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Bureaucracy and racism : their interrelationship a case study of the co-operative home for Indian women Kelgard, Daphne Sylvia 1974

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BUREAUCRACY AND RACISM: THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIP A CASE STUDY OF THE CO-OPERATIVE HOME FOR INDIAN WOMEN by DAPHNE SYLVIA KELGARD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as confoft i i ing to th,e require/1 standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1974 In p resen t ing t h i s thes is in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y sha l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission fo r ex tens ive copying o f t h i s thes is f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is rep resen ta t i ves . I t is understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes is f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be al lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion . Department o f £./£s&>JL,s;s J*&^r/£^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8. Canada i ABSTRACT Studies of bureaucracy are predominant ly s tud ies of s t r u c t u r a l f rameworks. Bureaucra t i c s t r u c t u r e s are not seen to be v e h i c l e s of i d e o l o g i c a l expres-s i o n . They are more commonly viewed as e i t h e r n e u t r a l i z i n g or as n e u t r a l i ns t rumen ts . The argument has been made t h a t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l bureaucrac ies can ac t as d e - p o l i t i c i z i n g agents , a c t u a l l y p r e v e n t i n g even the p o s s i b i l i t y of the express ion of i n d i v i d u a l p r e j u d i c e . C r i t i c s of t h i s p o s i t i o n argue the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r f e r e n c e by f u n c t i o n a r i e s but support the assump-t i o n t h a t the s t r u c t u r e should i d e a l l y be a n e u t r a l one. They t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to ways of p reven t i ng f u n c t i o n a r i e s f rom s u b v e r t i n g t h i s i d e a l . I f one cons iders the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e to be p r imary r a t h e r than the i d e a l c o n s t r u c t , i t then becomes c l e a r t h a t a l l the s t r u c t u r e s are i n -fused w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g i d e o l o g i e s of the s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r , the i n d i -v i d u a l a c t o r s w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e s w i l l , consc ious l y or unconsc ious l y , ac t on these i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . The phenomenon of rac ism i s a l so not commonly t r e a t e d as an i d e o l o g y . The more usua l t rea tment of rac ism i s as aber ran t behaviour by a l i m i t e d num-ber of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s o c i e t y . I f one examines the s t r u c t u r a l bases of r a c i s t behaviour r a t h e r than i t s p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c express ions , i t be-comes ev ident t h a t rac ism i s an i d e o l o g y . The r a c i s t a c t i o n s s ing led out as d e v i a n t behaviour are on ly the o v e r t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . The c o v e r t man i -f e s t a t i o n s are i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and u s u a l l y unconsc ious, making them less obv ious . These two hypotheses, t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y an impor tan t r o l e i n the p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i ssemina t i on of the s o c i e t y ' s p r e v a i l i n g i i i d e o l o g i e s , and t h a t rac ism i s a predominant ideo logy i n a l l c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s , are coupled w i t h a t h i r d . Th is hypo thes is i s t h a t the b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y and n e u t r a l i t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t -l y s t rong i n the. soc ie t y and i t s members t ha t i t serves to mask the p r e -sence of o ther i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s . These th ree hypotheses were developed i n the process of ana l yz ing a v o l u n -t a r y p r o j e c t , the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women i n which I was a pa r -t i c i p a n t . The m a t e r i a l presented here i s drawn f rom records and documents i n my possess ion. As I possess v i r t u a l l y a l l the ex tan t m a t e r i a l from the p r o j e c t begun i n 1965 and a b r u p t l y ended i n 1967, I have g iven as f u l l a h i s t o r y of the Home as p o s s i b l e , i n c l u d i n g ex tens i ve q u o t a t i o n s f rom the unpubl ished documentat ion. The f a i l u r e of the Co-opera t i ve Home was a t t r i b u t e d to d i f f e r i n g percep-t i o n s of the u t i l i t y of r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s by a l l the p a r t i e s to the even tua l d i s p u t e which caused the c l o s u r e o f the Home. The documentary evidence s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e s t ha t the c l o s u r e o f the Home was due to the presence o f r a c i s t ideo logy which was masked by d i s a g r e e -ments over b u r e a u c r a t i c methods. From these c o n c l u s i o n s , more t e n t a t i v e conc lus ions are drawn concern ing the presence of r a c i s t ideo logy i n most o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , complex and s imp le , i n any s o c i e t y wh ich pe r -petuates the e x p l o i t a t i o n of a group of people i d e n t i f i a b l e as a " r a c e " . 1 i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables • • Acknowledgments . i i i v v i Introduction  Notes 1 5 CHAPTER ONE The o r e t i c a l Perspectives Bureaucracy - A Re-examination 17 Racism — A D e f i n i t i o n a l .Problem 44 Notes 59 CHAPTER TWO The Co-operative Home for Indian Women - Development and  O r i g i n a l Structure The Planning Committee 63 The Residents and the Community 73 The Board and the Sta f f of the Home 82 Notes 96 CHAPTER THREE The Co-operative Home for Indian Women - Approaching the End 100 Notes 134 i v CHAPTER FOUR Understanding the F a i l u r e  Notes Appendices L e t t e r f rom the D i r e c t o r , Vancouver I n d i a n Center 169 L e t t e r s f rom the B.C. A r t s & Wel fare Soc ie ty 170 A r t i c l e f rom the Vancouver Sun 173 D e s c r i p t i o n of unpubl ished m a t e r i a l s 174 B i b l i o g r a p h y of Publ ished References 175 LIST OF-TABLES Pro jec ted Operat ing Statement f o r the Year Ending June 2 1 , 1967 . A c t u a l Income and Expend i tu res , A p r i l 15, 1966 to June 1 , 1 9 6 6 . . . A c t u a l Income and Expend i tu res , June 1 , 1966 to November 20, 1967 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to thank Dr. H.B. Hawthorn for h i s patience and perseverance i n helping me to become what I am - a scholar i n s p i t e of myself. Without his encouragement and u n f a i l i n g support t h i s t h e s i s would not have been written. Thanks are also due to my cognate and a f f i n a l k i n for t h e i r a id and assistance i n times of d i s t r e s s . INTRODUCTION 2 The Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women was a s tudent p r o j e c t begun by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of Students i n 1965. The Home opened i t s doors i n A p r i l of 1966 and had them f o r c i b l y shut i n May of 1967. U n l i k e many p r o j e c t s which are v o l u n t e e r o r i g i n a t e d and comple te ly r e l i a n t on g ran ts f rom non-governmental fund ing sources t h i s p r o j e c t d i d not d i e f rom l a c k of funds . The balance of funds remain ing a t i t s c l o s u r e , w i t h o u t any a d d i t i o n a l monies, would have a l lowed the Home to con t inue i t s f u n c t i o n as a long term r e h a b i l i t a t i v e res idence f o r a t l e a s t one year or more. The p r o j e c t ' s s ta ted i n t e n t was to p rov ide a res idence r u n on c o - o p e r a t i v e l i n e s f o r n a t i v e women who had no a l t e r n a t i v e housing except t h a t a v a i l a b l e on Skid Road. The p r o j e c t began w i t h l i t t l e f a n f a r e and muted approva l was rece ived f rom many sources, p r i m a r i l y f rom s tudents and v o l u n t a r y agencies such as the Vancouver I n d i a n F r iendsh ip Center and the S a l v a t i o n Army. I n i t s b r i e f h i s t o r y i t i n c u r r e d much w r a t h and was f i n a l l y c losed by f o r c i b l e e v i c t i o n . The problem I have addressed mysel f to i n t h i s work i s why the p r o j e c t was shut down i n such a manner. The t h e s i s I have developed over a long p e r -iod of a n a l y s i s i s t h a t the charges and counter -charges of b u r e a u c r a t i c bung l ing and red tape were not the r e a l reasons but r a t h e r served to mask the presence of r a c i s t ideo logy as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind the c l o s u r e . My f i r s t a t tempt to analyze why a p r o j e c t which had been seen i n i t i a l l y as a good work should have ended i n b i t t e r n e s s and some v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d , w i t h the encouragement of Dr . H.B. Hawthorn, over one year a f t e r the p r o -j e c t ended. The r a t i o n a l e prov ided by the AMS Treasurer i n h i s r e p o r t 3 to the Students ' Counc i l concerning the funds remain ing f rom the p r o j e c t d i d not seem s a t i s f a c t o r y . He suggested t h a t the Home's f a i l u r e was due to i n s u f f i c i e n t research p r i o r t o beg inn ing the p r o j e c t and, more impor-t a n t l y , t o "crude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " by a board whose b u r e a u c r a t i c a b i l i -t i e s l e f t much to be d e s i r e d . A counter -charge issued some f o u r months p r i o r to the c l o s u r e by a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o j e c t suggested t h a t most of the problems then experienced by the Home could be t raced to " p e t t y bureaucracy" on the p a r t of the Alma Mater Soc ie ty ( t he UBC s tuden t asso-c i a t i o n ) . I n the e igh teen month in ter regnum between the c l o s u r e and the f i r s t a t tempts a t a n a l y s i s , my i n i t i a l r e s i s t a n c e t o the n o t i o n t h a t bureaucracy i n some form was the r o o t cause of the c l o s u r e was r e i n f o r c e d by two exper iences . Dur ing my tenure w i t h the n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t of the Canadian Union of S tudents , I had d i r e c t exper ience w i t h many o ther forms of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . On my r e t u r n to UBC, I found the same c r i t i c i s m of AMS b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e f f i c i e n c y r i f e i n p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d i scuss ions t h a t I had heard s ince I had entered the U n i v e r s i t y i n 19 63. Both exper iences caused me to s e r i o u s l y ques t ion the c e n t r a l r o l e assigned to the bureau-c r a t i c . My exper iences i n Ottawa and elsewhere i n d i c a t e d to me t h a t b u -reaucracy per se was on ly an outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f deeper causes o f f a i l u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s or t h e i r p r o j e c t s . I n o ther words, f a i l u r e might be due to s t r u c t u r a l or persona l reasons but the way of o r g a n i z i n g the s t r u c t u r e and/or the people was not a major causa l f a c t o r . Frenkenberg 's study (1957) of the s t r u c t u r e of v o l u n t a r y committees i n a Welsh v i l l a g e i l l u s t r a t e s the p o i n t w e l l . The v i l l a g e r s neg lec ted to keep minutes of 4 meetings which could be used as records. This p r a c t i c e enabled them to pin blame f o r unpopular suggestions or decisions on "outsiders" who served as scapegoats to the v i l l a g e ' s need to maintain the appearance of outward cohesion. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n e f f i c i e n t bureaucratic techniques allowed the v i l l a g e r s to maintain a facade of s o l i d a r i t y which e f f i c i e n t bureau-c r a t i c p r a c t i c e s would have served to expose, to the detriment of the community. Having determined what the cause was not, I then turned to the exploration of what i t might be. One of my r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at the CUS s e c r e t a r i a t i n Ottawa was human r i g h t s programming. My appointment overlapped the United Nations Human Rights Year i n 1968 during which I attended many con-ferences convened around t h i s t o p i c . Not one of the conferences, f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , or l o c a l , dealt with the patent d e n i a l of human r i g h t s to Canadians of Indian ancestry despite the p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1967 of A. Survey  of Contemporary Indians of Canada, (Hawthorn) and the cr e a t i o n of the Canadian Indian P a v i l l i o n at Expo '67. I found considerable food f o r thought i n these omissions and began reading on the phenomenon of racism. Through t h i s process, I became convinced that there was some l i n k between racism and the Co-operative Home for Indian Women. Racism i s conventionally regarded as a very emotion-laden charge. In com-mon usage i t either creates g u i l t f e e l i n g s and a non-desirable s e l f - p e r -ception or absolute d e n i a l of i t s existence on the part of those accused of p r a c t i c i n g i t . When the charge of racism i s accepted, even t e n t a t i v e l y , many assumptions about the i n d i v i d u a l and/or the organization are c a l l e d 5 i n t o q u e s t i o n . The conven t iona l v iew of rac ism a lso c a r r i e s w i t h i t the n o t i o n t h a t r a c i s t s are a smal l m i n o r i t y of the s o c i e t y who a re d e v i a n t i n t h e i r behaviour p a t t e r n s . My knowledge of the a c t o r s i n the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women fo rced me to d i s c a r d the conven t iona l n o t i o n s and search f o r more reasoned exp lana t ions of the phenomenon. The search took me beyond d e f i n i t i o n s of rac ism to the s t r u c t u r a l underp inn ings and the methods by which i t i s promulgated, t h a t i s to say, the f u n c t i o n of i d e o -logy i n a s o c i e t y . I n the French ph i losopher A l t h u s s e r I found a cogent e x p l a n a t i o n of how the i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses o f the s o c i e t y f u n c t i o n t o perpe tua te those i d e o l o g i e s considered u s e f u l , i n c l u d i n g r a c i s m , t h r o u g h -out the s o c i e t y . A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g an a n a l y t i c a l framework which f i t the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y of the p r o j e c t ' s h i s t o r y I was aga in faced w i t h a q u e s t i o n . How d i d the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on b u r e a u c r a t i c extremes and weaknesses f i t . The most r e a -sonable response was m u l t i - f a c e t e d . F i r s t , the r a c i s t i d e o l o g y , f o r the m a j o r i t y , was an u n t h i n k i n g response, main ta ined at t h a t l e v e l by the f r e -quency w i t h which the n o n - I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s were con f ron ted by con tac t w i t h p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m s of t h a t i d e o l o g y . I n a d d i t i o n , i n 1965 to 1967, the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e was a c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n i n g the myth t h a t Canadians were not p r e j u d i c e d - t h a t was a problem s p e c i f i c to our neighbours to the sou th . Secondly, the charge of r a c i s m , i f i t had been recognized as a causal f a c t o r , was a ve ry s t rong one to l e v e l and i n so do ing the accuser would a l so have had to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as the p r o j e c t ' s i n i t i a l approva l was based on unan imi ty of i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I t was on ly as the pe rspec t i ves began to d i v e r g e t h a t the c o n f l i c t deve loped. T h i r d l y , 6 as Peter Blau was forced to recognize i n h i s study of a state h i r i n g agen-cy i n the USA (1963), bureaucratic structures by t h e i r very nature, serve as perpetuators of the state's i d e o l o g i e s . Much of the observations and records upon which the case study of the Co-operative Home i s based were c o l l e c t e d while I was an ac t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the pr o j e c t . The Co-operative Home project originated from the Indian A f f a i r s sub-committee of the l o c a l CUS Committee. Although I was a c t i v e i n the CUS Committee during the planning stage and was aware of the d e c i -sions and a c t i v i t i e s around the project, I did not become d i r e c t l y i n v o l -ved u n t i l my appointment, j u s t p r i o r to the Home's opening, as CUS Chair-person^" for the succeeding twelve months. My r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s included maintaining established programs, creating new programs, acting as advisor to the President of the AMS and overseeing the progress of the Co-operative Home. Shortly a f t e r my term of o f f i c e ended i n A p r i l of 1967, I l e f t f o r Ottawa to take the p o s i t i o n with the nationa l s e c r e t a r i a t of CUS. In my possession were the set of f i l e s on the Home containing correspon-dence, memoranda, printed materials, copies of reports, minutes, and ex-tensive notes, as well as f i n a n c i a l statements and newspaper c l i p p i n g s . I had brought them to my parents' home i n order that the new Chairperson of the Home's Board could c o l l e c t them conveniently. Because of the t u r -moil i n the project during that time he did not c o l l e c t them before the .Home's closure. Thus by accident they remained i n my possession a v a i l a -ble f o r subsequent a n a l y s i s . Almost a l l materials stored i n the AMS o f f i c e s was destroyed i n 1968 during my absence from the c i t y when the 7 AMS moved f rom t h e i r o ld o f f i c e s i n t o the new Student Union B u i l d i n g . Apar t f rom some AMS minu tes , the adequacy of which are d iscussed i n Chap-t e r Three, a l l known w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s are i n my possess ion. Due to c i r -cumstances, no o ther a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o j e c t was a v a i l a b l e f o r i n t e r v i e w s or v e r i f i c a t i o n o f da ta d u r i n g the comp i l i ng of the case s tudy . Most of the major p a r t i c i p a n t s have l e f t the c i t y . One has d i e d . Those few who remain a v a i l a b l e do not f e e l s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n f i d e n t of t h e i r r e -c o l l e c t i o n s to submit to i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r seven y e a r s . As a r e s u l t , I was fo rced t o r e l y on the ex tan t records and my memory. This s i t u a t i o n poses the obvious quest ions concern ing the degree of o b j e c -t i v i t y p o s s i b l e and the v e r a c i t y of the s tudy . The ques t ion of p a r t i c i -pant obse rva t i on as a v a l i d methodo log ica l approach has been argued a l -most as e x t e n s i v e l y as the ques t ion of the degree of o b j e c t i v i t y p o s s i b l y a t t a i n a b l e by an i n d i v i d u a l s tudy . Both d i scuss ions are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d through the ques t ion of how cons ide rab ly the s u b j e c t i v e element i s thought to be p resen t . I t i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t any s i n g l e endeavour con ta ins w i t h i n i t elements of s u b j e c t i v i t y i n terms of e t h n o c e n t r i c i t y , c l a s s b i a s , or s p e c i f i c a l l y persona l b i a s . This i s not to say t h a t s c i e n t i f i c i t y a t i t s most o b j e c t i v e l e v e l i s u n a t t a i n a b l e but r a t h e r to recogn ize the l i m i -t a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l work. The a c t i v e advocacy of the " f l y on the w a l l " p o s i t i o n on obse rva t i on hav ing f i n a l l y be l a i d to r e s t , the r e l e v a n t d i s c u s s i o n i s the degree to which the observer p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the a c t i v i -t y being s t u d i e d . I n t h i s sense the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t cum researcher i s o f t e n i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to analyze the e f f e c t she or he has had on the s i t u a t i o n being s tud ied than the pass ive p a r t i c i p a n t f o r whom the change 8 i n phenomena i s l ess d i s t i n c t . Z The a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t observer i s a l so f r e q u e n t l y ab le to ga in access to i n f o r m a t i o n which i s h idden f rom the ou ts ide o b s e r v e r . 3 Seven years d i s t a n c e together w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l l y complete corpus of w r i t -ten m a t e r i a l have served to lessen the problem of s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . I n many ins tances the w r i t t e n records served to keep me honest i n my p e r -sonal r e c o l l e c t i o n s . The d e c i s i o n to respect the anonymity o f a l l d i r e c t l y i nvo l ved served the secondary purpose of removing any p o t e n t i a l d e s i r e to d i s t o r t the f a c t s to c rea te v i l l a i n s and heroes. There fo re the study i s as c o r r e c t as my i n t e r p r e t a t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s and the m a t e r i a l s w i l l a l l o w . I n c i t i n g the unpubl ished m a t e r i a l , I have used re fe rence f o o t n o t e s . C i -t a t i o n s o f pub l i shed m a t e r i a l s are accord ing t o the Chicago Method. My r o l e as p a r t i c i p a n t was in tense and not always p l e a s a n t . As i n every f i e l d exper ience , the re were b i t t e r and v i r t u a l l y un tenab le t imes as w e l l as p r o d u c t i v e and p leasant ones. I was a t t r a c t e d to the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a l l y because of i t s emphasis on s o c i a l a c t i o n w i t h i n the community r a t h e r than separated by p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i s tances as were the p r o j e c t s espoused by o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the World U n i v e r s i t y Serv ice w i t h whom I served as t r e a s u r e r i n 1965-66. My involvement was s t r u c t u r a l l y r e i n f o r c e d w i t h my appointment as CUS Cha i rperson. My a c t i v i t y w i t h the p r o j e c t increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y and I prepared to succeed the o u t - g o i n g CUS Chai rperson i n h i s r o l e as Chai rperson of the Board. When I assumed t h i s l a t t e r p o s i -t i o n , i t became obvious to me t h a t the house mother was more respons ive to the non-s tudent members of the Board and I found a s u i t a b l e replacement 9 f o r the p o s i t i o n among the p r o f e s s i o n a l s s i t t i n g as Board members. I r e t a i n e d u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o j e c t however, and was fo rced more than once to resume the r o l e of Cha i rperson. When the house mother l e f t I found a replacement i n the s t a f f person and persuaded her to assume charge of the Home. Dur ing the con t roversy aroused by the r e t u r n of the house mother , I b e -came the focus of the h o s t i l i t y and d i s c o n t e n t expressed by some of the smal l donors and f r i e n d s of the house mother at what they perce ived t o be a r a d i c a l change i n p o l i c y . Th is occurred i n p a r t because of my r o l e which rendered me u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e and i n p a r t because the CUS o f f i c e and te lephone number were re leased as the a p p r o p r i a t e con tac t f o r the Home. The - l a t t e r was done t o - p r e s e r v e the p r i v a c y of the r e s i d e n c e . The v i r i l e n c e of the compla in ts shocked me as d i d c e r t a i n of the ges tures of good w i l l rendered by o u t s i d e agenc ies, c l u b s , and i n d i v i d u a l s . ( D i s -cuss ion of some of these gestures i s conta ined i n Chapter Two, Sec t ion 2.) This exper ience, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h my growing f a m i l i a r i t y o f the l i f e h i s t o r i e s of most of the r e s i d e n t s , caused me to beg in to examine my own p r e j u d i c e s i n a way I had not p r e v i o u s l y had to do. I n my examinat ion of the m o t i v a t i o n s of o thers and mysel f I d i d n o t , however, r e l a t e the ex-per iences to any a n a l y s i s of rac ism or sys temat ic r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . The exper ience was s u f f i c i e n t l y s t rong to p rov ide impetus to con t i nue the search f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n a l y s i s . The o t h e r , l e s s persona l m o t i v a t i o n to con t inue ana lyz ing the p r o j e c t , was the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e na tu re of the 10 v e n t u r e . The on ly p o s s i b l y unique aspects of the p r o j e c t were t h a t the s tudent i n i t i a t o r s a t UBC began i t be fo re most o ther campuses began t h e i r s o c i a l a c t i o n programs, and the s t a f f person of the Co-opera t i ve Home was more p o l i t i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d than most young n a t i v e people a t t h a t t i m e . As my search f o r a s u i t a b l e a n a l y t i c a l framework progressed, o ther m o t i -v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s developed. Some no tab le work has been done i n areas t a n g e n t i a l to the study of rac ism but the s o c i a l sc iences have, i n the main , neg lec ted to c o n f r o n t the ques t ion d i r e c t l y . The work done by Fu r -n i v a l l (1948) and o the rs on c o l o n i a l i s m and i t s e f f e c t s p rov ide u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l bu t do not address the ques t ion of how rac ism occurs and i s i n d o c t r i n a t e d w i t h i n a s o c i e t y . B a r t h ' s seminal work on e t h n i c boundar ies and t h e i r maintenance (1969) chooses to ignore the ques t ion as w e l l . The s t u d i e s which have been done on the phenomenon of rac ism have been done p r i m a r i l y by p s y c h o l o g i s t s on the one hand, who tend to ignore the s t r u c t u r a l e lements, and by pamphleteers on the o t h e r , who f r e q u e n t l y s a c r i f i c e v e r a c i t y f o r p o l i t i c a l expediency. (The l a t t e r category sub-sumes the recen t spate of p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c s tud ies of " r a c e " and inequa l r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as the s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g s . ) Given the p a u c i t y of t h e o r e t i c a l m a t e r i a l s on the phenomenon of rac ism i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a l l bu t a ve ry few of the d i s c u s s i o n s , a n t h r o p o l o -g i c a l and n o n - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l , on the na tu re of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , have omi t ted any p o s s i b i l i t y of l i n k a g e between the two concepts . Peter Blau i s one excep t ion i n the f i e l d of o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y . I n h i s s tudy of s t a t e and f e d e r a l bureaucrac ies i n the USA (1963) 11 Blau was fo rced to c o n f r o n t the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between bureaucracy and r a c i s m . (Cf. Chapter One, Sec t ion 1 f o r a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of B l a u ' s work . ) The t h e s i s of my work i s t h a t the re i s a connect ion between the admin is -t r a t i v e mechanisms of the s t a t e and t h e i r s u b s i d i a r i e s , t h a t i s the bu -r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s l a r g e and s m a l l , and the phenomenon of r a c i s m . The connect ion between the two i s formed by the mechanism of ideo logy through which s o c i a l va lues are m a i n t a i n e d . Thus, i n the case of r a c i s t i deo logy , sys temat ic e x p l o i t a t i o n of a group of r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e peo-p l e , f o r example the Canadian n a t i v e peop le , g ives r i s e t o an ideo logy of s u p e r i o r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y by way of e x p l a n a t i o n f o r and defense of the ac t of e x p l o i t a t i o n . This ideo logy i s then perpetuated by what A l t h u s s e r c a l l s the S ta te I d e o l o g i c a l Apparatuses, (1971) i n c l u d i n g among o t h e r s , the r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l , l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and communications i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y . Blau i l l u s t r a t e s how bureaucracy can perpe tua te r a c i s t i deo logy w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the facade of a v a l u e - f r e e ins t rument ( t he Weberian n o t i o n o f r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a c y ) . I n h i s example the employers f o r whom the s t a t e operated the h i r i n g agency were able to s u c c e s s f u l l y cause the b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism to opperate i n a manner d i s t i n c t l y p r e j u d i c i a l to B lacks . The s tudy analysed h e r e i n , of the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women, i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the ideo logy of rac ism i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s t rong t h a t i t w i l l man i fes t i t s e l f w i t h o u t the s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n of the p o w e r f u l . Aga in , however, bureaucracy serves t o p rov ide a cover f o r t h i s 12 process. I n the case of the Co-opera t i ve Home, the pe rcep t i ons concer-n ing the v a l i d i t y , n e c e s s i t y , and p r o p r i e t y of b u r e a u c r a t i c ope ra t ions of a mod i f i ed l e g a l - r a t i o n a l type were s u f f i c i e n t l y s t rong to a l l o w bo th s ides i n the even tua l d i s p u t e t o express t h e i r disagreements by means of bureau-c r a t i c processes a lone . The importance placed on v a r y i n g aspects of bureaucracy by those i n v o l v e d i n the Co-opera t i ve Home p r o j e c t n e c e s s i t a t e s a f a i r l y thorough examina-t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y . I have omi t ted r e f e r e n c e t o the S c i e n t i f i c Management and Human R e l a t i o n s schools of b u r e a u c r a t i c theory as they cannot be construed as p e r t i n e n t to the d i s c u s s i o n . I have inc luded r e -fe rence to most of the t h e o r e t i c a l work a r i s i n g f rom or s t i m u l a t e d by We-b e r ' s t ypo logy as i t p rov ides the necessary framework f rom which t o under -stand the v a r y i n g pe rcep t ions of o r g a n i z a t i o n expressed by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the case s tudy . Th is d i s c u s s i o n i s found i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of Chap-t e r One. The chapter concludes w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the theory of r ac i sm. Chapter Two begins w i t h a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l ske tch to p rov ide background i n f o r m a t i o n on how the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t e d , i n c l u d i n g some comment on the p lann ing committee and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e i d e o l o g i c a l perspec-t i v e s . Sect ion 2 p rov ides a d i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s i d e n t s of the Home and the sma l l donors f rom the community a t l a r g e . I t d e t a i l s the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the r e s i d e n t s w i t h o ther groups invo lved i n the p r o j e c t and p rov ides some examples of the a t t i t u d e s expressed by some of the sma l l donors . These 13 two groups played the l e a s t a c t i v e p a r t s i n the drama which ensued. Sec-t i o n 3 p rov ides a d i s c u s s i o n of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Board of the Co-opera t i ve Home and the two s t a f f members. Some a n a l y s i s of the d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s to rac ism expressed by the two s t a f f members i s g iven together w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s each encountered w i t h the Board. Chapter Three i s almost e n t i r e l y concerned w i t h the p rob -lems encountered by the Board and the CUS Committee i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h the AMS Execu t i ve . Some ment ion i s made of the l a r g e donors and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to the p r o j e c t as a c o n t r a s t to those expressed by the AMS and by the sma l l donors. I t was w i t h i n these two groups ( t he AMS and the Board) t h a t the s t r u g g l e over the Home and i t s autonomy was engaged. Chapter Three t h e r e f o r e inc ludes d i s c u s s i o n of the changing a t t i t u d e s and i d e o l o -g i c a l pe rcep t ions of the Board members as t h e i r con tac t w i t h the s t a f f person and r e s i d e n t s inc reased . I t a lso inc ludes a d e t a i l e d examinat ion of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l i n g s on bo th s i d e s . I n Chapter Four I draw toge -ther the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the case study to conclude t h a t r a c i s t i deo logy d i d u n d e r l i e the c o n f l i c t . F u r t h e r , t h a t the c o n f l i c t d i d no t appear a t the Home's i n c e p t i o n because the u n t h i n k i n g i d e o l o g i c a l pe rcep t ions of a l l i nvo l ved were s i m i l a r . I t was on ly through the process of involvement t h a t members of the Board became s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of t h e i r assumptions to beg in to change them, thereby encur ing the d i f f i c u l t i e s . These changes were not expressed as a r e j e c t i o n of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s but r a t h e r as a r e -t u r n i n g to the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of the p r o j e c t . The AMS E x e c u t i v e , i n c o n t r a s t , cont inued to express t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r o j e c t i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a i l u r e s d e s p i t e the professed b e l i e f among some t h a t d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was a d e s i r a b l e goa l i n o ther v e n t u r e s . 14 The major conc lus ion to be drawn from t h i s s tudy and B l a u ' s i s the need f o r purpos ive and r i g o r o u s research i n t o the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between bureaucracy and r a c i s m . The p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l l s o c i e t a l o r -gan iza t i ons organized accord ing to modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l theory are f a r -r e a c h i n g . I f these t e n t a t i v e conc lus ions are v e r i f i e d , r e f u s a l to r e c o g -n ize the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of m a i n t a i n i n g r a c i s t s t r u c t u r e s by means of com-p lex o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n m u l t i p l e s tud ies f o r c o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s and t ragedy f o r the humans exposed to the s t r u c t u r e s . 15 Footnotes - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 At t h a t t ime "cha i rman" was used i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y to des igna te bo th males and females . The term " c h a i r p e r s o n " has been used i n t h i s work to more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t n o n - s e x i s t t e r m i n o l o g y . 2 One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i e l d w o r k i s a s c e r t a i n i n g the v e r a c i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n . Ethnography i s f i l l e d w i t h r e p o r t s of d i s c o v e r i e s t ha t i n f o r m a t i o n g i ven by in fo rmants con ta ins inaccurac ies due to memory l apse , pe rcep tua l b i a s , or d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n . Chagnon g r a p h i c a l l y desc r ibes h i s d i f f i -c u l t i e s w i t h Yanomamo k i n systems because of the somewhat m a l i -c ious j o y w i t h which h i s in fo rmants purpose ly m is led him f o r the f i r s t two months of h i s f i e l d exper ience . (1968:10-17. ) 3 Blau comments t h a t " o b s e r v a t i o n i s not a r e l i a b l e method f o r de te rm in ing i l l e g a l p r a c t i c e s . . . s ince they are concealed f rom the o b s e r v e r . . . " (1963 :59 fn . ) Chapter One T h e o r e t i c a l Perspec t ives 17 Sec t ion 1 Bureaucracy - A Re-examinat ion This s e c t i o n presents a d e t a i l e d examinat ion of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y . The purpose of - t h i s examinat ion i s not to p rov ide a rev iew of the l i t e r a -t u r e . Rather , i t i s to re-examine the t h e o r e t i c a l developments i n the f i e l d us ing a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . Weber's d i s c u s s i o n of mo-dern bureaucracy focussed on the s k e l e t a l framework upon which was p l a c e d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , the t i s s u e , b lood and cover ing of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Sub-sequent t h e o r i s t s c r i t i c i z e d him f o r exc lud ing the f u n c t i o n s of the b lood ( the i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w ) and the muscle which prov ides the power. Never-t h e l e s s , almost a l l the l a t e r t h e o r i s t s accep t , w i t h Weber, two assumptions about the "bones" of bureaucracy. The f i r s t assumption i s t h a t the s k e l e -t a l s t r u c t u r e determines the shape of the c o v e r i n g . The second i s t h a t i f a d i s t o r t i o n occurs i n the outward shape i t i s due t o a pa tho logy i n the t i s s u e or b lood which can n e i t h e r be caused nor encouraged by the i n t e r i o r framework. Th is i s considered t o be the cause because of the ve ry na tu re 18 of the r a t i o n a l - l e g a l s t r u c t u r e . Phys io logy i n d i c a t e s t ha t b l o o d , bone, and muscle are i n t e g r a l l y l i n k e d . Each can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the no others bu t A one element can determine the c o n d i t i o n or shape of the o r -ganism. P h y s i o l o g i c a l exper ience a lso i n d i c a t e s t h a t no organism can e x i s t i n a vacuum. I t can be seen, w i t h o u t c o n t i n u i n g the analogy to use less extremes, t h a t an approach t o o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t h e o r y , which excludes any aspect of the who le , d i s t o r t s r e a l i t y to some degree. To f u l l y comprehend the r o l e of the complex o r g a n i z a t i o n i t i s necessary to v iew i t i n i t s t o t a l i t y . A major aspect of t h i s t o t a l i z i n g process i s the s i t u a t i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h i s t o r i c a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y , and economica l l y . Th is l a r g e r process i s ne-cessary un less one subscr ibes to the Weberian n o t i o n t h a t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l bureaucrac ies do not permi t of c u l t u r a l or s p e c i f i c a l l y p o l i t i c a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n . Seminal work i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons has been done by Croz ie r i n h i s s tudy of l a r g e complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n France and the USA. (1963) The one aspect of study of complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s which has been e i t h e r comple te ly ignored or on ly h i n t e d a t i s the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n . Th is f u n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i v e a t two l e v e l s . Bu reauc ra t i c s t r u c t u r e as p a r t of government, church , fo rma l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , media, systems of j u s t i c e and t rade un ions , among o t h e r s , are p a r t of the i d e o l o g i c a l s t a t e appara tus . ( A l t h u s s e r , 1971) That i s to say, the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c -tu res of these systems are v a r i o u s l y shaped to best r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n s 19 they per form as those f u n c t i o n s are viewed by the s o c i e t y . The s t r u c t u r e s themselves thus serve as a p a r t of the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n o f . t h e s t a t e . I n t e r n a l l y , each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a l so has an i d e o l o g i c a l f rame-work more s p e c i f i c t o i t - the b e l i e f by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i t s l e g i t i -macy. As Blau suggests , t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n a l l ows the o r g a n i z a t i o n to operate w i t h a minimum of coe rc i ve f o r c e . I t p rov ides the e s p r i t de corps w i t h i n . These two i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s can be viewed as synonymous as i s the case i n v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y . They can a lso be s p l i t by the p a r t i c i p a n t s or by those se rv ing as c l i e n t s . The p a r t i c i -pants can v iew the i n t e r n a l i d e o l o g i c a l p rocess, t h a t i s the b e l i e f i n the l e g i t i m a c y of the work s t y l e , as l e g i t i m a t e w h i l e d i s p u t i n g the l a r g e r i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i t s r o l e as a p a r t of the s t a t e ' s apparatuses. The c l i e n t s may support the i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n w h i l e v o c i f e r o u s l y p r o t e s t i n g aga ins t the s o l i d a r i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n any of these s i t u a t i o n s the i d e o l o g i c a l i s p a -ramount. There fo re t h i s s e c t i o n d iscusses the development of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory from Weber's typo logy through i t s c r i t i c s to Thompson and Blau and t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of i d e o l o g y . I t i s in tended as a framework f rom which the r e a -der may o b t a i n a v iew of the t o t a l na tu re of complex o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l u d -ing the ways i n which i d e o l o g i e s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d , unconsc ious ly , -i n t o the b u r e a u c r a t i c process by e x t e r n a l f o r c e or by the p a r t i c i p a n t s them-se lves . I t i s a lso designed t o g i ve the reader an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p r o -cesses which lead members of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o develop a commitment to a form of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which may be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the goa l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 20 "The f u l l y developed b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism compares w i t h o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x a c t l y as does the machine w i t h the non-mechanical modes of p r o d u c t i o n . P r e c i s i o n , speed, unambigu i ty , knowledge of the f i l e s , c o n t i n u i t y , d i s c r e t i o n , u n i t y , s t r i c t s u b o r d i n a t i o n , r e d u c t i o n of f r i c t i o n and of m a t e r i a l and persona l cos ts - these are r a i s e d to the optimum p o i n t i n the s t r i c t l y b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " (Weber, 1958:214.) The analogy Weber makes between the b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanism and mechanized p r o d u c t i o n techniques i s not a c c i d e n t a l . He saw the development of bureau-cracy as c u l m i n a t i n g i n the most advanced i n s t i t u t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n s t a t e s (1958:196.) f o r r a t i o n a l - l e g a l forms of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n are bo th necessary t o and developed f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s of c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l i s m . There i s almost u n i v e r s a l agreement t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s has occurred a t every l e v e l o f modern s o c i e t y and t h a t t h i s b u r e a u c r a t i z a -t i o n has been of the " r a t i o n a l " t y p e . Beyond t h i s p o i n t of min imal agree-ment the con t roversy s t a r t s - w i t h Weber's c l a s s i c d e f i n i t i o n of bu reauc ra -cy. H is concept ion of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n i nc ludes bo th the idea of a s o c i a l mechanism f o r maximiz ing e f f i c i e n c y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a d e s c r i p t i o n of a form of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (B lau , 1963:251.) He enunciates a t ypo logy of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i d e a l -type bureaucracy and a lso a t ypo logy of a u t h o r i t y . He argues t h a t bas ic to n e a r l y a l l systems of a u t h o r i t y i s a b e l i e f i n the l e g i t i m a c y o f t h a t a u t h o r i t y . He then d i s t i n g u i s h e s among a u t h o r i t y types the t r a d i t i o n a l , c h a r i s m a t i c , and r a t i o n a l - l e g a l fo rms, the l a t t e r be ing the type of au tho -r i t y upon which modern bureaucracy i s based. The f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Weber's i d e a l - t y p e bureaucracy a r e : a c l e a r - c u t 21 d i v i s i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d a c t i v i t i e s regarded as d u t i e s i n h e r e n t i n each o f f i c e ; a system o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n t r o l s and sanc t ions s t a t e d i n the r e g u l a t i o n s ; assignment o f r o l e s on the bas is o f t e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a s c e r t a i n e d through f o r m a l i z e d impersonal p rocedures ; a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the h i e r a r c h y governed by g e n e r a l , a b s t r a c t e d , c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r u l e s ; and f i n a l l y the c r e a -t i o n of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . (Mer ton , 1952:362.) The f i r s t debate cen ters around the in tended meaning o f " r a t i o n a l " . Some s tudents of f o rma l o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r example, Blau 0-956:31. ) i n t e r p r e t the term as synonymous w i t h " e f f i c i e n t " . O thers , such as Albrow (1970:65. ) con-s i d e r " r a t i o n a l " to mean " t h e idea of c o r r e c t c a l c u l a t i o n " based on norms of recognized l e g i t i m a c y . Weber does l i t t l e to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n . A r e a d -ing of h i s Essays i n Socio logy (1958) i n d i c a t e s t h a t he saw no n e c e s s i t y f o r drawing the f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s the modern t h e o r i s t s deem necessary. The aspect of Weber's work most m o d i f i e d and c r i t i c i z e d i s h i s i d e a l - t y p e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . The c r i t i c i s m s range from the picayune t o the more se r ious and p r o b l e m a t i c . I n the l a t t e r ca tegory are such s tudents of f o r m a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n as Gouldner, Mer ton , B l a u , C r o z i e r , and E t z i o n i . Gouldner i l l u s t r a t e s the concep t ' s me thodo log ica l inadequacy f o r use i n examining e i t h e r v a r i a t i o n i n b u r e a u c r a t i c form or i n t e r r e l a t i o n of b u r e a u c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . He suggests t h i s inadequacy i s due t o Weber's c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the commonali ty o f c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s which b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s e x h i b i t thereby d i s r e g a r d i n g " s p a t i o -temporal c a u t i o n s " . (1952 :48 ) . Both Gouldner (1952:49) and Merton (1952:364. ) make s p e c i f i c re fe rence to the i n f o r m a l , the i r r a t i o n a l , and the d y s f u n c t i o n a l aspects o f b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s as examples of elements excluded by 22 Weber's i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t . Peter B l a u ' s c r i t i c i s m of Weber cen te rs on the problems presented by the na tu re o f the i d e a l - t y p e . Concurr ing w i t h F r i e d r i c h ' s c r i t i q u e (1952:27-33 . ) Blau i l l u s t r a t e s the way i n which Weber's i d e a l - t y p e f a i l s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between d e f i n i t i o n s of concepts and hypotheses about the e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r i -s ing from the concepts , bo th o f which i t c o n t a i n s . (1963:251 f n . ) The Weberian i d e a l - t y p e i nc ludes the concept ion of bureaucracy as a mechanism t h a t max imi -zes e f f i c i e n c y and a l so as a form of o r g a n i z a t i o n having s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s . These two se ts of c r i t e r i a cannot be grouped toge ther i n t o a d e f i n i t i o n because the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a t t r i b u t e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s consequences i s the sub jec t f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e not e l i -g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n . (1963:251) Blau e x t r a c t s two pos-s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s f rom Weber's c o n c e p t i o n . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on which Mer ton ' s and Gouldner 's c r i t i c i s m s are based i s t h a t Weber d e f i n e d bureaucracy by spe-c i f y i n g f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and hypothes ized i t s supe r io r o p e r a t i n g e f f i -c i e n c y . The o ther i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t Weber in tended to d e f i n e bureaucracy as any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e apparatus t h a t maximizes e f f i c i e n c y and advanced hypo-theses concern ing o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s which might t y p i c a l l y have t h a t e f f e c t . (1963:251. ) Blau chooses to adopt the second d e f i n i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i -t y i n which " . . . bureaucrac ies can be looked upon as i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s t r a t e g i e s fo r the achievement of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s by the concer ted e f f o r t o f many o f f i c i a l s . They are methods of o r g a n i z i n g s o c i a l con-duct i n order to t rans fo rm e x c e p t i o n a l problems i n t o r o u t i n e d u t i e s of exper ts and to e f f e c t the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s . I n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l arrangements w i l l prove most s u i t -ab le f o r these purposes . " (1963:251-252.) This d e f i n i t i o n p rov ides f o r Croz ie r (1963) and o thers engaged i n c r o s s -c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s of b u r e a u c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s a work ing and workable d e f i n i t i o n . 23 I t does n o t , however, p rov ide f o r the t i d y c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of bu reaucrac ies w i t h i n Weber's typo logy of a u t h o r i t y t ypes . B l a u ' s d e f i n i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n a l lows f o r the presence of any or a l l of the t r a d i t i o n a l , c h a r i s m a t i c , or l e g a l a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e s i n the same h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . By u t i l i z i n g Weber's m a t e r i a l i n t h i s manner Blau negates much o f the recen t debate around the terms " o r g a n i z a t i o n " and "bu reauc racy " . Mouze l is chooses t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two terms by d e f i n i n g " o r g a n i z a t i o n " as a form of s o c i a l grouping or a s s o c i a t i o n which i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n a more or l e s s purpos ive man-ner f o r the a t ta inmen t of s p e c i f i c goa ls and "bureaucracy" as an extreme type of o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e f u l s o l e l y f o r broad h i s t o r i c a l comparisons. (1967 :4 ,54 . ) To min imize the b u r e a u c r a t i c aspect i n t h i s way adds con fus ion r a t h e r than c l a r i t y to the d i s c u s s i o n o f a phenomenon w h i c h , as s t a t e d above, i s becoming more and more u n i v e r s a l . F. W i l l i a m Howton, i n h i s work F u n c t i o n a r i e s , adopts a comple te ly p e r f o r a t i v e stance to bureaucracy. He i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y concerned w i t h the combined process of d e p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n and loss o f d i r e c t c o n t r o l by the i n d i v i d u a l bo th of which he regards as m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e and as i n h e r e n t i n bureau-c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s . To s o l i d i f y h i s p o s i t i o n he c a l l s the c r i t i c i s m s of Weber's i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t a " m i s r e a d i n g " . He p r e f e r s to i n t e r p r e t the typo logy as s e t t i n g f o r t h a " s e t of a b s t r a c t d e s c r i p t i o n s of what bureaucracy i s . " (.1969:8. emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) He i s then ab le t o equate bureaucracy w i t h " t h e process by which more and more a u t h o r i t y i s taken away f rom men and delegated to o f f i c i a l s , ( s i c ) rank upon rank i n descending o r d e r . " (1969 :8 . ) S o f f e r , i n Organ iza t ions i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , agrees w i t h Blau (1956:14. ) 24 t h a t the term "bureaucracy" connotes a form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which rep resen ts p a r t of the h i s t o r i c a l t rend toward " c u m u l a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " . ( S o f f e r , 1972:8 . ) Thompson f l e s h e s out t h i s p o s i t i o n by d e f i n i n g "bureaucracy" as "encompassing a l l modern o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r i n g to r e f l e c t the growth of knowledge and s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , c u l t u -r a l l y determined and t r a n s m i t t e d r e l a t i o n s between supe r io r and subord ina te r o l e s , and a c u l t u r a l l y determined i d e o l o g y . " (1969 :3 . ) E t z i o n i takes B l a u ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n one s tep f u r t h e r by deve lop ing t y p o l o g i e s of power and compliance r e l a t i o n s by which the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s t r a t e g i e s " can be ca tegor i zed and then analyzed c o m p a r i t i v e l y . E t z i o n i begins by f u n d a -m e n t a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g Weber's d i s t i n c t i o n between power i n gene ra l and the spe-c i f i c powers represented i n the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y o f the r a t i o n a l bureaucracy . Rather than t r a d i t i o n a l , c h a r i s m a t i c , and l e g a l types o f a u t h o r i t y , E t z i o n i d i s t i n g u i s h e s c lass as an express ion of economic power, s t a t u s as an expres-s ion of normat ive power, and f o r c e as an express ion of coe rc i ve power, each of which "en joys equal s t a t u s " w i t h the o t h e r s . ( 1 9 6 1 : x v i , x v i i . ) Pa rk in (1972:42-47. ) and M i l i b a n d (1969:23 f f ) agree w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the th ree types of power but argue c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t they cannot enjoy equal s t a t u s as these authors accept the t h e s i s t h a t c lass d i v i s i o n s are based on p r o p e r t y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h , i n t u r n , p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r a l suppor t f o r normat ive and coe rc i ve power. They would agree w i t h E t z i o n i ' s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s w i t h and c r i t i c i s m s of the Weberian t ypo logy . E t z i o n i suggests t h a t the expansion of the typo logy a l lows f o r "more ex tens ive a n a l y s i s of the c o r r e l a t e s and e f f e c t s of power." ( 1 9 6 1 : x v i i . ) He a l s o p o i n t s t o the c e n t r a l i t y of f o r c e i n h i s model wh ich does not en ter i n t o Weber's t ypo logy o f s o c i a l o r d e r . Most 25 impor tan t f o r E t z i o n i i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between Weber's use of l e g i t i m a t e and i l l e g i t i m a t e uses of f o r c e as the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of bureaucrac ies and E t z i o n i ' s emphasis not on i n d i v i d u a l mora l judgements bu t on the e f f i c a c y o f whatever type o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l i s u t i l i z e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n . (1961 : x v i i . ) Th is approach i m p l i e s B l a u ' s statement on methodo log ica l procedure concerning the concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l need which "has been h e l p f u l i n the a n a l y s i s of . . . processes of bu reauc ra -t i c development, s ince i t i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the consequences of e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s and the emergence of new ones. " (1963:252. ) E t z i o n i sees compliance as the " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t of s o c i a l o r d e r . " ( 1 9 6 7 : x v i i . ) From t h i s base,and determined by the p h y s i c a l , m a t e r i a l , o r symbol ic means employed to ga in the compliance of the s u b j e c t , t h r e e types 1 2 o f power can be i d e n t i f i e d : c o e r c i v e , remunera t i ve , and normat i ve . (1961 : 3 -9 . ) W i t h i n these th ree types of power are th ree p o s s i b l e types of i n v o l v e -ment: a l i e n a t i v e , c a l c u l a t i v e , and m o r a l . These, i n combinat ion w i t h power determine the compliance r e l a t i o n s h i p . The term r e f e r s b o t h " t o a r e l a t i o n i n which an ac to r behaves i n accordance w i t h a d i r e c t i v e supported by another a c t o r ' s power, and to the o r i e n t a t i o n of the subord inated a c t o r t o the power a p p l i e d . " (1961 :8 -16 . ) Th is manner of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a l l ows i n c l u s i o n of lower p a r t i c i p a n t s as an impor tan t segment of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the bas is o f the t y p o l o g i e s , E t z i o n i d i f f e r e n t i a t e s " h i g h e r " p a r t i c i p a n t s f rom " l o w e r " by the use of degree o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n , commitment and "performance o b l i g a t i o n " w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . (1961:20-21. ) He t h e r e f o r e e rad i ca tes the need f o r d i s t i n c t i o n s between " f u n c t i o n a r i e s " and " l e a d e r s " which o ther t h e o r i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h d y s f u n c t i o n a l aspects of modern 2 6 organizations tend to make. Howton devotes an e n t i r e book to the e v i l s of functionaries, although he concedes that as a leader continues to do routine functionary work as part of h i s regular a c t i v i t i e s i t "makes him akin to the species." (1969:167.) A l f o r d , not as f e a r f u l of the species, i l l u s t r a t e s i n h i s study of bureaucracy and p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the c i v i c l e v e l that the i n t e r -face between functionary and leader i s extremely close. This conclusion supports E t z i o n i ' s p o s i t i o n that the functions of higher p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d and integrated with the types of compliance r e l a t i o n s they choose to work within. E t z i o n i emphasises that h i s typologies are u s e f u l h e u r i s t i c devices but are not meant to i n d i c a t e r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n s i n e x i s t i n g organizations. Compli-ance r e l a t i o n s can and do overlap categories, sometimes to the point of neu-t r a l i z i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t . Rather than adopting the typology _in toto for t h i s study one "pure" compliance pattern and two "dual" compliance patterns have been chosen. The pure or r e -l a t i v e normative pattern i s defined as one i n which normative power i s the major source of c o n t r o l over lower p a r t i c i p a n t s whose o r i e n t a t i o n i s character-ized by a high l e v e l of commitment. ( E t z i o n i , 1961:40.) The dual compliance structures are ones i n which two patterns of compliance occur with s i m i l a r frequency. ( E t z i o n i , 1961:55.) The two types to be considered herein are the normative-coercive, and the n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n . As normative and coercive compliance are l i k e l y to n e u t r a l i z e each other, the mechanism of "segregation i n time" i s introduced to lessen t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Thus, "normative power i s applied f i r s t ; only when th i s i s or seems to be i n e f f e c t i v e i s there a r e s o r t 27 to coe rc i ve power." (1961:57) N o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compliance does not en-counter t h i s same d i f f i c u l t y as t h i s type i s more r e a d i l y l oca ted as the cen-t e r of a cont inuum. (1961:63) B lau i n h i s s tudy of two government bureaucrac ies makes some i n t e r e s t i n g obser-v a t i o n s concern ing n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compl iance. He goes beyond E t z i o n i ' s suggest ion t h a t i n " w h i t e - c o l l a r " i n d u s t r i e s normat ive c o n t r o l s p l a y "an i m -p o r t a n t b u t secondary r o l e " (1961 :32) . B lau d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between i n f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p which "emerges i n the process of i n t e r a c t i o n among a group of equa ls" and " b u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y " which i s bestowed not by the group b u t by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F u r t h e r , " t h e o f f i c i a l power of s a n c t i o n , e x t e r n a l l y bestowed, i s the u l t i m a t e source o f b u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y . " (1963:224) He a lso suggests t h a t the presence of normat ive con-t r o l s i n " w h i t e - c o l l a r " i n d u s t r i e s and t h e i r absence i n " b l u e - c o l l a r " i n d u s -t r i e s where u t i l i t a r i a n c o n t r o l s are pr imary e f f e c t s the a b i l i t y of the o rgan-i z a t i o n ' s members to respond to change. Blau makes an i n t e r e s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y by f i r s t r e f e r r i n g back to Weber's d e f i n i t i o n t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by not on ly the " p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t c e r t a i n commands (o r a l l commands) f rom a g i v e n source w i l l be obeyed by a g iven group o f persons" b u t a l so by the presence o f "a c e r t a i n minimum of v o l u n t a r y submiss ion . " (Blaus 1963:207.) He argues t h a t a u t h o r i t y " r e s t s on s o c i a l l y accepted norms t h a t d e f i n e compliance w i t h c e r -t a i n orders as a s o c i a l d u t y , indeed, o f t e n as a mora l o b l i g a t i o n . " A u t h o r i t y " i m p l i e s f i r m s o c i a l c o n t r o l , bu t i t a l so i m p l i e s v o l u n t a r y compliance w i t h 28 d i r e c t i v e s . " (1963:226. ) Th is v o l u n t a r y compliance i s a product o f s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s , which on the one hand are i n t e r n a l i z e d and on the o ther a re enforced s o c i a l l y by the group. Blau i d e n t i f i e s h i s concept of a u t h o r i t y as h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c , hav ing developed from o ther forms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from conqueror t o k i n g or f rom k i n g t o governor r e q u i r e s " t h e emergence of s o c i a l va lues t h a t l e g i t i m a t e the super io rs 'powers over the s u b o r d i n a t e . " (227) I n the b u r e a u c r a t i c con tex t the l e g i t i m i z i n g i n s t i t u t i o n i s the " l e g a l c o n t r a c t " which i s entered i n t o by the employees of the bureaucracy when they accept em-ployment i n a con tex t where a u t h o r i t y of s u p e r i o r s over subord ina tes i s the norm. (1963:227. ) Th is argument would appear to be weakened severe ly i f B lau d id not add the r i d e r t h a t the f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y c o d i f i e d i n the l e g a l c o n t r a c t does o b l i g a t e subord ina tes t o accept work assignments b u t i t cannot assure t h e i r w i l l i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n . To ensure the l a t t e r the supe r io r must surpass the l e g a l ( u t i l i t a r i a n ) a u t h o r i t y by i nvok ing normat ive techniques of com-p l i a n c e . Blau enr iches E t z i o n i ' s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of no rma t i ve -u t i l i t a r i a n compliance p a t t e r n s . E t z i o n i i n deve lop ing compl iance p a t t e r n s i s a t tempt ing t o c o d i f y v a r i o u s types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B l a u , on the bas i s of h i s s t u d i e s of two d i f f e r e n t government b u r e a u c r a c i e s , i s p r e s e n t i n g a hypothes is of how and why n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n compliance p a t t e r n s work i n p r a c t i c e . I n the course of t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n he presents an i n t r i g u i n g d e f i n i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y which eschews sanct ions i n favour of l e g i t i m i z i n g s o c i a l va lues from which d e v i a t i o n i s as d i f f i c u l t and expensive f o r the i n d i v i d u a l subord ina te bu t f o r which maintenance i s l e s s expensive and more 29 e f f e c t i v e f o r the s u p e r i o r . He w r i t e s : " i f the performance of a superv iso r f u r t h e r s the c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of subord inates and commands t h e i r common respect and l o y a l t y , s o c i a l agreement i s l i k e l y to develop among them t h a t they owe a c o l l e c t i v e o b l i g a t i o n to h im. To repay t h e i r j o i n t o b l i g a t i o n and m a i n t a i n the s u p e r v i s o r ' s good w i l l , the group of subord ina tes i s under pressure t o make compliance w i t h h i s d i r e c t i v e s p a r t of the common norms, which are s o c i a l l y enforced and thus c o n s t r a i n even the i n d i v i d u a l subord ina te who does not f e e l p e r s o n a l l y o b l i -gated to the superv iso r t o f o l l o w h i s commands. These emergent group norms are the source of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s e f f e c t i v e a u t h o r i t y . " (1963:228) He ends h i s d i s c u s s i o n of a u t h o r i t y by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y and i n f o r m a l (o r cha r i sma t i c ) a u t h o r i t y , bo th based on normat ive compl iance. The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t fo rma l a u t h o r i t y i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " l e g i t i m a t e d by l e g a l c o n t r a c t s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , and the s o c i a l norms t h a t demand compliance pervade the e n t i r e community." (1963:228.) Blau i n t h i s study of the Dynamics of Bureaucracy sheds new l i g h t on the quest ions of b u r e a u c r a t i c d y s f u n c t i o n , c o n f o r m i t y , and a n t i p a t h y to i n o v a t i o n . Many s tudents of bureaucracy have emphasized these nega t i ve aspects of modern o r g a n i z a t i o n , among then M i c h e l s , Mer ton , Gouldner, Thompson and C r o z i e r . Croz ie r (1963:175-212) Merton (1952:361-371) and Gouldner (1952:48-51) examine the c o n t r a d i c t o r y q u a l i t i e s of bureaucracy which u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n breakdown o f e f f i c i e n c y caused by the ve ry f a c t o r s i n t roduced to inc rease e f f i c i e n c y . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e " r e d - t a p e " o r , to use Mer ton ' s phrase " t e c h n i c i s m " . Much of the study of dec is ion-mak ing i s concerned w i t h t h i s 3 same phenomenon. The works of Thompson (1969) , Howton (1969) and Belshaw (1964) are examples of w r i t e r s who emphasize the r o u t i n i z e d , conse rva t i ve f e a t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which m i l i t a t e aga ins t i n n o v a t i o n and change because of the emphasis on con fo rm i t y to. e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a t i o n s and procedures. 30 Merton gives considerable discussion to the process whereby adherence to rules which o r i g i n a t e as f a c i l i t a t o r s , or means to ends, are transformed i n t o ends-in-themselves or "terminal values". This process of transfomation r e -s u l t s i n r i g i d i f y i n g the structure thereby producing i n e f f i c i e n c y and i n f l e x i -b i l i t y . (1957:119-120) Michels, i n h i s study of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n imperial Germany, argues that those organizations which are established s p e c i f i c a l l y to i n s t i t u t e reforms eventually cease any such attempt because t h e i r o f f i c i a l s lose i n t e r e s t i n the pursuit as they become more and more conservative. Blau f l a t l y r e j e c t s the claim that conservatism i s inherent i n bureaucracy. "The widely held b e l i e f that members of bureaucratic organizations n e c e s s a r i l y r e s i s t change r e s t s on the assumption that bureaucratic structures are charac-t e r i z e d by a perfect state of equilibrium, which makes any a l t e r a t i o n a d i s -turbance." (1963:241.) Based on h i s study of two governmental bureaucracies Blau i l l u s t r a t e s that innovation comes both o f f i c i a l l y from superiors and u n o f f i c i a l l y through modifications to e x i s t i n g procedures brought about i n the course of t h e i r administration by the subordinates. (1963:231-268.) He further i n d i c a t e s from h i s data that members of one of the two organizations studied a c t i v e l y and v o c a l l y sought changes and innovations i n t h e i r functions and concludes that: "The economic as w e l l as psychological i n t e r e s t s of members of a bureaucratic organization require that i t assume new respon-s i b i l i t i e s , since t h i s would increase t h e i r work s a t i s f a c t i o n and further t h e i r careers.... These s o c i a l and psychological f a c t o r s produce the succession of goals i n organizations, the emergence of a concern with new objectives once the o r i g i n a l ones have been l a r g e l y attained and have l o s t much of t h e i r e a r l i e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The i d e a l s beyond the i n i t i a l objectives suggest the nature of the new ones." (1963:249.) 31 Blau inc ludes among the o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r which i n n o v a t i o n i s necessary s p e c i f i c ment ion of t rade unions and v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s - a p o s i t i o n a n t i t h e t i c a l to t h a t o f M i c h e l s . The dichotomy between B l a u ' s p o s i t i o n and t h a t of Michels and o thers i s due to the l a t t e r ' s f a i l u r e to examine the l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l con tex t i n which the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s p l a c e d . B lau argues t h a t " i t i s the e f f e c t i v e achievement of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s goa ls t h a t s t i m u l a t e s the succession of more advanced ones" . (1963:248. ) I f , as was the case w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n s Miche ls s t u d i e d , the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s no t on ly unable to complete i t s goa ls but i s th reatened by ou ts ide o p p o s i t i o n t o the p o i n t where i t s s u r v i v a l i s i n ques t ion the reverse of i n n o v a t i o n w i l l occur - the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l r e t r e n c h and modi fy i t s o b j e c t i v e s i n an a t tempt to p r o t e c t the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e . (1963:248. ) B lau suggests f i v e i n t e r - r e l a t e d p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r i n n o v a t i v e development i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i r s t i s a minimum degree of employment s e c u r i t y ; the second i s a " p r o f e s s i o n a l " o r i e n t a t i o n toward the performance of d u t i e s ; the t h i r d i s e s t a b l i s h e d work groups t h a t command the a l l e g i a n c e of t h e i r members; the f o u r t h i s the absence of bas ic c o n f l i c t between the work group and manage-ment; and the f i f t h i s the presence of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs t h a t are e x p e r i e n -ced as d i s t u r b i n g . (1963:256.) The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n , employment s e c u r i t y , Blau considers to be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more p robab ly found i n governmental bureaucrac ies than i n i n d u s t r i a l ones. He p o i n t s out t h a t s t u d i e s of workers i n i n d u s t r i a l bu reauc rac ies , which conclude t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e s are i n h e r e n t l y r e s i s t a n t to change f a i l f r e q u e n t l y to consider the h i s t o r i c a l s p e c i f i c i t y of t h e i r d a t a . He c i t e s R o e t h l i s b e r g e r and Dickson who s tud ied non-un ion ized workers du r ing the Depression i n a f a c t o r y exper ienc ing c o n t i -nuous l a y - o f f s . (1963:247.) The workers i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n cannot be sa id 32 to have had even minimal job s e c u r i t y . However, even i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e the C i v i l Service where job se c u r i t y p r e v a i l s , the adaptations made by the i n d i v i d u a l may be deleterious to the organization unless Blau's second c r i t e r i o n also p r e v a i l s . This "profes-s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " r e f e r s to the a b i l i t y to gain s a t i s f a c t i o n from the process of a t t a i n i n g "professional o b j e c t i v e s " because of shared norms and values. This c r i t e r i o n r e l a t e s back to the normative aspect of a u t h o r i -ty as do the t h i r d and fourth c r i t e r i o n he suggests as pr e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r adaptive or innovative development. The presence of al l e g i a n c e command-ing work groups and the absence of c o n f l i c t , i f they are to enhance organi-z a t i o n a l innovation, are also based on the premise that a " p r o f e s s i o n a l " o r i e n t a t i o n i s present among the employees. The f i f t h c r i t e r i o n i s essen-t i a l l y that there must be present some aspect of the process of requirement of the organization which operates to minimize the p o s s i b i l i t y of complacency. At t h i s point i t i s u s e f u l to examine more c l o s e l y what i s meant by innova-t i o n . Blau seems to equote innovation with changes within the organization. These changes (or innovations) can involve i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t form for reporting to intr o d u c t i o n of a new formula. In the fe d e r a l bureaucracy the requests for innovation by the employees were requests f o r new expanded tasks to be created by the l e g i s l a t i v e apparatus of the state. Very seldom does Blau imply that the eagerness f o r innovation could or would be trans-lated into s p e c i f i c new proposals given by the employees themselves. Victor Thompson, i n a book devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of innova-33 t i o n to bureaucracy d e f i n e s i n n o v a t i o n as : " t h e g e n e r a t i o n , acceptance, and implementa t ion o f new i d e a s , processes, and products or s e r v i c e s . I n n o v a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i m p l i e s the c a p a c i t y to change and adapt . We can have v a r i o u s degrees of i n n o v a t i v e n e s s , rang ing from a capac i t y to adopt the good ideas of o thers to the a b i l i t y t o generate and adopt one 's own nove l i d e a s . Adopt ion i s necessary to g e n e r a t i o n . ( 1 9 6 9 : 5 . 6 . ) Thompson c a l l s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n imprec ise b u t h e u r i s t i c a l l y u s e f u l as the re has not been developed a s a t i s f a c t o r y measure of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n . The c r e a t i v i t y i m p l i c i t i n i n n o v a t i o n Thompson descr ibes as i n e f f i c i e n t f rom the v i e w p o i n t o f the " p r o d u c t i o n i d e o l o g y " of most wes tern b u r e a u c r a t i c o r -g a n i z a t i o n s because o f i t s u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and i t s r e f u s a l t o make q u i c k d e c i s i v e judgements. (1969:10. ) Based on a number o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f c r e a t i v i t y Thompson presents f i v e c o n d i t i o n s which must be present i n order f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to be c r e a t i v e . They are p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y and f r e e -dom, a g rea t d i v e r s i t y of i n p u t s , i n t e r n a l or persona l commitment to search f o r a s o l u t i o n , a c e r t a i n degree of s t r u c t u r e or l i m i t s to the search s i t u a -t i o n , and a c e r t a i n amount of ben ign c o m p e t i t i o n . (1969:70. ) Accept ing the d i s t i n c t i o n between the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n and the p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y the s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s are no t ve ry g r e a t . B l a u ' s requirement of economic s e c u r i t y s u r e l y can be incom-passed i n the n o t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y . B l a u ' s o ther f o u r c r i t e r i a are discussed a t l e n g t h by Thompson w i t h i n the framework of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s ideo logy and s t r u c t u r e . He descr ibes the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s as the bodies of va lues and b e l i e f s or set of normat ive d e c i s i o n a l r u l e s t h a t guide the d e c i s i o n s . He cau t ions tha t these va lues or r u l e s i n f l u e n c e bu t do not determine the d e c i s i o n s . However, when d e c i s i o n s are r e c o n s t r u c t e d they are recons t ruc ted i n terms of the i deo logy of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( 1 9 6 9 : 3 , 4 . ) The ideo logy most common among western bureaucrac ies o f a l l types i s one 34 based on the c l a s s i c a l theory of r a t i o n a l choice, whose economic v a r i a n t i s economic r a t i o n a l i t y . (1969:7.) In other terms the ideology r e f l e c t s the monocratic concept of organization i n which the organization i s structured as a hierarchy of superior - subordinate r e l a t i o n s i n which the person at the top (the "owner") i s assumed to be omniscient and issues general orders which i n i t i a t e a l l a c t i v i t y . At each lower l e v e l the order i s rendered more spe-c i f i c . In t h i s system d i s c i p l i n e i s enforced from above while r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s owed from the bottom up. (1969:14-15.) Given the h i e r a r c h i c a l nature c o n f l i c t cannot be legitimated thus rendering formal bargaining and negotia-tin g devices unnecessary. Mechanisms for s e t t l i n g c o n f l i c t , such as c o a l i t i o n , are thereby forced to operate i n the sphere of non-legitimate a c t i v i t i e s . (1969:16.) The process which renders c o n f l i c t i l l e g i t i m a t e depresses c r e a t i v i t y because c o n f l i c t implies p l u r a l i s m or a d i s p e r s i o n of l e g i t i m a t e power which n e c e s s i -tates searching for s o l u t i o n . Only concentrated power can a f f o r d to ignore obstacles and objections. (1969:16.) In t h i s sense Blau, by h i s f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n , i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i f i c i t y of his concern. He requires the absence of c o n f l i c t between employee and employer for innovation to occur. Presumably Thompson would argue that a r e s o l u t i o n of that very c o n f l i c t , perhaps the establishment of a union to focus the d i s s e n t i o n , i s i n f a c t an innovation worthy of the name even wi t h i n the organization i t s e l f . The two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a monocratic structure and a production ideology r e s u l t i n an extremely conservative bureaucratic o r i e n t a t i o n . Thompson a l s o c a l l s i t " p o l i t i c a l l y minded", that i s to say, " i t i s more concerned with the 35 internal distribution of power and status than with the accomplishment of the organization's goals. It converts the organization into a p o l i t i c a l system concerned with the distribution of extrinsic rewards." (1969:22.) He sees the necessity of the p o l i t i c a l process within the organization because, given i t s structure, "there i s no consensual or objective basis for distributing the extrinsic rewards." (1969:22.) The evaluative mechanisms of this structural and ideological type are couched in terms of maximization of the "owner's" goals. It is therefore possible to interpret "inefficiency" purely from the standpoint of organizational i n a b i l i t y (or refusal) to collect the "slack" (surplus satisfactions beyond those needed to induce the necessary contributions) and pay i t to the "owner". In this interpretation the efficient organization would be "the one in which no one but the "owner" received satisfactions, in any form, beyond what was needed to induce his contributions." (1969:30.) Given that innovation i s , by this definition, non-rational and that productive efficiency and economic rationa-4 l i t y are cultural qualities of most western countries, Thompson concludes that innovation i s at best a d i f f i c u l t process in most western bureaucratic organizations. Since Blau's thesis of bureaucratic innovation relies heavily on the presence of the professional orientation i t is useful to examine the notion more thoroughly. Gouldner, in a discussion of Weber's analysis of bureaucracy points to the fact that in industrial bureaucracies rules concerning those matters such as promotion and dismissal which are of most concern to the workers are of a sufficiently arbitrary nature as to not permit prediction by them. (1952:49.) Gouldner goes on to suggest that "bureaucratic rules 36 f u l f i l l t y p i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t ranks " a t l e a s t i n i n d u s -t r i a l b u r e a u c r a c i e s . " (1952:49. ) The reason g iven f o r the maintenance of r u l e s which render p r e d i c t i o n d i f f i c u l t t o imposs ib le f o r the worker , i s the " i m p l i c i t bu t common assumption t h a t a n x i e t y and i n s e c u r i t y are e f f e c t i v e m o t i v a t o r s . " (Gouldner, 1952:50.) The m o t i v a t i o n presumably i s to do one 's j ob w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n or a d a p t a t i o n f o r the assemb ly - l i ne of the i n d u s -t r i a l i z e d f a c t o r y i s not designed f o r i n n o v a t i o n bu t f o r r e p e t i t i o n . The " w h i t e c o l l a r " workers Blau s tud ied were l a r g e l y u n i v e r s i t y educated i n d i v i -dua ls whose f u n c t i o n was to complete a process f rom i t s i n c e p t i o n r a t h e r than t o repeat one ges tu re or f u n c t i o n i n an on-go ing process. The n o t i o n of spe-c i a l i z a t i o n as i t i s app l ied s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i f f e r e n t types of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n assumes ve ry d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r imp lementa t ion . The " p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n " Blau o f f e r s as the second c r i t e r i o n f o r adap-t i v e behaviour i s a l so present on ly a t s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h y . Again u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n e d people who are taught to t h i n k of themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l develop " p r o f e s s i o n a l norms and v a l u e s " more r e a d i l y than i n d u s t r i a l workers who are encouraged to remain i n a s t a t e o f i n s e c u r i t y . The on ly group of workers w i t h whom some analogy might be drawn are those designated as tradesmen or c r a f t workers who by v i r t u e of t h e i r needed s k i l l s occupy a more secure p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l h i e r a r c h y . B l a u ' s t h i r d p r e - r e q u i s i t e , the es tab l ishment of work groups commanding a l l e -giance f rom the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n them, can produce nega t i ve or p o s i t i v e i n n o -v a t i o n from the employer 's p e r s p e c t i v e . A l though Blau in tends t h a t the a l l e -giance of these groups should be to norms and va lues acceptab le t o the employers, t h a t i s to a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t the work group 37 w i l l command a l l e g i a n c e to norms considered u n d e s i r a b l e by the employers. Innumerable cases of s o l i d a r i t y of t h i s k ind have been documented i n s t u d i e s of i n d u s t r i a l bu reaucrac ies . The f o u r t h c r i t e r i o n , an absence of bas ic c o n f l i c t between subord ina te and super ior , r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n . Blau equates the presence of c o n f l i c t w i t h the use of u t i l i t a r i a n or coe rc i ve power and the absence of c o n f l i c t w i t h the use of normat ive a u t h o r i t y . I n the c i v i l se rv i ce employment p r o -cedures and s a l a r y mat te rs are r e g u l a t e d by departments separate f rom and not c o n t r o l l e d by the immediate s u p e r i o r ^ thereby reduc ing the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n by one 's s u p e r i o r . As w e l l , the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " o r i e n t a -t i o n and the work group based upon i t come i n t o p lay m i l i t a t i n g aga ins t the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e c i s i v e a c t i o n on the p a r t of the subord ina tes t o demand changes i n c o n d i t i o n s of work. One may conclude from t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c i n n o v a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s u t i l i z i n g normat ive compl iance. Given Gou ldner 's observa t ion t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c r u l e s and hence power types a re admin is te red d i f f e r e n t l y throughout a s i n g l e bureaucracy one may f u r t h e r conclude t h a t the s p e c i f i c compliance p a t t e r n u t i l i z e d d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e i s the impor tant v a r i a b l e i n de te rmin ing the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e . The c r i t e r i o n f o r a t t a i n i n g a p o s i t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t s t a t u r e i n the o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y i s s t a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l l y by E t z i o n i as the degree of " p e r -formance o b l i g a t i o n " and demonstrated by B l a u ' s work to be the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n or a b e l i e f i n the l e g i t i m a c y o f the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y necessary to normat ive power and t h e r e f o r e normat ive compl iance. The same o r g a n i z a t i o n • 38 can t h e r e f o r e be u t i l i z i n g a t l e a s t two, i f no t t h r e e , d i f f e r e n t compliance p a t t e r n s ; normat ive among h igher p a r t i c i p a n t s , n o r m a t i v e - u t i l i t a r i a n to pure u t i l i t a r i a n among midd le to lower p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n s t i t u t i o n s such as p r i s o n s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps, designated as coe rc i ve i n s t i t u t i o n s whose lower p a r t i c i p a n t s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a l i e n a t e d , w i l l e x h i b i t normat ive comp-l i a n c e p a t t e r n s among h igher p a r t i c i p a n t s . V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a lso can e x h i b i t bo th u t i l i t a r i a n compliance and, i n some extreme cases, coe rc i ve com-p l i a n c e a l though thought of as normat ive i n n a t u r e . As was po in ted out e a r l i e r , the s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s which ensure normat ive com-p l i a n c e must be i n t e r n a l i z e d by the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as being s o c i a l l y en-f o r c e d by the group to be e f f e c t i v e . The s o c i a l va lues which are i n t e r n a l i z e d a lso change over t i m e . Blau g ives the example of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of con-queror to k ing r e q u i r i n g a change i n va lues which l e g i t i m i z e s the change i n r o l e and i n power f rom c o e r c i v e to normat i ve . The ques t ion which next a r i s e s i s how does b e l i e f i n the l e g i t i m a c y of d i f f e r -i ng types of power a r i se? The ideas which i n fo rm the ac t of l e g i t i m i z i n g power come from a m a t e r i a l bas is but are t rans fo rmed. The process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f rom the m a t e r i a l to b e l i e f i s the f u n c t i o n o f i d e o l o g y . ^ " I d e o l o g y i s the ' l i v e d ' r e l a t i o n between (humans) and t h e i r w o r l d , o r a r e f l e c t e d form o f t h i s unconscious r e l a t i o n , f o r i ns tance a ' p h i l o s o p h y ' , e t c . I t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a sc ience not by i t s f a l s i t y , f o r i t can be coherent and l o g i c a l ( f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e o l o g y ) , bu t by the f a c t t h a t the p r a c t i c o - s o c i a l predominates i n i t over the t h e o r e t i c a l , over knowledge. H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t precedes the sc ience t h a t i s produced by making an e p i s t e m i o l o g i c a l break w i t h i t , bu t i t s u r v i v e s a longs ide sc ience as an e s s e n t i a l element of every s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a s o c i a l i s t or even a communist s o c i e t y . " ( A l t h u s s e r , 1970:374) A l thusse r extends h i s a n a l y s i s of i deo logy to d iscuss s p e c i f i c , h i s t o r i c a l l y 39 determined i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses which i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e the r e p r o d u c t i o n of submission to the r u l e s of the e s t a b l i s h e d o rde r . Th is f u n c t i o n i s of c r u c i a l importance to the maintenance of any s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n f o r i t p rov ides one of the c o n d i t i o n s by which the f o r m a t i o n can reproduce d a i l y the produc-t i v e fo rces and the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n which d e f i n e i t s e x i s t e n c e . ( A l t h u s s e r , 1971:127-186.) The S t a t e , as the " i n s t a n c e " which ma in ta ins the cohesion of the s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n i s u s u a l l y thought of as cor responding t o coerc ive power because of i t s c o n t r o l of the r e p r e s s i v e appara tus . However, because of the l e g i t i m a c y o f the r u l i n g i d e o l o g y , the i d e o l o g i c a l appara tuses, " p u b l i c " or " p r i v a t e " , more autonomous or less so, can be seen as p a r t of the same system and i n f a c t are supported and defended by the r e p r e s s i v e apparatus of the S t a t e . 7 To r e s t a t e i n the terms of E t z i o n i ' s t ypo logy of power r e l a -t i o n s , the S ta te as the embodiment of the r u l i n g c lass has c o e r c i v e power through i t s r e p r e s s i v e appara tus ; i t has normat ive power by means of the i d e o -l o g i c a l apparatuses: and i t has u t i l i t a r i a n power by means of i t s maintenance of the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . Most concepts of modern o r g a n i z a t i o n theory are recognized as b e i n g , of necess-i t y , h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c . Most w r i t e r s on the s u b j e c t , i n c l u d i n g those r e -f e r r e d to i n t h i s s tudy , concern themselves w i t h complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s s i t u a t e d i n c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . Blau s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t the " c a p i t a l i s t i c sys tem. . .has f u r t h e r e d the advance o f bureaucracy" i n p a r t because of the system's need f o r " t h e es tab l i shment of governments s t rong enough to m a i n t a i n order and s t a b i l i t y . " I t f u r t h e r promotes b u r e a u c r a t i c methods w i t h i n i n d u s t r y and the unions which develop as a r e s u l t of t he f o r -mat ion of " these g i a n t c o r p o r a t i o n s " . (1956:38. ) Thompson w r i t e s t h a t admin-i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a c u l t u r a l process (1969:89) echoing C r o z i e r ' s t h e s i s 40 t h a t b u r e a u c r a t i c f u n c t i o n and d y s f u n c t i o n i s c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c . (1963) S o f f e r , . i n a d iscourse unconsc ious ly s u i t a b l e to the A l t h u s s e r i a n t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t : "The ex is tence of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s an aspect of the d i v i s i o n of labour i n s o c i e t y . Organ iza t ions are subun i t s o f the w ider s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . . . T h i s means they must , i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , s tay w i t h i n the o v e r a l l l e g a l and va lue framework of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y , though, as w i t h any o ther u n i t i n the s o c i a l d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , t he re w i l l be some s o c i a l va lues w i t h wh ich they w i l l come i n t o c o n f l i c t , which they w i l l c o n t e s t , and which they w i l l he lp to change." (1972 :4 . ) So f fe r i n c o r p o r a t e s i n t h i s s tatement the concept of the c o e r c i v e power o f the s t a t e as w e l l as the i d e o l o g i c a l r o l e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n reproduc ing sub-m iss ion t o the l e g i t i m a c y of the r u l i n g i d e o l o g y . He f u r t h e r suppor ts t h i s n o t i o n i n a l a t e r passage (1972:15) where he d iscusses the n a t u r e of the modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n terms of promot ing conservat ism and the 9 •defense of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s . The " s o c i a l v a l u e s " , which the o r g a n i z a t i o n s " h e l p to change" can be seen i n terms of the " r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n " of the " s u p e r s t r u c t u r e " , t h a t i s , the d i a l e c -t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the super s t r u c t u r a l appara tus , r e p r e s s i v e and i d e o l o -g i c a l , on the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . I n o ther words, the r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n of the p o l i t i c o - l e g a l and i d e o l o g i c a l ins tances upon the u n i t y of the p r o d u c t i v e f o r -ces and the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . ( A l t h u s s e r , 1971:134-35. ) One cou ld say t h a t the r u l i n g ideo logy determines the ideo logy of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses) w h i l e the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n t u r n , " i n f o r m " the r u l i n g i d e o l o g y . ^ I t i s t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n which g ran ts to the i n s t i t u t i o n or o r g a n i z a -t i o n i t s l e g i t i m a c y through the acceptance of the r e l a t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l s who compose i t . 41 Two of the most pervas ive b e l i e f s about the na tu re of modern bureaucrac ies are t h a t they are impersonal and n o n - p o l i t i c a l . Gouldner was not the f i r s t (o r l a s t ) t o p o i n t out t h a t the degree of i m p e r s o n a l i t y i s not cons tan t w i t h i n a bureaucracy, i t d i f f e r s most between s t a t u s l e v e l s (1952:50) The n o t i o n of the n o n - p o l i t i c a l na tu re of bureaucracy has been more t e n a t i o u s . K a r l Mannheim w r i t e s i n Ideo logy and Utop ia t h a t " t h e fundamental tendency of a l l b u r e a u c r a t i c thought i s to t u r n a l l problems of p o l i t i c s i n t o problems of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " (1952:105.) Ralph Mi l i b a n d r e p l i e s : "Bu t t h i s , ( tendency) f o r the most p a r t , mere ly means t h a t p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and assumptions are i n -c o r p o r a t e d , consc ious ly or n o t , i n t o the 'problems of admin-i s t r a t i o n ' , and co r respond ing ly a f f e c t the na tu re of admin-i s t r a t i v e adv ice and a c t i o n . " (1969:51. ) A p o s i t i o n supported by Thompson,as can be seen i n the d i s c u s s i o n of i n n o v a -t i o n above. One of the government bureaucrac ies s tud ied by Blau was a s t a t e department e s t a b l i s h e d as a placement s e r v i c e f o r u n s k i l l e d t e x t i l e workers . Many o f the c l i e n t s were b l a c k and Blau i n h i s f i r s t d i s c u s s i o n of the p o s s i b l e presence . of r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e pos i t ed t h a t d e s p i t e the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t some i n t e r v i e w e r s w i t h or w i t h o u t conscious i n t e n t might t r e a t these c l i e n t s d i f f e r e n t l y f rom w h i t e c l i e n t s because of i n d i v i d u a l " s u b l i m i n a l b i a s " . He goes on to say t h a t a l though such tendencies toward r a c i a l b i a s d i d occur " s p e c i f i c b u r e a u c r a t i c mechanisms cons t ra ined i n t e r v i e w e r s to ac t i m p a r t i a l l y . " (1963:83. ) He concludes tha t " i f o b j e c t i v e s of o v e r - r i d i n g importance ( w i t h i n the bu reaucra -t i c s t r u c t u r e ) can be made to govern organized a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d rega rd less of the presence of p r e j u d i c e . The c r u c i a l p o i n t i s t t h a t the g i ven o b j e c t i v e i s va lued more h i g h l y than p r e j u d i c e but t h a t no 42 preoccupation with reaching t h i s objective precludes the i n t r u s i o n of pre-j u d i c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . " (1963:94.) . s Between the time Blau wrote these conclusions and the r e i s s u i n g of h i s book i n revised form the state a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n commission was c a l l e d i n to examine t h i s employment agency among others. "The commission found that the charge of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d by the evidence produced i n the inves-t i g a t i o n . " (1963:96.) In the l i g h t of t h i s overwhelming r e b u t t a l of h i s con-clusions Blau rethought them. His new conclusions recognize that the l a t e n t function of the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the production records kept on the interviewers (which Blau had e a r l i e r seen as the objective of over-riding importance) to promote or impede no n - p r e j u d i c i a l s e r v i c e "depended on the p r e c i s e nature of the external demands" made upon the i n d i v i d u a l s . He goes on: "A neutral instrument does not a c t i v e l y correct e x i s t i n g i n e q u a l i t i e s but perpetuates them....Often, the discriminatory p r a c t i c e s of white o f f i c i a l s have t h e i r roots not i n t h e i r own bias against Negroes but i n the discriminatory demands made by the powerful employers who make the h i r i n g decisions. In these cases, a bureau-c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n that makes o f f i c i a l s more of a neutral instrument w i l l by no means attenuate t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s ; only a change i n power conditions can do so. He concludes: "The v i t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the power structure and market structure of the surrounding community for bureaucratic operations can be ignored.... only at (our) own p e r i l . The i n t e r n a l adjustments necessary to achieve or g a n i z a t i o n a l objectives depend on conditions that are governed by powers outside the organization, and these adjustments i n turn, determine what unanticipated consequences bureaucratic i n s t i t u t i o n s have....(1963:98.) The very nature of the bureaucracy, functioning to maximize e f f i c i e n c y i s the root cause of t h i s r e s u l t . Unless the consequences of the actions d i r e c t l y impede the e f f i c i e n t functioning of the organization or unless the i n s t i t u t i o n 43 or human c o l l e c t i v e r e c e i v i n g the i n e q u i t a b l e t reatment i s i n c o n t r o l of g r e a t e r power the c o n d i t i o n w i l l p e r s i s t . The g r e a t e r power must be of the coerc ive or u t i l i t a r i a n type f o r as Blau says " u l t i m a t e i d e a l s are l ess power-f u l fo rces than the immediate requi rements of o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y . " (1963:117) 44 Section 2 Racism - A D e f i n i t i o n a l Problem Section 1 established the presence of the i d e o l o g i c a l i n bureaucratic structures. It also i l l u s t r a t e d how a seemingly neutral instrument could be used to i n i t i a t e and perpetuate a p a r t i c u l a r ideology, racism. Section 2 explores the bases for the ideology of racism. I t i s argued that racism arises from i d e n t i f i a b l e , h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c conditions w i t h i n a society. Racism as an ideology i s u n i v e r s a l l y present i n the s o c i e t y . Therefore the ps y c h o l o g i s t i c explanations of racism as behaviour deviant from a norm i s not considered. The i n d i v i d u a l expression of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s can and does vary from g u i l t transference to outright provocation of the v i c t i m . Never-theless, the s t r u c t u r a l cause and the ideology i t gives r i s e to, remain sim i l a r whatever the expression. 45 I n order to e s t a b l i s h the s t r u c t u r a l bases of r a c i s m , i t i s f i r s t necessary to examine the concept of r a c e . The o r i g i n s of the term seem to be open f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Dunn and Dobzhansky .suggest t h a t i n 1775 the German scholar Blumenbach, improving on L innaeus ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of homo sap iens , proposed the d i v i s i o n of the human species i n t o f i v e d i s t i n c t " r a c e s " us ing the term f i r s t employed by the French s c i e n t i s t B u f f o n . (1952:109. ) Ne i ther H a r r i s (1968) nor Stock ing (1968) i n t h e i r d i scuss ions of the phenomenon ment ion the te rm 's o r i g i n bu t E a r l Conrad a t t r i b u t e s i t s f i r s t usage to L innaeus ' work on taxonomy. (1966:67. ) There i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement t h a t the change from taxonomical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g a r a c i a l r a t i o n a l e f o r d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of c u l t u r a l development, were p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d . Stock ing suggests the change f rom the concept of the Nobel Savage to t h a t of European (Cauca-s ian) r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y , r e f l e c t e d i n the changed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , was, on the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l " a p a r t of the conse rva t i ve r e a c t i o n aga ins t the e g a l i t a r i a n opt imism of the French R e v o l u t i o n (and on the s o c i a l l e v e l ) a de fens ive r e a c t i o n aga ins t the idea of e q u a l i t y on the p a r t of groups whose t r a d i t i o n a l l y unquest ioned c lass super-i o r i t y was being undercut by the s o c i a l changes of the n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r y . " (1968:36 . ) He f u r t h e r suggests t h a t the " e m p i r i c a l " da ta gathered du r ing the c o l o n i z a -t i o n of sub-Sahara A f r i c a , " n o t o r i o u s l y sub jec t to i d e o l o g i c a l or c o n v e n t i o n a l d i s t o r t i o n " helped to des t roy the t h e o r i e s of the process of degenera t ion f rom noble savage to European c i v i l i z a t i o n . (1968:37. ) E a r l Conrad, i n The I n v e n t i o n of the Negro, suggests t h a t the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n 46 of the concept of h i e r a r c h i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of race was begun i n the U.S.A. by the "American Statesmen" who adopted i t as support f o r the c r e a t i o n of a " c o n s t i t u t i o n of compromise" which espoused the ph i losophy of e q u a l i t y bu t recognized and excluded s laves . Conrad argues t h a t t h i s adop t ion was m o t i -vated by the aura of f i n a l i t y i m p l i e d by the te rm 's s c i e n t i f i c o r i g i n s which prec luded argumenta t ion . (67 -70 . ) Phys i ca l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and b i o l o g i s t s throughout the n i n e t e e n t h cen tu ry cont inued to search f o r d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as s k i n p igmenta-t i o n , head shape, and body measurements, f o r c l a s s i f y i n g r a c i a l t ypes . Th is search was augmented by the debates over monogenetic versus p o l y g e n e t i c evo-l u t i o n . H a r r i s (1968:80-107. ) and Stock ing (1968:42-68. ) have documented these debates as being c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t rong p o l i t i c a l and mora l over tones . A t -tempts to m a i n t a i n the p o l y g e n i s t p o s i t i o n and the l e g i t i m a c y of r a c i a l c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n have been cont inued i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Coon, J a r n , and B i r d s e l l , i n 1950, i d e n t i f i e d s i x " p u t a t i v e s tocks " and t h i r t y d i f f e r e n t races . (Dunn and Dobyhansky, 1952:110.) Desp i te these h o l d - o u t s the overwhelming o p i n i o n of the s c i e n t i f i c community on the q u e s t i o n of r a c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s f i r s t , t h a t , t he re i s no " p u r e " human race anywhere (Boas, 1945:9. ) and second, t h a t the re i s no s c i e n t i f i c bas is e i t h e r f o r t y p o l o g i e s of race based on b i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n or f o r t h e o r i e s of gene t i c i n f e r i o r i t y or s u p e r i o r i t y . (Mead, e t a l , 1 9 6 8 : 1 9 3 . ) Never the-less popular t h e o r i e s of race as the b i o l o g i c a l determinant of c o l l e c t i v e behaviour c o n t i n u e . The t e n a c i t y of these concepts was s u f f i c i e n t to cause the American S c i e n t i s t s ' I n s t i t u t e f o r P u b l i c I n f o r m a t i o n to convene i n 1966 47 a symposium of prominent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from anthropology and the n a t u r a l sciences t o rev iew once aga in the conc lus i ve evidence aga ins t these t h e o r i e s . A measure of t h e i r f a i l u r e to accompl ish the task they set themselves i s the prominence g iven i n bo th the popular press and s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s to the recen t a t tempts by such people as H e r n s t e i n , Schockley, and Jensen to re-open the ques t ion of gene t i c d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e behaviour of r a c i a l g roup ings . The symposium's f i n d i n g s , pub l i shed as Science and the Concept of Race agreed t h a t the t e n a c i t y w i t h which n o n - s c i e n t i s t s c l i n g to the n o t i o n of race makes i t an impor tan t s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t r e q u i r i n g ser ious s tudy . I n i t s b i o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , however, the term race must be rep laced by such a term as " p o p u l a t i o n " i n order to r e s t o r e to these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s some c l a r i t y of meaning. (Mead, e t a l , 1968:67. ) O l i v e r Cox i n h i s s tudy of Caste, C lass , and Race d e f i n e s race s o c i o l o g i c a l l y as "any group of people t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d to be and g e n e r a l l y accep-ted as , a race i n any g i ven area of e t h n i c c o m p e t i t i o n " , a l t hough " a n t h r o p o -m e t r i c a l l y speak ing, the assumed race i s not a r e a l r a c e . " C319.) He d e f i n e s " e t h n i c " as " a people l i v i n g c o m p e t i t i v e l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u p e r o r d i n a t i o n or s u b o r d i n a t i o n w i t h respec t to some o ther people or peoples w i t h i n one s t a t e , count ry or economic a r e a . " One e t h n i c must always imply another and t h e r e f o r e 1 2 forms p a r t of a system. (1948:317.) The on ly s i t u a t i o n i n an e t h n i c system which can be descr ibed by concepts of race i s when " t h e e t h n i c s recogn ize such other p h y s i c a l l y and use t h e i r phy-s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n as a bas i s f o r the r a t i o n a l e of t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " 48 (1948'-317.) I n those systems where p h y s i c a l i t y i s not considered a s i g -n i f i c a n t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s cannot be desc r ibed i n r a c i a l terms. Cox goes on to d i s t i n g u i s h the phenomenon of race r e l a t i o n s f rom those o f e thnocen t r i sm, i n t o l e r a n c e , or rac i sm. For Cox race r e l a t i o n s are d e f i n e d as " t h a t behaviour which develops among peoples who are aware o f each o t h e r ' s a c t u a l or imp l i ed p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s " and more s p e c i f i c a l l y " o n l y those con tac ts the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are determined by a consciousness of " r a c i a l " d i f f e r e n c e . (1948:320.) He does not cons ider e thnocent r i sm or the i n t o l e r a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l or group toward those who r e f u s e to con-form to e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s of the s o c i e t y to be a p a r t of race r e l a t i o n s . Racism he sees as seemingly r e f e r r i n g t o a "ph i l osophy of r a c i a l a n t i p a t h y " or an i deo logy . (1948:321.) He c r i t i c i z e s the study of rac ism because i t " u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the h i s t o r y of a system of r a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n f o r t h a t of a m a t e r i a l s o c i a l f a c t . " (1948:321.) One might sympathize w i t h Cox's f r u s t r a t i o n s w i t h l i t e r a t u r e t h a t obscures r a t h e r than c l a r i f i e s the o r i g i n s of race r e l a t i o n s . However, one cannot agree t h a t the suggest ion t h a t most s tud ies of rac ism r e s u l t i n the sub-s t i t u t i o n of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r m a t e r i a l f a c t i s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i g n o r -ing the phenomenon. The study of the m a t e r i a l bas is of race r e l a t i o n s i s not s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n the ex i s tence and p e r s i s t e n c e of rac ism i t s e l f . Having sa id t h i s one must a lso recogn ize t h a t an a n a l y s i s of rac ism must go beyond the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the types of rac ism and t h e i r p e r p e t r a t o r s to 49 an unders tand ing of the mechanisms which m a i n t a i n the s te reo types and the process of rac ism i t s e l f . Wi th a few no tab le except ions the l i t e r a t u r e does not do t h i s . Popular and more s c h o l a r l y w r i t i n g s a l i k e seem to f a l l i n t o two s u b - c a t e g o r i e s : those who concern themselves w i t h what can be des-c r i b e d as i n d i v i d u a l ac ts of rac ism and those who are concerned w i t h i n s t i -t u t i o n a l rac i sm. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the m a j o r i t y of m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n p r i o r t o the r i s e o f B lack Power i n the U.S.A. was t h a t i t d e a l t a lmost e x c l u s i v e -l y w i t h the o v e r t or i n d i v i d u a l r a c i s t a c t . Many of these c r i t i q u e s were underscored by s t rong mora l d i s a p p r o v a l of rac ism as c o n t r a r y to the e t h i c of l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l s (or groups) p e r p e t r a t i n g these ac ts were viewed as aber ran t or dev ian t f rom the norms of a democrat ic s o c i e -t y . By i m p l i c a t i o n these ac ts were l i m i t e d to a few p a t h o l o g i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s . This k ind of a n a l y s i s of rac ism p r o f e r r e d by people such as Boas (1945) and Kuns t l e r (1966) obscured the r e c o g n i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l r ac i sm. A perhaps c l a s s i c example of the way i n which t h i s a n a l y s i s can o b s t r u c t a r e a l under-s tand ing of the process of rac ism i s the way i n which the murder of m i l l i o n s o f human beings i n German he ld t e r r i t o r y between 1938 and 1945 was blamed s o l e l y on a h a n d f u l of " i n s a n e " men. Whatever H i t l e r ' s pe rsona l p s y c h o l o g i -c a l s t a t e i t i s i nconce ivab le t h a t he could have engineered a program of such magnitude w i t h o u t a t minimum the pass ive c o m p l i c i t y o f a f a r l a r g e r segment of the p o p u l a t i o n . The obverse of t h i s p o s i t i o n i s e x e m p l i f i e d by Boggs (1970) who dea ls almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h ac ts of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r ac i sm. His a n a l y s i s , supposedly s o c i a l i s t i n o r i g i n , leads him to the conc lus ion t h a t a l l w h i t e s r e g a r d l e s s of d i s t i n c t i o n s of c lass or e t h n i c o r i g i n are consciously- and c o n t i n u a l l y 50 a c t i n g i n a r a c i s t manner. His s o l u t i o n to t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s to c rea te a T h i r d World r e v o l u t i o n which w i l l exclude a l l w h i t e s . Between these two extremes of p o s i t i o n the re are many s c h o l a r l y , i f no t comple te ly s u c c e s s f u l , a t tempts a t an a n a l y s i s of r ac i sm. Most, i f not a l l , of these analyses are d i r e c t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n found i n the U.S.A. , f o r example, F r a n k l i n ' s examinat ion of B lack Power as a "coheren t ideo logy capable of c h a l l e n g i n g some of the bas ic tene ts of American c a p i -t a l i s m , " ( 1 9 6 9 : 2 8 6 . ) , or Knowles and P r e w i t t ' s study of the s t r u c t u r a l a s -pects of rac ism i n the U.S.A. ' d i r e c t e d aga ins t Blacks (1969) . Lyman c r i t i -c a l l y examines the major f i g u r e s i n American soc io logy i n v o l v e d i n t h e o r e t i -c a l and e m p i r i c a l s tud ies of American Blacks and concludes t h a t " d e s p i t e more than a cen tu ry of s tudy , b l a c k s remain a s o c i o l o g i c a l p u z z l e . " (1972:171. ) He o f f e r s by way of e x p l a n a t i o n a c r i t i c i s m of the focus of American s o c i o l o g y . " C l a s s i c a l American soc io logy d i d not adopt a r i g o r o u s approach to the s o c i o -logy of race r e l a t i o n s but r a t h e r subsumed the sub jec t of race development under the r u b r i c of e v o l u t i o n i s t and e s p e c i a l l y S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t t h e o r i e s . " (1972:172.) More r e c e n t l y the soc io logy of race r e l a t i o n s "has been charac-t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by s tud ies of the psychology of race p r e j u d i c e . " (1972:174.) Lyman i n c l u d e s here not on ly the work of Adorno but a lso t h a t of D o l l a r d and Myrda l . (1972:174.) He s p e c i f i c a l l y c r i t i c i z e s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l because i t " tends to eschew the h i s t o r i c a l aspects of the q u e s t i o n . " (1972:175.) The h i s t o r i a n Genovese has addressed h imse l f to the ques t ion Lyman sees as the f o c a l problem f o r Blacks i n the U.S.A. and Fanon and o the rs g e n e r a l i z e as a problem of a l l co lon ized peoples . Th is problem i s the sys temat ic 51 d e p r i v a t i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y as a people . The r e s u l t i s consequen t ia l f o r " w i t h t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n not on ly the past bu t a l so the, f u t u r e i s wiped o u t : ( they have) n e i t h e r known predecessors to p rov ide t r a d i t i o n nor unambiguously de f i ned successors to i n s t i l l p romise . " (Lyman, 1972:183.) I n Red and Black i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f essays i n which Genovese d iscusses a number o f i ssues r e l a t e d to the ques t ion of the r e s t o r a t i o n of t h e i r h i s t o r y to an oppressed people . I n "Rebe l l iousness and D o c i l i t y i n the Slave" Genovese p rov ides a s t r u c t u r a l c r i t i q u e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of the "Sambo" s t e r e o -type which draws on the Spanish and Portugese economic and l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as w e l l as the B r i t i s h and American to conclude t h a t " p s y c h o l o g i c a l models may on ly be used s u g g e s t i v e l y . . . they cannot s u b s t i t u t e f o r e m p i r i c a l i n v e s -t i g a t i o n . " (1968:96. ) Genovese, l i k e Cox, u t i l i z e s a M a r x i s t methodology. Both men are concerned w i t h the s t r u c t u r a l bases of race r e l a t i o n s . However, by e x p l i c i t l y d i s -miss ing i d e o l o g y , Cox f o r c e s h imse l f i n t o an economic d e t e r m i n i s t p o s i t i o n . He must r e l a t e the phenomenon of race r e l a t i o n s , i n a l l i t s c o m p l e x i t i e s , d i r e c t l y t o an economic cause and consequence. The f u t i l i t y of the a t tempt • to reduce e v e r y t h i n g to the economic was f i r s t s t a t e d by Marx h i m s e l f . Economic determin ism denies the complex i t y of the issue and the l o g i c of d i a -l e c t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m . The t o t a l i t y of each h i s t o r i c a l l y determined s o c i a l f o rma t i on i s a complex s t r u c t u r e of o b j e c t i v e and s p e c i f i c l e v e l s t h a t a re no t e q u i v a l e n t and are r e l a t i v e l y autonomous. The s t r u c t u r e i s always de -termined by the economic (.the mode of p roduc t ion ) in the l a s t i n s t a n c e . However, t o use A l t h u s s e r ' s phrase, " t h e l o n e l y hour of the ' l a s t i n s t a n c e ' never comes". Using t h i s mode of a n a l y s i s i t i s p o s s i b l e to comprehend the 52 complexity of the society and i t s institutions; Again to quote Althusser, "the capital-labour contradiction i s never simple, but always specified by the h i s t o r i c a l l y concrete forms and circumstances in which i t is exercised". 13 The contradiction i s therefore always overdetermined. Recognizing this complexity i t is d i f f i c u l t to f a l l into the trap of regarding the role of the economic as the basis upon which i s constructed a more or less ephemeral and therefore unimportant super-structure. The role of the economic in the last instance i s to determine which element i s to be dominant i n a given so-c i a l formation but never to deny the importance of those non-economic elements. One major theoretical contribution to the structural analysis of society avai-lable to Genovese but not to Cox is the notion of hegemony developed by the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci. "(Hegemony is) an order in which a certain way of l i f e and thought is dominant, in which one concept of rea l i t y is diffused throughout society in a l l i t s institutional , and private manifestations, informing with i t s s p i r i t a l l taste, morality, customs, religious and p o l i t i c a l principles, and a l l social relations, particularly in their intellectual and moral connotations." (Genovese, 1968:406.) Hegemony is the normative power which the dominant social group "obtains from the masses by virtue of i t s social and intellectual prestige and i t s supposed-ly superior function in the world of production." (Genovese, 1968:406) Hegemony is expressed through the ideologies of a society which function to particularize the hegemony and to situate i t within the society's individual member's world view. The state ideological apparatuses, (Althusser, 1971:142.) the systems of schools, churches, cultural institutions, for example, are the mechanisms for ensuring the voluntary acceptance of the ideological positions 53 of the hegemony. Only when these mechanisms e i t h e r f a i l or are unaccepta-b l e t o the masses as i s the case, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n a newly co lon i zed a r e a , does the coe rc i ve power of the s t a t e through i t s r e p r e s s i v e apparatus come i n t o d i r e c t p l a y . As Cox admits even as he d ismisses i t , rac ism i s an i d e o l o g y , or to phrase i t another way, i t i s a set of behaviour consequences based on a set of shared b e l i e f s . (Mead, e t a l , 1968:67. ) A l b e r t Memmi, a p a r t i c i p a n t (o r v i c t i m ) observer of rac ism has developed an i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n . "Racism i s the genera l i zed and f i n a l ass ign ing of va lues to r e a l or imaginary d i f f e r e n c e s , to the accuse r ' s b e n e f i t and a t h i s v i c t i m ' s expense, i n order to j u s t i f y the f o r -mer ' s own p r i v i l e g e s or a g g r e s s i o n . " (Memmi, 1968:185.) I n the a n a l y s i s which accompanies t h i s d e f i n i t i o n Memmi summarizes t h r e e es-s e n t i a l elements of r ac i sm: the i n s i s t e n c e on a d i f f e r e n c e between the r a c i s t and v i c t i m , the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e to a m y t h i c a l use, and the convenience of such use. (1968:186. ) The mechanisms f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g d i f f e r e n c e s can be e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l or c u l t u r a l . However, i t i s no t the f a c t of d i f f e r e n c e per se bu t the way i n which d i f f e r e n c e s are used t h a t i n -14 forms rac i sm. Memmi p o i n t s out t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s f r e q u e n t l y are r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s , e i t h e r b i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l or s o c i a l upon which the r a c i s t adds an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or ass igns a nega t i ve or p o s i t i v e v a l u e . I n an i n t e r e s t i n g f o o t n o t e Memmi suggests t h a t f r e q u e n t l y a genuine i nade -quacy i n the v i c t i m i s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n . But " t h e r a c i s t , f a r f rom v iewing i t as a r e s u l t of the oppress ion to which he h imse l f s u b j e c t s h i s v i c t i m or a t l e a s t of the o b j e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s which the v i c t i m i s made, to endure, ho lds t h a t inadequacy aga ins t h im, as i f i t were a d e f e c t or f l a w . " (1968:188.) He g ives as examples the t e c h n i c a l unpreparedness of the 54 co lon ized (as a r e s u l t of c o l o n i z a t i o n ) or the h i g h r a t e of absenteeism among work ing women ( the r e s u l t of t h e i r f a m i l y d u t i e s ) . (1968:188 . ) A f u r t h e r v a r i a n t of the process, which Memmi omits i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n , i s the s i t u a t i o n i n which the p e r c e p t i o n i n what the v i c t i m says o f n o t i o n s or i m -p l i c a t i o n s which t ranscend the a c t u a l words spoken."^ Memmi then discusses the process by which the nega t i ve and p o s i t i v e va lues are ass igned. The nega t i ve va lue of the v i c t i m s a u t o m a t i c a l l y becomes the p o s i t i v e v a l u e of the accusers who take themselves as the p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e f o r the comparison. Fanon r e i t e r a t e s t h i s p o i n t i n a q u o t a t i o n f rom Joachim Marcus: "One can t h e r e f o r e s t a t e t h a t , c o n t r a r y to what i s genera l ly -b e l i e v e d , i t i s the a t t i t u d e t h a t seeks the content r a t h e r than the content t h a t c rea tes the a t t i t u d e . " (1967:158 f n . ) Memmi suggests t h a t t h i s a t t i t u d e i s then genera l i zed to i n c o r p o r a t e the t o -t a l p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l and the t o t a l i t y of members o f the group. Th is element of " s o c i a l de termin ism" i s f i n a l and a b s o l u t e . " I n the extreme, rac ism merges i n t o m y t h " , and the v i c t i m becomes t ransformed i n t o a t h i n g or a symbol. (1968:197.) The myth , however, r e f e r s back to the r a c i s t f o r " i t i s i n the r a c i s t h imse l f t h a t the mot ives f o r rac ism l i e . " (1968:191. ) Memmi cont inues h i s a n a l y s i s of rac ism by suggest ing t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i z a -t i o n of the v i c t i m s i s the a t tempt by the accusers to e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y t h e i r a t t i t u d e and behaviour toward them. Th is need t o accuse i n o rder t o j u s t i f y a c t i o n i s due to the g u i l t the accusers f e e l toward t h e i r v i c t i m s . (1968:192.) Th is concept of c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t and i t s t r a n s f e r e n c e i s the concept most f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of r a c i s m . Memmi 55 suggests t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l "can be tempted by t h i s c o l l e c t i v e reason ing ; i t forms p a r t o f the va lues he ld by h i s peers and r e l i e v e s him of the weight o f any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " (1968:19.3.) He con t inues t h a t the accusa t ion should suggest the s p e c i f i c oppress ion which i s the r e a l cause of the " r a c i s t a l i -b i " based i n the socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the s o c i e t y . (1968:193-194.) I n an essay w r i t t e n a year a f t e r the d e f i n i t i o n of rac ism Mimmi and h i s co-au thors suggest t h a t "be fo re t a k i n g r o o t i n the i n d i v i d u a l , rac ism has taken t o o t i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s and i d e o l o g i e s a l l around h im, i n the educa-t i o n he re ce i ves and the c u l t u r e he a c q u i r e s . " (1968:197. ) They go on t o e x p l a i n t h a t the reason so nega t i ve an a t t i t u d e can be so u n i v e r s a l i s be -cause racism i s an i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t f o r which the r a c i s t e x p l a n a t i o n i s conven ien t . The v i c t i m s are not o n l y accused o f be ing second-c lass humans, they are i n t h a t they are denied the r i g h t s the accusers have f o r themselves. (1968:198.) F u r t h e r , the accuser always chooses as the v i c t i m the a l ready oppressed. I t i s t h i s f a c t o r which e x p l a i n s the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e -sence of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s among people themselves v i c t i m s o f r ac i sm. (1969: 200.) I t prec ludes the p o s s i b i l i t y o f what has been c a l l e d reverse rac ism when the v i c t i m i s seen a lso as accuser. The on ly e f f e c t i v e reason f o r accusa t ion i s to accrue b e n e f i t . The r e a c t i o n of the accuser to statements and a c t i o n s r e s i s t i n g the accusa t ion can be to speak o f reverse rac ism bu t f o l l o w i n g Memmi's l i n e o f argument these r e a c t i o n s can be exp la ined as r e s -ponses to the exposure of the rac i sm. Rather than a r e l i a n c e upon c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t as the complete e x p l a n a t i o n f o r 56 rac ism one can go back to the concept of hegemony and the i d e o l o g i e s a r i s i n g f rom i t . A l though the na tu re of the hegemony i s t h a t of a cohe-s i ve whole the i d e o l o g i e s which a r i s e from i t and support i t are not c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r express ion . Racism can be regarded as an ideo logy created as a m e d i a t i o n between the ideo logy of democracy imp ly ing freedom and e q u a l i t y and the socio-economic r e a l i t y of e x p l o i t a t i o n and oppress ion . By c r e a t i n g an ideo logy which exp la ins why some groups i n the s o c i e t y are not e l i g i b l e f o r the f u l l ex-p ress ion of democracy the o ther i d e o l o g i c a l precepts are m a i n t a i n e d . Th is i d e o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n serves a dua l purpose. I f the v i c t i m s of the r a c i s t accusa t ion can be manipu la ted i n t o b e l i e v i n g i n the myth they w i l l tend t o be l ess t h r e a t e n i n g to the hegemony and the s t a t e i s l e s s l i k e l y to have to r e s o r t to d i r e c t coe rc i ve power t o m a i n t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n . Secondly, i f the members of the s o c i e t y can be brought to accept the r a c i s t ideo logy they w i l l , i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , he lp to m a i n t a i n not on ly the ideo logy but i t s s t r u c t u r a l bases. I n t h i s way, one can a lso e x p l a i n the organ ic connect ion between the i n d i -v i d u a l ac t of rac ism and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t . The o v e r t ac t of the i n d i v i d u a l which causes i n j u r y to another on the bas is of rac ism i s no longer condoned by the s o c i e t y . I t i s considered an i n d i c a t i o n of the u n -s o c i a l i z e d cha rac te r of the p e r p e t r a t o r who i s m o r a l l y , i f seldom l e g a l l y , punished f o r i t . The o v e r t a c t , i n o ther words, i s considered to be a man i -f e s t a t i o n by an i n d i v i d u a l who i s unable t o i n c o r p o r a t e the s u b t l e t y of the i d e o l o g i e s i n v o l v e d . The cover t or i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ac t vrhose processes "operate so no rma l l y and n a t u r a l l y and are so much a p a r t of the e x i s t i n g 57 i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y " (Boggs, 1970:147-148.) can be as much an a c t o f ommission as commission. Covert rac ism i s t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a c t i o n o f the ideo logy pe rpe t ra ted by the i n d i v i d u a l i n d a i l y a c t i o n and by the c o l l e c t i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s who s t a f f the i n s t i t u t i o n s . For example the teacher i s not expected to i n c l u d e i n a p r e s e n t a t i o n on the h i s t o r y o f Cana-da any d i s c u s s i o n of the genocide of the Besthuck or the processes used to o b t a i n land owned by the autothonous p o p u l a t i o n . The teacher does no t have to v e r b a l i z e the s te reo types but s imply n e g l e c t , th rough acc iden t more u s u a l l y than des ign , to p rov ide any i n f o r m a t i o n which would c o n f l i c t w i t h those s te reo types . As Blau was fo rced to show i n h i s study of bureaucracy rac ism can be perpe-tua ted i n a process presumed to be f r e e of such f u n c t i o n s as r e a d i l y as i t can be elsewhere. The i n s t i t u t i o n can a lso f u n c t i o n as an i n h i b i t o r o f a t tempts to d i s c e r n the ex ten t o f the problem. The d i r e c t o r of the s tudy Ind ians and the Law done by the Canadian C o r r e c t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n was t o l d by many p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s t h a t they cou ld not p rov ide him w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l da ta on the number 0 f peoples of n a t i v e ances t r y they he ld i n t h e i r p r i s o n s "because they d i d n ' t keep t h a t k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n . " Th is d e s p i t e the f a c t t ha t the employees of the p r i sons knew the number of n a t i v e people i n c a r -.16 ce ra ted . What l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n and study of rac ism t h e r e has been i n t h i s c o u n t r y , having s p e c i f i c re fe rence to Canadian r a t h e r than f o r e i g n problems, has u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y centered on e i t h e r the Jewish p o p u l a t i o n or the l i m i t e d B lack p o p u l a t i o n w i t h some r e f e r e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the west coas t , to O r i e n t a l s . 58 The 1966 Report to the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e of the Spec ia l Committee on  Hate Propaganda i n Canada makes ment ion of the Canadian I n d i a n nowhere i n e i t h e r the r e p o r t i t s e l f or the accompanying documentat ion. The conferences and p u b l i c a t i o n s marking Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l Human Rights Year i n 1967 again ignored the Canadian I n d i a n ? ^ The p u b l i c a t i o n of Volume 1 of A Survey of Contemporary Ind ians i n Canada can be considered as the f i r s t major r e c o g n i t i o n , i n c l u d i n g as i t does such damning ev idence, of the p r e j u d i c e and rac ism aga ins t the Canadian I n d i a n . The subsequent pub-l i c a t i o n of s tud ies by C a r d i n a l (1969) and Waubageshig (1970) among o t h e r s , were i n t e r p r e t e d by the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e as suggest ing t h a t the s o l u t i o n to the I n d i a n s ' problems l a y i n the a b o l i t i o n of the Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The s i m p l i c i t y of t h i s s o l u t i o n seemed to appeal t o many members of the m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g not a few members of the Department i t s e l f . The response by the I n d i a n people i n the "Red Paper" ( C i t i z e n s Plus,197 0.) to the Government's "Whi te Paper" was t h e r e f o r e b e w i l d e r i n g . What the I n d i a n s ' response i l l u s t r a t e s i s the t h e s i s argued here and f u r t h e r documented i n the next chap te r . I n s t i t u t i o n a l or cove r t rac ism i s an i d e o l o g i c a l express ion of hegemony and i s t h e r e f o r e not i s o l a t e d i n one f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e and cannot be e rad ica ted by d i s m a n t l i n g t h a t s t r u c t u r e a lone . The f a c t of rac ism i s present and main ta ined to a g r e a t e r or l esser degree i n a l l the s t r u c t u r e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o rma l and i n f o r m a l , of the s o c i e t y . Fu r the r t h i s i n s t i -t u t i o n a l rac ism i s s u f f i c i e n t l y s u b t l e i n o p e r a t i o n as to f r e q u e n t l y go unrecognized by those most a c t i v e l y m a i n t a i n i n g i t . 59 Footno tes : 1. A l f o r d i n Bureaucracy and P a r t i c i p a t i o n i d e n t i f i e s two usages of the term "power" , used l a r g e l y by s o c i o l o g i s t s to i n d i c a t e the "possession of resources based on i n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , w e a l t h , p r o p e r t y , p u b l i c o f f i c e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p " , and power, used by p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , i s meant to i n d i c a t e " t h e use of r e -sources to ga in i n f l u e n c e by p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s . " (1969:195.) E t z i o n i ' s typo logy d i s t i n g u i s h e s two types of power, economic and coe rc i ve which r e q u i r e possession of the r e -sources g iven i n power, w h i l e power corresponds more c l o s e l y w i t h E t z i o n i ' s normat ive c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a l though a case could be made t h a t power i s i n c o r p o r a t e d , a t l e a s t on occass ion , i n t o the. w i e l d i n g of bo th economic and coe rc i ve power as w e l l . I n b r i e f A l f o r d ' s d i s t i n c t i o n i s between the presence of resources and the way i n which the resources are u t i l i z e d . 2. E t z i o n i d i s c r i m i n a t e s between "pure normat ive" power based on " t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of esteem, p r e s t i g e , and r i t u a l i s t i c symbols" and " s o c i a l power" based on " a l l o c a t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n of acceptance and p o s i t i v e response" but c lasses them both as normat ive as they bo th u t i l i z e the same type of means. (1961 :6 . ) 3. Howton (1969:43-44 f f . ) , C . J . Deutsch (1966) , and Dub in , (1952:233-240) f o r d i s c u s s i o n of the ways i n which i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r f u n c t i o n a i r e s ,became de fac to dec is ion-makers because of t h e i r c o n t r o l of i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s . 4. I n the d i s c u s s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , Thompson s p e c i f i c -a l l y d iscusses the phenomenon o f the new " s c i e n t i f i c management" or neo-Tay lor ism which rece ived i n i t i a l suppor t and encouragement f rom Kennedy and Johnson i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o governmental b u r e a u c r a c i e s . (1969:53-57. ) 5. I n most c i v i l se rv ices opera t ions i n Nor th America the h i r i n g and promot ion i s done through c i v i l s e r v i c e compet i t i ons and the i n d i -v i d u a l s are s imply assigned to the depar tment , the sa la ry n e g o t i a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s are handled by a separate f i n a n c i a l s e c t i o n ( e . g . Treasury Board) and e labo ra te r u l e s f o r d i s m i s s a l procedures are e s t a b l i s h e d elsewhere. 6. I have chosen to use the A l t h u s s e r i a n concept of ideo logy i n p re fe rence to o the rs such as Mannheim, (1936) . The choice was made on the bas is t h a t the concept as Mannheim and o the rs see i t , i s metaphys ica l and m y s t i f i e d to a degree which makes a p p l i c a t i o n of i t to concre te ana-l y s i s somewhat less than u s e f u l . 7. Examples of t h i s phenomenon are l e g i o n . At tendence a t schoo ls , one of the pr imary i d e o l o g i c a l apparatuses of the S t a t e , i s rendered com-p u l s o r y by t ruancy laws. 60 8. B u r i n i n h i s essay on "Bureaucracy and N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m " seems to d i s p u t e t h i s when he w r i t e s t ha t " t h e Nazis succeeded. . . i n c a s t i n g overboard the whole va lue system of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . " (1952:47) Much of the evidence he s i t e s as proof o f h i s statement i s used a lso by M i l i b a n d to argue e x a c t l y the oppos i te p o s i t i o n , i . e . , t h a t fascism d i d not d i s r u p t the fundamental bas is on which "wes tern c i v i l i z a t i o n " i s based. He quotes Franz Neumann, " t h e essence of N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t s o c i a l p o l i c y c o n s i s t s i n the accep-tance and s t reng then ing of the p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s charac te r o f German s o c i e t y . " (1969:7-96. ) 9. The argument t h a t modern o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i s a n t a g o n i s t i c to democracy i s made l a r g e l y by those who equate democracy w i t h " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " and f a i l to recogn ize the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n i n t o monopoly c a p i t a l i s t s t r u c t u r e s . 10. The except ion i s the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n where the mode and r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n are d i s c r e p a n t w i t h the r u l i n g i d e o l o g y . The i d e o l o g i -c a l s t a t e apparatuses are i n e f f e c t i v e . (For example, the e a r l y r e -p o r t s by the Secre ta ry of S ta te f o r the Canadian government d i s c u s s , w i t h some bewilderment tempered w i t h anger, the i n d i f f e r e n c e , hos-t i l i t y and a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e by n a t i v e Ind ians to o f f i c i a l a t tempts (by government or church) to remove the young t o i n s t i t u t i o n s where they were "educated" f o r domestic s e r v i c e or farm l a b o u r . ) Cf . a l so Belshaw 1964, d i scuss ing the d i f f i c u l t i e s of " f o r e i g n d e c i s i o n -makers" i n c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n s . F u r n i v a l l , i n a d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o n i a l c o u n t r i e s i n South As ia g r a p h i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t i n h i s book, C o l o n i a l P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e , e s p e c i a l l y the chapter e n t i t l e d "The P l u r a l S o c i e t y . " 1 1 . A l t husse r analyses b r i l l i a n t l y the mechanism whereby the i n d i v i d u a l sub jec ts are " s u b j e c t e d " to the process i n which they " f r e e l y " accept t h e i r s u b j e c t i o n and t h e r e f o r e "work a l l by themselves" w i t h o u t recourse to the sanc t ions of r e p r e s s i v e or coe rc i ve power. (1971:170-186.) 12. This d e f i n i t i o n i s i n agreement w i t h B a r t h ' s d e f i n i t i o n of an e t h n i c group as one which "has a membership which i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f , and i s i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s , as c o n s t i t u t i n g a ca tegory d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom other c a t e g o r i e s of the same o r d e r . " (1969:11. ) 13. A l t h u s s e r ' s b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s of the concept of " o v e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n " (1969:87-128.) a t one and the same t ime s i m p l i f i e s the process of a n a l y s i s and ac ts to prevent s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l processes. 14. Th is p o i n t , which recogn izes the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s but emphasizes the uses to which these d i f f e r e n c e s are put i s u s e f u l i n deve lop ing c r i t i q u e s of a number of w r i t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those con-cerned w i t h rac ism i n the U.S.A. , who are c lassed under the r u b r i c " l i b e r a l " and who a t tempt to deny any r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between Blacks and Caucasians. Genovese, 1971, and many of the Black Power advocates v i g o r o u s l y a t t a c k t h i s p o s i t i o n as r a c i s t i n i t s e l f . T h e i r reasoning i s t h a t denying d i f f e r e n c e s these w r i t e r s are denying much of the h i s t o r y of Black America which must be recogn ized . 61 15. I am indebted to Dr. H.B. Hawthorn f o r t h i s n o t i o n . 16. Personal communication from the D i r e c t o r , Mr. Gene Rheaume. 17. I had occass ion to a t t end many o f the conferences i n c l u d i n g the f e d e r a l government 's opening conference a t which the then-pr ime m i n i s t e r and Nobel P r i z e w inner , Les ter B. Pearson gave' the address. He gave a speech tha t spoke of the need to inc rease human r i g h t s as w e l l as the progress which had been made i n the w o r l d , he c i t e d examples f rom around the globe but neg lec ted to ment ion once the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n of Canada. Chapter Two The Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I nd ian Women Development and O r i g i n a l S t r u c t u r e 63 Sect ion 1 The Plann ing Committee The t h e o r e t i c a l framework now e s t a b l i s h e d , I beg in the d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of the Co-opera t i ve Home. The s e c t i o n opens w i t h a h i s t o r y of the c i rcumstances which gave impetus to the p r o j e c t ' s i n i t i a t i o n . The members of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s sub-committee of CUS, here r e f e r r e d t o as the p lann ing commit tee, are examined. The examinat ion i nc ludes d i s c u s s i o n of the in tended s t r u c t u r e of the p r o j e c t and i t s r a t i o n a l e . The a n a l y s i s of the s t r u c t u r e and r a t i o n a l e i n d i c a t e s the presence of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s desp i te t h e i r own percep t ions of t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s . 64 A spate of a r t i c l e s appeared i n Vancouver 's d a i l y newspapers i n the autumn of 1965 on the c o n d i t i o n s o f young I n d i a n women who were m i g r a t i n g t o Van-couver and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , to Skid Road from the r u r a l a reas . The i n t e r -est seemed to be sparked by the chance r e p o r t i n g of the at tempted s u i c i d e of a young I n d i a n woman i n the sk id road a rea . She had thrown h e r s e l f f rom a h o t e l window and susta ined i n j u r i e s which r e s u l t e d i n almost complete p a r a l y s i s . One of the a r t i c l e s quoted C i t y Coronor Glen MacDonald as saying t h a t of a p o p u l a t i o n of around 500 I n d i a n women i n the sk id road a r e a , m a i n -ta ined by steady i n - m i g r a t i o n , ^ approx imate ly 20 women between the ages of 16 and 30 d i e each year . He a t t r i b u t e d these deaths d i r e c t l y to the s o c i a l d iseases of a l c o h o l i s m , drug a d d i c t i o n , and p r o s t i t u t i o n . Th is l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t i n the c o n d i t i o n s o f young Ind ians i n the c i t y c o i n c i -ded w i t h the r e t u r n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s tudent d e l e g a t i o n from the 28th Annual Congress of the Canadian Union of Students (CUS) . Almost w i t h o u t excep t ion the Canadian Union of Students (and i t s predecessor , N a t i o n a l Federa t ion of Canadian U n i v e r s i t y S tudents , NFCUS) had adopted a s tudent qua s tudent approach to s o c i e t a l i s s u e s , concern ing i t s e l f s o l e l y w i t h those areas nar row ly de f ined as of d i r e c t concern to the u n i v e r s i t y s tuden t . The on ly except ion was i n realm of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s but t h i s a c t i v i t y was not r e f l e c t e d on the campuses. The 28 th Congress marked a t u r -n ing p o i n t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e aided by the heightened p o l i -t i c i z a t i o n of the Quebec members, the f o r m a t i o n of the Student Union f o r Peace A c t i o n , and the growing r a d i c a l i z a t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y campuses i n the U.S.A. Among the issues r a i s e d f o r the f i r s t t ime a t t h i s meet ing was the s t a t u s of the Canadian I n d i a n . Reso lu t ions were passed to h i r e an Assoc ia te Secretary f o r I n d i a n A f f a i r s as p a r t of the n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t i n Ot tawa, 65 to work i n c lose c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the newly- formed Canadian I n d i a n Youth Counc i l and to promote the development of l o c a l programs concerned w i t h I n d i a n s . On the bas is of these two events the UBC-Alma Mater Soc ie ty CAMS) Committee o f CUS began d i scuss ions around the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g accomodations f o r n a t i v e women i n the c i t y of Vancouver. The d e c i s i o n of the Committee to beg in a p r o j e c t of t h i s type was aided by the exper ience of one member of the committee who had spent the summer i n -t e r v i e w i n g I n d i a n women i n Vancouver f o r a UBC research p r o j e c t . Her work had po in ted up the need f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the meager and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y accomodations p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to I n d i a n women - a l l of a h o s t e l or ' f l o p h o u s e ' n a t u r e . A smal l committee was formed t o exp lo re the f e a s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a res idence s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r I n d i a n women which would p r o -2 v i d e l ong - te rm accommodation away f rom the sk id road envi ronment . Th is same member brought i n t o the committee an I n d i a n woman who had r e c e n t l y severed her connect ions w i t h an east-end h o s t e l o r g a n i z a t i o n and was p r e -s e n t l y work ing w i t h the Vancouver I n d i a n F r iendsh ip Center . Th i s woman was most emphatic about the need f o r a res idence e x c l u s i v e l y f o r I n d i a n women and equa l l y e n t h u s i a s t i c about the CUS committee p r o p o s a l . She was subse-quen t l y h i r e d as house mother f o r the p r o j e c t . The committee met over the f a l l months to develop the p o l i c y and determine the p h y s i c a l arrangements f o r the p r o j e c t . By December they had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r p o l i c y and had issued a p r o p o s a l . The p r o j e c t was to e s t a b l i s h a home " t o be c o - o p e r a t i v e i n the sense t h a t i t i s the r e s i d e n t g i r l s (under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a house mother) who w i l l be respons ib le f o r i t s runn ing 66 and m a i n t e n a n c e . " J The proposa l s ta ted t h a t the house would a l so be used as a temporary home f o r women needing emergency accomodat ion, f o r wh ich purpose one room would be r e s e r v e d . Th is proposa l was used i n i n i t i a l con tac ts w i t h v a r i o u s non-governmental s o c i a l s e r v i c e agenc ies, the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n , the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Serv ices Department, and the Vancouver I nd ian F r i e n d s h i p Center . R e f e r r a l s to the Home were l a t e r made by the l a t t e r t h ree o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l though a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n was fo r thcoming on ly from the F r i e n d s h i p Center . Of the non-governmental s o c i a l s e r v i c e agenc ies, the S a l v a t i o n Army responded most generous ly by p r o v i d i n g much of the f u r n i t u r e needed f o r the Home. The committee e s t a b l i s h e d a dua l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . The Adv iso ry Board, which a t the Home's i n c e p t i o n cons is ted of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a lawyer , a s o c i o l o g i s t , an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , a home economist , and a s o c i a l worker , was envisaged as a pass ive r a t h e r than an a c t i v e group who would p rov ide t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e to e i t h e r the r e s i d e n t s or the Management Board when c a l l e d upon to do so. They were not expected to meet r e g u l a r l y or p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t . The Adv iso ry Board t h e r e f o r e was seen as p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c l e g i t i m a c y as " p a t r o n s " as w e l l as f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e (and f r e e ) t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e . The Management Board was to c o n s i s t of f o u r s t u d e n t s , one f a c u l t y member f rom the School of S o c i a l Work, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the Vancouver I n -d ian F r iendsh ip Center . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the F r i e n d s h i p Center never 67 sat on the Board, t h e . o t h e r p o s i t i o n s were f i l l e d by November of 1965. The f u n c t i o n s of the Management Board were to ensure t h a t the m a t e r i a l needs of the p r o j e c t were prov ided f o r , to h i r e s t a f f f o r the p r o j e c t , and to meet r e g u l a r l y to oversee the p r o j e c t ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As w e l l as these genera l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks the Management Board was to rev iew w i t h the house mother the month ly progress of each r e s i d e n t i n order to make d e c i s i o n s as to when each r e s i d e n t was considered ready to leave the environment of the Home to e s t a b l i s h her own r e s i d e n c e . The ph i losophy and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o j e c t was to a t t r a c t " t h e g i r l s f rom Skid Row Csic) and [ p r o v i d e ] them w i t h a c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme [ i n order to remove them] f rom any immediate p o s s i b i l i t y of f a l l i n g i n t o the same c i r c u l a r t r a p of p r o s t i t u t i o n , drug or a l c o h o l a d d i c t i o n , hence im-prisonment., re lease and back. There are a g rea t number of g i r l s who are a t t emp t ing to escape but have nowhere to escape. However, i t i s obvious t h a t removing these g i r l s f rom t h e i r immediate environment i s no t a complete s o l u -t i o n f o r we must ensure t h a t the g i r l s w i l l not regress i n t o t h e i r former h a b i t s . " T h i s can on ly be achieved by the g i r l s themselves. There-f o r e , i t i s necessary f o r the g i r l s to r e a l i z e a new s t a t u s f o r themselves and i n s o c i e t y . Th i s . can on ly be done i f the g i r l s themselves r e a l i z e what i t i s i n l i f e they want and not what i s wanted of them by p a t e r n a l i s t i c c h a r i t y . F u r -thermore, the g i r l s must r e a l i z e f o r themselves the respon-s i b i l i t i e s of be ing a c i t i z e n ; i t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t the coopera t i ve home w i l l not i n any way d i c t a t e how they should l i v e , except i n the area o f coopera t i ve home l i v i n g . . However, should the g i r l s request any s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , such as persona l grooming or educa t iona l t r a i n i n g , the se rv i ces of the r e s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l be made a v a i l -ab le to them. "The r e s i d e n t g i r l s (under the guidance of a .'house m o t h e r ' ) w i l l be respons ib le f o r the runn ing and maintenance of the h o m e . . . . As w e l l as being a semi-permanent home f o r some 8 to 10 g i r l s , the house w i l l be used as a temporary home f o r g i r l s j u s t re leased f rom i n s t i t u t i o n s who are w i t h o u t lodg ing u n t i l a permanent res idence i s f ound . An e x t r a room w i l l be reserved f o r such purposes."4 68 The d e c i s i o n to use the home as bo th a long- te rm and temporary r e s i d e n c e , and the d e c i s i o n to h i r e a house mother , b o t h had ser ious r a m i f i c a t i o n s l a t e r i n terms of the s t a t e d purpose of the home as a " c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme". The d u t i e s of the house mother as o u t l i n e d i n the o r i g i n a l p roposa l were c l a s s i f i e d under th ree headings: " ( a ) Home Economics: Each g i r l w i l l a l t e r n a t e l y be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s p e c i f i c d u t i e s assigned by the house mother . - t o a s s i s t i n budget ing f o r meals , household f u r n i s h i n g s , heat and l i g h t b i l l s , e t c . , f rom the month ly a l lowance a l l o t t e d by the Board, - p l a n n i n g the meals f o r the coming week i n advance, and shopping f o r the necessary p r o v i s i o n s . ( . I n s t r u c t i o n i n cu ts of meat, Canada Food Ru les , e t c . , ) - p r e p a r a t i o n of meals -housec lean ing , upkeep of house and y a r d , l a u n d r y . Members of CUS who are i n the F a c u l t y of Home Economics w i l l counsel the house mother i n these m a t t e r s , and may g i v e occas iona l i n s t r u c t i o n to the g i r l s . (b) For i n s t r u c t i o n i n grooming, depor tment , hyg iene , e t c . , v o l u n t e e r models, h a i r - d r e s s e r s , and nurses , w i l l be i n v i t e d to g i v e occas iona l i n s t r u c t i o n and demons t ra t i ons . (c) Presen t ing month ly r e p o r t s to the Co-op Board; m a i n t a i n i n g con tac t w i t h s o c i a l work agenc ies, p o l i c e c o u r t s , employment agenc ies , v o l u n t e e r groups, e t c . Vo lun teer memberCs) of the Facu l t y of S o c i a l Work w i l l be i n v i t e d to a s s i s t i n co -o r d i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s agencies w i t h the Co-op."5 By A p r i l of 1966 a house had been found and f u r n i s h e d and on A p r i l 1 5 t h , the Home was opened w i t h s i x I n d i a n women, one s tudent member o f the Management Board, and the house mother as f i r s t occupants. The o p e r a t i n g cos ts were est imated a t $800 per month based on r e n t , h e a t , u t i l i t i e s , f o o d , s a l a r y f o r the house mother , and o ther misce l laneous expend i tu res . Of t h i s sum, approx imate ly $400 was to come from the r e s i d e n t s , each of whom was to 69 pay a f i x e d r e n t per month ( f o r example, a woman on w e l f a r e would pay $50 per month or her maximum housing a l l owance ) . This breakdown p r o j e c t e d 6 a $400 per month subs idy . .... • Funding a t t h i s t ime was ve ry i r r e g u l a r . The AMS had donated $200 . 7 the CUS committee prov ided o f f i c e space, m a t e r i a l s and s e c r e t a r i a l f a c i l i t i e s (as they d i d f o r the d u r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t ) and some dona t ions , rang ing i n s ize f rom $10 to$200 were r e c e i v e d . These donat ions had been sought ou t by p r i v a t e appeals to i n d i v i d u a l s , t a l k s to v a r i o u s c lubs and o ther v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and a f u n d i n g appeal l e t t e r sent to a l l the o r g a n i -z a t i o n s l i s t e d i n the c u r r e n t e d i t i o n o f the Blue Book, as w e l l as to g o f f i c i a l s of the academic community. The o rgan ize rs of the p r o j e c t had a p r o f e s s e d l y a n t i - r a c i s t s tance. They saw the p r o j e c t as p r o v i d i n g i n some measure a change f rom " p a t e r n a l i s t i c c l a r i t y " and f rom the s i t u a t i o n s i n the e x i s t i n g h o s t e l s where I n d i a n women were expected to work f o r the n o n - I n d i a n h o s t e l occupants . Most o f the o r -gan izers were s o c i a l democrats who viewed the w e l f a r e s t a t e as a d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e . A l l of them were hones t l y outraged a t the c o n d i t i o n s i n which the n a t i v e women were f o r c e d to e x i s t i n the c i t y . They saw the s o l u t i o n t o the dilemma of the n a t i v e woman as f i r s t removal f rom the undes i rab le environment of sk id road and second a r e c o n d i t i o n i n g process f rom which " t h e g i r l s must r e a l i z e f o r themselves the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of be ing a c i t i z e n . " Never the less i t was accepted t h a t the Management Board would be the f i n a l a r b i t o r i n the d e c i s i o n as to when the r e s i d e n t s had r e a l i z e d t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The v e h i c l e of the r e c o n d i t i o n i n g process was to be 70 the c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme i n wh ich the g i r l s would be taught how t o shop, the Canada Food Ru les , as w e l l as- depor tment , grooming and hyg iene . The r e s i d e n t s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were not seen as extending to such d e c i s i o n s as to who would do what tasks and when as these were to be assigned by the house mother . A l though the s tudent o rgan ize rs were e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e i r endorsa t ion of c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g i t was a concept new to a l l o f them. T h e i r on ly c o n t a c t w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e s had been e i t h e r through read ing or d i scuss ions w i t h s tudents a t two o ther u n i v e r s i t i e s who were embarking on c o - o p e r a t i v e r e s i -dences as s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r housing shor tages. Clear i n d i c a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z e r s ' i nexper ience are present i n t h e i r proposals quoted above. They h i r e d as house mother a woman whose on ly exper ience w i t h g r o u p - l i v i n g s i t u a -t i o n s had been as r e s i d e n t or employee i n h i e r a r c h i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d h o s t e l s and d o r m i t o r i e s and whose d u t i e s i n c l u d e ass ign ing t a s k s . By- denying the r e s i d e n t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ensur ing the r e g u l a r f u n c t i o n i n g o f the Home one i s led to wonder how e f f e c t i v e l y the c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g scheme was to c o n t r i b u t e to the process of deve lop ing i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y amongst the r e s i d e n t s . The p lanners a l so compromised the c o - o p e r a t i v e aspect by p r o v i d i n g an " e x t r a room" to serve the f u n c t i o n of a h o s t e l f o r t r a n s i e n t accomodation. The net e f f e c t of these m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the c o - o p e r a t i v e model was almost e n t i r e l y economic as s t a f f and maintenance cos ts could be reduced by u t i l i z i n g the labour of the r e s i d e n t s . The s t r u c t u r e and aims of the p r o j e c t r e v e a l a woe fu l ignorance of n a t i v e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . The s o c i a l i z a t i o n of n a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e s the 71 development of a sense of Independence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as w e l l as i n c l u -s ion i n the f a m i l y economy. CHawthorn, 1966, [2 ] : 112.): Soc ia l c o n d i t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n the c h i l d r e n t a k i n g a major share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r each o t h e r ' s m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g . Knowledge of n u t r i t i o n and good con-sumer p r a c t i c e s are u s e f u l f o r any person l i v i n g i n t h i s s o c i e t y bu t the assumption t h a t the n a t i v e r e s i d e n t s would be incapab le of hand l ing r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the household tasks w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n and assignment i s more i n d i c a t i v e of the acceptance of a s te reo type than a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e a l i t y . Much of the i n f o r m a t i o n on wh ich the o rgan ize rs based t h e i r p roposa ls came from the woman h i r e d as house mother . I t i s perhaps an example of t h e i r complacency t h a t they so r e a d i l y accepted one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n and c u l t u r a l background of n a t i v e peoples w i t h o u t d e s i r i n g to e i t h e r ques t i on i t or i n q u i r e f u r t h e r i n t o the m a t t e r . They were con ten t to engage on a p r o j e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t changing the c u l t u r a l environment of a d e s i g -nated group o f people w i t h o u t any knowledge or even i n most cases any c o n t a c t w i t h the peoples they were s e t t i n g out to h e l p . Moreover they were f o r m a l l y ass ign ing to themselves the task of dec id ing when the he lp ing process was completed i n each i n d i v i d u a l case a t which t ime the r e s i d e n t whose progress the house mother would r e p o r t on would be eased out to make room f o r a new candidate f o r r e f o r m a t i o n . Desp i te the a n t i - r a c i s t stance which the o rgan ize rs had adopted they r e f l e c -ted i n t h e i r own proposa ls the r a c i s t s te reo type of the incompetent n a t i v e , unalbe to admin i s te r h i s / h e r own a f f a i r s and needing to be p r o t e c t e d from 72 e v i l tempta t ions which might prove overwhelmingly a t t r a c t i v e . They a t tacked the p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward n a t i v e peoples because i t d i d not he lp the n a t i v e person to a s s i m i l a t e . The n a t i v e women were to be taught the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f c i t i z e n s h i p as de f ined by the dominant c u l t u r e and the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h a t c u l t u r e would i nsu re t h a t they had learned the lesson w e l l be fo re a l l o w i n g them to move i n t o the mainstream. The s tudents i n v o l v e d i n the es tab l ishment o f the p r o j e c t were n o t conscious of these assumpt ions. They viewed the p r o j e c t as an ex tens ion o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y designed to democrat ize the u n i v e r s i t y s t r u c t u r e s i n order to ensure t h a t s tudents had the r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n dec is ions d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e i r l i v e s . The puspose of the p r o j e c t was to prepare the n a t i v e people to p a r t i c i p a t e . When I became i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r o j e c t i n A p r i l o f 1965, I too accepted the s t r u c t u r e and the ideo logy i m p l i c i t i n i t as v a l i d and l e g i t i m a t e . 73 Sect ion 2 The Residents and the Community The p lann ing commit tee, p r o f e s s i n g a n t i - r a c i s t i n t e n t i o n s , was o b j e c t i v e l y r a c i s t i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and t h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r such a s t r u c t u r e . I n t h i s s e c t i o n the ob jec ts of t h e i r p l a n n i n g , the r e s i d e n t s , are d e s c r i b e d . The d i s c u s s i o n i s b r i e f because they proved t o be the l e a s t impor tant element i n the drama. The r e s i d e n t s prov ided by t h e i r presence the reason f o r the Home's e x i s t e n c e , bu t not f o r i t s demise. The s e c t i o n a lso inc ludes some d e s c r i p t i o n and commentary on the smal l donors f rom the community at l a r g e . A l though t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l donat ions were m i n i m a l , they played a c a t a l y t i c r o l e i n exposing the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the r e a l i t y and the r h e t o r i c of the p l a n n e r s , the Board and the AMS. They were a lso the on ly p a r t i c i p a n t s a l b e i t p e r i p h e r a l , to engage i n ac ts which m igh t be des-c r ibed as o v e r t l y r a t h e r than c o v e r t l y r a c i s t . 74 The term " I n d i a n " has two d e f i n i t i o n s i n o f f i c i a l usage i n Canada: "The f i r s t , wh ich r e f e r s to what are -usual ly c a l l e d ' r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s ' , i s the l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n used by the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch f o r the people who come lander the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the I n d i a n A c t ; t h a t i s , those whose names are inc luded on the o f f i c i a l I nd ian R e g i s t e r . R e g i s t e r e d Ind ians do not necess-a r i l y l i v e on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s ; . . . . Some of them ( i n - m a r r y i n g w ives) are not of I n d i a n r a c i a l o r i g i n . Legal s t a t u s as an I n d i a n i s acqu i red a t b i r t h i f the f a t h e r i s an I n d i a n , or by mar r iage to an I n d i a n husband. I l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n of I n d i a n women are a l so u s u a l l y granted I n d i a n s t a t u s . I n d i a n s t a t u s i s g i ven up by ' e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t ' , which i s automat ic f o r women marry ing n o n - I n d i a n husbands, and o therw ise v o l u n t a r i l y , by a p -p l i c a t i o n . An I n d i a n woman who m a r r i e s a non—Ind ian husband thus loses her I n d i a n s t a t u s as do i n most cases any m inor c h i l d -ren she may a l ready have, and a l l c h i l d r e n r e s u l t i n g f rom the mar r i age . "A n o n - I n d i a n woman who mar r i es an I n d i a n , on the o ther hand, assumes I n d i a n s t a t u s , and the c h i l d r e n of the mar r iage are regarded as I n d i a n . "The second d e f i n i t i o n r e f e r s to ' I n d i a n s by r a c i a l o r i g i n ' , and i s used by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and the D i v i s i o n of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . I t i nc ludes a l l r e s i d e n t s whose r a c i a l o r i g i n , t raced th rough the f a t h e r , i s I n d i a n . These are not a l l r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s , nor do they a l l l i v e on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . " CDuff ,1964:46-47.) The I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s encompassed not on ly these o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of r a c e , bu t a l so a t h i r d , common one, i . e . , those people of I n d i a n o r i g i n , t raced through e i t h e r the f a t h e r or the mother , i r r e s p e c t i v e of l e g a l s t a t u s , who are regarded by Canadian s o c i e t y as I n d i a n . A l l the l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s were r e f e r r e d to the Home by the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, the C i t y Wel fare o f f i c i a l s , or the F r iendsh ip Center , and a l l were on ass i s tance of some k i n d . They a l l came f rom r u r a l a reas , and most had been t r a n s i e n t f o r per iods of up to a t l e a s t two years b e f o r e coming to s e t t l e i n Vancouver. Average age range was from 15 to 20 yea rs ; educa t i ona l back-grounds v a r i e d f rom f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e to h i g h school m a t r i c u l a t i o n . Most ( i f not a l l ) had had some exper ience w i t h the c o u r t s and many had used e i t h e r drugs or a l c o h o l or bo th c o n s i s t e n t l y a t some p e r i o d of t i m e . They-75 had a l l a t t a i n e d some s k i l l i n bas ic s u r v i v a l bu t l i t t l e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the man ipu la t i on of i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t . The women who u t i l i z e d the temporary f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . The i r average age was h i g h e r , t h e i r exper ience w i t h the c o u r t s and j a i l s much g r e a -t e r , and t h e i r tendency to remain t r a n s i e n t much more pronounced. They had, f o r v a r i o u s reasons, no c o n t i n u i n g economic suppor t . They r a r e l y stayed more than one week, f r e q u e n t l y on ly one n i g h t . They were p e r i p h e r a l to the o p e r a t i o n of the Home w i t h two excep t ions . The f i r s t was t h a t some of the l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s found the t r a n s i e n t s ' presence d i s r u p t i v e , bo th because of the l i f e - s t y l e they rep resen ted , and because they c o n t r i b u t e d n o t h i n g to the Home or i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . The second e x c e p t i o n , con ta ined to some degree i n the f i r s t , was the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n bo th theory and p r a c t i c e represented by the a t tempt to g r a f t a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n onto a c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g s i t u a -t i o n . This c o n t r a d i c t i o n cont inued to operate w i t h i n the Home u n t i l the p r a c t i c e of encouraging t r a n s i e n t s ceased w i t h the depar tu re o f the house mother from the Home. The debate around the h o s t e l concept c o n t i n u e d , how-ever , u n t i l the p r o j e c t was c losed down. ( I t was i n f a c t "won" by the h o s t e l f a c t i o n i n t h a t the Student Counc i l vo ted to g i ve the monies remain ing f rom the p r o j e c t to a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n . ) The house mother, as s t a t e d above, had had exper ience w i t h a d m i n i s t e r i n g h o s t e l accommodation. She had n o t , however, encountered c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s b e f o r e . Th is l a c k of exper ience , coupled w i t h the apparent assump-t i o n by the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t o r s t h a t no e x p l i c i t educa t ion on the concept was necessary e i t h e r f o r s t a f f or r e s i d e n t s , had impor tan t r a m i f i c a t i o n s 76 l a t e r I n the development of the home. The house mother, r a t h e r than promot ing the development of the c o - o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , emphasized a more t r a d i t i o n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e which encouraged the development of c lose one- to-one dependency r e l a t i o n s between the house mother and each r e s i d e n t . "Mrs . wants us to c a l l her Mom. She's a wonder fu l woman. She r e a l l y w o r r i e s over us I t ' s l i k e 9 coming back to one b i g happy f a m i l y . " Th is s t r u c t u r e was a lso expressed i n the way the housekeeping tasks were ass igned; "There are . . . no appoin ted tu rns f o r the cooking and c l e a n i n g . The g i r l s are reminded by Mrs. t h a t these are t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " I n o ther areas no t d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the p h y s i c a l maintenance o f the home, examples cou ld a l so be found . "They are t o l d to be i n by 11 a t n i g h t because when they s t a r t s t u d y i n g they w i l l need to get up f o r c l a s s e s . " The house mother a l so handled the r e s i d e n t s ' ass is tance cheques, separa t i ng out r e n t and food a l lowances to be depos i ted and a d m i n i s t e r i n g d a i l y t h e i r t r a n s i t a l lowance on the b a s i s t h a t i f she a l lowed them to have i t monthly i n a lump sum they would " g i v e i t to t h e i r f r i e n d s " . ^ The re fo re , the d e c i s i o n s concern ing the d a i l y o p e r a t i o n s of the home and the group behaviour of the r e s i d e n t s r e s t e d s o l e l y w i t h the house mother. When the house mother res igned i n October of 1966, she was rep laced by a young Ind ian woman who had been a c t i v e n a t i o n a l l y i n bo th s tudent groups and the Canadian I n d i a n Youth C o u n c i l . Her concept of her r o l e was a n t i t h e -t i c a l to t h a t of her predecessor. She saw h e r s e l f as an " o l d e r s i s t e r " but re fused to be e i t h e r an a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e or d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . The r e s i d e n t s 77 f o r the f i r s t t ime began to make c o l l e c t i v e dec i s ions about the home and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Some found the new regime d i f f i c u l t to a d j u s t to f o r a t ime as they had come to r e l y h e a v i l y on the house mother as a su r roga te mother, but a l l . a d a p t e d more r e a d i l y than m igh t be expected. The o f f i c i a l . name of the home was changed f rom " G i r l s " to "Women" and f o r the f i r s t t i m e , the r e s i d e n t s were i n v i t e d to a t tend and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the meet ings of the Management Committee. (Meetings had always been he ld i n the home but r e -s iden ts had been a c t i v e l y d iscouraged f rom a t t e n d i n g by the h o u s e m o t h e r , p a s s i v e l y d iscouraged by the Board i t s e l f . ) A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e lec ted by the r e s i d e n t s was i n f a c t sent t o the Board meet ings to speak on t h e i r b e h a l f . By the l a t e f a l l the r e s i d e n t s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the lawyer appo in ted t o the Adv isory Board, had w r i t t e n the f i r s t d r a f t o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n i n p r e -p a r a t i o n f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g as the " I n d i a n Youth Co-opera t i ve House" under the B.C. S o c i e t i e s A c t . Apar t f rom t h i s l e g a l adv ice the Adv iso ry Board, as c o n s t i t u t e d , was not c a l l e d upon by the r e s i d e n t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e s i d e n t s t o s tudents was very- tenuous w h i l e the house mother was employed. The female s tudent member of the p lann ing commit tee, r e f e r r e d to i n Sec t ion 1, l i v e d i n the home a t a reduced r e n t f o r about 2 to 3 months, t h e o r e t i c a l l y to p rov ide bo th ass is tance i n s u p e r v i s i o n and a l i n k between s tudents and r e s i d e n t s . As a member of the Management Committee she was ab le t o express the views of the r e s i d e n t s to the Board but on ly i n an unorganized f a s h i o n f o r two reasons; f i r s t , because the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c -t u r e of the home m i l i t a t e d aga ins t any c l e a r express ion of v iews on the p a r t of the r e s i d e n t s and secondly , because the house mother d i d a l l she could to a c t i v e l y d iscourage s tudent involvement i n the home.'''''' For t h i s reason the 78 student members of tbe Board by- and l a r g e encountered t h e r e s i d e n t s on ly be fo re and a f t e r Board meet ings . The p o s s i b i l i t y of ^ invo lv ing o ther s tudents i n some aspect of the home was n o n - e x i s t e n t . Wi th the change i n personnel and ph i losophy came a change i n the atmosphere rega rd ing s t u d e n t s . Students were a c t i v e l y encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l areas of a c t i v i t y , they for-r-med f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h the r e s i d e n t s which r e s u l t e d i n f r e q u e n t - v i s i t i n g , arranged f r e e t i c k e t s to events on the campus, and formed committees to c o - o r d i n a t e t u t o r i n g , menu p r e p a r a t i o n ( s p e c i f i c a l l y 3 s tudents i n the F a c u l -t y o f Home Economics) and house r e p a i r s . A CUS sponsored conference on I n -d ian a f f a i r s which brought toge ther n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f rom On ta r io west , had t h e i r meals a t the home and gave a d i s p l a y of Mohawk dancing t h e r e as w e l l . The r e l a t i o n s , however, between the r e s i d e n t s and the o f f i c i a l r e p r e ^ s e n t a t i v e s of the s t u d e n t s , the AMS, were n o n - e x i s t e n t . One member of the AMS execu t i ve v i s i t e d the home on many occasions but not i n any o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y . The Vancouver I n d i a n F r iendsh ip Center , i n v i t e d to be represented on the Management Board, f i g u r e d l a r g e l y w i t h the r e s i d e n t s aga in on ly a f t e r the change i n pe rsonne l . The r e s i d e n t s f requented the Center , l o c a t e d near the home, f o r the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s and f o r companionship w i t h o the r n a t i v e young peop le . That t h i s tendency grew a f t e r the depar tu re of the house mother was due less t o any p o s s i b l e discouragement she migh t p o s s i b l y have advanced than to the a c t i v e encouragement the " o l d e r s i s t e r " gave to the r e s i d e n t s to meet w i t h and b e f r i e n d o ther young peop le , female and male. I t was th rough tbe con tac ts made a t the Center t h a t a young Ind ian man, a t t e n d i n g c h e f ' s s c h o o l , was h i r e d to cook f o r the home once a 79 week. On the Thanksgiv ing weekend, the r e s i d e n t s of the home planned and prepared ( w i t h the he lp of some s tudent f r i e n d s ) a huge tu rkey d inner f o r f r i e n d s from the Center which ended w i t h a v i s i t to the Center . Th is was an u n o f f i c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . O f f i c i a l l y , the Center r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d e a l t e i t h e r w i t h the house mother or the Board and concerned themselves w i t h s t r u c u t r e and f i nances r a t h e r than w i t h the r e s i d e n t s . At tempts were made by many of the s e r v i c e and s o c i a l c l u b s , who had been approached by the house mother f o r d o n a t i o n s , to have tou rs and teas set up a t the home i n order t h a t they cou ld see i t f i r s t hand. A l l such a t tempts were prompt ly quashed by the Management Board as p a r t of t h e i r ph i losophy t h a t the home was to be kept as a p r i v a t e res idence and hence a l l d o n a t i o n s , i n q u i r i e s , and o f f e r s of a i d were channel led through the CUS o f f i c e a t UBC. Thus, the on ly con tac t the r e s i d e n t s had w i t h these groups was th rough r e -c e i p t of donat ions of m a t e r i a l goods. The d e c i s i o n not to p u b l i c i z e the exact l o c a t i o n of the home was taken to d iscourage the cu r ious and preserve the emphasis on home r a t h e r than h o s t e l , and more i m p o r t a n t l y , to p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l s and the p r o j e c t f rom potent : 12 ac ts of r ac i sm. The wisdom o f t h i s d e c i s i o n can perhaps be bes t i l l u s t r a -ted by events which d i d occur o f t h i s n a t u r e . One example i s the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t . An o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d the Kia-Ora Serv ice Club wro te d i r e c t l y to the house mother i n r e p l y to a t a l k she had g iven on the p r o j e c t . I n the l e t t e r the s e c r e t a r y reminded the house mother of the C l u b ' s o f f e r o f c l o t h i n g and inc luded two names and phone numbers to con tac t i n t h i s r e g a r d . The house mother f o l l owed up t h i s o f f e r . A f r i e n d of the p r o j e c t p icked up 80 two l a r g e brown paper bags of c l o t h i n g and dropped them a t the home w i t h o u t examining the c o n t e n t s . When the r e s i d e n t s unpacked the two bags they found c l o t h i n g which was s o i l e d and i n poor r e p a i r , a p a i r of w h i t e n u r s e ' s 13 shoes w i t h l a r g e cracks i n the vamps, and a used douche bag. I t i s imposs ib le to assess the m o t i v a t i o n s of the m a j o r i t y of donors as they were not encouraged to become invo l ved i n the p r o j e c t . One r a t h e r i n t e r e s -t i n g example however does g i v e r i s e to some q u e s t i o n s . On August 20, 1966 a gentlemen sent a dona t ion of $10 to the p r o j e c t w i t h , a l e t t e r s e t t i n g out h i s reasons f o r the " g e s t u r e " . " . . . my hear t was s m i t t e n s o r e l y by the sad s t o r y i n the Prov ince on J u l y 23,1965 regard ing V i o l e t Jones a poor I n d i a n g i r l who 'had no one to t u r n t o ' - so someone s t r a n g l e d her to death w i t h a s tock ing and threw her i n t o a d i t c h . " a f t e r w a r d s , someone sa id ' s h e ' s j u s t a w a i f . ' " I f the Greek 's ' p i t y and t e r r o r ' mean a n y t h i n g , t h i s i s a theme and s t o r y wor thy of the pen of Sophocles. The t ragedy of t h i s c h i l d out i n t o my h e a r t . " On September 1 5 t h , 1966, the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r was sent by the same gent leman: "Fo l l ow ing the s t o r y i n the Prov ince i n August r e g a r d -ing the l a c k of funds f o r your h o s t e l , wh ich the a r t i c l e sa id was faced w i t h c losu re due to l ack of adequate f u n d s , I sent you a dona t ion check ( s i c ) f o r $10.00. "Th is was on August 20 th , and I have heard n o t h i n g f rom you; so should l i k e to know i f you rece ived my d o n a t i o n a t a l l : f o r income tax pu rposes . " On September 3 0 t h a l e t t e r f rom the B e t t e r Business Bureau was sent to the p r o j e c t enc los ing a "Consumer Exper ience Form" dated September 20 th and completed by the same gent leman. A r e p l y was forwarded to the Bureau e n c l o -s ing a r e c e i p t which could not be used f o r income tax deduct ions as the p r o j e 81 d i d not have such s t a t u s . 14 82 Sect ion 3 The Board and the S t a f f of the Home The Board and the two s t a f f people were b r i e f l y mentioned i n the l a s t s e c t i o n . I n the f o l l o w i n g pages, I engage i n a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n t e r n a l work ings of the Board. The b u l k of the s e c t i o n i s composed of a d i s c u s s i o n of the two s t a f f people and some a n a l y s i s of t h e i r persona l h i s t o r i e s by way of e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r very d i f f e r e n t r e a c t i o n s to r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s and behav iour . Th is d i s c u s s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i nc ludes r e f e r e n c e to the d i f f e r i n g e f f e c t each had i n her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Board and w i t h the r e s i d e n t s . 83 The structure of the project as i t was o r i g i n a l l y conceived was b r i e f l y outlined i n Section 1 of Chapter Two, that i s , an Advisory Board with, a purely passive r o l e and a Management Board to a c t i v e l y oversee the d a i l y operations of the project. The opening of the Home i n mid-April of 1966 coincided with, the end of the u n i v e r s i t y term and the beginning of the summer holiday season. It was decided to informally restructure the Boards during t h i s period and those members of both boards who were interes t e d and a v a i l a b l e began meeting together. This expanded the ac t i v e board to eight members from the o r i g i n a l f i v e . (No member was ever appointed to the Management Board by the Van-couver Indian Center.) This si n g l e Board was composed of the s o c i a l worker from the Management Board, the lawyer and p s y c h i a t r i s t from the Advisory Board, the student i n residence at the Home, two other students who had been on the planning committee, and the in-coming"''and out-going chairpersons of the CUS Committee, the l a t t e r a c t i n g as Chairperson of the Board. The house mother attended meetings but did not have a formal vote. By August the r a t i o of students to non-students had changed from 3;5 to 5:4. The anthropologist and the home economist from the Advisory Board began to attend r e g u l a r l y and a l l but the student i n residence and the in-coming chairperson had resigned from the Board because of commitments outside Vancouver. These three were replaced by only two new student appointees from the CUS Committee. Two f a c t o r s which created d i f f i c u l t i e s i n administration both, i n the short and i n the long term were the majority of " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " to students and 84 the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n persons who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c r e a t i n g of the p r o j e c t ' s ph i losophy and p r i n c i p l e s . None of the -members had had exper ience w i t h co -ope ra t i ves and the m a j o r i t y of t h i s new board had not been p r i v y even to d iscuss ions on why t h i s form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n had been chosen. Fur thermore, none of the f i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l s had been i n v o l v e d w i t h the work o f e s t a b l i s h i n g the Home and, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n and involvement w i t h Ind ian peoples had been, a t most , t a n g e n t i a l t o t h e i r work and l e i s u r e . These d e f i c i e n c i e s might have been overcome i n p a r t i f the Board had seen f i t t o spend t ime recoun t i ng the e a r l i e r dec i s ions r e g a r d i n g the na tu re of the p r o j e c t and the r a t i o n a l e f o r the p r a t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e . Two t h i n g s m i l i t a t e d aga ins t t h i s course of a c t i o n . F i r s t the presence of f o u r of the p r o j e c t o r i g i n a t o r s C a l l bu t one of whom l e f t i n August) which l e n t a f a l s e sense of u n i t y to the Board as a whole ; and second, the p r e s s i n g need to f i n d f u n d i n g sources and reach o ther immediate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . Many o f the dec is ions and the r a t i o n a l e s f o r them, cou ld be descr ibed as ad hoc. The house mother, more f a m i l i a r w i t h v o l u n t e e r boards, was f r e -quen t l y able to ensure dec i s ions favourab le to her own ph i losophy and to c i rcumvent those w i t h which she was not i n agreement. I t i s at t h i s t ime u s e f u l t o b r i e f l y descr ibe the house mother h e r s e l f . As s t a t e d above, she was a Cree f rom A l b e r t a who had been r a i s e d on a reserve and educated a t church-operated r e s i d e n t i a l schoo ls . She o f t e n spoke b i t t e r l y o f t h i s p e r i o d of her l i f e , c h a r a c t e r i z i n g her educa t ion as one 16 where she was taught to pray but l i t t l e e l s e . She seemed, du r i ng t h i s 85 p e r i o d , to have i n t e r n a l i z e d much of the dominant c u l t u r e ' s s te reo type of the I n d i a n as savage, i g n o r a n t , d i r t y , and drunken, and i t s c o r o l l a r y , t h a t the I n d i a n ' s s a l v a t i o n would come through a process of " w h i t e n i n g " or becoming the apotheosis of the wh i te midd le c l a s s . She devoted her a c t i -v i t i e s to d e s t r o y i n g the f i r s t s te reo type by adopt ing the s e c o n d . ^ She was thus caught i n the c o n t r a d i c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of those who would a t tempt to a s s i m i l a t e . On the one hand she was proud of be ing I n d i a n but v i o l e n t l y d i s l i k e d any a c t i v i t y by Ind ians wh ich , to h e r , l e n t credence to the r a c i a l 18 s t e r e o t y p e . On the o ther hand a t tempts t o emulate w h i t e midd le c l a s s be-hav iour cou ld on ly r e s u l t i n f a i l u r e because of the s t r u c t u r a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of ach iev ing t h i s s t a t u s . A process which f r e q u e n t l y and unders tandably r e s u l t s i n a ha t red of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the dominant s o c i e t y . The c o n f l i c t between condemning the s te reo type and ye t accep t ing i t s s p e c i -f i c s and h a t i n g the p e r p e t r a t o r s of the s te reo type and ye t d e s i r i n g to be-come l i k e them i s one common to v i c t i m s of rac i sm. Fanon i s perhaps the most w ide ly known e x p l i c a t o r of t h i s process which a r i s e s most f r e q u e n t l y i n those s i t u a t i o n s when the s t r a t e g y of the r a c i s t i s express ly a s s i m i l a -t i o n i s t . The a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n suggests t h a t the dominant s o c i e t y i s ready to accept the oppressed as equals bu t the oppressed themselves l a c k the m o t i v a t i o n t o improve themselves and a l t e r t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s . Any rac ism i s t h e r e f o r e the f a u l t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the oppressed and not of the oppressers . Th is p o s i t i o n , when accepted by a member of the oppressed c u l -t u r e , leads t o contempt i f not ha t red of those of the oppressed who are not t r y i n g to conform to the oppresse r ' s d e f i n i t i o n of what i s to be v a l u e d . The i r n o n - c o - o p e r a t i o n i s seen as an a t t a c k on the a c t i o n s of those a t t e m p t i n g 86 t o conform to the s e l f - p r o c l a i m e d standards of the dominant s o c i e t y . I t a l so p rov ides the oppressor w i t h a r a t i o n a l e f o r not i g r a n t i n g acceptance t o those who are a t t emp t ing en t rance . However, the r e f u s a l of the dominant s o c i e t y t o g ran t a h igher s t a t u s to the oppressed who has at tempted t o conform b r i n g s w i t h i t a ha t red f o r the oppresser as w e l l . I n the Home her a t t i t u d e s were p u r i t a n i c a l , f o r b i d d i n g the use or possession of a l c o h o l , r e f u s i n g to a l l o w young men to v i s i t because " they on ly want 19 one t h i n g " , and showing an o v e r - r i d i n g concern f o r c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r . I n her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Board she d i s t i n g u i s h e d s h a r p l y between those she perce ived as having l i t t l e power and those having much power. Th is d i s t i n c -t i o n c o u l d , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , be expressed as a d i v i s i o n between s tudent and " p r o f e s s i o n a l " members. Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h most of the s tudent members were min imal and she f r e q u e n t l y i n d i c a t e d her d i s p l e a s u r e a t t h e i r i n v o l v e -ment i n the p r o j e c t un less i t was p e r i p h e r a l to the a c t i v i t i e s of the Home 20 i t s e l f . Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the non-s tudent members were much more c o r -d i a l a l though again her c o r d i a l i t y seemed to inc rease w i t h the degree of power she perce ived the r e c i p i e n t to possess. "The d u t i e s of the house mother may be de f i ned as h e l p i n g the g i r l s a d j u s t to t h e i r home and environment as w e l l as c o o r d i - n a t i n g the d u t i e s of the g i r l s . The house mother w i l l a s s i s t i n : 1 . budget ing 2. p lann ing and p r e p a r a t i o n of meals 3. home management 4. guidance The house mother w i l l a l so be respons ib le f o r p r e s e n t i n g a monthly r e p o r t to the Management Board; m a i n t a i n i n g contac t w i t h s o c i a l work agenc ies , p o l i c e c o u r t s , employment and v o c a t i o n a l - t r a i n i n g agenc ies , v o l u n t e e r groups, e t c . " 2 1 Before engaging i n a c t i v i t i e s not s p e c i f i e d i n the j o b d e s c r i p t i o n the house mother was t o seek the approva l of the Board. I n f a c t , the house mother , 87 r e f e r r i n g t o h e r s e l f as "execu t i ve d i r e c t o r " a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d funds f rom smal l v o l u n t e e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( o b t a i n i n g the r e l u c t a n t acquiesance of the Board a f t e r the f a c t ) and sought out speaking engagements and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the media i n which she represented h e r s e l f as " founder of a h o s t e l f o r I nd ian women" which was "backed by the Alma Mater Soc ie ty of UBC and 22 the Canadian Union of S t u d e n t s . " The Board had appointed two of i t s members to engage i n fund r a i s i n g w i t h the express i n t e n t i o n of moving away f rom persona l appeals to smal l groups which n e t t e d on ly $10 and $20 sums. They were a lso concerned t h a t the Home not rece ive the type of p u b l i c i t y sought by the house mother which was based on appeals f o r c h a r i t y . That the house mother chose to ignore t h i s r u l i n g i s a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of her own ambivalence concern ing I n d i a n — n o n -I n d i a n r e l a t i o n s as she had been q u i t e v o c i f e r o u s about the demeaning na tu re of c h a r i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t had been exper ienced by n a t i v e peop le . She i n t e r p r e t e d the s e c t i o n concerned w i t h l i a s o n w i t h o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s to i n v o l v e d i r e c t s o c i a l work i n the c o u r t s and on the s t r e e t s . She t h e r e f o r e endeavoured to cont inue her p rev ious f r e e - l a n c e s o c i a l work a c t i v i t i e s a long w i t h those d i r e c t l y i nvo l ved w i t h the Home. Her a t tempt to ga in c o n t r o l of the p r o j e c t toge ther w i t h t h i s s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y and the a u t h o r i t a r i a n 23 method of runn ing the Home meant she was f r a n t i c a l l y busy. She t h e r e f o r e "appo in ted" as a s s i s t a n t , another Cree woman. Since she d id not consu l t the Board (and would have met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n i f she had because of the na tu re of most of her " d u t i e s " ) she and her a s s i s t a n t shared the smal l s a l a r y . The a s s i s t a n t l a s t e d on ly f rom June to September a t which t ime she l e f t . 88 The house mother ' s connect ion w i t h the CUS Committee (apar t f rom those members of the Committee a lso s i t t i n g on the Board) were almost n o n - e x i s -t e n t . I t became apparent t h a t she had viewed the Committee as a way of o b t a i n i n g a h o s t e l and saw the s tudents as s imply p r o v i d i n g the funds and m a t e r i a l t o t h a t end. She viewed any at tempt by the Committee or the Board to re focus the d i r e c t i o n o f the p r o j e c t as rank i n t e r f e r e n c e and t h e r e f o r e at tempted to minimize the s t u d e n t s ' r o l e a t a l l t i m e s . The s tudent members of the Board reac ted t o her h o s t i l i t y by r e t r e a t i n g as much as p o s s i b l e from any d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h he r . Recogniz ing her g rea te r r e c e p t i v i t y to the p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the Board I d e c l i n e d the C h a i r -personship of the Board and recommended the lawyer as the new Chai rperson to rep lace the o u t - g o i n g CUS Chai rperson. No Board members v i s i t e d the Home except f o r Board meet ings . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s seemed too busy and the s tudents f e l t unwelcome and t h e r e f o r e u n w i l l i n g to t h r u s t themselves i n t o a s i t u a t i o n i n which they were not wanted. Some of us f e l t uncomfor tab le about the f a c t t h a t a l though meetings were he ld i n the Home the r e s i d e n t s were excluded f rom d iscuss ions (and a l so f rom watch ing t e l e v i s i o n as i t i n t e r -f e r r e d w i t h the d e l i b e r a t i o n s . ) None of us were, however, prepared t o vo i ce t h i s d i scomfo r t to the house mother. The house mo the r ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the AMS centered around one i n d i v i d u a l o n l y , the Treasurer . A s tudent i n h i s l a s t year of law s c h o o l , he had r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the f inances of the p r o j e c t over the summer months. He was com-p l e t e l y i gno ran t of the aims of the p r o j e c t and of s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t s i n gene ra l . His l ack of p r i o r exper ience i n t h i s r e g a r d , and an absence of any prev ious con tac t w i t h I nd ian people r e s u l t e d i n h i s uninformed approva l o f 89 the house mother and her wishes because "she was I n d i a n h e r s e l f and e x p e r i -24 enced" The house mother was qu ick to pe rce ive t h i s and chose to c o n s u l t him more f r e q u e n t l y than she d i d the Board. By the September Board meet ing the work load the house mother had set h e r -s e l f had become untenable ( p a r t i c u l a r l y as she was i n l ess than p e r f e c t h e a l t h ) and she i n d i c a t e d she wished a t l e a s t one month 's leave of absence. The ques t ion of s t a f f i n g was t h e r e f o r e r a i s e d and she arranged an i n t e r v i e w w i t h an I n d i a n coup le . She t o l d the th ree Board members a t the i n t e r v i e w t h a t the I n d i a n couple would have to be h i r e d on a permanent bas i s as the woman would have to leave her p resent j o b . When pressed f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of her own s t a t u s i n the l i g h t of t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the house mother r e p l i e d t h a t "perhaps someone e lse could do a b e t t e r j o b " and t h a t she d i d n ' t 25 care who they got to rep lace her but she had to l e a v e . " A l though the cou-p l e , when i n t e r v i e w e d , proved u n s u i t a b l e to bo th the Board and the house mother, she d i d indeed leave by the end of the month. ' Before she l e f t the house mother a l so t o l d the Board she had p r e v i o u s l y discussed a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t e r ' s Board and t h a t they were w i l l i n g t o assume complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r bo th a d m i n i s t e r i n g and f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t . One s tudent and th ree of the non-student members of the Board were mandated to meet w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 26 of the C e n t e r ' s Board to d iscuss t h i s i s s u e . The r e s u l t s of the meet ing were tha t the I n d i a n Center was i n t e r e s t e d i n a f f i l i a t i n g w i t h the p r o j e c t but were i n no p o s i t i o n to p rov ide e i t h e r f i n a n c i a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a i d . They would i n f a c t r e q u i r e c o n t i n u a t i o n of bo th the f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s t r u c t u r e s which were p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g . 90 The house mother ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h non - Ind ian o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been b r i e f -l y r e f e r r e d t o above. She had sought them out i n order to o b t a i n donat ions o f money and m a t e r i a l f o r the Home. Because of her contempt f o r the s t r u c t u -r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . p l a c e d on these con tac ts by the Board, she cont inued to m a i n t a i n con tac t w i t h many of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . La te r she would f a l l back on these con tac ts to muster support f o r her o p p o s i t i o n to s t a f f and admin is -t r a t i v e changes. A t the end of September when the house mother l e f t no replacement had been found . I n the two weeks between her n o t i c e of l e a v i n g and her depar tu re at tempts had been made to f i n d a s u i t a b l e cand ida te . I n my dua l c a p a c i t y as Board member and CUS Cha i rperson, I had contac ted the Chai rperson of the Adv isory Board of the Company of Young Canadians to request help i n f i n d i n g replacement s t a f f . He agreed to look f o r p o s s i b l e replacements but f a i l e d t o f i n d anyone. With the a c t u a l depar ture of the house mother the need to f i n d a replacement became a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l . Because of the dependency r e l a t i o n s the house mother had c rea ted the Home could not be l e f t w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n and guidance. As w e l l I contac ted the woman who had been the f i r s t n a t i o n a l Assoc ia te Secretary f o r Ind ians A f f a i r s f o r CUS and a found -ing member o f the Canadian I n d i a n Youth C o u n c i l . She had come to Vancouver w i t h her i n f a n t son to resume her u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . A f t e r a l eng thy d i s -cuss ion w i t h her I was ab le to persuade her to move i n t o the Home and assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . Her acceptance of the p o s i t i o n was c o n d i t i o n a l . She agreed t o take on the tasks o u t l i n e d i n the job d e s c r i p t i o n drawn up by the p r o j e c t ' s p lanners but 91 re fused the t i t l e and the model of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the house mother had e s -t a b l i s h e d . She wanted t o s t a b i l i z e the res idence as a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g - t e r m c o - o p e r a t i v e and t h e r e f o r e requested the d iscon t inuance of the h o s t e l aspect of the o p e r a t i o n . As w e l l , she accepted on ly the f r e e room and b o a r d , d e c l i n -ing the s a l a r y , and immediate ly set about to increase the r e s i d e n t ' s i n v o l v e -ment i n the dec i s ions concern ing the p r o j e c t . I n many ways the s t a f f person was the a n t i t h e s i s of the house mother. Her a n a l y s i s o f rac ism i n d i c a t e d the f u t i l i t y and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s i n h e r e n t i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n . She was an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the new wave o f young n a t i v e people consc ious ly developing a p r i d e i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and the leadersh ip c a p a b i l i t i e s necessary to develop t h i s consciousness i n o t h e r s . They re fused to conform to e i t h e r the s te reo type o f the n a t i v e or the s te reo type presented to them as the i d e a l to which they should s t r i v e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the dominant s o c i e t y . I n her own words taken f rom the r e p o r t she prepared on the Canadian I n d i a n Youth Symposium he ld i n February , 1967 a t U.B.C. and j o i n t l y sponsored by the CIYC and the UBC-CUS Committee: " I n t e g r a t i o n t a l k s as such s i d e - s t e p the issue of unequal op-p o r t u n i t y i n Canadian S o c i e t y , as i t assumes there i s e q u a l i t y i f on ly an i n d i v i d u a l works hard enough. The s t r e e t w i t h t h i s k i n d of d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n i s a dead end f o r most I n d i a n s . A few 'make i t ' , and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t u r n aga ins t t h e i r 'humble b e g i n n i n g s ' , i n a f e r o c i o u s a t t a c k on o ther Ind ians who have not t r i e d as hard as they have. I s i t r e a l l y a case of t h r i f t and i n d u s t r y or i s i t a mat te r of luck? Do these few i n d i v i -duals r e a l i z e t h a t they are the system's 'chosen f e w ' , and t h a t t h e i r example of be ing success fu l I nd ians perpetuates the f a l l a c y of t h i s k i n d of i n t e g r a t i o n . " The s t a f f persons ' p o l i t i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l exper ience had been i n non-h i e r a r c h i c a l groups which s t ressed p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the development of l eadersh ip p o t e n t i a l among n a t i v e peoples . 92 As she did not accept the legitimacy of the r a c i a l stereotypes she did not fear non-acceptance by the dominant society and was more f o r t h r i g h t i n her actions and demands than the house mother could a f f o r d to be. She recognized that the problems encountered by native peoples i n the urban centers could not be overcome by teaching them the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a c i t i z e n s h i p they were not allowed to assume but only by creating s i t u a t i o n s where native peo-ple could provide for each other the support necessary to withstand the racism they were encountering. From her experience with student organiza-tions she could r e a d i l y i d e n t i f y the weaknesses and strengths of such organ-i z a t i o n s and worked q u i e t l y but ^ e f f e c t i v e l y to change the structure of the Home to ben e f i t from the strengths and compensate for the weaknesses. Changes soon became apparent. The al t e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p of the residents to the Board was outlined i n the previous section. The d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of the s t a f f person to the Board became l e s s important and le s s c o n f l i c t ridden as the residents began to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The s t a f f person perceived the weaknesses of the Board almost immediately and began to re c -t i f y the s i t u a t i o n by organizing students into committees to work d i r e c t l y with the residents. By November, 1966, these committees had coalesced i n t o a new, functioning Management Board which met weekly to deal with the actu a l concerns of the Home and the members of the Advisory Board had been returned to t h e i r o r i g i n a l function. (This organizational change had the a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t of reducing costs i n terms of house repairs and food b i l l s as st u -dent committees had been organized to work with residents i n these areas.) Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l innovation was that of beginning the process of l e g a l incorporation. Under her leadership the res i d e n t s , 93 with the help of the lawyer, drew up a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n which had as i t s Aims and Objectives the following f i v e points: i (a) To e s t a b l i s h , maintain, and operate non-profit houses f o r Indian young people. (b) To provide needed accommodation and to promote an environ-ment which allows the expression of independent thought and decision-making on the part of the residents, and which emphasizes mutual moral support, i n adjusting to c i t y l i f e , among Indian youth. (c) To co-operate with established s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , welfare and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and agencies. (d) To provide a common forum f o r the exchange of ideas between Indian and non-Indian youth. (e) To acquire by lease, purchase, or rent, premises to be used i n accordance with the objects of t h i s Society.27 The structure i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n terms of the aspects the residents incorpor-ated and those they omitted. The f i r s t Board of Di r e c t o r s was to be compo-sed of the sig n a t o r i e s to the Con s t i t u t i o n which would, i n e f f e c t , c o nsist of the members of the e x i s t i n g Board plus at l e a s t some of the residents. They were to serve one-year terms but could be re-appointed. New members were to be appointed from "members of the Co-operative Council, the executive members of the Student Resource Committee and the members of the Advisory 28 Committee." "The Canadian Union of Students Chairman at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l be an ex o f f i c i o member of the Board of Directo r s and s h a l l annually, immediately p r i o r to the Annual General Meeting of the Society i n March present to the Board of Directo r s a s l a t e of nominations f o r members of the Student Resource Committee and the Advisory Committee, and the Board of D i r e c t o r s s h a l l e i t h e r approve the i n d i v i d u a l nominations or require that the Canadian Union of Students Chairman present an a l t e r n a -t i v e nomination or nominations."29 The Student Resource Committee, "composed of students form any accredited educational i n s t i t u t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia" were to communicate the aims and objectives of the Society to the general community and t h e i r respective student bodies, and to provide volunteers when requested by the Co-operative 94 Council to a s s i s t i n the management of the House (or Houses). The Co-operative Council, elected by the Board, again from nominations presented by the CUS Chairperson, was to be composed of residents of the Co-operative Houses. Their duties were to maintain the Houses i n accordance with the aims of the Society, and "to bring to the a t t e n t i o n of the Student Resource Committee and Advisory Board any needs for which they .require e i t h e r specia-l i z e d s k i l l s or p r o f e s s i o n a l advice" and to promote the aims of the Society 31 among Indian youth. These two groups were to present monthly reports to the Board. The Advisory Committee, elected by the Board, was to consist of f i v e to eight p r o f e s s i o n a l members of the u n i v e r s i t y and the community whose func-tions were to provide s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s or p r o f e s s i o n a l advice when c a l l e d upon by e i t h e r the Co-operative Council or Student Resource Committee, and 32 to act as l i a s o n with the general p u b l i c . As well as automatic membership i n the Society f o r a l l members of the committees outlined above, membership was to have also been conferred on others, i n payment of a membership fee, who would then have a vote at Annual General Meetings. Although the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n contained some problematic areas which s t i l l required r e s o l u t i o n the residents and s t a f f person had indicated c l e a r l y that they wished to implement i n the project the philosophy which the students were attempting to implement i n the u n i v e r s i t y - c o n t r o l over decisions which affected t h e i r l i v e s . In other words they had developed a procedure for im-plementing the i n t e n t i o n of the project "to gain self-confidence through the assumption of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making process" and "to organize s i m i l a r ventures of an undertermined extent," as they were 95 expressed i n a grant a p p l i c a t i o n to the Koerner Foundation i n July of 1966. The new s t a f f person's r e l a t i o n s with outside groups have been alluded to i n the previous section. She organized or promoted ac t i v e r e l a t i o n s with i n d i v i d u a l students and student groups. Her own l i n k s with Indian organi-zations were brought into the Home and the residents were encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n them. This included a nation-wide conference of young Indians held i n Vancouver i n part i n the Home i t s e l f . She was not interested i n continuing the speaking engagements c u l t i v a t e d by the house mother, nor were these at a l l necessary as the Home was more than adequately funded. The reasons why she did not maintain a d i r e c t connection with the s t a f f at the Indian Center w i l l be explained i n the next se c t i o n . The house mother returned to Vancouver at the end of October and, a f t e r v i s i -t i n g the Home, contacted the lawyer who was also Chairperson of the Board at t h i s time. She was vociferous i n her disapproval at the way i n which the Home was operating but r e i t e r a t e d her i n a b i l i t y to return to the Home because of i l l n e s s i n her family. An emergency Board meeting was held to which she was i n v i t e d . In her presence, the Board re-discussed the philosophy of the Home ( i t had f i n a l l y been raised i n thorough d i s c u s s i o n twice during that month in.conjunction with the development of the con s t i t u t i o n ) and agreed yet again that the philosophy expounded i n the o r i g i n a l b r i e f s and advocated by the new s t a f f person was i n f a c t to be the modus operandi of the pro j e c t . The house mother l e f t i n anger, refusing to leave e i t h e r a telephone number or address where she could be contacted. This was the l a s t d i r e c t communica-ti o n between the Board and the house mother. 96 Footnotes 1. My a t tempt to f i n d c o r r o b o r a t i n g data has been u n s u c c e s s f u l . N e i t h e r I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch s t a t i s t i c s nor census s t a t i s t i c s extend to cover those i n d i v i d u a l s who cannot be de f ined as of I n d i a n o r i g i n p a t r i l i n e -a l l y nor are r e g i s t e r e d w i t h I . A . B . and ye t cons ider themselves and are considered t o be I n d i a n . Th is omiss ion coupled w i t h the d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n enumerat ion d e t a i l e d by Nag ler , (1970:7) make almost i n s u r -mountable the problems of de te rm in ing the r a t e of i n - m i g r a t i o n of n a t i v e peop les . 2 . The record of t h i s i n t e n t i s found i n Mot ion #3 of the Minutes o f the J o i n t Meet ing of the Western Regional and Loca l Committee of CUS, Nov. 4, 1965. "That we accept i n p r i n c i p l e the recommendations of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Committee . . . t o set up a c o - o p e r a t i v e home f o r I n d i a n g i r l s . " (S tuden ts ' Counc i l Document #66-135.) 3. From "A Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s , A p roposa l of the Canadian Union of Students f o r the es tab l i shment of a c o - o p e r a t i v e home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " , pub l i shed by the UBC-AMS Committee o f the Canadian Union of S tudents , n . d . 4 . Taken f rom a brochure w r i t t e n a f t e r the " P r o p o s a l " mentioned above which was e n t i t l e d "A Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " p r i n t e d by the UBC-AMS CUS Committee n . d . 5. From "A Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s , A p r o p o s a l . . . " , p p . 3 - 4 . The woman who was h i r e d as house mother had an a c t i v e p a r t i n d r a f t i n g t h i s job d e s c r i p t i o n . 6. The amount of subsidy r e q u i r e d per month dropped s u b s t a n t i a l l y as the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t proceeded. 7. Th is was the on ly monetary donat ion made by the AMS. They d i d c o n t r i -bute m a t e r i a l l y i n so f a r as AMS o f f i c e s t a f f d i d the bookkeeping and r e q u i r e d accountancy f o r the Co-opera t i ve Home (as a p a r t of the CUS Committee) as the c e n t r a l i z e d na tu re of the AMS f i n a n c i a l o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h i s procedure. 8. The f i n a n c i a l records c o n t a i n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n on the exact amount and source of funds as of A p r i l 15, 1966 have u n f o r t u n a t e l y been des-t royed by the Alma Mater Soc ie t y . However, as o f June 2 1 , 1966, the records a v a i l a b l e s t a t e t h a t $1,790 had been r e c e i v e d . Th is f i g u r e inc ludes an es t imated $1200 i n the form of a g i f t f rom the Graduat ing Class of 1966. Cf. Chapter 3, Sec t ion 2 f o r a complete d i s c u s s i o n of these monies. 9. From an i n t e r v i e w w i t h r e s i d e n t s of the Home, Vancouver Sun, June 1 1 , 1966. as are the f o l l o w i n g two q u o t a t i o n s . I n each case emphasis added. 10. Personal communication to me by the house mother. 97 1 1 . The f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between the s tudents and house mother are to be found i n the next s e c t i o n . : 12. The house was s i t u a t e d i n an area zoned f o r s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . C . f . L e t t e r f rom B.B. T r e v i n o , B a r r i s t e r - a t - l a w , A p r i l 18, 1966 on exact zon ing r e g u l a t i o n s . This meant t h a t no b i n d i n g lease agreement could be signed w i t h the owner and the r e n t a l was on a month- to-month b a s i s . Thus, a t any t ime pressure could have been brought to bear on the owner e i t h e r by the a r e a ' s r e s i d e n t s o b j e c t i n g to the occupants , or by the c i t y f o r v i o l a t i o n of the zoning b y - l a w s . I n the l a t t e r case, however, the p r o j e c t ' s l e g a l adv iso rs were prepared to argue the case i n cour t on the bas is of an " i n t e n t i o n a l " f a m i l y be ing the e q u i v a l e n t of a consanguine f a m i l y . 13. I am i n possession of the l e t t e r and saw the a r t i c l e s d e s c r i b e d . No a t tempt i s be ing made to s i n g l e out t h i s group f rom o the rs as more consc ious ly or o v e r t l y r a c i s t . The group was chosen because i t was one of the few which escaped ' the s u r v e l l a n c e o f the o r g a n i z e r s . 14. From documents i n my possess ion . 15. Th is marked my o f f i c i a l involvement i n the p r o j e c t as incumbent c h a i r -person of the CUS Committee. 16. C . f . H . B . Hawthorn ( e d . ) , A Survey of the Contemporary Ind ians of Canada, Par t 2, f o r a genera l i zed d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i q u e of I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . 17. "We d o n ' t expect them to be p u r e , w h i t e and C h r i s t i a n o v e r n i g h t , " dec la red Mrs. , " I t i s a hard t h i n g • c l i m b i n g up the h i l l . We've got t o keep a t i t and never l e t them down." From an i n t e r v i e w i n the Sun, Vancouver, June 1 1 , 1966. 18. This a t t i t u d e was o f g rea t importance i n the house mother ' s r e a c t i o n to her replacement i n the Home, and her subsequent a c t i v i t i e s rega rd ing the p r o j e c t . 19. Personal communicat ion. 20. Desp i te t h i s , she r e f e r r e d to the presence of the w h i t e s tudent i n the Home as b e n e f i c i a l because the v i s i t s of her f r i e n d s and f a m i l y i n t roduced the " g i r l s to a b e t t e r c lass of w h i t e p e o p l e . " (The s tudent came from a f a m i l y of i n t e l l e c t u a l s . ) 2 1 . "A Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n G i r l s " , pub l i shed by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of S tudents , n . d . emphasis added. 22. Quota t ions taken f rom an i n t e r v i e w i n the Sun, Vancouver, June 1 1 , 1966. 23. I n the on ly w r i t t e n r e p o r t to the Board she made t h a t summer the house mother s t a t e d t h a t " G i r l s i n home need cons tan t (except when s l e e p i n g ) s u p e r v i s i o n , they have no i n i t i a t i v e . " 98 24. L e t t e r f rom the Treasurer to the f i r s t Board Cha i rperson , J u l y 20, 1966. 25. The p s y c h i a t r i s t , the lawyer and I were de legated to do the i n t e r v i e w i n g . 26. Minutes of the Management Board Meet ing , September 22, 1966. I was aga in de legated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 27. C o n s t i t u t i o n of the I n d i a n Youth Co-opera t i ve Home, d r a f t p r i n t e d by the UBC-AMS Committee of CUS, n . d . 28. I b i d . By-Law 1. 29. I b i d . By-Law 3. 30. I b i d . By-Law 5. 31. I b i d . By-Law 4. 32. I b i d . By-Law 7. The Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women Approaching the End 100 Chapter Two focussed almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of the p r o -j e c t . The unconsc ious ly r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s of the s tudents and p r o f e s s i o n a l s was discussed together w i t h the c o n t r a s t i n g r e a c t i o n s t o rac ism e x h i b i t e d by the house mother and the s t a f f person. The on ly non-members considered were the smal l donors , a l though passing r e f e r e n c e was made to o ther agencies and o r -g a n i z a t i o n s as they d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the r e s i d e n t s . Chapter Two e s t a b l i s h e d the presence of rac ism i n the p r o j e c t . The stage i s now se t f o r the f i n a l a c t . Chapter Three documents the drama played out by the major p r o t a g o n i s t s , the Board and the CUS Committee on the one s ide and the AMS execu t i ve on the o t h e r . I t begins w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of the fund ing p o l i c i e s and l a r g e donors . A f t e r p r e s e n t i n g a breakdown of the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the Home a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n i t s h i s t o r y , I p resent a l eng thy d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the CUS Committee and the Home t o the AMS, focuss ing s p e c i f i c a l l y on the AMS Treasurer and h i s f requen t i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Th is d e t a i l e d da ta i s necessary i n order to p lace i n c o r r e c t p e r s p e c t i v e the f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l i s t i c and b u r e a u c r a t i c a r g u -ments a l t e r n a t e l y used by the AMS Execut ive as j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t s uncon-s t i t u t i o n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . The Chapter con t inues w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " and subsequent r e p o r t done by the AMS Execut ive i n response t o the "bad" p u b l i c i t y r e s u l t i n g f rom the house m o t h e r ' s p r o t e s t a t i o n s . A f t e r ana lyz ing the r e p o r t and subsequent press r e l e a s e , the Chapter concludes w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Board and s t a f f person p r i o r to the f o r c i b l e e v i c t i o n i n A p r i l , by the AMS E x e c u t i v e , of the r e s i d e n t s . As the events u n f o l d i t becomes ev ident t h a t the cause of f a i l u r e was due to n e i t h e r "c rude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " on the p a r t of the Board nor b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e f f i -c iency . 101 The s t r u c t u r e s of the two Boards and t h e i r u n o f f i c i a l meld ing was d iscussed i n the p rev ious chap te r . There a r e , however, o ther i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which must be d iscussed. As suggested, the re was a d isc repancy i n back-ground i n f o r m a t i o n and exper ience which was not r e c t i f i e d nor even d e a l t w i t h u n t i l the s t a f f change fo rced the Board to c o n f r o n t the ques t ion of whether the p r o j e c t was to be a c o - o p e r a t i v e or a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n . The meld of the two Boards,because of i t s u n o f f i c i a l n a t u r e , r e s u l t e d i n some confus ion about expected r o l e s . Two of the non-s tudents o r i g i n a l l y appointed to the Adv isory Board took an a c t i v e r o l e i n the mslded Board w h i l e o the rs at tended on ly s p o r a d i c a l l y and evinced r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . As suggested i n Chapter Two none of these Board members had exper ience w i t h g r o u p - l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f e i t h e r a h o s t e l or c o - o p e r a t i v e t y p e . They a lso seemed to l a ck concern f o r the maintenance of good a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a l though a t l e a s t two of them were i n business f o r themselves. The one non-s tudent appointed o r i g i n a l l y to the Management Board, a member of the School of Soc ia l Work a t U.B.C. was absent f o r the summer and began to a t tend meet-ings on a r e g u l a r bas is on ly a f t e r the s t a r t of the f a l l academic te rm. I t was t h e r e f o r e l e f t to the s tudent members to r e c t i f y the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the Board as bes t they c o u l d . My predecessor as CUS Chai rperson e s t a b l i s h e d an e f f i c i e n t f i l i n g system which was mainta ined f o r the d u r a t i o n of the p r o -j e c t . Maintenance of the system was aided by the Board 's p o l i c y t h a t c o r r e s -pondence concern ing the Home was sent f rom and rece ived by the CUS o f f i c e a t the u n i v e r s i t y a l though the p o l i c y was e s t a b l i s h e d s o l e l y to avo id p u b l i c i z i n g the a c t u a l address of the res idence i t s e l f . The p o l i c y had a f u r t h e r r e s u l t which was t h a t the CUS Chairperson was p laced i n a p i v o t a l p o s i t i o n i n terms 102 of a l l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s t a f f , the Board, o u t s i d e agencies and groups and the Alma Mater S o c i e t y . I, i n my p o s i t i o n as CUS Cha i rperson, appointed two new s tudents to the Board i n September of 1966. One was the Treasurer of the CUS Committee, a Senior Commerce s t u d e n t , who was t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f i n a n c i a l concerns of the p r o j e c t , a task which the AMS Treasurer had performed pro  tem du r ing the summer months. The o ther s tudent was appoin ted as s e c r e t a r y and took r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r reproduc ing and d i s t r i b u t i n g the minutes of each meet ing and hand l i ng the necessary correspondence. As the agendas were set a t the end of each meet ing we d i d n o t f e e l the need to c i r c u l a t e w r i t t e n agendas p r i o r t o each regular- meet ing a l though two agendas were inc luded i n l e t t e r s sent t o a l l Board members i n November and December o f 1966. The f i r s t of these was to cons ider the s t a t u s of the house mother who was accu-s ing the Board of hav ing f i r e d her d u r i n g her absence. The second was t o adopt the c o n s t i t u t i o n as the p r e - r e q u ' i s i t e t o i n c o r p o r a t i o n as an indepen-dent e n t i t y under the S o c i e t i e s Act of B.C. The minutes of the meetings r e f l e c t e d the Board 's emphasis on d i s c u s s i o n r a t h e r than the pass ing of mot ions . They more c l o s e l y resemble t r a n s c r i p t s of the d i s c u s s i o n than they do records of mot ions f o r subsequent l e g a l j u s t i -f i c a t i o n o f a c t i o n s taken. A l though the s t y l e o f m i n u t e - t a k i n g was c a l l e d i n t o ques t ion by the Alma Mater Soc ie ty i t has proved a v a l u a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the t h i n k i n g of the Board. The most c r u c i a l ques t ion f o r the ex i s tence of the p r o j e c t a t i t s i n c e p t i o n and f o r some t ime a f t e r was the concern f o r adequate f u n d i n g . The process 103 of secur ing s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l suppor t f o r the p r o j e c t began i n January of 1966, f o u r months be fo re the Home opened. A b r i e f was d r a f t e d and sent w i t h a cover ing l e t t e r t o a l l l a r g e co rpora te concerns i n the p rov ince w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n pa id to c o r p o r a t i o n s employing I n d i a n people or e x p l o i t -ing t h e i r resources . L e t t e r s were a lso sent to the Board of Governors a t U .B .C. , to a l l of the major v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and to the major un ions . Another l e t t e r s t r e s s i n g the need f o r donat ions i n k i n d was sent to o ther smal ler v o l u n t e e r groups and to non-government s o c i a l s e r v i c e agenc ies. I n response to appeals of the l a t t e r s o r t thei S a l v a t i o n Army responded most generous ly , p r o v i d i n g the b u l k of the necessary f u r n i s h i n g s . To those appeals sent to the former group, the l a r g e s t donat ion came f u l l y a year l a t e r i n the form of a 23 - inch console t e l e v i s i o n se t complete w i t h s u i t a b l y i n s c r i b e d plaque f rom the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company, L t d . They were one of the ten r e p l i e s rece ived f rom over 100 l e t t e r s sen t . Two lumber concerns and one f i s h packer s t a t e d d i r e c t l y t h a t they were "unab le " to suppor t concerns of "a s o c i o l o g i c a l and w e l f a r e e f f o r t of t h i s nature"." ' " Three o t h e r s , (two of which were d i s t i l l e r i e s ) sa id they had r e f e r r e d the request e i t h e r to a l o c a l 2 s u b s i d i a r y or committee f rom whom n o t h i n g f u r t h e r was heard . MacMi l lan B loede l and Powel l R iver L i m i t e d donated $200 and wishes f o r success. The 3 B r i t i s h Columbia Telephone Company d e c l i n e d "due to budgetary l i m i t a t i o n s " . The Vancouver Sun's donat ions budget had been f i n a l i z e d and was not f l e x i b l e 4 enough to i n c l u d e new c h a r i t a b l e donat ions a t t h a t t i m e . The UBC Board of Governors, s e v e r a l members o f wh ich were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c o r p o r a t i o n s mentioned above, d i d no t g ran t any- monies. Two -members d i d g ive i n d i v i d u a l donat ions t o t a l l i n g $125."' 104 Despite these meager contributions from industry the t o t a l donations shown on the books as of June 1, 1966 were $590 6 and by September 1, 1966, $1056. This sum included many smaller donations from groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , some as a r e s u l t of the l e t t e r s sent, others as a r e s u l t of the ta l k s and i n t e r -views given by the house mother. (Cf. further discussion of the small con-t r i b u t o r s below.) The Students' Council of the UBC Alma Mater Society, endorsed i n p r i n c i p l e the CUS proposal for the project February 7, 1966 7 and g voted "an amount not to exceed $200" on March 28, 1966. The Board of Director s of the Vancouver Indian Center Society pledged t h e i r co-operation and on annual grant to the project on January 26, 1966. Due to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i t was not u n t i l May 24, 1966 that they were able to forward a cheque for $100 with the hope of providing .regular f i n a n c i a l . , 70 assistance i n the future. Curiously, none of the f i n a n c i a l statements include or even allu d e to the 1965-66 Graduating Class G i f t , approved unanimously by the General Meeting of the Graduating Class on February 3, 1966. This g i f t amounted to $2,078.80. The o r i g i n a l reason given by the AMS Treasurer for i t s exclusion from the statements was that the exact amount was not known and could not be known for some time as the motion granting the g i f t to the Co-operative Home was 1 2 c o n d i t i o n a l on the p r i o r purchase of one 8-man and one 4-man rowing s h e l l . As these s h e l l s were to be purchased i n I t a l y i t would be some time before the f i n a l costs could be assessed. The r a t i o n a l e used by the Treasurer for the omission was that u n t i l t h i s matter had been f i n a l i z e d no monies what-soever could be credited to the Home. However he himself r e f e r r e d to a 105 guaranteed advance of $1,200 g iven by the Graduat ing Class i n a document 13 w r i t t e n September 7, 1966. The whole mat te r wouldihave been of l e s s importance were i t not f o r subsequent statements made by the Treasurer and u t i l i z e d to the f u l l e s t by the house mother i n her fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s , suggest ing t h a t the Home would have to c lose due to l a c k of funds . The i r statements were made w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y over the summer and i n t o the f a l l 14 of 1966 i n l e t t e r s to c o n t r i b u t o r s and memos to board members. I n the l i g h t o f the Graduat ing Class G i f t these statements were m is lead ing a t b e s t . Whi le the AMS Treasurer and house mother were engaged i n these a c t i v i t i e s , the in-coming and o u t - g o i n g Chairpersons of the CUS Committee were a t temp-t i n g to secure f u r t h e r l a r g e g ran ts to ensure s t a b l e l o n g - t e r m fund ing of the p r o j e c t . To t h i s end they a p p l i e d to the Leon and Thea Koerner Founda-t i o n i n Ju l y of 1966 f o r a g ran t of $3,500 to subs id ize the o p e r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t f o r a one-year period. ' ' "" ' The Koerner Foundat ion r e p l i e d i n October w i t h a grant of $2,500 " t o be used s o l e l y f o r the purpose des ignated un less s p e c i f i c permiss ion i s rece ived from the Board of Governors of the Founda-t i o n to apply i t o t h e r w i s e . " ^ The two members of the Board, toge ther w i t h the lawyer , a lso i n v e s t i g a t e d o ther fund ing sources i n c l u d i n g C h i l d r e n ' s A id (which expressed i n t e r e s t but made no subsequent d o n a t i o n ) , the C i t i z e n s h i p Branch of the Secre tary of S t a t e ) , I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigra-t i o n , and the Soc ia l Serv ice Department of the C i t y of Vancouver. Ne i the r of the f e d e r a l departments were empowered to g ive d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a i d as 17 . f e d e r a l monies had to be channel led through p r o v i n c i a l sources. Th is gave 106 the Board i t s f i r s t impetus to beg in d i scuss ing the process of i n c o r p o r a -t i o n as an independent s o c i e t y . The p o s s i b i l i t y of q u a l i f y i n g f o r these f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l funds was n e g l e g i b l e i f the Home remained under the AMS s t r u c t u r e . Despi te the f a c t t h a t the Co-opera t i ve Home, as w i t h most o ther v o l u n t e e r p r o j e c t s of a s o c i a l a c t i o n n a t u r e , saved the fo rma l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e appara-tus l a r g e sums of money per yea r , the Home r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s met w i t h a l e s s than h e l p f u l r e c e p t i o n f rom the Soc ia l Serv ice Department of the C i t y of Vancouver. At a meet ing he ld w i t h the d i r e c t o r and h i s a s s i s t a n t and the in-coming and o u t - g o i n g CUS Chairpersons i n the summer of 1966, the w e l f a r e o f f i c i a l s could o f f e r n o t h i n g i n the way of advice or a i d i n f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t . This l ack of support f o r t u n a t e l y proved not to be a handicap, to the p r o j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y as the p r o j e c t e d s a l a r y disbursement of $3,600 per year was, due to the s t a f f change, reduced to a t o t a l expend i tu re of $1,450. (Tables 1 and 3) 107 Table 1 P ro jec ted Operat ing Statement f o r the Year Ending June 2 1 , 1967. Revenue: Renta ls - 6 women @ 60/month $4,320.00 Expend i tu res : S a l a r i e s @ $300/month $3,600.00 Food, Sunder ies, e t c . @ $250/month 5 ,000.00 Rent @ $125/month 1,500.00 U t i l i t i e s @ $50/month 600.00 T o t a l Expendi tures 8,700.00 Net Expend i tu re : $4,380.00 Source: "A Submission to the P r o j e c t s Committee of the Leon and Thea Koerner Founda t ion " , J u l y 26, 1966. Table 2 A c t u a l Income and Expendi tures A p r i l 15, 1966 to June 1 , 1966. Revenue: Renta ls A $237.00 Donat ions 590.00 T o t a l Revenue $827.00 Expend i tu res : Sa lary 380.40 Food, Sunder ies, e t c . 251.28 Rent and U t i l i t i e s 307.65 T o t a l Expendi tures 939.33 Net Expend i tu res : $112.33 *Not i n c l u d i n g Graduat ing Class G i f t . Source: AMS Revenue Ledger Card, t o June 1 , 1966. Table 3 A c t u a l Income and Expendi tures June 1 , 1966 to November 20, 1967 Revenue: $2,888.25 $8,880.05 Renta ls Donat ions Koerner Grant ' Sundry Donat ions Grad. Class G i f t T o t a l Revenue Expend i tu res : Sa lary (June 15 - Sept. CPP and Hol iday Food, Sunder ies, e t c . Rent and U t i l i t i e s T o t a l Expendi tures Balance remain ing a t c losu re of Home *The Home a c t u a l l y ceased o p e r a t i o n i n May, 1967. Source: "CUS Co-opera t i ve Home" r e p o r t by AMS Treasure r , November 20, 1967 $2,500.00 1,413.00 2,078.80 30 I n c l u d i n g pay . ) 5,991.80 1,070.39 1,837.17 2,139.35 5 ,047 .91 $3,740.81 108 Taking a monthly average from Table 3 of the r e n t a l income and expend i tu res f o r r e n t and u t i l i t i e s and f o r food and sundr ies but exc lud ing wages, the excess of expend i tu re over income, t h a t i s , the subsidy needed per month i s 18 approx imate ly $9.9 or $1,188 per year . A l l o w i n g a r a t e of 6% i n f l a t i o n per year w h i l e not cons ide r ing p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t acc ru ing to the ba lance , the re were s u f f i c i e n t funds to cont inue the Home at the same r a t e of subsidy f o r almost th ree yea rs . Of the donat ions rece ived the Koerner g ran t represented over 40% of the t o t a l and the Graduat ing Class G i f t approx imate ly 35% of the t o t a l . The i n d i v i d u a l and corpora te donat ions ( e x c l u s i v e of donat ions i n k i n d ) represen ts s l i g h t l y more than 20% of the t o t a l . The t ime expended i n s o l i c i t i n g these funds com-pared w i t h t h a t spent i n o b t a i n i n g the o ther two l a r g e donat ions f a r outweighed the amount r e c e i v e d . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the number of i n t e r v e n t i o n s and the outspoken c r i t i c i s m which many of the smal l donors f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n o f f e r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the s t a f f change f a r outweighed the importance of the funds c o n t r i b u t e d by them. The r e a c t i o n o f many of these smal l c o n t r i b u t o r s might have been a n t i c i p a t e d . The i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s had been s o l i c i t e d e i t h e r through "human i n t e r e s t " a r t i -c l e s i n the press o r by t a l k s g iven by the house mother, bo th of which em-phasized the he lp lessness r a t h e r than the independence of the r e s i d e n t . When the c o n t r i b u t o r s d iscovered t h a t the p r o j e c t was be ing made i n t o a f u n c t i o n i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e i n which the r e s i d e n t s were prepared to take a major r o l e they were upse t . Some a lso r e g i s t e r e d t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l • o f the s t a f f change. I n many of the conversa t ions I had w i t h donors who te lephoned to complain about 109 the changes i n " t h e i r " p r o j e c t , they assumed a stance of r i g h t e o u s anger a t our r e p l a c i n g the n a t i v e house mother who, by t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n , was competent to handle n a t i v e s . Few had bothered to a s c e r t a i n t h a t the house mo the r ' s replacement was a lso n a t i v e . Some who had, were s t i l l angered be-cause the house mother was a respec tab le I n d i a n w h i l e the new s t a f f person was not because of her p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . A l though none of these people came to any meetings (nor were they i n v i t e d a t t h i s p o i n t ) they i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the c losu re of the p r o j e c t by p r o v i d i n g the AMS w i t h a r a t i o n a l e -bad p u b l i c i t y - f o r becoming d i r e c t l y i nvo l ved w i t h the p r o j e c t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the l o c a l committee of the Canadian Union of Students to the Alma Mater Soc ie ty was unique i n some respects to a l l the committees 19 organized under t h a t u m b r e l l a . The AMS Code s t a t e d t h a t Chairpersons of Standing Committees, of which the CUS Committee was one, "a re annua l l y appoin ted i n the s p r i n g a t a j o i n t meet ing of o u t - g o i n g and in-coming Students ' 20 21 C o u n c i l l o r s " and "may be removed a t any t ime by Students ' C o u n c i l " . F u r t h e r , " t h e chairman i s respons ib le f o r s e l e c t i n g h i s committee or sub-committee chairman. He must be prepared t o r e p o r t t o Students ' Counc i l f rom t ime to t ime. Whenever p o s s i b l e , the Pres iden t s h a l l appo in t Students ' C o u n c i l l o r s to act i n an adv iso ry capac i t y and as a l i a s o n t o these commi t tees . " " D e t r i m e n t a l members of committees may be removed by the chai rman."22 Concerning minutes and r e p o r t s , the Code s t a t e d : "Minutes and r e p o r t s of bo th genera l and execu t i ve meetings of these committees s h a l l be forwarded to the Students ' Counc i l immediate ly a f t e r the sa id meetings f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , u l t i m a t e  a p p r o v a l , amendment, or r e j e c t i o n by the S tudents ' C o u n c i l . " 2 3 Despi te t h i s d i r e c t i v e , the CUS Committee was not expected by the AMS to submit r e g u l a r minutes as were o ther of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s cons idered as 110 standing committees and, i n three years of weekly AMS minutes, that i s , from June 3, 1965 to A p r i l 10, 1968, those minutes and reports submitted to Students' Council were "received" as d i s t i n c t from the other standing commit-tees whose minutes were "considered, approved, amended or rejec t e d " . This d i s t i n c t i o n may i n part have been due to the nature of the Canadian Union of Students as a n a t i o n a l organization whose membership was composed of the various Students' Councils i n Canada, thereby making the Students' Council President also the president of the l o c a l grouping (of whatever form) of the CUS, a structure unique to t h i s n a t i o n a l student organization. The close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the UBC-AMS CUS Committee Chairpersons from 1965 to 1967, and the na t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t of CUS might also have had some e f f e c t i n the matter. In the period 1966-67, I as CUS Chairperson, which adminis-t e r i n g some separate programs, worked i n close conjunction with the AMS Pre-sident, frequently i n the capacity of p o l i t i c a l advisor on matters of educa-t i o n , also no doubt a contri b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p v i s - a - v i s the Code and Council procedure. Whatever tbe reasons, however, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was d i s t i n c t from that of other committees and the r e l a t i v e 24 autonomy much greater. This autonomy did not extend to separate budgeting or f i n a n c i a l arrangements. A l l committees and organizations constituted under the Alma Mater Society p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c e n t r a l bookkeeping system administered by the s t a f f of the AMS. The Co-operative Home, as a project of the CUS Committee, also came under t h i s f i n a n c i a l arrangement. As such, the donations to the Home were not tax deductible since the AMS was not considered . e l i g i b l e f o r tax deduc-t i b l e status." The AMS, acting through, the Treasurer, had the l e g a l a u t h o r i -ty to freeze the funds i n any account which was suspected of mismanagement. I l l This was a measure inc luded i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the Soc ie ty from m i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n s of i t s funds but was not in tended to i n c l u d e s i t u a t i o n s such as t h a t of the Co-opera t i ve Home where the Soc ie ty was a c t i n g s o l e l y as "banker" f o r o u t s i d e funds . (Th is p o s i t i o n was c l a r i f i e d by the d e c i s i o n rega rd ing AMS c o n t r o l over Graduat ing Class f u n d s . ) The dua l r e a -sons of fund ing and f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n the d i scuss ions by the Management Board of procedures f o r i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p r o j e c t as an i n d e -pendent l e g a l e n t i t y . The d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the AMS Execut ive and C o u n c i l , which l ed to the demise of the Home, began somewhat innocuous ly when the newly e l e c t e d AMS Treasurer acted as pro tem t r e a s u r e r of the p r o j e c t f o r the summer w h i l e he was on s a l a r y . I n a l e t t e r to the f i r s t Chai rperson of the Board, dated May 18, 1966, he commented t h a t the house mother r e q u i r e d ass is tance w i t h bookkeeping as she had been unable to keep the r e n t a l s , the " impres t f u n d " , and her own money separate and had no r e c e i p t s f o r a n y t h i n g . He requested t h a t a person be assigned by the Board to handle the f i n a n c e and ac t as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r as " I am s o r r y t h a t t ime does not pe rmi t me to do t h i s and act as a k i n d of d i p l o m a t i c watchdog over the whole o p e r a t i o n . " Because of the summer break i t was not u n t i l September t h a t a competent s tudent could be found. The Treasurer had suggested t h a t "a c lose and c a r e f u l reco rd be kept of a l l who s tay a t the home and the c o r r e c t r e n t a l s be c o l l e c t e d . " As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the house mother d id not welcome t h i s k i n d of s c r u t i n y by s tudents and no non-s tudent member of e i t h e r Board was w i l l i n g or indeed able to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t was hoped t h a t the s tudent member of the Board r e s i d i n g i n the Home cou ld take over the bookkeeping f u n c t i o n s but t h i s d i d not prove f e a s i b l e . 112 I n m i d - J u l y the Treasurer sent another l e t t e r to the Chai rperson concern ing the management of the Home. Throughout the r a t h e r l eng thy l e t t e r he used the pronoun "we" , a l though he made d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h i s "we" and the Board, making i t unc lear whether he considered h imse l f p a r t of the p r o j e c t o r of a body above the p r o j e c t . His compla in ts were a l l w i t h the Board and i t s manner of f u n c t i o n i n g . He found no f a u l t w i t h the house mother but r a t h e r p ra i sed her competence. Among the c r i t i c i s m s he enumerated of the Boards were: having at tended two Board meetings w i t h o u t having met " a l l the Board" , and not r e c e i v i n g agendas and p rev ious minutes p r i o r t o meet ings , about which he commented t h a t "many p r o f e s s i o n a l people whom we are ask ing t o a s s i s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t do not w ish to waste t h e i r t ime w a i t i n g f o r a meet ing t o s t a r t and do not e s p e c i a l l y apprec ia te s loppy procedures , l a c k o f Agenda, e t c . " The c r i t i c i s m s he l e v e l l e d were not considered v e r y mean ing fu l . Of the Board members he had not met,one had been dropped because she had never a t tended a meet ing , one had res igned because of a j o b t r a n s f e r and the remain ing th ree were away f o r the summer, a f a c t of which he had been informed p r i o r to the w r i t i n g of h i s l e t t e r . The s tudent members of the Board found t h i s c r i t i -cisms of absenteeism and t a r d i n e s s a t meetings somewhat f r i v i l o u s as they had a t tended many summer Students ' Counc i l meetings which had been fo rced t o ad journ f o r l a c k of a quorum. The p a r t i c u l a r i tem he r e f e r r e d to as "s loppy procedure" was the f a i l u r e to c i r c u l a t e minutes and agendas p r i o r t o meet ings. The Students ' Counc i l d e a l i n g as i t d i d w i t h many s u b s i d i a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and having agendas w i t h up to twenty housekeeping i t e m s , found 113 i t necessary t o c i r c u l a t e l a r g e amounts of documents. I n t h i s same l e t t e r the Treasurer c a s t i g a t e d the Board f o r making the house mother c a r r y " t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ensur ing her own pay cheque" and f o r a l l o w i n g her t o appo in t an a s s i s t a n t f o r whom she requested of the Treasurer an increase i n s a l a r y . He again ignored i n f o r m a t i o n g iven to him p r e v i o u s l y . He seemed to p r e f e r the fund ing s t y l e of the house mother to t h a t adopted by the Board which was to seek out l a r g e gran ts and donat ions which would p e r -m i t assured long term f u n d i n g . Perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s was t h a t the Treasurer undertook to respond p e r s o n a l l y to many of the sma l l donors w i t h -out i n f o r m i n g w i t h e r the Board or the CUS Committee of t h e i r hav ing been rece ived and w h i l e c l a i m i n g l ack of t ime to ac t as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r . The a c t i o n on h i s p a r t made the CUS Committee's a t tempts to keep good records of funds rece ived much more d i f f i c u l t . He c o n t i n u o u s l y expressed conf idence i n the house mo the r ' s a b i l i t i e s and s t a t e d more than once tha t she was doing a good j o b . The Treasurer saw the house mother on ly on those occasions when she came t o the AMS o f f i c e s to depos i t money and d e l i v e r b i l l s as he d i d not a t tend meetings r e g u l a r l y nor had he ever v o l u n t a r i l y v i s i t e d the Home or spoken to the r e s i d e n t s . His conf idence i n her f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t i e s was n i l which r a i s e s the ques t i on of the bases f o r h i s p o s i t i v e judgement of he r . The most l o g i c a l response, which he p r o v i d e d , was t h a t she was I n d i a n and i n order not to appear r a c i s t he would not ques t i on her a t a l l except i n an area which many found to be beyond t h e i r e f f i c i e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s . 114 He concluded h i s l e t t e r by say ing " I am somewhat concerned about the s tudent funds t h a t have been committed t o t h i s p r o j e c t and i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t S tudents ' Counc i l might cons ider suspending the p r o j e c t i f these funds and the e n t i r e p r o j e c t are being mismanaged". I t i s not c l e a r on what bas i s he was making t h i s t h r e a t as the on ly s tudent funds committed to the p r o j e c t were the $200. granted i n March of 1966 and long s ince spent . The on ly o ther funds which f i t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n were the monies donated by the Graduat ing Class of 1S66. I f the Treasurer had at tempted to suspend these funds they would have been u l t r a v i r i e s of t h e i r own c o n s t i t u t i o n . The Treasurer con t inued h i s p o l i c y o f c r i t i c i z i n g the Board and encouraging the house mother i n her a c t i v i t i e s even when they went aga ins t the express p o l i c y of the Board. Desp i te h i s demands t h a t the p r o j e c t become b e t t e r o r -ganized i n terms of the Board he f r e q u e n t l y pub l i shed or endorsed i n f o r m a -t i o n h imse l f which was erroneous or aga ins t the Board 's p o l i c i e s . On s e v e r a l occassions when r e p l y i n g to donors on the CUS Committee's w r i t i n g beha l f he gave out the address of the res idence as w e l l as i n v i t a t i o n s to v i s i t i t desp i te the ex is tence of a s tandard l e t t e r of acknowledgement which s t a t e d "We have taken care not to a d v e r t i s e the l o c a t i o n i n respect of the p r i v a c y of the members of the Home." He a lso c i r c u l a t e d a progress r e p o r t prepared by the house mother which by o m i t t i n g ment ion of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e imp l i ed tha t the p r o j e c t had no r e l a t i o n to the s t u d e n t s ; i nc luded the Home's address and te lephone number; and was signed by the house mother as "Execu-t i v e D i r e c t o r " of the h o s t e l . One c o n s i s t e n t i n c l u s i o n i n h i s co r respon-dence to donors a t t h i s t ime was the statement t h a t "we are p lann ing to 115 i n c o r p o r a t e the Home under the S o c i e t i e s A c t " i n the hopes of g a i n i n g govern-ment f u n d i n g . k I n a progress r e p o r t authored by the Treasurer i n September, 1966 he repeated t h i s statement suggest ing t h a t " i n c o r p o r a t i o n w i l l be completed sometime i n Oc tober . " He mentions the guarantee of funds from the Graduat ing Class i n the course of quo t i ng l a r g e sec t i ons f rom the p r e l i m i n a r y f u n d - r a i s i n g b r i e f (by then bad ly out of d a t e ) . His on ly suggest ion was to inc rease the house mother ' s s a l a r y by $50 to $300 as " i t i s unreasonable to expect one person to run t h i s Home on a t w e n t y - f o u r hour , seven day week bas is a t a s a l a r y of $ 2 5 0 . . . . " The Board had a n t i c i p a t e d him and had a u t h o r i z e d the AMS t o r a i s e her s a l a r y two months p r i o r to the w r i t i n g of t h i s r e p o r t . That they had done so i t i n d i c a t e d by the Revenue Ledger Cards. I n September, the incoming CUS Chairperson appointed a f o u r t h year Commerce s tudent as t r e a s u r e r and s i g n i n g o f f i c e r f o r bo th the CUS Committee and the Co-op Home. Th is s tudent had headed one of the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t committees 27 of the AMS the p rev ious year . The AMS Treasurer re fused to a u t h o r i z e him as s i g n i n g o f f i c e r f o r the p r o j e c t a l though he gave no reason and i t was not w i t h i n h i s powers to take t h i s a c t i o n . As o u t l i n e d above, the execu t i ve and/or c o u n c i l cou ld d ismiss a Chai rperson but had no means o ther than v i a the Chai rperson to remove a member of a committee. Th is man d i d remain as u n o f f i c i a l t r e a s u r e r and spent much t ime w i t h the r e s i d e n t s and the new s t a f f person s e t t i n g up procedures and e x p l a i n i n g the i n t r i c a c i e s of bookkeeping to them. However, the AMS Treasurer r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the f i n a n c i a l d i s -28 bursements of the p r o j e c t throughout h i s term of o f f i c e . 116 The a c t i o n s of the Treasurer when con t ras ted t o h i s c r i t i c i s m s of the Board imply a number of t h i n g s . He seemed t o t a l l y imperv ious of the added d i f f i -c u l t i e s he was causing the Board by h i s u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n s . His exper ience of groups o ther than Students ' Counc i l was l i m i t e d to the V a r s i t y I n t e r -C h r i s t i a n Fe l lowsh ip and the campus branch of the S o c i a l C r e d i t League bo th of which he had headed i n p rev ious yea rs . He was t h e r e f o r e ve ry inexper ienced i n d e a l i n g e i t h e r w i t h s o c i a l a c t i o n programs or w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o ther than those of the AMS. His r e l a t i o n s w i t h the house mother were a good example of the type of rac ism which masquerades as a n t i - r a c i s m by r e -f u s i n g t o admit any d i f f e r e n c e s . He was then fo rced to develop c r i t i c i s m s of the Board, which a l though v a l i d i n some r e s p e c t s , were not r e f l e c t e d i n h i s own a c t i o n s or the behaviour of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of which he was an execu t i ve o f f i c e r . The second group of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who i n v o l v e d themselves i n the Home's f u n c t i o n i n g were brought toge ther by the house mother . A f t e r her angry depar tu re f rom the October Board meet ing she contac ted many of the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups to whom she had spoken when fund r a i s i n g , the 29 media, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l depar tments , r e -ques t ing t h e i r i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h the Board on her b e h a l f . The house mother made th ree charges: the f i r s t t h a t the Board had f i r e d h e r , secondly t h a t the r e s i d e n t s were being m i s t r e a t e d and t h i r d l y , t h a t the na tu re of the p r o -j e c t had been changed. She made these charges to the lawyer i n a te lephone conversa t ion but d i d not f u r t h e r communicate w i t h the Board. The CUS Chairperson rece ived numerous l e t t e r s and te lephone c a l l s i n the next s i x weeks a l l express ing some degree of concern over these charges. Most of 117 These c a l l s were f rom the donors of smal l sums d iscussed above. N o t i f i c a t i o n was sent out a f t e r the e x t r a o r d i n a r y October meet ing ( c f . Chapter Two, Sec t ion 2) of a j o i n t meet ing of the Management and Adv iso ry Boards to be he ld November 8, 1966. E igh t members of the Vancouver I n d i a n F r iendsh ip Center Board, one youth member f rom the c e n t e r , and the AMS Pres iden t and Treasurer a t tended t h i s meet ing as observers . The house mother d i d not a t t e n d . Desp i te t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the meet ing by the o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t l e a s t two of the non-s tudent members of the Boards, i n c l u d i n g the Cha i rperson , d i d not a t t e n d . The business of the meet ing began w i t h a read ing of two s i g n i f i c a n t p ieces of correspondence. The f i r s t l e t t e r was the announcement of the g ran t of $2,500 from the Leon and Thea Koerner Founda t ion . The second l e t t e r was the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of l e t t e r s f rom the B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and Wel fare Soc ie ty concerning a $100 dona t ion they had g i ven t o the house mother 30 i n September, 1966. The l e t t e r s f rom these two o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n t e r e s -t i n g to compare p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d e r i n g the amounts of money i n v o l v e d i n each case. The Leon and Thea Koerner f o u n d a t i o n made no s i m i l a r demands f o r exp lana t ions d e s p i t e the s t a t e of p u b l i c i t y i n the next few months and the amount of money i nvo l ved i n t h e i r g r a n t . As the minutes of the j o i n t Board meet ing have been r e - w r i t t e n i n the AMS s t y l e which records on ly mot ions moved and omi ts any record of d i s c u s s i o n , the exact procedure of the meet ing i s u n a v a i l a b l e . However, memory and 118 o the r documentat ion make i t p o s s i b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t the d i s c u s s i o n to some degree. The second agenda i tem was a r e p o r t on the Home by the new s t a f f person and the new student Chai rperson of the r e c o n s t r u c t e d Management Board. This r e p o r t i nc luded d i s c u s s i o n of the th ree issues which the house mother has r a i s e d as q u e r i e s . The f i r s t was the s t a t u s of the house mother as she was now c l a i m i n g she has been dismissed w h i l e the Board main ta ined t h a t she r e s i g n e d . The second charge was t h a t the na tu re of the p r o j e c t had been changed and the t h i r d was t h a t a t l e a s t some of the r e s i d e n t s were be ing 32 m i s t r e a t e d . The members of the I n d i a n Center Board seemed to f i n d the exp lana t ions g iven i n the r e p o r t q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y as they d i d not pursue them f u r t h e r . The one excep t ion was the Execut ive D i r e c t o r of the Center , a n o n - I n d i a n , who supported the house mother t o t a l l y i n her advocacy of a h o s t e l cum c r i s i s center and f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t the Co-opera t i ve Home should become such a f a c i l i t y . To t h i s end she sent a hand w r i t t e n statement (App-endix 3) to be read a t the meet ing . No d i s c u s s i o n p r i o r t o or subsequent to the meet ing cou ld convince her t h a t her p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s the Home might 33 not be comple te ly c o r r e c t . A f t e r the f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t by the AMS Treasurer had been adopted i t was decided to c a l l another j o i n t Board meet ing f o r two weeks hence a t which t ime the agenda would i n c l u d e a f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s t a t u s of the house mother , s p e c i f i c a l l y her s t a t u s on l e a v i n g ; d i s c u s s i o n on i n c o r p o r a -t i o n ; p o s s i b i l i t y of e l e c t i n g a cha i rpe rson f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t e d Adv iso ry Board; and f i n a l l y , whether a p o l i c y f o r admission to the Home would be se t and i f so who would e s t a b l i s h the c r i t e r i a . A d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n and the minutes of the November 13th and 17th Management Committee meetings and the 119 proposed agenda were sent out to a l l Board members November 17, 1966.""* The November 13th minutes record among other things: a) that the Indian Cen-ter had been formally requested to evaluate each resident i n terms of the be n e f i t (or lack thereof) of the environment offered by the Home and to r e -commend, where necessary, placement i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g ; b) that although the Home was now being run by the residents "there i s s t i l l a form of author-i t y through the Indian Center Counsellors (who, together with Indian A f f a i r s Branch counsellors had the power to remove residents i f they f e l t the s i t -uation was not conducive to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s well-being); c) the d r a f t con-s t i t u t i o n was passed; d) "The Board i s anxious to set up, i n a f f i l i a t i o n with the Indian Center, a Hostel f o r Indian G i r l s to be placed under the d i r e c -t i o n of the house mother. The s t a f f person has w r i t t e n to the Company of Young Canadians to i n t e r e s t them i n the p r o j e c t . I t i s hoped that CYC v o l -35 unteers could help i n the running of the Hostel." The meeting on November 17th passed two motions of some i n t e r e s t , the f i r s t , that "various campus s o c i e t i e s be approached for volunteer workers f o r the Home", the second, that a l l press releases f o r the p r o j e c t be w r i t t e n by a s p e c i f i e d member of the e d i t o r i a l board of the student newspaper. The l a t t e r motion was passed i n hopes of c o n t r o l l i n g the news releases issued by both the Students' Council and the house mother. An example of the type of repor-tage the Board hoped to stop i s the announcement of the November 22nd j o i n t Board meeting which appeared i n the Vancouver Sun. (Appendix 4.) Despite the mailed notices and the ensuing ( i f i n c o r r e c t ) p u b l i c i t y , the 120 ten Management Committee members but on ly two of tbe Adv isory Board members at tended the November 22nd meet ing . These d id not i n c l u d e the lawyer or the p s y c h i a t r i s t , bo th of whom had had s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the s t a f f change and n e i t h e r of whom n o t i f i e d the Chai rperson of t h e i r in tended absence. Concerning the f i r s t agenda i t e m , the s t a t u s of the house mother, the f o l l o w i n g mot ion was moved by an Adv isory Board member and c a r r i e d unanimously: "As the re appears to be a g rea t dea l of u n c e r t a i n t y about the s t a t u s of [the house mother] i n the Co-opera t i ve Home . f o r I n d i a n G i r l s the Board wishes to emphasize t h a t on no occasion d i d t h i s board d ismiss [the house mother ] . [The house mother ] l e f t the Home hav ing rece ived her s a l a r y ; she rece ived h o l i d a y pay on October 3 1 . This would i n -d i c a t e t h a t [the house mother ] had severed her connect ion w i t h the Home. "Since [the house mother ] s t a t e s t h a t she i n f a c t had not res igned the Board f e e l s t h a t she i s e n t i t l e d to a monetary compensation to be m u t u a l l y worked out between [the house m o t h e r ] and the Alma Mater Soc ie ty as her l e g a l employer . " The second agenda i t em i n v o l v e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f . t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and a d i s -cuss ion of some proposed a l t e r a t i o n s t o render i t l e g a l l y acceptab le to the S o c i e t i e s A c t . The d e c i s i o n whether or not to e l e c t a cha i rpe rson f o r the Adv isory Board was not considered at t h i s t ime due to the presence of on ly two Adv isory Board members. The ques t ion of c r i t e r i a f o r an admissions p o l i c y i n v o l v e d f i r s t a r e p o r t stemming f rom the request to the I n d i a n Center Counse l lo rs to eva lua te the i n d i v i d u a l r e s i d e n t s . I t was necessary to pass a mot ion to the e f f e c t t h a t the Management Board ( c a l l e d here the Student Resource Board, a f t e r the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n ) " c o n t a c t the r e s p e c t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s of tx^o g i r l s not s u i t e d to the environment of the Home and request t h a t o ther accommodation be f o u n d . " 121 I n the s p i r i t of the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n i t was decided t h a t new admissions would be accepted between Board meetings i f they had been r e f e r r e d by a dependable agency. This meet ing , d e s p i t e i t s appearance of r a t i o n a l i t y , was c a r r i e d out i n an atmosphere of s t r a i n and t e n s i o n . Two days a f t e r the November 8 meet ing the AMS Execut ive decided to "conduct an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the CUS Co-op Home". Each person , known by the Execut ive t o have been i n v o l v e d i n the p r o -j e c t w i t h the excep t ion of a l l the r e s i d e n t s was sent a memorandum f rom the AMS Pres iden t reques t i ng a w r i t t e n r e p o r t ( to be rece ived by him f i v e days a f te r , the i s s u i n g of the memo) which was to c o n t a i n : "A f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t to d a t e , i n c l u d i n g comments on the f o l l o w i n g : -1 . B r i e f o u t l i n e of your involvement i n the p r o j e c t . 2. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s and f u n c t i o n of the Management Board. 3. The proposed change i n p o l i c y ( s i c . ) " As w e l l the CUS Chairperson was requested to submit to the Treasurer by the same t ime l i m i t , " 1 . Composit ion of the v a r i o u s Boards s ince the home's i n c e p t i o n . 2. Number of Board meetings w i t h dates and members p r e s e n t . 3. Present composi t ion of the Board ( s ) . 4 . A l l past minutes of the Board."37 The r e s u l t i n g Repor t , w r i t t e n by the AMS Treasurer and F i r s t V i c e - P r e s i d e n t ( the AMS member mentioned i n Chapter Two, Sec t ion 2 as v i s i t i n g the Home i n a persona l c a p a c i t y ) was issued November 24, 1966, a Thursday, and sent to S tudents ' Counc i l the f o l l o w i n g Monday f o r app rova l . The " i n v e s t i g a t o r s " d i d no t see f i t t o a t t end the j o i n t Board meet ing November 22 to appra ise the Boards of i t s recommendations, nor d id they g ive e i t h e r the r e s i d e n t s 122 or s t a f f any o p p o r t u n i t y to d iscuss the recommendations p r i o r to t h e i r r e -l e a s e . Those most c l o s e l y concerned w i t h the Home, p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e s i -dents and s t a f f read of the dec is ions i n teh newspapers. The P u b l i c R e l a -t i o n s O f f i c e of the AMS issued a press re lease November 25, 1966 (be fo re the Counc i l meet ing had approved the document) which quoted l i b e r a l l y and by 3 8 name f rom the supposedly c o n f i d e n t i a l r e p o r t s w i t h o u t even o b t a i n i n g the permiss ion o f those they quoted. S i g n i f i c a n t l y perhaps, they chose not t o quote any of the " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , on ly the s tudents and s t a f f pe rson . The r e p o r t as presented to S tudents ' Counc i l i s reproduced below. "A l e t t e r was sent out under the s i g n a t u r e o f the P r e s i d e n t , t o v a r i o u s people i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t reques t i ng them to c r i t i c a l l y eva lua te the Home and make recommendations t h e r e t o . The r e p l i e s have g e n e r a l l y been of g rea t ass is tance i n g i v i n g us a g r e a t e r unders tand ing of the p r o j e c t and i n g u i d i n g us i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f some recommendations. Most o f them mer i ted more than one or two r e a d i n g s . "Some may ques t ion the p r o p r i e t y of the Execut ive or the Alma Mater Soc ie ty i n v e s t i g a t i n g the Home but as i t i s l e -g a l l y an AMS sponsored p r o j e c t admin is te red by the CUS Committee and has a lso rece ived cons ide rab le s tudent f i n a n -c i a l suppor t , i t j u s t i f i e s our cont inued i n t e r e s t . Some i n t e r e s t and a c t i o n on our p a r t i s a l so j u s t i f i e d because of some of the i n t e r n a l problems which have a r i s e n w i t h r e s -pect t o the management of the Home which have caused concern  amongst the press and o the rs i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o j e c t . " I t was envisaged t h a t the r o l e of the Alma Mater Soc ie ty should be r e s t r i c t e d t o a s s i s t i n g i n the es tab l i shment o f the Home w i t h the idea t h a t the P r o j e c t might assume i n c o r -pora ted s t a t u s a t a l a t e r da te . We would hope t h a t t h i s genera l p o l i c y would c o n t i n u e . PURPOSE "The Home was o r i g i n a l l y envisaged a s : -1 . Enabl ing d i sp laced young I n d i a n women t o f i n d a proper environment i n Vancouver i n what might be c a l l e d a " c o -o p e r a t i v e " home. There has been cons iderab le d i s c u s s i o n as to whether the Home should be of a " h o s t e l " na tu re w i t h a s t ronger i n s t i t u t i o n a l f l a v o u r , f u l l - t i m e house mother and c a t e r i n g more to c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . Under 123 t h i s p o l i c y the Home tends to accomodate s h o r t e r term occupants and has the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of assu-ming a f l op -house f u n c t i o n . The o ther v iew advanced has proposed a more " c o - o p e r a t i v e " home f o r g i r l s who are probably e q u a l l y as much i n need of such an environment but on a longer term and less i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d b a s i s . This i n c o r p o r a t e s the ph i losophy of a l l -owing more dec is ion-mak ing w i t h i n the l i v i n g group and less i n the way of a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . I n our o p i n i o n , the l a t t e r p o l i c y , which has been adopted by the s tudents i n the p r o j e c t should be cont inued a l though i t must be ve ry c l e a r t h a t t h i s i s not a co-op f o r w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d work ing g i r l s bu t one to a s s i s t those f rom Skid Row, those who have j u s t touched i t , or those t h a t can and want to b e n e f i t f rom such an envi ronment . "We would urge t h a t the Board con t inue w i t h i n these terms of re fe rence but i t should draw up a much c l e a r e r and more d e t a i l e d p o l i c y s ta tement . ORGANIZATION " I t was the unanimous conc lus ion of those r e p l y i n g t h a t t h i s was the gravest weakness i n the p r o j e c t . So much so t h a t one of the Board members ( p r o f e s s i o n a l ) has i n d i c a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o -cedures must be co r rec ted i f he i s to remain a member of the Board. "We are ve ry conscious of the u n d e s i r a b i l i t y of undue i n t e r -fe rence i n the a f f a i r s of such a p r o j e c t and f u l l y recogn ize the energy and enthusiasm which s tudents are c o n t r i b u t i n g to i t . Neve r the less , a c e r t a i n s tandard of performance should be expected of any committee r e l a t e d to the Alma Mater Soc ie ty e s p e c i a l l y one where i t i s i n con tac t w i t h the genera l p u b l i c  and i n v o l v e d i n such a v i t a l p r o j e c t . "We t h e r e f o r e recommend t h a t the E x e c u t i v e , w i t h the approva l of S tudents ' C o u n c i l , ensure the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Home i s t i g h t e n e d up and f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . We would recommend t h a t the f o l l o w i n g mot ion be passed. 1. That the f o l l o w i n g be appoin ted to the B o a r d : -[Of the twelve Board members, s i x were to be s tuden ts and s i x non -s tuden ts . Of the s tudents " a p p o i n t e d " f i v e were execu t i ve members of the r e - c o n s t i t u t e d Management Board and inc luded the man appointed Treasurer (who was i n f a c t " r e - a p p o i n t e d " Treasurer but who had been re fused s i g n i n g powers by the AMS T r e a s u r e r . ) The remain ing s tudent appo in -tee was the AMS Secre ta ry . Of the s i x n o n - s t u d e n t s , the s t a f f person was inc luded but the o ther e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e o f the Home was n o t . The f i v e remain ing had been members of the Adv isory Board w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of ac-t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t ] 124 2. That t h i s Board be recognized as the o f f i c i a l Board and be s o l e l y responsible f or d i r e c t i n g those a f f a i r s of the Home which properly f a l l within i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . Further, that the Board meet at l e a s t once a month. 3. The Board d r a f t a clear statement of p o l i c y f o r the Home consistent with the concept of a s s i s t i n g young Indian g i r l s who w i l l b e n e f i t from a co-operative home environ-ment. 4. The Board determine and implement any further p o l i c i e s conductive ( s i c ) to the operation of the Home. 5. That the rules of procedure and method of recording minutes used by the Alma Mater Society be adopted by the Board. 6. That a l l minutes, documents, etc., be deposited promptly with the Alma Mater Society Executive Secretary f o r d i s -t r i b u t i o n and re c e i p t by Students' Council. 7. That any changes i n the composition of the Board be based upon the recommendation of the Chairman with the approval of Students' Council. 8. That the Chairman be normally appointed i n March at a j o i n t meeting of the in-coming and out-going Councils." (emphasis added.) The one issue c l a r i f i e d by the report was that of the "proposed change" i n p o l i c y . As the report i n d i c a t e s there was no change of p o l i c y e i t h e r pro-posed or e f f e c t e d . In the section "Organization" they state that c e r t a i n standards of organization must be maintained. An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t on th i s question involves correspondence with the l e g a l f i r m retained by the AMS concerning l i c e n s e and zoning regulations i n r e l a t i o n to the proposed lease agreement between the Co-operative Home and the landlord i n A p r i l of 1966. The o r i g i n a l , dated A p r i l 18, 1966, was forwarded from the AMS President to the Treasurer and a xerox copy sent to the CUS Chairperson. A few weeks p r i o r to the inception of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n the CUS Chairperson asked the Treasurer f o r a copy, of the lease agreement which he claimed had 125 been signed by the AMS on beha l f of the p r o j e c t . A f t e r some search ing she was t o l d the lease agreement and r e l a t e d correspondence had been l o s t . A c a l l to the AMS's lawyer bore out the evidence of the xerox copy he ld by the CUS Committee t h a t , i f f a c t , because of zoning r e g u l a t i o n s , a b i n d i n g agree-40 ment could no t be s igned. I n d i s c u s s i n g the recommended mot ion no f u r t h e r s p e c i f i c comment need be made on i tem 1 . , the compos i t ion of the Board. I n i tem 2 . , the phrase "which p r o p e r l y f a l l w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n " was never c l a r i f i e d and the f a c t t h a t the two Boards were meet ing a t o t a l of t h ree t imes per month (Management Board, b i - m o n t h l y and the Adv isory Board, u s u a l l y i n a j o i n t meet ing w i t h the Management Board, once a month) was i g n o r e d . I tem 3 . , concern ing a c l e a r statement of p o l i c y ignored the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l -though n e i t h e r of the two " i n v e s t i g a t o r s " cou ld p o s s i b l y have been unaware of i t s ex i s tence as copies had been sent to them and the AMS Treasurer had made mention of i n c o r p o r a t i o n . p r o c e e d i n g s i n almost every p iece of c o r r e s -pondence he had sent out concern ing the Home. I tem 4. seems merely a r e p e -t i t i o n of i tem 2. w i t h no f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the te rminono ly u t i l i z e d i n e i t h e r . I tem 5. had been adopted p r e v i o u s l y by bo th Boards w i t h c o n s i -derable loss h i s t o r i c a l l y i n terms of records of d i s c u s s i o n excluded by t h i s method of procedure. They had adopted t h i s r e p o r t i n g form as a concession to the AMS. I n i tem 6. the phrase " f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e c e i p t " had been amended from the d r a f t r e p o r t issued November 24, 1966, which read " f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n and a p p r o v a l " , the on ly p o i n t conceded by the execu t i ve i n a very b i t t e r sess ion between the execu t i ve and mysel f the a f te rnoon p r i o r to the Counc i l meet ing d u r i n g which many of the comments made here were r a i s e d 126 by me on b e h a l f of the r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f . I tem 7. not on ly ignored the d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n bu t had the. e f f e c t of making the pass ing of such a con-s t i t u t i o n and subsequent proceedings f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t much more d i f f i -c u l t by demanding the approva l of an un in fo rmed, u n i n t e r e s t e d body, be fo re any changes cou ld be made i n the p r o j e c t . I tem 8. had the e f f e c t of " e l e v a -t i n g " the p r o j e c t to the s t a t u s of a Standing Committee independent of the CUS Committee. The whole mot ion when presented t o the S tudents ' Counc i l was d u l y passed a f t e r an at tempt by two C o u n c i l l o r s to t a l b e the mot ion was A * - A 41 de fea ted . One of the more no tab le omissions f rom the press r e l e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r persons concerned w i t h the image of the AMS v i s - a - v i s " t he genera l p u b l i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , was the l a c k of any ment ion of the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundat ion Grant . The AMS Treasure r , however, was s t i l l making p leas f o r donat ions to prevent the p r o j e c t f rom c l o s i n g . The P r e s i d e n t ' s quote p e r -haps summed up the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s most comple te ly . " I am happy to r e p o r t t h a t the home i s making good p rog ress . N a t u r a l l y , i n an ambi t ious p r o j e c t of t h i s s o r t , we are bound to run i n t o a few snags. But a c o - o p e r a t i v e , s e l f - h e l p home f o r young Ind ian women i s wor th work ing f o r . The i d e a l i s m of s t u d e n t ( s i c ) , combined w i t h the d e s i r e of the I n d i a n people to remake t h e i r l i v e s , w i l l , I t h i n k , ensure the cont inued success of the p r o j e c t , " he con t inued . " I p e r s o n a l l y thank a l l the people who have helped us i n the p a s t , and who w i l l , I am su re , cont inue to do so i n the f u t u r e . This i s one of the few t imes s tudents a t UBC have o f f i c i a l l y i nvo l ved themselves i n a major s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t ou ts ide o f the immediate problems of educa t i on . The AMS w i l l con t inue to do e v e r y t h i n g i t can to ensure the cont inued success of the p r o j e c t , " he conc luded."42 Given these a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n s and un t rue comments, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look b r i e f l y a t the major a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s e x e c u t i v e . They, i n d i v i d u a l l y 127 and c o l l e c t i v e l y , were p r i m a r i l y engaged i n the campaign f o r democra t i za -t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y which occupied much of the a c t i v i t y of the p l a n n e r s . The i r s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s centered around s tudent r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Senate and open meetings of the Board of Governors. The i r r a t i o n a l e was t h a t s tudents had the r i g h t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n s which governed t h e i r l i v e s . These two documents, the r e p o r t and the press re lease bear c lose a n a l y s i s . That the authors of the r e p o r t f e l t the need to p rov ide a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n was i n d i c a t i v e of the o p p o s i t i o n to i t which they were r e c e i v i n g . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n they o f f e r e d can be reduced to t h e i r concern about bad p u b l i c i t y . The f i n a n c i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n they r a i s e d could on ly have been based on the monies the p r o j e c t rece ived f rom the Graduat ing C lass , over which they had no l e g a l c o n t r o l , as the AMS c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r o j e c t had never gone above the o r i g i n a l $200. g iven the p rev ious s p r i n g . This concern about p u b l i c i t y could be regarded as a l e g i t i m a t e one. However, the execu t i ve who endorsed the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the subsequent r e p o r t had a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a " t e n t - i n " on the campus to p r o t e s t the Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l ' s p o l i c y on i l l e g a l s u i t e s i n the Po in t Grey area and had a lso made speeches on the steps of C i t y H a l l d u r i n g the o u t s i d e w o r k e r ' s s t r i k e p r o c l a i m i n g t h e i r support f o r the s t r i k e and denouncing as scabs those s tudents who were c o l l e c t i n g garbage. The p u b l i c i t y and c r i t i c i s m s which arose f rom these a c t i o n s was f a r more widespread and v o c a l than the c r i t i c i s m or the press coverage of a c t i v i t i e s sur round ing the p r o j e c t . Given these events the r igh teousness of t h e i r p o s i t i o n begins to p a l e . 128 The genera l p o l i c y they enunc ia te i n the r e p o r t of " r e s t r i c t i n g " . t h e AMS to " a s s i s t i n g i n the es tab l ishment of the Home" made i t s " f i r s t appearance i n t h i s document. Apar t f rom the two Counc i l motions- approv ing the p r o j e c t i n p r i n c i p l e and g i v i n g the $200. the AMS as such had had no invo lvement . The Treasurer had r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the books over the p r o t e s t of the Board, an a c t i o n to which the o ther execu t i ve members responded w i t h the excuse of incompetence i n d e a l i n g w i t h the mat te r because of the i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s of I t h e e x e c u t i v e . However, the e f f e c t of t h e i r mot ion would be t o make i n -c o r p o r a t i o n almost imposs ib le . The d e s c r i p t i o n of the o r i g i n a l purpose of the p r o j e c t and the a u t h o r ' s con-cern t h a t no " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d work ing g i r l s " should be admi t ted i n d i c a t e d t h e i r l a ck of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p r o j e c t and w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s of n a t i v e people g e n e r a l l y and p a r t i c u l a r l y . The i r d e s i r e to ensure t h a t the p r o j e c t on ly a s s i s t the u n f o r t u n a t e s i n the s o c i e t y connotes the k i n d of benevolent p a t e r n a l i s m toward n a t i v e people t o which the s t a f f person and many o f the s tudents then i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t were adamantly opposed. The members of the AMS execu t i ve w i t h the excep t ion of the Treasurer he ld the same k i n d of s o c i a l democrat ic w e l f a r i s t v iews as had the s tudent p l a n n -ers of the p r o j e c t . They seemed to v iew the p r o j e c t as a good s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o j e c t a t a t ime when i t was popular f o r s tudents to show t h e i r concern by engaging i n s o c i a l a c t i o n . This e x p l a i n s t h e i r b l i ndness to the i n c o r p o r a -t i o n process i n which the Board was a c t i v e l y engaged a t the t ime of the i n -v e s t i g a t i o n . They d i d not want to lose the p r o j e c t i n t h i s way. I t f u r t h e r exp la ins why they proposed a r e - s t r u c t u r i n g which would r e s u l t i n the p r o j e c t 129 becoming a s tand ing committee of the AMS and d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e the Counc i l and Execut ive i n i t s f u n c t i o n i n g . k ' The i r f a i l u r e to i n v o l v e the r e s i d e n t s of the Home i n the process or to even make ment ion of them except i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the types of women who would be e l i g i b l e f o r admi t tance was an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r regard f o r nat ive, people as c h i l d r e n whom one d i d not need to c o n s u l t . They focussed the ex-c l u s i o n i n the r e p o r t of any d i s c u s s i o n of the s t a f f changes which were the cause of the p u b l i c i t y adds to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The execu t i ve members had at tempted i n every way p o s s i b l e to avo id c o n f r o n -t i n g the race q u e s t i o n . The c r i t i c i s m s of the Board 's management were no longer ap t as was i n d i c a t e d by the h igh degree of suppor t bo th p h y s i c a l , i n terms of commit tees, and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , i n terms of the acceptance of the c o n s t i t u t i o n drawn up by the s t a f f person and r e s i d e n t s . The members o f the Board had undergone cons iderab le changes d u r i n g t h e i r t enu re . They had been con f ron ted w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e i r r h e t o r i c of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n and t h e i r p r a c t i c e of e x c l u s i o n . By and l a r g e they had reso lved them i n favour of p r o v i d i n g back ing and ma-t e r i a l a i d when asked and c o n c e n t r a t i n g on educat ing the non - Ind ian communi-t y about t h e i r prob lem. The two Board ' s response to the r e p o r t was to comply on the sma l l i ssues such as s t y l e of r e p o r t i n g minu tes , w h i l e d e f y i n g the Counc i l on the l a r g e r ones. Minute 4 of the "Meet ing of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the I n d i a n ( s i c ) 130 Cooperative House", December 13, 1966, reads "AMS Council recommendations read and c i r c u l a t e d . " Minute 5 reads, moved and seconded (by two of the professionals) • *• "That the lawyer r e - d r a f t (re-word) the C o n s t i t u t i o n and that i t be c i r c u l a t e d to a l l Board members and members of the AMS Council for examination, with intent to i n c o r -porate the society at the next meeting." These were hopeful plans never to be r e a l i z e d . The executive, once i t had " o f f i c i a l l y involved i t s e l f i n a major s o c i a l action p r o j e c t " , returned to democratizing the u n i v e r s i t y , leaving the residents, s t a f f and board members exhausted and demoralized. They continued to meet on a regular basis and dealt c r e d i t a b l y with the immediate problems of f i n d i n g new r e s i d e n t s , b r i n g -ing i n new volunteers, contacting organizations and i n d i v i d u a l s outside the u n i v e r s i t y who were interested i n the project but the c r e a t i o n of a s u i t a b l e c o n s t i t u t i o n which would meet the desires of the residents as well as the s t r i c t u r e s of the AMS could not be created. By A p r i l , those concerned with the project were thoroughly f r u s t r a t e d . The Minutes of the meeting of the "Board of the Indian Youth Co-operative House 49 for G i r l s " , A p r i l 11, 1967 i n d i c a t e that the Board had decided to implement the s p i r i t of the c o n s t i t u t i o n despite the problems caused by the AMS execu-t i v e , and to begin to take co n t r o l of the f i n a n c i a l assets of the Home. For example, an addendum to minute 2, accepting the Treasurer's Report, states that " r e n t a l incomes being withheld by residents have been deposited i n a bank." Minute 4 records that the l i s t of Advisory Board members proposed i n accordance with the provisions of the. C o n s t i t u t i o n were accepted; Minute 7, "That the House be set up on a co-op b a s i s , with the residents r e s p o n s i -ble for the operation and f i n a n c i n g " , was passed. Minute 8 rendered the 131 s t a f f person respons ib le f o r the keeping of f i n a n c i a l records and the p r e -p a r a t i o n of a f i n a n c i a l s tatement on the l a s t day of each month, a copy to be forwarded to the Chairperson of the Board. Minute 9 f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d an account at an off-campus bank and a u t h o r i z e d two s i g n i n g o f f i c e r s to i n -c lude the s t a f f person and "two o ther r e s i d e n t s as may be decided by the r e s i d e n t s from time to t ime and r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the Bank." Minutes 10, 1 1 , and 12, were o f a housekeeping n a t u r e , a u t h o r i z i n g payment o f b i l l s . Minute 13 read "That the balance of funds remain ing i n the AMS account be under the c o n t r o l of the in-coming B o a r d . " They p u r p o s e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d these p r o -cedures i n order t o i n d i c a t e to a l l concerned t h a t they were w i thd raw ing from the AMS bank ing and account ing system. I n May of 1967 " t h e s i t u a t i o n had developed t o the p o i n t where the AMS Execu-t i v e f e l t the home was not f u l f i l l i n g i t s purpose, and steps were taken t o c lose i t down. " "^ A more c o l o u r f u l w r i t e r might have i n s e r t e d the phrase " f o r c i b l y e v i c t the occupants" i n p lace of " c l o s e i t down," as the r e s i d e n t s f e l t moved to c a l l i n suppor t f rom the I n d i a n youth community to r e s i s t the at tempts of the AMS to c a r r y out t h i s s tep . Never the less the " s t e p s " were success fu l and the Home was closed permanent ly . The o f f i c i a l r a t i o n a l e of the r e p o r t to C o u n c i l , November 2 0 t h , 1967, and passed by them was as f o l l o w s : "The r e s t r u c t u r e d board never r e a l l y became e f f e c t i v e , and the a f f a i r s of the home d r i f t e d on from month to month through the w i n t e r and i n t o the s p r i n g . The g i r l s i n the home appear to have been making a genuine e f f o r t to form a v i a b l e c o - o p e r a t i v e group throughout t h i s pe r i od but t h e i r e f f o r t s were be ing f r u s t r a t e d though inexper ience i n c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g , and an i n a b i l i t y to manage t h e i r  o w n . a f f a i r s , toge ther w i t h a muddled r e l a t i o n s h i p between the co-op home, the Board, the CUS Committee, aid the AMS, which was the respons ib le f i s c a l a g e n t . " (emphasis added) 132 I n f a c t the AMS had re fused t o t u r n over the funds to the c o n t r o l of the Board a l t h o u g h , once a g a i n , they had no l e g a l c o n t r o l over them as they were not s tudent monies. The author of t h i s r e p o r t , then Treasurer of the AMS, and former cha i rpe rson of the l o c a l committee of the World U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e , i nc luded an ep i logue to h i s b r i e f " h i s t o r y " of the p r o j e c t . "The f a i l u r e of the I n d i a n co-op home p r o j e c t deserves some though t . A g rea t many people put a l o t of e f f o r t i n t o the p r o j e c t ; some of them were l e f t ve ry b i t t e r at i t s r e s u l t . The home rece ived f i n a n c i a l suppor t f rom many i n d i v i d u a l s and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Some w i l l argue t h a t s tudents have no business i n v o l v i n g themselves i n a community p r o j e c t such as t h i s one. I t h i n k t h a t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t they do. Students must p resent i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l s of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . Through p r o j e c t s such as the co-op home they can o f f e r c h a l l e n g i n g i n n o v a t i o n s , new techniques on approaches i n response to perce ived s o c i a l . problems. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t many such p r o j e c t s f a i l , bu t i t i s impor tan t t h a t they be c a r r i e d through as c a r e f u l l y and as competent ly as p o s s i b l e . The I n d i a n Co-op Home was an at tempt to use a s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i a l technique ( c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g ) to so lve a complex c u l t u r a l problem ( i n t e g r a t i o n of young I n d i a n women i n t o a w h i t e , urban s o c i e t y ) . The f a i l u r e of t h i s p r o j e c t cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to i nade -quate p h y s i c a l resources . Generous donat ions of money and m a t e r i a l were a v a i l a b l e almost f rom the i n c e p t i o n of the p r o j e c t . I t h i n k t h a t the f a i l u r e of the home can be a t t r i b u t e d to two p r imary causes : -1 . The p r o j e c t was never adequate ly researched. I t s aims were not c l e a r l y unders tood , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the approach were not f o reseen . 2. The p r o j e c t d i d not have a con t inuous , s t r o n g , s e n s i t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . Ne i the r co-op res idences nor the I n d i a n c u l t u r e are amenable to crude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n . On the o the r hand, i t i s apparent t h a t many of the i n t e r n a l problems of the home i n v o l v i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , the r o l e of the house mother, the management of f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , 133 the development of autonomy and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the admission of r e s i d e n t s , e t c . cou ld have been a l l e -v i a t e d by an a c t i v e , in formed Board of Management. The CUS Ind ian home i s f i n i s h e d and was c l e a r l y a f a i l u r e . What i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , not c l e a r i s whether i t was a f a i l u r e of con-c e p t i o n or i n e x e c u t i o n . " The au thor o f t h i s " r e p o r t " , s u b t i t l e d " 'The on ly good I n j u n i s a deed un ' General C u s t e r " , chose not t o p resent any th ing resembl ing a complete account ing of the h i s t o r y of the Home t o the Students ' C o u n c i l . His comments were of a s u f f i c i e n t l y u n s p e c i f i c na ture t o render tham acceptab le as an o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s t o those who had no p r i o r knowledge of the Home. The Co-opera t ive Home f o r I n d i a n Women f a i l e d bu t f o r v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t reasons than those g iven by the people who were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i t s demise. 134 Footnotes 1 . L e t t e r s from J.N. Hyland, Chairman, B r i t i s h Columbia Packers Limited, Columbia Lumber Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , February 3, 1966, and Ian A. Barclay, Vice-President and Secretary, B.C. Forest Products Limited, February 17, 1966. 2. These were the Truck Loggers' As s o c i a t i o n , Lucky Lager Breweries, Ltd., and McGuinness D i s t i l l e r s Limited. 3. L e t t e r from J.A. Maclnnes, D i r e c t o r of Public Relations, A p r i l 20, 1966. 4. Le t t e r from J . J . Rooney, Business Manager, A p r i l 25, 1966. An i n t e r e s -t i n g s i d e l i g h t on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e f u s a l was a l e t t e r sent by the same person a week p r i o r to t h i s one containing a $100 donation and received by me i n my capacity as Treasurer of the UBC World U n i v e r s i t y Service Committee. The WUSC fund-raising campaign had been begun a month a f t e r the campaign for the CUS p r o j e c t . 5. One hundred d o l l a r s of t h i s sum was s o l i c i t e d by personal contact from a member i n the summer months and was therefore t e c h n i c a l l y not a part of t h i s funding campaign. 6. The discrepancy between t h i s f i g u r e and the one given i n f n . 8 of Chapter Two i s the approximately $1,200 given by the Graduating Class of 1966, discussed below. 7. Minute 10 of Students' Council Minutes. 8. Minute 6 of Finance Committee Minutes, approved as Document #67-4 i n Minute 4, Students' Council meeting Minutes, March 28, 1966. 9. L e t t e r from A.H. Bayne, Secretary of the Board. 10. Le t t e r from W.J. Mussell, President. They were unable to meet t h i s hope as they encountered fur t h e r f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r own. 11. The sum appeared f i n a l l y i n the f i n a n c i a l statements of the report to Students' Council, November 20, 1967, recommending the closure of the project and on the Revenue Ledger Card, A p r i l 19, 1968. 12. The Graduating Class monies that year had been i n f l a t e d due to an ac t i o n of the 1965-66 Students' Council i n f r e e z i n g the Graduating Class G i f t of the previous year which was to have gone to the Three U n i v e r s i t i e s C a p i t a l Fund Drive. In the f a l l of 1965 these funds were unfrozen and added to those of the 1965-66 Graduating Class. This a c t i o n on the part of the Council provoked the Graduating Class Council to move a motion, January 13, 1966, (#7) seeking an "amendment to the AMS Cons t i t u t i o n which w i l l e f f e c t i v e l y vest f i n a n c i a l autonomy over Graduating Class Council monies i n the Graduating Class Council and i t s Graduating Class Students i n the General Meeting pursuant to the Graduate Council C o n s t i t u t i o n . " On January 24, 1966, Minute #10 of the Students' Council records the following motion: 135 "That Students' Council approve i n p r i n c i p l e f o r presentation to the AMS Lawyer, the following amendment to the AMS Con s t i -t u t i o n and By-Laws:-Notwithstanding anything i n the AMS Co n s t i t u t i o n to the contrary, i t i s recognized that the Students' Council has no.control over the expenditure of the funds of the Graduating Students except: i ) to assure that a l l expenditures are made pursuant to the relevant provisions of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Graduating Class; and where an expenditure has been approved by the Graduating Students i n General Meeting, i i ) to compel the c a l l i n f of a furth e r General Meeting of the Graduating Students within three weeks time to re-consider any proposed expenditure to which Students' Council objects and any dec i s i o n of a meeting so c a l l e d s h a l l be f i n a l and conclusive. C a r r i e d . " There i s no fu r t h e r reference to the matter i n the Minutes of any Stu-dents' Council Meeting except the approval oh February 14, 1966 (Minute #5) of the Graduating Class General Meeting, February 3, 1966 (Doc. #66-224) which contained the motion on the apportioning of the Graduating Class G i f t . The attempt to as c e r t a i n whether the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e v i -sion had been made was thwarted as the AMS had l o s t the pertinent records. 13. "An approach was made to the graduating class at UBC who generously showed t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h i s project by guaranteeing an advance of $1,200 to the p r o j e c t . " from "Progress Report: Co-operative Home for Indian G i r l s " , September 7, 1966, wri t t e n by the Treasurer of the Alma Mater Society. (emphasis added.) 14. For example, "Indian Women's Co-op House, A Progress Report", n.d. by the house mother, Province a r t i c l e , August, 1966, Sun a r t i c l e , June 11, 1966. 15. This requested subsidy was based on estimated operating costs which included $3,600 i n s a l a r i e s . 16. Letter from H.B. Hawthorn, Secretary, Projects Committee, Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation, October 28, 1966. 17. The Indian A f f a i r s Branch was them empowered to give d i r e c t grants to Friendship Cneters and to p r o v i n c i a l Indian organizations but not to projects other than these. 18. Based on 12 months a c t u a l occupancy from A p r i l 15, 1966 to A p r i l , 1967. 19. This p a r t i c u l a r Code i s l i s t e d i n the 1967-68 Document f i l e of the AMS as Doc. #68-87. 20. Ibi d . A r t i c l e 3 (2) a. 136 2 1 . I b i d . A r t i c l e 3 (2) (b) v i i i . 22. I b i d . A r t i c l e 3 (2) (b) i x , x . 23. I b i d . A r t i c l e 3 (12) emphasis added. A r t i c l e 3 (11) says t h a t a l l committees e s t a b l i s h e d under A r t i l c e 3 " s h a l l ac t i n accordance w i t h By-Law 14 of the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n " however, I was unable to a s c e r t a i n the impor t of t h i s as the AMS are unable to l o c a t e a copy of the r e l e -vant e d i t i o n of the C o n s t i t u t i o n . 24. The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Rev is ions of 1967 inc luded a change f rom Chai rperson se lec ted by Counc i l to an execu t i ve p o s i t i o n , E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s O f f i c e r , ( l a t e r changed t o V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , E x t e r n a l ) e lec ted by the s tudents and i n c l u d i n g a l l the CUS r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s p lus those assumed by the CUS Chai rperson i n 1966-77 (exc lud ing those of the Home). 25. A few of the l a r g e r dona t ion earmarked f o r the Home from wel l -known i n d i v i d u a l s were d i v e r t e d by the Treasurer th rough the Alumni Annual G iv ing Fund, and thereby obta ined tax exempt ion. 26. A major f a c t o r m i l i t a t i n g aga ins t any person who was employed f u l l - t i m e t a k i n g on the j o b was t h a t the AMS o f f i c e hours were 10 a.m. t o 4 p.m. o n l y . 27. These " s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t " committees inc luded Frosh O r i e n t a t i o n , Leader-sh ip Conference, Homecoming, e t c . 28. When the CUS Chai rperson appealed to o ther members of the execu t i ve f o r a id i n t h i s and o ther m a t t e r s she was t o l d they could be of no a s s i s -tance as she was more competent i n the "matters than they . 29. Verba l communication to the w r i t e r i n September, 1967 by the then B.C. Regional O f f i c e r of the C i t i z e n s h i p Branch of the Secre tary o f S t a t e . 30. The B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and Wel fare Soc ie ty f i r s t contacted the Board Chai rperson i n June r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o j e c t i n order to cons ider i t f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . An ex tens ive r e p l y was sent to t h e i r Corresponding Secre tary which r e f e r r e d her to the in-coming CUS Chai rperson f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I n l a t e September, execu t i ve members of the o r g a n i z a t i o n v i s i t e d the Home and presented the House mother w i t h a cheque f o r $100. The house mother d i d not i n f o r m the Board of e i t h e r the v i s i t or the dona t ion which was s imply depos i ted to the account w i t h the AMS. The Soc ie ty f o l l owed up t h e i r v i s i t w i t h a l e t t e r f rom the Corresponding Secre tary to the house mother which made ment ion of the house mo the r ' s "endeavour to get the Vancouver F r iendsh ip Center to take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and to a s s i s t i n f i n a n -c ing the Co-Op House" and requested w r i t t e n acknowledgement and a r e c e i p t f o r the d o n a t i o n . Th is l e t t e r , which was forwarded to the CUS C h a i r -person as i t a r r i v e d a f t e r the house mother had l e f t , was the f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n the Board rece ived of the S o c i e t y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t . The l e t t e r which was read a t the November j o i n t Board m e e t i n g , was the f i r s t of th ree rece ived i n the next two months. They are reproduced 137 as Appendix 2. Th is person was the s tudent who had moved out of the res idence and now resumed a c t i v e involvement i n the p r o j e c t when the new s t a f f person took over . One example of t h i s m is t rea tment c i t e d by the house mother was t h a t one o f the young women found the presence of the s t a f f pe rson ' s n ine month o l d baby u p s e t t i n g . On January 3 1 , 1966 she had sent a l e t t e r to the CUS Chai rperson con-g r a t u l a t i n g the committee f o r i t s p r o j e c t and the approach which she then descr ibed as " c r e a t i v e and r e f r e s h i n g " . Her ideas on s u p e r v i -s i o n seemed, though, t o more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l those of the house mother , f o r example, i n her c a p a c i t y as Execut ive D i r e c t o r , of the Center , she reserved the r i g h t to e d i t each e d i t i o n of the Center young peop le ' s n e w s l e t t e r b e f o r e she would a l l o w i t to be p r i n t e d . The Management Committee, as r e c o n s t r u c t e d , cons is ted of t en members, a l l o f whom were s t u d e n t s . From the f i r s t d r a f t o f the Minutes f o r t h i s meet ing . They were sub-sequent ly r e w r i t t e n "accord ing to AMS fo rma t " by a mot ion a t the f o l l o w i n g meet ing which meant removal o f a l l reco rd of d i s c u s s i o n , l e a v i n g on ly a record of mot ions moved. Alma Mater Soc ie ty I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Memo, November 10, 1966, The Sun a r t i c l e , r e p r i n t e d i n Appendix 3, must have combined t h i s memo w i t h the date of the r e g u l a r S tudents ' Counc i l Meet ing to a r r i v e a t the date of November 14. I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l Memo, November 10, 1966. The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y had been invoked when members of the Board reques-ted access to some of the r e p o r t s a f t e r the AMS had completed i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and made i t s r e p o r t . Copy of l e t t e r f rom B.B. T rev ino o f Russe l l and DuMoul in, A p r i l 18, 1966. That t h i s confused s i t u a t i o n concern ing the r e n t a l s t a t u s of the Home could have a r i s e n was d i r e c t l y due to the r e l u c t a n c e of the AMS Treasurer t o re lease the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s . Minutes //13, 14, and 15, Meet ing of the S tudents ' C o u n c i l , November 28, 1966. The name g iven a t the end of the press re lease as the con tac t f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was t h a t of the Chairperson of the CUS Committee. AMS Document ?768-21. "CUS Co-opera t ive Home" submi t ted t o the Students ' C o u n c i l , November 20, 1967, by the then AMS Treasure r . Understanding the F a i l u r e 139 The Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women was e f f e c t i v e l y c losed when the r e -s iden ts and s t a f f person were f o r c i b l y e v i c t e d by the AMS execu t i ve i n May of 1967. The o f f i c i a l ending of the p r o j e c t occurred i n l a t e November of tha t year when the r e p o r t by the then T reasure r , s u b t i t l e d "The on ly good I n j u n i s a deed un" was accepted by the Students ' Counc i l toge ther w i t h a recommendation f o r the disbursement of the balance i n the account of $ 3 , 7 4 0 . 8 1 . This r e p o r t , e x t e n s i v e l y quoted above, gave as the p r imary causes f o r the p r o j e c t ' s f a i l u r e inadequate research and gross l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p by the Board. The ques t ion of l a c k of research was f i r s t r a i s e d by the AMS i n t h i s r e p o r t . I and some of the o ther s tudent members o f the Board had r a i s e d the ques t i on as a c r i t i c i s m of ourse lves i n our submissions to the AMS " . i n v e s t i g a t i o n " 2 i n November of 1966. By May of 1967 the problem was no longer r e a l . The d iscuss ions prompted by the house mother ' s charges concern ing the purpose and procedures of the p r o j e c t had p rov ided a l l those i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r o -j e c t w i t h a b e t t e r unders tanding of c o - o p e r a t i v e methods. The i n f l u e n c e o f the s t a f f person and her success fu l a t tempts to draw toge ther n a t i v e and non-n a t i v e young people i n bo th fo rma l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s e t t i n g s had done much to educate those i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t i n the c u l t u r a l s i m i -l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . As d iscussed i n Chapter Two, Sec t ion 1 , the problems w i t h the Home would have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y min imized i f t h i s process of educat ion had occurred be fo re the p r o j e c t ' s i n c e p t i o n r a t h e r than w e l l a f t e r i t had begun. Never the less , i t i s safe to say t h a t the inadequacies had been overcome and the o r i g i n a l i d e a l s of the p r o j e c t were being met as much as they could be w i t h o u t c o n t r o l over the f i n a n c i a l asse ts . Lack of 140 adequate research , unc lear aims and unforseen i m p l i c a t i o n s on the p a r t of  those d i r e c t l y i nvo l ved i n the p r o j e c t were not a pr imary cause f o r the p r o j e c t ' s f a i l u r e . The charge of mismanagement, descr ibed i n the T r e a s u r e r ' s r e p o r t as "c rude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " was a l e i t m o t i f runn ing through a l l the AMS pronounce-ments on the p r o j e c t . A Ubessey s t o r y , February 7, 1967, f o u r months p r i o r t o the Home's demise i s e n t i t l e d "Desp i te AMS Co-op House o p e r a t i n g . " I t begins "Desp i te a r u n - i n w i t h U.B.C. s tudent c o u n c i l ( s i c ) the I n d i a n Youth Co-opera t i ve House f o r G i r l s i s f l o u r i s h i n g . " "The house was almost dest royed by AMS bureau-c r a c y . " 3 The s t o r y goes on to quote the s tudent cha i rpe rson of the Board of Management as say ing t h a t the AMS a c t i o n was " t y p i c a l p e t t y s tudent p o l i t i c s . " On the one hand then , the re were charges of b u r e a u c r a t i c i n e p t i t u d e , on the o t h e r , charges of p e t t y bureaucracy. The Alma Mater Soc ie t y , cha r te red under the S o c i e t i e s Act of B r i t i s h Columbia, had an ex tens ive o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e which encompassed p r o p e r t y manage-ment and f i n a n c i a l inves tment , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t c lubs and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and es tab l ishment of c u l t u r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l sub-committees. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the S o c i e t y ' s f u n c t i o n s was by means of a f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d h i e r a r c h y of rank . The o f f i c e r s of the Soc ie ty were e lec ted annua l l y by the genera l s tudent body. The d i r e c t o r s of the Soc ie ty 141 were e l e c t e d by t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the v a r i o u s f a c u l t i e s . The c h a i r -persons of the sub-committees were chosen annua l l y at< a j o i n t meet ing of the incumbent and r e t i r i n g Counc i l s . Membership i n the committees and o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n s was v o l u n t a r y and a l l p o s i t i o n s were unpaid w i t h the excep t ion of some smal l h o n o r a r i a . The on ly c o n t i n u i n g presence i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was a smal l suppor t s t a f f whose manager was r e s p o n s i b l e to the Counc i l bu t who repo r ted d i r e c t l y to the Execu t i ve . Membership i n the Soc ie ty was compulsory f o r a l l s tudents and fees were c o l l e c -ted by the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the S o c i e t y ' s b e h a l f . Desp i te the compulsory membership less than twenty percent of the genera l membership vo ted i n genera l e l e c t i o n s and fewer than f i v e percent a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the S o c i e t y ' s programs. The s t a b i l i t y f rom year to year was based on the r e c r u i t m e n t network through which the m a j o r i t y of the o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s achieved t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . The network operated l a r g e l y i n the sub-committees of the Soc ie t y . The mem-bers of these sub-committees were, or became, known to the r e t i r i n g Execu-t i v e who would encourage and a i d those they f e l t s u i t a b l e to run f o r p o s i -t i o n s on the Counc i l thus p e r p e t u a t i n g the i d e o l o g i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commitment. The l i m i t e d involvement of the b u l k of the s tudent body enabled t h i s type of r e c r u i t m e n t mechanism to f u n c t i o n w i t h l i t t l e c h a l l e n g e . Among the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Soc ie ty the compliance p a t t e r n s were normat ive and normat ive u t i l i t a r i a n . Pure normat ive compliance was the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of the Counc i l members and members of the sub-committees seen as po-t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . These i n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t e d a h igh l e v e l of commitment to 142 the organization and i t s maintenance as they saw themselves as the i n h e r i t o r s . This voluntary commitment provided a reinforcement to, the h i e r a r c h i c a l l y orien-ted o f f i c e r s and d i r e c t o r s i n t h e i r pursuit of bureaucratic authority although there was no l e g a l contract of the type to which Blau r e f e r s , entered into by the p a r t i e s . Compliance r e l a t i o n s with those who were a c t i v e i n the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t clubs and organizations were normative u t i l i t a r i a n . A l l of them were dependent upon the Council f o r funding and access to space and other p h y s i c a l assets. Many of them had l i t t l e contact with the Society's o f f i c e r s and dealt almost e x c l u s i v e l y with the support s t a f f who provided the banking function. The few exceptions when contact was made with the o f f i c e r s were occassions when the subsidiary groups required more funds than had been a l l o c a t e d , at which time they would approach the Council d i r e c t l y . Blau's d e f i n i t i o n of bureaucracy as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d strategy f o r the achievement of administrative objectives by the concerted e f f o r t of many o f f i c i a l s (p. 9) i s a p p l i c a b l e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure of the Society. Thompson's d e f i n i t i o n which involves a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r i n g of the organiza-t i o n to r e f l e c t growth of knowledge and s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , c u l t u r a l l y deter-mined and transmitted r e l a t i o n s between superior and subordinate r o l e s , and a c u l t u r a l l y determined ideology (p. 11.), i s also a p p l i c a b l e . The i d e a l -type construct developed by Weber to r e f l e c t r a t i o n a l - l e g a l bureaucracy i s completely i n a p p l i c a b l e . Despite the inaccuracy of equating the h i e r a r c h i c a l model of bureaucracy 143 developed by Weber to the r e a l i t y of the S o c i e t y ' s s t r u c t u r e , those members of the Soc ie ty most committed to i t he ld an e q u a l l y s t rong commitment to h i e r a r c h i c a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r i n g as the most d e s i r a b l e form of o r g a n i -z a t i o n and at tempted to act on the bas is of i t s e x i s t e n c e . I n n o v a t i o n i n ad -m i n i s t r a t i v e technique and i n programming were c o n t i n u a l l y r e s i s t e d because of t h i s t h i n k i n g ^ which r e q u i r e d t h a t change should come on ly f rom the top down. None of Thompson's c r i t e r i a f o r the encouragement of i n d i v i d u a l i n n o -v a t i o n ( p . 20 above) were a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s s i t u a t i o n nor were B l a u ' s (p . 18) f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n . The i n n o v a t i o n s i n programming which occurred were i n n o v a t i o n s fo rced on the o r g a n i z a t i o n f rom e x t e r n a l sources. The f i r s t weapon r e s o r t e d to by the o f f i c e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s of t h i s s o r t was an at tempt to secure compliance through the w i t h h o l d i n g of funds or s u p p l i e s . Those e x t e r n a l groups who could f i n d space and funds elsewhere were r e l a t i v e l y u n -touched by such t h r e a t s and could con t inue to pressure f rom w i t h o u t , w i t h v a r y -ing degrees of success.^ O r g a n i z a t i o n a l groupings who were not ad hoc or who were more c l o s e l y t i e d to the fo rma l s t r u c t u r e g e n e r a l l y met w i t h a much lower inc idence of success i n t h e i r a t tempts a t i n n o v a t i o n . The CUS Committee had a min imal h i e r a r c h y whose ex i s tence was due p r i m a r i l y to the s t i p u l a t i o n s of the AMS C o n s t i t u t i o n . The Chai rperson was se lec ted by the j o i n t Counc i ls i n the sp r ing and was answerable to the C o u n c i l . A l l o ther members of the Committee were r e c r u i t e d by the Cha i rperson . The Committee was granted an annual budget by Counc i l f o r o p e r a t i n g and program expenses. Any s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l funds r e q u i r e d 144 a p p l i c a t i o n to the C o u n c i l ' s Finance Committee or d i r e c t l y to the Counc i l i t s e l f . The Committee's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e was c o l l e g i a l . I n n a t u r e , programming i n the Committee, was based on the p o l i c i e s developed a t the Annual CUS Congress and on perce ived l o c a l needs. I n p lann ing programs the Committee tended to be ve ry i n n o v a t i v e . The i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h i s was due to the purpose of the Committee - to c a r r y out the e d u c a t i o n a l aims of the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n among the s tudents on the campus. S t r u c t u r a l l y the Committee met almost a l l of the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d by Blau and Thompson. The minimum degree of employment s e c u r i t y Blau r e q u i r e s was not p r e s e n t , how-ever the pure normat ive compliance r e l a t i o n s and the s t r u c t u r a l d i f f i c u l t y i n removing an i n d i v i d u a l f rom h i s or her p o s i t i o n prov ided ai analagous con-d i t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , workgroups commanding a l l i g i a n c e , and absence of bas i c c o n f l i c t between workgroup and management were a l l p resent w i t h i n the committee because of the combinat ion of a h igh l e v e l of commitment and a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . B l a u ' s f i f t h c o n d i t i o n , the presence of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs experienced as d i s t u r b i n g , was met because of the na tu re of the p o l i t i c a l and educa t iona l tasks the Committee saw i t s e l f as f a c i n g . I n p a r t t h i s l a s t c o n d i t i o n was due to the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n of the Committee. The Committee was bo th a s u b s i d i a r y of the AMS and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and educa t i ona l o r g a n i z a t i o n to which a l l s tudents belonged by v i r t u e of t h e i r membership i n the AMS. The m a j o r i t y of members of the Committee met Thompson's c r i t e r i a f o r i n d i v i -dua l i n n o v a t i o n . They had p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e c u r i t y and freedom f o r the same reasons they could be sa id to meet B l a u ' s c o n d i t i o n of j ob s e c u r i t y . There was a great d i v e r s i t y of i n p u t s f rom l o c a l as w e l l as n a t i o n a l sources. A 145 h igh degree of persona l commitment to search f o r s o l u t i o n s was. bo th a reason f o r j o i n i n g and a c o n d i t i o n of cont inued membership. '•• The l i m i t s to the "search s i t u a t i o n " were se t by means o f l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l resources and the r e c e p t i v i t y of the audience. The na tu re of the o r g a n i z a t i o n giaranteed a c e r t a i n degree of benign c o m p e t i t i o n a t a l l t imes. I n some respec ts an ana-logy cou ld be drawn between the r o l e of the CUS Committee v i s - a - v i s the AMS and i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s and the c l a s s i c Research and Development component of a l a r g e governmental concern. When the c o m p e t i t i o n ceased to be benign the i n n o v a t i v e q u a l i t i e s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the Committee were reduced concomi-t a n t l y . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the Co-op Home, which arose f rom one o f the CUS sub-committees r e f l e c t e d a degree of con fus ion i n s t r u c t u r e and - i n t e n t . The f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t of a dua l Board and pa id house mother , was h i e r a r c h i c a l . The i n t e n t o f the p lanners was t h a t the Home should operate i n a c o l l e g i a l fo rmat . I t seems t h a t t h i s con fus ion was a r e s u l t of compro-mises between members of the committee ( i n c l u d i n g the house m o t h e r ) . The dua l Boards were planned to g i ve the p r o j e c t a s u f f i c i e n t l y respec tab le and o r g a n i -zed appearance to a t t r a c t fund ing from the business community and government agencies. The house mother had to be pa id a s a l a r y i f she were to take on the task of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the p r o j e c t as she had no o ther source o f funds . The d e s i r e f o r a c o l l e g i a l o p e r a t i o n was apparent i n the r e f u s a l of the Board to t r e a t the house mother as an employee. Rather they e s t a b l i s h e d a normat ive compliance r e l a t i o n s h i p and regarded her a c t i o n s as i n d i c a t i o n s o f her degree of commitment to the goals they saw as i m p o r t a n t . I t appears obvious t h a t the house mother d i d see her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Board as more u t i l i t a r i a n . 146 She had d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to the l ack of a c l e a r l i n e of a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e f o r e began to ac t i n ways which would imply her i n t e n t i o n to r e f o r -mulate the s t r u c t u r e to r e f l e c t the goals she espoused most s t r o n g l y , hence her tendency to c a l l h e r s e l f "Execu t i ve D i r e c t o r " and to consc ious ly de-emphasize the r o l e of the s tudents i n the i n i t i a t i o n and maintenance of the Home. When she was rep laced she i n t e r p r e t e d the a c t i o n of the Board as d e f i -n i t e l y hav ing f i r e d her i n order to change the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n t of the p r o j e c t . Her accusat ions fo rced the Board to con f ron t the con fus ion i n s t r u c -t u r a l p e r c e p t i o n s . The s t a f f person agreed to accept a p o s i t i o n i n the Home on ly on the bas is of a h igh degree of commitment to the goals of the p r o j e c t . She had some l i m i t e d means of support as a s tudent and was t h e r e f o r e ab le to r e j e c t the s a l a r y and accept on ly room and board f o r h e r s e l f and her son. Because of t h i s she was able to avo id c o n s i d e r a t i o n of u t i l i t a r i a n compliance which a lso r e l i e v e d the Board of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an employer. She was s u c c e s s f u l i n chang-ing the compliance p a t t e r n of the r e s i d e n t s f rom one i n which they had a h igh degree of commitment to an i n d i v i d u a l , the house mother , bu t a low degree o f ' commitment to the p r o j e c t and a p o t e n t i a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n - coe rc i ve r e l a t i o n -sh ip w i t h the Board, to a pure normat ive one. The f u l l involvement of the r e s i d e n t s i n the processes of m a i n t a i n i n g the Home and p lann ing i t s f u t u r e r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a l r e t u r n to the c o l l e g i a l model i n p r a c t i c e i f not y e t i n fo rma l r e s t r u c t u r i n g . R e c e p t i v i t y to i n n o v a t i o n was markedly g rea te r among Board members than among the AMS C o u n c i l l o r s and Execu t i ve . The s tudent members l a r g e l y r e f l e c t e d the 147 a t t i t u d e s of the CUS Committee. The non-s tudent members were e i t h e r p r o f e s -sors or p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n p a r t i c u l a r were used to i n n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e s and had few qualms about the p r i n -c i p l e of adopt ing change. A l l the Board members were somewhat cau t ious i n p r a c t i c e . Thompson de f i nes i n n o v a t i o n i n p a r t as the n e c e s s i t y of a w i l l i n g n e s s to adopt i n order t o be ab le to generate i deas . The AMS was markedly r e l u c t a n t t o adopt new ideas and he ld doggedly to no t i ons of t r a d i t i o n and h i e r a r c h y i n d e f i n i n g t h e i r programs and t h e i r r o l e . They approved the p r o j e c t most un -generously and ignored i t f o r a cons iderab le l e n g t h of t ime - the t ime p e r i o d d u r i n g which the p r o j e c t was most uns tab le f i n a n c i a l l y . The T reasu re r , the Execut ive member most c l o s e l y connected w i t h the p r o j e c t , w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y convinced of the e f f i c a c y of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . His dea l ings w i t h the house mother were q u i t e unamiguously those of an employer to an employee. I n t h i s sense h i s d i s c o m f i t u r e a t the subsequent appointment of the s t a f f person who could not be r e l a t e d to i n t h i s way could be seen as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to h i s growing h o s t i l i t y to the p r o j e c t . The ques t ion of f u n d i n g , i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the ques t ion of b u r e a u c r a t i c competence and incompetence as w e l l as to power r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f i g u r e d l a r g e l y i n AMS c r i t i c i s m s of the p r o j e c t . ( I t s omiss ion f rom the f i n a l r e p o r t by the next Treasurer i s understandable g iven t h a t 40% of the t o t a l revenues s t i l l remained unspent a t the t ime of the Home's c l o s u r e ) . For the f i r s t s i x months of the p r o j e c t ' s o p e r a t i o n the s t a t e d l ack of funds was used by the Treasurer as a p o s s i b l e , i f not p robab le , cause f o r the c l o s u r e of the Home. 148 By October t h i s t h r e a t could no longer be s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n any way because of the reduced o p e r a t i n g costs and the s u b s t a n t i a l g ran ts f rom the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundat ion and the Graduat ing Class. The p o s s i b i l i t y of government fund ing had a lso become more r e a l as the Board proceeded toward i n c o r p o r a t i o n - a necessary p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r fund ing o f t h i s t ype . I n the l a t t e r seven months of the p r o j e c t ' s ex is tence the t h r e a t s of c losu re by the Treasurer were expressed as due to the p o s s i b l e misuse of funds. The concern about the misuse of funds was always expressed i n terms of misuse of s tudent monies. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r the on ly s tudent money over which the Execut ive had any l e g a l c o n t r o l was the Students ' Counc i l g ran t of $200, which had long s ince been spent . Never the less the presence of these funds was a lso used as one of the two r a t i o n a l e s f o r the Execut ive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r o -j e c t . The E x e c u t i v e ' s concern over f i nances can be seen t o be ephemeral when the s i t u a t i o n i s examined c l o s e l y . The Graduat ing Class G i f t which guaranteed $1200 to the p r o j e c t was approved a month be fo re the Home opened a l though i t d id not appear as an e n t r y on the Record Ledger u n t i l s i x months a f t e r the Home had been c losed . There fore du r i ng the f i r s t s i x months of o p e r a t i o n the p r o j e c t had a cushion o f $1200 on which to f a l l i f o ther f u n d i n g sources had been unp roduc t i ve . The incomplete r e p o r t i n g of the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the p r o j e c t d id much to encourage the house mother to engage i n independent fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s as she saw on ly the d ismal p i c t u r e p a i n t e d by the Treasurer . By October the p r o j e c t had been granted a f u r t h e r $2500 f rom the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundat ion render ing the Home so l ven t f o r some t ime to come. This g ran t c a r r i e d w i t h i t l e g a l s t i p u l a t i o n s on how the monies were to be spent which were met by the Boards. The AMS had, t h e r e f o r e , no l e g a l 149 bas is f o r i t s involvement i n the f i n a n c i a l concerns of the p r o j e c t nor had i t any l e g a l r i g h t t o prevent the w i t h d r a w a l o f those funds f rom the AMS accounts . The accusa t ion of b u r e a u c r a t i c mismanagement could be reversed and a case made t h a t the AMS e x h i b i t e d more i n e f f i c i e n c y than d i d the Boards or the CUS Commi-t t e e . The i n a b i l i t y of the AMS to r e t r i e v e l e t t e r s of i m p o r t , the crude sys -tem of r e c o r d i n g donat ions not d i r e c t l y rece ived by the CUS Committee and the subsequent i n a b i l i t y to produce e i t h e r c o n s t i t u t i o n s or i n f o r m a t i o n concern ing to whom the ba lance of funds were pa id a l l are i n d i c a t i v e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system which was less than comple te ly e f f i c i e n t . As w e l l the charge of "c rude e x t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n " l e v e l l e d by the new Treasurer i n h i s f i n a l r e p o r t was more a p p l i c a b l e to the ac t ions of the AMS than to those of the Boards. The T r e a s u r e r ' s r e f u s a l to r e l i n q u i s h s i g n i n g powers was one example of t h i s phenomenon. The i m p o s i t i o n of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the dua l r a t i o n a l e of p o t e n t i a l mismanagement of funds and of p o s s i b l e bad p u b l i c i t y was s u r e l y ano ther , p a r t i c u l a r l y as the Execut ive c o n s i s t e n t l y neg lec ted to ment ion the a c q u i s i t i o n of the Koerner Grant which would have brought ve ry favourab le p u b l i c i t y to the p r o j e c t . The most extreme example of crude ex-t e r n a l d i r e c t i o n , however, was the e v i c t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s f rom the Home. Not on ly was t h i s ac t c a r r i e d out w i t h o u t proper c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h e i t h e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o j e c t or the Counc i l bu t i t was e x t r a l e g a l . The AMS d i d not have any commitment i n the form of a. lease or r e n t a l agreement w i t h the l a n d l o r d and t h e r e f o r e had a b s o l u t e l y no a u t h o r i t y to take the ac-t i o n they took . The ques t ion o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s aga in can be r a i s e d i n regard to t h i s a c t i o n . A l l the women i n the Home had been p laced by e i t h e r 150 the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch Counse l lo rs or by C i t y Wel fare workers . To say the l e a s t . c l o s u r e of the Home i n t h i s manner d i d not r e f l e c t w e l l on the s t u d e n t s . I n summation, the charges of b u r e a u c r a t i c mismanagement and the counter charge o f p e t t y bureaucracy seem to be on the one hand an argument about form versus content v ; i t h the AMS accusing the Boards of bad form w h i l e the Boards defended themselves on the bas is of the u l t i m a t e v a l i d i t y of t h e i r c o n t e n t . On the o the r hand the charges cou ld a l s o be seen as a c o n f l i c t over i d e o l o -g i c a l o u t l o o k . This p o s i t i o n could be argued w i t h some c e r t a i n t y i n regard to the T reasure r . However, a t l e a s t th ree members of an Execut ive composed o f s i x , had on v a r i o u s occassions expressed themselves as e m p h a t i c a l l y i n favour o f the p r i n c i p l e s of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. (On these occassions they by no means r e f l e c t e d the v iew of the Counc i l as a who le , however the E x e c u t i v e ' s a c t i o n s concerning the Home were never i n response t o C o u n c i l ' s concerns . ) The Execut ive represented among i t s s i x members a wide spectrum of f o rma l p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n , f rom Socred to L i b e r a l to NDP to Communist Par ty of Canada. The d ivergence of p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n d i d express i t s e l f i n a l a c k of unanimi ty on p o l i t i c a l quest ions such as the t e n t - i n and the p u b l i c s tatements dec ry ing s tudent scabbing. This was not the case i n t h e i r d e l i -b e r a t i o n s on the Co-op Home. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n and subsequent r e p o r t were w r i t t e n by a c t i v e members of the S o c i a l C r e d i t League and the Communist Par ty o f Canada. The remainder o f the E x e c u t i v e , c o n s i s t i n g o f s m a l l and l a r g e ' L ' l i b e r a l s and s o c i a l democrats r e a d i l y endorsed the r e p o r t , re fused to cons ider the i n t e r v e n t i o n s o f the CUS Committee and Board members, and argued f o r the r e p o r t ' s adopt ion i n the subsequent Counc i l meet ing . That the unan im i t y 151 e x h i b i t e d on t h i s occassion was r e a l was apparent by the way i n which the , Execut ive had ignored the i n t e r v e n t i o n s which had been made by i n d i v i d u a l s who were persona l f r i e n d s o f a t l e a s t h a l f the Execut ive members. The a t y p i c a l unan imi ty of the Execut ive on t h i s one issue when taken toge ther w i t h t h e i r s t a t e d disagreement on the ph i losophy of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e t h a t the r o o t cause f o r the Home's f a i l u r e l ay e lsewhere. The d i s c u s s i o n on rac ism i n Chapter I e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t rac ism i s the i d e o l o -g i c a l express ion of s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of oppress ion i n h e r e n t i n the s o c i e t y . I t i s one aspect o f the hegemony and i s thus promulgated by the v a r i o u s s t a t e apparatuses. As such, the ideo logy of rac ism i s a power fu l m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n shaping the consciousness o f the i n d i v i d u a l members of the s o c i e t y . I t p rov ides f o r them a r a t i o n a l e f o r the o therwise t o t a l l y d i s -crepant p o s i t i o n s between the ideo logy of e q u a l i t y and t h a t o f s t r u c t u r a l l y denying e q u a l i t y to p a r t i c u l a r segments of the p o p u l a t i o n . I n B l a u ' s example from The Dynamics of Bureaucracy he suggests t h a t the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a c t i o n s o f the members of the bureaucracy toward Black c l i e n t s stemmed not f rom t h e i r own b i a s but f rom the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y demands of the " p o w e r f u l employers who • made the h i r i n g d e c i s i o n s , " (1963:98.) and f o r whom the bureaucracy e x i s t e d . This a n a l y s i s confuses the ac t of oppress ion w i t h i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t i s , rac i sm, which i s i n c u l c a t e d i n t o the members o f the bureaucracy through t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y , a l l o w i n g them to u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y process the c l i e n t s i n a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y f a s h i o n . B lau p o i n t s out i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the f e d e r a l law enforcement agency t h a t the i n d i v i -duals were eager and w i l l i n g to c a r r y out the law enforcement d u t i e s t h e i r jobs r e q u i r e d because they had an i d e o l o g i c a l commitment to the p r i n c i p l e s of the New Deal which had created the laws they en fo rced . I t i s conce ivab le 152 t h a t the employees of the s t a t e h i r i n g agency could have worked to en force the a n t i - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n than i n e x i s t e n c e ' i f they too had had an i d e o l o g i c a l commitment to oppose r a c i s t p r a c t i c e s . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h such a power fu l ideo logy as rac ism i s t ha t most people are unconscious of t h e i r r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g i t . I f they are not p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y or p a s s i v e l y i n the p h y s i c a l b r u t a l i z a t i o n of a group or a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n d i v i d u a l they view themselves as n o n - r a c i s t i f they cons ider the mat te r a t a l l . I do not f e e l i t necessary to en ter i n t o a leng thy defense of the presence of s t r u c t u r a l oppress ion and of rac ism regard ing n a t i v e peoples i n Canada. I n the recent past many books have been pub l i shed on the sub jec t documenting the presence of rac ism and i t s s t r u c t u r a l o r i g i n s form a persona l and a genera l t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The reader who remains unconvinced of t h i s f a c t a f t e r read ing the I n d i a n Act i s r e f e r r e d to the genera l works of such au thors as Hawthorn (1966 ) , F i e l d s and Stanbury (1970) , and the Canadian Cor rec t i ons Assoc ia t i ons (1966) , and to persona l accounts such as those of C a r d i n a l (1969) , Waubageshig (1970) , and Campbell (1973) . The r e f u s a l to cons ider the p o s s i b i l i t y of r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s was present i n a l l the ac to rs i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the p lanne rs . There i s no evidence t h a t any of the group quest ioned the d e s i r a b i l i t y of the concept or the s t r u c t u r a l e x c l u s i o n of the I n d i a n women from the dec is ions most d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t to them such as those concerning length of s tay i n the Home. There was a s t rong assumption of Tightness which permeated the b r i e f s and proposals concern ing the removal of the women from the wretched environment of s k i d row i n order t h a t they might develop t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a more conducive 153 environment. Hugh Brody, i n a s e n s i t i v e study of native peoples i n the skid row environ-ment writes of th i s kind of endeavour: "The Indians ... con s t i t u t e a sub-culture w i t h i n the i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y which has moral and s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s systematically at odds with those of the mainstream society. ... Many of these migrants are glad of help. What they are much less glad of i s a presump-tuous claim by the helper that the Indian on skid road i s quite obviously i n desparate need of reform. The experience of the ski d road Indian i n many cases disconfirms that view, for he frequently knows very w e l l j u s t how d i f f i c u l t , h o s t i l e , and a l i e n the a l t e r n a t i v e forms of l i f e i n the c i t y are. (1971:59.) The planning committee r e f e r r e d , i n t h e i r second b r i e f , to the " r e l a t i v e i n -ef f e c t i v e n e s s " of the c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as a causal f a c t o r i n the high rate of r e c i d i v i s m among Indian women from skid road. "Upon release the g i r l i s forced by circumstances to go back to Skid Road and the cyc l e g [of crimes without v i c t i m s ] begins anew." What they f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y , for themselves or t h e i r readers, was the r e a l i t y of the h o s t i l e , a l i e n e n v i r -onment outside the parameters of skid row as a much more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . By neglecting t h i s primary aspect of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p they maintained, i m p l i c i t l y , the stereotype of the native as lazy,drunken, amoral and i r r e s -ponsible. Brody's d e s c r i p t i o n of sk i d road and the dynamics of the ethnic r e l a t i o n s are pertinent to consider at th i s time. He writes: " I t i s the most dispossed of society who gather together on skid row. ... It can be repeated that almost no one on skid row has been s o c i a l i z e d there, and the majority of mainstream conceptions are brought i n by the migrants themselves. Even i n the terms of the migrant, therefore, skid row i s associated with f a i l u r e w i t h i n the society as a whole. 154 "But within the skid row the r e l a t i v e f a i l u r e of the two groups [native and white] i s d i f f e r e n t . That i s to say, while the ski d row white f e e l s he i s at the base of the s o c i a l system, he can qual-i f y that p o s i t i o n to h i s advantage by being a r a c i s t , consoling himself i n the b e l i e f that the Indians form a s u b s t a n t i a l group below him. "On the other hand, the Indian can q u a l i f y h i s sense of f a i l u r e by sharing h i s l i f e with non-Indians. If i t i s accepted that non-Indians are i n e v i t a b l y superior to Indians, then i n making an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with non-Indians the Indian i s not as s o c i a l l y relegated as he i s i n separation from the white.... In l i v i n g on skid row h i s l i f e i s f u l l e r , i n pure status terms, i n v i r t u e of the skid row mixture of Whites and Indians. That i s not the case i n any other part of the c i t y . ... Thus i t can be seen once again that skid row o f f e r s the Indian a m i l i e u i n which h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t i s enhanced. But i t i s a c o r o l l a r y of t h i s enhance-ment that he must accept the White's racism: status accrues j u s t because being with Whites i s bette r than not being with Whites. "For the White t h i s involves the merging of racism i n theory with a s s i m i l a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e : f o r the Indian i t involves the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of White views of Indians." (1971:51.) Thus despite the tremendous cost to the native person's sense of s e l f the skid road environment o f f e r s to the i n d i v i d u a l a l e s s h o s t i l e environment than that offered elsewhere. The native person i s able to make contact with the white socie t y at the l e v e l of the lumpenproletariat with some degree of mutual i n t e r a c t i o n . The almost u n i v e r s a l misunderstanding of t h i s r e a l i t y and of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the lumpenproletariat as a d i s t i n c t c l a s s r e s u l t s i n the f a i l u r e of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n techniques used by most s o c i a l work agencies, public and p r i v a t e . "The e f f o r t s of s o c i a l workers and others to deal with the problems which i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e among a group i n t h i s predicament, have on the whole been unsuccessful and a l i t t l e misguided Skid road's advantages are not understood by the majority of people 155 whose job i t i s to tackle i t s problems. Few of them are Indian, and a l l tend to place high value on and have unshakeable f a i t h i n upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . I t should be c l e a r from t h i s report, as from the work of Hawthorn and others, that f o r the Indian upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s profoundly c h i m e r i c a l . " (1971:72.) The planners did not f e e l uncomfortable with the house mother f or she too, as Brody descrives, placed her f a i t h i n upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . Her d i f f i c u l t i e s with the Board came l a t e r when her own attempts at mob i l i t y came into c o n f l i c t with those of the Board. Although they viewed the Home and the residents i n a p a t e r n a l i s t i c way (which some of my native friends describe as the worst form of racism) they did not wish to place i t i n the p o s i t i o n of a ch a r i t y or themselves as doing "good works." As was stated i n Chapter 3 the Board members underwent some s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n a t t i t u d e during the project's -active l i f e . These changes seem to have begun with the in c r e a s i n g l y obvious differences i n philosophy between the Board and the house mother. I r o n i c a l l y perhaps the diff e r e n c e s were no less p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n nature but only i n degree. They objected to the house mother's r e f u s a l to encourage the residents to develop r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Home and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s but s t i l l retained the r i g h t (never practiced) of judging the readiness of the residents to leave the Home. Expressed d i f f e r e n t l y , they objected to the house mother's assessment that the residents needed constant supervision but agreed that the residents required ultimate supervision i n making decisions. By the time the house mother l e f t and was replaced by the s t a f f person the Board was less sure of i t s p o s i t i o n . The quiet i n s i s t e n c e of the s t a f f person that the residents become f u l l y involved met with ho obvious opposition. The c a p a b i l i t i e s of the women when contrasted with the accusations of the house 156 mother on her r e t u r n and the c la ims of r e s i d e n t abuse from her suppor te rs seemed t o convince many, i f not a l l , the Board members t h a t the a c t i o n s and ph i losophy o f the s t a f f person were c o r r e c t . F u r t h e r , the Board members who expoused i d e a l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n could f i n d l i t t l e argument f o r denying i t . to the r e s i d e n t s as they cont inued to prove t h e i r a b i l i t y to m a i n t a i n the Home more cheaply and e f f i c i e n t l y than b e f o r e . This example i l l u s t r a t e s one f a c e t of the unconscious r a c i s t p o s i t i o n . When rac ism i s adopted by d e f a u l t , as i t were , r a t h e r than as a conscious p h i l o s o -phy f o r ove r t a c t i o n there i s a g rea te r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l exper iences o f the type descr ibed here w i l l be e f f i c a c i o u s i n d isabus ing people of t h e i r r a c i s t r e a c t i o n s . I t might be specu la ted t h a t t h i s i s due i n p a r t to the l ack of r e a l need f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to m a i n t a i n a r a c i s t s tance i f he/she i s not d i r e c t l y i n a p o s i t i o n to lose economica l ly by be ing n o n - r a c i s t . I t may a lso be due to a r e l u c t a n c e to c o n f r o n t the a l t e r n a t i v e of becoming o v e r t -l y r a c i s t i n speech and a c t i o n . Desp i te the slow r e v e r s a l i n p o l i c y to the p o i n t where the Board a c t i v e l y moved to t u r n a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g f i s c a l ones over to the r e s i d e n t s the Board never con f ron ted the issue of rac i sm. They d iscussed t h e i r changing a t t i t u d e s i n terms of c o - o p e r a t i v e l i v i n g ph i l osoph ies and i n terms of complete disenchantment w i t h the AMS p o l i c i e s which had become major s tumbl ing b locks i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p r o j e c t and to i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as an independent s o c i e t y . I was con f ron ted q u i t e g r a p h i c a l l y w i t h the s h i f t i n p o s i t i o n and the concomitant change i n ph i losophy a t the l a s t meet ing I a t t ended . That was the meet ing a t which the Board moved to open the bank account , appo in t 157 s i g n i n g o f f i c e r s from among the r e s i d e n t s and i n genera l adopt the new con-s t i t u t i o n ' s framework of o r g a n i z a t i o n . A f t e r the meet ing my replacement as in -coming CUS Chairman, and another p o t e n t i a l s tudent member of the Board approached me w i t h some f e e l i n g s of anger and asked what t h e i r r o l e cou ld be now t h a t the r e s i d e n t s were t a k i n g c o n t r o l . They were d isp leased a t the thought t ha t they might con t inue to a id the r e s i d e n t s bu t would no longer have a con-t r o l l i n g r o l e . Both of them subsequent ly j o i n e d fo rces w i t h members of the Execut ive to shut down the p r o j e c t . The d i f f e r i n g r o l e s and a t t i t u d e s of the house mother and the s t a f f person have been d iscussed a t l eng th i n Chapters 2 and 3. The house mother was the v i c t i m of the r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s of the s o c i e t y and had at tempted to f i g h t them by adopt ing an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n . The s t a f f person, because of a d i f f -e ren t pe rsona l h i s t o r y had r e j e c t e d t h i s n o n - s o l u t i o n and had chosen a more aggress ive and p o l i t i c a l ph i losophy w i t h which to guide her a c t i o n s . She b e l i e v e d i n a t t a c k i n g the " f i n a l ass ign ing of v a l u e s " from a more m i l i t a n t and less de fens ive p o s i t i o n . Th is method brought about s h o r t - t e r m success i n regard t o the p r o j e c t bu t i t a l so f o r ced a f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the p r o j e c t by those f o r c e s opposing h e r . The f i r s t fo rces of o p p o s i t i o n were composed of a combinat ion of the sma l l c o n t r i b u t o r s , non -na t i ve members of the. Board and s t a f f a t the Vancouver I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p Center , and the house mother. The house mother a p p a r e n t l y had not thought the Board would f i n d a permanent replacement i n her absence and reac ted w i t h cons iderab le dismay a t f i n d i n g the p o s i t i o n f i l l e d on her r e t u r n . Her dismay was compounded when she d iscovered t h a t her replacement was the a n t i t h e s i s of her image of the i d e a l n a t i v e person. The s t a f f person 158 was not on ly u n w i l l i n g to promote an a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n bu t was encoura-g ing the c o n t r o l l e d use o f a l c o h o l i n the Home, and the presence of young male f r i e n d s of the r e s i d e n t s . F u r t h e r , the s t a f f person h e r s e l f had had a c h i l d w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f l e g a l s a n c t i o n s . I n her sense of h u r t and anger the house mother tu rned to those who had supported her e a r l i e r f u n d - r a i s i n g appeals . I n the sma l l donors she found ready suppor t . The i r l e t t e r s enc los ing dona-t i o n s i n d i c a t e overwhelmingly t h a t they viewed the p r o j e c t as a program of succour to the h e l p l e s s r a t h e r than an experiment i n ways to p rov ide m a t e r i a l a i d f o r a s e l f - h e l p program which was the way i n which the p r o j e c t was des-c r ibed i n the g ran t a p p l i c a t i o n to the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundat ion . The s o - c a l l e d change i n p o l i c y was i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the way i n which the smal l donors had viewed the p r o j e c t and t h e i r own c h a r i t a b l e donat ions to i t . The members of the I n d i a n Center a c t i v e l y opposed to the s t a f f person and to the "change" i n d i r e c t i o n were n o n - I n d i a n . They were a l so the most v o c i f e r o u s i n t h e i r advocacy of e i t h e r a h o s t e l which would p rov ide temporary a m e l i o r a t i v e care or of a s t r o n g l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n longer term l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n . Some of these i n d i v i d u a l s subsequent ly l e f t the Center and s t a r t e d a h o s t e l o p e r a t i o n which emphasized t o t a l abs t inence f rom " t h e s ins of the f l e s h " and a heavy r e l i a n c e on s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h i a t r i c c o u n s e l l i n g . Echoing Brody 's p r e -d i c t i o n s the r e c i d i v i s m form t h i s h o s t e l has been overwhelming and the successes i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s l i g h t . 7 The Alma Mater Soc ie ty supported the proposed p r o j e c t f o r reasons s i m i l a r to those o f the sma l l donors . They viewed the p r o j e c t as a n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l a t tempt by s tudents to engage i n a c h a r i t a b l e a c t i o n which would r e f l e c t w e l l on the s tudent body as a whole. The amount of money they vo ted to the 159 p r o j e c t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the donat ions they made to o ther ventures such as the Heart Fund and the Cys t i c F i b r o s i s campaigns sponsored by v a r i o u s f a c u l t i e s . The Counc i l as such, d i d not hear of the p r o j e c t aga in u n t i l the i n v e s t i g a t o r s ' r e p o r t and composite mot ion were presented to i t a p p r o x i -mate ly e i g h t months l a t e r . The T reasure r , as I have suggested p r e v i o u s l y , looked upon the p r o j e c t s p e c i -f i c a l l y as a c h a r i t y c reated to he lp the needy. Jus t as he r e i n f o r c e d the house mother ' s concern w i t h fund ing f rom sma l l donors by appeals t o t h e i r c h a r i t y so the house mother r e i n f o r c e d h i s view of the p r o j e c t as a d m i n i s t e r -i n g to s o c i a l c r i p p l e s . He saw no c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n her v iew t h a t the r e s i d e n t s were u n t r u s t w o r t h y and r e q u i r e d cons iderab le c o n t r o l . On the c o n t r a r y he encouraged her view by agreeing to the need f o r a second s t a f f person to a s s i s t her i n her superv iso ry r o l e . His communications w i t h the s tudent Board members became g r a d u a l l y harsher i n tone as he perce ived the growing d i ss idence between the Board and the house mother. As an opponent of p a r t i c i p a t o r y demo-cracy and a s t r o n g advocate of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s he was c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s o p p o s i t i o n to the c o - o p e r a t i v e ph i l osophy . The new s t a f f person p r e s e n - ' ted r e a l problems to h im. Her r e f u s a l to respond to him i n terms of the employer - employee r e l a t i o n s h i p which he had adopted w i t h the house mother together w i t h her r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k , combined to make r e l a t i o n s cons ide rab ly more h o s t i l e . The Treasurer never a t tacked the s t a f f person d i r e c t l y b u t h i s c r i t i c i s m of the Board and l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n were i n t e n -s i f i e d by her presence i n the p r o j e c t . The o ther Execut ive member who had had d i r e c t con tac t w i t h the p r o j e c t was the 160 V i c e - P r e s i d e n t who co-authored the i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e p o r t . His con tac t had been l a r g e l y i n f o r m a l as he had come t o the Home i n the f i r s t months of i t s ex is tence i n order to v i s i t the s tudent w h i l e she was i n res idence . He had not a t tended a Board meet ing nor had he had any r o l e i n work ing to e s t a b l i s h or fund the p r o j e c t . The Pres iden t of the AMS had c o n s i s t e n t l y dec l i ned d i r e c t requests by me as CUS Chairperson to i n t e r v e n e w i t h the Treasurer and to d i r e c t him to recogn ize the . t reasu re r appointed by the Board. His f i r s t con tac t w i t h the Home occur -red the n i g h t he a t tended , i n the company of the T reasu re r , the e x t r a o r d i n a r y Board meet ing c a l l e d to cons ider s p e c i f i c a l l y the house mother ' s a l l e g a t i o n s concern ing her f i r i n g and the changes i n p o l i c y implemented i n her absence. Both these o f f i c e r s chose to i g n o r e the f a c t t h a t the issues were d e a l t w i t h t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the Pres iden t o f the I n d i a n F r iendsh ip Center and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch who were a lso i n at tendence a t t h a t meet ing . They a lso chose to ignore the f a c t t h a t those p a r t i e s most d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the p r o j e c t , the major fund ing and placement agenc ies , were not concerned w i t h the a l l e g a t i o n s . The P r e s i d e n t , Treasurer and V i c e -Pres ident decided to pursue t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s , us ing as t h e i r r a t i o n a l e the specious arguments of misuse of s tudent funds and p o s s i b l e bad p u b l i c i t y . The Execut ive r e f r a i n e d , i n a l l t h e i r communicat ions, f rom r e f e r r i n g to the presence of n a t i v e people i n the p r o j e c t . However, they had made e x p l i c i t assumptions concern ing the c a p a b i l i t i e s o f the r e s i d e n t s and p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t s . The co-au thors of the r e p o r t s p e l l e d out i n d e t a i l t h a t type of person e l i g i b l e 161 f o r res idency . These were not to be " w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d work ing g i r l s " bu t r a t h e r e x - r e s i d e n t s of s k i d row who were mot iva ted t o become w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d work ing g i r l s and renounce t h e i r former ways. I m p l i c i t l y , they were to be n a t i v e women who des i red a s s i m i l a t i o n . A f u r t h e r assumption of the Execut ive was t h a t as n a t i v e women who asp i red to " w h i t e " va lues they were not capable o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r l i v e s but had to be guided and c o n t r o l l e d . This was ev iden t i n t h e i r r e f u s a l to recogn ize the ex is tence of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e i r moves to make i n c o r p o r a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t by r e - s t r u c t u r i n g , by f i a t , the make-up o f the Board and the way i n which i t r epo r ted t o the AMS. When the Board members cont inued to move i n the d i r e c t i o n of g r a n t i n g autonomy to the r e s i d e n t s the AMS Execut ive made t h e i r f i n a l and most d e c i s i v e move - they i l l e g a l l y e v i c t e d the r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f person. The a c t i o n s o f the p lanners and Board members had i n i t i a l l y been mot i va ted by a r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . Over t ime the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the r a c i s t s t e r e o -type had become c l e a r and the i n d i v i d u a l s had changed t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l though they had never con f ron ted the ques t i on of rac ism i n the group. The AMS was a lso a c t i n g f rom r a c i s t mo t i ves . T h e i r exposure to the r e s i d e n t s and s t a f f person and t h e i r commitment to the p r o j e c t were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o cause them t o examine t h e i r v a l u e s . They were w i l l i n g to assume, a p r i o r i , t h a t n a t i v e women were incompetent and n o t h i n g they wi tnessed would convince them o t h e r -w i s e . To do so would have meant very d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s on t h e i r p a r t . Perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the ac t i ons and m o t i v a t i o n s of bo th p a r t i e s was t h a t they- s t a t e d them i n b u r e a u c r a t i c terms. Th is seems p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n of the l a c k of consciousness of rac ism i n Canadian s o c i e t y i n the 162 m i d - s i x t i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y i t was a p e r i o d when Canadians were s t i l l ab le to i gno re the very presence of n a t i v e people and c o n g r a t u l a t e themselves on be ing d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e i r neighbours to the sou th . Only a f t e r the p u b l i c a -t i o n of the s tud ies by Hawthorn (1966) , the Canadian Cor rec t ions A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1 9 6 6 )3 and those more express ly p o l i t i c a l accounts w r i t t e n by n a t i v e peoples,, was the problem of rac ism i n Canada fo rced i n t o the p u b l i c consciousness. That i t was unwelcome was ev iden t f rom the c r i t i c i s m which the Canadian I n d i a n P a v i l i o n at Expo '67 rece ived f o r t e l l i n g g r a p h i c a l l y some segments of the r e a l h i s t o r y of n a t i v e peoples i n t h i s c o u n t r y . To choose bureaucracy as the scape-goat appealed to the p r o t a g o n i s t s i n the p r o j e c t because o f r e c e p t i v i t y t o charges of t echn ic i sm on the one hand and charges of l a c k of good management on the o ther by members of the s o c i e t y . B u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n per se may be a n e u t r a l ins t rument as Blau suggests. I t i s a l so a sys temat ized power r e l a t i o n s h i p which can be used to c rea te or des t roy by those who ho ld the power. I n the case of the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women the AMS Execu t i ve r e p r e -s e n t i n g the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y , chose because of unrecognized r a c i s t m o t i v a t i o n s to a t t a c k a p r o j e c t which was becoming more a c t i v e l y n o n - r a c i s t . A l though t h e i r means became less l e g a l as the s t r u g g l e progressed they main ta ined s u f f i c i e n t c r e d i b i l i t y because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y to des t roy the c r e d i b i l i t y of the p r o j e c t and i t s members f i r s t . The Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women f a i l e d because the r a c i s t ideo logy which i s a s t r u c t u r a l element of the hegemonic r e l a t i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y was a t t h a t t ime too w e l l d i sgu ised to be con f ron ted by e i t h e r s i d e . This a l lowed the m y s t i f i c a t i o n of mismanagement to become a r a t i o n a l e behind which bo th major p a r t i e s could h i d e . 163 I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n I descr ibed some of the processes i nvo l ved i n the prolonged search f o r an a n a l y t i c a l framework f rom which a cogent and h i s t o r i c a l l y accura te a n a l y s i s of the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women could be developed. The framework I adopted had as i t s bas i s an a n a l y s i s of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s as pu rpose fu l i ns t ruments f o r the p romulga t ion of the predominant i d e o l o g i e s of the Soc ie ty . From t h i s p o s i t i o n I proceeded to a d i s c u s s i o n of rac ism as a predominant i deo logy i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s who, by d e f i n i t i o n , p r a c t i c e tbe sys temat ic e x p l o i t a t i o n of groups who can be de f ined " r a c i a l l y . " (That t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y b r i e f i s due to the absence of a n a l y t i c a l m a t e r i a l and my t ime c o n s t r a i n t s on deve lop ing the argument more t h o r o u g h l y . ) As an ideo logy rac ism i s i n c u l c a t e d i n t o the members of the s o c i e t y th rough the m u l t i p l i c i t y of s o c i a l i z i n g agenc ies . A l l these agencies are organized to a g rea te r or l e s s e r ex ten t accord ing t o the model of r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , whose development was a necessary c o n d i t i o n f o r the development o f a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . A f u r t h e r re f inement of the t h e s i s i s t h a t the n o t i o n o f the importance and n e c e s s i t y of r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e i s i t s e l f an i d e o l o g i c a l p e r c e p t i o n whose bas is l i e s i n the n e c e s s i t y of t h i s type of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the maintenance of s o c i e t y a t a c a p i t a l i s t l e v e l . However, bo th t h i s and r a c i s t i deo logy are acted upon unconsc ious ly by the m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s . The d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n s of the p r o j e c t , which i n t roduces Chapter Two, e s t a b l i s h e s the presence of rac ism as an unconscious m o t i v a t i o n f o r i n i t i a t -i ng such a p r o j e c t i n such a manner and f o r deve lop ing the p a r t i c u l a r , h i e r -a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . The u n i v e r s a l presence of r a c i s t ideo logy i s r e i n f o r c e d by the d e s c r i p t i o n of ac ts of perce ived good w i l l on the p a r t of members of the 164 community who were moved t o a c t i o n by newspaper a r t i c l e s and speeches. I t i s obvious t h a t t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s , as was the case w i t h the p lanners and house mother , were not consc ious ly r a c i s t . The rac ism i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r behaviour i s ev iden t on ly when t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e i r words together are examined ob-j e c t i v e l y . The house mother p rov ides an e x c e l l e n t example of the r e a c t i o n by the v i c t i m t o rac ism which i s f r e q u e n t l y l a b e l l e d as " reve rse r a c i s m . " I have t r i e d to show, c o n c r e t e l y , why t h i s k i n d o f l a b e l i s bo th i n a c c u r a t e and c o u n t e r - p r o -d u c t i v e to the unders tand ing of rac ism as a u n i v e r s a l phenomenon. Her t ragedy was t h a t she had accepted the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n w i t h i t s e x c l u s i v e em-phas is on the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l v i c t i m to conform to imposs ib le s tand -a r d s . C o n t i n u a l l y con f ron ted by f a i l u r e she unders tandably developed a s t rong resentment toward the au thors of her dilemma - the members of the m a j o r i t y s o c i e t y . The sad i r o n y of her s i t u a t i o n was t h a t her p o s i t i o n f r e q u e n t l y i s o -l a t e d her f rom her n a t u r a l a l l i e s , f o r c i n g her to seek support among those who, o b j e c t i v e l y , were the p e r p e t u a t o r s of her di lemma. The s t a f f person, i n r e j e c t i n g the a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n , avoided the dilemma of the house mother. Through her presence i n the Home she was ab le to beg in the process of changing the s t r u c t u r e f rom a r a c i s t to a n o n - r a c i s t b a s i s . However, because the ques t ion of rac ism was never addressed d i r e c t l y , she was defeated i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u g g l e . The importance of the study of the Co-opera t i ve Home, i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r than i t s s i z e and d u r a t i o n . The a b i l i t y to document i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d rac ism i n t h i s s e t t i n g i m p l i e s the s t rong p o s s i b i l i t y of documenting i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d 165 rac ism on a f a r l a r g e r sca le i n o ther p r o j e c t s and programs whose o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t ronger and concomi tan t l y more d i f f i c u l t to r e s t r u c t u r e . R e s i d e n t i a l p r o -grams have, i n the seven years f o l l o w i n g the c losu re of the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I n d i a n Women, been e s t a b l i s h e d across Canada by governmental and non-governmental agenc ies . Wi th few except ions they have been e s t a b l i s h e d or con-t r o l l e d by n o n - I n d i a n peop le . The fund ing sources have been p r i m a r i l y govern -m e n t a l . The i r mandates have been again w i t h few excep t ions , to p rov ide the k ind o f s e r v i c e Brody speaks of i n h i s study Ind ians on Skid Row (1971.) quoted above on pp. 154-155. That i s t o say, the programs are h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i -zed and a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n na tu re w i t h the u l t i m a t e goa l of changing the n a t i v e person i n t o the c l a r i c a t u r e which a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t s see as the f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o the I n d i a n Problem. Na t i ve o r g a n i z a t i o n s which a t tempt to f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o the problems f a c i n g the urban n a t i v e person i n a n o n - h i e r a r c h i c a l , non-a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t way meet w i t h l i t t l e support a t best and more f r e q u e n t l y , the k i n d o f a c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s case s tudy . The problem of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d rac ism w i l l not d i m i n i s h un less and u n t i l much more work i s done i n deve lop ing the t h e o r e t i c a l unders tand ing of i t s mechanisms. Th is work can bes t be accomplished by widespread examinat ion of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s who se rve , i n a minor or major way, as p a r t s of the mechanism f o r m a i n t a i n i n g r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . The i m p l i c a t i o n s do not end w i t h the examinat ion of r a c i s t i d e o l o g y . The phenomenon, now c a l l e d sexism, i s analogous to t h a t of r a c i s m . Ignored u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d oppress ion of women has s i m i l a r o r i g i n s and s i m i l a r express ions . The most o v e r t of the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of sexism are 166 now be ing a t tacked w i t h some l i m i t e d success. However, the c o v e r t , i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z e d forms w i l l r e q u i r e the same k ind of r i g o r o u s t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c -t i c a l research so necessary to an unders tand ing of the phenomenon of r a c i s m . Ezorsky, i n a recen t a r t i c l e i n the New York Review of Books (XX1(8) :32-39) d iscusses the ways i n which the v e r y min imal request t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s not demand h igher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f rom female candidates than f rom male candidates f o r the same p o s i t i o n s has been rece ived by the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the USA. Ob-s f u c a t i o n of the i ssue of o b j e c t i v e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , by c la ims t h a t the reques t would r e s u l t i n " r e v e r s e sexism" and d e s t r u c t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s i s analagous to the process documented i n the case s tudy . The d i f f i -c u l t y i n a t t a c k i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s of rac ism or sexism i s t h e r e f o r e compounded. Not on ly i s the rac ism or sexism present i n b o t h the i n d i v i d u a l s and the s t r u c t u r e bu t the v i c t i m i s a l so con f ron ted by the genera l d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n h e r e n t i n the r a t i o n a l - l e g a l b u r e a u c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , of promot ing i n n o -v a t i o n . The presence of e i t h e r (o r more f r e q u e n t l y both) of these oppress ive i d e o l o g i e s can on ly be combatted by exposing them by means o f v a s t l y increased r e s e a r c h . Fu tu re t h e o r e t i c a l developments must s u r e l y a lso c o n s i d e r , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the comp l i ca t i ng f a c t o r of c l a s s . The k n o t t y problems present i n the i n c l u s i o n of c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i ven the present t h e o r e t i c a l d i s p u t e s over the exact na tu re of c lass i n the l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , appeared too p r o h i b i t i v e to war ran t t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s tudy of the problem. I am hope-f u l t h a t o thers w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to the debate enab l ing the development of a much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d unders tand ing of the problems i n h e r e n t i n an a n a l y s i s of the oppress ive f o r c e s of rac ism and sexism. The b a t t l e i s j o i n e d ! 167 Footnotes 1. The recommended mo t ion , passed a t the Students ' Counc i l meet ing was : - * (a) That the funds remain ing i n the co-op home account be d i v i d e d i n t o th ree p o r t i o n s : -Koerner Grant $1,375.32 Grad Class 1,143.59 Sundry G i f t s 1,101.90 (b) That the funds i n the Koerner Grant p o r t i o n be he ld i n t r u s t by the Treasurer of the AMS pending i n s t r u c t i o n s from the D i r e c t o r s of the Leon and Thea Koerner Found-a t i o n as to t h e i r d i s p o s i t i o n , and f u r t h e r t h a t the Koerner Foundat ion be urged to cons ider d i r e c t i n g these funds to the Nasaika Lodge Soc ie ty . (c) That the Treasurer be au tho r i zed a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n and s u b j e c t , i f necessary to the approva l of major donors , to d i r e c t the funds of the Sundry G i f t s p o r t i o n to the Nasaika Lodge Soc ie t y . (d) That the T reasu re r , a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n , and sub jec t i f necessary to the approva l of an execu t i ve member of the 1965-66 Graduat ing Class be a u t h o r i z e d to d i r e c t the funds of the Grad Class p o r t i o n to the Nasaika Lodge Soc ie ty or to any o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n whose o b j e c t s are s i m i l a r to those of the CUS I n d i a n Co-op Home. I was unable to a s c e r t a i n whether t h i s procedure was c a r r i e d o u t . The on ly records the AMS has of the f i n a l f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s are th ree disbursements on the Record Ledger Card i d e n t i f i e d by cheque numbers. The s t a f f was unable to l o c a t e records of t o whom these cheques were i ssued . 2. The f i l e s on the p r o j e c t c o n t a i n my submission and one o t h e r , bo th of which make t h i s comment. I n persona l communications and p u b l i c statements by o ther s tudent members t h i s ques t ion was a lso r a i s e d . Due to the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y invoked by the AMS execu t i ve a t the t ime of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n and the subsequent d e s t r u c t i o n o f submissions I am unable to comment on the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the non-s tudent members may a lso have been concerned w i t h t h i s l a c k . 3. Th is was the woman who had been a member of the p lann ing commit tee, l i v e d i n the home, known both the s t a f f people and had sat on the Board and v a r i o u s committees. 4. Some members of the Execut ive were pa id d u r i n g the summer months to a l l o w them to devote t h e i r f u l l a t t e n t i o n to the f u n c t i o n s of the Soc ie t y . 5. Dur ing the two years I was d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the Soc ie ty as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t many suggest ions to min imize the amount of d u p l i c a t i o n and paper work were met w i t h h o s t i l i t y by the Execu t i ves . 168 6. The most dramatic case of t h i s sort occurred i n 1965 and involved an ad hoc group of students dubbed the "Seven Dwarves" who, demanded that the Council p a r t i c i p a t e i n the CUS National Student Day demonstrations for which the AMS representatives had voted at the previous CUS Congress. The nature of the demonstration was to be a march by the students to the Bayshore Inn, where the Ass o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges of Canada was holding a meeting. The demands of the students were to freeze t u i t i o n fees at t h e i r present l e v e l i n order to mitigate the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by lower income students and poten-t i a l students. The Council refused to p a r t i c i p a t e and the "Se-ven Dwarves" prepared a l e a f l e t , rented buses and obtained the necessary permits from the p o l i c e . On the evening before the demonstration, when i t was cl e a r that the demonstration had considerable student support, the Council reconsidered and led the march on the following day. The CUS res o l u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g the National Student Day had also dealt with the necessity of forming l o c a l education a c t i o n committees to confront the pro-blem of u n i v e r s a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y to higher education. Again the "Seven Dwarves" through l e a f l e t i n g s and coverage i n the student newspaper succeeded i n f o r c i n g the Council to e s t a b l i s h such a committee under i t s aegis. 7. From an unpublished paper by P h i l l i p G e r i s i l o , December 1973. No t i t l e . 8. From the second funding b r i e f prepared by the Indian A f f a i r s sub-committee, "A Co-operative Home for Indian Women" published by the UBC-AMS Committee of the Canadian Union of Students, n.d. p . l . 169 Appendix 1 I n d i a n G i r l s Co-op House, Board of D i r e c t o r s .... For the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the Mee t ing , I would l i k e to c i t e two examples. Both o f these s i t u a t i o n s came to my a t t e n t i o n t o - d a y . Both o f them, are cases where young people need a s p e c i a l k i n d of l i v e - i n s i t u a t i o n - w i t h some k i n d of s u p e r v i s i o n and a g rea t dea l of suppor t and warmth. Thelma - was l i v i n g common-law i n the west end. She had been admi t ted to the h o s p i t a l w i t h slashed w r i s t s when she was brought to our a t t e n t i o n . She subsequent ly j o i n e d A.A. A f t e r t h i s she was thrown out of the apartment i n the west end. We p laced her i n the East End H o s t e l . Th is was a m is take . Now has d isappeared. Franc ine - 17 - to be re leased f rom W e l l i n g t o n School - accustomed to the c i t y and w i l l be r e t u r n i n g to s c h o o l . Has run away th ree t imes f rom f o s t e r homes. Needs a home s e t t i n g w i t h some s u p e r v i s i o n and a g rea t dea l o f under-s t a n d i n g . Could be p laced t h i s week i f t h e r e was some p lace f o r her to go. We a t the Centre would f e e l i t a g rea t loss i f the o r i g i n a l purpose of the Co-op House were changed. D i r e c t o r Vancouver I n d i a n Centre Appendix 2 B. C. Indian A r t s & W e l f a r e Society 170 PATRON JDR-DENEBAL THE HONOURABLE GEORGE R. PEARKES, V.C., P.C.. C.B., D.S.O.. M.C. LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR or BRITISH COLUMBIA VICTORIA. B.C. C A N A D A O F F I C E O F T H E S E C R E T A R Y 3190 Rutled^e S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a ' , B.C. November 4th . 1966 Miss Daphne Felgard. Chairman Canadia^ Union of Students Committee Alms Mater S o - i s t y Brock H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , B.C. Dear K i s s Kelgard Ref. Co top Home Indian G i r l s ",'e have learned of the recent change of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f and sponsorship of the Co-ooerative rtome f o r Indian G i r l s . Trie president Mr. R. Beaven and the ^ a s t - p r e s i d e n t M i s s B e t t y P r a r i ^ n e l l both o f t h i s s o c i e t y , v i s i t e d the home on September 2 l 3 t . 1966. At that time they pres-ented a cheque f o r vlCO.00 to the Home to a s s i s t with expenses. They were imores3ed by what they saw of the Home and i t 3 s t a f f . The objects of the B.C. Indian Art3 and "felfare Society, are p r i m a r i l y to a s s i s t Indian persons where-ever the need .-na? be t1ud<^ ?rl to be greatest and a t the same time to encourage them to a s s i s t themselves. We would appreciate a l e t t e r o f ex p l a n a t i o n as to the new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up and sponsorship and the und e r l y i n g reasons f o r the d i s m i s s a l o f Mrs. Margaret White, 7.secuflve D i r e c t o r . Our Executive meeting . v i l l be held Nov. 9th. 1966. 'Ye would appreciate your l e t t e r on or before t h i s date. S i n c e r e l y , C or re s pon d i n ~ S e c r e t a r y h e : B. C. Indian A r t s & W e l f a r e Society 171 PATRON MAJOR-GCNERAL THE HONOURABLE BEORBE R. PEARKEB, V.C, P.C.. C.B.. O.S.O., M.C. LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VICTORIA, B.C. C A N A D A OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 3190 Rutledge S t r e e t , V i c t o r i a , 3.0. November 9fch. 1966 '.lis3 Daphne Kelgard Chairman Canadian Union of Students Conmittee Alma '.later S o c i e t y Brock H a l l , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 3 , 3.0. Dear Miss Kelgard: Ref. Co top Home f o r Indian G i r l s 'Ye are awaiting a r e p l y to our recent l e t t e r to you i n regards to the changes of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and sponsorship of the Co-op Home f o r Indian G i r l s at 2722 '.Vest 6th. Avenue, Vancouver 9, B.C. May we request your prompt a t t e n t i o n to t h i s l a t t e r and your r e p l y at the e a r l i e s t convenience. _S; In cere Iy , _ i . ., — " ' f ' r s , ) H a r r i e t t 2..-.. '-Iss3Iront corresponding Secretary TELEPHONE 3 8 5 . 7 3 4 3 BARRISTER ft S O L I C I T O R NOTARY P U B L I C 3 1 8 Y A R R O W B U I L D I N G , 6 4 5 F O R T S T R E E T , $ t d o r t n , . ? L & M i s s Daphne K i l g o u r , Pres.Alma Mate U n i v e r s i t y of VANCOUVER,B.C. - L . V — ' t r S o c i e t y . -i-* -n of B.C. 13 Dec 66 Dear Miss K i l g o u r ; r e : Co-operative House f o r I n d i a n G i r l s - w e s t 8 t h Ave. F o l l o w i n g recent a r t i c l e s i n t h e p r e s s concerning a change of p o l i c y and management w i t h r e s p e c t to the above house,Our s e c r e t a r y was i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e t o you e n q u i r i n g what was the reason f o r the "probe" or r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r the change i n management. She has a d v i s e d me today t h a t d e s p i t e some 2 or 3 l e t t e r s , d u r i n g the past month or so, she has not the c o u r t e s y of a r e p l y . I r e a l i s e t h a t t h i s i s a busy time of year at U n i v e r s i t y , b u t our members are concerned about t h i s and our s o c i e t y i s v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d ' a n d I would p a r t i c -u l a r l y ask you t o be good enoughto l e t me have an e x p l a n -a t i o n f o r he changes b e f o r e you l e a v e f o r the Christmas season. 1 Our i n t e r e s t stems from .our i n t e r e s t i n a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g t o I n d i a n s and from our f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h was a l o t f o r a s o c i e t y such as ours and from the impression,most f a v o u r a b l e , t h a t the past p r e s i d e n t and I formed of the house and i t ' s management when we v i s i t e d i t on the 21st September l a s t . Yours very t r u l y , R B / B RODNE/ BE^VAN-President of and s o l i c i t o r f o r The B.C. I n d i a n A r t s and Welfare S o c i e t y . Appendix 3 173 o JteJ 1 u T E£» afar ks& 7 T h e fate of the I n d i a n W o m e n ' s Co-op H o u s e , w h i c h was founded i n V a n c o u v e r last s p r i n g , the f i r s t of its k i n d , w i l l be dgcided^t- iLm^ M e e t i n g • w i l l be represents-j ^ l ives of the A l m a M a t e r Society, j B .C. Indian A r t s and Crafts which sponsored it, and the | Welfare Society, of V i c t o r i a , C a n a d i a n Union of Students, w h i c h administered it. AI50..I0 be decided .is the fate ] of its to.unjkr and director, M r s . ! M a r g a r e t White. She c l a i m s she was replaced by the students while she was away at a conference in Winnipeg at. the end of October. Officials of the A l m a M a t e r Society have met with students' counci l members and represent-atives of the Indian Centre, which had endorsed the house. However, they decl ined to com-ment unt i l after the meeting next M o n d a y , whcn,_a.n-.-o£f.icial statement w i l l be issued.X. M e m b e r s of the students' coun-Ic i l , questioned ear l ier by The Sun, said M r s . White was run-ning the house as a sort of half-way house for Indian w o m e n out of O a k a l l a and off s k i d road, whereas they would l ike to j change it to a co-operative I residence such as ^university ] s t u d e n j ^ h a v e . Jt would be f o r , young .women (."king courses o r ; getting themselves established'-i n jobs.' Residents would m a k e j a l l " the decisions themselves , ! and be responsible for the j runnin-2 of it. -j which has donated some money towards it , has protested in w r i t i n g to the change in concept of the house. 174 Appendix 4 D e s c r i p t i o n of Unpubl ished M a t e r i a l s A l l m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to the Co-opera t i ve Home f o r I nd ian Women, o ther than o f f i c i a l AMS documents, are i n my possess ion. They i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : - two fund r a i s i n g b r i e f s w r i t t e n by the p lann ing committee - two fund ing l e t t e r s , one s o l i c i t i n g funds f rom co rpo ra te b o d i e s , the other r e q u e s t i n g donat ions i n k ind f rom v o l u n t a r y agenc ies . - correspondence: f rom c o r p o r a t i o n s i n response to the fund ing l e t t e r s f rom smal l donors and the l e t t e r of thanks sent t o them from AMS Treasurer f rom AMS lawyer - n o t i c e s of meetings and a l l minutes of Board meet ings - memoranda f rom the AMS Execut ive - documents and press re leases issued by the AMS - copies of d r a f t submissions to the AMS " i n v e s t i g a t i o n " - copies of the a p p l i c a t i o n to the Leon and Thea Koerner Foundat ion and the subsequent correspondence. - r e c e i p t s and f i n a n c i a l s tatements - newspaper c l i p p i n g s - sundry notes and memoranda i n t e r n a l to the p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g r e p o r t s f rom the s t a f f of the Home. - r e l a t e d documents and r e p o r t s f rom the CUS Committee and n a t i o n a l s e c r e t a r i a t 175 B i b l i o g r a p h y - Publ ished M a t e r i a l ALBROW, MARTIN 1970 Bureaucracy. London: P a l l M a l l Press ALFORD, ROBERT AND HARRY SCOBLE 1969 Bureaucracy and P a r t i c i p a t i o n , P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e i n Four Wisconsin C i t i e s . Chicago: Rand McNally & Co. ALTHUSSER, LOUIS 1969 For Marx. New York : V in tage Books. 1971 Len in and Phi losophy and other essays. New York: Month ly Review Press . ALTHUSSER, LOUIS, AND ETIENNE BALIBAR 1970 Reading C a p i t a l . London: New L e f t Books. ARATO, ANDREW 1972 George Lukacs: the search f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s u b j e c t . I n The Unknown Dimension: European Marxism Since L e n i n , D. Howard and K.E. K l a r e , Eds. New York: Basic Books. BANTON, MICHAEL 195? White and Coloured, the behaviour of B r i t i s h people toward co loured immigrants . London: Jonathan Cape. 1967 Race R e l a t i o n s . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . BARTH, FREDRIK, Ed. . 1969 E thn ic Groups and Boundar ies, the Soc ia l O r g a n i z a t i o n of C u l t u r e D i f f e r e n c e . Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company. BARZUN, JACQUES 1938 Race, A Study i n Modern S u p e r s t i t i o n . London: Methuen and Co. L t d . BELSHAW, C.S. 1964 Anthropology and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n 2:189-196. BLAU, PETER 1956 Bureaucracy i n Modern Soc ie t y . New York : Random House. 1963 The Dynamics of Bureaucracy, Revised E d i t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press . BLAUNER, ROBERT 1969 I n t e r n a l C o l o n i a l i s m and Ghetto R e v o l t . Soc ia l Problems 16(4): 393-408. BOAZ, FRANZ 1945 Race and Democrat ic S o c i e t y . New York: J . J . A u g u s t i n P u b l i s h e r . BOGGS, JAMES 1970 Racism and the Class S t r u g g l e . New York: Month ly Review Press . 176 BRODY, HUGH 1971 Ind ians on Skid Row. Ottawa: Nor thern Science Research Group, Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Nor thern Development. NSR6-70-2. BURIN, FREDERIC S. 1952 Bureaucracy and N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m : A Recons idera t ion of Weberian Theory. I n Reader i n Bureaucracy, R. Merton e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free Press . CAMPBELL, MARIA 1973 H a l f b r e e d . To ron to : McCle l land and Steward L t d . CANADA. Spec ia l Committee on Hate Propaganda i n Canada. 1966 Report to the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r . CANADA. Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Nor thern Development. 1969 Statement of the Government of Canada on I n d i a n P o l i c y . Ot tawa. CANADIAN CORRECTIONS ASSOCIATION 1967 Ind ians and the Law; A Survey Prepared f o r the Honourable A r t h u r L a i n g . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r . CARDINAL, HAROLD 1969 The Un jus t S o c i e t y . . The Tragedy of Canada's I n d i a n s . Edmonton: M.G. H u r t i g L t d . , P u b l i s h e r s . CARMICHAEL, STOKELY ' 1966 Towards Black L i b e r a t i o n . Massachusetts Review 7 ( 4 ) : 6 3 9 - 6 5 1 . 1971 Stoke ly Speaks, B lack Power Back to Pan-A f r i can i sm. New York: Random House. CARMICHAEL, STOKELY AND CHARLES V. HAMILTON 1967 Black Power, the P o l i t i c s of L i b e r a t i o n i n Amer ica. New York: V in tage Books. CHAGNON, NAPOLEON • 1968 Yanomano, the f i e r c e peop le . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston. CONNOLLY, WILLIAM E. 1967 P o l i t i c a l Science and Ideo logy . New York: A t h e r t o n Press . CONRAD, EARL 1966 The I n v e n t i o n of the Negro. New York : P.S. E r i k s s e n . COX, OLIVER CROMWELL 1948 Caste, Class and Race: A Study i n S o c i a l Dynamics. New York: Doubleday. CROMBIE, A. 1969 The Case Study Method and the Theory of O r g a n i z a t i o n . A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand Jou rna l of Soc io logy 5 ( 2 ) : 1 1 1 - 1 2 0 . CROZIER, MICHEL 1963 The Bureauc ra t i c Phenomenon. Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press . 177 DANIELS, ROGER AND HARRY KITANO 1970 American Racism: E x p l o r a t i o n of the Nature of P r e j u d i c e . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . DEUTSCH, KARL 1966 The Nerves of Government. New York: The Free Press . DIMOCK, MARSHALL 1952 Bureaucracy Sel f -Examined. _In Reader i n Bureaucracy, R. Merton e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free Press. DUBIN, ROBERT 1952 Decis ion-Making by Management i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . I n Reader i n Bureaucracy, R. Merton e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free Press . DUFF, WILSON 1964 The I n d i a n H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Volume I , The Impact of the White Man. V i c t o r i a : Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Memoir 5. DUNN, L.C. AND THEODOSIUS DOBZHANSKY 1952 H e r e d i t y , Race and S o c i e t y . New York: New American L i b r a r y . ETZIONI, AMITAI 1961 A Comparative A n a l y s i s of Complex Organ iza t ions on Power, I n v o l v e -ment and t h e i r C o r r e l a t e s . Glencoe: The Free Press. EZORSKY, GERTRUDE 1974 The F i g h t Over U n i v e r s i t y Women. New York Review of Books XXI ( 8 ) : 3 2 - 3 9 . FANON,FRANZ 1967 Black Sk ins , White Masks. New York: Grove Press . FIELDS, D.B. AND W.T. STANBURY 1970 The Economic Impact of the Pub l i c Sector upon the Ind ians of B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press . FRANKLIN, RAYMOND S. 1969 The P o l i t i c a l Economy of Black Power. S o c i a l Problems. 1 6 ( 3 ) : 286-301. FRANKENBERG, RONALD 1957 V i l l a g e on the Border . A s o c i a l s tudy of r e l i g i o n , p o l i t i c s and f o o t b a l l i n a Nor th Wales community. London: Cohen & West. FRIEDRICH, CARL J . 1952 Some Observat ions on Weber's A n a l y s i s of Bureaucracy. I n Reader i n Bureaucracy, R. Merton e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free Press . FURNIVALL, J . S . 1948 C o l o n i a l P o l i c y and P r a c t i c e , A Comparative Study of Burma and Nether lands I n d i a . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y Press . 178 GENOVESE, EUGENE D. 1971 I n Red and B lack , Marx ian E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Southern and A f ro -Amer ican • H i s t o r y . New, York: Pantheon Books. GOSSETT, THOMAS F. 1963 Race: The H i s t o r y of an Idea i n Amer ica. D a l l a s : Southern Method is t U n i v e r s i t y Press . GOULDNER, ALVIN W. 19 52 On Weber's Ana lys i s of Bu reauc ra t i c Rules. _In Reader i n Bureau-c r a c y , R. Merton e t . a l . , Eds. Glencoe: The Free Press . HARRIS, MARVIN 1969 The Rise o f A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory. New York: Thomas Y. Crowe l l Company. HAWTHORN, H.B. 1966 A Survey o f the Contemporary Ind ians of Canada. Ottawa: I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch. HUNTER, GUY 1969 Modern iz ing Peasant S o c i e t i e s , A Comparative Study of A s i a and A f r i c a . 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