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The vocal chamber style of Luigi Dallapiccola from 1942 to 1964 Sauerbrei, Patricia Margaret 1973

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THE VOCAL CHAMBER STYLE OF LUIGI DALLAPICCOLA FROM 19^2 TO 1964 by PATRICIA MARGARET SAUERBREI M u s . B a c , U n i v e r s i t y o f Western Ontar io , 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of Music We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of MUSIC The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8. Canada Date A p r i l 18, 1973 ABSTRACT The f o l l o w i n g t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y a n a l y t i c a l i n nature and deals w i t h f o u r aspects o f D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s v o c a l chamber s t y l e under the headings i I A Summary of Texture and O r c h e s t r a t i o n I I Formal Considerations I I I A Study o f the S e r i a l S t r u c t u r e IV T e x t - S e t t i n g . Seven song c y c l e s are i n v e s t i g a t e d under each of these areas so that a l i n e of s t y l i s t i c c o n t i n u i t y can be t r a c e d from the e a r l i e s t (19^2) through the most recent work s t u d i e d (196*0. The works are. L i r i c h e Greche, Rencesvals, Quattro L i r i c h e  d i Antonio Machado, Tre Poemi, Goethe-Lieder, Cinque C a n t i , and Parole d i San Paolo. The s u p p o s i t i o n of c o n t i n u i t y i s borne out by the examples presented. These show t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of formal and s e r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , D a l l a p i c c o l a chooses a b a s i c p a t t e r n o r formula (a t r i - p a r t i t e design, a semi-combinatorial s e r i e s ) and creates w i t h i t new works w i t h e v e r - f r e s h imagina-t i o n . In h i s t e x t - s e t t i n g he i s extremely concerned w i t h com-p r e h e n s i b i l i t y and expression, f o r without these he sees l i t t l e value i n the t e c h n i c a l means employed. In t r o d u c i n g the t o p i c i s a resume of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s m u s i c a l development up to the time of h i s adoption of the twelve i i tone system. The Conclusion presents evaluations o f the composer by various authors , and re l a te s the information given i n the body of the thes i s to D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s personal ideas regarding the funct ion of a r t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I A SUMMARY OF TEXTURE AND ORCHESTRATION. . . 9 CHAPTER I I FORMAL CONSIDERATIONS 3 1 CHAPTER I I I A STUDY OF THE SERIAL STRUCTURE . . . . . . 5 9 CHAPTER IV TEXT-SETTING 9 3 CONCLUSION 117 BIBLIOGRAPHY. . 121 APPENDIX I 12^ APPENDIX I I . . . . 128 i v INTRODUCTION The opening years of the twentieth century i n I t a l y saw a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n song, as d i s t i n c t from the opera t ic a r i a . In a conscious attempt to c u l t i v a t e a n a t i o n -a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s ty l e i n t h i s medium, composers l i k e I l d e -brando P i z z e t t i , Al fredo Case l l a and Gian Francesco Mal ip iero avoided the extremely chromatic idiom of the German post-Romantics as w e l l as t h e i r p r e d i l e c t i o n fo r large forms, turn ing instead to the I t a l i a n madrigal and i t s predecessors i n the search f o r a musical vocabulary more compatible with t h e i r aim. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, to f i n d works o f a quas i -modal or -d i a ton ic nature i n the ea r ly production of the succeeding generation of composers. Among these i s L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a , born i n 1904, whose e a r l i e s t works for voice r e f l e c t an i n t e r e s t both i n archaic and h i s t o r i c a l texts and i n o l d contrapuntal s t y l e s . D a l l a p i c c o l a began h i s career as a composer i n 1925• Most of h i s e a r l y works are cast i n a voca l or chora l medium. These compositions d i sp l ay a conservative use of dissonance w i t h i n a b a s i c a l l y tonal framework and show D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s absorpt ion and personal modi f i ca t ion of the p r e v a i l i n g I t a l i a n n e o - c l a s s i c a l t r end . 1 2 The catalogue of ea r ly works begins with three songs for voice and piano, F i u r i de Tapo (Nadal, Luna, and Qrdole) , to words by Biagio Marin . The same poet suppl ied texts f o r Cal igo (1926) f o r voice and piano, and Due Canzoni d i Grado (1927) f o r small women's c h o i r , mezzo-soprano and chamber orches t ra . Next came the four songs fo r s o l o i s t s and chorus, D a l l a mia Terra (Per l a notte d i San Giovanni , Per un bambino, Per l a sera d e l l a Befana, Per i l mattino d e l l a Resurrezione)$ Due Laudi d i Fra Jacopone da Todi f o r soprano and bar i tone , mixed chorus and orchestra j Due L i r i c h e de l Kalewala f o r two s o l o i s t s and smal l chorus? and Tre S tudi f o r soprano and chamber orches t ra . Of s i gn i f i cance to D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s development was h i s in t roduc t ion i n 192^ to the music of Arnold Schoenberg through P i e r r o t Luna i re . Further contact with the Viennese school (Anton Webern i n 1 9 2 8 , Alban Berg i n 193*0 caused a gradual penetrat ion of s e r i a l techniques into the works of the 1 9 3 0 ' s . I t was not u n t i l 19^2 that D a l l a p i c c o l a adopted s e r i a l i s m completely, having learned to i n t e r p r e t i t i n a p e c u l i a r l y I t a l i a n , and at the same time extremely personal way. Hints o f s e r i a l i s m are seen i n 1932 i n the chora l work, E s t a te , and i n the Se i c o r i d i Michelangelo Buonarroti i l  Giovane ( 1 9 3 3 - 3 6 ) , which assured D a l l a p i c c o l a a place among the best young I t a l i a n composers. The l a t t e r work comprises three s e r i e s , the f i r s t f o r a cappel la chorus, the second f o r a small cho i r of women's voices and seventeen instruments, and the f i n a l s e r i e s for mixed voices and large orches t ra . 3 An abundance of vigour and expression i s character-i s t i c and protects D a l l a p i c c o l a * s music from what Roman V l a d , h i s biographer, has c a l l e d the a r t i f i c i a l elegance of neo-c l a s s i c i s m . l Although the works are e s s e n t i a l l y d i a t o n i c , b r i e f po ly tona l episodes occur, as i n the fo l lowing segment from the second movement of the second set of the S e i C o r i | 2 In the f i r s t part o f the t h i r d s e r i e s , I I Coro d e g l i  Z i t t i , the theme of the Ciaccona includes eleven d i f f e r e n t notes of the chromatic scale arranged i n a succession of t r i t o n e s . When t h i s moti f i s inver ted , a twelf th note i s added, producing a twelve-note row:3 lRoman Vlad , L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a (Milant E d i z i o n i S u v i n i Zerboni , 1957)» p . 6. 2 l b i d . , p . 55» note 5. 3 lb id . , pp. 7-8. 4 An eleven-note row i s inser ted into the f i n a l cadence of the t h i r d sec t ion of II Coro d e g l i Z i t t i , set against a d i a ton ic chord » - TO" £0£ 322 Of course, such instances are only a suggestion of the path D a l l a p i c c o l a would fol low l a t e r with h i s complete adoption of the twelve-tone system. A f t e r the composition of the one-act opera Volo  d i Notte (1937-39) on a l i b r e t t o taken from the book by A . de Saint-Exupery, and the Piano Concerto per Mur ie l Couvreux (1939-^1) for piano and chamber orches t ra , D a l l a p i c c o l a completed h i s f i r s t major chora l work using a twelve-tone row, the Canti d i P r i g i o n i a . I t s three se t t ings are o f texts by famous condemned pr i soner s , e n t i t l e d r e s p e c t i v e l y , Preghiera  d i Maria Stuarda, Invocazione d i Boezio, and Congedo d i  Girolamo Savonarola. D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s concern f o r human d i g n i t y and freedom i s evident from h i s choice of these h ighly dramatic outpourings of personal su f f e r ing made endurable by f a i t h and t r u s t i n God. frlbld., p. 8. 5 Underlining the r e l i g i o u s tone of the work i s the incorporation of the Dies Irae, the structure of which i s well suited f o r combination with Dallapiccola's row. Indeed, the basic four-note motif of the Dies Irae i s adopted as the u n i t of construction i n the work, while the twelve-note series appears l a r g e l y i n melodic formations. The f i r s t bars of the Introduction to the Preghiera show the superimposition of the row on the modal Dies Irae 15 XT * (j)t - e.5 f vX - ES -XL-L r\) 1 FS: tr The four-note c e l l i s then treated contrapuntally, appearing i n i t s o r i g i n a l form and i n diminution i n several instruments. By constructing his row b a s i c a l l y upon the i n t e r v a l of the minor t h i r d , D a l l a p i c c o l a obtains a series of notes which suggests t r i a d s and diminished sevenths both harmonically and melodically. The r i s i n g l i n e of the row i n the above example complements the f a l l i n g minor t h i r d motif of the chant melody. A further i l l u s t r a t i o n of the insistence upon t r i a d i c sounds i s the predominance of the use, i n the c e n t r a l piece, of the row forms P i and P41 P^ begins on F, Pjj, on A^ . Although l a t e r works incorporate increasingly sophistocated row struc-5 l b i d . , p . 1 9 . 6 tures , i t i s worth no t ing that D a l l a p i c c o l a re ta ins a preference f o r th i rd s and s i x t h s . In the f i n a l song the row and the p la inchant are fused into blocks of harmony without an attempt at d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between them, as i n the f o l l o w i n g ! 6 The Canti d i P r i g i o n i a , then, represent a masterful union of seemingly diverse elements, foreshadowing, as w e l l , some of the composit ional techniques and methods of the works to fo l low. These include predominantly contrapuntal textures (here interspersed with declamatory homophonic sect ions at expressive points i n the text , as i n the Preghiera at " 0 domine Deusi speravi i n T e , " Mary S t u a r t ' s cry of f a i th ) and the employment of canon, canonic i m i t a t i o n , and i n v e r s i o n . Carefu l cons iderat ion i n the s e t t i n g of the text ensures a 6 l b i d . , p. 2 0 . 7 melodic l i n e which i s capable of expressing the nature and meaning of the words, as, again i n the Preghiera , the word " l i b e r a " i s set me l i smat i ca l ly to suggest the ecstasy of freedom i n the mind of the p r i s o n e r . D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s concern with c l e a r formal out l ines i s a lso unmistakable. The work i n i t s e n t i r e t y as w e l l as each of the three i n d i v i d u a l sect ions adhere to an ABA form, a symmetrical organizat ion which i s the bas is of almost a l l of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s l a t e r works. Although the composer has never abandoned h i s i n v o l v e -ment i n issues and circumstances a f f e c t i n g mankind as a whole, he genera l ly reserves subjects of t h i s type for h i s l a rge-scale works. The Cant i d i Liberazione of 1955t i n many ways a companion-set to the Canti d i P r i g i o n i a , a f f i rm f a i t h i n God and h i s v i c t o r y over the forces of e v i l . Another s ide o f D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s humanity i s shown i n the more intimate works, those fo r voice and chamber orchestra or p iano. The texts f o r these, to be examined l a t e r i n d e t a i l , are drawn from many sources—Greek, Spanish and E n g l i s h as w e l l as I t a l i an—but they have i n common a s e n s i t i v i t y to the beauty and v a r i e t y of the na tura l wor ld , a world threatened by ugl iness and heavy-handed b r u t a l i t y . Thi s r e f l e c t i v e , personal sor t o f text i s perhaps best conveyed by a solo voice supported by an instrument or instruments of sympathetic t imbre. A l -though there are many important o r c h e s t r a l and instrumental compositions (Concerto per l a Notte d i Natale de l l 'Anno 1956 and the Quaderno Musicale d i Annal ibera to name only two), 8 the voca l chamber works occupy a t r u l y cen t ra l place i n the composer's production and cons t i tu te a body of works demanding c l o s e r s tudy. The fo l lowing ana lys i s concerns i t s e l f with seven works t the L i r i c h e Greche, cons i s t ing of three separate song-c y c l e s , f o r soprano and various instruments; Rencesvals, f o r soprano and piano ; the Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado which ex i s t s i n two ver s ions ; Tre Poemi f o r voice and chamber orches t ra ; Goethe-Lieder for mezzo-soprano and three c l a r i n e t s ; Cinque Cant i for baritone and eight instruments; and Parole  d i San Paolo for voice and chamber orches t ra . Cer ta in other compositions f a l l into the same category but must remain outside the scope of the present study. These are Preghiera , a large dramatic work f o r baritone and chamber orchestra composed i n 1°62, and S icut Umbra (1970) f o r mezzo-soprano and twelve instruments. The most recent add i t ion to the voca l chamber r e p e r t o i r e , Commiato fo r voice and instruments, i s not yet a v a i l a b l e . I t rece ived i t s I t a l i a n premiere at Perouse on November 1st, 1972. CHAPTER I THE VOCAL CHAMBER STYLEt A SUMMARY OF TEXTURE AND ORCHESTRATION In 19^2, D a l l a p i c c o l a completed the f i r s t cyc le of the L i r i c h e Greche, "Cinque Frammenti d i S a f fo . " This work s igna l s the beginning of the composer's complete adoption of the dode-caphonic system. The "Sex Carmina A l c a e i , una voce canenda n o n n u l l i s comitantibus music i s " (19^3), and the "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte" (19^5)» the other two song-cycles of the Greek L y r i c s , represent the composer's refinement of h i s s e r i a l technique. The "Cinque Frammenti" are scored f o r soprano, f l u t e , oboe, E^ and B^ c l a r i n e t s , bass c l a r i n e t , bassoon, horn, trom-bone, harp, c e l e s t a , and s t r i n g s . The pianoforte appears i n the t h i r d song on ly . The scor ing of the "Sex Carmina" excludes the B^ c l a r i n e t s and the s t r i n g bass, and replaces the ce les ta with the p ianofor te . The f i n a l cyc le i s even more economical, f o r here the voice i s accompanied by E and A c l a r i n e t s , v i o l a and piano. D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s instrumental scor ing has been compared to that of Claude Debussy,1 by whom he was inf luenced ear ly i n I j . C . G . Waterhouse, "Debussy and I t a l i a n M u s i c . " Musica l Times, CIX (May, 1968), 418. 9 10 h i s l i f e as a composer. Admittedly much separates the s ty le of the two composers, but the young man d id respond i n p a r t i -c u l a r to the c o l o u r f u l and sensuous pa le t te of Debussy's o rches t ra . His s e n s i t i v i t y to timbre i s demonstrated by the frequent choice of f l u t e , oboe, or v i o l i n to support the female v o i c e . Instruments of s i m i l a r tone-qua l i ty are often pa i red as w e l l , as i n the fo l lowing example from the second frammentoi2 Example 1 In sharp contras t to t h i s transparent scor ing i s the sustained s t r i n g sonor i ty of the t h i r d "Saffo" song, marked Lento; vagamente. A sudden crescendo between bars 58 and 60, i n v o l v i n g the most impressive t u t t i of the work, i s heightened by accents and a rhythmica l ly f o r c e f u l os t inato i n the lower 2A11 examples used i n the paper are at concert p i t c h . 11 instruments. The d e l i c a t e sound of the celesta which i n the other frammenti merely supplies touches of colour assumes a place of importance i n the fourth. The rapid arpeggiated eighth and sixteenth notes of the opening provide a f o i l to the serene recitando soprano l i n e of the next bars. Indeed, at every point where such a f l u r r y occurs (again at bar ?0 i n the c l a r i n e t s , 77 i n celesta, and 78 i n c l a r i n e t s ) , the voice i s s i l e n t , a s s e r t i n g calm supremacy i n the l a s t three bars, accom-panied only by sostenuto chords i n the horn, trombone, c e l l o , and double bass. The l i n k between the f i r s t and l a s t of the "Frammenti d i Saffo" i s fundamentally one of row structure, but they are also s i m i l a r with respect to tempo and length. These songs function as a frame f o r the longer c e n t r a l three frammenti. Two of the basic manifestations of the row, the v e r t i c a l and the h o r i z o n t a l , predominate i n the opening and the concluding numbers res p e c t i v e l y . The chordal formation of the row i s established immediately i n the f i r s t song. The horn and trom-bone sustain, with the double bass, the f i r s t two notes of the row? then v i o l a , c e l l o and c l a r i n e t s continuei Example 2 . 5 3 h-*> U ~ J '-~J-»-l ±: & ' X . —s -12 Rel i ev ing t h i s accompaniment are rhythmica l ly ac t ive passages i n the f l u t e and oboe where complete rows appear canonica l ly between soprano and instruments. The p r i m a r i l y l i n e a r statement of mater ia l i n the f i n a l frammento r e su l t s i n an opening conf igurat ion which i s very d i f f e r e n t from that just seen i n Example 2, one which proves r i c h i n p o t e n t i a l f o r Dal lap iccola«3 Example 3 i i -V—H-r- 1—HV t m I ~ " mm Hi _ <S -p . ^  — i 7 0 % ? J-— . — ' PQ and 13 occur i n t h i s arpeggiated manner i n the harp and c e l e s t a , with occas ional support from the s t r i n g s . Between bars 91 and 95 the motif i s worked c a n o n i c a l l y — I 3 i n c e l e s t a , P 0 i n harp. At t h i s po in t , on completing the words of the tex t , the soprano sings a melisma on one s y l l a b l e , increas ing the dream-like q u a l i t y of the song's end. D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s i n t e r e s t i n canonic devices comes to 3These bars reappear e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged i n both "Sex Carmina" and "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte . " The motif i s the basis f o r a set of v a r i a t i o n s i n the l a t t e r . 13 the fore i n the next c y c l e , the "Sex Carmina A l c a e i . " In the b r i e f ' E x p o s i t i o ' the unaccompanied voca l row and i t s retrograde merge with an almost exact reminiscence of the opening of the f i n a l "Saffo" fragment (Example 3) played by the p ianofor te . The second carmen (canon perpetuus) i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t i n concept. In . I].i and 12 each appear three t imes. In the f i r s t expos i t ion the rows are d i s t r i b u t e d s i m i l a r l y between high and low vo ices , c rea t ing a terraced e f f ec t . The second statements are d iv ided between two con-t r a s t i n g timbres with the conclus ion of the canon focussing on the s t r ing s alonet Figure 1 1-5 bassoon 9-12 f lute) [9-12 bassoon] SSQboeJ 9-12 c l a r i n e t 6-8 horn l"l jl-5 oboeT) I 0 U - 8 J i o r n J-l [1-8 trombone 9-12 c l a r i n e t } [6-8 trombone! [9-12 v i o l a l lo l l - 8 v i o l a j I 2 (1^5^ioTin) —7 ' 6-8 c e l l o *111-12 violin I 2 j l-12 v i o l a j I 0 ( l - 1 2 ce l lo) Thi s l e s sening of t imbra l v a r i e t y p a r a l l e l s the gradual diminuendo to the extremely quie t t r a n q u i l l i t y of the ending. 14 Re inforc ing the s e r i a l complexity of the t h i r d carmen i s a f u l l instrumentation ( inc lud ing piano) between numbers 6 and 8. This sect ion leads from a climax to the c e n t r a l , s l i g h t l y slower A l l e g r o , where the voice enters . The bars from 12 to 14 complement the opening bars i n that they gradual ly reduce the tens ion by a process of o r c h e s t r a l fragmentation. The ult imate statement of two simultaneous rows, prime and retrograde, i s f i r s t a duet between the f l u t e and v o i c e , then between the voice and v i o l a . The texture of the l a s t three songs i s again more sparse. Doublings are l e s s frequent than i n the previous carmen, and i n Numbers IV and VI complete row statements appear c o n s i s t e n t l y i n one instrumental v o i c e . In Number V s ing le notes are i s o l a t e d to form pedal-tones and the f i n a l sustained chord i s b u i l t from the l a s t notes o f three rows. A great deal of i n t e r p l a y ex i s t s between voice and instruments i n t h i s f i f t h carmen. The voice begins the double canon i n contrary motion at 20j vo ice and instruments exchange t r i p l e t f igures between 22 and 23; and the voca l t r i l l f o l l owing t h i s exchange i s imitated by the f l u t e and oboe. Number VI ( *Conclus io ' ) i s an a m p l i f i c a t i o n of the expos i t ion , a fur ther development of the theme, the soprano accompanied mainly by upper woodwinds and s t r i n g s . Most concise of the L i r i c h e Greche are the "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte . " In these, the twelve-note row i s r a r e l y fragmented or doubled. Within the comparatively 1 5 r e s t r i c t e d t imbra l framework of the " L i r i c h e , " each instrument i s c a l l e d upon to susta in the melodic c o n t i n u i t y . The piano alone suppl ies chords i n the f i r s t l y r i c t otherwise the ent i re movement i s l i n e a r l y conceived. An abrupt change i s audible at the s t a r t of the ' V a r i a z i o n e , • f o r here the wood-winds take the r o l e prev ious ly the p i a n o ' s . The contours o f the "Saffo" row are heard again , i n instruments and v o i c e , undergoing a se r ie s of transformations. The f i n a l bars accentuate the predominant moti f of c l imbing f i f t h s i Example 4 The nature of the mater ia l suggested a d i f f e r e n t approach i n Rencesvals, three fragments of the Chanson  de Roland, for voice and piano ( 1 9 4 6 ) . Immediately apparent are the frequent doublings and r e p e t i t i o n s of row-tones which by prolongat ion assume the character of tonal centres . These r e p e t i t i o n s enhance the declamation of the text , while c rea t ing rhythmic os t inatos i n the bass l i n e of the accompaniment<> 16 The piano i s w e l l adapted to t h i s type of support! the topic of m i l i t a r y exp lo i t s would be l e s s w e l l served by the more sensuous timbre of , f o r example, a woodwind ensemble. The drama of the f i r s t fragment i s heightened by marte l la to descending t r i p l e t s whose chromaticism i s i n d i s t i n c t contrast to the s e t t i n g of the t ex t . D a l l a p i c c o l a manipulates the row with a c e r t a i n degree of f l e x i b i l i t y . I t s prime form as given by the voice i s modified i n the p iano ' s chordal counterpart , which f a c i l i t a t e s the p l a c i n g of p a r a l l e l r i s i n g t r i a d i c formations at points of a r t i c u l a t i o n , as at the end of the t h i r d l i n e of the text j Example 5 The appearance of s i m i l a r eighth-note motion at bar 21 con-s t i t u t e s a tonal l i n k between t h i s and the previous A l i a Marcia verses i 1? Example 6 D a l l a p i c c o l a re in forces the exclamation of the c l o s i n g l i n e of the song by s t a t i n g one row form three times i n success ion, bars 3 8 to 4-11 i n sustained notes punctuated with short accented ones at the same p i t c h , i n t r i p l e t quarter-note chords, and i n sharply accented t r i p l e t e ighth notes com-parable to those i n Example 5. This r e p e t i t i o n a l so ensures a sense of harmonic s t a b i l i t y . The l a s t four notes of R I 7 he ld f o r almost s i x bars , f a l l i n g fromJ£ftopp, form a bridge to the second fragment, i n which the subject i s a dream of Char les , the Emperor. The change from day to n ight i s ind ica ted by the f i r s t notes of a new row superimposed on the fading four-note chord. In keep-ing with the calm atmosphere, the piano i s muted, and fol lows the contours o f the voca l l i n e . In the f i n a l fragment D a l l a p i c c o l a pa ints the s o l i d , impersonal strength of the mountains and v a l l e y s and the sorrow of the defeated French i n a slow declamatory tempo. The voca l 18 part does not conform to a row, but can be reduced to a descending chromatic s ca l e , s k i l f u l l y d i sguised by octave displacements. This may be seen as an augmented form of the r a p i d descending chromatics of the f i r s t song: Example 7 An a d d i t i o n a l connection between these outer fragments can be seen i n t h e i r s i m i l a r s e r i a l s t ruc ture s . The row of the t h i r d sec t ion begins with the f i r s t four notes of the retrograde form of the o r i g i n a l s e r i e s . The in ter ludes f o r piano r e c a l l the p a r a l l e l t h i r d s of Example 5, the i n t e r v a l now appearing as a s i x t h i 19 Example 8 A 1 f ' I I I 1 1 i 1 n j i — ^ ' 1 a—, - t—_3 * r j — 5 " ^ 1 i 3 1 i 3 ' i u H ^  b J H ^ i i — ^ The l i n k between the two songs i s perhaps most s t rongly enforced by the t r i a d of G Major which c loses the work. Vlad has noted** the f e e l i n g of G minor i n the chord (G-B^-C#-D) on which the opening s i x bars of the piece are founded, and he bel ieves that the l a s t chord, having G as i t s root (the A^ i n the bass acts as an unresolved appoggiatura) , re-es tab l i shes tona l un i ty i n the work as a whole. In h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of the notes of the row,then, D a l l a p i c c o l a does not seem to be concerned with avoid ing references to the tonal-harmonic system. Instead, he assembles rows whose members can form t r i a d i c e n t i t i e s without the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed on them by func t iona l harmony. The two voca l chamber works which occupied the composer during 19^8 and 19^9 followed the composition of h i s opera, II P r i g i o n i e r o , and r e f l e c t a comparable preoccupation with the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death and the f r a g i l e transience of l i f e . ^ V l a d , D a l l a p i c c o l a , pp. 30-31. 20 The Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado are se t t ings f o r voice and piano of texts by t h i s Spanish poet who died i n 1939. A ver s ion fo r voice and instruments published i n 1965 employs forces s i m i l a r to those used i n Tre Poemi (19^9) wi th the a d d i t i o n of vibraphone and xylomarimba. This orchestrated s e t t i n g w i l l be described l a t e r , i n the context of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s works of the l a s t decade. I t should be noted i n passing that the substance of the Quattro L i r i c h e i s not changed, but a new dimension of subt le ty i s r e a l i z e d through the v a r i e t y of sonor i ty i n t h i s second v e r s i o n . The Tre Poemi fo r voice and chamber orches t ra , completed i n Venice on September 13» 19^9» were dedicated to Arnold Schoen-berg on h i s s eventy- f i f th b i r thday . Orchestrat ion i n the f i r s t song i s extremely del icatet a t no time do a l l instruments p lay at once. A f t e r the c l a r i n e t duet of the f i r s t two and a h a l f bars , the woodwinds only add short phrases or s ing le notes . The accompaniment of the second h a l f of the song cons i s t s of a s ing le note—F#—doubled i n ce l e s t a and harp, and sustained as a f a i n t harmonic by the v i o l a , c e l l o , and l a t e r , v i o l i n . This note provides a tonal background fo r the very ag i l e voca l l i n e which f i n a l l y comes to re s t on C. This treatment i s p a r t i c u l a r -l y w e l l su i ted to the text—Eugenio Montale 's I t a l i a n vers ion of James Joyce ' s "A Flower Given to my Daughter"—which speaks of the t r a n s i t o r y l o v e l i n e s s o f youth. The second poema i s based on Michelangelo ' s famous l i n e s , "Chiunque nasce a raorte a r r i v a . " The d e s c r i p t i o n of the f r a g i l e 21 balance of l i f e i s fol lowed by a sober contemplation of death's a r r i v a l . The pianoforte begins P^o i n i t s lowest r e g i s t e r , marked senza luce , and only gradua l ly does the sonor i ty of the piece r i s e from t h i s depth. Noticeable at once i s the absence of doubl ing, so that the texture remains transparent . A widely-spaced canonic sequence unfolds s lowly i n the f i r s t f i f -teen bars . In each of i t s three appearances, the melodic l i n e drops fo r notes s i x through e ight to an instrument of d i f f e r e n t tone-colour . This technique i s taken up again l a t e r (bars 4 l and fol lowing) i n the approach to the climax of the song. Here the canonic ent r i e s are at the distance of one bar , and t h e i r over-l app ing leads to the t u t t i a t bars 49 and 5 ° , where instruments do double i n pa i r s ( for example, f lu te and oboe, and v i o l i n and v i o l a ) . A f t e r t h i s po int the texture regains i t s former t rans-parency. Rows are presented by s ing le instruments or by pa i r s of equal timbre (two c l a r i n e t s between bars 73 and 76 and v i o l i n with v i o l a to the end). The thoughts of death i n the l a s t poema are taken from Manuel Machado's Ars Mor iend i . Aga in , the orches t ra t ion i s economical* i n the centre of the p iece , the voice i s accompanied by the A c l a r i n e t on ly , whose notes , an inver s ion of the voca l p a r t , are subsequently repeated i n the prime form joined by an i n v e r s i o n at the fourth t r anspos i t i on i n the c l a r i n e t . The horn, trombone, c e l e s t a , and harp are almost t o t a l l y absent u n t i l the l a s t three bars of the work. This sparse accompaniment i s reminiscent of that o f the f i r s t poema, although the con-2 2 e lus ion here i s quite d i f f e r e n t i RIj, RI5, R ig . and RI4 over-lap i n close succession to form a dense harmonic web. The symmetrical instrumentation of the Goethe-Lieder ( 1 9 5 3 ) f o r mezzo-soprano and three c l a r i n e t s i s i n d i c a t i v e of the subt le ty of construct ion present genera l ly i n these seven songs 1 Figure 2 No. I No. II No. I l l No. IV No. V No. VI No. VII 3 c i s . 1 c l . 2 c i s . 3 c i s . 2 c i s . 1 c l . 3 c i s . E\> Eb E b E t E b B b B b B^ B b B b Bass Bass Bass Bass Bass In the opening bars of Number I the c l a r i n e t s a l l contr ibute to the in t roduc t ion of the rowi Example 9 cl. cl. Cl. This mater ia l i s subsequently inver ted from bars 7 to 9 « 23 Example 10 The r e p e t i t i o n of row-tones evident at the outset i s used as a means of extending the phrase and culminates i n the o s c i l l a t i o n between notes eleven and twelve of the row at the close o f the song, where voice and instruments p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y . A r e l a t ed tremolo f igure i s a r e c u r r i n g element i n Number IV, marked Impetuoso; appassionato. Doubled or repeated notes do not otherwise occur i n t h i s song. The f i n a l l i e d i s s i m i l a r i n tempo to Number I and contains comparable overlapping motives. A murmuring s t a t i c moment at bar 8 i s reminiscent of the close of the beginning song of the c y c l e , as are the more widely-spaced undulations i m i t a t i v e of b i r d c a l l s i n the l a s t f ive bars . Probably the most outstanding example of the composer's mastery of h i s voca l chamber s t y l e are the Cinque Cant i per  bari tono e a l c u n i strumenti composed i n 1956. These songs 24 provide a v e r i t a b l e compendium of canonic devices and i l l u s -t ra te new rami f i ca t ions of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s s e r i a l technique. In the course of the work the baritone re l inqui shes some of the independence which i s so s t r i k i n g i n the beginning song. In Number I I , f o r example, h i s r e p e t i t i o n of between bars 27 and 32 provides s ing le tones fo r var ious instrumental rows, and i n the t h i r d canto the voca l row const i tu tes the arms of a cross-formation b u i l t on chordal t u t t i s . Returning to Number I, i t i s apparent that D a l l a p i c c o l a has compressed severa l rows into the f i r s t s i x bars by sounding complete hexachords v e r t i c a l l y . The four instrumental pa i r s ( f l u t e , a l to f l u t e j A c l a r i n e t , c l a r i n e tj harp, p ianofor te ; and v i o l a , v i o l o n c e l l o ) become detached i n bar 6, where canonic development commences i n the bass c l a r i n e t . R i jumps to the A c l a r i n e t f o r notes four to s ix j to the f l u t e fo r seven, e ight , and n i n e ; and i s completed i n the A c l a r i n e t . S i m i l a r l y RIj_i» i n mir ror fa shion, begins i n the v i o l a , drops to the c e l l o fo r notes four to s i x , proceeds to the a l t o f l u t e , and concludes i n the v i o l a . This t e r r a c i n g of voices which made an appear-ance i n e a r l i e r works here becomes a c o n s i s t e n t l y observable fea ture . In the double canon between bars 14 and 21 only two consecutive notes are played by instruments of l i k e timbre 1 the two rows begun simultaneously i n the c l a r i n e t s advance from the s t r ings (notes three and four) to the A c l a r i n e t and a l to f l u t e (notes f i ve and s i x ) , re turn to the s t r ings fo r seven to ten, and f i n i s h i n the f lu te and B^ c l a r i n e t . The companion rows s tarted by the s t r ings reverse the progress ion of tone-25 colours by jumping to the f l u t e s , i n c l u d i n g the c l a r i n e t s o n o r i t i e s f o r notes nine and ten, and concluding i n the s t r i n g s . Again i n the second canto the rows are segmented. To avoid doublings the composer has made one note funct ion at the same time i n two rows. Common notes are the fourth and f i f t h i n each case, as the fourth tone of each of the four rows i s a l so the f i f t h tone of one of the other rows. Dup l i ca t ion of notes seven and nine i s a lso avoided by t h i s method of shar ing , most c l e a r l y demonstrated i n the f i r s t four bars . The nature of the ser ies al lows fo r another type of over - l ap , as notes eleven and twelve of any prime form can also funct ion as the s t a r t i n g two notes o f another prime form. D a l l a p i c c o l a c a p i t a l i z e s on t h i s property with the s e r i a l e l i s i o n at bar 10t Example 11 QoJ m Ih Ci -Tua. <u fa, - W 10 11 12 R l O U 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 e t c . Canto Number IV contr ibutes to the balanced proport ions of the cycle by r e i n s t a t i n g the rather serene atmosphere of Number I I . As i n the above example the voca l l i n e i s derived by e l i s i o n i 26 Example 12 Dor 0 ' W9 1 - 8 — ^ 1 *-| 10/11 12 RJI 2 3 4 5 6 7 etc, The passage just quoted i s v i r t u a l l y without accompanimentt only a t the word "monti" do the instruments support the voice with a chord composed of the f i r s t hexachord of R7. A sense of a i r i n e s s i s achieved i n the concluding song by the use of an e n t i r e l y l i n e a r cons t ruc t ion . As i n the f i r s t , second and fourth c a n t i , the row i s occa s iona l ly d i s t r i b u t e d among the instruments i n two-note segments, while hexachords and groups of nine notes are a l so presented consecut ively i n one t imbre . The baritone remains independent s e r i a l l y o f the other p a r t i c i p a n t s u n t i l the f i n a l bars of the Cinque C a n t i . The l a s t note of Rg i s sustained by the voice w e l l into a r e -statement of t h i s same row by the f l u t e , whose f i n a l note i s the penultimate one of the song. I t i s apparent from the ten-bar in t roduc t ion of the 1964 27 o r c h e s t r a l ver s ion of the Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado that the composer has become even more spare i n h i s handl ing of texture . Whole rows are de l ivered by s ing le instruments or p a i r s , the only doublings being p i z z i c a t o notes i n the v i o l i n and v i o l a , and occas ional notes of emphasis on the xylomarimba and harp. This i s d i c t a t e d , of course, by the o r i g i n a l piano accompaniment, which up to the entrance of the soprano does not exceed three-part v o i c i n g . Also not iceable i s D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s preference f o r the woodwind sonor i ty , which i n t h i s song complements the j o y f u l expression at the coming of Spr ing . Only i n the c e n t r a l por t ion of the song do the horn and trom-bone contr ibute s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The almost e x c l u s i v e l y l i n e a r row forms of the f i r s t l y r i c are not so prevalent i n the second. Here the mood has changed to one of u n r e a l i t y t the poet, a f t e r dreaming that he ta lked with God, dreams that he was dreaming. This thought i s r e f l e c t e d perhaps i n the transformation of the row into blocks of four-note chords whose twelve notes are not n e c e s s a r i l y i n s e r i a l o rder . The soprano i s completely unaccompanied from bars 47 through 50, a f t e r which the chordal s t ructure i s taken up by the oboe, bassoon, and horn. As the voice becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y melismatic the few instruments employed contr ibute le s s and l e s s , so that the f i n a l melisma on an open vowel i s joined only by extremely subdued harmonics i n the s t r i n g s . In a subject ive sense, t h i s subt le ty of orches t ra t ion gives an added dimension to the almost s u r r e a l i s t i c atmosphere of the song. Comparable 28 tona l gradations are impossible on the p iano . Although the t h i r d song i s the most dynamic, wherein the poet rebel s against a God who robs him of h i s dearest possess ion, D a l l a p i c c o l a s t i l l avoids s cor ing a t u t t i at the c l imax. Block chords s i m i l a r to those of the preceding song punctuate the progress of d r i v i n g marte l la to f igures i n the f i r s t h a l f . A rhythmic canon between trombone, horn and voice at the second Tempo II i s an except ional moment, f o r t h i s favour i te device of the composer i s s ca rce ly used i n the Quattro L i r i c h e . In the f i n a l song, the thought returns to the a r r i v a l of Spr ing , though simple joy has been replaced by wonderment at the i n e x p l i c a b l e annual renewal o f l i f e . The diminished o r c h e s t r a l forces o f the fourth l y r i c counter the height of pass ion reached i n the t h i r d , and symmetrical ly balance the f i r s t by r e s t o r i n g i t s sense of f r a g i l e e q u i l i b r i u m . The recent Parole d i San Paolo (1964) i s yet another product of a re f ined and sophistocated dodecaphonic s t y l e . D a l l a p i c c o l a i s superbly economical i n h i s employment of character-i s t i c chamber resources—flute , a l to f l u t e , B^ and bass c l a r i n e t s , c e l e s t a , harp, p ianofor te , vibraphone, xylomarimba, v i o l a , and c e l l o . The composer suggests that a boy soprano may take the place of the mezzo-soprano. Throughout most of the composition the focus i s on the textt comprehehs ib i l i ty i s a c h i e f aim of D a l l a p i c c o l a , who d e l i b e r a t e l y places areas of t h i c k e r texture at points where the voice i s s i l e n t . These instrumental sect ions are chorda l , as i n 29 the introductory bars , or canonic, as at the Molto drammaticp from bar ?8. D a l l a p i c c o l a presents the accompaniment i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The most frequent grouping i s of four three-note chords such as those which open the work. These are stated by a s ing le instrument or by instruments of l i k e t imbre. Occas iona l ly notes ten to twelve appear i n a manner which sets them apart from the f i r s t nine as at bar 22, where one through nine of I i occur l i n e a r l y i n the v i o l a , ten to twelve chorda l ly i n the c e l e s t a . As w e l l , whole rows proceed melod ica l ly i n one instrument, contrasted elsewhere i n the work by the rap id succession of three-note c e l l s i n var ious instruments, a tech-nique prev ious ly observed i n the Cinque C a n t i . Doubling i s not common but increases toward the climax between bars 85 and 90. Re inforc ing the accent on the t h i r d s y l l a b l e o f " c a r i t a s " i n bar 85 i s a chord extending through a l l instruments except xylomarimba. I t represents the conjunction of the s i x t h note of a l l four rowsi three of the tones are dupl ica ted i n four instruments, while the c l a r i n e t doubles the v o i c e . The same texture returns i n bars 89 and 90, although a l l the keyboard instruments are s i l e n t . The work i s completed by a sequence of chordal rows and a voca l conclus ion which are i n e f fec t a retrograde formation of the opening bars . In conc lus ion , c e r t a i n features may be emphasized as being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of D a l l a p i c c o l a * s chamber s ty l e i n genera l . His instrumental preference i s for the sensuous rather than the b r i l l i a n t , as he blends woodwinds and s t r ings with the more mellow 30 brasses , the horn and trombone. Various keyboard instruments are used c o l o u r i s t i c a l l y as w e l l . The tendency i s to l i m i t these resources by an avo id-ance o f doubling and r e p e t i t i o n , except i n cases where an o r i e n t a t i o n toward p a r t i c u l a r s o n o r i t i e s i s des i red , as i n Rencesvals, or where reminiscences of previous mater ia l are used as an element of u n i t y , as i n the L i r i c h e Greche. Most of the song-cycles are arched around a c e n t r a l c l i m a c t i c f o c a l po in t , with a le s sening of o r c h e s t r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n toward the end of the work p a r a l l e l l i n g a comparable sparseness at the beginning. This i s compatible with the balanced formal out-l i n e s of the works, to be considered i n the next chapter. CHAPTER II FORMAL CONSIDERATIONS Seldom i s a body of music so cons i s tent i n s tructure and s t y l e as that present ly under cons idera t ion . Granted the inev i t ab le refinement of technique which occurs i n the progress of any creat ive l i f e , these works are not defined by sharply d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t y l i s t i c per iods , such as character ize the output o f , f o r example, Igor S t rav insky . The incorporat ion of s e r i a l i s m i n the 19^0's d id not intrude upon D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s a lready evident p r e d i l e c t i o n for t r i - p a r t i t e forms and canonic devices . Indeed, such preferences were given new meaning i n r e l a t i o n to the twelve-tone system, with canons of augmentation and d iminut ion , of inver s ion and contrary motion, and complex mensural canons increa s ing i n frequency of appearance. Turning our a t t ent ion f i r s t to the works from 1953» we f i n d what might be termed a mature, ' c l a s s i c a l ' s t y l e , the pre-cedent for which i s found i n many of the e a r l i e r chamber works, p a r t i c u l a r l y the L i r i c h e Greche and Tre Poemi. The Goethe-Lieder are concise but thorough i n t h e i r use of contrapuntal p r a c t i c e s . The i n v e r t i b l e counterpoint of bars 1 to 3 and 7 to 9 i n the f i r s t song has already been noted i n Chapter One. L ied Number II i s constructed e n t i r e l y upon a 31 32 palindrome, and a s i m i l a r mirror image occurs between bars 9 and 15 i n the f i n a l song. In tegra l to the work, of course, are the canons through which i t unfo lds . D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s i n t e r e s t i n canons of varying rhythmic proport ions i s evident i n the construct ion of the t h i r d l i e d . The c l a r i n e t answers the voice i n simple augmentation. The t h i r d voice of the canon, the E^7 c l a r i n e t , r e p l i e s i n exact unaugmented inver s ion of the voca l pa r t . A more complex mensural r e l a t i o n s h i p exi s t s i n the three-voiced canon of Number V where the consecutive ent r i e s are i r r e g u l a r j Figure 1 Voice > E b c l . 1 1 3 j Bass c l . entry at 10 Also at bar 10 a new canonic pat tern begins between the B^ c l a r i n e t and vo iceJ the l a t t e r now mirrors with three eighth notes the dotted eighths of the c l a r i n e t . For the f i n a l phrase the three parts enter i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l order i n s t r e t t o i 33 Further mention may be made of the palindromic construe* t i o n of the second l i e d . The ent i re melodic mater ia l of t h i s short song i s presented by the v o i c e . The E ^ c l a r i n e t jo ins at the t h i r d l a s t note of the expos i t ion with an exact reproduction of the v o c a l phrase. The soprano proceeds meanwhile with a retrograde vers ion i n which only dynamics are a l t e r e d . The expressive three-note moti f with which the seventh song commences i s va r i ed rhythmica l ly i n each v o i c e . An ent i re sec t ion i s thence developed from s i m i l a r f i gure s . The i r various rhythmic proport ions may be enumerated as f o l l o w sJ Figure 2 34 (Figure 2 continued) J J J. J. i 3 r n J. JTJ J JT3 m J J> hU j j j . f r n n t _ 2 — > v The palindrome of bars 9 through 15 constitutes an alternate *B' section, with the o r i g i n a l material returning at i t s conclusion i Example 2 Voice c l . * i? y7 V i dir l ]^7 TOJ,|,j!|*lJlrql 13 ^ r " ^ fori £ 1 ^ — 14 7 \ ^JtJ 4H — ^ =±=-^ ^ • s e , - \ 35 Taken as a whole, the seven songs of the cyc le e x h i b i t the arch form which i s to be found i n the majori ty of the composer's works. Numbers I and VII are slow i n tempo and are comparable i n mood and texture . Songs II and VI are both b r i e f duets between voice and one c l a r i n e t . The cent ra l three songs contain the major p o r t i o n of the work's canonic expos i t ion and are almost i d e n t i c a l i n l e n g t h i Figure 3 Number III Number IV Number V 20 bars 22 bars 20 bars Just as obvious are the formal symmetries of the Cinque Cant i per baritono wr i t ten three years l a t e r . The c e n t r a l canto stands out i n many respects as the f o c a l point of the worki i t i s the longest ( f i f t y - n i n e bars) and contains s t a r t l i n g cross formations which are d i s t i n c t both v i s u a l l y and a u r a l l y . There are a l l u s i o n s to the techniques of s e r i a l ex-p o s i t i o n found i n the other songs—aggregate and e l ided rows, and simple and complex canons. In s tructure i t i s a large t r i -p a r t i t e formt A B A B A B A B A . The songs f l anking Number III are shorter and of a t r a n q u i l , rather slow tempo. Number II begins with a double canon, has a contras t ing c e n t r a l s e c t i o n , and concludes with an a l t e r e d r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the opening m a t e r i a l . S i m i l a r l y , the fourth canto s t a r t s with two pa i r s o f vo ice s . The c l o s i n g s i x bars are an exact retrograde of the f i r s t s i x . D a l l a p i c c o l a 36 expands h i s mater ia l i n t h i s penultimate song by fragmenting the row and forming new combinations with these segments. Completing the arch form are the f i r s t canto (Molto animato) and Number V (Mosso; s c o r r e v o l e ) . S t i l l greater correspondances between the complementary songs ex i s t i n the overt and the sym-b o l i c meanings of the text s . These w i l l receive greater a t t e n t i o n i n Chapter Four. Regarding D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s employment of various types of canon i t i s safe to say that t h i s work alone would e s t ab l i sh him as an undisputed master. Of course, we s h a l l present ly see instances of many of these devices i n other o f h i s compositions. The f i r s t canon emerges from the chordal in t roduct ion at bar 6 i n the woodwinds and s t r i n g s . I t proceeds i n groups of three notes i n which there i s always a pos i t ive-negat ive r e l a t i o n -ship (ad i s always answered by a J i n the other voice just as a J i s always answered by a d ) t Example 3 3 7 In bar 7 the baritone begins with an adaptation of these proportions, although not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the canon. The progression i s as followsJ Figure k Xi;, J1I77t TJTJ7*Tjjj? JTL - 1 Baritone. £ " N I J. J- J. I J- J. J- I J. J- J- ill J J.J J I 2 J ra A s i m i l a r but new canon continues the sequence beginning i n bars 10 and 11. These entries represent rhythmic variants of the preceding patterns, with diminution i n the r a t i o of 2 1 3 . Each three-note group i n the leading voice at bar 10 i s a retrograde of the corresponding three-note group i n the follow-ing voice at bar 6.^ The same r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between the remaining two voices 1 Figure 5 10 n r l--^J\i}}} JJJ JjJ J|JJ>JJ JllJ 1 - i i ? n j i j j j j i j i j J > i i u I — 1 _ ) 1 . 3 . i y 3 J 1 3 i 1 3 J l T h i s applies to the rhythm of attacks only, as the f i n a l note i n each canon i s lengthened. 38 In bar 14 the voices proceed i n two-note segments. A short-long r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained wi th in each vo ice , us ing simple augmentation and d iminut ion . These are a l so present between the p a r t si Figure 6 '—j—> v_ 7 r— 1 c - i A I DU J|J o —VJlJ — tyJlJo I—frj The canto concludes with movement s i m i l a r to that i n i t i a t e d i n bar 6. There are now s i x e n t r i e s . Dotted forms of the basic rhythmic c e l l s are present i n the f i r s t two voices ( introducing 3»2 augmentation), and 5»4 augmentation i s present i n the t h i r d i Figure 7 *JJJ'JIJ J >(Qnv J J J J J .H -(ffiyiT) - J J H - i -I* J J J-jU i j j j -i - i — ^ JJ|J*J| i f j j j 3 9 (Figure 7 continued) UJ J'JIJJ - I - l IJ>J. IJJ-M - i JJJ*J JJJJMUJJ*—i UJJHU J^loJ - I I t may be noted that the f i n a l canto contains a sec t ion between bars 7 and 16 which i s not unl ike those just descr ibed . Bars 10 to 12, fo r example, cons i s t of severa l three-note f rag-ments, each a d i f f e r e n t rhythmic v a r i a n t of the a l t e r n a t i n g shor t - long pat terns . Each sequence a l so appears i n retrograde! Figure 8 F l . i j l A c l . i B^cl. i V i a i V c . i Jl J - *JJJi \ 3 J I J < — > il J. * J J > J J* -^ > 1 ( J J I 2 I 4-0 Number I I b e g i n s w i t h a compact f o u r - p a r t canon. The m i r r o r p a i r R^Q and RIr> a r e i n r h y t h m i c d i m i n u t i o n o f the s i m i l a r l y - c o u p l e d and I 0 u n t i l n o t e f i v e . F o r n o t e s s i x t h r o u g h t e n a l l p a r t s a r e i n e i g h t h n o t e s , t he i m i t a t i o n b e i n g a t the d i s t a n c e o f an e i g h t h as w e l l . The canon ends w i t h a l t e r n a t e v o i c e s i n d i m i n u t i o n ( P ^ and I Q ) . A f t e r a b a r i t o n e s o l o o f one b a r the same c a n o n i c p a i r s r e t u r n f o r a canon i n s i m p l e d i m i n u t i o n o f the o p e n i n g b a r s . P r o c e e d i n g from i t s c o n c l u s i o n i s a r e p e t i t i v e m e l o d i c f i g u r e i n t he f l u t e , t o be m i r r o r e d e x a c t l y by the a l t o f l u t e two b a r s l a t e r . The v o i c e i m i t a t e s c e r t a i n m o t i v e s o f t h e f l u t e p h r a s e b u t does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n the canon. F o l l o w i n g a s h o r t c o n t r a s t i n g m a r t e l l a t o s e c t i o n , t he m a t e r i a l o f th e b e g i n n i n g i s r e c a p i t u l a t e d . The r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r may be seen by comparing t h i s r e t u r n a t b a r 2^ w i t h t h e f i r s t b a r s i Example 4-I ../» .(iff.. , ffirQpr-i i, ± 1 5~ 1 . o r 7 ? P b, f-f T 1 I f 1 Bass c|. t i t Vk P 9 P Vc. U-3—J I — J ) u3 II 41 The re-appearance of the p r i n c i p a l canonic m a t e r i a l i n i t s o r i g i n a l time-values f o l l o w s a palindrome between the f l u t e s (given as Example 14 i n Chapter Three). Canto Number IV presents a type of canonic i n t e r p l a y which may be compared to E r n s t Krenek's "deceptive i m i t a t i o n , " 2 s i n c e true canons do not m a t e r i a l i z e . The f o u r v o i c e s begin simultaneously but diverge a t note f i v e to crea t e an area of rhythmic canoni Fi g u r e 9 ^ i 5 . * ^ J I J J . J.IIJ i-milfMjrh JWJfJ,f] i -> v ' ^ i_2_J • 3 u 3 Jv, 3_J i 1 i v i ^ 7 W . J.If J t BthMMi \lITnriJl 1 Rl0» 4 - - • - •-(g) -, 1 H 3 .J.IUrJ>IWJ. i A new i m i t a t i v e passage s t a r t s i n bar 14. The v i o l a and c e l l o begin two rows simultaneously as do the f l u t e s and c l a r i n e t s an e i g h t h note l a t e r . In both cases the row-pairs are i n m i r r o r and proceed e x a c t l y together except f o r notes eleven and twelve. These l a s t notes are a r t i c u l a t e d s e p a r a t e l y to 2 S t u d i e s i n Counterpoint (New Yor k i G. Schirmer, I nc., 1940), p. 9. kz re in force the canonic e f f ec t . This sec t ion overlaps with r e p e t i t i o u s three-note fragments to he described l a t e r as aggregates. An i n t r i c a t e four-part passage i s intoduced at bar 2k by an abrupt drop i n the dynamic l e v e l . The two f lu te s begin a mir ror f igure with RQ and Pg as do the c l a r i n e t s a s ixteenth note l a t e r with Rg and P^. At note three these rhythmic par t -ners are exchanged, so that RQ and P^ are played together while P8 and Rg mirror t h e i r motion at the distance of a s i x -teenth note . The four rows converge for notes eleven and twelve, the l a t t e r note becoming the f i r s t of the retrograde form i n each case. Only from the f i f t h note of the new rows does rhythmic i m i t a t i o n occur with a staccato s ixteenth-note pat tern (bar 27). The canonic s tructures of canto Number III are markedly d i f f e r e n t from those of the second and fourth songs. Rg begins at bar k i n unison between the A c l a r i n e t and v i o l a , but notes four and f ive are doubled i n the p ianofor te , a procedure very d i f f e r e n t from the use of common tones c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the preceding canto. RI^ answers i n bar 5» A b r i e f and rather obscure canonic moment occurs between bars 13 and 15 where the entries are i n the r a t i o of 3 1 2 i Example 6 Vk Vc -UL In* ^ % 1 l-t— - r - & — ^ — ^ 1 44 Canonic development becomes more extended from bar 26 where RlQ i n the A c l a r i n e t and c e l l o r e c a l l s the motif of bar 4. The chordal i n t e r j e c t i o n s are le s s pronounced u n t i l the con-c l u s i o n of the contrapuntal s ec t ion at bar 51, where the cross formation of the f i r s t bars re-appears. Having surveyed the two works of the 1950's i t i s poss ib le to i s o l a t e both formal and s t y l i s t i c precedents i n D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s e a r l i e r s e r i a l works. The u t i l i z a t i o n of ternary form i s almost ubiqui tous , while imi t a t ive and contrapuntal textures are never wholly absent from any of the works. Of the three cyc les of L i r i c h e Greche, the "Sex Carmina A l c a e i " i s the roost i n d i c a t i v e of the p r e d i l e c t i o n fo r canonic expos i t ion , while a l l three sets i l l u s t r a t e t r i - p a r t i t e forms to a greater or l e s s e r extent. A f a s c i n a t i n g degree of s t r u c t u r a l organizat ion i s to be found i n the "Cinque Frammenti d i S a f f o . " As i n the works of the 1950's, the composer l i n k s f i r s t and l a s t songs while contra s t ing them with the c e n t r a l ones. The out l ine below indica tes only general s e c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s but does show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the outer songs. (In a d d i t i o n , Numbers I and V are re l a ted by row, whereas Numbers I I , I I I , and IV show s e r i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s to be discussed l a t e r . ) « ^5 Figure 10 I Largo 20 bars ABABA II Mosso j scorrevole 25 bars AA^Bext .A I I I Lento 1 9 bars IV A l l e g r e t t o 17 bars ABA2B2A2B2 Molto Lento 1 9 bars ABA-jA Of i n t e r e s t are the re t rogres s ion of voca l row-forms which occurs a t the centre of Number III and the somewhat unusual form of the fourth frammento. While i m i t a t i v e passages are p l e n t i f u l i n t h i s work, i t i s i n the second c y c l e , "Sex Carmina," that canonic tech-niques come to the f o r e . The unaccompanied voca l expos i t ion of the row which begins the work es tabl i shes an important melodic conf igura t ion . I t s two phrases ' A ' and ' B' are to reappear l a t e r i n the cycles Example 7 Except f o r the sustained octaves i n the harp, piano, and occa s iona l ly s t r i n g s , the ent i re accompaniment of the second song unfolds as a perpetual canon. Three rows are used and each occurs three t imes. The voca l part provides a counterpoint to 46 t h i s a c t i v i t y but contains only one row statement, elongated by frequent repeated notes . The voice i s absent during the rather lengthy "d iver se " canons at the beginning of Number I I I , enter ing at the more s tra ight- forward expos i t ion of the A l l e g r o sostenuto. The carmen begins with two p a i r s of instruments. The canon i n exact i m i t a t i o n between the c e l l o and v i o l a i s superimposed upon the simultaneous statement of the f i r s t hexachord of P5 i n both forward and reverse order . Notes one through s i x of P5 appear i n the harp while s i x through one are played by the horn i n i r r e g u l a r augmentation. The trombone begins R^n i - n D a r ^ a n ( * ^ s answered exact ly at the same p i t c h by the v i o l a i n the next bar. A three-part canon i n inver s ion i s i n i t i a t e d i n the bar a f t e r number 7 between P3, Ig, and 1^. At number 9 the voice partakes f r e e l y i n a new, rhythmica l ly les s ac t ive canon. The second and t h i r d voices enter at the distance of a h a l f note . An i n t e r e s t i n retrograde construct ions was noted i n the Goethe-Lieder Numbers II and VII and i n the Cinque Canti per  baritono Number IV. A l e s s obvious example arches the t h i r d of the "Sex Carmina" although t e x t u r a l l y the corresponding sect ions are not completely s i m i l a r . The seven bars between numbers 5 and 7 are as f o l l o w s « 47 Example 8 In the retrograde vers ion near the end of the carmen (beginning at number 12) the voice s ings the cancr izan of the row ( R I 1 0 ) o r i g i n a l l y played by the v i o l a and c e l l o , fol lowed i n t h i s l a t t e r example by the c l a r i n e t : 48 Example 9 13. Voice 1 J ; ; * b j i ^ = I J I 1 J V a 6 z: i d 1—>, •> 4 £f|4 hi m ,9 © 1 r i r ^ tr f '?r ' ^  T t"TJ J f - r - l — 0 — i f— f 9 - Oi \»P » n * ;—=— — — _ — i — \ — > — & G r - f )" -1 > - •, © ^ 5—4 0-^  •^-r—r— - 3 » r f ' n-> _i — * u ,..2. ,_ |v> >-<S • } \ - ~% » The coda following the above bars contains a retrograde rhythmic pattern between the oboe, voice, and violin« Figure 11 Oboe t P 8 Voice t P l l V i o l i n i J I J J J J J I J J . JJIOJJJJI J lo J IJ J j l j J J J J J I J J J J l J U J | j J J J j | J > V'JJJIJJJIJ O 7 4 9 Like Number I the fourth carmen i s introduced by the unaccompanied s inger who here declaims the text with 13 and RI^ i n r ap id success ion. Indeed, the l i n k i s more than i n -c i d e n t a l , as the oboe then begins an exact melodic quotat ion of 'k't the f i r s t phrase of the ' E x p o s i t i o . ' A canon i n contrary motion with the f lu te fo l lows . The p i t c h of the ' B' phrase (R^ i n Number I) i s transposed to Rj i n the c l a r i n e t and Rig i n the f l u t e . A double canon i n contrary motion operates i n the f i f t h song. The voice and oboe cons t i tu te one p a i r , while a rhythmica l -l y contra s t ing canon between the v i o l i n and c e l l o begins one f u l l bar (three beats) l a t e r . The introductory phrases ' A ' and ' B' (Example 7) are expanded and combined i n the ' C o n c l u s i o ' to form a convincing movement of twenty-nine bars . A simultaneous rendering of prime and inverted forms of ' A ' i n diminution by v i o l a £nd f l u t e leads into a canon i n inver s ion between the v i o l i n and c e l l o us ing • B' i n d iminut ion : (Example 10 on fo l lowing page) 50 Example 10 'A1 , 4 Pi . s E -4 ^ 4 I '6 1 -3—r Then begins an extended canon in v o l v i n g both themes i n o r i g i n a l values and i n diminution, as shown belowi Figure 12 Ad = 2 i l diminution of A Bd= 2«1 diminution of B P 1»» Ad... Ad, inverted Ad, Ob. i ,B, HI .Ad , inverted C l . i Voice i Ad , inverted Ad.......Bd... VI.• Bd V i a i Ad... Ad, Vc•t Bd. .. Bd.... Ad , inverted Ad, Bd incomplete Bd incomplete 5 1 A f a sc ina t ing connection between the f i r s t cyc le of the L i r i c h e Greche and the t h i r d , "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte , " suggests ternary form on t h i s large s ca le i the f i r s t row used i n the "Cinque Frammenti d i Saffo" undergoes a ser ie s of v a r i a t i o n s as the conclus ion of the l a t e r c y c l e . Before a f u l l e r commentary on t h i s i s g iven, i t should be noted that the f i r s t of the Anacreonte l y r i c s i s based on a canonic melody which i s not s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d i n the course of the move-ment although fragments of i t are developed i n the c e n t r a l s e c t i o n . Of these, the i n i t i a l t r i p l e t eighth-note moti f i s the most frequent, appearing f i r s t i n a three-part canont Example 1 1 Cl-A t\. ^ QUASI khTo Voice T 1 m, =f=: 1 itW. II *>—| -?—£ 1 * E - i-o h?*}-' 4 S lah - 9l J U -JO d< - ^ - r p --1 —f-- r e-S i m i l a r to t h i s t r i p l e t moti f i s the opening voca l declamation of Number II i n which the seconds are transformed to the widely-spaced i n t e r v a l s of the "Saffo" rowi Example 1 2 ^ : — _ — _ 1 1 r t P tea "(f - 4 V —* * 4 -4-4- — & — Ac. ros —Co-me "tyta - to-he <Aal - be - ri 52 The v a r i a t i o n s commence immediately, pos s ib ly because the row has already appeared elsewhere. Seven v a r i a t i o n s may be d i s -t inguished by the changes i n instrumental texture . The f i r s t , l a s t i n g seven bars, i s character ized by susta ined, v i o l e n t l y accented chords i n a l l three instruments. An inver s ion of the •Eros ' moti f of Example 12 begins the second v a r i a t i o n . Accom-panying the b r i e f voca l utterance and flautando row-fragments i n the v i o l a between bars 4? and 49 are s t e a d i l y marching h a l f notes i n the c lar inets and piano. The chordal accompaniment returns i n the t h i r d , where the voice again resumes a place of importance. A tumultuous id iomat ic f igure i n the piano provides the focus of i n t e r e s t i n V a r i a t i o n four , as the voice only r e i t e r a t e s the 'E ro s ' mot i f . V a r i a t i o n f i ve represents a release of the tens ion created by the dynamic q u a l i t y of the previous one. Running eighth-note patterns are shared by the and A c l a r i n e t s and the piano. An exact reminiscence of the o r i g i n a l "Saf fo" conf igura t ion (from Number V of the "Cinque Frammenti") i s i n t e r -polated at bar 66 and may be considered as another v a r i a t i o n . The conclus ion begins i n bar 6? with imi ta t ive melodic fragments superimposed on the notes of the s i x t h v a r i a t i o n being completed i n the p ianofor te . The sustained and accented chords i n a l l instruments c o n s t i t u t i n g the remainder of the work are s i m i l a r to those of the f i r s t and t h i r d v a r i a t i o n s . The leaping ' E r o s ' motif i s heard three times i n the l a s t three bars as a fur ther element of u n i t y i n the work. 53 For h i s Tre Poemi (19^9) D a l l a p i c c o l a arranged two short modern poems around a much longer and more s i g n i f i c a n t text by Michelangelo. The impact of the t r i p t y c h l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n i t s sharp focus on death i n the c e n t r a l song. This i s pre-faced by the f i r s t poema's p o r t r a i t of d e l i c a t e l i f e and followed by a song of re s ignat ion and acceptance of death. Formal ly , the climax of the cycle occurs midway through the second poema. Both outer songs are e s s e n t i a l l y subdued i n dy-namics and more t r a n q u i l i n character . The melody of the second song contains few of the sensuous convolutions of the opening poema, and the accompaniment i s not used so e x c l u s i v e l y f o r c o l o u r i s t i c e f f e c t . The i n s t r u -mental l i n e s i n Number II a t t a i n s t r u c t u r a l importance l a r g e l y through t h e i r canonic expos i t ion . The piece opens with a slow and de l ibera te statement i n the lowest r e g i s t e r of the piano, followed steanon at the f i f t h bar by the bass c l a r i n e t . The t h i r d v o i c e , the horn, does not enter u n t i l the twelfth bar . By t h i s time a f u l l e r o r c h e s t r a l texture has been achieved, and fur ther imi ta t ive patterns i n shorter values lead d i r e c t l y into a re turn of the opening canonic f igure where s t r e t t o entr ie s are one bar apart . The canon culminates i n an o r c h e s t r a l t u t t i i n bars 33 and Jk. A new four-part canon proceeds immediately between vo ice ; v i o l i n and trumpet; oboe and v i o l a ; and bass c l a r i n e t and c e l l o . The release of tension i s accompanied by descending eighth-note patterns s i m i l a r to those which preceded 54 the c l imax. Union between the voice and instruments i s a lso demon-s tra ted i n the f i n a l poema, where the development i s again p r i m a r i l y canonic. The ra ther f l o r i d voca l melody of the f i f t h bar i s taken up by the A c l a r i n e t . At i t s conclus ion the phrase i s inverted and then imitated i n mirror by the bass c l a r i n e t . A p r o l i f e r a t i o n of imi t a t ive phrases brings the work to a c l o s e . A l i n e of consistency has been traced i n t e c h n i c a l approach from the works of 1942 through the Cinque Canti of 1956. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s ty le o f the l a s t decade, exempli f ied by the Parole d i San Paolo, reveals s i g n i f i c a n t points o f convergence with what went before as w e l l as depar-tures , p r i m a r i l y with regard to form. This composition d i f f e r s from those prev ious ly examined by being a s ing le extended movement. In a large sense i t con-forms to an ABA plan s ince a retrograde v a r i a t i o n of the open-i n g bars c loses the work and the c l i m a c t i c c e n t r a l s ec t ion con-t r a s t s with these outer l i m i t s . Of course, there are sub-d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h i s general framework, represented schema* t i c a l l y as followst 55 Figure 13 Bars 1 to 16 17 to 21 22 to 35 36, 3 7 . . . A mater i a l Trans- B mater ia l A (chordal i t i o n (p r imar i ly accompaniment) l i n e a r & imi ta t ive ) . .38 to 44 45 to 57 58 to 90 92 to 100 B to climax A (plus B (canonic A (retrograde at 44 t r a n s i t i o n ) sequences of bars 1 l ead ing to to 8) major climax) A B A B A B A ( 1 7 ) (5+ (2) ( 7 ) (13) (33X9) 14 ) When A and B are used to s i g n i f y , r e s p e c t i v e l y , chordal and l i n e a r or imi t a t ive textures i t i s seen that an a l ternat ion : ;d f these patterns i s present . A smal l climax i n the second B sec t ion i s preparatory to the major dynamic climax c l o s e r to the end. The f i n a l i m i t a t i v e passage i s longer than the three sect ions p r i o r to i t , accurate ly r e f l e c t i n g the B i b l i c a l t e x t ' s most emphatic statement which occurs at i t s conc lus ion . Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t are the canonic appearances through-out the work. Although i m i t a t i v e phrases are present before bar 40, i t i s at t h i s point that a ra ther unique t r i p l e canon begins . I t s mensural complexity brings to mind some of the canons of the s ixteenth-century po lyphonis t s . Two sets of voices (P^o and I 0 t Pq and I2) begin t h e i r respect ive phrases together 5 6 but soon diverge. The remaining two parts begin a canon i n inversion. In each of the six parts notes four to s i x (those c i r c l e d below) appear chordally at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , as do the next three notes of each s e r i e s . A l l voices conclude t h e i r phrases with arpeggiated three-note figures wherein, the gap between the canons i s narrowedt Figure 14 i 0 : i ' J J j J j j i - ( T S T T f e - r i -i 3 i ^ s ' \ J l\ J JJ - I 3 _ _ j j . y 57 A s t r i c t canon between two p a i r s of voices i n i t i a t e s a new sec t ion at bar 67, marked un poco p iu scorrevo le . T r i p -l e t quarter notes i n the v i o l a and f l u t e and eighth notes i n the c e l l o and c l a r i n e t s hasten the a c t i v i t y at bar 78. The c l i m a c t i c canon begins with the simultaneous movement of four voices (doubled by the s t r ings ) at bar 84. Notes four to s i x while appearing i n d i f f e r e n t instruments than the f i r s t three are s t i l l s tated c h o r d a l l y . The second hexachord o f each row i s engaged i n i m i t a t i o n . Immediately ensuing i s a four-part canon i n v o l v i n g a l l the instruments. The reverse i n procedure of the previous canon, t h i s one from bars 87 to 91 begins i m i -t a t i v e l y and becomes chordal from notes seven through twelve. A ra ther free retrograde vers ion of the work's opening bars fol lows the f i n a l chord of the canon. I t i s evident , then, that canon i s used c o n s i s t e n t l y as a device of s t r u c t u r a l u n i f i c a t i o n i n a l l of the works under d i s -cus s ion . In e a r l i e r compositions the accompaniment i s often s o l e l y responsible fo r the canonic development, while l a t e r the voice tends to be an ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t . Canons i n e a r l i e r works are u s u a l l y simple and i n equal time-values i n a l l vo i ce s . With Goethe-Lieder and e s p e c i a l l y Cinque Cant i the mensural propor-t ions between canonic entr ie s increase i n complexity. Also more frequent i n l a t e r works i s the use of canons i n v o l v i n g s t r e t to and a bui ld-up of instrumental forces f o r a point o f c l imax. The symmetry of formal design i s observable i n a l l of the composer's 58 music to date, f o r i n h i s hands the ancient t r i - p a r t i t e form has achieved renewed v i t a l i t y and v a r i e t y . CHAPTER I I I A STUDY OF THE SERIAL STRUCTURE Row-types An i n v e s t i g a t i o n into D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s row structures reveals that the major i ty of them are semi-combinator ia l ; * that i s , the content of e i t h e r corresponding or opposing hexachords i s i d e n t i c a l i n the prime form and the inverted form at some t r a n s p o s i t i o n . Of the few rows which are not combinator ia l i n t h i s way, many are p a r t i a l l y so. There are , then, examples of three types of combina tor i a l i ty i n the music i s e r ie s i n which the prime form and some t ranspos i t ion of the inverted form exh ib i t exact ly complementary hexachords; those i n which the prime form and some t ranspos i t ion of the inverted form e x h i b i t exact ly s i m i l a r hexachords (with respect to content on ly ) ;2 and those i n which hexachordal content does not correspond exac t ly , but some sor t of p a r t i a l combina tor i a l i ty e x i s t s . The second and t h i r d types appear i n the f i r s t cycle of iThe term i s from M i l t o n Babbi t t , "Some Aspects o f Twelve-Tone Composit ion," Score, X (1955), 57 • Babbit t discusses Arnold Schoenberg's use of the f i r s t type described above. 2 I n t h i s case, of course, the prime form and the inverted retrograde form exh ib i t the complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p pre-v i o u s l y mentioned. 59 60 the L i r i c h e Greche, i n which Figure 1 1P0 i C# G# D A G l a P 0 i C# E G C 2P3 i C# A B G F 2ap1 , c# F# G B1 , C 3P3 1 C# B- A D C 3 a P n i C# B k C A F 4 P X t C# G# F B G 4 a P ? t C# A G A^ 5 P n t C# B^ D B E Of these, f i v e contain hexac] transposed inversions there are nine d i f f e r e n t rows 13 C 1 F# B E ^ B^ F E F « A b B D E ^ F# A D 1 C E k E B b F# A b E 1 , 1 E A^ F D BE A A^ l E b F G B^ F# E F# » G E E f c B D A b E 1 C D E ^ F# A B ^ i B E D C F F# F t E 1 , C A A 1 , G F# ords which are dupl ica ted i n a 3por convenience the nine rows of the "Cinque Frammenti d i Saffo" w i l l be designated by a numeral p re f ix t If^ and l a P 0 are the two rows of the f i r s t songt 2P0 and 2aP0 of the second; and so on. 61 F i g u r e 2 1 I 7 i a i ^ 2&P! 2 a I 0 4Px 5 I 0 / C | G # D G (T) 2 = r ( G # C# G C D A^) (c7 E G C B F (^E C# B K F G ^T) ( c # ~ F# G B C E 5 ( T T F # E 1 0 C# B ^ ) G# F B G ~ E ^ ) E G C# F~~~G#^ C# B ^ D B E D F G# E B B F# B E ^ B" F i s ) Eb B^ F# B E F B D E F# A (I F# E * D B A 5 E A" F D B! A A F A B D E D B^ E B F# A ( c B b D A F# E^) ( E ^ C A A ^ G ~ F # ) C g _ _g^_ F # G A^ A ^ Other rows i n t h i s song c y c l e o f 1 9 ^ 2 e x h i b i t p a r t i a l c o m b i n a t o r i a l i t y . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y i s p o s s i b l e between t r i c h o r d s i n the second row o f the f i r s t s o n g j ^ F i g u r e 3 laPj^ 1 [ c # E GJ C ^ J B 1 , F 1 A^ J 3 _ - D F# A] 1&I9 1 ( i F# E ^ - B ^ c f F 1 D B k^^G E C#| ^ T h i s i s i n a d d i t i o n to the s e m i - c o m b i n a t o r i a l i t y a t a d i f f e r e n t t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l l e v e l noted i n F i g u r e 2 . 62 and i n the f i r s t row of the second songi Figure 4 2P3 « JC# A B J ^ - G ^ J 1 ^ D 1 . C j £ _ _ E — ( B 4 , F # A5 2 I 8 1 (?# B B A ^ — C" D ~ ~ F 1 G ^ ^ F T ^ - E ^ ( A C # B J The two rows of the t h i r d frammento and 4ap e x h i b i t s i m i l a r p r o p e r t i e s , t h e i r corresponding hexachords d i f f e r i n g by one note : Figure 5 3P3 t C # B A D fc) A V 3In 1 A B C # A K ( B ^ D 3 a P i i » C # B'0 C A F ( F # ) 3 a l 7 1 A C BV C # F (E) 4 a p ? 1 C # E ^ A G A B ( B K ) W U I E B C # G A A1* ( F # ) E " F G (B^) F# E G F E b fc) E F# G fE) E 1* B D A K E b (p#) G B; A 1 , D B E D C F (F#) F C D E Bi ( B ^ A t e t rachorda l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s present between prime form and inver s ion i n 1P 0 as represented by the rows 1P 0 and 1 1 5 1 Figure 6 'G C 1 P 0 » ( ^ C #G # D A F# B M E * B* F E 6 3 An emphasis on C# and G# as a r e c u r r i n g nucleus i n thex ser ie s produces chordal s tructures which a t t a i n the p o s i t i o n of tonal anchors i n the f i r s t "Saffo" song, where the i n i t i a l con-f i g u r a t i o n of 1 P 0 reappears from bars 8 to 10 and i n the l a s t four bars i Example 1 A common feature of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s rows i s the r e -appearance of three-note groups w i t h i n the twenty-four t rans-p o s i t i o n s . This i s exemplif ied by the ser ie s of lap^, the row with which the voice begins i n the f i r s t frammento t 64 Figure 7 iap Q , C G>> B A E t G D b [D F i a p 2 , F c# B F# i A C E ^ E G i a p ? i G B>> c# F# E B t F A<) A C i a i i o « G E B c# F# i C A ( V F i a i 8 , F »] A B E « c# B t G G*» E> C l a l 3 , 0 A E F# B i F D] C# G These p a r t i c u l a r n o t e s — D - F - A — r e c e i v e emphasis through instrumental doubling i n bars 5 and 6, where they are the l a s t t r i c h o r d of lap^ Example 2 Cc|csto. 1/ ^ i J «9 i J S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the voice and f l u t e continue with l a Rr, so that the same three notes appear almost immediately i n reverse . Cont inu i ty i s assured by s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the tone-rows 65 of successive songs. For example, the row f i r s t given by the instruments i n the second frammento (2P0) and the voca l row of the t h i r d (33) both begin with the notes--B B, A b , and G B . Another l i n k appears at the end of the t h i r d song. The v i o l i n part i n the l a s t three bars suggests both the voca l row of the f i r s t fragment ( l AP 0) and the p r i n c i p a l row of the one to fol low {kPQ) 1 the seventh t r anspos i t ion of both of t h e i r prime forms ends with A - C - E B . Indeed, these rows correspond to a large degree at the t r a n s p o s i t i o n a l l e v e l s represented by l A P N and 4 P i o » Figure 8 i ap Q 1 C E B G B B A (E\ t (G) B B D B D F A b X u 4 P 1 Q 1 B B F D A b (E) D B/ 1 \ B (G) C E B G ^ Strengthening the arch form of the f i v e songs i s a resemblance between the rows of the second song and those of the fourth 1 Figure 9 2 a I 0 1 C G G B (c#) B^ t A F A^ B: D ( E ) 4 P q t C G (E) B B G^ E ^ 1 B (C#) A D F A b 2P 0 » B B G B A^ E (D) B N J ,k C C# G E° ( F ) X 4 a I ^ 1 A G C# E B (D) C / ' 1 N B G B A b B B (F) E The i d e n t i t y of the row of the f i r s t and l a s t songs (IPQ) has a lready been mentioned i n Chapter One. 66 Schoenberg made extensive use of one v a r i e t y of semi-combinator ia l row i n h i s l a t e r works. The type of ser ie s used i n h i s Phantasy for V i o l i n and Piano, op. 47« Figure 10 D F# E B b C ) i ( A F C# G# B G I i (GAE A F G C# ~~^fXf>_J^  £t> £t> C i s a l so found i n the S t r i n g Quartet No. 4, op. 37J the Piano Concerto, op. 42; the S t r i n g T r i o , op. 45; and the chora l work, De Profundis . A f t e r 19^2, D a l l a p i c c o l a became i n c r e a s i n g l y involved with the rami f i ca t ions of Schoenberg's prototype, and although he by no means abandoned the formula of the "Cinque Frammenti d i Saf fo" ( i t reappears i n a t l ea s t one work, the Tre Poemi of 19^9)t he chose rows with t h i s new type of construct ion for "Sex Carmina A l c a e i , " "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte , " Rencesvals, Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado, and the l a t e r Cinque Cant i  per baritono e a l c u n i s trumenti . Turning to the second cyc le of the L i r i c h e Greche we f i n d a condensation of the twelve-tone mater ia l commensurate with the increased economy of orches t ra t ion noted i n Chapter One. While the f i r s t cyc le makes use of nine d i f f e r e n t rows, the "Sex Carmina" have one row throughout i 6? Figure 1 1 Ij_ i f D B A A u C F A A F D B C F# G B b C# E E 5 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , however, the row-pairs as represented by P 0 and 1 ^ do not appear. Rather, one f inds used together or i n c lose proximity rows i n which the f i r s t hexachords contain dupl ica ted notes . A c e r t a i n harmonic homogeneity i s thus e s t ab l i shed . This i s strengthened further by the system of r e l a t e d tetrachords which ex i s t s w i t h i n the s e r i e s i Figure' 1 2 P 0 i C# E (F# G 1 1 1 • c E p B ^ i A (1^  F D iP) F# B* B J T ) C# The fo l lowing i l l u s t r a t i o n i s from the beginning of the canon i n contrary motion, carmen Number IVi Example 3 Pl-ot,. The canon i s present ly continued by Rj and R I Q , rows i n which 68 the note d u p l i c a t i o n i s s carce ly le s s obvious, although not occasioned by the same te t rachorda l r e l a t i o n s h i p : Example 4 The d u p l i c a t i o n of tetrachords i s used again i n the f i n a l canonic statement of Number V . R^, which begins i n the p ianofor te , contains some of the notes o f the r e l a t ed rows R I Q and Rr, with which the canon proceeds! Example 5 The t h i r d o f the "Sex Carmina" contains severa l i n -stances of adjacent row-transposi t ions placed i n close prox imi ty . In the retrograde forms t h i s produces three p i t c h dupl i ca t ions i n the f i r s t hexachords a lone, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the canon 69 beginning with the voice and the c l a r i n e t and f l u t e at number 9. the A l l e g r o sostenutot Example 6 and cont inuing i n the voice and v i o l i n fo l lowing number 10i Example 7 As w e l l , c e r t a i n prime and inverted forms accentuate p a r t i c u l a r notes when used i n con junct ion . I5 and appear canon ica l ly i n both carmen Number III (one bar a f t e r number 7) and i n Number VI (two bars before number 30)1 70 Example 8 The most concise of the L i r i c h e Greche, "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte , " were composed between 1944 and 1945. Aga in , a semi-combinatorial row i s the basist Figure 13 The r e l a t i o n s h i p es tabl i shed between the rows as represented above i s u t i l i z e d i n the f i r s t l y r i c to create an almost complete twelve-not.e statement from two i m i t a t i v e row-fragments t 71 Example 9 The s i gn i f i cance of the major and minor second i n t h i s work makes a s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l with the row s tructure of the Goethe-Lieder of 1953• A comparison of t h e i r respect ive rows reveals an i d e n t i c a l three-note nucleust Figure 14 "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte" P 0 « (i# G F ] B9 G# A t D B C E b D» E Goethe-Lieder P 2 i (F# G F ] E b A D < C C# G# B B* E In a d d i t i o n , i t may be noted that both ser ie s conta in two per fec t fourths , three major seconds, and three minor seconds. I t appears that at l ea s t four rows are funct ioning i n Rencesvals, the 1946 work f o r voice and piano. The d i f f i c u l t y of determining the number with c e r t a i n t y i s owing to the close r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the chordal and voca l rows of the opening fragment and to t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y , i n t u r n , to the chordal form-at ions i n the concluding song. In a d d i t i o n , a descending 72 chromatic ser ies i s used i n conjunct ion with the f i r s t two rows and a semitone voca l sequence i n the t h i r d fragment acts as a row.5 Both of the p r i n c i p a l ser ies are semi-combinator ia l . The chordal formation with which the piece begins may be ex-pressed l i n e a r l y as fol lowst Figure 15 5The composer has k i n d l y furnished the present w r i t e r with h i s own d e s c r i p t i o n of the work. His l e t t e r reads, i n par t , as fol lowst " I I s ' a g i t d'une oeuvre basee—c'est t o u t - a - f a i t v r a i - -sur le s douze-sonsj mais que je ne cons id l re pas dode-caphonique. Ce sont des Etudes sur l e t o t a l chromatiquei e t , dans l a p e t i t e f e u i l l e ajoutee a. l a pre'sente, vous pourrez v o i r en que l l e facon j ' a i e x t r a i t l a l igne du chant (Vers dulce France. . . ) i A — — ' JJ 12-i 1 8 i -Cfc-A K \ =£= 1 M <** * M .A "Que compositeur Camille] Togni par le de 'permutations' dans l a ser ies vocable , c e l u i - c i , qui en 19^6 n ' e x i s t a i t pas encorei mais que nous pouvons tres bien admettre. Mais l a , ou i l Concorde avec vous c ' e s t dans le trois ieme morceau. A l ' a v i s de M. Togni , j ' a i en c e r t a i n sens cons t ru i t un ' L i e d ' (forme A / B / A / ) sous le t i t r e ge'neral 'Rencesvals . * "Dans l e trois ieme morceau l a chant s u i t l a gamme chromatique descendante pour h u i t sonsi l e s quatre manquants sont representes dans, l e piano (secondesi G/Aj G diezei F d i e z e ) . "Avec mes sa lu ta t ions le s me i l l eure s , votre " L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a 73 The voice begins i n bar 6 with the fo l lowing s e r i e s ! Figure 16 A te t rachorda l connection l i n k s the retrograde form of the voca l row and the inverted retrograde form of the chordal s e r i e s i Figure 17 Vocal row R n i t ( F B B b D ) C# A i (C F# E"* G ) A E Although notes one to four of these forms (F-B-B l ?-D) appear i n t h i s order a t bar 75 as the accompaniment of the concluding song, the notes of the row are re-ordered therea f ter . The d e r i v a t i o n of the row of the t h i r d fragment from e i t h e r of the two p r i n c i p a l ser ie s i s shown i n the fo l lowing i l l u s t r a t i o n from bar 85i 74 Example 10 M _4Jk M— -5—J 1*7 4 f" /p • OR R3 1 ^ » til o 11 f 1 1 ^ 7 » b-# o 7 ^ 1 0 ^ • F l e x i b i l i t y of row-structure i s a lso demonstrated by the Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado. Songs I, I I , and IV are constructed from the s e t i Figure 18 The def iant nature of the text of the t h i r d l y r i c suggests a reason for the employment of a new row which i s not combina-t o r i a l . The opening bars of Quattro L i r i c h e revea l a somewhat ambiguous order ing of the s e r i e s . The f i r s t c l e a r statement of the row occurs i n bar Although the notes w i t h i n the opening hexachords remain i n t a c t , the i n t e r n a l order i s a l t e r e d i 75 Example 11 Emphasizing the close tex tua l connection between the f i r s t and l a s t songs i s an i d e n t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the row at points such as the fo l lowing ( in the l a t e r instrumental ver s ion such i r r e g u l a r i t i e s are scored fo r p a i r s of instruments) ! Example 12 1 h <» 7 11 9 In the Tre Poemi there i s at l ea s t one example of a secondary se t " a r i s i n g from the jux tapos i t ion of r e l a ted t rans-pos i t ions of the semi-combinatorial s e r i e s . The fo l lowing occurs i n the second poema, bars 63 and 641 M i l t o n B a b b i t t ' s term, op. c i t . 76 S E T j The ser ie s of Goethe-Lieder contains te t rachorda l s i m i l a r i t i e s which are used to advantage i n the f i r s t of the songs. The re l a t ed forms: Figure 19 l) G G# are employed r e s p e c t i v e l y "by the voice at the beginning and by the E b c l a r i n e t i n i t s concluding statement (beginning with the l a s t three notes o f bar 14), The t i e between tetrachords i s re in forced i n the b r i e f second song which r e l i e s i n i t s e n t i r e t y upon the juxtaposed re l a t ed rows. A schematic representat ion i s as fo l lows : Figure 20 0 V o i c e : P « j . . . . . . . . . .I^Q, ,R. 10' . R i E b c l a r i n e t : •10< The sense of c laustrophobia which Vlad f inds i n the 77 s i x t h l i e d ? character izes the motif of seconds noted here i n Figure 14. The penultimate song, balancing i n i t s b r e v i t y the second, derives a new row from the nucleus of minor second-major second for the bass c l a r i n e t a c c o m p a n i m e n t « Figure 21 C C# B i F# G F i D E E ^  : A B^ A^ The accompaniment then continues with a free retrograde vers ion of the above. In the symmetrical combinatoria l set of the Cinque  C a n t i , P 0 =RIc; , or R g i l ^ i 8 Figure 22 R I 9 ) (RQ The pal indromic idea which generates the row may be seen as the bas i s for other usages i n the p iece , such as i n the double canon which begins Number I I . R^o i s answered by P l w and the two rows cross i n bar 2. The canon i s re-voiced i n bar 6 but the same row forms are maintained. Later ( c i r c a bar 30) "the f lu te duet i s constructed as a palindromet 7viad, D a l l a p i c c o l a , p . 49. 8webern uses such a row i n opp. 28, 29, and 30. 78 The phenomenon of twelve-note aggregates occurs i n the fourth canto. At c e r t a i n points i n the accompaniment, three-note row-fragments appear i n profus ion . Within each sequence of twelve notes no r e p e t i t i o n s occur . (A s i m i l a r procedure of a row being generated by three-note n u c l e i was already noted i n the Goethe-Lieder, Number VI , Figure 21.) Bars 17 to 23 i n canto Number IV provide severa l examples, the f i r s t being t y p i c a l i 79 Figure 23 (notes 1 to 3) (notes 4 to 6) Aggregates re turn at bar 34 a f t e r an intervening four-part canon. The Parole d i San Paolo of 1964 uses the fo l lowing row i Figure 24 PQ i B b F# G G# D C# i E F E b A C B As i n the Cinque C a n t i , D a l l a p i c c o l a creates aggregates from the primary s e r i e s . The f i r s t such groupings occur at bar 3°» 80 (notes 10 to 12) (notes 1 to 3) D a l l a p i c c o l a employs a hexachordal i n t e r p o l a t i o n between bars 39 and as a s k i l f u l method of r e i n f o r c i n g c e r t a i n notes by t h e i r reappearance w i t h i n a short timei Example 15 81 One other s e r i a l device may be noted. This i s the use ( in bar 6l) of noteasix of I9 as a p ivo t to another row, R5. (Only the l a t t e r appears i n i t s e n t i r e t y . ) * Example 16 Voice Ca - V-'r % ' 1 3 pa- - f 1 - ens — est, 4 be-e s t * : x ifc. 5 4 9 * t " " h i (ha. I n t e r v a l Preferences Having examined the row s tructures of the works, i t i s now poss ib le to draw some conclusions regarding the composer's preference for p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v a l s and i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n -sh ips . In t h i s study, i n t e r v a l s w i l l be reduced to t h e i r s implest form, and inverted i f necessary, so that the range of i n t e r v a l s i s from minor second to augmented f o u r t h . 9 For pur-poses of comparison between ea r ly works and l a t e r ones, the t o t a l s are ca l cu la ted i n three groups, then added together. The r e s u l t s confirm that there i s a preponderance of minor th i rds 9The terminology of t r a d i t i o n a l harmony i s used s o l e l y for convenience and for f a c i l i t y i n recogniz ing i n t e r v a l s and chords and not with any in ten t to imply tonal connections. 82 i n the works up to and i n c l u d i n g Tre Poemi. This i n t e r v a l appears les s frequently i n the l a s t three compositions, i n which the minor second f igures most prominently. As w e l l , a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the use of augmented fourths i s noted. When a l l rows are considered together, minor seconds and minor t h i r d s occur with almost i d e n t i c a l r e g u l a r i t y while major seconds are only s l i g h t l y les s frequent. Tr i tones appear l ea s t o f ten . D e t a i l s are provided i n Tables i , i i , and i i i to be found i n Appendix I . These conclusions are cons i s tent with observations made i n the previous sec t ion and w i l l be borne out further by examples from the music which demonstrate D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s manipulation of h i s twelve-tone mater ia l to form t r i a d s , seventh and added-note chords, fourths , and so on. Such e n t i t i e s are enriched by the dodecaphonic surroundings, and do not n e c e s s a r i l y suggest an o r i e n t a t i o n toward t r a d i t i o n a l harmonic usage. Immediately not iceable are the t r i a d i c and chordal out-l i n e s i n Rencesvals. In the f i r s t song the formations of the opening bar provide three chord-types which appear throughout. These are 1) a major t r i a d plus a sharpened root ; 2) a t r i a d with an a d d i t i o n a l t h i r d above or below; and 3) a minor t r i a d with an added sharpened fourth lOvarious enharmonic s p e l l i n g s are of course encountered. 83 Example 17 A ra ther strong harmonic s t a b i l i t y i s es tabl i shed by such r e c u r r i n g patterns (although these are counter-balanced by chromatic f l u r r i e s ) i Example 18 1 /• ; 8 4 A s t r i k i n g l i n e a r succession of minor t h i r d s i s i n t r o -duced i n the opening of the second fragment by a new voca l rowi Example 19 The discouragement and sadness of the defeated s o l d i e r s are portrayed i n the t h i r d part of Rencesvals by the descending chromatic v o c a l l i n e , set against various t r i a d i c f igures i n the p ianoi Example 20 v v v 85 (Example 20 continued) D i f f e r i n g i n approach are the more l y r i c a l Quattro  L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado. E a r l y i n the second song the sop-rano sings unaccompanied a s e r i e s der ived from the block chords p r i o r to her entry . Noteworthy are the minor t h i r d s common to both voca l and s t r i n g s o n o r i t i e s « Example 21 M fo ice I vis I Vlq Ve. So — 1 »-J L 86 (Example 21 continued) ve- i . a. — D/os y <\ot a p,o5 ^o..1 • _ — ~ In the t h i r d of the Antonio Machado songs, added-note chords and even completely ou t l ined diminished sevenths are most conspicuous i n the block harmony of the s t r i n g s « Example 22 V I S I + T L V l < Vc. Cb. it s 5-6 ± 4 4 T-i-E3 & J2= 1 F v- * 5 ZZE it n w-n r» n T •, f , f Vis Vc a. Aug. t r i a d with major 2nd ( t r i tone) 5 ft? I S If, Nivf Dim. t r i a d with # f i f t h 5 Dim. 7th with added notes 5 Dim. 7th Dim. t r i a d with minor 2nd (minor 3rd) 87 Concerning D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s care for the uni ty of d e t a i l , Examples 11 and 12 of the previous sec t ion may again be c i t e d . In each of these instances the composer appears to favour the t r i t o n e produced by the combination of notes e ight and ten as the concluding i n t e r v a l of the phrase, ra ther than the minor second produced by notes eleven and twelve. I t i s not sur-p r i s i n g , then, that the row of the t h i r d song contains two t r i -tones, whereas the o r i g i n a l ser ie s i s b u i l t on seconds and t h i r d s i Figure 26 Row o f Number III P 0 t D D 1 , C F# B.k E b i E G G# F B A I I i — < The ser ie s o f Tre Poemi i s among those i n which the i n t e r v a l of the t h i r d i s an important component. Both a r -peggiated and chordal exposi t ions are represented i n the fo l lowing bar from the f i r s t poemat Example 23 In the second poema a s p e c i a l emphasis i s ind ica ted i n the voca l l i n e at a po int where a minor t h i r d occurs i 88 Example 2k The message of t h i s second se t t ing—that a l l things end i n death-- i s given i t s most p o s i t i v e statement between bars 60 and 66. As i f to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s thought g r a p h i c a l l y , s e r i a l i s m i n the voca l part i s suspended. The voice re -i t e r a t e s B^-G^-BI?, while an almost f ever i sh f l o u r i s h of chordal rows passes through the instruments. The i n t e r v a l of the major t h i r d i s a l o g i c a l choice fo r emphasis here as i t i s the one with which the row of the work begins . In the ser ie s of Goethe-Lieder the i n t e r v a l s which pre-dominate are the.second and the f o u r t h . The three-bar i n t r o -duct ion and the f i r s t statement of the v o i c e , which opens with the t r i t o n e , ind ica te the harmonic m i l i e u of much of the worki Example 25 89 This f i n a l song ends by repeat ing the t r i t o n e i n an o s c i l -l a t i n g f igure which occurs s imultaneously i n a l l four v o i c e s . In Number VII seconds and fourths are again p l e n t i f u l , the t r i t o n e being emphasized as i n the f i r s t song i n the note-r e p e t i t i o n s of the concluding bars . The beginning of the palindrome i n bar 9 sets R9 i n the c l a r i n e t against R5 i n the vo ice , so that two t r i tones appear h o r i z o n t a l l y and another v e r t i c a l l y ! Example 26 The upper c l a r i n e t parts i n the f i n a l bars of the song rep-resent the culmination of the juxtapos i t ion of the motif of seconds with that o f the t r i t o n e1 Example 27 The inverted palindrome of the Cinque Cant i ser ies 90 turns (between notes s ix and seven) upon a perfect four th . No i n t e r v a l i s repeated wi th in the matched hexachordsi Figure 27 G° F B D C A ^ ^ - ^ C# A G B b E D# m2 x4 m3 M2 M3 P 4 M3 M2 m3 x4 m2 Perhaps f o r t h i s reason i t i s d i f f i c u l t to general ize on the frequency of i n t e r v a l appearance i n t h i s work. The large pro-por t ion of l i n e a r movement as d i s t i n c t from chordal may, however, be noted. A d i f f e r e n t approach i s evident i n the work of 1964, Parole d i San Paolo, where blocks of sound cons t i tu te a har-monic backdrop for the e s s e n t i a l l y declamatory voca l l i n e . In add i t ion to two t r i t o n e s , the row contains four minor seconds, two minor t h i r d s , a major second and a major t h i r d . By forming four three-note chords from each row form, D a l l a p i c c o l a increases the occurrence of l i k e i n t e r v a l s . In the chord b u i l t on notes one to three of the prime form, a minor t h i r d r e su l t s i n add i t ion to the major t h i r d and minor second already present i n the row. The a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r v a l i n the retrograde form (which begins with a major second and a minor th i rd ) i s a major secondj and so on. The f i r s t and l a s t chords of each of the four rows which open the work i l l u s t r a t e the expos i t ion and re t rogres s ion of these chordst 91 Figure 28 1-3 10-12 1-3 10-12 , 1-3 10-12 1-3 10-12 P 0 i 3 I R i 7 H M3 m3 m3 M2 I M2 m3 M2 m2 m2 M2 | m3 M3 m2 M2 \ mj m2 m3 M2 M3 m3 i M2 M3 M2 m3 Where the composer wishes to h i g h l i g h t the character-i s t i c sound of these chordal s t ruc tures , he i s o l a t e s three notes i n a contras t ing t imbre. The d i s t i n c t i o n between l i n e a r and chordal expos i t ion i s s t r i k i n g i n bar 22i Example 28 The aggregates at bar 3° (Figure 25) are a fur ther instance of the importance attached to the opening i n t e r v a l s of the s e r i e s , which are r e c a l l e d by each of t h e i r three-note c e l l s . An unusual s ix-note chord completing P5 i s followed at bar 5^ by a sect ion reminiscent of the opening bars . I±Qt R^i 92 and R I 7 overlap i n c lose success ion, again i n three-note chords. At the conclus ion of the work, s i m i l a r formations r e -appear. R4 begins at bar 92 and completes i t s second hexachord i n bar 93 a f t e r the intervening 17 and P^ . RI10 leads into another prime statement from which the voice begins a retrograde phrase s i m i l a r i n out l ine to the opening one. Indeed, the sense of equ i l ib r ium i n the whole may be aff irmed by a diagram of the f i r s t and f i n a l voca l l i n e s i n r e l a t i o n to the accompaniment1 Figure 29 Accomp. t PQ I3 RI-pU^K Accomp. 1 R^ Ir, P^ RI10 ^f/^k Voice i N ^ P ^ y Voice* /RQ/... 0 [92 \ I In conc lus ion , we might re turn to a cons iderat ion of the overwhelming major i ty of works i n which D a l l a p i c c o l a uses a semi-combinator ia l row. With t h i s apparently abstruse mechanism he f inds new means of c rea t ing an expressive s t y l e , one which does not avoid points of contact with t r a d i t i o n a l sounds. T e c h n i c a l l y speaking, he does t h i s to some extent by avoiding completely chromatic w r i t i n g , that i s , by repeat ing tones or combinations w i t h i n short spaces of time or even over the span of an ent i re s e c t i o n . From the l i s t e n e r ' s viewpoint , a greater ease of com-prehension and acceptance i s thus assured. CHAPTER IV TEXT-SETTING In an a r t i c l e on h i s chora l music,1 D a l l a p i c c o l a draws a s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l between the poet ' s or music ian ' s thought-process and the deep-running r i v e r s of h i s nat ive countrys ide . Both have t h e i r source or rudimentary form which, i f not captured, escapes from s i g h t . But, as i f undergoing a per iod of ges ta t ion , the r i v e r emerges i n a new l o c a t i o n with new r a m i f i c a t i o n s , jus t as ideas change and mellow i n the process of t ime. Such a d e s c r i p t i o n i s most app l i cab le to the chora l works, wherein r e c u r r i n g themes are operative over large spans of t ime. One need only r e c a l l the Cant i d i P r i g i o n i a and i t s l a t e r companion work, the Cant i d i L iberaz ione , to r e a l i z e the cont inua l preoccupation of the composer with the ideas of f ree-dom and j u s t i c e . The opera II P r i g i o n i e r o i s another p a r t i c u -l a r l y powerful examination of the same concepts . Although le s s grandiose by the very nature of the genre, the voca l chamber works i l l u s t r a t e a s i m i l a r trend to some extent . The impact of two World Wars was an undoubtedly i L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a , "My Choral M u s i c , " i n The Composer's  Point o f View, edi ted by Robert Hines (Normant U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma Press , 1963), pp. 151-177. 93 94 strong inf luence on D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s t ex tua l preferences , for i n h i s own words, the Greek l y r i c poems were chosen i n response to h i s des ire " . . . to escape from the ugl iness with which the world i s laden."2 Even a f t e r a considerable lapse of time, he returned to that wealth of ancient poet ic utterance f o r h i s Cinque C a n t i , f i n d i n g new verses compatible with h i s more sophistocated dodecaphonic s t y l e . The personal and humanistic appeal of the Greek l y r i c s i s to be f e l t i n a l l of the works, despite t h e i r range of topics and the various n a t i o n a l i t i e s of the poets . Ancient and con-temporary wr i t e r s are chosen i n l i g h t of t h e i r re levance, whether what they have to say i s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l or c o l l o q u i a l context . Th i s l a s t po in t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r D a l l a p i c c o l a does not l i m i t himsel f even wi th in one work to one c u l t u r a l outlook or one b i a s . The melancholy Spanish poet, Manuel Machado, f o r example, f inds a response equal ly sympathetic to that given Michelangelo or the E n g l i s h T . S . E l i o t i n Tre Poemi. The l i f e of Antonio Machado (more famous brother of Manuel) must have a f fected the composer deeply. D a l l a p i c c o l a had expressed the anguish of doubt at the moment of death i n II P r i g i o n i e r o (completed i n 194?-48), and was s t i l l concerned with such fundamental problems i n h i s l y r i c s e t t i n g s . Machado d ied young, prematurely aged by personal losses and deprivat ions suffered at the beginning of World War I I . In h i s poems he s t r i v e s fo r f a i t h and assurance, hoping without t o t a l b e l i e f 2Quoted i n V l a d , D a l l a p i c c o l a , p . 26. 95 that he may he reunited with his wife a f t e r death. Of such substance i s the sorrowful raging against God i n the t h i r d of the Quattro L i r i c h e . In 1953» Da l l a p i c c o l a reinterpreted his e a r l i e r need "to escape from the ugliness" of the world with the l y r i c a l settings of Goethe's love poems. Recently the frequent s e t t i n g of L a t i n texts has i n -dicated an affirmation of b e l i e f i n God and the B i b l i c a l teachings. The words of St. Paul's famous l e t t e r to the Corinthians are set i n f u l l appreciation of t h e i r poetic q u a l i t i e s and t h e i r f o r c e f u l message. Within the more l i m i t e d scope of i n d i v i d u a l works the unity inherent i n the text i s translated into musical coherence, the formal and s e r i a l aspects of which have been dealt with i n d e t a i l previously. The following i l l u s t r a t i o n s of textual unity are among the most impressive. The evocative function of the name "Saffo" i n the L i r i c h e Greche i s apparent i n retrospect a f t e r the recurrence of i t s associated musical pattern i n the second and t h i r d cycles. The name i s not used i n the "Cinque Frammenti" but the i n s t r u -mental configuration associated with i t occurs i n the f i n a l song where Saffo speaks i n the f i r s t person. The enunciation of the name i n the f i r s t of the "Sex Carmina" i s accompanied by a c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d reminiscence. The strong connection between Saffo and Eros, the god of love, i s s u f f i c i e n t i n the f i n a l 96 cycle to evoke the "Saffo" motif without the name being mentioned. Related thoughts or images also occur within the symmetrically-paired poems of the Cinque Canti and are r e f l e c t e d i n musical figures or rhythms. Such i s the case between the second and the fourth songs where c e r t a i n textual d e t a i l s cor-respond! Example 1 55) IE \\f t]f §f ty ty ® 'a-mf cU pi - no cor.-f u -So.- vnin+e e le va l - l a •fe wv In the Parole d i San Paolo s i m i l a r i t i e s such as the following help to accentuate the ends of the rhythmic and poeti-c a l l y phrased verses as well as providing thematic u n i t y i Example 2 PP r Ca- r i - to.-tern au.-t£h%. fto»"> h<xbu - e - r o , • P O Ca.-K - fa - i« .m cvu.-ie.rn ho^ka- bu. -hi - hi I Sum. 55) n UJ tfti±$i 4—0-ri - i e  .-iem e - *"ot hi-hi I tr»t-kC projes-r--Related to these more widely-flung reminiscences are r e p e t i t i o n s within a short time to accentuate important words. 97 The q u a l i t i e s of c h a r i t y are e x t o l l e d from bar 58 and t h i s s e c t i o n b u i l d s to the climax by both t e x t u a l and musical re-i t e r a t i o n . The most obvious are the phrases from bars 67 through 75« Example 3 Uh poco [MU, Scorrevole •s— fi O 0—*—•> •e—«*-Otn 2Z 9* * y/ # om - hi-a Spe - f a t , One of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s c h i e f aims i n s e t t i n g a t e x t m u s i c a l l y i s c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . To ensure t h a t the meaning o f the words i s always c l e a r he f r e q u e n t l y places v o c a l phrases i n i s o l a t i o n o r i n o p p o s i t i o n to the instruments} sometimes he repeats c e r t a i n words w i t h s t r o n g accents; o r on occasion he e l i m i n a t e s the accompaniment a l t o g e t h e r . Some instances o f emphatic o r declamatory d e l i v e r y are i l l u s t r a t e d here, p a r t i c u -l a r l y where these exemplify a l s o the composer's extreme care i n r e t a i n i n g the n a t u r a l i n f l e c t i o n s of the language. The rhythm and dynamics of speech are completely adapted to music i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from the f i r s t " S a f f o " fragment1 Example k Qo) . . . . . . _ 98 A more f o r c e f u l approach i s indicated by the words of the t h i r d l y r i c i Example 5 •> ?> A » ? > > . ^- A A A A A A 3 e U-ce-hx-+e-vi, e la-ct-i-a -"te-vi, e U . ce-ra --fe. ve-sK.— The rhymed couplets of the f i r s t Rencesvals song are o f f - s e t by t y p i c a l l y asymmetrical phrase lengths. The rhyme scheme, however, i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , with the climax of the section occuring n a t u r a l l y at the end of the t h i r d l i n e i Example 6 Alk Marcia. h—r-H—I—H*— — r - k i — i w 2 1 — ^ — • i—^  — * — — i * * 4 Li (J^ hS Rolknt a«| I'eh . Sei-<jHtf«HT£ 3EE m t=st 0 4> Eh SOhl Oh fv-e cuh-fre le c i e | le - V*, 1 +*—**• 9 * |S~ Franc Se her - ber.gehi par iu.-te.- U cun -+r€-e/f Strong declamation immediately sets the tone of defiance i n the t h i r d Antonio Machado l y r i c . The poet boldly addresses Godi 9 9 Example 7 £P dec/a mate 0 + —t——t — b o' '* \>B k -f >— >— " y > Se - >v»r, y o u vne o.r-rn.h -co, -ste The n a t u r a l s t r e s s e s of the I t a l i a n language are blended w i t h g r a c e f u l melodic curves i n the f i r s t of the Tre Poemit Example 8 In Number I I , a more declamatory s t y l e i s demanded by the solemnity of the s u b j e c t . The s t r o n g (/) and weak (u) accent marks are D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s t Example 9 i st} 1r ' / riff ^jjfr^hjifl , , e 3U - -jnt e ie p « - *<> - le, e le ho - sWrti'cU f>ro-k The emotional impact of t h i s contemplation of death i s f e l t s t r o n g l y from bar 50. Here the accents give a dramatic impetus to the melodic l i n e i Example 10 if frf h: j j 3 > ,L i i', ni & — - -Tu - tr>o, )j ti J . * .L. ' 7—L o- • l?# fr» H * Si'e - te- e4 or S< am cowieve-c 4-100 (Example 10 continued) -for _ h i ai Sol> t V i -ta. prv - - - V a . I r regu la r or asymmetrical phrase s tructure was men-t ioned i n connection with Rencesvals. The German text o f the Goethe-Lieder i s a l so constructed i n regular verses , but once again the musical s e t t i n g elongates c e r t a i n words and passes q u i c k l y over other le s s e s s e n t i a l ones to a s s i s t i n the compre-hension of the t e x t . This i s r e a d i l y apparent i n the second l i e d on the words "Sonne" and "-mond"t Example 11 Son Die S o n - he. s .o She i i i Dei- Si - chel - "mohcJ _ urn- Klat»i - met-t-Much more extended i s the treatment of "schOn" i n Number V i Example 12 Ifir Sajt; al-rern sei quci, meihGescluct 101 Again i n Number II of the Cinque Canti the i n f l e c t i o n s of the I t a l i a n language a r i se n a t u r a l l y from the rhythmica l ly s ens i t i ve phrases. The prominence given to the word " l i b e r i " i s noteworthy! Example 13 Do - ra . f i uc - cel-U' cUI-l'a- co-fa vo The f i n a l thought of the poem i s dramat ica l ly accentuated by an abrupt melodic contrast a t the beginning of the l a s t wordi Example 14 lo h - pe -ie, d|o| -fohdo M-\z. Val _ _ _ _ _ _ \{^ The operat ive words i n the t h i r d song are emphasized through t h e i r s tark and de l ibera te enuncia t ion ! Example 15 te " — * — — » 2 1 U-cK - me, U - ci-i-me, do - lo — A i d i n g the r e c i t a t i v e - l i k e s ty le o f the Parole d i  San Paolo i s the i n c l u s i o n of par la to i n d i c a t i o n s . This de-l i v e r y i s contrasted w i t h i n the f i r s t l i n e by the melismatic curve on the word "angelorum"i 102 Example 16 ppp pahlafo = 3 £ m m v.—m Si U n g u i s K .o-fninum (o .<^uar — Although asymmetrical i n comparison with t h i s f i r s t phrase, the second complements i t i n melodic o u t l i n e i Example 17 1 y y • bfi- -f—, -'! r b , s , L - \ 'a. L i r ' 4 \ lutem i / The f i n a l verse of St. Paul's l e t t e r i s strongly reinforced by accent and r e i t e r a t i o n . The three central words—"fides," "spes," and " c a r i t a s " — a r e set o f f by rests f o r t h e i r f i r s t appearance. On r e p e t i t i o n " f i d e s " and "spes" are sung with f o r c e f u l accents, " c a r i t a s " on a contrasting melisma. The important f i n a l phrase i s presented simply, gaining i n d i r e c t -ness by i t s understatement! Example 18 fts\ „_ _________ PP H i 'V =5 [or 7 — 1 M ' & 1 H K * ^ # f * t * s mm 1 / ca 103 Tone-paint ing i s used frequent ly i n a l l the works to p ro jec t the importance of p a r t i c u l a r words, while symbolism as a s t r u c t u r a l feature i s apparent only l a t e r , as i n the t h i r d of the Cinque C a n t i , where the cross formations suggest a connection between the su f fe r ing of the ancients and our own. As might be expected, a l l se t t ings are d e s c r i p t i v e o f mood or s i t u a t i o n i n a general sense. Examples of simple tone-pa int ing and musical de sc r ip t ion abound i n the L i r i c h e Greche. D a l l a p i c c o l a used Salvatore Quasimodo's t r ans l a t ions of the ancient Greek poems, which are u s u a l l y b r i e f but v i t a l i n t h e i r personal impact. The i r sen-suous images and concrete descr ip t ions adapt w e l l to a musical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The f i r s t o f the "Cinque Frammenti d i Saffo" speaks of evening, when a l l the beings which the dawn sent fo r th are r e -turn ing to t h e i r homes. The one extended melisma i n the other-wise s y l l a b i c s e t t i n g occurs on " lucente" as a b r i e f l y delayed response to the suggestion of dispersed l i g h t i Example 19 ^uQh+b d i s p e r s e l a l u ~ c e h , _ _ -{•£ qu.-ro-ra,-. In the second s e t t i n g where Saffo addresses her beloved, the c e n t r a l statement—almost a quest ion and answer—is expressed by the row i n a r i s i n g sequence followed by i t s complementary retrograde form. Trembling i s suggested by the l a t t e r ' s 104 descending melismai Example 20 An ac tua l quest ion and response determine the s e r i a l s t ructure of the t h i r d fragment. The opening l i n e s o f the poem—"The tender Adonis d i e s / 0 Cithreat and we, what do we do?"—are set to the two prime rows of the p iece , while the answer—"At length we beat our breasts , daughters , / and rend our c l o t h i n g " ~ o u t l i n e s the retrograde forms of the same rows. V i o l e n t marcato chords accompany the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the act o f mourning. A mysterious atmosphere i s conjured up by the quiet and i n t r i c a t e f igures i n the accompaniment and the somewhat hyp-n o t i c r e c i t a t i o n of the voice i n Number IV . The poet i s des-c r i b i n g a moon-l i t n ight and the gyrat ions o f men about an out-door a l t a r . The short f i n a l song contains one thought! "I have spoken at length i n dreams/ with A p h r o d i t e . " An extended melisma on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e ends the work. As the poet r e -turns i n thought to a repose s i m i l a r to that described i n the f i r s t song, so the p r i n c i p a l row of Number I returns i n Number V . A hedonis t ic tone pervades the "Sex Carmina A l c a e i . " The f i r s t i s a fragment on ly i "0 crown of v i o l e t s , d iv ine sweetly laughing Sa f fo . " The second and fourth describe the soothing of a body which has suffered much. The remaining songs 105 proclaim the sounds and sights of advancing spring. The vocal introduction to Number IV i s s u i t a b l y shaped to r e f l e c t the idea of e n c i r c l i n g garlands: Example 21 W9 i 19-ha.c|Vnfr€c-Cia-ie Co - »"ol-|eeU a.-he--f o o' - v-a,<{na!cuho hecirtoTSTiTcoHo — In carmen Number V the poet asks f o r a glass of wine. At thi s point a swaying t r i p l e t figure i s introduced i n the vocal part and thereafter r e i t e r a t e d by various instruments. The t h i r d cycle of the L i r i c h e Greche contrasts two aspects of lovet the hopefulness of approaching the beloved i n song, and the despair which s t r i k e s l i k e the blows of a wood-cutter's axe. The importance of the 'Eros' motif was noted i n a previous connection i n Chapter Two. A s l i g h t transformation of t h i s motif accentuates the importance of the f i n a l l i n e of the f i r s t l y r i c as does the vocal cadenza following it« Example 22 £ - roS, Si - sho - re — die 3U This rhapsodic character d i f f e r s from the much more v i o l e n t 106 movement of the second l y r i c . The strokes of the woodcutter may be heard i n the sharply accented chords which punctuate the f i r s t , t h i r d , and f i n a l v a r i a t i o n s . The archaic French of the Roland fragments sounds blunt and more s i b i l a n t than the f l u i d modern language. The fo l lowing l i n e s describe a v i o l e n t dream of Charlemagne on the eve of h i s defeat at the Roncesvalles pass i Entre ses poinz t e n e i t sa hanste f r a i s n i n e . Guenes l i quens l ' a d sur l u i s a i s i e . Par t e l a i r l ' a t estrussee e brandie Qu'envers l e ee l en volent l e s e s c i c l e s . As the nar ra t ion recounts the adversary ' s a c t i o n of f o r c i n g the wooden s t a f f from the emperor and throwing i t i n s p l i n t e r s to the sky, the music becomes inc rea s ing ly ag i t a ted , culminat ing i n these bars i Example 23 The war-cr ies interspersed with nar ra t ion and the march tempo of the f i r s t song s u i t a b l y r e f l e c t the tense preparations for b a t t l e , and contrast with the more s t a t i c accompaniment and the dramatic voca l l i n e of the l a s t fragment, which t e l l s o f the 107 defeated troops passing through the impersonal v a l l e y s and mountains. The verses of the Quattro L i r i c h e are representat ive i n a microcosmic sense of the imagery and emotion character-i s t i c o f Antonio Machado's ent i re output . He was deeply rooted i n Nature and knew sorrow ear ly i n l i f e when h i s young wife died suddenly. His search f o r a strong b e l i e f i n God i s a constant thread i n h i s poetry and images o f water appear again and again as symbols o f l i f e and renewal. D a l l a p i c c o l a chose to combine the fo l lowing poems, r e l y i n g le s s on overt tone-p a i n t i n g than on a musical suggestion of the p r e v a i l i n g thought! Spr ing has come, White hosannas of the brambles now appear! Last n ight I dreamed I saw God and that He spoke to mei and I dreamed that God heard me , . . La te r , I dreamed that I was dreaming. L o r d , you have snatched from me what I held most dear. Hear once more, my God, my hear t ' s c r i e s . Your w i l l , L o r d , i s not my own. L o r d , now are we alone, my heart and the sea. Spr ing has come. No one knows how i t i s so . The j o y f u l s p i r i t o f Easter3 i s expressed by f l o r i d melismas i n the f i r s t l y r i c t Example 24 ya$ blah - CaS <U I o S z . a r - -3Suggested by Norma L . Hutman, Machado> A dialogue with  Time (Univers i ty of New Mexico Press , 1969), p . 92. 108 (Example 24 continued) S i m i l a r vocalizations on a single s y l l a b l e create the sur-r e a l i s t i c aura of the second songt Example 2 5 The prayer of the t h i r d song ends on a note of anguishi the poet i s alone with h i s heart and the sea. Defiance breaks down i n the face of these melancholy r e f l e c t i o n s i Example 2 6 8o Se - hot-, ya e - Sfo . r*oS So - los fni Co - r« ,-Zon y e( m A* 1 L/>— Ay! An atmosphere of gloom and f a t a l i t y i s most persistent i n the second of the Tre Poemi. Inexorable death and i t s 1 0 9 penetrat ion to the core of man's awareness i s the subject of Michelangelo ' s poem. The c e n t r a l idea i s proclaimed on a s ing l e note with solemn emphasis, s i g n i f y i n g the immobil i ty of death i Example 27 pp -Trior/not-ctfo _  J ' " v j-Q - 3ht Co-So, eu vnor-te ai- _ ri - Va-. E a r l i e r i t was noted that symbolism can be perceived i n the l a t e r works. Although a d i s t i n c t i o n has been made be-tween tone-paint ing and symbolic representat ion , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw a c l e a r demarcation i n the case of the Goethe-Lieder. Goethe's poems are modelled on an ancient Pers ian poe t i c form, the " g h a z a l , " brought to per fec t ion by H a f i z , a contemporary o f Chaucer. Although a r e l i g i o u s and mystic poet, Haf iz wrote of n a t u r a l i s t i c subjects and sensuous pass ions, which struck a responsive chord i n Goethe as w e l l . His verses describe h i s intense love fo r the wife o f a f r i e n d . A r i d d l e i s described i n Number I I . Goethe's verse reads i The sun i s r i s ing* . A wondrous s i g h t ! Enclasped by the crescent o f the s ickle-moon. Who could have thus combined the two? How does t h i s r i d d l e unravel? How? In t h i s s e t t i n g , only two rows and t h e i r retrogrades are used. P5 stands f o r the sun and I^Q f o r moon, as these are the only rows present when these words occur i n the t e x t . For the t h i r d l i n e P5 and R I 1 0 are played together and fo r the l a s t l i n e , 1 1 0 and - 1 0 • The musical puzzle with which Da l l a p i c c o l a symbolizes the question posed i s the palindrome. The opening word of Number V suggested a canon i n i n v e r s i o n — a 'mirror' canont Example 28 p dolce. 5 3 E $ 13 \j\ b Oet- Spieqel Saqt mvV-. icU bin ce #5* Later i n the piece the text reads i "Before God must a l l eter-n a l l y stand." Here the s e r i a l structure i s interrupted by frag-mentation, perhaps implying the suddenness of death's a r r i v a l . Number VI i s b u i l t e n t i r e l y upon row-fragments to portray the f r u s t r a t i o n of the poet who having just regained h i s loved one, loses her again to s i l e n t thought. Wonderment and bewilderment i n the face of the unattainable give r i s e i n the f i n a l song to another palindrome, described previously i n terms of i t s s e r i a l organization. More than ten years a f t e r he had completed h i s three Greek L y r i c cycles, Dallapiccola turned again to Quasimodo's translations f o r material. Each of the f i v e poems of the Cinque  Canti i s by a d i f f e r e n t author, and thus a wide range of subjects i s represented. The outer poems b r i e f l y describe, f i r s t , the white-winged morning st a r which announces dawn, and l a t e r , the I l l myriad s tars of the n ight sky. Animate l i f e i s the topic o f the second and fourth songs. Numher II speaks of sharp-voiced b i r d s , cha t ter ing i n the summit o f the pine branches, t h e i r c a l l s resounding to the depths o f the v a l l e y s . A l l of Nature i s suggested i n Number IVi serpents, fores t animals, in sec t s , sea creatures , and aga in , b i r d s . At the centre of t h i s universe i n miniature i s man, who unl ike the peaceful w i l d l i f e suffers through the whims of the godsi "Acheron, that brings torments to men,/ b o i l s with i n f i n i t e fountains o f tears and p a i n . " The r i v e r of sorrow as the symbol o f a l l of man's su f fe r ing becomes l i n k e d by a s soc ia t ion with the C h r i s t i a n c ros s . Bearing i n mind the de sc r ip t ive way i n which D a l l a p i c c o l a t reated the previous Greek l y r i c s e t t ings , one detects a f a r more concentrated and i n t e l l e c t u a l approach here . I t appears that the text o f the Cinque Cant i serves to provide a stimulus on a much l a r g e r , i e . s t r u c t u r a l , s c a l e . Whereas prev ious ly the words suggest the mood of the musical s e t t i n g and are at times set me l i smat i ca l ly or c o l o u r i s t i c a l l y they are not i n t e g r a l to the s t ruc ture . The same cannot be sa id of the l a t e r l y r i c set-t ings i here, to be sure, there i s simple word-paint ing, but as w e l l , the nuances of s ing le words have suggested whole areas of development and i n the case of the c e n t r a l song, i t s texture and formation. In the f i r s t song the canon beginning i n bar 6 fol lows the wordsi "Let us await the morning s t a r . " The f i n a l l i n e of the poem—"first announcement of the sun"—ushers i n a r ecap i tu-l a t i o n of t h i s f i r s t canonic texture , r e i n f o r c i n g the a s soc ia t ion 112 between the two images. The idea of resounding b i r d - c a l l s has given r i s e to a f a s c i n a t i n g i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between text and s tructure i n Number I I . The canon between the two f lu te s which begins i n bar 11 i s i n response to the wordst "lament confusedly i n the summit o f the pine branches." The leap ing i n q u i s i t i v e f igure followed by the tremolo imitates the b i r d s ' c r i e st Example 29 The c a l l s are begun, held back, then f lung towards the mountains. In bar 22 the leap ing motif i s heard i n a l l voices as the c u l -mination of t h i s s e c t i o n . The pianissimo a tempo i n bar 24 pre-pares the l i s t e n e r for the echoes of the b i r d c a l l s , the f u l l force o f which i s f e l t i n the ensuing palindrome from bars 2? to 33• An undertone of l one l ine s s i s provided by the baritone who repeats G^ throughout t h i s s ec t ion , completely overshadowed by the a c t i v i t y i n the f l u t e s . His words are s i g n i f i c a n t , however, f o r i n s t a t i n g that the echo i s repeated to the depths of the v a l l e y s he again provides the stimulus for s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y . The canon of the f i r s t bars returns at bar 35, now with add i -t i o n a l voices i m i t a t i n g the e ighth- and sixteenth-note motives. The text of Number III i s extended through r e p e t i t i o n of important words. The name "Acheronte" appears f i r s t as the arms of the cross i n bar 9« 113 Example 30 eke ft>h - ft. e k e . - r o r \ - t e , This word alone i n c i t e s the scat tered and d i s junct motion of the fo l lowing instrumental s e c t i o n . The fu r io so , ma misurato repeated notes of the s t r ings have no r e l a t i o n to the b r i e f canon and fragmentary row formations which ensue, implying per-haps the d i sarray and confusion of sorrow. Canons return i n bar 27 to accompany the c l i m a c t i c words " tears " and " p a i n . " They are repeated f o r emphasis from bar 3 8 • Throughout the piece the contrapuntal texture i s i n t e r -rupted by the f o r c e f u l sforzando chords o f the cross formation. I n e v i t a b l y , as su f f e r ing cannot be avoided, t h i s symbol returns at the conc lus ion , i d e n t i c a l to i t s appearance at bar 9 but de-vo id of the instrumental fragments which surrounded i t there . The fourth song contains aggregates beginning i n bar 17 which may be seen i n r e l a t i o n to the t ex t . These p r o l i f e r a t i o n s of three-note groups serve to i l l u s t r a t e the wordsJ "The ser-pents s leep , th i ck i n the species that the nether world breeds . " At bar Zk the "var ious forms of bees" are represented g r a p h i c a l l y by a canon i n which the rhythmica l ly s i m i l a r pa i r s exchange par t -ners at note three . The "var ious forms" may a l so re fe r to the f i n a l notes of these rows i n bar 26 which act as the beginning notes o f new s e r i e s . 114 A reminiscence i n t h i s song of the second canto was noted e a r l i e r (Example 1). Another occurs near the end where birds are mentioned. Accompanying the word " u c c e l l i " i s a l i l t i n g figure i n the a l t o f l u t e s i m i l a r i n shape to the canonic melody c i t e d as Example 29t Example 31 Fl-The f i n a l poem speaks of the sparkling stars crossing the night sky. Their movement i s captured symbolically (one sees rather than hears i t ) from bars 10 to 13. Each of the four rows i s interrupted i n i t s progress at bar 10 and resumed i n bar 13• having 'crossed over' an intervening f l u r r y of frag-mented rows. The ef f e c t of the t r a v e l l i n g stars i s emphasized by the f i n a l vocal melismai Example 32 The Parole d i San Paolo i s the single vocal chamber work under study which uses a B i b l i c a l t e x t . The s e t t i n g of St. Paul's l e t t e r to the Corinthians, Chapter X I I I , i s not markedly d i f f e r e n t from the others of t h i s genre, resembling p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s 115 symbolic musical representat ions o f words and abs tract ideas the f i ve songs fo r bar i tone . The words "aut cymbalum t i n n i e n s " probably prompted the s u l p o n t i c e l l o tremolos i n the s t r ing s and the r a p i d l y r e -i t e r a t e d A ' s i n the f lu te between bars 1 7 and 2 0 . An almost p red ic tab le s t r u c t u r a l device may be r e l a t e d to the idea of moving mountains. Upon the l a s t s y l l a b l e of the word " t rans-feram" four rows are begun i n various instruments but not com-p l e t e d . New aggregates are thus created by the transference or exchange of three-note c e l l s . Another s e r i a l v a r i a t i o n occurs between bars 39 and 44. This complex s t ructure which was described i n terms of row-i n t e r p o l a t i o n (Chapter Three) and canonic development (Chapter Two) may a l so be d i r e c t l y r e l a t ed to the theme of the t e x t . S t . Paul declares the f u t i l i t y of d i s t r i b u t i n g a l l of one's goods to the poor i f i t i s done without c h a r i t y . The act of d i s t r i b u t i o n i s represented symbol i ca l ly by the dispersement of the var ious canonic voices at random i n t e r v a l s of time and t h e i r r e - l o c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t t imbres, plus the i n t e r j e c t i o n of a new voca l row for the words "pauperum omnes." In summary, i t may again be s tated that a symbolic rather than pure ly representat iona l approach has led to a gradual sophis tocat ion of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between text and music. Topics o f humanistic concern which r e f l e c t the composer's chang-ing concepts and in tere s t s have been chosen accord ing ly , whether 116 consc ious ly or i n t u i t i v e l y . I t seems n a t u r a l , f o r instance , that the words o f S t . Paul should he set symbol i ca l ly , while i t i s doubtful i f the text of Rencesvals could have been i n -terpreted i n t h i s way. In t h i s d i scuss ion and i n previous chapters , elements r e l a t i n g to uni ty of d e t a i l and coherence i n the o v e r a l l s t r u c -ture have been ou t l ined i n i s o l a t i o n so that c e r t a i n conclusions could be drawn regarding t h e i r use. I t may be noted b r i e f l y here that the cons i s tent q u a l i t y of D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s work i s the r e s u l t of the amalgamation of these elements which both s i n g l y and i n combination a t t e s t to the highest degree of craftsmanship. Repet i t ion of notes , chords, and words, f o r example, appears as a r e c u r r i n g cohesive device , whether i n r e l a t i o n to form, s e r i a l s t ruc ture , or textua l emphasist instrumentation i s always care-f u l l y matched to the expos i t ion of the voca l l i n e to ensure f u l l comprehension of the wordsi and s e r i a l i s m i s used i n ever more expressive and imaginative ways, broadening i t s frame of r e f e r -ence with each new work. CONCLUSION D a l l a p i c c o l a i s among those composers who adamantly deny that s e r i a l music i s n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f i c u l t to understand and apprec ia te . "The twelve-tone method," he wr i t e s , must not be so t y r a n n i c a l as to exclude a p r i o r i both expression and humanity. The only re levant problem i s whether a work i s a genuine work of a r t or not , i r r e s p e c -t ive of what technique may have been employed fo r i t s c r e a t i o n .1 The complexity of cons truct ion revealed by a close examination of the score must not outweigh the impact of the pure ly aura l experience. One should be able to r e l i v e the i n i t i a l amazement at the beauty of the work i n f u l l knowledge of i t s formal and t e c h n i c a l mechanism. C e r t a i n l y i t i s widely accepted that t h i s i s a c r i t e r i o n by which D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s own works succeed. " . . . Expression and humanity . • . " i both have been present from the e a r l i e s t composit ions. The most expressive of instruments, the human vo ice , has been the core of the major i ty of the composer's works, conveying added dimensions of idea and f e e l i n g by i t s countless nuances. Even an otherwise wholly i n -strumental work, such as the Christmas Concerto of 1956 > gains i n i t s expression of joy by the i n c l u s i o n of a soprano i n two of i t s s ec t ions . The d irectness of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y ^From Joseph Machl i s , Introduct ion to Contemporary Music (New Yorki Norton, 196l), p . 415. 117 118 re s t ra ined yet passionate utterance a r i s e s from a constant concern f o r communication. W r i t i n g o f the genesis o f h i s Cant i d i P r i g i o n i a , D a l l a p i c c o l a re fer s to h i s in ten t ion to transform the prayer o f the queen as an i n d i v i d u a l in to a song f o r a l l mankindt I wanted to dwell at length upon the word " l i b e r a " i n the music, to have t h i s d iv ine word shouted by everyone . 2 Related to t h i s i s the composer's i n s t i n c t i v e f l a i r for the dramatic. The element of suspense and r e s o l u t i o n , the intense and emotional language of the operat ic stage, f i n d a place to vary ing degrees i n each of h i s works. Massimo M i l a notes the frequency of the dramatic technique of a ' f l u r r y ' - -a b r i e f restatement (usual ly i n diminution) o f the row—and goes on to rank D a l l a p i c c o l a , i n h i s awareness f o r scene and s e t t i n g , with the masters of the I t a l i a n operat ic t r a d i t i o n , Verd i and P u c c i n i . ^ Indeed, an analogy of much greater dimensions has been drawn regarding the e a r l y works o f the composert Monteverdi ' s preoccupation with voca l l i n e , h i s amazing sense of t imbre, h i s dar ing i n the treatment of a f f ec t ive harmony, are a l l found i n D a l l a p i c c o l a . The Songs of Cap- t i v i t y are extraordinary i n a l l these respects i the voca l l i n e s , combining i n a v i r tuoso counterpoint , are of the utmost refinement i n contour and expressiveness; the har-monic idiom i s a l t e r n a t e l y taut and re laxed; i t s balance between t o n a l i t y and a t o n a l i t y i s i n some ways an echo of Monteverdi ' s tense p o s i t i o n between the tona l and the pre-tonal.^-2L. D a l l a p i c c o l a , "The Genesis o f the Cant i d i P r i g i o n i a and II P r i g i o n i e r o . " Musica l Quarterly. XXXIX (1953). 3°3» 3M. M i l a , " I I P r i g i o n i e r o d i L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " La Rassegna Musica le , XX (October, 1950), 309-11. 4 R . F . Goldman, "Current C h r o n i c l e . " Musica l Quarterly, XXXVII ( 1 9 5 D . 406-7. 119 The s p i r i t u a l side of Dallapiccola's music i s just as evident. In addition to searching contemporary and t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r t e x t s , he has turned with increasing frequency to B i b l i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l sources, concerned at a l l times with universal questions of f a i t h and doubt, struggle and f r e e -dom. R.H. Meyers observes that one a f t e r another of the works i s informed with the d i a l e c t i c a l l y connected impulses, deriving on the one hand from the deepest o b l i g a t i o n to l i v i n g things and on the other from a need to l i f t a l l earthly considerations on to a purely s p i r i t u a l plane.5 We have seen how symbolism plays a r o l e i n f u l f i l l i n g these impulses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the works a f t e r 1950. The main emphasis of the preceding study has been on the technical aspects of Dallapiccola's s t y l e i h i s choice and spacing of voices i his concern f o r formal unity and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of canonic devices; h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e r i a l constructions; and h i s ways of i n t e r p r e t i n g the t e x t . I t has been ascertained that doubling and r e p e t i t i o n are not uncommon, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l i e r works, and that the recurrence of c e r t a i n s o n o r i t i e s or tone-colours i s often an element of s t r u c t u r a l coherence. In l a t e r works, such as the Cinque Canti, note r e p e t i t i o n i s c l o s e l y c o n t r o l l e d , and occurs almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the vocal part, while instrumental doubling i s reserved f o r climaxes. 5Rollo H. Meyers, ed., Twentieth-Century Music, 2nd ed. (Londoni Calder and Boyars, 1968), p. 188. 120 With regard to form, the great major i ty of the works are t r i - p a r t i t e , although the term cannot always be appl ied i n a s t r i c t sense. Among the features which help to determine the arch form are instrumental texture , s e r i a l s t ruc ture , and the shape of the voca l phrase. An ABA design i s found i n i n d i v i d u a l pieces and i n the o v e r a l l symmetry of works. L ied-form, fo r example, has been used i n reference to Rencesvals, where the outer songs of the group of three are s i m i l a r i n s p i r i t and row formation and contrast with the c e n t r a l l y r i c s e c t i o n . L ike other twelve-tone composers, D a l l a p i c c o l a uses canon as a means of s t r u c t u r a l u n i f i c a t i o n . The composition of the "Sex Carmina A l c a e i " began an explora t ion of the po tent i a -l i t i e s o f canonic expos i t ion , the rami f i ca t ions o f which came to f r u i t i o n i n the mensural complexity of the Cinque C a n t i . Yet canonic and s e r i a l i n t r i c a c y i s not an end i n i t s e l f i the music remains eminently express ive . And so we re turn to the composer's own p r i o r i t i e s i expression and humanity. No work can survive on i t s t e c h n i c a l merits a lone, at l ea s t i n terms of wide pub l i c acceptance. I t must appeal on an i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l while remaining at one remove from purely personal cons idera t ions . I t s message must r i n g true f o r the greatest poss ib le range of times and peoples. In each of h i s voca l chamber works, D a l l a p i c c o l a has found a happy balance between technique and express ion, conveying through music of ever more sophistocated cons t ruc t ion , concepts with which we a l l may i d e n t i f y . A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY General References A u s t i n , W. Music i n the Twentieth Century. New York: W.W. Norton & C o . , I n c . , 1966. Gavazzeni, Gianandrea. M u s i c i s t i d |Europa: S tudi su i Contemporanei. Mi lan* E d i z i o n i Suv in i Zerboni , 195^ • Lang, P . H . and Broder, Nathan, eds. Contemporary Music  i n Europe: a comprehensive survey. New York: G. Schirmer, I n c . , 1965• Machl i s , Joseph. Introduct ion to Contemporary Music. New York: W.W. Norton & C o . , I n c . , 1961. Myers, Rol lo H . , ed. Twentieth-Century Music. 2nd ed. London: Calder and Boyars, 1968. Salzman, E r i c . Twentieth-Century Music : an In t roduct ion . Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1967. Related T h e o r e t i c a l Studies Babbi t t , M i l t o n . "Some Aspects of Twelve-Tone Composi t ion." The Score, X (June, 1955). 53-61. Krenek, E r n s t . Studies i n Counterpoint . New York: G. Schirmer, I n c . , 1940. P e r l e , George. S e r i a l Composition and A t o n a l i t y : an i n t r o -duct ion to the music of Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern. 2nd ed. rev . and e n l . Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1968. Rochberg, George. "The Harmonic Tendency of the Hexachord." Journal of Music Theory, III (1959), 208-230. . The Hexachord and i t s Re la t ion to the Twelve-Tone Row. Bryn Mawr, P a . : Theodore Presser , C o . , 1955« Rufer, Josef . Composition with Twelve Tones Related Only to  One Another. Trans lated by Humphrey Sear le . London: R o c k l i f f Pub l i sh ing Corporat ion, L t d . , 1954. 1 2 1 122 S p e c i f i c Referencest Books; Theses Basart , Ann M. "The Twelve-Tone Compositions of L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " Master 's Thes i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , i960. D a l l a p i c c o l a , L u i g i . Appunt i , I n c o n t r i , M e d i t a z i o n i . Mi lan 1 E d i z i o n i Suv in i Zerboni , 1970. Gould, Glen H. "A S t y l i s t i c Ana lys i s of Selected Twelve-Tone Works by L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1964. V l a d , Roman. L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . Milant E d i z i o n i Suv in i Zerboni , 1957. A r t i c l e s Boyd, M. " ' D i e s I r a e ' : Some Recent Mani fe s t a t ions . " Music and L e t t e r s , XLIX (1968), 3^7-356. Burt , F . "An A n t i t h e s i s . " The Score. (March, 1957). 62-3. D a l l a p i c c o l a , L u i g i . "Begegnung mit Anton Webern." Melos, XXXII U965). 115 -H7 . . "The Genesis o f the Canti d i P r i g i o n i a and II P r i g i o n i e r o . " Musica l Quarterly, XXXIX ( Ju ly . 1953). 355-372. . "Un Musicien d ' A u j o u r d ' h u i i Chronologie et P o r t r a i t ! Notes sur mon Opera." Polyphonie, I (1947-48), 135-146. . "My Choral M u s i c . " The Composer's Point of View. E d i t e d by Robert S. Hines . Normant U n i v e r s i t y of Okla-homa Press , I963. . "On the Twelve-Note Road." Music Survey (London), ITToctober, 195D. 318-332. D i b e l i u s , U l r i c h . " L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " Melos, XXXI (1964), 81-87. Goldman, R . F . "Current C h r o n i c l e . " Musica l Quarterly, XXXVII (195D. 405-410. M i l a , Massimo. " II P r i g i o n i e r o d i L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " La Rassegna Musicale , XX""[October, 1950), 303-311. 123 A r t i c l e s , continued Nathan, Hans. "The Twelve-Tone Compositions of L u i g i D a l l a -p i c c o l a . " Musical Quarterly, XLIV ( Ju ly , 1956), 289-310. This a r t i c l e includes a reference to i "The Genesis of the Goethe-Lieder , " i n F i r s t Supplement to the  Catalogue o f Instrumental and Chamber Music, Chora l ,  Orches t ra l and Stage Works. Mi l an * E d i z i o n i Suv in i Zerboni , 1953. P a o l i , Domenico d e ' . " I t a l i e i L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " La Revue Musica le , XVI (June, 1955), 65-7. Perk ins , J . M . " D a l l a p i c c o l a ' s A r t of Canon." Perspectives  of New Music, I (Spring, 1963), 95-106. Smith-Br indle , R. " L u i g i Dal lapiccola—Cinque Canti per  baritono e a l c u n i s t rument i . " La Rassegna Musicale , XXVIII (1958), 332-3. U g o l i n i , Giovanni . " V o c a l i t a e dramma i n D a l l a p i c c o l a . " Quaderni d e l l a Rassegna Musica le , II (1965), 23-46. This i s but one a r t i c l e from an ent i re volume devoted to the work and wr i t ings o f D a l l a p i c c o l a . V a l e n t i n , E r i c h . " K l a s s i k e r aus antikem Gei s t * L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a ftlnfzig J ahre . " Neue Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Musik. CXV (1954), 94-5. V l a d , Roman. "Cant i d i Liberazione d i L u i g i D a l l a p i c c o l a . " La Rassegna Musicale , XXVII~Tl957). 54-5. . " D a l l a p i c c o l a 1 1948-1955-M The Score, XV (1956), 3 9 ^ 2 . A musical supplement i s inc luded . Waterhouse, J . C . G . "Debussy and I t a l i a n M u s i c . " Musica l Times, CIX (May, 1968), 4l4-4l8. . "The I t a l i a n Avante-Garde and Nat iona l T r a d i t i o n . " Tempo, LXVIII (1964), 14-25. APPENDIX I ROW-INTERVALS Table i "Cinque Frammenti d i Saffo" ,C# G# D A G C F# B D# A# F E I P4 X4 P4 M2 P4 X4 P4 M3 P4 P4 m2 (C E4, G b B- A E G B b D b D F Afc m3 m3 P4 M2 P4 m3 m3 m3 m2 m3 m3 B b G b A^ E D B A C C# G E b F \ M3 M2 M3 M2 m3 M2 m3 m2 x 4 M3 M2 (C F F# A B D E b G E C# B b A^ P4 m2 m3 M2 m3 m2 M3 m3 m3 m3 M2 /Bb A b Gb B A F C D E G E b D b \ M2 K2 P4 M2 M3 P4 m2 M2 m3 M3 M2 1 1 L 1 ) u (D F C# A# F# G A F E C D# A m3 M2 m3 M3 m2 m2 m3 m2 M3 m3 x 4 (C G E B b G k E b B D^ A D F G# \ P4 m3 x4 M3 m3 K3 M2 M3 P4 m3 m3 (G1, A b D C C# E b E A G F B*5 B M2 x4 M2 m2 M2 m2 P4 M2 M2 Pk m2 VJD B E b C F G b E C# B b A A b G 1 m3 M3 m3 Pk m2 M2 m3 m3 m2 m2 m2 124 125 T a b l e i - c o n t i n u e d "Sex Carmina A l c a e i " C# E F# G E^ A A b F D B, C m3 M2 m2 M3 P4 m2 m2 M3 m3 m3 m2 "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte" F# G F B*> G# A D B C E ^ D b E m2 M2 P4 M2 m2 P4 m3 m2 m3 M2 m3 I n t e r v a l s i n o r d e r o f frequency i n L i r i c h e Grechei *3 (33) M2 (25) m2 (23) P4 (19) M3 (15) x4 (6) T a b l e i i Rencesvals (Vocal) . F A G# E G D B D D# B C F# M3 m2 M3 m3 x4 m3 M3 m2 M3 m2 x4 (Chordal) , F# F A C B D# E G# B D C# G m2 m3 m3 m2 M3 m2 M3 M2 M3 m2 x4 (Chromatic) , EP C# D C A# B A G G# G E F M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 M2 126 Table i i - c o n t i n u e d (Vocal No. II) , C# E G G ° B b C B G# A F D E D m3 m3 m2 M3 M2 m2 mj m2 M3 m3 m2 Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado G B b C D b E b E G b F D B A A b m3 M2 m2 M2 m2 M2 m2 mj m3 M2 m2 D D b C F# B b E b E G G# F B A m2 m2 x4 M3 P4 m2 m3 m2 m3 x4 M2 Tre Poemi E C D b B b G E# F# D# B- A G# D M3 m2 m3 m3 M2 m2 m3 M3 M2 m2 x4 Order of frequency from Rencesvalsi m2 (25) M2 (17) m3 (16) M3 (12) x4 (5) P4 (1) 127 Table i i i Goethe-Lieder F B C A D E G^ A^ G xk m2 m3 Pk m2 M 2 Pk xk M 2 MZ mZ Cinque Cant i G^ F B D C A b C# A G X° E D# mZ xk m3 M 2 M3 Pk M3 M 2 m3 xk m2 Parole d i San Paolo A# F# G G# D C# E F D# A C B M3 mZ mZ xk mZ mZ M 2 xk m3 M 2 Order o f frequencyi m2 (9) M 2 (7) x4 (6) m3 (5) M3 (3) P^ (3) When a l l rows are considered together, the order o f i n t e r v a l frequency i s i mZ (57) m3 (5*0 M 2 (k9) M3 (30) P4 (23) xk (18) 1 2 8 APPENDIX II THE TEXTS "Cinque Frammenti d i Saffo" ( E d i z i o n i S u v i n i Zerboni , 19^3) Vespro, tutto r i p o r t i quanto disperse l a lucente aurora : R i p o r t i l a pecora, R i p o r t i l a capra, R i p o r t i , r i p o r t i i l f i g l i o , — R i p o r t i i l f i g l i o a l i a madre. 0 mia Gongi la , t i pregoi Mett i l a tunica bianchiss ima e v i e n i a me davant i i lo sempre t i desidero b e l l a n e l l e v e s t i . Cos! adoma—fa i tremare c h i guardai E i o ne godo perche l a tua b e l l e z z a rimprovera A f r o d i t e . "Muore i l tenero Adone, o C i t e r e a : e n o i , e n o i che faremo?" "A lungo ba t t e tev i i l pet to , f a n c i u l e , e l a c e r a t e v i , l a c e r a t e v i l e v e s t i . " Piena splendeva l a luna Quando presso l ' a l t a r e s i fermarono* — E l e C r e t e s l con armonia s u i p i e d i l e g g e r i cominciarono, Spensierate , a g i ra re intorno a l l ' a r a s u l l a tenera erba appena na ta . Io lungamente ho par la to i n sogno con A f r o d i t e . "Sex Carmina A l c a e i " ( E d i z i o n i Suv in i Zerboni , 1946) 0 coronata d i v i o l e , D iv ina dolce r idente Sa f fo . S u l mio capo che molto ha sof ferto E s u l petto canuto Sparga qualcuno l a m i r r a . 129 Gia s u l l e r i v e d e l l o Xanto r i tornano i c a v a l l i , G l i u c c e l l i d i palude scendono da l c i e l o , Dal le cime dei monti s i l i b e r a azzurra fredda l ' acqua E l a v i t e f i o r i s c e e l a verde carina spunta. Gia n e l l e v a l l i risuonano c a n t i d i primavera. Ma d ' i n t r e c c i a t e c o r o l l e d i aneto Ora qualcuno ne c i r c o n d i i l c o l l o E dolce o l i o Profumato v e r s i a n o i s u l pe t to . Io g i a sento primavera che s ' a w i c i n a c o i suoi f i o r i i — Versatemi presto una tazza d i vino do lc i s s imo . 0 c o n c h i g l i a marina, F i g l i a d e l l a p i e t r a e d e l mare biancheggiante, . Tu merav ig l i l a mente de i f a n c i u l l i . "Due L i r i c h e d i Anacreonte" ( E d i z i o n i S u v i n i Zerboni , 19^6) Eros languido desidero cantare Coperto d i ghir lande a s sa i f i o r i t e , Eros che domina g l i uomini , Eros , Signore d e g l i D e i . Eros come t a g l i a t o r e d ' a l b e r i mi c o l p i con una grande scure E mi r ive r so a l i a der iva d'un torrente inverna le . Rencesvals ( E d i z i o n i S u v i n i Zerboni , 19^6) Vers dulce France chevalchet l 'emperere . L i quens Rol lant ad l ' ense igne fermee, En sum un t e r t r e cuntre l e c i e l l evee . Franc se herbergent par tute l a cuntree. Paien chevalchent par cez greignurs va lees , Halbercs vestuz e (bronies bien dublees) , Healmes lacez e ce intes l u r espees, Escuz as co l s e lances adubees. .1111. C . m i l i e atendent l ' a j u r n e e . DeusI quel dulur que l i Franceis n e l seventi AOI. 130 Tresvait l e j u r , l a n o i t est ase r i e . Carles se dort, l i empereres rich e s . Sunjat q u ' i l eret a l greignurs porz de S i z e r , Entre ses poinz t e n e i t sa hanste f r a i s n i n e . Guenes l i quens l'ad sur l u i s a i s i e . Par t e l a i r l ' a t estrussee e brandie Qu'envers l e eel en volent l e s e s c i c l e s . Carles se dort, q u ' i l ne s ' e s v e i l l e t mie. Halt sunt l i pui e tenebrus e grant, L i v a l parfunt e l e s ewes curant. Halt sunt l i pui e l i v a l tenebrus, Les roches bises, l e s destreiz merveillus. Le j u r passerent Franceis a grant dulur. Tre Poemi (Ars Viva Verlag, i960) Per un f i o r e dato a l i a mia bambina Gracile rosa bianca e f r a l i d i t a d i c h i l ' o f f e r s e , d i l e i che ha 1*anima piu p a l l i d a e appassita dell'onda s c i a l b a del tempo. Frag i l e e b e l l a come rosa, e ancora piu f r a g i l e l a strana meraviglia che v e l i ne'tuoi occhi, o mia azzurro-venata f i g l i a . (James Joyce) Chiunche nasce a morte a r r i v a n e l fuggir del tempo, e '1 sole niuna cosa l a s c i a v i v a . Manca i l dolce e quel che dole e gl'ingegni e l e parole e l e nostre antiche prole, a l sole ombre, a l vento un fumo. Come voi uomini fumo, l i e t i e t r i s t i come s i e t e t ed or siam, come vedete, t e r r a a l s o l , d i v i t a p r i v a . Ogni cosa a morte a r r i v a . Gia f u r g l i occhi n o s t r i i n t e r i con l a luce i n ogni specoj or son v o t i , orrendi e n e r i , e c i o porta i l tempo seco. (Michelangelo) 131 " — F i g l i o , per riposar, Dormir. Non pensar. Non s e n t i r . Non sognar. —Madre, per riposar, Morir." (Manuel Machado) Quattro L i r i c h e d i Antonio Machado (Suvini Zerboni, 1965) La primavera ha venido. I Aleluyas blancas de los zarzales f l o r i d o s l Ayer sone que ve_a a Dips y que a Dios hablabaj y sone que Dios me 01a... Despues sone' que sonaba. Senor, ya me arrancaste l o que yo, mas queria. Oye otra vez, Dios mlo, mi corazon clamar. Tu^voluntad se hizo, Senor, contra l a mia. Senor, ya estamos solos mi corazdh y e l mar. La primavera ha venido. Nadie sabe como ha sido. Goethe-Lieder (E d i z i o n i Suvini Zerboni, 1953) In tausend Formen magst du dich verstekken, Doch, A l l e r l i e b s t e , g l e i c h erkenn i c h d i c h i Du magst mit Zauberschleiern dich bedekken, Allgegenwart'ge, g l e i c h erkenn i c h dich. M8ge Wasser, springend, wallend, Die Cypressen d i r gestehnt Von Suleika zu Suleika 1 s t mein Kommen und mein Gehn. Die Sonne kommtl Ein Prachter scheinenl Der Sichelmond umklammert s i e . Wer konnte solch ein Paar vereinen? Dies Ratsel, wie erkl&rt sich's? Wie? 132 Lass deinen sttssen Rubinenmund Zudringlichkeiten nicht verfluchenj Was hat Liebesschmerz andern Grund, Als seine Heilung zu suchen? Der Spiegel sagt m i n i c h bin schttni Ihr sagti zu a l t e r n s e i auch mein Geschick. Vor Gott muss a l l e s ewig stehn, In mir l i e b t ihn f u r diesen Augenblick. Kaum dass i c h dich wieder habe, Dich mit Kuss und Liedern labe, B i s t du s t i l l i n dich gekehreti Was beengt und drtlckt und st&ret? I s t ' s m5glich, dass i c h Liebchen dich kose, Vernehme der gOttlichen Stimme S c h a l l i Unmoglich scheint immer die Rose, Unbegreiflich die N a c h t i g a l l . Cinque Canti (Edizioni Suvini Zerboni, 1957) Aspettiamo l a S t e l l a mattutina d a l l ' a l a bianca che viaggia n e l l e tenebre, primo annunzio del sole. (Jone d i Ceo) Dorati u c c e l l i dall'acuta voce, l i b e r i per i l bosco s o l i t a r i o i n ciroa a i rami d i pino confusamente s i lamentanoj e chi comincia, chi indugia, c h i l a n c i a i l suo richiamo verso i montii e l'eco che non tace, arnica dei d e s e r t i , l o r i p e te dal fondo d e l l e v a l l i . (Anonimo) Acheronte che tormenti reca a g l i uomini, d ' i n f i n i t e f o n t i d i lacrime e d o l o r i r i b o l l e . (Licimnio) Dormono l e cime dei monti e l e v a l l a t e intomo, i d e c l i v i e i burronii Dormono i serpenti, f o l t i n e l l a specie che l a t e r r a nera a l l e v a , 133 l e f i e r e d i selva, l e varie forme d i a p i , i mostri n e l fondo cupo del mare t Dormono l e generazioni d e g l i u c c e l l i d a l l e lunghe a l i . (Alcmane) Ardano, attraverso l a notte, assai lungamente l e s t e l l e lucentissime. (Ibico) Parole d i San Paolo (Ed i z i o n i Suvini Zerboni, 1965) S i Unguis hominum loquar et angelorum, caritatem autem non habeam, factus sum velut aes sonans, aut cymbalum tinn i e n s . Et s i habuero prophetiam, et noverim mysteria omnia, et omnem scientiam, et s i habuero omnem fidem i t a ut montes transferam, caritatem autem non habuero, n i h i l sum. Et s i distribuero i n cibos pauperum omnes facultates meas, et s i tradidero corpus meum i t a ut ardeam, caritatem autem non habuero, n i h i l mihi prodest. Caritas patiens est, benigna e s t i . . . Non gaudet super i n i q u i t a t e , congaudet autem v e r i t a t i i . • • Omnia s u f f e r t , omnia c r e d i t , omnia sperat, omnia sustinet. Nunc autem manent f i d e s , spes, c a r i t a s , t r i a haeci major autem horum est c a r i t a s . (Lettera prima a i C o r i n z l i XIII) 

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