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The lesser antiphons of the Milanese office : a thematic classification and analysis Barrington-Foote, Kevin Randle 1973

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THE  LESSER ANTIPHONS OF THE MILANESE  OFFICE:  A THEMATIC C L A S S I F I C A T I O N AND ANALYSIS  by KEVIN HANDLE  BARRINGTON-FOOTE  B.Mus., U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF MUSIC  i n t h e Department of MUSIC  We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  thesis  as conforming t o t h e  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April,  1973  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be g r a n t e d by  written  permission.  Department o f  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  gain  April  2A  r  1973  Columbia  shall  not  thesis  Department o r  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r  of this thesis f o r financial  study.  copying o f t h i s  the Head o f my  that  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  The  r e p e r t o r y o F m u s i c known a s M i l a n e s e  only r e c e n t l y the  early  with  such  attracted  part of t h i s  chant: h a s  the attention of musicologists. century  s c h o l a r s concerned  aspects o f the Milanese  rite  themselves  as i t s o r i g i n s , the  structure  of the liturgy,  The  i t s e l f , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u e d t o be d i s c u s s e d  music  and p a l e o g r a p h i c  in  g e n e r a l terms o r i n r e l a t i o n  is  only within the last  diFFiculties.  to Gregorian  this  merely  melodies.  Few d e c a d e s t h a t s t y l i s t i c  oF t h e m u s i c h a v e begun t o p e n e t r a t e  In  It  analyses  relatively  unexplored  Field. This study antiphons the  oF t h e Milanese  results  and oF  oFFice.  oF p a s t r e s e a r c h i n t o  presents general Part  i s principally  inFormation  I oF t h e t h e s i s  concerned  with  the lesser  The I n t r o d u c t i o n s u m m a r i z e s the Milanese  concerning  r i t e and  the antiphons.  presents t h e Thematic  ClassiFication  a d i s c u s s i o n o F t h e method e m p l o y e d ; t h e t h r e e Part II deal with It  chapters  t h e a n a l y s i s oF t h e m e l o d i e s .  has been s u g g e s t e d  t h a t many o F t h e M i l a n e s e  p h o n s c a n be g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r o n t h e b a s i s o F common material.  Such a c l a s s i F i c a t i o n  had  appeared  at the beginning  has  b e e n made t o a p p l y a s i m i l a r  oF t h e G r e g o r i a n  oF t h i s  century,  procedure  anti-  melodic  antiphons  b u t no  attempt  to the Milanese  repertory, would the  even  appear  though  t o be  t h e more  better  Gregorian with  stable  suited  i t s numerous  Milanese  For such  tradition  an a n l y s i s  and o f t e n  than  conflicting  sources. The of a  psalter  the Milanese Thematic  hundred  chants  few  fact,  antiphons from the by  Many  c a n be  melodies there  developed,  simple melodies  The  reduced  which  appear  a  An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f the cadences  and  which  of  the Milanese  process  with  number  would  repertory.  common shown  seem  readily  t o be  were  or  related, only  a  developed.  t o show  that  of gradual  the  elaboration  demonstrated  longer texts  to  seven  melodies  originally  chants  I t c a n be  of the antiphons  simplicity  were  numerous  majority o f over  t o be e v i d e n c e  through  limited  c a n be  other  reciting-tones.  the use o f a  great  there  a n d most  have responded  to thirty  Themes  i s that  from  would  the simplest  antiphons,  of these  the implication  very In  office  Classification.  "Themes." and  antiphons,  were  that expanded  o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l devices,, and  finals  t o speak  reveals f o r the  an  economy  antiquity  Oxford, B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , L a t . l i t .  i  a 4 Cf. Ir-3  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  L I S T OF TABLES  i i i  L I S T OF PLATES  iv  INTRODUCTION  1  PART I - THE THEMATIC  CLASSIFICATION  Discussion. M u s i c a l Examples.  PART Chapter  ......30 ............55  I I - ANALYSIS  1 - R e l a t e d Themes  136  C h a p t e r 2 - O p e r a t i o n o F Themes... Chapter 3 - Cadences and F i n a l s  APPENDIX  ...151 ..178  I - INDEX TO THE THEMATIC C L A S S I F I C A T I O N  193  APPENDIX I I - ALPHABETICAL INOEX OF THE MILANESE PSALTER ANTIPHONS  196  BIBLIOGRAPHY  212  ii  L I S T OF TABLES  Table  Page  I  - SUMMARY OF THE THEMES  51  II  - L I S T OF THEMES AND SUB-THEMES  52  III  - EXPLANATION  54  IV  - DISTRIBUTION  V  - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE THEMES  OF ANALYTICAL  SYMBOLS  OF FINALS IN THE ANTIPHONS  iii  179 180  LIST  OF  PLATES  Plate  Frontispiece  Page  - Oxford,  Bodleian  Library, a  1  - Oxford,  Bodleian  4  - London, B r i t i s h  4  Cf.  Museum, 34.209  iv  Lat.  l i t .  Ir]  Library, a  2  Cf.  Lat.  l i t .  8r3  3  Add. Cf.  MS  103...  4  INTRODUCTION The repertory of music known as Milanese chant c o n s t i tutes one of the four main d i a l e c t s l of Western C h r i s t i a n chant.  Milanese chant has been more commonly r e f e r r e d to as  "Ambrosian," 397.  a f t e r St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan from 374 to  While h i s term of o f f i c e was one of great s i g n i f i c a n c e  regarding l i t u r g i c a l matters, scholars now c r e d i t Ambrose with only three innovations i n the chant i t s e l f :  the use of a n t i -  phons, the singing of hymns, and a new arrangement of the vigils.2  The chant and i t s corresponding l i t u r g y were set i n  order, however, " i n times l a t e r than those of the great bishop."3  While some writers s t i l l c l i n g to the term "Ambros-  i a n , " modern scholars have chosen to employ "Milanese" since i t represents a more r e a l i s t i c designation. Before delineating the proposed t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s necessary to review the circumstances of the Milanese r i t e . This introduction w i l l f i r s t present the sources, the c o n f l i c t ing theories concerning the o r i g i n s of the r i t e , a very b r i e f development i l l u s t r a t i n g the i n f u s i o n of Roman elements, and a survey of the e x i s t i n g research on the subject. others are Gregorian, Mozarabic and G a l i l e a n . 2  A.  IX C1967],  Pared!, "Milanese R i t e , " New Catholic Encyclopedia, 839.  3H. Angles, "Latin Chant Before St. Gregory," New Oxford History of Music, Vol. I I , ed. by Dom A„ Hughes [London: Oxford University Press, 1954], p. 59,  2 I The p r i n c i p a l sources of Milanese chant are the Following:  4  1. St. Gallon, S t i F t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. 908 [pp. 75-78, 81-84, 87-92, 95-96, 101-102, 105-108, 111-118, 121-122}; also, Zurich, Zentralbibliothek, Cod. C 79b [FF. 18-19], This i s the oldest of the manuscripts, dating From the seventh century. I t i s a Fragmented palimpsest, the contents oF which are indecipherable. 2. Bergamo, B i b l i o t e c a d i S. Alessandro i n Colonna CFF. 1-11 oF Codex Nr. 505], Dating From the tenth century, t h i s manuscript i s also Fragmentary, 3. London, B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MS 34.209. This i s one oF the most important oF the sources. I t dates From the twelFth century and contains the pars hiemalis [an explanation oF t h i s term Follows the description oF the sources). I t has been published i n Facsimile as Vol. V oF the Paleographie Musicale and i n t r a n s c r i p t i o n as Vol. VI.5 4. Bedero Antiphoner, Bedero d i Val Travaglia, Chiesa C o l l e g i a t a d i S. V i t t o r e [no manuscript number given}. This twelFth-century manuscript contains the pars aestiva and thus Forms the necessary complement t o the London antiphoner.8 5. Roma, Cod. Vat. l a t . 10645 CF. 58}. This Fragmentary manuscript From the twelFth century, contains only that portion oF the l i t u r g i c a l year From August 29 t o September 7. 4K7 Gamber, Codices l i t u r q i c i l a t j n l ant i qui ores. V o l . I CFreiburg: UniversitStsverlag, 1968], pp. 275-78. SGamber notes that t h i s manuscript was one oF the two used by SuPtol i n preparing h i s c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n ; the other i s the Bedero antiphoner Cnumber 4 above], Sunol's c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . 6Angles  f  i n "Latin Chant," p, 62, points out that the  3  "Mllktou aUdiiuattdtwjildop. jl"  7  ~• •"  "  >adu,filing*.  ^ J~ 4 f t ? T jV^A  '  *"  |i«rt to«twbuf -in  Jjmjir*NtrKfi.giUM  '.  4  '  «  -J f  •  .  •  m w J ^ ^ S S S S :<^mitdcmpn I  ucm finir^toomino  cctnfvd  o umnnnro tbmr.;u$ mien a —  i  afcmpucr ti,ifiipcraptnco:i^al ^  :taSMgOMMMMMa — —  —  ~A  . . ......  —  4  —*—f-^—-A  am'  8 .v • -"Vi-.T"*  1 - Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat. l i t . a 4 [F. 8 r )  4  Plate 2 - London, B r i t i s h Museum, Add. MS 34.209 Cr*. 10}  5 6. Oxford, Bodleian Library, l a t . l i t . a 4. Although t h i s manuscript i s of a l a t e r date [fourteenth century] than the others l i s t e d above, i t i s an important source of the pars aestiva.  The two main sources used f o r t h i s study are the London codex [number 3] and the manuscript from Oxford [number 6], The Bedero codex, mentioned above, was unavailable f o r study.7 A complete  l i s t of a l l the manuscripts, including several  others of l a t e r date, can be found i n M. Huglo's, "Fonti e paleografia del canto  ambrosiano,"^  The t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the Milanese  liturgical  year into the pars hiemalis [winter part] and pars aestiva [summer part] i s r e f l e c t e d i n the manuscripts.  While i t i s  not appropriate here to embark on a detailed description of the Milanese r i t e , 9 t h i s d i v i s i o n must be explained.  The pars  hiemalis i s associated with Milan Cathedral i t s e l f , known as the e c c l e s i a hiemalis. or b a s i l i c a major.  The winter portion  of the year begins on the t h i r d Sunday of October which i s Bedero antiphoner was "discovered subsequent to the publicat i o n of the Paleographie Musicale. vols, v and v i . " This accounts for i t s absence from that c o l l e c t i o n . Even Roy Jesson, i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n from 1955 [ t h i s work w i l l be discussed presently], found i t necessary to use the Bodleian manuscript rather than the Bedero. 7  B  A r c h i v i o Ambrosiano. VII [Milan, 1956], 46ff.  9for a complete account of the r i t e see A. Pared!, "Milanese R i t e , " New Catholic Encyclopedia. IX [1967], 838842; also, R. Weakland, "The Performance of Ambrosian Chant i n the 12th Century," i n Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A_ Birthday Offering to Gustavo Reese, ed. by Jan La Rue [New York; W.W. Norton S Co., 1966], pp. 856-66,  6 the Feast of the Dedication oF Milan Cathedral, The other portion of the year, the pars aestiva, i s associated with the second church nearby [the e c c l e s i a aestiva, or b a s i l i c a minor3 snd begins at Easter [Vespers of Holy Saturday3.  The change-over From one church to the other  i s accompanied by ceremonial processions,10  The usual  Gregorian separation between Mass and oFFice chants i s not Found i n the Milanese service books.  They simply "present  the music For each day i n order as i t i s sung."H  II Scholars have concerned themselves with the question of the o r i g i n s oF the Milanese r i t e .  As w i l l be seen, the  manuscripts themselves oFFer no conclusive evidence i n t h i s matter.  The problem i s evident i n Ambrose's own writings  which, according to recent scholarship, lead to the Following conclusions: l3that the l i t u r g y oF Milan i n the Fourth century was s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same as that oF Rome; 2]the Arian Bishop Auxentius introduced changes into Milan's worship and may have been the source oF c e r t a i n a F F i n i t i e s between the Milanese and Greek r i t e s ; 33in c e r t a i n instances the practice oF Milan diFFered From that oF Rome,12 10R, H. Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant," i n Gregorian Chant, ed. by W. Apel [London: Burns S Oates, 1958], p, 467, This a r t i c l e also includes much more information on the r i t e , 11Jesson, "Ambrosian Chants The Music oF the Mass," [Ph.D. d i s s . , Indiana University, 19553, p. 27. 12Paredi, "Milanese R i t e , " 839,  7 Tha apparent: co-existence of eastern and western elements i n the Milanese r i t e hes given r i s e to two basically-opposed theories to explain i t s o r i g i n s .  Some suggest that the r i t e  was of a purely eastern d e r i v a t i o n ; others that i t belongs to a L a t i n t r a d i t i o n . The former theory was f i r s t proposed by L. M. Duchesne i n 1889.13  i t was h i s b e l i e f that the non-Roman features of  the Milanese  l i t u r g y e x h i b i t " a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  Eastern l i t u r g i e s . " 1 4 He noted that there are some Milanese texts that are to be found word for word i n the Greek of the Syro-Byzantine  churches.  I t i s , moreover, a h i s t o r i c a l fact  that Milan hosted assemblies  of eastern bishops.15  Duchesne's  strongest argument, however, rested on the incumbency of Auxentius as Bishop o f Milan f o r approximately [355-374],  twenty years  Duchesne was c e r t a i n that Auxentius,  having  exhibited extraordinary strength of w i l l i n r e s i s t i n g e f f o r t s to dislodge him, must have had profound influence on the church and clergy.1^ But there i s yet another aspect to Duchesne's theories. He claimed not only an eastern o r i g i n but also the v i r t u a l 13Christian Worship; I t s Origin and Evolution [5th ed.; London: Society for Promoting C h r i s t i a n Knowledge, 1927 3, pp. 93-4. Hlbid. ISIbid.  16Ibid.  a  i d e n t i t y of the Milanese and G a l l i c a n l i t u r g i e s .  The English  l i t u r g i o l o g i s t s had believed, p r i o r to the appearance of •uchesne's work, that t h B G a l l i c a n l i t u r g y had been imported from Ephesus [the ancient church of the Roman province o f Asia} into Gaul through Lyons.1?  From t h i s c i t y i t was claimed  that the l i t u r g y then spread throughout the transalpine West. Stating h i s reasons For disagreement, Duchesne oFFered another solution based on the belieF that Milan, and not Lyons, was the point of entry f o r the G a l l i c a n l i t u r g y and the eastern influences.I  s  The opposing theory, that of a L a t i n o r i g i n f o r the Milanese r i t e , was proposed by t h B monks of Solesmes i n the prefaces to the Paleographie Musicals.  In the "Introduction  GeneVale" of the f i r s t volume!9 they made t h e i r p o s i t i o n c l e a r at the outset: Le gregorien, l'ambrosien, le mozarabe S l e peu qui nous reste du g a l l i c a n paraissent en e f f e t , avoir une source commune S deri ver d'une me*me langue musicals: l e chant de l ' E g l i s e l a t i n e a son berceau £i.e. RomeJ.20  17ibld.. p. 90. 1 8  I b i d . , pp. 90-1.  19x889.  gQlbid.. p. 35.  The Gregorian, the Ambrosian, the Mozarabic and the l i t t l e that remains of the Gallioan appear, i n e f f e c t , to have a common source and derive from the same musical language: the chant of the L a t i n church at i t s cradle £i . e. Romel . 2Q  9 After examining various manuscripts the learned Benedictines concluded that the t o n a l i t y and rhythmCl] were the same i n the four d i a l e c t s of the Latin chant.  Furthermore, the  Solesmss monks claimed t o have discovered a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y of musical s t y l e i n the melodic forms of the four d i a l e c t s : a}la psalmodie simple avsc son antienne presque syllabique; b]l'antienne plus chargee de notes, toujours accompagnee d'une psalmodie; cDenfin des compositions plus musicales S plus . developpe'es correspondant aux graduels, a l l e l u i a s , o f f e r t o r i e s , du chant gregorien.21  ajthe simple psalmody with i t s nearly s y l l a b i c antiphon; bjthe more elaborated antiphon, always accompanied by psalmody; c j f i n a l l y , the more musical and more developed compositions corresponding to graduals a l l e l u i a s and o f f e r t o r i e s of Gregorian chant.21  A discussion dealing more s p e c i f i c a l l y with Milanese chant i s contained i n a l a t e r volume of the Pal6ographie Musicals.22  Q  o m  Cagin, a f t e r r e f u t i n g the theories of  •uohesne, stated h i s b e l i e f concerning the o r i g i n s of the Milanese r i t e as follows: Nous i n c l i n o n s , nous autres, non pour Milan, mais pour Romte. C'est a Rome que nous r a t tacherions volontiers 1'unite g a l l i c a n e . On a pu l e presentir dans l e s pages precedentes. D'une part, en e f f e t , nos observations sur l a communaute", a toutes l e s l i t u r g i e s d'Occident, de 1'euchologia embolismjque  We i n c l i n e , we others, not towards Milan, but towards Rome. I t i s to Rome that we would willingly attribute the G a l l i c a n unity we have been able to present i n the proceeding pages. On the one hand, i n e f f e c t , our observations on what i s common t o a l l the l i t u r g i e s of the Occident,  eilbid. 22Antiphonarium Ambroslanum, V, 1B96.  10 nous ont: conduits a conelure a un seul systeme l i t u r g i q u e l a t i n ; S, d'autre part, l a convergence de tous les documents autour du Qui p r i d i e romains nous permettrait des a present de f a i r e un pas de plus S de donner a ce systeme l a t i n un nom plus precis le nom de romain,23  of the euchologie embolismique. have led us to decide that there was a single L a t i n l i t u r g i c a l system; and, on the other hand, the convergence of a l l the documents around the Roman Qui p r i d i e have allowed us now to take a further step and to give to t h i s L a t i n system a name more precise, that of "f)oman,"23  Modern scholars tend t o embrace neither of the above theories whole-heartedly, but suggest rather a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the two opinions.  Paredi, f o r example, r e j e c t s the notion  of a Greek o r i g i n f o r the Milanese rite.24  He asserts that  t h i s idea i s "untenable i f one admits, as everyone now does, Ambrose's authorship  of Ote Sacramentis."25  He agrees with the  Solesmes monks that the churches of the West must have received t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l i t u r g i c a l formulas and r i t e s from Rome.  At the same time, however, Paredi admits that: Duchesne's t h e s i s can be accepted i n the sense that Milan was the center from which a G a l l i c a n type l i t u r g y took i t s o r i g i n . By G a l l i c a n i s meant a L a t i n [not Eastern] l i t u r g y d i f f e r e n t from that of Rome i n c e r t a i n particulars,26 e a  I b i d . . p. 70.  24"Milanese R i t e , " New Catholic Encyclopedia. 839, 25ibid. In Dts Sacramentis. Ambrose expresses the desire of the Church of Milan to follow that of Rome " i n a l l things," See R. J . D e f e r r a r i , Saint Ambrose s Theological and Dogmatic Works. Vol. XLIV of The Fathers of the Church [New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1963], pp. 291-92; p. 317, 26ibld. Paredi mentions two instances i n which the practice of Milan d i f f e r e d from that of Rome: l ] t h e Feet of  11 In order to expose more F u l l y the problems Facing the musicologist attempting t o determine the o r i g i n s oF the Milanese r i t e , l e t us look b r i e F l y at i t s development. It i s well established that, on several occasions, the Followers oF the Milanese r i t e were Forced t o deFend i t against Roman inFluence and suppression.  But here again there are diFficul-«  t i e s since, as Peter Wagner so aptly put i t , a " v e i l of legend" has been drawn over the r e a l occurrences "so that i t i s impossible now to state the Facts h i s t o r i c a l l y . " 2 7  Never-  theless, we w i l l adhere t o the accounts oF modern scholars, indicating c o n F l i c t s oF opinion where appropriate. Paredi believes that, between the Fourth and ninth centuries, there must have been two reForms i n the Rite--one owing t o Greek inFluence, another t o the Benedictines:  "These  r e v i s i o n s coincide with the l i m i t a t i o n oF the geographical ambit of the r i t e during the Carolingian r e f o r m s , "  29  According  to Landulfus the Elder, an author of the second h a l f of the eleventh century, Charlemagne had attempted t o suppress the the newly-baptized were washed; 2]there has never been Saturday Fasting i n Milan although there was i n Rome Cp, 839), 27introduction t o the Gregorian Melodies, t r a n s l a t e d by A. Orme and E. G. P. Wyatt, C a e c i l i a . LXXXV [No. 2, Spring, 1958}, p. 195. 2 Paredi, "Milanese R i t e , " 839. Q  12 Milanese r i t e e n t i r e l y by imposing Roman books and chant,29 Further attempts  i n a s i m i l a r vein were made i n the eleventh  century by Popes Nicholas II and Gregory VII.30  j  n  the  twelFth century, however, the Milanese r i t e secured recog-. n i t i o n i n the papal b u l l s oF Eugenius III [1145} and Anastasius IV C11533.31 This security was s h o r t l i v e d , For the Rite was threats ened again i n the FiFteenth century.  In 1568 and 1570,  Pius V  declared the Roman Breviary and Missal obligatory and outlawed other r i t e s . Fact.  Here i s a good example oF how  Fable has clouded  According to legend, a Milanese book and a Gregorian  one were l a i d side by side on the a l t a r oF Saint Peter to await divine decision.  They both opened simultaneously of  t h e i r own accord and t h i s was considered to be a confirmation 29While t h i s attempt i s acknowledged by modern scholars, there seems to have been some disagreement among e a r l i e r ; ones, P. Wagner i n Introduction to Gregorian Melodies, p. 195, supported the attempts oF Charlemagne. L. Duchesne, on the contrary, c l e a r l y stated: "The Fables r e l a t e d by Landulf as to the h o s t i l i t y displayed by Charlemagne to the Ambrosian r i t u a l are not worthy of c r e d i t . " — C h r i s t i a n Worship, p, 105, Duchesne's argument f o r a strong and stable Milanese Church may have been the reason f o r h i s d i s b e l i e f of the accounts, 30R. Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant," Gregorian Chant. ed, by W. Apel [London: Burns S Oates, 1958], p, 468. H. Angles, i n the New Oxford History of Music. II [1954], p. 62, also agrees with t h i s statement. Paredi, i n a more recent a r t i c l e , "Milanese R i t e , " c l a i m B that these attempt are now generally accepted as being untrue.—New Catholic Encyclopedia. 839. 31je sson, "Ambrosian Chant," Gregorian Chant, p  f  466,  13 of t h e i r equal authority. f u l , i s more c r e d i b l e .  Another story, while not so c o l o r -  We are t o l d that Pius made exceptions  for those r i t e s which had been i n use f o r two hundred years or more.  Since the Milanese r i t e met t h i s requirement  permitted to continue.  i t was  However, the Archbishop of Milan was  ordered to enforce a reform of the l i t u r g i c a l books. Borromeo [ l a t e r Saint] was appointed to t h i s task.  Charles Under h i B  d i r e c t i o n were published the f i r s t o f f i c i a l Calendarium and Breviary [1582].  [1567]  The R i t u a l [1589] and Missal [1594]  appeared a f t e r h i s death.  Borromeo s c h i e f aim was to restore  the Rite to i t s o r i g i n a l state.  1  Unfortunately, h i s commission  did not l i m i t themselves to h i s wishes and some serious departures from ancient t r a d i t i o n were included.32 The Milanese scholar i s faced with a paradoxical s i t u a tion.  The Rite has maintained a c e r t a i n o r i g i n a l i t y and  s t a b i l i t y but i t also includes foreign Features adapted from the Roman.  mainly  This fusion of Gregorian and Milaness elements  i s a major obstacle i n ascertaining the true o r i g i n and nature of the Milanese r i t e .  Concerning the chant i t s e l f , to which  the same d i f f i c u l t i e s pertain,33 Rembert Weakland has t h i s to say: s t o r a t i o n a f t e r t h i s time was c a r r i e d on i n the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and w i l l be discussed further on, 33For some s p e c i f i c examples of concurrences between Milanese and Gregorian chants, see G. Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages [New York: W. W. Norton S Co., 1840], pp. 105-S,  14 Many scholars of the 19th century too e a s i l y assumed that Gregorian chant and Ambrosian chant came from a common stem, since l o s t , while others, such as Qom Germain Morin, postulated the p r i o r i t y of the Ambrosian chant, from which the Gregorian evolved. More recent trends among scholars tend to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between borrowed chants inserted much l a t e r into the Ambrosian chant from the Gregorian and a primitive Ambrosian nucleus that must be pre-Carolingian. This l a t t e r shows a kind of music-making s i m i l a r to Gregorian chant but less r i g i d , less polished, and less systematic.34 That t h i s nucleus goes back to the time of St. Ambrose cannot possibly be proved. It i s c l e a r , however, that by the Carolingian period the Ambrosian musical practice d i f f e r e d from the Gregorian and that further developments of i t were made mostly by borrowings from the Gregorian and adaptations of older chants.35 Egon Wellesz, who has dons extensive work on chant problems, states that the complex question of the spread of C h r i s t i a n chant has not as yet been answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , , In h i s estimation a great many more "detailed studies w i l l have to be made before such questions can be answered safely,, "36  Having set out the main problems and theories surrounding the Milanese r i t e and chant, l e t us now attempt to make e summary of the research that has been done.  I t appears that  the Milanese r i t e f i r s t attracted the attention of scholars i n the late nineteenth century.  In 1884, Dom  Ambrose Kienle  T h e findings of the presant study would c a l l into question t h i s evaluation. 34  35"Milanese Rite, Chants o f , " New IX [19673, 842.  Catholic Encyclopedia,,  36»Recent Studies i n Western Chant," Musical Quarterly XLI ( A p r i l , 1955), 182.  n  15 published a description of the Milanese l i t u r g y and chant.37 A decade l a t e r , one of the most important sources  was  published, Beroldus. sive Ecclesiae Ambrosianae Mediolanensis Kalendarium  et Ordines, saec. XII.33  Concerning t h i s Qrdo.  one modern scholar s t a t e s : This important tabulation of Ambrosian practice i n the l a t e r medieval period, written by a Milanese e c c l e s i a s t i c , i s s t i l l one of the most valuable l i t u r g i c a l sources.39 S i g n i f i c a n t progress was made by the Benedictines of Solesmes with t h e i r publications of the Paleographie Musicale. an invaluable contribution to chant research.40  Apart from  containing important information about the o r i g i n s ,  develop-  ment and forms of chant, these volumes also include f a c s i m i l e s of a few of the major manuscripts and, i n some cases, t r a n s c r i p t i o n s into modern chant notation.  The s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u -  t i o n of the Paleographie Musicale to Milanese chant, namely the p u b l i c a t i o n of the pars hiemalis. has already been mentioned above. Shortly a f t e r the turn of the century, Karl Ott published a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s i n Rassegna Gregoriana, beginning i n 1906 with "L'Antifonia ambrosiana i n rapporto a l canto gregoriana. "41 Ober ambroslanische L i t u r g i e und ambrosianischen Gesang," Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und dem Cistercienser-Qrden. V, Bd. I, p. 346; Bd. I I , p. 56, 3B d. M a g i s t r e t t i , e  1894.  39jesson, "Ambrosian Chant: The Music of the Mass," p. 3 „ 40CSolesmes: Abbaye S B i n t Pierre, 1889-D. ^ S i m i l a r a r t i c l e s appear i n volumes V-VIII, X (1906-11)  0  16 In t h i s and subsequent  a r t i c l e s , Ott drew comparisons  Milanese and Gregorian melodies.  between  Although the a r t i c l e s pro-  vided useful information, Ott made c e r t a i n mistakes which modern scholars have avoided. ing  His major error lay In assign-  modes to the melodies when the manuscripts  contain no modal designations whatsoever.  themselves  The f i r s t encyclo-  pedic a r t i c l e s to be based on modern research appeared i n the Oictionnaire d*Archeologie Chretienne et de 1iturgie.42 i n p a r t i c u l a r , an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Milan" appeared i n one of the l a t e r volumes, providing an annotated l i s t of a l l the thenknown Milanese l i t u r g i c a l manuscripts.  Around t h i s time too a  new e d i t i o n of the text of the Missale Ambrosianum [1902} appeared and subsequently, a c r i t i c a l  e d i t i o n by A c h i l l e Rett!  [ l a t e r Pope Pius XI] and M. Magistretti.43 Following t h i s period of a c t i v i t y , interest i n Milanese chant seems to have subsided. Schuster assigned Dom chant i n a c r i t i c a l  In the early 1930's, Cardinal  Gregory Suffol the task of restoring the  edition.  In order to accomplish t h i s  enormous undertaking, Suftol studied some forty e x i s t i n g manus c r i p t s . 44  The f i r s t f r u i t of t h i s labor was the Praeconlum  Paschale [Milan, 1934],  This was followed by the Antiphonale  Missarum [Rome, 1935]  Centi Ambrosiani  per i 1 popolo [Milan  4 Ed. by Cabrol. The a r t i c l e s are by Qorn A. Gajard, "Ambrosien [chant]," and, Dom P. Lejay, "Ambrosienne [Liturgy] £  43H. Angles, "Latin Chant Before St. Gregory," p. 63. 44ibld. 45The sources used i n preparation of t h i s volume, which contains the music f o r Mass, were discussed above [see p„ 2].  17 19363; Liber Vesperalis (Rome, 19393 ; Missa pro Defunct:is cum exsequiarum  4 S  and, Of f icium et:  ordine [Rome, 19393 „  Two other publications, the Directorium Chori and the Processionale remained unfinished at h i s death.  Sunol's e d i t i o n  marked a major step toward modern restoration and preservation of Milanese chant.  I t i s to be noted that no complete  edition  of the o f f i c e antiphons was published. In 1947, Egon Wellesz published h i s book, Eastern 2, Elements i n Western Chant.47  E a r l i e r i n t h i s century scholars  had postulated the theory of an eastern o r i g i n f o r western chant.48  While these theories were accepted by l a t e r scholars,  they could not be v e r i f i e d because the Byzantine neumes were indecipherable.  Wellesz was able, i n f a c t , to solve the  Byzantine n o t a t i o n ^ and proceeded to t e s t the theories of Thibaut and Gastoue.  Indeed, Wellesz'e study turned out to be  more revealing than he himself had anticipated.  He was able to  A c c o r d i n g to Jesson, "Ambrosian Chant: the Music of the Mass," p. 27, the music for the Lesser Hours of the o f f i c e were not included "since they require no s p e c i a l music other then psalm-tones and hymns, and the 'Responsorium breve* and E p i s t o l e l l a . Chants f o r the l a s t two may be seen i n the music for Compline i n the Liber Vesperalis Cp. 7983." 4B  47copenhagen: Munksgaard,  1947.  48J.-B. Thibaut, Origins byzantjne de lia notation neumatiqua de 1'egUse l a t i n e [Paris, 1907]; and, A. Gastoue, Les origines du chant romain. Bibliotheque musicologique [Paris, 1907). 49More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Wellesz deciphered the neumes of the so-called "Middle Byzantine" musical notation.  18 show that tho eastern influences were not, i n f a c t , imported from the Church of Constantinople as had been suggested, but rather that Byzantine melodies and Plainchant [Western chant] were both . . . rooted i n the chant of the Churches of the Early C h r i s t i a n age, which derived partly from the chant of the Jewish service, p a r t l y from hymns i n Syriac, composed on the model of these chants and t r a n s l a t e d l a t e r on into Greek.80 Milanese chant had a role of no l i t t l e importance to p l a y i n Wellesz's study.  Prior to Wellesz's work the Milanese melodies  had usually been considered to be the oldest form of Plainchant preserved i n decipherable notation.51  But by comparing  Byzantine, Gregorian and Milanese melodies, Wellesz seemed to have come up with a "new and valuable v e r i f i c a t i o n " o f that thesis.52 Within the l a s t two decades musicologists, r e a l i z i n g the lack of knowledge of the Milanese repertory, have begun to penetrate further into t h i s r e l a t i v e l y unexplored f i e l d .  In  1355, the late Roy Hart Jesson completed h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , "Ambrosian Chant:  The Music of the Mass."  As the t i t l e  indi-  cates, t h i s study i s concerned mainly with the music o f the Mass, It does, however, discuss Cto some extent] the o f f i c e s as well, and i t includes up-to-date b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l information and some mention of s i m i l a r i t i e s t o be found i n the Milanese and SOWellesz. Eastern Elements. p„ 202. 51lbid.  f  p. 4 .  52ibid., p. 126.  19 Gregorian repertories.  Jesson gave the intention of h i s  work thus: It i s the aim of t h i s study to r e t a i n a comprehensive view of the Ambrosian s t y l e as a whole, while subjecting the chants of the Mass to the analysis which i s now necessary to provide a basis f o r t h e i r further discussion and understanding.53 Jesson's d i s s e r t a t i o n was, s t y l i s t i c analysis.  i n f a c t , the f i r s t attempt at a  In 1956, the well-known chant scholar,  Michel Huglo, published h i s lengthy a r t i c l e ,  "Font! e  paleografia del canto ambrosiano,"54 which enumerates and discusses some three hundred sources of Milanese chant.  The  importance of t h i s work i s r e f l e c t e d i n the recognition given i t by a l l the leeding modern writers on chant. It w i l l be noticed that, generally, the research discussed thus f a r has dealt with the Milanese r i t e and chant i n a broad sense.  Mora recently, musicologists have begun  i s o l a t i n g and examining s p e c i f i c areas within the repertory. This change i s exemplified by such works as H. Leeb's, Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius,55 or G. Baroffio's, "Die O f f e r t o r i e n 53pp. i i i - i v . S^Archivio Ambrosiano. VII (Milan, 1956], 55Vienna: Herder, n.d. This book was reviewed i n Singende Kjrche (No. 3, 1968], 135.  20 der Ambrosianischen  Kirche; Vorstudie zur k r i t i s c h e n Ausgabe  der MailSndischen Gesa"nge."56  A d i s s e r t a t i o n by R. Weakland,  "The Antiphon of the Ambrosian Chant," i s i n progress.57 But owing to Rev. Weakland's burden of administrative duties [he i s presently placed highly i n the Church of Rome], i t seems doubtful that h i s study w i l l become available soon.  Ill This t h e s i s w i l l be ooncerned with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Milanese antiphons and the bearing of "the r e s u l t s upon the question of modality.  The lesser antiphons are very well  suited f o r such a study since they represent t h B simplest, free melodies i n the repertory; and t h e i r o r i g i n a l structures have not been obscured by extensive ornamentation as i s the case f o r the antiphons of the Mass and the Responsories. Furthermore, because of the large number of entiphons58 s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s w i l l be more meaningful.  I t goes without  saying that an examination of the lesser antiphons w i l l  yield  basic observations which pertain to Milanese chant as a whole. 56diss. p h i l . , Cologne, 1964. Abstract i n Die Musikforschung. XVIII CNo. 4, 1965], 422-3. 57p . 0., Musicology, Columbia University, c i t e d by C. Adkins, ed,, Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n i n Musicology C5th ed.; Philadelphia: American Musicological Society, 1971], p. 12. n  58precisely seven hundred and f o r t y antiphonB were examined f o r t h i s study. Weakland, i n "Milanese Rite, Chants of," New Catholic Encyclopedia. IX, 842, says there are approximately seven hundred and seventy-five pieces. I t i s l i k e l y that h i s t o t a l includes many duplications which have not been incorporated i n the present study a  21 Very l i t t l e research on the lesser Milanese antiphons has appeared t o date.  I t would seem that the e a r l i e s t work  of t h i s sort was that of the Benedictines of Solesmes i n the Paleographie Musicale.59  Their e f f o r t s , however, are p r i n c i -  p a l l y concerned with the p o s i t i o n of the pieces i n the Milanese o f f i c e ; there i s l i t t l e analysis of the music i t s e l f . Ott  undertook an examination of the antiphons i n the s e r i e s  of a r t i c l e s mentioned above.90 his  Karl  But as has already been noted,  findings are prejudiced by h i s a r b i t r a r y modal assignments.  The most recant study, that of Jesson,51 i e concerned mainly with the Mass chants and r e f e r s only obliquely to the antiphons here under consideration. The basic tasks of the present study are c l e a r l y d e f i n able.  Weakland has suggested that many of the p s a l t e r  antiphons can be c l a s s i f i e d according to melodic types or formulas; 2 that i s to say., many of them exhibit melodic s i m i 6  l a r i t i e s and can be grouped together on t h i s basis.  Such an  approach has been successful f o r the Gregorian corpus.63 I t remains t o follow Weakland's suggestion i n an analysis of the Milanese repertory. 59  Volumes V and VI.  SOsee p. 15. 91"Ambrosian Chant: The Music of the•Mass," " M i l a n e s e Rite, Chants o f , " New Catholic Encyclopedia, IX C1967J, 842. S2  S 3 F . G, Geveert, La melopee antique dans l e chant de 1 'Eglise l a t i n o [OsnabrUck: 0. Z e l l e r , 1967; r e p r i n t of 1895 e d i t i o n ] .  22 It might be useful at t h i s point to outline, i n general the theories concerning the o r i g i n s of the antiphons, i t s introduction into the Milanese l i t u r g y , and the types of antiphons found i n the Milanese repertory.  IV The antiphon did not, i t would appear, o r i g i n a l l y e x i s t as a separate musical item.  It seems to have derived from  an early psalmodic practice i n which the verses of psalm were chanted a l t e r n a t e l y by two c h o i r s .  This custom was  first  mentioned toward the end of the fourth century by Bishop Leontius C344-357] at Antioch.64  According to Sts. Augustine  and Paulinus [biographers of Ambrose], Ambrose brought the practice to Milan i n 386 5 i n response to a p a r t i c u l a r event. B  In March of the same year, imperial troops were ordered to surround the b a s i l i c a s i n Milan i n order to prevent disorders from erupting between the Orthodox C h r i s t i a n s and the Arians. During t h i s "siege," Ambrose apparently introduced antiphonal singing to keep the people i n s p i r e d and to prevent them from becoming weary during changes of t h e i r continuous watch.66 64o hesne C h r i s t i a n Worship, p. 114, c i t i n g H i s t o r i c u s E c c l e s i a s t i c u s . I I , p. 24, Llc  f  Theodoret,  65A, Paredi, Saint Ambrose: His L i f e and Times, trans, by M. J, Costelloe [Notre Dame, Ind,: University of Notre Dame Press, 19B4], p, 331. Duchesne, i n C h r i s t i a n Worship, p. 115, i n c o r r e c t l y gives the date as 3B7, according to Paredi. 66ibid,, p.  246.  23 OF late, there has been some question as to what kind oF singing was a c t u a l l y introduced by Ambrose. us that St. Augustine  Paredi reminds  recorded the events oF the siege almost  ten years a f t e r they took place and was not c a r e f u l to explain the type oF singing employed. 67  j-t i s , moreover, Paredi's  contention that there surely must have been some chanting oF the psalms i n Milan, as there was elsewhere, p r i o r to 386s What St. Ambrose introduced at t h i s time must consequently have been antiphonal singing: the singing was no longer l i m i t e d to a single voice which the congregation answered From time to time £i.e. responsori a l psalmody}, but a regular choir was Formed and t r a i n e d . This group could then sing more elaborate compositions or could join i n with the people i n singing antiphonally, one group alternating with the other.68 In spite oF the doubt as to what kind oF singing Ambrose a c t u a l l y introduced, there seems to be agreement that Milan became the center oF diFfusion For antiphonal singing.  From  there i t apparently spread F i r s t to the other churches of the West before i t was adopted at Rome during the papacy of CBlestine I [422-432],69 A n o t h e r modern scholar, H. Leeb, takes up t h i s matter i n , Die Psalmodie bei Ambrosius [Vienna: Herder, nd.d]. His argument i s based on the fact that Ambrose himself was inconsistent with h i s terminology [psalm, hymn, e t c . ] . The texts of Augustine, Paulinus, and Isidor also r e f l e c t t h i s d i F F i c u l t y i n t h e i r descriptions of Ambrose end antiphonal singing. B7  68paredi, Seint Ambrose, p,  331,  69Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages. p  0  106,  24 It has been suggested that a portion of the psalm-tone was sung f i r s t by a cantor to provide the proper intonation for the choirs.  Precisely when t h i s innovation appeared,  however, i s uncertain. Duchesne implied that i t existed by the time antiphonal singing had reached Rome: In the form i n which i t was adopted at Rome, the antiphon admitted the a l t e r n a t i v e singing of a complete psalm. . . . Before beginning the psalm proper, some musical phrases were f i r s t executed, to which c e r t a i n words, borrowed c h i e f l y from the psalm i t s e l f , were adapted. This was what i s c a l l e d the anthem [antienne] ^antiphon]. I t was doubtless performed as a solo by a cantor, i n order to give the tone f o r the following psalmody. The psalm being ended, there was a r e p e t i t i o n of the anthem.70 This development brought the antiphon to the form with which we are f a m i l i a r — a separate member that i s used i n conjunction with the psalmody.  We must also mention, of course, those  antiphons which came to be performed independently of the psalms, such as the processional antiphons or the antiphons for the Blessed V i r g i n Mary, used f o r s p e c i a l functions and occasions.  Weakland divides the Milanese o f f i c e antiphons into four general categories:  processional antiphons, antiphonae ad  crucem. antiphonae i n choro. and psalter antiphons. group, the processional antiphons, shows a f a i r l y  The f i r s t  ornate s t y l e .  The performance of these antiphons has been reconstructed by 70Christian Worship, p. 115,  25 Weakland, based on the Beroldus Ordo: In the procession as i t begins from the s a c r i s t y could normally be found two deacons and three subdeacons t o a s s i s t the archbishop. The deacon to the r i g h t of the archbishop intoned the second processional antiphon Cpsallenda] from the night O f f i c e as the group proceeded to the high a l t a r . I t appears that the boys and t h e i r master were also i n the procession, f o r i t was t h e i r task to take up the intonation of tho processional antiphon by the deacon and to repeat i t a f t e r the master sang the G l o r i a p a t r i . Having arrived at the a l t a r , the master began the Ingressa (Roman I n t r o i t 3 . The fact that on solemn feasts there was also a process i o n a l antiphon d i s t i n c t from the Ingressa i s not indicated i n the manuscripts and explains why the Ambrosian Ingressa. although i t has many features i n common with the Roman I n t r o i t , i s not properly a processional antiphon, lacking as i t does any psalmody.71 The antiphona ad crucem. the second type, was sung during the procession of the crosses.  This ceremony, which  concluded the morning o f f i c e on Sundays and feast days, was one of the most elaborate i n the Milanese r i t e .  Ordinarily  the antiphona ad crucem was repeated f i v e complete times but on c e r t a i n s p e c i a l occasions—Sundays  of Advent, Christmas,  Circumcision, and E p i p h a n y — i t was repeated as many as seven times.  As Weakland points out, i t ornate s t y l e gives not  the s l i g h t e s t suggestion of the dramatic aspects of the ceremony which tho antiphon accompanied.72  71 "The Performance of Ambrosian Chant.in the 12th Century, i n Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: A Birthday Offering t o Gustave Reese, ed. by Jan La Rue (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1966], pp. 862-3. Weakland r e f e r s to the newer c r i t i o a l e d i t i o n of the Ordo. published by M a g i s t r e t t i , Milan, 1894. 72p a enlightening account of tho procession with tho crosses, see Beroldus's account, trans, by Weakland, Ibid. or  n  26 There i s l i t t l e a v a i l a b l e information concerning the antiphona i n choro.  Oom  A. Kienle described i t s p o s i t i o n  in the Milanese o f f i c e i n the following passage: Anders verha"lt es s i c h mit der Vesper. Sie beginnt mit Doroinus vobiscum und dem Lucernarium, einem Responsorium, das immer sine Anspielung auf das L i c h t machen enthSlt. Darauf f o l g t die Antiphona i n choro, e i n Hymnus, das Hesponsorium i n choro, und die Psalmodie. . . .73  I t behaves otherwise at Vespers. I t begins with Dominus vobiscum and the Lucernarium, a respond that always contains an a l l u s i o n to ' l e t there by l i g h t . ' After that follows the antiphona i n choro, a hymn, the responsorium iri choro. and the psalmody, , . .73  But apart from such oblique references, we can only say that a glance i n the manuscripts shows the antiphonae i n choro to be lengthy and ornate i n s t y l e . For the purposes of t h i s study the l a s t group, the psalter antiphons, has been chosen f o r two reasons:  13they  comprise the largest portion of a l l the antiphons; and, 2)they are the simplest i n s t y l e .  Under the general heading of  psalter antiphons, the Following  types are indicated i n the  manuscripts: Antiphona [and Psalm] Antiphona [and Verse) Antiphona i n Benedicamus74 Antiphona i n Benedicite 73"0ber ambrosianische L i t u r g i e und ambrosianischen Gesang," Studien und Mittheilungen aus dem Benedictiner- und dem Cistercienser-Orden. V, Bd. 1 , p. 359. 74For the meaning oF " i n Benedicamus,""in etc., see Kienle, Ibid.  Benedicite,"  27 Antiphona i n Laudate Antiphona i n Miserere Antiphona i n B a p t i s t e r i o Antiphona i n Magnificate Antiphona i n Cantemus Antiphona i n ConFitemini Antiphona Dupla A l l of these are s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r and have b e e n included i n t h i s study.  I t should be mentioned that there i s no  s t y l i s t i c diFFerence between the B n t i p h o n s oF the pars hiemalis and those oF the pars aestiva; many of the antiphons are employed i n both parts oF the l i t u r g i c a l year.  Those, For  example, which are only cued i n the London antiphoner can be Found, complete with music, i n the Bodleian manuscript. The opposite also holds true. Detailed information regarding the structures oF a l l the Milanese o f f i c e s and t h e i r appropriate antiphons can be found i n Volume VI of the Paleographie Musicale.  The choice  and performance of the antiphons varies i n accordance with the l i t u r g i c a l day. are  In general terms, however, the antiphons  performed as described i n the following Nur im Frdlhofficium und i n der Vesper werden die Psalmen und Cantica mit Antiphonen gesagt, i n den kleineren Horen ohne dieselben. Die Antiphonen werden vor dem Psalm nur angestimmt und her-  passage:  I t i s only i n the morning o f f i c e and at Vespers that the psalms and c a n t i c l e s are sung with antiphons. In the lesser hours they are not. The antiphons are merely intoned before the psalm  28 nach ganz gasagt [antiph. simpla]; nur an bestimmten Fasten, z.B. dreimal i n der Epiphanievigi1, wird die Antiphon zweimal gesagt; s i e i s t dann eine antiph. dupla Coder duplex]. . . , 7 5  and sung i n t h e i r e n t i r e ty afterwards Cantiph. simpla] . Only on important Feasts, For example three times on the V i g i l oF Epiphany, i s the antiphon sung twice. I t i s , i n t h i s case, an antiph. dupla Cor duplex]. . . , 5 7  V F i n a l l y , a Few remarks concerning our c r i t i c a l atus.  appar-  The antiphons From the winter part Cpars hiemalis) o f  the year appear i n the Paleographie Musicale and we have used those t r a n s c r i p t i o n s .  The summer antiphons, however-,  have been transcribed by the present author from the Bodleian manuscript.  Since t h i s study i s primarily concerned with t h e  music, only the i n c i p i t s of the texts have been given.  The  L a t i n contractions have been written out i n f u l l and the medieval s p e l l i n g has been adopted, with the exception o f the consonantal " i " ,  f o r which " j " has been s u b s t i t u t e d .  In the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the psalm-tones have been indicated, since some mention of them i s made during the course of the discussion. However, no attempt has been made to suggest a psalm-tone where i t has not been indicated i n the manuscript.  With respect to the antiphona i n dupla [those  antiphons used with a verse and a psalm-tone), only the f i r s t few notes of the verse have been given, followed by the psalm-tone: 75Kienle, "Ober ambrosianische L i t u r g i e , " p. 355  29  m  *  - P* * J  *  • -  "1 " "  3  a  mm  1  -  •  _  Although the same antiphon [ i d e n t i c a l i n notes and text] i s usually only cued i n subsequent appearances, sometimes i t i s Found repeated i n i t s e n t i r e t y . course, been omitted.  These duplications have, of  But i f diFferences, however s l i g h t ,  appear as a r e s u l t oF the r e p e t i t i o n ,  then both versions  have been included i n the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For the notation of the music, a f i v e - l i n e s t a f f with a C-clef on the fourth l i n e , and square notation have been employed.  To indicate s p e c i f i c pitches i n the text c, d, e ,  etc., have been used f o r the octave below middle C; and c', d', £*f d» s t c , , f o r the octaves above.  PART I  THE THEMATIC CLASSIFICATION  31  The present procedure For c l a s s i f y i n g the Milanese antiphons was suggested by the celebrated work of Francois Gevaert, La melopee antique dans l e chant de 1 'Eqlise l a t i n e , *• Gevaert postulated thet there existed o r i g i n a l l y a r e l a t i v e l y small number of t r a d i t i o n a l melodies which he c a l l e d themes.2 and that from these melodies new chants were drawn by extension, amplification and elaboration: Les nomes [themes] sont en quelque sort l e s racines du langage music a l ; chacun d'eux est l'element commun a un groupe d i s t i n c t de melodies.3  The [themes] are i n a way the roots of the musical language; each of them i s a common element i n a d i s t i n c t group of melodies.3  As a demonstration of h i s theory, Gevaert was able to reduce the nearly two thousand antiphons i n the tonary of Regino of PrdJm to forty-seven f a m i l i e s of melodies. Although i n terms of some of i t s aims Gevaert's work was successful, the study presented several major d i f f i c u l t i e s which have e l i c i t e d objections from other scholars.  To begin  with, Gevaert attempted to impose a chronology on the Gregorian antiphons.  This chronological development, however, so  important t o h i s argument, was based on insubstantial evidence. lOsnabrUck: 0. Z e l l e r , 1967 [reprint of 1895 e d i t i o n ] p. 124. ^Hereafter, the word "Themes" [adjective "Thematic") w i l l be used i n place of and as an equivalent to Gevaert's term, themes. 3Qevaert, La melopee. p. 124,  9  32 In the F i r s t place, Gevaert judged the age oF the antiphons on the basis oF t h e i r e a r l i e s t appearances i n ancient documents.  Peter Wagner was  among the F i r s t to object:  • i e AnFUhrung einer Antiphone i n einem Ookumente berechtigt noch nicht zu dem Schluss, dass s i e nicht schon vorher kflnne e x i s t i e r t haben.4  The quotation oF an antiphon i n a document i s not j u s t i F i c a t i o n For the conclusion, that i t could not have already existed p r e v i o u s l y . 4  Secondly, Gevaert divided the antiphons into three epochs on the basis oF t h e i r texts and supported t h i s d i v i s i o n with consideration oF the musical  material, pointing out that  those oF the F i r s t epoch usually displayed a more concise melodic contour.  E a r l i e r , i n the introduction to h i s study,  he c a t e g o r i c a l l y stated:  "Le chant syllabique est anterieur  au chant melismatique."5  Gevaert*s chronological d i v i s i o n  was not wholly accepted by chant scholars, among them,  Dom  Paolo F e r e t t i : Le t r a v a i l de l ' i l l u s t r e musicologue beige est vraiment interessant, surtout s i l'on considers l a d i F F i c u l t ^ da l ' e n t r e p r i s e . Notre admiration, touteFois, ne va pas sans quelques reserves. Tout d'abord l e c r i t e r e adopte  The work oF the i l l u s t r i o u s Belgian musicologist i s truly intsresting, especially considering the d i F F i c u l t y oF the enterprise. Our admiration, however, does not go without some reservat i o n s . F i r s t oF a l l , the c r i t e r i a adopted by  ^EinFOhrung i n die Gregorianischen Melodien, Vol. I CHildesheim: Georg 01ms, 1962; r e p r i n t oF 1911 e d i t i o n ] , p. 152 Footnote. ^La Melopee. p. x x v i i .  33 par Gevaert: pour distinguer les Antiennes en t r o i s epoques ne nous semble pas du tout juste.6  Gevaert f o r d i s t i n g u i s h ing the antiphons i n three epochs does not seem to us e n t i r e l y sound.6  It has proven, time and again, dangerous to assert that the simple precedes the complex i n the evolution of a r t . A second d i f f i c u l t y ( i n Gevaert's study} involves the Greek scales and modes.  Like other musicologists early i n  t h i s century, Gevaert approached the question of modality with c e r t a i n predispositions which are c l e a r l y i n evidence i n La melopee.  He was convinced, f o r example, that the Greek  scales were operating i n the Gregorian antiphons and used t h i s thesis as a basis f o r explanation of several issues. Peter Wagner refuted various aspects of these arguments and, on one occasion, had t h i s to say: Gevaert erklaVt diase IJ.:. Wiederholungen a l s eine Nachwirkung des e l t griechischen Nomos, von dem wir aber immer noch nicht wissen, wie er e i g e n t l i c h aussah. Er war eine mehrsa*tzige musikalische Form deskriptiver Musik, die man v i e l l e i c h t mit der Sonate oder Suite vergleichen kann, auF keinen F a l l aber mit der Antiphone.7  Gevaert explains these r e p e t i t i o n s as an a f t e r e f f e c t of the ancient Greek nomos. about which we s t i l l know nothing, as i s p e r f e c t l y obvious. It was a multifaceted, musicel form of descript i v e music which one might perhaps compare with the sonata or s u i t e , but by no means with the antiphon.7  S P . F e r r e t t i , Esthetlque Gregorienne ( P a r i s : Oesclee, 1938], p. 331 Footnote. 7  p. 209.  EinF0hrung i n die Gregorianischen Melodien. Vol. I,  34 More recently, W i l l i Apel has also pointed to the modal problem i n Gevaert's work: reflecting the author's preoccupation with the Greek-influence idea, i s rather misleading. His attempts to i d e n t i f y the church modes with the Greek scales lead to a rather a r b i t r a r y arrangement as well as to unwarranted 'reconstructions' of some melodies.8 Gevaert's i n a b i l i t y to examine the problem of modality objectively i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s Thematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A glance at the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would reveal that the Themes have not been categorized s t r i c t l y on the basis of melodic s i m i l a r i t y but have been equated to, and arranged by modes. Modal associations then not only clouded h i s theory of Themes but also h i s process of c l a s s i f y i n g are p e r f e c t l y understandable  them.  Gevaert's biases  f o r i t i s only recently, with  the appearance of a d d i t i o n a l sources, that musicologists have become f u l l y aware of the complexities surrounding the modes, E c c l e s i a s t i c a l and C l a s s i c a l .  The modern, r e s p e c t f u l  approach to modality has led us to question Gevaert's very association of mode and Theme. F i n a l l y , Gevaert's c r i t i c s have found f a u l t with c e r t a i n of h i s evaluations, s p e c i f i c a l l y , h i s delineation of Themes. Arbitrary decisions i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of chant  melodies  can hardly be eliminated altogether, for the problem of which notes are to be considered Thematic and which are merely Gregorian Chant [London: Burns and Oates, 1958], p. 394 footnote. B  35 elaboration immediately presents i t s e l f . matter, there i s bound to be disagreement.  Concerning  this  F e r r e t t i has t h i s  to say about Gevaert, but h i s remarks must apply i n the l a s t analysis to a l l such attempts: EnFin, i l appelle quel quef o i s simples variantes d'un theme t e l l e s formulas qui en r e a l i t e sont de v r a i s themes d i s t i n c t s ; et vice versa, i l regarde comma themes d i s t i n c t s , certaines formules qui, pour nous, ne sont r i e n d'autre que des variantes.9  F i n a l l y , he |2Gevaert"] c a l l s c e r t a i n Formulas simple variants of a theme when they are i n r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t ones; and vice versa, he regards c e r t a i n formulas as cons t i t u t i n g d i s t i n c t themes when, f o r us, they are nothing more than variants.9  In general, scholars have suggested that the number of Themes i n Gevaert's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be fewer than he proposed, W i l l i Apel, f o r example, believes that the Gregorian repertory can be reduced to only f o r t y . l  n  While there may be some disagreement regarding the number of Themes i n Gevaert's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , there can be l i t t l e doubt that h i s goal of reducing the Gregorian antiphons to a smaller corpus of melodies was achieved.  The success of  h i s endeavour has quite n a t u r a l l y suggested that a  similar  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n might be attempted i n another body of chant. Indeed, the Milanese repertory would seem to be ideal f o r a study of t h i s kind. SFerretti,  Gevaert, i n working with Gregorian  Esthetique Gregorienne. p. 331 footnote,  lOHarvard Dictionary of Music. Snd ed. [Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 19703, p. 41.  36 melodies, was Faced at the outset with problems endemic to that repertory.  The vast number of l o c a l i t i e s i n which the  r i t e was practised led i n e v i t a b l y to a large number oF c o n F l i c t i n g t r a d i t i o n s , none with unchallengable a u t h e n t i c i t y . Consequently, the many sources which resulted From t h i s wide d i v e r s i t y i n practice are often i n marked  disagreement.  Attempts to reconcile these diFFerences are Further hampered by d i F F i c u l t i e s i n notation. Such problems do not a r i s e For the Milanese r i t e which was practised e n t i r e l y i n and around Milan.  This t r a d i t i o n  exhibits to the modern scholar nearly perfect s t a b i l i t y , a r e s u l t oF an ardent desire on the part oF the Milanese to preserve the ancient customs.  The reader w i l l r e c a l l the  l o y a l t y of the Milanese followers i n defending t h e i r r i t e against the attempted  infusions of Gregorian p r a c t i c e s . H  There are, moreover, few manuscripts to contend with and these seem, e s s e n t i a l l y , to be i n agreement.  The Milanese ofFice antiphons have responded  readily  to a Thematic c l a s s i F i c a t i o n , which may be Found immediately Following t h i s discussion.  Gevaert's procedure has been  Followed i n part but the present author has t r i e d to avoid the d i F F i c u l t i e s oF h i s work. been attempted.  F i r s t , a chronology has not  Since the main sources are a l l r e l a t i v e l y  llSee Introduction, p.  llf.  37 late (twelfth to fourteenth century] they would obviously y i e l d l i t t l e information about the age of the music.  Further-  more, the danger oF r e l y i n g upon i n t e r n a l evidence i n the matter oF chronology has already been pointed out. the antiphons have been l i s t e d i n the Thematic  Although  Classification  according to length, beginning with the shortest ones, t h i s has been done For p r a c t i c a l purposes only and not to suggest any chronological development. Secondly, i n the l i g h t oF modern scholarship, the question oF modality i s viewed somewhat more o b j e c t i v e l y than in Gevaert's time.  The Milanese antiphons have thereFore  been considered s t r i c t l y i n melodic terms and c l a s s i F i c a t i o n by mode or F i n a l has been avoided.12 F i n a l l y , a Few remarks to explain the decisions which have had to be made i n the present Thematic  ClassiFication.  A r b i t r a r y choices have, as much as possible, been avoided. In the F i r s t place, the present writer has t r i e d to remain Free From any predispositions, such as modal associations, which would Force conclusions upon the nature oF the antiphons themselves.  Secondly, while Gevaert apparently Felt compelled  to c l a s s i F y a l l oF the Gregorian oFFice antiphons, no o b l i g a t i o n was Felt to do the same with the Milanese.  Only  those which are c l e a r l y recognizable as belonging to a 12See t h e d i s c u s s i o n oF modal a t t r i b u t i o n s i n Milanese chant, p. IS.  38 p a r t i c u l a r Theme group have been c l a s s i f i e d . 1 3  The others  which, a f t e r c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n , did not p l a i n l y show the features of any one Theme, have been l i s t e d separately, a f t e r the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , by t h e i r i n c i p i t s (the very short antiphons are written out i n f u l l 3.  The t h i r d and  f i n a l factor which has lessened subjective choice i s a purely mathematical one.  Owing to the smaller number of antiphons  in the Milanese o f f i c e , the number of decisions to be made i s considerably less than f o r the Gregorian. Although every e f f o r t has been maintained, as  mentioned  above, to avoid the p i t f a l l s encountered i n Gevaert's work, several d i f f i c u l t i e s did arise i n the present C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A l l of these obstacles arose d i r e c t l y from the basic problem of what constitutes a Theme.  I t would, of course, have been  a simple matter to a r b i t r a r i l y decide on a c e r t a i n number of notes and proceed from there.  However, a f t e r examining a  very few melodies, i t became evident that, i n most cases, the shortest antiphons [hereafter referred to as the "model a n t i phons" 3 could serve as the Themes f o r the various groups. These models w i l l be seen to contain the whole Theme; the longer antiphons contain a good deal more than just the ... standard material. Having decided the question of length, i t then proved necessary to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between that material i n the 13Further discussion of the u n c l a s s i f i e d antiphons follows s h o r t l y .  39 antiphons which should bo considered "Thematic" and that which should be "Formulaic."  "Formulas" are deFined as  short, recurring musical Figures which are not i n themsolves substantial enough to constitute a Theme.  "Themes" on the  other hand are longer and very often contain several Formulas whose order—even r e p e t i t i o n s — a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  The  Following example w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e the necessity For this distinction. The two antiphons i n Example 1 begin almost exactly alike: EXAMPLE 1  , a^a 0*4+ i«ylr\S  \  1  ~ CA.4+ i^A4(t  "3  i  -  9m  9.1^4.  The bracketed opening Figure i s apparently an elaborated version oF a simple open Fourth g_ - cj. however, that immediately  I t w i l l be noticed,  Following the opening Figure,  Theme 1C goes on to outline an F t r i a d with r e c i t a t i o n on the note c'.  Theme 6, on the other hand, c l e a r l y outlines a Q  40 t r i a d and appears to center more around the note d*.  The two  Themes have a substantial i d e n t i t y and involve more than just short Formulas such as those oF the opening Figures. The next step involves determining the number oF Features which should be considered as the basic Thematic constituents.  In the majority oF Cases t h i s d i F F i c u l t y doss  not apply since i t has been possible to produce very short antiphons i n which a limited number oF Features are c l e a r l y i n evidence.  Occasionally, however, the model exhibits r e p e t i t i o n  oF previous material which need only be considered Formulaic and not Thematic.  Such i s the case For Theme 6s  EXAMPLE 2  -e-a-  The material marked i n parentheses i s a r e p e t i t i o n oF the opening Figure.  This r e p e t i t i o n hes been considered Formulaic  For two reasons:  l]not a l l oF the antiphons c l e a r l y display  t h i s same repeat; and, 2}the two Features marked i n horizontal brackets provide suFFicient means For identiFying t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Theme.  In cases l i k e the above, the models have  been chosen i n spite of the repeated material since they most c l e a r l y represent the Theme i n a l l other respects.  41 There are other groups i n which repeated material has been considered as part of the Theme.  In Theme IB, For  example, the immediate repeat of the opening Figure shown i n the model i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c exhibited p l a i n l y by a l l the antiphons oF that group: EXAMPLE 3  p U  IHgrne IS - »»>o»€i.  _  .  .  m  m  |-  ,  _  " . -  .  -  L J tit.  p e r d A A  \  c  n  1  " \mfiit.  p  m  g  j_<j  d  1  t  Moreover, as w i l l be shown i n the discussion oF Related Themes CPart I I , Chapter 1 3 , "the opening Figure g_ a cj i s an elaborated version oF the opening Figure j a of Theme 1 .  There-  Fore, the two appearances of the same Figure i n Theme IB must be considered as two separate Features; they just happen to be the same Figure i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sub-Theme  0  It might be argued that no r e p e t i t i o n should be considered Thematic--that one ought simply to work From an anti-» phon with a short enough text.  In answer to t h i s , i t must be  maintained F i r s t l y , that the model oF Theme IB has a text oF only FIFteen s y l l a b l e s which i s , i n Fact, short i n comparison with the other antiphons.  And secondly, to r e i t e r a t e an  e a r l i e r observation, a l l the antiphons i n that group r e t a i n the repeated Figure.  OF p e r t i c u l a r signiFicance are those  42 others i n the group with approximately the same number of s y l l a b l e s as the model.  IF the basic Theme were only  G A C B A G, there are other means, as w i l l be shown i n a l a t e r chapter, oF extending i t .  And yet, a l l the comparatively  short antiphons s t i l l exhibit the exact r e p e t i t i o n .  It has  been seen that t h i s does hot hold true For some oF the other Themes. The d i F F i c u l t y regarding the i n c l u s i o n oF repeated material pertains to extended r e p e t i t i o n oF notes as well. In some Themes r e c i t i n g - t o n e s on one or more pitches comprise almost the entire melody: EXAMPLE 4  fib W W c j e n + i b u s  9tn  P. \%  43 In these instances i t would be Foolish to suggest that the r e p e t i t i o n i s merely Formulaic extension and not  Thematic.  The Following notation has been employed to designate reciting-tones inherent i n the Theme:  G C...D...C  BAG.  There are other Themes, however, i n which r e c i t i n g - t o n e s need only be considered Formulaic material.  This s i t u a t i o n i s  self-explanatory i n those groups where extended r e c i t a t i o n i s Found i n several antiphons but not i n the model.  Occasionally  though r e c i t i n g - t o n e s Found i n a model entiphon have been indicated as Formulaic since, even without them, a s a t i s Factory Theme i s present: EXAMPLE 5  r . u  . "a m  m  Rr  m _  mm m  F i n a l l y , a word about the endings [more w i l l be said oF cadences and Finals i n Part I I , Chapter 3).  It became  apparent, owing to the melodic design oF many oF the antiphons, that the endings could not be considered outside of the Theme:  44 EXAMPLE  6  <U P u t  It would be d i f f i c u l t  i n t h i s and s i m i l a r cases to exclude  the closing portion (indicated by the dotted l i n e ) and r e t a i n a workable Theme since we would only be l e f t with G C........ Once i t was decided which features would constitute a Theme, a skeleton was formulated from these components.!  4  Giving only the basic structure, the Skeletal Theme provided l I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that several of our Skeletal Themes turned out to be almost i d e n t i c a l to some of Gevaert's themes. For example: 4  17 13A 22B 25  -  Gevaert's  Ours  QEF8FE0 OCCOlFGAGFED FAGAG... FED FAC [AictolCGAGF  7  -  DEFGEFEO  S - DCFGA6EFD 2 43  -  FAGAGEFD FACCOCAGF  The concurrence of Milanese and Gregorian chants has been pointed out by several scholars. The existence of common Themes i n the antiphons of the two repertories has not, however, been investigated as yet. Further study oF t h i s problem might y i e l d some valuable inForroation regarding the e a r l y Gregorian practice and the concomitant development of the Gregorian and Milanese t r a d i t i o n s .  45 the necessary t o o l For the analysis of each antiphon and i t s subsequent c l a s s i F i c a t i o n .  The Skeletal Theme i s a "necessary  t o o l " since the present writer does not i n s i s t on an UrForm For each Theme.  Walter Frere, i n h i s study oF the Sarum  Responds,15 chose melodies which he believed to be " t y p i c a l " For each mode.  Those which d i d not correspond to the models  were necessarily treated as deviations.  Although Frere d i d  not choose h i s models c a r e l e s s l y , there i s , i n Fact, no sure way oF knowing which Responds are " t y p i c a l , " and no j u s t i F i c a t i o n , except that oF convenience, For so designating them. The models that have been chosen i n t h i s study, therefore, are not intended to represent i n any way the Ur— Form oF the Theme.  While i n many instances there i s a c l e a r  resemblance between a model and antiphons of i t s group, i n others the melodies exhibit s l i g h t d i v e r s i t y .  I t i s only  necessary, For our purposes, that the antiphons oF a p a r t i c u l a r group show the basic Features oF the S k e l e t a l Theme. Consider Example 7:  15Antjphonale Sarisburiense. Vol. I CFarnborough: Gregg Press, 1966; r e p r i n t oF o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n 1901-24), p. 5.  46 EXAMPLE 7  ifeme  1-  >y>ofteL  <V»\ iw*t*«J  -Pinal  FT« P.  "  9. IOI.  4  3P.  SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME:  l+t  G A F[G}A C B A G  1 6  The suggested S k e l e t a l Theme consists of three main components as shown by the horizontal brackets above.  It i s clear  that although there are s l i g h t differences among the three antiphons i n Figure 1 below, each contains the basic i d e n t i f y i n g Features: FIGURE 1 Skeletal Theme: Model: Number 2: Number 3:  G G G G  A Aa AGA G A GA  FtG]A C F G A BE C l ? F 5A C FG A C CO C C C  BAG A G G F A"S A Q B A SA" A B A B B AG  A n o t e C o r notes] i n brackets, e.g.^Gj, occurs often enough that i t may be considered Thematic, ib  1?A horizontal l i n e over several l e t t e r s CBAG] indicates those notes as belonging to the same l i g a t u r e . A small l e t t e r a f t e r a c a p i t a l CGg] i s used to designate •< . When a correntea C^\ }occurs, t h i s has been shown thus: GAag.  47 Such forms of elaboration as passing tones, neighbouring tones, prosthetic variants, extended or repeated  cadences,  and others, are, of course, to be expected i n chant.  But  t h i s matter w i l l be treated i n more d e t a i l l a t e r under Operation of Themes [Part I I , Chapter 2].  It i s sufficient  at t h i s time to merely point out to the reader that s l i g h t differences do occur. Although there would perhaps be some  disagreement  regarding the choice of i d e n t i f i a b l e features, the present writer believes the components represented i n the S k e l e t a l Themes to be s a l i e n t ones.  I t i s only i n the endings of the  antiphons that considerable d i f f i c u l t y arose i n formulating the Skeletal Theme, f o r most often a variety of endings may be found i n the same Theme group. sents a conglomerate  The Skeletal Theme repre-  solution i n many cases, such as that  shown below: EXAMPLE 8  SUGGESTED SKELETAL ENDING:  C B AG  The endings proved, i n fact, to be of r e l a t i v e l y  little  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l a s s i f y i n g the antiphons since a variety of  49 cadentiel patterns may be Found within the same Theme g r o u p . The main i d e n t i F i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i e i n the opening and central portions oF a Theme.  Some mention oF the unclassiFied antiphons i s i n order.  These antiphons F a l l into two categories:  13those  which bear some resemblance to one oF the Themes but do not display anough c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  classi-  f i e d ; and, S3those which do not show any resemblance to one oF the Themes but appear to be Free melodies.  Two examples  oF the F i r s t type are shown below i n Examples 9 and 10: EXAMPLE 9  7- uricLn^ifieo  -  -  Dofildt  -  -  3  kn.mit«.4  49 EXAMPLE 10  Cor  J O A W W I H  e4 Wu^\"iU'a.hA^  The A l l e l u i a i n Example 9 i n s i m i l a r to much of Theme 22B but lacks the c l o s i n g portion.  To c l a s s i f y the A l l e l u i a under  Theme 22B and merely consider i t incomplete i s dangerous since a l l the antiphons i n Theme 22B display the c l o s i n g portion of the Theme.  S i m i l a r l y , Cor contritum  i n Example 10 cor-  responds to only the f i r s t four notes of Theme 28A. The Theme, however, thereafter outlines an F t r i a d while Cor contritum  c l e a r l y outlines a G t r i a d .  As has been previously  stated, such cases of ambiguity have not been pressed into the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  There are more than enough antiphons  which c l e a r l y exhibit the constituents of a Theme without forcing the issue. Two antiphons which do not show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of any Theme but appear to be free melodies are shown below i n Example 11:  50 EXAMPLE 11  41.  U N ) curt^s, vPieo  -1-v <V»->  r  "4.  P. io  "fhr  uMC.m&ivE'eP  _  * •  m  —  1  A  /  Wo<*;«. in P>e+m«.K«  It: should be said that although some of the u n c l a s s i f i e d antiphons [whether ambiguous or free melodies] are s i m i l a r , these only occur i n groups of three or four at the most, too few to constitute new Themes.  Having explained the methods, the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered and t h e i r solutions,  some general observations  can now be made about the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  itself.  In a l l , seven hundred and forty antiphons were examined.  Of  these, s i x hundred and ten were c l a s s i f i e d , which i n round figures amounts to f o u r - f i f t h s , a very s i g n i f i c a n t percentage of the t o t a l number.  The s i x hundred and ten antiphons  reduce to t h i r t y ThemeslB which are found throughout the l i t u r g i c a l year.  distributed  The exceptions are Themes  l^An Index to the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s to be found i n Appendix I.  Sl 21 and 23 which appear to be associated only with the Easter season.  I t was Found that, For p r a c t i c a l purposes, the best  way to categorize the Themes was according to the opening notes.  By grouping them together i n t h i s manner, t h e i r l o -  cation i n the C l a s s i F i c a t i o n  i s greatly F a c i l i t a t e d .  This  provides also most conveniently For the purposes oF comparison.  Table I below, which summarizes the Themes, i s s e l f -  explanatory: TABLE I_ - SUMMARY OF THE THEMES  Opening Note  Theme Numbers  Number oF Antiphons  Approximate % oF C l a s s i f i e d Antiphons  G  1-9  205  34%  C  10-14  123  20%  D  15-21  127  21%  F  22-27  105  17%  A  28  28  4%  E  29  11  2%  B  30  11  2%  Table II gives a Further breakdown oF the number of antiphons i n each Theme group and i t s sub-groups. TABLE II - LIST OF THEMES ANO SUB-THEMES Theme Number 1  IA IB 1C  Number oF Antiphons  52 TABLE II - continued Theme Number  Number of Ant  2 2A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 10B IOC 11 11A 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18A 19 19A 19B 20 21 21A 22 22A 22B 23 24 24A 24B 24C 25 25A 26 27 28 28A 29 30 Total Number of C l a s s i f i e d Antiphons -  7 I 8 J.15 34 10 7 14 9 13 11 15" 10 24 16_ 65 4  1L  6. 10 11 13 24 6 13 10 L  17 J 22 81 27 ' • 14j 49 17 51L 5.t i o 61 7 7. 20 10 10' 5 8 5_ 28 111 7J 6 23 18 "j 10 J" 28 11 11 «  610  53 It i s obvious that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of antiphons i s far from equal. A, E  f  Indeed, the number of those that begin on  and B [see Table I] i s r e l a t i v e l y n e g l i g i b l e .  Of  p a r t i c u l a r note are those Themes beginning on G, C, and 0. These three groups constitute not only the largest number of Themes but contain by f a r the greatest number of antiphons, accounting  f o r approximately  one-third, o n e - f i f t h , and  o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l number r e s p e c t i v e l y .  There w i l l be  cause to r e f e r back to these s t a t i s t i c s i n the ensuing discussion. One f i n a l aspect of our C l a s s i f i c a t i o n requires some explanation.  I t w i l l be noticed that some Theme groups have  been placed i n sub-categories.  This association has been  made only when two Themes, i n s p i t e of s i g n i f i c a n t differences are s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d .  When reference i s made t o several  Themes at one time [ f o r example, 1 - 8], i t i s intended that each Theme include i t s sub-Themes [Theme 1 i n that case would include 1, IA, IB, and IC],  I f , on the other hand, s p e c i f i c  Themes are being dealt with, sub-groups are designated separately [Theme 1 i n that instance would r e f e r only t o Theme 1 and not IA, e t c . ] . Themes have been arranged  In general, the Themes and subfrom simple to complex.  This has  been done f o r convenience only; no p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s implied by the ordering.  54 TABLE IV - EXPLANATION OF ANALYTICAL SYMBOLS RT  Inserted reciting-tone  DRT  Decorated, inserted reciting-tone  M  Previous material repeated, exactly or modified  N  New material  E  Elaborated  EC  Extended cadence  TH  Repetition oF e n t i r e Theme, s t r i c t or varied  C...D...  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Cm P . z o t  .  r b  "  Cor  e  w v  u  —K-M  A  rt J>a UN  £re*„  m  "  -e  y Br*  f 41/  i  j  -  •  -. .  i-  fl 1|«.\>AV.<«. ^. l|iU',«. ;  »  g  =  1  R  133 P  u  r  J  J  " 3  r  . -  "X  _ -  •  VVV  m  m  1  J  -  1  -  •  a  1  I I  a  „  n  •w  •  1  - ' -  .. a  -  .  •  1 V  a  V  1 »  A-^  T r « U "  •  -  -  -  -  -  -  _  m  V  m  „_  »  H  n-  — »  -  _  .  L^-vy  —  " p  fl,  V W  Pm P. Jo«p  ^<"«+>«-  u  -  • •  — a  ~  9.  n n PL !jfL i | * >  "  „.  xS<]  P  u  A /  W V  ai  a  f  _,T -*  i-v-vy r - y w  . . . . g 31 ' ^ 3 "To^U. + « „ o f t  >  3  W  n  r  w  "  r  • a  Pm  HtwpCt  a  a  -  ^m  .  —  !  3  !  "  -  a  "  M  l  /  Ccx«.io  P Lo  •  kj\ *  "  a  -  /  VVV  fi lUViAi'a. , M U U i o .  t. i.7r  ,ll  • a  m  VVV  L*<Ji<U. I t ^ j a l * ^  » •  AsSuimmo  P >+V  -  J  a a  *-v  £  P  ((•.Sfcwii^m  P-lit  Pm  -  v v v  r * ~ .  r  * a  1  r  -  . }  m  -  - - •  •  W a t  z  "  Pm P %0i  m  . "  _ »  -  2-^3  P  VvV  U ^ a  AeCcnsI^.^  A-rP«-ru-lt  r  '  m&  T r  M  m  1 » •« ]»J , . ,  3  3  -  Abom,Vi*M<=s  -  p  - -, ^  "  vw  L  n3  f  1  -  j .  _  Bm  P . !»"v  i r  P  u  a  ^ J  -  a  -  3  /  VVN/  •  _n  * - . .  rTAa^ji  .  T  a:  a  ^  "T- "  iriUf'oj»He'ii«t  - -  w Cm  P. llf  134 P "  "  m  a  "  fl  a  fl-  -  1  \ , x-  V W  w•  a  - ^ a  r  ,-  a  n  a  s i n . ? , - ,n<,  S -  r  l  a  •  tbo~i  Pm  P ^t.  Pn-i  P. fif  a ai . l  i"  I I '  <*«».BVT  p U  r  -  Xo-eob  l_fe«.VaViA<  f a  » •  _  J  f  L  L -  -  3  a  a  a  "(We  P  .  P a U "  1  3  "mm  B l  _  n 3  "  3  ..  I* a -1 "- ~ ** m  vW  "  a  a  a  t^ei4>  a  •  rv>*NIT<ST<_  »  W V P m P - £o>  J  ^  - ' ' wr"  "  n  "  GxSiAfiJAOl  p  V W  a  c*.".  p >•  a  a  \  1 l  a  <A'IUACIA(O  A  1  i v i  P  '  ,  '  '**  ^ L?L  t  PART II  ANALYSIS  Chapter 1_ RELATED THEMES In Part I the question of related Themes was b r i e f l y touched upon.  At that time Further discussion was withheld  since the matter required considerable explanation.  Moreover,  while c e r t a i n l y bearing on the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the conclusions from observations on related Themes pertain to more than just the method employed.  In the following pages,  i t w i l l be demonstrated that, apart from those groups and t h e i r sub-groups shown i n our C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of related Themes have f a r greater i m p l i c a t i o n s  0  The Themes  w i l l be considered as r e l a t e d i n two ways, by melodic  similari-  t i e s [melodic derivation] and by t r a n s p o s i t i o n .  Melodic Derivation As stated above, several of the Themes have been subc l a s s i f i e d on the basis of melodic s i m i l a r i t i e s .  The reader  should examine the Themes shown below i n Example 1: EXAMPLE 1  r v.  i m  m m m  W i f r t  v«vbu<n  hii«n  m ftvt  [Continued. „ ) 8  137 EXAMPLE 1 [Continued]  11  I _  _  =  m m m  m  c  || •>  m  m  *  M  M  Z\  M  M  m Oom'.MC  —  M  m  hmmlle*  (im  -f. JS"^/"  It i s obvious that Themes 22A and 22B are the same as Theme 22.  Theme 22A simply has an additional t h i r d F-a and 22B  shows an elaborated version oF the t h i r d F a c[ a [these Features are marked i n brackets i n Example 1], Themes 22A and 22B have been c l a s s i f i e d as sub-groups For two reasons. F i r s t oF a l l , i n a melody comprised b a s i c a l l y oF r e c i t i n g tones and soma stepwise motion, the new Features are strongly distinguishing ones.  In a more ornate melody such Features  would not necessitate s u b - c l a s s i F i c a t i o n .  Secondly, there  are enough antiphons displaying these Features to justiFy separate categories. Now l e t us turn our attention to the antiphon i n Example 2: EXAMPLE 2  cf  r w • Ql»  mm  m  m  iV>su«-^«nV'ibi«5  m  m Am  P  ZlX  GXA*V>PLC  J  138 This antiphon has also been l i s t e d as a separate Theme because i t begins on C and has i t s own sub-Themes,  But removal  of the f i r s t note Cor two notes) reveals Theme 10 to be thereafter i d e n t i c a l to Theme 22.  What we appear to have  here i s a simple i n c i p i t i n the opening fourth c - f . When we proceed to the next step the s i m i l a r i t y becomes s l i g h t l y less obvious. c-f  I t i s an easy matter to make the fourth  more elaborate by f i l l i n g i n a l l the notes i n between  Cc d e f3 or just some of them (c d F).  These two develop-  ments are shown below i n Themes 10A and 10B r e s p e c t i v e l y : EXAMPLE 3  \rteme  IQA -  mofeCL  * Ver. •  bom'ine  106-  So^lHtfe  Cm  9. +|  rAoDEL  faJVulort*""  P<*i  f-fO  Note also the further a l t e r a t i o n i n Theme 108 with the fourth d-g^ near the end. Although we are getting further removed from Theme 22, the s i m i l a r i t i e s are s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r . With Theme IOC one has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n recognizing i t s a f f i n i t y to Theme 108:  139 EXAMPLE 4  p I ^ _ i  c  -» 1  n u -  1  i«vVcJl»y«  mm*  _^ ^  3-—  Pm  —  mm  '  P. 13"  m  i "  U  Theme IOC i s characterized by a return to d a f t e r the opening c d f and the r e c i t a t i o n on f and g[ has become somewhat elaborated.  Any r e l a t i o n s h i p with Theme 22, however, i s  not apparent.  At t h i s point a s l i g h t digression i s necessary f o r the reader i s perhaps aware by now that much more than a simple r e l a t i o n s h i p of Themes i s i n evidence here.  What appears to  be operating, i n f a c t , i s a c l e a r , unprecedented demonstration of the suggestion often made f o r Gregorian chant, that antiphons [as known today] were the r e s u l t of the gradual embellishment of reciting-tonesl  140 FIGURE 1 Theme 22  - b a s i c a l l y reciting-tone - FFFFFGGGFEFEO  Theme 10  - adds simple i n c i p i t  - CFFFFFFGGFEFED  Theme 10A Y- more elaborate y incipits Theme 10B J  - CQEFFGFGGGFEFD ' - COFFFFGGFFOGCEO  Theme IOC  - CDFDFFGGFGAGEFEO  - much more elaborate  To the present writer's knowledge, scholars have not previously produced evidence as c l e a r as that presented here i n support oF t h i s theory.  One might very well ask the reasons  For t h i s apparent lack oF evidence.  I t must be remembered  that, u n t i l F a i r l y recently, almost a l l extensive research i n the F i e l d oF chant has involved the Gregorian repertory. But, owing to the problems oF that repertory [which have already been summarized i n t h i s study!}, i t ^  s  by now evident  that any c l e a r answers to questions regarding the o r i g i n s and early state oF antiphons [and other chant melodies For that matter) are n o t , l i k e l y to be Found there.  The less  complicated Milanese t r a d i t i o n , on the other hand, seems to oFFer the evidence For a convincing explanation oF the antiphon development theory.  But consider how e a s i l y the  o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s oF chants could become obscured. Bearing i n mind the process oF elaboration, the a l t e r a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g From perFormance, and the methods oF extension ISee Part I, p. 36.  141 and expansion to accommodate longer texts [discussed under Operation of Themes], i t w i l l be r e a d i l y understood how an antiphon such as that shown below would at F i r s t sight seem to have l i t t l e connection  with the o r i g i n a l Theme:  EXAMPLE 5 SUGGESTEO SKELETAL THEME:  n-te»v\e toe  -  C D F O F G A G F E D  moteL  -JUV  ft"  lb.  —I  ^  \  Now to return to the question of r e l a t e d Themes and pick up the thread of the discussion.  I t had been shown how  Themes 10, 10A, IOB, and IOC are melodically derived From Theme 22.  Although only short melodies had been dealt with  i t was possible, through a s e r i e s oF l o g i c a l steps, to move within the space oF just a Few antiphons to a stage oF  p  142 r e l a t i v e d i s s i m i l a r i t y between one extreme [Theme 22) and the other [Theme IOC), The fact i s , without the intermediate s t e p s — a s e r i e s of attenuated r e l a t i o n s h i p s — o n e  would  doubtless see no substantial connection between Themes 22 and IOC. The s t y l e of Themes 22 and 10, which i s b a s i c a l l y reciting-tone, renders t h e i r likeness immediately  perceivable.  But t h i s i s not the case f o r some of the other r e l a t e d Themes in the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Because of t h e i r more melodic design  the s i m i l a r i t i e s are not so obvious. IA, IB, and IC d i f f e r considerably  For example, Themes 1,  i n t h e i r opening f i g u r e s .  In Theme IA the opening figure has an additional b, while i n Themes IB and IC the opening figure of Theme 1 [g_ a) has been considerably  expanded to g_ a c' and Q. a b c' r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l  four Themes, however, follow the opening figure with the outline of an F t r i a d and a descent to cadence on g_. A l l of these features are indicated i n Example 6s EXAMPLE 6  \.—I  V  I  [  [Continued...)  143 EXAMPLE 6 [Continued)  »  1  \  1 \  1  € *  :  p t  mm  m /[  1  \  t L  _-J  _ a- _  m  Ca.4Vi^A/\&  m  -  m m  a  -  _  . ..  a  n.  CA.4+vy.v/it.  J L ovk\ VA«S  J  PrtA L  J L  recvVoAttv*  vane*)  L - - « P. g +  —  144 By removing the f i r s t two notes of Theme 28A, Theme 28 i s produced: EXAMPLE 7  U  "i i" * i x  » <, • •  m  - - -  -  **  In Theme 24 and i t s sub-Themes the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more elaborate, produced by a process of addition and elaboration.  Theme 24A adds a t h i r d f-a to the opening and  Themes 24B and 24C expand the simple f-a to f 3. a EL  a n c  f a b a respectively.  *  Following the opening figures, Theme  24 i s c l e a r l y i n t a c t as indicated i n Example 8:  145  EXAMPLE 8  r  I H E m S 2.4 - •mytufL  «  _3-  \  JV  1  -  Jl  >•>  -  •-  ._ - „ mm  w  P.  1-  I  -  "iot V  •* -  -T. -  —~ —"J  p-1  -  mm  items i 4  Bm  f"*H  >P. 3 o o r  1  Oor mt*v\<*iAm  Pm  cren.  Pa.17  \-> Ti-veme 2.4.  It  i s not necessary t o continue  e x p l a i n the remaining tion. the  i n this  Themes a n d sub-Themes i n t h e C l a s s i f i c a -  The a b o v e e x a m p l e s p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t  fact  that  several  v e i n and  illustration of  o f t h e Themes a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y  related  146 by melodic derivation.  The implication that, p r i m i t i v e l y ,  there were Fewer Themes, w i l l be taken up s h o r t l y .  Transposition We refer  once again to, a Theme used e a r l i e r i n t h i s  chapter, Theme 10.  IF one compares t h i s Theme and i t s sub-  Theme 10A with Themes 2 and 2A, i t w i l l be Found that these melodies are i d e n t i c a l i n t e r v a l l i c a l l y at the transposition oF a Fourth: EXAMPLE 9  THg'Wc  X- " X i H - L  —r  .  .  U  •> -  m  II  T"ne>n-- io - m 0 f t 6 -  C  II m  r L  r L  «  - a *  m  m  m _  \t4€»*\_  -1  \Q*\ -  mope-  3 - - - - _  -  m  —  147 Therae 16 l a also tho same melody as 2, transposed down a fourth: EXAMPLE 10  JJi.  Intervallically  t  Theme 16 does not coincide since the semitone  occurs i n a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n within the tetrachord as shown below: EXAMPLE 11  TftgrAS  T  T  X>  ST  ST  Now l e t us r e c a l l those Themes which were e a r l i e r found to be r e l a t e d as derivations of a simple reciting-tonei Themes 22, 22A, 228, 10, 10A, 10B, 10C.  As has just been  shown, two other Themes are i n r e a l i t y transpositions of Theme 10.  Therefore,  by extension  i t could be argued that  148 Themes 22, 22A, 22B, 10, 10A, IOB, IOC, 2, 2A, and 16 are a l l r e l a t e d through melodic derivation and t r a n s p o s i t i o n . Turning to Table II on pages 51 and 52, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these observations becomes evident.  I t w i l l be noticed  that each of the groups are r e l a t i v e l y weighty i n terms of the number of antiphonB each contains.  I f the proposed  r e l a t i o n s h i p s are accepted and t h e i r numbers added together, the r e s u l t i s s t a r t i n g .  The sum would account f o r approx-  imately onB-sixth of a l l the c l a s s i f i e d antiphons. words, about one-sixth  In other  of the melodies have a common Theme!  I f the other Themes exhibited the same c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the same processes of melodic derivation and t r a n s p o s i t i o n could be demonstrated, our Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n might, i n f a c t , contain only f i v e basic Themes and not t h i r t y .  We  r e a l i z e that t h i s argument has i t s l i m i t s , that eventually a point i s reached where the designation absurd.  " s i m i l a r " becomes  Nevertheless, the examples show c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and serve t o i l l u s t r a t e the inherent  possibilities.  A sampling of further possible r e l a t i o n s h i p s through melodic derivation or t r a n s p o s i t i o n i s shown below.  149 EXAMPLE 12 1 rtewK? 1 -  U  m m  '-3-1  <A«lWe s!  c  mnooeL  •V  U/v,  —  rm  t l A  P.i«l  1  -  wW WM  melodic derivation  THemig  £ o - ~-iot>gt_  rcr-r melodic derivation  -3-3-  f«  TTveme 3  ~T~  *TT ^  31- "- - 3 "L -  J  1  • — — — a  -  1  -  transposition  P S*}  150 Conclusion The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Themes and the further p o s s i b l i t i e s suggested herein have far-reaching implications.  F i r s t of  a l l , based on the observations above, i t can be proposed with some assurance that, at an early stage i n the Milanese repertory, there was very l i k e l y a much smaller number of Themes than the t h i r t y i n the present C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Secondly,  i t i s quite conceivable that Milanese antiphons other than those considered i n t h i s study might have derived from those same Themes, but t h i s resemblance  i s , i n many cases, now  disguised owing to t h e i r more elaborate s t y l e .  The f i n a l  example below shows the unmistakable s i m i l a r i t y between the opening of Theme 3 and one of the psallenda Cprocessional antiphon]: EXAMPLE 13  m  r L  m  m  m  •j y WV  m  Ve. c*_  p U  — **  P-  _ P<- pv««0  9t*\ P l i l  Sio^>  "*  J  * \ * v__/ VW i v ! P. 14.4  Chapter 2 OPERATION OF THEMES This chapter w i l l be concerned with the operation oF Themes.  Two questions a r i s e :  l]How much oF each antiphon  i s Thematic material and how much i s Formulaic?!  2]Are the  non-Thematic portions oF the antiphons simply Free material or do they display some regular c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ?  An attempt  w i l l be made to show that, i n the majority oF cases, antiphons oF the same Theme with longer texts were not extended by ad hoc methods.  I t would appear, on the contrary, that a l i m i t e d  number oF compositional procedures were employed.  The un-  e s s e n t i a l , subtle modifications mentioned e a r l i B r - - p r o s t h e t i c variants, passing tones, neighbouring tones, extended or repeated cadences, and the l i k e - - w i l l  not be accounted For,,  It, i s i n the nature oF the Themes to contain such in order to accommodate the various texts.  adjustments  Rather, attention  w i l l be directed t o the longer, interpoleted passages that markedly disrupt the basic structure oF the Theme. Our discussion w i l l Focus mainly on Themes 1, 3, 5, 6, and 24A which have been analysed i n d e t a i l , but occasionally antiphons From other Theme groups w i l l be drawn upon.  It need hardly  be said that a complete analysis oF a l l the antiphons i s unfeasible; but i t i s also unnecessary  since examples have  1-For the discussion oF "Thematic" and "Formulaic" material, see p. 39.  152 been chosen which are i l l u s t r a t i v e of the two extremes, namely, one i n which the procedures are obvious and the other i n which they are more diverse and complicated.  The o r i g i n a l expectation f o r t h i s study was to prove that many of the Milanese o f f i c e antiphons had opening Themes i n common.  I t soon became evident, however, that antiphons  of a Theme group do more than just begin a l i k e ; i n f a c t , the Themes seem to operate throughout the antiphons.  A perusal  of the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n would reveal that several of the antiphons i n a p a r t i c u l a r group resemble very c l o s e l y the model: EXAMPLE 1  TrA£vV\S  1-  >Y\ot>CL  Cor.ierjft, »YVe., Dominc  0$  p €j_o_L-Vori  9rn  P-I-OV  fV\  P. j-to  In such instances of short texts s l i g h t differences i n s y l l a b l e count are usually accommodated by an extra note or two.  But how are the much longer texts accommodated, f o r  example, those with twice as many s y l l a b l e s ?  Although some  153 apparently free, melodic passages do occur, antiphons are generally extended by one or more of three methods: l ] b y the i n s e r t i o n of one or more reciting-tones; 2]by the r e p e t i t i o n of f i g u r e s or motives; and, 3 ] i n some cases, by the r e p e t i t i o n , exact or varied, of the e n t i r e Theme,.,  THEME _1 [25 antiphons] The reader i s asked to r e f e r to Theme 1 i n the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n [also to the table located at the beginning of the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n which explains the various a n a l y t i c a l symbols]; i t w i l l be noticed that several of the antiphons in t h i s group [numbers 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, f o r example] are almost i d e n t i c a l to the model antiphon.  The others, however, employ  considerably longer texts, containing as many as twenty-nine s y l l a b l e s , almost twice as many as the f i f t e e n - s y l l a b l e model.  In a l l instances but two the longer antiphons have  been expanded by the i n s e r t i o n of a reciting-tone and [or] by the r e p e t i t i o n of previous material. former procedure.  Let us consider the  The simplest case i s seen i n the example  below i n which a short reciting-tone occurs on one note only: EXAMPLE 2  154 In a row instances, Further r e c i t a t i o n i s Found on another note as w e l l : EXAMPLE 3  —U  - -  mm mt  a  .  __ m m m  r _  «  "  \  r^rrj  r  L Pm  r  J i —  P.S"!  «T  _  Cm v._l<j  The pitches on which these reciting-tones occur would appear to be oF some signiFicance, For an examination oF the other antiphons reveals that inserted r e c i t a t i o n occurs on no notes other than g^ and c\  OF the two, the l a t t e r appears  to have been preFerable since there are no examples oF r e c i t a t i o n on g_ only.  I t i s worth noting also that the note c° i s  the reciting-tone For the psalm.  More w i l l be said oF the  positioning oF the reciting-tone shortly but l e t us next examine the re-use oF material. This grouptoF antiphons shows extreme r e g u l a r i t y i n the r e p e t i t i o n oF Figures.  The opening portion oF the Theme  can be Found i n various neume groupings, at times incomplete or extended, but nevertheless the same Figure:  155 EXAMPLE 4 Basic Figure:  — E  G A F A C  £  mm  mt  n -ft-  ^fl  E  - -  - _ „  |  •  "T^ — 3  3  This Figure may be repeated twice i n an antiphon and i s usually employed with a reciting-tone.  The example below  i s i n s t r u c t i v e as i t shows a long inserted reciting-tone and two r e p e t i t i o n s oF the Figure to accommodate the longest text oF twenty-nine s y l l a b l e s : EXAMPLE 5  156 At t h i s point, the placement of the two expanding devices must be noted.  I t w i l l be noticed that, with only  two exceptions, a l l expansion occurs i n the center of the antiphons.  In other words, the r e c i t a t i o n or repeated  material i s not appended a f t e r a complete statement of the Theme.  Rather, the Theme i s interrupted by the methods  observed and then taken to i t s completion.  The two antiphons  which do not follow t h i s procedure are those which contain new melodic material (marked with brackets i n Example 6] that i s not Thematic: EXAMPLE 6  r,  -—F  n  «  — A — * - " " 3  I"  — f c -  •  m  t  JI %  - r-  *1  1 _- -1  V  - Pm  P. low  It i s now possible to summarize a very limited number of procedures of expansion as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Theme.  The p o s s i b i l i t i e s are:  l ] t h e i n s e r t i o n of a r e c i t i n g -  tone on c*; _3the i n s e r t i o n of reciting-tones on c' and g_j 3]repetition of previous material; and, 4)the combination of  157 one or both reciting-tones with repeated material.  The reader  i s also r e f e r r e d to the analyses of the sub-groups IA, IB. and IC, which exhibit s i m i l a r procedures.  THEME 6  [14 antiphons]  The antiphons of Theme 6, l i k e those of Theme 2, i l l u s t r a t e expansion by the use of repeated material and reciting-tones.  In the former, however, the reciting-tones  are generally elaborated  as shown below i n Example 7s  EXAMPLE 7  Reciting-tones  - H  t  .  n  -  Decorated  j  t  -  C  t-  rL • _  i  _  "  m  m  .  - -  r  i  3  _ _  r nL a 1u  In a l l of the above cases i t i s c l e a r that d' i s the central note [reciting-tone] which has been ornamented.  Most of the  antiphons of Theme 6 [numbers 2, 3, 5, B, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13) contain t h i s feature. of the note  In four instances, s i m i l a r treatment  i s found toward the beginnings  158 EXAMPLE 8  4. L  D*T r  •  m  M  m  -i  I—  "icKA.  •  *.  _ _.  —w- v - —  c  p  .-  m 1 . De-r  -] Cm  r  /  J  Off*. r\Oi  IS. f  1 .  _  _  P.|i(o  Mi  .  W v  There are two antiphons which exhibit r e c i t a t i o n on notes other than a and d'.  In antiphons 2 and 13 the note b i s  repeated almost as an i n t e r r u p t i o n of the decorated r e c i t a t i o n on d':  159 EXAMPLE 9  r  £r oo  ^.  -_-_-_—[_  . '  _____  .  1  3-ftf 1  _  J  oar o-»  1ri^rr-—f  ©  —1—  l _ _ _  P.M+  PRT on  13 •  _  &R.T oo J.'  1VT  RT on c'  3 -  -J"_-  S~*  lot.  Note also the a d d i t i o n a l r e c i t a t i o n on cP i n number 13. In antiphon 5 the passage marked i n brackets can be considered as elaboration around the same note: EXAMPLE 10  C  i1— ~S\ i. =-L  •  3  _  7~~"  m  m  =  1 —  1  f  ** . ws 9m  P.  _1  Reciting-tones [decorated) appear then o n d' g^, c' and b f  f  with preference f o r the f i r s t two of these notes. The amount of repeated material i s very l i m i t e d .  First  of a l l , the Figure which i s repeated i n -the model appears i n seven other antiphons,, i n various Forms ([marked M2] :  160 EXAMPLE 11  4" "ST  TT—"It  •_—rt C  Pm  -1.+  4.  J_-_  -7m-  TTV Pm P.IS-J  -m 1 r mm m C 3a- i_ •T.  7-  Mi.  ,  u  >>  _  •  •  •  ma  2 -  a_  _t •  3  s  _rf  P—.  • » _  m  X  _  J  a  H . I  "  -  " 3  P-IV  J *_ * - a  1  beus  Pr^%  •  P. i . O  la.  61  a—p. 3 n  -P.  l l _ "  r Pm  P..+0  1%.  u  _  mm  '  -1  -  _  _  J  _  r  n. -  V. B  1  a  _  -P-  MBm  "V.  -1 at  14.  TC-—_-  _  -fc.  161 Another point of r e p e t i t i o n i s found immediately a f t e r the opening few notes.  This can be seen i n Example 11 above  where the repeated figure i s designated as Ml.  The two  basic figures are then:  c ^  :±rat  a  F i n a l l y , we must look at antiphon number 3.  Unlike the  others t h i s antiphon cadences on F and the closing material [ r e c i t a t i o n on F] i s appended a f t e r the Theme has been completed: EXAMPLE 12  p ^ m Sit  THEME 5  - n ^ CVA<V>  "L 1o\.0  J  3  "  u  I \?m  t. 1\-  [7 antiphons]  So f a r only two methods of expansion have been dealt w i t h — i n s e r t e d reciting-tones and repeated material.  Theme 5  w i l l demonstrate a t h i r d procedure, namely, r e p e t i t i o n o f the  162 entire Theme.  This Feature i s c l e a r l y seen i n the model:  EXAMPLE 13  IHeme  -  g-  t-noO'Si.  y4  r  •  m  m  1  mm  mm  m  The Theme group i s unique i n that a l l oF i t s antiphons [see the C l a s s i F i c a t i o n ] employ t h i s methods oF expansion  without  the use oF the two devices discussed above; that i s to say. there are no occurrences oF r e c i t i n g - t o n e s or short, repeated Figures.  Antiphon number 7 i s the only one which does not  Follow t h i s r i g i d structure and the departure i s s l i g h t . There i s an i n t e r n a l appearance oF the cadence beFore the Theme i s repeated: EXAMPLE 14  m £  l m  m  mm C\r<iAm  cia  m  cAt.*'\ji'\X  ^  r _  m  m  m e . Coii\<i  ec m  -i  Lit  r to  mm m _  m  U. - .  i -  ?m  f.^jfi  Although no other Theme groups exhibit to t h i s extent the r e g u l a r i t y oF repeating the Theme, there are several i s o l a t e d  163 examples, a sampling of which i s shown below i n Example 15. The Theme may be repeated exactly or i n a s l i g h t l y modified form. EXAMPLE 15  _"T_L  _ rr  ,  Pm  1. L  T7\eme - A  ant S  n ~ ai Nlo/\  __offtbi-  irt  r  ^twr*\  m 2  m  L  Cm  P. io-J  -1  •___  Pm-  p u  r m ~ Ab  l<\»i_r"\«wr«Vibui  L~  *  -.1  —  -id __ «  P.  -  _1i  _  -  Pm <?._U  -3—3—r Pm P - l l  .  1  -1 J  P . _ U  164 Within the Theme groups discussed thus Far, the methods oF extension have been p l a i n l y v i s i b l e and t h e i r use l i m i t e d and consistent.  I t must be stressed that t h i s r e g u l a r i t y  and c l a r i t y oF procedure i s exhibited by .the majority oF the Themes.  There are a Few groups, however, i n which the  procedures oF expansion appear to be more diverse and less obvious.  THEME 3  [34 antiphons] The model and suggested Skeletal Theme are shown i n  Example 16: EXAMPLE 16 SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME: G B C D(X.D  C A C B A G  Although the note e» does not occur i n the model, i t does appear i n several oF the antiphons oF t h i s group and has, therefore, been designated as a possible Thematic note. Although a Few antiphons [numbers 2, 3, 5) contain only the Thematic material, most oF the remaining pieces are expanded mainly by the use oF three recurring motives, two oF which are indicated i n the example below:  165 EXAMPLE 17  1*.  r m  «  -  —  i  mm  r " M  3  V  iI  I  a  1  1 -  u  The two figures marked M-a and M-b can be considered derivat i v e s of those parts of the Theme marked o f f by the dotted lines.  A d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between the two motives  since M-a has e) as i t s highest note while M-b only reaches d*.  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s preserved i n the other antiphons of  the group. A glance at t h i s group i n the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l reveal the frequency with which the two figures occur. Figures M-a and M-b occur i n a variety of formss EXAMPLE 18 - Occurrences of Figure M-a  a. P i e ^ e e •.  -C—3-  r  3  ll.  r L  -  m  T  T  "  B c. e t> a e,  - a  4. m  T • L 3  . •  m m  -| i  166 EXAMPLE 19 - Occurrences of Figure M-b  /3.  n  u _ - "L -  '1-  p  L  a ,  r  L.  is.  p L  lo-  - .  m  m  m "  m m  zL. r  m  i  m  m  27-  P L  J _  A t h i r d motive CM-c) i s also found on occasion.  Essenti-  a l l y t h i s figure seems to be an elaboration around the notes g_ and a and appears i n two positions.  In antiphons 14 and  20 [see Example 20 below] the Theme has been presented i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a f t e r which figure M-c serves as a l i n k to M-b to further extend the melody:  167 EXAMPLE 20  „ M-b  _ifc  »• 14  r a .  L (_».iA<ie+«.  ^ \ i t  M 4  i  >  —3-.--  w  -  _-<on  mm  <Vrt P. i l  In the next examples, Figure M-c occurs i n the same p o s i t i o n but the Theme i s incomplete i n number 27 and disguised i n number 30 [the Thematic notes are c i r c l e d ] : EXAMPLE 21  ll p  -  •  -  _L  n-c  .->_ •>  ^  - " J l  r1 L  n  *  _ i  i  b  -  L  I \ _- • /7 .  M-l.  -  •  •  P>l\l  kra«)  venict  L  -  «v>  P. Iv-  a  _ «-1  - _  168 Figure M-c i s used as a l i n k to M-b i n a l l of the antiphons shown above i n Examples 20 and 21.  In antiphon 19 below,  t h i s s i t u a t i o n s t i l l applies but M-c i s also preceded by M-a: EXAMPLE 22  A. " •  -  r  m  m  L  i—ft  f  n  a.  -  i  b  _  •u  I  There are some occurrences of inserted reciting-tones to be found i n Theme group 3.  As has been observed already  i n other groups, the r e c i t a t i o n occurs mainly on the same note as that of. the psalm-tone, which i s d': EXAMPLE 23  -  C  1  w  II-  yrm,  mm Pflii  it.  \  _ r_ J % . . .  r  •  •  ta ai  \\XrA  mm  VAA/  M  1m  O.rj.c.^p^-fl.bJi  _  Sftnc-Wum  -.  T. - - - - i  .  >T« n e « . « + i _ « * \  IN C«_».r  —  —  _  w Pm  P. i 4 l  169 There are only a Few antiphons which exhibit r e c i t a t i o n on other notes as well: EXAMPLE S4  46_r\_4\cWo  „  _>ofwi«»«. fc-p_r  ...a . — ~  • "l  mm  _  fern  r 2  ru  1  "J J  •  - -L  &er  •n r -  3  '  JL  1  _.+_>  .1  . . - --  OA  Pmi r.  •2.9-  r L  .  r  -  - ^ 1 OA ft' -  -,_  _ - - • - -I • L  4  |0_T  m  -  al I  —  VW  There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, that d', the pitch oF the psalm-tone, i s the preFerred note For inserted  reciting-tones  It would seem that there was a marked tendency to r e c i t e on the pitch oF the psalm-tone and not on just any note oF the antiphon.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n oFvthe other Themes would show  that although t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s not always Followed s t r i c t l y , there i s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y large number oF them which t h i s procedure.  illustrat  170 Tho reader i s asked to note the short r e p e t i t i o n of d i n some of the short antiphons of Theme 3s 1  EXAMPLE 25  1.  rW>  m mm.  '  1  Jw -  ^  V__r  V>vV  Perhaps t h i s short r e p e t i t i o n represents  the vestiges of a  simple reciting-tone antiphon before the Theme took on more melodic o u t l i n e s , a development that was seen e a r l i e r i n other groups under the discussion Related Themes,  I f , i n f a c t , that  i s the case, what more natural and l o g i c a l p i t c h on which to i n s e r t a reciting-tone f o r purposes of expansion [see Figure 1 3 s FIGURE 1  Voii&\£  QftftHfoCm  —  m(Kr>Uj  r_ci*i«^-tort_  [Continued,. , 3  171 FIGURE 1 [Continued]  r-  C  is i  w —  - "  a  —i  -  This discussion.of Theme 3 w i l l conclude with a look at antiphon number 33.  This antiphon F i r s t presents a s t a t e -  ment oF the basic Theme, Followed by an elaborate, extended version oF the Theme--a version s i m i l a r to many oF the longer antiphons i n the group: EXAMPLE 26  "•'•— ' ————*») • -,. • 1  -  \f<a.f,  i« C A r n i n o  »^r»_  mt mm1  mt m\_ *  • ^Ot*"  m mm  172 It i s examples such as the above antiphon From Theme 3 which oFFer concrete evidence For our choice oF the basic Theme and i t s subsequent elaboration. ThBme 3 represents the most complicated oF a l l the Theme groups i n terms oF distinguishing between Thematic and Formulaic material.  Let us examine one F i n a l Theme group  and discuss each antiphon i n d e t a i l .  THEME 6 4 [10 antiphons) The model and suggested Skeletal Theme are shown below i n Example 27: EXAMPLE 27 SUGGESTED SKELETAL THEME:  FFGGACAGF(GA]BG C  m  a  i 1  1  3|  The Skeletal Theme can be divided into two main components as indicated by the horizontal brackets.  The part marked with  an "E" i s nothing more than elaboration oF the note c'. The note e, also marked i n brackets i n the model, need not be considered part oF the Theme since i t does not appear c o n s i s t ently.  S i m i l a r l y , the g_ and a i n the second component oF the  Skeletel Theme do not always appear i n the other antiphons oF the group.  173 Antiphon 2, with greater elaboration around the note cj, i s very s i m i l a r to the model: EXAMPLE 28  MIL  X.  r-  -a*—  ——p_~~_r -TU . • *  - -  Once again, the r e c i t a t i o n occurs on the same pitch as the psalm-tone. In antiphons 3 and 4 a new Figure appears: EXAMPLE 29  a-  —E  1 . a - —•*  i  f t — r * r> Pm  —>  -—  P.iti  *— i  - _V-= _-  j —  m  wt  In outline, t h i s new Figure i s s i m i l a r to the opening oF the Theme:: F FT3 G A C.  There i s , however, an unmistakable  resemblance to the opening oF Theme 1:  174 EXAMPLE 30  _L  i t-ig mg i  vW Pm P.TL.<}O  -_ _  a  _  The p o s s i b i l i t y of the incorporation of other Themes was investigated with l i t t l e conclusive r e s u l t s .  I t was found  that what appear to be other Themes could, i n f a c t , be nothing more than one of the many ubiquitous formulas i n the Milanese repertory.  Such i s the case f o r the above example.  The  figure g[ a f a c' i s frequently found i n the antiphons.  Hence,  i t i s impossible t o state conclusively that Theme 1 i s operating within Theme 24.  In any event, t h i s example  augments our proposed t h e s i s of the close r e l a t i o n s h i p of many of the Themes through common melodic formulas. point concerning antiphon number 4 should be made.  One l a s t This  antiphon i s one of two i n the group which does not cadence on the usual g_. More w i l l be s a i d of f i n a l s and such except i o n s i n Chapter 3, Antiphon number 5 i s s i m i l a r to number 2 with i t s decorated r e c i t a t i o n on c*:  175 EXAMPLE 31  Pm  P. i-iTO  Antiphons 6 and 7 both show inserted r e c i t a t i o n on g_. The former also has the decorated r e c i t a t i o n on c' while the l a t t e r adds new material a f t e r completing the Theme to cadence on d [ t h i s i s the other exceptional f i n a l ] : EXAMPLE 32  KT  r  —v  „ 3  m m urn m  —• u  a1 •  PL  \  m  _  r i - a - - -I *-  -i  3  I  _  •*  m  :  w - r*"v3  It ^ FL a _  .1  The material marked # might be considered an a l l u s i o n t o the g_ a f a cj figure i n antiphons 3 and 4 . The _ a f a c' figure reappears i n antiphon 8 and i s followed by material which consists of r e c i t a t i o n on c' with a a a b c' " i n c i p i t . "  This same material i s then repeated:  176 EXAMPLE 33  f  _  U  3  " _ 3-  r  . . i i i  J  . 3  ^  \ -  3  -  *-*pu__  i  m  3" " " 3 •  >  m m  mm  V-  —  J  P m p.if  j.^; _ u K t  __  1  It should also be noted that, i n t h i s instance, the c l o s i n g portion of the antiphon [marked by the horizontal bracket] i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t eight or nine notes of the melody. The l a s t two antiphons, numbers 9 and 10, show the same methods of expansion. g^.  Both have reciting-tones on the note  Figures Nl and N2 are inserted before the c l o s i n g portion  of the Theme: EXAMPLE 34  fir  P.  n m m  —  w  a-  KT  m  ~  m m m m  m  -  -ra al  _  r  „.  v  m  - al \ a  l  «1 _  3 _  * 3|" .  •J  "  •  "  m  a  - •  - J" 3^ - a .1  m  M' _  uT.  a,•  a \.  A  I  -i  ~i r  _ *" •  c  • _  I>L  - Nn _  a_  m—rngm  3*  — W mm  m  "mm  -  "  177 Summary An attempt: has been made i n t h i s chapter to show that, i n general, the Themes operate throughout the antiphons. Those antiphons with longer texts are accommodated e i t h e r by Formulaic procedures (namely, the use oF reciting-tones, r e p e t i t i o n oF Figures From the Theme], the r e p e t i t i o n oF the entire Theme, or, i n some cases, new material.  In the  majority oF the Theme groups, the Formulaic portions are c l e a r and e a s i l y distinguishable From the Thematic material; the methods oF expansion are limited and straightForward. In only a Few groups are the methods complicated and obscured.  Chapter 3 CADENCES AND FINALS An examination oF the cadences oF the Milanese oFFice antiphons reveals two s t r i k i n g Facts,  The F i r s t i s that,  i n spite oF the large number oF chants, there are very Few cadential patterns.  Secondly, cadences do not seem to be  associated with p a r t i c u l a r Finals.1  The present writer w i l l  attempt to show that cadences and F i n a l s , which are so important For modal assignment i n Gregorian chant, have no such application i n the Milanese repertory.  Modes Cin the  Gregorian sense} do not appear to be operating i n Milanese chant,  Finals The c l a s s i f i e d antiphons exhibit a very uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n oF F i n a l s ,  Although a l l seven pitches are  represented, only Four CG D F E) are oF importance since the occurrences on 8, C, and A only account For about three percent oF the t o t a l number.  Moreover, i t w i l l be noticed  that, oF the Four Finals indicated above, G and D markedly lAlma Colk, T n "A Study oF the Ornate Antiphons i n MS. VAT. LAT. 5319" [M.Mus. Thesis, University oF B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971), had Found quite the opposite to be true For the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s : "[They] have recognizable cadential patterns which are used over and over again, and which can be c l a s s i f i e d For each F i n a l . " Cp. 41),  179 outnumber the others.  The sum of these two f i n a l s accounts  for over eighty percent of the t o t a l !  The r e s u l t s of the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n a l s are summarized i n Table IV below. TABLE IV - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE ANTIPHONS Approximate Final  Number oF Antiphons  Percentage  6  303  50%  D  206  33%  F  42  7%  E  42  7%  A  14  2%  B  2  <1%  C  1  <1%  2  Let us look Further to see how the Finals are d i s tributed  according to Theme.  OF the Forty-nine Themes  [counting Themes and sub-Themes separately], twenty-three end on G, seventeen on D, two on F, two on E, one on A, and none on B or C. exhibit  Nearly a l l the Themes Cover ninety percent)  a consistency oF F i n a l ; that i s to say, with some  exceptions, the antiphons i n a Theme group conclude on the same note.  In only Four Themes C9, 16, 17, and 21A] no  regular Final could be determined.  Table V shows the F i n a l  For each Theme Cand sub-Theme_ and the number oF exceptions i n each case. ^Less than one percent.  180 TABLE V - DISTRIBUTION OF FINALS IN THE THEMES Theme 1 IA IB 1C 2 2A 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A IOB IOC 11 11A 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ISA 19 19A 19B 20 21 21A 22 22A 22B 23 24 24A 24B 24C 25 25A 26 27 28 28A 29 30  Normal F i n a l G G G G G A G G G G G 0  Exceptions 1-A none none 2-F none 1-G 1-B none none 1-F none none  0 0 0 0 G G E G F 0  1-F; 1-G none none 1-E 1-F none none none 1-A none  0  none none none 1-E 1-C; 1-E 1-A none  *?  •  0 0 0 G 0 •  0 D G 6 G G G F G 0 •  G G £  G  none none none none 1-F none none none 3-G 1-F 1-A; 1-F 1-F; 1-E 2-F; 1-A none none 1-B  181 It w i l l be, noticed that, i n general, the exceptions are few i n r e l a t i o n to the number of antiphons i n a Theme group and, therefore, can be considered ficant.  relatively insigni-  We would suggest that the exceptions  for one of two reasons.  have arisen  F i r s t of a l l , there are several  antiphons which, after presenting a complete statement of the Theme with i t s usual f i n a l , have an extended free appendA sampling of t h i s type i s shown i n Example Is  age.  EXAMPLE 1  V  S  mm  aKTT  3t_  Secondly, i t i s quite possible that many of the other  182 exceptional Finals are the r e s u l t oF copying errors i n the manuscript.  Consider f o r example, antiphon 2 From Theme  1 which stops one note short oF the usual F i n a l G: EXAMPLE 2  f*  mt  ""•>_  ,  a -  mm  Do.v\v'n_  f -  J.OV  P.  2,. f  .  V-d_.V_.Ht*- cor  OuAeytrtVi  Pm  P. 4  In ExamplB 3, Domine qui regnas goes one note beyond the usual Final G: EXAMPLE 3  THeme  mOfcCLL  _ i-  -c  a \  JV  2,i  m  •  m m\  m n  it 1 — 3 —  "~  T mt  m  m  _  .  -  ru - -  Ml  m  183 The Fact that a l l the exceptions are only one note above or below the normal Final would appear to strengthen the argument For miscopying.  In any case, t h e r e g u l a r i t y oF Final e x h i b i t e d  by t h e majority oF t h e Themes i s testimony  to thB Fact t h a t  Theme and F i n a l are r e l a t e d .  Cadences The cadence w i l l be considered on the basis oF i t s approach to the F i n a l , whether From below or above. the Final i s approached From above.  Most often,  This i s seen i n the  cadential pattern below [marked oFF by the dotted which consists oF three descending steps.  lines]  The decision about  what constitutes the cadence i s Fortunately easy For the Milanese antiphons.  Most oF the cadences can be Found i n  positions where they are c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d by a preceding r e c i t a t i o n tone.  This i s most obvious i n the F i r s t item oF  Example 3: EXAMPLE 3  L  '  y.  L  • r-.ltz -  •  •  •  - ,.«, •  1  1  II —  (Continued...]  —  184 EXAMPLE 3 [Continued]  iy>o&_L -  T r i e m g il  i  ru a %  t  -  H  _'_  T "  " *r - .  v  m  *  t  ]  J  ' * a  i  _  •  "  N  "  ™  • -i!_.  1 Pm P 3 o « f  In the next example the pattern i s not a r t i c u l a t e d by a reciting-tone but, by extrapolation, figure:  i s c l e a r l y the same  185 EXAMPLE 4  Tfteme  it-  , I O-.  Atk-  f . H S  »iiewe_. J Q C _  -3--  (-. ioT V  Rm  WlonSL - \\\e~\£ -.1.  Wirtt  - E — -— am--mm. m  -  Pm  V_r_*m  - _  \ - 1  m "  JU.b',l-V_ t o o  -  i  3 •  P- 14  "••  o^nii  .  _.  _ . - . - _-3l • . . . i  fern  C »*Ur  The three-note descending pattern i s by Far the most common. A glance through the Thematic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n reveals that t h pattern accounts f o r at least f o u r - f i f t h s of the endings.  186 Although there are i s o l a t e d appearances of the pattern on A, i t i s usually associated with the Finals oF G  f  D, and F.  Frequently the middle step;oF the above Figure i s omitted causing the leap oF a t h i r d to the F i n a l : EXAMPLE 5  —_-  _ •m  ~ « • m  A second pattern i n which the Final i s approached From above c o n s i s t s oF the F i n a l , the note above, and the F i n a l , This Figure i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d ,  on occasion rather  abruptly, by a wide leap From the proceeding  note:  EXAMPLE 6  J5L _X»6.!a__-lL —  - S - —  CContinued..,}  187 EXAMPLE 6  v/_s.Wi (j*,»t-  I.  [Continued]  ^e*.Vi  f«  f - >-1  2.4-6  iitewe  .£  ..::..rp-:----j:.:-::i:- r -"> r , - a |  There a r e o n l y  a Few i n s t a n c e s  : >fv  i n which t h e above  e x i s t s a s a c a d e n c e i n i t s own r i g h t . Found a s a n e x t e n s i o n Cthis matter w i l l There the  Final  Figure  Most o f t e n  one c a d e n t i a l p a t t e r n w h i c h  From b e l o w by one s t e p .  approaches  As i s t h e c a s e  For the  i n Example 6, t h e p a t t e r n i n Example 7 i s p l a i n l y by a n a b r u p t  oF  p a t t e r n a r e F o u n d m a i n l y on t h e F i n a l  ally  Figure  shortly].  deFined this  i t is  t o the descending three-note  be d i s c u s s e d  i s only  pattern  on A.  leap  From t h e p r e c e d i n g  note. • and  Occurrences occasion-  188 EXAMPLE 7  TTve.m_  7-  ioa  —  — - a - -  __ -, 3  em p.-u,  - —\ f\l <>_<•<-o-bo omnia.  —  _  T fl-  —  *5>m £ . ^v|OvJ  -3-""  A F i n a l pattern oF common occurence i s Found mainly on the Finals D, A, and E.  This Figure can be considered a  derivative oF e i t h e r that Figure i n Example 8 or 7, or both5 EXAMPLE 8  S~-  I l-tgm«  T_V  [Continued...3  189 EXAMPLE 8 [Continued)  3 - --  4-  T^em<  '06  L  s—a—3U_V,V  <A_ VxVw.  Pm P I T  F i n a l l y , some mention must be made oF cadential extension.  This procedure i s handled i n one oF three ways.  F i r s t oF a l l , the simplest Form i s an elaboration oF the F i n a l attached to the three-note descending patterns  190 EXAMPLE 9  -KT.  CAT>. 10 •  TH.mc  VQ(^  3  Cm P.\I«Y  IVYJAV $e_*W  i  u C<M>.  — 1  - *T.  OV-.  \\.  Tftcvte  Uo.Mil.mkAi  _y.-T  10  <\om«<v  Pm P. _ i g  Secondly, the extension may consist of a repeat [either exact or varied] of the cadence a f t e r the Theme has been  completed.  This procedure usually involves a short l i n k before the repetition: EXAMPLE 10  1-  THeme IOC  _1.^v3-._al.-"  -|L. Bm -C.iUv  "Ti+eme  C_^\PL6T--.  CContinued.„„]  191 EXAMPLE 10 [Continued]  3  I  -...3f<n f>. iMo  Lastly, there are instances i n which both of the above procedures are i n evidences EXAMPLE 11 „.  -e  TTlgfv*.  n a  .  '—  ~~3— • „-»  -  - „,  — -  — ~  11  w  -  1 wem_  r  . L -1  l£<\ s. J  .  -- 1  '  __a  _  :  1-3  - -"  1 lo-  •  •—  ^ -f\  II  i  - _ - r r-»—j—  3  ma ma  R m  •  ni  As i s seen i n the l a s t example above, the l i n k to the repeat of the cadence may occur i n the form of repeated material from the Theme.  Mention has already been made of such instances  192 under the discussion of Operation oF Themes. R e l a t i v e l y speaking, cadential extensions are not numerous since, as has been pointed out e a r l i e r i n the study, the majority of the antiphons are short.  As a r u l e , the  cadence completes the Theme and the antiphon simultaneously.  APPENDIX INDEX  TO  THE  THEMATIC  'HEMS  E—  CLASSIFICATION  _E  _-1  . "> -  I  ~7^ a  _  •  i  Pay  7*  P-y.  7S  i He^e 7 5 . •  ±^1  lri_me  i  . 3  -  W  ______  IB  P^e  H e m e  t.==tx 3 "3  —  r_ . _  -  -~  T;  W V  i Heme  77  vW-  P^_  10  7-  wV  >H_me 2£L  :  .a.-.  I Heme 3  _  vW  j  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  __ £___  _  i  a . •1  ______  lH_me  10-  -3-p4^  WV  1  194 i  THE me nfl 2 mt a  l H £ m g  V , - ~\  P^r  H  f7  »1"  W  -w-  I HE nag 2.1 VW  e  . 3  -  VW  P^_  lU  E  14  p L  •» _  TU.mg  U •  . nu - •  m  1  _  2Z.A  VW  vW  V  195  3v P^g  E  — — J 3 - |  "I"1, 1  i He ms  »r  v _v  Tug m e  -_—v-  V W  W  _s ——vW-  Pay E——ir  /'g  APPENDIX II ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF THE MILANESE PSALTER ANTIPHONS  P - Paleographie Musicale B - Bodleian Manuscript unci.- u n c l a s s i f i e d  A resistenbibus Ab nomine iniquo Ab insurgentibus...exaltabis Ab insurgentibus...libera ti II  t» tt  Ab o c c u l t i s meis Abominantes me longe Abraham et Semen Accelera Domine Accipite et commendite Ad deFensionem meam Ad monumentum Lazari Ad te de luce Adjutor et protector Adjutor meus esto Adjutorium nostrum Adjuva me Domine Adorabunt eum omnes tt  ti  Adstiterunt reges Adversum me l a e t a t i Adversum me omnia Agnes Famula Ajuro iniquo Alexandri martyris Alleluia, alleluia tt tt it ti ti tt tt ti it ti it  II  tt tt tt •• ti  n  ti tt tt tt  MS ReF. P-p.273 P-p.277 P-p.278 P-p.272 B-F.356r P-p.226 P-p.204 P-p.303 B-F.33Bv P-P.51 B-F.104r P-p.304 P-p.244 P-p.131 B-F.303v B-F.344v B-F.347r P-p.273 P-p.65 P-p.119 P-p.279 P-p.279 P-p.290 P-p.140 B-F.358r B-F.196r P-p.169 B-F.5v B-F.20r B-F.37v B-F.40r B-F.43r B-F.49v B-F.5v B-F.42r B-F.38r B-F.39r B-F.37v  Theme IB IOB 16 10 18 2 22 unci. 24A 10A 18A unci. 19B 3 IA unci. unci. 14 25A 25A 10B 1 28A 19B 18 3 unci. unci. unci. unci. unci. unci. unci. 1 8 9 9 10B  197 Alleluia, alleluia  11A 11A 11A 12 17 17  Auditiohem tuam Auditue meo Oomine Auditui nostro Auditum tuum Oomine Audivit Oominus Auxilictua nobis Averte fatiem tuam Ave Maria g r a t i a plena Ave Virgo Maria  B-f. 36r B-f. 49r B-f, 50r B-f. 41r B-f. 5r B-f. 43r B-f. 44v B-f. 47v P-P. 276 P-P. 193 P-P. 292 P-P. 15 P-P. 67 B-f. 346r B-f. 203r B-f. 335v P-P. 63 P-p. 118 P-P. 12 P-P.,220 B-f,, 165v B-f, 163v B-f. 163v P-P., 126 P-P.,275 P-P. 113 B-f. 294v B-f,,294v B-f,,51v P-P. 204 P-P.,60 P-P. 291 P-P.,66 B-f, 353v B-f,,353v B-f, 295r B-f, 42v P-P.,206 B-f,,295r P-P. 219 B-f, 343v B-f,,43r P-P..36 P-P..29  24B IOB 24 19B ISA unci. unci. 20 12 1 1 unci. 19A 24B 3 6 unci. 1 19A 16 19A IA 1 unci. 1 25 28 10 19 unci, unci. unci. 2A 12 21 2 IA  Beata es Maria Beata es quae Beata Eufimia Virgo  P-p.50 P-p.73 B-f.201v  1C unci. 3  ti  t t  tt  t i  II  V  tt  t i  tt  t i  it  i t  tt  i t  Altimore i n i m i c i Anania, Azaria, Misael Ancilla dixit A n c i l l a C h r i s t i sum Angeli Domini S f i l i i Angeli ejus laudate Angelum pacis Anima mea magnifies Annunciaverunt c a e l i Annuntiaverunt c a e l i Ante faciem Opera Domine Apolinaris egregius Apolinaris martyris Apolinaris martyr Apparuit g r a t i a Apprehenda arma Apud te Oomine Arcum Potentium tt  i t  Ascendit Oeus Asperges me Oomine Assummo caelo Assurgentes testes Attende caelum S loquar Audita fatiem tuam it  t i  171  198 Beata progenies Beatam apostolus cessum Beatam me dicent Beati immaculati i n v i a Beati omnes Beati qui habitant Beati qui scrutantur Beati quorum re sunt Beati quorum remisse Beatus i l l e venter Beatus Nazarius Beatus Petrus apostolus Beatus que e l e g i s t i Bene Fac Domine Benedicite omnia opera " " " Benedico te Pater Benedictio Domini super Benedictus Oeus Sidrach Benedictus Oomine Benedictus Dominus Oeus Benedictus Dominus quia Benedictus qui venit Bonum est conFidere Bonum est c o n F i t e r i " " Bonum et jocundum Bonum meam lex  P-p.101 B-F.193v P-p.105 B-F.43v B-F.351r B-F.219r B-F.359v B-F.41r B-F.13r P-p.37 B-F.173v B-F.164v B-F.278v B-F.347r B-F.7r P-p.169 B-F.33v P-p.140 B-F.351r P-p.245 B-F.363r P-p.122 B-F.341v P-p.265 B-F.361r B-F.364r B-F.352v B-F.354v B-F.124r  18A 24B 3 23 17 unci. 10 unci. 21A 1C 19A 3 28A unci. 10C 10C 23 3 3 2 unci. unci. 1C 10C 11A unci, unci. 29 unci,  Caeli S t e r r a Calicem s a l u t a r i s Qaelos horror Canite tuba Cantate Domino canticum Cantemus Domino " " " " " Canticum novum Castigans c a s t i g a v i t C e l i Celorum " " Cenantibus a p o s t o l i s Cete et omnia Cibavit eos Oominos Circumdederunt me canes Circumdederunt me v i t u l i  P-p.64 P-p,74 P-p.305 P-p.6 B-F.44r B-F,6v B-F.43v P-p. 169 B-F.303r P-p.40 P-p.84 B-F.307v B-F.307r B-F.350r B-F.103v B-f.305r B-F.lllv P-p,283 P-p.292  27 1C 10C 7 21 1 22B 22B 22B 3 1C 10C unci. unci. 28A 9 1 5 5  19  199 Clamabat demon apostole Glamor noster Domine Cogitaverunt adversum me Complace Oomine ut e r i p i a s Concupivit rex Confessio ejus Confessor sancte Confessus es bona Confirms Deus Confirmatum est cor meum " " Confiteantur Oomino Confitemini Domino Confundantur omnes Conserva me Domine Considers i n opera Considerabam a dextris Considerat peccator Consideravi Domine Converte Domine Cor contritum Cor meum et caro " Cor mundum crea " Coronam g l o r i a e ponam Coronavit t e Dominus Cosmos et Oemianis Credidi Propter Crucem tuam Cujus honors Cum accepisset Curus Pharaonis Custodi animam meam Custodi me Domine  B-f.193v B-f.356r P-p.281 P-p.276 B-f.287v B-f.278v B-f.277r B-f.278v B-f.294r B-f.294r B-f.294r B-f.356r B-f.43v P-p.106 P-p,202 B-f,295v P-p,289 P-p.283 B-f.295v B-f.347r B-f.357r B-f.342v P-p.199 P-p.217 B-f.357r P-p.74 P-p,74 B-f.212v B-f.343v B-f.ll6r B-f.36v P-p.305 P-p.211 B-f.349r P-p.277  24B 22 IB IB unci. 30 10C 28A 30 25 unci. 17 29 25A 1 19A 10B 28A 19B 26 unci. 12 26 24C unci. unci, 6 unci, 8 16 11A 19A 19B 27 IB  De c e l i s Oominum De i n i m i c i s meis De menu omnium De nocte v i g i l a t De radice Jesse De torrente i n v i a De ventre matris Decidat super eos Declaratio sermonum Demonstra mihi Domine Deo nostro jucunda " Descendat s i c u t ros  B-f.307r P-p.272 B-f.353v B-f.5v B-f.200v B-f.l95r B-f.137v B-f.304v P-p.91 B-f.l69r B-f.363v B-f.363r P-p.14  19 15 22B unci. 26 1 19A 24B IB 3 8 unci. 26  200 Oescendit i n terrain Descendit s i c u t •esciderat anima Oeus a u x i l i i mei Oeus canticum novum Oeus de celo Oeus Deus meus it Oeus i n nomine Oeus Israel l i b e r a Oeus judicium Deus manifests Deus meus 5 Dominus Oeus ne elonges ti Oeus noster a Libano Oeus noster judicium Oeus qui conteris Deus s p i r i t s Dextera manus tue Oextera tua Oomine Die einimae meae O i c i t Dominus Dico autem nobis Diffusa est g r a t i a Dignus es Domine Dilligam te Oeus v i r t u s Discede me pabulum Disperdat Dpminus Oisperge i l l o s O i s p e r s i t dedit O i s s o l u t i sunt Diviserunt s i b i Dixerunt impii Doceam iniquos Oocuisti me Deus Domine clamavi Domine Deus meus Domine Oeus meus Domine Deus v i r t u s Domine d i l l e x i Oomine exaudi orationem Oomine excelsum Oomine i n c i v i t a t e Oomine l i b e r a Oomine probasti me Domine qui regnas tt Domine s i f u i s s e s  P-P. 302 P-P. 60 B-f. 352v B-f. 341r P-p. 260 B-f. 340v B-f, 344v B-f. 354r B-f. 16v B-f. 300v B-f. 39v P-p. 30 P-P. 234 P-P. 276 P-P. 281 P-P. 20 P-P. 12 B-f. 304r B-f. 41r B-f. 304r B-f. 304r B-f. 34Bv P-p. 83 B-f. 130v P-p. 84 P-p. 101 B-f. 39v P-p. 139 P-p. 276 P-P. 280 B-f. 183v P-p. 292 P-p. 299 P-P.,289 P-p. 281 B-f, 177v B-f, 358r P-P., 128 P-P. 273 B-f, 296r B-f, 228r B-f, 43r P-P. 12 P-P. 106 B-f, 343v B-f,,358r P-P.,158 P-P.,193 P-p.,250  2A 1C 28A unci. 14 8 14 14 unci. 7 23 unci. 6 5 5 6 6 unci. 23 unci. unci. a 20 unci. IB 12 23 IB IB 1 1C 8 19B 1C 19A 17 27 4 13 unci. 28 23 unci. 13 18 22A 1C 24 24  201 Domine ut scuto Domini est t e r r a Dominum de c e l i s Dominus conterens b e l l a Dominus dabit Dominus d i x i t Dominus pauperes Dominus virtutum Domus enim mea Domus l e v i Domus mea domus Domus tuam decet Donee transeat Dum appropinquaverunt Dum complerentur  B-F.246v B-F.20v B-F.30Bv B-F.303v P-p.84 P-p.60 B-F.295r P-p.96 B-F.215r P-P.77 B-F.227r B-F.227r P-p.245 P-P.4 B-F.97v  unci. 21 24 24 unci. 27 24 13 3 unci, 3 28 unci. 28 30  Ecoe a n c i l l a Domini Ecce Ascendimus Ecce completa sunt Ecce dico vobis Ecce Dominus noster Ecce Dominus sedst Ecce ego S pueri Ecce ipse est Ecce jam veniet Ecce mitto Angelum Ecce quam bonum Ecce video caelos Ecce Virgo i n utero Educ de carcere EFFundam i n conspectu Ego autem cum j u s t i t i a Ego autem i n Domino Ego autem s i c u t Ego gloriam Ego primogenitum ponam Ego sum Dominus Ego sum panis Ego sum qui peccavi Ego sum v i a Ego te f r a t e r E l e g i t nos Dominus Elevate signum Equum et ascensorem Erant v i s t i Erexit nobis Eripe a Framea Eripe me de i n i m i c i s Eripe me Domine  P-p.36 P-p.283 P-p.126 P-p.290 P-p.39 P-p.49 P-p.146 P-p.68 P-p.56 P-P.21 B-F.130v P-p.76 P-p.29 B-F.197r B-F.358v P-p.51 B-F.295v B-F.284v P-p.216 P-p.62 P-p.63 B-F.106v P-p.181 B-F.56v B-F.202r P-p.95 P-p.39 B-F.303v B-F.137r B-F.349v P-p.283 P-p.276 P-p.276  7 19A 4 19A 18A 18A 1 10C 4 1C 4 19 unci. IB unci. 1 10B IA unci o 27 2A 6 unci. 20 19 IB 10B 3 28 3 19 B 1 IB  202  Exultavit S p i r i t u s meus Exultent S laetentur  B-F. 358v B-F, 137v P-P. 256 P-p. 29 B-F. 275r P-P. 91 P-P. 64 B-F. 355r B-F, 105v B-F. 190r B-F. 216v B-F. 295r B-F. 45r B-F. 296r P-P, IB P-P,,273 P-P, 28 P-P,,21 P-P, 187 P-P. 303 P-P.,302 P-P.,276 P-P.,304 P-P. 282 P-P.,97 B-F ,27r B-F, ,335v P-P.,7  unci 3 22A 12 20 IB 28A 22B 17 10B unci unci 21A IOC 13 25A 7 10B unci IA IB IB 25 IB 25A unci 25 18A  Fac Oeus potentiam Facta est Judea Factus sum s i c u t F e c i t Dominus F e c i t mihi magna Ferrum per t r a n s i v i t Fiant Oomine Fiat manus tua Fiat pax Domine F i l i i ambulaverunt F i l i i hominum F i l i i Israel transierunt F i l i i I s r a e l veniet Firmamentum meum Fluminis impetus Frater non redemit Fratres mei et amici Fructum s a l u t i  B-F.336r P-p.105 P-p.301 B-F.335v B-F.245r B-F.198r B-F.351r B-F.359v B-F.345v B-F.305r B-F.305r B-F.304v P-p.92 B-F.344v P-p.114 P-p.301 B-F.258r B-F.105r  20 IA 13 10B 3 27 unci 8 27 IA 3 IA 3 22 19B 9 30 19A  Esurientes reple bonis Et audivi vocem Et invocabimus nomen Et t u Bethlehem Euge serve bone Ex ore infantium Ex utero ante Exalta Oomine humiles E x a l t a r i tuo Oomine Exaltata est sancta Exaltatum est cor meum it  II  Exaudiat te Oominus Exaudivit Oominus Excita potentiam Exspectabam Oeum Exspectetur s i c u t Exspectetur s i c u t Exsurgam d i l u c u l o Exsurgat Oeus Exsurge Oomine i n requiem Exsurge Domine non confortetur Exsurgens Domines misereberis Exter Factus sum Exultate Oeo •i  203 Gaude S laetare Gaudete F i l i a e Sion Gaudete i n Domino Gaudete Sancti Gelaverunt tamquam Gelavit mare Genibus Flexus Georgi martyr G l o r i a S honore Gloriose h o n o r i F i c a r i s Gloriosus i n S a n c t i s " " Gratia Dei sum Gubernasti j u s t i t i a tua  P-p.314 P-p.21 P-p.40 B-F.2B0v B-F.304r B-F.304v B-F.194r B-F.113v P-p.76 B-F.359v B-F.261r B-F.248v B-F.182r P-p.228  18A 3 18A IA 108 19B 19 30 13 8 8 25 19 27  Haec est generatio Haec Virgo sapiens Helisabet Zachariae Hie Oeus meus Hie est disoipulus " Hie est Salvator Hodie i n Bethlehem Hodie i n caelo Hodie s c i e t i s Humilitatem meam Igne me examinasti I H i p a t r i Families Illumina Domine " Illuminans Oomine Illumine Domine Immola Deo sacriFicium Impulsus versatus In camino i g n i s In c e l i s preparabitur In conspectu sanctorum In conspectu tuo Domine In cymbalis " In Deo laudabo In diebus meis invocabo In Domino sperans In domum Domini In eternum Deum In e x c e l s i s Angeli In exitu Israel  P-p.96 B-F.286v B-F.138v P-p.66 P-p.82 P-p.84 P-p.65 P-p.67 P-p.117 P-p.59 B-F.335v B-F.182r P-p.288 B-F.361r P-p.182 P-p.116 B-F.350v P-p.143 P-p.97 B-F.306r B-F.361v B-F.256r B-F.195r P-p.194 B-F.361v P-p.84 B-F.343r P-p.206 B-F.215v B-F.43v P-p.175 B-F,12r  IB 19B 18A 26 IB 6 16 unci. 25 18A 19B IC 19B 10 22A 2A 17 19A IB 25 14 17 25 unci. 10 10B unci. 10A 19A 23 12 21A  204 In In In In In In In In In In In In In In In  Firmamento v i r t u t i s hoc g l o r i e t a r iniquitatibus Israel o r i e t u r lege Domini memoria eterna potentatibus ejus prole mater sanctitate serviamus s a l i c i b u s i n medio Sanctis ejus s p i r i t u S veritate tua j u s t i t i a turbatione anime tympano et choro " " Inclina to capita Incola ego sum Induit me Angelus Inguenua S sum Iniquitatem meam Oomine Insurrexerunt i n me testes Inte speravi Intende animae ! c : " Intende Oomine " Intende i n adjutorium Ipse et Facta Ipse super Maria Ipse tamquam I s r a e l Dominum Iste est Johannes  B-F.357r P-p.4 P-p.202 P-p.315 B-F.340v B-F.274v B-F.307r P-p.101 B-F.357r B-F.354v B-F.261v P-p.198 B-F.351v B-F.295v B-F.307v P-p.211 P-p.304 B-F.118r P-p.141 P-p.151 P-p.201 P-p.290 P-p.177 B-F.341r P-p.278 P-p.33 P-p.51 B-F.348v B-F.307r P-p.116 P-p.62 B-F.305v P-p.83  3 4 unci. 10 19A 1 IOB unci. 3 IB 29 10B 10A 19A IA IS 10B 1C 20 15 24 1 unci. 10 16 2A 10A 10 10B 28 10B unci. 9  Jam surgit Qriens Jerusalem lauda Johannes est nomen Jubilate Deo omnis Jubilate i n conspectu Jubilemus Deo J u s t i t i a ante Justus Dominus Juxta es Dominus  P-p.56 B-F.219v B-F.138r B-F.341r B-F.352v B-F.352v P-p.10 P-p.184 P-p.51  IA 20 1C 25 unci. 14 unci. 22A 18  Labia dolosa Laboravit Justus Laetabitur Justus  P-p.280 B-F.274v B-F.245r  28 12 28A  205 Laetare nunc Laetare Virgo Laetetur cor quaerenti Laetetur cor quaerentium Laetetur Jacob Laetor ego Laetor ego Domine Lapides qui sunt Lauda anima mea Lauda Jerusalem " Lauda Sion salvatorem Laudabilis Virgo Laudate Deum c e l i Laudate Deum i n S a n c t i s Laudate Dominum de c e l i s " " Laudate Dominum omnes Laudate Dominum quoniam Laudate nomen Laudemus nomen Laudemus patrem Lavabo i n t e r innocentes Letatus sum i n h i s Levita de t r i b u " Libera me Domine Libera me sanguinibus Loquebantur v a r i i s Magi interrogaverunt Magi stellam MagniFicamus te MagniFicat anima mea " " MagniFicemus Christus MagniFicemus honoremus Magnus Oominus Mane oratio mea Maria autem Maria Flumina S Fontes Me oportet operari Mel S lac ex hujus Melior est Domine Memento Domine David Memor Fui Dei Memorare Oomine Memorsit Dominus Mentem sanctum  p  P-p.60 -p.14 P-p.4 8-F.356r P-p.96 B-F.294v B-F.294v P-p.14 B-F.41v B-F.27r B-F.43v B-F.107r P-p.102 B-F.307r B-F.44r B-F.342r B-F.44r P-p.120 B-F.42v B-F.354r P-p.315 B-F.306v P-p.91 B-F.17r P-p.275 P-p.77 P-p.284 P-p.293 B-F.98r  25A 3 1 unci. unci. 20 unci. 24 unci. unci. unci. unci. 1 1 21 9 21 29 21A 12 10 unci. 10B 21A 20 29 unci. 18A 20  P-p.118 P-p.116 P-p.38 B-F.40v B-F.343v B-F.335v B-F.336r B-F.352v P-p.179 P-p.90 P-p.120 P-p.232 P-p.139 P-p.102 B-F.354v B-F.345r B-F.300v B-F.lllv P-p.154  unci. 16 3 9 9 HA 24B 14 unci. IC 27 4 2 4 27 14 7 10C unci.  206 Messis vero Meus cibus est: Michael Arcangelus M i r a b i l i s Dominus Miserere mei Deus  Mitte verbum tuum Mollierunt sermones Montes et omnes Multa corpora Multa F e c i s t i Nam qui exspectant Narrabo omnia Ne perdas cum impiis Nemo te condemnavit Nimis honorandi N i s i t u Oomine Nolite timere Non adorabis Oeum Non demus somnum Non derelinques Non est sanctus Non est s i m i l i s Non exeat verbum Non nos derelinquas Non timebo mala Non tradas me Non veni vocare Non veniat mini Nonne Deo anima Notam Fac F i l i i s Notam Fecit Dominus Notam F e c i s t i Nonne s i c oportuit Notas michi F e c i s t i  P-p. 163 P-P. 198 B-F. 203r B-F. 219v B-F. 38r B-F. 342r P-P. 199 B-F. 39r B-F. 40r B-F. 356r B-F. 341v P-P. 175 P-P. 55 P-p. 26 P-p. 18 P-p. 279 B-F. 353v P-P. 305 P-P. 114 P-P. 10 B-F. 340v P-P. 290 B-F. 336v B-F. 239v B-F. 351r B-F. 191v P-P. 107 P-p. 34 P-P. 51 P-p. 63 P-P. 108 B-F. 294v P-P. 242 P-P. 273 P-P. 283 B-F. 33r P-P. 273 B-F. 37v P-p. 315 P-P. 60 P-P. 117 B-F. 20r B-F. 167r  2 4 18A 30 23 30 unci. unci. 18A 18A 18A IA 22 22 22 1 14 10C 10A 19A 10 IB 20 19A unci. 4 2A unci. 10A 13 unci. 6 14 10C 14 16 unci. 23 13 14 2A 24A unci.  0 martyr Domini 0 quam suavis 0 Ypolite s i credis Omnes Angeli  B-F. B-F. B-F. P-P.  unci. unci. 20 12  it tt tt ti ti ti  Miserere mei, quia peccavi Mitte manum tuam ,  II  165r 104r 189v 178  207 Omnes Dei gentium Omnes gentes Omnis prophetia Opera Domini Opera manuum tuarum Operiantur confusione Operuit caelos Orabat Judas Orietur de t e r r a Orietur s t e l l a Os peccatoris Ostende Faciem Ostende nobis  P-p.106 B-F.214v P-p.25 P-p.120 B-F.305r B-F.358r P-p.279 P-p.65 B-F.116r P-p.27 P-p.113 P-p.290 P-p.22 P-p. 5  28 27 30 28 15 unci. 1 29 6 unci. unci. 1 10 10  Panis quern ego Parata sedes tua Parate viam Parati estote Paratus esto I s r a e l Parce Domine Pastor magna Ambrosi Pater g r a t i e s t i b i Pater s i non potest Patientiam habe Peccavi Domine Peocator nimis Per os a p o l t o l i Per singulos Dies Petre amas me Petrus et Paulus Pilatus dixit Plantati i n domo Ponam i n mari Popule meus quid Populem quern a d q u i s i s t i Populum tuum Posuerunt adversum Posuerunt super Posui scapulas Posui vestimentum Posuit signum Posuisti Oomine Pretiosa i n conspectu Principes persecuti Principes sacerdotum Principium verborum  B-F.107r B-F.51v P-p.20 P-p.40 P-P.14 B-F.345r B-F.275v P-p.250 P-p.292 P-p.178 P-p.187 P-p.184 B-F.240r B-F.363r B-F.147v B-F.145V P-p.302 B-F.130v P-p.115 P-p.304 P-p.163 P-p.265 P-p.282 P-p.303 P-p.303 P-p.302 P-p.139 B-F.245r B-F.256v B-F.118v P-p.279 P-p.82  4 19A unci. 7 18A 14 24C 24A 13 24 16 unci. unci, 18 14 IA 19A IC 5 3 24 3 IB 15 11 15 2 IOC 3 IC 19B 28A  II  208 Proba me Oomine Propitius esto Propter miseriam Propter veritatem Psallam Deo meo it  P s a l l i t e Deo nostro Psallam S intelligam Puellae s a l t a n t i Quam admirabile Quam spetio s i pedes Quanta audivimus Quatri o r b i i protus Qui coronat t e Qui edebat panes Qui Facit angelos it  Qui regis I s r a e l Qui te exspectant Qui te tribulaverunt Quia conFortavit Quia c o n t r i v i t Quia Fecit meam Quia Fecit mihi Quia ipse d i x i t Quia lux es Quia respexit Quia v i d i s t i Quid g l o r i a r i s Quid petam mater Quis Deus praeter Quis est iste...rubor Quomodo cantabimus Quoniam i n saeculum Quotidie apud Recedente diabolo Recordare Domine II  Recordatus mei Oeus Redde mihi l a e t i t i a m Redemptionem misit Reges terrae R e l i g i o matris Replebimur i n bonis Repleti sunt omnes Respexit Oominus  B-F.181v B-F.345r P-p.302 B-F.284v B-F.363r B-F.363v P-p.254 P-p.15 B-F.197v  19B 10A IB IA 8 unci. unci. 10C 10  P-p.180 B-F.240r P-p.263 B-F.205r P-p.76 P-p.282 B-F.182v B-F.203r P-p.33 P-p.51 P-p.305 B-F.363v B-F.363v P-p.303 B-F.347r B-F.41v P-p.184 P-p.114 B-F.285r B-F.36v B-F.43v B-F.197v P-p.107 P-p.64 P-p.34 B-F.354v P-p.293  22A unci. IB IC IB 10B IC IC unci. 19A 19A  P-p.173 B-F.42v B-F.351r B-F.336r P-p.218 P-p.62 P-p.159 B-F.168r B-F.231v B-F.98r B-F.256v  25A 29 29 30 24C 19 unci „ 3 1 30 22B  a  unci, 5 29 29 27 29 28 28 23 unci. 20 27 6 26 unci.  209 Respice Domins Respice S exaudi me Responsum accepit Restoruit caro mea Rex meus et Oeus Rogat sanctas Rorate c a e l i Rubum quern  P-P. P-P. P-P. B-F. B-F. P-P. P-p. P-p. B-F.  180 186 148 123v 342v 140 6 130 201v  22A 27 unci. unci. 12 6 unci. unci. unci.  Sacerdotes Oomini benedicite S a c r i f i c i u m Oeo s p i r i t u s Sagittae parvulorum Salus nostra Sana animam meam Sancte f i d e l i s martyr Sancte Georgi martyr Sancte v i r Dei Sandi et humiles SanctiFicamini S estote S a n c t i f i c a v i t Dominus Sanctum est templum Sanctum nomen Domini  P-p. P-P. P-p. P-p. P-P. B-F. B-F. B-F. B-F. P-p. B-F. B-F. B-F. P-P. B-F. B-F. P-p. B-F. B-F, B-F. B-F. P-p. P-p. P-p. B-F. B-F. B-F. P-P. P-P. B-F. B-F. P-P. P-P. B-F. B-F. B-F. B-F. B-F.  146 222 90 39 238 213r 113v 167v 261r 56 228v 229v 364r 306 108r 167r IOB 12v 246r 41r 346r 228 218 193 51v 352v 204v 284 82 287v 336v 304 290 146r 300r 191v 355r 348v  25 IOC IOB 6 7 unci. 15 2 27 3 1 10 17 19A IOB 3 27 20 27 unci. 3 unci. 2A 30 IA 14 18A unci, 6 unci. 3 24A 11 unci. 24B unci. 22A unci.  tt  it  tt  Sapientia e d i F i c a v i t Satiabor Oomine dum Sciant gentes quia Scio quad verbum Scitote quoniam Secundum magnum misericordiam II  ti  Secundum multitudinem Sedebit Dominus Sedebat Jesus Sedes tua Oeus tt  Sex m i l i a Si voluisses Sic eum volo Sicut c l a r i t a s s o l i s Sicut locutus est Sicut ovis ad victimam Simon dormis Simon Joannis Sine timore inimi Sint lumbivestri Spera i n Domino Sperantes i n Domino  210 Speravi i n misericordia Speret Israel i n Domino Spiritu principali S p i r i t u s Domini super S p i r i t u s Sanctus venit Splendor ejus Stantes erant S t e l l a e S lumen Sub clamide t a r r e n i Sub throno Dei Subiccit populus Sutnmet sacerdos Summa ingenuitas Super ceci occulos Super excelsa Surraxit Dominus vera Suscipiant Domine Tanto tempore Tempus acceptabile Terra nostra Terra tremuit Testimonia tua Testimonium Domini T e s t i s i n caelo T i b i dico Petre T i b i s o l i peccavi ti  Timantes autem Traditus sum Tres ex uno ore Tres i n camino Tres pueri jussu Tres pueri testimonium Tres video v i r o s Tribus pueris i n camino Trium puerorum Tu credis i n Filium Tu Domine benedices Tu es Deus meus Tu es ipse rex Tu es v i a Tu hereditabis Tu solus altissimus Tu es pastor orium Tunc acceptabis Tunc d i x i  B-F.355v 8-F.351v B-F.S-Sv P-p.274 P-p.62 P-p.115 P-p.119 B-F.227r P-p.1B1 B-F.118v P-p.92 B-F.239v B-F.276v P-p.151 B-F.163v B-F.217r B-F.23r P-p.27  27 unci. 13 16 14 14 14 24A 8 1C 13 1C 28 20 19 A 28 unci. unci.  B-F.114v P-p.170 P-P. 6 P-p.305 P-p.76 P-p.91 P-p.76 P-p.290 B-F.349v B-F.350r P-p.200 P-p.289 B-F.305v B-F.306r P-p.159 P-p.228 P-p.265 B-F.306r P-p.211 P-p.228 B-F.248v P-p.239 P-p.96 P-p.61 B-F.348v P-p.108 B-F.146v P-p.223 P-p.60  unci. 19A unci. 8 10B 10B 19 IA 10C 27 10 11 28 3 16 16 27 10C IA 20 20 IA 28 27 4 14 9 3 13  211 Tuus sum ego  B-f,362r  14  Undecim d i s c i p u l i Universi Domine Usque i n senectam U-t acciperent animam Ut j u s t i f i c e r i s  B-f. 27r P-P. 50 B-f. 168r P-P. 279 P-P. 277  19A IA IA IB 19A  Velum templi Veni Domine Veni redemptor gentium Veniat o r a t i o nostra Veniat super nos Veniet ex Sion Venite f i l i i audite Venite omnis Verba o r i s Verbo Domini Veritas de t e r r a Veritas Domini Vestri autem Beati Vicenti dabo rVictor maurus martyr Videbit omnis Videbitur Oeus Videns Judas quia Video virum s i m i l e s Viderunt te aquae Videte videte quoniam V i g i l a t e S orate Virtus mea V i s i t a nos Domine V i s i t a v i t et f e c i t Voca operarios Volo pater Vos amici mei Vos e s t i s amici Vos e s t i s lux Vovete S reddite Vox a libano Vox Domini super Vox t o n i t r u i  P-p. 305 P-P. 27 P-p. 41 P-P. 59 B-f. 296r P-P. 19 P-p. 59 P-P. 260 P-p. l i s P-P. 211 P-p. 223 P-P. 65 B-f. 343v P-p. 15B B-f. 107r B-f. 120r P-p. 40 P-p. 53 P-p. 302 B-f. 305v P-P. 116 P-p. 107 P-P. 291 B-f. 361v P-p. 53 B-f. 300v P-p. 157 B-f. 168r B-f. 258v B-f. 257v B-f. 145v P-P. 257 P-P. 21 P-P. 115 P-P. 84  19A unci. 10A 25 27 7 . 5 IA unci. 16 10A 13 10A 24C 9 24B unci. 28A 24C 26 unci. 7 108 9 14 28 6 27 unci o 28 unci. unci. unci. 14 14  Zelus domus  P-P. 303  II  11  BIBLIOGRAPHY Addis, W. 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