the house m o t h e r , f o r example, i n h e r c a p a c i t y as E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , of t h e C e n t e r , she r e s e r v e d t h e r i g h t to e d i t each e d i t i o n of the Center young p e o p l e ' s n e w s l e t t e r b e f o r e she would a l l o w i t t o be p r i n t e d . The Management Committee, as r e c o n s t r u c t e d , c o n s i s t e d o f t e n members, a l l o f whom were s t u d e n t s . From t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e M i n u t e s f o r t h i s m e e t i n g . They were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e w r i t t e n " a c c o r d i n g t o AMS f o r m a t " by a m o t i o n a t t h e f o l l o w i n g meeting w h i c h meant removal o f a l l r e c o r d of d i s c u s s i o n , l e a v i n g o n l y a r e c o r d of m o t i o n s moved. Alma Mater S o c i e t y I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Memo, November 10, 1966, The Sun a r t i c l e , r e p r i n t e d i n Appendix 3, must have combined t h i s memo w i t h the date of t h e r e g u l a r S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l M e e t i n g t o a r r i v e a t t h e date o f November 14. I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Memo, November 1 0 , 1966. The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y had been i n v o k e d when members of the Board r e q u e s t e d access t o some of the r e p o r t s a f t e r the AMS had completed i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and made i t s r e p o r t . Copy o f l e t t e r f r o m B.B. T r e v i n o o f R u s s e l l and D u M o u l i n , A p r i l 18, 1966. That t h i s confused s i t u a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the r e n t a l s t a t u s o f t h e Home c o u l d have a r i s e n was d i r e c t l y due t o the r e l u c t a n c e of the AMS Treasurer to release the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s . M i n u t e s //13, 1 4 , and 1 5 , M e e t i n g o f the S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l , November 28, 1966. The name g i v e n a t the end of the p r e s s r e l e a s e as the c o n t a c t f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was t h a t of the C h a i r p e r s o n of the CUS Committee. AMS Document ?768-21. "CUS C o - o p e r a t i v e Home" s u b m i t t e d t o the S t u d e n t s ' 1967, by t h e t h e n AMS T r e a s u r e r .  C o u n c i l , November 20,  Understanding the F a i l u r e  139  The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women was e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e d when t h e r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f o f 1967.  person were f o r c i b l y e v i c t e d by t h e AMS e x e c u t i v e i n May  The o f f i c i a l  ending of the p r o j e c t o c c u r r e d i n l a t e November of  t h a t year when the r e p o r t by the t h e n T r e a s u r e r , I n j u n i s a deed u n " was accepted by the S t u d e n t s '  s u b t i t l e d "The o n l y good Council together w i t h a  recommendation f o r the disbursement o f t h e b a l a n c e i n t h e account of This r e p o r t ,  $3,740.81.  e x t e n s i v e l y quoted above, gave as t h e p r i m a r y causes f o r  the  p r o j e c t ' s f a i l u r e i n a d e q u a t e r e s e a r c h and gross l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p by t h e Board.  The q u e s t i o n of l a c k o f r e s e a r c h was f i r s t  r a i s e d by the AMS i n t h i s  report.  I and some of t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t members o f t h e Board had r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n as a c r i t i c i s m of o u r s e l v e s i n our submissions t o t h e AMS " . i n v e s t i g a t i o n "  2 i n November of 1966.  By May o f 1967 t h e problem was no l o n g e r r e a l .  The  d i s c u s s i o n s prompted by the house m o t h e r ' s charges c o n c e r n i n g t h e purpose and procedures of t h e p r o j e c t had p r o v i d e d a l l those i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t w i t h a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o - o p e r a t i v e methods. the s t a f f  The i n f l u e n c e  of  person and h e r s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s to draw t o g e t h e r n a t i v e and non-  n a t i v e young people i n b o t h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  settings  had done much t o educate those i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t i n the c u l t u r a l l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s .  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two, S e c t i o n  problems w i t h t h e Home would have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y m i n i m i z e d i f  1,  simi-  the  this  process  of e d u c a t i o n had o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e p r o j e c t ' s i n c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n w e l l a f t e r i t had begun.  Nevertheless, i t  i s s a f e to say t h a t the i n a d e q u a c i e s  had been overcome and t h e o r i g i n a l i d e a l s of the p r o j e c t were b e i n g met as much as they c o u l d be w i t h o u t c o n t r o l over the f i n a n c i a l a s s e t s .  Lack of  140  adequate r e s e a r c h , u n c l e a r aims and u n f o r s e e n i m p l i c a t i o n s on t h e p a r t those d i r e c t l y project's  i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t were n o t a p r i m a r y cause f o r  of  the  failure.  The charge of mismanagement, d e s c r i b e d i n the T r e a s u r e r ' s r e p o r t as " c r u d e e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " was a l e i t m o t i f ments on the  r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a l l t h e AMS pronounce-  project.  A Ubessey s t o r y , February 7, 1967, f o u r months p r i o r t o the Home's demise i s e n t i t l e d " D e s p i t e AMS Co-op House o p e r a t i n g . "  It  begins  " D e s p i t e a r u n - i n w i t h U.B.C. s t u d e n t c o u n c i l ( s i c ) t h e I n d i a n Youth C o - o p e r a t i v e House f o r Girls is flourishing." "The house was almost d e s t r o y e d by AMS b u r e a u cracy." 3 The s t o r y goes on t o quote t h e s t u d e n t c h a i r p e r s o n  of the Board of Management  as s a y i n g t h a t t h e AMS a c t i o n was " t y p i c a l p e t t y s t u d e n t p o l i t i c s . "  On t h e  one hand t h e n , t h e r e were charges o f b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e p t i t u d e , on t h e  other,  charges of p e t t y  bureaucracy.  The Alma Mater S o c i e t y , c h a r t e r e d under t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t of B r i t i s h Columbia, had an e x t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which encompassed p r o p e r t y management and f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l committees.  sub-  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e S o c i e t y ' s f u n c t i o n s was by means of a  f o r m a l l y established h i e r a r c h y of rank.  The o f f i c e r s o f the S o c i e t y were  e l e c t e d a n n u a l l y by t h e g e n e r a l s t u d e n t body.  The d i r e c t o r s of the  Society  141  were e l e c t e d by t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the v a r i o u s f a c u l t i e s .  The c h a i r -  persons of the sub-committees were chosen a n n u a l l y at< a j o i n t m e e t i n g of incumbent and r e t i r i n g C o u n c i l s .  the  Membership i n t h e committees and o t h e r  o r g a n i z a t i o n s was v o l u n t a r y and a l l p o s i t i o n s were unpaid w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f some s m a l l h o n o r a r i a .  The o n l y c o n t i n u i n g presence i n the  administrative  s t r u c t u r e was a s m a l l s u p p o r t s t a f f whose manager was r e s p o n s i b l e t o the C o u n c i l b u t who r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e E x e c u t i v e .  Membership i n the S o c i e t y was compulsory f o r a l l s t u d e n t s and fees were c o l l e c t e d by the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on t h e S o c i e t y ' s b e h a l f .  Despite  the  compulsory membership l e s s t h a n twenty p e r c e n t o f the g e n e r a l membership v o t e d i n g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s and fewer than f i v e p e r c e n t a c t i v e l y  participated  i n the S o c i e t y ' s programs.  The s t a b i l i t y  f r o m year t o y e a r was based on t h e r e c r u i t m e n t n e t w o r k  which the m a j o r i t y of t h e o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s achieved t h e i r  through  positions.  The n e t w o r k o p e r a t e d l a r g e l y i n t h e sub-committees of t h e S o c i e t y .  The mem-  b e r s o f these sub-committees w e r e , or became, known t o t h e r e t i r i n g Execut i v e who would encourage and a i d those they f e l t  s u i t a b l e to run f o r  posi-  t i o n s on t h e C o u n c i l thus p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e i d e o l o g i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commitment.  The l i m i t e d i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e b u l k of t h e s t u d e n t body enabled  t h i s t y p e of r e c r u i t m e n t mechanism t o f u n c t i o n w i t h l i t t l e c h a l l e n g e . the p a r t i c i p a n t s  Among  i n the S o c i e t y t h e compliance p a t t e r n s were n o r m a t i v e and  normative u t i l i t a r i a n .  Pure n o r m a t i v e compliance was the most  characteristic  p a t t e r n o f t h e C o u n c i l members and members of the sub-committees seen as p o tential recruits.  These i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t e d a h i g h l e v e l of commitment  to  142  the o r g a n i z a t i o n and This voluntary  commitment p r o v i d e d  ted o f f i c e r s and t h e r e was by  no  i t s maintenance as they saw a reinforcement  l e g a l c o n t r a c t of the  inheritors.  to, the h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r i e n -  d i r e c t o r s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t of b u r e a u c r a t i c  authority although  type to which B l a u r e f e r s , e n t e r e d  into  the p a r t i e s .  Compliance r e l a t i o n s w i t h and  themselves as the  those who  were a c t i v e i n the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t c l u b s  o r g a n i z a t i o n s were normative u t i l i t a r i a n .  upon the C o u n c i l f o r f u n d i n g Many of them had  little  e x c l u s i v e l y with  the support  exceptions subsidiary  and  access  contact with  when c o n t a c t was  to space and  made w i t h  provided  groups r e q u i r e d more funds than had  mined and  the banking f u n c t i o n .  growth of knowledge and  the c o n c e r t e d  strategy for  specialized s k i l l s ,  (p. 11.),  the  e f f o r t of many  s t r u c t u r i n g of the  r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r i o r and  a c u l t u r a l l y determined i d e o l o g y  organiza-  culturally  subordinate  i s also applicable.  Society.  deter-  r o l e s , and The  ideal-  type c o n s t r u c t developed by Weber to r e f l e c t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y i s completely  Despite  inapplicable.  the i n a c c u r a c y  few  when the  i s a p p l i c a b l e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the  transmitted  The  been a l l o c a t e d , a t which time  institutionalized  Thompson's d e f i n i t i o n which i n v o l v e s a s p e c i f i c t i o n to r e f l e c t  d e a l t almost  directly.  achievement of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s by (p. 9)  physical assets.  the o f f i c e r s were o c c a s s i o n s  Blau's d e f i n i t i o n of b u r e a u c r a c y as an  officials  other  the S o c i e t y ' s o f f i c e r s and  s t a f f who  they would approach the C o u n c i l  A l l of them were dependent  of e q u a t i n g  the h i e r a r c h i c a l model of b u r e a u c r a c y  143  developed by Weber t o t h e r e a l i t y of the S o c i e t y ' s s t r u c t u r e ,  those members  of the S o c i e t y most committed to i t h e l d an e q u a l l y s t r o n g commitment h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r i n g as the most d e s i r a b l e f o r m of z a t i o n and attempted t o a c t on t h e b a s i s of i t s e x i s t e n c e .  to  organi-  Innovation i n ad-  m i n i s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e and i n programming were c o n t i n u a l l y r e s i s t e d because of t h i s t h i n k i n g ^ which r e q u i r e d t h a t change should come o n l y f r o m t h e top down.  None of Thompson's c r i t e r i a f o r  the encouragement o f i n d i v i d u a l  v a t i o n ( p . 20 above) were a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n nor were B l a u ' s for organizational innovation.  inno( p . 18)  The i n n o v a t i o n s i n programming w h i c h o c c u r r e d  were i n n o v a t i o n s f o r c e d on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f r o m e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . weapon r e s o r t e d t o by the o f f i c e r s  The  first  i n s i t u a t i o n s of t h i s s o r t was an a t t e m p t  t o secure compliance t h r o u g h t h e w i t h h o l d i n g of funds or s u p p l i e s .  Those  e x t e r n a l groups who c o u l d f i n d space and f u n d s elsewhere were r e l a t i v e l y u n touched by such t h r e a t s and c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p r e s s u r e f r o m w i t h o u t , w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of s u c c e s s . ^  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l g r o u p i n g s who were n o t ad hoc or who  were more c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a l l y met w i t h a much lower i n c i d e n c e of success i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s a t  innovation.  The CUS Committee had a m i n i m a l h i e r a r c h y whose e x i s t e n c e was due p r i m a r i l y t o the s t i p u l a t i o n s of the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n .  The C h a i r p e r s o n was s e l e c t e d  by the j o i n t C o u n c i l s i n the s p r i n g and was answerable t o the C o u n c i l . o t h e r members of the Committee were r e c r u i t e d by the C h a i r p e r s o n .  All  The  Committee was g r a n t e d an annual budget by C o u n c i l f o r o p e r a t i n g and program expenses.  Any s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l funds r e q u i r e d  144  a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o u n c i l ' s Finance Committee or d i r e c t l y t o the C o u n c i l itself.  The Committee's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was c o l l e g i a l .  In nature,  programming i n t h e Committee, was based on the p o l i c i e s developed a t Annual CUS Congress and on p e r c e i v e d l o c a l needs. Committee tended to be v e r y i n n o v a t i v e .  the  I n p l a n n i n g programs the  The i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r  this  was due to t h e purpose of the Committee - t o c a r r y o u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l aims of the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among the s t u d e n t s on t h e campus.  Structurally  t h e Committee met almost a l l of t h e c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by Blau and Thompson. The minimum degree of employment s e c u r i t y Blau r e q u i r e s was n o t p r e s e n t , ever the pure n o r m a t i v e compliance r e l a t i o n s and the s t r u c t u r a l i n removing an i n d i v i d u a l f r o m h i s or her p o s i t i o n p r o v i d e d dition.  how-  difficulty  ai analagous c o n -  The p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , workgroups commanding a l l i g i a n c e ,  absence of b a s i c c o n f l i c t between workgroup and management were a l l  and  present  w i t h i n t h e committee because of t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of a h i g h l e v e l o f commitment and a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e .  B l a u ' s f i f t h c o n d i t i o n , t h e presence of  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs experienced as d i s t u r b i n g , was met because o f t h e n a t u r e of the p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k s the Committee saw i t s e l f  as f a c i n g .  I n p a r t t h i s l a s t c o n d i t i o n was due to the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n of the Committee. The Committee was b o t h a s u b s i d i a r y of the AMS and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o w h i c h a l l s t u d e n t s belonged by v i r t u e o f t h e i r membership i n the AMS.  The m a j o r i t y of members of t h e Committee met Thompson's c r i t e r i a f o r dual innovation.  They had p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y and freedom f o r  indivi-  the same  reasons they c o u l d be s a i d t o meet B l a u ' s c o n d i t i o n of j o b s e c u r i t y .  There  was a g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of i n p u t s f r o m l o c a l as w e l l as n a t i o n a l s o u r c e s .  A  145  h i g h degree o f p e r s o n a l commitment to search f o r s o l u t i o n s was. b o t h a reason f o r j o i n i n g and a c o n d i t i o n o f c o n t i n u e d membership. •'• The l i m i t s t o  the  " s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n " were s e t by means o f l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s and the r e c e p t i v i t y o f the a u d i e n c e .  The n a t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  c e r t a i n degree of b e n i g n c o m p e t i t i o n a t a l l  times.  giaranteed a  I n some r e s p e c t s an a n a -  l o g y c o u l d be drawn between t h e r o l e o f the CUS Committee v i s - a - v i s  t h e AMS  and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s and the c l a s s i c Research and Development component of a l a r g e governmental c o n c e r n .  When t h e c o m p e t i t i o n ceased t o be b e n i g n t h e  i n n o v a t i v e q u a l i t i e s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e Committee were reduced concomitantly.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Co-op Home, which a r o s e f r o m one o f  the  CUS sub-committees r e f l e c t e d a degree of c o n f u s i o n i n s t r u c t u r e and - i n t e n t . The f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t o f a d u a l Board and p a i d house m o t h e r , was h i e r a r c h i c a l .  The i n t e n t o f t h e p l a n n e r s was t h a t t h e Home s h o u l d o p e r a t e  i n a c o l l e g i a l format.  It  seems t h a t t h i s c o n f u s i o n was a r e s u l t of compro-  mises between members of t h e committee ( i n c l u d i n g the house m o t h e r ) .  The d u a l  Boards were planned t o g i v e t h e p r o j e c t a s u f f i c i e n t l y r e s p e c t a b l e and o r g a n i zed appearance to a t t r a c t f u n d i n g from the business community and government agencies.  The house mother had t o be p a i d a s a l a r y i f  she were to t a k e on the  t a s k o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e p r o j e c t as she had no o t h e r source o f f u n d s .  The  d e s i r e f o r a c o l l e g i a l o p e r a t i o n was apparent i n t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e Board t o t r e a t t h e house mother as an employee.  Rather they e s t a b l i s h e d a n o r m a t i v e  compliance r e l a t i o n s h i p and regarded h e r a c t i o n s as i n d i c a t i o n s o f h e r degree o f commitment to the goals they saw as i m p o r t a n t .  I t appears obvious  that  the house mother d i d see her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Board as more u t i l i t a r i a n .  146  She had d i f f i c u l t y  i n a d j u s t i n g to the lack of a c l e a r l i n e of  authority  and t h e r e f o r e began to a c t i n ways w h i c h would i m p l y her i n t e n t i o n t o  refor-  m u l a t e the s t r u c t u r e t o r e f l e c t t h e g o a l s she espoused most s t r o n g l y ,  hence  her tendency t o c a l l h e r s e l f " E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r " and t o c o n s c i o u s l y d e emphasize the r o l e of t h e s t u d e n t s i n the i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of Home.  When she was r e p l a c e d she i n t e r p r e t e d t h e a c t i o n of the Board as d e f i -  n i t e l y h a v i n g f i r e d her i n o r d e r to change the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n t o f project. tural  the  the  Her a c c u s a t i o n s f o r c e d t h e Board t o c o n f r o n t t h e c o n f u s i o n i n  struc-  perceptions.  The s t a f f person agreed t o accept a p o s i t i o n i n t h e Home o n l y on t h e b a s i s o f a h i g h degree o f commitment t o t h e g o a l s of the p r o j e c t .  She had some l i m i t e d  means o f s u p p o r t as a s t u d e n t and was t h e r e f o r e a b l e t o r e j e c t accept o n l y room and board f o r h e r s e l f and h e r son.  the s a l a r y and  Because o f t h i s she was  a b l e t o a v o i d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of u t i l i t a r i a n compliance w h i c h a l s o the Board of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an employer.  relieved  She was s u c c e s s f u l i n chang-  i n g t h e compliance p a t t e r n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s f r o m one i n w h i c h they had a h i g h degree of commitment to an i n d i v i d u a l , the house m o t h e r , b u t a low degree commitment t o t h e p r o j e c t and a p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n - c o e r c i v e s h i p w i t h the Board, to a pure n o r m a t i v e one.  r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a l r e t u r n to the c o l l e g i a l model i n p r a c t i c e i f formal  relation-  The f u l l i n v o l v e m e n t o f  r e s i d e n t s i n the processes of m a i n t a i n i n g the Home and p l a n n i n g i t s  of'  the  future  not yet  in  restructuring.  R e c e p t i v i t y t o i n n o v a t i o n was markedly g r e a t e r among Board members t h a n among the AMS C o u n c i l l o r s and E x e c u t i v e .  The s t u d e n t members l a r g e l y r e f l e c t e d  the  147  a t t i t u d e s of t h e CUS Committee.  The n o n - s t u d e n t members were e i t h e r  s o r s or p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e .  The p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n  profes-  particular  were used to i n n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e s and had few qualms about t h e p r i n c i p l e of a d o p t i n g change.  A l l t h e Board members were somewhat c a u t i o u s  in  practice.  Thompson d e f i n e s i n n o v a t i o n i n p a r t as t h e n e c e s s i t y of a w i l l i n g n e s s t o adopt i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o g e n e r a t e i d e a s .  The AMS was markedly r e l u c t a n t  to  adopt new ideas and h e l d doggedly to n o t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n and h i e r a r c h y d e f i n i n g t h e i r programs and t h e i r r o l e . g e n e r o u s l y and i g n o r e d i t  in  They approved t h e p r o j e c t most u n -  f o r a considerable l e n g t h of time - the time p e r i o d  d u r i n g which t h e p r o j e c t was most u n s t a b l e f i n a n c i a l l y .  The T r e a s u r e r ,  E x e c u t i v e member most c l o s e l y connected w i t h t h e p r o j e c t , w a s convinced of t h e e f f i c a c y of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s .  the  particularly  His dealings w i t h  t h e house mother were q u i t e unamiguously those o f an employer t o an employee. I n t h i s sense h i s d i s c o m f i t u r e a t t h e subsequent appointment o f t h e  staff  person who c o u l d n o t be r e l a t e d t o i n t h i s way c o u l d be seen as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o h i s growing h o s t i l i t y  to the  project.  The q u e s t i o n of f u n d i n g , i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the q u e s t i o n of  bureaucratic  competence and incompetence as w e l l as t o power r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  figured  i n AMS c r i t i c i s m s of the p r o j e c t .  ( I t s o m i s s i o n f r o m t h e f i n a l r e p o r t by t h e  n e x t T r e a s u r e r i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e g i v e n t h a t 40% of t h e t o t a l revenues remained unspent a t t h e time of the Home's c l o s u r e ) .  For t h e f i r s t  n o t p r o b a b l e , cause f o r  still  six  months of the p r o j e c t ' s o p e r a t i o n t h e s t a t e d l a c k o f funds was used by T r e a s u r e r as a p o s s i b l e , i f  largely  the  the c l o s u r e of t h e Home.  148  By October t h i s t h r e a t c o u l d no l o n g e r be s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n any way because of t h e reduced o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and the s u b s t a n t i a l g r a n t s f r o m t h e Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n and t h e G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s .  The p o s s i b i l i t y  of  f u n d i n g had a l s o become more r e a l as t h e Board proceeded toward - a necessary p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r f u n d i n g o f t h i s t y p e .  government incorporation  I n the l a t t e r  seven  months of t h e p r o j e c t ' s e x i s t e n c e t h e t h r e a t s o f c l o s u r e by t h e T r e a s u r e r were expressed as due t o the p o s s i b l e misuse o f  funds.  The concern about the misuse o f funds was always expressed i n terms o f misuse of s t u d e n t monies.  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r  the o n l y s t u d e n t money over w h i c h  the  E x e c u t i v e had any l e g a l c o n t r o l was t h e S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l g r a n t o f $200, w h i c h had l o n g s i n c e been s p e n t .  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e presence of these funds was a l s o  used as one of t h e two r a t i o n a l e s f o r t h e E x e c u t i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e p r o ject.  The E x e c u t i v e ' s concern over f i n a n c e s can be seen t o be ephemeral when  t h e s i t u a t i o n i s examined c l o s e l y . $1200 it  The G r a d u a t i n g Class G i f t w h i c h guaranteed  t o t h e p r o j e c t was approved a month b e f o r e t h e Home opened a l t h o u g h  d i d n o t appear as an e n t r y on the Record Ledger u n t i l s i x months  t h e Home had been c l o s e d .  Therefore during the f i r s t  the p r o j e c t had a c u s h i o n o f $1200 had been u n p r o d u c t i v e .  s i x months of  on w h i c h t o f a l l i f  after operation  o t h e r f u n d i n g sources  The i n c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g of t h e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of  the p r o j e c t d i d much t o encourage the house mother t o engage i n  independent  fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s as she saw o n l y t h e d i s m a l p i c t u r e p a i n t e d by t h e Treasurer.  By October the p r o j e c t had been g r a n t e d a f u r t h e r  $2500  f r o m the  Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n r e n d e r i n g t h e Home s o l v e n t f o r some t i m e t o come.  This grant c a r r i e d w i t h i t  l e g a l s t i p u l a t i o n s on how t h e monies were  to be spent w h i c h were met by t h e Boards.  The AMS h a d , t h e r e f o r e , no l e g a l  149  b a s i s f o r i t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f i n a n c i a l concerns of t h e p r o j e c t nor had  it  any l e g a l r i g h t t o p r e v e n t the w i t h d r a w a l o f those funds f r o m t h e AMS a c c o u n t s .  The a c c u s a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a t i c mismanagement c o u l d be r e v e r s e d and a case made t h a t t h e AMS e x h i b i t e d more i n e f f i c i e n c y ttee.  t h a n d i d t h e Boards o r t h e CUS Commi-  The i n a b i l i t y o f the AMS t o r e t r i e v e l e t t e r s of i m p o r t ,  the crude s y s -  tem of r e c o r d i n g d o n a t i o n s not d i r e c t l y r e c e i v e d by the CUS Committee and t h e subsequent i n a b i l i t y  t o produce e i t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n s or i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning  t o whom t h e b a l a n c e of funds were p a i d a l l a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system w h i c h was l e s s t h a n c o m p l e t e l y  efficient.  As w e l l the charge of " c r u d e e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " l e v e l l e d by t h e new T r e a s u r e r i n h i s f i n a l r e p o r t was more a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e AMS t h a n t o o f the Boards.  those  The T r e a s u r e r ' s r e f u s a l t o r e l i n q u i s h s i g n i n g powers was one  example of t h i s phenomenon.  The i m p o s i t i o n of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h e d u a l  r a t i o n a l e of p o t e n t i a l mismanagement of funds and of p o s s i b l e bad p u b l i c i t y was s u r e l y a n o t h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e E x e c u t i v e c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g l e c t e d  to  m e n t i o n the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e Koerner Grant w h i c h would have b r o u g h t v e r y favourable p u b l i c i t y  to t h e p r o j e c t .  The most extreme example of crude ex-  t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n , however, was t h e e v i c t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s f r o m t h e Home. Not o n l y was t h i s a c t c a r r i e d out w i t h o u t p r o p e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h  either  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e p r o j e c t or the C o u n c i l b u t i t was e x t r a l e g a l .  The  AMS d i d n o t have any commitment i n t h e f o r m o f a. l e a s e or r e n t a l agreement w i t h t h e l a n d l o r d and t h e r e f o r e had a b s o l u t e l y no a u t h o r i t y t i o n they took.  to take the ac-  The q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s a g a i n can be r a i s e d  regard to t h i s a c t i o n .  in  A l l the women i n the Home had been p l a c e d by e i t h e r  150  t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch C o u n s e l l o r s or by C i t y W e l f a r e w o r k e r s .  To say the  l e a s t . c l o s u r e of the Home i n t h i s manner d i d n o t r e f l e c t w e l l on t h e s t u d e n t s . I n summation, the charges of b u r e a u c r a t i c mismanagement and the c o u n t e r charge o f p e t t y b u r e a u c r a c y seem t o be on t h e one hand an argument about f o r m v e r s u s c o n t e n t v ; i t h the AMS a c c u s i n g t h e Boards o f bad form w h i l e t h e Boards defended themselves on t h e b a s i s o f t h e u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y of t h e i r  content.  On t h e o t h e r hand the charges c o u l d a l s o be seen as a c o n f l i c t over gical outlook.  ideolo-  T h i s p o s i t i o n c o u l d be argued w i t h some c e r t a i n t y i n r e g a r d  t o the T r e a s u r e r .  However, a t l e a s t t h r e e members of an E x e c u t i v e  composed  o f s i x , had on v a r i o u s occassions expressed themselves as e m p h a t i c a l l y f a v o u r o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy.  in  (On these occassions  they by no means r e f l e c t e d t h e v i e w of t h e C o u n c i l as a w h o l e , however t h e E x e c u t i v e ' s a c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e Home were never i n response t o  Council's  concerns.)  The E x e c u t i v e r e p r e s e n t e d among i t s s i x members a wide spectrum of political affiliation, Canada.  formal  f r o m Socred t o L i b e r a l t o NDP to Communist P a r t y of  The d i v e r g e n c e of p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n d i d express i t s e l f  in a  l a c k of u n a n i m i t y on p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s such as t h e t e n t - i n and t h e p u b l i c statements decrying student scabbing. b e r a t i o n s on t h e Co-op Home.  T h i s was n o t the case i n t h e i r  deli-  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n and subsequent r e p o r t were  w r i t t e n by a c t i v e members of the S o c i a l C r e d i t League and t h e Communist P a r t y o f Canada. 'L'  The remainder o f the E x e c u t i v e , c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l and l a r g e  l i b e r a l s and s o c i a l  democrats r e a d i l y endorsed the r e p o r t , r e f u s e d t o  c o n s i d e r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f the CUS Committee and Board members, and argued f o r t h e r e p o r t ' s a d o p t i o n i n the subsequent C o u n c i l m e e t i n g .  That the u n a n i m i t y  151  e x h i b i t e d on t h i s o c c a s s i o n was r e a l was a p p a r e n t by the way i n w h i c h the ,  E x e c u t i v e had i g n o r e d t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n s w h i c h had been made by i n d i v i d u a l s who were p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s o f a t l e a s t h a l f  the E x e c u t i v e members.  The a t y p i c a l  u n a n i m i t y of the E x e c u t i v e on t h i s one i s s u e when taken t o g e t h e r w i t h s t a t e d disagreement on t h e p h i l o s o p h y of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy  their  strongly  i n d i c a t e t h a t the r o o t cause f o r the Home's f a i l u r e l a y e l s e w h e r e .  The d i s c u s s i o n on r a c i s m i n Chapter I e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t r a c i s m i s t h e i d e o l o g i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of o p p r e s s i o n i n h e r e n t i n the society.  It  i s one aspect o f t h e hegemony and i s thus promulgated by t h e  various s t a t e apparatuses.  As s u c h , the i d e o l o g y of r a c i s m i s a p o w e r f u l  m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n shaping the consciousness o f the i n d i v i d u a l members o f the s o c i e t y .  I t p r o v i d e s f o r them a r a t i o n a l e f o r the o t h e r w i s e t o t a l l y  c r e p a n t p o s i t i o n s between t h e i d e o l o g y o f e q u a l i t y and t h a t o f denying e q u a l i t y t o p a r t i c u l a r segments of the p o p u l a t i o n .  dis-  structurally  I n B l a u ' s example  from The Dynamics of Bureaucracy he suggests t h a t t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  actions  o f t h e members of the bureaucracy toward B l a c k c l i e n t s stemmed n o t f r o m t h e i r own b i a s b u t from the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y demands of the " p o w e r f u l employers who • made the h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s , "  (1963:98.) and f o r whom the b u r e a u c r a c y e x i s t e d .  T h i s a n a l y s i s confuses the a c t o f o p p r e s s i o n w i t h i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . the j u s t i f i c a t i o n ,  It  is  t h a t i s , r a c i s m , w h i c h i s i n c u l c a t e d i n t o t h e members o f  the b u r e a u c r a c y t h r o u g h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y , a l l o w i n g them to u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y process t h e c l i e n t s  in a discriminatory  fashion.  Blau points  out i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f e d e r a l law enforcement agency t h a t the  indivi-  d u a l s were eager and w i l l i n g t o c a r r y o u t t h e law enforcement d u t i e s  their  j o b s r e q u i r e d because they had an i d e o l o g i c a l commitment t o t h e of t h e New Deal w h i c h had c r e a t e d t h e laws they e n f o r c e d .  It  is  principles conceivable  152  t h a t the employees o f t h e s t a t e h i r i n g agency c o u l d have worked t o e n f o r c e the a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n than i n e x i s t e n c e ' i f i d e o l o g i c a l commitment t o oppose r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s .  they t o o had had an  The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h such  a p o w e r f u l i d e o l o g y as r a c i s m i s t h a t most people a r e unconscious of role i n maintaining i t .  If  they a r e n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y o r  i n the p h y s i c a l b r u t a l i z a t i o n o f a group or a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l they view themselves as n o n - r a c i s t i f  their  passively  individual  they c o n s i d e r the m a t t e r a t  all.  I do n o t f e e l i t necessary t o e n t e r i n t o a l e n g t h y defense of t h e presence of s t r u c t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n and o f r a c i s m r e g a r d i n g n a t i v e peoples i n Canada.  In  the r e c e n t p a s t many books have been p u b l i s h e d on t h e s u b j e c t documenting t h e presence of r a c i s m and i t s s t r u c t u r a l o r i g i n s f o r m a p e r s o n a l and a g e n e r a l theoretical perspective.  The reader who remains unconvinced of t h i s  fact  a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e I n d i a n Act i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e g e n e r a l works o f such a u t h o r s as Hawthorn  ( 1 9 6 6 ) , F i e l d s and Stanbury ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and t h e Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s  A s s o c i a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 6 ) , and t o p e r s o n a l accounts such as those of C a r d i n a l  (1969),  Waubageshig ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and Campbell ( 1 9 7 3 ) .  The r e f u s a l to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y  of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s was p r e s e n t  a l l t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s . no evidence t h a t any o f the group q u e s t i o n e d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y  in  There i s  o f the concept  or the s t r u c t u r a l e x c l u s i o n of the I n d i a n women f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n s most d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o them such as those c o n c e r n i n g l e n g t h of s t a y i n t h e Home. There was a s t r o n g assumption of T i g h t n e s s which permeated t h e b r i e f s and p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g the removal of the women from t h e w r e t c h e d environment o f s k i d row i n o r d e r t h a t they m i g h t develop t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a more conducive  153  environment.  Hugh Brody, i n a s e n s i t i v e study of n a t i v e peoples i n the s k i d row ment w r i t e s  environ-  o f t h i s k i n d of endeavour: "The Indians ... c o n s t i t u t e a s u b - c u l t u r e w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y which has m o r a l and s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y at odds w i t h those of the mainstream s o c i e t y . ... Many o f these m i g r a n t s a r e g l a d of h e l p . What they a r e much l e s s g l a d of i s a presumptuous c l a i m by the h e l p e r t h a t the I n d i a n on s k i d road i s q u i t e o b v i o u s l y i n d e s p a r a t e need of r e f o r m . The e x p e r i e n c e of the s k i d road I n d i a n i n many cases d i s c o n f i r m s t h a t view, f o r he f r e q u e n t l y knows v e r y w e l l j u s t how d i f f i c u l t , h o s t i l e , and a l i e n the a l t e r n a t i v e forms of l i f e i n t h e c i t y a r e . (1971:59.)  The  planning  committee r e f e r r e d , i n t h e i r second b r i e f ,  to the " r e l a t i v e i n -  e f f e c t i v e n e s s " of the c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as a c a u s a l f a c t o r i n t h e high  r a t e of r e c i d i v i s m among I n d i a n women from s k i d r o a d .  the g i r l  "Upon r e l e a s e  i s f o r c e d by c i r c u m s t a n c e s to go back to S k i d Road and the c y c l e g  [of  c r i m e s w i t h o u t v i c t i m s ] b e g i n s anew."  for  themselves or t h e i r r e a d e r s , was the r e a l i t y  onment o u t s i d e By n e g l e c t i n g implicitly, ponsible.  What they f a i l e d  to i d e n t i f y ,  of the h o s t i l e , a l i e n  the parameters of s k i d row as a much more s i g n i f i c a n t t h i s primary a s p e c t  the stereotype  envir-  factor.  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p they m a i n t a i n e d ,  of the n a t i v e as l a z y , d r u n k e n , amoral and i r r e s -  Brody's d e s c r i p t i o n o f s k i d road and the dynamics o f the e t h n i c  relations are pertinent  to c o n s i d e r  at this  time.  He w r i t e s :  " I t i s the most d i s p o s s e d of s o c i e t y who gather together on s k i d row. ... I t can be r e p e a t e d that almost no one on s k i d row has been s o c i a l i z e d t h e r e , and the m a j o r i t y of mainstream c o n c e p t i o n s a r e brought i n by the m i g r a n t s themselves. Even i n the terms of the m i g r a n t , t h e r e f o r e , s k i d row i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a i l u r e w i t h i n the s o c i e t y as a whole.  154  "But w i t h i n the s k i d row the r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e of the two groups [ n a t i v e and w h i t e ] i s d i f f e r e n t . That i s t o say, w h i l e the s k i d row w h i t e f e e l s he i s a t the base of the s o c i a l system, he can q u a l ify t h a t p o s i t i o n t o h i s advantage by b e i n g a r a c i s t , c o n s o l i n g h i m s e l f i n the b e l i e f t h a t the I n d i a n s form a s u b s t a n t i a l group below him. "On the o t h e r hand, the I n d i a n can q u a l i f y h i s sense of f a i l u r e by s h a r i n g h i s l i f e w i t h nonIndians. I f i t i s accepted t h a t n o n - I n d i a n s a r e i n e v i t a b l y s u p e r i o r t o I n d i a n s , then i n making an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h non-Indians the I n d i a n i s not as s o c i a l l y r e l e g a t e d as he i s i n s e p a r a t i o n from the w h i t e . . . . I n l i v i n g on s k i d row h i s l i f e i s f u l l e r , i n pure s t a t u s terms, i n v i r t u e o f t h e s k i d row m i x t u r e o f Whites and I n d i a n s . That i s not the c a s e i n any o t h e r p a r t o f the c i t y . ... Thus i t can be seen once a g a i n t h a t s k i d row o f f e r s the I n d i a n a m i l i e u i n which h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t i s enhanced. But i t i s a c o r o l l a r y o f t h i s enhancement t h a t he must a c c e p t the White's r a c i s m : s t a t u s a c c r u e s j u s t because b e i n g w i t h Whites i s b e t t e r than n o t b e i n g w i t h Whites. " F o r t h e White t h i s i n v o l v e s the merging of r a c i s m i n theory with a s s i m i l a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e : f o r the I n d i a n i t i n v o l v e s the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f White views of I n d i a n s . " (1971:51.) Thus d e s p i t e the tremendous c o s t to the n a t i v e person's s k i d road environment o f f e r s than t h a t o f f e r e d  elsewhere.  sense  of s e l f the  to the i n d i v i d u a l a l e s s h o s t i l e  environment  The n a t i v e p e r s o n i s a b l e to make c o n t a c t w i t h  the w h i t e s o c i e t y a t the l e v e l o f the l u m p e n p r o l e t a r i a t w i t h some degree of mutual i n t e r a c t i o n . and in  The almost u n i v e r s a l m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of t h i s  o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the l u m p e n p r o l e t a r i a t as a d i s t i n c t  reality  class  results  t h e f a i l u r e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used by most s o c i a l work a g e n c i e s ,  p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . "The e f f o r t s of s o c i a l workers and o t h e r s to d e a l w i t h t h e problems which i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e among a group i n t h i s predicament, have on the whole been u n s u c c e s s f u l and a l i t t l e misguided S k i d road's advantages a r e not understood by the m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e  155  whose j o b i t i s t o t a c k l e i t s problems. Few of them a r e I n d i a n , and a l l tend to p l a c e h i g h v a l u e on and have unshakeable f a i t h i n upward social mobility. I t should be c l e a r from t h i s r e p o r t , as from the work o f Hawthorn and o t h e r s , t h a t f o r the I n d i a n upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s p r o f o u n d l y c h i m e r i c a l . " (1971:72.) The  p l a n n e r s d i d n o t f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the house mother f o r she t o o , as  Brody d e s c r i v e s , p l a c e d  h e r f a i t h i n upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y .  Her d i f f i c u l t i e s  w i t h the Board came l a t e r when h e r own attempts a t m o b i l i t y came i n t o with  those o f the Board.  conflict  A l t h o u g h they viewed t h e Home and t h e r e s i d e n t s i n  a p a t e r n a l i s t i c way (which some o f my n a t i v e f r i e n d s d e s c r i b e as t h e worst form of racism) they d i d n o t wish t o p l a c e or themselves as d o i n g "good works."  i t i n the p o s i t i o n o f a c h a r i t y  As was s t a t e d i n Chapter 3 t h e Board  members underwent some s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i t u d e d u r i n g -active l i f e .  the p r o j e c t ' s  These changes seem to have begun w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y obvious  d i f f e r e n c e s i n philosophy  between t h e Board and the house mother.  Ironically  perhaps t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were no l e s s p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n n a t u r e b u t o n l y i n degree. They o b j e c t e d  to t h e house mother's r e f u s a l to encourage t h e r e s i d e n t s to  develop r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Home and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s b u t s t i l l the r i g h t (never p r a c t i c e d ) leave  the Home.  of j u d g i n g  the r e a d i n e s s  Expressed d i f f e r e n t l y ,  they o b j e c t e d  assessment t h a t the r e s i d e n t s needed c o n s t a n t residents  By  required ultimate  of the r e s i d e n t s to t o t h e house mother's  s u p e r v i s i o n b u t agreed t h a t the  s u p e r v i s i o n i n making d e c i s i o n s .  t h e time t h e house mother l e f t  and was r e p l a c e d  Board was l e s s s u r e of i t s p o s i t i o n . t h a t the r e s i d e n t s become f u l l y capabilities  retained  by t h e s t a f f p e r s o n the  The q u i e t i n s i s t e n c e of t h e s t a f f  i n v o l v e d met w i t h ho obvious o p p o s i t i o n .  o f the women when c o n t r a s t e d  w i t h the a c c u s a t i o n s  person The  o f the house  156  mother on her r e t u r n and the c l a i m s o f r e s i d e n t abuse from h e r seemed t o convince many, i f  not a l l ,  supporters  t h e Board members t h a t t h e a c t i o n s and  p h i l o s o p h y o f the s t a f f person were c o r r e c t .  Further,  t h e Board members who  expoused i d e a l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d f i n d l i t t l e argument f o r d e n y i n g i t t o t h e r e s i d e n t s as they c o n t i n u e d t o prove t h e i r a b i l i t y Home more cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y  T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s  to m a i n t a i n the  than b e f o r e .  one f a c e t of t h e unconscious r a c i s t p o s i t i o n .  r a c i s m i s adopted by d e f a u l t , as i t w e r e , r a t h e r than as a c o n s c i o u s phy f o r o v e r t a c t i o n t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t y  that direct  e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e t y p e d e s c r i b e d h e r e w i l l be e f f i c a c i o u s people o f t h e i r r a c i s t r e a c t i o n s .  When  philoso-  educational  i n disabusing  I t m i g h t be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h i s i s due  i n p a r t t o t h e l a c k o f r e a l need f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o m a i n t a i n a r a c i s t i f he/she i s not d i r e c t l y  .  i n a p o s i t i o n t o l o s e e c o n o m i c a l l y by b e i n g  stance  non-racist.  I t may a l s o be due to a r e l u c t a n c e t o c o n f r o n t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o f becoming o v e r t l y r a c i s t i n speech and a c t i o n .  D e s p i t e the slow r e v e r s a l i n p o l i c y t o the p o i n t where t h e Board a c t i v e l y moved to t u r n a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  i n c l u d i n g f i s c a l ones over to t h e r e s i d e n t s  Board never c o n f r o n t e d t h e i s s u e of r a c i s m .  They d i s c u s s e d t h e i r  the  changing  a t t i t u d e s i n terms of c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s and i n terms o f  complete  disenchantment w i t h the AMS p o l i c i e s which had become major s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and t o i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as an independent society.  I was c o n f r o n t e d q u i t e g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h t h e s h i f t  i n p o s i t i o n and  the c o n c o m i t a n t change i n p h i l o s o p h y a t t h e l a s t m e e t i n g I a t t e n d e d . was the meeting a t which the Board moved to open t h e bank a c c o u n t ,  That  appoint  157  signing officers stitution's  from among the r e s i d e n t s and i n g e n e r a l adopt the new c o n -  framework of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  A f t e r t h e meeting my replacement as  i n - c o m i n g CUS Chairman, and a n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l s t u d e n t member o f the Board approached me w i t h some f e e l i n g s o f anger and asked what t h e i r r o l e c o u l d be now t h a t the r e s i d e n t s were t a k i n g c o n t r o l .  They were d i s p l e a s e d a t t h e t h o u g h t  t h a t they m i g h t c o n t i n u e to a i d t h e r e s i d e n t s b u t would no l o n g e r have a c o n trolling role.  Both o f them s u b s e q u e n t l y j o i n e d f o r c e s w i t h members o f  the  E x e c u t i v e to s h u t down the p r o j e c t .  The d i f f e r i n g r o l e s and a t t i t u d e s of the house mother and the s t a f f have been d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n Chapters 2 and 3.  person  The house mother was t h e  v i c t i m o f the r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s o f t h e s o c i e t y and had a t t e m p t e d t o f i g h t  them  by a d o p t i n g an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n .  diff-  The s t a f f  p e r s o n , because o f a  e r e n t p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y had r e j e c t e d t h i s n o n - s o l u t i o n and had chosen a more a g g r e s s i v e and p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y w i t h w h i c h t o guide her a c t i o n s .  She  b e l i e v e d i n a t t a c k i n g t h e " f i n a l a s s i g n i n g o f v a l u e s " from a more m i l i t a n t and l e s s d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n . regard to the p r o j e c t but i t  T h i s method b r o u g h t about s h o r t - t e r m success also f o r c e d a f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n which  in  resulted  i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the p r o j e c t by those f o r c e s opposing h e r .  The f i r s t  f o r c e s of o p p o s i t i o n were composed o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the s m a l l  c o n t r i b u t o r s , n o n - n a t i v e members o f the. Board and s t a f f I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r , and the house m o t h e r .  a t t h e Vancouver  The house mother  apparently  had n o t t h o u g h t the Board would f i n d a permanent replacement i n her absence and r e a c t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e dismay a t f i n d i n g t h e p o s i t i o n f i l l e d on her return.  Her dismay was compounded when she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t her  was the a n t i t h e s i s of her image of the i d e a l n a t i v e p e r s o n .  replacement  The s t a f f  person  158  was n o t o n l y u n w i l l i n g t o promote an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n b u t was e n c o u r a g i n g t h e c o n t r o l l e d use o f a l c o h o l i n the Home, and the presence of young male f r i e n d s of the r e s i d e n t s .  Further,  t h e s t a f f person h e r s e l f had had a c h i l d  w i t h o u t b e n e f i t of l e g a l s a n c t i o n s .  I n her sense of h u r t and anger t h e house  mother t u r n e d t o those who had s u p p o r t e d her e a r l i e r I n t h e s m a l l donors she found ready s u p p o r t .  f u n d - r a i s i n g appeals.  T h e i r l e t t e r s e n c l o s i n g dona-  t i o n s i n d i c a t e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y t h a t they viewed the p r o j e c t as a program of succour t o t h e h e l p l e s s r a t h e r t h a n an experiment i n ways t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l a i d f o r a s e l f - h e l p program w h i c h was the way i n w h i c h t h e p r o j e c t was d e s c r i b e d i n t h e g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Leon and Thea Koerner F o u n d a t i o n .  The  s o - c a l l e d change i n p o l i c y was i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s m a l l donors had viewed the p r o j e c t and t h e i r own c h a r i t a b l e d o n a t i o n s t o  The members of t h e I n d i a n Center a c t i v e l y opposed t o t h e s t a f f t h e "change" i n d i r e c t i o n were n o n - I n d i a n .  it.  p e r s o n and t o  They were a l s o t h e most v o c i f e r o u s  i n t h e i r advocacy of e i t h e r a h o s t e l w h i c h would p r o v i d e temporary  ameliorative  c a r e or of a s t r o n g l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n l o n g e r term l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  Some of  these i n d i v i d u a l s subsequently l e f t  t h e Center and s t a r t e d a h o s t e l  operation  which emphasized t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e f r o m " t h e s i n s of t h e f l e s h " and a heavy r e l i a n c e on s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h i a t r i c c o u n s e l l i n g .  Echoing B r o d y ' s  pre-  d i c t i o n s the r e c i d i v i s m f o r m t h i s h o s t e l has been overwhelming and t h e successes i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  slight.  7  The Alma Mater S o c i e t y s u p p o r t e d t h e proposed p r o j e c t f o r reasons s i m i l a r those o f t h e s m a l l d o n o r s .  to  They viewed the p r o j e c t as a n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l  a t t e m p t by s t u d e n t s to engage i n a c h a r i t a b l e a c t i o n w h i c h would w e l l on the s t u d e n t body as a w h o l e .  reflect  The amount of money they v o t e d t o  the  159  p r o j e c t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e d o n a t i o n s they made t o o t h e r v e n t u r e s such as t h e H e a r t Fund and t h e C y s t i c F i b r o s i s campaigns sponsored by v a r i o u s faculties.  The C o u n c i l as s u c h , d i d n o t hear of the p r o j e c t a g a i n u n t i l  the i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' m a t e l y e i g h t months  r e p o r t and composite m o t i o n were p r e s e n t e d t o i t later.  The T r e a s u r e r , as I have suggested p r e v i o u s l y , fically  approxi-  as a c h a r i t y c r e a t e d t o h e l p t h e needy.  looked upon the p r o j e c t J u s t as he r e i n f o r c e d  house m o t h e r ' s concern w i t h f u n d i n g f r o m s m a l l donors by appeals t o c h a r i t y so t h e house mother r e i n f o r c e d h i s view o f the p r o j e c t as i n g to s o c i a l c r i p p l e s . were u n t r u s t w o r t h y  specithe  their  administer-  He saw no c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n h e r v i e w t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s  and r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l .  On the c o n t r a r y he  encouraged her view by a g r e e i n g t o t h e need f o r a second s t a f f a s s i s t her i n her supervisory r o l e .  person to  H i s communications w i t h t h e s t u d e n t Board  members became g r a d u a l l y h a r s h e r i n tone as he p e r c e i v e d the growing d i s s i d e n c e between t h e Board and the house m o t h e r .  As an opponent of p a r t i c i p a t o r y demo-  c r a c y and a s t r o n g advocate of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s he was c o n s i s t e n t h i s o p p o s i t i o n to the c o - o p e r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h y . t e d r e a l problems to h i m .  in  The new s t a f f p e r s o n p r e s e n - '  Her r e f u s a l t o respond to him i n terms o f  the  employer - employee r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h he had adopted w i t h the house mother t o g e t h e r w i t h her r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n s i d e r a b l y more h o s t i l e .  outlook,  combined to make r e l a t i o n s  The T r e a s u r e r never a t t a c k e d t h e s t a f f  person  d i r e c t l y b u t h i s c r i t i c i s m of the Board and l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n were i n t e n s i f i e d by her presence i n the  project.  The o t h e r E x e c u t i v e member who had had d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p r o j e c t was t h e  160  V i c e - P r e s i d e n t who c o - a u t h o r e d the i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e p o r t .  His c o n t a c t had  been l a r g e l y i n f o r m a l as he had come t o the Home i n t h e f i r s t months of e x i s t e n c e i n o r d e r to v i s i t  t h e s t u d e n t w h i l e she was i n r e s i d e n c e .  n o t a t t e n d e d a Board m e e t i n g nor had he had any r o l e i n w o r k i n g to  its  He had establish  or fund t h e p r o j e c t .  The P r e s i d e n t of t h e AMS had c o n s i s t e n t l y d e c l i n e d d i r e c t r e q u e s t s by me as CUS C h a i r p e r s o n t o i n t e r v e n e w i t h the T r e a s u r e r and t o d i r e c t him t o the . t r e a s u r e r a p p o i n t e d by the Board.  His f i r s t  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Home o c c u r -  red t h e n i g h t he a t t e n d e d , i n the company o f t h e T r e a s u r e r , Board meeting c a l l e d t o c o n s i d e r s p e c i f i c a l l y  recognize  the  the house m o t h e r ' s  extraordinary allegations  c o n c e r n i n g h e r f i r i n g and the changes i n p o l i c y implemented i n h e r absence. Both these o f f i c e r s chose to i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t  the  i s s u e s were d e a l t w i t h  t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e P r e s i d e n t o f the I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p Center and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch who were a l s o i n a t t e n d e n c e a t that meeting.  They a l s o chose t o i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t those p a r t i e s most  d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h t h e p r o j e c t ,  t h e major f u n d i n g and placement a g e n c i e s ,  were n o t concerned w i t h t h e a l l e g a t i o n s . P r e s i d e n t decided to pursue t h e i r  The P r e s i d e n t , T r e a s u r e r and V i c e -  i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s , u s i n g as  their  r a t i o n a l e the specious arguments o f misuse of s t u d e n t funds and p o s s i b l e bad publicity.  The E x e c u t i v e r e f r a i n e d , i n a l l t h e i r communications, presence of n a t i v e people i n the p r o j e c t .  from r e f e r r i n g t o  the  However, they had made e x p l i c i t  assumptions c o n c e r n i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s and p o t e n t i a l  residents.  The c o - a u t h o r s of the r e p o r t s p e l l e d o u t i n d e t a i l t h a t type o f person  eligible  161  f o r residency.  These were n o t t o be " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k i n g g i r l s "  but  r a t h e r e x - r e s i d e n t s of s k i d row who were m o t i v a t e d t o become w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d w o r k i n g g i r l s and renounce t h e i r former ways. n a t i v e women who d e s i r e d a s s i m i l a t i o n .  Implicitly,  they were t o be  A f u r t h e r assumption o f t h e E x e c u t i v e  was t h a t as n a t i v e women who a s p i r e d to " w h i t e " v a l u e s they were n o t o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r l i v e s b u t had t o be guided and c o n t r o l l e d .  capable  T h i s was  e v i d e n t i n t h e i r r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e the e x i s t e n c e of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , moves t o make i n c o r p o r a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t by r e - s t r u c t u r i n g , by f i a t , make-up o f t h e Board and t h e way i n w h i c h i t  r e p o r t e d t o t h e AMS.  their  the  When t h e  Board members c o n t i n u e d t o move i n the d i r e c t i o n o f g r a n t i n g autonomy t o the r e s i d e n t s t h e AMS E x e c u t i v e made t h e i r f i n a l and most d e c i s i v e move illegally  e v i c t e d the r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f  they  person.  The a c t i o n s o f the p l a n n e r s and Board members had i n i t i a l l y been m o t i v a t e d by a racist  ideology.  Over t i m e t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the r a c i s t  type had become c l e a r and the i n d i v i d u a l s had changed t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n they had never c o n f r o n t e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f r a c i s m i n the g r o u p . also a c t i n g from r a c i s t motives.  although  The AMS was  T h e i r exposure t o t h e r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f  person and t h e i r commitment t o t h e p r o j e c t were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o examine t h e i r v a l u e s .  stereo-  t o cause them  They were w i l l i n g t o assume, a p r i o r i ,  that  native  women were incompetent and n o t h i n g t h e y w i t n e s s e d would c o n v i n c e them o t h e r wise.  To do so would have meant v e r y d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s on t h e i r  part.  Perhaps t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the a c t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s o f b o t h p a r t i e s was t h a t they- s t a t e d them i n b u r e a u c r a t i c t e r m s . a f u n c t i o n of  T h i s seems p a r t l y  the l a c k of consciousness of r a c i s m i n Canadian s o c i e t y i n the  162  mid-sixties.  Historically  i t was a p e r i o d when Canadians were s t i l l  able  t o i g n o r e the v e r y presence of n a t i v e people and c o n g r a t u l a t e themselves on being d i f f e r e n t  f r o m t h e i r neighbours t o t h e s o u t h .  Only a f t e r  t i o n of the s t u d i e s by Hawthorn ( 1 9 6 6 ) , t h e Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s  the p u b l i c a Association  ( 1 9 6 6 ) 3 and those more e x p r e s s l y p o l i t i c a l accounts w r i t t e n by n a t i v e peoples,, was the problem o f r a c i s m i n Canada f o r c e d i n t o t h e p u b l i c  consciousness.  That i t was unwelcome was e v i d e n t from t h e c r i t i c i s m w h i c h t h e Canadian I n d i a n P a v i l i o n a t Expo '67 r e c e i v e d f o r t e l l i n g g r a p h i c a l l y some segments of the h i s t o r y of n a t i v e peoples i n t h i s c o u n t r y .  real  To choose b u r e a u c r a c y as t h e scape-  goat appealed t o t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t h e p r o j e c t because o f r e c e p t i v i t y  to  charges of t e c h n i c i s m on t h e one hand and charges of l a c k of good management on t h e o t h e r by members of the s o c i e t y .  B u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n per se may  be a n e u t r a l i n s t r u m e n t as B l a u s u g g e s t s .  It  i s a l s o a s y s t e m a t i z e d power  r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h can be used t o c r e a t e or d e s t r o y by those who h o l d t h e power. I n t h e case o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women the AMS E x e c u t i v e r e p r e s e n t i n g the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y ,  chose because of u n r e c o g n i z e d r a c i s t  to a t t a c k a p r o j e c t w h i c h was becoming more a c t i v e l y n o n - r a c i s t .  motivations Although  t h e i r means became l e s s l e g a l as t h e s t r u g g l e p r o g r e s s e d they m a i n t a i n e d sufficient credibility  c r e d i b i l i t y because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y t o d e s t r o y of the p r o j e c t and i t s members f i r s t .  the  The C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r  I n d i a n Women f a i l e d because the r a c i s t i d e o l o g y w h i c h i s a s t r u c t u r a l  element  of the hegemonic r e l a t i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y was a t t h a t t i m e too w e l l d i s g u i s e d t o be c o n f r o n t e d by e i t h e r s i d e .  This allowed the m y s t i f i c a t i o n  of mismanagement to become a r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d w h i c h b o t h major p a r t i e s hide.  could  163  I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n I d e s c r i b e d some of the processes i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o l o n g e d s e a r c h f o r an a n a l y t i c a l framework f r o m w h i c h a cogent and h i s t o r i c a l l y  accurate  a n a l y s i s o f t h e C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d .  The  framework I adopted had as i t s b a s i s an a n a l y s i s of b u r e a u c r a t i c as p u r p o s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t s f o r o f the S o c i e t y .  organizations  t h e p r o m u l g a t i o n o f the predominant  ideologies  From t h i s p o s i t i o n I proceeded t o a d i s c u s s i o n of r a c i s m as  a predominant i d e o l o g y i n c a p i t a l i s t  s o c i e t i e s who, by d e f i n i t i o n ,  practice  t b e s y s t e m a t i c e x p l o i t a t i o n of groups who can be d e f i n e d " r a c i a l l y . " this discussion is unfortunately brief  i s due t o t h e absence of  (That  analytical  m a t e r i a l and my t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s on d e v e l o p i n g t h e argument more t h o r o u g h l y . ) As an i d e o l o g y r a c i s m i s i n c u l c a t e d i n t o t h e members of t h e s o c i e t y the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l i z i n g agencies.  through  A l l these agencies are o r g a n i z e d  a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r e x t e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e model o f r a t i o n a l - l e g a l  to  bureaucratic  o r g a n i z a t i o n , whose development was a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e development of a c a p i t a l i s t  society.  A f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t of the t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e n o t i o n  o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e and n e c e s s i t y of r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e itself  an i d e o l o g i c a l p e r c e p t i o n whose b a s i s l i e s i n t h e n e c e s s i t y of  t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e maintenance o f s o c i e t y a t a c a p i t a l i s t  is  this  level.  However, b o t h t h i s and r a c i s t i d e o l o g y a r e acted upon u n c o n s c i o u s l y by t h e m a j o r i t y of  citizens.  The d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e p r o j e c t , which i n t r o d u c e s Chapter Two, e s t a b l i s h e s t h e presence of r a c i s m as an unconscious m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n g such a p r o j e c t archical structure.  initiat-  i n such a manner and f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r ,  hier-  The u n i v e r s a l presence of r a c i s t i d e o l o g y i s r e i n f o r c e d by  t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of a c t s of p e r c e i v e d good w i l l on t h e p a r t of members of  the  164  community who were moved t o a c t i o n by newspaper a r t i c l e s and speeches.  It  is  obvious t h a t t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , as was t h e case w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s and house m o t h e r , were n o t c o n s c i o u s l y r a c i s t .  The r a c i s m i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r  behaviour  i s e v i d e n t o n l y when t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e i r words t o g e t h e r a r e examined o b jectively.  The house mother p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of the r e a c t i o n by t h e v i c t i m t o r a c i s m w h i c h i s f r e q u e n t l y l a b e l l e d as " r e v e r s e r a c i s m . "  I have t r i e d  to  show, c o n c r e t e l y , why t h i s k i n d o f l a b e l i s b o t h i n a c c u r a t e and c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r a c i s m as a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon.  Her t r a g e d y  was t h a t she had accepted t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n w i t h i t s e x c l u s i v e emp h a s i s on the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l v i c t i m t o conform t o i m p o s s i b l e s t a n d ards.  C o n t i n u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d by f a i l u r e she u n d e r s t a n d a b l y developed a s t r o n g  resentment toward the a u t h o r s of her dilemma - t h e members o f t h e m a j o r i t y society.  The sad i r o n y of her s i t u a t i o n was t h a t her p o s i t i o n f r e q u e n t l y  iso-  l a t e d her f r o m her n a t u r a l a l l i e s , f o r c i n g her t o seek s u p p o r t among those who, o b j e c t i v e l y , were the p e r p e t u a t o r s of her dilemma.  The s t a f f p e r s o n , i n r e j e c t i n g t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n , avoided t h e dilemma of t h e house m o t h e r .  Through her presence i n t h e Home she was a b l e t o b e g i n  t h e process of changing the s t r u c t u r e f r o m a r a c i s t  to a n o n - r a c i s t  basis.  However, because the q u e s t i o n of r a c i s m was never addressed d i r e c t l y , defeated i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  she was  struggle.  The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s t u d y of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home, i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t h a n i t s s i z e and d u r a t i o n .  The a b i l i t y t o document i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  i n t h i s s e t t i n g i m p l i e s the s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y of documenting  greater racism  institutionalized  165  r a c i s m on a f a r l a r g e r s c a l e i n o t h e r p r o j e c t s and programs whose o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g e r and c o n c o m i t a n t l y more d i f f i c u l t  to r e s t r u c t u r e .  Residential  pro-  grams have, i n the seven y e a r s f o l l o w i n g the c l o s u r e of the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women, been e s t a b l i s h e d across Canada by governmental and n o n governmental a g e n c i e s .  W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s they have been e s t a b l i s h e d or c o n -  t r o l l e d by n o n - I n d i a n p e o p l e . mental.  The f u n d i n g sources have been p r i m a r i l y g o v e r n -  T h e i r mandates have been a g a i n w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , t o p r o v i d e  the  k i n d o f s e r v i c e Brody speaks of i n h i s s t u d y I n d i a n s on Skid Row ( 1 9 7 1 . ) above on p p . 154-155.  That i s t o say, t h e programs a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l l y  quoted  organi-  zed and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n n a t u r e w i t h the u l t i m a t e g o a l o f changing t h e n a t i v e person i n t o the c l a r i c a t u r e which a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t s t o the I n d i a n Problem.  see as t h e f i n a l  Native o r g a n i z a t i o n s which attempt to f i n d  solution solutions  t o the problems f a c i n g t h e u r b a n n a t i v e p e r s o n i n a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , n o n a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t way meet w i t h l i t t l e kind of a c t i v e opposition i l l u s t r a t e d  s u p p o r t a t b e s t and more f r e q u e n t l y ,  the  i n t h i s case s t u d y .  The p r o b l e m of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r a c i s m w i l l n o t d i m i n i s h u n l e s s and u n t i l much more work i s done i n d e v e l o p i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of mechanisms.  its  T h i s work can b e s t be accomplished by widespread e x a m i n a t i o n of  all  i n s t i t u t i o n s who s e r v e , i n a minor or major way, as p a r t s of the mechanism f o r maintaining r a c i s t  ideology.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s do n o t end w i t h the e x a m i n a t i o n of r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . phenomenon, now c a l l e d s e x i s m , i s analogous t o t h a t of r a c i s m . very recently,  Ignored  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o p p r e s s i o n of women has s i m i l a r  and s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s .  The until  origins  The most o v e r t of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of sexism a r e  166  now b e i n g a t t a c k e d w i t h some l i m i t e d success.  However, the c o v e r t ,  institu-  t i o n a l i z e d forms w i l l r e q u i r e t h e same k i n d o f r i g o r o u s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h so necessary t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the phenomenon o f r a c i s m . E z o r s k y , i n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e i n the New York Review o f Books  (XX1(8):32-39)  d i s c u s s e s t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e v e r y m i n i m a l r e q u e s t t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s  not  demand h i g h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f r o m female c a n d i d a t e s t h a n f r o m male c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e same p o s i t i o n s has been r e c e i v e d by the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e USA.  Ob-  s f u c a t i o n of the i s s u e o f o b j e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , by c l a i m s t h a t the r e q u e s t would r e s u l t i n " r e v e r s e s e x i s m " and d e s t r u c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l  organizational  p a t t e r n s i s analagous t o t h e process documented i n t h e case s t u d y .  The d i f f i -  c u l t y i n a t t a c k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f r a c i s m or sexism i s  therefore  compounded.  individuals  Not o n l y i s t h e r a c i s m or sexism p r e s e n t i n b o t h the  and t h e s t r u c t u r e b u t t h e v i c t i m i s a l s o c o n f r o n t e d by t h e g e n e r a l  difficulties,  inherent i n the r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , of promoting i n n o vation.  The presence of e i t h e r  ( o r more f r e q u e n t l y b o t h ) o f t h e s e o p p r e s s i v e  i d e o l o g i e s can o n l y be combatted by exposing them by means o f v a s t l y  increased  research.  F u t u r e t h e o r e t i c a l developments must s u r e l y a l s o c o n s i d e r , more the c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r o f c l a s s .  specifically,  The k n o t t y problems p r e s e n t i n t h e  inclusion  o f c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n the p r e s e n t t h e o r e t i c a l d i s p u t e s over t h e e x a c t n a t u r e of c l a s s i n t h e l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , appeared too p r o h i b i t i v e w a r r a n t t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y of t h e p r o b l e m .  to  I am hope-  f u l t h a t o t h e r s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e debate e n a b l i n g t h e development of a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the problems i n h e r e n t i n an a n a l y s i s of t h e o p p r e s s i v e f o r c e s of r a c i s m and sexism.  The b a t t l e i s  joined!  167  Footnotes 1.  The recommended m o t i o n , passed a t t h e S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l m e e t i n g was:* (a) That the funds r e m a i n i n g i n the co-op home account be divided into three p o r t i o n s : Koerner Grant $1,375.32 Grad Class 1,143.59 Sundry G i f t s 1,101.90 (b) That t h e funds i n the Koerner Grant p o r t i o n be h e l d i n t r u s t by the T r e a s u r e r of the AMS pending i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e D i r e c t o r s of the Leon and Thea Koerner Founda t i o n as t o t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n , and f u r t h e r t h a t t h e Koerner F o u n d a t i o n be urged t o c o n s i d e r d i r e c t i n g these funds t o the Nasaika Lodge S o c i e t y . (c) That t h e T r e a s u r e r be a u t h o r i z e d a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n and s u b j e c t , i f necessary t o the a p p r o v a l o f major d o n o r s , to d i r e c t t h e funds of the Sundry G i f t s p o r t i o n to t h e Nasaika Lodge S o c i e t y . (d) That the T r e a s u r e r , a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n , and s u b j e c t i f necessary t o the a p p r o v a l of an e x e c u t i v e member of t h e 1965-66 G r a d u a t i n g Class be a u t h o r i z e d to d i r e c t t h e funds of the Grad Class p o r t i o n t o t h e Nasaika Lodge S o c i e t y or t o any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n whose o b j e c t s are s i m i l a r to those of t h e CUS I n d i a n Co-op Home. I was u n a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h i s procedure was c a r r i e d o u t . The o n l y r e c o r d s the AMS has o f the f i n a l f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e t h r e e disbursements on the Record Ledger Card i d e n t i f i e d by cheque numbers. The s t a f f was unable to l o c a t e r e c o r d s o f t o whom these cheques were i s s u e d .  2.  The f i l e s on t h e p r o j e c t c o n t a i n my submission and one o t h e r , b o t h of which make t h i s comment. I n p e r s o n a l communications and p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s by o t h e r s t u d e n t members t h i s q u e s t i o n was a l s o r a i s e d . Due to the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y invoked by the AMS e x e c u t i v e a t t h e t i m e o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the subsequent d e s t r u c t i o n o f submissions I am unable to comment on the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the n o n - s t u d e n t members may a l s o have been concerned w i t h t h i s l a c k .  3.  T h i s was t h e woman who had been a member o f the p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e , l i v e d i n t h e home, known b o t h t h e s t a f f people and had s a t on t h e Board and v a r i o u s committees.  4.  Some members of the E x e c u t i v e were p a i d d u r i n g the summer months t o a l l o w them t o devote t h e i r f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o the f u n c t i o n s of t h e Society.  5.  D u r i n g the two y e a r s I was d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the S o c i e t y as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t many s u g g e s t i o n s to m i n i m i z e t h e amount of d u p l i c a t i o n and paper work were met w i t h h o s t i l i t y by the E x e c u t i v e s .  168  6.  The most d r a m a t i c case of t h i s s o r t o c c u r r e d i n 1965 and i n v o l v e d an ad hoc group of s t u d e n t s dubbed t h e "Seven Dwarves" who, demanded t h a t the C o u n c i l p a r t i c i p a t e i n the CUS N a t i o n a l Student Day demonstrations f o r which the AMS r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had v o t e d a t t h e p r e v i o u s CUS Congress. The n a t u r e of the d e m o n s t r a t i o n was t o be a march by the s t u d e n t s to the Bayshore Inn, where the A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and C o l l e g e s of Canada was h o l d i n g a meeting. The demands of the s t u d e n t s were to f r e e z e t u i t i o n f e e s a t t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l i n order to m i t i g a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by lower income s t u d e n t s and potent i a l s t u d e n t s . The C o u n c i l r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e and the "Sev e n Dwarves" prepared a l e a f l e t , r e n t e d buses and o b t a i n e d the n e c e s s a r y p e r m i t s from t h e p o l i c e . On the evening b e f o r e the d e m o n s t r a t i o n , when i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n had c o n s i d e r a b l e student s u p p o r t , t h e C o u n c i l r e c o n s i d e r e d and l e d the march on t h e f o l l o w i n g day. The CUS r e s o l u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g the N a t i o n a l Student Day had a l s o d e a l t w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of f o r m i n g l o c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i o n committees to c o n f r o n t the p r o blem o f u n i v e r s a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y to h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . A g a i n t h e "Seven Dwarves" through l e a f l e t i n g s and coverage i n t h e s t u d e n t newspaper succeeded i n f o r c i n g the C o u n c i l to e s t a b l i s h such a committee under i t s a e g i s .  7.  From an u n p u b l i s h e d paper by P h i l l i p G e r i s i l o , December 1973. No t i t l e .  8.  From t h e second f u n d i n g b r i e f prepared by the I n d i a n A f f a i r s sub-committee, "A C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women" p u b l i s h e d by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of S t u d e n t s , n.d. p.l.  169 Appendix 1  I n d i a n G i r l s Co-op House, Board of D i r e c t o r s  ....  For t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e M e e t i n g , I would l i k e t o c i t e two examples. Both o f these s i t u a t i o n s came t o my a t t e n t i o n  to-day.  Both o f them, a r e cases where young people need a s p e c i a l k i n d of  live-in  s i t u a t i o n - w i t h some k i n d of s u p e r v i s i o n and a g r e a t d e a l of s u p p o r t and warmth. Thelma - was l i v i n g common-law i n t h e west end.  She had been a d m i t t e d  to  t h e h o s p i t a l w i t h slashed w r i s t s when she was b r o u g h t t o our a t t e n t i o n .  She  s u b s e q u e n t l y j o i n e d A.A. After  t h i s she was thrown o u t of t h e apartment i n t h e west end.  h e r i n t h e East End H o s t e l . F r a n c i n e - 17 -  T h i s was a m i s t a k e .  Now has d i s a p p e a r e d .  t o be r e l e a s e d f r o m W e l l i n g t o n School - accustomed t o  c i t y and w i l l be r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . homes.  We p l a c e d  the  Has r u n away t h r e e times f r o m f o s t e r  Needs a home s e t t i n g w i t h some s u p e r v i s i o n and a g r e a t d e a l o f  under-  standing. Could be p l a c e d t h i s week i f  t h e r e was some p l a c e f o r h e r to go.  We a t the Centre would f e e l i t a g r e a t l o s s i f  t h e o r i g i n a l purpose of  the  Co-op House were changed.  Director Vancouver I n d i a n Centre  Appendix 2  B. C. Indian A r t s & W e l f a r e Society  170  V I C T O R I A . B.C. C A N A D A  OFFICE  PATRON JDR-DENEBAL GEORGE P.C..  R. C.B.,  THE  D.S.O..  BRITISH  THE  SECRETARY  HONOURABLE  PEARKES,  V.C.,  3190 R u t l e d ^ e S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a ' , B.C. November 4 t h . 1966  M.C.  LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR or  OF  COLUMBIA  M i s s Daphne Felgard. Chairman Canadia^ U n i o n o f S t u d e n t s Committee Alms M a t e r S o - i s t y B r o c k H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , B.C. Dear K i s s K e l g a r d R e f . Co top Home I n d i a n  Girls  ",'e have l e a r n e d o f t h e r e c e n t change o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f and s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e C o - o o e r a t i v e ome f o r I n d i a n Girls. rt  Trie p r e s i d e n t Mr. R. Beaven and t h e ^ a s t - p r e s i d e n t M i s s B e t t y P r a r i ^ n e l l both o f t h i s s o c i e t y , v i s i t e d the home on September 2 l 3 t . 1966. A t t h a t time they p r e s ented a cheque f o r vlCO.00 t o the Home t o a s s i s t w i t h e x p e n s e s . They were i m o r e s 3 e d by what t h e y saw o f t h e Home and i t 3 s t a f f . The o b j e c t s o f t h e B.C. I n d i a n A r t 3 and " f e l f a r e S o c i e t y , are p r i m a r i l y t o a s s i s t I n d i a n persons whereever the need .-na? be 1ud<^?rl t o be g r e a t e s t and a t t h e same time t o encourage them t o a s s i s t t h e m s e l v e s . t  We would a p p r e c i a t e a l e t t e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n as t o the new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up and s p o n s o r s h i p and t h e u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r the d i s m i s s a l o f Mrs. Margaret W h i t e , 7.secuflve D i r e c t o r . Our E x e c u t i v e meeting . v i l l be h e l d Nov. 9 t h . 1966. 'Ye would a p p r e c i a t e your l e t t e r on o r b e f o r e t h i s d a t e . Sincerely,  C or r e s pon d i n ~ S e c r e t a r y  he:  B. C . Indian A r t s & W e l f a r e Society  171  V I C T O R I A , B.C. C A N A D A OFFICE  PATRON MAJOR-GCNERAL BEORBE P.C..  R. C.B..  THE  PEARKEB, O.S.O.,  V.C,  3190 R u t l e d g e  M.C.  BRITISH  THE  Street,  V i c t o r i a , 3.0. November 9fch. 1966  LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF  OF  HONOURABLE  COLUMBIA  '.lis3 Daphne K e l g a r d Chairman Canadian U n i o n o f S t u d e n t s Conmittee Alma '.later S o c i e t y B r o c k H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 3 , 3.0. Dear M i s s K e l g a r d : R e f . Co top Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s 'Ye a r e a w a i t i n g a r e p l y t o our r e c e n t l e t t e r t o you i n r e g a r d s t o t h e changes o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s p o n s o r s h i p o f the Co-op Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s a t 2722 '.Vest 6 t h . Avenue, Vancouver 9, B.C. May we r e q u e s t your prompt a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s l a t t e r and your r e p l y at the e a r l i e s t c o n v e n i e n c e . _S; In cere I y , _  i .  .,  —  " ' f ' r s , ) H a r r i e t t 2..-.. '-Iss3Iront corresponding Secretary  SECRETARY  TELEPHONE 3 8 5 . 7 3 4 3  B A R R I S T E R ft S O L I C I T O R NOTARY P U B L I C  318  YARROW BUILDING, 645  FORT  STREET,  $tdortn,.?L  M i s s Daphne K i l g o u r , P r e s . A l m a MMate ater S o c i e t y . U n i v e r s i t y ooff B.C. VANCOUVER,B.C. -L.  V—'  t  -i-* -n 13 Dec  &  66  Dear M i s s K i l g o u r ; r e : C o - o p e r a t i v e House f o r G i r l s - w e s t 8 t h Ave.  Indian  Following recent a r t i c l e s i n the press c o n c e r n i n g a change o f p o l i c y and management w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e above house,Our s e c r e t a r y was i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e t o you e n q u i r i n g what was t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e "probe" o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r t h e change i n management. She has a d v i s e d me t o d a y t h a t d e s p i t e some 2 o r 3 l e t t e r s , d u r i n g t h e p a s t month o r s o , she has n o t the courtesy of a r e p l y . I r e a l i s e t h a t t h i s i s a b u s y t i m e of y e a r a t U n i v e r s i t y , b u t our members a r e c o n c e r n e d about t h i s and our s o c i e t y i s v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ' a n d I would p a r t i c u l a r l y ask you t o be good enoughto l e t me have an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r he changes b e f o r e you l e a v e f o r t h e C h r i s t m a s season. Our i n t e r e s t stems from .our i n t e r e s t i n a l l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o I n d i a n s and f r o m our f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h was a l o t f o r a s o c i e t y s u c h as o u r s and from t h e i m p r e s s i o n , m o s t f a v o u r a b l e , t h a t t h e p a s t p r e s i d e n t and I formed o f t h e house and i t ' s management when we v i s i t e d i t on t h e 2 1 s t September l a s t . 1  Yours very  R  B  /  B  truly,  RODNE/ BE^VAN-President  of  and s o l i c i t o r f o r The B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and W e l f a r e S o c i e t y .  173 Appendix 3  o  E£»  JteJ  1  u  afar  ks&  7  T  T h e fate of the I n d i a n W o m e n ' s C o - o p H o u s e , w h i c h was f o u n d e d i n V a n c o u v e r l a s t s p r i n g , the f i r s t of its k i n d , w i l l be d g c i d e d ^ t - i L m ^ M e e t i n g • w i l l be represents-j ^ l i v e s of the A l m a M a t e r Society, j B . C . I n d i a n A r t s and Crafts w h i c h sponsored it, and the | W e l f a r e Society, of V i c t o r i a , Students, w h i c h has donated some money towards it, has protested i n AI50..I0 be decided .is the fate w r i t i n g to the change in concept ] of its to.unjkr and director, M r s .of the house. Canadian  Union  of  w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r e d it.  ! M a r g a r e t White. She c l a i m s she was while  replaced she  conference  by  was  the away  students at  a  i n W i n n i p e g at. the  end of October. Officials of the A l m a M a t e r Society have met w i t h students' council m e m b e r s and representatives of the I n d i a n Centre, which had endorsed the house. H o w e v e r , they d e c l i n e d to comment u n t i l after the meeting next M o n d a y , whcn,_a.n-.-o£f.icial statement w i l l be issued.X. M e m b e r s of the students' counI c i l , questioned e a r l i e r by The Sun, s a i d M r s . White was running the house as a sort of halfw a y house for I n d i a n w o m e n out of O a k a l l a and off s k i d r o a d , whereas they w o u l d l i k e to j change it to a co-operative I residence such as ^university ] s t u d e n j ^ h a v e . Jt would be f o r , young .women (."king courses o r getting themselves established'i n jobs.' R e s i d e n t s would m a k e j a l l " the decisions themselves,! and be responsible for the j runnin-2 of it. -j ;  174 Appendix 4  D e s c r i p t i o n of Unpublished M a t e r i a l s  A l l m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to the C o - o p e r a t i v e Home f o r I n d i a n Women, o t h e r t h a n o f f i c i a l AMS documents, a r e i n my p o s s e s s i o n .  They i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g :  - two fund r a i s i n g b r i e f s w r i t t e n by the p l a n n i n g committee - two f u n d i n g l e t t e r s , one s o l i c i t i n g funds f r o m c o r p o r a t e b o d i e s , the other r e q u e s t i n g donations i n kind from v o l u n t a r y agencies. -  correspondence: f r o m c o r p o r a t i o n s i n response t o the f u n d i n g l e t t e r s f r o m s m a l l donors and t h e l e t t e r of thanks sent t o them f r o m AMS T r e a s u r e r f r o m AMS lawyer  - n o t i c e s of meetings and a l l m i n u t e s of Board m e e t i n g s - memoranda f r o m the AMS E x e c u t i v e - documents and p r e s s r e l e a s e s i s s u e d by the AMS - c o p i e s of d r a f t  submissions to the AMS " i n v e s t i g a t i o n "  - c o p i e s of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Leon and Thea Koerner and t h e subsequent correspondence. - r e c e i p t s and f i n a n c i a l - newspaper  Foundation  statements  clippings  - sundry n o t e s and memoranda i n t e r n a l to the p r o j e c t , r e p o r t s f r o m t h e s t a f f of t h e Home.  including  - r e l a t e d documents and r e p o r t s f r o m the CUS Committee and n a t i o n a l secretariat  175  Bibliography - Published M a t e r i a l  ALBROW, MARTIN 1970 Bureaucracy.  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DUFF, WILSON 1964 The I n d i a n H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Volume I , The Impact o f t h e White Man. V i c t o r i a : A n t h r o p o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir 5. DUNN, L.C. AND THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 1952 H e r e d i t y , Race and S o c i e t y .  New Y o r k :  New American L i b r a r y .  ETZIONI, AMITAI 1961 A Comparative A n a l y s i s of Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s on Power, ment and t h e i r C o r r e l a t e s . Glencoe: The Free P r e s s . EZORSKY, GERTRUDE 1974 The F i g h t Over U n i v e r s i t y Women. XXI ( 8 ) : 3 2 - 3 9 . FANON,FRANZ 1967 B l a c k S k i n s , White Masks.  Involve-  New York Review o f Books  New Y o r k :  Grove P r e s s .  FIELDS, D.B. AND W.T. STANBURY 1970 The Economic Impact of the P u b l i c Sector upon t h e I n d i a n s o f Columbia. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s . FRANKLIN, RAYMOND S. 1969 The P o l i t i c a l Economy of B l a c k Power. 286-301.  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AND KENNETH PREWITT, Eds. 1969 I n s t i t u t i o n a l Racism i n A m e r i c a . Englewood C l i f f s : Inc. KUNSTLER, WILLIAM M. 1966 Deep i n My H e a r t .  New Y o r k :  Department o f  Prentice-Hall,  W i l l i a m Morrow and Company.  LYMAN, STANFORD M. 1972 The B l a c k American i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Thought. nam's Sons.  New Y o r k :  G.P.  Put-  MANNHEIM,. KARL 1936 I d e o l o g y and U t o p i a . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace and W o r l d , I n c . 1952 O r i e n t a t i o n s o f B u r e a u c r a t i c Thought. I_n Reader i n B u r e a u c r a c y , R. M e r t o n e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free P r e s s .  179  MEAD, MARGARET, THEODOSI.US DOBZHANSKY, ETHEL TOBACH AND ROBERT LIGHT, Eds. 1968 Science and the Concept of Race. New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press. MEMMI, ALBERT 1968  Dominated Man, Notes Toward a P o r t r a i t .  Boston:  Beacon P r e s s .  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