Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The lesser antiphons of the Milanese office : a thematic classification and analysis Barrington-Foote, Kevin Randle 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1973_A6_5 B37.pdf [ 12.33MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0093097.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0093097-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0093097-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0093097-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0093097-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0093097-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0093097-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0093097-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0093097.ris

Full Text

THE LESSER ANTIPHONS OF THE MILANESE OFFICE: A THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS by KEVIN HANDLE BARRINGTON-FOOTE B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department o f MUSIC We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Music The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 2Ar 1973 ABSTRACT The r e p e r t o r y oF music known as Milanese chant: has only r e c e n t l y a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f m u s i c o l o g i s t s . In the e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y s c h o l a r s concerned themselves with such a s p e c t s o f the Milanese r i t e as i t s o r i g i n s , the s t r u c t u r e o f the l i t u r g y , and p a l e o g r a p h i c d i F F i c u l t i e s . The music i t s e l f , however, c o n t i n u e d t o be d i s c u s s e d merely i n g e n e r a l terms o r i n r e l a t i o n t o G r e g o r i a n melodies. I t i s o n l y w i t h i n the l a s t Few decades t h a t s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s e s oF the music have begun t o pe n e t r a t e t h i s r e l a t i v e l y unexplored F i e l d . T h i s study i s p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with the l e s s e r antiphons oF the Milanese o F F i c e . The I n t r o d u c t i o n summarizes the r e s u l t s oF past r e s e a r c h i n t o the Milanese r i t e and p r e s e n t s g e n e r a l i n F o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the ant i p h o n s . Part I oF the t h e s i s p r e s e n t s the Thematic C l a s s i F i c a t i o n and a d i s c u s s i o n oF the method employed; the t h r e e c h a p t e r s oF P a r t II d e a l with the a n a l y s i s oF the melodies. I t has been suggested t h a t many oF the Milanese a n t i -phons can be grouped t o g e t h e r on the b a s i s oF common melodic m a t e r i a l . Such a c l a s s i F i c a t i o n oF the G r e g o r i a n a n t i p h o n s had appeared a t the begin n i n g oF t h i s c e n t u r y , but no attempt has been made t o ap p l y a s i m i l a r procedure t o the Milanese r e p e r t o r y , e v e n t h o u g h t h e more s t a b l e M i l a n e s e t r a d i t i o n w o u l d a p p e a r t o be b e t t e r s u i t e d F o r s u c h an a n l y s i s t h a n t h e G r e g o r i a n w i t h i t s numerous a n d o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g s o u r c e s . The p s a l t e r a n t i p h o n s , t h e s i m p l e s t a n d most numerous o f t h e M i l a n e s e o f f i c e a n t i p h o n s , h a v e r e s p o n d e d r e a d i l y t o a T h e m a t i c C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f o v e r s e v e n h u n d r e d c h a n t s c a n be r e d u c e d t o t h i r t y common m e l o d i e s o r "Themes." Many o f t h e s e Themes c a n be shown t o be r e l a t e d , a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e were o r i g i n a l l y o n l y a v e r y few m e l o d i e s f r o m w h i c h o t h e r c h a n t s were d e v e l o p e d . I n f a c t , t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e a n t i p h o n s d e v e l o p e d , t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f g r a d u a l e l a b o r a t i o n f r o m s i m p l e r e c i t i n g - t o n e s . I t c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e m e l o d i e s o f t h e a n t i p h o n s w i t h l o n g e r t e x t s were e x p a n d e d by t h e u s e o f a l i m i t e d number o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s , , An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c a d e n c e s a n d f i n a l s r e v e a l s an economy and s i m p l i c i t y w h i c h w o u l d seem t o s p e a k f o r t h e a n t i q u i t y o f t h e M i l a n e s e r e p e r t o r y . Oxford, Bodleian L i b r a r y , Lat. l i t . a 4 Cf. Ir-3 i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES i i i LIST OF PLATES i v INTRODUCTION 1 PART I - THE THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION D i s c u s s i o n . ......30 Mu s i c a l Examples. ............55 PART II - ANALYSIS Chapter 1 - R e l a t e d Themes 136 Chapter 2 - O p e r a t i o n oF Themes... ...151 Chapter 3 - Cadences and F i n a l s ..178 APPENDIX I - INDEX TO THE THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION 193 APPENDIX II - ALPHABETICAL INOEX OF THE MILANESE PSALTER ANTIPHONS 196 BIBLIOGRAPHY 212 i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I - SUMMARY OF THE THEMES 51 II - LIST OF THEMES AND SUB-THEMES 52 I I I - EXPLANATION OF ANALYTICAL SYMBOLS 54 IV - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE ANTIPHONS 179 V - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE THEMES 180 i i i L I S T OF PLATES P l a t e Page F r o n t i s p i e c e - O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , L a t . l i t . a 4 Cf. I r ] 1 - O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , L a t . l i t . a 4 Cf. 8 r 3 3 2 - L o n d o n , B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MS 34.209 Cf. 1 0 3 . . . 4 i v INTRODUCTION The repertory of music known as Milanese chant consti-tutes one of the four main dialectsl of Western Christian chant. Milanese chant has been more commonly referred to as "Ambrosian," after St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan from 374 to 397. While his term of office was one of great significance regarding l i t u r g i c a l matters, scholars now credit Ambrose with only three innovations in the chant i t s e l f : the use of anti-phons, the singing of hymns, and a new arrangement of the vigils.2 The chant and i t s corresponding liturgy were set in order, however, "in times later than those of the great bishop."3 While some writers s t i l l cling to the term "Ambros-ian," modern scholars have chosen to employ "Milanese" since i t represents a more r e a l i s t i c designation. Before delineating the proposed topic of this thesis, i t i s necessary to review the circumstances of the Milanese r i t e . This introduction w i l l f i r s t present the sources, the c o n f l i c t -ing theories concerning the origins of the r i t e , a very brief development i l l u s t r a t i n g the infusion of Roman elements, and a survey of the existing research on the subject. others are Gregorian, Mozarabic and Galilean. 2A. Pared!, "Milanese Rite," New Catholic Encyclopedia, IX C1967], 839. 3H. Angles, "Latin Chant Before St. Gregory," New  Oxford History of Music, Vol. II, ed. by Dom A„ Hughes [London: Oxford University Press, 1954], p. 59, 2 I The principal sources of Milanese chant are the Following: 4 1. St. Gallon, StiFtsbibliothek, Cod. 908 [pp. 75-78, 81-84, 87-92, 95-96, 101-102, 105-108, 111-118, 121-122}; also, Zurich, Zentralbibliothek, Cod. C 79b [FF. 18-19], This i s the oldest of the manuscripts, dating From the seventh century. It i s a Fragmented palimpsest, the contents oF which are indecipherable. 2. Bergamo, Biblioteca di S. Alessandro in Colonna CFF. 1-11 oF Codex Nr. 505], Dating From the tenth century, this manuscript i s also Fragmentary, 3. London, British Museum, Add. MS 34.209. This i s one oF the most important oF the sources. It dates From the twelFth century and contains the pars  hiemalis [an explanation oF this term Follows the description oF the sources). It has been published in Facsimile as Vol. V oF the Paleographie Musicale and in transcription as Vol. VI.5 4. Bedero Antiphoner, Bedero di Val Travaglia, Chiesa Collegiata di S. Vittore [no manuscript number given}. This twelFth-century manuscript contains the pars  aestiva and thus Forms the necessary complement to the London antiphoner.8 5. Roma, Cod. Vat. l a t . 10645 CF. 58}. This Fragmentary manuscript From the twelFth century, contains only that portion oF the l i t u r g i c a l year From August 29 to September 7. 4K7 Gamber, Codices l i t u r q i c i l a t j n l ant i qui ores. Vol. I CFreiburg: UniversitStsverlag, 1968], pp. 275-78. SGamber notes that this manuscript was one oF the two used by SuPtol in preparing his c r i t i c a l edition; the other i s the Bedero antiphoner Cnumber 4 above], Sunol's c r i t i c a l edition w i l l be discussed in more detail later. 6Anglesf in "Latin Chant," p, 62, points out that the 3 "Mllktou aUdiiuattdtwjildop. j l " 7 ~• •" " > a d u , f i l i n g * . ' 4 « ^ J ~ 4 f t ? T |i«rtinto«twbuf -- -J ' j V ^ A *" Jjmjir*NtrKfi.giUM '. f • . • m w J ^ ^ S S S S :<^mitdcmpn I finir^toomino ucm cctnfvd — i o umnnnro tbmr.;u$ mien a afcmpucr ti,ifiipcraptnco:i^al ^ ~A :taSMgOMMMMMa — — — . . . . . . . . — 4 — * — f - ^ — - A am' 8 .v • -"Vi-.T"* 1 - Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat. l i t . a 4 [F. 8r) 4 Plate 2 - London, British Museum, Add. MS 34.209 Cr*. 10} 5 6. Oxford, Bodleian Library, l a t . l i t . a 4. Although this manuscript i s of a later date [fourteenth century] than the others li s t e d above, i t i s an important source of the pars aestiva. The two main sources used for this study are the London codex [number 3] and the manuscript from Oxford [number 6], The Bedero codex, mentioned above, was unavailable for study.7 A complete l i s t of a l l the manuscripts, including several others of later date, can be found in M. Huglo's, "Fonti e paleografia del canto ambrosiano,"^ The traditional division of the Milanese l i t u r g i c a l year into the pars hiemalis [winter part] and pars aestiva [summer part] i s reflected in the manuscripts. While i t i s not appropriate here to embark on a detailed description of the Milanese rite,9 this division must be explained. The pars  hiemalis i s associated with Milan Cathedral i t s e l f , known as the ecclesia hiemalis. or basilica major. The winter portion of the year begins on the third Sunday of October which i s Bedero antiphoner was "discovered subsequent to the publica-tion of the Paleographie Musicale. vols, v and v i . " This accounts for i t s absence from that collection. 7Even Roy Jesson, in his dissertation from 1955 [this work wi l l be discussed presently], found i t necessary to use the Bodleian manuscript rather than the Bedero. BArchivio Ambrosiano. VII [Milan, 1956], 46ff. 9for a complete account of the r i t e see A. Pared!, "Milanese Rite," New Catholic Encyclopedia. IX [1967], 838-842; also, R. Weakland, "The Performance of Ambrosian Chant in the 12th Century," in Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance  Music: A_ Birthday Offering to Gustavo Reese, ed. by Jan La Rue [New York; W.W. Norton S Co., 1966], pp. 856-66, 6 the Feast of the Dedication oF Milan Cathedral, The other portion of the year, the pars aestiva, i s associated with the second church nearby [the ecclesia  aestiva, or basilica minor3 snd begins at Easter [Vespers of Holy Saturday3. The change-over From one church to the other i s accompanied by ceremonial processions,10 The usual Gregorian separation between Mass and oFFice chants i s not Found in the Milanese service books. They simply "present the music For each day in order as i t i s sung."H II Scholars have concerned themselves with the question of the origins oF the Milanese r i t e . As w i l l be seen, the manuscripts themselves oFFer no conclusive evidence in this matter. The problem i s evident in Ambrose's own writings which, according to recent scholarship, lead to the Following conclusions: l3that the liturgy oF Milan in the Fourth century was substantially the same as that oF Rome; 2]the Arian Bishop Auxentius introduced changes into Milan's worship and may have been the source oF certain aFFinities between the Milanese and Greek r i t e s ; 33in certain instances the practice oF Milan diFFered From that oF Rome,12 10R, H. Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant," in Gregorian Chant, ed. by W. Apel [London: Burns S Oates, 1958], p, 467, This ar t i c l e also includes much more information on the r i t e , 11Jesson, "Ambrosian Chants The Music oF the Mass," [Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 19553, p. 27. 12Paredi, "Milanese Rite," 839, 7 Tha apparent: co-existence of eastern and western elements in the Milanese r i t e hes given rise to two basically-opposed theories to explain i t s origins. Some suggest that the r i t e was of a purely eastern derivation; others that i t belongs to a Latin tradition. The former theory was f i r s t proposed by L. M. Duchesne in 1889.13 i t was his belief that the non-Roman features of the Milanese liturgy exhibit " a l l the characteristics of the Eastern liturgies."14 He noted that there are some Milanese texts that are to be found word for word in the Greek of the Syro-Byzantine churches. It i s , moreover, a histori c a l fact that Milan hosted assemblies of eastern bishops.15 Duchesne's strongest argument, however, rested on the incumbency of Auxentius as Bishop of Milan for approximately twenty years [355-374], Duchesne was certain that Auxentius, having exhibited extraordinary strength of w i l l in resisting efforts to dislodge him, must have had profound influence on the church and clergy.1^ But there i s yet another aspect to Duchesne's theories. He claimed not only an eastern origin but also the virtual 13Christian Worship; Its Origin and Evolution [5th ed.; London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1927 3, pp. 93-4. H l b i d . I SIbid. 16Ibid. a identity of the Milanese and Gallican l i t u r g i e s . The English liturgiologists had believed, prior to the appearance of •uchesne's work, that t h B Gallican liturgy had been imported from Ephesus [the ancient church of the Roman province of Asia} into Gaul through Lyons.1? From this c i t y i t was claimed that the liturgy then spread throughout the transalpine West. Stating his reasons For disagreement, Duchesne oFFered another solution based on the belieF that Milan, and not Lyons, was the point of entry for the Gallican liturgy and the eastern influences.I s The opposing theory, that of a Latin origin for the Milanese r i t e , was proposed by t h B monks of Solesmes in the prefaces to the Paleographie Musicals. In the "Introduction GeneVale" of the f i r s t volume!9 they made their position clear at the outset: Le gregorien, l'ambrosien, le mozarabe S le peu qui nous reste du gallican paraissent en effet, avoir une source commune S deri ver d'une me*me langue musicals: le chant de l'Eglise latine a son berceau £i.e. RomeJ.20 17ibld.. p. 90. 1 8 I b i d . , pp. 90-1. 19x889. gQlbid.. p. 35. The Gregorian, the Ambros-ian, the Mozarabic and the l i t t l e that remains of the Gallioan appear, in effect, to have a common source and derive from the same musical language: the chant of the Latin church at i t s cradle £i . e. Romel . 2Q 9 After examining various manuscripts the learned Benedictines concluded that the tonality and rhythmCl] were the same in the four dialects of the Latin chant. Furthermore, the Solesmss monks claimed to have discovered a striking similarity of musical style in the melodic forms of the four dialects: a}la psalmodie simple avsc son antienne presque syllabique; b]l'antienne plus chargee de notes, toujours accompagnee d'une psalmodie; cDenfin des compositions plus musicales S plus . developpe'es correspond-ant aux graduels, a l l e -luias, offertories, du chant gregorien.21 ajthe simple psalmody with i t s nearly syllabic antiphon; bjthe more elaborated antiphon, always ac-companied by psalmody; c j f i n a l l y , the more musical and more dev-eloped compositions corresponding to graduals al l e l u i a s and offertories of Gregorian chant.21 A discussion dealing more spec i f i c a l l y with Milanese chant i s contained in a later volume of the Pal6ographie  Musicals.22 Q o m Cagin, after refuting the theories of •uohesne, stated his belief concerning the origins of the Milanese r i t e as follows: Nous inclinons, nous autres, non pour Milan, mais pour Romte. C'est a Rome que nous rat-tacherions volontiers 1'unite gallicane. On a pu le presentir dans les pages precedentes. D'une part, en effet, nos observations sur la communaute", a toutes les liturgies d'Occident, de 1'euchologia embolismjque We incline, we others, not towards Milan, but towards Rome. It i s to Rome that we would willingly attribute the Gallican unity we have been able to present in the proceed-ing pages. On the one hand, in effect, our ob-servations on what i s common to a l l the liturgies of the Occident, e i l b i d . 22Antiphonarium Ambroslanum, V, 1B96. 10 nous ont: conduits a conelure a un seul systeme liturgique l a t i n ; S, d'autre part, la convergence de tous les documents autour du Qui  pridie romains nous per-mettrait des a present de faire un pas de plus S de donner a ce systeme la t i n un nom plus precis le nom de romain,23 of the euchologie  embolismique. have led us to decide that there was a single Latin l i t u r g -i c a l system; and, on the other hand, the convergence of a l l the documents around the Roman Qui  pridie have allowed us now to take a further step and to give to this Latin system a name more precise, that of "f)oman,"23 Modern scholars tend to embrace neither of the above theories whole-heartedly, but suggest rather a reconciliation of the two opinions. Paredi, for example, rejects the notion of a Greek origin for the Milanese rite.24 He asserts that this idea i s "untenable i f one admits, as everyone now does, Ambrose's authorship of Ote Sacramentis."25 He agrees with the Solesmes monks that the churches of the West must have received their essential l i t u r g i c a l formulas and r i t e s from Rome. At the same time, however, Paredi admits that: Duchesne's thesis can be accepted in the sense that Milan was the center from which a Gallican type liturgy took i t s origin. By Gallican i s meant a Latin [not Eastern] liturgy different from that of Rome in certain particulars,26 e a I b i d . . p. 70. 24"Milanese Rite," New Catholic Encyclopedia. 839, 25ibid. In Dts Sacramentis. Ambrose expresses the desire of the Church of Milan to follow that of Rome "in a l l things," See R. J. Deferrari, Saint Ambrose s Theological and Dogmatic  Works. Vol. XLIV of The Fathers of the Church [New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1963], pp. 291-92; p. 317, 26ibld. Paredi mentions two instances in which the practice of Milan differed from that of Rome: l]the Feet of 11 In order to expose more Fully the problems Facing the musicologist attempting to determine the origins oF the Milanese r i t e , let us look brieFly at i t s development. It is well established that, on several occasions, the Followers oF the Milanese r i t e were Forced to deFend i t against Roman inFluence and suppression. But here again there are diFficul-« ties since, as Peter Wagner so aptly put i t , a "v e i l of legend" has been drawn over the real occurrences "so that i t is impossible now to state the Facts historically."27 Never-theless, we w i l l adhere to the accounts oF modern scholars, indicating conFlicts oF opinion where appropriate. Paredi believes that, between the Fourth and ninth centuries, there must have been two reForms in the Rite--one owing to Greek inFluence, another to the Benedictines: "These revisions coincide with the limitation oF the geographical ambit of the r i t e during the Carolingian reforms," 2 9 According to Landulfus the Elder, an author of the second half of the eleventh century, Charlemagne had attempted to suppress the the newly-baptized were washed; 2]there has never been Saturday Fasting in Milan although there was in Rome Cp, 839), 27introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, translated by A. Orme and E. G. P. Wyatt, Caecilia. LXXXV [No. 2, Spring, 1958}, p. 195. 2 QParedi, "Milanese Rite," 839. 12 Milanese r i t e entirely by imposing Roman books and chant,29 Further attempts in a similar vein were made in the eleventh century by Popes Nicholas II and Gregory VII.30 j n the twelFth century, however, the Milanese r i t e secured recog-. nition in the papal bulls oF Eugenius III [1145} and Anastasius IV C11533.31 This security was shortlived, For the Rite was threats ened again in the FiFteenth century. In 1568 and 1570, Pius V declared the Roman Breviary and Missal obligatory and outlawed other r i t e s . Here i s a good example oF how Fable has clouded Fact. According to legend, a Milanese book and a Gregorian one were l a i d side by side on the altar oF Saint Peter to await divine decision. They both opened simultaneously of their own accord and this was considered to be a confirmation 29While this attempt i s acknowledged by modern scholars, there seems to have been some disagreement among earlier; ones, P. Wagner in Introduction to Gregorian Melodies, p. 195, supported the attempts oF Charlemagne. L. Duchesne, on the contrary, clearly stated: "The Fables related by Landulf as to the h o s t i l i t y displayed by Charlemagne to the Ambrosian r i t u a l are not worthy of c r e d i t . " — C h r i s t i a n Worship, p, 105, Duchesne's argument for a strong and stable Milanese Church may have been the reason for his disbelief of the accounts, 30R. Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant," Gregorian Chant. ed, by W. Apel [London: Burns S Oates, 1958], p, 468. H. Angles, in the New Oxford History of Music. II [1954], p. 62, also agrees with this statement. Paredi, in a more recent a r t i c l e , "Milanese Rite," claimB that these attempt are now generally accepted as being untrue.—New Catholic Encyclopedia. 839. 31je sson, "Ambrosian Chant," Gregorian Chant, p f 466, 13 of their equal authority. Another story, while not so color-f u l , i s more credible. We are told that Pius made exceptions for those r i t e s which had been in use for two hundred years or more. Since the Milanese r i t e met this requirement i t was permitted to continue. However, the Archbishop of Milan was ordered to enforce a reform of the l i t u r g i c a l books. Charles Borromeo [later Saint] was appointed to this task. Under h i B direction were published the f i r s t o f f i c i a l Calendarium [1567] and Breviary [1582]. The Ritual [1589] and Missal [1594] appeared after his death. Borromeo1s chief aim was to restore the Rite to i t s original state. Unfortunately, his commission did not limit themselves to his wishes and some serious departures from ancient tradition were included.32 The Milanese scholar i s faced with a paradoxical situa-tion. The Rite has maintained a certain originality and s t a b i l i t y but i t also includes foreign Features adapted mainly from the Roman. This fusion of Gregorian and Milaness elements is a major obstacle in ascertaining the true origin and nature of the Milanese r i t e . Concerning the chant i t s e l f , to which the same d i f f i c u l t i e s pertain,33 Rembert Weakland has this to say: storation after this time was carried on in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and w i l l be discussed further on, 33For some specific examples of concurrences between Milanese and Gregorian chants, see G. Reese, Music in the  Middle Ages [New York: W. W. Norton S Co., 1840], pp. 105-S, 14 Many scholars of the 19th century too easily assumed that Gregorian chant and Ambrosian chant came from a common stem, since lost, while others, such as Qom Germain Morin, postulated the priority of the Ambrosian chant, from which the Gregorian evolved. More recent trends among scholars tend to differentiate between borrowed chants inserted much later into the Ambrosian chant from the Gregorian and a primitive Ambrosian nucleus that must be pre-Carolingian. This latter shows a kind of music-making similar to Gregorian chant but less r i g i d , less polished, and less systematic.34 That this nucleus goes back to the time of St. Ambrose cannot possibly be proved. It i s clear, however, that by the Carolingian period the Ambrosian musical practice differed from the Gregorian and that further developments of i t were made mostly by borrowings from the Gregorian and adaptations of older chants.35 Egon Wellesz, who has dons extensive work on chant problems, states that the complex question of the spread of Christian chant has not as yet been answered satisfactorily,, In his estimation a great many more "detailed studies w i l l have to be made before such questions can be answered safely,, "36 Having set out the main problems and theories surround-ing the Milanese r i t e and chant, let us now attempt to make e summary of the research that has been done. It appears that the Milanese r i t e f i r s t attracted the attention of scholars in the late nineteenth century. In 1884, Dom Ambrose Kienle 3 4The findings of the presant study would c a l l into question this evaluation. 35"Milanese Rite, Chants of," New Catholic Encyclopedia,, IX [19673, 842. 36»Recent Studies in Western Chant," Musical Quarterly n XLI (April, 1955), 182. 15 published a description of the Milanese liturgy and chant.37 A decade later, one of the most important sources was published, Beroldus. sive Ecclesiae Ambrosianae Mediolanensis Kalendarium et Ordines, saec. XII.33 Concerning this Qrdo. one modern scholar states: This important tabulation of Ambrosian practice in the later medieval period, written by a Milanese ecclesiastic, i s s t i l l one of the most valuable l i t u r g i c a l sources.39 Significant progress was made by the Benedictines of Solesmes with their publications of the Paleographie Musicale. an invaluable contribution to chant research.40 Apart from containing important information about the origins, develop-ment and forms of chant, these volumes also include facsimiles of a few of the major manuscripts and, in some cases, tran-scriptions into modern chant notation. The specific contribu-tion of the Paleographie Musicale to Milanese chant, namely the publication of the pars hiemalis. has already been mentioned above. Shortly after the turn of the century, Karl Ott published a series of articles in Rassegna Gregoriana, beginning in 1906 with "L'Antifonia ambrosiana in rapporto al canto gregoriana."41 Ober ambroslanische Liturgie und ambrosianischen Gesang," Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und  dem Cistercienser-Qrden. V, Bd. I, p. 346; Bd. II, p. 56, 3Bed. Magistretti, 1894. 39jesson, "Ambrosian Chant: The Music of the Mass," p. 3„ 40CSolesmes: Abbaye S B i n t Pierre, 1889-D. ^ S i m i l a r a r t i c l e s appear in volumes V-VIII, X (1906-11)0 16 In this and subsequent art i c l e s , Ott drew comparisons between Milanese and Gregorian melodies. Although the art i c l e s pro-vided useful information, Ott made certain mistakes which modern scholars have avoided. His major error lay In assign-ing modes to the melodies when the manuscripts themselves contain no modal designations whatsoever. The f i r s t encyclo-pedic art i c l e s to be based on modern research appeared in the Oictionnaire d*Archeologie Chretienne et de 1iturgie.42 in particular, an a r t i c l e entitled "Milan" appeared in one of the later volumes, providing an annotated l i s t of a l l the then-known Milanese l i t u r g i c a l manuscripts. Around this time too a new edition of the text of the Missale Ambrosianum [1902} appeared and subsequently, a c r i t i c a l edition by Achille Rett! [later Pope Pius XI] and M. Magistretti.43 Following this period of activity, interest in Milanese chant seems to have subsided. In the early 1930's, Cardinal Schuster assigned Dom Gregory Suffol the task of restoring the chant in a c r i t i c a l edition. In order to accomplish this enormous undertaking, Suftol studied some forty existing manu-scripts. 44 The f i r s t f r u i t of this labor was the Praeconlum  Paschale [Milan, 1934], This was followed by the Antiphonale  Missarum [Rome, 1935] Centi Ambrosiani per i 1 popolo [Milan 4 £Ed. by Cabrol. The articles are by Qorn A. Gajard, "Ambrosien [chant]," and, Dom P. Lejay, "Ambrosienne [Liturgy] 43H. Angles, "Latin Chant Before St. Gregory," p. 63. 44ibld. 45The sources used in preparation of this volume, which contains the music for Mass, were discussed above [see p„ 2]. 17 19363; Liber Vesperalis (Rome, 19393 ; 4 S and, Of f icium et:  Missa pro Defunct:is cum exsequiarum ordine [Rome, 19393 „ Two other publications, the Directorium Chori and the Proces-sionale remained unfinished at his death. Sunol's edition marked a major step toward modern restoration and preservation of Milanese chant. It i s to be noted that no complete edition of the office antiphons was published. In 1947, Egon Wellesz published his book, Eastern 2, Elements in Western Chant.47 Earlier in this century scholars had postulated the theory of an eastern origin for western chant.48 While these theories were accepted by later scholars, they could not be verified because the Byzantine neumes were indecipherable. Wellesz was able, in fact, to solve the Byzantine notation^ and proceeded to test the theories of Thibaut and Gastoue. Indeed, Wellesz'e study turned out to be more revealing than he himself had anticipated. He was able to 4 BAccording to Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant: the Music of the Mass," p. 27, the music for the Lesser Hours of the office were not included "since they require no special music other then psalm-tones and hymns, and the 'Responsorium breve* and Epistolella. Chants for the last two may be seen in the music for Compline in the Liber Vesperalis Cp. 7983." 47copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1947. 48J.-B. Thibaut, Origins byzantjne de lia notation  neumatiqua de 1'egUse latine [Paris, 1907]; and, A. Gastoue, Les origines du chant romain. Bibliotheque musicologique [Paris, 1907). 49More specifically, Wellesz deciphered the neumes of the so-called "Middle Byzantine" musical notation. 18 show that tho eastern influences were not, in fact, imported from the Church of Constantinople as had been suggested, but rather that Byzantine melodies and Plainchant [Western chant] were both . . . rooted in the chant of the Churches of the Early Christian age, which derived partly from the chant of the Jewish service, partly from hymns in Syriac, composed on the model of these chants and translated later on into Greek.80 Milanese chant had a role of no l i t t l e importance to play in Wellesz's study. Prior to Wellesz's work the Milanese melodies had usually been considered to be the oldest form of Plainchant preserved in decipherable notation.51 But by comparing Byzantine, Gregorian and Milanese melodies, Wellesz seemed to have come up with a "new and valuable verification" of that thesis.52 Within the last two decades musicologists, r e a l i z i n g the lack of knowledge of the Milanese repertory, have begun to penetrate further into this relatively unexplored f i e l d . In 1355, the late Roy Hart Jesson completed his dissertation, "Ambrosian Chant: The Music of the Mass." As the t i t l e i n d i -cates, this study i s concerned mainly with the music of the Mass, It does, however, discuss Cto some extent] the offices as well, and i t includes up-to-date bibliographical information and some mention of s i m i l a r i t i e s to be found in the Milanese and SOWellesz. Eastern Elements. p„ 202. 51lbid. f p. 4 . 52ibid., p. 126. 19 Gregorian repertories. Jesson gave the intention of his work thus: It i s the aim of this study to retain a comprehensive view of the Ambrosian style as a whole, while subjecting the chants of the Mass to the analysis which i s now necessary to provide a basis for their further discussion and understanding.53 Jesson's dissertation was, in fact, the f i r s t attempt at a s t y l i s t i c analysis. In 1956, the well-known chant scholar, Michel Huglo, published his lengthy a r t i c l e , "Font! e paleografia del canto ambrosiano,"54 which enumerates and discusses some three hundred sources of Milanese chant. The importance of this work i s reflected in the recognition given i t by a l l the leeding modern writers on chant. It w i l l be noticed that, generally, the research discussed thus far has dealt with the Milanese r i t e and chant in a broad sense. Mora recently, musicologists have begun isolating and examining specific areas within the repertory. This change i s exemplified by such works as H. Leeb's, Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius,55 or G. Baroffio's, "Die Offertorien 53pp. i i i - i v . S^Archivio Ambrosiano. VII (Milan, 1956], 55Vienna: Herder, n.d. This book was reviewed in Singende Kjrche (No. 3, 1968], 135. 20 der Ambrosianischen Kirche; Vorstudie zur kritischen Ausgabe der MailSndischen Gesa"nge."56 A dissertation by R. Weakland, "The Antiphon of the Ambrosian Chant," i s in progress.57 But owing to Rev. Weakland's burden of administrative duties [he i s presently placed highly in the Church of Rome], i t seems doubtful that his study wi l l become available soon. I l l This thesis w i l l be ooncerned with the cl a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Milanese antiphons and the bearing of "the results upon the question of modality. The lesser antiphons are very well suited for such a study since they represent t h B simplest, free melodies in the repertory; and their original structures have not been obscured by extensive ornamentation as i s the case for the antiphons of the Mass and the Responsories. Furthermore, because of the large number of entiphons58 s t a t i s t i c a l results w i l l be more meaningful. It goes without saying that an examination of the lesser antiphons w i l l yield basic observations which pertain to Milanese chant as a whole. 56diss. ph i l . , Cologne, 1964. Abstract in Die Musik-forschung. XVIII CNo. 4, 1965], 422-3. 57pn. 0., Musicology, Columbia University, cited by C. Adkins, ed,, Doctoral Dissertation in Musicology C5th ed.; Philadelphia: American Musicological Society, 1971], p. 12. 58precisely seven hundred and forty antiphonB were examined for this study. Weakland, in "Milanese Rite, Chants of," New Catholic Encyclopedia. IX, 842, says there are approximately seven hundred and seventy-five pieces. It i s lik e l y that his total includes many duplications which have not been incorporated in the present study a 21 Very l i t t l e research on the lesser Milanese antiphons has appeared to date. It would seem that the earliest work of this sort was that of the Benedictines of Solesmes in the Paleographie Musicale.59 Their efforts, however, are pri n c i -pally concerned with the position of the pieces in the Milanese office; there i s l i t t l e analysis of the music i t s e l f . Karl Ott undertook an examination of the antiphons in the series of articles mentioned above.90 But as has already been noted, his findings are prejudiced by his arbitrary modal assignments. The most recant study, that of Jesson,51 ie concerned mainly with the Mass chants and refers only obliquely to the antiphons here under consideration. The basic tasks of the present study are clearly defin-able. Weakland has suggested that many of the psalter antiphons can be c l a s s i f i e d according to melodic types or formulas; 62 that i s to say., many of them exhibit melodic simi-l a r i t i e s and can be grouped together on this basis. Such an approach has been successful for the Gregorian corpus.63 It remains to follow Weakland's suggestion in an analysis of the Milanese repertory. 5 9Volumes V and VI. SOsee p. 15. 91"Ambrosian Chant: The Music of the•Mass," S 2"Milanese Rite, Chants of," New Catholic Encyclopedia, IX C1967J, 842. S3F. G, Geveert, La melopee antique dans le chant de  1 'Eglise latino [OsnabrUck: 0. Zeller, 1967; reprint of 1895 edition]. 22 It might be useful at this point to outline, in general the theories concerning the origins of the antiphons, i t s introduction into the Milanese liturgy, and the types of antiphons found in the Milanese repertory. IV The antiphon did not, i t would appear, originally exist as a separate musical item. It seems to have derived from an early psalmodic practice in which the verses of psalm were chanted alternately by two choirs. This custom was f i r s t mentioned toward the end of the fourth century by Bishop Leontius C344-357] at Antioch.64 According to Sts. Augustine and Paulinus [biographers of Ambrose], Ambrose brought the practice to Milan in 386B5 in response to a particular event. In March of the same year, imperial troops were ordered to surround the basilicas in Milan in order to prevent disorders from erupting between the Orthodox Christians and the Arians. During this "siege," Ambrose apparently introduced antiphonal singing to keep the people inspired and to prevent them from becoming weary during changes of their continuous watch.66 64o L l chesne f Christian Worship, p. 114, c i t i n g Theodoret, Historicus Ecclesiasticus. II, p. 24, 65A, Paredi, Saint Ambrose: His Life and Times, trans, by M. J, Costelloe [Notre Dame, Ind,: University of Notre Dame Press, 19B4], p, 331. Duchesne, in Christian Worship, p. 115, incorrectly gives the date as 3B7, according to Paredi. 66ibid,, p. 246. 23 OF late, there has been some question as to what kind oF singing was actually introduced by Ambrose. Paredi reminds us that St. Augustine recorded the events oF the siege almost ten years after they took place and was not careful to explain the type oF singing employed. 67 j-t i s , moreover, Paredi's contention that there surely must have been some chanting oF the psalms in Milan, as there was elsewhere, prior to 386s What St. Ambrose introduced at this time must consequently have been antiphonal singing: the singing was no longer limited to a single voice which the congregation answered From time to time £i.e. responsor-i a l psalmody}, but a regular choir was Formed and trained. This group could then sing more elaborate compositions or could join in with the people in singing antiphonally, one group alternating with the other.68 In spite oF the doubt as to what kind oF singing Ambrose actually introduced, there seems to be agreement that Milan became the center oF diFfusion For antiphonal singing. From there i t apparently spread First to the other churches of the West before i t was adopted at Rome during the papacy of CBlestine I [422-432],69 B 7Another modern scholar, H. Leeb, takes up this matter in, Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius [Vienna: Herder, nd.d]. His argument i s based on the fact that Ambrose himself was inconsistent with his terminology [psalm, hymn, etc.]. The texts of Augustine, Paulinus, and Isidor also reflect this diFFiculty in their descriptions of Ambrose end antiphonal singing. 68paredi, Seint Ambrose, p, 331, 69Reese, Music in the Middle Ages. p 0 106, 24 It has been suggested that a portion of the psalm-tone was sung f i r s t by a cantor to provide the proper intonation for the choirs. Precisely when this innovation appeared, however, i s uncertain. Duchesne implied that i t existed by the time antiphonal singing had reached Rome: In the form in which i t was adopted at Rome, the antiphon admitted the alternative singing of a complete psalm. . . . Before beginning the psalm proper, some musical phrases were f i r s t executed, to which certain words, borrowed chiefly from the psalm i t s e l f , were adapted. This was what i s called the anthem [antienne] ^antiphon]. It was doubt-less performed as a solo by a cantor, in order to give the tone for the following psalmody. The psalm being ended, there was a repetition of the anthem.70 This development brought the antiphon to the form with which we are f a m i l i a r — a separate member that i s used in conjunction with the psalmody. We must also mention, of course, those antiphons which came to be performed independently of the psalms, such as the processional antiphons or the antiphons for the Blessed Virgin Mary, used for special functions and occasions. Weakland divides the Milanese office antiphons into four general categories: processional antiphons, antiphonae ad  crucem. antiphonae in choro. and psalter antiphons. The f i r s t group, the processional antiphons, shows a f a i r l y ornate style. The performance of these antiphons has been reconstructed by 70Christian Worship, p. 115, 25 Weakland, based on the Beroldus Ordo: In the procession as i t begins from the sacristy could normally be found two deacons and three subdeacons to assist the archbishop. The deacon to the right of the archbishop intoned the second processional antiphon Cpsallenda] from the night Office as the group proceeded to the high altar. It appears that the boys and their master were also in the procession, for i t was their task to take up the intonation of tho processional antiphon by the deacon and to repeat i t after the master sang the Gloria  patri. Having arrived at the altar, the master began the Ingressa (Roman Introit3. The fact that on solemn feasts there was also a proces-sional antiphon distinct from the Ingressa i s not indicated in the manuscripts and explains why the Ambrosian Ingressa. although i t has many features in common with the Roman Introit, i s not properly a processional antiphon, lacking as i t does any psalmody.71 The antiphona ad crucem. the second type, was sung during the procession of the crosses. This ceremony, which concluded the morning office on Sundays and feast days, was one of the most elaborate in the Milanese r i t e . Ordinarily the antiphona ad crucem was repeated five complete times but on certain special occasions—Sundays of Advent, Christmas, Circumcision, and Epiphany—it was repeated as many as seven times. As Weakland points out, i t ornate style gives not the slightest suggestion of the dramatic aspects of the ceremony which tho antiphon accompanied.72 71 "The Performance of Ambrosian Chant.in the 12th Century, in Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. by Jan La Rue (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1966], pp. 862-3. Weakland refers to the newer c r i t i o a l edition of the Ordo. published by Magistretti, Milan, 1894. 72p o r a n enlightening account of tho procession with tho crosses, see Beroldus's account, trans, by Weakland, Ibid. 26 There i s l i t t l e available information concerning the antiphona in choro. Oom A. Kienle described i t s position in the Milanese office in the following passage: Anders verha"lt es sich It behaves otherwise mit der Vesper. Sie at Vespers. It begins beginnt mit Doroinus with Dominus vobiscum vobiscum und dem and the Lucernarium, a Lucernarium, einem respond that always Responsorium, das contains an allusion to immer sine Anspielung 'let there by li g h t . ' auf das Licht machen After that follows the enthSlt. Darauf folgt antiphona in choro, a die Antiphona in choro, hymn, the responsorium ein Hymnus, das Hespon- iri choro. and the sorium in choro, und psalmody, , . .73 die Psalmodie. . . .73 But apart from such oblique references, we can only say that a glance in the manuscripts shows the antiphonae in choro to be lengthy and ornate in style. For the purposes of this study the last group, the psalter antiphons, has been chosen for two reasons: 13they comprise the largest portion of a l l the antiphons; and, 2)they are the simplest in style. Under the general heading of psalter antiphons, the Following types are indicated in the manuscripts: Antiphona [and Psalm] Antiphona [and Verse) Antiphona in Benedicamus74 Antiphona in Benedicite 73"0ber ambrosianische Liturgie und ambrosianischen Gesang," Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und  dem Cistercienser-Orden. V, Bd. 1 , p. 359. 74For the meaning oF "in Benedicamus,""in Benedicite," etc., see Kienle, Ibid. 27 Antiphona in Laudate Antiphona in Miserere Antiphona in Baptisterio Antiphona in Magnificate Antiphona in Cantemus Antiphona in ConFitemini Antiphona Dupla A l l of these are s t y l i s t i c a l l y similar and have been included in this study. It should be mentioned that there i s no s t y l i s t i c diFFerence between the Bntiphons oF the pars hiemalis and those oF the pars aestiva; many of the antiphons are employed in both parts oF the l i t u r g i c a l year. Those, For example, which are only cued in the London antiphoner can be Found, complete with music, in the Bodleian manuscript. The opposite also holds true. Detailed information regarding the structures oF a l l the Milanese offices and their appropriate antiphons can be found in Volume VI of the Paleographie Musicale. The choice and performance of the antiphons varies in accordance with the l i t u r g i c a l day. In general terms, however, the antiphons are performed as described in the following passage: Nur im Frdlhofficium und It i s only in the morn-in der Vesper werden die ing office and at Vespers Psalmen und Cantica mit that the psalms and Antiphonen gesagt, in den canticles are sung with kleineren Horen ohne antiphons. In the lesser dieselben. Die Antiphon- hours they are not. The en werden vor dem Psalm antiphons are merely nur angestimmt und her- intoned before the psalm 28 nach ganz gasagt [antiph. simpla]; nur an bestimmten Fasten, z.B. dreimal in der Epiphanievigi1, wird die Antiphon zweimal gesagt; sie i s t dann eine antiph. dupla Coder duplex]. . . , 7 5 and sung in their entire-ty afterwards Cantiph. simpla] . Only on import-ant Feasts, For example three times on the V i g i l oF Epiphany, i s the antiphon sung twice. It i s , i n th i s case, an antiph. dupla Cor duplex]. . . , 75 V Finally, a Few remarks concerning our c r i t i c a l appar-atus. The antiphons From the winter part Cpars hiemalis) of the year appear in the Paleographie Musicale and we have used those transcriptions. The summer antiphons, however-, have been transcribed by the present author from the Bodleian manuscript. Since this study i s primarily concerned with the music, only the in c i p i t s of the texts have been given. The Latin contractions have been written out in f u l l and the medieval spelling has been adopted, with the exception of the consonantal " i " , for which " j " has been substituted. In the Thematic Classification, the psalm-tones have been indicated, since some mention of them i s made during the course of the discussion. However, no attempt has been made to suggest a psalm-tone where i t has not been indicated i n the manuscript. With respect to the antiphona in dupla [those antiphons used with a verse and a psalm-tone), only the f i r s t few notes of the verse have been given, followed by the psalm-tone: 75Kienle, "Ober ambrosianische Liturgie," p. 355 29 m * "1 " " 3 - P* * * • - a mm 1 - • _ J Although the same antiphon [identical in notes and text] i s usually only cued in subsequent appearances, sometimes i t i s Found repeated in i t s entirety. These duplications have, of course, been omitted. But i f diFferences, however slight, appear as a result oF the repetition, then both versions have been included in the Classification. For the notation of the music, a five-line staff with a C-clef on the fourth line, and square notation have been employed. To indicate specific pitches in the text c, d, e , etc., have been used for the octave below middle C; and c', d', £*f d» stc,, for the octaves above. PART I THE THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION 31 The present procedure For classifying the Milanese antiphons was suggested by the celebrated work of Francois Gevaert, La melopee antique dans le chant de 1 'Eqlise latine, *• Gevaert postulated thet there existed originally a relatively small number of traditional melodies which he called themes.2 and that from these melodies new chants were drawn by extension, amplification and elaboration: Les nomes [themes] sont The [themes] are en quelque sort les in a way the roots of racines du langage musi- the musical language; cal ; chacun d'eux est each of them i s a common l'element commun a un element in a distinct groupe distinct de group of melodies.3 melodies.3 As a demonstration of his theory, Gevaert was able to reduce the nearly two thousand antiphons in the tonary of Regino of PrdJm to forty-seven families of melodies. Although in terms of some of i t s aims Gevaert's work was successful, the study presented several major d i f f i c u l t i e s which have e l i c i t e d objections from other scholars. To begin with, Gevaert attempted to impose a chronology on the Gregorian antiphons. This chronological development, however, so important to his argument, was based on insubstantial evidence. lOsnabrUck: 0. Zeller, 1967 [reprint of 1895 edition] 9 p. 124. ^Hereafter, the word "Themes" [adjective "Thematic") wi l l be used in place of and as an equivalent to Gevaert's term, themes. 3Qevaert, La melopee. p. 124, 32 In the First place, Gevaert judged the age oF the antiphons on the basis oF their earliest appearances in ancient documents. Peter Wagner was among the First to object: •ie AnFUhrung einer An- The quotation oF an tiphone in einem Ookumente antiphon in a document berechtigt noch nicht zu i s not justiFication For dem Schluss, dass sie the conclusion, that i t nicht schon vorher kflnne could not have already existiert haben.4 existed previously. 4 Secondly, Gevaert divided the antiphons into three epochs on the basis oF their texts and supported this division with consideration oF the musical material, pointing out that those oF the First epoch usually displayed a more concise melodic contour. Earlier, in the introduction to his study, he categorically stated: "Le chant syllabique est anterieur au chant melismatique."5 Gevaert*s chronological division was not wholly accepted by chant scholars, among them, Dom Paolo Feretti: Le t r a v a i l de l ' i l l u s t r e The work oF the i l l u s t r i o u s musicologue beige est Belgian musicologist i s vraiment interessant, sur- truly intsresting, especially tout s i l'on considers considering the diFFiculty la diFFicult^ da l'entre- oF the enterprise. Our prise. Notre admiration, admiration, however, does touteFois, ne va pas sans not go without some reserva-quelques reserves. Tout tions. First oF a l l , the d'abord le critere adopte c r i t e r i a adopted by ^EinFOhrung in die Gregorianischen Melodien, Vol. I CHildesheim: Georg 01ms, 1962; reprint oF 1911 edition], p. 152 Footnote. ^La Melopee. p. xxvii. 33 par Gevaert: pour distinguer Gevaert for distinguish-les Antiennes en tr o i s ing the antiphons in three epoques ne nous semble epochs does not seem to pas du tout juste.6 us entirely sound.6 It has proven, time and again, dangerous to assert that the simple precedes the complex in the evolution of art. A second d i f f i c u l t y (in Gevaert's study} involves the Greek scales and modes. Like other musicologists early in this century, Gevaert approached the question of modality with certain predispositions which are clearly in evidence in La melopee. He was convinced, for example, that the Greek scales were operating in the Gregorian antiphons and used this thesis as a basis for explanation of several issues. Peter Wagner refuted various aspects of these arguments and, on one occasion, had this to say: Gevaert erklaVt diase IJ.:. Wiederholungen als eine Nachwirkung des e l t -griechischen Nomos, von dem wir aber immer noch nicht wissen, wie er eigentlich aussah. Er war eine mehrsa*tzige musikalische Form deskriptiver Musik, die man v i e l l e i c h t mit der Sonate oder Suite ver-gleichen kann, auF keinen F a l l aber mit der Antiphone.7 Gevaert explains these repetitions as an after-effect of the ancient Greek nomos. about which we s t i l l know nothing, as i s perfectly obvious. It was a multifaceted, musicel form of descrip-tive music which one might perhaps compare with the sonata or suite, but by no means with the antiphon.7 SP.Ferretti, Esthetlque Gregorienne (Paris: Oesclee, 1938], p. 331 Footnote. 7EinF0hrung in die Gregorianischen Melodien. Vol. I, p. 209. 34 More recently, W i l l i Apel has also pointed to the modal problem in Gevaert's work: the author's preoccupation with the Greek-influence idea, i s rather misleading. His attempts to identify the church modes with the Greek scales lead to a rather arbitrary arrangement as well as to unwarranted 'reconstructions' of some melodies.8 Gevaert's i n a b i l i t y to examine the problem of modality objectively i s reflected in his Thematic cl a s s i f i c a t i o n . A glance at the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would reveal that the Themes have not been categorized s t r i c t l y on the basis of melodic similarity but have been equated to, and arranged by modes. Modal associations then not only clouded his theory of Themes but also his process of classifying them. Gevaert's biases are perfectly understandable for i t i s only recently, with the appearance of additional sources, that musicologists have become f u l l y aware of the complexities surrounding the modes, Ecclesiastical and Classical. The modern, respectful approach to modality has led us to question Gevaert's very association of mode and Theme. Finally, Gevaert's c r i t i c s have found fault with certain of his evaluations, spe c i f i c a l l y , his delineation of Themes. Arbitrary decisions in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of chant melodies can hardly be eliminated altogether, for the problem of which notes are to be considered Thematic and which are merely reflecting BGregorian Chant [London: Burns and Oates, 1958], p. 394 footnote. 35 elaboration immediately presents i t s e l f . Concerning this matter, there i s bound to be disagreement. Ferretti has this to say about Gevaert, but his remarks must apply in the last analysis to a l l such attempts: EnFin, i l appelle quel que- Finally, he |2Gevaert"] fois simples variantes c a l l s certain Formulas d'un theme t e l l e s formulas simple variants of a qui en realite sont de theme when they are in vrais themes distincts; et rea l i t y different ones; vice versa, i l regarde and vice versa, he regards comma themes distincts, certain formulas as con-certaines formules qui, stituting distinct themes pour nous, ne sont rien when, for us, they are d'autre que des variantes.9 nothing more than variants.9 In general, scholars have suggested that the number of Themes in Gevaert's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be fewer than he proposed, Wi l l i Apel, for example, believes that the Gregorian repertory can be reduced to only f o r t y . l n While there may be some disagreement regarding the number of Themes in Gevaert's cla s s i f i c a t i o n , there can be l i t t l e doubt that his goal of reducing the Gregorian antiphons to a smaller corpus of melodies was achieved. The success of his endeavour has quite naturally suggested that a similar c l a s s i f i c a t i o n might be attempted in another body of chant. Indeed, the Milanese repertory would seem to be ideal for a study of this kind. Gevaert, in working with Gregorian SFerretti, Esthetique Gregorienne. p. 331 footnote, lOHarvard Dictionary of Music. Snd ed. [Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 19703, p. 41. 36 melodies, was Faced at the outset with problems endemic to that repertory. The vast number of l o c a l i t i e s in which the r i t e was practised led inevitably to a large number oF conFlicting traditions, none with unchallengable authenticity. Consequently, the many sources which resulted From this wide diversity in practice are often in marked disagreement. Attempts to reconcile these diFFerences are Further hampered by diFFiculties in notation. Such problems do not arise For the Milanese r i t e which was practised entirely in and around Milan. This tradition exhibits to the modern scholar nearly perfect s t a b i l i t y , a result oF an ardent desire on the part oF the Milanese to preserve the ancient customs. The reader w i l l r e c a l l the loyalty of the Milanese followers in defending their r i t e against the attempted infusions of Gregorian practices.H There are, moreover, few manuscripts to contend with and these seem, essentially, to be in agreement. The Milanese ofFice antiphons have responded readily to a Thematic classiFication, which may be Found immediately Following this discussion. Gevaert's procedure has been Followed in part but the present author has tried to avoid the diFFiculties oF his work. Fir s t , a chronology has not been attempted. Since the main sources are a l l relatively llSee Introduction, p. l l f . 37 late (twelfth to fourteenth century] they would obviously yield l i t t l e information about the age of the music. Further-more, the danger oF relying upon internal evidence in the matter oF chronology has already been pointed out. Although the antiphons have been l i s t e d in the Thematic Classification according to length, beginning with the shortest ones, this has been done For practical purposes only and not to suggest any chronological development. Secondly, in the light oF modern scholarship, the question oF modality i s viewed somewhat more objectively than in Gevaert's time. The Milanese antiphons have thereFore been considered s t r i c t l y in melodic terms and classiFication by mode or Final has been avoided.12 Finally, a Few remarks to explain the decisions which have had to be made in the present Thematic ClassiFication. Arbitrary choices have, as much as possible, been avoided. In the First place, the present writer has tried to remain Free From any predispositions, such as modal associations, which would Force conclusions upon the nature oF the antiphons themselves. Secondly, while Gevaert apparently Felt compelled to classiFy a l l oF the Gregorian oFFice antiphons, no obligation was Felt to do the same with the Milanese. Only those which are clearly recognizable as belonging to a 12See thediscussion oF modal attributions in Milanese chant, p. IS. 38 particular Theme group have been classified.13 The others which, after careful deliberation, did not plainly show the features of any one Theme, have been l i s t e d separately, after the Thematic Classification, by their incipits (the very short antiphons are written out in f u l l 3. The third and fin a l factor which has lessened subjective choice i s a purely mathematical one. Owing to the smaller number of antiphons in the Milanese office, the number of decisions to be made is considerably less than for the Gregorian. Although every effort has been maintained, as mentioned above, to avoid the p i t f a l l s encountered in Gevaert's work, several d i f f i c u l t i e s did arise in the present Classification. A l l of these obstacles arose directly from the basic problem of what constitutes a Theme. It would, of course, have been a simple matter to a r b i t r a r i l y decide on a certain number of notes and proceed from there. However, after examining a very few melodies, i t became evident that, in most cases, the shortest antiphons [hereafter referred to as the "model anti-phons" 3 could serve as the Themes for the various groups. These models w i l l be seen to contain the whole Theme; the longer antiphons contain a good deal more than just the ... standard material. Having decided the question of length, i t then proved necessary to differentiate between that material in the 13Further discussion of the unclassified antiphons follows shortly. 39 antiphons which should bo considered "Thematic" and that which should be "Formulaic." "Formulas" are deFined as short, recurring musical Figures which are not in themsolves substantial enough to constitute a Theme. "Themes" on the other hand are longer and very often contain several Formulas whose order—even repetitions—are characteristic. The Following example w i l l serve to il l u s t r a t e the necessity For this distinction. The two antiphons in Example 1 begin almost exactly alike: EXAMPLE 1 , a^a ~ 0*4+ i«ylr\S CA.4+ i^A4(t \ 1 "3 -i 9m 9.1^4. The bracketed opening Figure i s apparently an elaborated version oF a simple open Fourth g_ - cj. It w i l l be noticed, however, that immediately Following the opening Figure, Theme 1C goes on to outline an F triad with recitation on the note c'. Theme 6, on the other hand, clearly outlines a Q 40 triad and appears to center more around the note d*. The two Themes have a substantial identity and involve more than just short Formulas such as those oF the opening Figures. The next step involves determining the number oF Features which should be considered as the basic Thematic constituents. In the majority oF Cases this diFFiculty doss not apply since i t has been possible to produce very short antiphons in which a limited number oF Features are clearly in evidence. Occasionally, however, the model exhibits repetition oF previous material which need only be considered Formulaic and not Thematic. Such i s the case For Theme 6s EXAMPLE 2 -e-a-The material marked in parentheses i s a repetition oF the opening Figure. This repetition hes been considered Formulaic For two reasons: l]not a l l oF the antiphons clearly display this same repeat; and, 2}the two Features marked in horizontal brackets provide suFFicient means For identiFying this particular Theme. In cases like the above, the models have been chosen in spite of the repeated material since they most clearly represent the Theme in a l l other respects. 41 There are other groups in which repeated material has been considered as part of the Theme. In Theme IB, For example, the immediate repeat of the opening Figure shown in the model i s a characteristic exhibited plainly by a l l the antiphons oF that group: EXAMPLE 3 IHgrne IS - »»>o»€i. p _ _ U " . - . . . m m |- , -L J tit. p e r d A A c n " \mfiit. p m g j _ < j d \ 1 t 1 Moreover, as will be shown in the discussion oF Related Themes CPart II, Chapter 1 3 , "the opening Figure g_ a cj i s an elaborated version oF the opening Figure j a of Theme 1 . There-Fore, the two appearances of the same Figure in Theme IB must be considered as two separate Features; they just happen to be the same Figure in this particular sub-Theme0 It might be argued that no repetition should be con-sidered Thematic--that one ought simply to work From an anti-» phon with a short enough text. In answer to this, i t must be maintained F i r s t l y , that the model oF Theme IB has a text oF only FIFteen syllables which i s , in Fact, short in comparison with the other antiphons. And secondly, to reiterate an earlier observation, a l l the antiphons in that group retain the repeated Figure. OF perticular signiFicance are those 42 others in the group with approximately the same number of syllables as the model. IF the basic Theme were only G A C B A G, there are other means, as w i l l be shown in a later chapter, oF extending i t . And yet, a l l the comparatively short antiphons s t i l l exhibit the exact repetition. It has been seen that this does hot hold true For some oF the other Themes. The diFFiculty regarding the inclusion oF repeated material pertains to extended repetition oF notes as well. In some Themes reciting-tones on one or more pitches comprise almost the entire melody: EXAMPLE 4 fib WWcjen+ibus 9tn P. \% 43 In these instances i t would be Foolish to suggest that the repetition i s merely Formulaic extension and not Thematic. The Following notation has been employed to designate reciting-tones inherent in the Theme: G C...D...C B A G . There are other Themes, however, in which reciting-tones need only be considered Formulaic material. This situation i s self-explanatory in those groups where extended recitation i s Found in several antiphons but not in the model. Occasionally though reciting-tones Found in a model entiphon have been indicated as Formulaic since, even without them, a satis-Factory Theme i s present: EXAMPLE 5 r . . "a - -u m mm m m Rr _ m Finally, a word about the endings [more w i l l be said oF cadences and Finals in Part II, Chapter 3). It became apparent, owing to the melodic design oF many oF the antiphons, that the endings could not be considered outside of the Theme: 44 E X A M P L E 6 <U Put It would be d i f f i c u l t in this and similar cases to exclude the closing portion (indicated by the dotted line) and retain a workable Theme since we would only be l e f t with G C........ Once i t was decided which features would constitute a Theme, a skeleton was formulated from these components.!4 Giving only the basic structure, the Skeletal Theme provided l 4 I t i s interesting to note that several of our Skeletal Themes turned out to be almost identical to some of Gevaert's themes. For example: Ours 17 - QEF8FE0 13A - OCCOlFGAGFED 22B - FAGAG... FED 25 - FAC [AictolCGAGF Gevaert's 7 - D E F G E F E O S - DCFGA6EFD 2 - F A G A G E F D 43 - F A C C O C A G F The concurrence of Milanese and Gregorian chants has been pointed out by several scholars. The existence of common Themes in the antiphons of the two repertories has not, however, been investigated as yet. Further study oF this problem might yield some valuable inForroation regarding the early Gregorian practice and the concomitant development of the Gregorian and Milanese traditions. 45 the necessary tool For the analysis of each antiphon and i t s subsequent classiFication. The Skeletal Theme i s a "necessary tool" since the present writer does not insi s t on an Ur-Form For each Theme. Walter Frere, in his study oF the Sarum Responds,15 chose melodies which he believed to be "t y p i c a l " For each mode. Those which did not correspond to the models were necessarily treated as deviations. Although Frere did not choose his models carelessly, there i s , in Fact, no sure way oF knowing which Responds are "typical," and no justiFication, except that oF convenience, For so designating them. The models that have been chosen in this study, therefore, are not intended to represent in any way the Ur— Form oF the Theme. While in many instances there i s a clear resemblance between a model and antiphons of i t s group, i n others the melodies exhibit slight diversity. It i s only necessary, For our purposes, that the antiphons oF a particu-lar group show the basic Features oF the Skeletal Theme. Consider Example 7: 15Antjphonale Sarisburiense. Vol. I CFarnborough: Gregg Press, 1966; reprint oF original edition 1901-24), p. 5. 46 EXAMPLE 7 i f e m e 1- >y>ofteL <V»\ 9. IOI. iw*t*«J -Pinal FT« P. 4 " 3 -P. l+t SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME: G A F[G}A C B A G 1 6 The suggested Skeletal Theme consists of three main compon-ents as shown by the horizontal brackets above. It i s clear that although there are slight differences among the three antiphons in Figure 1 below, each contains the basic identifying Features: FIGURE 1 Skeletal Theme: Model: Number 2: Number 3: G A G Aa G A G A G G A G A FtG]A C F G A BE Cl? F 5A C FG A C CO C C C B A G A G G F A"S A Q B A SA" A B A B B A G i bA noteCor notes] in brackets, e.g.^Gj, occurs often enough that i t may be considered Thematic, 1?A horizontal line over several letters CBAG] indicates those notes as belonging to the same ligature. A small letter after a capital CGg] i s used to designate •< . When a correntea C^\ }occurs, this has been shown thus: GAag. 47 Such forms of elaboration as passing tones, neighbouring tones, prosthetic variants, extended or repeated cadences, and others, are, of course, to be expected in chant. But this matter w i l l be treated in more detail later under Operation of Themes [Part II, Chapter 2]. It i s sufficient at this time to merely point out to the reader that slight differences do occur. Although there would perhaps be some disagreement regarding the choice of identifiable features, the present writer believes the components represented in the Skeletal Themes to be salient ones. It i s only in the endings of the antiphons that considerable d i f f i c u l t y arose in formulating the Skeletal Theme, for most often a variety of endings may be found in the same Theme group. The Skeletal Theme repre-sents a conglomerate solution i n many cases, such as that shown below: EXAMPLE 8 SUGGESTED SKELETAL ENDING: C B A G The endings proved, in fact, to be of relatively l i t t l e significance in classifying the antiphons since a variety of 49 cadentiel patterns may be Found within the same Theme group. The main identiFiable characteristics l i e i n the opening and central portions oF a Theme. Some mention oF the unclassiFied antiphons i s in order. These antiphons Fall into two categories: 13those which bear some resemblance to one oF the Themes but do not display anough characteristics to be sa t i s f a c t o r i l y c l a s s i -fied; and, S3those which do not show any resemblance to one oF the Themes but appear to be Free melodies. Two examples oF the First type are shown below in Examples 9 and 10: EXAMPLE 9 7- uricLn^ifieo - - - - 3 Dofildt kn.mit«.4 49 EXAMPLE 10 Cor J O A W W I H e4 Wu^ \"iU'a.hA^ The Alleluia in Example 9 in similar to much of Theme 22B but lacks the closing portion. To classify the Alle l u i a under Theme 22B and merely consider i t incomplete i s dangerous since a l l the antiphons in Theme 22B display the closing portion of the Theme. Similarly, Cor contritum in Example 10 cor-responds to only the f i r s t four notes of Theme 28A. The Theme, however, thereafter outlines an F tri a d while Cor  contritum clearly outlines a G triad. As has been previously stated, such cases of ambiguity have not been pressed into the Classification. There are more than enough antiphons which clearly exhibit the constituents of a Theme without forcing the issue. Two antiphons which do not show the characteristics of any Theme but appear to be free melodies are shown below in Example 11: 50 EXAMPLE 11 41. U N) curt^s, vPieo -1-v "fhr "4. uMC.m&ivE'eP <V»-> P. io r _ * • m — 1 A / Wo<*;«. in P>e+m«.K« It: should be said that although some of the unclassified antiphons [whether ambiguous or free melodies] are similar, these only occur in groups of three or four at the most, too few to constitute new Themes. Having explained the methods, the d i f f i c u l t i e s en-countered and their solutions, some general observations can now be made about the Thematic Classification i t s e l f . In a l l , seven hundred and forty antiphons were examined. Of these, six hundred and ten were cla s s i f i e d , which in round figures amounts to four-fifths, a very significant percent-age of the total number. The six hundred and ten antiphons reduce to thirty ThemeslB which are found distributed throughout the l i t u r g i c a l year. The exceptions are Themes l^An Index to the Thematic Classification i s to be found in Appendix I. Sl 21 and 23 which appear to be associated only with the Easter season. It was Found that, For practical purposes, the best way to categorize the Themes was according to the opening notes. By grouping them together in this manner, their l o -cation in the ClassiFication i s greatly Facilitated. This provides also most conveniently For the purposes oF compari-son. Table I below, which summarizes the Themes, i s s e l f -explanatory: TABLE I_ - SUMMARY OF THE THEMES Number oF Approximate % oF Opening Note Theme Numbers Antiphons Classified Antiphons G 1 - 9 205 34% C 10-14 123 20% D 15-21 127 21% F 2 2 - 2 7 105 17% A 28 28 4% E 29 11 2% B 30 11 2% Table II gives a Further breakdown oF the number of antiphons in each Theme group and i t s sub-groups. TABLE II - LIST OF THEMES ANO SUB-THEMES  Theme Number Number oF Antiphons 1 IA IB 1C 52 TABLE II - continued Theme Number Number of Ant 2 7 I 2A 8 . J 15 3 34 4 10 5 7 6 14 7 9 8 13 9 11 10 15" 10A 10 10B 24 IOC 16_ 65 11 41 L 11A 6. 10 12 11 13 13 14 24 15 6 16 13 17 10 18 L 18A 17 J 22 19 81 19A 27 ' • 19B 14j 49 20 17 21 51 L 21A 5. t i o 22 61 22A 7 « 22B 7. 20 23 10 24 10' 24A 5 24B 8 24C 5_ 28 25 111 25A 7J 26 6 27 23 28 18 "j 28A 10 J " 28 29 11 30 11 Total Number of Classified Antiphons - 610 53 It i s obvious that the distribution of antiphons i s far from equal. Indeed, the number of those that begin on A, E f and B [see Table I] i s relatively negligible. Of particular note are those Themes beginning on G, C, and 0. These three groups constitute not only the largest number of Themes but contain by far the greatest number of antiphons, accounting for approximately one-third, one-fifth, and one-fifth of the total number respectively. There w i l l be cause to refer back to these s t a t i s t i c s in the ensuing discussion. One f i n a l aspect of our Classification requires some explanation. It w i l l be noticed that some Theme groups have been placed in sub-categories. This association has been made only when two Themes, in spite of significant differences are substantially related. When reference i s made to several Themes at one time [for example, 1 - 8], i t i s intended that each Theme include i t s sub-Themes [Theme 1 in that case would include 1, IA, IB, and IC], If, on the other hand, specific Themes are being dealt with, sub-groups are designated separately [Theme 1 in that instance would refer only to Theme 1 and not IA, etc.]. In general, the Themes and sub-Themes have been arranged from simple to complex. This has been done for convenience only; no particular hist o r i c a l significance i s implied by the ordering. 54 TABLE IV - EXPLANATION OF ANALYTICAL SYMBOLS RT Inserted reciting-tone DRT Decorated, inserted reciting-tone M Previous material repeated, exactly or modified N New material E Elaborated passage EC Extended cadence TH Repetition oF entire Theme, s t r i c t or varied C...D... Repetition oF notes inherent in the Theme £ G A J Notes which occur often enough to be considered Thematic 55 Q.onie.f'JC/. m*. bovine. 9<n P-iOv H e , 2 ( l a e f i Q*n 9. I>ft, M U * Y » > t f- 2 - 1 1 rv - n . — -A lie U i * . , * H« Ui«_ Brvi f. s-v _M_ k:<?o A*Lt«."> cum iu&-t-,Vi- P m P. s | 56 -H-. . - a J 3 » p«vv I ' l l ! -r - i r - r - p- r ' ' „ ~i . - " a " --—M = m r -i 1 J l - - . mt m m a 3 " L : - • J =-Usu(Te.x.«ruit \^ m « +ew+«* Pm P. 2_L0 £ = =-r-n 6r£ r rt—= = = =-1 . 3 • J | La .uJLA.4-e. b e u r n c a l l " 3» r v f - S o f r 3 - -r 1 - ^ - * • «• — m a* mt L •» * — — rr 1 • • . ' - - • • [ - • — t — J — c ^ r ^ - ^ n = prl-s H 1 ha - i i -^"P" - \U1 M - 7 . - - -> : n-" - • - ; ^ = L f l . • -Iff r * T . M r \3 - - - - -— 1 c - . _ i Mt a m . - - • a . L J a - m m ii-IS j r i -—a , - , .. . q _ \? 3 1 t J ~ L p • J - mm 57 c ,1 r -1 ~r-^ ——; f rrl . •+ _ . • a l • a . -—1 p — — = -ai- &1T _ 2 >>-n. . l i * . , M L - 3 ^ • " i i i i V mm n* f»v\ f. LOI. 2.V f\/ «• _ -Al .1 - - - II S 3 " ** a r " i s « - - 1 . "> - " . w •* • • • • ! _ •» OB 1 ._ -1 Z4- M M fl • IM « » m * ^  m m mm m . - - • a <• m l_ 4 r J Am>»»\V(».>)fcru«<t CJCcli Pm P. IV J zs-. M _ Rr rt — 13 - -1 -TL — - m ,.a. . L J " H- -1 mm 1 nnOfrei. ^ : te , W . 3—~* = ; =-• • • ^ m "mm ' £ x . i n r ^ a + b c i A i fm P. ^03 S z-w ~ - = f — \ m " m 3 " " " P . nC S-... . , . . w - 1 • a a s 2 -4v^ — — ~ r- Rr e ^ ^-rr - i c ft. .V • • m mm U -U A^jaV e\ f>r0 Vector &rr\ - j ^ i V 3 _ E |0. . . . . . w -v . v . J K FL m m m - . " - - J 3 1 \ a L - a - 1 - - " m Hum in itnec+ann r tr • m fcf— • m m • M \ - - 1 - - . - • A&c.«<uiit bea4 -P- S l v ScAcS fun. be Hi li 59 - S -pft«- Nleri't*.+-o»«-> SrO -P-. 2.?+ >/ I" _ r. . 1 u ™ -. r fl - - " "* -m* *" a • • L j • _ • _ *• 1 • ' II c ^ « r - -: 4 - J •a •> -e&1" 3T^^o.e«_ P<v\ p. 10 5T E fr 1 ' 1 1 i -—r»—=i r . -\ [i ] — • " i *l—| r i t — „ - • - - m Poo P. er(, ru - -I n . Deui n e n i Pm <>• 2.^ 1 I* a r-1± n. - - 5 r 1 p - l a r- 3 i — \ . - • . • =-i I T L _ _ _ _ _ 1—1» aj - - _ , - - _ ~ -E -* 1 l ^ i 1 .1 1 ' . a 1 . -> , - • • A L — • ^ 34-1 -— " • » 1 • mi .. . . . " J . . . . . . . . J mt m ma IS-r* ra 6 r ' c - - J - a ^ -ai>> ^  •—.p-l---— 60 S i A C G r t s r g b S ^ e - u g-rfrL T v V g » y i e : Or ft CL ft G- OI ft g- 6 ft & I- mobgu .. r RT T5 J ^ i i l w h W i P»v\ p. i i i ijLf CCoiparertt ani^iaro Pro P-1-T? R r - a -r- Rr P. 1_ r e r n rA. i Pm P <*7 i 1 r . 5 — —^  1 W  u 1 _ r .rC mt m mm - "" - " a mm Rr t o . RT i 61 p. t t f i -E 1 « " - _ - — — •» - - " " j " ™ " " ^4^4 •>* -1 • l -V \ e C i + C * . ' i t I f w . l u t Prrt P. "8 V It-. c a . -i r — l = \ L -1 J - l i £ x . S u . r ^ e , D f t n i ' n * n o r , c o n - f e t f - t c W - P""\ P • X~I<» e - i pr " - • a - I — -> -a J 4 * - " -&-|P« ro«., Dor- PfT> P. Z . ' l t 1 G r *1 • - i — - - - — 3 " 1 " -15- Rr it. M,  fo-v p. i n i l frrv P. i o i (" _ . 1 _ _ r-U - - - 5M " mm ^_ . . . • L M r £"le^it Oominut fm P i s ' n r- Rr r . . a - -. A m m m 1 0 m m am 62 lo. - 3 . r « i u • •a 21. 1=1 5 1 . 3 _ Mi . . " " 3 L J m L | _ = — = i — Ue.cAarA.Vio iermooum p. C}| E it < —JI r—p. _ r 1 •..mm - - r- - Mf 1"' ' 1 moOeL E iji - S . . Ml =-i nl. . • 3 J R - • 1 —4- — -Ptr\ P. 8+ C 3 ^n3 CT—3* 63 S m * . i«zr E — - j 5 — ^ — * f wrf\ • 3^ • • , - -—b i I—^—4 • - i 6rr> IS-2.V 5 per 1 i r r * E -r m S fe E—=n -M-3 1. . . a 3 • 1- — c* *• - Rr E 1 mt »- 5~fl m m r- - _ -n-3- ^-T- h r ^ a. u. - - _ "Subicc.it f^opulu4 I- H , . ^ -= ^TT i - — — ^ 3 - >•.-_.- =/ : -Q u i "fixeit A r i ^ e l o i £rr\ £-Z01 r r n, -i f^ — - i , jn^-a C J U ( - . . p - p . . - . _ m m a • • -Bro -f . sou v Ecc« »*urta A^c\ iz . 5 _Sr_ C 3 ~ • J " - " ^ Sab cAa.«»v»«*c V t r r « A i 6m 4>. u£,/ 64 5—=-n ^ ~ | M T TT^  -^=-31 A - 3 =-="=— 1 • f — _ J-L- " - -P^l P Co E T — r a 1 1 1 i * * - sr*i~\— - sn - 1" J - _ j -> m m JI w - ^ s • Doming _ <ui r & j n a s PrtT P. t^T? IS. iL an: &r. tl r 1 -JV 1 ~ «.T » 1 *i J • . . • . , a — - T f a ^—~- m . . , _ - _ L ^ */ *». P- -Rr C—3-3 - 3 C—3-U L r _ 5 at Ml a . - * - 1 • - - - MB 1 2 . 0 • 6eA--k«.4 i l ie . >/ol+-«r T i t : C i 5 • *. ^ u 65 11. c . C - K'l - a TU rv, • 1 " " • a l 1 •c • —mt1 1 PS 171 P^-' 1 " - " QiAA-t-ri orbi'i prt>-K*.4 -f. 2.0:? r Ab \nw o^\-Vibui 3. m m m m _ u • P- . • •j • • m m H m m m _ m m. wmrn - >• _ * r -•a " 1 ai ' a 3V n *, J " - -. . , - . . Pm P. i t.f r a " • M * - i m m ^ m j * -- -» » - - \ • m m C • • af1- • • — - > , . j [t - n.. .—1 1 T J • • . 1 i ' • J ii— -=-=/ " - . ^ rV+ A<e rft*«-i«.; ijrxti^. pUnA. PrvT P- 5 t m - - a l t - - \ - . m m m m 3e«e A . ' t + v n . t W i SiAr*^ P. ills" W r -+-Ni&t*.« f«.c\s-W ^ P. u7 ^ 1 Rudiivit. t>bni(\ai Pew P. ai<} E . - - a—=H » *Hra1 Of Pm P. lit, E — = — • • > ' ! * " «• " _ ^ r r - a l Prv% P a o i Won d o^<~«.bi<> deum 7m P. 10-7 1- 67 t<Jo Don Prw P. (,3 6—.r p- a l . . ^  a p. •! 6m -f-. 117 r p. _ s ^  p. - - . »1 6m f . i S U p 3 , * - •1 _ — - 1 3 • T 3  mm m c m • •t m mm • 1 •1 r - -M4). 1-PC C 3 " • a" • . • r, H r i • I [ * MW J 10-h v - r i = - — 3 1 ' f - v • « -3—• — J — " - - " 31 - - - - 3 — w V - •U 6m f. i<,4 v 1 -p, soy. 3, 3 ir rv _ a rw IJ. ft* i r ^ A , Jl. M-1. e " • ~— m £ — = -Cm Px.ce >4- a • • -=-3-i7. C - - " - • s-^ —j . 1 ^ - " N -1 m m ™ = P 69 - -j»—1 pj- m v m m m 2\-m m a " 1 • a r _ • • • » _ 3 \ 1 3 - 1 w • • • m y " 2 — "1 m m m " m m 3 S3 1 * * . •> m m L ., - u 10. r ^ r i r M 4 > - i E — " 3 t - —i 3 » — — m L • B - m t GroMxdt«.V« - f i l i a l S>\or\ 2J-P. a.1 - a -22. 23; . M-\> -av_=-i t i -3-=L 6 m -r . r 3 • • " n - -Dfcf _ r i i r_ P«\ P. I D S ' rA-c. r rHn "77 23 • G—"H — — = 4 - — - = - 1 m " • • -al i — j — . - 3 " - - • ftr-i tunc a.c.CeP^oJ'i* P- Z2.3 23L r KT 3 -A. 1 36 . P « r " i> fW ait r 1 -j « a a r ' [- • - 1 ^ ' " l'L' • " a a Pi III' U < » e 4 < J e n i«t *Vv> P-li. f* - - » 3 >J-^ 3 - . , % -P—sr* _ a » m m - * . _ a " " a - . 31 - r : ^ T a . , S J p. , • . . 1 Pt-; ^ f r - — ilg a •'(. a* m m m —- 1 J — H -H_3 a i t 1- i=- • 1 u -35 Tft I" a " m. f • il - "—"— 1^" f~ m m m m — Ir", - 1 n C " f a a " 1 1 1 P" 3 -m m m • I • 1 - n. - -1 -L I- J g - L = _ J = " a a [a -\ , 1 . ^ — | r a ^ =—] Pa. 3-a -mm m a* MF •» -a - a " a •> L * * » - - - -- J - -71 P"ft.>» £ loll 3 - - 3 .-tx.ce <^oia»w V>o<M«.«n " 3 -Pr* f i ' t — ** 1 m m 3 " | vtCCe Conplctw. S u i t fVn P. I O V a-V • - " 1 , • . - . m • - »1 . 3 p . 1 1—3 P>v\ C u t . T H E " 3 -IO 3 In Inoc a| 0 rich*r ± ± 3 72 . . . a P™ p. 4-I rt • m r- _ -» - . n » -* _ * _ m m _ m m m m mm • - r mm mm mm Pm P US JLiL y_= &• -» , ' " rt. -1 m\ m m m • » •F a» m m •i aa ai mm V«.rn«t ex S i d P ~ i PS-<J E - - _ ^ 1 •a pu—= =— •a* - 1 \ - - " - J Demi >Ve <.lo>vje * Pm P.T-14 JJL Prv. P. _ _ n—m -V mm m L •• j L I -am — m | Ci«"c.i»ir«A«.<Ae.rit«vX A^c dfl.AeS 73 J4_ E—tr - a - _ - rv, -Prvx P. Z i 4 Z . r ^ , e — z - j r — • -\s t1, - T • an PL - " i — J p. J L 4i 1 p - -Pr^ P S4 n - 3 - • 1" ft m m m C A, - - - L s r -i a 3 - k " ru J ^ - -, a "  3 . G-1 — m— | m -—• " a n . t m 3 • C 3 " — n-- n - i - m 3 - • > • ( . 3 -Ir S-im. Wt 1 •J -* a — -m " a V Mr " -P ^ P -VJ 1 a a » S a l — V , M . 1 u 1 fl "a . 3 a • — a J " " a " . 3 a a a a a - 3 - a "P. 1-1+i f - O - a rv n -U 3 M -^J L 1 IP - L m " -Prv\ P. I X . * —7, s"\m fV_| rw „ „ g -- 3 ^ L . 1 ^ 3 V > 3 3 • .- -r r "_ a a . " v 1 | \ a *" • J rV JTa ^VVW^ "a. L I a) 74 C • al n a - " - m%—T-3- n l . . ^ ' = -i 3 1 u • • aJ - 4 ^ - Lr -—c .— £ •s . . - l 3 - : * — - — J — ^ e JT. r J rul 3 " " - — r * i J "«.J f • „ . . 3 ' jp. - - L 1 ^ - H • p-. ar a» m I X . . £ T ^ DAT M • . ,na, • * • * i r 1 3—^ -1 — ^ " - v ^ — W •v mm a* Kcr^t S<\Oc+t»A Pro P . l + O o«r D«T _ C r»-> R — U M j * fn.—f * . i l l - " • 3 * - - - - i r : ~-^r r v f , ru - - V 4 1 s '1 at a i — — u i - i : j »+• M M E 3V-g , ' • * • " r ~\ f ra^i T t — « m m m MI •* M m p. = 1—; 3 •u E 1 m m m m . — 1 > - • U3-1 _ = - _ _ mm mt 3. - aa _ mm _ | ^ -Deus \4o\eA \ib-evn. t i r o ioov) t «a _ - - - a -FL 1 3 - 5 — 1 - 3 V/crimd S»VAper <\oS f r o P. l<J Cct«i < \ O C l l l < \ . DofOlA\ 75 P-Pro P. it. r _ U " a n . m 3' * l - -« •« tm S m m mm - « S • 3 m MF VKA«^«., \jl<*.«.+«., <^uooi<\»v-> Prv"> P- io~] ™ Ml Mr NJ - a =4* " a -Pro P.U E 1 rt, -n =n— rv~3—•»—™ •—s— 1 9—l f 3- i -s - * -3" b 3 1 - - . J l mm mm mw pv p- - mw fkrxVi <.iVore Pro P +o m s -—- _ — = - - - " - J ' A T- aj -7 l- mobeu , „ • - • J • — - . I  -II SV«.\U.«. i. lurotft Pro P- lift t V c 41  - j - • - , 11 Cr«iUAi p>opt«.r £ w f V + W 76 6^ ^ ? » r L. r L " H. . _ - _ _ -1- j - - - - - - •* 1-L _ • m m ' 1_ to. ?**\ P. scar l l -e 1 MM mt •* 1 " - J1 - " - - : 3-- *\x . m m -r m m 13 . 77 — u « 3 1 _ -H E M E 9 1 ^ P f r e t . 3 Om f. IJr • » - . - - r- - a e 1 1 1-3 C — = =^—- - TLS.—«— — - - - a i - - — =—= 1 L - j p . 1 1 78 froA-e r <\oi\ <"eAe.«>rt w 10 • u . " I S . a K ' • " - ^ . . . r , . . . -5m Pro P. zoo 4- 79 5*-E — : . - - ai - m s  NJa.«V<\bo omnia. Hm -P-- S 4 o v <V\ P. 2.X 10 IZ. u 80 r I u • 3 " - - =J== -Pro P. S" IS". -a^ — ' — " V e < \ i b o m i n < 4 n o l i P o » > P . 41 a - - -"Vcritafc bommi « r o f. i 4 i V -at-\o T T * . * - ^UiTlVlW. &no T-. 5 S I V -si — Poo f-11.5 W ! lOTe.n<Ac Do^n'me. Pro P ST I 81 In Domirtii ip«.r<xn4 Poo P 2.ot A « c e . l e . « " « . O o m i n * . P r o P . S " l \0 \ H g w \ g IOB 1 mopfrgl S f l ^ i t r a c p o.fVu \o«"u<v\ P r o . P . 1o e J U 1 — « J M - * -. J — — H — M 1 B r o £ *3SV "^3 I pie Vtx»»vya«.«« fro P. Ui. 82 • 3 v - i t 3" -C m P • u •f • •» \ .a — - - i - a -3_ < i w \ S » **«•»- W m »- <*.e.*.W<, M-*? ; — -=-3-p. 11 3 " " s-a-- 3 - - - - • t — . . -3- J 1 =w 1 ' • • j - . a l >> . • • I S " 83 a|i • a] p- • p. _ 1 fl. Pro P/i"} - a T ^ Pm p. v>4 n -3-=-&no -F- kO« f m u " - 5 -1 • al ±_LT - . b :<^0 OM.re.»v, vo ^ o m i o o lo • -s 3-p. -r Pro P U Pro P. L<1 l 1Z. ri a ru *i*o T i o ^ r -iT3- -1—3-- J V 31 . • -Qro f. Jol r I- m o b i S L J-PV ^ E 1 • -3-=-c i t e O«AU P/v> P I k ? ± 3 W j 'pt« est. Pr», P.U Pm t-l4S r u _ J1 n- s—•—a-l "-- • " — - —• — • ' V n— lo 85 •.. ru 11 m W * " Cor.fc.sior S » o t l i Ji-r, r.XTJr 11. £ 1 1 .. .— „ a rv. - T H — r • J - • •—•— 1—= i ^—— a =—1 Co-dos. ^0rr<jr ft. P i t 3—sq -M—N - - Eu_ * • aw _ m u l V - a . corpora. Prr\ P . J O S ' E t • a • • rv. 1——J M — • . a - n. 1— " — 1 r j . L. _ - 1lr---<- . '— So.a.<-|^vCkUm Dec spirrWii IL frr\ P- JLIA m 1 U _ _ 1 . • " P- • J h a- 3-! ^ — i r - 1 J IS, . - r* u _ 8 6 a -Ml fl_ L • "* p - » a . • n * . s i * r w _ a " - J vw (>~\ P. U f o ("OSui Scapula. 3 Prw P. 40 3 - a c • 3 - —; ^ r - — I-n. • a (3m T . > + < U . r - _ a - •——=— •u _ • •v. -* , -u ~ 1 a . - - S -- 1 u • 6m f f o r C . . . 3 T - - • . = r J • • • • • - r 3 - -1 z. P.v» P. U S Cor mium <s-t- a«.ro (im -p. V+i V V?sx i m e u i e + b a u i fi>m £ . i ^ l - V f i - • • • JI r u - mm ma 1 m m m 2 -3-=- -s-s-? ^ P. io» _ p. . • 3 ' J3. =-^ 3-al 1»> _ J L - f -fi>*0 T-515V _U_ Pro P. i«jf I m o o d  K W « > rtvc Pro P.^IS -1. P It 1. 89 £ — - 3 — , 1 — n • - f " - " 3 " • • : =4 Cr-- —Z •—j - -fl _ _ " 3 3 " B- I m - m m " 3 NJcWhii eke. +«.<«-«. P ^ P. US" 6" E— —a—1 1 - - n—= " - u a * 3-pi "— m> Dtninui \) l«-+tx-Vum Prn P. ffc P/vx. P. 1.13 3 - 1 m . . m - 1 — = - H " - •* 1 Pm P. 3 o i Prv\ P. b o Poo P. U 3 10-s— n—=-—l n—- _ _ • _ - — * - i — 5 — — 3 - T i «• •» - m .. mm * bomine. |V| ciW+uJk-e. P'v» P- 'OL 1 m 1 ~ at m mm M! MI M an Mi 1 * a* ~* at m m mm mt i SIAI» -Hirono t>« P«v> P .1 t I V so C — ~ — : 3 — . • " 1 t — — •c—;Tfc - . . . . - • a] m m - — — — \. r-r\Obei_ - a 3-Vu.ut 5m r -3-=-VliiVtf. O O i , Do^ '•->«- Pr-"> P. S"3 VJo* W l t r u i Pm P H 1_ 91 f r o P. 2/J3 P r o P . 2.4? 10 • B r o -F . " iSTi V C—v- - 3 Deui bev*v r o « v A t *• • i++V I t • l p a . r c c d o r v ^ t » v < t j r o -t>. 1% T V . , b . , R r o r 1+ : - - • — — 3 • a T " • • Moo tv».<^ «.s O n e Pro P.1.V3 15-l<». — 1 • "3 " 3 „ . „ wa- rn, m 1 S y » r i T u S SAACTUS Jen'it Pro P U S " Dcui Can+ icu^ r\oVu~» P r r . P . i t a 92 SplcOiAof" t j w i -3-3-\ u. S u U i A l f i s i i r n u i Pro P. IO? 10-P a n . . . I" " 3 "3 wN " - 3 m m " m m Sp\«-|'+aS b«w*ii<»( S i A f f P r o f . l j . P • - i J PU M.I • r c ft r" a», A , ^ •. . 1 1 moofeS ft" Offinas gro 4?. JSj v 15 • m m m m * - J > . lo Cetis pr-(KiparAJ>i"-H«r- (Sro -P. 'iCl v 2 - 4 -r - - — 1 ^ n—~ = t — _ • 31 v, ^  • |T . • - J l - • . 1 =—- a —~-\Jo«. bomioi i«ff rVvo P. US" 93 -i~sr \«vj«.nuiA. i S u m 2. 3. E 1 - |n. -*-** "*5 -t . . . « at "* - vWv • 1 - 1 PoSv*> \ l e S + i m c n k « Prv> P. 3 o i <3AA f "JOS r Sarw.V-c G<to<-rji OMw+uf 94 MOA >)e./ii v/oco.<"e. - - - 2 ->Je.rb»- oris r - - ' " - r -3_= 3- - 3 \o*-«n<k». <An» P«vi P. -Z.-JJ E : 1 • al 3 , 1 * _ » • 1 1 > =J a i - . i J -?m P. lS"<f C 1 5 1 — . " - 3 — = r ^ — — . B-=-! 1~ - 1 l i l t S«.lv/<LTtX- 'ro e.{,s (vl«.rt>.') L 10. 95 rv. • Prn P l i t 3f* w w _ a B m m m m n s l — • 3 -«i - . 3 v j S. m m a L . rv. . - ii. -J ^ , I i I ra. i pMeri » P-Iks ^ p. J rv J11% -j V=P^= 3 -SU.ft,t.gsret> S<gLg~f>>- nTrte^ vf- P e F 6 f 1- mODEL O m n e i tern -f-Illumine boni'ne 6«v> i S O V <Jm. f . 1+4-V 96 m m m . - p - ' a , - " , p» - 1  - - •• |VJ lr> t o n S p « . c t - o . Sanctorum lirr\ f i b " t f 3 F r* - " - . •* p- -fern f. i^Sr 3T-=~ J N3 1^  _ 3] .1 • . 3 - - ? r*- -3TT -3-=-Id -6"* f. 5fc4<" 97 M » - « -a rv ir,ixs Pro ? S| Per iiVvxuloi Di'ei Brn +>. 3k>ir I naol>6U L b Fe rs E I _. 1 - - - _ - v - — • 3~i s-a — e«A \ r e r , t 1 lfce.ter.rur rrr. P. 1 X • e 1 1 — - — , — — — — " a a l — — 1 - -"?*r«.Vufc es.+x> Ura«\ Rnr. P. 14 P ^ i i , « . r « r < . <Y\<2.'« , b e H & , A l l e l u i a . B1^ ^Or 6 • l a • — < " " H_ - - - _ a* P m P. + P m P 4 f U r ^ • «* - - - -Oo/ninufc r \Oi¥«.r PrK, P. 3 <} IO u ** mm M l i •» — -—, rY\tcl-ia.<i.l fli-c»^tl«i grtn £ z o 3 r L i b Pr« P. 1-13 I V -SB, . . . m i t ><Jt r A 11 V « . IS--P S"<} 5 1 m m m " a —i . 3 ] . J " - . • - - . -r± 1 Ft—= 1 —=1 3—= = A f l • _ - i -» _ Suc&gyreD 6*eucTQt. n 4 e m c : D c. t> [ g l F C D cS>VlS i r , <LAe.lo r^r\ P. "J(, 3 -Au^(Vro»*rr, W r o Bm -P. l ^ y r Reiit^p-r.'oOcrtl roiiit P^> P-k»-4- 1 0 0 - j c — f>" fi- rv - pu " " P" G-ra-riA. De.. i»u« B-i - f . i i i r a , -> D c c e \ i < . Do"->mi'" 6« f i o l r t. p. • ' " P" " - • p. - p. - " " P-t c t e V J v i < . » C a e l o l =F 8 m -P. XD2. i I. iv\o&eL \o O O * " \ I ft™ f 'f 1 > Q*. t« txSptCTant P^ P S"| 3 p . J - J V l -J--r af - 3 -. 1 M - - J * " " " " " m m ' \1m P . V r u " " a 3 m j 1 " a " - _ _ _ ,rv m <y*i £x.SpeCT-ttr\t. rW» P. IO r _ . L _ _ J \ s i . _ - . a ' 1 - r- T. - - n. -» . 1 1 pv " a % m +>. l O f f r ft, . _ 3 r v i r * - ^ — fcro • £ . S " ! 10 • 1 an- - - - ' • . \3- - a a - -Pa 3-s— - * M l r n m o l A . 0e.<3 i f l . c . i ' i f iciu>v» rw> P. 143 II-~i 3 -fro 9. HO E 1 J Mi SJ 1 - . 1 ' - ^  " ^  - • a. — ^ 3-=-A p c f i Dov»ir««- Prr> P. I X o E 1 1 V 7 l — - — — • - 3 1 3 i — m , mm .mm—1--—- S-m— Pro f. *OJ-• 4 102 i O r m . a,, a K - . - 3 • 3 / S ' > - JT. - = 3-=r-P-n P. 1.17 IS" r _ t „ _ ^ - 3 . . • _ - VI ' - •! • . _ _rt ™ —1 ~ mt It-nr= 3r -3-=r - a Cjort.% i d « r a . i n opera. 8m £ VKN/ -—= a " < 31 • > , - r 3 - ~s ' m mw _ — 5 3~=-IS G =n 3 1 = 3 - 3 I 55  . . 3 — r ^ r ^ - " " 3 - T T -Prv\ P. *ot» J3 v- - , 3 _ _ 3 " 1 * " . " H — 1 p ^ P . X ? 3 IT Pm P.iiik R p. . j - • J»a l - , j n —_ ^ — " " . — ^ " 3 - i Super c & C i oc.cu.los R m f. iU-io 2.1 • rv ..... -3-=-E : 1 Sl " - - - - . 3-=-Quii re. -tVtbuiliX.tfe.rurit Pm P 3o 103 P r o P. ioS-^ P. Jos-2 t . 3» a n. 3 \ - L—=1 •a ar^r-PL - - - - - - 3 — • -P-- - 31 ' hj^- .• " " 3 • j | • fce.Ce c i i t o v/otis, -3-S7-ri J l ' " - a • p. • " . . 3 . u 3 - ^ - 3 n_ . • a n. - a -5 m m m _ -J " - . -1 - . . . , • - - 3 . Urn f. 3o+v 104 3 J 1 p. 1.-9-E - - *\ P- - 3 f1 /"aX —ss. Pm C JT ^ Jr p- • J p- - p-; -3-=-P " r w J - - 3 - - 3 _ 3 m - s 3 " P- - a - -a P- 3 - — J " - " -"3 - 3, Ci*rui Clia./'A.OAii P»v» P. 2.11 10. e — - v * ^ " 3 — ' - rv - a " fu " " " - - "* -• - a _ - - m J " 3 " m J>Jm j r u - r -m m m m ~ * 3 " - " 1 1 ' 3 - 1 ix " T 6 ^~7" r V n P. x<\ 1 p. , J I -1 1 3 . mm mm mm m • 1 • - " - 3 -- . •• J w -NJ Is. ^-r* P- - - 1 u • ••• a», i 1* — i t • — m— • - a - - 2 * - " " 3 - L . , , n - I r W mm ml m JIT - i . , . — " " " 1 ^ 1 1 . 1 A _ al t " s - p i - I • » -1 -Tweme : D f C.1 B OfelD C f5 P, f. C - • • al " • . „ .— f —3-m L 1 1 • .. V C f l ' r 1»» p. 1 —al "—=-= m 'm m m 1 1 | 3 m f ^ - ^ 3=?-= -3 s»*v-m m m\ 3 "m - m • 1 . JT - a -Diot bom inns P^ P *3 C ' . Sl p . — - v j — - 3 - . — 5— - 3 - ^ - ! b-^ Ml « Ml « « * t r.-n " P-„ 3rw n i . r 3 C " fl. " (° rw—a -n. 3 -—1 1—=r—=—al T* - - - -p 1 1=— 3 —3-| Jl—1—» - .. , ^ » m » \ » . \r\ije.r«u.\Vo-S P r " P- ' S l 3 - I , IBB 1 = I A < \ « 5 e r t < boot Bro -P. Z o \ r r - i , — • - a • a sl—[^!_3_^i_-ta—-_H^— t -a -- 3 -J [1- . Uj sn. a-|P__g Pro P. ft-c • p. 3 I 1 ' j — 1 3 - " » •» m m "(3 ^polire Ti Cf«ii» ftro -f\ i « < W 1+ N3- 3 a " ^ , ( 1 ^ 3 ' klemo toAAt^ftaO i t &ro f. Vil» * IS". -—3-«-v : .—a-= , M T m m m WT * p^_^ j 7 — *| — — ftro v>-o.«r lU--3 -= -o Sum Vl"*. 3 - r-n- 107 E • • • 3 al V t T * " •L - - 3 i ' rv « " • a* l H e m e 21 1 • I r A O N p i -i-KlK.AA.X4t. t i o o i >r|WrV\ <i-c C e . l v 4. £-'"W-r B>f" £. 2-OV >trr\ C&<V\*AA liorOino 4A»VVICUJ»I V-AM.4ia.Vs. t>eur»\ vr\ £fl.rv^ +i<, 108 e m " * m m at •> at *j» — - V W V a l m 5>> Llu4.iCa.te fcorvMniAn-x iy^onn>^-> i> • E 1 H H 5 1-(V»\ P. 109 U m o c r\ot*-*r Oozing. t&m j f . i $ * t r Pro P. X-fc> Pro P. I T S ' QUMYN A>.rrurA. bil«- Prrs P. \ffo 4-P. 110 o « i n t 9<Y\ P. \tO lUummo., Don-noe , Vul+vim Prr\ P - l ? Z . 1 m o o g L £».a.V+w. Dommc l^umil<-i i i m 4V -jifsy - - - - 3 3 C* .Ai -«j»»ns domino 8 " i T. a. r u • - J _ _ - - » f l _ i T 6 m "P. xs-fc, 8 m £ . 3o i< " CcmVe.rvxu.i D< »v»U. Uon|<\o f"m P. Ifef 3 IT-C A>rV e r r > \ x s bom mo tiro £.3ol.<-1- r A . Q t > g L -2-b e n s S p i r i T e . C>ro f.l+*V -J. 12 r m _ c - - - «• a " m m » a • "" t "I* « M M m J IJrr, -p. 5»iV J l 3 } ^ 3" f m p. |(.5 E 1 —a - i- 1— • 1 rw_=— ta s i -n. Nomine, ^ u i /"e^-vftj Semper "pro P » 1 3 ... i • . - - _ • i i J t <C4eS &rr> f . a/JS-*-7 E r PvT . . pi • _—i hP= * : - i -" f—-—« a - L — -e - p 1 — r - f - n - . 3 - K . - r3"—" . a - — TP--- M-=- - ^ j - -" k.pid«s. ^ u i W o t " ~S>rrt P. 14 » t — = — - " 1 • 3 [ " " '- - J | \ m ' a l • • m m m m w - 1 I " l i - - A , , 0 - - £ T - J4 j \ o P<v\ <?.2.e>» I roo oeu e 1 • ff " -E -* - - t a] A A - , 3 PU -«>-«9———mm mw m my m | — i — t — . L " al ^ a • i " A T . I . . n 1 -1 a 5" r — rr " - - - p. - 1 V . , a " [ » i « • -a P- . " PV" P. i O i f $U6&esTgv> S<gi-gTAL I H £ ^ £ : P & P (V fl C ft & - F - - G-1 roQfjgl. s -+ i m j f « . i " u » \ i O O r al P1 - a • J i . Sto-Vun-i <i>.pofc-h>lu«. Cesium e » " ^  H'iv 4-E —3— 3 • • •• • • * w J * * * " " \lJ p. _ • ^ - -115 m a* \ -. - a - ! D e C l A f t t S l A P « . r « 0 < » ftm £.^ 04 I ^ ^ A i f i c f i f v i u i l r t o r \ o r « r r > i A £ fen-, r -3-V-a -a . . 4 ^ \vAeyr\v5 1- mopeL « , | JV . H 3 -a l p...-- --d o r mnr\oU«»i ere* . P m 2.17 1. • / • ;u p- . . 1 - J - - - - J - a -1 • ™ » * r e n <WVi P E - - " m Z =-TC -—1-^> 3 n 5 » 3 - • s r r c — mm . P&iVr>r rnnunc A">Wofci fjnr> £. Vl * > i / 4- _ c f ^ . j - - 3 ' , ' , - - f l n s l . ] % , i ' > - ' " S P m P ^ O J . 116 ?-v> p. i_v? S.ufcf,esres S<ffug-rftL TTve-mg; t= fl c ["/>! c[p|c 6 n c F - - r= g — - — r 8 3 • 1 ~—rL 1 > — : • 1 | S ^-^s*^-'. t£ n—« - •»> - = A1 • • 3 J l .•-8 m a+l r P= 3~- — ^ " m" - ' - --' JJ"~-6m f. 3>SW r - a a P" "1 «. • " _ 3 _ „-» \ pu J " • - _ " -\r» C O n S p« -K*o Dorr> i n * . Bm £ 2-44* </ E "-"3 "—3 r l — | --p. ** , 2—m 4 4 — • r " JI - " p- 1 - _ - — " • J . Bm f. M + r a rt Prv\ P 3o«* 117 E — =-TWT 1 = - " - i -m m m a - . - • " " "|»t a - , . S f c c c r A o t - « i . D o m i n i b c n e e V v c v V * Pro P i+C a -U 8rv> -f. JoC f IO s — — a — H -id1' -\ " - - - - - - - -sfWI—a—a • • L ™—w/-Pro P U . II. £ 1 "VI—1 HJ\ m~m m - m TL-. a " -*4- r L • - - a\-1 1 m» *> J*U . _ - d tVo(*\«. IO CJ»«lo C m P i l l — _ _ — - -1 - - _ • • d 1 -n *.or-«.tourtt a u m O m n t i Pro P.|l1 a. TI m **• ** mw m 1 1 - ' U - 3 • . £ M»\+a.Ve b t o Pro P. <^7 r - i • _ - — — = r — , i - - i — ^ — — -^ — 3 - 1 =—, 1 - " = - 3 • ' -A(*.o«*».bur,t cum oron<fc 4-- - - J? - «. - 1 «• . Coo^vAo*«o+t*«* OrooeS Pro P. lot 5j 118 C - 0 • . • 1 ^ mm m - 3 ( L ' . 1 m C - 1 m -rt: 1 _ , 3-1 ^ l i 3 p. - — - R J1 - . 3 1 — mt m - -(?ec«c*.«r»Ve eU'o-bolo Pm P. I T 3 r T « V T T 1- 3 r n C -rS 3 - - - 3 -Hi . J J 1 - [ 1 J / W V V Corwe.rY-e. Dc «.<" * . W | r tor mcu**. i P m C. i ^ l r1 — _. * . . . . . . . . a J\ m P^r> P. 14-S". " J , - • • • " P- -—zz^-zra a ^ — — : " p- «l - " — -U- 119 IHEirng ~L~\ r u — —i — — _ — . _ » > - « » * f ^ wt—— • » « • > • » « • — J. f» u • I . 1 x n . " . „ . . •V " " ° a \«.f\\at o<"*+-',o ooi+vo. &m f. 2.1(»r 5-P/n P. >J4. - 3 _ • 3 _ » " - i - • - " _ a — . » 9 9 ' 7-P i * L r u > T a >J 3 m m - V — = 1 P r v , P . IO* ISO 1 e — r s r - T - - 3 . - 9 — 8 m -p i s - 0 r Bm - P . l f e f r Is. T --7* P^ N P. U-tf IS" _ n- v Pm P. U 3 . - 3 — r p- - " i -F e r r u m pe.r ' f c r c i r t S i v M ' t Urn - f . l ^ f r — 3 — » n. . n- 1 3 Pm P \X& 121 i l C Q u i i S « i t liVe. . . . <\*be 3 -Cm PCo XO • C m PU4 r 6 m u T v 6 : — r ? — ? l h v » J S ' mm KM 2A, ? a _ c ** . Z. — — — Cr- . a l* . ml a —~» • 1—1—• i - - - - - — sr^  p. . Qi*i«- r-cspfcx.-fc f£m -r. Z « 5 T 122 r r •• a n a 1 - - m 3 m -Tot e i ipse. Ce.x Cm E sm * ~ ** • — = r - . • fl[L , -v 3 r - • . La.b(A. e l o l o i a . Pm P. 24-0 ^ — • Domui -r-<A<xm cAecet fcm "P • T- I _I R E =- — n — " — " ~ - - - - n—; • » a a 8 — mi 1 3 p. J L • - at Super /YwU. 9 lib Brr» -f. iyj r r J\ W « l n • i t - " mm m fl a m % a * -. • * * --n» 31 - -Sum me &a,ce<"<Ao& 6>m -f-. i.-]C </ r - • . - -- - - . T - n . - - - _ n J% „. ft a* m m "m f - - - - " J " • n 1 I * It-l l . E aT» l l * 1—a -T .—=— | L. = - - - - - -— -MS -I - « i — - . 1 1 1 r al ^ • — = — = — a - ^ — S » p e r e * c e U » . B" rl 211 r 123 3 v i~i*r\ -f. IS! V p - a — „ - a — —. •L - ~ J ~ - 3 - TC 3 * • »5-^ fl 1 a 1 1—3 . • 1 I rr ^—• 5~" ^ — B—1 l i . • . m mm % " 3 | » » •a iPf B 1 ~ ** Qmnii, f r0pV,«.4-U>. '1.0 Ik e s . - - _ ->— * _ — t , a - J' • t - s - i j l ,„ aP- mt \l»"v>Vv»</it e t fecit 3 m f l o o y 11 ' •* - • 3 5 J . - - - r -r . . p . j * p . .\ • 3 ^ . : . 3 n 1 i a b . -V •* ' J • a • 1 TWA <Vffrap,"rl^uA1;<.rvint " Cm P. e — ' i t ^ c i ^ e r A t c*.rt;«\4. S « n -p. 5 5 2. </ V U e b i + w r b t u i PrA P. S i V frmooium Ver iaora>r. Prr, f. tj. 124 P «-s i - J _ . . n t - - J „ - - . m - 3 1 - - - m i :  "" „ JL - - „ m J 1 S m _ mm 10 125 I- rAoftr?u Q v M « _ tca.it v-naa.<v\ a -r. 114 - a — 3 3-P / n P . 1 7 P ^ 1 CooPi tamini bomino 42W Quw. -fec.it 8 m r 1 = - - ' ' 3 ^ - , 3 — • 3 - - - J j - n.. It. r u 3, — • _ — m 3 _ • 3 "™ * . - - . - J f— L - — Suc.&esrgfc SKet-erftL Tueme : SLc.1 p Te l D c. B A &• fl c 6 \- w\00gL_ 1. C a ' N 6rA f. 2.19 V •a f l • rYVtie<"«(•«. « e i Oewtb fti-r. -f. " i . 4 l . r ** m • 3 - ' I * . V - - - - J - 3 - m 8 m -p. 2.<W *• U - - m ml m _ m J 3^ 3 m m 127 g " " . " ** - ' J l . . 1 1 -1 " • ~ rt~i S ,•• fl, . «• «o a o m — 1\ m 3 ] . f5_= - J — r 3 » i It)- • 1 rt. -1 m L . 1^ — m mt mt mm mt C J - • 3 S3 " i > 3^ ^ J « mm ^ \ - • mt ms W l \ r « . b i U - i Dom' inws S m -f. i l l * ' - - - 3 . -L . -» „ ^ 9 ' V Jt.L T V ru - • " fu -m 1 3 " ' m m 1 Sunt c ^ n e i ft«v\ -f\ <\tr 128 - • ?«17 • • • 33: vvV _ - S w / rv\«.<x<. ora_Vio me*. ^ m ftllf L«.uX«- SCp^ i«Wa.+o/cm Urn £. \0~\ f Pm P 14 - vvv 3 -V-it» e v * . m « . IJ) Pm Mtii Prv> P.t-J - a vw~ Pm P. I>- Pm P rv _ . a 3m -P. J4tr Orie*w «A«. +erra. Pm P.; p L h fl. - a 3 ] V l j \ - m m " m 3 JT. 3 a " "| 1 V W ftll-cVx*. , o-^c|v/.v<. l*>m ^-4<"" \ Domini. Pm P-l.^ p * L A A / 1 - . VVV S>c».V\ ^wofu.m re. fern -f. x l r ^ i b a m C ^ C K V , ''m P. l io p ^ - >-> - 1 -A . V V V ^ ~ _ Opifa- m>n.c.*iA.>»» -rtA.«.ru.m ftm •f.JS'Jr Sp«./-«.^^ c fc .'-v Dom,rvo {• J4SV 129 p t m ~~ mt _ a r t -> • aj m ~ LtU*oU». Bm f.^T,v pi <S.«.VU»m Deo 6m P. JCi V F r _ it " . u L a •> " mt vw " - " a W V S l " PL _ f. 1*1» Pm o.Z<J u • 1 L a A / _ * _ -V I V W Won »«\»t m.V," 9m P. 2.11 UPe. Pm p .m . .» r • •Pm * - 3>. P a . m L _ " VAA/ L a J " ™ i r W GK«.V V«.+w.m est cor %m P-lAbv 6m P.IC7r p • • l\ « - T " L i - a • . . . . . . vw " " " " - _ J Dom i <v«. m C 4m - f . i o l v • • IBM - a a / W tv\ive«-«<-«- m « i bcu& Bm -f.l4.4y a t m mm m a • VW ••>*«• 1 w v M a AtJV^u VUCIIAM rto&-Vrt*m 6m P. > f l r r p L t m — • • a , . . / • • •> " n - a " " a VVV * • •* _ _ . 1 » - -X*-a Tiomiive- tpPv*nA.«.m m Coiipee-ViA. ftm P3sjv a a . a r t • - " rv 3 n W V 1 m V W I 0«-i'eH*«" i.Vellfc_ Cm P. H i a> _ •» 1 * ] * i a a> a - J . * / t . 1 * 31 * * i • T \rv\r "be**!. fern P So4<- a m -p. \<y\f 130 r „ m f ~ " ' M ~ fm a U-A J . m - . W L » m V W 1 r » l ^ O ^ U r i * ^ Pr»7 P. a.it p" U w - 1 _ 3 - - -U A aj V^V f t " - - - * • » r^ * -4 1 Bm f. S t i r m . _ n ^ __ fl — u - d i " a m m J ~ . « A / a r •• - a - , - - , U ^ a _ 1>KA / •» - _ ~ v v v - w i r V V ' , — 1 — " Stt-ncte. £ i"deW's ma.«-HjC ^m -f.Z.1%*" r u - - , .. / _ • a. MX / - - - - - - • a m m * m a ^ Cfctli «.»e.\oru.<"» B ' l £ . 5o~|r r & - -« Qu*m S p ^ e 1 " ; e«**' Qmf.lHor W 3 f - f l - " " " - . -_i | - " p r . . . . - - „ V v V - s • - . .v v W a r- - -m J , . Sm f i ( , JV C.o«\-Vor-Va>/it r* -L . 1 3 I » A / 3 "L *• - „ pcWm rOn+ar ^ 1 » a - a ' 1 * , w 1 n. -i . -i D = 1 Re.s.+<wu\*. Ca.ro ^ t f c - f-l*4v/ J - | U J - - - 3 = "1 1 3 1 P - m "v ^ ^ - - t l A > - W V - 1 i Oiyv\blUl!» Pm P WlJ- &CIA.I+CT.+C Deo Bm f ,2_7r m m -ml " n . 1. 1 \ j ' - 3 1 r 1 * - . : - - ^ v - " 1 1 — " a V)ciAi» \n n o m i n e . $m J?. I tV r m -" - - - - » J » , r» 3 m n W V a, J V V V a " 1 1 u 1 L A^ieo <Xu.Vem «*i O b i t &m TM'S.OV/ Arrf , . W . e m Pm P. 11. P t _ _ _ « l _ _ . . / L m \ - m m W V L ~ 1 Vjos A.m.'e.| me.i ' Q"" f • V i*><."ie.cUcH<.i Do« i i ' * « . 4m t 'SUi ' " r r L — . . - - PL - 3 - - - J . . | U - a a ^ _ b*u .s AAAXMW rne\ gm-f.V+l*" ~ _ 1. p a L T -a " — 1 - - - - - - . - - v W r p u - v w a l n . .. . PL _ _ rt , " 1 bm i?.3S'o<" t-eAi deWum ' T n - \ P I 1 r- ? - i IJAJV/ a 1 " _ 3 - U U J _ _ | - f , v v v , a W 3"] - - - - - -0 ' ~ Pm P.ifd r m . _ i - _ 1 1 _ -L J , 3 m " ^ • . , A A / ' v v v * VVV v / l ^ t r u i r i t Ve ^ u a t Pm P. III. 132 u , , „ - a u V J _ „ "> ^.j a • - - • j * N vW ' " . -T -r •" - -i - w v m » U " » • * T 3 " I A A / ~™ w y m 3 m - - * VlerxW.. O ^ A i i P m P. jioowrv* mea.** \e*. Sm "P . '14R n r W w _ . . / * 3 -t)o">w \ev i Pm P 17 u . . " a . . J j , v \A/ " - . "U _ - - vvs/ m f 3 " 2 V W V W fYviw.«•«<•«. <v\ci DfcAt * > ' Y 1 ^ r -i » " " M A / a 31 • - V/Vv & M - r » W > es.* Cor $nv CiASV- \/\ i r > 1 bus Pm C l o J -• - _ V W - u w v Cor Co~V . tu.rn f- " " " . Cm P .zot * - - fl r 3 - a . - m b J -. - " •.1.. _ _ . n. _ _ w i * a i Cor rtUNJ>am £ r e * „ " 1 i e —K-M A y -e — . J p. * — ~ — ATAA|VW«- «<O l>o^>na. B r * f 41/ i j - • - . . i- » g = fl 1|«.\>AV.<«. ; .^ l|iU',«. 1 3 3 P r u J • J m m VVV . - _ v w " 3 "X j . - 1 • „ L p m P 2-^ 3 r _ 1 f n n 3 1 » •« 1 1 a " - -,3 ^  ] » J , . , - J - - I a - 3 ' V v V I Abom,Vi*M<=s m & U ^ a Pm P %0i - 1 - ' - .. a . - 1 T 1 " m •w - • a » - - - - - * a r • M r V V - 1 V W A-^ AeCcnsI^.^ Pm P. Jo«p m T r « • - - . m „_ - - • U " " _ m V • — L^ - v y A - r P « - r u - l t ^<"«+>«- Pm P - l i t r _ » r - „. » - v v v " n n " PL !jfL i | * > W a t p ~ 9. xS<] P z . } H n- - u A / u a ai W V r * fl, - _,T f ~ . _ • • -* i-v-vy — » . — a r - y w . . . . g 31 ' > 3 W ^ 3 n "To^U. + « „ P o f t £ ,ll*-v r a » • w " • a . 3 ! ! " - " M l / a a ((•.Sfcwii^m HtwpCt Pm P >+V AsSuimmo Ccx«.io P Lo r • a -m — • kj\ * / a J a - VVV " a - V V V L*<Ji<U. I t ^ j a l * ^ ^ m t. i.7r i fi lUViAi'a. , M U U i o . B m P . !»"v r P u • _n a - a - - V V N / * - . . . T a : a ^ "T- " - - w ^ J 3 / rTAa^ ji i r i U f ' o j » H e ' i i « t Cm P. llf 134 P a " " m " fl a \ , x - w » • fl- - V W • a - ^ a - S -1 l_fe«.VaViA< Xo-eob Pm P ^t. f r , - r l • a a a i . a a l I I ' a i " n s i n . ? , - ,n<, tbo~i <*«».BVT Pn-i P. fif p U _ J r f L L J V W - - 3 a a a a a " ( W e c*.". ^ P t P . B l "mm I* a -1 - ' ' wr "- ~ ** m " " a \ A 1 ' P a 1 n " 3 .. p 1 U " 3 _ 3 v W >• n i v i , ' " " l a GxSiAfiJAOl <A'IUACIA(O ' * * ^ L?L p a a a a • » W V t^ei4> rv>*NIT<ST<_ Pm P - £o> PART II ANALYSIS Chapter 1_ RELATED THEMES In Part I the question of related Themes was briefly touched upon. At that time Further discussion was withheld since the matter required considerable explanation. Moreover, while certainly bearing on the Thematic Classification, the conclusions from observations on related Themes pertain to more than just the method employed. In the following pages, i t w i ll be demonstrated that, apart from those groups and their sub-groups shown in our Classification, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of related Themes have far greater implications 0 The Themes wil l be considered as related in two ways, by melodic s i m i l a r i -t i e s [melodic derivation] and by transposition. Melodic Derivation As stated above, several of the Themes have been sub-clas s i f i e d on the basis of melodic s i m i l a r i t i e s . The reader should examine the Themes shown below in Example 1: EXAMPLE 1 r i v. m m m m m W i f r t v«vbu<n h i i « n ftvt [Continued. 8 „ ) 137 EXAMPLE 1 [Continued] I 1 1 = _ _ m m m m c || — •> m m *  M M Z\ M  M M  m m Oom'.MC hmmlle* (im -f. JS"^/" It i s obvious that Themes 22A and 22B are the same as Theme 22. Theme 22A simply has an additional third F-a and 22B shows an elaborated version oF the third F a c[ a [these Features are marked in brackets in Example 1], Themes 22A and 22B have been c l a s s i f i e d as sub-groups For two reasons. First oF a l l , in a melody comprised basically oF reciting-tones and soma stepwise motion, the new Features are strongly distinguishing ones. In a more ornate melody such Features would not necessitate sub-classiFication. Secondly, there are enough antiphons displaying these Features to justiFy separate categories. Now let us turn our attention to the antiphon in Example 2: EXAMPLE 2 c f GXA*V>PLC J r w • mm m m m m Ql» iV>su«-^«nV'ibi«5 Am P ZlX 138 This antiphon has also been l i s t e d as a separate Theme be-cause i t begins on C and has i t s own sub-Themes, But removal of the f i r s t note Cor two notes) reveals Theme 10 to be thereafter identical to Theme 22. What we appear to have here i s a simple i n c i p i t in the opening fourth c-f. When we proceed to the next step the similarity becomes sl i g h t l y less obvious. It i s an easy matter to make the fourth c-f more elaborate by f i l l i n g in a l l the notes in between Cc d e f3 or just some of them (c d F). These two develop-ments are shown below in Themes 10A and 10B respectively: EXAMPLE 3 \rteme IQA - mofeCL * Ver. • bom 'ine Cm 9. +| 106- r A o D E L S o ^ l H t f e f a J V u l o r t * " " P<*i f-fO Note also the further alteration in Theme 108 with the fourth d-g^  near the end. Although we are getting further removed from Theme 22, the sim i l a r i t i e s are s t i l l s u fficiently clear. With Theme IOC one has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y in recognizing i t s af f i n i t y to Theme 108: 139 EXAMPLE 4 p I -» n -u -^ _ 1 1 3 - — i i « v V c J l » y « Pm P. 13" c — mm* _^ ^ mm m ' i " U Theme IOC i s characterized by a return to d after the opening c d f and the recitation on f and g[ has become somewhat elaborated. Any relationship with Theme 22, however, i s not apparent. At this point a slight digression i s necessary for the reader i s perhaps aware by now that much more than a simple relationship of Themes i s in evidence here. What appears to be operating, in fact, i s a clear, unprecedented demonstration of the suggestion often made for Gregorian chant, that antiphons [as known today] were the result of the gradual embellishment of reciting-tonesl 140 FIGURE 1 Theme 22 - basically reciting-tone - FFFFFGGGFEFEO Theme 10 - adds simple i n c i p i t - CFFFFFFGGFEFED Theme 10A Y- more elaborate - CQEFFGFGGGFEFD y i n c i p i t s ' Theme 10B J - COFFFFGGFFOGCEO Theme IOC - much more elaborate - CDFDFFGGFGAGEFEO To the present writer's knowledge, scholars have not previous-ly produced evidence as clear as that presented here in support oF this theory. One might very well ask the reasons For this apparent lack oF evidence. It must be remembered that, unti l Fairly recently, almost a l l extensive research in the Field oF chant has involved the Gregorian repertory. But, owing to the problems oF that repertory [which have already been summarized in this study!}, i t ^ s by now evident that any clear answers to questions regarding the origins and early state oF antiphons [and other chant melodies For that matter) are not,likely to be Found there. The less complicated Milanese tradition, on the other hand, seems to oFFer the evidence For a convincing explanation oF the antiphon development theory. But consider how easily the original relationships oF chants could become obscured. Bearing in mind the process oF elaboration, the alterations resulting From perFormance, and the methods oF extension ISee Part I, p. 36. 141 and expansion to accommodate longer texts [discussed under Operation of Themes], i t w i l l be readily understood how an antiphon such as that shown below would at First sight seem to have l i t t l e connection with the original Theme: EXAMPLE 5 SUGGESTEO SKELETAL THEME: C D F O F G A G F E D n-te»v\e toe - m o t e L -JUV ft" lb. —I ^ \ Now to return to the question of related Themes and pick up the thread of the discussion. It had been shown how Themes 10, 10A, IOB, and IOC are melodically derived From Theme 22. Although only short melodies had been dealt with p i t was possible, through a series oF logical steps, to move within the space oF just a Few antiphons to a stage oF 142 relative dissimilarity between one extreme [Theme 22) and the other [Theme IOC), The fact i s , without the intermediate steps—a series of attenuated relationships—one would doubtless see no substantial connection between Themes 22 and IOC. reciting-tone, renders their likeness immediately perceivable. But this i s not the case for some of the other related Themes in the Classification. Because of their more melodic design the sim i l a r i t i e s are not so obvious. For example, Themes 1, IA, IB, and IC differ considerably in their opening figures. In Theme IA the opening figure has an additional b, while in Themes IB and IC the opening figure of Theme 1 [g_ a) has been considerably expanded to g_ a c' and Q. a b c' respectively. A l l four Themes, however, follow the opening figure with the outline of an F triad and a descent to cadence on g_. A l l of these features are indicated in Example 6s The style of Themes 22 and 10, which i s basically EXAMPLE 6 \ . — I V I [ [Continued...) 143 EXAMPLE 6 [Continued) » 1 \ 1 \ 1 € * : 1 \ t L _ - J p m _ a - _ t / [ - a - _ L - - « — mm m m m m . . . a n. Ca.4Vi^A/\& CA.4+vy.v/it. PrtA P. g + J L J L J L ovk\ VA«S recvVoAttv* vane*) 144 By removing the f i r s t two notes of Theme 28A, Theme 28 i s produced: EXAMPLE 7 U " xi - - -i " * - -i » <, • • m ** In Theme 24 and i t s sub-Themes the relationship i s more elaborate, produced by a process of addition and elaboration. Theme 24A adds a third f-a to the opening and Themes 24B and 24C expand the simple f-a to f 3. a EL a n c* f a b a respectively. Following the opening figures, Theme 24 i s clearly intact as indicated in Example 8: 145 EXAMPLE 8 I H E m S 2.4 - •mytufL r « JV \ Jl - ._ - „ _ 3 - 1 >•> - •- w mm P. "iot V 1-I - •* - - T . - -p-1 —~ —"J mm items i 4 Bm >P. 3 o o r f"*H 1 Oor mt*v\<*iAm cren. \-> Ti-veme 2.4. Pm Pa.17 I t i s not nec e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e i n t h i s v e i n and e x p l a i n the remaining Themes and sub-Themes i n the C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n . The above examples p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l o f the Themes are s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d 146 by melodic derivation. The implication that, primitively, there were Fewer Themes, wil l be taken up shortly. Transposition We refer once again to, a Theme used earlier in this chapter, Theme 10. IF one compares this Theme and i t s sub-Theme 10A with Themes 2 and 2A, i t w i l l be Found that these melodies are identical i n t e r v a l l i c a l l y at the transposition oF a Fourth: EXAMPLE 9 THg'Wc X- " X i H - L  — r . II U . •> - m T"ne>n-- io - m 0 f t 6 - C II — m m r - a * m L « m m _ \ t 4 € » * \ _ \Q*\ - mope-r L 3 - - - - _ -1 -147 Therae 16 la also tho same melody as 2, transposed down a fourth: EXAMPLE 10 JJi. I n t e r v a l l i c a l l y t Theme 16 does not coincide since the semitone occurs in a different position within the tetrachord as shown below: EXAMPLE 11 TftgrAS X> T T ST ST Now let us reca l l those Themes which were earlier found to be related as derivations of a simple reciting-tone i Themes 22, 22A, 228, 10, 10A, 10B, 10C. As has just been shown, two other Themes are in real i t y transpositions of Theme 10. Therefore, by extension i t could be argued that 148 Themes 22, 22A, 22B, 10, 10A, IOB, IOC, 2, 2A, and 16 are a l l related through melodic derivation and transposition. Turning to Table II on pages 51 and 52, the significance of these observations becomes evident. It w i l l be noticed that each of the groups are relatively weighty in terms of the number of antiphonB each contains. If the proposed relationships are accepted and their numbers added together, the result i s starting. The sum would account for approx-imately onB-sixth of a l l the c l a s s i f i e d antiphons. In other words, about one-sixth of the melodies have a common Theme! If the other Themes exhibited the same clear relationships and the same processes of melodic derivation and transposition could be demonstrated, our Thematic Classification might, in fact, contain only five basic Themes and not th i r t y . We realize that this argument has i t s limits, that eventually a point i s reached where the designation "similar" becomes absurd. Nevertheless, the examples show clear relationships and serve to i l l u s t r a t e the inherent p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A sampling of further possible relationships through melodic derivation or transposition i s shown below. 149 EXAMPLE 12 1 rtewK? 1 - mnooeL U m m '-3-1 — <A«lWe s! U / v , t l A r m P . i « l c 1 -•V wW WM melodic derivation T H e m i g £ o - ~-iot>gt_ rcr-r melodic derivation - 3 - 3 -TTveme 3 f« P S*} ~ T ~ * T T • — — — ^ 31 - 3 "L - a J 1 - " - - 1 -transposition 150 Conclusion The relationship of Themes and the further possiblities suggested herein have far-reaching implications. First of a l l , based on the observations above, i t can be proposed with some assurance that, at an early stage in the Milanese repertory, there was very l i k e l y a much smaller number of Themes than the thirty in the present Classification. Secondly, i t i s quite conceivable that Milanese antiphons other than those considered in this study might have derived from those same Themes, but this resemblance i s , in many cases, now disguised owing to their more elaborate style. The f i n a l example below shows the unmistakable similarity between the opening of Theme 3 and one of the psallenda Cprocessional antiphon]: EXAMPLE 13 r m m m •j y L m m W V Ve. c*_ 9t*\ P l i l p U — ** P- " * J * \ v__/ _ * V W P<-0pv««- Sio^> i v ! P. 14.4 Chapter 2 OPERATION OF THEMES This chapter w i l l be concerned with the operation oF Themes. Two questions arise: l]How much oF each antiphon is Thematic material and how much i s Formulaic?! 2]Are the non-Thematic portions oF the antiphons simply Free material or do they display some regular characteristics? An attempt wi l l be made to show that, in the majority oF cases, antiphons oF the same Theme with longer texts were not extended by ad  hoc methods. It would appear, on the contrary, that a limited number oF compositional procedures were employed. The un-essential, subtle modifications mentioned earliBr--prosthetic variants, passing tones, neighbouring tones, extended or repeated cadences, and the l i k e - - w i l l not be accounted For,, It, i s in the nature oF the Themes to contain such adjustments in order to accommodate the various texts. Rather, attention wi l l be directed to the longer, interpoleted passages that markedly disrupt the basic structure oF the Theme. Our discussion w i l l Focus mainly on Themes 1, 3, 5, 6, and 24A which have been analysed in detail, but occasionally antiphons From other Theme groups wi l l be drawn upon. It need hardly be said that a complete analysis oF a l l the antiphons i s unfeasible; but i t i s also unnecessary since examples have 1-For the discussion oF "Thematic" and "Formulaic" material, see p. 39. 152 been chosen which are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the two extremes, namely, one in which the procedures are obvious and the other in which they are more diverse and complicated. The original expectation for this study was to prove that many of the Milanese office antiphons had opening Themes in common. It soon became evident, however, that antiphons of a Theme group do more than just begin alike; in fact, the Themes seem to operate throughout the antiphons. A perusal of the Thematic Classification would reveal that several of the antiphons in a particular group resemble very closely the model: EXAMPLE 1 TrA£vV\S 1- >Y\ot>CL Cor.ierjft, »YVe., Dominc 9rn P-I-OV 0$ p €j_o_L-Vori fV\ P. j-to In such instances of short texts slight differences in syllable count are usually accommodated by an extra note or two. But how are the much longer texts accommodated, for example, those with twice as many syllables? Although some 153 apparently free, melodic passages do occur, antiphons are generally extended by one or more of three methods: l]by the insertion of one or more reciting-tones; 2]by the repeti-tion of figures or motives; and, 3]in some cases, by the repetition, exact or varied, of the entire Theme,., THEME _1 [25 antiphons] The reader i s asked to refer to Theme 1 in the Classi-fication [also to the table located at the beginning of the Thematic Classification which explains the various analytical symbols]; i t w i l l be noticed that several of the antiphons in this group [numbers 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, for example] are almost identical to the model antiphon. The others, however, employ considerably longer texts, containing as many as twenty-nine syllables, almost twice as many as the fifteen-syllable model. In a l l instances but two the longer antiphons have been expanded by the insertion of a reciting-tone and [or] by the repetition of previous material. Let us consider the former procedure. The simplest case i s seen in the example below in which a short reciting-tone occurs on one note only: EXAMPLE 2 154 In a row instances, Further recitation i s Found on another note as well: EXAMPLE 3 —U __ r _ r^ rrj r mm mt « \ - - a . m m m " L J i r «T Pm P .S" ! — _ Cm v._l<j The pitches on which these reciting-tones occur would appear to be oF some signiFicance, For an examination oF the other antiphons reveals that inserted recitation occurs on no notes other than g^  and c\ OF the two, the latter appears to have been preFerable since there are no examples oF reci t a -tion on g_ only. It i s worth noting also that the note c° i s the reciting-tone For the psalm. More w i l l be said oF the positioning oF the reciting-tone shortly but let us next examine the re-use oF material. This grouptoF antiphons shows extreme regularity in the repetition oF Figures. The opening portion oF the Theme can be Found in various neume groupings, at times incomplete or extended, but nevertheless the same Figure: 155 EXAMPLE 4 Basic Figure: G A F A C — E £ n mm mt -ft-^fl • E | " T ^ 3 — - - - _ „ 3 This Figure may be repeated twice in an antiphon and i s usually employed with a reciting-tone. The example below is instructive as i t shows a long inserted reciting-tone and two repetitions oF the Figure to accommodate the longest text oF twenty-nine syllables: EXAMPLE 5 156 At this point, the placement of the two expanding devices must be noted. It wi l l be noticed that, with only two exceptions, a l l expansion occurs in the center of the antiphons. In other words, the recitation or repeated material i s not appended after a complete statement of the Theme. Rather, the Theme i s interrupted by the methods observed and then taken to i t s completion. The two antiphons which do not follow this procedure are those which contain new melodic material (marked with brackets in Example 6] that i s not Thematic: EXAMPLE 6 -—F r, n « — A — * - " 3 " -I " *1 — f c - JI r 1 _ -• m t % - - - -1 - -V Pm P. low It i s now possible to summarize a very limited number of procedures of expansion as illustrated by this particular Theme. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s are: l]the insertion of a reciting-tone on c*; _3the insertion of reciting-tones on c' and g_j 3]repetition of previous material; and, 4)the combination of 157 one or both reciting-tones with repeated material. The reader i s also referred to the analyses of the sub-groups IA, IB. and IC, which exhibit similar procedures. THEME 6 [14 antiphons] The antiphons of Theme 6, like those of Theme 2, illu s t r a t e expansion by the use of repeated material and reciting-tones. In the former, however, the reciting-tones are generally elaborated as shown below in Example 7s EXAMPLE 7 - Decorated Reciting-tones - H . n j t . - -t - C r 3 i t- i _ _ r • _ " m m r n a 1-L _ u L In a l l of the above cases i t i s clear that d' i s the central note [reciting-tone] which has been ornamented. Most of the antiphons of Theme 6 [numbers 2, 3, 5, B, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13) contain this feature. In four instances, similar treatment of the note i s found toward the beginnings 158 EXAMPLE 8 4. D*T M L r -i _ 1 . / • m m "icKA. Off*. IS. I— J r \ O i f _ _. De-r . -*. • m 1 . c —w- v - — p -] Cm P.|i(o r _ Mi . W v There are two antiphons which exhibit recitation on notes other than a and d'. In antiphons 2 and 13 the note b i s repeated almost as an interruption of the decorated recita tion on d': 159 EXAMPLE 9 £r oo oar o-» ^. r - _ - _ - _ — [ _ . 3-ftf _ © 1 ri^rr-—f . ' 1 1 J _____ l _ _ _ —1 — P.M+ 13 • PRT on _ &R.T oo J.' RT on c' 1 V T 3 - -J"_-S~* lot. Note also the additional recitation on cP in number 13. In antiphon 5 the passage marked in brackets can be considered as elaboration around the same note: EXAMPLE 10 C i • _ 1 — 1—m~S\ 7~~" f 3 i. =-L = 1 m ** . ws 9m P. _1 Reciting-tones [decorated) appear then on d'f g^ , c'f and b with preference for the f i r s t two of these notes. The amount of repeated material i s very limited. First of a l l , the Figure which i s repeated in -the model appears in seven other antiphons,, in various Forms ([marked M2] : 160 EXAMPLE 11 4" " S T TT—"It •_—rt Pm C -1.+ 4. J _ - _ -7m- T T V Pm P.IS-J 7- , -m 1 Mi. r mm m • • • ma _ r f C a- i_ •T. a_ 2 - 3 s 3 u _t • >> _ P—. P - IV • » _ H . I " - " a J _ * -m X 3 1 a * -_ J • b e u s Pr^ % P. i .O la. 6 1 - P . l l _ " a—p. 3 n r 1%. Pm P . .+0 - _ J _ r _ _ -1 u _ ' -1 _ a "V. mm n. - V . at B 1 14. T C - — _ - -P- M -Bm -fc. 161 Another point of repetition i s found immediately after the opening few notes. This can be seen in Example 11 above where the repeated figure i s designated as Ml. The two basic figures are then: c ^  a : ± r a t Finally, we must look at antiphon number 3. Unlike the others this antiphon cadences on F and the closing material [recitation on F] i s appended after the Theme has been completed: EXAMPLE 12 p ^ - n 3 "u m ^ "L J I Sit CVA<V> 1o\.0 \?m t. 1\-THEME 5 [7 antiphons] So far only two methods of expansion have been dealt with—inserted reciting-tones and repeated material. Theme 5 wi l l demonstrate a third procedure, namely, repetition of the 162 entire Theme. This Feature i s clearly seen in the model: EXAMPLE 13 I H e m e g - t-noO'Si. y4 - r m 1 • m mm mm m The Theme group i s unique in that a l l oF i t s antiphons [see the ClassiFication] employ this methods oF expansion without the use oF the two devices discussed above; that i s to say. there are no occurrences oF reciting-tones or short, repeated Figures. Antiphon number 7 i s the only one which does not Follow this r i g i d structure and the departure i s slight. There i s an internal appearance oF the cadence beFore the Theme i s repeated: EXAMPLE 14 l ec Lit m r -i r i £ m m m m^ _ m to m U. - . mm m mm m _ -C\r<iAm cia cAt.*'\ji'\X me. Coii \<i ? m f . ^ j f i Although no other Theme groups exhibit to this extent the regularity oF repeating the Theme, there are several isolated 163 examples, a sampling of which i s shown below in Example 15. The Theme may be repeated exactly or in a slightly modified form. EXAMPLE 15 , _ rr _"T_L 1. T7\eme - A r irt Pm P . _ U L n ~ a n t m m ai S 2 L -1 Nlo/\ __offtbi- ^twr*\ Cm P. io-J •___ Pm- P. _ 1 i p -id u r _ _ « 1 * — - _ - . m ~ -.1 -1 A b l<\»i_r"\«wr«Vibui L~ Pm <?._U J - 3 — 3 — r Pm P- l l 164 Within the Theme groups discussed thus Far, the methods oF extension have been plainly visible and their use limited and consistent. It must be stressed that this regularity and c l a r i t y oF procedure i s exhibited by .the majority oF the Themes. There are a Few groups, however, in which the procedures oF expansion appear to be more diverse and less obvious. THEME 3 [34 antiphons] The model and suggested Skeletal Theme are shown in Example 16: EXAMPLE 16 SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME: G B C D(X.D C A C B A G Although the note e» does not occur in the model, i t does appear in several oF the antiphons oF this group and has, therefore, been designated as a possible Thematic note. Although a Few antiphons [numbers 2, 3, 5) contain only the Thematic material, most oF the remaining pieces are expanded mainly by the use oF three recurring motives, two oF which are indicated in the example below: 165 EXAMPLE 17 1*. « - — r M" 1 r a m 3 V 1 -mm i i u I I  The two figures marked M-a and M-b can be considered deriva-tives of those parts of the Theme marked off by the dotted lines. A distinction has been made between the two motives since M-a has e) as i t s highest note while M-b only reaches d*. This distinction i s preserved in the other antiphons of the group. A glance at this group in the Thematic Classification w i l l reveal the frequency with which the two figures occur. Figures M-a and M-b occur in a variety of formss EXAMPLE 18 - Occurrences of Figure M-a a. -C—3- P ie^ee •. B c. e t> a e, r 3 T T - a l l . 4. . r m " T • • m m L - m L 3 -| i 166 EXAMPLE 19 - Occurrences of Figure M-b n u _ - "L -'1- lo-p a , r - . m L L.  m m " m m is. zL. p r i m L m m 27-P J _ L A third motive CM-c) i s also found on occasion. Essenti-a l l y this figure seems to be an elaboration around the notes g_ and a and appears in two positions. In antiphons 14 and 20 [see Example 20 below] the Theme has been presented in i t s entirety, after which figure M-c serves as a link to M-b to further extend the melody: /3. 167 EXAMPLE 20 _ifc „ M-b »• 14 r M 4 > i a . —3-.--L w mm -(_».iA<ie+«. ^ \ i t _-<on <Vrt P. i l In the next examples, Figure M-c occurs in the same position but the Theme i s incomplete in number 27 and disguised in number 30 [the Thematic notes are ci r c l e d ] : EXAMPLE 21 ll p - • - _L .->_ •> n-c r n * b i 1 _ i L -^ - " J l I \ _ - • - _ L /7 . a _ «-1 M-l. -• • L -P>l\l k r a « ) venict «v> P. Iv-168 Figure M-c i s used as a link to M-b in a l l of the antiphons shown above in Examples 20 and 21. In antiphon 19 below, this situation s t i l l applies but M-c i s also preceded by M-a: EXAMPLE 22 A. -" m f i — f t r n - b i a. _ • L m I •u There are some occurrences of inserted reciting-tones to be found in Theme group 3. As has been observed already in other groups, the recitation occurs mainly on the same note as that of. the psalm-tone, which i s d': EXAMPLE 23 C - 1 w II-mm yrm, • P f l i i \ it. r _ r_ J % . . . • ta ai mm V A A / M 1m \\XrA O.rj.c.^p^-fl.bJi - -. T. - - - - i — — _ . IN w _ Sftnc-Wum >T« ne«.«+i_«* \ C«_».r Pm P. i 4 l 169 There are only a Few antiphons which exhibit recitation on other notes as well: EXAMPLE S4 4-6_r\_4\cWo _>ofwi«»«. fc-p_r „ ...a . — ~ m m • "l _ fern _.+_> 2 1 • "J r &er • n .1 OA r - J - 3 r - . . - --u L ' J L 1 Pmi r. | 0 _ T •2.9- r - , _ - ^ 1 OA ft' -r _ - - • - -I • m L - - al . L 4 — V W I There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, that d', the pitch oF the psalm-tone, i s the preFerred note For inserted reciting-tones It would seem that there was a marked tendency to recite on the pitch oF the psalm-tone and not on just any note oF the antiphon. An investigation oFvthe other Themes would show that although this principle i s not always Followed s t r i c t l y , there i s a substantially large number oF them which i l l u s t r a t this procedure. 170 Tho reader i s asked to note the short repetition of d1 in some of the short antiphons of Theme 3s EXAMPLE 25 1. ' 1 r Jw -W> m ^ V__r mm. V>vV Perhaps this short repetition represents the vestiges of a simple reciting-tone antiphon before the Theme took on more melodic outlines, a development that was seen earlier in other groups under the discussion Related Themes, If, in fact, that i s the case, what more natural and logical pitch on which to insert a reciting-tone for purposes of expansion [see Figure 13s FIGURE 1 Voii&\£ QftftHfoCm — m(Kr>Uj r_ci*i«^-tort_ [Continued,. , 3 171 FIGURE 1 [Continued] r- i s i w a — i -C - " — This discussion.of Theme 3 w i l l conclude with a look at antiphon number 33. This antiphon First presents a state-ment oF the basic Theme, Followed by an elaborate, extended version oF the Theme--a version similar to many oF the longer antiphons in the group: EXAMPLE 26 "•'•— 1 ' ————*») mt mm1 - • -,. • mt m\_ m mm \f<a.f, i« C A r n i n o »^r»_ * • ^ O t * " 172 It is examples such as the above antiphon From Theme 3 which oFFer concrete evidence For our choice oF the basic Theme and i t s subsequent elaboration. ThBme 3 represents the most complicated oF a l l the Theme groups in terms oF distinguishing between Thematic and Formulaic material. Let us examine one Final Theme group and discuss each antiphon in detail. THEME 6 4 [10 antiphons) The model and suggested Skeletal Theme are shown below in Example 27: EXAMPLE 27 SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME: F F G G A C A G F ( G A ] B G C i 1 1 3 | m a The Skeletal Theme can be divided into two main components as indicated by the horizontal brackets. The part marked with an "E" i s nothing more than elaboration oF the note c'. The note e, also marked in brackets in the model, need not be considered part oF the Theme since i t does not appear consist-ently. Similarly, the g_ and a in the second component oF the Skeletel Theme do not always appear in the other antiphons oF the group. 173 Antiphon 2, with greater elaboration around the note cj, i s very similar to the model: EXAMPLE 28 X. MIL r- ——p_~~_r -a*— -TU . • * - -Once again, the recitation occurs on the same pitch as the psalm-tone. In antiphons 3 and 4 a new Figure appears: EXAMPLE 29 i f t — r * r> -a-Pm P . i t i —E 1 —> *-— i - _ _ -. a - —•* -— j — V-= m wt In outline, this new Figure i s similar to the opening oF the Theme:: F FT3 G A C. There i s , however, an unmistakable resemblance to the opening oF Theme 1: 174 EXAMPLE 30 _L i t-ig mg i vW Pm P.TL.<}O -_ a _ _ The possibility of the incorporation of other Themes was investigated with l i t t l e conclusive results. It was found that what appear to be other Themes could, in fact, be nothing more than one of the many ubiquitous formulas in the Milanese repertory. Such i s the case for the above example. The figure g[ a f a c' i s frequently found in the antiphons. Hence, i t i s impossible to state conclusively that Theme 1 i s operating within Theme 24. In any event, this example augments our proposed thesis of the close relationship of many of the Themes through common melodic formulas. One last point concerning antiphon number 4 should be made. This antiphon i s one of two in the group which does not cadence on the usual g_. More w i l l be said of finals and such excep-tions in Chapter 3, Antiphon number 5 i s similar to number 2 with i t s decorated recitation on c*: EXAMPLE 31 175 Pm P. i-iTO Antiphons 6 and 7 both show inserted recitation on g_. The former also has the decorated recitation on c' while the latter adds new material after completing the Theme to cadence on d [this is the other exceptional f i n a l ] : EXAMPLE 32 r KT — -v a 1 PL „ 3 m m urn m • \ m m _ —• : It u r i - 3 I _ - a - - -I •* w - r v .1 FL _ *- -i *" 3 ^ a The material marked # might be considered an allusion to the g_ a f a cj figure in antiphons 3 and 4 . The _ a f a c' figure reappears in antiphon 8 and i s followed by material which consists of recitation on c' with a a a b c' " i n c i p i t . " This same material i s then repeated: 176 EXAMPLE 33 f _ r . . i i i i U " 3 J ^ 3 \ - 3" " " m _ 3 - . 3 3 • > mm m m - — V- J * - * p u _ _ j .^; _ u K t P m p . i f __ 1 It should also be noted that, in this instance, the closing portion of the antiphon [marked by the horizontal bracket] i s almost identical to the f i r s t eight or nine notes of the melody. The last two antiphons, numbers 9 and 10, show the same methods of expansion. Both have reciting-tones on the note g^ . Figures Nl and N2 are inserted before the closing portion of the Theme: EXAMPLE 34 P. fir r -r a „. - al \ «1 _ 3 _ n m m m al _ m v a l * 3|" . " • " a •J m M ' - • K T - u a, a . ~i r - i w — ~ - J1" 3 ^  - a . _ T. • A \ I a _ m a -m m m m m _ *" • • _ I>L _ m—rngmmm 3 * "mm - " - c - Nn — W m177 Summary An attempt: has been made in this chapter to show that, in general, the Themes operate throughout the antiphons. Those antiphons with longer texts are accommodated either by Formulaic procedures (namely, the use oF reciting-tones, repetition oF Figures From the Theme], the repetition oF the entire Theme, or, in some cases, new material. In the majority oF the Theme groups, the Formulaic portions are clear and easily distinguishable From the Thematic material; the methods oF expansion are limited and straightForward. In only a Few groups are the methods complicated and obscured. Chapter 3 CADENCES AND FINALS An examination oF the cadences oF the Milanese oFFice antiphons reveals two striking Facts, The First i s that, in spite oF the large number oF chants, there are very Few cadential patterns. Secondly, cadences do not seem to be associated with particular Finals.1 The present writer w i l l attempt to show that cadences and Finals, which are so important For modal assignment in Gregorian chant, have no such application in the Milanese repertory. Modes Cin the Gregorian sense} do not appear to be operating in Milanese chant, Finals The c l a s s i f i e d antiphons exhibit a very uneven distribution oF Finals, Although a l l seven pitches are represented, only Four CG D F E) are oF importance since the occurrences on 8, C, and A only account For about three percent oF the total number. Moreover, i t w i l l be noticed that, oF the Four Finals indicated above, G and D markedly lAlma Colk, Tn "A Study oF the Ornate Antiphons in MS. VAT. LAT. 5319" [M.Mus. Thesis, University oF British Columbia, 1971), had Found quite the opposite to be true For the Old-Roman Introits: "[They] have recognizable cadential patterns which are used over and over again, and which can be clas s i f i e d For each Final." Cp. 41), 179 outnumber the others. The sum of these two finals accounts for over eighty percent of the total! The results of the distribution of finals are summarized in Table IV below. TABLE IV - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE ANTIPHONS Approximate Final Number oF Antiphons Percentage 6 303 50% D 206 33% F 42 7% E 42 7% A 14 2% B 2 <1%2 C 1 <1% Let us look Further to see how the Finals are dis-tributed according to Theme. OF the Forty-nine Themes [counting Themes and sub-Themes separately], twenty-three end on G, seventeen on D, two on F, two on E, one on A, and none on B or C. Nearly a l l the Themes Cover ninety percent) exhibit a consistency oF Final; that i s to say, with some exceptions, the antiphons in a Theme group conclude on the same note. In only Four Themes C9, 16, 17, and 21A] no regular Final could be determined. Table V shows the Final For each Theme Cand sub-Theme_ and the number oF exceptions in each case. ^Less than one percent. 180 TABLE V - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE THEMES Theme Normal Final Exceptions 1 G 1-A IA G none IB G none 1C G 2-F 2 G none 2A A 1-G 3 G 1-B 4 G none 5 G none 6 G 1-F 7 G none 8 0 none 9 10 0 1-F; 1-G 10A 0 none IOB 0 none IOC 0 1-E 11 G 1-F 11A G none 12 E none 13 G none 14 F 1-A 15 0 none 16 *? 17 18 0 none ISA • none 19 0 none 19A 0 1-E 19B 0 1-C; 1-E 20 G 1-A 21 0 none 21A 22 • none 22A 0 none 22B D none 23 G none 24 6 1-F 24A G none 24B G none 24C G none 25 F 3-G 25A G 1-F 26 0 1-A; 1-F 27 • 1-F; 1-E 28 G 2-F; 1-A 28A G none 29 £ none 30 G 1-B 181 It w i l l be, noticed that, in general, the exceptions are few in relation to the number of antiphons in a Theme group and, therefore, can be considered relatively insigni-ficant. We would suggest that the exceptions have arisen for one of two reasons. First of a l l , there are several antiphons which, after presenting a complete statement of the Theme with i t s usual f i n a l , have an extended free append-age. A sampling of this type i s shown in Example Is EXAMPLE 1 V mm S a K T T 3 t _ Secondly, i t i s quite possible that many of the other 182 exceptional Finals are the result oF copying errors in the manuscript. Consider for example, antiphon 2 From Theme 1 which stops one note short oF the usual Final G: EXAMPLE 2 f* mt mm a -""•>_ , D o . v \ v ' n _ f - P. J . O V 2,. f . V-d_.V_.Ht*- cor OuAeytrtVi Pm P. 4 In ExamplB 3, Domine qui regnas goes one note beyond the usual Final G: EXAMPLE 3 mOfcCL- T H e m e 2,i L a \ JV • _ i - m m m\ m n i t -c 1 " ~ T _ . -— 3 — mt m m ru - - Ml m 183 The Fact that a l l the exceptions are only one note above or below the normal Final would appear to strengthen the argument For miscopying. In any case, the regularity oF Final e x h i b i t e d by the majority oF the Themes i s testimony to thB Fact t h a t Theme and Final are related. Cadences The cadence w i l l be considered on the basis oF i t s approach to the Final, whether From below or above. Most often, the Final i s approached From above. This i s seen in the cadential pattern below [marked oFF by the dotted lines] which consists oF three descending steps. The decision about what constitutes the cadence i s Fortunately easy For the Milanese antiphons. Most oF the cadences can be Found in positions where they are clearly articulated by a preceding recitation tone. This i s most obvious in the First item oF Example 3: EXAMPLE 3 L ' 1 1 — y . • r-.ltz L - - , . « , II • • • • —  (Continued...] 184 EXAMPLE 3 [Continued] iy>o&_L - Tr iemg il r i u a % T " v " * r - . t - _'_ H * m t • " N " • - i ! _ . ] J ' * a _ i ™ 1 Pm P3o«f In the next example the pattern i s not articulated by a reciting-tone but, by extrapolation, i s clearly the same figure: 185 EXAMPLE 4 Tfteme it-O - . f . H S , I Atk- »iiewe_. J Q C _ - 3 - -R m (-. ioT V WlonSL - \\\e~\£ -.1. W i r t t V _ r _ * m Pm P- 14 - E — - a - . — m- mm m \ - _ - 1 - _ . i - 3 _ . • m " "•• . - . - _-3l • . . . i JU.b',l-V_ too o ^ n i i fern C »*Ur The three-note descending pattern i s by Far the most common. A glance through the Thematic Classification reveals that th pattern accounts for at least four-fifths of the endings. 186 Although there are isolated appearances of the pattern on A, i t i s usually associated with the Finals oF Gf D, and F. Frequently the middle step;oF the above Figure i s omitted causing the leap oF a third to the Final: EXAMPLE 5 — _ -_ ~ « • • m m A second pattern in which the Final i s approached From above consists oF the Final, the note above, and the Final, This Figure i s clearly articulated, on occasion rather abruptly, by a wide leap From the proceeding note: EXAMPLE 6 J5L _X»6.!a__-lL — - S - — CContinued..,} 187 EXAMPLE 6 [Continued] v/_s.Wi (j*,»t- ^e*.Vi f « f - >-1 I. iitewe 2.4-6 .£ . . : : . .rp-:----j : . :-: :i :- r-"> r , - a | : > f v There are o n l y a Few i n s t a n c e s i n which the above p a t t e r n e x i s t s as a cadence i n i t s own r i g h t . Most o f t e n i t i s Found as an e x t e n s i o n t o the descending t h r e e - n o t e F i g u r e C t h i s matter w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y ] . There i s o n l y one c a d e n t i a l p a t t e r n which approaches the F i n a l From below by one s t e p . As i s the case For the Fi g u r e i n Example 6, the p a t t e r n i n Example 7 i s p l a i n l y deFined by an abrupt l e a p From the p r e c e d i n g note. Occurrences oF t h i s p a t t e r n are Found mainly on the F i n a l • and o c c a s i o n -a l l y on A. 188 EXAMPLE 7 7- TTve.m_ ioa — - a - - — em p.-u, _ _ 3 - , - — \ f\l <>_<•<-o-bo omnia. *5>m £ . ^v|OvJ — _ T — fl- -3-"" A Final pattern oF common occurence i s Found mainly on the Finals D, A, and E. This Figure can be considered a derivative oF either that Figure in Example 8 or 7, or both5 EXAMPLE 8 S~- I l - tgm« T_ V [Continued...3 189 EXAMPLE 8 [Continued) 3 - - -4- T^em< '06 L s—a—3-U_V,V <A_ VxVw. Pm P I T Finally, some mention must be made oF cadential extension. This procedure i s handled in one oF three ways. First oF a l l , the simplest Form i s an elaboration oF the Final attached to the three-note descending patterns 190 EXAMPLE 9 CAT>. -KT. 10 • T H . m c VQ(^ IVYJAV $e_*W Cm P.\I«Y 3 — i u 1 C<M>. - * T . \\. Tftcvte 10 O V - . _y .-T Uo.Mil.mkAi <\om«<v Pm P. _ig Secondly, the extension may consist of a repeat [either exact or varied] of the cadence after the Theme has been completed. This procedure usually involves a short link before the repetition: EXAMPLE 10 1- THeme IOC _ 1 . ^ v 3 - . _ a l . - " "Ti+eme C_^\PL6T--. Bm -C.iUv -|L. CContinued.„„] 191 EXAMPLE 10 [Continued] I 3 -...3-f<n f>. iMo Lastly, there are instances in which both of the above procedures are in evidences EXAMPLE 11 „ . TTlgfv*. n a . -e '— • ~~3— • „-» - „ , — ~ : - — - - -" 1 - 3 ^ -f\ 1 11 I I i lo- 1 w e m _ l£<\ s. ' •— - r J __a w - . L . 3 -1 -- 1 _ - _ -rr -»—j— ma ma R m • n i As i s seen in the last example above, the link to the repeat of the cadence may occur in the form of repeated material from the Theme. Mention has already been made of such instances 192 under the discussion of Operation oF Themes. Relatively speaking, cadential extensions are not numerous since, as has been pointed out earlier in the study, the majority of the antiphons are short. As a rule, the cadence completes the Theme and the antiphon simultaneously. APPENDIX I INDEX TO THE THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION ' H E M S E — _-1 . "> -_ E ~ 7 ^ _ • — a - r_ . _ i 5 l r i _ m e IB ______ i H e m e t==tx .3 " 3 -~ W V w V i He^e 7 Pay 7 * ±^1 . • . 3 - W P-y. 7S 1 P^e 7 7 T ; vW-i H e m e 10 P^_ 7->H_me 2£L : . a . - . v W _ j _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a . • 1 __ i£___ I Heme 3 ______ l H _ m e 1 0 --3-p4^ WV 194 THE me nfl i 2 mt a V , - ~\ l H £ m g H P^r f7 »1" W -w-I HE nag 2.1 VW1 e . 3 - V W lU P ^ _ 14 E p L •» _ _ -U . n - • VW • u m T U . m g 2Z.A vW V 195 3v P^g »r Tug m e - _ — v -E — — J 3 - | " I " 1 , v _ v 1 W V W i He ms _s — — v W -E — — i r Pay / ' g APPENDIX II ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE MILANESE PSALTER ANTIPHONS P - Paleographie Musicale B - Bodleian Manuscript unci.- unclassified MS ReF. Theme A resistenbibus P-p.273 IB Ab nomine iniquo P-p.277 IOB Ab insurgentibus...exaltabis P-p.278 16 Ab insurgentibus...libera P-p.272 10 ti t» B-F.356r 18 I I tt P-p.226 2 Ab occultis meis P-p.204 22 Abominantes me longe P-p.303 unci. Abraham et Semen B-F.33Bv 24A Accelera Domine P-P.51 10A Accipite et commendite B-F.104r 18A Ad deFensionem meam P-p.304 unci. Ad monumentum Lazari P-p.244 19B Ad te de luce P-p.131 3 Adjutor et protector B-F.303v IA Adjutor meus esto B-F.344v unci. Adjutorium nostrum B-F.347r unci. Adjuva me Domine P-p.273 14 Adorabunt eum omnes P-p.65 25A tt ti P-p.119 25A Adstiterunt reges P-p.279 10B Adversum me laetati P-p.279 1 Adversum me omnia P-p.290 28A Agnes Famula P-p.140 19B Ajuro iniquo B-F.358r 18 Alexandri martyris B-F.196r 3 Alleluia, a l l e l u i a P-p.169 unci. tt I I B-F.5v unci. tt tt B-F.20r unci. it tt B-F.37v unci. ti tt B-F.40r unci. ti •• B-F.43r unci. tt ti B-F.49v unci. tt n B-F.5v 1 ti ti B-F.42r 8 it tt B-F.38r 9 ti tt B-F.39r 9 it tt B-F.37v 10B 197 Alleluia, a l l e l u i a B-f. 36r t i t t B-f. 49r t t t i B-f, 50r I I V B-f. 41r t t t i B-f. 5r t t t i B-f. 43r i t i t B-f. 44v t t i t B-f. 47v Altimore inimici P-P. 276 Anania, Azaria, Misael P-P. 193 Ancilla dixit P-P. 292 Ancilla Christi sum P-P. 15 Angeli Domini S f i l i i P-P. 67 Angeli ejus laudate B-f. 346r Angelum pacis B-f. 203r Anima mea magnifies B-f. 335v Annunciaverunt caeli P-P. 63 Annuntiaverunt caeli P-p. 118 Ante faciem P-P. 12 Opera Domine P-P. ,220 Apolinaris egregius B-f, , 165v Apolinaris martyris B-f, 163v Apolinaris martyr B-f. 163v Apparuit gratia P-P. , 126 Apprehenda arma P-P. ,275 Apud te Oomine P-P. 113 Arcum Potentium B-f. 294v t t i t B-f, ,294v Ascendit Oeus B-f, ,51v Asperges me Oomine P-P. 204 Assummo caelo P-P. ,60 Assurgentes testes P-P. 291 Attende caelum S loquar P-P. ,66 Audita fatiem tuam B-f, 353v i t t i B-f, ,353v Auditiohem tuam B-f, 295r Auditue meo Oomine B-f, 42v Auditui nostro P-P. ,206 Auditum tuum Oomine B-f, ,295r Audivit Oominus P-P. 219 Auxilictua nobis B-f, 343v Averte fatiem tuam B-f, ,43r Ave Maria gratia plena P-P. .36 Ave Virgo Maria P-P. .29 Beata es Maria P-p.50 Beata es quae P-p.73 Beata Eufimia Virgo B-f.201v 11A 11A 11A 12 17 17 171 24B IOB 24 19B ISA unci. unci. 20 12 1 1 unci. 19A 24B 3 6 unci. 1 19A 16 19A IA 1 unci. 1 25 28 10 19 unci, unci. unci. 2A 12 21 2 IA 1C unci. 3 198 Beata progenies P-p.101 18A Beatam apostolus cessum B-F.193v 24B Beatam me dicent P-p.105 3 Beati immaculati in via B-F.43v 23 Beati omnes B-F.351r 17 Beati qui habitant B-F.219r unci. Beati qui scrutantur B-F.359v 10 Beati quorum re sunt B-F.41r unci. Beati quorum remisse B-F.13r 21A Beatus i l l e venter P-p.37 1C Beatus Nazarius B-F.173v 19A Beatus Petrus apostolus B-F.164v 3 Beatus que elegisti B-F.278v 28A Bene Fac Domine B-F.347r unci. Benedicite omnia opera B-F.7r 10C " " P-p.169 10C " B-F.33v 23 Benedico te Pater P-p.140 3 Benedictio Domini super B-F.351r 3 Benedictus Oeus Sidrach P-p.245 2 Benedictus Oomine B-F.363r unci. Benedictus Dominus Oeus P-p.122 unci. Benedictus Dominus quia B-F.341v 1C Benedictus qui venit P-p.265 10C Bonum est conFidere B-F.361r 11A Bonum est conFiteri B-F.364r unci, " " B-F.352v unci. Bonum et jocundum B-F.354v 29 Bonum meam lex B-F.124r unci, Caeli S terra P-p.64 27 Calicem salutaris P-p,74 1C Qaelos horror P-p.305 10C Canite tuba P-p.6 7 Cantate Domino canticum B-F.44r 21 Cantemus Domino B-F,6v 1 " " B-F.43v 22B " 19 P-p. 169 22B " " B-F.303r 22B Canticum novum P-p.40 3 Castigans castigavit P-p.84 1C Celi Celorum B-F.307v 10C " B-F.307r unci. " B-F.350r unci. Cenantibus apostolis B-F.103v 28A Cete et omnia B-f.305r 9 Cibavit eos Oominos B-F . l l l v 1 Circumdederunt me canes P-p,283 5 Circumdederunt me v i t u l i P-p.292 5 199 Clamabat demon apostole B-f.193v 24B Glamor noster Domine B-f.356r 22 Cogitaverunt adversum me P-p.281 IB Complace Oomine ut eripias P-p.276 IB Concupivit rex B-f.287v unci. Confessio ejus B-f.278v 30 Confessor sancte B-f.277r 10C Confessus es bona B-f.278v 28A Confirms Deus B-f.294r 30 Confirmatum est cor meum B-f.294r 25 " " B-f.294r unci. Confiteantur Oomino B-f.356r 17 Confitemini Domino B-f.43v 29 Confundantur omnes P-p.106 25A Conserva me Domine P-p,202 1 Considers in opera B-f,295v 19A Considerabam a dextris P-p,289 10B Considerat peccator P-p.283 28A Consideravi Domine B-f.295v 19B Converte Domine B-f.347r 26 Cor contritum B-f.357r unci. Cor meum et caro B-f.342v 12 " P-p.199 26 Cor mundum crea P-p.217 24C " B-f.357r unci. Coronam gloriae ponam P-p.74 unci, Coronavit te Dominus P-p,74 6 Cosmos et Oemianis B-f.212v unci, Credidi Propter B-f.343v 8 Crucem tuam B-f.ll6r 16 Cujus honors B-f.36v 11A Cum accepisset P-p.305 19A Curus Pharaonis P-p.211 19B Custodi animam meam B-f.349r 27 Custodi me Domine P-p.277 IB De c e l i s Oominum B-f.307r 19 De inimicis meis P-p.272 15 De menu omnium B-f.353v 22B De nocte v i g i l a t B-f.5v unci. De radice Jesse B-f.200v 26 De torrente in via B-f.l95r 1 De ventre matris B-f.137v 19A Decidat super eos B-f.304v 24B Declaratio sermonum P-p.91 IB Demonstra mihi Domine B-f.l69r 3 Deo nostro jucunda B-f.363v 8 " B-f.363r unci. Descendat sicut ros P-p.14 26 200 Oescendit in terrain P-P. 302 2A Descendit sicut P-P. 60 1C •esciderat anima B-f. 352v 28A Oeus a u x i l i i mei B-f. 341r unci. Oeus canticum novum P-p. 260 14 Oeus de celo B-f. 340v 8 Oeus Deus meus B-f, 344v 14 it B-f. 354r 14 Oeus in nomine B-f. 16v unci. Oeus Israel libera B-f. 300v 7 Oeus judicium B-f. 39v 23 Deus manifests P-p. 30 unci. Deus meus 5 Dominus P-P. 234 6 Oeus ne elonges P-P. 276 5 ti P-P. 281 5 Oeus noster a Libano P-P. 20 6 Oeus noster judicium P-P. 12 6 Oeus qui conteris B-f. 304r unci. Deus s p i r i t s B-f. 41r 23 Dextera manus tue B-f. 304r unci. Oextera tua Oomine B-f. 304r unci. Die e inimae meae B-f. 34Bv a Oicit Dominus P-p. 83 20 Dico autem nobis B-f. 130v unci. Diffusa est gratia P-p. 84 IB Dignus es Domine P-p. 101 12 Dilligam te Oeus virtus B-f. 39v 23 Discede me pabulum P-p. 139 IB Disperdat Dpminus P-p. 276 IB Oisperge i l l o s P-P. 280 1 Oispersit dedit B-f. 183v 1C Oissoluti sunt P-p. 292 8 Diviserunt s i b i P-p. 299 19B Dixerunt impii P-P. ,289 1C Doceam iniquos P-p. 281 19A Oocuisti me Deus B-f, 177v 17 Domine clamavi B-f, 358r 27 Domine Deus meus P-P. , 128 4 Domine Oeus meus P-P. 273 13 Domine Deus virtus B-f, 296r unci. Domine d i l l e x i B-f, 228r 28 Oomine exaudi orationem B-f, 43r 23 Oomine excelsum P-P. 12 unci. Oomine in civitate P-P. 106 13 Oomine libera B-f, 343v 18 Oomine probasti me B-f, ,358r 22A Domine qui regnas P-P. ,158 1C tt P-P. ,193 24 Domine s i fuisses P-p. ,250 24 201 Domine ut scuto B-F.246v unci. Domini est terra B-F.20v 21 Dominum de c e l i s B-F.30Bv 24 Dominus conterens bella B-F.303v 24 Dominus dabit P-p.84 unci. Dominus dixit P-p.60 27 Dominus pauperes B-F.295r 24 Dominus virtutum P-p.96 13 Domus enim mea B-F.215r 3 Domus levi P-P.77 unci, Domus mea domus B-F.227r 3 Domus tuam decet B-F.227r 28 Donee transeat P-p.245 unci. Dum appropinquaverunt P-P.4 28 Dum complerentur B-F.97v 30 Ecoe ancilla Domini P-p.36 7 Ecce Ascendimus P-p.283 19A Ecce completa sunt P-p.126 4 Ecce dico vobis P-p.290 19A Ecce Dominus noster P-p.39 18A Ecce Dominus sedst P-p.49 18A Ecce ego S pueri P-p.146 1 Ecce ipse est P-p.68 10C Ecce jam veniet P-p.56 4 Ecce mitto Angelum P-P.21 1C Ecce quam bonum B-F.130v 4 Ecce video caelos P-p.76 19 Ecce Virgo in utero P-p.29 unci. Educ de carcere B-F.197r IB EFFundam in conspectu B-F.358v unci. Ego autem cum j u s t i t i a P-p.51 1 Ego autem in Domino B-F.295v 10B Ego autem sicut B-F.284v IA Ego gloriam P-p.216 unci o Ego primogenitum ponam P-p.62 27 Ego sum Dominus P-p.63 2A Ego sum panis B-F.106v 6 Ego sum qui peccavi P-p.181 unci. Ego sum via B-F.56v 20 Ego te frater B-F.202r 19 Elegit nos Dominus P-p.95 IB Elevate signum P-p.39 10B Equum et ascensorem B-F.303v 3 Erant v i s t i B-F.137r 28 Erexit nobis B-F.349v 3 Eripe a Framea P-p.283 19 B Eripe me de inimicis P-p.276 1 Eripe me Domine P-p.276 IB 202 Esurientes reple bonis B-F. 358v Et audivi vocem B-F, 137v Et invocabimus nomen P-P. 256 Et tu Bethlehem P-p. 29 Euge serve bone B-F. 275r Ex ore infantium P-P. 91 Ex utero ante P-P. 64 Exalta Oomine humiles B-F. 355r Exaltari tuo Oomine B-F, 105v Exaltata est sancta B-F. 190r Exaltatum est cor meum B-F. 216v it II B-F. 295r Exaudiat te Oominus B-F. 45r Exaudivit Oominus B-F. 296r Excita potentiam P-P, IB Exspectabam Oeum P-P, ,273 Exspectetur sicut P-P, 28 Exspectetur sicut P-P, ,21 Exsurgam diluculo P-P, 187 Exsurgat Oeus P-P. 303 Exsurge Oomine in requiem P-P. ,302 Exsurge Domine non confortetur P-P. ,276 Exsurgens Domines misereberis P-P. ,304 Exter Factus sum P-P. 282 Exultate Oeo P-P. ,97 •i B-F ,27r Exultavit Spiritus meus B-F, ,335v Exultent S laetentur P-P. ,7 Fac Oeus potentiam B-F.336r Facta est Judea P-p.105 Factus sum sicut P-p.301 Fecit Dominus B-F.335v Fecit mihi magna B-F.245r Ferrum per transivit B-F.198r Fiant Oomine B-F.351r Fiat manus tua B-F.359v Fiat pax Domine B-F.345v F i l i i ambulaverunt B-F.305r F i l i i hominum B-F.305r F i l i i Israel transierunt B-F.304v F i l i i Israel veniet P-p.92 Firmamentum meum B-F.344v Fluminis impetus P-p.114 Frater non redemit P-p.301 Fratres mei et amici B-F.258r Fructum saluti B-F.105r unci 3 22A 12 20 IB 28A 22B 17 10B unci unci 21A IOC 13 25A 7 10B unci IA IB IB 25 IB 25A unci 25 18A 20 IA 13 10B 3 27 unci 8 27 IA 3 IA 3 22 19B 9 30 19A 203 Gaude S laetare P-p.314 18A Gaudete Fi l i a e Sion P-p.21 3 Gaudete in Domino P-p.40 18A Gaudete Sancti B-F.2B0v IA Gelaverunt tamquam B-F.304r 108 Gelavit mare B-F.304v 19B Genibus Flexus B-F.194r 19 Georgi martyr B-F.113v 30 Gloria S honore P-p.76 13 Gloriose honoriFicaris B-F.359v 8 Gloriosus in Sanctis B-F.261r 8 " " B-F.248v 25 Gratia Dei sum B-F.182r 19 Gubernasti j u s t i t i a tua P-p.228 27 Haec est generatio P-p.96 IB Haec Virgo sapiens B-F.286v 19B Helisabet Zachariae B-F.138v 18A Hie Oeus meus P-p.66 26 Hie est disoipulus P-p.82 IB " P-p.84 6 Hie est Salvator P-p.65 16 Hodie in Bethlehem P-p.67 unci. Hodie in caelo P-p.117 25 Hodie s c i e t i s P-p.59 18A Humilitatem meam B-F.335v 19B Igne me examinasti B-F.182r IC I H i patri Families P-p.288 19B Illumina Domine B-F.361r 10 " P-p.182 22A Illuminans Oomine P-p.116 2A Illumine Domine B-F.350v 17 Immola Deo sacriFicium P-p.143 19A Impulsus versatus P-p.97 IB In camino ignis B-F.306r 25 In c e l i s preparabitur B-F.361v 14 In conspectu sanctorum B-F.256r 17 In conspectu tuo Domine B-F.195r 25 In cymbalis P-p.194 unci. " B-F.361v 10 In Deo laudabo P-p.84 10B In diebus meis invocabo B-F.343r unci. In Domino sperans P-p.206 10A In domum Domini B-F.215v 19A In eternum Deum B-F.43v 23 In excelsis Angeli P-p.175 12 In exitu Israel B-F,12r 21A 204 In Firmamento v i r t u t i s B-F.357r 3 In hoc glorietar P-p.4 4 In iniquitatibus P-p.202 unci. In Israel orietur P-p.315 10 In lege Domini B-F.340v 19A In memoria eterna B-F.274v 1 In potentatibus ejus B-F.307r IOB In prole mater P-p.101 unci. In sanctitate serviamus B-F.357r 3 In salicibus in medio B-F.354v IB In Sanctis ejus B-F.261v 29 In spi r i t u S veritate P-p.198 10B In tua j u s t i t i a B-F.351v 10A In turbatione anime B-F.295v 19A In tympano et choro B-F.307v IA " " P-p.211 IS Inclina to capita P-p.304 10B Incola ego sum B-F.118r 1C Induit me Angelus P-p.141 20 Inguenua S sum P-p.151 15 Iniquitatem meam Oomine P-p.201 24 Insurrexerunt in me testes P-p.290 1 Inte speravi P-p.177 unci. Intende animae B-F.341r 10 ! c : " P-p.278 16 Intende Oomine P-p.33 2A " P-p.51 10A Intende in adjutorium B-F.348v 10 Ipse et Facta B-F.307r 10B Ipse super Maria P-p.116 28 Ipse tamquam P-p.62 10B Israel Dominum B-F.305v unci. Iste est Johannes P-p.83 9 Jam surgit Qriens P-p.56 IA Jerusalem lauda B-F.219v 20 Johannes est nomen B-F.138r 1C Jubilate Deo omnis B-F.341r 25 Jubilate in conspectu B-F.352v unci. Jubilemus Deo B-F.352v 14 Justi t i a ante P-p.10 unci. Justus Dominus P-p.184 22A Juxta es Dominus P-p.51 18 Labia dolosa P-p.280 28 Laboravit Justus B-F.274v 12 Laetabitur Justus B-F.245r 28A 205 Laetare nunc P-p.60 25A Laetare Virgo p-p.14 3 Laetetur cor quaerenti P-p.4 1 Laetetur cor quaerentium 8-F.356r unci. Laetetur Jacob P-p.96 unci. Laetor ego B-F.294v 20 Laetor ego Domine B-F.294v unci. Lapides qui sunt P-p.14 24 Lauda anima mea B-F.41v unci. Lauda Jerusalem B-F.27r unci. " B-F.43v unci. Lauda Sion salvatorem B-F.107r unci. Laudabilis Virgo P-p.102 1 Laudate Deum c e l i B-F.307r 1 Laudate Deum in Sanctis B-F.44r 21 Laudate Dominum de c e l i s B-F.342r 9 " " B-F.44r 21 Laudate Dominum omnes P-p.120 29 Laudate Dominum quoniam B-F.42v 21A Laudate nomen B-F.354r 12 Laudemus nomen P-p.315 10 Laudemus patrem B-F.306v unci. Lavabo inter innocentes P-p.91 10B Letatus sum in his B-F.17r 21A Levita de tribu P-p.275 20 " P-p.77 29 Libera me Domine P-p.284 unci. Libera me sanguinibus P-p.293 18A Loquebantur v a r i i s B-F.98r 20 Magi interrogaverunt P-p.118 unci. Magi stellam P-p.116 16 MagniFicamus te P-p.38 3 MagniFicat anima mea B-F.40v 9 " " B-F.343v 9 MagniFicemus Christus B-F.335v HA MagniFicemus honoremus B-F.336r 24B Magnus Oominus B-F.352v 14 Mane oratio mea P-p.179 unci. Maria autem P-p.90 IC Maria Flumina S Fontes P-p.120 27 Me oportet operari P-p.232 4 Mel S lac ex hujus P-p.139 2 Melior est Domine P-p.102 4 Memento Domine David B-F.354v 27 Memor Fui Dei B-F.345r 14 Memorare Oomine B-F.300v 7 Memorsit Dominus B-F.lllv 10C Mentem sanctum P-p.154 unci. 206 Messis vero P-p. 163 2 Meus cibus est: P-P. 198 4 Michael Arcangelus B-F. 203r 18A Mirabilis Dominus B-F. 219v 30 Miserere mei Deus B-F. 38r 23 it B-F. 342r 30 tt P-P. 199 unci. tt B-F. 39r unci. ti B-F. 40r 18A ti B-F. 356r 18A ti B-F. 341v 18A Miserere mei, quia peccavi P-P. 175 IA Mitte manum tuam P-P. 55 22 , I I P-p. 26 22 Mitte verbum tuum P-p. 18 22 Mollierunt sermones P-p. 279 1 Montes et omnes B-F. 353v 14 Multa corpora P-P. 305 10C Multa Fecisti P-P. 114 10A Nam qui exspectant P-P. 10 19A Narrabo omnia B-F. 340v 10 Ne perdas cum impiis P-P. 290 IB Nemo te condemnavit B-F. 336v 20 Nimis honorandi B-F. 239v 19A Nisi tu Oomine B-F. 351r unci. Nolite timere B-F. 191v 4 Non adorabis Oeum P-P. 107 2A Non demus somnum P-p. 34 unci. Non derelinques P-P. 51 10A Non est sanctus P-p. 63 13 Non est s i m i l i s P-P. 108 unci. Non exeat verbum B-F. 294v 6 Non nos derelinquas P-P. 242 14 Non timebo mala P-P. 273 10C Non tradas me P-P. 283 14 Non veni vocare B-F. 33r 16 Non veniat mini P-P. 273 unci. Nonne Deo anima B-F. 37v 23 Notam Fac F i l i i s P-p. 315 13 Notam Fecit Dominus P-P. 60 14 Notam Fecisti P-P. 117 2A Nonne sic oportuit B-F. 20r 24A Notas michi Fecisti B-F. 167r unci. 0 martyr Domini B-F. 165r unci. 0 quam suavis B-F. 104r unci. 0 Ypolite s i credis B-F. 189v 20 Omnes Angeli P-P. 178 12 207 Omnes Dei gentium P-p.106 28 Omnes gentes B-F.214v 27 I I P-p.25 30 Omnis prophetia P-p.120 28 Opera Domini B-F.305r 15 Opera manuum tuarum B-F.358r unci. Operiantur confusione P-p.279 1 Operuit caelos P-p.65 29 Orabat Judas B-F.116r 6 Orietur de terra P-p.27 unci. Orietur s t e l l a P-p.113 unci. Os peccatoris P-p.290 1 Ostende Faciem P-p.22 10 Ostende nobis P-p. 5 10 Panis quern ego B-F.107r 4 Parata sedes tua B-F.51v 19A Parate viam P-p.20 unci. Parati estote P-p.40 7 Paratus esto Israel P-P.14 18A Parce Domine B-F.345r 14 Pastor magna Ambrosi B-F.275v 24C Pater graties t i b i P-p.250 24A Pater s i non potest P-p.292 13 Patientiam habe P-p.178 24 Peccavi Domine P-p.187 16 Peocator nimis P-p.184 unci. Per os apoltoli B-F.240r unci, Per singulos Dies B-F.363r 18 Petre amas me B-F.147v 14 Petrus et Paulus B-F.145V IA Pilatus dixit P-p.302 19A Plantati in domo B-F.130v IC Ponam in mari P-p.115 5 Popule meus quid P-p.304 3 Populem quern adquisisti P-p.163 24 Populum tuum P-p.265 3 Posuerunt adversum P-p.282 IB Posuerunt super P-p.303 15 Posui scapulas P-p.303 11 Posui vestimentum P-p.302 15 Posuit signum P-p.139 2 Posuisti Oomine B-F.245r IOC Pretiosa in conspectu B-F.256v 3 Principes persecuti B-F.118v IC Principes sacerdotum P-p.279 19B Principium verborum P-p.82 28A 208 Proba me Oomine B-F.181v 19B Propitius esto B-F.345r 10A Propter miseriam P-p.302 IB Propter veritatem B-F.284v IA Psallam Deo meo B-F.363r 8 it B-F.363v unci. Psallite Deo nostro P-p.254 unci. Psallam S intelligam P-p.15 10C Puellae saltanti B-F.197v 10 Quam admirabile P-p.180 22A Quam spetio s i pedes B-F.240r unci. Quanta audivimus P-p.263 IB Quatri orbii protus B-F.205r IC Qui coronat te P-p.76 IB Qui edebat panes P-p.282 10B Qui Facit angelos B-F.182v IC it B-F.203r IC Qui regis Israel P-p.33 unci. Qui te exspectant P-p.51 19A Qui te tribulaverunt P-p.305 19A Quia conFortavit B-F.363v a B-F.363v unci, Quia contrivit P-p.303 5 Quia Fecit meam B-F.347r 29 Quia Fecit mihi B-F.41v 29 Quia ipse dixit P-p.184 27 Quia lux es P-p.114 29 Quia respexit B-F.285r 28 Quia v i d i s t i B-F.36v 28 Quid gl o r i a r i s B-F.43v 23 Quid petam mater B-F.197v unci. Quis Deus praeter P-p.107 20 Quis est iste...rubor P-p.64 27 Quomodo cantabimus P-p.34 6 Quoniam in saeculum B-F.354v 26 Quotidie apud P-p.293 unci. Recedente diabolo P-p.173 25A Recordare Domine B-F.42v 29 I I B-F.351r 29 Recordatus mei Oeus B-F.336r 30 Redde mihi laetitiam P-p.218 24C Redemptionem misit P-p.62 19 Reges terrae P-p.159 unci „ Religio matris B-F.168r 3 Replebimur in bonis B-F.231v 1 Repleti sunt omnes B-F.98r 30 Respexit Oominus B-F.256v 22B 209 Respice Domins P-P. 180 22A Respice S exaudi me P-P. 186 27 Responsum accepit P-P. 148 unci. Restoruit caro mea B-F. 123v unci. Rex meus et Oeus B-F. 342v 12 Rogat sanctas P-P. 140 6 Rorate caeli P-p. 6 unci. Rubum quern P-p. 130 unci. tt B-F. 201v unci. Sacerdotes Oomini benedicite P-p. 146 25 Sacrificium Oeo spiritus P-P. 222 IOC Sagittae parvulorum P-p. 90 IOB Salus nostra P-p. 39 6 Sana animam meam P-P. 238 7 Sancte f i d e l i s martyr B-F. 213r unci. Sancte Georgi martyr B-F. 113v 15 Sancte vi r Dei B-F. 167v 2 Sandi et humiles B-F. 261r 27 SanctiFicamini S estote P-p. 56 3 Sanctificavit Dominus B-F. 228v 1 Sanctum est templum B-F. 229v 10 Sanctum nomen Domini B-F. 364r 17 it tt P-P. 306 19A Sapientia ediFicavit B-F. 108r IOB Satiabor Oomine dum B-F. 167r 3 Sciant gentes quia P-p. IOB 27 Scio quad verbum B-F. 12v 20 Scitote quoniam B-F, 246r 27 Secundum magnum misericordiam B-F. 41r unci. II ti B-F. 346r 3 Secundum multitudinem P-p. 228 unci. Sedebit Dominus P-p. 218 2A Sedebat Jesus P-p. 193 30 Sedes tua Oeus B-F. 51v IA tt B-F. 352v 14 Sex milia B-F. 204v 18A Si voluisses P-P. 284 unci, Sic eum volo P-P. 82 6 Sicut claritas s o l i s B-F. 287v unci. Sicut locutus est B-F. 336v 3 Sicut ovis ad victimam P-P. 304 24A Simon dormis P-P. 290 11 Simon Joannis B-F. 146r unci. Sine timore inimi B-F. 300r 24B Sint lumbivestri B-F. 191v unci. Spera in Domino B-F. 355r 22A Sperantes in Domino B-F. 348v unci. 210 Speravi in misericordia B-F.355v 27 Speret Israel in Domino 8-F.351v unci. Spiritu principali B-F.S-Sv 13 P-p.274 16 Spiritus Domini super P-p.62 14 Spiritus Sanctus venit P-p.115 14 Splendor ejus P-p.119 14 Stantes erant B-F.227r 24A Stellae S lumen P-p.1B1 8 Sub clamide tarreni B-F.118v 1C Sub throno Dei P-p.92 13 Subiccit populus B-F.239v 1C Sutnmet sacerdos B-F.276v 28 Summa ingenuitas P-p.151 20 Super ceci occulos B-F.163v 19 A Super excelsa B-F.217r 28 Surraxit Dominus vera B-F.23r unci. Suscipiant Domine P-p.27 unci. Tanto tempore B-F.114v unci. Tempus acceptabile P-p.170 19A Terra nostra P-P. 6 unci. Terra tremuit P-p.305 8 Testimonia tua P-p.76 10B Testimonium Domini P-p.91 10B Testis in caelo P-p.76 19 Tibi dico Petre P-p.290 IA Tibi s o l i peccavi B-F.349v 10C ti B-F.350r 27 Timantes autem P-p.200 10 Traditus sum P-p.289 11 Tres ex uno ore B-F.305v 28 Tres in camino B-F.306r 3 Tres pueri jussu P-p.159 16 Tres pueri testimonium P-p.228 16 Tres video viros P-p.265 27 Tribus pueris in camino B-F.306r 10C Trium puerorum P-p.211 IA Tu credis in Filium P-p.228 20 Tu Domine benedices B-F.248v 20 Tu es Deus meus P-p.239 IA Tu es ipse rex P-p.96 28 Tu es via P-p.61 27 Tu hereditabis B-F.348v 4 Tu solus altissimus P-p.108 14 Tu es pastor orium B-F.146v 9 Tunc acceptabis P-p.223 3 Tunc dixi P-p.60 13 211 Tuus sum ego B-f,362r 14 Undecim discipuli B-f. 27r 19A Universi Domine P-P. 50 IA Usque in senectam B-f. 168r IA U-t acciperent animam P-P. 279 IB Ut j u s t i f i c e r i s P-P. 277 19A Velum templi P-p. 305 19A Veni Domine P-P. 27 unci. I I P-p. 41 10A Veni redemptor gentium P-P. 59 25 Veniat oratio nostra B-f. 296r 27 Veniat super nos P-P. 19 7 Veniet ex Sion P-p. 59 . 5 Venite f i l i i audite P-P. 260 IA Venite omnis P-p. l i s unci. Verba oris P-P. 211 16 Verbo Domini P-p. 223 10A Veritas de terra P-P. 65 13 Veritas Domini B-f. 343v 10A Vestri autem Beati P-p. 15B 24C Vicenti dabo B-f. 107r 9 rVictor maurus martyr B-f. 120r 24B Videbit omnis P-p. 40 unci. Videbitur Oeus P-p. 53 28A Videns Judas quia P-p. 302 24C Video virum similes B-f. 305v 26 Viderunt te aquae P-P. 116 unci. Videte videte quoniam P-p. 107 7 Vigilate S orate P-P. 291 108 Virtus mea B-f. 361v 9 Visita nos Domine P-p. 53 14 Visita v i t et fe c i t B-f. 300v 28 Voca operarios P-p. 157 6 Volo pater B-f. 168r 27 Vos amici mei B-f. 258v unci o Vos estis amici B-f. 257v 28 Vos estis lux B-f. 145v unci. Vovete S reddite P-P. 257 unci. Vox a libano P-P. 21 unci. Vox Domini super P-P. 115 14 Vox tonitrui P-P. 84 14 Zelus domus P-P. 303 11 BIBLIOGRAPHY Addis, W. E. and Arnold, T., eds. A Catholic Dictionary. 8th ed. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trilbner S Co. Ltd., 1909. Angles, H. "Latin Chant Before St. Gregory," Early Medieval  Music up to 1300. Vol. II of New Oxford History of  Music. Edited by E. Wellesz. London: Oxford University Press, 1957-. Apel, W, The Notation of Polyphonic Music. 5th ed. Cambridge .Mass.]: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 19S1. Gregorian Chant. London: Burns S Oates, 1958. Benedicintes of Solesmes, eds. Pale'ographie Musicale. Solesmes: Abbaye Saint Pierre, 1889-. Vols. V and VI. Borella, P. I_l Rito Ambrosiano. Brescia, 1964. Baroffio, G. "Die Offertorien der ambrosianischen Kirche; Vorstudie zur kritischen Ausgabe der MailSndischen Gesa*nge." Ph.D. dissertation, Cologne, 19B4. /.-..-j Bourke, V. J., trans. Saint Augustine: Confessions. Vol. 21 of The Fathers of the Church. Edited by R. J. Deferrari and others. New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1953. Cattaneo, E. "Note storiche sul canto ambrosiano." Archivio  Ambrosiano. I l l , 1951. . "Sul canto ambrosiano." Atti del Congresso Internationale di Musica Sacra, 1952, 196-8. DeFerrari, R. J. Saint Ambrose: Theological and Dogmatic Works. Vol. XLIV oF The Fathers oF the Church. Edited by R. J. DeFerrari and others. New York: Fathers oF the Church, Inc., 1963. Dreves, G. M. Aurelius Ambrosius. der Vater des Kjrchen-gesSnges. 1893. 213 Duchesne, L. M. Christian Worship: Its Origin and Evolution. 5th ed. Translated by M. L. McLure. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1910. . The Early History of the Church. Translated by C. Jenkins. London: J. Murray, 1924. 3 vols. Dudden, H. The Life and Times of St. Ambrose. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1935. 2 vols. Gamber, K. Codices Li t u r g i c i Latine Antiquiores. 2nd ed. Freiburg: Universita*tsverlag, 1968. 2 vols. Gevaert, F. A. Les Origines du Chant Liturgique de 1'Eglise  latine . Hildesheim: Georg 01ms, 1971; reprint oF 1890 edition. — — • La m4lopee antique dans le chant de 1 1Eglise latine. OsnabrdJck: 0. Zeller, 1967; reprint oF 1895 edition. Huglo, M. "Fonti e paleograFia del canto ambrosiano." Archivio Ambrosiano. VII (Milan, 19563. Jesson, R. H, "Ambrosian Chant: The Music oF the Mass." Ph.O. dissertation, Indiana University, 1955. -----. "Ambrosian Chant." Gregorian Chant. Edited by W. Apel. London: Burns S Oates, 1958. Kelly, F. J. "Plainchant, the Handmaid oF the Liturgy: A Challenge and a Prophecy." Musical Quarterly. VII (July, 19213, 344-50. Kienle, A. "Ober ambrosianische Liturgie und ambrosianischen Gesang," Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedict-iner- und dem Cjstercienser-Orden. V, Bd. 1 (18843,. 56FF, 346FF; Bd. 2, 340 FF. King, A. A. Liturgies oF the Primatial Sees. Milwaukee, 1957. Leeb, H, Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius. Vienna: Herder, n.d. Mocquereau, A. "Notes sur 1'inFluence de 1*Accent et du Cursus tonique dans le chant Ambrosien." Ambrosiano. (Milan, 18973, 29-37. d'Ortigue, M. J. Dictionnaire Liturgique. Hjstorique et Theorique de Plain-Chant et de_ Musi que d'£glise. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971; reprint of 1854 edition. 214 • t t , K. "L'Antifonia ambrosiana in rapporto al canto gregoriano." Rassegna Gregoriana, V [1906], 177-200. Paredi, A. "Milanese Rite." New Catholic Encyclopedia, IX [1967). . Saint Ambrose; His Life and Times. Translated r by M. J. Costelloe. Notre Dame (Indiana): University of Notre Dame Press, 1964. Parrish, C. The Notation of Medieval Music. New York: W. W. Norton S Co., 1957. Reese, G. Music in the Middle Ages. New York: W. W. Norton S Co., 1940. Ryden, E. E. The Story of Christian Hymnody. Rock Island ( I l l i n o i s ) : Augustana Press, 1959. StSblein, B. "Ambrosius." Die Musik in Geschichte und  Gegenwart. Vol. I (1951). Sunol, G. Introduction a lai Paleographis Musicale Gregori enne. Paris: Societe* de Saint Jean L'f_vang_fliste, 1935. ed. Antiphonale missarum juxta ritum Sanctae  Ecclesiae Mediolanensis. Rome: Desclee et s o c i i , 1935. ed. Liber Vesperalis juxta ritum Sanctae Ecclesiae  Mediolanensis. Rome, 1939. Wagner, P. E i nft.hr ung in die Gregorianischen MBlodien. Hildesheim: Georg 01ms, 1962; reprint of 1907 edition. Translated by A. Orme and E. G. Wyatt in Caecilia. LXXXIV [No. 2, 1957), 99-142; (No. 3, 1957], 201-36; (No. 4, 1957), 298-344; LXXXV (No. 1, 1958), 51-102; (No. 2, 1958), 177-232; (No. 3, 1958), 279-320; LXXXVI (No. 2, 1959), 13-56. Wellesz, E. Eastern Elements in Western Chant. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1947. — . "Recent Studies in Western Chant." Musical  Quarterly. XLI (April, 1955), 177-90. West, R, C. Western Liturgies. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 1938. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0093097/manifest

Comment

Related Items