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Job evaluation in the forest industry in British Columbia Luckhurst, Leland James 1973-12-31

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JOB  EVALUATION IN THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  by L e l a n d James L u c k h u r s t  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the F a c u l t y of COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as  conforming  t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1973.  In presenting  this thesis in p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference  and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may by his representatives.  be granted by the Head of my Department or  It i s understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  ABSTRACT Job evaluation is a technique which has proved useful in the forest industry in British Columbia.  Its major benefit  has been the provision of a responsible climate for collective bargaining.  A secondary benefit has been the provision for  a meaningful basis of measuring productivity. The dissertation examines job evaluation in three areas. The f i r s t section studies some of the relevant theory of job evaluation as i t applies to the forest industry in British Columbia.  The evolution of Plywood Job Evaluation  is followed by the recently introduced Southern Interior study.  The concluding section ponders the future of job  evaluation as i t may apply to B.C. Coast Sawmills. Certainly, job evaluation comes highly recommended by this writer as a possible means of solving several of the cantankerous problems which have plagued the forest industry in British Columbia.  Dr. J.W.C. Tomlinson  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Introduction . . . .  .  Section. I  .  Chapter I  Job E v a l u a t i o n :  Definition  Purposes, H i s t o r y  . . .  Chapter I I Methods o f Job E v a l u a t i o n Chapter I I I Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n : History Chapter IV  .  Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n : Job F a c t o r s  Chapter V  The Wage Curve  . . . . . .  Chapter VI  Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n : Analysis  Section 2 Chapter V I I Sawmilling  i n B.C.:  P r e s e n t Status Chapter VELT Southern I n t e r i o r  . . . . Sawmill  Job E v a l u a t i o n : H i s t o r y Chapter IX  Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill  Job E v a l u a t i o n : Development o f the Manual . . . Chapter X  Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill  Job E v a l u a t i o n : Job F a c t o r s and Wage Curve C h a p t e r XI  Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill  Job E v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s  Paga D.  Section 3 Chapter XTI  B.C. Coast Sawmill and Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n : History  Chapter X I I I B.C. Coast Sawmill and Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n : F a c t o r s and Wage Curve Chapter XIV  B.C. Coast Sawmill  128  and  Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n : II4.3  Analysis  E.  Chapter XV  F.  Bibliography  G.  Appendices I.  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s  . . . 154. . . - 163  The W i l k i n s o n Report: Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n Summary o f 168  Recommendations II. III.  Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill Job  Evaluation H.  . . 188  ...202  Exhibits I.  Master Agreement: A r t i c l e VTI Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n  II.  . . . . . 217  Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n : as r e f e r r e d to i n A r t . V I I , Sec. 1  219  Page III.  Plywood I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Program: Job D e s c r i p t i o n . . .  IV.  . 225  Plywood I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Program: Request f o r Job Evaluation  V.  Costs:  Job E v a l u a t i o n  227 229  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Page Job E v a l u a t i o n Plans  i n Industry  . . . 10  J  2.  Plywood I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Program Point-Grade-Rate-Chart  3„  Plywood I n d u s t r y  Job E v a l u a t i o n Program  F a c t o r s and P o i n t Values 4.  1966 . . .  Plywood I n d u s t r y  1971 . . .  . .  32  Strikes  i n Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y  i n B.C.  1949-1969 8.  Production 1971  9.  29  Plywood I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Program Point-Grade-Rate-Chart  7.  28  Job E v a l u a t i o n Program  F a c t o r s - Percentage Weightings 6.  2?  Plywood I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Program F a c t o r s and P o i n t Values  5.  20  48 o f Major F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s  A c t u a l and 1975, 1985 F o r e c a s t  56  C a p i t a l Investment f o r Machinery and Equipment Per Employee i n the WoodManufacturing  Industry,  1963-1971; 63  B r i t i s h Columbia 10.  C a p i t a l Investment f o r Machinery and Equipment Per Employee i n the WoodManufacturing Canada  Industry,  1963-1971; 64  Table 11.  Page E s t i m a t e s o f Primary F o r e s t P r o d u c t i o n , 1963-1971  65  . . . . . . . . . . . .  66  . . . .  6?  12.  LurrJoer P r o d u c t i o n , 1963-1971  15,  Logging Employment, 1963-1971  14.  Wood Products M a n u f a c t u r i n g Employment, 68  1963-1971 15.  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n : Original Factor T i t l e s . . . .  16.  78  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n : Summary o f Grading R e s u l t s Southern I n t e r i o r  17.  .  81  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n : Summary o f Grading R e s u l t s Kamloops  18.  82  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n : Summary o f Grading R e s u l t s 83  Kelowna 19.  Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill Job E v a l u a -  t i o n : Summary o f Grading R e s u l t s .  84  . .  87  Cranbrook 20.  Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmill Job E v a l u a -  t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 83 T e s t Study Jobs B e f o r e and A f t e r E v a l u a t i o n  Table 21.  Page Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a tion: Distribution Jobs a t Grand and A f t e r  22.  Comparison  o f 35 T e s t Study  Forks Sawmills Before 89  Evaluation of Factor Weightings:  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n versus Interior 23.  Southern  Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  Knowledge and  S k i l l Factor  24.  Southern  Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  E f f o r t F a c t o r Comparisons:  . . . .  Interior 93  Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n Responsibilities  Factor  Comparisons:  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n versus Interior 26.  93  Plywood  E v a l u a t i o n versus Southern  25.  91  Comparisons:  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n versus Interior  . . . .  Southern  Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  Job C o n d i t i o n s F a c t o r  . . . .  9Z4-  Comparisons:  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n versus Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n 27.  Interior  . . . .  Sawmill I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a -  t i o n Program: Point-Grade-Rate-Chart 28.  Southern I n t e r i o r  96  Sawmill Job E v a l u a -  t i o n : Point-Range 29.  9Z4.  Increments  . . . .  99  F.I.R.L. Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n : P l a n Weightings  131  Table 30.  Page F.I.R.L. Logging Job  Evaluation:  E f f e c t s on P r e s e n t (1967) Rates. . 21.  F.I.R.L. Logging Job  Evaluation:  Comparison o f P l a n Weightings 32.  33.  . .  Structure  f o r B.C.  Industry,  June 15, 1967  B.C.  Coast Logging  Coast Sawmilling and  B.C.  134 Logging (Percentages)  Coast Sawmilling and Logging  B.C.  Coast Sawmill Job  Grade-Rate-Chart  130  Job  E v a l u a t i o n : Factor D e s c r i p t i o n . . 35.  133  Job E v a l u a t i o n P i l o t P r o j e c t : Wage  Job E v a l u a t i o n : F a c t o r s 34.  132  137  Evaluation: l4l  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  Plyvood Wage Curve 1959 and 1973 . ..  2.  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Wage Curve  3.  97  1973  B.C. Coast Logging Wage Curve  1967 135  Plan A 4.  B.C. Coast Logging Wage Curve  1967  Plan D 5.  33  .  136  B.C. Coast Sawmill Proposed Wage Curve  1972  ^  2  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My a p p r e c i a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o Dr.  -J.W.C. Tomlinson f o r h i s h e l p and encouragement  t h r o c r h o ~ t the d u r a t i o n o f t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g .  He was never  r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c u s s the problems I encountered and h i s insights,  a d v i c e , and c r i t i c i s m s proved The  d i r e c t i o n , suggestions,  invaluable.  and c r i t i c i s m s o f  Dr. Noel H a l l and Dr. S t u a r t Jamieson a r e a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o thank the members o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America and t h e management a s s o c i a t i o n s . F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s and the I n t e r i o r F o r e s t Labour R e l a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n , who so generously  granted  me p e r s o n a l  interviews.  A s p e c i a l note o f thanks i s due t o L o m e f o r the numerous telephone c a l l s , p e r s o n a l l i t e r a t u r e which he g r a c i o u s l y  Fingarson  i n t e r v i e w s , and  provided.  My thanks a l s o t o C l a r a Shamanski and my w i f e Nancy.  C l a r a was a c c u r a t e ,  f a s t , and remarkably calm  d u r i n g t h e h e c t i c days o f e d i t i n g and t y p i n g . p a t i e n t l y perservered  Nancy  i n the arduous task o f r e d u c i n g  my h a n d w r i t t e n copy i n t o l e g i b l e E n g l i s h .  INTRODUCTION  T h i s study examines the e v o l u t i o n o f job tion  i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  d e s i g n e d t o be a working paper which c o n s i d e r s  evaluaI t is  three  questions: *  (1)  "Is job e v a l u a t i o n worthwhile as a t e c h n i q u e i n union-management r e l a t i o n s ? "  (2)  "How can job e v a l u a t i o n be conducted implemented?  and  H  (3)  "Can job e v a l u a t i o n be extended t o s e c t o r s of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y ? " The  t h e s i s i s organized  i n three major s e c t i o n s  which c o r r e s p o n d t o the framework o u t l i n e d . p r i m a r i l y a t the theory  o f job e v a l u a t i o n and  worked i n the Plywood I n d u s t r y .  other  The  The  first  how  looks  i t has  second s e c t i o n i n v o l v e s  a d e t a i l e d study o f the r e c e n t l y implemented Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n P l a n .  The  problems o f e x t e n d -  i n g job e v a l u a t i o n t o o t h e r s e c t o r s of the economy, s p e c i f i c a l l y sawmills  on B.C.'s c o a s t and  s e c t o r , are examined i n the t h i r d and The  plans  f u t u r e when, and are f i n a l l y  section.  the p e r i o d  1955-'59,  d r a f t e d , 1967-'71, when the  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill p l a n was t o the  logging  concluding  time span i n v o l v e d covers  when the Plywood p l a n was  the  implemented, through  i f , the Coast Sawmill and  installed.  Logging  CHAPTER I  JOB  EVALUATION: DEFINITION, PURPOSES, HISTORY  Simply s t a t e d , j o b e v a l u a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s f o r "determining the v a l u e o f a job w i t h i n a f i r m r e l a t i v e t o all  o t h e r jobs i n t h a t f i r m . "  1  "Job E v a l u a t i o n i s the  e x t e n s i o n o f j o b a n a l y s i s t o a s c e r t a i n r e l i a b l y the r e l a t i v e worth o f jobs, t o t r a n s f o r m these a p p r a i s a l s i n t o a s t r u c t u r e o f adequate r a t e s , and t o p r o v i d e standard procedures in,  f o r a l l a d d i t i o n s t o , and 2  adjustments  the r a t e s t r u c t u r e . " The  Stevenson  o r i g i n a l Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual prepared by  & K e l l o g g , L t d . , f o r the plywood i n d u s t r y i n  September, 1955, s t a t e d "Job e v a l u a t i o n i s a  procedure  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the v a l u e o f an i n d i v i d u a l j o b i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the o t h e r jobs i n the o r g a n i z a tion."  That manual p o i n t e d o u t t h a t w h i l e j o b e v a l u a t i o n  forms an important s t e p i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an o r d e r l y J.D. Dunn and F.M. Rachel, Wage and S a l a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , New York, Mc-Graw H i l l Book Co., 1971, p. 167. 2 C.W. L y t l e , Job E v a l u a t i o n Methods, New York, Ronald Press Co., 1954, p. 4.  system o f c l a s s i f y i n g does n o t determine and c e n t s .  jobs and d e t e r m i n i n g wage r a t e s , i t  the a b s o l u t e value o f jobs i n d o l l a r s  Rather,  j o b e v a l u a t i o n determines  v a l u e s , and these need n o t be expressed  only r e l a t i v e  i n terms o f money.  Therefore, the p l a n o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n o u t l i n e d  i n that  matrial expressed r e l a t i o n s h i p s among jobs i n terms o f p o i n t v a l u e s ; the attachment o f money v a l u e s t o the r a t i n g s developed by j o b e v a l u a t i o n was a s e p a r a t e p r o c e s s t o f o l l o w agreement upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p s . advantages,  the use o f p o i n t v a l u e s enabled  designed  Among o t h e r those  concerned  i n j o b e v a l u a t i o n t o c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n upon the important  i s s u e o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f jobs w i t h o u t t h i n k i n g  specifically extended  i n terms o f money.  T h i s system has been  from plywood t o the Southern  and t o the proposed  I n t e r i o r sawmills,  Coast sawmill and l o g g i n g p l a n s .  The d e c i s i o n t o measure and r a t e jobs s h o u l d o n l y be made w i t h the i n t e n t t o accomplish c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s and purposes and  the w o r k e r s .  important Although  t o management, t h e union,  there a r e many by-products o f  job e v a l u a t i o n , the purpose o f i n t r o d u c i n g job e v a l u a t i o n i n our f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was t o work toward a s o l u t i o n o f the many wage and s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems which c o n f r o n t e d the i n d u s t r y i n the l a t e 1950's.  3 Stevenson & K e l l o g g , L t d . , ( C o n s u l t a n t E n g i n e e r s ) , Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual, Vancouver, 1955, p . 1.  The  f o l l o w i n g c o n s t i t u t e the primary purposes  of j o b e v a l u a t i o n w i t h i n B.C.'s f o r e s t  industry:^  (1)  E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a g e n e r a l wage l e v e l f o r a g i v e n p l a n t which w i l l have p a r i t y , o r an otherwise d e s i r e d r e l a t i v i t y , w i t h those of n e i g h b o u r i n g p l a n t s , hence w i t h the average l e v e l o f the l o c a l i t y (monetary considerations),  (2)  Establishment of c o r r e c t d i f f e r e n t i a l s f o r a l l jobs w i t h i n the g i v e n p l a n t . Employees w i l l v a l u e , rank, and c l a s s i f y jobs r e g a r d l e s s o f management a c t i o n . A j o b e v a l u a t i o n program e s t a b l i s h e s d e f i n i t e groupings o f , and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between jobs (noneconomic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) .  (3)  P r o v i s i o n o f a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e s s by which new jobs can be introduced i n t o t h e j o b s t r u c t u r e w i t h a minimum o f d i s t u r b a n c e . Growth and expansion o f firms c r e a t e the c o n t i n u e d need f o r j o b d e s i g n and r e d e s i g n , and u l t i m a t e l y j o b e v a l u a t i o n and r e evaluation.  (4)  P r o v i s i o n o f a p r o c e s s which i s c a p a b l e o f being understood and d i s c u s s e d throughout the f i r m . D i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g wage r a t e s and v a l u e s o f jobs a r e i n e v i t a b l e . I t i s o n l y l o g i c a l , then, t h a t as l o n g as these d i f f e r e n c e s occur, r e a s o n a b l e s o l u t i o n s are p o s s i b l e o n l y i f t h e r e i s a procedure o r p r o c e s s t o s e r v e as the b a s i s o f disagreement.  v  Properly  c o n c e i v e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d ,  job evalua  t i o n programs make s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t and u s e f u l secondary contributions: (1) (2) (3)  S e l e c t i o n o f employees. Promotion and t r a n s f e r o f employees. T r a i n i n g o f new workers.  J.L. O t i s and R.H. L e u k a r t , Job E v a l u a t i o n , York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1954, p . 12.  New  (4) (5) (5) (7) (8) (9)  Assignment o f t a s k s t o new j o b s . Accident prevention. Improving working c o n d i t i o n s . Administrative organization. Work S i m p l i f i c a t i o n . P e r i o d i c a n a l y s i s o f wage r a t e s , job f u n c t i o n s ,  (10) (11)  F a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. P r o v i s i o n o f a b a s i s t o handle t e c h n o l o g i c a l change.  etc.  Collectively, of safe plans  j o b e v a l u a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s the making  f o r rearrangement and replacement o f l a r g e  numbers o f workers.  Without i t , d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t e n  enced by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s ; f a v o u r i t i s m o f a s u p e r i o r , o f a s p e c i f i c promotion and placement p o l i c y , poor regarding  the r a t i o o f supply  precedents, e t c . such imprecise  influlack  estimation  t o demand, p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d  Job e v a l u a t i o n can do much t o e l i m i n a t e  and s u b j e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s , and was i n f a c t  developed t o c o u n t e r a c t  these i n f l u e n c e s .  5  Job E v a l u a t i o n has been p r a c t i s e d i n one form or another f o r over a c e n t u r y .  For i n s t a n c e , as e a r l y as 1871,  the U . S . C i v i l Commission developed Pay D i f f e r e n t i a l s based on  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Both the C i t y o f Chicago and Common-  w e a l t h E d i s o n began i n s t i t u t i n g 1928,  job c a t e g o r i e s  i n 1909. I n  the P h i l a d e l p h i a Rapid T r a n s i t Co. adopted the Benge  P l a n which c o n s i s t e d o f 5 Job F a c t o r s .  However, i t was  c l e a r l y the d i s r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n  L y t l e , Job E v a l u a t i o n Methods, p . 10.  which exposed the need f o r job e v a l u a t i o n , p l u n g i n g ment i n t o the wage a d m i n i s t r a t i o n movement d u r i n g l a t t e r h a l f o f the p r o l o n g e d d e p r e s s i o n , forerunner in  manage-  the  193 5-1940.  of the e x i s t i n g f o r e s t r y plans was  The  developed  193 5 by Western E l e c t r i c Co. which adopted the Kress  Plan, c o n s i s t i n g of 11 f a c t o r s . official  T h i s e v e n t u a l l y became the  p l a n o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f  from which the plywood p l a n was  derived  Machinists  i n 1955.^  C l o s e r t o home. Crown Z e l l e r b a c h a t Camass, Washington, as e a r l y as 1936,  developed t a b l e s , by  job  grade, t o overcome problems i n s e t t i n g e q u i t a b l e r a t e s o f pay.  Since then, many o t h e r U.S.-based companies  and  i n d u s t r i e s have developed and  adopted job e v a l u a t i o n  programs.  General E l e c t r i c , Proctor  To name but a few.  Gamble, the  Steel Industry,  Auto I n d u s t r y t i o n systems. Bridge,  have a l l employed s u c c e s s f u l job L o c a l l y , the B.C.  The  Pulp and  and  classifica-  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Dominion  B r i t i s h Ropes, American Can,  a n a l y s i s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g pay  have had  A i r c r a f t , G l a s s , Rubber,  &  and  A l c a n employ  job  differentials.  Paper i n d u s t r y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e  job e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e 1964.  This plan  too  i s not  examined because i t i s o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e from the  other  Frank P a u l , "Seminar on Plywood E v a l u a t i o n " , (Speech g i v e n A p r i l 29, 1970, V i l l a Motor Inn, Burnaby, B.C.)  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y p l a n s t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the e s t i m a t i o n  here.  o f the w r i t e r , the p l a n  of c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  i s not worthy  i t s u f f e r s from s e v e r a l  technical deficiencies.  Secondly,  serious  T h i r d , the purpose o f t h i s  analysis  i s t o r e m a i n w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s so as t o p r e v e n t the s t u d y from becoming too broad and  unwieldly.  CHAPTER I I  METHODS OF  All one  JOB  methods o f job e v a l u a t i o n are v a r i a t i o n s of  c f four b a s i c types:  tion,  EVALUATION  (1) Job Ranking,  (3) F a c t o r Comparison, and  l e s s o f the method, the success  (2) Job  (4) P o i n t R a t i n g . o f any  ClassificaRegard-  job e v a l u a t i o n  program i s dependent upon f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a r t i c u l a r system b e i n g used and tion.  achieving of consistency  in i t s a p p l i c a -  Management must d e c i d e what elements or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of various  jobs w i l l be  the b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  That i s t o  say the f i r m must e s t a b l i s h e x a c t l y what i t i s w i l l i n g pay  the employees.  factors  i s one  p r a c t i c e and for  Therefore,  s e l e c t i o n of  o f the most important steps  i n the process  to  "compensable" i n compensation  of job e v a l u a t i o n .  Requirements  s e l e c t e d compensable f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  C o n s i s t e n c y and u n i f o r m i t y . Objectivity. Broad and g e n e r a l enough t o be p r e s e n t and i d e n t i f i a b l e t o v a r y i n g degrees i n a l l j o b s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e importance o f each o f f o u r s t a n d a r d f a c t o r s : s k i l l , e f f o r t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , working c o n d i t i o n s . D e l i b e r a t e and c a r e f u l weighting o f f a c t o r s depending on importance a s s i g n e d . A b u i l t - i n system f o r p e r i o d i c r e e v a l u a t i o n . Each o f the  utilizes  four b a s i c methods o f  the concept of compensable f a c t o r s .  job e v a l u a t i o n  The B.C.  method of job e v a l u a t i o n adopted by  the  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s known as a "point system" or as  "point r a t i n g " .  In b r i e f ,  i t c o n s i s t s of a n a l y z i n g  the  job, a p p r a i s i n g or e v a l u a t i n g s e p a r a t e l y the f a c t o r s , (s-^ch.as e d u c a t i o n ,  experience,  and working  w h i c h have been s e l e c t e d as important  i n the work o f  under review, and combining the separate a s i n g l e p o i n t score  f o r each j o b .  conditions)  evaluations  In a p p l y i n g  jobs into  this  method, i t i s presumed t h a t t h e r e are c e r t a i n elements or job f a c t o r s t h a t e x i s t i n v a r y i n g degrees as r e q u i r e ments o f a l l j o b s .  To c i t e an obvious example, a l l jobs  r e q u i r e some p h y s i c a l e f f o r t ;  i t i s apparent, however  t h a t some jobs r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more p h y s i c a l e f f o r t than o t h e r s  J  The  p o i n t r a t i n g method of job e v a l u a t i o n remains  the most w i d e l y used.  In a r a t h e r dated  t h a t 81 p e r c e n t o f 112  job e v a l u a t i o n plans were p o i n t  r a t i n g p l a n s and  study,  Smyth found  t h a t 13 p e r c e n t were f a c t o r comparison  plans:^  'Stevenson & K e l l o g g , Plywood Manual, p.  2.  R. C. Smyth, "Job E v a l u a t i o n P l a n s " , F a c t o r y Management and Maintenance, V o l . 110, No. 1, pp. 118-121, January, 1952. 8  Job E v a l u a t i o n Plans In I n d u s t r y Number o f Organ i za t j oris  Type o f Plan ;1) (2) (2) (4} (5)  Ranking Grade or C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Point Facte-r Comparison Cenbination  3 55 123 75 66  Total  322  There i s l i t t l e  evidence  the p o i n t p l a n has d i m i n i s h e d .  t h a t the p o p u l a r i t y o f  The widespread use o f p o i n t  r a t i n g , as w e l l as o f f a c t o r comparison, seems to be  justi-  f i e d by the a l l e g e d o b j e c t i v i t y a c h i e v e d by these methods, a l t h o u g h the two and  are b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t .  The  advantages  l i m i t a t i o n s o f each of the four b a s i c types o f job  e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s have been summarized n e a t l y by Dunn and Rachel:  9  (1)  Ranking Method T h i s method i n v o l v e s c o m p i l i n g a l i s t  i n t o a rank order from h i g h t o low. is  jobs  The r a n k i n g method  p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d f o r s m a l l f i r m s : f o r f i r m s where*  jobs are e a s i l y s e p a r a t e d " f a c t o r y " , and to  of  be e v a l u a t e d  i n t o c a t e g o r i e s such as  "office",  " p r o f e s s i o n a l " r and when the number of jobs i s not t o o l a r g e .  Dunn and Rachel, Wage A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , pp.  172-183.  Advantages  z  xu  (a)  Simplest o f a l l procedures and r e q u i r e s l i t t l e t i n e or paper work; the d i r e c t c o s t o f the application is negligible.  (b)  E l i m i n a t e s p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i s thus s u p e r i o r to o l d - f a s h i o n e d r a t e s e t t i n g .  (c)  I f checked w i t h o u t s i d e standard job d e s c r i p t i o n s , i t g i v e s p r a c t i c a l but rough job classification.  (d)  Although crude, i t i s p r a c t i c a l enough t o a v o i d any h y p o c r i s y o f seeming t o be s c i e n t i f i c .  (e)  A c c e p t a b l e t o unions because i t leaves more room f o r b a r g a i n i n g .  Disadvantages: (a)  No one committee member i s l i k e l y to be with a l l jobs.  (b)  A p p r a i s i n g each job as a whole does not f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s and cannot be expected to g i v e a c c u r a t e measures o f worth.  (c)  Ranking i s l i k e l y to be i n f l u e n c e d by the magnitude of e x i s t i n g r a t e s o r other apparent "halo e f f e c t s " .  (d)  Equal d i f f e r e n t i a l s are sometimes assumed between a d j a c e n t ranks, and such assumptions are f r e q u e n t l y i n c o r r e c t .  (e)  Very l i b e r a l range l i m i t s must be p r o v i d e d c o r r e c t bad guesses. The  r a n k i n g method of job e v a l u a t i o n was  by the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y because i t c o u l d not encompass the v a s t s i z e o f the  to  rejected  comprehensively  i n d u s t r y in B.C.,  L y t l e , Job E v a l u a t i o n Methods, pp.  familiar  particularly  37-38.  the l a r g e employers l i k e Crown Z e l l e r b a c h , Northwood, e t c . Since the r a n k i n g method i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l i n a p p l i c a t i o n , -he e x a c t procedure  v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , depending upon  experience, t r a i n i n g its  :se."""  The  and other circumstances  i n d u s t r y f e l t t h a t such a wide v a r i a n c e  c o u l d - o t be t o l e r a t e d (2)  i f such a system was  Job C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The  surrounding  effected.  Method  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i s an  improvement  on the simple r a n k i n g method although the procedure essentially  the same.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l v e s the a s s i g n -  ment o f jobs i n t o c l a s s e s or groups without concern definite  o r d e r i n g o f jobs w i t h i n those groups.  o f course ranked,  is  f o r the  Groups are  however.  19 Advantages: (a)  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method has a d i s t i n c t advantage as long as the formal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s agree w i t h employees' i n f o r m a l classifications.  (b)  Grade groupings o f jobs a r e c r e a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n system. T h i s promotes and eases acceptance by employees and i l l u s t r a t e s c l e a r l y the p r o g r e s s i o n and p r o m o t i o n a l sequence w i t h i n the f i r m .  Dunn and Rachel, Wage A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , pp. Ibid.  172-183.  Disadvantages: (a)  The most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y and time i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g group and c l a s s d e s c r i p t i o n s which s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e t o management which compensable f a c t o r s should be  rewarded.  (b)  D i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered i n p r i c i n g the job s t r u c t u r e , as b a l a n c i n g o f compensable f a c t o r s t o determine r e l a t i v e l y e q u a l jobs o f t e n causes misunderstanding w i t h employees and l a b o u r l e a d e r s . For these reasons, the  the  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system.  i n plywood e v a l u a t i o n keep up new  forest industry Specifically,  rejected  the  experience  has been t h a t the e v a l u a t o r s  i n w r i t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s and were some one  d e s c r i p t i o n s behind i n 1972.  I f they had  could  not  hundred  used a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, i t i s l i k e l y they would be  job  even  f u r t h e r behind because d e s c r i p t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y more comprehensive (3)  (see Plywood Job D e s c r i p t i o n  F a c t o r Comparison Method The  f a c t o r comparison method i s s u p e r i o r  systems i n two ways: directly  Form).  (1) E v a l u a t i o n  i n d o l l a r s and  cents,  by d i r e c t comparison w i t h key evaluated evaluation  jobs.  and  i n d o l l a r s and  can be c a r r i e d out  (2) Jobs are  jobs and  In some i n s t a n c e s cents may  to o t h e r  evaluated  other previously '  (plywood  evaluation),  be a d i s a d v a n t a g e .  Advantages;  >  (a)  Factor-comparison p l a n s a r e t a i l o r - m a d e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n and use key jobs and wage r a t e s from the o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f .  (b)  Factor comparison d i c t a t e s t h a t jobs be e v a l u a t e d by d i r e c t comparison w i t h other jobs .  'c)  Once the method i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y simple and easy t o use,- i t i s a method w i t h which a l l concerned a r e l i k e l y to f e e l comfortable.  (d)  The e v a l u a t i o n s c a l e need n o t be c o n v e r t e d from a b s t r a c t p o i n t values i n t o monetary u n i t s .  Disadvantages: (a)  I t i s assumed t h a t the key jobs used a r e f r e e from wage i n e q u i t i e s . I f r a t e i n e q u i t i e s do e x i s t , the e n t i r e j o b e v a l u a t i o n and subsequent wage r a t e s w i l l be skewed. The problem may be circumvented i f l e s s obvious key jobs where e q u i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d c a n be found.  (b)  I n i t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n i s complex and d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n throughout the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  (c)  C o n s i d e r a b l e c l e r i c a l d e t a i l work i s n e c e s s a r y to administer the p l a n . The  forest industry raised several objections to  t h i s type o f p l a n :  ( 1 ) D i r e c t monetary v a l u e s were n o t  d e s i r e d by e i t h e r union o r management s o t h a t some in bargaining  c o u l d be r e t a i n e d ;  flexibility  ( 2 ) The g e o g r a p h i c a l  area  i s l a r g e and the i n d u s t r y  i s d i v e r s e between a r e a s c r e a t i n g  i n e q u i t i e s among key jobs  in different s e c t o r s — f l e x i b i l i t y  was d e s i r e d t o handle i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n s ; ( 3 ) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  1 3  Ibid.  15  c o s t s were too high to be a c c e p t a b l e was  not w i l l i n g t o " f o o t the b i l l "  to management—management  f o r the e x t r a  administra-  t i o n r e q u i r e d i n such a p l a n . (4)  P o i n t Method As e x p l a i n e d ,  the p o i n t method c o n s i s t s o f  evaluat-  ing a job on the b a s i s o f p o i n t v a l u e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d compensable f a c t o r s to a r r i v e a t i t s t o t a l p o i n t Advantages t^-  value.  4  (a)  The p o i n t r a t i n g p l a n i s w i d e l y used, p e r m i t t i n g comparisons w i t h other i n d u s t r i e s and f i r m s .  (b)  I t i s the s i m p l e s t o f the q u a n t i t a t i v e methods of job e v a l u a t i o n .  (c)  P o i n t values are e a s i l y converted to job and wage c l a s s e s w i t h a minimum o f c o n f u s i o n and d i s t o r t i o n .  (d)  P o i n t r a t i n g plans a r e g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e — a p p l i c a b l e t o a wide range o f jobs over an extended p e r i o d o f time. C o n s i s t e n c y and u n i f o r m i t y f o l l o w .  (e)  P o i n t r a t i n g tends to be more o b j e c t i v e than o t h e r comparative methods, p r o v i d i n g a d e f i n i t i v e approach r e q u i r i n g s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t judgment d e c i s i o n s . Thus, though e r r o r s tend t o c a n c e l one another, t h e r e are d i s t i n c t dangers o f cumulative r a t h e r than random e r r o r s o c c u r r i n g .  Disadvantages t (a)  (Mostly t h e o r e t i c a l i n nature)  The p o i n t method assumes t h a t a l l jobs are e q u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p because a f i x e d number o f compensable f a c t o r s i s s e l e c t e d and a degree s c a l e w i t h f i x e d p o i n t s i s a s s i g n e d . , T h e r e f o r e , e v a l u a t i o n depends on how w e l l f a c t o r s ^ and weights have been l a i d o u t . ~~z -  (b)  Because f i x e d f a c t o r s and degree v a l u e s are used, e v a l u a t i o n of a job may be based on a p r e c o n c e i v e d f i x e d standard w i t h l i m i t e d comparison among j o b s . l 4  Ibid.  16  Again, the success w i t h which f a c t o r s and weights have been assigned w i l l be a d e t e r m i n ing f a c t o r . (c)  Employees may have d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g d e t a i l e d procedures i f t r o u b l e i s not taken t o e x p l a i n and i n t e r p r e t wage r e v i s i o n . However, e x p e r i e n c e has determined t h a t where wage i n c r e a s e s are forthcoming, employees are a b l e t o e x e r c i s e a remarkable degree o f c o n c e n t r a tion. The  and  p o i n t r a t i n g system was  s e l e c t e d by management  union f o r a l l job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s  industry.  The  major reason b e i n g  i n B.C.'s f o r e s t  t h a t i t was  a huge i n d u s t r y where job c o n t e n t among f i r m s  adaptable t o is essentially  the same, hence "benchmark" jobs c o u l d be chosen as a b a s i s for  fixed standardization.  t h a n q u a l i t a t i v e system was  Secondly, a q u a n t i t a t i v e d e s i r e d and  simplest quantitative a n a l y s i s .  The  rather  p o i n t r a t i n g i s the  attractiveness of  abstract  p o i n t values which c o u l d be e a s i l y c o n v e r t e d t o d o l l a r s and cents,  r a t h e r than s t r a i g h t monetary u n i t s , h e l p e d t o c l i n c h  the e l e c t i o n o f p o i n t r a t i n g over f a c t o r comparison. C l o s e r examination o f the p o i n t r a t i n g system i s deferred  t o the s e c t i o n s of the study which are  concerned w i t h the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s .  directly  1  CHAPTER I I I  PLYWOOD EVALUATION: HISTORY  The  plywood program became a n e c e s s i t y i n  1955,  when d u r i n g c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s , the union proposed r e v i s i o n s t o 60 plywood j o b - r a t e c a t e g o r i e s r a n g i n g t o 25C? t h i s made an o r d e r l y s e t t l e m e n t of negotiations decided  impossible.  to adopt job e v a l u a t i o n .  Engineering  job e v a l u a t o r s ,  (F.I.R.) and America  one  (I.W.A.).  o f the M a c h i n i s t s  t o t e s t and one  i t was  bilaterally  were r e t a i n e d t o d e v e l o p  recommend the s e l e c t i o n of  from F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l  Relations  from the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers of The  program c o n s t r u c t e d was  p l a n , and  a variation  many o f the bench mark jobs  e s t a b l i s h e d s t i l l e x i s t today. intended  on the o l d b a s i s  Stevenson & K e l l o g g ,  Management C o n s u l t a n t s ,  a s u i t a b l e p l a n , and two  Therefore,  from  Although i t was  originally  t h a t the program would be o p e r a t i o n a l i n 6 months,  i n f a c t i t took from 1955  through 1958  prepare  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and  d e s c r i p t i o n s and  accordingly.  I t a l s o took 1% years  to s t u d y  jobs,  to rate  to n e g o t i a t e  the wage  curve p l u s s e v e r a l weeks to w r i t e p e r t i n e n t c l a u s e s the c o n t r a c t . a mutually  A f t e r a 70 day  acceptable  formula,  into  s t r i k e i n the summer o f which p r o v i d e d  increments between 10 p o i n t grades was  a 4  jobs  1959,  cent  f i n a l l y established.  Grade 1 jobs  i n c l u d e d a l l jobs w i t h a p o i n t t o t a l o f  81  or l e s s ; these jobs r e c e i v e d the base r a t e  (presently  $4.03% per h o u r ) .  points  Those ranging  from 82-91  Grade 2 j o b s , r e c e i v i n g 4C above base r a t e . grace a t t a i n a b l e a t t h a t time was p o i n - t o t a l o f 272-281.  Recently,  Grade 21,  The  are  highest  jobs w i t h a  the a d d i t i o n o f 4 grades 15  has brought t o t a l p o i n t s a t t a i n a b l e up t h i s was  j u s t a way  of paying higher  t o 321.  Essentially,  r a t e s throughout  scheme w i t h o u t n e c e s s i t a t i n g w h o l e s a l e r e v i s i o n and negotiation  as  i t was  re-  in d e t a i l .  The  plywood p l a n p i o n e e r e d e v a l u a t i o n  i n Canada  the  f i r s t Canadian i n d u s t r y t o adopt e v a l u a t i o n  as a u n i t , c o n s i s t i n g , a t t h a t time, o f 8 companies, plants  (Coast) and  increased  6000 employees.  T h i s u n i t has  11  now  t o 15 p l a n t s under j o i n t e v a l u a t i o n on the  w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 7 p l a n t s and  the  about 3-5  a t present,  i n the  Interior, 1 in Alberta,  more t o come i n the near f u t u r e .  2 p l a n t s on the Coast n o t o p e r a t i n g  e v a l u a t i o n as b o t h are Co-op e n t e r p r i s e s .  There are, under  Undoubtedly,  j o b e v a l u a t i o n would s t i l l be v a l i d r e g a r d l e s s  o f ownership.  However, the c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g such a program by a association  Coast,  non-  (F.I.R.) member would l i k e l y prove p r o h i b i t i v e .  * F r a n k Paul, "Seminar on Plywood E v a l u a t i o n " , (Speech g i v e n A p r i l 29, 1970, V i l l a Motor Inn, Burnaby, B.C.). 5  Between September, 1959,  and March, 1963,  the  p l a n r a n r e l a t i v e l y smoothly, w i t h c o n s t a n t r e e v a l u a t i o n o f jobs-  In A p r i l ,  1963,  a Memorandum of Agreement  was  s i g n e d , p r o v i d i n g f o r an i n c r e a s e of an a d d i t i o n a l 1£ i n the w ~ g s increments between s u c c e s s i v e grades,  from  and  i n c l u d i n g Grade 7 and up t o a c c e l e r a t e the wage c u r v e . As a r e s u l t there remains  t o t h i s day a 4£ d i f f e r e n c e  between i n d i v i d u a l grades  from Grade 1 t o 6 i n c l u s i v e ,  and a 5C increment between i n d i v i d u a l grades t o Grade 25  (see Table 1 ) .  During 1965  and e a r l y 1966,  t o bear by both management and w i t h "spreader" crews who c u l t to r e t a i n . was  undertaken  J u s t i c e N.T.  from Grade 7  p r e s s u r e was  brought  the u n i o n t o remedy problems  were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  diffi-  As a r e s u l t , a major r e v i s i o n t o the Manual i n 1966  Nemetz.  upon the recommendation o f  Mr.  At t h a t time, p o i n t s were taken  the f a c t o r s E d u c a t i o n and Experience and added t o the R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r M a t e r i a l , Equipment, and  Product,  from factor thereby  i n c r e a s i n g i t s p o i n t s by 60% and r e d u c i n g t h e o t h e r two 30% r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T h i s zero-sum approach was  chosen  a l l o w re-weighing o f s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s w h i l e keeping remainder  to the  o f the scheme i n the same r e l a t i v e b a l a n c e .  an e l e v e n t h f a c t o r , Manual D e x t e r i t y was  Also,  i n t r o d u c e d t o the  Manual t o p r i m a r i l y a d j u s t wages of employees i n the and Hot Press a r e a s .  by  Spreader  As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f these r e v i s i o n s .  P L Y W O O D INDUSTRY JOB E V A L U A T I O N  PROGRAM  POINT - G R A D E - R A T E - CHART  PC INT S  GRADE  0 82 92 102 112 122 132 142 152 162 172 182 192 202 212 222 232 242 252 262 272 282 292 302 312 -  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  ii 91 101 111 121 131 141 151 161 171 181 191 201 211 221 231 241 251 261 271 281 291 301 311 321  RATE base rate base rate plus 4£ base rate plus 8£ base rate plus 12£ base rate plus 16£ base rate plus 20£ base rate plus 25£ base rate plus 30£ base rate plus 35£ base rate plus 40£ base rate plus 45£ base rate plus 50£ base ra.te plus 55£ base rate plus 60£ base rate plus 65£ base rate plus 70£ base rate plus 75£ base rate plus 80£ base rate plus 85£ base rate plus 90$ base rate plus 95£ base rate plus $1.00 base rate plus $1.05 base rate plus $1.10 base rate plus $1.15  over 4 0 % o f the workers i n the Plywood I n d u s t r y wage i n c r e a s e s  i n a d d i t i o n to those granted  received  across  the  board. Concurrently,  another c o n t e n t i o u s  a r i s e n , t h a t of Supervision; i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  issue  the union f e l t t h a t  had the  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the e v a l u a t i o n  formula  d i d not compensate p r o p e r l y f o r s u p e r v i s o r y  responsibilities.  Accordingly,  the I.W.A. i t  was  decided  i n discussions with i n the summer o f 1968  ments t o s p e c i f i c c a t e o g i r e s . 1969,  a S p e c i a l Study was  F.I.R. and  t o make c l e r i c a l  adjust-  During the e a r l y p a r t  c a r r i e d out  i n most p l a n t s  remedy d i s c r e p a n c i e s among grades between p l a n t s  of to  concerning  the p o s i t i o n s o f Core Feeders and/or Sheet Turners and/or Dryer F e e d e r s . At t h i s time, a w h o l e s a l e examination o f purposes o f the plywood job e v a l u a t i o n program was t o determine where and why  the instituted  problems were i n c r e a s i n g ;  b a s i c a l l y t h i s aimed: (a)  t o determine e q u i t a b l e wage r a t e s , based on job content,  (b)  to establish correct d i f f e r e n t i a l s jobs w i t h i n a b a s i c job f u n c t i o n ,  (c)  To p r o p e r l y r e l a t e new ready e s t a b l i s h e d ,  (d)  t o s e t s u i t a b l e r a t e s on jobs t h a t have s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n job r e q u i r e m e n t s . Accordingly,  bv  J u s t i c e N.T.  for a l l  jobs w i t h those a l l  Hugh W i l k i n s o n ,  P. Eng.,  Nemetz on November 30th, 1970,  was  appointed  to a s s i s t  the  parties  i n a study o f the plywood e v a l u a t i o n program.  On January  19th,  1971,  W i l k i n s o n met w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of the p a r t i e s w i t h the purpose o f c l a r i f y i n g the terms c f r e f e r e n c e o f the s t u d y .  A t t h a t meeting Mr. John Moore,  P r e s i f a c c o f I.W.A. R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l No. 1, and Mr. John Billings,  P r e s i d e n t F.I.R., a c t i n g f o r the p a r t i e s ,  agreed  on the f o l l o w i n g terms o f r e f e r e n c e a  (1)  The study i s t o be concerned w i t h t h r e e a s p e c t s o f job e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s : i) ii) iii)  The c r i t e r i a and procedures by which jobs are a s s i g n e d p o i n t v a l u e s ; The p o l i c i e s f o r r e l a t i n g p o i n t v a l u e s t o wage r a t e s ,The way the p l a n i s a d m i n i s t e r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard t o t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f new jobs and a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r a change i n p o i n t v a l u e .  (2)  The methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n are t o be chosen and a p p l i e d as I (Wilkinson) see f i t .  (3)  The r e p o r t w i l l recommend such changes i n the Job E v a l u a t i o n Plan and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which appear t o be i n the i n t e r e s t s o f e q u i t y and good Labour-Management r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  (4)  The d e a d l i n e f o r completion and implementation, s p e c i f i e d i n A r t i c l e VII o f the Master Agreement (1970) as A p r i l 1 s t , 1971, i s waived. The  terms o f r e f e r e n c e which W i l k i n s o n l a i d  represented a s i g n i f i c a n t departure  from the e x i s t i n g manner  i n which the plywood p l a n was being a d m i n i s t e r e d .  Prepared  out  With t h e  H.C. W i l k i n s o n , "Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n " , A Report f o r the I.W.A. and F.I.R., August 1, 1971, pp. 1-2.  h e l p o f the two t e c h n i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the p a r t i e s , Lome Fingarson Employers,  f o r the Union and K e i t h Bennett f o r the  i n f o r m a t i o n was g a t h e r e d .  V i s i t s t o seven  plywood m i l l s and numerous submissions from i n d i v i d u a l s a~d s m a l l groups supplemented W i l k i n s o n ' s Wilkinson theory  knowledge.  p r e d i c a t e d h i s recommendations  on the  t h a t t h r e e b a s i c problems were a t the r o o t of unrest:^-  (1)  The long d e l a y between submission o f a r e q u e s t f o r e v a l u a t i o n or r e e v a l u a t i o n and the f i n a l award of the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee;—sometimes over a y e a r .  (2)  The remoteness and i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y o f the p r o c e s s e s o f job e v a l u a t i o n t o many employees.  (3)  The p r a c t i c e o f g i v i n g no reasons f o r the r u l i n g s on r e q u e s t s f o r e v a l u a t i o n .  *  As a s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f " t i m e l i n e s s " , Wilkinson  v e s t e d more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o r  r e e v a l u a t i o n process t h i s way,  i n the P l a n t Review Committees.  In  the o v e r a l l Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee would be  r e l i e v e d o f a g r e a t d e a l o f work but, a t the same time, provide  insurance  t h a t the most time-consuming p a r t o f the  process  ( i . e . , development o f approved j o b d e s c r i p t i o n t o  support  each a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e e v a l u a t i o n ) would r e c e i v e  immediate a t t e n t i o n a t the P l a n t l e v e l . s p e c i f i e d 14 recommendations, W i l k i n s o n  In h i s r e p o r t which cautioned,  "There  seem t o me t o be two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s which must be s a t i s f i e d  I b i d ., p . 7.  by any j o i n t committee charged w i t h an important,  fact-  19 finding as,  job."  He c o n t i n u e d t o d e s c r i b e these  principles  (1) the two p a r t i e s t o be e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h  r e s p e c t t o t e c h n i c a l competence, c o n t i n u i t y of e x p e r i e n c e v i t h the b u s i n e s s o f the committee, and the a b i l i t y to articulate  ideas and persuade o t h e r s .  Exact e q u a l i t y  will  never e x i s t , b u t the i n e q u a l i t y should n o t be continuous and o n e - s i d e d ;  (2) the o b j e c t i v e b a s i s u n d e r l y i n g Job  E v a l u a t i o n procedures  must n o t be d e s t r o y e d .  s t r e n g t h o f the p r o c e s s  The g r e a t  i s t h a t , p r o p e r l y done, i t reduces  the e f f e c t s o f p o l i t i c a l expedience and s t r a t e g i c weakness as f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e wages f o r d i f f e r e n t j o b s . A d e t a i l e d summary o f the f o u r t e e n recommendations s u b m i t t e d by W i l k i n s o n may be found  i n Appendix I .  At t h i s  p o i n t , the w r i t e r chooses t o r e s e r v e judgement on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f W i l k i n s o n ' s recommendations and indeed, the s u c c e s s o f plywood job e v a l u a t i o n t o d a t e .  I b i d . , p . 9. I b i d . , pp. 9-10.  CHAPTER IV  PLYWOOD EVALUATION? JOB FACTORS  The  j o b f a c t o r s t o be used i n a p a r t i c u l a r  e v a l u a t i o n study a r e s e l e c t e d i n terms o f the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the range o f jobs t o be  evaluated.  A s e t o f f a c t o r s s u i t a b l e f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f plywood p l a n t jobs might not prove as s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f clerical  jobs, w h i l e  adequate e v a l u a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and  p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s might r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f a c t o r s n o t important i n e i t h e r o f the o t h e r The  f a c t o r s s e l e c t e d f o r the plywood s t u d y now  number e l e v e n and f a l l A.  groups.  i n t o four major g r o u p i n g s .  Knowledge and S k i l l f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e a r e q u i r e ment f o r s p e c i f i c knowledge and s k i l l on the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l who f i l l s the j o b . (1)  (2)  E d u c a t i o n (the e x a c t l e v e l s a r e n o t s p e c i f i e d because i t was f e l t t h a t the percentage w e i g h t i n g s d e c i d e d upon, t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , e l i m i n a t e d the common e r r o r o f w e i g h t i n g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l h i g h e r than s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l qualifications). Experience.  (3)  Complexity o f D u t i e s .  (4)  Manual D e x t e r i t y .  ^ S t e v e n s o n & Kellogg, L t d . (Consultant Engineers), Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual, Vancouver, 1955, pp. 2-3.  B.  C.  D.  E f f o r t f a c t o r s which take i n t o account the demands o f the job i n p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n and mental and v i s u a l application. (5)  P h y s i c a l Demand.  (6)  .Mental and V i s u a l Demand separated p e r h a p s ) .  (these c o u l d have been  Responsibilities. The f a c t o r s i n t h i s group a p p r a i s e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which a r e i n h e r e n t i n the performance c f the j o b . (7)  Responsibilities f o r Supervision.  (8)  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the S a f e t y o f O t h e r s .  (9)  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r M a t e r i a l s , Equipment, and Products.  Job C o n d i t i o n s . These f a c t o r s a p p r a i s e the c o n d i t i o n s of the j o b from the worker's p o i n t o f view. The a n a l y s i s i s i n terms o f the d i s a g r e e a b l e a s p e c t s o f the j o b . (10) Hazards. (11) Working  Conditions.  In Appendix I I , each f a c t o r i s d e s c r i b e d and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n by f a c t o r degrees i s d e f i n e d .  The degrees o f  each f a c t o r b e i n g the s p e c i f i c requirements t h a t a r e used t o determine how much one job d i f f e r s that p a r t i c u l a r  factor.  from another w i t h i n  E v a l u a t i o n o f j o b proceeds by  comparing the j o b requirements o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w i t h the degree d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r each f a c t o r t o the j o b a degree o r l e v e l  i n o r d e r and a s s i g n i n g  i n each f a c t o r .  Predetermined  p o i n t v a l u e s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r each degree, and the t o t a l p o i n t v a l u e o f the j o b i s o b t a i n e d by t o t a l l i n g the p o i n t values f o r a l l f a c t o r s . 2 2  Ibid.,  p. 3.  2 2  (See T a b l e 2 ) .  - 18 F A C T O R AND POINT V A L U E S 1966 D E G R E E S AND POINT V A L U E S  FACTOR A.  B.  C.  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  63  77  90  K N O W L E D G E AND S K I L L 1.  Education  4  7  14  25  35  50  2.  Experience  5  9  18  27  36  50  3.  Complexity of Duties  5  15  25  40  60  80  4.  Manual Dexterity  0  5  12  20  40  EFFORT 5.  Physical Demand  7  12  17  24  32  6.  Mental Sc Visual Demand  5  10  17  25  35  Responsibility for Supervision  0  10  20  35  50  Responsibility for the Safety of Others  5  10  15  20  25  RESPONSIBILITIES 7.  8. 1  9. Responsibility for Materials, Equipment, and Product  D.  1  •  5  15  32  56  80  0  5  10  15  20  5  10  17  23  30  JOB CONDITIONS 10.  Hazards  11. V.*orki=.-r Conditions  Sources Fly^ood  *  J ? r - E v a l u a t i o n Manual„  1971.  CO  o  o n>  FAC A.  '<}  o o o  <!  H-  1  K N O W L E D G E AND  B.  DEGREES AND 3 sir  POINT V A L U E S 4 5 5*  4  1  li  •  4  8  12  16  21  25  -  7  9  14  18  23  27  32  20  25  33  40  12  16  20  2  SKILL  I,  Education  2,  Experience  3.  Judgment and Initiative  4. Manual Dexterity  cr w  (»  TOR  5  5 0  10 3  15  5  9  -  -  36  '! S  50  50  60  70  -  _  -  '•-1 >  EFFORT  n  c  SB ct  5.  P h y s i c a l Demand  7  3  6.  Mental & V i s u a l Demand  5  o  10  12  15  17  21  24  28  32  36  40  8  10  14  17  25  32  41  49  60  70  H O  >  03 I—'  is  H  c.  H -O  D.  2 O  TJ  O  \-\  RESPONSIBILITIES  < >  7. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Supervision  0  5  10  15  20  28  35  43  50  8. Res. for the Safety of Others  5  8  10  13  15  18  20  23  25  -  9. P r o c e s s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  5  13  20  30  40  53  65  83  100  -  -  10  13  18  20  -  -  17  20  i 15 j 23 j  27  30  -  JOB  CONDITIONS  10.  Hazards  0  3  11.  Working Conditions  5  8  5 10  8 14  a w CO  I  oo I  •"0  The p o i n t v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o each of the e l e v e n f a c t o r s are n o t the same, s i n c e the job requirements not of e q u a l  importance i n the o v e r a l l worth of the  The r e l a t i v e weighting  i s approximately 1966  Knowledge and  Skill  Effort  14%  21.6%  Respons i b i l i t i e s  30%  34.3%  Job Cond i t ions  10%  9.8%  14 per c e n t , T h i s was  ( p h y s i c a l ) was  i n 1959  a direct  technology was weighting  1971 34.3%  Effort  and  result  1966  job.  as f o l l o w s :  46%  100%  are  100  %  weighted r e l a t i v e l y  low,  a t management's i n s i s t e n c e .  of the companies' b e l i e f  that  c o n t i n u i n g t o remove p h y s i c a l e f f o r t .  t o 21.6% was  recommended by W i l k i n s o n i n  a t the I.W.A.'s i n s i s t e n c e , as compensation was  not  Re1971, forth-  coming i n other a r e a s , i . e . i n c e n t i v e schemes, e t c . , t o account  f o r the low w e i g h t i n g  i n i t i a l l y a s s i g n e d to e f f o r t .  Once the jobs t o be e v a l u a t e d have been r a t e d and t o t a l p o i n t v a l u e s o b t a i n e d , the next s t e p i s t o c l a s s i f y each job on the b a s i s o f i t s t o t a l p o i n t s i n t o a job or wage group t o g e t h e r w i t h other same t o t a l p o i n t v a l u e s .  jobs w i t h approximately  T h i s procedure  the use o f p o i n t s c o r e s d i r e c t l y  the  i s followed s i n c e  i s cumbersome i n a d m i n i s t r a -  t i o n as w e l l as u n w i e l d l y  f o r purposes o f o v e r a l l review  and  comparison of job r a t i n g s .  Moreover, as noted  zha  technique of job e v a l u a t i o n  i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y  t o draw such f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s as would be successive  i n c r e a s e o f one  a proportionate  increase  point  the  importance o f an  The  and  c a p a b i l i t i e s and  p a r t i c u l a r worker i n a job should  objective  o t h e r s who  partici-  aptitudes  of  not be d e s c r i b e d  possess s k i l l s or other job.  or  rated  i f c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  c a p a b i l i t i e s which exceed  Job e v a l u a t i o n can be a p p r a i s a l by  job the  successful  f a c t o r s and  i s a p p l i e d a g a i n s t the a c t u a l demands r e q u i r e d  be  the  have shortcomings i n h i s performance o f the  requirements o f the only  bore  o f p r e l i m i n a r y or f i n a l r a t i n g s cannot  over-emphasized.  or may  i f each  i n t o t a l p o i n t value  a t t i t u d e among r a t e r s , s u p e r v i s o r s ,  s i n c e he may  implied  precise  i n wage.  In job e v a l u a t i o n ,  pate by a p p r o v a l  previously,  degrees  f o r an  Ok  adequate performance o f the work. r a t i n g the  job and  Precautions reference  must be  not the man,  In essence then,  i s the c r i t e r i o n f o r  taken to a v o i d  the dangers o f misplaced  based upon a c t u a l workers d o i n g the  time i t i s r a t e d .  2 3  I b i d . , p.  3.  2 4  I b i d . , p.  4.  success.  job a t  the  CHAPTER V  THE  WAGE CURVE  P r i c i n g the j o b s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n an i n d u s t r y incorporates  a l l the a c t i v i t i e s such as f a c t o r s , degrees,  e t c . previously discussed,  p l u s some r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the  existing pricing structure. s t r i v e n for during  To a t t a i n the o b j e c t i v i t y  the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  e f f o r t must be spent t o a v o i d and  i n c o r r e c t job grouping.  considerable  improper p r i c i n g o f jobs In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e d a t a  gleaned from wage surveys and the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s a r e most r e l e v a n t  i n a d j u s t i n g the i n d u s t r y ' s  f i n a l wage r a t e s ,  determined l a r g e l y by the i n t e r a c t i o n o f job c l a s s e s and 25 money r a t e s .  Therefore,  job p r i c i n g can be  as c o n s i s t i n g o f two s e p a r a t e o p e r a t i o n s :  considered  (1) d e t e r m i n i n g  job c l a s s e s and r e s p e c t i v e wage r a t e s , and (2) a d j u s t i n g the wage r a t e s t o meet e s t a b l i s h e d company p o l i c i e s , industry trends, and  other  unusual supply  and demand s i t u a t i o n s ,  s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a which might i n f l u e n c e the  f i n a l wage s t r u c t u r e .  The purpose o f t h e whole e x e r c i s e ,  J . D . Dunn and P.M. Rachel, Wage and S a l a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , New York, Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co., 1971, p. 218. / 3  yd  P L Y W O O D INDUSTRY JOB E V A L U A T I O N P R O G R A M  POINT - G R A D E - R A T E - C H A R T  POE-7T5 0 82 92 102  GRADE 81  1  91 101  2  -Ill  4  -  3  11.2 -  121  5  122  -  131  6  132  -  141  7  142 -  151  8  152  -  161  162  -  171  9 10  172  -  181  11  182  12  192  - 191 - 201  202  - 211  14  212  -  221  15  222  -  231  16  232  -  241  17  242  - 251  18  252  -261  262  - 271  19 20  272  - 281  21  282  22  292  - 291 - 301  302  -  311  24  312  -  321  25  13  23  s!« $ % % % # % >^ # $ >;« % jfi  RATE base base base base base base base base base base base base base base base base base base base ba.se base base base base base  rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate  plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus plus  4? 8* 12* 16* 20* 25* 30* 35* 40* 45* 50* 55* 60* 65* 70* 75* 80* 85* 90* 95* $1.00 $1.05 $1.10 $1.15  "" I r\'"\"' i : , U.MGi-  M  _  'M \XMY •. ,r.-.; : ; •./  :;i-  IJIP-LL  |0  |, j | j {-j  ..L_LjJ..L.i-  jj  '!""!""! M f t " '  j  ,j  I, |.  L1d1 i1i1j 1i j1-  J.iJ_LLU_Ll _L!_!J_LLL.L;.. J._L.  i"  ! . : • liij" r l : . ; ! i i'!'i X  ! i  I  <__  ;  '  ~ JX XL_L 1  I  i,|JJ...L  (X- J._iJ'•M|ii  i I  D I M . L-t.. L.LLU  "| j~j j" t~i" ! i ' i  _._L.._._._ |_j —j—,-  1  !  t -LL ' li  J_U_L  i i i  _U_LLL J L L -M I  i !I M M l  L-M-  ft-r-i- i '  J J _  ! i  It  -H-H.! LJ_I_L_. U~  _L!_J_L _Ll_J-!_l_ .L.M..LL ! S I I I  J_L  jJ j jM_ L  1-!-i-i-f-rr  , . L J _ U . . . . . . L..U...L.  J...L.L  h  !  J_L J_L  _LLL , JJ I L L  J_U4-LL.L-|X  XIXLLL J._LLLLLUUJJ-j. ' '  t u # i t — i n x  -  J_  l_  :Z  I  ' [ f i j  -H-H-  ILLLUXJXL I I I I  X  I  L  .. , , L iJ.LLLL i. L L L l J . i . X L U J J J _ L l L ' i i [ M ! I i[ i J_LLL.L„.L.Li_LL  iLppuijiuiii;  .1 LL: .v-..  LJ_L!  J..L  j_Lp_L!XX  _LLL.LXri.X.i  1 i  .!_. I  .! . _ L L .  ..ULLLL.LL _LLiJ_U_L ...LLLLLU i i  -rt"  JJ._LLLI_!_L_[-  ' '  LLLL "MM  ML  i .!..!..!. L  .._Lj._LLl_L.LL  LI L'  LI.LJ J..  J  i.JJ._l._lJ..J. i M I I M  _'_L  J_l_i_L JJ.j_L  t-  J_LL ..!...L..LjJ.;tiJ _l_L.L_i_LL LL! 1LLL .J_L ' '' ! M ..LL -iM-)il! LI J J J J X L.L- J_l_ i l/l ..LJJJ.J. X L .J_|..  .iXljX.i.T ! i !-!• ! •j-'-!•-j - - .!....! ...LL L  I  :tai!: H-h  >  • _ t _ i  • •. • i i n i  XXX  -mi"  iMJlj.J !1 ilMiXi. I-! ! I ) ! I I I J.I L Li..! Lis S .!. LL.i.-i J_.LLiJ. -t—- tJ _ . | J _ I . _ J_L i i ILLTL L L IJ _! U! i_L. iI  jJ_u:ix.Lt~  J .  JM...i..i..LLL:  ..I—  i i-it . ; i| i  1  i" I' ! : !  i I M  _:J...Lj.J.i.L.i.. 1! M I M I  I L  U J Li L U i i. U J - .' '  .L.i_  IMXMXMX  Xixl X T . ! J.  • '< I i j ' J . i  .1 .!..  .1 - i . . i .1.. I .', I i i : I I:  -LL  Xi. j ! i Li-L JLJ,.l I, D-U-L ' 'L U J J J X _.L .1 U.J. - j ' T JJ_U i i X i l . X Ji J;JJ... "!" i J.J.XU..LJ ...Li. J_ L L L L L  — ,—\—\~ti  I  I  'i i i  i  MM  ibtrli  ..:._!_! _ | . I i I I r  ; i J !. •i i i  - i' •  .  I  I .  L.U_LIJ...l_ JJJ..L|. M.L i i  .....  i : i  1  J J l j J T l J1.U.  IfH, .-!-'H-}  T r r  1  I I  L U-JL.L ILL J_L  J_L  I-!- _ J _ i _ i J J _ L •i ! i i i ; i i i • i  111  il'J 5 ! : ! j M X L m i T H ; ± L L L l L L l ± _ —I  ! ! > ! I  u_  _LJ_  J_!J_! J U 1 i I i i i '  =_.;_j..j...j^. J_I_j_J_J..j. .LLL  "  JJ-L  X J_ J_  r  J I J I  "JX ' i i i '  H~l ! ! _Li-L  J . !...;..  -LLLL  r  j_lj _ixlx . . . . . . !  1  _i_!_.L ui_L _L!-P_i_L  L.;-|_i_;...|_y. 1' j-TTtri r  i I ! I II J_L.LLL!_Li_t  however, i s t o t r y and a s s e s s these components o f f i n a l r a t e s s e p a r a t e l y so t h a t d e c i s i o n s a r e r e l a t e d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d i f f e r e n t , s e p a r a t e (1;  job requirements,  (3)  rocrparative  "pick-up" r a t e s .  a t i o n of operations The  (2) d i f f e r e n t i a l s  i n r a t e s , and  T h i s emphasis on s e p a r -  cannot be overemphasized.  enclosed  graph and t a b l e r e p r e s e n t  o f j o b c l a s s e s which e x i s t i n B.C.'s plywood today.  issues:  a system  industry  Job c l a s s e s have been d e f i n e d a s :  ". . . a c o n v e n i e n t grouping together o f jobs o f n e a r l y the same d i f f i c u l t y and a s s i g n i n g one s a l a r y , o r a range o f s a l a r i e s , t o a l l jobs i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s a l a r y grade. The jobs i n a p a r t i c u l a r s a l a r y group may be q u i t e v a r i e d i n n a t u r e . The o n l y t h i n g they must have i n common i s t h a t they be cons i d e r e d as b e i n g a l l about e q u a l i n s a l a r y v a l u e . " 2 5  Arguments i n favour  o f job c l a s s e s centre  on the f o l l o w i n g  27 issues : (1)  Job c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t an e f f i c i e n t system r e s u l t i n g from c a r e f u l management p l a n n i n g . Job groups can t h e r e f o r e be d i s c u s s e d and m o d i f i e d on a sound b a s i s w i t h wage survey and e v a l u a t i o n d a t a .  (2)  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l c o s t s a r e r e duced w i t h r e s p e c t t o minimum and maximum wage r a t e s due t o j o b g r o u p i n g .  (3)  Small r a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l s between jobs a r e eliminated.  2 6  I b i d . , p . 219.  2 7  Ibid.  (4)  Since employees tend to group jobs r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s by compari n g output, s k i l l , and other f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n jobs, job grouping can serve to l e s s e n r e s i s t a n c e on the p a r t of the employees to a c o n s o l i d a t e d wage and s a l a r y program.  (5)  Job grouping tends t o reduce the numerous e r r o r s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s which are bound to occur i n the implementation o f a job e v a l u a t i o n program. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there are problems and  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h wage and  disadvantages  s a l a r y p l a n s b u i l t around the use  job c l a s s e s (1)  Often, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n to the emp l o y e e s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n , a grouping o f d i s s i m i l a r jobs t h a t are p a i d approximately the same. The f a c t t h a t d e f i n i t e p o i n t v a l u e s a r e used t o j u s t i f y job c l a s s e s does not promote acceptance o f job c l a s s e s on the p a r t o f employees. The whole problem of employee e d u c a t i o n concerning job e v a l u a t i o n c e n t r e s around b e i n g a b l e t o convince i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t they, p e r s o n a l l y , w i l l g a i n not o n l y by a wage i n c r e a s e b u t a l s o i n job s e c u r i t y .  (2)  Labour may oppose job c l a s s e s i n favour o f i n d i v i d u a l job r a t e s . The advantage t o l a b o u r , i n theory, i s t h a t each job i s e v a l u a t e d on i t s m e r i t s , and i s not grouped w i t h o t h e r jobs f o r s a l a r y purposes, f o r s t r a t i f i c a t i o n purposes, or f o r manipulat i o n by management. I f e v a l u a t i o n i s not c o n s i s t e n t l y based on the m e r i t s o f i n d i v i d u a l jobs, then the a c t i o n i s l i k e l y t o cause t r o u b l e i f n o t now, then l a t e r .  (3)  Job c l a s s e s may, i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s , tend t o r e s t r i c t or l i m i t management i n i t s t h i n k ing about, and approach to, i n c e n t i v e compensa t i o n matters. In o r d e r f o r compensation t o motivate, management may want t o reward employees f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y , l o y a l t y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e t c . , on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . I b i d . , p.  220.  of  However, t h i s need n o t be i l l o g i c a l as f a r as job e v a l u a t i o n i s concerned as long as i n d i v i d u a l performance can be s e p a r a t e l y rewarded through i n c e n t i v e schemes and the l i k e which can a c t as a supplement t o j o b e v a l u a t i o n i n wage and s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a tion. There a r e no d e f i n i t e guides o r s t a n d a r d s t o f o l l o w i n d e t e r m i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e for e f f i c i e n t operations.  number o f j o b c l a s s e s  The b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e t o date has  been t o s t r u c t u r e j o b c l a s s e s on the b a s i s o f a thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p o l i c i e s o f management, t o g e t h e r  with  the n a t u r a l groupings o f jobs, and i n d u s t r y p r a c t i c e s . With these v a r i a b l e s i n mind, the f i r s t s t e p  i s to plot  e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s and the p r e s e n t wage r a t e  (see graph)  of each j o b on a graph o f weighted average wage r a t e s and job p o i n t v a l u e s , w i t h a r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s e r v i n g t o e s t a b l i s h the mean o f a l l j o b r a t e s as they have p r e s e n t l y been evaluated  within  individual firms.  Two o p e r a t i o n s a r e  then r e q u i r e d t o f i n a l i z e the wage s t r u c t u r e .  2 9  (1)  The wage s u r v e y d a t a must be compared w i t h the f i r m ' s wage r a t e s t r u c t u r e , and any p r e l i m i n a r y adjustments or changes made as necessary.  (2)  The j o b c l a s s s t r u c t u r e must then be f i t t e d t o t h e f i r m ' s wage r a t e s t r u c t u r e , and any d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n i n d i v i d u a l job r a t e s must be r e s o l v e d b e f o r e i n d u s t r y r a t e s c a n be established.  I b i d . , p . 228.  Discrepancies  i n i n d i v i d u a l j o b r a t e s a r e commonly  r e f e r r e d t o as "red c i r c l e r a t e s " , i . e . , the jobs have wage rates outside  the e s t a b l i s h e d j o b c l a s s s t r u c t u r e .  Where  the r e d - c i r c l e r a t e i s below the e s t a b l i s h e d job c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , a common i n d u s t r y p r a c t i c e i s simply  to increase  the p a y of the r e d - c i r c l e j o b t o the minimum r a t e as j u s t i f i e d by the j o b c l a s s , as determined b y t h e j o b e v a l u a t i o n process.  While the employee s u f f e r s no s a l a r y l o s s ,  the p o t e n t i a l f o r t h a t job i s reduced, and t h e r e l a t i v e value  o f the j o b t o a l l other  altered.  jobs  i n the f i r m has been  Where the r e d - c i r c l e r a t e i s above t h e job c l a s s  s t r u c t u r e , adjustment and i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e more complex. The  u s u a l p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e i s t o guarantee t h a t no j o b  w i l l be reduced i n pay as the r e s u l t o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n and wage s u r v e y .  This p o l i c y i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e i f job evalua-  t i o n i s t o win employee c o o p e r a t i o n  and a c c e p t a n c e .  Management can a v o i d r e d u c i n g  wages and a t the same time  i s n o t faced w i t h an i n c r e a s e  i n the e x i s t i n g wage  to the f i r m .  I n the plywood s e c t o r , r e d c i r c l e s  job c l a s s s t r u c t u r e were much more p r e v a l e n t  bill  above  than r e d  c i r c l e s below, perhaps i n d i c a t i n g a f e a t u r e o f s u p p l y shortage i n these jobs  i n the p a s t  (10-12%  estimated).  However, p r o v i s i o n i s made t h a t no i n d i v i d u a l s h a l l r e c e i v e a l e s s e r r a t e as a r e s u l t of e v a l u a t i o n . In a sense then, t o i n c o r p o r a t e discrepancies  as many o f these  as p o s s i b l e , plywood e v a l u a t i o n  resulted i n  a  "bastardized"  wage curve  not c a l c u l a t e d on a percentage  (4C increments basis).  on 18 g r a d e s —  Although  i t was a  b i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n t o implement job e v a l u a t i o n i n the p l y wood s e c r c r ,  i t took  from 1955 t o 1958 t o hammer o u t t h e  d e r a i l s , and u n t i l 1959 t o a c t u a l l y g e t t h e program The  mobile.  present r e l a t i o n s h i p i s e x p l i c i t l y defined i n Section 2  o f A r t i c l e VII o f the Master Agreement. -*3  The d i f f e r e n t i a l s  between s u c c e s s i v e p o i n t groups a r e a l l f o u r c e n t s  from  groups one t o s i x and f i v e c e n t s from groups s i x on up t o the h i g h e s t pinned  (see p o i n t - g r a d e - r a t e c h a r t ) .  Group one i s  t o the minimum r a t e f o r common l a b o u r as p r o v i d e d  i n A r t i c l e IX, S e c t i o n 1 ( c u r r e n t l y $4,085 p e r h o u r ) .  From  t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n i n 1959, t o t h e Nemetz r e v i s i o n i n 1966, the plywood e v a l u a t i o n wage curve appeared t o work v e r y well.  However, i n t h e l a t e 1960*s, p a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t  of an economic r e c e s s i o n , the I.W.A. c a l l e d o f the p l a n i n response  t o the union membership's  a i m — a h i g h e r standard o f l i v i n g . 1970,  for revision expressed  J u s t i c e Nemetz, i n  r e f e r r e d t h e problem t o P r o f e s s o r W i l k i n s o n who  wrote: "The k i n d o f q u e s t i o n t o which t h e p a r t i e s wish t o have an answer i s : — S h o u l d d i f f e r e n t i a l s between groups be u n i f o r m o r r e l a t i v e l y uniform as a t p r e s e n t , o r should they be percentages o f the lower r a t e i n each p a i r ? 3 0  Nov.  18,  L o r n e , Fingarsen, Interview with the w r i t e r , 1972.  F . I . R . and the I.W.A., Master Agreement 1970-71 F o r e s t Products I n d u s t r i e s Coast Regiona B r i t i s h Columbia, June 15, 1970. 3 1  Another s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n would be: When wage i n c r e a s e s are n e o g t i a t e d , should they p r o v i d e the same a d d i t i o n a l amount of money f o r a l l groups or should they be percentages o f the p r e s e n t rate?"32 W i l k i n s o n worked on the problem f o r one becs-cse he thought and  year  the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d were "too complex  too much i n v o l v e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y i n t a n g i b l e v a l u e s to  be s e t t l e d w i t h i n the time l i m i t s W i l k i n s o n concluded  imposed on these  hearings  that,  "For q u i t e a long time the p a r t i e s have n e g o t i a t e d a c r o s s - t h e - b o a r d , e q u a l money i n c r e a s e s r a t h e r than percentage i n c r e a s e s . T h i s has o c c u r r e d not j u s t i n the plywood i n d u s t r y b u t i n l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g as well. The i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t has been t o reduce the money v a l u e of h i g h - l e v e l -jobs r e l a t i v e t o t h a t of l o w - l e v e l jobs."-* 4  He  continued, "I do not f i n d t h a t , on the whole, the h i g h e r grade jobs i n the Plywood I n d u s t r y have s u f f e r e d more i n t h i s r e s p e c t than those i n the other segments o f the f o r e s t industry. Comparisons w i t h jobs o u t s i d e the plywood e v a l u a t i o n p l a n a r e hazardous because few m a i n t a i n the same requirements and working c o n d i t i o n s over an extended p e r i o d . A l s o , some e x t e r n a l jobs have been b e n e f i c i a r i e s of s p e c i a l n e g o t i a t i n g p r e s sures and have a c h i e v e d r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r g a i n s , sometimes a t the expense of e q u i t y . Since the Plywood I n d u s t r y and i t s Job E v a l u a t i o n P l a n must e x i s t w i t h i n the l a r g e r framework of the F o r e s t I n d u s t r y as a whole, i t seems important t h a t the p o l i c y for establishing d i f f e r e n t i a l s  3 2 w i i k i n s o n , Report,  p.  34.  3 3 N . T . Nemetz t o L.R. P e t e r s o n (then M i n i s t e r of Report on 1970 Woodworkers Dispute, Vancouver, .7, 1970. - " i l k i n s o n , Report, p. 34.  between as t h a t between logging  groups be e s s e n t i a l l y the same which governs d i f f e r e n t i a l s jobs o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n and s a w m i l l i n g .  Therefore, dob: l i t t l e exisohog  v  i t appears t o the w r i t e r t h a t  Wilkinson  t o move t h e plywood wage curve away from i t s  o p e r a t i o n a l scheme.  L i k e many p l a n s b e f o r e i t ,  the plywood wage p l a n was a d j u s t e d  only s l i g h t l y s o t h a t  i t d i d n o t move " o u t - o f - k i l t e r " w i t h h i s t o r i c a l wage p a t t e r n s which e x i s t e d n o t o n l y  i n the plywood s e c t o r b u t i n t h e  e n t i r e B.C. f o r e s t i n d u s t r y .  Wilkinson  d i d make one c o n -  c e s s i o n though : "In p e r i o d s when a c r o s s - t h e - b o a r d money i n c r e a s e s a r e b e i n g n e g o t i a t e d f o r other segments o f the i n d u s t r y , percentage i n c r e a s e s f o r plywood would produce troublesome e x t e r n a l comparisons, and vice versa. Neither pattern i s necessari l y always more e q u i t a b l e than the other a l t h o u g h , i n the long run, the percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l and percentage i n c r e a s e a r e more d e f e n s i b l e . Which i s favoured i n n e g o t i a t i o n s by one p a r t y or the other i s not so much a matter o f e q u i t y as i t i s o f group economics and p o l i t i c s . " 3 , 3  The  f e e l i n g a t present  i s t h a t the union's  insis-  tence on percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l s , as opposed t o s t e p - b y step  increments, c o u l d be rewarded d u r i n g  negotiations.  contract  F a i l i n g t h a t , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t percentage  i n c r e a s e s w i l l be e f f e c t e d u n l e s s  35 I b i d . , pp. 34-35. 3 5  t h e next  I b i d . , p . 35.  the Coast s a w m i l l s a c c e p t  p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e m e n t s , i f and when a j o b e v a l u a t i o n scheme is installed.  T h i s would e s t a b l i s h a s i g n i f i c a n t  w h i c h v o u l d then pave the way t o be implemented  i n plywood  f o r percentage job e v a l u a t i o n .  precedent  differentials  CHAPTER VI  PLYWOOD EVALUATION: ANALYSIS  The plywood e v a l u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s in effect  the o n l y p l a n  i n B.C.'s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y from which the q u e s t i o n ,  "Is job e v a l u a t i o n worthwhile as a technique management r e l a t i o n s ? " may be e v a l u a t e d .  i n labour-  T h i s i s because  plywood e v a l u a t i o n has been o p e r a t i o n a l f o r over t h i r t e e n y e a r s , as opposed t o the o n l y o t h e r p l a n , the Southern I n t e r i o r sawmill e v a l u a t i o n , which has o n l y been i n e f f e c t f o r two y e a r s . There a r e a number o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be examined i n answering the q u e s t i o n . the p a r t i c u l a r nature  o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , not o n l y i n  B.C. b u t a l s o i n the U n i t e d  States.  wood i n d u s t r y i s h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e , large,  The f i r s t o f these i s  The lumber and p l y i n c l u d i n g a few v e r y  i n t e g r a t e d f i r m s and a g r e a t number o f medium and  s m a l l f i r m s producing  o n l y lumber.  manufacture i s c o m p e t i t i v e  Lumber and plywood  i n t h e textbook sense o f having  a l a r g e number o f s e l l e r s and a homogeneous p r o d u c t .  The  i n d u s t r y i s not e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , r a t h e r 37 it  i s concentrated  near the sources  of timber.  3 J . A . Smith, The S t r u c t u r e o f Wages i n the P a c i f i c North-West Lumber I n d u s t r y , Ph.D. T h e s i s , Washington State U n i v e r s i t y , 1967, p . 1. 7  The h i s t o r y o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s lumber  i n the western  i n d u s t r y i s dominated by a n i m o s i t y and  strife  between the workers and the employers, between the workers and the u n i o n , and between the union and the employers, deteriorating  i n t o armed c o n f r o n t a t i o n s on o c c a s i o n s .  U n t i l -he 1930's the workers were unable t o e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e unions i n the i n d u s t r y , p a r t l y because o f employer r e s i s t a n c e , b u t mostly because of the u n s t a b l e n a t u r e o f employment i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y .  Loggers were p a r t i c u l -  a r l y mobile s i n c e the m a j o r i t y were s i n g l e and l i v e d i n l o g g i n g camps when working.  They responded t o u n s a t i s -  f a c t o r y working c o n d i t i o n s by  "dragging-up" f o r a  l o c a t i o n and a new  The I n d u s t r i a l Workers o f  the World  employer.  new  (I.W.W.), a p r o t o t y p e u n i o n , c l a i m e d many members  among the l o g g e r s , b u t t h i s somewhat r a d i c a l u n i o n was  not  d i s p o s e d t o n e g o t i a t e c o n t r a c t s and engage i n c o n t i n u o u s labour r e l a t i o n s w i t h employers. " S t r i k e and move on", was  Their philosophy,  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the nomadic 38  e x i s t e n c e of the l o g g e r s . T h i s l e g a c y o f i n d u s t r i a l w a r f a r e i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y made the t a s k o f o r g a n i z i n g t o meet the needs o f a war economy (World War World War  I, the U.S.  II) p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t .  In  f e d e r a l government had sponsored  the "Spruce B r i g a d e " and the " L o y a l L e g i o n o f Loggers and I b i d . , pp.  2-3.  Lumbermen" i n an attempt to meet the c r i s i s production.  These measures proved inadequate as p a t r i o t i c  f e r v o u r e x p i r e d and demand f o r lumber p e r i o d between the Wars was of  i n lumber  violence.  increased.  marked by p e r i o d i c  The  outbursts  The I.W.W. a c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d lumber workers.  The -workers were s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a u n i o n i n 1935 which a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the U n i t e d Brotherhood o f Carpenters and J o i n e r s o f America.  However, the c a r p e n t e r s  assumed a d i c t a t o r i a l a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r new  affiliates  and d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the new u n i o n grew i n t o o u t r i g h t rebellion.  D i s s i d e n t s broke w i t h the c a r p e n t e r dominated  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union, and formed the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America  (I.W.A.),  c h a r t e r e d i n 1937 by the Congress o f I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a tion  (C.I.O).  A new e r a o f i n d u s t r i a l s t r i f e was p r e -  c i p i t a t e d as the two unions " a c t i v e l y " competed f o r the l o y a l t y o f workers, expending much o f t h e i r energy i n s t r u g g l e s w i t h each o t h e r r a t h e r than i n improving c o n d i t i o n s f o r e x i s t i n g members and e x t e n d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n 39  among the u n o r g a n i z e d . Employer a t t i t u d e s throughout the P a c i f i c N o r t h west toward u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n were u n i f o r m l y The employers used the s p l i t  hostile.  i n ranks o f the workers to  s t a v e o f f u n i o n i z a t i o n f o r a time, e n l i s t i n g the a i d o f c i v i c groups and the p o l i c e t o f r u s t r a t e o r g a n i z i n g d r i v e s . 3 9  I b i d . , p. 3.  The 1940)  f i r s t p r e s i d e n t was Harold  from Vancouver, B.C.  Pritchett  (1937-  Under h i s l e a d e r s h i p , and t h a t  of N i g e l Morgan ( l a t e r t o become Chairman o f the Labour P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y ) , the I.W.A. a t t r a c t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l f e l l o w i n g i n B.C.  An i n t e n s i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campaign  was oooscituted and, as a r e s u l t , the f i r s t c o n t r a c t was signed with  independent employers i n B.C. t o p r o v i d e  r e c o g n i t i o n and improved working c o n d i t i o n s . 1943,  union  In November,  a f i r s t g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t was n e g o t i a t e d c o v e r i n g the  g r e a t e r p a r t o f the c o a s t a l i n d u s t r y , ~ 4<  )  The war years proved d i f f i c u l t , w i t h the demand for  f o r e s t workers w e l l i n excess o f s u p p l y .  changed from the submission complaints  t o those  Tactics  o f p e t t y g r i e v a n c e s and  o f broad and advanced b a r g a i n i n g .  In 1946, the union demanded o f R.V. S t u a r t Research L t d . , an  o r g a n i z a t i o n speaking  f o r 147 employers, a c o n t r a c t  g r a n t i n g a f o r t y - h o u r work week, 25 <: an hour i n c r e a s e i n pay,  and the union  shop and v o l u n t a r y c h e c k - o f f .  J u s t i c e Sloan was appointed  Chief  as a mediator by the g o v e r n -  ment, b u t f a i l e d t o e f f e c t a s e t t l e m e n t ,  and a s t r i k e was  c a l l e d on May 15, 1946, i n v o l v i n g 37,000 workers and over 2 0 % o f the p r o v i n c e ' s  A s e t t l e m e n t was  finally  H . A . Logan, Trade Unions i n Canada, Toronto, MacMillan Co., 1948, p. 284. 40  The  payroll.  a r r i v e d a t on the b a s i s o f a 44-hour week, a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e of 15C an hour and the v o l u n t a r y i r r e v o c a b l e check-off. or  The s t r i k e i n v o l v e d a l o s s i n wages o f S8 m i l l i o n  $261 f o r each worker, and  i n terms o f p r o d u c t , 300  million  41  board f e e t .  Thus was  ended a s t r i k e s a i d t o be the most  expensive i n B.C.'s h i s t o r y t o t h a t time, e x c e p t i n g the c o a l s t r i k e on Vancouver I s l a n d  i n 1912-1914.  From t h a t s e t t l e m e n t emerged the t r u e nature o f labour r e l a t i o n s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g which has the I.W.A. and the employers bad  t o the p r e s e n t day.  f e e l i n g s e x i s t e d on b o t h s i d e s f o r the next Undoubtedly,  accounted strife  i n the p r o v i n c e .  i n d u s t r y accounted i n B.C.;  General decade.  the lumber i n d u s t r y o f B.C.  f o r a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share o f  plagued  has  industrial  During the decade 1949-59,  the  f o r about 1 0 % o f the p a i d l a b o u r f o r c e  but, i t a l s o accounted  f o r about 2 0 % of a l l s t r i k e s ,  almost o n e - h a l f o f a l l s t r i k e p a r t i c i p a n t s and t w o - t h i r d s of a l l man-days l o s t  in s t r i k e s .  The two  l a r g e and  pro-  t r a c t e d s t r i k e s o f 1952 and 1959 alone accounted f o r more days l o s t than the t o t a l all  other i n d u s t r i e s  f o r a l l other s t r i k e s i n  i n the p r o v i n c e d u r i n g the  T h i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f s t r i k e pants and days l o s t 4 1  i n the i n d u s t r y may  decade.  4 2  partici-  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  Ibid.  S . Jamieson, "Multi-Employer B a r g a i n i n g . The Case o f B.C. Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y " , R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s , V o l . 26, No. 1, January, 1971, p. 150. 4 2  a few l a r g e " i n t e r e s t " d i s p u t e s t h a t were s u b j e c t t o l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d c o n c i l i a t i o n procedures t i o n o f new a g r e e m e n t s . The  i n the  43  i n d u s t r y d i d not e x p e r i e n c e  or p r o t r a c t e d shutdowns d u r i n g the 1960's. lurher d i d experience  negotia-  any such l a r g e However, c o a s t  a l a r g e number o f i l l e g a l , w i l d c a t  s t r i k e s , which f a r outnumbered the a u t h o r i z e d s t r i k e s (see t a b l e ) , r e a c h i n g , a peak o f 21 i n 1 9 6 9 . t o an i n d u s t r y - w i d e more than  44  The o n l y t h r e a t  shutdown o c c u r r e d i n 1966 and i n v o l v e d  6000 workers.  However, Nemetz was a b l e t o  impose a s i z e a b l e wage s e t t l e m e n t on t h e i n d u s t r y which served t o a v e r t a s t r i k e . u n t i l 1959  Several  "minor" s t r i k e s  occurred  when the I.W.A. conducted one o f the major  s t r i k e s o f the postwar y e a r s .  "It lasted  from J u l y t o  September, i n v o l v e d 30,000 loggers working f o r 134 companies, and ended a f t e r 66 days w i t h a s e t t l e m e n t p r o v i d i n g f o r a 10£ wage i n c r e a s e i n 1959 and a f u r t h e r 10C  increase i n I960."  4 5  S u r p r i s i n g l y , a p e r i o d o f 13  y e a r s passed b e f o r e the I.W.A. conducted t h e i r most r e c e n t general strike  i n J u l y , 1972.  The s t r i k e l a s t e d some two  weeks and p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l wage i n c r e a s e s o f 36%C i n  43ibid. 44ibid. C h a r l e s L i p t o n , The Trade Union Movement o f Canada 1827-1959, M o n t r e a l , Canadian S o c i a l Pub. L t d . , 1966, pp. 315316. 4 5  STRIKES IK THE COAST LUMBER INDUSTRY IN B.C. 1949-1969 AUTHORIZED Year  No.  1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969  0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 3 1  UNAUTHORIZED  Man-Days —  90 1,035,000 — —  1,002 1,665 — —  1,233,950 — —  373 2,163 432 —  86,520 —  6,803 2,196  Lost^  No.  Man-Days L o s t  6 2 2 2 2 5 2  4,977 312 158 1,850 945 1,355 5,667  6 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 4 7 11 21  2,757 1,125 1,128 42 9,262 37 305 1,140 1,849 7,211 19,589 15,553  —  —  Total 4,977 402 1,035,158 1,850 945 2,357 7,332 —  2,757 1,235,075 1,128 42 9,635 2,200 737 1,140 88,369 7,211 26,392 17,749  Man-Days l o s t i n c l u d e o n l y unions i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n s t r i k e s o r l o c k - o u t s . T h i s f i g u r e takes no account f o r other workers who may have r e f u s e d t o c r o s s p i c k e t l i n e s o r f o r o t h e r reasons become unemployed because o f strikes. Source:  B.C. Department o f Labour, Annual Reports, c i t e d i n S. Jamieson, "Multi-Employer B a r g a i n i n g : The Case o f B.C. Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y " , Rel=-ions I n d u s t r i e l l e s , V o l . 26, No. 1, Januarv, 1 5 ~ 1 , p . 151.  each y e a r o f a two y e a r c o n t r a c t e x t e n d i n g through 1974.  to  46  The p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e calm from 1959-1972 c o i n c i d e d w i t h two s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s :  (1) the  tenure  (11 years ' of Jack Moore as P r e s i d e n t , I.W.A. R e g i o n a l 11  C o u n c i l So. 1, and Evaluation Plan.  (2) the l i f e - s p a n o f the Plywood Job The s t r i k e  i n 1959  p r o v i d e d the  impetus  n e c e s s a r y to a c t u a l l y implement the p l a n a f t e r f o u r y e a r s of'haranguing and argument between management and union.  I t s success s i n c e t h a t time  f a c t that  the  i s e x e m p l i f i e d by  the  "no d i s p u t e time has been l o s t due t o l o s s o f 47  individual rights."  However, "grievance p r o c e d u r e "  and the h a n d l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l e v a l u a t i o n and r e - e v a l u a t i o n has proven  troublesome,  perhaps  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the p l a n  s h o u l d be r e w r i t t e n t o i n c o r p o r a t e remedies ills.  f o r these  In the o v e r a l l p e r s p e c t i v e though. Plywood E v a l u a -  t i o n has been enormously s u c c e s s f u l .  I t might be w o r t h -  w h i l e t o c o n s i d e r some of the reasons f o r t h a t s u c c e s s a t this juncture. The  f i r s t c r i t e r i a which must be s a t i s f i e d i s  t h a t o f expense, n e i t h e r s i d e w i l l f i n d e v a l u a t i o n a c c e p t a b l e i f the c o s t s exceed  the b e n e f i t s .  In 1955,  Dr. Hewson,  L e l a n d J . L u c k h u r s t , The I.W.A.-F.I.R. Settlement, U.B.C., Vancouver, 1972. 4 6  1972,  4  Nov.  12.  ^Lorne 1972.  F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r ,  the d e s i g n e r  f o r Stevenson & K e l l o g g , p u t t o g e t h e r  plywood p l a n f o r approximately  $20,000.  The  i n s t a l l a t i o n p e r i o d t o implement the p l a n  four  48  year  i n 11 p l a n t s  c o s t i n the v i c i n i t y of $60,000 f o r a t o t a l c o s t of $ 8 0 , 0 0 0 .  the  installation  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p l a n has  run  i n the v i c i n i t y of $60,000-$70,000 per y e a r on average. The  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee, composed o f men  the I.W.A. and  F.I.R., i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the smooth  o p e r a t i o n o f the p l a n . for salaries,  from  Each s i d e bears i t s own  c l e r i c a l work, e t c . but  costs  i t i s suspected  t h a t management bears the m a j o r i t y o f such c o s t s , s i n c e F.I.R. and the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s departments o f the various  f o r e s t companies are c o n s t a n t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h  the p l a n .  S p e c i f i c f i g u r e s are u n a v a i l a b l e because  no  one  i n d u s t r y works on e v a l u a t i o n f u l l  A  i n the  typical  company budget, expressed  time.  as a percentage o f 49  the t o t a l  I.R.  budget, runs from 1 t o 10  on how  busy the p a r t i c u l a r company i s w i t h  a t any  one  depending evaluation  time. Management f e l t t h a t i f plywood e v a l u a t i o n  . c o u l d be  implemented and a d m i n i s t e r e d  a t an average  c o s t o f 5C/man/hour, then e v a l u a t i o n would be while a i d to c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. 4  Feb. .  Lome Fingarson,  ciscussicr.  I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r ,  1973.  19, 4  1973  8  Further  a v;r-±-  ^  Marc C l o s e , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , Feb.  8,  o f the mechanics of t h i s a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e w i l l be t o the s e c t i o n where Southern I n t e r i o r sawmill i s covered as b e t t e r and  more comprehensive  is a v a i l a b l e in that area.  Most important, however, i s union that  t i o n i s worthwhile on a c o s t - b e n e f i t  basis. ^  A second important f a c t o r has  job  evalua-  5  been the  f u n c t i o n i n g o f the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  Labour and  evaluation  information  the concensus by both management and  ful  deferred  success-  Committee.  t e c h n i c a l problems have been c o n s i s t e n t l y  r e s o l v e d w i t h i n the committee s t r u c t u r e , and when f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s have a r i s e n , the p a r t i e s have o b t a i n e d assistance  from i m p a r t i a l s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d  Stevenson & K e l l o g g , and  others.  involvement o f union l o c a l b u s i n e s s agents and p l a n t management w i t h r e s p e c t r e l a t i v e t o job c o n t e n t and has  like  P a c i f i c North West C o n s u l t a n t s  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , p r o v i s i o n made f o r  re-evaluation,  outside  Ltd.,  the local  to d e t e r m i n i n g the  facts  e s t a b l i s h i n g the need f o r  been a major c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  the  committee. "There i s no doubt t h a t job e v a l u a t i o n must be a d j u s t e d  p e r i o d i c a l l y , but  plans  i n making such changes, 51  the  i n t e g r i t y of the p l a n 50  Feb.  22,  Nov.  30,  i t s e l f must be  mainttiaec.  Wyman T r i n e e r , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the 1973.  "^N.T. Nemetz, L e t t e r t o P r o f e s s o r 1970.  =  writer, Hugh W i l k i n s o n ,  Plywood e v a l u a t i o n Wilkinson  i n c o r p o r a t e s such a p r o v i s i o n .  Professor  r e - d e f i n e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e - e v a l u a t i o n  i n h i s 1971  report:  "When new c r i t e r i a and p o i n t w e i g h t i n g s are e s t a b l i s h e d , there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f work t o be done i n r e - e v a l u a t i n g a l l the jobs i n the i n d u s t r y b e f o r e the new scheme can r e a l l y be put i n t o e f f e c t . Because t h i s must be done q u i c k l y t h e r e i s more than the u s u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t o develop, u n l e s s the work i s always done by the same people . . . Because of the experience they have g a i n e d i n t h i s work, producing benchmark jobs f o r new f a c t o r s and degrees, r e - r a t i n g whole p l a n t s a c c o r d i n g t o the new c r i t e r i a , I would suggest t h a t Mr. Lorne Fingarson (I.W.A. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) and Mr. Frank Paul (F.I.R. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ) be asked t o r e v i s e the r a t i n g s o f a l l jobs i n the remaining p l a n t s . " 5 2  T h i s r e - e v a l u a t i o n was overhaul  completed i n 1972  of the plywood e v a l u a t i o n p l a n .  exhaustive,  management and  1966,  less  and  a widespread acceptance as  1969. a  union t o o l f o r improving i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s .  In plywood o r any  jobs.  S i m i l a r , but  r e v i s i o n s were a l s o made i n 1963,  Job e v a l u a t i o n has  tions  p r o v i d i n g a complete  i n d u s t r y , the s t a t e of these  rela-  i s a measure o f the workers' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  their  Two  other  g e n e r a l l y recognized  sources o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  among l a b o u r are the wage l e v e l and between incomes of one worker and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  another.  The  the primary concern o f plywood job e v a l u a t i o n .  latcer is Because  ^Hugh W i l k i n s o n , "Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n " , A Report Prepared f o r the I.W.A. and F.I.R., August 1, 1S71, p. 33. b  d e f e n s i b l e wage r a t e s can be a r r i v e d a t on a b a s i s , or because d i f f e r e n t i a l s determined on an a c c e p t a b l e  logical  i n wage r a t e s can  be  comparative b a s i s , union  = -d management have a f a c t u a l r a t h e r than a r i b t r a r y b a s i s for c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  and  negoco.=.cing o f wage r a t e s . eliminates personal maintaining  t h i s eliminates constant  In a d d i t i o n , job  f a v o u r i t i s m and  a p o s i t i o n i n the  i n g t o i n d u s t r y and  evaluation  a s s i s t s management i n  labour market and  community wage r a t e s .  comments are of a more g e n e r a l  re-  5 3  i n conform-  Though these  n a t u r e , they are  very  a p p l i c a b l e t o i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n B.C.'s plywood industry since  1959.  There are numerous secondary b e n e f i t s which j o b e v a l u a t i o n has  provided  f o r the plywood  industry,  including: (1)  a p l a n t o encompass changes i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s as automation and technology i n c r e a s e ;  (2)  industry standardization practices;  (3)  a means t o measure p r o d u c t i o n flow and r e c o v e r y — i m p o r t a n t t o management;  (4)  the b a s i s f o r job d e s c r i p t i o n , t r a i n i n g programs, supplementary r e s e a r c h .  o f jobs, work  Many of these t o p i c s w i l l s u r f a c e a g a i n examination o f sawmill e v a l u a t i o n .  in  At t h i s p o i n t ,  John Houston, Job E v a l u a t i o n  Seminar, May  the  1972,  w r i t e r b e l i e v e s i t i s reasonable  t o conclude that job  e v a l u a t i o n has indeed p r o v e n a w o r t h w h i l e l a b o u r management r e l a t i o n s .  technique i n  I would q u a l i f y t h a t by  a d d i n g plywood r e p r e s e n t s o n l y one e x p e r i e n c e  with  e v a l u a t i o n and t h a t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s t u d y o f s a w m i l l e v a l u a t i o n , a more comprehensive and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n w i l l be r e a c h e d .  CHAPTER VII  SAWMILLING IN B.C.  As a p r e l u d e t o the  - PRESENT STATUS  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f job  a t i o n i n the s a w m i l l i n g  s e c t o r of the  B.C.,  t o examine "the s t a t e of  i t i s appropriate  a r t " t o t r y and  i n the  forest industry  understand the numerous and  f o r c e s t o which job e v a l u a t i o n has  evaluin  the  diverse  attempted t o respond  Southern I n t e r i o r . A d e t a i l e d r e p o r t on the  by the B.C.  i n d u s t r y was  published  government's Department of I n d u s t r i a l Develop-  ment, Trade, and the Economics and  Commerce i n which David C a r t w r i g h t  of  S t a t i s t i c s Branch i n t e r p r e t e d events  i n the  i n d u s t r y t o 1971.  A review o f  Cartwright*s  report  i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Lumberman  1  provides  b a s i s f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o f the d i s s e r t a t i o n .  the  Cartwright's  study i s supplemented by a number o f t a b l e s compiled Ralph D.  S c o t t , Research Economist, IWA  (Portland,  by  Ore.),  2 which f o l l o w a t the end  of this  chapter.  ^•"Government Report Reveals Sawmill's P a s t anf F u t u r e , " reviewed i n B r i t i s h Columbia Lumberman, V o l . 5 7 , No. 1, January, 1973, pp. 31-32. ^Ralph n. S c o t t , " T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change i n the E r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t Products I n d u s t r y , " Speech d e l i v ered t o : I.R.M.A. Convention, H a r r i s o n Hot Springs, B.C., February 22, 1973.  PRODUCTION OF MAJOR FOREST INDUSTRIES 1971 ACTUAL AND 1975, 1985 FORECAST Units  Product  1971 Actual  1975  1985 Forecast  {% i n c r e a s e ) Lumber  M i l l i o n f.b.m.  8,970.4  10,000 (11.5)  Plywood  M i l l i o n Sq. F t . 1.873.6 (3/8")  2,200 (14.8)  3,000 (26.7)  4,767.5  5,800 (17.8)  8,000 (27.5)  A l l Wood P u l p Thousand Tons  13,200 (32)  Kraft pulp  Thousand Tons  3,276.6  4, 000 (18.1)  5,400 (25.9)  Other  Thousand Tons  1,490.9  1,800 (17.2)  2, 600 (30.8)  Thousand Tons  1,910.4  *1,300 ! (-47.0)  3,100 (58.1)  Newsprint  Thousand Tons  1,393.6  1.600 (12.9)  2,050 (22.0)  Other  Thousand Tons  516.8  700 (26.2)  1,050 (33.3)  A l l Paper & Paperboard  Source;  B r i t i s h Columbia Lumberman, January 1973.  P o s s i b l y the most important problem f ar i c o sawmilling  i n d u s t r y today i s i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s .  one  B.C.'s  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s faced w i t h the need to remain competitive  i n w o r l d markets and  i s t h e r e f o r e not  able  t o pass on  costs.  increased  Strong  necessarily competition  from s u b s t i t u t e p r o d u c t s c o u l d d i s p l a c e lumber i n some o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l markets i f the p r i c e o f continues  t o i n c r e a s e r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r than the p r i c e  o f competing p r o d u c t s .  The  r a p i d l y , w i t h the m a j o r i t y place  lumber  i n the  i n d u s t r y continues  o f the development t a k i n g  I n t e r i o r Region.  The  t r e n d towards more  i n t e n s i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of the timber resource ready begun and development.  the  t o be  has  alp  future w i l l continue to witness i t s  Increased  u t i l i z a t i o n of small  w i l l occur, w h i l e s p e c i e s hardwoods,  t o expand  timber  such as balsam, hemlock  (which t o date have been g e n e r a l l y  and  considered  o f lower economic v a l u e ) , w i l l a l s o enjoy 3  greater  demand. There i s room f o r development i n the  sawmill  i n d u s t r y i f s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of c a p i t a l can  be  located.  locate  i n the  Prospective  northern  investors w i l l generally  portions  o f the p r o v i n c e  f o r thac i s  the a r e a which r e t a i n s the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r 3  "Government Sawmill Report," p.  31.  saw-  m i l l i n g development. i n the saw  and  C a p i t a l and  planing m i l l  repair  industry  expenditure  ( s o - c a l l e d because  S t a t i s t i c s Canada uses t h a t terminology) i n c r e a s e d $41.6  million  t h i s , a 183  i n 1961  per cent  m i l l expenditure  t o $115.8 m i l l i o n increase  between 1968  i n sawmill and  i c a l l y of large c a p i t a l outlays new  machinery.  When the  allow handling  i n 1970.  1969  and  planing  i n both new  mills  i n d u s t r y began adapting  occurred.  the  to  policies  to the new  scale  Since the p o l i c y i s n o t  expected t o change d r a s t i c a l l y and  expenditure  and  o f l a r g e volumes o f s m a l l logs r e s u l t i n g  r e q u i r e d by government, w h o l e s a l e changes i n the  adapting  Of  consisted bas-  from implementation o f c l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n  of o p e r a t i o n s  from  m i l l s are  s i t u a t i o n , c a p i t a l and  still  repair  i s l i k e l y to remain a t c u r r e n t l e v e l s i n  immediate f u t u r e .  changes i n the saw  and  4  One  of the most important  planing m i l l  i n d u s t r y i s the  t r e n d towards m i l l s c a p a b l e of e c o n o m i c a l l y s i n g s m a l l diametered i n v e n t o r y .  proces-  T h i s can be  accomplished  by sawing a l a r g e number o f l o g s , q u i c k l y and  efficiently.  The  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s trend f o r job e v a l u a t i o n  tremendous, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  l a t e r when a stuf-j  f a c t o r s , degrees, e t c . i s undertaken.  4  Ibid.  are of  In the f u t u r e , i t i s expected t h a t the 3.Z. saw and p l a n i n g m i l l i n d u s t r y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o develop, implementing s o p h i s t i c a t e d means t o maximize p r o f i t s . P r e s e n t day sawing techniques and p r a c t i c e s w i l l be improved and modernized w h i l e automation e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e labour  continues—  intensive operations.  Use o f  equipment l i k e computers, l a s e r beams, and h i g h speed water j e t s a r e becoming accepted components f o r f u t u r e sawmills. S u b s t i t u t e products have r e p l a c e d wood i n many i n s t a n c e s because o f wood's d i s a d v a n t a g e s : (1) (2) (3) (4)  Random occurrence o f n a t u r a l d e f e c t s non-isoptropic characteristics d i m e n s i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y under d i f f e r e n t moisture c o n d i t i o n s h i g h c o s t (of wood)  (5)  s u b s t i t u t e s have been a g g r e s s i v e l y  marketed.  Manufacturers o f s u b s t i t u t e goods have c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e i r p r o d u c t s ' on  c a p a b i l i t i e s and p l a c e d  emphasis  long-term and i n - p l a c e maintenance c o s t s r a t h e r  i n i t i a l material cost.  Therefore,  to maintain  markets, lumber manufacturers are implementing  than  their aggressive  marketing programs and attempting t o become more consumer orientated. Developments r e q u i r e d  i n c l u d e new techniques  emphasizing the more e f f i c i e n t use o f wood 5  I b i d . , pp. 31-32.  construction  and a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p r o d u c t l i n e s .  The  manufacture o f p r e f i n i s h e d u n i t s i n l i e u o f i n d i v i d u a l products w i l l p r o v i d e h i g h e r r e t u r n s on investment i f f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g knowledge t h a t has o n l y been p a r t i a l l y u t i l i z e d t o date i n the s a w m i l l i n g i n d u s t r y can be e f f e c t e d . In r e c e n t y e a r s , many o f the s m a l l e r s a w m i l l s ' timber quotas have been c o n s o l i d a t e d a l l o w i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a few l a r g e s a w m i l l i n g complexes. The p r o c e s s has l e d many manufacturers "forward", toward  to integrate  the u l t i m a t e user, w i t h the e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f manufacturer-owned wholesale and/or d e a l e r o u t lets,  a t r e n d which i s expected  future.  t o c o n t i n u e i n the  A c u r r e n t example i s the expansion o f Crown  Z e l l e r b a c h Stores L t d . into d o - i t - y o u r s e l f It  retailing.  i s expected t h a t t h e U n i t e d States w i l l  r e t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n as the p r i n c i p a l importer o f B.C. lumber, s p e c i f i c a l l y dimension, lumber o f s t r u c t u r a l q u a l i t y .  or "two i n c h " , t h i c k n e s s The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s  demand w i l l c o n t i n u e t o r e f l e c t advanced  technological  requirements, making job e v a l u a t i o n even more c r i t i c a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g new wage c r i t e r i a .  In depth s t u c i = ~ o f  the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' demand f o r timber products p-cint c c ~  6  I b i d . , p. 32.  t h a t the need f o r such goods w i l l  increase  over the next s e v e r a l decades (1971 U.S. from Canada t o t a l l e d 7.1 b i l l i o n board 7 c e n t of which came from  Japan's  1970  feet,  imports  77.7  are n o t so apparent  Japan  from Canada, the U.S.,  lumber  per  B.C.).  The advantages o t h e r market a r e a s .  substa--i=lly  imports softwood  and the U.S.S.R.  i n B.C.'s lumber mainly  Over h a l f  imports o f t h i s commodity were from  of B.C.,  though the U.S.S.R. c o u l d p r o v i d e s t r o n g e r c o m p e t i t i o n i n the near f u t u t e .  During 1972-73, Japan e x p e r i e n c e d  a severe housing shortage c a u s i n g heavy s p e c u l a t i o n among Japanese  lumber buyers  ( y e l l o w cedar) . normal  i n B.C.,  mainly i n c y p r e s s  T h i s demand i s expected to ease o f f t o  l e v e l s by the end o f 1973.  U n i t e d Kingdom imported softwood  During 1970,  the  lumber from a number  o f c o u n t r i e s , of which Sweden, the U.S.S.R., F i n l a n d , Canada, and Poland were the most important.  Approx-  i m a t e l y 90 per c e n t of Canada's lumber e x p o r t s t o the U n i t e d Kingdom were manufactured  i n B.C.,  but s t r o n g  marketing programs w i l l have t o be maintained  i f B.C.  i s expected t o r e t a i n any o f i t s share o f t h i s d i r r i r _ i s h ing market.  a Senate Review Committee t r a v e l l e d  'ibid. 8  Ibid.  to  Europe i n mid-March, 1973, e n t r y o f the Community. date.  to a s s e s s the e f f e c t o f  U n i t e d Kingdom i n t o the The  r e s u l t s of t h a t  European Economic  t r i p are  unpublished  not be  undermined too s e r i o u s l y as  E.E.C. c o u n t r i e s are not Not constricting  major  current  suppliers.  w i t h s t a n d i n g the  problems o f automation,  f o r e i g n markets, and  heavier r e l i a n c e  the U.S.  A t l a n t i c Seaboard market, the  industry  i s expected t o maintain i t s dominant r o l e  forest  industries.  production  expected.  and  o f B.C.  will  1985.  management 3.4  require  industry of  2.3  billion  feet  cubic forest  b i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t of timber can be ample raw  i n 1985.  lumber, 3 b i l l i o n square f e e t  paperboard  9  (see  material  At t h a t  cut  to  time  the  b i l l i o n board  feet  (3/8") o f plyvc-oc,  8 m i l l i o n tons of a l l wood p u l p , and of a l l paper and  can  f o r e s t based  S i n c e under p r e s e n t standards of  f o r e s t industry  Ibid.  round-  b i l l i o n cubic  to 2.9  i s expected t o produce 13.2  9  inten-  increase in log  t h a t the  increasing  a n n u a l l y , t h e r e appears to be s u p p l y the  in  planing m i l l operations)  Forecasts indicate  o f roundwood i n 1975, f e e t by  an  of  ( d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between logs and  wood p r o d u c t i o n t o saw  industries  and  on  sawmilling  Continued a p p l i c a t i o n  s i v e f o r e s t management p r a c t i c e s  be  to  However, i t i s s a f e to s p e c u l a t e t h a t B.C.'s  position w i l l  the  the  3.1  table  m i l l i o n tons following).  Capital Investment for Machinery and Equipment Per Employee in the Wood-Manufacturing Industry, 1963-71 British Columbia  Year  Employment •  Investment for Machinery £ Equipment  1963 1964 1965 1966  35,300 35,700 36,900 37,300  $23,100,000 25,500,000 32,900,000 24,000,000  1967 1968 1969 1970  34,900 35,200 37,500 36,600  21,800,000 22,500,000 59,600,000 56,900,000  1971  40,000  71,800,000  4  Mach. £ Equip. Investment Per Employee  Investment for Machinery £ Equipment (1963 dollars)  $ 654 714 892 643  $23,100,000 24,500,000 30,400,000 21,500,000  625 639 .1589 1555  19,700,000 20,300,000 52,400,000 47,800,000  564 576 1,397 1,306  1795  58,500,000  1,462  Sources: Private and Public Investment i n Canada, Statistics Canada and Department of Industry,'Trade and Commerce, 61-205. Review of Employment and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries, DBS, 72-201 Prices and Price Indexes, Statistics Canada, 62-002, (Implicit Price Index for Machinery and Equipment, gross fixed capital formation)  Mach. £ Equip. Investment P u r Employee  (V.n'.:i dollars)  $  654 684 823 576  Capital Investment for Machinery and Equipment Per Employee in the Wood-Manufacturing Industry, 1963-71 Canada  Investment for Machinery £ Equipment  Year  Employment  1963 1964 1965 1966  75,800 78,500 80,100 79,800  $ 38,000,000 45,500,000 49,500,000 48,900,000  1967 1968 1969 1970  76,400 76,500 79,800 76,300  1971  82,300  Sources:  RDS: J:f  Mach. £ Equip. Investment Per Employee $  Investment for Machinery £ Equipment (1963 dollars)  Mach. £ Equip. Investment Per Employee (1963 dollars) $  501 556 571 548  501 580 618 613  $38,000,000 43,700,000 45,800,000 43,800,000  48,200,000 52,600,000 95,200,000 101,500,000  631 688 1,193 1,330  43,500,000 47,500,000 83,600,000 85,200,000  569 620 1,047 1,116  112,900,000  1,372  92,000,000  1,117  Private and Public Investment in Canada, Statistics Canada and Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, 61-205. Review of Employment and Average Weekly Wages and .'">n"l aries, DBS, 72-201 I'pli'i'ii and Price Indexes, Statistics Canada, 62-002, ( im|• t ip.vl; Price Index for Machinery and Equipment, gross .1 h i n i l capital formation)  ON  65  Estimates of Primary Forest Production, 1963-71 (100 solid cubic feet)  Year  British Columbia  1963 1964 1965 1966  14,734,230 15,145,950 15,331,130 10,024,370  Change from Previous Year  (  Canada  Change from Previous Year  + 2.8% + 1.2 + 4.5  35,230,100 36,269,850 36,606,690 38,490,190  + 2.9% + 0.9 + 5.1 - .1.3 + 4.6 + 8.3 - 0.4  __  -  1967 1968 1969 1970  15,725,99017,024,550 18,900,520 19,326,280  - 1.9 + 8.2 +11.0 + 2.2  37,984^460 39,726,310 43,039,560 42,878,900  1971  19,970,810  + 3.3  N/A  Average Annual Change Source:  +3.9%  +2.9%  Canadian Forestry Statistics, 1970 Statistics Canada, 25-202, p. 11. Annual Report 1971, British Columbia Forest Service, p. 88.  66  Lumber Production, 1963-71 (thousands of board feet)  Year  British Columbia  1963 1964 1965 1966  6,734,071 7,095,282 7,449,485 7,319,108  1967 1968 1969 1970 1971  Canada  Change from Previous Year  + 5.4% + 5.0 - 1.7  9,877,326 10,355,703 10,815,355 10,599,475  + 4.8% + 4.4 - 2.0  7,109,794 7,811,139 7,695,606 7,763,500  + +  2.8 9.9 1.5 0.9  10,329,425 11,351,449 11,538,269 11,301,260  + + -  8,970,400  +15.5  12,777,903  +13.1  Average Annual Change Source:  Change from Previous Year __  +3.8%  The Sawmill Industry of British Columbia, Government of the Province of British Columbia, October 1972, p. 64.  2.5 9.9 1.6 2.0  +3.4%  67  Logging r-vployment, 1963-71 Production Workers  Year  British Columbia  1963 1961+ 1965 1966  15,604 15,936 16,299 15,329  + + -  1967 1968 1969 1970  14,846 15,265 17,241 15,884  - 3.1 + 2.8 + 12.9 - 7.9  1971  N/A  Average Annual Change Source:  Change from Previous Year 2.1% 2.3 5.9  Canada  Change from Previous Year  53,921 55,882 53,992 54,317  + +  51,004 45,187 46,847 44,814  - 6.1 - 11.4 + 3.7 - 4.3  3.6% 3.4 0.6  N/A +  0.5%  Canada Forestry Statistics, 1970, Statistics Canada, 25-202, p. 10.  —  2.5%  Wood Products Manufacturing Employment, 1963-71  Year  British Columbia  Change from Previous Year  1963 1964 1965 1966  35,300 35,700 36,900 37,300  1967 1968 1969 1970 1971  Canada  Change from Previous Year  + 1.1% + 3.4 + 1.1  75,800 78,500 80,100 79,800  + 3.6% + 2.0 - 0.4  34,900 35,200 37,500 36,600  + + -  6.4 0.8 6.5 2.4  76,400 76,500 79,800 76,300  + + + -  40,000  + 9.3  82,300  + 7.9  Average Annual Change Source:  „  +1.7%  „  4.3 0.1 4.3 4.4  +2.2%  Review of Employment and Average Weekly Wages and Salaries, DBS, 72-201.  69  With t h i s background  i n mind, a t t e n t i o n ray-  now be focused on job e v a l u a t i o n  as i t has been  i n the s a w m i l l s o f the Southern I n t e r i o r .  applied  CHAPTER V I I I  SOUTHERN INTERIOR SAWMILL JOB EVALUATION: HISTORY  At t h e u r g i n g o f Wyman T r i n e e r , 2nd V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f I.W.A. R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l No. 1, a study was commissioned  i n 1967 t o determine  implementing  a job e v a l u a t i o n program i n I n t e r i o r saw-  mills. Ltd.,  Subsequently,  the f e a s i b i l i t y o f  P a c i f i c North West C o n s u l t a n t s  (Lome A. F i n g a r s o n , Managing D i r e c t o r ) were  r e t a i n e d t o d e s i g n and i n s t a l l the program.  The i n i t i a l  r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d by F i n g a r s o n examined the o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s o f I n t e r i o r s a w m i l l s , b u t e s t a b l i s h e d no benchmarks f o r e i t h e r sympathetic  jobs or p l a n t s .  Management was  towards such a p l a n i f the promise o f wage  d i s c i p l i n e a t a r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e was found  t o be  practical. ^ 1  The  approach taken was t o use t h r e e i n t e r v i e w  teams c o m p r i s i n g one u n i o n member and one company member per team.  The j o b o f these teams was t o complete a JOB  STUDY RECORD, which was a type o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e i r . - r i v i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f the f r o n t page w i t h management, than a .rb -  L o r n e F i n g a r s o n , i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , March' 1, 1973. l u  i n t e r v i e w w i t h an incumbent s e l e c t e d f o r each job. classification.  Upon completion  o f the study  management was g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y statements made by the incumbent.  record,  t o comment on the  Union and management  were i n agreement t h a t management should have the l a s t word w i t h r e s p e c t t o the job study in a completely  record.  This r e s u l t e d  r e c o n c i l e d j o b study r e c o r d b e i n g  for-  warded t o two e v a l u a t o r s , one from each s i d e , f o r f i n a l g r a d i n g and r a t i n g . ^ I n i t i a l l y p r o g r e s s was slow b u t i t was proved t h a t as the i n t e r v i e w e r s become more experienced, o f two men c o u l d complete 40-50 job study approximately  8-10 days.  records i n  For i n s t a n c e , a medium s i z e d  m i l l has about 25 p r o d u c t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , case the i n t e r v i e w e r s would be out o f t h a t w i t h i n 5 days.  and  operation  interviewed  then he was brought i n 30 minutes e a r l y ,  i n s p e c i a l circumstances  at night.  i n which  Interviews were g e n e r a l l y conducted  on s h i f t time and i f a man c o u l d o n l y be on n i g h t s h i f t ,  a team  the i n t e r v i e w was conducted  An i n t e r v i e w normally  took about 20 m i n u t e s — 12  c e r t a i n l y no more than 30 minutes. Since, were r e a s o n a b l y  i n the Southern I n t e r i o r , standard  j o b t i t lei-  due t o the c l o s e w o r k i n g  •^John Houston, Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n Seminar, May, 1972, p . 7. 1 2  Ibid.  r e l a t i o n s h i p the companies enjoy through t h e i r A s s o c i a tion  (I.F.L.R.A.),  problem  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  as might have been e x p e c t e d .  Nonetheless,  were s t i l l g l a r i n g examples o f misuse i.e.,  many o p e r a t i o n s used the t i t l e  o t h e r s used Chipper A t t e n d a n t .  not as l a r g e a  o f job  there  titles,  Chipper Operator,  Under the p l a n , a Chipper  Operator u s u a l l y had some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i p q u a l i t y and almost c e r t a i n l y changed the c h i p p e r k n i v e s .  There-  f o r e , upon c o m p l e t i o n o f the p l a n , the o p e r a t o r may become an a t t e n d a n t and  vice versa.  T h i s was  have  n o t an  i n d i c a t i o n o f i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h job content- i t meant simply t h a t i n a n a l y z i n g job c o n t e n t the f u n c t i o n  was  b e i n g r e - d e f i n e d , w h i l e management r e t a i n e d i t s perogat i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o 30b c o n t e n t . In contract  J  accordance w i t h the terms o f the  (the p l a n had not been s t a r t e d  1969  i n the  interim,  1967-69), a j o i n t committee, i n c l u d i n g members o f the I n t e r i o r F o r e s t Labour R e l a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n the Northern  I n t e r i o r Labour A s s o c i a t i o n  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America formed and undertook  (I.F.L.R.A.),  (N.I.L.A.), (I.W.A.),  was  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e v e l o p -  ment of the s a w m i l l job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n .  An  initoal  i n t h i s development, p r e c e d i n g the introduction, o f  I b i d . , p.  and  8.  step  i n t e r v i e w teams i n t o the f i e l d was  (as d e s c r i b e d a b c ~ '  made d u r i n g 1969, w i t h the agreement upon a s e t  of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures. These procedures e s t a b l i s h e d  committees,  d e s c r i b e d t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , d e f i n e d the scope o f the p l a n (to i n c l u d e a l l p r o d u c t i o n workers,  b u t exclude trade  c a t e g o r i e s ) , and s p e l l e d o u t the appeal procedure.  Most  s i g n i f i c a n t l y , p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the involvement o f union l o c a l b u s i n e s s agents and the l o c a l  plant  management i n d e t e r m i n i n g the f a c t s r e l a t i v e t o job c o n t e n t , and e s t a b l i s h i n g the need f o r r e e v a l u a t i o n . In December o f 1969 i n i t i a l s t e p s were taken b y the committee t o e s t a b l i s h a JOB EVALUATION MANUAL, and the n e c e s s a r y documentation  f o r r e c o r d i n g job c o n t e n t . ^  4  D e t a i l e d examination o f the manual f o l l o w s i n a subsequent  section. F o l l o w i n g completion o f the job s t u d i e s by  the t h r e e i n t e r v i e w teams, two e v a l u a t i o n teams were charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i n a l gradings and ratings.  R e p r e s e n t i n g t h e I.W.A. were L o m e F i n g a r s o n  and Maurice W a l l s : f o r the I.F.L.R.A., John and Rory G i l l i e s .  Houstcn  Walls and G i l l i e s d i d the p r e l i x - - a r y  - L o m e F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r i m Report c~ Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r L o c a l s of B.C., August, 1970, p. 1. 1  e v a l u a t i o n work w i t h F i n g a r s o n and Houston f i n a l i r i r . g matters."'"  The m a j o r i t y o f t h i s work was c a r r i e d out  5  i n October-November, 1971, due t o a d e a d l i n e aiming a t completion  o f the p l a n by December 1, 1971, i n order  to have the p l a n working by January  1, 1972. T h i s had  been preceded by j o i n t committee work i n l a t e 1969 and e a r l y 1970 t o r e s o l v e c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l  difficulties  a f t e r which the way was paved f o r the two e v a l u a t i n g teams. of:  The j o i n t committee a t t h a t time was composed  1 5  I.W.A.  (1) L o m e F i n g a r s o n ( P a c i f i c Northwest) (2) Tony VanderHeide - E v a l u a t o r  I.F.L.R.A. (3) B i l l F i s h e r (Stevenson & K e l l o g g ) " (4) John Houston - E v a l u a t o r T h e i r work- i n v o l v e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f benchmark jobs and plants,  i n t e n s i v e study o f a sample p l a n , and t e s t i n g i n  s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n on a temporary 17 basis. By January implementing  1, 1972, some 45 sawmills were  job evaluation.  The j o i n t committee, w i t h  two e v a l u a t o r s from each s i d e , has made s e v e r a l r e f i n e ments s i n c e t h a t time. 1973,  I t i s expected  that by A p r i l ,  50 sawmills w i l l have e v a l u a t i o n o p e r a t i c - a l .  Maurice W a l l s , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , March 2, 1973. l ^ L o r n e F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , March 1, 1973. 1 7  Ibid.  On A p r i l 1, 1973  "the b u l k of the work-load begir_s  ar-zir.  18 w i t h a wholesale tionally,  re-examination  i n December 1972,  and  of the system." January 1973,  c a t e g o r i e s were r e v i s e d t o decrease  the  c i r c l e s and e s t a b l i s h a more a c c e p t a b l e S p e c i f i c a l l y , some f o r k l i f t o p e r a t o r s had  Addi-  certain  i n c i d e n c e o f red tolerance  level.  and heavy l o g - l o a d i n g equipment  t h e i r r a t e s r e v i s e d upwards to make them  c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h those  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and p u l p  and  paper indus t r i e s . Unfortunately,  the Northern  I n t e r i o r , which had  a study c l a u s e r e g a r d i n g job e v a l u a t i o n i n s e r t e d i n i t s 1969 was  c o n t r a c t , r e j e c t e d e v a l u a t i o n o u t r i g h t i n 1971. mutually d e c i d e d by the Northern  Association  (N.I.L.A.),  now  Lumbermen's A s s o c i a t i o n , and  It  I n t e r i o r Lumbermen's  c a l l e d the North  Cariboo  the l o c a l s of the I.W.A.  t h a t such a program would be too c o s t l y to a d m i n i s t e r . Both s i d e s f e a r e d t h a t the p l a n would t i e them to the Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n and lower h i s t o r i c a l wage p a t t e r n .  I t has been  i t s resultant estimated  t h a t i f e v a l u a t i o n had been i n t r o d u c e d , 35% red would have r e s u l t e d ( a g a i n s t 19% red c i r c l e s i U  March 1, March 1,  circles  i n the  South).  T o n y VanderHeide, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , 1973.  l^Maurice Walls, 1973.  I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r ,  1 9  The  I.W.A. submits t h a t maximum t o l e r a n c e i s normally  between 8-10%. ^ 2<  No e x p l a n a t i o n was g i v e n  t h i s statement, b u t I s u s p e c t u n i o n "hot a i r " .  t h a t i t was j u s t  typical  To my t h i n k i n g , the 19% r e d c i r c l e  i n the I n t e r i o r was n o t e x c e s s i v e . the purpose o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n  Indeed what would be  Closer inspection of  Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual i n the next two c h a p t e r s  continue  rate  i f r e v i s i o n o f wage r a t e s  d i d n ' t produce such d i s c r e p a n c i e s ? the  to substantiate  t o broaden the h i s t o r i c a l  perspective.  will  ((  CHAPTER IX  SOUTHERN INTERIOR SAWMILL JOB DEVELOPMENT OF THE  EVALUATION:  MANUAL  In an o r i g i n a l study o f the (see F i n g a r s o n ' s I n t e r i m R e p o r t ) , were suggested f o r i n c l u s i o n plan.  The  industry  a s e r i e s of f a c t o r s  i n a sawmill  evaluation  i n both c o n t e n t and weight from those  i n the plywood job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n , and those used by  negotiation,  the  the assistance i n d u s t r y and  deviated  Through d i f f i c u l t  and  persistent  o f the e v a l u a t i o n p e r s o n n e l from b o t h  the union, were a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h e a r l y i n  f a c t o r s and  t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t o be f o r the  w i t h those e s t a b l i s h e d by  the Sawmill Job  Committee i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f i n a l  titles  Evaluation  s e l e c t i o n of  approximates v e r y c l o s e l y t o the c r i t e r i a (see t a b l e ) .  included  interior.  A comparison o f the o r i g i n a l f a c t o r  1967  of  Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n Committee, w i t h  i n the s a w m i l l e v a l u a t i o n p l a n  in  found  from  F.I.R. i n t h e i r proposed e v a l u a t i o n  s a w m i l l s on t h e C o a s t .  the  1967  f a c t o r s proposed a t the time d i f f e r e d  significantly  1970  in  fa.rrc~  established  78  O r i g i n a l Factor 1.  Specialized  Titles Training  Agreed Upon F a c t o r  Titles  1.  Job  2.  On  3.  Manual  4.  Physical E f f o r t  5. P h y s i c a l E f f o r t  5.  Visual Effort  S. Recovery R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  6.  Judgment  7. P r o d u c t i o n R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  7  Lumber Recovery  8. Equipment R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  8.  P r o d u c t i o n Flow  9.  9.  Equipment  2. Job 3.  Training  Judgment  4. P h y s i c a l  Co-ordination  Supervision  10. Working  conditions  Knowledge the  Job  Experience  Skill  10.  Safety  of Others  (a) Weather  11.  Contacts With Others  (b) Noise  12.  P e r s o n a l Hazards  (c) Hazards  13.  Personal Discomforts  Source: L o m e F i n g a r s o n , "Interim Report on Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r L o c a l s of B.C.", August, 1970, p. 2. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n the the  factors  i s the  t i o n Flow, and  i n c l u s i o n o f Lumber Recovery, Produc-  Equipment, s i n c e these areas have been a  constant source of d i f f i c u l t y plan.  s e l e c t i o n of  i n the plywood  evaluation  2 1  In order to t e s t the v a l i d i t y o f the selected  i n a p p l i c a t i o n , and  Fingarson,  "Interim  to develop sample  Report," p.  2.  rectors gradirvgs  upon which t o base the subsequent w e i g h t i n g 83  of the  jobs were graded i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s .  same time as the g r a d i n g procedure was appropriate  (1) (2) (3)  carried  f a c t g a t h e r i n g procedures and  were d e v e l o p e d .  The  At  the  out,  documentation  p l a n t s s t u d i e d were: Nelson Grand Forks Kelowna  (4)  Kootenay F o r e s t Products Grand Forks Sawmills S.M. Simpson ( D i v i s i o n of Crown Zellerbach) Federated C o - o p e r a t i v e  (5)  Alexandra  McKenzie  Canoe  F o r e s t Products  In a d d i t i o n , b r i e f surveys were c a r r i e d Lake and  a t M e r r i l l Wagner i n W i l l i a m s F o r e s t Products  a t Houston.  Grand Forks  Sawmills.  of the  In the other p l a n t s sample  activities  proved t h a t , f o r the purposes  comparative c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n throughout  Southern I n t e r i o r , the b a s i s used t o d e v e l o p the c o s t estimates ' •Sawmilils) was  during  the 1970  negotiations  not t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  the number o f men  job e v a l u a t i o n was  expected t o i n c u r .  Forks  T h i s b£.si_= cay  T h i s c c s c was  i n c r e a s e d labour c o s t which  the  original  (Grand  per c a t e g o r y working on a one  as observed d u r i n g e v a l u a t i o n t o u r s . as the  jobs  sawmill.  Subsequent gradings of developing  permitted  f i v e p l a n t s , namely  were s e l e c t e d t o cover the e n t i r e range o f t h a t take p l a c e i n a  out  Bulkley Valley  L i m i t a t i o n of time  the complete study o f o n l y one  sented  plan,  was  shift repre-  implementing  This basis  was  chosen to determine the o v e r a l l e f f e c t s on p r o d u c t i v i t y  by  i n t r o d u c i n g the scheme.  I t was  expected t h a t rJhir  c o s t would be more than o f f s e t by p r o d u c t i v i t y g a i n s a l t h o u g h no s u p p o r t i n g  c a l c u l a t i o n s were made.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . Grand w i t h a t o t a l o f 60 men c o s t of 6.9C circles, 60 men,  i n a l l c a t e g o r i e s , produced a  per hour per man,  or a 6.7%  Forks,  and  a t o t a l o f f o u r red  red c i r c l e r a t e .  50, or 83.3% r e c e i v e d  Of  the t o t a l  i n c r e a s e s and  6  of  jobs  remained unchanged.  A summary o f the r e s u l t s f o r e a c h  u n i o n l o c a l by m i l l ,  and  a summary o f the r e s u l t s f o r  the e n t i r e Southern I n t e r i o r r e g i o n Hindsight  has  shown t h a t perhaps B a l c o  (Kamloops), w i t h a t o t a l o f 70 men a c o s t of 4.7C or a 31.4% choice  follows in t a b l e s .  per hour per man,  Forest  Products  in a l l categories,  and  a t o t a l of 22  circles  red c i r c l e r a t e would have been a b e t t e r  for developing  Of the t o t a l o f 70 men,  the comparative c o s t 46,  information.  or 55.7% r e c e i v e d  increases  22 and  two  jobs remained unchanged a t I t was  found, as a r e s u l t of these s t u d i e s ,  t h a t the s e l e c t i o n o f f a c t o r s was d e f i n i t i o n or g r a d i n g general  Balco.  appropriate,  s t r u c t u r e was  their  a p p l i c a b l e , and  scheme o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was  practical.  the The  22L Fingarson and John Houston, " r e p o r t on F i n a l Gradings i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n Program", December, 1971, p . 2. 0 r n e  81  SUMMARY OF GRADING RESULTS SAWMILL JOB E V A L U A T I O N SOUTHERN INTERIOR  Local  Total No. Men  Increases  %  No.  Red Circles  No Change  No.  No.  %  Average */Hr/Mai  Local 1-417 - Kamloops  613  367  59„9 143  23.3  103  16.8  4.3  Local 1-423 - Kelo\vna  591  440  74.5  71  12.0  80  13.5  5.4  Local 1-405 - Cranbrook  531  350  66.0 118  22.2  63  11.8  4.4  1735  1157  19.1  246  14.2  4.7  T O T A L SOUTHERN INTERIOR  f.C'TiCh':  L . A . i P i n ^ r r s o n - ?:  i n t h e B r i t i s h .':cl  Iivp»lv.p.tion l ' ; r o r r  66.7  Ho'.-.s • • on,  332  re n o r t. on 1 i n a l T  • }- p -p "p A r t. c rc i o r i ?. So" :  enc driver, "  Dec  ?-i  Grr.c i i  r * i 11 JJ-71.  82  SUMMARY OF GRADING RESULTS SAWMILL JOB EVALUATION LOCAL 1-417 -KAMLOOPS  Com. No.  Company  • Total No. Increases No. Men %  Red Ci rcles No. %  No Change No. %  Average £/Hr/Man  101  Balco Forest Products  70  46  65.7  22  31.4  2  2.9  4.7  102  Savona T i mber Co. (Evans)  47  12  25.6  13 ;27.7  22  46.7  2.3  103  B.C. Interior  67  36  53.7  5  7.5  26  38.8  4.6  104  Monte Lake Lumber (C.Z.)  47  40  85.2  2  4,3  5  10.5  7.2  105  K. P. Wood Products, Merritt  34  26  76.5  5  14.7  3  8.8  3.7  106  Clearwater Timber-Sawmill  32  17  53.2  15  46.8  -  -  2.5  107  Clearwater Timber- Planer  24  15  62.5  9I -37.5  -  -  3.2  108  Nicola Valley Sawmills Ltd.  <46  33  71.8  7  15.2  6  13.0  5.1  109  Clearwater Timber-Vavenby  45  30  66.7  15 .33.3  -  -  2.7  110  K. P. Wood P roducts, Avola  46  29  63.1  8  17.4  9  19.5  5.2  111  O'Neil Devine  20  8  40.0  7  35.0  5  25.0  2.5  112  Federated Cooperatives  62  35  56.5  23  37.1  4  6.4  4.3  113  Tappen Valley  30  21  70.0  2  6.7  T  23.3  5.7  115  Commercial Lumber Co. (Evans) 43  19  44.2  10  23.2  !•=  12. 6  2.2  613  367  59.9  143 22.3  103  16. £  4.3  TOTALS  i  j  SUMMARY OF GRADING R E S U L T S SAWMILL J O B E V A L U A T I O N LOCAL  1-42.3  - KELOWNA  1  Total No. Men  Cora. No.  Red Circles No.  Increases No. /0  No Chaage No.  Ave race $/Hr/Ms=.  201  Crown Zellerbach -Falkland  10  8  80.0  2  20.0  -  -  5.1  202  Crown Zellerbach-Armstrong  27  19  70.3  5  18.5  3  11.2  5.7  203  K. P. Wood Products, Lumby  38  34  89.5  1  2.6  3  7.9  7.2  204  Crown Zellerbach-Lumby  45  33  73.4  5  11.1  7  15.5  6.1  205  Riverside Forest Products  25  22  88.0  1  4.0  2  8.0  8.2  206  S & M Timber  4  4  100.0  -  -  207  Crown Zellerbach-Enderby  31  28  83.9  1  3.2  4  12.9  5.6  209  C.Z. - Kelowna Lumber  77  54  70.2  9  11.7  14  18.1  4.8  210  Northwood Properties Penmill  33  29  87.9  1  3.0  3  9.1  5*  Northwood Properties (OLD) Western Pines  40  31  77.5  6  15.0  3  7.5  5.0  212  Boundary Forest Products, G. F.  60  50  83.3  4  6.7  6  10.0  6.9  213  Boundary Forest Products Midway  65  35  53.8  23  35.4  7  10.8  4.7  2H5  Yellow Lake Sawmills Ltd.  12  10  83.3  -  -  2  16.7  6.7  1216  Northwood Properties (NEW) Western Pines  48  35  72.9  4  8.3  9  18.8  5.1  5J17  Greenwood Forest Products  22  11  50.0  3  13.6  8  36.4  6.9  218  Northwood Properties, O.K.Falls  54  39  72.3  6  11.1  9  16.6  4.9  591  440  74.5  71  12.0  80  13.5  5.4  211  7T7ALS  1 ~, o'-:-?.tnn . :  h^ni't.  i''pp. 1 Q 7 1  '  11.1  -  SUMMARY OF GRADING RESULTS SAWMILL JOB EVALUATION LOCAL 1-405 - CRANBROOK  Com. No.  Company  Total No. Men  Increases No. %  Red Circles No. %  No C hange No. %  Average  $A i r Alan  301  Triangle Pacific Forest Prods,  66  42  63.7  15  22.8  9  13.5  3.9  302  Glenmerry Sawmills Ltd.  27  20  74.2  3  11.1  4  14.7  6.6  303  Hearn  26  19  73.2  26.8  9.2  F.R. Rotter Lumber Co* Ltd.  25  24  96.0  -  7  304  -  1  4.0  10.2  305  Crow's Nest Industries Ltd.  55  32  58.2  22  40.0  1  1.8  2.6  306  Galloway Lumber Co. Ltd.  39  21  53.8  12  30.8  6  15.4  4.0  308  Kootenay Forest Products Ltd.  71  46  64.8  15  21.2  10  14.0  3.3  309  Revelstoke Sawmill (Radium) Ltd, 42  28  66.7  13  31.0  1  2.3  4.7  312  Crestbrook Forest Products Cranbrook  74  46  62.2  17  23.0  11  14,8  3.9  Crestbrook Forest Products Canal Flats  69  44  63.8  17  24.7  8  11.5  3.4  Crestbrook Forest Products Parsons  37  28  75.7  4  10.8  5  13.5  4.4  531  350  66.0  118  22.2  Sc  11.8  4.4  90  32  35.6  44  48.8  14  15.6 ,  1.5  313  314  TOTALS  311  Columbia Cellulose  weighting  o f the  f a c t o r s was  c a r r i e d out by  two  consul-  t a n t s ; the e f f e c t s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s to 83  jobs were reviewed i n d e t a i l w i t h  committee and  final  consultants.  F a c t o r s and  members of  the  adjustments were then made by t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s , and  a p p r o p r i a t e w e i g h t i n g s were approved i n f i n a l  the  the the  form by 23  the  Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n Committee i n June, I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d  1970.  out t h a t t h i s procedure  o f j o i n t development o f a job e v a l u a t i o n manual between i n d u s t r y and the f i e l d  a u n i o n i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e  o f wage a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  n o t e d t h a t the manual r e p r e s e n t s i n the d e s i g n  significance in  I t should  be  further  a dramatic s t e p  o f job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s , s i n c e the  forward structure  o f the s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s p e r m i t s c o n s i d e r a b l y more f l e x ibility  i n weighting  job evaluation  than t h a t a v a i l a b l e i n most other  plans.  In J u l y , 1970,  the  Sawmill Job  Committee undertook the d i f f i c u l t e s t a b l i s h i n g appropriate p o s a l by the  i n d u s t r y was  Evaluation  n e g o t i a t i o n task  job groups.  The  initial  a s t r u c t u r e o f 12  job g r o u p s .  A t o t a l o f 19 job groups was  pro-  job groups,  whereas the o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n o f the union members 25  of  was  eventually  approved by the committee, w i t h d i v i d i n g p o i n t s her«-eer. Fingarson,  "Interim Report," p.  3.  groups s e l e c t e d  t o permit g r e a t e r  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among  jobs at. the lower end o f t h e s c a l e than a t the upper end  of the s c a l e .  Since the m a j o r i t y  o f jobs f a l l a t  che  I~--er end o f the s c a l e , such a j o b group s t r u c t u r e  w i l l have the e f f e c t o f s p r e a d i n g the jobs f u r t h e r the wage s c a l e or h i g h e r above the base r a t e .  along  A  comparison o f the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f jobs above the base r a t e p r i o r t o e v a l u a t i o n , w i t h t h a t a f t e r evaluation  f o l l o w s on t h e next page. For purposes o f a n a l y s i s , jobs were grouped  by wages then b e i n g p a i d  (1970) i n groups which com-  pared d i r e c t l y w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d p o i n t o f the job groups. represent  structure  The wage f i g u r e s however, d i d n o t  agreed upon wage r a t e s  f o r the j o b groups  but were r a t h e r an a n a l y t i c a l g r o u p i n g t o demonstrate the  impact o f the e v a l u a t i o n procedure.  not  take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n  f o r each group. it  The t a b l e does  the a c t u a l wages  negotiated  I r r e s p e c t i v e o f these f i n a l wage r a t e s ,  i s apparent t h a t the v a l u a t i o n procedure 24  spread the jobs o u t above the base r a t e .  I b i d . , pp. 4-5.  significantly  Table  :  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 83 T e s t Study Jobs B e f o r e and A f t e r E v a l u a t i o n Before % in Group  Evaluation Cumulative %  1 .2%  1 .2%  14 .5%  15 .7%  9 .6%  9 .6%  Group 2 or $2.99-3.02  8.4%  24 .1%  9 .6%  19 .3%  Group 3 or $3.03-3.07  14 .5%  38 . 6%  9 .6%  28 .9%  Group 4 or $3.08-3.13  15 .7%  54 .2%  8 .4%  37 .4%  Group 5 or $3.14-3.19  7 .2%  61 .5%  9 .6%  47 .0%  Group 6 or $3.20-3.27  6 .0%  67 .5%  10 •  QO/ O/o  57 .8%  Group 7 or $3.28-3.35  12 .9%  79 .5%  16 .9%  74 .7%  Group 8 or $3 .36-3.43  7 .2%  86 .7%  4 .8%  79 .5%  Group 9 or $3.44-3.51  3 .6%  90.4%  3 .6%  84 .1%  Group 10 or $3.52-3.59  3 .6%  94 .0%  3 .6%  86 .8%  94 .0%  4 .8%  91 .6%  2 .4%  94 .0%  Job Group or E q u i v a l e n t Below Base Rate Base Rate o r Group 1  Group 11 or $3.60-3.68 Group 12 or $3.69-3.77  1 .2%  95 .2%  Group 13 o r $3 178-3.86  1 .2%  96 .4%  Group 14 or $3.87-3.95  -  96 .4%  After Evaluation % i n Cumulative Group %  -  1 .2%  -  Group 15 or $3.96-4.04  1 .2%  97 .6%  Group 16 or $4.05-4.13  - .  97 .6%  Group 17 or $4.14-4.22  -  97 .6%  2 —r-  - - s%  Group 18 or $4.23-4.31  1 .2%  98 .8%  Group 19 or $4.32-4.41  1 .2%  100 .0%  94 .0% 95 .2% 95 .2% 95 .2% ,6% 98 . -2% 100 .074  Source: L o m e F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r i m Report on Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r L o c a l s o f B.C., August, 1970, p . 5.  A s i m i l a r c h a r t was d e v e l o p e d f o r Grand F o r k s S a w m i l l s , t h e o n l y complete p l a n t s t u d i e d stages.  i n the i n i t i a l  The movement o f f i n a l wage r a t e s , as i s i n d i c a t e d  i n t h e t a b l e w h i c h f o l l o w s , i s more d r a m a t i c , and s i n c e t h i s d a t a r e p r e s e n t e d a complete p l a n t , i t was t h o u g h t t o be more i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l expected throughout the i n d u s t r y .  r e s u l t s t o be  Table  :  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 35 T e s t Study Jobs a t Grar.-. Forks Sawmills Before and A f t e r Evalua--o-_  Job Group or E q u i v a l e n t  Before E v a l u a t i o n % in Cumulative Group %  After Evaluation % i n Cumulative Group %  -  -  -  -  Group 1 or Base Rate  22.9%  22 .9%  11.4%  11 .4%  Group 2 or $2.99-3.02  11.4%  34 .3%  14.3%  25 .7%  Group 3 or $3.03-3.07  11.4%  45 .7%  5.7%  31 .4%  Group 4 or $3.08-3.13  5.7%  51.4%  14.3%  45 .7%  Group 5 or $3.14-3.19  25.7%  77 .2%  8.6%  54 .3%  Group 6 or $3.20-3.27  5.7%  82 .9%  17.1%  71 .5%  Group 7 or $3.28-3.35  5.7%  88 .6%  11.4%  82 .8%  Group 8 or $3 .36-3.43  2.9%  91 .4%  -  82 .8%  Group 9 or $3.44-3.51  2.9%  94 .3%  2.9%  85 .7%  Group 10 or $3.52-3.59  2.9%  97 .2%  5.7%  91 .4%  97 .2%  5.7%  97 .2%  Below Base Rate  Group 11 or $3.60-3.68 Group 12 or $3.69-3.77 Group 13 or $3.78-3.86 Group 14 or $3 .87-3.95 Group 15 o r $3.96-4.04 Group 16 or $4.05-4.13 Group 17 or $4.14-4.22 Source;  2.9%  97 .2% 97 .2% 100 .0%  2.9%  97 .2% 97 .2% 97 .2% 97 .2% 97 .2% i : o .0%  L o m e F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r i m Report on S a > — i l l J o b E v a l u a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r L o c a l s o f _ . C , August, 1970, p. 6.  CHAPTER X  SOUTHERN INTERIOR SAWMILL JOB EVALUATION: JOB FACTORS AND WAGE CURVE  The sawmill Industry  j o b e v a l u a t i o n p l a n f o r the B.C. I n t e r i o r  i n d u s t r y was developed j o i n t l y between the and t h e r e s p e c t i v e L o c a l Unions o f R e g i o n a l  C o u n c i l No. 1, I.W.A. and an  Administrative  The r e l a t e d Manual, Wage Curve,  Procedures were n e g o t i a t e d  t o form  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c o n t r a c t p r e s e n t l y i n e x i s t e n c e  between the P a r t i e s .  The p l a n i s t e c h n i c a l l y known as  a F a c t o r Comparison-Points System and as such i s administered  j o i n t l y by an equal number o f e v a l u a t o r s  r e s p e c t i v e l y b y the I n d u s t r y and by the U n i o n . o f the p l a n i s formed by a p e r s o n a l  employed The b a s i s  i n t e r v i e w w i t h an  incumbent which r e s u l t s i n a Job Study Record, completed and  r e c o n c i l e d j o i n t l y between the I n d u s t r y  Union f o r each c a t e g o r y o f the d e s i g n  covered b y the p l a n .  and the The purpose  and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p l a n  d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e p o i n t value  o f an i n d i v i d u a l gob  c a t e g o r y w i t h i n a B.C. I n t e r i o r sawmill comparison w i t h  other  i s to  o p e r a t i c - ir;  categories within that  specific  o p e r a t i o n and i n r e l a t i o n t o comparable c a t e g o r i e s  within  the B.C.  I n t e r i o r sawmill  determination  industry generally.  of these r e l a t i v e p o i n t values  j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the afore-mentioned  The i s the  Evaluators  25 and  i s based upon: (1)  "on s i t e " o b s e r v a t i o n o f c a t e g o r i e s f o r which completed and r e c o n c i l e d JOB STUDY RECORDS have been submitted,  (2)  a p p l i c a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e degree f o r each o f the f a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d i n the Manual. The  i n number  f a c t o r s contained  (as opposed t o e l e v e n  f o u r major groupings  as f o l l o w s  A. B. C.  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Responsibilities  D.  Job  i n the Manual are i n plywood) and  thirteen  fall  into  (the same as plywood):  Conditions  However, the r e l a t i v e w e i g h t i n g s  o f the Interior  sawmill  p l a n d e v i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those o f plywood: Plywood A. B. C. D.  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Responsibilities Job C o n d i t i o n s  Interior  34.3% 21.6 34.3 9.8 100.0%  20.1% 16.8 56.7 6.4 100.0%  By g r e a t l y i n c r e a s i n g the emphasis on R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f a c t o r s , s p e c i f i c a l l y on Lumber  Sawmill  the P^^v-zry  I n t e r i o r Sawmill I n d u s t r y Job E v a l - S - i o n Manual December, 1971, pp. 1-2. 2 5  2 6  Ibid.  and  Production  Flow, I b e l i e v e the  Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n has relations.  Recognition  opened new  doors i n i n d u s t r i a l  t h a t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  i n c r e a s i n g and/or m a i n t a i n i n g and  Southern I n t e r i o r  Recovery and/or Grade,  t h a t the degree o f i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d by  f u n c t i o n over i n t e r r e l a t e d job f u n c t i o n s were factors,  the  job  important  i n d i c a t e d t o management t h a t Job E v a l u a t i o n i s  a worthwhile t e c h n i q u e . production-related  2 7  P r o v i s i o n t o i n c l u d e such  f a c t o r s has  t o make Job  Evaluation  more t o l e r a b l e t o management. On the other hand, de-emphasis o f the Knowledge and  S k i l l f a c t o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Education,  E v a l u a t i o n more a c c e p t a b l e cantly,  t o the U n i o n .  makes Job Most s i g n i f i -  i t i n d i c a t e s t o the w r i t e r t h a t there  room f o r compromise and schemes.  co-operation  I w h o l e h e a r t e d l y support  on b o t h s i d e s , and  i n Job  i s some  Evaluation  this s h i f t  in  s t r o n g l y recommend t h a t the proposed  Coast Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n program be r e w r i t t e n revised  and  i n c o r p o r a t i n g s i m i l a r changes. In i l l u s t r a t i n g  for  philosophy  the groups and  f a c t o r s chosen  the I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n , I have c o n t r a s t e d 28  them t o the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n :  Nov.  ^ 'Lome F i n g a r s o n , 18, 1972.  Interview with  the W r i t e r ,  P l y w o o d I n d u s t r y of B.C. Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual, Amended August, 1971. I n t e r i o r Sawmill I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Manuel, December, 1971. 23  A.  Knowledge and S k i l l f a c t o r s which i n d i c _ _ - t a requirement f o r s p e c i f i c knowledge and s k i l l . o n the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l who fills the j o b . Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  I n t e r i o r Sawmill Evaluation  1. 2. 3. 4.  1. Job Knowledge 2. On-the-Job Experience 3. Manual S k i l l  Education Experience Complexity of D u t i e s Manual D e x t e r i t y  I believe  the I n t e r i o r f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t  an  improvement over the Plywood scheme because they are i n number, are more s p e c i f i c , and categories B.  of  "Education" and  eliminate  the  fewer  general  "Experience".  E f f o r t f a c t o r s which take i n t o account the demands o f the job i n p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n and i n judgment as w e l l as v i s u a l e f f o r t . I n t e r i o r Sawmill Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Evaluation 5. P h y s i c a l Demand 6. Mental and V i s u a l Demand  4. P h y s i c a l E f f o r t 5. V i s u a l E f f o r t 6. Judgment  R e t e n t i o n of P h y s i c a l Demand as a f a c t o r was sound d e c i s i o n improvement was  f o r I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n .  processes.  Marked  forthcoming by d i v i d i n g Mental and  Demand i n t o V i s u a l E f f o r t and  Judgment, two  a  Visual  disti-rt  C.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The f a c t o r s i n t h i s group a p p r a i s e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which a r e i n h e r e n t i n the performance o f the j o b . I n t e r i o r Sawmill Evaluation  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  7. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 7. Lumber Recovery Supervision 8. P r o d u c t i o n Flow 8. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 9. Equipment the S a f e t y o f (a) Mobile Others (b) S t a t i o n a r y 9. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r (c) A u x i l i a r y M a t e r i a l s , E q u i p - 10. S a f e t y o f o t h e r s ment, and Products 11. Contacts (a) e x t e r n a l (b) It  internal  i s i n the area o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t the  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n P l a n made the g r e a t e s t improvement over i t s p r e d e c e s s o r .  The c a t e g o r y  s p e c i f i c , r e l a t e s more d i r e c t l y t o p r o d u c t i o n , f o r e , t o d o l l a r s and cents r e l a t i v e l y heavier  i s more (and t h e r e -  f o r management) and, i s weighted  (56.7% versus  34.3%).  Two c r i t i c i s m s ;  I b e l i e v e S a f e t y should be a p a r t o f JOB CONDITIONS r a t h e r than R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the f a c t o r "Contacts" D.  i s vague.  Job C o n d i t i o n s . These f a c t o r s appraise the c o n d i t i o n s o f the job from the worker's p o i n t o f view. The a n a l y s i s i s i n terms o f the d i s a g r e e a b l e a s p e c t s o f the j o b . Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  I n t e r i o r Sawmill Evaluation  10. Hazards 11. Working C o n d i t i o n s  12. P e r s o n a l Hararos 13. P e r s o n a l I o=ccnforr-s  Again,  I t h i n k Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n i s more s p e c i f i c  Secondly, I agree t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y lower weighting  {6.4%  v e r s u s 9.8%)  i n d i c a t e s more p r e p a r a t i o n was  p l a n n i n g the newer Job E v a l u a t i o n program. d e s c r i b e s the I n t e r i o r Sawmill Manual and  Appendix I I I  I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n  i t p r e s e n t s the j o b f a c t o r s  more d e t a i l  involve.-: ir.  in considerably  f o r the d i s c e r n i n g r e a d e r .  The wage curve  f o r I n t e r i o r Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  f o l l o w s c l o s e l y the format e s t a b l i s h e d by Plywood. ever,  i t does have l a r g e r , more f r e q u e n t  How-  increments.  The d i f f e r e n t i a l s between s u c c e s s i v e p o i n t grades are f o u r c e n t s from grade one two  f i v e c e n t s from  grade  t o f o u r , s i x c e n t s from grade f o u r t o t e n , e i g h t c e n t s  from grade t e n t o twelve, f o u r t e e n , twelve and  t o two,  t e n c e n t s from grade twelve  cents from grade f o u r t e e n t o  f o u r t e e n cents  from grade seventeen  (see Point-Grade-Rate  T h i s p l a n was  seventeen,  to n i n e t e e n  Chart and accompanying  differential  i n c r e a s e d w i t h the t o t a l number  o f p o i n t s i n order t h a t g r e a t e r s k i l l i n c r e a s e d money v a l u e r e l a t i v e t h e time, n e i t h e r s i d e was  2 9  graph).  i n e f f e c t a percentage  program, as the increments  to  jobs s h o u l d have  to low-level jobs.  w i l l i n g t o move t o the  centage i n c r e a s e and break t r a d i t i o n w i t h the negotiated, across-the-board,  At per-  historically  e q u a l money i n c r e a s e s .  R e c e n t l y however, the C e l g a r p l a n t i n C a s t l e c - r n e g o t i a t e d  2 9 _ t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n Program: P o i n t Grade -Rate-Chart, December, 1 9 7 1 . n  INTERIOR SAWMILL  I N D U S T R Y J O B E V A L U A T I O N ??.  7,-GP.AM  POINT - G R A D E - R A T E - CHART POINTS °-  " 150  3  P l u s $0.09  1  " 200  4  P l u s $ 0 . 14  1  " 250  5  1  1  5  1  3 1  B a s e Rate  1  1  5  1  P l u s $0.04  1  2  80  RATE  2  8  0  GRADE  - HO  '  2  '  - 1° 3  1  "  7  0  3  0  3  '  P  l  u  s  $0.20  6  P l u s $0.26  7  P l u s $0.32  8  P l u s $0.38  3  7  i  "  4  3  i  -490  9  P l u s $0.44  " 550  10  P l u s $0.50  - 620  11  " 690  12  P l u s $0.66  - 760  13  P l u s $0.76  - 830  14  p  l  u  s  331 - 900  15  p  l  u  s  901.- 970  16  91  4  5  5  6  6  2  i  ^1  7  9  1  6  7  1  1  4  "  1  m  0  4  1  0  4  1  -  1  1  1  1  " i l  0  0  17 18  8  0  19  p  l  u  s  $ . 58 0  £  Q t 8  6  ci zz m  Pr-sSi.10 "  'p;  u 5  $1.22  P l u s $1.36 P l u s $1.50  a percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l wage curve which may plans  (average 2.25\-. ,•--  have s e t a precedent f o r f u t u r e Job  Evaluation  to follow. Since Plywood E v a l u a t i o n no l o n g e r has  operate  ' i n i s o l a t i o n w i t h i n the  to  l a r g e r framework o f  B.C.'s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , i t becomes l e s s important  that  the p o l i c y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s between groups s h o u l d be e s s e n t i a l l y the same as t h a t which governs d i f f e r e n t i a l s between jobs of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and  sawmilling  (on the c o a s t ) .  I t i s my  i n logging  personal  t h a t i n the long run, the percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e are more e q u i t a b l e and more d e f e n s i b l e .  I f the Union c o n t i n u e s  belief' and  certainly  t o push f o r i t ,  p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l w i l l very l i k e l y be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the B.C.  Coast Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  The and  Plan.  3 1  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the p o i n t range  increments e s t a b l i s h e d from the most r e c e n t c o n t r a c t  negotiations:  M a u r i c e Walls (Plywood E v a l u a t o r , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , March 2, 1973. J U  March 1,  •^Ldrne F i n g a r s o n , 1973.  IM~..-«.),  Interview v/ith the W r i t e r ,  POINT RANGE INCREMENTS The p o i n t range and increments f o r the 20 groups a r e as f o l l o w s : Wage Group 1 2 3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 10 1!) 20  Source :  Points Range 0-60 61-80 81-110 111-150 151-200 201-250 251-310 311-370 371-430 431-490 491-550 551-620 621-690 691-760 761-830 831-900 901-970 971-1040 1041-1110 1111-1180  Increment as a percentage o f base r a t e 1.00 1.14 1.28 1.42 1.56 1.70 1.83 1.97 2.11 2.25 2.39 2.53 2.67 2.81 2.95 3.08 3.22 3.50 3.50  Resulting J u l y 1/72 .04 .05 .05 .06 .06 .07 .07 .08 .09 .09 .10 .10 .11 .11 .12 .13 .13 .14 .14  .John liouston, I.F.L.R.A., J u l y , 1972.  Increment J u l y 1/73  Resulting Rates J u l y 1/72 J u l y 1/73  .04 .05 .06 .06 .07 .08 .08 .09 .09 .10 .11 .11 .12 .13 .13 .14 .14 .15 .15  Base r a t e Base r a t e 4.125 4.49 4.175 4.54 4.60 4.225 4.285 4.66 4.345 4.73 4.415 4.81 4.485 4.89 4.565 4.98 5.07 4.655 4. 745 5.17 4.845 5.28 4.945 5 .39 5.51 5.055 5.165 5.64 5.285 5. 77 5.415 5.91 5.545 6.05 5.685 6.20 6.35 5.825  CHAPTER XI  SOUTHERN INTERIOR SAWMILL JOB  EVALUATION:  ANALYSIS  At t h i s stage the  full  of Job E v a l u a t i o n to the sawmill i n the I n t e r i o r i s not apparent.  impact o f the a p p l i c a t i o n s e c t i o n o f the  industry  By A p r i l 1, 1973,  some  50 p l a n t s s h o u l d be o p e r a t i n g under the p l a n , b u t the p l a n i s completely n o t be a p p a r e n t .  i n s t a l l e d a l l the b e n e f i t s w i l l  Beginning on A p r i l 1 s t , the  s a l e r e - e v a l u a t i o n and  r e v i s i o n b e g i n s t o see  f a c t o r , degrees, groups, e t c . r e q u i r e a major In January, 1973, Evaluators  f i r s t wholei f any  I.F.L.R.A.  r e s o l v e d the nagging problem o f mobile  provided  equip-  to 310.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced the red c i r c l e r a t e f o r the Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n , and  the  job  overhaul.  I.W.A. E v a l u a t o r s and  ment by i n c r e a s i n g the p o i n t s t o t a l from 240  Interior  until  This  overall  first  real  t e s t o f management-union c o l l a b o r a t i o n over e v a l u a t i o n . I b e l i e v e the r e - e v a l u a t i o n w i l l prove s u c c e s s f u l because it  reduced the r e d c i r c l e r a t e making the p l a n -ore  toler-  a b l e t o the union; i t s a t i s f i e d management's d e s i r e to see expensive heavy equipment b e i n g satisfied,  s k i l l e d operators;  and  operated  by more  i t recompensed an  area  which was  o b v i o u s l y undervalued  Another b e n e f i t may  accrue  i n the i n i t i a l e v a l u a t i o n .  i n the E a s t Kootenay area,  where a problem has a r i s e n through  the h i g h e r  paying  c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y ' s p r a c t i s e , "siphoning o f f " f o r e s t 32 i n d u s t r y heavy equipment o p e r a t o r s . At t h i s stage,  i t i s evident that several s i g n i f  c a n t advantages w i l l accrue tion.  As  indicated  t o the union from Job  i n the t a b l e s i n Chapter  IX  Evalua-  (Distribu-  t i o n o f T e s t Study J o b s ) , the p l a n w i l l d i s t r i b u t e  the  jobs f u r t h e r along the wage s c a l e than a t p r e s e n t .  "This  r e s u l t can o n l y be e f f e c t i v e l y produced w i t h a t o o l  such  as job e v a l u a t i o n , and  the b e s t e f f o r t s o f r a t e r e v i s i o n 33  w i l l n o t d u p l i c a t e the e f f e c t . " p r e c e d i n g statement  definitively  I must c o n c u r .  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t Job  E v a l u a t i o n i s worthwhile as a technique management r e l a t i o n s .  The  i n union-  I cannot t h i n k of another  single  method which c o u l d encompass such a l a r g e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , or such a l a r g e (7,000 people) force.  "Job E v a l u a t i o n may  developed one I "  not be the b e s t  thus f a r but I d e f y you  3 4  and d i v e r s e work  to show me  technique a better  For example, d e t a i l e d work measurement combined 3 2  March 2,  T o n y VanderHeide, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the 'writer. 1973.  L o r n e F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r i m Report c- Sawmill Jz'z E v a l u a t i o n i n the I n t e r i o r L o c a l s of B.C., August, 197 0 , p. 7. V 3 3  34  1973.  Wyman T r i n e e r , I n t e r v i e w with, the W r i t e r ,  Feb.  w i t h method s t u d y  t o s e t up "work s y n t h e t i c s " may i r .  f a c t be b e t t e r b u t i s very expensive and d i s r u p t i v e i n the s h o r t r u n . A major f a c t o r which c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y t o the p l a n ' s s u c c e s s weighting  r e v o l v e d around i t s d e s i g n and the  o f the f a c t o r s .  Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n  g i v e n t o t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between jobs i n other areas  than t h e i n t e r i o r as c o a s t wage p a t t e r n s were taken  i n t o account. long standing  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s broader base, many i n e q u i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t have  p e r s i s t e d over the y e a r s , d e s p i t e the a c t i v e and d e d i c a t e d e f f o r t s o f l o c a l union p e r s o n n e l  and I.F.L.R.A.  n e g o t i a t o r s , w i l l be i n the main, c o r r e c t e d .  Notable  examples were t h e movement o f the wage l e v e l s o f c a r r i e r d r i v e r s and f o r k l i f t  operators, graders,  and planermen  who have h i s t o r i c a l l y r e c e i v e d r e l a t i v e l y lower pay i n the  i n t e r i o r than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s  on t h e c o a s t .  In  a d d i t i o n , w i t h the e x i s t i n g job s t r u c t u r e , a negotiated wage curve w i l l produce s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s f o r many jobs.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , green c h a i n p u l l e r s , who have always  r e c e i v e d base r a t e , r e c e i v e d an i n c r e a s e due t o b e i n g re-evaluated As  i n Group 2. f a r as a t t i t u d e s towards Job E v a l _ _ o i c n  are concerned, I b e l i e v e i t i s s a f e t o say t h a t the employers and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n , The I . F . L . ,  regard  job e v a l u a t i o n e i t h e r f a v o u r a b l y o r more or l e s s ferently.  While i t cannot be s a i d t h a t employers g e n e r a l l y  are s t r o n g l y i n favour appears t o be method.  little  o f job e v a l u a t i o n , t h e r e a l s o  o p p o s i t i o n by employers t o  They are w i l l i n g to pay  d i f f e r e n t on the t r a d e u n i o n s i d e . t o be any  entirely  There does not  appear  s i n g l e or o v e r - a l l union a t t i t u d e or p o l i c y  towards job e v a l u a t i o n .  However, i t i s not  t h a t among the u n i o n i s t s t h e r e  f a i r to say  i s a g r e a t d e a l more i n the  o f frank o p p o s i t i o n t o the method than among the  employers.  In c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s trade unions have  s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d the method as such. t o a manual p r i n t e d by Machinists  I.  States  (forerunner  Job E v a l u a t i o n p l a n s )  three serious  Thus,  according  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f  i n the U n i t e d  Forest Industry had  the  f o r "peace a t a p r i c e " .  S t r a n g e l y enough, the p o s i t i o n i s not  way  indif-  restrictions:  3 6  t o the  . Job  B.C.  Evaluation  3 7  B a s i c a l l y , j o b e v a l u a t i o n tends t o l i m i t c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. This r e f l e c t s i t s e l f i n the f o l l o w i n g ways: (1) I t tends t o f r e e z e the wage s t r u c t u r e and thereby c r e a t e s an o b s t a c l e t o the  Feb. Nov.  3 5  J o h n Houston, I n t e r v i e w w i t h 1973.  3 6  L o r n e Fingarson, 1972.  23, 18,  the  Interview with  Writer. the  Writer,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a c h i n i s t s (Research Department), What's Wrong With Job E v a l u a t i o n . Washington, D.C., 1954, pp. 3-5. 3  104  c o r r e c t i o n of i n e q u i t i e s . I t restri.r-r= the r i g h t of n e g o t i a t i n g on a r a t e c f pay f o r each job year a f t e r y e a r . I t usually l i m i t s negotiations to bargaining f o r a f i x e d amount or f i x e d percentage f o r a l l jobs, or e s t a b l i s h i n g r a t e s o f pay through some "predetermined formula" t h a t u s u a l l y does not r e s u l t i n e q u i t a b l e treatment f o r a l l . (2)  I t f a i l s t o c o n s i d e r a l l f o r c e s which determine wages, such as s u p p l y and demand, other c o n t r a c t or a r e a r a t e s , e t c .  (3) I t tends t o c r e a t e a b a r r i e r between the employee and h i s understanding of h i s own job r a t e , because h i s r a t e i s s e t i n a manner not understood by him. (4) I t tends t o d i s r e g a r d the a b i l i t y o f the individual. (5) I t p l a c e s a c e i l i n g upon wages which i s c o n t r a r y to a t r a d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e o f organ i zed l a b o u r . (6) I t d i s r e g a r d s compensation f o r l o y a l t y , i . e . years of s e r v i c e , e t c . (7) I t tends t o d i l u t e t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s , c r e a t i n g many new occupations and many new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and thereby r e d u c i n g wages. (8)  I t a f f e c t s the s e n i o r i t y o f employees by the c r e a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  (9)  I t makes the promotion o f employees i n t o h i g h e r - p a y i n g jobs c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t because o f the l i m i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f job d e s c r i p t i o n s .  (10) I t p r o v i d e s the company w i t h a t o o l t o downgrade employees d u r i n g times o f r o . t b a c . K £ . To comment, b r i e f l y , of  I believe ther the  these concepts are outmoded and outdated.  The  majoricy two  s i d e s had the f o r e s i g h t to take these o b j e c t i o n s i n t o  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a c c o r d i n g l y , i n the p l a n .  incorporated  solu_i.cr_s  For i n s t a n c e , a c l a u s e p r o v i d i n g f o r  p e r i o d i c r e - e v a l u a t i o n was i n s e r t e d i n t h e c o n t r a c t t o prevent  f r e e z i n g o f the wage s t r u c t u r e .  been h i s t o r i c a l l y c o g n i z a n t  The I.W.A. has  t h a t supply and demand  i n the  f o r e s t p r o d u c t s s e c t o r determines wage i n c r e a s e s t o a large extent.  The Southern I n t e r i o r E v a l u a t i o n was  p r e c e d e d by a number o f seminars t o a c q u a i n t i n d i v i d u a l employees w i t h e v a l u a t i o n and what i t meant t o them as individuals.  The p l a n r e c o g n i z e s  s e n i o r i t y and the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t i e s through Knowledge and factors.  Skill  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p l a n t o encompass r e t e n t i o n  o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s these s k i l l s  l i t t l e d i l u t i o n of  and y e t some new occupations  t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d . II.  provided  and c l a s s i f i c a -  No job went down i n wage r a t e .  Job E v a l u a t i o n p r e s e n t s a t h r e a t t o the s t a b i l i t y o f the Union o r g a n i z a t i o n because o f the f o l l o w i n g (1) I t n e c e s s i t a t e s the c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n o f additional trained representatives, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the c o s t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the L o c a l , the R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l , and u l t i m a t e l y , Union Headquarters. (2) I t p r o v i d e s management w i t h a t o o l t o p l a y one group o f employees a g a i n s t _r_other, (3) I t c r e a t e s d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the l o c a l s where a l l f i r m s do n o t have job e v a l u a t i o n . I t tends t o hamper the e f f o r t s o f the L o c a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g uniform area r a t e s .  3 8  Ibid.  (4) I t tends t o p l a c e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the union f o r i n e q u i t i e s t h a t are not p r o p e r l y c o r r e c t e d s i n c e the union accepted the job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n and must, t h e r e f o r e , share i n i t s s h o r t comings. (5) I t compels the c o n t i n u i n g and almost impossible task o f e d u c a t i n g job s t u d y committees and shop stewards i n the many r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f the job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n in effect. (6) I t encourages management of d i f f e r e n t p l a n t s t o work t o g e t h e r and p r o v i d e s them w i t h a b a s i c method to a c h i e v e j o i n t l y d e s i r e d r e s u l t s i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f wages; i t s t r e n g t h e n s management's o p p o s i t i o n to the wage demands o f the union. To comment, job e v a l u a t i o n a t no time ever s e n t e d a t h r e a t t o the s t a b i l i t y of the union Management and  pre-  organization.  union p a r t i c i p a t e d e q u a l l y i n a s i t u a t i o n  where t r u s t p r e v a i l e d , a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t  i t can  in  labour-management r e l a t i o n s .  Each s i d e r e a l i z e d , accepted,  and was  equip f u l l - t i m e Evaluators  p r e p a r e d t o t r a i n and  t o oversee implementation and Therefore,  the c o s t was  o u t l i n e d above. plan?  not  administration  " a d d i t i o n a l " i n the  Management was  goals As  and  f a r as d i s s e n s i o n and  to c a r r y  out  i n e q u i t i e s are  con-  the body, through the f a r - a i c h r e d r i e s s  of Wyman T r i n e e r , t h a t prompted the merits  sense  o b j e c t i v e s o f management.  cerned, the u n i o n was  evaluation's  plan.  d i r e c t l y i n a c t i v e i n the  the I.F.L.R.A. h i r e d t r a i n e d e x p e r t s  pre-stated  o f the  and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of j c r  pushed t o have i t adopted.  The  problem o f e d u c a t i o n i s an arduous one, respect this  and  but by no means i m p o s s i b l e .  to strengthening  is a fallacy,  f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h the g.la.r.  and  With  management r e s i s t a n c e , I t h i n k  perhaps " d e f i n e s " i s a b e t t e r word  t o use because the union can d e f i n e the range and  limits  which management i s l o o k i n g a t , and  thereby spend  their  time i n b a r g a i n i n g  negotiations.  on more f r u i t f u l  I I I . The e f f e c t s o f job e v a l u a t i o n upon the g e n e r a l w e l f a r e of our s o c i e t y are d e t r i m e n t a l : 3 9  (1) I t a f f e c t s the supply o f s k i l l e d workers by tending t o d i s c o u r a g e b o n a - f i d e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s and, t h e r e f o r e , reduces the r e s e r v o i r o f o v e r - a l l s k i l l e d workers so t h a t i n the event of a f u t u r e c r i s i s a s e r i o u s shortage o f s k i l l e d manpower would result. (2) Job e v a l u a t i o n does not promote harmony.  industrial  (3) The method i s not r e a l l y s c i e n t i f i c as i t does not f u l l y account f o r a l l the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s which determine e q u i t a b l e wages. (4) I t i s so complex t h a t i t i s l a r g e l y incomprehensible t o the workers and d i s t u r b s labour-management r e l a t i o n s . (5) I t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y adaptable t o the dynamic elements of our economy as they a f f e c t the p r o c e s s o f wage d e t e r m i n a t i o n because i t seeks to s u b s t i t u t e would-be t e c h n i c a l standards f o r market f o r c e s as reflected in c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. I d i s a g r e e w i t h some of these statements which are  a t b e s t r e p e t i t i v e and  3 9  Ibid.  c o n t r a d i c t o r y anyway.  Job  e v a l u a t i o n i s o n l y s c i e n t i f i c t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t i s objective.  Before  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f job e v a l u a t i o n  i t was p o s s i b l e , and even customary, t o f i x wages f o r p a r t i c u l a r workers o r jobs subjective fashion.  i n an a r b i t r a r y , h i g h l y  The J o i n t E v a l u a t i o n Committee now  ensures permanent p a r t i c i p a t i o n by workers' t i v e s on an e q u a l b a s i s w i t h  representa-  those o f i n d u s t r y .  While  day-to-day n e g o t i a t i o n s and compromise are not harmonious, s o c i e t y can b e n e f i t through long-term i n d u s t r i a l harmony which job e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e s .  I do not b e l i e v e j o b  e v a l u a t i o n seeks t o r e p l a c e the elements o f the market p l a c e , r a t h e r i t attempts t o p r o v i d e through w h i c h market f o r c e s can be e v a l u a t e d sequently,  competitive  some focus and,  sub-  through which wages can be i n c r e a s e d . C e r t a i n other problems had t o be overcome t o  implement Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n . p r i m a r y t a s k o f I.W.A. l e a d e r s i s t o safeguard the w e l l being  o f t h e i r membership.  The  and promote  Secondly, t h e l e a d e r s  are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the growth o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n they represent;  t h i s may be a f f e c t e d by a v a r i e t y o f f o r c e s ,  i n c l u d i n g a c t i o n b y employers, r i v a l as  i s the c a s e w i t h  the I.W.A., c o n f l i c t i n g  i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the u n i o n i t s e l f factionalism) .  t r a d e unions, o r , sectircel  (generally c a l l e d  T h i s f a c t o r i n f l u e n c e s the union  s h i p , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s  leader-  i n the  important f i e l d o f wage n e g o t i a t i o n s and thereby c c r - c r r i b r t s s t o the s h a p i n g o f i t s a t t i t u d e towards job e v a l u a t i o n . The  s t a t e d o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t j o b e v a l u a t i o n by c e r t a i n  union p e r s o n n e l and  do not h o l d water when j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  Evaluation.  a r e two major f e a t u r e s o f I n t e r i o r  Indeed, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o see how, i n cases  where s u c h machinery e x i s t s and operates e f f e c t i v e l y , j o b e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d ever be a p p l i e d as a means o f u n i l a t e r a l wage-fixing  by the employer.  However, t h i s does n o t p r e c l u d e  the f a c t t h a t  job e v a l u a t i o n r a i s e d c e r t a i n problems f o r the I.W.A. Apart  from the sheer n o v e l t y , complexity,  ability and  and u n p r e d i c t -  o f i t s r e s u l t s , the e x i s t i n g wage s t r u c t u r e changed  the membership r e a c t e d t o the changes.  A problem has  a r i s e n , as i t d i d i n Plywood E v a l u a t i o n , w i t h t h e members h i p ' s l a c k o f understanding why t h e i r are with  representatives  f o l l o w i n g an e n t i r e l y new, slower method o f d e a l i n g t h e i r u r g e n t and l e g i t i m a t e wage c l a i m s .  However,  the l o g i s t i c s o f t h i s problem have been l a r g e l y c l e a r e d up by h a v i n g L o c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Management a t t h e p l a n t l e v e l draw up and r e v i s e the tedious Forms, thereby l e a v i n g t h e E v a l u a t o r s rate r e v i s i o n .  Job D e s c r i p t i o n  free t o wcrs. r c  T h i s has been accomplished by p l a c i n g  i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on job e v a l u a t i o n but  technicians  n o t a t the expense o f the I.W.A. union l e a d e r s .  Formal acceptance of e v a l u a t i o n r u l e s r e l a t i v e wages has manoeuvrability  tended t o r e s t r i c t the scope f o r  in negotiations—but  e q u a l l y f o r both s i d e s . towards m e c h a n i z a t i o n and t h i s has j o b s and,  i t has done so  In view o f the g e n e r a l automation i n I n t e r i o r  i n some cases, has The  E v a l u a t i o n Committee n e a t l y s i d e -  f a c t o r s , i . e . , Recovery and  dollars  Production  In a d d i t i o n , i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y has enabled union  sawmills,  led to a reduction i n s k i l l  s t e p p e d the problem by p l a c i n g the emphasis on cents  trend  l e d t o reduced importance o f p h y s i c a l e f f o r t i n  requirements.  and  governing  Flow. the  t o n e g o t i a t e h i g h e r g e n e r a l wage i n c r e a s e s . A number o f a t t r a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n s have  t o make I.W.A. p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n job e v a l u a t i o n  helped  favourable:  (1)  The union i s r e l a t i v e l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , or even entrenched i n B.C., and f e e l s reasonably s e c u r e .  (2)  The l e a d e r s of the union are now i n a p o s i t i o n to commit themselves as the r i s k y , o r g a n i z i n g phase of the scheme i s over.  (3)  The l e a d e r s h i p ' s a u t h o r i t y among the membership i s not s e r i o u s l y d i s p u t e d .  (4)  The scheme has been s i m p l i f i e d as much as reasonably p o s s i b l e .  (5)  Implementation was  a joint  undertaking.  ^ I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n , Geneva, I960, pp. 109-111.  ^ob svaluarion.  (6)  Job d e s c r i p t i o n and job r a t i n g a j o i n t undertaking.  (7)  The process o f j o b e v a l u a t i o n ceases w i t h job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f wage r a t e s remains a separate s u b j e c t o f c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  (8)  The system has been designed and operated t o a l l o w a degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n h a n d l i n g a l a r g e number o f s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be taken i n t o account. The  remain  f a c t t h a t the method has been u s e f u l as a  d e v i c e f o r wage adjustment  i s l a r g e l y because i t attempts  to base wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e n o t p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l , b u t have, i n some degree a t l e a s t , an ethical basis.  Job E v a l u a t i o n has sought t o g i v e p r a c t i c a l  e x p r e s s i o n t o two p r i n c i p l e s o f f a i r n e s s t h a t a r e s o w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t they cannot be regarded as "mere s u b j e c t i v e a s s e r t i o n s " i n s p i r e d by group i n t e r e s t s , namely: e q u a l pay f o r e q u a l work, and d i f f e r e n t i a l reward i n accordance  with d i s c e r n i b l e differences  i n the s a c r i f i c e s  t h a t the performance o f p r o d u c t i v e work r e q u i r e s i n terms of  e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n , and the -  endurance o f adverse c o n d i t i o n s . ^ 4  What remains o f course  i s c o s t — t h e amount i n  d o l l a r s and c e n t s t o implement and a d m i n i s t e r Jch V a l u a tion  i n Southern  I n t e r i o r sawmills.  Management  indicated,  i n 1967 and a g a i n i n 1969, t h a t 6.9 cents p e r -.an per hear was the c o s t which i t s E v a l u a t o r s should s t r i v e t o ' a c h i e v e . , 4 1 i b i d . , p . 112. 4  2Houston, I n t e r v i e w *  In f a c t , t h e y brought i n a f i g u r e o f 4.7 cents (as indicated  i n Chapter IX) and a r e d c i r c l e  R e c a l l that these figures represent  r a t e o f 19.1%.  implementation c o s t  o n l y e x p r e s s e d i n terms which management can u t i l i z e i n comparing i n c r e a s e d c o s t s t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . From my e x p e r i e n c e , these f i g u r e s do n o t mean as much t o e i t h e r u n i o n o r management as they might indicate.  When the need f o r a method o f wage  determination  became p r e s s i n g enough, then i t was b i l a t e r a l l y agreed t o study j o b e v a l u a t i o n ,  and the p l a n was u t l i m a t e l y adopted.  They had no i d e a o f the a c t u a l c o s t s  involved.  Investiga-  t i o n and implementation o f the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n scheme has  c o s t about $70,000 i n the p e r i o d  1955-1959.  43  How-  e v e r , the p a r t i e s t o the scheme r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was l e s s than a q u a r t e r  o f the s i z e ,  p r o p o s e d Sawmill  i n work f o r c e numbers, o f the  Evaluation.  Presumably, management bears the m a j o r i t y o f implementation c o s t s , a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r s i d e would p u b l i c l y admit t h a t , b u t t h e union remains concerned because any e v a l u a t i o n scheme can be scrapped i f c o s t s become itive.  prohib-  In a d d i t i o n , the c o s t l i e r the implementation, the  c o s t l i e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . stake i n seeing  Therefore  t h a t Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n  c o s t s remained t o l e r a b l e .  Fingarson,  Interview.  the  I.W.JL.  had a  imple-satatir-  Costs o f i n s t a l l a t i o n  i n the  Sawmill  e v e n t u a l l y r a n c l o s e t o $250,000 w i t h 75% of the b i l l .  scce/ce  industry footing  T h i s f i g u r e i n c l u d e d $150,000 d u r i n g  the developmental phase, approximately 75% o f which wasted on p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , poor p l a n n i n g , Administration  c o s t s are expected t o run  etc.  was  4 4  i n the a r e a  of  $20,000-$25,000 y e a r l y , on a s t r i c t c o s t s h a r i n g  basis  w i t h each s i d e p a y i n g  materials,  and  travel.  t h e i r own  wages, s a l a r i e s ,  I t has been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t Coast Sawmill  Evaluation w i l l  c o s t i n excess of $500,000.  I reiterate,  e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be undertaken when b a r g a i n i n g becomes too burdensome and any  longer.  i n t o l e r a b l e f o r the p a r t i e s t o  Therefore,  f a c t o r , w i l l not be said,  "these men  level  appears t o be w i l l be  the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  i s n ' t being  i s reached and  achieving nothing,  negotiated  settlement,  c o s t , which i s a primary  and  I t has  been  gored."  4 5  simple,  However, when direct  bargaining  e i t h e r job e v a l u a t i o n  undertaken as the b a s i s f o r agreed  o r , as o c c u r r e d  i n the  b a r g a i n i n g w i l l break o f f and r e s u l t , as has  tolerance  o f good f a i t h w i l l n e g o t i a t e s e r i o u s l y  as l o n g as t h e i r ox that crisis  continue  1972  Coast n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  third party  intervention w i l l  so o f t e n been the case i n the r e c e n t  past  (1966; 1970).  4 4  Ibid. C l i v e McKee, I n t e r v i e w w i t h  1973 .  the W r i t e r ,  March 1,  This b r i n g s the e x i s t i n g o f B.C.'s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y the Coast,  up t o date; now we can t u r n t o  Sawmilling and Logging,  f u t u r e holds i n s t o r e .  "state-of-the-art"  t o determine  what the  CHAPTER XII  B.C.  COAST SAWMILL AND  LOGGING JOB EVALUATION:  HISTORY  Having  looked a t Job E v a l u a t i o n i n Plywood and  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmills, a l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i o n i s t o determine  i f Job E v a l u a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the  Coast lumber i n d u s t r y . on the Coast  The sheer s i z e o f the  B.C.  industry  (28,000 workers versus 7,000 i n Southern  I n t e r i o r ) p r e s e n t s a huge stumbling b l o c k , b u t  certain  o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t o the w r i t e r t h a t  Job  E v a l u a t i o n would, indeed, b e n e f i t B.C.'s C o a s t a l o p e r a tions. One t h e B.C.  f e a t u r e stands out above a l l o t h e r s i n  Coast lumber i n d u s t r y , namely, the  inordinately  h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t compared t o other industry  i n the p r o v i n c e .  One would e x p e c t t h a t  after  a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y of b a r g a i n i n g on a r e g i o n a l union-employer  r e l a t i o n s would by t h i s time be  "n-.t-jre".  In f a c t , however, such r e l a t i o n s are a n y t h i n g b__ s t a b l e , o r harmonious.  1  scale,  -__ure,  The d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e numbers c.f  •••Stuart Jamieson, "Multi-Employer B a r g a i n i n g : The Case o f B.C. Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y , " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s . V o l . 26, No. 1, January, 1371, pp. 149-150.  s t r i k e p a r t i c i p a n t s and days l o s t i n the i n d u s t r y were t o be accounted f o r mainly by a few l a r g e i n t e r e s t ( p o l i t i c a l ) disputes  t h a t were s u b j e c t t o l e g a l l y  r e q u i r e d c o n c i l i a t i o n procedures i n the n e g o t i a t i o n o f new  agreements.  2  In the 1960's, however,  the i n c r e a s i n g  i n c i d e n c e o f w i l d c a t s t r i k e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the l o g g i n g sector,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t union and management were l o s i n g  c o n t r o l of the bargaining Preliminary 1960's, even b e f o r e  process.  s t u d i e s were begun i n the e a r l y  Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u -  a t i o n was contemplated, r e s u l t i n g i n p u b l i c a t i o n o f a •a  t e n t a t i v e manual  i n February, 1966.  T h i s manual c l o s e l y  resembled t h a t o f Plywood E v a l u a t i o n , encompassing major groupings and t e n f a c t o r s . Sawmilling and L o g g i n g . assigned  The p l a n  four  encompassed  A t o t a l o f 600 p o i n t s were  (as opposed to Plywood and Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmills where approximately o n e - h a l f  t h a t number were  used) i n the b e l i e f t h a t the many f e a t u r e s , more or l e s s s p e c i a l t o the i n d u s t r y , c o u l d be b e t t e r and r e c o g n i z e d 2  incorporated  by the p l a n .  I b i d . , p . 150.  J o b E v a l u a t i o n Manual f o r Hourly P a i d Jobs i n the Sawmill and Logging Industry o f the B.C. "case, February 1966. 3  The  initial  p l a n was t o o broad as i t ar_e_rpze_  t o r e s o l v e many o f the sources o f c o n f l i c t p e c u l i a r t o the Coast s e c t o r o f the i n d u s t r y , incidence  including a high  o f s t r i k e s due t o such f a c t o r s a s : ^  (1)  the large proportion workers employed;  of transient single  (2)  the g e o g r a p h i c and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f workers l i v i n g i n o n e - i n d u s t r y towns or s p e c i a l d i s t r i c t s i n c i t i e s where t h e y had l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h other o c c u p a t i o n a l groups o r classes;.  (3)  the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s family l i f e ;  (4)  and any other s p e c i a l h a r d s h i p s o r l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h work i n such industries.  for a stable  A concensus o f sentiment h o s t i l e t o employers ( p a r t i c u l a r l y where there were absentee owners) dates back t o the t r a d i t i o n o f m i l i t a n c y and r a d i c a l i d e o l o g i e s o f the I n d u s t r i a l : . . _ Woodworkers o f the.World Therefore,  no j o b e v a l u a t i o n  (I.W.W.).  scheme c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l  approaching the B.C. Coast lumber i n d u s t r y , which was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a tremendous d i v e r s i t y i n jobs,  loca-  tions, conditions,  general  d i r e c t i o n as t h i s  and s c a l e , from a v e r y broad, initial  p l a n had attempted.  A s c i e n t i f i c approach t o such matters as ~zb d e s c r i p t i o n s , negotiated and  r a t e s o f pay, union  j u r i s d i c t i o n , and the a p p r o p r i a t e  Jamieson,  "Bargaining,"  areas  structure for c o l l e c t i r  pp. 150-152.  b a r g a i n i n g was was  drawn up  required.  3  i n A p r i l , 1969  Consequently, a second manual , s t i l l encompassing  p o i n t s but d r a s t i c a l l y a l t e r i n g  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  values among the f o u r major groups and c o n s i d e r i n g s a w m i l l i n g o n l y . t o c o n s i d e r the s p e c i a l  nature  (see Chapter The  new  600 of XIII)  manual attempted  o f the Coast  lumber  industry. "Logging and lumbering o p e r a t i o n s v a r y i n s i z e from l a r g e camps employing hundreds of men, to s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s employing only a handful. In the former case. T h e r e i s a h i g h degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r , w i t h dozens o f job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , each paying a d i f f e r e n t wage a c c o r d i n g to degree of s k i l l , e t c . , w h i l e i n the s m a l l e r o p e r a t i o n s e v e r y worker has t o be a s o r t of "jack of a l l t r a d e s " . D i s c r e p a n c i e s are f r e q u e n t i n such s i t u a t i o n s , and g i v e r i s e t o d i s p u t e s and w i l d c a t s t r i k e s . " ' Where there f o r m e r l y e x i s t e d a g r e a t between Coast and  Interior  r a p i d l y being closed.  operations,  differed  i n t e r i o r r e g i o n s of the P r o v i n c e  climatic  and  5  Ibid.,  pp.  and those  i n many r e s p e c t s :  o f l o g g i n g , s i z e and  species  s c a l e of  saw-  152-153.  J o b E v a l u a t i o n Manual f o r Hourly Paid Jobs i ~ Sawmill I n d u s t r y of the B.C. Coast, A p r i l , 1959. 6  the  from  t o p o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , s i z e and  o f t r e e s , techniques  was  In p r e v i o u s years l o g g i n g  lumber o p e r a t i o n s on the Coast had i n the  the gap  division  7  Jamieson,  " B a r g a i n i n g , " p.  153.  m i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s , markets, and types o f labour  errtloy-f.  By the l a t e 1960's a growing s i m i l a r i t y had developed i n the lumber i n d u s t r y i n these d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , r e s u l t i n g from; improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , growing c o m p e t i t i o n i n some o f the same markets, a d o p t i o n o f s i m i l a r techniques  and equipment t h a t favoured  l a r g e s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s , and a p r o v i n c i a l government  forest  p o l i c y t h a t encouraged c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e hands o f l a r g e i n t e g r a t e d concerns. "This growing s i m i l a r i t y and c o m p e t i t i o n were manifested i n a p r o t r a c t e d s t r i k e of l o g g i n g and s a w m i l l i n g workers i n Southern I n t e r i o r o f B.C. i n 1967, i n which the c e n t r a l i s s u e was the demand f o r wage p a r i t y w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f the C o a s t . " 9  In the o p i n i o n o f t h i s w r i t e r , t h a t s t r i k e d i d more than any o t h e r s i n g l e event job  t o p r o v i d e an impetus f o r  e v a l u a t i o n i n a l l s e c t o r s o f B.C.'s lumber i n d u s t r y .  The demand f o r wage p a r i t y  i n the I n t e r i o r , which would  have i n v o l v e d s i g n i f i c a n t wage i n c r e a s e s $1 per h o u r ) , was o b v i o u s l y unreasonable  (approximately from management's  p o i n t o f view, however, i t d i d serve t o s t r e s s the need for  a technique  such as job e v a l u a t i o n t o p u t wag-  ation in perspective. began i n s t a l l a t i o n  S h o r t l y afterwards,  determin-  the I r . - e r i o r  of t h e i r p l a n i n e a r n e s t a r c the Coast  s t a r t e d t o take the i s s u e much more s e r i o u s l y . i<  >  8ibid. 9  L o r n e Fingarson, Interview with 21, 1973. 1 0  Feb.  lbid. the W r i t e r ,  The need f o r job e v a l u a t i o n on the Coast enhanced by the t r e n d towards growing l a r g e concerns  integration  _~ into  i n both the Coast and I n t e r i o r  sectors.  There are p r e v a i l i n g trends i n technology and  markets,  coupled w i t h p r o v i n c i a l government f o r e s t management l i c e n s e p o l i c y , which encourage l a r g e concerns c o n t r o l over an In a d d i t i o n ,  i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s .  they a r e u s i n g an i n c r e a s i n g share o f t h e i r  l o g g i n g output f o r products other than lumber and paper,  to acquire  rayon, hardboard,  (e.g., p u l p  and o t h e r f i b r e s ) .  Close  i n t e g r a t i o n becomes a t t r a c t i v e when wood c h i p s and s l a b s from sawmills a r e used  i n the manufacture o f such p r o d u c t s .  T h i s t r e n d tends t o generate  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems  l e a d i n g t o p r e s s u r e f o r c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n between the I.W.A. and the unions o f p u l p and paper  workers.  1 1  However, w h i l e the employers c o n t i n u e t o i n t e g r a t e , they have e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h o s t i l i t y towards s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s on the p a r t o f the u n i o n s .  I t seems  l i k e l y t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n the i n t e r e s t s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e , the unions w i l l t o f i g h t f o r job e v a l u a t i o n on the B.C. o f union combinations,  Jamieson,  continue  Coast i n - l a c e  i n t e g r a t i o n , or c o m p e t i t i o n .  " B a r g a i n i n g , " pp. 153-152.  Job e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e much t o =±iev-= a s t a b l e and r a t i o n a l c l i m a t e  forcollective  bargaining  because o f t h e b a s i c i n s t a b i l i t y o f B.C.'s lumber The  lumber i n d u s t r y , l i k e c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  severe seasonal fluctuations Ironically,  industry.  i s subject to  and o f t e n unforeseen and e r r a t i c  cyclical  i n s a l e s , p r i c e s , output, and employment. these f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the lumber  are a r e s u l t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n many i n s t a n c e s .  industry fluctuations i n  Lumber a l s o f a c e s  dictable c l i m a t i c conditions f o r extended p e r i o d s .  industry  the hazards o f unpre-  t h a t can shut down  operations  There are t o o the u n c e r t a i n t i e s of  f o r e i g n markets, and a l l i e d changes i n import quotas, exchange r a t e s , e t c . , which have a major impact on an i n d u s t r y that exports three-quarters h i g h l y competitive  markets.  Finally,  o f i t s output t o there has been a  r a p i d r a t e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n b o t h major branches of t h e i n d u s t r y r e s u l t i n g i n l a r g e - s c a l e d i s p l a c e m e n t o f labour.  These sources o f u n c e r t a i n t y  p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r labour  and i n s e c u r i t y ,  make i t imperative  to develop  a s t r u c t u r e which would produce a more r a t i o n a l and stable climate  f o r c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  i s t r a t i o n o f agreements d e s i r e d . tailor-made  l 2  f o r t h i s purpose.  Ibid.,  p. 154.  and the admin-  Job e v a l u a t i o n vs  H i s t o r i c a l l y , Coast lumber, bargaining  and  i n collect:.--—  i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , has  a narrow " o r b i t of c o e r c i v e c o m p a r i s o n " , l i n k e d t o two  pulp and  paper.  250 an hour over f o r e s t r y and  province,  Average weighted  wage r a t e s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n have i n c r e a s e d sawmilling  within  inseparably  13  other major i n d u s t r i e s i n the  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  above today.  operated  hourly  from approximately i n 1949,  to  $1.00  S i m i l a r l y , labour r a t e s i n Coast lumber  compare unfavourably  w i t h r a t e s i n the p u l p and  paper  industry. "While the former group s u f f e r s job i n s e c u r i t y , f r e q u e n t l a y o f f s , and d e c l i n i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the long run, the l a t t e r have g e n e r a l l y enjoyed s t a b l e , year-round o p e r a t i o n s , and a r a p i d and almost continuous i n c r e a s e i n employment, w i t h f a v o u r a b l e p r o s p e c t s f o r the f u t u r e . Average h o u r l y r a t e s i n pulp and paper have a l s o remained somewhat h i g h e r , and have r i s e n a t about the same r a t e as i n l o g g i n g i n s a w m i l l i n g over the p a s t two decades. Where lumber and c o n s t r u c t i o n have been " s t r i k e prone", p u l p and paper has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t r i k e f r e e . The b a r g a i n i n g p o l i c y has been t o w a i t u n t i l n e g o t i a t i o n s i n Coast lumber have been s e t t l e d , w i t h or w i t h o u t a s t r i k e , then to s e t t l e f o r roughly the same p e r centage i n c r e a s e s . "I4  I t would appear t h a t job e v a l u a t i o n , which takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n extraneous i n f l u e n c e s , i n d u s t r i e s , j c r  categories.  A.M. Ross and P. Kartmann, Changinc Patterns I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t , New York, I960: c i t e d cn Jamieson, pp. 154-155. 13  14  Jamieson,  "Bargaining,"  pp.  157-158.  e t c . , c o u l d do much t o remove the stigma o f lumber workers s e r v i n g as " s t a l k i n g h o r s e s "  1 5  f o r p u l p and  paper workers, and a t the same time avoid c o s t l y s t r i k e s i n the lumber i n d u s t r y  itself.  Most union and management s p o k e s m e n  15  appear  to agree t h a t one o f the major problems o f c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  i n B.C.  Coast lumber l i e s  i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s o f the I.W.A.: "The u n i o n i s too d e m o c r a t i c i n s t r u c t u r e and procedures t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a multi-employer b a r g a i n i n g system, i n an i n d u s t r y t h a t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y centralized i n i t s operations." ' 1  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I.W.A. guarantees a  h i g h degree o f autonomy among i t s R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l s . t u r n , there  i s a h i g h degree o f autonomy among B.C.'s  major L o c a l s Executive.  (9 on the Coast) i n r e l a t i o n t o the  District  T h i s autonomy i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a v a r i e t y IP  of f a c t o r s : (1)  t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the I.W.A.  (2)  government p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g c e r t i f i c a t i o n and decision-making by union l o c a l s  (3)  t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the  1 5  I b i d . , p . 158.  1 5  Field  1  7  industry  notes and i n t e r v i e w s  Jamieson, " B a r g a i n i n g , " 1 8  In  Ibid.,  p. 159.  (unnamec>.  p . 158.  (4)  the d i v i s i o n o f labour which t h e s t r u c t u r e has c r e a t e d  (5)  the s p e c i a l t r a d i t i o n s , i d e o l o g i e s , and a t t i t u d e s o f v a r i o u s major occupat i o n a l groups i n the i n d u s t r y ' s l a b o u r force. In p a r t i c u l a r ,  o f a r a d i c a l democratic 1-171 and  t h e r e has been a long  tradition  i d e o l o g y among the Loggers L o c a l  (with some 6,000 members between the U.S. b o r d e r t h e A r c t i c C i r c l e ) , together w i t h s u s p i c i o n o f c e n t r a l  a u t h o r i t y s i n c e sawmill workers have tended t o dominate the t o p e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s . was expressed  A t one time t h i s a t t i t u d e  as a matter o f p r i d e i n t h e i r c r a f t as  primary workers, and was g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n the form o f contempt f o r i n s i d e , p r o c e s s i n g w o r k e r s . The Coast  l a r g e s t l o c a l o f t h e I.W.A. on the B.C.  i s 1-217, comprised mainly  Vancouver.  1 9  Traditionally,  o f sawmill workers i n  the top e x e c u t i v e s  from t h i s  s t r o n g l o c a l have been even more r a d i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n i d e o l o g y and p o l i c y , e x p r e s s i n g s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n t o the D i s t r i c t E x e c u t i v e and running  as o p p o s i t i o n  candidates  i n e l e c t i o n s f o r D i s t r i c t Executive p o s i t i o n s . I n b r i e f , the I.W.A. i n B.C. i s made up o f a few  l a r g e l o c a l unions w i t h s t r o n g and outspoken l e a d e r s ,  and  a number o f s m a l l e r , more complaint  1 9  Ibid.  ones.  Thia  structure  i n i t s e l f tends t o generate intense  "facii——  20 alism"  and s t r u g g l e s  the D i s t r i c t l e v e l .  f o r power t o c o n t r o l p o l i c y a t  The " i n t e r n e c i n e " c o n f l i c t s o f the  I.W.A. a r e such t h a t the union cannot f u n c t i o n w i t h  full  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f industry-wide c o l l e c t i v e bargaining.  I n the  face o f grow-  i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n from the employer s i d e , as d e s c r i b e d  earlier,  the union remains d i v i d e d , 21  decentral-  i z e d , and d i s o r g a n i z e d . Job e v a l u a t i o n extension  i s a l o g i c a l method, as a n a t u r a l  o f e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e agreements, f o r the I.W.A.  to function with increased  effectiveness in negotiating  h i g h e r wages f o r the membership. t o the Job E v a l u a t i o n the top e x e c u t i v e s  Evaluators,  J o i n t Committee, w i l l serve  from some o f the e n d l e s s  a r g u i n g which now surrounds n e g o t i a t i o n s . the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  f u n c t i o n , the E v a l u a t o r s  evidence on which c o n c r e t e ,  I.W.A.  ate e x c e s s i v e o f the $1.00  to free  b i c k e r i n g and By assuming will  provide  f a i r , and r e a s o n a b l y c a l c u l a t e d  wage demands can be formulated o f the  reporting  by the E x e c u t i v e  Committee  Perhaps then i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n l o s t time spent on r i d i c u l o u s wage demands  t o $2.00 per hour v a r i e t y , such as w__r= made  Fingarson,  Interview.  Jamieson, " B a r g a i n i n g , "  pp.  160-161.  i n the summer o f 1972,  i n s t e a d upon the  and c o n c e n t r a t e  25<r t o 50£ range where f i n a l s e t t l e m e n t i s more l i k e l y t o be a t t a i n e d . Some o f the most e n l i g h t e n e d , p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s of B.C.  are top e x e c u t i v e s i n the B.C.  lumber i n d u s t r y .  On the other hand, B.C.  Coast  lumber e x e c u t i v e s  a l s o i n c l u d e among t h e i r ranks, some o f the most a r r o g a n t and  r e a c t i o n a r y employers t h a t c o u l d be  found anywhere.  A l o n g t r a d i t i o n of e x p l o i t a t i o n of labour and has  resources  c e r t a i n l y l e f t a r e s i d u e o f s e n i o r management p e r s o n n e l ,  particularly union  i n the l a r g e r f i r m s , who  in philosophy.  2 2  The  are e s s e n t i a l l y  anti-  i n d u s t r y presents a u n i t e d  f r o n t , however, w i t h M a c M i l l a n  and B l o e d e l " p u l l i n g  the  23 strings".  As a r e s u l t , F.I.R. has v e r y l i m i t e d  autonomy and  c o n t r o l over  functioning  the p o l i c i e s o f i t s members,  i n s t e a d as a "mouthpiece"^  e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a b a r g a i n i n g agent. (F.I.R.) were i t s e l f  their  was  2 2  I b i d . , p.  2 3  Field  2 4  I f the a s s o c i a t i o n  In f a c t ,  job e v a l u a t i o n  i n February  1972,  drawn up by F.I.R. i n the hope t h a t 162.  notes and  i n t e r v i e w s (unnamed•.  lb id.  I n d u s t r y Proposal f o r Coast t i o n Manual, February 3, 1972. 2 5  limited  implemented as i t would make  job c o n s i d e r a b l y e a s i e r .  a t h i r d manual  which has  l a y i n g down p o l i c y ,  would almost c e r t a i n l y be  real  Sawmill  Job  Evalua-  acceptance of job e v a l u a t i o n i n B.C. getting closer.  One  the summer o f 1972 was  Coast s a w m i l l s V E S  o f the most u n f o r t u n a t e  n e g o t i a t i o n s was  " j u s t t h a t c l o s e " t o being  events i n  t h a t job e v a l u a t i o n  implemented b e f o r e  bargainor  i n g broke o f f and  i n d u s t r y went out on s t r i k e .  ^Tony VanderKeide and Maurice W a l l s . the W r i t e r , March 2, 1973. 2  with  the  °  interview  CHAPTER X I I I  B.C.  COAST SAWMILLING AND LOGGING JOB EVALUATION: FACTORS AND WAGE CURVES  When J u s t i c e Nemetz was c a l l e d Coast f o r e s t r y d i s p u t e  i n 1966,  i n t o s e t t l e the  he recommended t h a t j o b  e v a l u a t i o n be implemented i n s a w m i l l i n g i t had proved s u c c e s s f u l f o r the Plywood  and l o g g i n g  since  industry.  Consequently, F.I.R. and the I.W.A. drew up separate u n i l a t e r a l proposals  t o suggest ways and means o f imple-  menting e v a l u a t i o n .  The c h a r t s , t a b l e s , and graphs which  f o l l o w are based on the F.I.R. p l a n s ; the I.W.A. would not d i s c l o s e t h e i r proposals.  However, i t appeared t h a t  b o t h s i d e s f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y the format used i n the  Ply-  27 wood E v a l u a t i o n Manual. F.I.R. drew up nine p r o p o s a l s E v a l u a t i o n alone settlement  i n the p e r i o d  1966-67.  f o r Logging A t t h a t time,  c o u l d not be reached w i t h the I.W.A. on any  s i n g l e p l a n and Logging E v a l u a t i o n has " f l a g g e d "  miserably  28 ever s i n c e . F i e l d notes and i n t e r v i e w s . ^ K e i t h Bennett, I n t e r v i e w w i t h December 6, 1972. 2  the  Writer,  I t appears t o be unanimously agreed that, -ree v a l u a t i o n i s n o t s u i t a b l e i n the B.C.  Coast Logging  29 industry.  The  nature  o f the  i n d u s t r y c r e a t e s major  o b s t a c l e s t o the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  conformity  which  job e v a l u a t u i o n attempts to impose: huge g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , many non  union  camps, numerous independent  "gypo  o p e r a t o r s " , d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n s i z e of o p e r a t i o n s , nature  o f the  industry, e t c .  There i s some evidence  t h a t F.I.R. d i d the  g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the p r e l i m i n a r y work and I.W.A. p r o b a b l y  that  the  never took Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n  s e r i o u s l y r i g h t from the b e g i n n i n g . and  isolated  The  enclosed  too graphs  t a b l e s i l l u s t r a t e the thoroughness w i t h which F.I.R.  pursued the s u b j e c t i n the years  1966-1967.  The job f a c t o r s used f o r Sawmilling Job E v a l u a t i o n were i d e n t i c a l and  and  Logging  s e l e c t e d i n terms o f  the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the range o f jobs t o be evaluated.  The  f a c t o r s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study were  t e n i n number and groups and 2 y  fell  i n t o f o u r major g r o u p i n g s . 30 f a c t o r s were as f o l l o w s :  The  F r a n k Paul, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , K a r c r  12,  1973. F . I . R . , Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual f o r H r c r l y Paid Jobs i n the Sawmill and Logging Industry of the B.C. Coast February, 1966. 3 0  130  A.  Knowledge and S k i l l : f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e d a requirement f o r s p e c i f i c knowledge and s k i l l on the p a r t o f the i n d i v i d u a l . (1) E x p e r i e n c e (11.67%) (2) E d u c a t i o n ( 6.67%) (3) Manual S k i l l (11.67%)  B.  E f f o r t : f a c t o r s which took i n t o account the demands o f the j o b i n mental and p h y s i c a l effort. (4) M e n t a l E f f o r t (13.33%) (5) P h y s i c a l E f f o r t ( 6.67%)  C.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : f a c t o r s i n t h i s group covered the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which were i n h e r e n t i n the performance o f the j o b . (6) R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r M a t e r i a l , Equipment, and Product (19.67%) (7) S a f e t y o f Others ( 8.33%) (8) S u p e r v i s i o n o f Others (10.00%)  D.  Working C o n d i t i o n s : f a c t o r s which a l l o w e d f o r the adverse e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n which the j o b i s performed. (9) Hazards (6.00%) (10) Working C o n d i t i o n s (6.00%) T h i s manual was never a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e I.W.A.  because, base.  I reiterate,  i t t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h t o o broad a  S a w m i l l i n g and l o g g i n g a r e d i f f e r e n t b u s i n e s s e s  a l t h o u g h they a r e i n t h e same i n d u s t r y group.  The manual  31 was r e v i s e d s l i g h t l y  i n 1969  b u t no major changes were  made w i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t Logging Job E v a l u a t i o n was dropped  altogether.  F . I . R . , Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual f o r H o c r l v ;-'=id i n the Sawmill I n d u s t r y on the B . C . C o 2 s _ . J^pri 1 , 31  Jobs  TABLE  :  F.I .R.L . LOGGING JOB EVALUATION PLAN WEIGHTINGS  PLAN I  WEIGHTING Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Responsibility Conditions  35.0 21.7 30.0 13.3  % % % %  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Re spons i b i 1 i t y Conditions  30.0 20.0 38.0 12.0  % % % %  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Re spons i b i l i t y Cond i t i o n s  33.6 20.8 32.8 12.8  % % % %  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Responsibility Conditions  32.3 20.0 35.4 12.3  % % % %  Knowledge and S k i l l Effort Responsibility Conditions  36.1 20.0 31.5 12.4  % % % %  PLAN I I  PLAN I I I  PLAN IV  PLAN V  Source: K e i t h Bennett (F.I.R.), Proposed Job E v a l u a t i o n P o i n t R a t i n g System For the B . C . Cos so Logging I n d u s t r y , February, 1966.  TABLE  :  F.I.R.L. LOGGING JOB EVALUATION EFFECTS ON PRESENT (1967) RATES  PLAN (Points)  Number o f Jobs Up  (%)  IA (600)  12  IB (600)  24  IIA (600)  19  IIB (600)  26  IIIA (625)  19  IIIB (625)  26  IVA (650)  27  VA (650)  27  VC (65 0)  •i '.i  \  n u ,  ^' lL f  Number o f Jobs Down  (31.6) (63.2) (50.0) (68.4) (50.0) (68.4)  23 12 16 10 16 10  (60.5) (31.6) (42.1) (26.3) (42.1) (26.3)  (71.0)  (23.7)  (71.0)  (23.7)  (76.3)  (18.4)  K e i t h Bennett  Number o f Jobs Remaining Same (%) 3  TOTAL  (100%)  38 (7.9) 38  2 (5.2)  38  3 (7.9)  38  2 (5.3) 3 (7.9) 2 (5.3) 2 (5.3) 2 (5.3) 2 (5.3)  38 38 38 38 38  (F.I.R.), Proposed Job E v a l u a t i o n P o i n t Rating System For The B.C. Coast Logging I n d u s t r y , February, 1966.  T r> T  T7  -  Tr^pT".".  _-\.--'J-J - _  TOA i 7 ALU AT 10-1 1  • / _jjr-i 1 - 1 . - J  •  .  "'  .  I  i  !  PLAiT (Points)  EFFORT  ' IG;0vi___G_ L SKILL  1  % of  T O _ 3.1 liar. - _1  Ed.  R3370S3I3ILITY  % of Physical To__l :•!__' i  CCLDIi'IO-o 3uo, _0__1  , —  _  !  Adv.r^T^ai i  (500) (600)  |  j  1  A ( £ 0 0 ) "j |  3  |  (600)  30  60  70  35  90  40  21.7  70  50  60  30  40 ".  — J  30  50  70  35  90  40  21,7  70  50  60  30  40  40  40  ;J .  30  . 30  40  20,0  113  50  50  33  35.  35  70  30  30'  40  20,0  113-  50  60  33  35  35  70  33.6  90  40  20.3  95  50  60  32.3  40  -r J  70  |  70  1 40 J  A (625)) 3  |  (625)j  ^  A (650) ] T £ A (650) C  (650)  | j" " 5  30  ' 50  j  13.3  j  12,0  |  12.0 |  j  i |  1  12.0  |  30  50  70  33.6.  90  40  20.3  95  50  60  32.3  40  40  12.3  j  30  60  70  32.3  90  40  20.0  120  50  60  35.4  '40  40  12.3  30  60  95  35.1  90  40  20.0  95  50  60  31.5  40  40  12.4  30 '  50  95  36.1  90  40  20 = 0  95  50  60  31.5  40  40  12,4  i  j  j It 'I  !i  \ ij  JOB W A G E  E V A L U A T I O N  S T R U C T U R E  F O R  P I L O T P R O J E C T C O A S T L O G G I N G  B . C .  June  I N DIM 15,  T? Y  is--"  Point  _D_  C_  A  B  61  2.76  2.76  2.76  2 .76  62- 71  2.81  2. 82  2. 82  2 .81  72- 81  2.  2.88  2. 88  2 .86  : 4  82- 91  2.91  2.94  2. 94  2 .91  5  92-101  2. 96  3. 00  3. 00  2 .96  6  102-111  3. 01  3. 06  3. 06  3 . 01  7  112-121  3. 06  3. 12  3. 12  3 . 06  8  122-131  3. 11  3. 18  3. 18  3 . 11  9  132-141  3. 16  3. 24  3. 24  3 . 16  10  142-151  3.21  3. 30  3. 30  3 . 21  11  152-161  3. 27  3. 36  3. 38  3,. 27  12  162-171  3. 33  3. 42  3.46  3,. 33  13  172-181  3.  39  3. 48  3. 55  3,. 39  14  182-191  3.45  3. 54  3. 64  3..45  15  192-201  3.51  3.60  3.73  3.. 51  16  202-211  3. 57  3.66  3. 82  3.. 57  17  212-221  3. 63  3.72  3. 92  3. 65  18  222-231  3. 69  3.78  4. 02  3. 73  19  232-241  3.75  3. 84  4. 12  3. 81  20  242-251  3.81  3. 90  4. 22  3. 89  21  252-261  3. 87  3. 96  4. 33  3. 97  22  262-271  3.93  4. 02  4. 44  4. 05  23  272-281  3.99  4. 08  4.  4. 13  282-291  4.  05  4. 14  292-301  4.  2D  302-311  4.  17  27  312-321  4.  23  28  322-331  29  332-341  Grade  1  3 .  '• 2  5  R a n ere 0-  So  ZZ  4_ 21  4.73  4. 29  4. 26  4. 90  4. 37  4. 32  5. 02  4.  45  4. 29  4. 38  5. 15  4.  53  4. 35  4.  5. 28  4 . 61  11  4.  20  44  135 _I-..L_, J_L J_L_  :  ....  -  7.  s  _  - --  - w '><<  i  3b V  I  -  if  .0fl c i  <• fv.  T  JOT  :C  F F 1 -<  I  c  r  L  _ . . J J . .  V  1  •V>  LC a  Pi I*-  ..LJI.  IV It 5 t  ?J V  >  .... .J..L i —  ; i! Z  -  :;:fLt  !_ V"  ,  I ' l l  -  - - - - --  ..!_.  ••-!i  --  --  _  -  --  ... -  - -  -  —  -  -- - -- - -  ...  - --  1  -  -  0  - ---  -  -- - -  -  -  -- -  -  -  K  -  -  -  —  _  -  -  -  ...  - -  -- -  —  -  -  -_ -  -  -  7  -  -  _  -  ------ - - - -- -  -  -  _  -  -_  -  -  -  --  -  -  -  --  --  -  _„  •j |  i  -  --  --- -  ---  --  -  -  - -  -  - -  -  --  --  -  ...i_L. i i  /  /  —  -  -  -  •  --  -  -  -  -  \Q0  /  -  -  -  -  - -- -  - -  —4XI  - -  5  -  -  - --|  - --  t a: ,/> —  1  -  !  i  h  -  --  -  -  -2  _  i• .  1 -  —i——• i —*-  -  :  I  -  -  2  2  -  1  i  i i * —  T  i  X l X L X_ 1  Iti  -  1  ~"i—  _  -4i  -  ~  _  -  -  -- -  -  -  -  -  i'  i ' i i  +  -  J _  -~r  i  2  -  --  -  -  ;  1 > i j  : i i ! •i III! : s i ! ! ! i, i] sj  2  /  i !1  1  2  2  --  -  2  -  _ --  ... _  _  .I - —  -  1  - --- -  :  F  —  - ... - 1 i-  —  -  L..  -  -  -  - -  •  ,  I •  i  1  i  . ! !  1  U_J  IU. !  !  uJ_J- - 1 1  I  •  -f-H-r i  i i  i_ •  -  i  _ -IX  I>  _  -—  J  i i  1 1 ! !.. !44 : !  _ . '.1 U-  L - •- ! i 1 1  - - - - -- -  ..  1  —  —  - -- - - - --  '  _  ...  J.1  -  1  _  , j  •ill  • i 1 1 L_jJL. i _l_Li i—i 1 J i 1 !.  i  .0  So  _Li FT  4::CD i"  A  ire' V-fUfTv.  uxlx  _!_]J_L  ST  ILL  xcy.  _b <JG  2jX  1 1. i _ . L  I l i i .J_LU. MM]  sin:  Z 2  7 7  •*K-T -1? 4u V  y Z_5  _u..  _jLi_uL_L:  I  - i - 4 - i T T - l n - r 7-  ~~i I i I j m  t  1  »~  iX~" i j.. ..LL ;  JJ_L  ttndziz .P.B. _LLL ! J. • I.  i r r  1  _i_!__L  _U.JX.L  *.-f—>—i — 1— — t  itctt  .i_i_L .LL-.M-LL|X  At  the time o f w r i t i n g another Manual"^" :.=•  b e i n g prepared, b u t p o i n t v a l u e s , degrees, wage curve, etc.  have n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d .  d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from  The proposed  Manual  i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s o f 1966 and 33  1969.  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f a c t o r s and groups A.  Knowledge and s k i l l  follows:  factors.  ° k Knowledge: measures minimum time r e q u i r e d to o b t a i n s p e c i a l i z e d o r p r a c t i c a l knowledge i n n e c e s s a r y r e l a t e d p o s i t i o n s and/ or t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l i n g . (2) On-the-job E x p e r i e n c e : measures the minimum time r e q u i r e d t o develop a r e a s o n a b l e standard o f "on-the-job" performance. (3) Manual S k i l l : measures d e x t e r i t y , a g i l i t y , eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n , and the s k i l l t o use p r e c i s i o n t o o l s . J  B.  Effort  factors.  (4) P h y s i c a l E f f o r t : measures the i n t e n s i t y o f the p h y s i c a l e f f o r t r e q u i r e d (5) V i s u a l E f f o r t : measures v i s u a l e x e r t i o n requ i r e d . (6) Judgment: measures the requirements o f the job f o r the e x e r c i s e o f r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and independent judgment. C.  Responsibilities  factors.  (7) Product R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : e v a l u a t e s the e x t e n t to which i t i s important t h a t a worker perform i n a c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e manner i n r e s p e c t to the u t i l i z a t i o n o f raw m a t e r i a l s and the q u a l i t y o f the product. ( ) Process Respons i b i l i t y : e v a l u a t e s tr,e e x t e n t t o which i t i s important ~o.a_ a worker perform i n a c o n s i s t e n t l v 8  2 F . I . R . , I n d u s t r y P r o p o s a l f o r Coast S v a l u a t i o n Manual, February 3, 1 9 7 2 . 3  3 3  Ibid.  Sawmill Jc'r  r e s p o n s i b l e manner i n order t o c o n t r i bute t o the e f f i c i e n c y o f the p r o c e s s . T h i s f a c t o r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a worker may i n c e r t a i n jobs perform i n such a manner s o as t o o b t a i n s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s , not j u s t b y a v o i d i n g mistakes, b u t a l s o by improving t h a t p a r t o f the p r o c e s s which i s under h i s c o n t r o l . A l l workers covered by e v a l u a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be as p l a y i n g a p a r t i n the p r o c e s s . (9) Equipment: measures the importance o f the equipment and i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o damage. (10) S a f e t y o f O t h e r s : measures t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for avoiding injury to others. (11) "'Contacts w i t h Others ; measures t h e e x t e n t and frequency o f c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r s b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y . D.  Working C o n d i t i o n s F a c t o r s . (12) P e r s o n a l Hazards: measures the l e v e l o f personal hazards. (13) P e r s o n a l D i s c o m f o r t s : measures t h e p e r s o n a l d i s c o m f o r t s r e s u l t i n g from d i s a g r e e a b l e elements (e.g., heat, c o l d , damp, n o i s e , d u s t , and fumes). The new Manual i s d e f i n i t e l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f the  Southern  I n t e r i o r Manual, r a t h e r than the Plywood Manual  t o w h i c h the p r e v i o u s Coast p r o p o s a l s were r e l a t e d .  Using  t h i r t e e n f a c t o r s r a t h e r than t e n i n d i c a t e s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the more s p e c i a l i z e d a s p e c t s o f Sawmilling,  in particular,  t h e need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f V i s u a l E f f o r t and eye-to-hand coordination.  Sawmilling and Plywood a r e c e r t a i n l y more  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f manufacturing  a c t i v i t i e s than  i s log-ring  w h i c h i s more r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i v e . The development o f the Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n Wage Curve f o r the B.C. Coast p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g  situation.  The o r i g i n a l curve, which was d e c i d e d ur.cr. 34  i n June, 1957, has n o t been tampered w i t h . f o r t h i s appears  The reason  t o be because the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f  new p r o p o s a l s f o r B.C. Coast Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n never reach t h i s stage  ( d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e wage c u r v e ) .  However, I was a s s u r e d r e c e n t l y t h a t when Job E v a l u a t i o n i n B.C. Coast Sawmills  i s implemented, the curve w i l l be  i d e n t i c a l t o , o r resemble very s t r o n g l y , the wage curve which e x i s t s a t present  (see t a b l e and graph which f o l l o w )  T h i s i m p l i e s then, t h a t a percentage curve  d i f f e r e n t i a l wage  i s n o t forthcoming as job e v a l u a t i o n p l a n s p r e s e n t l y  e x i s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o Coast s a w m i l l s . the d i v e r s i t y  However, t o i l l u s t r a t e  o f o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g percentage wage d i f f e r -  e n t i a l , a n o t h e r knowledgeable gentleman h i n t e d t h a t a percentage  d i f f e r e n t i a l wage curve might be i n c l u d e d i n 35  I.W.A. demands f o r 1974 c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s .  This  demand would o f course be r e l i a n t on t h e I.W.A.'s s e r i o u s p u r s u i t o f Job E v a l u a t i o n i n Coast sawmills d u r i n g  those  negotiations. Regardless  o f these  it exists at present—with 34p  r a n  j  c  i s s u e s , the wage curve as  50 increments  between grades  p a u l , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , >arch  1973 .  Ibid. Lorne March 1, 1973. 3 6  F i n g a r s o n , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r ,  one and t e n , 60 increments between grades e l e v e n ar.f s i x t e e n , and 80 increments between grades seventeen and t w e n t y - n i n e — i s t o t a l l y unacceptable t o the I.W.A. Therefore,  i t seems l i k e l y t h a t management may be f o r c e d  to a c c e p t a percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l wage curve f o r Coast Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n i f e v a l u a t i o n i s ever t o be mutually agreeable.  TABLE  :  GRADE-RATE-CHART COAST SAWMILL EVALUATION  Grade  Cents Above Base Rate  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 60 60 60 60 60 60 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80  Source:  Wage Based On 1972 Rates $4.13% $4.18% $4.23% $4.28% $4.33% $4.38% $4.43% $4.48% $4.53% $4.58% $4.64% $4.70% $4.76% $4.82% $4.88% $4.94% $5.02% $5.10% $5.18% $5.26% $5.34% $5.42% $5.50% $5.58% $5.66% $5.74% $5.82% $5.90% $5.98%  Frank P a u l , I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , March 1973.  CHAPTER XIV  B.C.  COAST SAWMILLING & LOGGING JOB EVALUATION: ANALYSIS  One major o b s t a c l e looms l a r g e b e f o r e j o b e v a l u a t i o n c a n be extended t o o t h e r 'sectors o f the forest  i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  This  considera-  t i o n i s c o s t ; the expense t o "run" e v a l u a t i o n as compared with  the b e n e f i t s which job e v a l u a t i o n p r o m i s e s .  I  b e l i e v e the q u e s t i o n o f c o s t s t o be the s i n g l e b i g g e s t t e s t o f a c c e p t a b i l i t y v/hich job e v a l u a t i o n f a c e s  with  r e s p e c t t o implementation on the B.C. Coast. As was s t a t e d i n Chapter V I , Plywood Job Evaluation  implementation c o s t i n the v i c i n i t y o f  $70,000; Southern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n $250,000.  Conservative  estimates  f o r the B.C. Coast  have r u n between $500,000 and $1,000,OOO. the annual expense o f running  and  $50,000 f o r each s i d e .  37  Similarly,  and a d m i n i s t e r i n g  e v a l u a t i o n program would probably  about  range between  such an $25,000  3 8  F i e l d notes and i n t e r v i e w s . writer,  Initially, I.F.L.R.A. f e l t  t h a t 6.90 per man p e r hour would be  a tolerable level at  that cost.  per hour.  i n the Southern I n t e r i o r , the  i f job e v a l u a t i o n could be implemented  What r e s u l t e d was a c o s t o f 4.70 p e r man  As a r e s u l t , the B.C. Coast management a s s o c i -  a t i o n , F.I.R., i s l o o k i n g a t a 50 per man p e r hour c o s t as a maximum t o l e r a b l e l e v e l f o r the implementation o f •a q  job e v a l u a t i o n  i n B.C. Coast  sawmills.  A f u r t h e r s e r i o u s h i n d r a n c e t o the implementat i o n o f B.C. Coast Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n o f the I.W.A. evaluation still  The union's o f f i c i a l  i s not acceptable  i s the a t t i t u d e  opinion  on the C o a s t .  i s that Though i t  4 0  has a c o n t r a c t u a l o b l i g a t i o n t o study j o b e v a l u a -  t i o n , t h e I.W.A. f e e l s they want t o w a i t u n t i l the Plywood and  Southern I n t e r i o r plans  are c o m p l e t e l y  straightened  out. I b e l i e v e the r e a s o n i n g strategy  i s twofold.  First,  behind the I.W.A.  the nature o f the i n d u s t r i e s  on the Coast and i n the I n t e r i o r i s d i f f e r e n t as e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r , w i t h the Coast c u t t i n g l a r g e r , b e t t e r q u a l i t y timber which i n t u r n r e q u i r e s a more complex job e v a l u ation plan. by  Second, the Coast i s g e n e r a l l y  characterized  a more m i l i t a n t membership which makes the l o c a l  K e i t h Bennett, Interview December 6, 1972. j y  w i t h the W r i t e r ,  T o n y VanderKeide and Maurice Walls, w i t h the W r i t e r , March 2, 1973. 4 0  Interview  leadership hesitant  t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r autonomy — the  R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l who would b r i n g  i n Evaluators  a l a r g e r o l e i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , evaluation  can,  t o assume  process.  i t i s c l e a r that job  i f a l l p a r t i e s agree, be d e a l t w i t h by  j o i n t c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , the machinery s e t up f o r these p u r p o s e s .  whatever  Indeed, i t i s  d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how, i n cases where such machinery e x i s t s and  operates e f f e c t i v e l y ,  job e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d ever be  a p p l i e d as a means of u n i l a t e r a l w a g e - f i x i n g by the employer. the  S i m i l a r l y , w i t h adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t  l o c a l union l e v e l ,  i t i s improbable t h a t the R e g i o n a l  C o u n c i l c o u l d make s i g n i f i c a n t The  inroads  "climate" o f bargaining  on l o c a l autonomy. i n the Coast lumber  i n d u s t r y has thus f a r i n h i b i t e d b o t h s i d e s e f f o r t s t o introduce  job e v a l u a t i o n .  in their  Labour-management  r e l a t i o n s have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e o f mutual s u s p i c i o n and h o s t i l i t y .  degree  These a t t i t u d e s a r e  e x a c e r b a t e d by the b a s i c i n s t a b i l i t y o f the i n d u s t r y and  the i n s e c u r i t y i t g e n e r a t e s .  For i n s t a n c e , the  I.W.A. views F.I.R.'s e f f o r t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o j o b e v a l u a t i o n as "too c o n s e r v a t i v e " ; d o l l a r according  a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the vage  t o l i m i t s p r e s c r i b e d by h i s t o r i c a l wage  41 patterns.  On t h e other hand, the employers f e e l  Wyman T r i n e e r , I n t e r v i e w February 22, 1973.  with t h e W r i t e r ,  that  job e v a l u a t i o n  can s u c c e s s f u l l y p r o v i d e  p r o d u c t i v i t y measures and  the b a s i s  for  (by comparison between p l a n t s ) ,  generate a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s  throughout  42 the  industry,  both o f which the  I.W.A. are  against.  A b e n e f i t which each s i d e i s o v e r l o o k i n g i s t h a t o f job t r a i n i n g .  Provisions  f o r study and imple-  m e n t a t i o n o f j o b t r a i n i n g programs have been made i n several contracts.  However, the job t r a i n i n g program  n e v e r r e a l l y got o f f the ground because there has never been a f o r m a l  mechanism which g i v e s  organization.  impetus t o i t s  I b e l i e v e job e v a l u a t i o n can  provide  t h a t impetus through the use o f job d e s c r i p t i o n , apprentice by  programs, and t h e l i k e .  The problem, as seen  the I.W.A., i n v o l v e s changing from a s e n i o r i t y based  wage system t o one based on competence. the  d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f the  s h o r t a g e i n the overcome.  However, w i t h  " o l d - t i m e r s " and the  labour  i n d u s t r y today, t h a t problem should be  The h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e o f the company d e t e r m i n -  i n g competency, when they have not been i n v o l v e d i n t r a i n i n g , w i l l a l s o be i r r e l e v a n t as both s i d e s are now involved  i n the formal d e c i s i o n Considerable  with respect  s p e c u l a t i o n has been c i r c u i a a a r i g  t o government p a r t i c i p a t i o n  Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n . 4 2  1972.  process.  F r a n k Paul,  i n B.C..  "cast  Under the twenty year regime  Interview  w i t h the W r i t e r ,  Decembe  of the was  S o c i a l C r e d i t Party, p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c y  amorphous and  able  c o n t r a d i c t o r y and,  on balance,  favour-  to the employers a t the expense of the u n i o n .  described  As  4 3  e a r l i e r , the p o l i c y of f o r e s t management l i c e n c e s  encourages c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the hands o f a few the N.D.P. has  o f the  i n d u s t r y and  i t s resources  large integrated concerns.  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d t h i s  To date,  relation-  ship. In the past, t i o n and  the requirements f o r union  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining  industry-wide negotiations. Relations  A c t o f 1954,  Under the terms of the Labour  t i o n Commission A c t of 1969,  i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l unions and  m i l i t a t e d against e f f e c t i v e  which was  d i s t r i c t o f the I.W.A. had  superseded by the Media-  the r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  no  l e g a l s t a t u s as s u c h .  bargaining  units applied only  l o c a l companies, or t h e i r p l a n t s .  f o r e n e g o t i a t i o n s between union and to a r r i v e a t the n o t o r i o u s s e t out  certifica-  or  Certifto There-  management were designed  "memorandum o f agreement" which  mutually a c c e p t a b l e  e t c . , the terms o f which had  wage r a t e s , hours o f work, to be r a t i f i e d by  the 44  employers and  employees o f i n d i v i d u a l companies or p l a n t s .  S t u a r t Jamieson, "Multi-Employer Bar-gaining: the Case of B.C. Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y , " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , V o l . 26, No. 1, January, 1971, p. 152. 4 J  4 4  I b i d _ . , p.  153.  The e f f e c t which the N.D.P. government's Mediation  S e r v i c e s A c t o f 1972, and subsequent  legisla-  t i o n , w i l l have on the system o f industry-wide  bargain-  ing  remains an open q u e s t i o n .  Certainly i t w i l l  decrease  the undermining o f o r d e r l y b a r g a i n i n g on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e . The  i n v e s t i t u r e o f the main powers o f decision-making i n  the hands o f t h e main employer f i r m s and union w i l l be s t o p p e d .  locals  These powers, p a r t i c u l a r l y as regards  s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t a c t i o n , have tended t o exacerbate i n t e r n e c i n e d i v i s i o n s and c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the ranks o f union and employer o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l i k e . this,  As evidence o f  t h e r e a r e the N.D.P.'s avowed "headhunting" o f  major producers  (i.e., MacMillan-Bloedel),  and the  p r o v i n c i a l government's r e c e n t problems w i t h the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f Labour. The N.D.P. has had t o depend upon o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r as i t s main base f o r p o p u l a r  support.  The l a r g e  but d i s o r g a n i z e d I.W.A., which has accounted f o r a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e share o f the p r o v i n c e ' s  labour u n r e s t , was  a d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l a s s e t t o the Socreds who presented themselves t o b u s i n e s s and t h e v o t i n g p u b l i c as the o n l y f o r c e capable an  o f s a v i n g the p r o v i n c e  " i r r e s p o n s i b l e " l a b o u r movement.  J  from domination by The "bulvars  a g a i n s t s o c i a l i s m " argument was f i n a l l y voted  I b i d . , pp. 163-164.  c i t of  power i n J u l y , 1972.  However, I b e l i e v e the  vote  a r e j e c t i o n of the Socreds r a t h e r than a mandate f o r t h e N.D.P.  Therefore,  coordinated  lumber workers' u n i o n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the province's provide  a  "strong, w e l l - o r g a n i z e d  major resource-based  a major source o f support  and  i n d u s t r y , would  and  a rallying  point,  46 potentially,  f o r an o r g a n i z e d  labour movement'V  would g i v e the N.D.P. a f i r m , long-term The  problem remains, then,  that  foundation.  f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government  t o promote t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and  coordination  i n the  I.W.A. Over the p a s t twenty years the  i n d u s t r y has  i n technology,  undergone almost r e v o l u t i o n a r y changes  s t r u c t u r e and  i n government p o l i c i e s and important of  o f these  o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l  regulations.  as  Among the more  changes have been: the s u b s t i t u t i o n  l o g g i n g by t r u c k r a t h e r than by r a i l w a y ; the r a p i d  mechanization and operations, with  automation of l o g g i n g and increases  worker, i n o u t p u t per man  in capital hour, and  of employment i n both s e c t o r s of the finally, the  in particular,  investment  4 6  4 7  7  I b _ i d . , p.  163.  Ibid.,  165.  p.  per  a d e c l i n i n g volume industry; a n d .  the growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  industry.4  sawmill  integrater~  cf  It  is d i f f i c u l t ,  s ignificant  however, t o d i s c e r n  impact o f such developments on the  any organiza-  t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i d e o l o g y , or p o l i c i e s o f the I.W.A.; on employer a t t i t u d e s or p o l i c i e s v i s - a - v i s the on the p a t t e r n o f c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,frequency  or on  or i n c i d e n c e o f c o n f l i c t i n the  Therefore,  I consider  union; the  industry.  4 8  i t o f paramount importance t h a t  j o b e v a l u a t i o n , i n the absence o f other s u i t a b l e mechanisms, be  implemented to assess and  e f f i c i e n c y o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g , and technical efficiency  in production  c o s t s , h i g h e r p r o f i t s , and i n h i g h l y competitive One  to  the  increase  i n the form o f lower  a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e and  grow  markets.  acceptable,  c r i t e r i o n of e f f i c i e n c y the a b i l i t y  improve  of the union  but perhaps  over-simple  in c o l l e c t i v e bargaining i s to p r o t e c t and  enhance  the  i n t e r e s t s of i t s members, as measured by the achievement o f such t h i n g s as i n c r e a s e d job s e c u r i t y , and wage and fringe b e n e f i t increases  in l i n e with  those  o f workers  i n comparable i n d u s t r i e s ( i . e . , c o n s t r u c t i o n and and  paper), without  from s t r i k e s and  incurring disproportionate losses  lockouts.  depends on s t r e n g t h and and  The  achievement of such  cohesiveness  ibid.  4 9  Ibid.,  pp.  165-166.  gains  from the curcc-- s i c e  f l e x i b i l i t y on the employer s i d e . 4 8  pulp  4 9  On the premises o u t l i n e d , I suggest  t h _ _ the  p r o v i n c i a l government, s p e c i f i c a l l y Labour M i n i s t e r B i l l King, might be approachable  w i t h r e s p e c t to a c o s t -  s h a r i n g p l a n c a l l i n g f o r implementation i n the B.C.  Coast Sawmill  date, June 15, 1974. p r o v i n c e and  o f Job E v a l u a t i o n  I n d u s t r y as of the next c o n t r a c t  Indeed, the  "economic h e a l t h o f the  the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t depends on how  a l l y they -(management and union) are prepared  realistic-  t o be when 50  they  face each other a c r o s s the b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e . "  In a d d i t i o n , government p a r t i c i p a t i o n would serve t o reduce the employers' c o n t r i b u t i o n per man  hour,  thereby  s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c i n g the problem o f a r r i v i n g a t an acceptable tolerance l e v e l . I b e l i e v e t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e t o job e v a l u a t i o n w i l l be  arbitration: "Four times i n the l a s t 13 years d i r e c t n e g o t i a t i o n s have gone so b a d l y t h a t a s p e c i a l mediator had t o be appointed t o , i n e f f e c t , t e l l both s i d e s what the s e t t l e m e n t should be. Mr. J u s t i c e Nemetz has done so on the l a s t two o c c a s i o n s . I t ' s d o u b t f u l i f he'd be a v a i l a b l e a g a i n , even i f he were a c c e p t a b l e t o the two s ides. Indeed the s p e c i a l mediator t e c h n i que can o n l y work so o f t e n b e f o r e i t s u s e f u l n e s s d i m i n i s h e s . The p r e s s u r e v i l l be much g r e a t e r t h i s year on union and company n e g o t i a t o r s t o s e t t l e t h e i r d i f ferences without outside h e l p . " 5 1  5 0  T h e Vancouver Sun,  5 1  Ibid.  February  26,  1972.  T h i s a r b i t r a t i o n might be forthcoming .in. t r j a 52 form o f v o l u n t a r y a r b i t r a t i o n  i f the two  r e c o n c i l e some o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . does not seem t o be t o conduct  s i d e s can  However, the  union  f i r m l y u n i t e d on the q u e s t i o n o f  i t s affairs.  how  An a r b i t r a t o r c o u l d be named  w e l l i n advance o f the c o n t r a c t e x p i r y date so t h a t no time  loss  i n g e t t i n g an a c c e p t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t c o u l d be  achieved.  ..The.right person  to mediate between the  has been found b e f o r e i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and 53  parties  has  produced a s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement. A second q u e s t i o n a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e has been examined. in 1970  The  through  5 4  f e d e r a l government was  the Manpower Department.  to c o n s i d e r an a p p l i c a t i o n Interior (1) (2)  (3)  a l l ready  approached They r e f u s e d  f o r f u n d i n g the  Southern 55 Sawmill E v a l u a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s : Job e v a l u a t i o n e x i s t e d and was working w e l l i n plywood. There was no p r o v i s i o n i n government r e g u l a t i o n s or l e g i s l a t i o n to p r o v i d e funds f o r such a p r o j e c t . The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t was not deemed to be a t s t a k e .  C l i v e McKee, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the W r i t e r , Karrch 1, 1973. 5 3  T h e Vancouver Sun,  J s t  5 5  Fingarson, Ibid.  June 28,  Interview.  1972.  However, I b e l i e v e t h a t a r e - a p p l i c a t i o n  might  be f e a s i b l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o Coast Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n f o r two r e a s o n s .  The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  i s a t s t a k e on the  Coast as f o u r times as many workers are i n v o l v e d ; L i b e r a l s are now  the  i n the p o s i t i o n o f r u l i n g through a  m i n o r i t y government and are subsequently p r o v i n g t o be much more approachable and r e c e p t i v e t o p r o p o s a l s from Western Canada where they won  a t o t a l o f four s e a t s i n  1972's g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . In summarizing,  the p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s  from  j o b e v a l u a t i o n a r e g r e a t e r on the Coast than anywhere e l s e i n B.C.  The s i z e and expense o f the p r o j e c t p r e s e n t  major s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s .  However, government p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l ,  c o u l d overcome  the problems o f expense and, a t the same time, promote stability  i n the i n d u s t r y w h i l e broadening the appeal  and popular s u p p o r t f o r t h a t government.  CHAPTER XV  SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  The p r i n c i p a l purpose  of t h i s chapter i s to  s u g g e s t some o f the more g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y and  i n so doing, t o p r e s e n t a summary o f the  major r e s u l t s . At the b e g i n n i n g of the f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h r e e r e l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s were s e t f o r t h .  To r e i t e r a t e ,  the  o b j e c t i v e s were formulated as q u e s t i o n s aimed a t c l a r i f y i n g t h r e e aspects o f job e v a l u a t i o n as i t a p p l i e s t o the f o r e s t (1)  industry i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Is job e v a l u a t i o n worthwhile  as a technique  i n labour-management r e l a t i o n s ? (2)  How  can job e v a l u a t i o n be conducted  and  implemented? (3)  Can  job e v a l u a t i o n be extended  to a l l sectors  of the i n d u s t r y ? Perhaps the major c o n c l u s i o n which emerges  from  the study i s t h a t job e v a l u a t i o n has proved success b o i i n the Plywood i n d u s t r y , i s p r o v i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y  :r. Southern  I n t e r i o r Sawmills, and has tremendous p o t e n t i a l f o r B.C.  Coast s a w m i l l s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  benefits  lob e v a l u a t i c  has  succeeded, as a technique,  i n replacing "confronta-  t i o n " i n f o r e s t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h an approach more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h good  "human  relations":  1  "You a r e never going t o make the work f o r c e happy. Never. But you can do a g r e a t d e a l t o b r i n g both s i d e s i n t o harmony. The time has come t o g e t r i d o f a l l the r o l e - p l a y i n g on the p a r t o f management and labour and t o throw out the b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e confrontation-type mentality." 2  Therefore,  i t appears t h a t the most  immediate s i n g l e b e n e f i t t o be d e r i v e d from  important implementation  o f job e v a l u a t i o n i s that o f responsible bargaining process  o f wage d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  management r e l a t i o n s  i n the  The h i s t o r y o f l a b o u r -  i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been v e r y  poor, b u t the h i s t o r y o f labour-management r e l a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n p a r t i c u l a r has been  calamitous.  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s from the past  . . . the p a s t h i s t o r y o f c e r t a i n companies,  alities labour. one  person-  from the p a s t who s t i l l dominate management and In p a r t i c u l a r ,  the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y r e p r e s e n t s  o f the l a s t s t r o n g h o l d s  of a philosophy  s i m i l a r to  t h a t o f the "robber barons", so many of the u n i o n management r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , going  x  back  C l i v e McKee, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , Marco. 1,  1973. C l i v e McKee, The Vancouver Sun, December 19, p . 6. 2  1972,  f o r an u n b e l i e v a b l e number o f y e a r s .  The frequency r f  " p e r s o n a l i t y wars" t h a t creep i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s i s shocking."^ To  i l l u s t r a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f systems a k i n  t o j o b e v a l u a t i o n , and j o b e v a l u a t i o n i t s e l f matter,  one need o n l y look as f a r as Sweden.  f o r that Sv/edish  labour-management r e l a t i o n s and c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be as e n l i g h t e n e d as any i n the world.  Management and labour c o n f r o n t each o t h e r as two  s t r o n g l y organized f o r c e s — a s t a b l e balance  o f power.  They meet w i t h an unusual degree o f mutual c o n f i d e n c e , n o t only i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t a l s o i n creating and  j o i n t machinery f o r peace i n the l a b o u r market  security The  i n areas o f common i n t e r e s t .  4  two major o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d a r e the  Swedish Employers' C o n f e d e r a t i o n  (S.A.F.),  consisting  o f 43 a f f i l i a t e d a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f i n d u s t r y w i t h 24,000 members employing 1,250,000 and  the Swedish Trade Union C o n f e d e r a t i o n  p r i s e d o f 29 n a t i o n a l t r a d e unions  (L.O.),  persons, com-  and 2,700 l o c a l s w i t h  1,650,000 members  i n c l u d i n g more than 90% o f a l l r L c e -  c o l l a r workers.  Close e s t i m a t e s p u t f o r e s t  workers a t 104,000 i n I 9 6 0 . 3  incest—_~  6  Ibid.  T h e Swedish I n s t i t u t e , F a c t Sheets on Sweden, p. 1. Ibid. T . L . Johnston, C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g i n Sweden, A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , London, 1962, pp. 343-346. 4  1970,  5  6  The as  follows:  wage n e g o t i a t i o n procedure i s e s s e n t i a l l y L.O. and S.A.F. r e a c h a c e n t r a l agreement  on a recommendation t o t h e i r a f f i l i a t e s concerning  the  average s i z e o f wage i n c r e a s e s as w e l l as improvements which s p e c i f i c groups should  r e c e i v e , such as changes  i n work hours, f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , and the l i k e . the n a t i o n a l unions and t h e i r o p p o s i t e s  Thereafter,  i n S.A.F. n e g o t i -  ate l e g a l l y b i n d i n g c o l l e c t i v e agreements based on L.O.S.A.F. recommendations.  When nation-wide c o n t r a c t s have  been concluded f o r the d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s , n e g o t i a t i o n s ensue on the l o c a l l e v e l concerning the  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  i n d u s t r y ' s n a t i o n a l agreement t o the p l a n t and i t s  work p r o c e s s ,  a procedure rendered necessary i n most 7  i n d u s t r i e s by the widespread use o f p i e c e  rates.  Piecework methods o f wage payment i n Sweden's f o r e s t i n d u s t r y take the form of l i n e a r p i e c e r a t e s which are g e n e r a l l y geared s o l e l y t o quantitative u n i t s o f o u t put.  These r a t e s a r e mostly i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e r a t e s w i t h  schedules r o o t e d  i n time-honoured t r a d i t i o n s and n o t  based on work s t u d i e s .  I n r e c e n t y e a r s , however, work  s t u d i e s have been i n i t i a t e d e x t e n s i v e l y  i n order t o  e f f e c t a r e v i s i o n o f the whole p i e c e r a t e s c h e d u l e . 'Martin S c h n i t z e r , The Economy o f Sweden, Praeger, New York, 1970, p . 203. S  I b i d . , p . 207.  S  R e v i s i o n was  undertaken because, d u r i n g  rhe  period  1960-67, world market p r i c e s of goods produced  i n the  forestry sector  per  cent a y e a r .  i n the s e c t o r  increased  a t a r a t e o f 7.5  However, t o t a l wage c o s t s  industrial solvency the  i n the  per c e n t a y e a r .  forestry sector  per c e n t a y e a r .  profitability  had  This  been weakened d u r i n g  i n t e r n a t i o n a l competitive  fallen  the p e r i o d .  and  Although  c a p a c i t y o f industry i n maintained, i t was  expense of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , which d e c l i n e d ,  and  increased  indicated that  i n the s e c t o r had  manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s was  in  at  semi-manufactured g o o d s . B e g i n n i n g i n 1968,  materials  9  Sweden e x p e r i e n c e d an  i n s t r i k e s as p r o f i t a b i l i t y was  strengthened  investment) by narrowing the scope f o r wage a greater  the  particularly  i n d u s t r i e s such as f o r e s t r y which produced raw  Accordingly,  1.5  A t the same time, average p r o d u c t i v i t y  increased  a t a r a t e o f 9.4  at a rate of 1 to  i n t e r e s t i n the use  (to  increase  stimulate  increases. o f work study,  j o b e v a l u a t i o n , method-time measurement, m e r i t r a t i n g , and  performance wage s e t t i n g was  evoked.  Systematic job e v a l u a t i o n extensively in the  forest industry  i n Sweden.  schemes have been a p p l i e d l o c a l l y , ment and w o r k e r s .  9  I b i d . , p.  The  i s nov/ b e i n g  and  c~sd  A l l the  j o i n t l y by  manage-  Swedish systems developed so f a r  211.  mainly use  a p o i n t s system, and  the q u a l i t i e s of  particul  jobs are weighted j o i n t l y i n the attempt t o f i n d a measur ir.g rod  f o r judging  wren wages a r e being i s egooma separate of the wage b i l l erent ing,  jobs but  the r e l a t i v e requirements of allocated.  T h i s assessment o f  from n e g o t i a t i o n s about the and  to p r o v i d e  i t w i t h a more p r e c i s e their  characteristics.  Complementary t o job e v a l u a t i o n , which job a c c o r d i n g  to the  i s m e r i t r a t i n g , payment f o r the i n d i v i d u a l performance.  diff-  I t does not r e p l a c e wage b a r g a i  b a s i s of knowledge about jobs and  payment f o r the  1  implies  job requirements,  job on the b a s i s  of  M e r i t r a t i n g i s not regarded  a s u b s t i t u t e f o r payment by r e s u l t s , but r a t h e r as aid  jobs  allocation  the r a t e a t which payment f o r  i s graduated.  i s intended  jobs  as  an  t o f i n d i n g more p r e c i s e measures on which t o base  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d payment by The forest  performance.  Swedish system holds  two  11  lessons  f o r B.C.'s  industry:  (1)  Job e v a l u a t i o n i s a u s e f u l technique i n f a c i l i t a t i n g responsible c o l l e c t i v e barg a i n i n g . However, the Swedish system a l s o r e l a t e s t o p r o d u c t i v i t y . Product i v i t y i n c r e a s e s were, i n the i n i t i a l stages, a p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f management and union when job e v a l u a t i o n was implemented i n the B.C. f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . In  1 0  Johnston,  1 3  - I b i d . , p.  Sweden, pp. 250.  249-250.  the i n t e r i m , however, p r o d u c t i v i t y a p p e a r s to have "gone by the b o a r d " as the " e n d - a l l " o b j e c t i v e now appears t o be harmonious i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s arb c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g a t any c o s t . (2)  ;-:erit r a t i n g , when used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h job e v a l u a t i o n , can be a u s e f u l t o o l f o r performance measurement o f individuals. I f management s i n c e r e l y desires to incorporate p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the c o l l e c t i v e agreement, job e v a l u a t i o n , through m e r i t r a t i n g , i s one o f the v e h i c l e s which can a c c o m p l i s h the t a s k . In the absence o f a system o f c o l l e c t i v e  ing such as t h a t of Sweden's, improvement o f  bargain-  labour-  management r e l a t i o n s i n B.C.'s f o r e s t i n d u s t r y n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l s the p r e p a r a t i o n negotiations.  of a s t r u c t u r e and  groundwork f o r  They must be handled on a c o n t i n u o u s ,  by-day b a s i s by s p e c i a l i s t s l i k e Job E v a l u a t o r s communicate and of the  i d e n t i f y w i t h the  who  o b j e c t i v e s and  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n Plywood and  can  nature  Sawmilling.  Today, i n an e r a of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, c o s t of a s t r i k e t o everybody i n v o l v e d and a whole i s enormous. poignantly  than i n the  This  manage-  f o r managing  involves  procedures, some o f which are not  t o do w i t h employees, most o f which a r e  b a s i c a l l y t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . On  Columbia.  or not,  to the s h a r e h o l d e r s  i n the most e f f i c i e n t ways p o s s i b l e .  anything  t o s o c i e t y as  forest industry i n B r i t i s h  responsible  ing methods and  the  Nowhere i s t h i s i l l u s t r a t e d more  Whether t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s i n t r o d u c e d ment i s s t i l l  day-  improv-  necessarily not  the other hand,  the  I.W.A. i s sometimes concerned w i t h the amount of grower i t can e x e r t i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n — o r t o p u t i t another way, i s p e r m i t t e d cumstances. has  t o exert w i t h i n a given s e t o f c i r -  Often, t h i s  concentrated  i s b a s i c a l l y because management  t o o much upon o t h e r a s p e c t s  of i t s  b u s i n e s s and n o t n e a r l y enough on i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r employee-employer  relationships.  Job e v a l u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s by employers and t h e union  i n p a r t an attempt  to create  identification  among employees, t o h e l p them b u i l d a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the f i e l d  and the technology  i n which they work.  This  does n o t happen when each s i d e s i t s dovm a t the b a r g a i n ing table.  I t has t o be worked on c o n t i n u o u s l y by  s p e c i a l i s t s such as E v a l u a t o r s who can f a c i l i t a t e the n e g o t i a t i n g and b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s e s e v a l u a t i n g and r e v i s i n g  by c o n s t a n t l y r e -  i n e q u i t i e s i n wage s t r u c t u r e .  One o f the b i g g e s t o b s t a c l e s t o job e v a l u a t i o n is  i t s cost.  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n was a r e s u l t o f t h e  e n d l e s s b i c k e r i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n i n t h a t s e c t o r i n the mid-fifties.  S i m i l a r l y , d u r i n g the l a t e - s i x t i e s , worker  i n I n t e r i o r sawmills began an i n c e s s a n t clamour f o r wage p a r i t y with t h e i r counterparts  on the Coast.  case, e x c e s s i v e wage demands convinced  I r earh  manager;-.-1 t h e r  j o b e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d be an e f f e c t i v e t o o l i o one r e s t o r e t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l peace.  I t appears l i k e l y t h a t j o b e v a l u a t i o n n o t be a c c e p t a b l e  viJll  t o management on the B.C. Coast  until  the demand f o r higher wages i s deemed so e x c e s s i v e  that  management w i l l be f o r c e d t o a c c e p t i t s implementation. The  argument t h a t i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s  and f a c t i o n a l i s m  w i l l always p r e v e n t the I.W.A. from e n d o r s i n g j o b evaluation  i s f a c e t i o u s and unfounded.  in existence  a t present  are proving  p u b l i c admission o f opposition evaluation  The two schemes  so worthwhile t h a t  t o implementation o f job  i n B.C. Coast sawmills would prove p o l i t i c a l l y  c a t a s t r o p h i c f o r I.W.A. o f f i c i a l s . In c o n c l u s i o n ,  job evaluation represents the  o n l y v i a b l e technique u t i l i z e d  thus f a r t o improve  labour-  management r e l a t i o n s i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A r b i t r a t i o n , voluntary  produce a conducive c l i m a t e By v i r t u e o f an e x t e n s i v e  f o r responsible  Since  bargaining.  self-government p r a c t i s e d i n  Sweden, c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g from a r b i t r a t i o n .  o r not, does n o t  has been s i n g u l a r l y f r e e  job e v a l u a t i o n has proved t o be  a worthwhile technique t o ensure t h a t self-government works i n Sweden's f o r e s t i n d u s t r y ,  i t i s h i g h l y recommended  as a p o s s i b l e means t o r e s o l v e some o f the c a n t a t r . = r ~ s problems i n the B.C. f o r e s t i n d u s t r y .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS Dunn, ... ,D. and R a c h e l , F.M. Wage and S a l a r y i e v York, McGraw-Hill, 1971.  Administration,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e . Job E v a l u a t i o n . Tribune de Geneve, 1960.  Geneva,La  Jamieson, S. I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Macmillan, 1957.  Toronto,  i n Canada.  L i p t o n , C. The Trade Union Movement o f Canada 1827-1959, M o n t r e a l , Canadian S o c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966. Logan, H.A. 1948.  Trade Unions i n Canada.  L y t l e , C.W. Job E v a l u a t i o n Methods. Ronald Press, 1954.  Toronto, M a c m i l l a n , (2nd e d . ) , New York,  M i l l e r , R.U. and I s b e s t e r , F. Canadian Labour i n T r a n s i t i o n . Scarborough, O n t a r i o , P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1971. O t i s , J . L . and L e u k a r t , R.H. Job E v a l u a t i o n : A B a s i s For Sound Wage A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . (2nd e d . ) , New York, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1954. P a t e r s o n , T.T. Job E v a l u a t i o n ; A New Method. ( v o l . 1 ) , London, B u s i n e s s Books, 1972. Reynolds, L.G. Labor Economics and Labor R e l a t i o n s . (2nd e d . ) , Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1964. Thomason, G.F. P e r s o n n e l Manager's Guide t o Job E v a l u a t i o n . London, I n s t i t u t e o f P e r s o n n e l Management, 1968. Tracey, W.R. E v a l u a t i n g , T r a i n i n g and Development Systems. New York, American Management A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968.  ARTICLES AND  PERIODICALS  Batson, R.J. ''Employee E v a l u a t i o n : A Review o f C u r r e n t M e t h o d s and a Suggested New Approach." Chicago, P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , 1959, 68 pp. C a r r w r i c h o , D. "Government Report Reveals Sawmill's Past and F u t u r e . " B r i t i s h Columbia Lumberman, V o l . 57, ~ c , 1, January 1973, pp. 31-32. I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C o u n s e l o r s , I n c . Group Wage I n c e n t i v e s : E x p e r i e n c e With the ScanIon P l a n . New York, 1962, 48 pp. I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a c h i n i s t s (Research Department) What's Wrong With Job E v a l u a t i o n . Washington, D.C., 1954, 100 pp. Jamieson, S. "Multi-Employer B a r g a i n i n g : The Case o f B.C. Coast Lumber I n d u s t r y . " R e l a t i o n s I n d u s t r i e l l e s . V o l . 26, No. 1, January, 1971, 21 pp. Jurgensen, C.E. "Recent Trends i n Employee Performance E v a l u a t i o n . " Employee Performance A p p r a i s a l Reexamined, Chicago, P u b l i c P e r s o n n e l A s s o c i a t i o n , No. 513, 7 pp. K e l l y , P.R. " R e a p p r a i s a l o f A p p r a i s a l s . " Harvard B u s i n e s s Reviev;, V o l . 36, No. 3, May-June 1958, pp. 59-68. McGregor, Douglas. "An Uneasy Look a t Performance A p p r a i s a l . Harvard B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 35, No. 3, May-June 1957, pp. 89-94. M a y f i e l d , H. "In Defense o f Performance A p p r a i s a l . " Harvard B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 38, No. 2, M a r c h - A p r i l 1960, pp. 81-87. R i c h a r d s , K.E. "Facts, Fears, and F a l l a c i e s About Performance A p p r a i s a l . " Employee Performance A p p r a i s a l Re-examined, Chicago, P u b l i c P e r s o n n e l A s s o c i a t i o n , No. 613, 9 pp. Sharp, T.L. and White, L.C. "An Approach t o Employee E v a l u a t i o n : The F i e l d Review." Public Personnel Review, V o l . 17, No. 1, January 1956, pp. 13-16.  NEWSPAPER ARTICLES " F o r e s t C o n t r a c t Pressure Cooker. . ." Vancouver 26 February, 1972. "Bargaining f o r a P o l i t i c a l 7 June, 1972. "Try  Saw-off."  A r b i t r a t i o n i n Forest Strike." 28 June, 1972.  Vancouver Sun, Vancouver Sun,  "Leadership o f I.W.A. Out o f Kil±er." 12 J u l y , 1972.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e ,  "A Warning From 15,000 Absentee I.W.A. V o t e s ? " P r o v i n c e , 12 J u l y , 1972. "A S t r i k e That Need Never Have Been." 14 J u l y , 1972.  "A L o s t Cause."  Vancouver  Vancouver Sun,  "The Best Case For B i n d i n g A r b i t r a t i o n . " 29 J u l y , 1972. "Union t o Stand o r F a l l . " 1972.  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Sawmill I n d u s t r y .  Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual Plywood I n d u s t r y o f B.C. 1955 (Amended J u l y , 1966; August, 1971).  December, September,  Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual Sawmill and Logginq I n d u s t r y o f B.C. C o a s t . February, 1966. Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual Sawmill I n d u s t r y o f the B.C. C o a s t . A p r i l , 1969. Luckhurst, L . J . The I.W.A.-F.I.R. 1972 November, 1972, 25 pp.  Settlement.  Nemetz, The Honourable Mr. J u s t i c e Nathan T. Re_: Dispute Between The I.W.A. and F.I.R. Law Courts, Vancouver 1, B.C., August 17, 1970. P a u l , F. R e b u t t a l by F.I.R. t o the Submission by the I .W.A. Regional Counc i 1 No. 1_ on the Subject o f Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n . Vancouver, B.C., J u l y , 1970. P a u l , F. Seminar on Plywood E v a l u a t i o n . Burnaby, B.C., A p r i l 29, 1970.  V i l l a Motor Inn,  Southern-Northern I n t e r i o r Sawmill Job E v a l u a t i o n t i o n " . August 29, 1970.  "Administra-  VanderHeide, T. and Paul, F. Implementation o f P r o f e s s o r W i l k i n s o n ' s Report i n the B.C. Northern I n t e r i o r . November 26, 1971. Wilkinson, B.C.,  H.C. Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n Report. August 1, 1971.  Vancouver,  PER SONAL COMMUNICATION Bennett, K e i t h ( F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ) . w i t h the w r i t e r . 6 December, 1972. C l o s e , Marc ( B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t Produces). w i t h the w r i t e r . 8 February, 1973.  Interview Interview  Gish,  l e t t e r  Norman ( B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ) . t o the w r i t e r . 24 January, 1973.  F l a t e r , George ( B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t t o the w r i t e r . 8 March, 1973.  Products).  Letter  F i n g a r s o n , L o m e ( P a c i f i c Northwest C o n s u l t a n t s ) . Interviews w i t h the w r i t e r . 18 November, 1972; 19 February, 1973; 1 March, 1973. Houston, John ( I n t e r i o r F o r e s t Labour R e l a t i o n s Association) I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the w r i t e r . 22 February, 1973; 23 February, 1973. McKee, C l i v e (Independent Labour Mediator) . the w r i t e r . 1 March, 1973. Paul,  Frank ( F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s ) . the w r i t e r . 6 December, 1972.  Interview v/ith Interview with  S c o t t , Ralph ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America). L e t t e r t o the w r i t e r . 5 March, 1973. T r i n e e r , Wyman ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America). I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r . 22 February, 1973. VanderHeide, Tony ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America). I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the w r i t e r . 2 March, 1973; 9 March, 1973. W a l l s , Maurice ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America). I n t e r v i e w s w i t h the w r i t e r . 2 March, 1973; 5 March, 1973; 9 March, 1973. OTHER SOURCES Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . I.W.A. and F.I.R. 1972.  72-201.  Master Agreement 1972-1973.  June 15,  National Broadcasting Corporation ( t e l e v i s i o n ) . " J : : Enrichment." F i r s t Tuesday, 10:00 p.m., March 7. 1973. Smith, James A. "The S t r u c t u r e o f Wages i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest Lumber I n d u s t r y , 1939-1954." Spokane, Washington, Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , Economics, 1967, 394 p t . S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  25-202, 1970.  0.  3•2  CHANGES  IH THE A D M I N I S T R A T I V E  STRUCTURE  RECOMMENDATION NO. 1 - A r t i c l e h o f S u p p l e m e n t  No. 2 s h o u l d  be chan-  ged t o r e a d a s f o l l o w s : k.  P L A N T J O B REVIEW a.  There s h a l l named  COMMITTEE be a c o m m i t t e e c o n s t i t u t e d  the Plant  Review  Job Review  Committee)  Committee  M a n a g e m e n t a n d t w o members  At  least  of  the Plant's  Plant  one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e salaried  o r Management, a n d a t l e a s t o n e must b e a n e m p l o y e e o f t h e  t o Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n .  second representative  that  neither  party  employed as a j o b e v a l u a t o r  Ltd. o r be Regional The. Company for  Manage-  from amongst per-  may c h o o s e a s i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a  member o f t h e P l y w o o d E v a l u a t i o n  b.  o f the employees.  n o t e m p l o y e d a t t h e p l a n t , a n d t h e U n i o n may d o l i k e w i s e  except  is  r e f e r r e d toas  o f M a n a g e m e n t m u s t b e a member  staff  whose j o b i s s u b j e c t  plant  representative  representative  o f t h e employees  m e n t may c h o o s e t h e i r sons  (herein  t o c o n s i s t o f t w o members  of  representative  i n each plywood  shall  time lost  t e e .or w h i l e  Council  Committee  by Forest  r e i m b u r s e any o f i t s h o u r l y - p a i d  while acting presenting  ployee  shall  Industrial  Relations  No. 1 o f .the I . W. A . employees  a s a member o f z~= R e v i ew  information,  b e f o r e a r e g u l a r l y convened meeting ; T h e Company  o r a n y p e r s o n who  r  ;re  Commi-  - ' s own j o b , :'. :.  rommittee.  n o t b e r e s pons i b i fr. r rem-j-e r = :' " g em5  r e p r e s en t o t ! v e s who a r e n o : i ;s h o u r l y - p a i r employe-:::.  168  169  11. RECOMMENDATION NO.  2 - Article to  5.  FUNCTION OF a.  The  for evaluation  accurately  be  responsible  or re-evaluation  documented  before  being  f o r seeing of jobs  changed  quired  will  include a  mitted  either  by an  that a l l  are adequately  passed to the Plywood  Committee f o r f u r t h e r a c t i o n .  ment, and a f u l l y  The  documents  "Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n "  individual  employee o r by  form sub-  local  completed Job D e s c r i p t i o n which  re-  Manageprovides  sufficient  information  f o r the subsequent work o f t h e Plywood  Evaluation  Committee.  The  ures for  for submitting completion  Evaluation cle  may  form o f the documents, the  and h a n d l i n g be amended os  them, and required  the time by  proced-  limits  the Plywood  Committee under the a u t h o r i t y . g i v e n  3 of this  them by  Arti-  supplement.  Decisions  o f t h e Review Committee  ness o f a  request  ting  for evaluation  respecting  the  appropriate-  or re-evaluation, or  the adequacy and a c c u r a c y o f documents, s h a l l Failing  tablished  time  the Review Committee s h a l l , a t the r e -  o f any one o f  Request  tion for V/hcn  1  i s unanimous  Committee and s h a l l documenting that  the es-  i t s members, immediate -- 'orward t h e  f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n ,  on w h i c h t h e r e  within  by  agreement. limit,  such agreement  be  respec-  unanimous  quest  c.  :' be  f o 1 lows :  as  Review Committee w i l l  Evaluation  b.  read  i\c. 2  REVIEW COMMITTEE  requests and  5 o f Supplement  together  wit' =ry : r o r documents -  a g r e e m e n t . . ~z- t h e ? 1 y.;;od  then  Evalua-  hove r : f u r t h e r res p e r ; i b i 1 i t y  request.  the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  r e s p e c t i rig t h e e v a l u a t i o n  Conmi t l c o  h a s made a  of a j o b , i t s h a l l  dec:;  conr.vjn i co  o: the-1  12. decision  R e v i e w Conitii t t o . . e .  to the a p p r o p r i a t e  Committee w i l l t h e employees  be  responsible  v/here t h e s e a r e a v a i l a b l e . tee t h a t an A p p l i c a t i o n forwarded a r l y , be d.  Nothing  in this  article  Committee  limits  ged  Committee w i l l ,  be simil-  the right  of the Plywood about any j o b ,  o r o t h e r w i s e , o r t o amend a n y j o b  or s p e c i f i c a t i o n  3 - Article  not  Commi-  reasons to those concerned,  submitted  Request For Job E v a l u a t i o n  RECOMMENDATION NO.  of the Review  to determine the f a c t s  observation  description  12.  decision  and  outcome  f o r J o b Eva 1 u a t i o n s h o u 1 d  communicated w i t h  direct  of a  reasons f o r the  to the Plywood Evaluation  Evaluation by  A  ? . » v i ew  :onagcmen.t  f o r informing  concerned, giving  The  in support  form.  12 o f S u p p l e m e n t  t o r e a d as  t o them  No.  2 should  be  chan-  follows:  R E F E R R A L PROCEDURE a.  V/hen t h e P l y w o o d E v a l u a t i o n  C o m m i t t e e has  come o f a R e q u e s t F o r J o b E v a l u a t i o n , decision b.  to the a p p r o p r i a t e Plant  V/hen a n e m p l o y e e ' s made  change being  when a Management crease,  great  sufficient given  request  f o r the d e c i s i o n . but  depth  adequate  Job Review  i n the. j o b g r a d e , o r results  Review Committee  detail,  i t shall  for re-evaluation  the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  appropriate sons  request  The  should to  show  attention.  decided  transmit i t s Committee.  results  s : H: ~ " •= r -  s t a t e n e r , : :-' ? J i c r . c .  appl  i~o :  c?..-:t  criteria that  i n an i n -  give  Committee  a short  i n no  r e d u c t i o n , or  i n no c h a n g e o r  indicate the  in a  the out-  the  :"  to the the  rea-  into in roc.rst  v.o;  171 13. c.  An e v a l u a t i o n be  final  and b i n d i n g on the p a r t i e s  five  years  job,  Management  quest the d.  If  for  s i n c e the o r an  of  tion  o r any o t h e r  referred  I.V/.A. All  the  matter  that job  their  tions wi.ll  to a P l a n t  Committee  offices  at  the  plant.  In  referred  of  the  REC.C'M.".E?.'DATIp:.' ..'0 . - t : the g r o u n d ; o f  the m a t t e r  shall  L i m i t e d and to  the  the  Union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  or  re-  the  Industrial  " e l a p s e d time"  pro-  effe-  Employer  In t h e c a s e o f communicathe  Union  of  the c a s e o f  for  evaluation  and one copy t o the  the o f f i c e s  Requests  Job E v a l u a -  be  the o f f i c e  Committee,  Forest  for  agree-  to above s h a l l  representatives  the a p p r o p r i a t e  care of  the  of  communications  Regicr;"  to  Ir-'ncil  \-/i 1 1  I.'o.  1 of of  Ltd.  r e - e v e iua i i on s u b m i t t e d the  the  - e r r es cr. z~z ' ve c a r e  R e ' = : !ons  under  Union  Company's  Union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  I.V/.A. Vancouver and the Employer  the o f f i c e s  to  Review Committee and  Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  be a d r e s s e d c a r e o f  on  Relations  Review C o m m i t t e e ,  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  the  reach  representatives.  be a d d r e s s e d c a r e o f  L o c a l and the  is unable  than  settlement.  on the committee or  re-  reason  the j o b  any P l a n t  c t e d by s e n d i n g one copy to  representative  r e - . z 1 ua t i z..- of a  jurisdiction,  Industrial  communication between  presentatives  after  and no o t h e r  Committee  Council for  Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  z'--z  employee may s u b m i t a  regarding  within  Forest  Regional  a-_  d i s p o s i t i o n o f a Request  falls to  or  zz  shall  be n e c e s s a r y .  t h e Plywood E v a l u a t i o n regarding  or, C;-.". i t tee  but,  evaluation  individual  e l a p s e d time s h a l l  ment  be  last  re-evaluation  gramme which  e.  done by the Plywood Eva  5  revised Sectic~  1 01 y r .  Article not  12 o f S u p p l e m e n t  No. 2 t o t h e M a s t e r A r - m o m e n t  be a c c e p t e d by t h e P l a n t  Evaluation  Review Committees  Committee b e f o r e J a n u a r y  this  recommendation  tees  and the Plywood Evaluation  to  other  wi11  CHANGES  stated  my  in this  PROCEDURES  them, and t h e time  ded as r e q u i r e d  them b y A r t i c l e  ution  o f t h e Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  3 of this  some d i f f i c u l t y  i n coming  V/hile  strongly  I believe being  limits  able  they  do s o .  relatively  small  but necessary  made now;  t h e s e a r e as  Committee  on amendments o f t h i s  t h e C o m m i t t e e must e v e n t u a l l y I am a f r a i d  been  kind. get to the  that  i t may b e  changes which  I have  decided  should  be  follows:  replace  tion.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  they w i l l  constit-  In t h e m e a n t i m e t h e r e a r e a number o f  should  the present  those who w r i t e  Because o f t h e  t h e r e has i n t h e p a s t  RECOMMENDATION NO. 5: - T h e J o b D e s c r i p t i o n  to  is  Committee under t h e a u t h o r i t y  t o make s u c h d e c i s i o n s ,  some t i m e b e f o r e  2 i t  f o r c o m p l e t i o n , a r e t o b e amen-  supplement."  t o agreement that  5 o f Supplement  the procedures f o r submitting  by t h e Plywood E v a l u a t i o n  given  point'of  r e p o r t , many o t h e r a d j u s t m e n t s  " t h e form o f t h e documents,  and handling  Conmi-  Committee a t a t i m e when, due  recommended w o r d i n g f o r A r t i c l e  that  The purpose o f  t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d .  IN FORMS AND  In  c r by t h e Plywood  i s to reduce the work-load o f Review  recommendations  have  1 s t , 1972.  should  free-form new f o r m  For- sh  ne r : ' i s :c  up t h e j o b d e s c r i p t o r ,  b e merr b e r s  of various  Plant  - Exhibit 1 sty'ie  r. " d e s c r i p -  p r o v i d e - o r e - :u i d a n c e because  f r o " .-  r.rtvi ew Corr:r;i t t c c - s  on "rs:;: i  15. tion  Comrni t t c c .  RECOMMENDATION NO. 6: - T h e " R e q u e s t b e amended  t o c o n f o r m t o E x h i b i t 2.  v.'hile v e r y m i n o r of  f o rJob E v a l u a t i o n "  the Plant  The changes  i n n a t u r e , do e m p h a s i z e  Review  t h e new  Plant wood  No. 2 r e f e r s  Review Committee. Evaluation  form  responsibilities  Committee  b, A r t i c l e  t o a time l i m i t f o r agreement  It iswithin  t o e s t a b l i s h a n d amend  they see f i t , but i n order  t o ensure that  is  n o t h a z a r d e d b y a n y i n d e c i s i o n on t h i s t h e t i m e l i m i t be e s t a b l i s h e d  5,  by the  the. a u t h o r i t y o f t h e P l y -  as  that  in this  should  Committees.  RECOMMENDATION NO. 7: - T h e r e v i s e d w o r d i n g o f S e c t i o n of S u p p l e m e n t  form  this  limit  t h e new p r o c e d u r e  question,  initially  time  at five  I recommend weeks.  EXHIBIT  I:  FORM OF J O B D E S C R I P T I O N  B. C . P L WOOD  INDUSTRY JOB E V A L U A T I O N  Plant:  P r e p a r e d by:  Department:  Revised by:  Job T i t l e :  R e v i s e d by: (  shifts -  incumbents each  JOB  1)  2  )  DESCRIPTION  PURPOSE OF THE JOB (and l o c a t i o n )  /-AKE AND MODEL OF A N Y EQUIPMENT OF S I G N I F I C A N C E  (which  3)  shift)  i s o p e r a t e d by  STEP BY S T E P A C T I V I T I E S  to completion  of final  incumbent)"  OF MAIN J O B  (from  s t e p ) AND PRODUCT  receiving  (s)  HANDLED  instructions  •  175 17.  EXHIBIT 1:  (continued  from Page' 16)  Plan t:  Prepa red b y :  Dept . :  Revised by:  Job T i t l e :  Revised by: (  shifts  -  incumbents each s h i f t )  '0  SECONDARY DUTIES ( s e t t i n g ,  adjustinq,  s e r v i c i n g of  5)  RESPONSIBILITY FOR DIRECTING OTHERS ( a s s i g n i n g v;ork, c h e c k i n g r e s u l t s - l i s t number o f p e o p l e s u p e r v i s e d )  REGULAR OR OCCASIONAL RELIEF DUTIES ( l i s t  extent,  equipment)  and r a t e  7) . REGULAR OR OCCASIONAL REPORTS, T A L L I E S , RECORDS ( l i s t t i t l e s a n d h e a d i n g s , p u r p o s e and d i s p o s a l - a t t a c h  C \  RELATED DUTIES  ( e . g . cleanup of  equipment  o f pay)  .  sample)  o r work £ - = 3 :  ; -  o d d  j o b s )  j  1  ii  —i  EXHIBIT  2:  FORM OF  REQUEST  FOR  B.'  EVALUATION  C.  COAST  REQUEST  FOREST  FOR  REVIEW PLYWOOD  Name o f  JCB  INDUSTRY  EVALUATION  COMMITTEE  JOB  EVALUATION  Company  Name  of Applicant  Date  Submitted  Present  Job  Category  Department  Present  Job  Grade  Shifts  Present  Job  Rate  No.  Reasons  for  Request  (State  Specific  amended  or  Job  new j o b  Change  of  (s)  Employees and  per  shift  attach  description):  (Signature  of  Applicant)  REviEW COMMITTEE ONLY _ r = t e Request A c t e d On D i s p o s i t i o n and R e a s o n s :  "0"n i l i a T h i s f o r n must be d u l y corp1 •; t e c : must be r a t i on by the P . c r i p t i on , to e n s u r e coes  of  Review Cor--  :cco-"-pan i e d by . C.  :-o;  J. ( (  19 3.3  THE INDUSTRY JOB  Supplement is  EVALUATION  No. 2 d e s c r i b e s  constituted  and d e f i n e s  COMMITTEE .  i t s duties.  problems which flow from the rather 2 as w e l l I  as f r o m t h e r a t h e r  describe  rulings must  first  vague w o r d i n g  powerless  i t c a n be e f f e c t i v e .  to (2)  i t has b e e n  evaluators lates  (3)  membership  any kind  membership  itself.  the parties  f o r the p r i n c i p a l  no t e n u r e  respective  teams  the practice  administrafollows:  i n o f f i c e but  principals  t o work  of s k i l l that  o f the p a r t i e s i s nothing  in job evaluation  o r competence  from day  of evaluators  have been  Committee,  whereas  by Supplement  No.  Although  committee  this  ministering committee feel  the  solely that  • procedures,  re-  or to the possession  in doubt, p a r t i c u l a r l y  employed.  quite  when t h e  In such  as a s e p a r a t e clearly  th'i  cases  when each Job  Industry  "~  not  intended  2. is  Programme, as  they  even  their  which o f f i c i a l l y  t h e r e h a v e been a number o f o c c a s i o n s  o f t h e c o m m i t t e e has been  Evaluation  to appoint  in the area.  team a p p e a r s t o have been c o n s i d e r e d  not  that  The p r o b l e m s a r e as  to the committee there  I understand  two  No.  day.  Although  of  o f Supplement  t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o r  T h e c o m m i t t e e members h a v e a b s o l u t e l y d e p e n d on t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e i r  t o be a number o f  nature o f the committee  t h e m b e c a u s e o f my c o n v i c t i o n  a g r e e o n a new c o n s t i t u t i o n  t i v e body b e f o r e (1)  T h e r e seem  t h e s e b e l o w b u t am n o t p r e p a r e d  t o overcome  Co.--it tee  how t h e I n d u s t r y J o b E v a l u a t i o n  charged it  seems  evaluators have  though  the such  and  by  Sup- " £ - = —  that  authority  2  principals  the  authority  No.  ', ti ee ;o is  charge  - i th  ad-  > ew  t h e - s e • \ : :-  the da  a dm i n i s t r -: : ' •, •;  clearly  given  i-  :  ..: z • 0  20. m e n t No. (5)  Little of  i f a n y t h o u g h t seems t o h a v e e v e r b e e n c ' . . e n  activities  not  or results.  have any s i n g l e  load  f o r an e v a l u a t o r ? V/hat  delay?  V/hat do e m p l o y e r s  questions  evidence  matters.  that  over  work-,  time and of  think of the plan?  V/hat  between  of administration While this  appears  i t seams t h a t  most,  or evaluation  i s by  t o have been a i f not a l l , o f the  evaluation  Even on q u e s t i o n s  anomolies  t h e t w o members o f  rather  than ad-  of evaluation, almost  there i s  inevitably  i n t h e wage s t r u c t u r e  from  compro-  time to  ime.  not  moment  too serious  technical  procedures  decisions  much m o r e are  could  provide  intermi ttcr.t manent,  or  neutral  and  of for  be i n v o l v e d  administrative but  very  possible  third-party  on a c o n t i n u i n g chairman  to  to  th : 5  settlement  basis;  v/ho wou 1 c! meet  or  berr e -  only  very  well.  r . i -~ . r  r  or  c " a:sagreeme-:: es t a b \  f r e : • ;-r, t ! y wi t h  V/ith  administra-  not  * 7. = :  c " :- c o u l d  in the  however,  and one must e x p e c t control  is  each o t h e r .  pNeview C o m m i t t e e s ,  much m o r e d i f r '  solutions  decisivness  few people a r e i n v o l v e d  know a n d r e s p e c t  done b y t h e P l a n t  important,  a number  relatively  and they  many m o r e p e o p l e ' w i l l tive  the lack of administrative  because  more work b e i n g  one  are ratings  t h e means o f s e t t l e m e n t ,  At the present  There  disagreements  arrangement  m i s e , has c r e a t e d  (7)  i s a reasonable  o f work and the extent  so r e f e r r e d have concerned  ministrative  do  and b e n e f i t s ?  to the parties.  satisfactory  What  and employees  c o m m i t t e e on q u e s t i o n s  reference  t  at present.  is the backlog  The method o f s e t t l i n g the  to control  s u c h as t h e f o l l o w i n g  How c o n s i s t e n t  plants?  the costs  Questions  focus  between  are (6)  2.  the  exa.-.p 1 e , on a n 0  per-  c'.'er  -  21. bers  of  the committee  one c o u l d e s t a b l i s h either  party  but  mula.  It  clear  portant  is  and be a v a i l a b l e  a separately  when cz'-'z'.s  incorporated  f i n a n c e d by them, a c c o r d i n g  and w e l l  however  that  established  t h e u n i o n and cannot  all  bod  these s o l u t i o n s  relationships  r e a l l y be worked out  between  instructions  the q u a l i t y  its  affect  ness is  and a c c e p t a n c e o f  applied  to o t h e r  recommendation  is  will  the programme,  segments  of  the  the  particularly  i n d u s t r y as  sharing  petent  of  the P l a n so  that  d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l  activi ty.  and  p a r t y , p a r t i c u 1 arto do s o .  long-run  Because  effective-  if  Job  Evaluation  well,  the  following  offered.  w i t h a view to making changes  ganization  for-  on im-  the employers  RECOMMENDATION NO. 8: - The p a r t i e s s h o u l d u n d e r t a k e s e r i o u s cussions  or  dc.-1 o f  trespass  by a t h i r d  not been g i v e n s p e c i f i c administration  ' - ic-:.  to some c o s t  l y one who has of  split;  of  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t h e r e may be a c o n t i n u a l this  dis-  increasingly  or-  and com-  important  lOU  22. S E C T I O N k:  U.}  THE T E C H N I C A L STRUCTURE OF THE JOB  EVALUATION  --V;  INTRODUCTION The titled  technical structure of the Plan  "Job E v a l u a t i o n  Plywood prises Each  Industry eleven  of British  empted  an a s s i g n e d  industry.  point  net effect  i n which  wage  increase  increased  if  the average of a l l point  Also in the  cost  warranted tensive  or intended. circling"  tisfaction  among  difficulty  for  portant in  the  w e r e .we  i n labour  the  the  It  it  work f o r c e ,  employers.  results but  also  should  though  not in  remain  such  t h e same. changes  ;~caesed would  o b s c u r e d by a  i s not  to a v o i d ex-  '. r. zz'z~z]  c-".-  economi c g r o w t h be  r u n , even  a change  zz~zz  rapid to  result  i n some c h a n g e i n  rcservr;'c'=  w o u 1 c! t e n d  f o r em-  to devise  These of  in-  general  costs  i n the short  t r u e , t o o , t h a t one  because  in a p e r i o d  relationships  is  to  p r i n c i p l e , any r e a d j u s t -  i f not i m p o s s i b l e ,  even  att-  value of  i n t h e wage s c a l e w i l l  f o r jobs  value of a l l jobs  point  "red  either a  w h i c h , when a p p l i e d , do n o t r e s u l t  the c r i t e r i a average  the "redc i r c l e "  difficult,  been  in the  establishes the relative  f o r the employers, at least  i t i s extremely  I have  o r a v e r a g e wages  a way o f g a i n i n g  values  have  t h a t my m a n d a t e h a s b e e n  p o s i t i o n of jobs  in  degrees.  and h a l f degrees  f o r employees, or a reduction  ment o f t h e r e l a t i v e  i n the  they a r e not d e f i n e d .  on c o s t s  the Plan  in the i n d u s t r y , not to f i n d  N a t u r a l l y , given  jobs  en-  T h e t e c h n i c a l s t r u c t u r e com-  value  state  jobs  ployers.  Hourly-paid  i n the structure of the Plan,  I must e m p h a t i c a l l y t h e way  in a booklet  a number o f d e f i n e d  although  o u t changes  to minimize'the  vestigate  each w i t h  fora l l criteria  In w o r k i n g  f o r Operational  Columbia."  job criteria,  degree c a r r i e s  recognized  Manual  is defined  dissa-  a z~.' ~ ' s t r a t i ve r.zz  z :• s o  im-  when £ 1 :•; -a t i c : pattern  c"'  -r ' -  181  23. v e r s a ! wage and pressures  and  cost  increase.  counter  i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s an In d e v e l o p i n g 13> of  1 have  tried  employers  time, a job relating  h.2  the  and  difficult  changes proposed  principles:  t o w o r k , must p e r i o d i c a l l y  than  CHANGES  IN THE  the  the  9:  a m e n d e d as  should  so and  thus  reduced  points  from s i x to f o u r  to  25.  t o a maximum o f  5  pages  degrees  The  page 5 s h o u l d  be  changed  to  and and  Manual  should  read:  mally  a c q u i r e d o n l y by  training  degrees  Second,  c r e a t e more  d e s c r i b e d on  skill  be  5 and  6 on  values  should  assigned  values  follows:  on  point  of  e x t e n s i v e as  knowledge or a s p e c i a l i z e d  tion",  a 11  be  values  passage  personal  Requires  Degrees  the  adjusted accordingly.  1, E d u c a t i o n ,  be  v/ork e n v i r o n m e n t  The  the  through  possibly cure.  f r o m a maximum o f 50  h.  9  because  to r e f l e c t  wage r e l a t i o n s h i p s  - Factor  Manual  ---Degree h  r-rpos-  E V A L U A T I O N MANUAL  RECOMMENDATION NO. of  First,  i n t i m e must not  existing  they can  JOB  point  r e r -. r "  i n n o v a t i o n and  be  - ••.. e c r e s t e d  i n recommendations  employees change w i t h  one  ;-ey  one.  e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m , w h i c h has  problems  be  i t i s however.  v : h i c h h a v e made t h e  t o f o l l o w two  completely  6  pressures extremely  c h a n g e s made a t a n y upset  As  0,  8,  be  shown on  show z e r o  6 should page  amended s o  interpolated poi nts .  outside  f o r a p e r i o d o f seven nonths  page  16 a n d  full-time  which would  25  be  points  accordingly.  the  more.  e 1 i rr,'~e : e r .  18 o p p e s ' c e  that  or  nor-  dec r e :  -  1,  Ore 2,  firror, 3  £  r e s : iz : i ve 1 y w i t h Cierees  and  ~r  h  "Educaare  t i --i h a l f -  above  will  182 2h. RECOMMENDATION' NO. of  IO: - F a c t o r  2, E x p e r i e n c e ,  t h e Manual  should  be reduced  from nine  maximum v a l u e  should  be reduced  f r o m 90  ual  should  b e a m e n d e d as  More than  point  values  ience', should above  be changed  shown on page  be amended  be eliminated  18 o p p o s i t e  the factor,  points  o f Factor 3 should  'Exper-  f o r a l l degrees  the original  thus  to distinguish  to help Visual  evaluators  Demand."  The Manual  On p a g e 8 c h a n g e t h e t i t l e "Judgment and On p a g e  be c h a n g e d  o f D u t i e s " t o "Judgment and I n i t i a t i v e "  more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t  intent  should  from  i n order  of this  this  factor  to  c r i t e r i o n and from."Mental  be c h a n g e d as  "Complexity  from  follows:  of Duties" to  Initiative."  18 make t h e same c h a n g e  i n the l e f t - h a n d column,  fac-  n o . 3-  tor  RECOMMENDATION  NO. from  increased  70 p o i n t s . On p a g e  wi t h k.  to read:  t o show z e r o  11: - T h e t i t l e  NO.  "Complexity  to  T h e Man-  6.  RECOMMENDATION  and  and t h e  degrees  t o 50 p o i n t s .  7  years  7, 8 a n d 9 o n p a g e 7 s h o u l d  ---Degrees The  three  to six  cr. p a c e  follows:  D e g r e e 6 on page 7 s h o u l d 6.  ciesc'-. s i  the  12:  6,  - Factor  five  to s i x degrees  The Manual  12 r e p l a c e  the  and V i s u a l  Mental  and  s h o u l d be present  its  re  amer.rer  def i  Demand s h o u l d value  ==• s  be  from  s: of  c:r--.3s  and 5  fo11owi n g :  C lose mental c o n t i nuous  end  visual  at ten t i c  arm! t h e m a t e r i a l  .-here-  35  dec i s i c r - v r  h e i r - ; w o r k e d on  is  ire  vo r '. i • 1 o ,  is  25. where the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t o r : r : ' s for 5.  e x a m p l e , when  Concentrated operation  a r e o n e o r t w o or,-z~~  there  mental  wherein  and/or  visual  variable ention  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  tinuous  mental  operation  material  wherein  i s very  on-off  and  defined  visual  att-  is essential. as f o l l o w s :  attention to a  the characteristics  a r e v a r i a b l e and the o p e r a t i o n  ment o r t o o l s  ble  and/or  or tools  o r when s i m u l t a n e o u s  phases o f t h e o p e r a t i o n  Concentrated  c-ri 1 y .  's  continuous  o f the equipment  c o n t r o l s must be o p e r a t e d  there  zz~z~z  of the material a r e  12 a d d a new d e g r e e , n u m b e r 6 ,  D e g r e e 6:  = '. r.p1 o a : ,  c o m p l e x a s , f o r e x a m p l e , when b o t h  to several  On p a g e  s  attention to a  v a r i a b l e , and where t h e o p e r a t i o n is moderately  ;  of the  o f the equip-  c o m p l e x a s , f o r e x a m p l e , when  a r e a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c o n t r o l s , many o f a  nature,  operation  con-  varia-  and where t h e speed and p r e c i s i o n o f  is critical  to the q u a l i t y  their  or quantity of  production. 18 amend t h e p o i n t  On p a g e h,  RE  COi'-'iME  5 and 6 a r e assigned  the  half-degrees  The  definitions  values  32,  kS  a n d 70 p o i n t s  of  degrees  Mental  Demand.  and V i s u a l  C I ?.'0 .  Materials, Factor  9,  13:  -  Equipment P recess  s a mo number  of  respectively with.  a r e to be-supplemented  shown i n E x h i b i t 3,  1  degrees  interpolated accordingly.  "bench-mark" j o b s  f.!DAT  6 so that  f o r Factor  The p r e s e n t and  Factor  Products  degrees  but  will  $ .  shoulr  Responsibility.  The  Gradir-r  zz  new  by t h e  Guidelines:  -.espons i b i l i t . f o r replaced factor  h a v e a maximum  by a h e - ;  will.he  value  of  : ~.  184  •>  26. as  compared w i t h  be  amended as  80  for the factor  15 w i t h  t h e page shown  On  page  to  "Process R e s p o n s i b i l i t y "  On  page  18 c h a n g e t h e t i t l e  18 a m e n d t h e p o i n t  a n d 5 t o 20, hO,  degrees  Tne  manual  should  follows:  - - - R e p l a c e page  k  i t replaces.  6$  and  in Exhibit 4  of Factor  values  i n the l e f t  f o r Factor  100 p o i n t s  interpolated accordingly.  9  9,  hand column  degrees  respective1y  with  2,  3.  the h a l f  28 EXHIBIT (The  T H E NEW FACTOR  *4:  following  tion  material  PROCESS  9;  is  to  replace  RESPONSIBILITY the  present  FACTOR PROCESS  This should  factor  behave  efficiency tiveness  of  the  worker  tain  superior of  a  the  in  th:  .:  Z.i'-S-  process,  may,  in  the  and/or  results,  not  opportunities  which  utilization quality  jobs,  just  to  to  responsible  the  certain  9  RESPONSIBILITY  extent  consistently  equipment  a  vantage  appraises in  of  that  his  15  page  Manual)  by  of  of  avoiding that  is  important  manner  in  order  materials,  product.  exercise  improve  it  control  in  mistakes of  the  are  to  be  process  worker  a  effec-  recognizes  way by  the  and  factor  also  the  control  life  such  but  part  to  the  This  that  as  to  ob-  taking  which  is  ad-  under  control. All  part  in  workers the  covered  process;  by j o b  not  evaluation  merely  those  who  work  considered  on  the  main  by  supervision  as  playing  production  a  line.  DEGREE 1.  The  worker  is  constrained  discipline  of  the  quired.  (5  work  by  group  the to  equipment, do  no m o r e  and  no  less  than  or  by  what  poi nts) .  . {  3.  \  These  degrees  are  defined  by  "bench-Mark" jobs  / 1.  '  5,  Grading  Guidelines,  Process  Responsibility.  izr,;  r.  the is  re-  186 31. k.3  INCONSISTENCIES Over there as  IN  the past  have  been  somewhat  v a l u e s y s terns  one  should  to  jobs  ators  number  of  and  similar  have  essentially  t h e same  of  be  related  to  differences  Offbearers, duties  of  of  to in  Dryer  evaluation  Evaluation to  where  Committee  once  t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  tor.  of  If  proposed  the  changes  consistencies the  Plywood  c i f i c  question the  work.  on  rccommendat i o n as  PJEWMME NDAJ 1 0 : i NO. Jh:  will  in unnecessary Committee ,  assigned plants  assigned Oper-  and j o b  this  job  a n d seems  examples  should  compare  be to  but  a r e competent  is  to  the j o b of  further  d i f f i c _ r /.  therefore;  rave  the  one,  to  spend  ratre-  would  I  Evalua-  handle  it  more  time  Raimann  £~ r - : ~ e  Chain  initiate  the Plywood  them  than  a r e Green One o f  enable  to  was done  Offbearers.  of  in  that  Raimann  j o b a r e not standardized cause  and  conditions  In a l l c a s e s  they  procedures  in c r i t e r i a  Evaluation  that  that  ratings  inconsistencies and to  The o n e e x c e p t i o n  ratings  resulting  Grader  the discretion  knowledge  tfie  well  therefore  the evaluation Other  as  industry  example,  between  necessary. to  in  For  v/hen  teams,  inevitable  Committee  determine  tion  kind  time  and Dryer  to  in  in  the  the points  Feeders  like  this  this  but  of  and working  requirements.  procedures  leave  duties  the job  jobs  is  inconsistent  the point  the Plywood  similar  is  It  character.  a l l plants  factors  more  the nature  life,  p r : r r £ m r r e '5  evaluation  inconsistencies  essentially  number  evaluation  in job  in  of  for  on  changes  changes  anomolies  in almost  ings  the job  a l l concerned.  requirements a  of  of  subtle  the  find  GRADING  12. y e a r s  a  more  PAST  Opera-  now,  the  visible  i n -  A f ; c " consulting devo!~:ed  a  spe-  follows:  - The  grading  o f a l l 'Raimann O p e r a t o r :  1d  ••>  187 32.  be  standardized  dard a l l  Ratings Raimann  proposed  EXHIBIT  6:  STANDARD  for  in  four  Raimann  Operators  standards  RATINGS  FOR  factors  as  Operators.  at  102 p o i n t s  do n o t a p p l y  R A I MANN  to  i s shewn This under Skoog  '. -  chan;:  z.- '-" z".z ' ;"  the existing  z.  Stan-  ; zz r. zz r d i z e plan.  The  Operators.  OPERATORS  Degrees Job  Present  Factor  Ranqe  Proposed  Education  M  - 2  2  Experience  2  - 2*  2  Hazards  2  - 2*  2  2*  -  2*  V/orking  conditions  3  Level  JOB E V A L U A T I O N M A N U A L  for  Operational Hourly Paid Jobs in the Plywood Industry of British Columbia  Prepared by Stevenson & Kellogg, Ltd. Consulting Management Engineering 810 Royal Bank Building Vancouver 2, B. C.  Prepared September,  1955  Amended July, 1966 Amended August, 1971  189  - 5 TO";!  Factor  1  EDUCATION  T h i s f a c t o r i s a m e a s u r e of the b a s i c education r e q u i r e d f o r a s u c c e s s ful p e r f o r m a n c e of the job. It can be d e s c r i b e d as the i n t e l l e c t u a l background the employee b r i n g s to the job as opposed to what he l e a r n s on the job. It r a n g e s f r o m g e n e r a l knowledge such as reading and w r i t i n g and f a c i l i t y i n the use of n u m b e r s to knowledge r e l a t e d to c r a f t s and t r a d e s and beyond this to the knowledge r e q u i r e d of the t e c h n i c i a n or at t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . While f o r m a l education i s not e s s e n t i a l , the r e q u i r e m e n t s are most r e a d i l y a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s of school attendance, with the r e c o g n i t i o n that the equivalent knowledge may be acq u i r e d by other m e a n s .  DEGREE 1.  R e q u i r e s the ability to speak and understand E n g l i s h , and to = read, although i n s t r u c t i o n s and r e p o r t s may be e n t i r e l y o r a l . R e q u i r e s ability to count and to do simple addition and subt r a c t i o n of whole n u m b e r s . E q u i v a l e n t to public school education,  2.  R e q u i r e s ability to p e r f o r m simple a r i t h m e t i c i n c l u d i n g f r a c t i o n s and d e c i m a l s and to weigh or m e a s u r e , using s c a l e s , weights, or m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s such as simple c a l i p e r s or gauges. A b i l i t y to f i l l i n simple f o r m s and make v e r y simple r e p o r t s i n w r i t i n g . M a y use simple drawings or c h a r t s . E q u i v a l e n t to two y e a r s i n high school or t e c h n i c a l high school.  3.  R e q u i r e s knowledge beyond that specified f o r the second degree, such as ability to make c a l c u l a t i o n s involving f r a c t i o n s , d e c i m a l s , and percentages as i n g e n e r a l shop or f a c t o r y m a t h e m a t i c s . A l s o may r e q u i r e operational-1 e v e l knowledge of a p r o c e s s or m e c h a n i c a l operation i n v o l v i n g e l e m e n t a r y science or f a m i l i a r i t y with one or two p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g instruments. May involve reading of simple drawings or c h a r t s or the use of simple handbook tables o r f o r m u l a s . May r e q u i r e checking and posting or combining p r e w r i t t e n data, as in combir.icr. t a l l i e s to p r e p a r e a p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t . May r e q u i r e some re^rLrr.g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d — r h c e c r c s t r u c t i o n s . E q u i v a l e n t to four y e a r s of high s c h o o l , - r t w o y= = r s of h i g h school plus the added educational r e c e i r e m e n t ; :f two or three years, of apprenticeship or e q u i v a l e n t T r a i n i n g .  4.  R e q u i r e s the ability to understand and u s e f a i r l y c o m p l i c a t e d drawings and specifications and k n o w i e d g e of f a i r l y c o m p l i : aced shop m a t h e m a t i c s . May r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e o p e r a t i o n a l knowledge of one o r m o r e p r o c e s s e s or m e c h a n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s or understanding of s e v e r a l p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s .  190 - 6 May require understanding of some technical t t s t r u c r i r z s in. such fields as electricity, hydraulics, mechanics, chemistry, radio, •where interpretation of terminology, symbols, or codes is necessar May require some elementary bookkeeping or interpretation of moderately involved written instructions or statements. Equivalent to full high school plus some specialized training such as that required of apprentices in carpentry, motor mechanics, or machine shops. Requires the ability to read and understand detailed blueprints and specifications of some complexity and to work therefrom, and sufficient shop mathematics or knowledge of a science to solve problems of moderate complexity requiring some originality and ingenuity. May also require the ability to understand and apply basic technical knowledge in such fields as electricity, radio, television, mechanics, chemistry, or forestry in situations of a highly skilled or technician level. Equivalent to full high school plus the equivalent of two years of technical college training or other specialized training usually taken in full-time attendance but may be carried out by part-time study as in qualifying for tool making, draftsman, electrician, radio or television technician, laboratory technician, or the like. Requires knowledge of fundamental principles of mechanics, chemistry, forestry, electricity, metallurgy, or the like to thoroughly understand complicated processes or mechanisms for the purpose of construction, repair, revision, or replacement. Equivalent to full university or technical college training in engineering.  191 -  7  Factor  -  2  EXPERIENCE This factor appraises the length of time required for the necessary practice and learning on the particular job, or related or lower-level jobs which logically lead to the particular job under consideration, to prepare an average untrained individual to do a satisfactory or normal job. It is measured i n terms of the number of days, weeks, months, or years of practice and on-the-job learning required by the employee to develop the physical and mental habits and skills required, such as precision, versatility, co-ordination, and dexterity. On repetitive, short cycle jobs requiring physical co-ordination and dexterity, ability to produce at ordinary or normal speed is the criterion. In machine-paced jobs, ability to perform the task to a satisfactory quality standard at the normal pace determined by the machine is the requirement which should be considered. When rating this factor, attention should be given to the number of different tasks which must be learned on the job, their requirements in practical "know-how", and the degree of accuracy or precision required. The allowance for experience should include breaking i n time, such as on-the-job work experience as an apprentice, helper, or learner, special training courses provided by the company on company time, such as the vestibule type training, or time served as an understudy for learning purposes. However, do not credit here full-time school attendance already credited under education. In rating under this factor it is important to use the minimum time required for on-the-job training and experience if it were possible to advance the average worker as soon as he is ready. In practice a worker may be delayed by waiting for openings in jobs v/ith higher requirements, which i n turn would provide training for further advancement, Care should also be taken to rate in terms of the average person rather than in terms of the exceptionally fast or the exceptionally slow person. DEGREE  1.  A few days up to one week.  2.  Two weeks to one month.  3.  One month to three months.  4. '  Three months to six months.  5.  Six months to one year. M o r e  than three  years.  192 - 8 -  Factor 3 C O M P L E X I T Y O F DUTIES  This factor measures the demands of the job in creative ability or general intelligence. It includes ingenuity and initiative, planning, and the use of judgment. It involves the ability of the worker to meet new situations as they arise. "While this is partly a product of education and experience, it is the more intangible but real native ability which determines the results achieved. It is that aspect of capacity to perform which cannot be acquired through education or experience alone. In rating this factor the simplicity or complexity of the work situation should be considered, the number and variety of decisions, and the independence required due to lack of standards or lack of precedents available upon which to base such decisions. The significance of the decisions and the degree of supervision given should be taken into account. DEGREE 1.  Routine or highly repetitive work, simple in nature, in which the employee is allowed little or no choice of action,  2.  Requires the application of clearly prescribed standard practices or involves working under close supervision or following detailed instructions. Some choice of action possible and some judgment required in applying standard practices or instructions to specific situations.  3.  Requires the ability to plan and perform operations within a framework of semi-routine instructions or standards, or to make analyses of facts from which it is easy to determine logical answers as a guide to action. May make general decisions as to quality, operational and set-up sequences, involving some judgment, but anything new or difficult is referred to supervisor.  4.  Requires the ability to plan and perform a s e c t - — e of operations, where standardized procedure or recognized.— etd: d.s are available. Must evaluate factors, results, data, or trends, ar.d craw conclusions, but decisions are generally based upon precedent or company policy, with unusual problems being referred to supervisor.  193  - 9 -  Requires ability to work independently towards general results, making decisions involving the use of considerable ingenuity, initiative, and judgment. Only general methods are available as a guide and the work may involve devising procedures and methods. There i s usually only general supervision. Requires independent judgment on involved and complex jobs. Usually requires analysis of a number of factors and the application of specialized technical knowledge to devise methods or procedures to achieve general objectives. Supervisor i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with results.  - 10 -  Factor 4 M A N U A L D E X T E R I T Y REQUIRED  This .£=_oror is intended to measure a value not found in the other factors, br. cpphhccg only to a limited number of jobs. .-rrcraise manual dexterity in terms of precision,, speed, and quickness of movements. Consider the degree of complex, intricate patterns of movement required, and the relative importance of integrating that kind of activity with others. Degree 1 represents the ordinary or normal dexterity level demanded by the majority of production jobs.  DEGREE 1.  Some accuracy, regularity and sequence of muscular movements and co-ordination involving simple hand operations, requiring little close timing of movement but limited to use within a narrow range of fairly simple hand tools, equipment, or operations.  2.  A degree of manual dexterity requiring above average speed, quickness and precision of movement.  3.  A considerable degree of manual dexterity requiring above average quickness and precision of movement with a high degree of integrated co-ordination with others.  4.  A high degree of manual dexterity requiring a continuous high level of speed, precision and quickness of movement and a highly integrated and co-ordinated performance with other So  195  - 11 -  Factor 5 P H Y S I C A L DEMAND  This factor measures the requirements of the job in physical effort, strength, and endurance. It includes muscular exertion, continuity of effort, and the freedom or awkwardness of work positions. Consider the effort expended due to weight and frequency of handling of materials, in handling tools, or in operating a machine. Consider only those requirements which lead to fatigue in the normal course of the job.  DEGREE 1.  Light work with simple muscular movements and requiring only intermittent exertion such as standing, sitting, or walking. Materials or tools handled only intermittently and are light. E a s y work positions. Very light bench work, clerical tasks, or the duties of a night watchman would be typical.  2.  Relatively light physical effort v/ith regular lifting or manipulation of light weight tools or materials or occasionally or intermittently with material or tools of average weight. Also might involve continuous sitting or standing without freedom to change position at will, or considerable walking or climbing. Operation of machine or machine tools where machine time exceeds handling time.  3.  Sustained physical effort with materials or tools of average weight. Operate several machines where handling time is equivalent to the total machine time. May involve awkward work positions.  4.  Frequent pushing and pulling or lifting of heavy materials involving considerable physical effort over short periods. Also continuous strain of difficult work position, or work of a highly repetitive nature, machine paced, with relatively light materials.  5.  Sustained physical exertion with materials of s~--^~:zze weight, or continuous difficult work positions. V/ork " h i e d i--.~~Z.~es lighter exertion but in which the maintenance of s p e c i f i e d s c e i d levels is a decided factor in fatigue.  6.  Exceptionally heavy work with constant physical effort required, such as constant pushing and pulling or lifting of very he ivy materials. Also might involve work in very difficult v~ ork positions.  196 - 12 -  Factor 6 M E N T A L AND  VISUAL DEMAND  T h i s factor appraises the mental and/or visual concentration required. Consider the alertness and attention necessary, the length of the operating cycle, the speed of the operation, and the coordination of manual dexterity with mental or visual attention. Care should be taken to distinguish the mental and/or visual demands factor from the characteristics considered under education and complexity of duties. In this factor consider only the fatigue-causing physical aspects of nervous and physical concentration, not the demands in abstract thinking and judgment which are measured by the other factors referred to.  DEGREE 1.  A minimum of mental and visual attention, as in an operation which is almost automatic, or in which mental and visual attention i s required .only at relatively long intervals.  2.  Frequent mental or visual attention, where the flow of work is intermittent or the position involves only the setting of a machine and waiting for the machine to complete a cycle. "Work requires little attention or checking during cycle.  3.  Moderate mental and/or visual attention on acontinuous or almost continuous basis, such as in an operation where the flow of work i s steady and repetitive or when constant alertness is required. However, sustained mental application over long periods i s seldom required.  4.  Close mental and visual attention to highly variable operations, or concentrated attention on planning and laying zzz complex work.  •5,  Concentrated mental and/or visual attentice zo zlzzly variable operations with considerable detail, or coccentra-ad attention to the planning and layout of very involved :=r.d complex jobs.  197 - 13 Factor  7  RESPONSIBILITY FOR SUPERVISION This factor appraises the responsibility which the position involves for assisting, instructing, and directing others, and for planning their work for the most effective use of men, equipment, and material. Consider both the type and degree of responsibility and the number of people supervised.  DEGREE 1.  The worker is responsible only for his own work, although he may work with, and exchange information with others.  2.  Directs from one to five assistants or helpers, with responsibility for completion and quality of the work, but usually working with * those supervised.  3.  Leader of a group, usually more than five in number but not exceeding ten to twelve. Responsible for assigning and checking work, with instruction and assistance as required. T r a i n s new employees in unskilled jobs or semi-skilled jobs such as the operation of simple machines or tools. Performs same work as those supervised or closely related or more difficult aspects of the same work most of the time. May make out simple production and time reports, but supervisory and administrative duties should not require more than 25% to 35% of the time. Typical lead hand type of job.  4.  Supervisor of a department, section, or unit, usually up to twenty-five to thirty persons but may be smaller if the work requires considerable individual instruction and assistance. Responsible for instructing, directing, and maintaining the flow of work and for directional authority within the group. Full-time ordinarily devoted to supervisory duties, which may include preparation of time and production reports anr. some co-ordination with other units.  5.  Supervisor or foreman over a relatively l a r - e dspar-ment, usually exceeding twenty-five with full r e G p o n s i d i l i t y f o r p ; ar-:ing detailed procedures and methods, assigning w o r h . c o n t r c l l i r . - c o s t s , and directing and supervising p e r s o n n e l . C err.plex forerr.a_- job or plant superintendent in a small p l a n t .  - 14 -  Factor 8 iSPONSIBILITY FOR S A F E T Y OF OTHERS  This factor appraises the responsibility of the job holder for the operation of a machine : r the handling of tools or equipment in such manner as to prevent or —hreirrhht-a injury to others. Consider the care which is necessary, the possibility of let her y, and the probable extent of injury should it occur. In this factor consider only the probability and severity of injury to others. Injury to the employee on the job being rated i s considered under Hazards rather than under this factor.  DEGREE 1.  The work does not involve much chance of injury to others. It may be in an isolated position, or may not involve the operation of equipment or tools, or the materials handled are so light as to preclude injury to others.  2.  Only reasonable or ordinary care is required, and accidents, if they do occur, would be minor in nature - cuts, bruises, abrasions.  3.  Careless performance of duties or failure to observe established safety regulations might result in accidents of sufficient seriousness to others as to cause loss of work time, e.g. broken bones, crushed fingers, arms, feet, or legs, or eye injuries.  4.  Constant care is required to prevent serious injury to others, such as in starting up equipment or operating equipment close to other workers when hazards are inherent, but in situations in which these other workers can act to prevent being injured.  5.  The safety of other workers depends on the worker in the position being rated performing his job properly, and under such circumstances that carelessness or inattention might result in fatal accidents to others who would have little chance of avoiding such accidents.  Factor 9 RESPONSIBILITY F O R M A T E R I A L S , AND P R O D U C T S  EQUIPMENT,  This f a r c e r appraises the responsibility of the employee for preventing loss or w c a r e of : a ~ materials through error and/or neglect, for preventing damage to the equip-— a c t caeadng financial loss or delays in production, and for defects in finished pro c e r t 5 . This factor is most conveniently measured by the possible cost o f mistakes or carelessness of the person who holds the job. The costs may be in wasted materials, spoiled products, damaged equipment, or production delays. In appraising this factor consider the probable cost in any one instance before detection. Do not consider extreme or rare possibilities.  DEGREE 1.  E r r o r s can be quite readily detected and cost of losses is negligible. Probable damage to material, equipment or products would not exceed ten dollars in any one instance. E r r o r s might ' cause some loss of the employee's time but no loss of production otherwise.  2.  E r r o r s are likely to be detected in succeeding operations or by : regular inspection. Probable damage to equipment would not exceed $25. 00 in any one instance, while probable damage to, or waste of materials or products would seldom exceed $100. 00. Delays in processes would be minor.  3.  E r r o r s would not be detected quickly through automatic checks or inspection. Some waste of materials or defective products might result in loss of $250 in any one case. Damage to equipment might be within the same range. E r r o r s might cause loss of working time of others while repairs effected or material re-worked,  4.  E r r o r s could have quite serious consequences, with equipment damage running to $1,000 and loss of materials or defective products causing loss up to $500. Alternatively, e r r o r s might cause significant loss of production time.  5.  E r r o r s might cause extensive losses due to the high degree of responsibility for materials, equipment, or final products. Damag to equipment might cause loss of several thousand dollars, and similar losses might result from loss of, or damage to, raw material. - Alternatively e r r o r s might cause serious production delays through failure to foresee needs and provide essential materials, parts, or equipment when required.  - 16 -  Factor 10 HAZARDS  This factor appraises the hazards of the job, both health and accident. Consider only his. normal hazards of the position which remain even though all appropriate sad=-y devices have been installed and safety procedures are closely regulated. Also consider only the normal hazards to health when precautions are taken to safeguard employees.  DEGREE  '"  1.  The hazards are negligible due to the working conditions.  2.  Probability exists of minor injuries such as cute, burns, bruises, etc. not involving lost time.  3.  Some exposure to lost-time accidents, such as broken bones, loss of fingers, eye injuries, etc. Some exposure to occupational disease, but not of an incapacitating nature.  4.  5.  .  Possibility exists of incapacitating accidents, such as injury in operating heavy equipment on construction where all conditions cannot be controlled, falls from scaffolds, or falling or flying materials; or exposure to electric shock or molten metals where injuries might be severe but would not normally cause death, Similarly, the job may have inherent hearth" hazards which would shorten working life but not prove fatal. Exposure to accidents or disease which could result in total disability or death„  201  - 17 Factor WOR KING  11 CONDITIONS  This factor appraises the disagreeableness of conditions and surroundings under which the job must be performed. Consider only those conditions which cannot be controlled by the individual. Appraise the severity and continuity of exposure to such elements as noise, dust, heat, wet, humidity, extreme cold, fumes, grease, acids or chemicals, vibrations,etc. Consider also jobs which, because of their location, would require the worker to live away from home part or all of the time, or which might involve travelling. Consider shift work as a disagreeable factor also unless it i s compen-r sated for by a shift differential in wages. Also consider personal expense which might be involved in procuring protective clothing under conditions described in Degrees 4 and 5. (Add one degree if operator not supplied v/ith protective clothing or devices.)  DEGREE 1.  Good working conditions with absence of any disagreeable elements.  2.  Good working conditions. M a y b e slightly dirty or may involve occasional exposure to some of the elements listed, as heat, factory noise, fumes, etc. but not continuous.  3.  Moderately disagreeable conditions due to exposure to one or more of the elements above. If several of the elements are present, exposure should not be continuous or severe.  4.  Continuous exposure to one element which is particularly severe or disagreeable, such as heat or continuous fumes to the point of this factor being outstanding as a characteristic of the job. Alternatively there may be continuous expo-tire to three or more disagreeable elements, such as heat, dust. ar_i. noise, but no one alone being exceptionally disagreeable. Alsc —_~ht involve occasional exposure to very extreme cer_iitio~ 5 .  5.  Continuous and intensive exposure t o s e v e r a l extremely disagreeable elements; u s u a l l y of such d e g r e e a s t o r e q u i r e the operator to wear a mask o r other protective device s"which a r e in themselves uncomfortable.  INTERIOR S A W M I L L INDUSTRY JOB E V A L U A T I O N M A N U A L  203 - 2 The factors contained in this Manual are thirteen (13) in r c r r _ r e r  fail  into four (4) major groupings as follows: A.  K N O W L E D G E AND  SKILL  (relative weighting of which is approximately 20. 1%) 1. 2. 3.  B.  Job knowledge On the job experience Manual skill  EFFORT (relative weighting of which i s approximately 16. 8%)  C.  4.  P h y s i c a l effort  5.  Visual effort  6.  Judgment  RESPONSIBILITIES (relative weighting of which is approximately 56. 7%) 7.  Lumber recovery  8.  Production flow  9.  (a) Mobile equipment (b) Stationary and/or other production equipment (c) Auxiliary equipment  10.  Safety of others  11.  (a) External contacts (b) Internal contacts  D.  JOB  CONDITIONS  (relative weighting of which is approximately 6. 4%) 12.  Personal hazards  13.  Personal discomforts.  On the pages which follow, each of these thirteen (13) factors are described and its application by factor degrees is defined.  The degrees of each factor are  used jointly by the Evaluators to determine how much one category differs from  204  1.  JOB K N O W L E D G E This factor measures the minimum time required to obtain specialized or practical knowledge which is an integral part of the job. POINTS A.  F r o m 4 and up to but not including 5 years.  200  B.  F r o m 3 and up to but not including 4 years.  160  C.  F r o m 2 and up to but not including 3 years.  120  D.  F r o m 18 and up to but not including 24 months.  85  E.  F r o m 12-and up to but not including 18 months..  65  F.  F r o m 9 and up to but not including 12 months.  45  G.  F r o m 6 and up to but not including 9 months.  36  H.  F r o m 4 and up to but not including 6 months.  27  I.  F r o m 2 and up to but not including 4 months.  20  J.  F r o m 1 and up to but not including 2 months.  15  K.  F r o m 2 and up to but not including 4 weeks.  10  L.  F r o m 1 and up to but not including 2 weeks.  6  M.  F r o m 0 and up to but not including 1 week.  3  ON T H E JOB E X P E R I E N C E This factor measures the minimum time required to develop a reasonable standard of job performance. POINTS A.  F r o m 18 and up to but not including 24 months.  85  B.  F r o m 12 and up to but not including 18 months.  65  C.  F r o m 9 and up to but not including 12 months.  45  D.  F r o m 6 and up to but not including 9 months.  36  E.  F r o m 4 ^ n d up to but not including 6 months.  27  F.  F r o m 2 and up to but not including 4 months.  20  G.  F r o m 1 and up to but not including 2 months.  15  H.  F r o m 2 and up to but not including 4 weeks.  10  I.  F r o m 1 and up to but not including 2 weeks.  6  J.  F r o m 0 and up to but not including 1 week.  3  MANUAL SKILL This factor measures the physical dexterity and physical co-ordination required. Speed of Movement Deliberate Quick Reflex  A.  High  80  100  120  B.  C o n s i d e r a b l e degree  40  50  60  C.  A b o v e a v e r a g e degree  10  15  20  PHYSICAL E F F O R T This factor measures the intensity of the physical effort required. Frequency of Effort Occasional Frequent Continual A.  B.  C.  Heavy work requiring more than ordinary endurance.  35  45  55  Moderate or heavy effort involving some fatigue  15  25  35  5  10  15  Light to moderate effort with little fatigue.  VISUAL E F F O R T This factor measures the degree and continuity of the visual exertion and alertness required.  Low  Speed of Operation Medium High  A.  Concentrated and exacting visual attention.  50  75  100  B.  Close visual attention.  20  30  40  C...  N o r m a l visual attention.  5  10  15  JUDGMENT This factor measures the requirements of the job for the exercise of resourcefulness and independent judgment.  Frequency of Decisions Occasional Frequent C ontinual  Complex decisions required involving the balancing of several factors  80  110  150  Independent decisions required within standard practices and available guidelines.  30  40  60  5  10  20  Routine decisions required.  210  7.  LUMBER  RECOVERY  This factor measures the responsibility for increasing and/or maintaining Recovery and/or Grade.  Level  Points.  A.  240  -  170  C.  100  D.  80  E.  60  •F.  40  G.  30  H. •  20  I.  10  B  PRODUCTION FLOW This factor measures the degree of influence exercised by the job function over inter-related job functions. Degree of Influence Low Considerable High A.  B.  C.  Job function is critical to the flow of product. . Job function is significant to the flow of product. Job function is of minor significance to the flow of product.  30  60  100  15  30  45  10  15  212  EQUIPMENT This factor measures the importance of the equipment and its susceptibility to damage. Value (a) Mobile Equipment: Medium Low A.  B.  C. (b)  Responsibility for heavy equipment and/or with large capacity.  90  170  Responsibility for mediumsized equipment and/or with medium capacity.  30  80  140  Responsibility  10  60  110  High degree of susceptibility to damage.  30  90  150  Medium degree of susceptibility to damage.  20  70  120  Low degree of susceptibility to damage.  10  50  90  High degree of susceptibility to damage.  50'  75  100  Medium degree of susceptibility to damage.  10  30  50  5  1C  15  for light equipment.  17/  240 3/i>  Stationary and/or Other Production Equipment: A.  B.  C.  (c)  High  Auxiliary A.  B.  C.  Equipment:  Low degree of susceptibility to damage.  S A F E T Y OF OTHERS This factor measures the responsibility for avoiding injury to others.  Level of Hazard Low A.  Great care required.  B. C.  Moderate  High  20  25  30  Considerable care required.  8  12  16  Reasonable care required.  3  6  9  C O N T A C T S WITH O T H E R S This factor measures the significance of contacts outside and within the operation. Frequency of Contacts Occasional Frequent Continual (a)  External Contacts A. Critical  40  60  80  B. Significant  20  30  40  50  100  150  15  25  C. Minor  (b)  Internal Contacts A. Critical B. Significant C. Minor  10  215  12.  PERSONAL HAZARDS This factor measures the level of personal hazard. •"  Frequency of Exposure Occasional  Frequent  Continual  A.  High risk  20  25  30  B.  Moderate  10  13  18  C.  Low risk  2  5  8  PERSONAL DISCOMFORT This factor measures the personal discomforts resulting from disagreeable elements (e. g. , heat, cold, kamp, noise, dust and fumes). Frequency of Exposure Occasional Frequent Continual A.  Severe conditions  30  60  90  B.  Disagreeable Conditions  10  15  20  C.  Basic Sawmill Conditions  3  6  10  ARTICLE V I I - PLYWOOD JOB EVALUATION S e c t i o n 1:  Implementation  The job e v a l u a t i o n program f o r the Plywood I n d u s t r y , conducted p u r s u a n t t o a Memorandum o f Agreement executed on the 22nd day of June, 1955, s h a l l be implemented by the P a r t i e s h e r e t o i n accordance w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of Supplement No. 2 t o t h i s Agreement. Section 2:  P o i n t Range and Increment  A l l jobs i n Group One, the p o i n t range o f which i s 0 to 81, s h a l l be p a i d t h e minimum r a t e f o r common labour as p r o v i d e d i n A r t . IX, Sec. 1. The p o i n t range f o r subsequent groups s h a l l be ten (10), i . e . , Group Two (82-91), Group Three (92-101) , e t c . The v/age increment between s u c c e s s i v e groups from one to s i x i n c l u s i v e s h a l l be f o u r cents (40) per h o u r , and between s u c c e s s i v e groups from and i n c l u d i n g Group Seven, up t o and i n c l u d i n g the h i g h e s t g r o u p , f i v e cents (5c) per h o u r . Section 3:  Red C i r c l e  Jobs  Incumbents i n job c a t e g o r i e s f o r which the wage r a t e i s reduced as a r e s u l t of job e v a l u a t i o n ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as "red c i r c l e j o b s " ) s h a l l c o n t i n u e a t the o r i g i n a l r a t e u n t i l such time as job openings become a v a i l a b l e to them a t e q u a l or h i g h e r r a t e s . ARTICLE V I I I - SAWMILL JOB EVALUATION I t i s agreed t h a t a job e v a l u a t i o n program w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Coast Sawmill I n d u s t r y . To implement t h i s s t e p s be t a k e n ;  program i t i s  agreed  t h a t the f o l l o w i n g  (a)  A J o i n t Committee c o m p r i s i n g two from each o f the P a r t i e s w i l l be  representatives established.  (b)  The s a i d Committee w i l l develop a job evaluerhon manual.  • (c)  The Committee w i l l a l s o p r e p a r e a job d e s r r i p t i e ~ £ for the r e q u i s i t e number o f bench mark j o b s .  (d)  The bench mark jobs v / i l l be a l l o c a t e d i n accordance w i t h the manual.  point  ratings  (e)  The r e p o r t o f the J o i n t Committee h e r e i n e s t a b l i s h e d s h a l l be completed and made a v a i l a b l e t o the P a r t i e s b e f o r e J u l y 1, 1971.  Source:  Master Agreement, 1972-1973, F o r e s t Products I n d u s t r i e s Coast Region B r i t i s h Columbia, June 15, 1972.  PLYWOOD JOB EVALUATION As r e f e r r e d t o i n A r t . V I I , Sec. 1 PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES The implementation and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the j o b e v a l u a t i o n program s h a l l be i n accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s and procedures s e t o u t i n a Manual dated September, 1955, and e n t i t l e d "Job E v a l u a t i o n Manual f o r O p e r a t i o n a l H o u r l y P a i d Jobs i n the Plywood I n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia" as amended J u l y , 1966 ( h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "Manual.") INDUSTRY JOB EVALUATION COMMITTEE There s h a l l be a committee c o n s t i t u t e d and named the I n d u s t r y Job E v a l u a t i o n Committee ( h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o as the "Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee") t o c o n s i s t o f one member r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s L i m i t e d , and one member r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l No. 1, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America. FUNCTION OF PLYWOOD EVALUATION COMMITTEE (a)  The Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee s h a l l a s sume g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e j o b e v a l u a t i o n program.  (b)  The unanimous d e c i s i o n o f the s a i d Committee s h a l l be f i n a l and b i n d i n g on the P a r t i e s hereto.  PLANT JOB REVIEW COMMITTEE (a)  There s h a l l be a committee c o n s t i t u t e d i n each plywood p l a n t named t h e P l a n t Job Review Committee ( h e r e i n r e f e r r e d t o as "ReviewCommittee") t o c o n s i s t o f two members r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Management and two members r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the employees. A t l e a s t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Management tncst be a member o f the P l a n t ' s s a l a r i e d s t a f f c r Management, and a t l e a s t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the employees must be an employee of rfr_e P l a n t whose job i s s u b j e c t t o Plywood Job E v a l u a t i o n . Management may choose t h e i r second r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from amongst persons not employed a t the p l a n t , and the Union may do l i k e w i s e e x c e p t t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t y may choose as i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a member of the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee or any person who i s employed as a job e v a l u a t o r by F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s L i m i t e d or by Regional C o u n c i l No. 1 of the I.W.A. (b)  The Company s h a l l reimburse any o f i t s h o u r l y - p a i d employees f o r time l o s t w h i l e a c t i n g as a member of the Review Committee or w h i l e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g a r d i n g h i s own job, b e f o r e a r e g u l a r l y convened meeting of the Review Committee. The Company s h a l l not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r remunerating employee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who are not i t s h o u r l y - p a i d employees.  FUNCTION OF REVIEW COMMITTEE (a)  The Review Committee w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t a l l requests f o r e v a l u a t i o n or r e - e v a l u a t i o n of jobs are adequately and a c c u r a t e l y documented b e f o r e b e i n g passed to the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee f o r f u r t h e r a c t i o n . The documents r e q u i r e d w i l l i n c l u d e a "Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n " form submitted e i t h e r by an i n d i v i d u a l employee or by l o c a l Management, and a f u l l y completed Job D e s c r i p t i o n which p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the subsequent work of the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee. The form of the documents, the procedures f o r s u b m i t t i n g ' and h a n d l i n g them, and the time l i m i t s f o r completion may be amended as r e q u i r e d by the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee under the a u t h o r i t y g i v e n them by A r t i c l e 3 of t h i s supplement.  (b)  D e c i s i o n s of the Review Committee r e s p e c t i - g the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a request f o r e v a l u a t i o n or r e - e v a l u a t i o n , or respecting- the adequacy and accuracy o f documents, s h a l l be by unanimous agreement. F a i l i n g such agreement w i t h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d time i i r . i t , the Review Committee s h a l l , a t the r e — t e s t of  any one of i t s members, immediately forward the Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h any other documents on which there is unanimous agreement, to the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee and s h a l l then have no f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r documenting t h a t r e q u e s t . (c)  When the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee has made a d e c i s i o n r e s p e c t i n g the e v a l u a t i o n o f a j o b , i t s h a l l communicate t h a t d e c i s i o n to the a p p r o p r i a t e Review Committee. The Review Committee w i l l be r e s p o n s i b l e for informing Management and the employees concerned, g i v i n g reasons f o r the outcome where these are a v a i l able. A d e c i s i o n of the Review Committee t h a t an A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d not be forwarded to the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee w i l l , s i m i l a r l y , be communicated w i t h reasons t o those concerned.  (d)  Nothing i n t h i s A r t i c l e l i m i t s the r i g h t of the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee t o determine the f a c t s about any job, by d i r e c t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n or o t h e r w i s e , or t o amend any job d e s c r i p t i o n or s p e c i f i c a t i o n submitted t o them i n s u p p o r t o f a Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n form.  APPLICATION OF PROGRAM The job e v a l u a t i o n program s h a l l a p p l y t o a l l employees i n the plywood i n d u s t r y e x c e p t Journeymen Tradesmen, Improvers, Helpers and Powerhouse and Broom Crews. DIRECTION OF WORK Job e v a l u a t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s are w r i t t e n w i t h the i n t e n t to s e t f o r t h the g e n e r a l d u t i e s and r e q u i r e ments o f the job and s h a l l not be construed as imposing any r e s t r i c t i o n on the r i g h t o f the Company t o a s s i g n d u t i e s t o employees o t h e r than those s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n job d e s c r i p t i o n s , p r o v i d e d always t h a t i f the assignment o f such d u t i e s changes the job c o n t e n t s u f f i c i e n t l y ~z j u s t i f y a review of the e v a l u a t i o n the P l y v r e o d E v a l u a t i o n Committee s h a l l make such a r e r i e v ir. accordance w i t h the procedure s e t out h e r e : - .  222  8.  9.  RE-EVALUATION (a)  When a job i s r e - e v a l u a t e d , due to changes i n job c o n t e n t , i t s h a l l not be moved t o another grade unless the change i n job c o n t e n t t o t a l s five or more p o i n t s .  (b)  When a job has moved t o another grade as a r e s u l t o f r e - e v a l u a t i o n , the wage r a t e f o r the new grade s h a l l be e f f e c t i v e on the date t h a t Management or the employee has a p p l i e d t o the Review Committee f o r r e - e v a l u a t i o n .  (c)  When a job i s moved t o a lower grade as a r e s u l t of r e - e v a l u a t i o n , the incumbent s h a l l m a i n t a i n h i s job r a t e as a red c i r c l e r a t e s u b j e c t to the p r o v i s i o n s o f Paragraph 10(b) herein.  NEW JOBS CREATED Where the Company has e x e r c i s e d i t s r i g h t t o c r e a t e a new j o b , a temporary r a t e s h a l l be s e t by Management. The permanent r a t e f o r the s a i d job as determined by the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee s h a l l be e f f e c t i v e as o f the date the job was i n s t a l l e d , p r o v i d e d always t h a t new jobs s h a l l not become red c i r c l e jobs.  10.  RED CIRCLE JOBS (a)  The company s h a l l s u p p l y the Union w i t h a l i s t o f employees h o l d i n g red c i r c l e j o b s , the s a i d l i s t t o i n c l u d e the name of the employee, name o f job c a t e g o r y f i l l e d , the e v a l u a t e d r a t e for the j o b , and the a c t u a l r a t e p a i d .  (b)  Where a job vacancy i s p o s t e d , employees on r e d c i r c l e r a t e s equal t o or lower than the r a t e o f the job p o s t e d , must apply i n accordance w i t h s e n i o r i t y f o r the s a i d vacancy or r e v e r t t o the e v a l u a t e d r a t e f o r the job then h e l d .  (c)  Employees on r e d c i r c l e r a t e s who are prone red to a h i g h e r grade s h a l l r e g a i n the red c i r c l e r a t e i f subsequently found incompetent to c o n t i n u e i n the h i g h e r g r a d e .  223  11.  12.  (d)  Employees h o l d i n g r e d c i r c l e jobs who are demoted d u r i n g a r e d u c t i o n of f o r c e s , s h a l l be p a i d o n l y the e v a l u a t e d r a t e f o r the job t o which they are a s s i g n e d . I f at a l a t e r date an employee i s r e a s s i g n e d t o h i s former job he s h a l l r e g a i n h i s red circle rate.  (e)  When the Company terminates a j o b , or a job i s not occupied d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f one y e a r , a r e c o r d as t o the c a n c e l l a t i o n of the a p p l i c a b l e job d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d .  (f)  I f an employee i s t e m p o r a r i l y t r a n s f e r r e d a t the r e q u e s t o f the Company he s h a l l r e t a i n h i s e x i s t i n g r a t e or r e c e i v e the r a t e f o r the new job, whichever i s h i g h e r . On r e t u r n t o h i s r e g u l a r job the s a i d employee s h a l l regain his red c i r c l e r a t e .  SENIORITY (a)  S u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s h e r e i n s e t A r t . X V I I I ( S e n i o r i t y ) s h a l l continue apply.  (b)  Promotions s h a l l be made o n l y where a vacancy e x i s t s .  out, to  REFERRAL PROCEDURE (a)  When the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee has d e c i d e d the outcome o f a Request f o r Job Evaluation, i t s h a l l transmit i t s d e c i s i o n to the a p p r o p r i a t e P l a n t Job Review Committee.  (b)  When an employee's r e q u e s t f o r r e - e v a l u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n no change being made i n the job grade, or i n a r e d u c t i o n , or when a Management r e q u e s t r e s u l t s i n no change or i n an i n c r e a s e , the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee s h a l l g i v e to the a p p r o p r i a t e Review Committee a s h o r t statement of the reas~_s f o r the d e c i s i o n . The statement should not go i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l , but should vr,dicara the c r i t e r i a used i n s u f f i c i e n t depth t o show the a p p l i c a n t t h a t the request was g i v e n adequate a t t e n t i o n .  13.  (c)  An e v a l u a t i o n done by the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee s h a l l be f i n a l and b i n d i n g on the p a r t i e s but, a t any time a f t e r f i v e y e a r s s i n c e the l a s t e v a l u a t i o n o r r e e v a l u a t i o n o f a job. Management o r an i n d i v i d u a l employee may submit a r e q u e s t f o r r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h a t job and no other r e a s o n than the e l a p s e d time s h a l l be necessary.  (d)  I f the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee i s unable to r e a c h agreement r e g a r d i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n o f a Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n o r any o t h e r matter r e g a r d i n g the job e v a l u a t i o n program which f a l l s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , the matter s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o F o r e s t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s L i m i t e d and t o the I.W.A. R e g i o n a l Council for settlement.  (e)  A l l communication between any P l a n t Review Committee and the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee r e f e r r e d t o above s h a l l be e f f e c t e d by s e n d ing one copy t o the Union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the committee and one copy t o the Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r r e p r e s e n t a tives. I n the case o f communications t o a P l a n t Review Committee, the Union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i l l be addressed c a r e o f the o f f i c e o f the a p p r o p r i a t e Union L o c a l and the Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a r e o f the Company's o f f i c e s a t the p l a n t . I n the case o f communications to the Plywood E v a l u a t i o n Committee, t h e Union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l be addressed care o f the o f f i c e s o f R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l No. 1 o f the I.W.A., Vancouver, and the Employer r e p r e s e n t a t i v e care o f the o f f i c e s o f F o r e s t Industrial Relations Limited.  TRAINING PROGRAM A program o f t r a i n i n g f o r members o f the Re v i e * ' Committee i n each p l a n t s h a l l be i n s t i t u t e d , -z±= d e t a i l s o f which s h a l l be arranged by F o r e s I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s L i m i t e d and the I.W.A, Regional C o u n c i l .  Source:  Master Agreement, 1972-1973, Fores- Products I n d u s t r i e s Coast Region B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , June 15, 1972.  225 P L Y W O O D INDUSTRY J O B E V A L U A T I O N P R O G R A M - ~ ? ? f  Plant  .  7 7 •= - ? . : - T G ^ 7 T  Prepared Revised:  i  | j  Job T i t l e : N u m b e r of s h i f t s  i  1.  S T E P B Y S T E P A C T I V I T I E S O N M A I N J O B and  2.  MAKE AND  3.  E Q U I P M E N T R E S P Q N S 161 L I T Y ( s e t t i n g ,  4.  R E L A T E D D U T I E S ( c l e a n - u p of e q u i p m e n t , ether odd jobs)  •  ;  Revised: N u m b e r of i n c u m b e n t s p e r PRODUCTS  MODEL OF A N Y EQUIPMENT OPERATED  adjusting and/or  shift  HANDLED'  BY INCUMBENT  servicing)  of i m r n e c i - . ' . = ~ : r.-. a r e a ,  and  i  226  - Page 2 -  J I  RELIEF  Plant: Job T i t l e :  5.  R E G U L A R . OR O C C A S I O N A L and the r a t e of pay}  D U T I E S ( l i s t the  c; : - ; s e  o.  R E G U L A R OR OCCASIONAL REPORTS, TALLIES AND/OR (list t i t l e s , purpose and disposal - a t t a c h s a m p l e )  7.  Who s u p e r v i s e s y o u r w o r k ? Do you d i r e c t others? How many and whom?  8.  What p h y s i c a l aspect of your job do y o u p e r f o r m most, and what i s the heaviest w o r k you do?  9.  How  could y o u i n j u r e s o m e o n e o t h e r t h a n y o u r s e l f ?  10.  How  could you get  11.  Do you w o r k i n s i d e or o u t s i d e ? What d i s a g r e e a b l e o r u n c o m f o r t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s a r e  duties  RECORDS  injured?  y o u exposed t o ?  1 i  T H I S J O B D E S C R I P T I O N H A S B E E N C O M P L E T E D IN .-. I C O R D A N I E W I T H PROVISIONS OF THE R E L A T E D P L Y W O O D S U P P L E ;  | j  REVIEW COMMITTEE F O R T H E I. W. A .  M E M B E RS  R E V I E W d :, M M I T T E E I * O R IvlANA'v1 V E M E N T  i  1  j  ti  I  '(signatures)  MEMBERS  THE  227 P L Y W O O D INDUSTRY JOB E V A L U A T I O N PROG?. REQUEST FOR JOB E V A L U A T I O N  j  •Name of Company and Division  i t  S  ;Present Category Title • Pre sent Category Grade IP re sent Category Rate jDate Submitted iName of Applicant {  •  S T A T E SPECIFIC REASON(S) FOR THIS REQUEST  i i  i  !  FOR REVIEW C O M M I T T E E ONLY t  jThis request for job evaluation must be duly completed and must be {accompanied by a current job description in Order to ensure consideration jby the Plywood Evaluation Committee.  i  —  iDate Request Acted On  —  i  ^Disposition and Reason(s)  it  REVIEW COMMITTEE {FOR T H E I . W . A .  MEMBERS  REVIEW COMMITTEE FOR MANAGEMENT  l  (signatures)  MEMBERS  FOR PLYWOOD E V A L U A T I O N C O M M I T T E E  ONI.T  Date R e q u e s t f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n R e c e i v e d Date Request f o r Job E v a l u a t i o n F i n a l i z e d D i s p o s i t i o n and Reason(s)  (FOR T H E I. W , A .  FOR  THE INDUSTR  COSTS: JOB EVALUATION Southern I n t e r i o r  Sawmills  B.C. Coast  Sawmills  1.  7000 men  1.  28000 men  2.  i n i t i a l j . e . coverage 1735 (25%)  2.  e s t i m a t e d j . e . coverage 7000 (25%)  3.  42 p l a n t s  3.  70 p l a n t s  4  «  1735 42  =  41 men/plant  4  »  7000 70  =  100 men/plant  5.  i n s t a l l a t i o n period? 7 months (June 1971 - Dec. 1971)  5.  maximum i n s t a l l a t i o n p e r i o d : 7 months  6.  manpower r e q u i r e d : 8% men (2 man teams (4)) + 1 man p a r t time  6.  manpower e s t i m a t e s based on S. I n t e r i o r e x p e r i e n c e 34 men (4 x 8%) necessary t o complete job d e s c r i p s . i n 7 month period.  Cost Breakdown Development phase 1967 - 1969 (3 years)  Development phase 1966 - 1973 (7 years)  hired consultants f u l l time t o p l a n , d e s i g n program: $100/day each 2 men working 200 days/yr, f o r 3 years = $120,000 expenses, mats 3 0,000 Total $150,000  a t l e a s t one man from FIR working on j . e . f u l l time over 7 year p e r i o d : 1 man @ 12,000/yr.= $84,000 m a t e r i a l s , expenses, etc. 16,000 $100,000 ( t h i s c o s t i s a "sunk" c o s t now)  I n s t a l l a t i o n phase 7 months (30 weeks) from June'71 t o Jan'72  I n s t a l l a t i o n phase d e s i r e max. 7 month p e r i o d ( r e q u i r i n g 34 men)  average c o s t p e r man/hr.= 4.7$ 40 h r . week x 30 weeks x 4.7* h r . x 1735 men = $97,845  d e s i r e 5$ per man/hr. 40 h r . week x 30 weeks x 5<: h r . x 7000 men $420,000 (estimated)  Grand T o t a l :  Grand T o t a l $520,000  $247,845  23U  3.  Administration: estimated per year - t o t a l  $50,000 H IFLRA % Union  $25,000 -  (IWA)  $50,000  C l o s e r to - s a l a r y f o r 2 men each s i d e + m a t e r i a l s , expenses  3.  Administration:  est. $25000-$50,000 per  year each s i d e - s a l a r y 2 men - t r a v e l l i n g expenses - material - a t l e a s t 2 x budget f o r S. I n t e r i o r because 4 x as l a r g e  

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