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The effect of anxiety on real life problem solving performance of gifted children in Israel Zoller, Tamar 1991

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THE EFFECT OF ANXIETY ON REAL LIFE PROBLEM SOLVING PERFORMANCE OF GIFTED CHILDREN IN ISRAEL by TAMAR ZOLLER B.A. Haifa University, Israel 1969 M.A. Northeastern University, Boston, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in , THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Educational Psychology and Special Educat We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1991 © Tamar Z o l l e r , 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Department of DE-6 (2/88) ii A B S T R A C T The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t of a n x i e t y on r e a l l i f e p r o b l em s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The s t u d y was c a r r i e d out i n I s r a e l , a c o u n t r y i n which t h e n e c e s s i t y of s o l v i n g r e a l l i f e problems under c o n d i t i o n s of a n x i e t y i s a r e a l c o n c e r n . 142 g i f t e d and n o n g i f t e d s u b j e c t s from 4 t h , 5 t h and 6 t h grades p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . T r a i t and S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r i e s f o r C h i l d r e n ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1973), and a R e a l L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS), were used t o a s s e s s t h e s u b j e c t s ' T r a i t a n x i e t y , S t a t e a n x i e t y and r e a l l i f e p r o b l em s o l v i n g performance r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s u b j e c t s i n each c l a s s were d i v i d e d i n t o two matched groups based on t h e i r T r a i t A n x i e t y s c o r e s , t h e s u b j e c t s gender and t h e i r s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s . One of them was randomly a s s i g n e d t o be t h e t r e a t m e n t group and t h e o t h e r t h e nontreatment group. The " t r e a t m e n t " c o n s i s t e d of d e l i b e r a t e i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y v i a a c o m b i n a t i o n o f elements t h a t a r e known t o e l i c i t a n x i e t y i n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Matched t - t e s t s on a n x i e t y s c o r e s , b e f o r e and a f t e r t r e a t m e n t , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t was e f f e c t i v e i n b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e g i f t e d and t h e n o n g i f t e d . E t h i c a l i s s u e s were t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A n a l y s i s of RLPSSS i n d i c a t e d t h a t : (1) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n p e r f o rmed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e i r n o n g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s under c o n d i t i o n s of t r e a t m e n t as w e l l as under c o n d i t i o n of non-treatment; (2) t h e performance o f a l l t h e iii groups who experienced anxiety, was lower than that of t h e i r matched groups who performed under t h e i r natural setting conditions; (3) no in t e r a c t i o n was found between giftedness and anxiety; (4) under conditions of anxiety g i f t e d g i r l s appeared to perform s l i g h t l y better than g i f t e d boys. The implications from t h i s study concern the attitude toward anxiety which should be dealt with as part of l i f e , rather than as a pathological feature. It i s suggested to consider the introduction of anxiety scales into test batteries used for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d children and that special programs for the g i f t e d make provisions for providing the g i f t e d students with the necessary s k i l l s to cope with l i f e problems under a l l kinds of anxiety circumstances. TABLE OF CONTENTS i v Abstract i i Table of Contents iv L i s t of Tables ix L i s t of Figures x Acknowledgment x i CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY 1 Immediate Concerns 1 Background 1 Purpose of the study 4 Rationale 6 The Problem 9 Research Questions 11 Research Hypotheses 12 Description of terms as used i n the present study 14 Gifted children 14 Background information 14 Anxiety 16 T r a i t Anxiety 17 State Anxiety 17 Induction of Anxiety 18 Strangers 19 Real L i f e Problem-Solving 19 Real-Life-Problem-Solving-Situations-Set (RLPSSS)20 Performance Score 21 Limitations And Constraints 21 Overview of The Present Study 26 V CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 27 I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g 28 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g : D e f i n i t i o n s 28 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g S k i l l s 29 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g : E x p e r i e n c e 31 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g : T r a n s f e r of T r a i n i n g 31 P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g : S t r a t e g i e s 34 Problem S o l v i n g : Gender d i f f e r e n c e s 35 G i f t e d n e s s 37 G i f t e d c h i l d r e n : P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g 38 G i f t e d n e s s : M o t i v a t i o n and P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g 39 A n x i e t y 41 S t r e s s and A n x i e t y 41 A n x i e t y : O p e r a t i o n a l Approaches 43 A n x i e t y : P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 44 A n x i e t y : g i f t e d v s . n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n 45 C o n c l u s i o n : P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g , A n x i e t y , and G i f t e d - c h i l d r e n . 5 2 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 54 P o p u l a t i o n 54 T a r g e t P o p u l a t i o n 54 A c c e s s i b l e P o p u l a t i o n 55 Background I n f o r m a t i o n 56 S e l e c t i o n of t h e r e s e a r c h groups 57 V a r i a b l e s 58 Independent V a r i a b l e s 58 Dependent V a r i a b l e 59 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 59 vi A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r i e s 59 T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (TAI) f o r C h i l d r e n 60 S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (SAI) f o r C h i l d r e n 61 C o r r e l a t i o n between TAI and SAI 62 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of TAI and SAI 62 R e a l L i f e P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g Measure (RLPSSS) : 63 Research P l a n 65 I . P i l o t Study 65 I I . Main Study 69 Stage 1 69 P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r TAI a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 70 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of TAI 70 M a t c h i n g s u b j e c t s on a n x i e t y 72 Stage 2 73 P r e p a r a t i o n f o r SAI and RLPSS A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 73 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of SAI and RLPSS 74 i . N on-treatment groups 75 i i . Treatment Groups 76 Data P r o c e s s i n g 78 S c o r i n g F o r A n x i e t y 78 S c o r i n g o f t h e RLPSSS 79 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses 84 Method of A n a l y s i s 85 1. R e g a r d i n g A n x i e t y 85 L e v e l o f S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e 86 2. R e g a r d i n g RLPSSS 86 L e v e l o f S t a t i s t i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e 87 Summary 88 vii C H A P T E R I V : A N A L Y S I S OF DATA AND R E S U L T S 90 I n t r o d u c t i o n 90 R e s u l t s 90 I . A n x i e t y S t u d y 90 B e f o r e T r e a t m e n t 90 A f t e r T r e a t m e n t 93 Summary o f t h e A n x i e t y S t u d y 96 I I . R e a l - L i f e - P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g - S t u d y 97 D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a 97 S t a t i s t i c a l H y p o t h e s e s t o be t e s t e d 98 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s 99 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 1 - 3 : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 102 R e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s 4 106 Summary 114 M a j o r f i n d i n g s 114 A d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g 114 C H A P T E R V : S U M M A R Y , D I S C U S S I O N , C O N C L U S I O N S AND RECOMMENDATIONS 115 Summary 115 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 119 C o n c l u s i o n s a n d E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 130 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 133 C o n c l u d i n g R e m a r k s 136 BIBLIOGRAPHY 138 APPENDICES 157 AppendixA:Anxiety measurements:TAI and SAI 158 Appendix B: Real L i f e Problem Solving Set(RLPSSS) . .161 Appendix C: Samples of Students' Responses to Real L i f e Problematic Situations of the RLPSSS 178 L i s t of Tables IX 3.1 Summary of I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e P i l o t Study...67 3.2 Summary of I n f o r m a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g t h e Main Study....84 4.1 Comparison between Treatment and Non-Treatment G i f t e d Groups on T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (TAI) Mean Scores 91 4.2 Comparison between Treatment and Non-Treatment n o n - G i f t e d Groups on T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (TAI) Mean Scores 92 4.3 Post-Treatment Comparison of t h e S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (SAI) Mean Scores between t h e Treatment and t h e non-Treatment G i f t e d Groups 94 4.4 Post-Treatment Comparison of t h e S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (SAI) Mean Scores between t h e Treatment and t h e non-Treatment n o n - G i f t e d Groups 95 4.5 D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a : R e a l L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS) Means (M) and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s (S.D.) by Treatment, G i f t e d n e s s and Gender 98 4.6 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Treatment and G i f t e d n e s s On R e a l - L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS) Mean Performance 100 X L i s t o f F i g u r e s 4.1 G i f t e d v s . N o n - G i f t e d by Treatment 101 4.2 The Performance P r o f i l e s on t h e RLPSSS of G i f t e d and N o n - G i f t e d under Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n 104 4.3 The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d and N o n - G i f t e d under Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 105 4.4 The Performance P r o f i l e s on t h e RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys and G i f t e d G i r l s under Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 108 4.5 The Performance P r o f i l e s on t h e RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys and G i f t e d G i r l s under Treatment C o n d i t i o n s . . . 110 4.6 The Performance P r o f i l e s on t h e RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys under Treatment and Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s . . 1 1 2 4.7 The Performance P r o f i l e s on t h e RLPSSS of G i f t e d G i r l s under Treatment and Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s . 1 1 3 XI Acknowledgements I would l i k e to express my sincere appreciation to the following people: My advisor Prof. Stanley Blank who guided me throughout my graduate studies, and inspired me to meet th i s challenge, in spite of a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with language, culture, and long distance. Prof. Walter Boldt for his time and a b i l i t y i n conveying his c r i t i c i s m s i n a most pleasant s t y l e . His analysis, comments and explanations were most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the completion of t h i s thesis. Prof. Art More for a s s i s t i n g me always with a warm smile, to understand and accept c r i t i c i s m . His encouragement was most meaningful; Dr. E r i c Hampton for the wonderful job he accomplished i n edi t i n g t h i s thesis. Dr. David Ben-Haim for his f r u i t f u l discussions, helpful ideas and the great amount of time he devoted to helping me. Mrs. Aviva Ya'ar and her wonderful team of teachers accomplished a great job i n organizing a l l the many d e t a i l s that were involved i n pursuing t h i s study; Haia and her group of the. unive r s i t y students who served as assistants; the team of judges; the English teachers; the teachers who were involved i n the P i l o t study; Jody and my school s t a f f who put so much time i n preparing a l l the materials for t h i s study. Last but not least, my husband, Ur i , for i n s p i r i n g me with his c r i t i c a l discussions, suggestions and a l o t of understanding during the process of writing, which enabled me to bring t h i s thesis to i t s completion. Thank you a l l , I appreciate your e f f o r t s and hope that they were worthwhile. CHAPTER I 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY Immediate Concerns The impact of anxiety on the responses of I s r a e l i g i f t e d children to solve r e a l l i f e problems i s the main interes t of the study. This chapter includes: background, discussion of the purpose of the study and i t s rationale, elaboration on the main problem and the research questions to be answered, description of the main terms that are repeatedly mentioned throughout t h i s thesis, and discussion of the lim i t a t i o n s and constraints. Background The education of g i f t e d children ' has gained considerable attention i n the l a s t two decades. This i s demonstrated by the various programs i n s t i t u t e d i n the United States, as a consequence of the report by the U.S. Offi c e of Education to the American Congress (1972). The concern i s i n the interests of the children themselves as well as i n the larger i n t e r e s t of society. The concern for the g i f t e d children emphasi2es t h e i r special need for q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t approaches from those e x i s t i n g i n the regular school. The need i s f o r : " f l e x i b l e administrative arrangements for in s t r u c t i o n both i n and out of school, such as special classes, seminars, 2 resource rooms, independent study, student i n t e r n s h i p s , mentorships, r e s e a r c h f i e l d t r i p s , l i b r a r y , media, r e s e a r c h c e n t e r s " (USDE, 1976, p.18665-18666). Only with these arrangements w i l l the education o f f e r e d to g i f t e d c h i l d r e n c h a l l e n g e them and c u l t i v a t e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t a l e n t s to the h i g h e s t degree. The concern of our h i g h l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l , modern democratic s o c i e t y i s f o r t a l e n t e d people to handle complex problems. "Democracies c o l l a p s e only when they f a i l to use i n t e l l i g e n t , i m a g i n a t i v e methods f o r s o l v i n g t h e i r problems. Greece f a i l e d to heed such a warning by Socrates and g r a d u a l l y c o l l a p s e d " (Torrance, 1962 p.6). There i s a need f o r graduates who can t h i n k c l e a r l y and cope s u c c e s s f u l l y with the many c h a l l e n g e s (and t h r e a t s ) presented i n modern s o c i e t y . G i f t e d students are b r o a d l y d e f i n e d i n P.L 97-35, the Education C o n s o l i d a t i o n and Improvement Act, passed by the U.S.A Congress i n 1981, as: C h i l d r e n who g i v e evidence of hig h performance c a p a b i l i t y i n areas such as i n t e l l e c t u a l , c r e a t i v e , a r t i s t i c , l e a d e r s h i p c a p a c i t y , or s p e c i f i c academic f i e l d s , and who r e q u i r e s e r v i c e s or a c t i v i t i e s not o r d i n a r i l y p r o v i d e d by the sch o o l i n order to f u l l y develop such c a p a b i l i t y (sec. 582, c i t e d by C l a r k 1983, p.5) . There i s v a s t l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with many aspects of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . At present, the g i f t e d i n I s r a e l are, f o r the most p a r t , s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i a l programs on the b a s i s of t h e i r performance on a b a t t e r y of I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s 3 (see: description of terms - " g i f t e d " ) . The r e s u l t s of these tests are intended to predict high achievement in the regular school. However, because there i s a growing awareness of the need to encourage the g i f t e d to use a l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l , the curriculum for the g i f t e d i s i n many-cases d i f f e r e n t from that of the regular school. Much of the emphasis in the special programs for the g i f t e d i s on q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a , where the g i f t e d , according to Renzulli (1977), are supposed to "apply thinking and f e e l i n g processes to r e a l situations rather than structured exercises" [p.9]. It i s intended that the g i f t e d who are i d e n t i f i e d and selected w i l l benefit from the special programs designed for them in terms of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y to cope with future r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . The attainment of t h i s long-term goal i s yet to be seen. Ideally, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process that selects children to p a r t i c i p a t e i n these special programs should predict p r e c i s e l y t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d of success i n the programs and l a t e r in l i f e . However, the refinement of the necessary processes w i l l take time, and in the meantime we have to compromise and be aware of t h i s constraint. This study deals with the g i f t e d who were i d e n t i f i e d as such by the existing procedures. The focus i s on the a b i l i t y of the g i f t e d to successfully solve problems in r e a l l i f e situations (see Description of Terms - Real L i f e Problem-Solving) . In t h i s respect the issues that are covered i n 4 the research l i t e r a t u r e deal mainly with aspects of enhancing problem-solving capacity i n general. These issues include: a) environmental influences (inside and outside class such as, interaction with parents, teachers, peers and other persons). b) Cognitive a b i l i t y and s t y l e , and c) personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as self-esteem, s o c i a b i l i t y and self-motivation (Torrance, 1980). L i t t l e research has been done concerning the factors that might i n h i b i t the problem-solving performance of some g i f t e d children. Thus, i t seems important to pursue a new l i n e of investigation, i n respect of t h i s capacity. From t h i s perspective one should be able to anticipate related obstacles, such as anxiety that may be encountered. Purpose of the study The purpose of t h i s study i s to investigate the manner in which g i f t e d children under conditions of anxiety attempt to solve r e a l l i f e problems. The l i t e r a t u r e on the influence of anxiety on performance in problem-solving does not deal with g i f t e d children s p e c i f i c a l l y . S i m i l a r l y , the l i t e r a t u r e on problem-solving of g i f t e d children does not adequately examine anxiety i n t h i s context. Further, the l i t e r a t u r e that compares the anxiety of g i f t e d children with that of others in t h e i r age groups does not discuss r e a l l i f e problem-solving s p e c i f i c a l l y (see: Literature Review Chapter I I ) . 5 In view of these d e f i c i e n c i e s , the focusing on issues concerned with the impact of anxiety on the r e a l l i f e problem-solving performance of g i f t e d children i s a valuable undertaking. Having determined the ef f e c t of anxiety on the problem-solving performance of the g i f t e d , one could use the re s u l t s d i r e c t l y f or two p r a c t i c a l purposes: a) The improvement of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process of the gi f t e d : As a r e s u l t of additional insight, i t may be possible to re-examine current procedures and make some recommendations concerning the battery of tests used to id e n t i f y the g i f t e d . The inclusion of anxiety-testing and re a l l i f e oriented problem-solving testing might be a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y . b) Developing appropriate programs for the g i f t e d children: The development/design of programs which w i l l either have predesignated b u i l t - i n levels of anxiety, i n order to help the g i f t e d learn to deal with t h i s kind of emotion, or w i l l include strategies for reducing the l e v e l of anxiety. E s s e n t i a l l y , the present study i s exploratory, i n that i t s findings may lead to the development of a new l i n e of research. The nature and d i r e c t i o n of any recommendations are depended on the actual findings i n t h i s l i n e of research. 6 Rationale L i f e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a continuous process of problem-s o l v i n g . T h i s process i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with v a r i o u s degrees of s t r e s s . A p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n i s thus an unbalanced dynamic s i t u a t i o n , i n which s t r e s s i s c r e a t e d , and the i n d i v i d u a l i n v o l v e d s t r i v e s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n which w i l l r e s u l t i n r e s t o r i n g the balance and r e l i e v i n g the s t r e s s . S t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s e l i c i t a n x i e t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Each i n d i v i d u a l responds with a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l of a n x i e t y to the same s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . (Cox, 1978) . An important aspect when f a c i n g a pr o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n i s the c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the unknown (Nezu, 1986). The unknown i s t h r e a t e n i n g f o r most persons. D e c i s i o n s made and a c t i o n s taken to s o l v e problems may be c r u c i a l i n terms of the p o s s i b l e consequences i n c e r t a i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i n which the unknown p l a y s a major r o l e . Consequently, the development of a n x i e t y i s to be expected under such c o n d i t i o n s . The person i n v o l v e d may not be sure i f h i s d e c i s i o n w i l l s o l v e the problem, or i f i t w i l l f u r t h e r complicate i t , so t h a t the process may end up with d e t r i m e n t a l consequences. Th e r e f o r e , any r e s e a r c h t h a t d e a l s with p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s should s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y (or fear) on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance. A n x i e t y can be estimated by using e x i s t i n g a n x i e t y s c a l e s (Sarason, 1960; S p e i l b e r g e r , 1973). The s c a l e s 7 e s t i m a t e t h e e x t e n t t o which a n x i e t y l e v e l v a r i e s from person* t o p e r s o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n made by M i l g r a m (1976) and P e r r o n and Male (1981), r e g a r d i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between f e a r of f a i l u r e and s t r i v i n g f o r s u c c e s s , a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t non-g i f t e d s t u d e n t s who f e a r f a i l u r e w i l l use a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f t h e i r energy t o overcome t h i s f e a r . These s t u d e n t s a r e i n an a n x i e t y - i n d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e w i l l a c t s p e c i f i c a l l y t o reduce t h e i r a n x i e t y . T h e i r g o a l i s t o a v o i d f a i l u r e and t o r e s t o r e b a l a n c e . They a r e not w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s beyond what i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r " s u r v i v a l " . They w i l l t r y t o a v o i d d i r e c t c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h a problem as much as p o s s i b l e , i n o r d e r t o escape the consequences of f a i l u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, g i f t e d s t u d e n t s who a r e r e l a t i v e l y more s u c c e s s f u l i n meeting academic c h a l l e n g e s , appear t o be more w i l l i n g t o t a k e r i s k s i n s o l v i n g problems l e f t unanswered. The q u e s t i o n i s , how would t h e g i f t e d p e r f o r m under a non-academic r e a l l i f e t h r e a t which e l i c i t s p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was conducted i n I s r a e l , a c o u n t r y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s t r e s s f u l s o c i e t y w h i c h s t r i v e s t o r e t a i n i t s democracy. The problems t h a t have t o be d e a l t w i t h a r e enormous (the economic, s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n , t o mention but a f e w ) . Thus, t h e r e i s an u r g e n t need f o r a v e r y t a l e n t e d 8 leadership, capable of performing well and e f f i c i e n t l y under conditions of great stress. Awareness of t h i s need has led to the establishment of special classes for g i f t e d children, s t a r t i n g in the fourth grade of the elementary school. The graduates of these programs have to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y at a young age (18 years) for problem-solving and decision-making, s t a r t i n g with army service, and la t e r , i n t h e i r c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Their decisions may very often be matters of l i f e and death, and these decisions are being made i n situations of great stress that could give r i s e to anxiety in any human being. For example: A si t u a t i o n i n which an 18-year-old, engaged in his compulsory army service, i s being attacked by young children throwing stones of a size and in such manners as to be l i f e threatening. No communication can be established with these children. This youngster i s confronted with the problem of how to respond e f f e c t i v e l y i n order to protect himself and the other young soldiers under his command, without hurting the children. For t h i s reason alone, a study directed to the effects of anxiety on r e a l l i f e problem-solving performance of the g i f t e d i n Israel i s both relevant and urgently needed. 9 The Problem The essential problem with which th i s study i s concerned i s whether the presence of anxiety generates meaningful differences i n the way g i f t e d children deal with r e a l l i f e problems. Whenever an in d i v i d u a l confronts a problem, psychological disharmony i s a l i k e l y consequence. The more s t r e s s f u l the s i t u a t i o n , the more urgent the c a l l for a solution and the restoration of the balance re-established. It i s reasonable to assume that a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n tends to arouse anxiety i n people who are facing problems and who must contend with the consequences (see: Description of Terms: Anxiety) . There i s the need to examine to what extent the presence of anxiety generates noteworthy differences in the way g i f t e d children attempt to resolve r e a l l i f e problems. Understanding t h i s issue i s c r u c i a l , because there i s the hope that many of the g i f t e d who graduate from special programs w i l l become leaders i n d i f f e r e n t areas of national l i f e , and hence w i l l be responsible for the way problems are handled and solved. A stronger emphasis should therefore be placed on understanding the e f f e c t of anxiety on problem-solving performance of the most able i n our society. The l i t e r a t u r e provides some comparisons between the anxiety levels of g i f t e d children and t h e i r non-gifted peers. The research i n general suggests that g i f t e d children have the same or lower levels of anxiety when compared with t h e i r non-gifted peers 10 (Milgram, 1976; Reynolds and B r a d l e y , 1983; D a v i s and C o n n e l l , 1985; and C h i n L i Tzeng, 1981). The l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d e a l s w i t h t h e g i f t e d s u p p o r t s the n o t i o n t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n g e n e r a l a r e b e t t e r problem-s o l v e r s t h a n i s the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e n o n - g i f t e d . ( T o r r a n c e , 1980; Perrone and Male, 1981; Da v i d s o n and S t e r n b e r g , 1984). However, t h e r e appears t o be no stu d y on t h e impact of a n x i e t y on t h e r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Thus, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h i s l i n e of i n v e s t i g a t i o n be .pursued i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a deeper i n s i g h t i n t o t h e way i n which c u r r i c u l a o r s p e c i a l programs f o r t h e g i f t e d s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d . Such a s t u d y may r e s u l t i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of who a r e t h e g i f t e d t h a t w i l l s ucceed i n t h e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d programs, and l a t e r become s u c c e s s f u l p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s i n r e a l l i f e . One may r e i t e r a t e t h a t t h e main c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y i s t h e e f f e c t of a n x i e t y on t h e performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f a c e d w i t h t h e problems of d a i l y l i f e . As was mentioned e a r l i e r , t he s p e c i a l programs d i r e c t e d t o g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e many and v a r i e d . Most of t h e programs emphasize t h e importance of a r e l a x e d atmosphere and av o i d a n c e of t h e t e n s i o n sometimes o c c a s i o n e d by t e s t i n g . S i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g g i f t e d s t u d e n t s t o produce s o l u t i o n s even i n s i t u a t i o n s of s t r e s s , such as w o r k i n g t o s t r i c t t i me l i m i t s , b e i n g p e n a l i z e d as a r e s u l t of commitments t h a t were no t f u l f i l l e d , and t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s made 11 etc. have to be studied and evaluated. One may hope that the data from t h i s study w i l l provide a st a r t i n g point from which to search for e f f e c t i v e methods of preparing g i f t e d children to meet the challenges of a complicated and frequently dangerous world. This preparation to cope with l i f e situations should s t a r t gradually i n the elementary school. Research Questions The following questions enable the researcher to investigate more s p e c i f i c a l l y the issues involved i n the problem of the ef f e c t of anxiety on the problem solving performance of g i f t e d students i n I s r a e l . (In Chapter III each of these questions i s rephrased as a n u l l research hypothesis). 1. Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the r e a l l i f e problem-solving performance of g i f t e d and non-gifted groups? 2. Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n r e a l l i f e problem-solving performance by induced anxiety and non-induced anxiety groups? 3. Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n r e a l l i f e problem-solving performance that i s produced by the interaction of giftedness and anxiety? A tangential question concerns the differences in the gender performance of g i f t e d : 12 4. I s t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d g i r l s and g i f t e d boys when a n x i e t y i s induced? Research Hypothesese 1. G i f t e d c h i l d r e n have a b e t t e r a b i l i t y t o s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems compared w i t h n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n of the same age. A l t h o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e f l e c t s many u n s o l v e d problems c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e assessment of t h e i r performance, t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l agreement on t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( C l a r k , 1983; Howley, Howley and P e n d a r v i s , 1986; Maker, 1982; R e n s u l l i , 1983;). They a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be c l e a r and q u i c k t h i n k e r s , r e s o u r c e f u l , c a p a b l e o f a p p l y i n g i n d u c t i o n and d e d u c t i o n i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g , and h a v i n g h i g h m o t i v a t i o n f o r achievement. I t seems t h a t t h e s e q u a l i t i e s e n a ble the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y when t h e y a r e f a c e d w i t h r e a l l i f e p r o b lems. T h e i r r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s and t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s h o u l d e n a b l e them t o f i n d more a l t e r n a t i v e s as s o l u t i o n s t o a g i v e n problem t h a n t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . 2. A n x i e t y d e c r e a s e s performance of r e a l l i f e p roblem s o l v i n g . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t a p e r s o n who i s i n an a n x i e t y s t a t e uses p a r t of h i s energy t o cope w i t h h i s a n x i e t y , and can not devote a l l h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and mental r e s o u r c e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e problem he i s f a c i n g . T h e r e f o r e , 13 a n x i e t y s h o u l d d e c r e a s e performance i n s o l v i n g l i f e p r oblems. 3. An i n t e r a c t i o n may e x i s t between g i f t e d n e s s and a n x i e t y . No e v i d e n c e c o u l d be found f o r t h i s c o n j e c t u r e . S p e c u l a t i o n s can be c o n f i r m e d o n l y by a s t u d y such as the one i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e . The q u e s t i o n i s s t a t e d v e r y c a r e f u l l y , and i s based on two a s s u m p t i o n s : a) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e b e t t e r p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s compared t o n o n - g i f t e d , and b) g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have lower l e v e l s of a n x i e t y compared t o t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s (based on r e p o r t s i n p a r t of t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e : M i l g r a m , 1976; Reynolds and B r a d l e y , 1983) . I f t h e s e two assumptions h o l d / t h e n perhaps g i f t e d n e s s i n t e r a c t s w i t h a n x i e t y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y produces d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s as f a r as r e a l - l i f e - p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance under a n x i e t y i s c o n c e rned. 4. There i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e way g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s cope w i t h problems under a n x i e t y . Based on t h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n many a r e a s of l i f e , ( Perrone and Male, 1981; O'Tuel, 1989), one tends t o q u e s t i o n s whethere t h e r e e x i s t s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e way g i f t e d c h i l d r e n s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems under a n x i e t y . 14 Description of Terms as Used in the Present Study Gifted children G i f t e d c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s s t u d y , a r e I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n , who: a) were recommended by t h e i r t e a c h e r s and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a f f as h i g h a c h i e v e r s and as h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d s t u d e n t s , and b) were i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d by a b a t t e r y of t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n I s r a e l t o t h i r d grade s t u d e n t s i n el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , and c) have r e c e i v e d t h e i r p a r e n t s ' agreement t o be a s s i g n e d t o s p e c i a l g i f t e d c l a s s e s . Background information I n t e r e s t i n s p e c i a l programs f o r g i f t e d i n I s r a e l s t a r t e d i n the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . The U n i v e r s i t y of T e l A v i v o f f e r e d c o u r s e s i n mathematics and p h y s i c s t o young b r i g h t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r o f f e r i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s t u d i e s of e v e r y I s r a e l i h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t a r e d i s r u p t e d a t t h e age o f 18 due t o t h e mandatory army s e r v i c e (boys f o r a minimum of 3 y e a r s and g i r l s f o r a minimum of 2 y e a r s of s e r v i c e ) . Members of t h e Mathematics f a c u l t y i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y ( P r o f . Y a k i m o v s k i and h i s group) argued t h a t t h e most f r u i t f u l y e a r s as f a r as mathematics i s concerned, a r e t h o s e up t o t h e age of 30 ( f o r s c i e n c e , i n g e n e r a l , u n t i l 3 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e U n i v e r s i t y s h o u l d encourage t h e b r i g h t e s t t o dev e l o p t h e i r t a l e n t and a v o i d d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e i r s t u d i e s . 15 The outcome of t h i s program was very encouraging for the students and for the country. Since then the program has continued, having undergone many modifications during the years. P a r a l l e l to the University program, the I s r a e l i Ministry of Education announced i t s commitment to support programs for the g i f t e d (Burg, 1984) . These supported programs were introduced in two c i t i e s : Tel-Aviv and Haifa, where classes for g i f t e d children were established. The Department of Education has assigned the task of i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d children to independent research and testing i n s t i t u t e (Szold I n s t i t u t e ) . This Institute i d e n t i f i e s and assigns g i f t e d students to the 4th grade i n which programs for the g i f t e d f i r s t begin. Ideally, a l l the students i n the 3rd grade should be tested for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In practice, due to economic constraints, only 10% of t h i r d grade pupils are chosen by t h e i r teachers and school p r i n c i p a l s to take the t e s t s . According to the i n s t i t u t e , 1% to 1.5% from each age group are defined as g i f t e d children (Shafran, 1989) . Not a l l the g i f t e d students who have been i d e n t i f i e d p a r t i c i p a t e in the special programs for the g i f t e d . Only those i d e n t i f i e d , and whose parents provide t h e i r consent, are ultimately assigned to g i f t e d classes. In addition to the classes in Tel-Aviv and Haifa, there are several enrichment centers for g i f t e d children. These centers are located in Holon, Petach-Tikva, and H e r t z l i a . 16 In a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e a l s o p u l l - o u t programs o f f e r i n g e n r i c h e d s t u d i e s i n J e r u s a l e m , T e l - H a i , K e f a r - T a v o r , S h l o m i , and a few o t h e r c e n t e r s where g i f t e d c h i l d r e n from t h e K i b b u t z movement are a l s o i n c l u d e d . An a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l p r o j e c t f o r u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n was s t a r t e d i n 1985. I t i s hoped t h a t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s and the g i f t e d programs w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e v e l o p and g e n e r a t e new i d e a s based on the knowledge g a i n e d from f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s f i e l d . Anxiety A n x i e t y i s d e f i n e d as an u n c o m f o r t a b l e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e n s i o n , w o r r y and a p p r e h e n s i o n . I t i s a s u b j e c t i v e d i s c o m f o r t which i s accompanied by p h y s i c a l r e a c t i o n s such as i n c r e a s e d h e a r t b e a t , p e r s p i r a t i o n , and s h a k i n e s s . A n x i e t y i s an u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e and i s an i n d i v i d u a l r e s ponse t o e i t h e r i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s ( S p i e l b e r g e r e t a l , 1972) . S p i e l b e r g e r and co-workers (1973) d e v e l o p e d t h e i d e a s of C a t t e l l and S c h i e r (1963) i n d e s c r i b i n g a n x i e t y as an emotion c o n s i s t i n g o f two c o n s t r u c t s : T r a i t A n x i e t y and S t a t e A n x i e t y . 17 Trait Anxiety T r a i t Anxiety represents i n d i v i d u a l differences in c h a r a c t e r i s t i c levels of anxiety. It can be considered as the personal potential for experiencing anxiety. A person with a high l e v e l of T r a i t Anxiety w i l l respond to threatening stimuli more quickly and with higher in t e n s i t y than an in d i v i d u a l with low T r a i t Anxiety. Such an in d i v i d u a l may, therefore, experience more frequently the occurrence of the symptom of anxiety. The l e v e l of T r a i t Anxiety i s determined by the past experience of an in d i v i d u a l i n anxiety producing situations, and by his a b i l i t y to manage such situ a t i o n s . In t h i s study T r a i t Anxiety was measured by Spielberger's Hebrew version of the T r a i t Anxiety Inventory for Children (TAI) translated and validated by Taichman and Malink (1984). State Anxiety State Anxiety i s the manifestation of the anxiety an ind i v i d u a l experiences at a given moment. In t h i s study, Spielberger 1s Hebrew version, translated and validated by Taichman and Melnik (1984), of State Anxiety Inventory for Children (SAI) was used to measure State Anxiety. 18 Induction of Anxiety T h i s term, r e f e r s t o p u r p o s e l y g e n e r a t i n g a n x i e t y i n c h i l d r e n . E t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make d r a s t i c i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y u n a c c e p t a b l e . Thus, t h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d a way of co m b i n i n g s e v e r a l normal a n x i e t y - c a u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n the l i v e s of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . When a l l of th e s e components are a p p l i e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e combined e f f e c t i s s u b s t a n t i a l , y e t a c c e p t a b l e i n terms of the a n x i e t y l e v e l . A d e b r i e f i n g a t t h e end of the s e s s i o n i s a r e q u i r e m e n t . The f o l l o w i n g a r e components o f a n x i e t y w h i c h were used i n t h e i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y : 1. D i f f e r e n t from u s u a l c l a s s r o o m environment (Henk M. van de P l o e g , 1984). 2. U n f a m i l i a r a d m i n i s t r a t o r of t e s t (Fuchs and Fuchs, 1986; M o r r i s and D a v i s , 1973). 3. T e s t A n x i e t y . ( Z e i d n e r , 1988). 4. P e r s o n a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of e x p e r i e n c e . (Gaudry and S p e i l b e r g e r , 1971). 5. U n f a m i l i a r i t y of purpose and c o n t e n t o f s i t u a t i o n s . (Gaudry and S p i e l b e r g e r , 1971). 6. I n a b i l i t y f o r advance p r e p a r a t i o n . ( P r y s t a v , 1980). M a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of s i t u a t i o n s supposed t o cause a n x i e t y was p r a c t i c e d on t h e t r e a t m e n t groups. The c o n t r o l g r o u p s , on t h e o t h e r hand, d i d not e x p e r i e n c e t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n . Whatever a n x i e t y was e x p e r i e n c e d was measured by means of t h e S t a t e A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y ( S A I ) . 19 Strangers Strangers are considered to be the adults who were unknown to the children. By t h e i r sudden appearance and by the role they f i l l e d as administrators of the tests to the groups that were assigned to be the treatment groups, they were supposed to generate anxiety. These adults were female students i n psychology and counselling i n the University of Haifa. They agreed to p a r t i c i p a t e as volunteers in t h i s study. (See: Methodology). Real Life Problem-Solving For the purpose of t h i s study Real-Life-Problem-Solving i s defined as: a multifaceted process involving the a b i l i t y to: a) recognize the issue or issues to be dealt with, b) e l i c i t relevant and e f f e c t i v e s o lution(s), c) communicate the solution to others and, d) provide suggestions how to avoid such a problem. This a b i l i t y was measured by the performance of the students on the Real L i f e Problem Solving Situation Set (RLPSSS) which i s described below. 20 Real-Life-Problem-Solving-Situations-Set (RLPSSS) A s e t of s t i m u l i t h a t r e p r e s e n t r e a l l i f e dilemmas r e l a t i n g t o home, f a m i l y , s c h o o l , p e e r s and community was p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s s t u d y (see: Chapter I I I . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s ) . T h i s s e t co m p r i s e s a s e l e c t i o n of s i t u a t i o n s t h a t were adapted from two N o r t h American R e a l - L i f e - P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g t e s t s : 'Purdue E l e m e n t a r y P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g T e s t ' (PEPSI) (Feldhusen e t a l , 1976), and 'Test of Problem S o l v i n g ' (TOPS) (Zachman e t a l , 1984). Due t o t h e f a c t s t h a t : a) t h e r e i s no a v a i l a b l e R e a l L i f e Problem S o l v i n g T e s t i n Hebrew, and b) t h e r e l e v a n t R e a l - L i f e - P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g t e s t s as PEPSI (1977) and TOPS (1984) had t o be t r a n s l a t e d and adapted t o t h e I s r a e l i c u l t u r e (see: Chapter I I I P i l o t s t u d y ) , t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a l way of g o i n g ahead w i t h t h e st u d y was t o p r e p a r e a s e t of RLPSSS and a d m i n i s t e r i t on a one-time and s i m u l t a n e o u s b a s i s t o a l l the groups t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t u d y , (see: M e t h o d o l o g y ) . 21 Performance Score Every relevant d i f f e r e n t idea generated by each of the questions i n the RLPSSS i s accorded one point. The t o t a l of these points, over a l l the situations, i s the subject's performance score. The focus i s directed to the variety of d i f f e r e n t relevant ideas, and does not concern l i t e r a r y s t y l e . The scoring process involves judgement of f i v e judges (see: Methodology). Limitations And Constraints The following l i m i t a t i o n s and constraints apply to t h i s study: 1) Accuracy i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : The g i f t e d students of t h i s investigation have been i d e n t i f i e d and selected through the I s r a e l i procedure. The students selected as g i f t e d are e s s e n t i a l l y those children whom the 'test battery' i d e n t i f i e d as having the potential to perform well s c h o l a s t i c a l l y within the ex i s t i n g regular school c u r r i c u l a . However, following the selection, they are assigned to special classes, in which d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a are being implemented. There i s no guarantee that a l l those who have been selected r e a l l y "belong" i n these classes, or that the selection process has not f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y some of the r e a l l y g i f t e d . This s i t u a t i o n notwithstanding, the system of selection i s unlikely, at t h i s point, to be changed and 22 no other choice was r e a l i s t i c a l l y available, as far as the g i f t e d students' population was concerned. 2) Accessible g i f t e d population: One should mention that a comparison of several p a r a l l e l classes from the same age and the same circumstances would l i k e l y y i e l d the most r e l i a b l e data. However, very few classes of the g i f t e d students exist i n the entire country. Every c i t y in which such a class i s operating applies a d i f f e r e n t curriculum, and operates i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Consequently, g i f t e d students who were i d e n t i f i e d by the same i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process as applied here and assigned to p a r a l l e l classes, would not necessarily be comparable i n terms of a l l the relevant c r i t e r i a . Therefore, an alternative way of comparing performance of two matched groups of g i f t e d children was considered. This alternative suggested that the whole population of the g i f t e d elementary school children i n one c i t y (Haifa) would provide these two matched groups. One which w i l l perform under induced anxiety, and the other which w i l l perform i n i t s regular setting. This population consists of three classes: fourth, f i f t h , and sixth grades which are located i n one elementary school. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n for using these consecutive three classes i s based on: a) The I s r a e l i "Miltha" Intelligence Group-Tests" (Ortar and M o r i e l i , 1973) which considers these three grades as one unit. 23 b) S p i e l b e r g e r ' s (1973) A n x i e t y S c a l e s : S t a t e T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y f o r C h i l d r e n (STAIC) i n which the norms a r e based on d a t a c o l l e c t e d from 4 t h 5 t h and 6 t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n as one u n i t . 3) E n s u r i n g u n i f o r m i t y o f b e h a v i o u r on t h e p a r t o f t e s t i n g s t a f f : One has t o depend h e a v i l y on p r e c i s e c l e a r l y and u n i f o r m i n s t r u c t i o n s i n o r d e r t o ensure u n i f o r m i t y of b e h a v i o u r of t h e t e s t i n g s t a f f ( t e a c h e r s and ' s t r a n g e r s ' ) . I n e v i t a b l y , p h y s i q u e , c o m p l e x i o n , type of v o i c e , e n u n c i a t i o n , and o t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p e r s o n a l i t y communicated s u b t l e i m p r e s s i o n s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d t o : a) choose s t r a n g e r s t h a t would c o n s t i t u t e a homogenous group as much as p o s s i b l e . A l l the ' s t r a n g e r s ' were young female s e n i o r s t u d e n t s i n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . b) p r e s e n t c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e t e a c h e r s and the s t r a n g e r s , so t h a t t h e r e was no room f o r i n d i v i d u a l i m p r o v i s a t i o n . A l l of them a c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n . 4) D i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g f o r i n d u c e d a n x i e t y : The p r o blem of w o r k i n g under th e same c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a t t h e same ti m e f o r a l l the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups, p r e s e n t e d s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , such as a r r a n g i n g f o r a l l t e a c h e r s and s t r a n g e r s t o be p r e s e n t a t t h e same time and u s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e v e r a l rooms. The s c h o o l d i d not have s i x empty e x t r a c l a s s r o o m s . The rooms t h a t were a v a i l a b l e t o s e r v e t h i s purpose were: a) t h e computer room, b) t h e 24 l i b r a r y , c) the teachers' lounge, d) the art room, e) the science room, and f) the bomb shelter room. Clearly, a given room with i t s special setting and atmosphere has an e f f e c t on the anxiety of the children. The only solution to the problem was to assign the experimental groups randomly to these available rooms. 5) E t h i c a l considerations of anxiety induction: Inducing anxiety i n children obviously can give r i s e to e t h i c a l problems. Therefore, types of anxiety that were part of the r e a l i t y of the students' d a i l y l i f e and that would not r e s u l t i n any emotion damage to any c h i l d were sought i n designing the experimental procedures. An acceptable plan, used i n t h i s study, was to design an anxiety-inducing s i t u a t i o n related to test writing in an unfamiliar room, administered by a stranger without c l e a r l y specifying the purpose and time l i m i t . Each one of these manipulated situations was supposed to cause anxiety. Thus, i t was reasonable to assume that a l l of them occurring simultaneously would give r i s e to s i g n i f i c a n t anxiety within the treatment groups. One should mention that i t i s c r u c i a l to debrief the students immediately at the end of the experimental session. These remarks should disclose the purpose of the study, and point out that any test r e s u l t s w i l l have no e f f e c t on the future welfare of the students who have pa r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. Each of the strangers was well aware of these e t h i c a l issues and ca r r i e d out the desired debriefing. By 2 5 t h i s step and by following the described protocol, the constraining e t h i c a l issues were acknowledged. 6) Lack of a Real L i f e Problem Solving t e s t i n I s r a e l : I t was not possible to f i n d a Real-Life-Problem-Solving Test in Hebrew that would deal with everyday I s r a e l i l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Therefore, t h i s researcher was required to prepare an appropriate set of problem-solving situations. I t was beyond the scope of t h i s thesis to develop, validate and standardize an Israeli-Problem-Solving Test. However, some relevant ' r e a l - l i f e ' problematic situations could be i d e n t i f i e d i n two American problem-solving tests (see Methodology). The relevant situations were adjusted to t h i s study through a p i l o t study and with the help of professional judges. As a r e s u l t of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l i m i t a t i o n , the research design had to be adjusted. Owing to standardization problems of the RLPSSS, i t was not possible to use a pre-post test design for comparison. The simultaneous one-experimental-run appeared to be appropriate for t h i s study. As t h i s i s an exploratory study, a l b e i t one which may suggest new approaches i n t h i s area of investigation, there was the need to make a tentative beginning. In t h i s respect, the res u l t s obtained through the l o c a l l y developed RLPSS set were not without merit. It i s hoped, however, that continued exploration i n t h i s f i e l d w i l l r e s u l t i n a more refined Real-Life-Problem-Solving-Situations-Test. 26 7) Language: F i n a l l y , the study was c a r r i e d out i n Hebrew. The t r a n s l a t i o n of the students' responses and comments i s sometimes complicated owing to c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Some of the l o c a l f l a v o r may t h e r e f o r e have been l o s t . T h i s f a c t should a l s o be kept i n mind. Overview of The Present Study T h i s study i s organized i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . Chapter I deals w i t h the immediate concerns. I t pr e s e n t s the background, the purpose of the study and i t s r a t i o n a l e , the gen e r a l problem, and the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The terms used are d e s c r i b e d , and the l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s are d e a l t with. Chapter II i n c l u d e s the l i t e r a t u r e review r e g a r d i n g the main areas of i n t e r e s t i n the study. Chapter I I I f u r n i s h e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , the s u b j e c t s , the v a r i a b l e s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and procedures used i n t h i s study. The r e s e a r c h p l a n , r e s e a r c h hypotheses, method of a n a l y s i s and data p r o c e s s i n g are a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p ter. Chapter IV d e a l s with the r e s u l t s and the a n a l y s i s of the c o l l e c t e d data. Chapter V c o n t a i n s a summary of the study, a d i s c u s s i o n which i s f o l l o w e d by c o n c l u s i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . There are a l s o recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER II 27 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction The r o l e of e d u c a t i o n " s h o u l d c e n t e r around t h e a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problems, t h e k i n d of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t h a t , r e q u i r e s the i n d i v i d u a l t o be an independent t h i n k e r and t o s t r i v e t o a c h i e v e h i s o r her own s o l u t i o n s t o complex problems." ( O l t o n and C r u t c h f i e l d , c i t e d by H a r r i s and B l a n k , 1983, p.130). The i s s u e of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g has been s t u d i e d , d i s c u s s e d , and a n a l y z e d f o r many y e a r s and i n many a s p e c t s . The f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s t h e performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n when r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e problems under c o n d i t i o n s o f a n x i e t y . T h i s r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e a d d r e s s e s t h e i s s u e s of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g : d e f i n i t i o n s , s k i l l s , e x p e r i e n c e , t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g , gender d i f f e r e n c e s and m o t i v a t i o n t o succeed w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e need t o cope w i t h s t r e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s and a n x i e t y i s d e s c r i b e d by o p e r a t i o n a l approaches t o t h e measurement of a n x i e t y . S t u d i e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h a n x i e t y and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g of t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n of c h i l d r e n a r e r e p o r t e d f o l l o w e d by d e s c r i p t i o n of a n o t h e r l i n e of s t u d i e s which d e a l w i t h a n x i e t y and g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 28 Problem-Solving Problem-Solving: Definitions Dewey (1933) d e f i n e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g as: Problem: A s t a t e of doubt, h e s i t a t i o n , p e r p l e x i t y , m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t y i n which t h i n k i n g o r i g i n a t e s . S o l v i n g : an a c t of s e a r c h i n g , h u n t i n g , i n q u i r i n g , t o f i n d m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l r e s o l v e t h e doubt, s e t t l e and d i s p o s e of t h e p e r p l e x i t y (p.12). B l a n k ' s (1982) d e f i n i t i o n i s : "A problem, by d e f i n i t i o n , e x i s t s whenever an i n d i v i d u a l e n c o u n t e r s a p u r p o s e f u l s i t u a t i o n w hich r e q u i r e s r e s o l u t i o n by him and f o r which he has no r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s o l u t i o n a t hand" [p.13]. Wheatley (1984) suggested t h a t p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s what we do when we don't know what t o do. Fel d h u s e n and T r e f f i n g e r (1985) a s s e r t e d t h a t : "Problem s o l v i n g i s the p r o c e s s o f r e c o g n i z i n g an o b s t a c l e , d i f f i c u l t y , o r i n a b i l i t y t o a c t ; t h i n k i n g of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s ; and t e s t i n g o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e s o l u t i o n s " [p.48]. Woods (1988), d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s u c c e s s f u l and poor p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t : " S u c c e s s f u l problem s o l v e r s f e e l a sense o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m and i d e n t i f y a need t o l e a r n something when t h e y e n c o u n t e r something t h a t does n ot make sense. Poor l e a r n e r s do n o t " [p.243]. 29 Problem-Solving Skills What are the s k i l l s t h a t need to be i d e n t i f i e d f o r the l e a r n e r , developed and i n t e g r a t e d i n t o h i s way of t h i n k i n g , i n order f o r him to become an e f f e c t i v e problem s o l v e r ? G u i l f o r d and Hoepfner, (1971) concluded t h a t t h e r e are number of a b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the complete p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s : a) t h i n k i n g r a p i d l y of s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a given o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n , . b ) c l a s s i f y i n g o b j e c t s or ideas, c) p e r c e i v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d) t h i n k i n g of a l t e r n a t e outcomes, e) l i s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g o a l , and f) producing l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n s . Blank (1982) suggested t h a t s u c c e s s f u l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s the end-product of the i n t e r a c t i o n of knowledge, a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n . Sternberg (1984) d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the more i n t e l l i g e n t problem-solvers who are r e f l e c t i v e and the l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t problem-solvers who are i m p u l s i v e . The r e f l e c t i v e p roblem-solvers tend to spend r e l a t i v e l y more time on encoding the problem to f a c i l i t a t e subsequent o p e r a t i o n s than do the i m p u l s i v e p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s . Sternberg (1985) c l a s s i f i e d t h i n k i n g s k i l l s f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n t o t h r e e groups: metacomponents, performance components and knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n components. Metacomponents i n c l u d e r e c o g n i z i n g a problem, d e f i n i n g the problem, d e c i d i n g on a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g procedure, a l l o c a t i n g time and r e s o u r c e s , m o n i t o r i n g the s o l u t i o n to the problem, u t i l i z i n g feedback r e g a r d i n g the s o l v e d problem, and forming a mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Performance components are used to 3 0 execute t h e metacomponents and p r o v i d e feedback. The performance components v a r y by d i s c i p l i n e . T y p i c a l performance components i n c l u d e i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g , s p a t i a l v i s u a l i z a t i o n , and r e a d i n g . Knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s e s a r e used t o l e a r n c o n c e p t s o r p r o c e d u r e s . S e l e c t i v e e n c o d i n g , s e l e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n , and s e l e c t i v e comparisons a r e t y p i c a l knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n s k i l l s . T r e f f i n g e r (1986) argued t h a t t h e r o l e s o f c o n v e r g e n t and d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a r e m u t u a l l y s u p p o r t i v e r a t h e r than o p p o s i t e or competing. The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r y of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g has c e n t e r e d around two major methods a) computer s i m u l a t i o n s and b) t h i n k - a l o u d p r o t o c o l s (Simon, 1981). These methods have been used t o p r o v i d e a match between s k i l l s p e r f o r m e d by a model as i t used t o s o l v e a problem and d a t a from human s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m i n g a t a s k . T h i s r e s e a r c h i s r e f e r r e d t o a s : " i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r y " , because i t does not seek o n l y t o examine th e p r o d u c t s of t h i n k i n g , b u t a l s o t h e p r o c e s s e s which u n d e r l i e and g e n e r a t e t h e s e p r o d u c t s . 31 Problem-Solving: Experience V y g o t s k y (1978) p o i n t e d out the r o l e of e x p e r i e n c e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . He s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e pr e s e n c e of o t h e r s / then g r a d u a l l y come t o p e r f o r m t h e s e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s . An e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e of f a i l u r e can s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e i r l a t e r performance on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . C h i l d r e n ' s o b j e c t i v e knowledge of t h e i r own c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l w o r t h . Simon and B a r e n f e l d (1979) c o n c l u d e d t h a t many problem s o l v e r s a r e a b l e t o s t o r e i n memory t h e p a t h s t o s o l u t i o n f o r many problems. When f a c i n g a problem t h e y r e f e r t o p a s t s u c c e s s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and t o h e u r i s t i c s t h a t have been l e a r n e d . I n t h i s way p a s t e x p e r i e n c e has t o be r e p e a t e d and r e s t r u c t u r e d t o meet t h e c u r r e n t demands of t h e new problem which i s c a l l i n g f o r s o l u t i o n . T h i s i s s u e l e a d s t o t h e q u e s t i o n of whether t h e t e a c h i n g o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g can r e s u l t i n t r a n s f e r o f t r a i n i n g t o b e t t e r performance on o t h e r problems. Problem-Solving: Transfer of Training D i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s conducted by Houtz and Fe l d h u s e n (1976, 1977), by H a r r i s and B l a n k (1983) and by Cramond, M a r t i n and Shaw (1990) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n problem-s o l v i n g r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r performance. Houts and F e l d h u s e n (1976, 1977) examined t h e e f f e c t s of a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t r a i n i n g program. They d i v i d e d 240 f o u r t h 32 g r a d e r s i n t o 3 groups: a) t r a i n i n g p l u s rewards w i t h f r e e time and games, b) t r a i n i n g o n l y , and c) c o n t r o l group who took p a r t i n r e g u l a r c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups, where the t r a i n i n g - o n l y group performed much b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e s t . The r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a ' t r a n s f e r t e s t ' which p r e s e n t e d s i m i l a r problems t o t h o s e i n t h e t r a i n i n g . I n t h i s t e s t , t h e t r a i n i n g - o n l y group a l s o performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . H a r r i s and B l a n k (1983) used B l a n k ' s C r e a t i v e Problem-S o l v i n g Program t o d e t e r m i n e d e f i c i t s i n s e v e r a l a b i l i t i e s f o r f i f t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s . They used th e P r o d u c t i v e T h i n k i n g Program (PTP) m a t e r i a l s , ( r e v i s e d v e r s i o n , 1972), and c o n c l u d e d ( i n c o n t r a s t t o former f i n d i n g s by R i p p l e and Dacey, 1967, c i t e d i n t h e i r p a p e r ) , t h a t t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g was found. "Our s t u d y found s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e PTP t o t r a i n f o r t r a n s f e r of f l u e n c y i n r e a l l i f e problems which t r a n s c e n d p a r t i c u l a r k i n d s of problems of s u b j e c t m a t t e r " [p.147]. Whimbey, (1980) a s s e r t e d t h a t e x p e r t p r o b l e m - s o l v e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r a c c u r a c y causes them t o t a k e g r e a t c a r e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the problem i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c h o i c e of a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e s t o s o l u t i o n . He s uggested t h a t one c o u r s e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s not enough, and t h a t i t s h o u l d be r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n o r d e r f o r t r a n s f e r t o o c c u r . 33 Torrance (1980) d i s c u s s e d near and f a r t r a n s f e r . S k i l l s l e a r n e d f o r one task and t r a n s f e r r e d to a d i f f e r e n t task are c o n s i d e r e d to be near, i f the new task i s s i m i l a r i n i t s u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s . However, i f the c o n d i t i o n s are s u b s t a n t i a l l y n ovel, the t r a n s f e r i s c o n s i d e r e d to be f a r . Sternberg (1986) a s s e r t e d , based on h i s experiments, t h a t students can improve t h e i r s k i l l s through problem-s o l v i n g t a s k s and can t r a n s f e r these s k i l l s to new problems. According to h i s experiments the improvement of problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s and the t r a n s f e r was s t i l l e v i d e n t a year l a t e r . Sternberg (1983) claimed, a c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s of h i s experiments, t h a t b e t t e r t r a n s f e r occurs when one moves from p r a c t i c e on i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g to work on l a r g e r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , than i f one s t a r t s with small p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k s . However, he found t h a t context d i d not a f f e c t t r a n s f e r . 34 Problem-Solving: Strategies Parnes (1967) s u g g e s t e d f i v e s t a g e s f o r problem-s o l v i n g : a) g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e "mess", b) f o r m u l a t i n g a problem d e f i n i t i o n , c) g e n e r a t i n g i d e a s , d) m a n i p u l a t i o n of t h e b e s t i d e a s i n t o a s o l u t i o n s t r a t e g y , e) i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e "chosen i d e a s " . N e w e l l and Simon (1972) s t a t e d t h a t a s u b j e c t ' s b e h a v i o r i s a f u n c t i o n of an i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t a s k environment demanding a s o l u t i o n and t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s t h a t c u t s a c r o s s a l a r g e c l a s s of problems. The p r o c e s s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e g i n s w i t h an i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e problem. T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may r e n d e r p r o b l e m - s o l u t i o n s as o b v i o u s , o b s c u r e , o r perhaps u n a t t a i n a b l e . The system t h e n responds by s e l e c t i n g and a p p l y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g method, a method which b e a r s some r a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a c h i e v i n g a s o l u t i o n . N e w e l l and Simon (1972) s t a t e d t h a t : a t any moment, t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h e method may be h a l t e d . When a method i s t e r m i n a t e d , t h r e e o p t i o n s a r e open t o the p r o b l e m - s o l v e r : a) a n o t h e r method may be attem p t e d ; b) a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may be s e l e c t e d and t h e problem r e f o r m u l a t e d ; o r c) t h e attempt t o s o l v e t h e problem may be abandoned (p.88). Adams (1976) c l a i m s : the n a t u r a l tendency i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i s t o p e r c e i v e w t h e f i r s t s o l u t i o n t h a t comes t o mind and r u n w i t h i t . The d i s a d v a n t a g e of t h i s approach i s t h a t you may runw e i t h e r o f f a c l i f f o r i n t o a worse problem than youw s t a r t e d w i t h . A b e t t e r s t r a t e g y i n s o l v i n g problemsw i s t o d e t e c t t h e most a t t r a c t i v e p a t h from many ideasw o r co n c e p t s ( p . x i ) . 35 F e l d h u s e n and T r e f f i n g e r (1985) mentioned f i v e s t e p s i n p r o b l e m s - s o l v i n g which t h e y r e l a t e d t o c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g : a) r e c o g n i z i n g problems, b) f o r m u l a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s , c) g a t h e r i n g p e r t i n e n t f a c t s of d a t a , d) d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . Khatena (1984) r e v i e w e d t h e main p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g models t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e works o f : Dewey, W a l l a s , Rossman, G u i l f o r d , Osborn, Gordon and P r i n c e , Osborn and Par n e s , T o r r a n c e and de Bono. A l l t h o s e models d i f f e r e d i n t h e number of s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s . Khatena i n t e g r a t e d them i n t o f o u r main s t e p s : a) S e n s i n g and d e f i n i n g t h e problem, b) P r e p a r a t i o n , c) P r o c e s s i n g mechanism, and d) F i n d i n g a s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem. Problem-Solving: Gender Differences The c e n t r a l two q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a r e whether t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e x e s , and i f t h e r e i s , i s i t a d i f f e r e n c e i n a b i l i t y o r i n a t t i t u d e . Gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g were examined by Maccoly and J a c k l i n (1974). They s t a t e d t h a t g i r l s l e a r n a more g l o b a l s t y l e of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , w h i l e boys l e a r n t o s o l v e problems a n a l y t i c a l l y . O'Tuel (1989) s t u d i e d 300 g i f t e d s t u d e n t s ' s c o r e s on t h e G i f t e d S c r e e n i n g form SOI-LA. ( T h i s s c r e e n i n g form: S t r u c t u r e of I n t e l l e c t L e a r n i n g A b i l i t i e s , i s used o f t e n as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r s c r e e n i n g 36 s t u d e n t s f o r programs f o r t h e g i f t e d ) . She found t h a t females performed b e t t e r on v a r i o u s v e r b a l t a s k s , and males performed b e t t e r on a f i g u r a l s u b t e s t s . T h i s s t u d y d e a l t w i t h 4 t h , 7 t h , and 10th gr a d e s . The main q u e s t i o n of t h i s s t u d y was t h e c o n t i n u i n g use of t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h does not address e q u a l l y the s u b j e c t s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h i t . Cramer (1989) checked t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e s and s t e r e o t y p e s i n a s t u d y w i t h g i f t e d 4 t h grade s t u d e n t s . The stu d y f o c u s e d on a t t i t u d e s of g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s towards mathematics. The f i n d i n g s uggested t h a t t h e r e i s a s t e r e o t y p i c a l t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e lower a b i l i t y of females i n mathematics. Perrone and Male (1981) c l a i m e d t h a t boys c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r accomplishments t o be a r e s u l t of t h e i r a b i l i t y and e f f o r t s , w h i l e g i r l s a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r s u c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , such as good l u c k , easy assignment, t e a c h e r s ' f a v o r i t e e t c . They a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e " f e a r of s u c c e s s " syndrome i n some f e m a l e s . P e r r o n e and Male c l a i m e d t h a t t h e s e g i r l s f e l t t h a t h i g h achievements would r e f l e c t n e g a t i v e l y on t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y . T h i s f e e l i n g was not found i n males. Another s t u d y conducted by Karnes and D ' l l i o (1989) w i t h g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e 4 t h , 5 t h and 6th g r a d e s , r e g a r d i n g a t t i t u d e s towards l e a d e r s h i p , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e re s p o n s e s o f t h e boys were more t r a d i t i o n a l t h a n were t h o s e of t h e g i r l s . 37 B e l l (1989) f o c u s e d on t h e g i f t e d g i r l s ' (grades 3-6) dilemmas, which may b l o c k t h e i r s u c c e s s . I n a p r o j e c t e n t i t l e d REACH t h a t was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e i n t e r n a l b a r r i e r s t o achievement, she i n t e r v i e w e d t h e g i f t e d g i r l s . Some of t h e dilemmas she d i s c u s s e d were: Smart vs S o c i a l , S i l e n t vs B r a g g i n g , P a s s i v e vs A g g r e s s i v e . A c c o r d i n g t o B e l l , s o c i e t y communicates double message t o g i f t e d g i r l s : on t h e one hand i t e x p e c t s them t o a c h i e v e a c a d e m i c a l l y w i t h h i g h s t a n d a r d s , and on t h e o t h e r hand, i t e x p e c t s them t o pursue t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e m i n i n e r o l e . T h e r e f o r e , whatever the g i f t e d g i r l does, she cannot w i n . Giftedness G i f t e d n e s s i s a b i o l o g i c a l l y r o o t e d c o n c e p t , a l a b e l w f o r h i g h l e v e l of i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t r e s u l t s from thew advanced and a c c e l e r a t e d i n t e g r a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s w w i t h i n t h e b r a i n , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l s e n s i n g , emotions, c o g n i t i o n and i n t u i t i o n . Such advanced and a c c e l e r a t e d w f u n c t i o n may be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a b i l i t i e s such asw t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n c o g n i t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , academicw a p t i t u d e , l e a d e r s h i p or v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s w ( C l a r k , 1983, p . 6 ) . There a r e many o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s of ' g i f t e d n e s s ' , i n whic h a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s such as m o t i v a t i o n ( R e n z u l l i , 1978), i n s i g h t ( S t e r n b e r g and Da v i d s o n , 1986) and l e a r n i n g s t y l e (Shore and Dover, 1987) a r e a d d r e s s e d . The d e f i n i t i o n t h a t seems t o be most r e l e v a n t t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n about g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g was proposed by Tennenbaum (1991). He r e f e r r e d g i f t e d n e s s t o tho s e c h i l d r e n who a r e p r o d u c e r s of new i d e a s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e 38 f a s t learners. In facing r e a l l i f e problems one has to come out with new ideas relevant to the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . Gifted children: Problem-Solving Gallagher (1975) discussed the need of problem solving programs for the g i f t e d children i n order to challenge t h e i r cognitive a b i l i t y . Rosenfield and Houtz (1977) compared scores on the problem-solving of non-gifted children with those of the gi f t e d and concluded that g i f t e d subjects were approximately two years ahead of the non-gifted. They found that problem-solving s k i l l s grew steadily from grade two through grade six . Chatman and W i l l i f o r d (cited by Shore and Dover, 1987) designed research to determine whether fourth grade g i f t e d students used a p a r t i c u l a r strategy i n t h e i r problem-solving a c t i v i t i e s . These authors used an unstructured interview to assess awareness and use of cognitive strategies while solving problems.SNone of the g i f t e d students could verbalize t h e i r thought processes. Only few students reported using certain strategies. Davidson and Sternberg (1984) discussed insight s k i l l s i n concern with giftedness. They proposed a subtheory that there are three psychological processes: a) selective incoding, b) selective combination, and c) selective comparison which are referred to as "insights" when basic clues are encoded, combined or compared i n non standard new 39 ways. T h e i r theory was t e s t e d w i t h 4th, 5th and 6th grades of g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . They concluded, based on a t r a i n i n g program, t h a t the i n s i g h t s k i l l s are somewhat t r a i n a b l e . Shore and Dover (1987) mentioned Dover's comparison between g i f t e d and n o n g i f t e d 5th and 6th i n which he concluded t h a t g i f t e d outperformed n o n g i f t e d i n t h e i r problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s . Cramond, M a r t i n and Shaw (1990) t r a i n e d t h r e e groups of g i f t e d students (grades 6th, 7th and 8th) i n C r e a t i v e Problem-Solving (CPS). One group r e c e i v e d t r a d i t i o n a l CPS t r a i n i n g , the second r e c e i v e d the same t r a i n i n g with a d d i t i o n a l t r a n s f e r s t r a t e g i e s i n f u s e d (CPST), and the t h i r d was the c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n v a r i o u s memory t a s k s , e x e r c i s e s i n l o g i c , and a n a l o g i c a l s k i l l s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the CPST s u b j e c t s had the h i g h e s t percentage of students who a p p l i e d the s t r a t e g i e s on new tasks of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , next was the CPS group, while the t h i r d had the lowest percentage of students who were able to t r a n s f e r t h e i r t r a i n i n g t o another p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k . Giftedness: Motivation and Problem-Solving G a l t o n (1962) c o n s i d e r e d g i f t e d n e s s as a q u a l i t y of e f f o r t and t a l e n t . T h i s l o g i c was c a r r i e d out many years l a t e r by R e n z u l l i . R e n z u l l i (1978) i n c l u d e d the component of m o t i v a t i o n i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of g i f t e d n e s s . He r e f e r r e d to i t as 'task commitment' t h a t i s shown by: a) p e r s i s t e n c e i n 40 accomplishment of g o a l s , b) i n t e g r a t i o n of d i v e r s e g o a l s , and c) s e l f c o nfidence, freedom from i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s , d r i v e to achieve, and eagerness. " P r o d u c t i v e persons are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from l e s s p r o d u c t i v e persons by showing more of these q u a l i t i e s " [p.182]. Whitmore (1980) s t a t e d t h a t m o t i v a t i o n and e f f o r t are concomitants of t a l e n t development, not p r e - r e q u i s i t e s . Chang (1985) d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a ble and the h i g h a c h i e v i n g g i f t e d by t h e i r a t t i t u d e , t h e i r depth of i n t e r e s t , t h e i r enthusiasm, and the way i n which they s t r i v e to study any s u b j e c t . However, no one ignores t h a t the combination of m o t i v a t i o n and t a l e n t enable h i g h e r achievement than j u s t having t a l e n t without m o t i v a t i o n and v i c e v e r s a . Torrance (1980) presented a composite image of the p r o d u c t i v e , g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l as one who has developed a p e r s o n a l i z e d wisdom about l i f e . Such a person r e c o g n i z e s t h a t d e p a r t i n g from t r a d i t i o n may i n v i t e d i s t r e s s , but i s w i l l i n g to accept a c e r t a i n amount of s t r e s s i n the b e l i e f t h a t a new order w i l l be c r e a t e d . Perrone and Male (1981) concluded, f o l l o w i n g t h e i r study of eminent people, t h a t the common denominator u n i t i n g them a l l was t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n to know and to be p r o d u c t i v e . T h i s f i n d i n g r e i n f o r c e d the c l a i m of A t k i n s o n and Feather (1966) t h a t the motive to succeed and the motive to a v o i d f a i l u r e are d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y powerful. Persons d r i v e n by a motive to succeed are l i k e l y to take r i s k s when they 41 p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a s o n a b l e chance of s u c c e e d i n g . Persons m o t i v a t e d by a f e a r of f a i l u r e a r e u n l i k e l y t o t a k e r i s k s ; t h e y p r e f e r t a s k s i n which they a re c e r t a i n t o succeed o r a r e ex p e c t e d n ot t o f a i l . M i l g r a m (1976) a l s o emphasized t h a t s u c c e s s s t r i v i n g and f a i l u r e a v o i d a n c e a r e d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e s " e f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l outcomes v e r s u s a v e r t i n g f a i l u r e outcomes are d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l e x p e c t a n c i e s " [p.192]. The f e a r of f a i l u r e and t h e s t r i v i n g f o r s u c c e s s a r e both c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o p i n g w i t h s t r e s s and a n x i e t y . What then i s meant by s t r e s s and a n x i e t y ? Anxiety Stress and Anxiety There i s no agreement about t h e t e r m i n o l o g y t o use when r e f e r r i n g t o s t r e s s . A n x i e t y , c o n f l i c t , f r u s t r a t i o n , d e f e n s e , f e a r , and t h r e a t a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y ( L a z a r u s , 1966; S c h a f e r , 1978; S p i e l b e r g e r , 1972). The t e r m i n o l o g y used and t h e many d e f i n i t i o n s of s t r e s s may w e l l be s o u r c e s of c o n f u s i o n . T o r r a n c e (1965), Cox (1978), S c h a f e r (1978), Antonovsky (1979), S e l y e (1983), and Thorensen and E a g l e s t o n (1983) agreed t h a t c e r t a i n amount of s t r e s s improves performance, w h i l e i n t e n s e s t r e s s may r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n of performance. T r u m b u l l (1976) viewed t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e s s and a n x i e t y i n terms of t h e end r e s u l t s of s t r e s s . The 42 i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the s t r e s s i s c a l l e d t h r e a t , and h i s or her subsequent response may be a n x i e t y ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1972, 1976). S p i e l b e r g e r (1972) developed h i s S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y theory which i s concerned with: C l a r i f y i n g the p r o p e r t i e s of A-State and A - T r a i t a s w p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , and with s p e c i f y i n g t h e w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r e s s f u l stimulus c o n d i t i o n s whichwevoke d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l s of A-State i n persons whowdiffer i n A - T r a i t (p. 42). S p i e l b e r g e r r e f e r r e d to State A n x i e t y as: "a t r a n s i t o r y emotional s t a t e or c o n d i t i o n of the human organism t h a t v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y and f l u c t u a t e s over time" [p.39], and to T r a i t Anxiety as: " r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n x i e t y proneness" [p.39]. Wallach and Kogan (1965) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s a n x i e t y by: Sarason, Davidson, L i g h t h a l l , Waite and Ruebush, ( c i t e d i n t h e i r book). They p o i n t e d out t h a t the m a j o r i t y of s p e c i f i c f e a r s r e p o r t e d by childrenwhave l i t t l e or no b a s i s i n r e a l i t y . t h e s e s p e c i f i c f e a r s seem to serve as f o c a l p o i n t s or screens forwanxiety about s i t u a t i o n s , impulses, and c o n f l i c t s w w h i c h possess extremely dangerous i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r thewchild's s e c u r i t y (p.190). 43 Anxiety: Operational Approaches Two o p e r a t i o n a l approaches concerning the anxiety-v a r i a b l e i n c h i l d r e n are d e s c r i b e d below: a) The C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t Anxiety S c a l e : t h i s s c a l e was b a s i c a l l y d e r i v e d from T a y l o r ' s (1953) a n x i e t y s c a l e f o r a d u l t s . Castaneda, Palermo and McCandess (1956) s e l e c t e d the items t h a t seemed to be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c h i l d r e n . T h i s C h i l d r e n ' s s c a l e was s a i d t o measure the c h i l d ' s g e n e r a l l e v e l of a n x i e t y . b) The General A n x i e t y Scale f o r C h i l d r e n (GASC): d e r i v e d by Sarason et a l . (1960). The items s e l e c t e d i n t h i s s c a l e are compatible with the Freudian c o n c e p t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a n x i e t y . Freud (1936) ( c i t e d i n Wallach and Kogan, 1965) d e f i n e d a n x i e t y as a s t a t e t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d as b a s i c a l l y unpleasant, with p h y s i o l o g i c a l concomitants o f t e n p r e s e n t . Item content of GASC r e f l e c t e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t might e l i c i t a n x i e t y , such as s i g h t of blood, p a r e n t a l absence, e t c . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s s c a l e Sarason et a l . (1960) developed a l s o a Test A n x i e t y Scale f o r C h i l d r e n (TASC). Wallach and Kogan (1965) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s used Sarason's General A n x i e t y (GASC) and Test A n x i e t y s c a l e s (TASC). They changed the i n t e r r o g a t i v e form from second person to f i r s t person ( f o r example, "Do you worry t h a t you might get h u r t i n some a c c i d e n t ? " was rephrased as: "I worry t h a t I might get hurt i n some a c c i d e n t " ) . They a l s o omitted some items i n order to minimize redundancies i n content. 44 T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n of the General A n x i e t y and T e s t A n x i e t y s c a l e s (GASC and TASC) was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Hebrew and v a l i d a t e d i n I s r a e l (Ortar, 1973). I n t e r n a l analyses of both s c a l e s i n c l u d i n g item score c o r r e l a t i o n s and s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s , y i e l d e d h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n c l u d i n g Kuder-Richardson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.76 and 0.82, r e s p e c t i v e l y (Milgram, 1976). The t r a n s l a t e d s c a l e s were used i n a study t h a t compared l e v e l s of a n x i e t y of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n vs n o n - g i f t e d (Milgram, 1976) i n I s r a e l . Milgram found t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n elementary s c h o o l have a lower l e v e l of a n x i e t y compared w i t h n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n of the same age. Anxiety: Problem-solving The i s s u e of c h i l d r e n ' s a n x i e t y i s d e a l t with over a p e r i o d of t h r e e decades. (Sarason, 1960; Wallach and Kogan, 1965;). The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s s t u d i e s on the i n f l u e n c e of a n x i e t y on the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance of c h i l d r e n . Some of the r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s are presented below. West (1969) found t h a t a n x i e t y i n t e r a c t s with i r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n to produce a d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n f o r the p roblem-solver. Research by Nottelman (1975), c a r r i e d out with 4th and 5th grades, concluded t h a t h i g h l y anxious c h i l d r e n engaged s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n o f f - t a s k b e h a v i o r s than l e s s anxious c h i l d r e n . Gross (1984) r e p o r t e d on two experiments t h a t he performed i n a p r i v a t e elementary s c h o o l with 2nd and 6th grade c h i l d r e n , i n v e s t i g a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s t a t e 45 a n x i e t y , memory processes, and c h i l d r e n ' s performance on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k s . His c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t l i t t l e performance d e f i c i t r e s u l t e d from high s t a t e - a n x i e t y . S c h i l l (1984) compared the coping behaviors of s t r e s s e d low anxious s u b j e c t s with those of high anxious s u b j e c t s , and found t h a t the low anxious s u b j e c t s d e a l t with l i f e s t r e s s p r i m a r i l y by t r y i n g to analyze s p e c i f i c problems and t a k i n g d i r e c t a c t i o n . The h i g h l y anxious stopped f u n c t i o n i n g well,@@sought the support of others and, i f male, r e s o r t e d to drugs, a l c o h o l or sex as a source of comfort. S i e b e r (1970) d i s c u s s e d the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y as w e l l as the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s . She presented a paradigm t h a t can p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the ways i n which l e a r n i n g environments can be m o d i f i e d to take advantage of the f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y and e l i m i n a t e i t s d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s . Zeidner et a l . (1988) d e a l t with the t e s t a n x i e t y of I s r a e l i f i f t h and s i x t h g r a d e r s . They t r a i n e d teachers to improve students' t e s t coping s k i l l s . As a r e s u l t the students' performance improved. However, the improvement on t e s t a n x i e t y scores was n e g l i g i b l y a f f e c t e d . Anxiety: gifted vs. non-gifted children The comparison of a n x i e t y l e v e l of g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i s c e n t r a l to a b a s i c c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e i n the f i e l d of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 46 There a r e two d i f f e r e n t views t h a t a r e s u p p o r t e d p a r t i a l l y by r e s e a r c h and p a r t i a l l y by o p i n i o n "based on e x p e r i e n c e " . One p o i n t of view emphasizes t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have h i g h e r a n x i e t y compared w i t h t h e non-g i f t e d . @This view was e x p r e s s e d by D i r k e s (1983) who s t a t e d : t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n of g i f t e d n e s s i s f e r t i l e ground f o r w a n x i e t y cannot be d e n i e d . . . s i n c e t h e a b i l i t i e s of t h e w g i f t e d a r e out of s t e p w i t h age p e e r s and o f t e n s u r p a s s w t h e i r e l d e r s , t h e y upset customary r e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d w i n v i t e ambiguous e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r performance...Thewanxiety t h a t r e s u l t s i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e s u p p o r t o r w r e j e c t i o n t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e i n res p o n s e t o t h e i r w u n i q u e n e s s and i n i t i a t i v e ( p.68). T h i s view, however, was not s u p p o r t e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , as M i l g r a m (1976), Reynolds and B r a d l e y (1983), and o t h e r s who found t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d l e s s a n x i e t y compared w i t h n o n - g i f t e d . A s u b s t a n t i a l sample of the p u b l i s h e d r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d below. However, i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t t h e t o p i c of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r l e v e l of a n x i e t y i s v e r y g e n e r a l , and has not y i e l d e d a comprehensive t h e o r y . There i s much vagueness i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i s s u e , and many of the c o n c l u s i o n s a r e e x p r e s s i o n s o f o p i n i o n , n o t based on r e s e a r c h a t a l l . The f i r s t l i n e of r e s e a r c h w i l l emphasize t h e f a c t t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have more f e a r s and a r e more p e s s i m i s t i c t h a n n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . C l a r k and Hankins (1985) found t h a t a t ages 6 - 10, g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , compared w i t h t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s , were more w o r r i e d about t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and about t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be 47 mentioned t h a t the comparison was based on t h e s u b j e c t s ' answers t o 19 q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o ncerns c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were a n a l y z e d and t h e consequences p r e s e n t e d . G a l b r a i t h (1985) i n t e r v i e w e d g i f t e d s t u d e n t s and found t h a t 80% of t h e i n t e r v i e w e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were concerned w i t h t h r e a t s of n u c l e a r w a r , @ @ i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g l o b a l economic problems. A c c o r d i n g t o G a l b r a i t h , t h e s e c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e r n s were accompanied by s t r o n g f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s . They f e l t t h a t no one e x p l a i n e d t o them what b e i n g g i f t e d i s a l l about, t h a t k i d s o f t e n t e a s e d them about b e i n g smart, and t h a t p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and f r i e n d s e x p e c t e d them t o be p e r f e c t . They f e l t overwhelmed by t h e number of t h i n g s t h e y can do i n l i f e , and t h e y a l s o w o r r i e d about w o r l d problems, and f e l t h e l p l e s s t o do a n y t h i n g about them. These f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s by Landau (1976, I s r a e l ) and George and G a l l a g h e r (1978, USA)@@that g i f t e d c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s and pe s s i m i s m w h i l e w o r r y i n g about t h e i r f u t u r e and t h e f u t u r e of t h e w o r l d . Roeper (1982), based on h e r br o a d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , mentioned t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t might a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e f e e l i n g s of t h e g i f t e d : The p e r f e c t i o n i s t , t h e c h i l d / a d u l t , t he win n e r o f the c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e l f c r i t i c and the w e l l 48 i n t e g r a t e d c h i l d . A l l t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may i n v o l v e a n x i e t y . A s t u d y c a r r i e d out i n Canada by F o r s y t h (1987), which compared Fr e n c h immersion g i f t e d c l a s s e s w i t h r e g u l a r c l a s s e s on a n x i e t y and s e l f - c o n c e p t s ( u s i n g t h e S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y F o r C h i l d r e n as an a n x i e t y measure), found t h a t g i f t e d s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i r l s , d emonstrated th e h i g h e s t a n x i e t y . The i s s u e of i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s p e c i f i c f e a r s of g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i s d i s c u s s e d i n the s t u d y by Derevensky and Coleman (1989). T h e i r f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f o u r most common f e a r s mentioned by t h e g i f t e d were: n u c l e a r war ( 5 8 . 6 % ) , v i o l e n c e ( 5 5 . 7 % ) , m i s c e l l a n e o u s , which i n c l u d e d a n y t h i n g from l a c k o f s o c i a l l i f e t o g e t t i n g p r e g n a n t ( 4 7 . 1 % ) , and d e a t h / d i s e a s e ( 4 0 % ) . T h i s s t u d y was a l s o conducted i n Canada. The l i n e of r e s e a r c h which s u p p o r t s t h e o pposing argument t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and a l ower l e v e l of a n x i e t y t h a n t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s i s p r e s e n t e d below. Reynolds and B r a d l e y (1983) r e v i s e d t h e C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y S c a l e (CMAS; Casteneda, Palermo and McCandless, 1956) and a d m i n i s t e r e d i t t o groups of g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d (second grade t o t w e l f t h g r a d e ) . They found t h a t t h e g i f t e d sample (465 c h i l d r e n ) d i s p l a y e d a l ower l e v e l of a n x i e t y t h a n the n o n - g i f t e d sample (329 c h i l d r e n ) . 49 S c h o l w i n s k i and Reynolds (1985), with the Revised C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y Scale (RCMAS), found again t h a t high IQ c h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d lower l e v e l s of a n x i e t y . T h i s lower a n x i e t y l e v e l c h a r a c t e r i z e d the high IQ group on a l l v a r i a b l e s t h a t emerged through t h e i r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . Davis and C o n n e l l (1985), i n t h e i r study with 4th, 5th and 6th grade g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d , found t h a t " g i f t e d r e p o r t l e s s a n x i e t y about t h e i r s chool performance than average students and a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s to take on c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k s , and to independently s o l v e d i f f i c u l t problems" [p.134]. S e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out i n Taiwan (Republic of C h i n a ) . Wu-Tien (1981) used an a d a p t a t i o n of the Sarason (GASC) f o r Chinese c h i l d r e n (GASCC) and the T e s t A n x i e t y Scale f o r Chinese C h i l d r e n (TASCC). He compared the a n x i e t y l e v e l of 611 g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n 3rd, 4th and 5th grades who were assig n e d to s p e c i a l g i f t e d c l a s s e s w i t h t h e i r g i f t e d peers who had not withdrawn from r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . He r e p o r t e d t h a t the g i f t e d i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s were e m o t i o n a l l y more s t a b l e , f e l t more c o n f i d e n t and secure and l e s s anxious i n g e n e r a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . Hai Chig L i n (1981) compared g i f t e d w i t h n o n - g i f t e d 4th and 5th grades. He used a t o t a l of 233 c h i l d r e n and an a d a p t a t i o n of Sarason's General A n x i e t y and T e s t A n x i e t y s c a l e s i n Chinese (General A n x i e t y Scale f o r Chinese C h i l d r e n GASCC and Test A n x i e t y Scale f o r Chinese C h i l d r e n (TASCC), and the Chinese C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y Scale 50 (CCMAS) an a d a p t a t i o n of (CMAS). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was d e t e c t e d between the 2 groups on a l l 3 a n x i e t y s c a l e s . Wen Chi L i u (1981) compared g i f t e d with IQ above 146 with average c h i l d r e n , u s ing a t o t a l of 100 primary school p u p i l s from 1st grade to 3rd grade. The Test A n x i e t y s c a l e (TASCC) was used. In t h i s study, too, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the 2 groups. C h i n - L i Tzeng e t a l (1981) a l s o used the GASCC and TASCC s c a l e s and compared a n x i e t y l e v e l s of g i f t e d and non-g i f t e d Chinese c h i l d r e n at the 4th and 5th grades using a t o t a l of 147 s u b j e c t s . Here a l s o , a lack, of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the 2 groups was r e p o r t e d , but i t was noted t h a t the scores on a n x i e t y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower f o r boys than f o r g i r l s . Milgram (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the General Anx i e t y S c a l e , I s r a e l i g i f t e d were found to have a lower l e v e l of a n x i e t y as compared wi t h the n o n - g i f t e d , and boys were found to have a lower l e v e l of a n x i e t y than d i d g i r l s . G i f t e d g i r l s were found to be l e s s anxious than n o n - g i f t e d g i r l s , w h i l e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d boys. The d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s among g i f t e d c h i l d r e n d i d not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Milgram's r e p o r t s on the Test A n x i e t y Scale were a l s o s i m i l a r . G i f t e d were l e s s anxious than n o n - g i f t e d and boys l e s s anxious than g i r l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was found t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age, (the study was conducted with grades 4-8), boys expressed l e s s a n x i e t y and g i r l s r e p o r t e d more. Roome and Romney (1985) expl o r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of re d u c i n g a n x i e t y by i n d u c i n g r e l a x a t i o n . They found t h a t biofeedback and muscle r e l a x a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d the s u b j e c t towards more i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l when compared with a non-treatment group. However, there was no change i n t r a i t a n x i e t y . They argued a g a i n s t the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n ge n e r a l are more anxious than n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Many of these s t u d i e s were c r i t i c i z e d f o r the way they measured a n x i e t y , which may be s u b j e c t to m a n i p u l a t i o n . Some s t u d i e s t h a t t r i e d t o a v o i d t h i s problem reached, however, the same c o n c l u s i o n . Ludwig and C u l l i n a n (1984) compared elementary g i f t e d students with n o n - g i f t e d students on a t e a c h e r - r a t i n g s c a l e . They found t h a t the g i f t e d were p e r c e i v e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s as l e s s anxious and e x h i b i t fewer b e h a v i o u r a l problems than d i d t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . A study conducted by Wooding and Bingham (1988) i n thr e e j u n i o r high schools i n Ca l g a r y Canada, compared the r e a c t i o n of g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d to a c o g n i t i v e s t r e s s o r . The r e s e a r c h e r s concluded t h a t the g i f t e d r e a c t i o n t o a c o g n i t i v e s t r e s s o r was l e s s i n t e n s i v e than t h a t of t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d s u b j e c t s , and t h e i r r e c o v e r y was more r a p i d than t h a t of the n o n - g i f t e d . 52 Conclusion: Problem-Solving / Gifted children / Anxiety As was demonstrated i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s b r o a d l y w i t h t h e i s s u e s of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ( d e f i n i t i o n s , s k i l l s , e x p e r i e n c e , t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g , s t r a t e g i e s ) . The f o c u s on m o t i v a t i o n i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g l e a d s t o a comparison between n o n - g i f t e d who work under the m o t i v a t i o n of a v o i d i n g f a i l u r e and t h e g i f t e d who a r e s t r i v i n g f o r s u c c e s s , (Perrone and Male, 1981) . The m o t i v a t i o n e i t h e r t o a v o i d f a i l u r e o r t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s g e n e r a t e s s t r e s s . The way t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s t h e s t r e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d as a n x i e t y , and i s measured by a n x i e t y s c a l e s , ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1973). The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n of a l l the s t u d i e s mentioned i n t h i s c h a p t e r were d i f f e r e n t and t h e r e f o r e cannot be compared. Any such comparison may p r o v i d e vague outcomes of o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e e f f e c t a n x i e t y has on th e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h r e a l l i f e p roblems. I t seems t h a t t h i s c o r e t o p i c i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d i s s t i l l n o t e x p l o r e d enough and t h e r e i s an u r g e n t need f o r a thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . O nly one r e f e r e n c e has been found c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i s s u e . T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s t h e a r t i c l e by D i r k s (1983). She argues t h a t g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n t o use a n x i e t y t o advantage, and th e y respond t o c o n f l i c t by i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r u n iqueness i n an e f f o r t t o f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s t o 53 deal with problem-solving. However, no substantial research was found concerning the effects of anxiety on the re a l l i f e problem-solving performance of g i f t e d children. In view of the information provided i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and more so the information that i s missing i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s hoped that t h i s study i s opening a new li n e of research that may provide some answers regarding the problems involved with the performance of g i f t e d children under conditions of anxiety when they are faced with re a l l i f e problems. The description of the methodology of t h i s study i s presented in chapter I I I . 54 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s , the v a r i a b l e s , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s used i n t h i s s t u d y . I n c l u d e d i s t h e r e s e a r c h p l a n which comprised a p i l o t s t u d y and t h e main s t u d y , d a t a p r o c e s s i n g , r e s e a r c h hypotheses and method of a n a l y s i s r e g a r d i n g a n x i e t y and r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g . POPULATION Target Population: The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s t o t h e ele m e n t a r y s c h o o l g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i n I s r a e l . The agreed upon q u a l i t i e s of i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , i n g e n e r a l terms, r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n who a c h i e v e a t a h i g h e r l e v e l of performance s c h o l a s t i c a l l y , who t h i n k more c l e a r l y , p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n more e f f e c t i v e l y , and demonstrate more i n s i g h t t h a n do average c h i l d r e n (Feldhusen and T r e f f i n g e r 1985; Gardner, 1983; R e n z u l l i , 1978; S t e r n b e r g , 1986) . Most of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced c o u n t r i e s have t h e i r own c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e g i f t e d . I n I s r a e l , t h e p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i o n i s a p p l i e d n a t i o n a l l y , as d e s c r i b e d i n c h a p t e r I . 55 Accessible Population The c r i t e r i a for selecting g i f t e d students and assigning them to special classes are e s s e n t i a l l y the same for a l l I s r a e l i students. Curricula, however, d i f f e r from one c i t y to another. Consequently i t seemed to be most appropriate, for the purpose of t h i s study, to focus on the entire g i f t e d population of one c i t y . The accessible population that was chosen for t h i s study comprised of g i f t e d fourth, f i f t h and sixth grades in Haifa, I s r a e l . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n for u t i l i z i n g these three consecutive grade leve l s as one unit, for research purposes, was based on two major references: a) Spielberger's anxiety inventories for children, TAI and SAI, which are used i n the present study, were validated with the fourth, f i f t h and sixth grades, b) I s r a e l i Intelligence Group Tests, developed by Ortar and M o r i e l i . (Milta I n t e l l i g e n t Test published by the Hebrew University and the Ministry of Education of I s r a e l ) . These tests have been administered to a l l I s r a e l i children since 1966, with the fourth, f i f t h and s i x t h grade levels constituting one administrative unit. 56 Background Information: Some background i n f o r m a t i o n about H a i f a ' s p u b l i c s c h o o l s p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e of H a i f a i s g i v e n below: The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of el e m e n t a r y p u b l i c s c h o o l ( F i r s t t o S i x t h grades) i n H a i f a , c o n s i s t s o f 18,097 s t u d e n t s . The t o t a l number of t h e F o u r t h grade s t u d e n t s i s 2,250. The g i f t e d F o u r t h grade c l a s s c o n s i s t s of 24 s t u d e n t s (18 boys and 6 g i r l s ) . The t o t a l number o f F i f t h grade s t u d e n t s c o n s i s t s of 2,350. The g i f t e d F i f t h grade c l a s s c o n s i s t s of 27 s t u d e n t s (18 boys and 9 g i r l s ) . The t o t a l number o f S i x t h grade s t u d e n t s i s 2,450. The g i f t e d S i x t h grade c l a s s c o n s i s t s of 26 s t u d e n t s (18 boys and 8 g i r l s ) . As n o t e d above, t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e s i m i l a r t h r o u g h o u t I s r a e l , and i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o c l a i m , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n of H a i f a i s t y p i c a l of t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y . 57 Selection of the research groups The two groups s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y were: 1. The e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of g i f t e d s t u d e n t s i n grades 4, 5, and 6 e n r o l l e d i n the s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r t h e g i f t e d i n H a i f a , I s r a e l . 2. Randomly s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s of N o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s from grades 4, 5 and 6. There was one c l a s s a t each grade l e v e l c o n t a i n i n g s t u d e n t s c l a s s i f i e d as g i f t e d , and t h r e e c l a s s e s a t each grade l e v e l i n which t h e s t u d e n t s not c l a s s i f i e d as g i f t e d were e n r o l l e d . From n i n e c l a s s e s of n o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s o n l y one a t each grade l e v e l was randomly s e l e c t e d . Each of t h e t h r e e c l a s s e s i n each of th e p o p u l a t i o n ( g i f t e d and non-g i f t e d ) was d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: t r e a t m e n t and non-tr e a t m e n t matched f o r T r a i t a n x i e t y , gender and s c h o o l achievement. These two matched groups were randomly a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t and non-treatment g r o u p s . The a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e experiment depended on t h e i r s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e on t h a t day. I t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t because of mat c h i n g , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s whose a s s i g n e d p a i r s d i d not a t t e n d s c h o o l on t h a t day had t o be dropped from t h e s t u d y . The f i n a l number of g i f t e d s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n th e s t u d y was: f o u r t h g rade: N=24, f i f t h g r a d e : N=22 and s i x t h g rade: N=24. T o t a l of 70 g i f t e d s t u d e n t s (48 boys and 22 g i r l s ) . 58 The f i n a l number of n o n - g i f t e d students p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study was: f o u r t h grade: N=24, f i f t h grade: N=28, and s i x t h grade: N=20. T o t a l of 72 n o n - g i f t e d students (38 boys and 34 g i r l s ) . Variables: T h i s study, being e s s e n t i a l l y concerned with the performance of g i f t e d students i n r e l a t i o n to n o n - g i f t e d students i n r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , under c o n d i t i o n of an x i e t y , employed the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : Independent Variables: 1. Treatment: The treatment v a r i a b l e r e f e r to the i n d u c i n g of a n x i e t y , an i n t e r v e n t i o n which r e p r e s e n t s an e s s e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a s s e s s i n g p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance f o r t h i s study. 2 . Non-treatment: The Non-treatment v a r i a b l e r e f e r s to the absence of induced a n x i e t y . 3. G i f t e d n e s s : r e f e r s to the s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s found i n g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who have been i d e n t i f i e d and assign e d t o s p e c i a l c l a s s e s . 4. N o n-giftedness: r e f e r s t o c h i l d r e n i n the r e g u l a r c l a s s e s who were not i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d . 5. Gender: r e f e r s to the d i f f e r e n c e between boys and g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. 59 Dependent Variables 1. A n x i e t y : as measured by T r a i t A n x i e t y Inventory (TAI) and State A n x i e t y Inventory (SAI) ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1973). 2. Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g Performance: as measured by Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS). T h i s s e t p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s of s i x t e e n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . The s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d to i d e n t i f y the problem(s), to suggest s o l u t i o n s , and to f i n d ways i n which the problem c o u l d have been avoided (see: I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ) . Instrumentation The instruments used to o b t a i n measures on the v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study were: T r a i t A n x i e t y Inventory (TAI) f o r C h i l d r e n . State A n x i e t y Inventory (SAI) f o r C h i l d r e n . Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS). Anxiety Inventories S p i e l b e r g e r et a l . , (1973) developed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to measure State and T r a i t A n x i e t y f o r C h i l d r e n (STAIC). The items were a d j u s t e d to the l e v e l of c h i l d r e n f o r aspects such as language and experience. A t h r e e - c a t e g o r y response format ranging from low to high was designed f o r c h i l d r e n , r a t h e r than the f o u r category format i n the . q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r a d u l t s . The concurrent v a l i d i t y of the TAIC was based on i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with C h i l d r e n ' s M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y Scale (CMAS) (Castaneda et a l . , 1956) and, General A n x i e t y Scale f o r 60 C h i l d r e n (Sarason, e t a l . , 1960), two w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and w i d e l y used a n x i e t y measures. I n a sample of 75 c h i l d r e n from 4 t h , 5 t h and 6th grade t h e STAIC t r a i t s c a l e c o r r e l a t e d .75 w i t h CMAS and .63 w i t h t h e GASC. T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y (TAI) f o r C h i l d r e n : The TAI measures t h e s u b j e c t s ' g e n e r a l s t a t e of a n x i e t y . I t c o n s i s t s of 20 items which S p i e l b e r g e r d e s c r i b e s as r e l a t i n g t o " r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n x i e t y p r o n e n e s s " ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1973, p. 3 9 ) . The s u b j e c t s a r e asked t o respond t o t h e items a c c o r d i n g t o how th e y f e e l i n g e n e r a l . The ite m s r e q u i r e s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n . The a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e TAI s c a l e computed f o r a sample of 456 male and 457 females from 4 t h , 5 t h and 6th grades by K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n f o r m u l a 20, as m o d i f i e d by Cronbach (1950), was .78 f o r males and .81 f o r f e m a l e s . S p i e l b e r g e r ' s I n v e n t o r i e s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Hebrew by Taichman and M a l i n e k (1984), of T e l - A v i v U n i v e r s i t y . The c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y was based on c o r r e l a t i o n of the t r a n s l a t e d v e r s i o n w i t h a n o t h e r w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d a n x i e t y I s r a e l i t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n , ( Z i v , L e v i n and I s r a e l i , 1974). T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was found t o be .65 f o r a sample of N=237 6th - 8 t h g r a d e s . The a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e Hebrew TAI s c a l e f o r c h i l d r e n was computed f o r a sample N=237 6 t h - 8 t h and was found to be .84 (Male N=113, alpha=.85, and Female N=124, alpha=.82). State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) for Children The SAI was a l s o developed by S p i e l b e r g e r (1973). T h i s instrument of 20 items e v a l u a t e s how the s u b j e c t f e e l s " r i g h t now, at t h i s moment". Scores on the SAI i n c r e a s e i n response to p h y s i c a l danger and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s . S ubjects are asked to d e s c r i b e t h e i r f e e l i n g s at the time they are responding to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The items are focused on emotional d e s c r i p t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e to a n x i e t y , such as t e n s i o n , worry, and nervousness, are r e p r e s e n t e d . The a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y of SAI was computed with a sample of 456 males and 457 females of 4th, 5th and 6th grades. I t was found t o be .82 f o r males and .87 f o r females (Kuder-Richardson formula 20 as m o d i f i e d by Cronbach). The Taichman and Malinek Hebrew v e r s i o n was a l s o used. The c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y was examined by means of the c o r r e l a t i o n with an I s r a e l i A n x i e t y t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n , (Ziv, L e v i n and I s r a e l i , 1974). The c o r r e l a t i o n f o r a sample of 6th-8th grades N=235 was .45. The alp h a r e l i a b i l i t y was computed with a sample of N=237 6th-8th grades. Cronbach's r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .89 (Male N=113, alpha=.87 and Female N=124, alpha =.90). 62 Correlation between TAI and SAI The c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e TAI and SAI was a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the development and v a l i d a t i o n of t h e two i n v e n t o r i e s . A v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n would show t h a t t h e TAI i s p r e d i c t i v e of t h e SAI. T h i s s h o u l d n o t be so, as t h e SAI v a r i e s from s i t u a t i o n t o s i t u a t i o n . Thus, the two i n v e n t o r i e s s h o u l d n o t be measuring t h e same k i n d of a n x i e t y . However, i f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e TAI and SAI i s t o o low, t h i s would mean t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c o n s t r u c t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e moderate c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.45 i s an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i n v e n t o r i e s ( S p i e l b e r g e r , e t a l . 1980). The TAI and SAI have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o 27 languages, i n c l u d i n g Hebrew. I t has a l s o p r o v e d t o be a u s e f u l i n s t r u m e n t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . The a d a p t a t i o n of t h e i n v e n t o r i e s t o Hebrew was done w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of S p i e l b e r g e r and Dia2-Guerrero (1976), who d e a l t w i t h t h e problem of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a n x i e t y . (For t h e complete i n v e n t o r i e s , i n E n g l i s h and i n Hebrew, see Appendix A ) . Administration of TAI and SAI: Each i n v e n t o r y was a d m i n i s t e r e d under t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s : - t h e s u b j e c t must answer each i t e m by h i m s e l f . - t h e r e i s no s e t time l i m i t . - t h e I n v e n t o r y may be used i n e i t h e r a group o r i n d i v i d u a l s e t t i n g . 63 - the Inventory was presented as a means of s e l f -evaluation, and the word anxiety was not used. - the s p e c i f i c directions were written on the front page of the Inventory. - With students of elementary school age, i t i s recommended that the administrator w i l l : a) read the directions aloud while the students follow, and b) w i l l be available during the entire response session. If any subject i s unclear about an item, the administrator should not explain, but rather reread the item and say: Answer how you f e e l generally (for TAI). Answer how you f e e l r i g h t now (for SAI). Real Life Problem Solving Measure (RLPSSS) A r e a l l i f e problem solving test was not found i n I s r a e l . (See: Limitations and Constraints). In order to resolve t h i s "real-life-problem" for the current study, items from: 1) PEPSI: "Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory" (Feldhusen et. a l , 1977), and 2) TOPS: "Test of Problem-Solving" (Zachman, Jorgensen, Huisingh and Barrett, 1984) were adapted to create the necessary problems. The adaptation of the relevant situations i n the above tests to the everyday r e a l i t y of I s r a e l i l i f e was undertaken with the help of two psychologists, one school counselor, and three English teachers. The adapted situations were used i n a p i l o t study which i s discussed below. The process of 64 s e l e c t i n g , t r a n s l a t i n g and adapting, and then choosing the most a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n s f o r t h i s study r e s u l t e d i n a s e t t h a t i s r e f e r r e d to as Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n s Set (RLPSSS). The f i n a l RLPSSS i s a s e t of s e l e c t e d s i x t e e n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t served to be s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s study. The only purpose f o r u s i n g the RLPSSS was to compare the performances of students working under the e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y with those working under "normal" c o n d i t i o n s . The RLPSSS was administered, t h e r e f o r e , only once and a t the same time to both the treatment and non-treatment groups. The RLPSSS development i n v o l v e d s e v e r a l a c t i v i t i e s which are d e s c r i b e d below: a) The q u e s t i o n s i n the f i f t e e n s i t u a t i o n s taken from TOPS (1984) were t r a n s l a t e d from E n g l i s h to Hebrew and checked by t h r e e l o c a l experts (mainly I s r a e l i E n g l i s h teachers w i t h mastery of both languages). T h e i r i n p u t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t r a n s l a t i o n . These s i t u a t i o n s were assembled i n t o a s e t mainly f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n as a p i l o t study. b) F i f t e e n other s i t u a t i o n s from PEPSI (1982) were ad j u s t e d to d e a l with I s r a e l i - r e a l l i f e r e l e v a n t problems. The q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to each s i t u a t i o n were w r i t t e n by the r e s e a r c h e r i n order to ensure c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h the q u e s t i o n s c r e a t e d from TOPS, and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e to I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n . Some qu e s t i o n s were " c r e a t i v e l y " adapted. Others, however, had to be t o t a l l y new. Two of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s 65 were a l s o m o d i f i e d . (In the f i n a l s e t : S i t u a t i o n number 3 and 15) (See Appendix B). c) The two t r a n s l a t e d s e t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n grades 4th, 5th, and 6th i n a n e i g h b o r i n g school as a P i l o t Study ( d e s c r i b e d below). d) The most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d f o r the f i n a l s e t . T h i s was achieved by r e c o r d i n g the number of d i f f e r e n t ideas p r o v i d e d by the students f o r each s i t u a t i o n . The f i n a l RLPSSS c o n s i s t e d i n 16 s i t u a t i o n s . e) A l l the chosen s i t u a t i o n s ' p i c t u r e s were p l a c e d i n a box f o r drawing, and t h e i r o r d e r i n g i n the f i n a l format of RLPSSS was thus randomly a s s i g n e d . Research Plan The r e s e a r c h p l a n c o n s i s t e d of two c o n s e c u t i v e sub-s t u d i e s : the P i l o t Study and the Main study. I. Pilot Study A p i l o t study was conducted with t h r e e n o n - g i f t e d , 4th, 5th, and 6th grade c l a s s e s (N=93). The c l a s s e s c o n t a i n e d some c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d whose parents had chosen not to e n r o l l them i n any form of s p e c i a l program f o r the g i f t e d , and thus these c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t e d a reasonably heterogeneous group. The s c h o o l chosen f o r the p i l o t study was l o c a t e d i n the same m i d d l e - c l a s s neighborhood of H a i f a t a r g e t e d f o r the main study. 66 The reasons for conducting the p i l o t study were: a) The student's responses to the items were to be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the in d i v i d u a l situations, and thus to aid i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the most discriminating situations for the actual main study. b) The time-duration required for the subjects to respond to the 15 situations was recorded in order to determine upon the actual time-framework for the main study. c) By a t r i a l administration of Real L i f e Problem Ssolving Situations Sets, the researcher was able to determine possible d i f f i c u l t i e s that might be associated with the administration of these sit u a t i o n s . d) Unexpected organizational d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with s t a f f and students could be i d e n t i f i e d during the p i l o t study and remedied l a t e r i n the main study. The p i l o t study was c a r r i e d out with the three classes simultaneously in t h e i r home-rooms. The teachers i n each class handed out the sets, randomly d i v i d i n g the Hebrew version of TOPS and PEPSI. Both sets contained the same inst r u c t i o n s . The sets were presented to the students as a fun task which would not be graded. The students were asked, however, to t r y t h e i r hardest. The teacher read the directions out loud as the students followed the text s i l e n t l y . When each student had finished, he/she brought the set back to the teacher, who marked down how long the student had taken on the task, and what the student's 67 g e n e r a l academic standing i n the c l a s s was: Very good, Good, or Poor. While no time l i m i t was e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the p i l o t study completion of the t e s t , i t d i d serve to determine the time range f o r a l l f i f t e e n items on each of the two s e t s . The range of time was 35 to 70 minutes. There was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y ( according t o the t e a c h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n ) and the time d u r a t i o n f o r students to accomplish the s e t s . Some very good students as w e l l as some good and poor students needed 70 minutes i n order to complete the s e t , and some very good and poor students completed i t w i t h i n 35 minutes. A l l r e l e v a n t data were rec o r d e d on a c h a r t . An example i s g i v e n i n Table 3.1 below. The t a b l e i n c l u d e s the time i t took f o r every s u b j e c t t o complete the s e t of s i t u a t i o n s , the gender of the s u b j e c t , the t e a c h e r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the student (very good, good, p o o r ) , and the number of ideas t h a t were generated i n each of the s i t u a t i o n s . Table 3.1. Schamatic Summary of Information Concerning the Pilot Study Subject Time Gender Teacher' s evaluation on student's standing No. of ideas on each situation 1 2 3. ..15 Total 68 The i n f o r m a t i o n gained i n t h i s p i l o t study f u r n i s h e d s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s : a) The p i l o t study i n d i c a t e d which s i t u a t i o n s adapted from TOPS and from PEPSI were d i s c r i m i n a t i v e . I t was found t h a t e i g h t s i t u a t i o n s out of f i f t e e n adapted from TOPS and nine s i t u a t i o n s from PEPSI were c h a l l e n g i n g enough f o r g i f t e d students i n 6th grade but a t the same time not i m p o s s i b l e f o r n o n - g i f t e d students i n 4th grade. b) A time l i m i t of 45 minutes was optimum f o r a l l grade l e v e l s to accomplish most of the s i t u a t i o n s i n each s e t . The t e a c h e r s and " s t r a n g e r s " who a d m i n i s t e r e d the RLPSSS were i n s t r u c t e d t o a l l o w 45 minutes f o r i t s completion. T h i s was a r e a l i s t i c e s t i m a t i o n of the time r e q u i r e d f o r most of the students to respond adequately to the s e t . In order to a v o i d a c e i l i n g e f f e c t with the g i f t e d students, two more s i t u a t i o n s were added to the f i n a l RLPSSS, so t h a t the f i n a l study s e t c o n s i s t e d of 17 s i t u a t i o n s . However, owing to a t e c h n i c a l f a i l u r e i n S i t u a t i o n No. 15 i n some of the RLPSSS s e t s , i t was decided to d e l e t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n from the f i n a l a n a l y s i s . c) Some d e t a i l s i n two i l l u s t r a t i o n s have been m o d i f i e d as w e l l as s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the s i t u a t i o n s , i n order to a v o i d ambiguity and to comply with l o c a l r e a l i t i e s and norms. d) The p i l o t study p r o v i d e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l / l o g i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t formed the b a s i s f o r amending procedures i n the main study. 69 In a d d i t i o n , a meeting was h e l d with the teachers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the P i l o t Study. One of the p r a c t i c a l improvements emerging from t h i s meeting was the a d d i t i o n of w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s to a d m i n i s t e r the s e t of s i t u a t i o n s i n the main study ( i . e . home-room teachers and s t r a n g e r s ) . These a d d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s were designed to ensure as much u n i f o r m i t y as p o s s i b l e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s e t s to a l l the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s u b j e c t s . II. Main Study The main study i n c l u d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TAI, the SAI and the now-adapted RLPSSS. The study was conducted with f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h grades, a t o t a l of s i x c l a s s e s , three of which were f o r g i f t e d students and three f o r n o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . The main study was c a r r i e d out i n two stages: 1. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the TAI (On December 13, 1989) . 2. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the SAI and RLPSS (On December 20, 1989) . Stage 1 The f i r s t stage of the main study was aimed to c o l l e c t data r e g a r d i n g the T r a i t A n x i e t y of a l l the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s . These data were then used to match the s u b j e c t s i n t o two equal groups. 70 This f i r s t stage included: preparation before the administration of the T r a i t Anxiety Inventory (TAI), the administration of the TAI, the matching of the students and th e i r random assignment into treatment and non-treatment groups. Description of the procedures i s given below. Preparations for TAI administration A meeting with the six home room teachers and the school P r i n c i p a l was held to provide instructions for administering the TAI. The teachers were acquainted with the research and were asked for t h e i r cooperation, and informed c r i t i c i s m . Arrangements for the research were then confirmed. The researcher met with the teachers on an indi v i d u a l and group basis, then sent out written instructions i n order to ensure that a l l teachers followed a uniformly procedure. Administration of TAI The TAI was administered to the students in t h e i r classes by t h e i r home-room teachers. The following written instructions to each teacher were intended to ensure standardization. To (Name of teacher): Attached are enough questionnaires for a l l the students i n your c l a s s . It i s important that these questionnaires be f i l l e d out i n the same way at the same time by a l l the students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. a) Please read the following instructions to the students before the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaires: 71 "Researchers from the University are investigating how children of d i f f e r e n t ages f e e l . Therefore, they have asked us to administer the following questionnaire. It i s very important that you t r y your hardest to be clear i n your answers. There i s no correct or incorrect answer for any given item". b) After reading the above statement, d i s t r i b u t e the questionnaire and read the directions out loud while the students follow along s i l e n t l y . c) Ask the students to underline only one of the three possible choices as an answer: Almost Never, Sometimes, or Often. (See Appendix A for copy of TAI). d) If a student has any question about a s p e c i f i c item, the teacher i s to answer vaguely with the following statement: "Answer how you f e e l generally". . If the student has a question about a s p e c i f i c word, repeat the word as a c l a r i f i c a t i o n , but do not explain or define i t . e) There w i l l be no enforced time l i m i t . However, experience suggests that, most students w i l l f i n i s h i n eight to twelve minutes. f) When each student hands i n the questionnaire, please check to see that a l l items have been completed. g) When a l l students have finished, please bring the completed questionnaires to the spe c i f i e d room where the school psychologist, researcher, and assistant from the University w i l l immediately score the questionnaires. Thank you very much for your co-operation, Tamar Z o l l e r Researcher I t should be mentioned that the TAI (as well as the SAI and RLPSS) were marked with the child' s number as i t appears on her/his class l i s t . The numbers were entered on the back of the page of each set. The researcher used th i s information for the matching of the pairs i n each cl a s s . The issue of gender was thus also addressed with respect to both the anxiety issue and the corresponding RLPSSS performance. 72 I t should be mentioned, t h a t except f o r the use of the numbers (as r e p r e s e n t i n g the s u b j e c t s ' names) f o r matching and r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h purposes, a l l the data gathered and the i n f o r m a t i o n gained were t r e a t e d as s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l i n order to preserve the anonymity and p r i v a c y of the i n d i v i d u a l . Matching subjects on anxiety Matching of the s u b j e c t s was necessary i n order to e s t a b l i s h two equal groups r e g a r d i n g a n x i e t y . Gender and achievement i n school were a l s o taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n order to c o n t r o l extraneous v a r i a b l e s . These two groups were then randomly assig n e d to treatment or non-treatment groups. The matching was c a r r i e d out by the r e s e a r c h e r with the help of each home-room teacher as d e s c r i b e d below. Since the study was c a r r i e d out c l o s e to the end of the f i r s t s c h ool marking p e r i o d , the teache r s were able to eval u a t e the students on the b a s i s of up-to-date grades. Each teacher had i n f r o n t of her the l i s t of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r semester grades. The r e s e a r c h e r had i n f r o n t of her the l i s t of the s u b j e c t s ' scores on the TAI. On the b a s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , p a i r s of boys as w e l l as p a i r s of g i r l s were matched w i t h i n each of the s i x c l a s s e s . T h i s matching r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of two equal sub-groups w i t h i n the g i f t e d c l a s s e s and two w i t h i n the n o n - g i f t e d c l a s s e s . 73 Each of the sub-groups w i t h i n the g i f t e d and the non-g i f t e d c l a s s e s was randomly assig n e d t o treatment or non-treatment. To v e r i f y the matching, p a i r e d t - t e s t s were performed between the treatment groups and the non-treatment group of the g i f t e d as w e l l as the n o n - g i f t e d . Stage 2 The second stage of the main study was the c o l l e c t i o n of data r e l e v a n t to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . At t h i s stage a n x i e t y was induced i n the treatment groups. The l e v e l of State A n x i e t y was measured i n a l l the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s u b j e c t s , who were a l s o asked to suggest s o l u t i o n s to r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n the RLPSSS s e t . T h i s stage of the study i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the SAI and the RLPSSS, and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of these t e s t s to the treatment and the non-treatment groups. Preparation for SAI and RLPSS Administration In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the SAI and the RLPSS, meetings were h e l d with the s i x home-room teachers as a group, and then i n d i v i d u a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , the teachers were gi v e n w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s . Separate i n d i v i d u a l and group meetings were h e l d with s i x " s t r a n g e r s " who were to h e l p with the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the study. These s t r a n g e r s - h e l p e r s were female students f i n i s h i n g 74 t h e i r B.A. i n p s y c h o l o g y and e d u c a t i o n . They a l s o r e c e i v e d w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o be c a r r i e d out on t h e t e s t i n g day (see SAI and RLPSS a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) . The p r a c t i c a l i t i e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d , and i n f o r m e d c r i t i c i s m was encouraged. The t e a c h e r s and t h e " s t r a n g e r s " a l s o r e c e i v e d a phone c a l l as a reminder t h e e v e n i n g b e f o r e t h e day of t h e exp e r i m e n t . Administration of SAI and RLPSS On t h e t e s t i n g day, (December 20, 1989) t h e home-room t e a c h e r t o l d t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e c l a s s would be d i v i d e d i n t o two as f o l l o w s : a) Those whose names were c a l l e d , (the t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ) , were t o r e p o r t t o a s p e c i f i e d room. b) The remainder o f t h e c l a s s (the non-treatment group) remained i n t h e i r home-room. A f t e r t h e c l a s s e s were d i v i d e d , each group was g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r c h p l a n . The t e a c h e r s and " s t r a n g e r s " were i n s t r u c t e d on how t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r groups. 75 Non-treatment groups The half of the class designated as the non-treatment group remained in the home-room with t h e i r regular teacher. The teachers were given the following instructions (translated from the Hebrew): To (Name of teacher), The following instructions have been written for you i n order to ensure the standardization of the testing procedures: a) Read the following statement to the students before you d i s t r i b u t e the questionnaires: "You have a l l been chosen to help i n developing a very important t e s t aimed at I s r a e l i school students. You w i l l help the researchers understand how children solve problems. F i r s t , you w i l l answer a questionnaire similar to the one you answered before, then I w i l l hand out booklets with inter e s t i n g problems. There i s no r i g h t or wrong answer. What i s important i s the honesty of your answer." b) Distribute the SAI to each student and read the directions out loud as the students follow along s i l e n t l y . c) Ask the students to underline only one of the possible choices as an answer: Almost Never, Sometimes, Often. d) If a student has a questions about any s p e c i f i c item, the teacher i s to answer vaguely: "Answer how you f e e l r i g h t now ". If the student has a question about a s p e c i f i c word, repeat the word as c l a r i f i c a t i o n , but do not explain or define i t . e) No time l i m i t w i l l be enforced. However, past experience has shown that most students w i l l f i n i s h the SAI in between eight to twelve minutes. f) When each student hands i n his questionnaire, please check to see that a l l items have been answered. g) Distribute the RLPSSS, and read the following i n s t r u c t i o n s : "You w i l l be presented with several pictures describing various s i t u a t i o n s . Examine each picture and answer the corresponding questions. For most questions there w i l l be more than one answer, so write as many p o s s i b i l i t i e s as you can. However, i f for some reasons you do not f i n d immediate 76 p o s s i b l e answers f o r a c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n go on to the next s i t u a t i o n . " h) As with the SAI, i f a c h i l d has a q u e s t i o n about a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , answer vaguely, a c c o r d i n g to the suggestions given above. i) No time l i m i t w i l l be e n f o r c e d f o r the RLPSSS. However, a f t e r 40 minutes announce t h a t t h e r e are 5 more minutes f o r f i n i s h i n g w r i t i n g . j) C o l l e c t the s e t s and b r i n g them to the headquarters room of the study. Thank you again, Tamar Z o l l e r Researcher Treatment Groups The students a s s i g n e d f o r the treatment groups were i n s t r u c t e d to proceed to a d i f f e r e n t classroom. Waiting f o r them was a s t r a n g e r , (someone they had not seen p r e v i o u s l y ) . The s t r a n g e r announced t h a t an important t e s t would be a d m i n i s t e r e d . That t e s t was supposed to have important consequences f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e , and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r these consequences was made c l e a r t o them. The s t r i c t way the i n s t r u c t i o n s were presented to the treatment groups and the sudden p r e s e n t a t i o n of an unexpected t e s t , without l e t t i n g the students the o p p o r t u n i t y to prepare f o r i t were supposed to c o n t r i b u t e to the t e n s i o n experienced by the students. Each one of these elements i s s u f f i c i e n t by i t s e l f to arouse a n x i e t y . Taken t o g e t h e r the impact was assumed to be more powerful (see: I n d u c t i o n of A n x i e t y ) . 77 The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to the s t r a n g e r s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the SAI and RLPSS to the treatment groups: To (name of a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) : The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s have been gi v e n to you i n order to h e l p s t a n d a r d i z e the t e s t i n g procedures. a) See t h a t a l l students are seated; s i t one to a desk. Introduce y o u r s e l f by only your name and p r o f e s s i o n . b) Read the f o l l o w i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n i n a s e r i o u s tone to your v o i c e : "Today you w i l l be t a k i n g a s e r i e s of t e s t s t h a t are c r u c i a l f o r your f u t u r e . These t e s t s w i l l begin with easy tasks and become harder and harder. Any q u e s t i o n s you might have, w i l l be answered only when each student has f i n i s h e d . Before we s t a r t to t e s t you I w i l l d i s t r i b u t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m i l a r to the one you have a l r e a d y taken. Honesty i n answering i s extremely important. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers, only honest or d i s h o n e s t answers. Please answer as p r e c i s e l y as you are capable o f . " c) D i s t r i b u t e the SAI and read the i n s t r u c t i o n s out loud w h i l e the students f o l l o w along s i l e n t l y . d) No time l i m i t w i l l be e n f o r c e d . However, experience shows t h a t most students w i l l f i n i s h i n between e i g h t to twelve minutes. e) When each student hands i n h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , p l e a s e check to see t h a t a l l items have been answered. f) D i s t r i b u t e the RLPSS and read the i n s t r u c t i o n s out loud: "We w i l l s t a r t the s e r i e s of t e s t s by p r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l p i c t u r e s . Examine each p i c t u r e and answer the c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u e s t i o n s . For most ques t i o n s there w i l l be more than one answer. So p l e a s e w r i t e down as many p o s s i b i l i t i e s as you can. However, i f f o r some reasons you do not f i n d immediate s o l u t i o n s , go on to the next s i t u a t i o n . " g) No time l i m i t w i l l be s e t f o r the RLPSS. However, a f t e r 40 minutes announce t h a t t h e r e are only f i v e minutes f o r f i n i s h i n g w r i t i n g . 78 h) No q u e s t i o n s are to be answered while the students are s t i l l t a k i n g the RLPSS. i) When a l l of the t e s t s have been c o l l e c t e d d e b r i e f the students with the f o l l o w i n g statement: "The ' t e s t s ' you have j u s t completed are p a r t of a study to understand how I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n f e e l and how they s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems. Your responses w i l l have no b e a r i n g a t a l l on your f u t u r e , nor w i l l they count as a grade i n any of your c l a s s e s . The r e s e a r c h e r s thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n , and i f you have any q u e s t i o n s f e e l f r e e t o d i s c u s s them with your home-room te a c h e r . " j) Please r e t u r n a l l the SAI and RLPSS to the headquarters of the study. Thank you again, Tamar Z o l l e r Researcher Data Processing Data c o l l e c t i n g and s c o r i n g c o n s i s t e d of two p a r t s r e l a t i n g t o : 1) A n x i e t y scores as measured by TAI and SAI. 2) R e a l - L i f e - P r o b l e m S o l v i n g performance scores as measured by the RLPSSS. Scoring for Anxiety The a n x i e t y scores, (TAI and SAI), were recorded on each form and entered a t the top of the f r o n t page. On the back of the form, the student's number was a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d b e f o r e . In t h i s way, i t was p o s s i b l e to use the TAI s c o r e s , d e a l t with e a r l i e r , f o r matching the p a i r s , and to use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n l a t e r f o r a l l needed comparisons. The SAI was s i m i l a r l y r ecorded and the t o t a l scores were coded. A l l the 79 completed forms of TAI and SAI were double checked by a U n i v e r s i t y student who a s s i s t e d i n the study. Scoring of the RLPSSS The RLPSSS b o o k l e t s were c o l l e c t e d and assembled i n t o twelve packages r e p r e s e n t i n g the treatment and non-treatment groups of the s i x c l a s s e s . Each RLPSSS b o o k l e t was marked by a c o l o r e d s i g n r e p r e s e n t i n g the k i n d of the group ( i . e . grade, g i f t e d or n o n - g i f t e d treatment or non-treatment). In additio n , d S e a c h b o o k l e t was i d e n t i f i e d by the student's code number. The data p r o c e s s i n g f o r the RLPSSS comprised the f o l l o w i n g stages: a) F i v e judges (two p s y c h o l o g i s t s , one counse l o r , one s p e c i a l education teacher and one elementary s c h o o l teacher) were g i v e n one packages or more of the b o o k l e t s (each package co n t a i n e d the RLPSSS s e t s of one group). The f i r s t t ask of the judges was to r e c o r d a l l the answers. None of the judges knew with what grade or group she was d e a l i n g . T h i s step helped maintain the o b j e c t i v i t y of the judges, and avoided c o n s i s t e n t l y b i a s e d judgements. b) A meeting w i t h a l l the judges f o l l o w e d the r e c o r d i n g of s u b j e c t s ' responses. T h i s meeting was h e l d i n order t o d i s c u s s the p o l i c y and uniform methodology t o be used i n the s c o r i n g of the RLPSSS. c) At t h i s meeting i t was decided how to score the RLPSSS. I d e a l l y , one would l i k e t o have a q u a l i t a t i v e index f o r s c o r i n g the RLPSSS. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the assessment of such instrument i s known to be p r o b l e m a t i c . The well-known 80 e s t a b l i s h e d instruments have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s due to the need to compromise between q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e emphases ( T r e f f i n g e r , 1974; R e n z u l l i , 1983; Feldhousen, 1985). In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e the RLPSSS i s not an e s t a b l i s h e d instrument but one adapted f o r t h i s s p e c i f i c study, the i s s u e of s c o r i n g was handled w i t h great c a u t i o n . The simultaneous a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the RLPSSS to a l l the s u b j e c t s t h a t were i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study j u s t i f i e s any comparisons r e g a r d i n g the s u b j e c t s . They a l l ( g i f t e d vs non-g i f t e d , treatment vs non-treatment) worked a t the same time. However, i t should be emphasized t h a t any comparison with d i f f e r e n t samples at a d i f f e r e n t time may be m i s l e a d i n g . For such comparison a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t e s t i s r e q u i r e d (see L i m i t a t i o n s c o n s t r a i n t ) . However, f o r the purpose of t h i s study the i n s t r u c t i o n s of the judges on s c o r i n g seem to be a p p r o p r i a t e . The i n i t i a l marking of the RLPSSS c o n s i s t e d of two s e t s of s c o r e s : i ) the RLPSSS performance score which i n c l u d e d a l l the r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s , and i i ) Fluency score, which i n c l u d e d the s u b j e c t s ' t o t a l number of responses. i) R L P S S S Performance s c o r e : Every r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n t i d e a t h a t the s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d f o r each s i t u a t i o n was scored with one p o i n t . The sum of t o t a l p o i n t s over a l l the s i t u a t i o n s was c o n s i d e r e d as the performance score on the RLPSSS. ( X 1 + X 2 + . . • + x i 6 = x T o t a l ) • T h e l a r 9 e r t h e number of 81 the p o i n t s the higher the score on an i n t e r v a l s c a l e of performance. i i ) F luency s c o r e : F o l l o w i n g the r e c o r d i n g of the s u b j e c t s ' responses, one became aware t h a t some ideas were expressed by the same s u b j e c t i n s e v e r a l ways. These kinds of r e l e v a n t responses were reco r d e d s e p a r a t e l y as the Fluency score, (F1+F2+ + F 1 6 = F T o t a l ) • The above process of s c o r i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g example. The f i r s t s i t u a t i o n of the RLPSSS (see Apendix B), p r e s e n t s the dilemma of two c h i l d r e n who had opened the door of t h e i r home to a s t r a n g e r , i n s p i t e of t h e i r p a r e n t s ' warning not to do so when being alone a t home. The s u b j e c t s were i n i t i a l l y asked to s t a t e the problems which t h i s s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t s . A l l kinds of suggestions were o f f e r e d . One way of l o o k i n g a t the problem was to f i n d out who the man i s . Some s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d him as a dangerous person (a t h i e f , a murderer, a r a p i s t , a kidnapper, a t e r r o r i s t , a drug d e a l e r , e t c . ) , and t h e r e f o r e , by opening the door they might get h u r t . Other s u b j e c t s thought t h a t he might be a f r i e n d l y person ( f r i e n d of the parents, a new r e l a t i v e a r r i v i n g from R u s s i a , a salesman e t c . ) , so t h a t by not l e t t i n g him i n , they might o f f e n d him, and cause problems to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e i r parents with him. Another way of l o o k i n g a t the problem was suggested by s u b j e c t s who p e r c e i v e d t h a t the main i s s u e was the f a c t t h a t the c h i l d r e n disobeyed the parents' 82 i n s t r u c t i o n s , which leads to the q u e s t i o n : "How c o u l d the p a rents t r u s t them next time?" The example above demonstrates how the marking was pursued. Subjects who mentioned the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the man might be dangerous, or a f a m i l y f r i e n d (with the consequences of opening the door), gained one p o i n t f o r each i d e a . Any a d d i t i o n a l idea was scored with another p o i n t . However, i f a s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l responses r e g a r d i n g the i d e a of the man being dangerous, and mentioned s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the man (a r a p i s t , a t h i e f , a p r i s o n e r who escape from j a i l ) , h i s performance score on RLPSSS was o n l y one p o i n t , but h i s Fluency score gained t h r e e p o i n t s . Although f l u e n c y does shed l i g h t on some a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s such as language, s t y l e , a b i l i t y t o express o n e s e l f e t c . , i t s h i f t s the emphasis towards other dimensions. Being as important as i t i s , f l u e n c y r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the RLPSSS was scored f o r f l u e n c y , i t was d e c i d e d not to i n c l u d e the r e s u l t s , which were s i m i l a r to the main RLPSSS r e s u l t s , i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s . d) C o n t i n u i n g t h i s l i n e of thought, the judges decided t h a t no a t t e n t i o n would be p a i d to i s s u e s such as s t y l e , e l a b o r a t i o n s , s p e l l i n g or handwriting,@@which, though very important i n the wider context, were not v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study. I t was agreed t h a t the f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s study should be based on l y on the a n a l y s i s of the RLPSSS performance scor e . 83 At t h i s meeting, p r o b l e m a t i c answers were submitted f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n the judges' forum. The judges e v e n t u a l l y d e c i d e d on a procedure f o r s p e c i f i c e v a l u a t i o n of these responses. (For example: i r r e l e v a n t r e s p o n s e s ) . Owing to the very few i r r e l e v a n t responses, i t was decided to d i s r e g a r d them by s c o r i n g them with z e r o ) . e) A f t e r the p o l i c y f o r s c o r i n g was agreed upon, the judges agai n r e c e i v e d packages of t e s t b o o k l e t s (randomly d i s t r i b u t e d , and not n e c e s s a r i l y the ones they had b e f o r e ) . The p o i n t s awarded f o r each RLPSSS s i t u a t i o n i n every s e t were re c o r d e d on the r e l e v a n t pages of the b o o k l e t , and summed f o r a t o t a l score, which was w r i t t e n on the f r o n t cover. The t o t a l score r e f l e c t e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , the r e p e r t o i r e of ideas a s u b j e c t c o u l d b r i n g to bear on d e a l i n g with l i f e - s i t u a t i o n problems. f) A f t e r the RLPSSS were scored, another meeting of the judges was h e l d f o r the purpose of f i n a l i z i n g the s c o r i n g procedure. g) A f i n a l c h a r t was prepared by the r e s e a r c h e r . At t h i s p o i n t , the coded i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p a i r s , gender, grade, g i f t e d or non-g i f t e d , treatment or non-treatment, was used. The f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s are i n c l u d e d i n the form which was submitted to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s : 84 Table 3.2: Summary of Information Concerning the Main Study +— + + + + + + + |ID| Exp/Cont.|Gender|TAI|SAI | X 1 + X 2 X 1 6 | T o t a l | + -_+ + + + + + + ID: Re f e r s to the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n number of the s u b j e c t . Exp/con: Re f e r s to the sub-group t h a t the s u b j e c t belonged t o . Exp.(treatment) was coded as (1) , and Cont. (non-treatment) was coded as (2). TAI: r e f e r s t o the s u b j e c t ' s scores on the T r a i t Anxiety-Inventory . SAI: r e f e r s to the s u b j e c t ' s scores on the State A n x i e t y Inventory. X : R e f e r s t o the s u b j e c t ' s performance score on the RLPSSS. I t i n c l u d e s a l l the r e l e v a n t a l t e r n a t i v e ideas p r o v i d e d f o r the s i t u a t i o n . X-JL, X 2 / x 1 6 : r e f e r t 0 the s u b j e c t ' s d i f f e r e n t r e l e v a n t ideas r e g a r d i n g every one of the s i t u a t i o n s 1, 2, 3 16. T o t a l : r e f e r s to the t o t a l performance score on the RLPSSS. Statistical Hypotheses Each of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s s e t out i n Chapter 1 are given below as n u l l hypotheses f o r s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g . The n u l l form was chosen i n p r e f e r e n c e to the d i r e c t i o n a l one owing t o the ambiguity e x i s t i n g i n t h i s f i e l d of study and the q u a l i t y of the evidence t h a t i t was p o s s i b l e to mount i n support of the t e s t i n g d i r e c t i o n a l hypotheses. 1) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the RLPSSS mean performance scores between the g i f t e d groups and the n o n - g i f t e d groups. 2) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the RLPSSS mean performance scores between the 85 Treatment (induced-anxiety) groups and the Non-treatment (non induced anxiety) groups. 3) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between G i f t e d n e s s and Treatment. The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h hypothesis i s t a n g e n t i a l to the c e n t r a l problem s t a t e d i n Chapter 1, and i s of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature. 4) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the RLPSSS mean performance scores between g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s . Method Of Analysis The a n a l y s i s of the data i n c l u d e d two stages: 1. A n a l y s i s of data concerning a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n (anxiety b e f o r e and a f t e r the i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y ) . 2. A n a l y s i s of data concerning performance on the RLPSSS t e s t . 1. Regarding Anxiety I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n stage 1 of t h i s study the s u b j e c t s were matched on TAI s c o r e s . E q u a l i t y of the two groups (treatment vs non-treatment), of g i f t e d , as w e l l as n o n - g i f t e d , was v e r i f i e d by p a i r e d t - t e s t s . A n x i e t y was induced i n the randomly s e l e c t e d treatment groups, and the l e v e l s of a n x i e t y (according to SAI scores) were compared between the treatment and non-treatment groups of the g i f t e d and the p a r a l l e l groups of the n o n - g i f t e d . The 86 procedure f o r t h i s purpose was again the application of the paired t - t e s t s . Level of Statistical significance The l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s ignificance in respect of the paired t - t e s t s i n respect of the induction of anxiety was . 01. This l e v e l was decided on i n order to insure that there was indeed an ef f e c t of anxiety on the treatment groups. Without t h i s e f f e c t there would have been no point i n proceeding with t h i s i nvestigation. 2. Regarding RLPSSS A comparison of the RLPSSS performance of Treatment and Non-Treatment groups of Gifted and Non-Gifted children was carri e d out by a two way ANOVA. The ANOVA takes into account more than one factor simultaneously and relates to Research Hypotheses 1, 2 and 3. Owing to the small number of g i f t e d g i r l s , a three way ANOVA design that would include gender was not possible, because of the uneven and disproportionate c e l l s i z e s . The exploratory Research Hypothesis 4 was tested only in a q u a l i t a t i v e l y way. 87 Level of Statistical Significance The c h o i c e of an a l p h a - l e v e l f o r t e s t i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l hypotheses was based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the consequences of making a Type I or Type II e r r o r i n d e r i v i n g i n f e r e n c e s from the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the data. Since t h i s study d e a l s with a n x i e t y , the r i s k of making a Type I e r r o r or Type II e r r o r i s a c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . E i t h e r e r r o r i s s e r i o u s . A very small & a l p h a . - l e v e l would i n d i c a t e a very small r i s k of a Type I e r r o r , i n c o r r e c t l y i n f e r r i n g t h a t t h e r e was a treatment e f f e c t , w h i l e a l a r g e & a l p h a . - l e v e l would i n d i c a t e a l a r g e r i s k of such an e r r o r . A Type I e r r o r c o u l d have e d u c a t i o n a l consequences, i f a n x i e t y i s taken i n t o account u n n e c e s s a r i l y i n t r a i n i n g students how to d e a l with r e a l - l i f e problem s i t u a t i o n s . However, A Type II e r r o r , i n c o r r e c t l y i n f e r r i n g t h a t t h e r e i s not an a n x i e t y e f f e c t when there r e a l l y i s such an e f f e c t , c o u l d be s e r i o u s because an important f a c t o r would not be taken i n t o account i n t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s . The d e c i s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , was to accept a high e r r i s k of a Type I e r r o r and to use an a l p h a - l e v e l of . 10 i n order to minimize Type II e r r o r . A d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t a t i v e data i n the form of p r o f i l e s of mean item scores on the RLPSSS comparing boys vs g i r l s , g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d , and treatment vs non-treatment c o n d i t i o n s , are g i v e n i n the next chapter as a matter of p o s s i b l e i n t e r e s t f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 88 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n ( t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n and a c c e s s i b l e p o p u l a t i o n ) . The p r o c e d u r e f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d g roups, and t h e manner of m atching them i n t o two e q u a l u n i t s each was d i s c u s s e d . The two g i f t e d u n i t s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o be e i t h e r a t r e a t m e n t group ( a n x i e t y - i n d u c e d ) or a n o n - t r e a t m e n t ( c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . The same p r o c e d u r e a p p l i e d t o t h e matched u n i t s of t h e n o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . The v a r i a b l e s d i s c u s s e d were: Treatment, Non-Treatment, G i f t e d n e s s , N o n - G i f t e d n e s s , Gender, and R e a l - L i f e - Problem-S o l v i n g - p e r f o r m a n c e . The f i r s t t h r e e a r e independent v a r i a b l e s and t h e f o u r t h i s a dependent v a r i a b l e . The i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a s s e s s i n g a n x i e t y were S p i e l b e r g e r ' s Hebrew v e r s i o n of TAI f o r measuring T r a i t A n x i e t y and SAI f o r measuring S t a t e A n x i e t y . TAI s c o r e s were used f o r d i v i d i n g t h e groups i n t o two matched one. SAI s c o r e s were used i n o r d e r t o examine i f a n x i e t y was s u c c e s s f u l l y i n d u c e d . I n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y was based on c o m b i n a t i o n of elements t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o i n c r e a s e a n x i e t y i n s c h o o l c h i l d r e n such as: i n t r o d u c i n g s u d d e n l y a t e s t , t h e purpose of which i s u n c l e a r , b u t which i m p l i e s m e a n i n g f u l consequences f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s f u t u r e . T h i s t e s t was p r e s e n t e d by a " s t r a n g e r " i n an u n f a m i l i a r room. Owing t o e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e i n d u c t i o n o f a n x i e t y i n c l u d e d o n l y elements t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o s c h o o l . 89 The depended v a r i a b l e was measured by a Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n s Set (RLPSSS). T h i s s e t was adapted through a p i l o t study employing two r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g t e s t s : PEPSI (1976) and TOPS (1984). The performance of r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g was assessed by a score based on the t o t a l r e l e v a n t a l t e r n a t i v e ideas every s u b j e c t generated i n response to the s i t u a t i o n s presented i n the RLPSSS. The main study was conducted i n two stages. Part I was devoted to matching the groups, and Part I I was concerned with a s s e s s i n g r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance of the groups ( g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d under d i f f e r e n t a n x i e t y c o n d i t i o n s : treatment vs non-treatment). C o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the data c o l l e c t i n g and data p r o c e s s i n g were determined by f i v e judges and the r e s e a r c h e r . R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from the d i f f e r e n t analyses are presented i n the next chapter. CHAPTER IV 9 0 ANALYSIS OF DATA AND RESULTS Introduction The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study are presented i n t h i s Chapter. Included are the r e s e a r c h problems i n v e s t i g a t e d and r e s u l t s based on a n a l y s i s of the data. The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter addresses the q u e s t i o n s having to do with the i n t e r v e n t i o n (anxiety i n d u c t i o n ) , while the remaining p a r t r e l a t e s to problem s o l v i n g i n r e a l -l i f e s i t u a t i o n s under the v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s noted i n the p r e v i o u s chapter, namely, a n x i e t y , g i f t e d n e s s , and gender. R e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the problem: The g e n e r a l problem i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s study was the e f f e c t of induced a n x i e t y on the performance of g i f t e d I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n who were c a l l e d upon to s o l v e l i f e problems. Results I. Anxiety Study Before Treatment A matched p a i r t - t e s t was performed comparing the T r a i t A n x i e t y Inventory (TAI) s c o r e s , of the matched treatment and non-treatment g i f t e d groups. The purpose of t h i s comparison was to v e r i f y t h a t the matching of these two groups was s u c c e s s f u l , so t h a t they d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r l e v e l of a n x i e t y b e f o r e the i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y to the treatment group. Table 4.1 p r e s e n t s t h i s comparison. Table 4.1: Comparison between Treatment and Non-Treatment Gifted Groups on Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) Mean Scores 91 TAI M SD N t Treatment 33.6 6.96 35 0.21 Non-treatment 33.51 6.12 35 p = 0.84 Table 4.1 gives the res u l t s of the two groups of g i f t e d students. The groups did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y in terms of TAI mean scores. The mean TAI score of the treatment group (N=35 g i f t e d students) was 33.60, and that of the non-treatment group (N=35 g i f t e d students) was 33.51. The r e s u l t s also show that the v a r i a b i l i t y of the TAI mean scores for both groups were very s i m i l a r : regarding the treatment group: S.D. = 6.96, and the non-treatment group: S.D. = 6.12. These data support the basic assumption that the two groups were comparable on t r a i t anxiety before the induction of anxiety to the treatment group. The procedures described above with the g i f t e d groups were ca r r i e d out i n the same way with the non-gifted treatment and non-treatment groups. A comparison between the TAI mean scores of the matched groups was performed through the paired matched t - t e s t . Table 4.2 presents the r e s u l t s . 92 Table 4.2: Comparison between Treatment and Non-Treatment Non-Gifted Groups on Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) Mean Scores TAI M SD N t Treatment 33.94 5.84 36 0.00 Non-treatment 33.94 4.52 36 (approx.) p=l.00 Table 4.2 shows that the matched pa i r t - t e s t revealed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference on the TAI mean scores between the treatment and the non-treatment matched groups of non-gifted students. The mean TAI score of the treatment group (N=36 non-gifted students) was 33.94 and that of the non-treatment group (N=36 non-gifted students) was also 33.94. Regarding the v a r i a b i l i t y : treatment group SD=5.84, and the non-treatment group SD=4.52. The r e s u l t s i n Tables 4.1 and 4.2 indicate that e s s e n t i a l l y , the matched students, g i f t e d as well as non-g i f t e d , i n both, treatment and non-treatment, assigned groups, i n i t i a l l y had the same l e v e l of t r a i t anxiety before treatment. 93 After Treatment F o l l o w i n g the i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y i n the treatment groups, a l l the s u b j e c t s were asked to respond to the State A n x i e t y Inventory (SAI). The SAI instrument measured the l e v e l of a n x i e t y the c h i l d r e n experienced a t the time of the s e s s i o n i n which the Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS) was presented. A l l the groups, g i f t e d and non-g i f t e d , i n treatment as w e l l as i n non-treatment assigned groups, responded to the SAI a t the same time, but under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. The treatment groups responded immediately a f t e r a n x i e t y was induced, and the non-treatment groups responded i n t h e i r n a t u r a l home-room s e t t i n g . The matched p a i r t - t e s t s comparing the SAI scores of the two sub-groups, treatment and non-treatment ( g i f t e d as w e l l as n o n - g i f t e d ) , were conducted i n order to examine whether a n x i e t y had c r e a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the l e v e l of alpha = 0.01 between t h e i r a n x i e t y mean scores on the SAI. T h i s a l p h a - l e v e l was s e t s i n c e any c o n c l u s i o n r e g a r d i n g performance under two s i t u a t i o n s "treatment" "non-treatment" would be r e l e v a n t o n l y i f a n x i e t y i s ev i d e n t w i t h a very- sma l l r i s k of type I e r r o r . I t was assumed t h a t i f the a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l , the treatment group of the g i f t e d students and the treatment group of the n o n - g i f t e d students would score h i g h e r on the average than would t h e i r matched-pair c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the non-treatment groups. Table 4.3 p r e s e n t s 94 a comparison between the performances of the matched-treatment and non-treatment g i f t e d groups on the SAI. Table 4.3: Post-Treatment Comparison of the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) Mean Scores between the Treatment and the Non-Treatment Gifted Groups SAI M SD N t Treatment 35.37 7.56 35 3.67 Non-treatment 30.66 4.22 35 p = 0.0008 Table 4.3 shows the r e s u l t s of the t e s t on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the means on the SAI of the treatment and non-treatment groups f o r the g i f t e d s t udents. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n treatment i s i n d i c a t e d by the matched p a i r t - t e s t r e s u l t s ; There i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups of g i f t e d students a t p<0.001. The mean SAI score of the treatment group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h a t of the non-treatment group, (35.37 vs 30.66). These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the planned m a n i p u l a t i o n of a n x i e t y produced the a n t i c i p a t e d response. I t should be n o t i c e d t h a t while the standard d e v i a t i o n (S.D.) of the non-treatment group was 4.22, the S.D. of the a n x i e t y induced g i f t e d group was 7.56. The g r e a t e r S.D. i n the induced a n x i e t y treatment group r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t 95 there was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r s i t y among i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r response to the method of a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n used. T h i s i s i n keeping with the d e f i n i t i o n of a n x i e t y as a s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e which r e f l e c t s the way the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s a s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n . Table 4.4 p r e s e n t s a comparison between the SAI mean scores of the matched-treatment and non-treatment n o n - g i f t e d groups. Table 4.4: Post-Treatment Comparison of the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) Mean Scores between the Treatment and Non Treatment Non-Gifted Groups SAI M SD N t Treatment 35.78 8.35 36 4.03 Nontreatment 29.. 56 4.35 36 p=0.0003 Table 4.4 shows the evidence f o r induced a n x i e t y i n the treatment group of n o n - g i f t e d students. T h i s group experienced a n x i e t y under s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s and a t the same time as the g i f t e d group. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the a n x i e t y i n d u c i n g treatment i s evidenced by the mean-score d i f f e r e n c e on the SAI of the n o n - g i f t e d s u b j e c t s i n the treatment group and the non-treatment group. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was found to be 96 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The data here a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t the S.D. of the treatment group was g r e a t e r than t h a t of the non-treatment group (8.35 vs 4.35). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t was suggested b e f o r e , with the g i f t e d , r e f e r r i n g to a n x i e t y as a s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e i n which every i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t s d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g to the way s/he p e r c e i v e s the s i t u a t i o n , may a l s o apply here. The scores on the SAI f o r the treatment group were much more d i v e r s e than the scores of the non-treatment group. Again, the l a c k of homogeneity may be due to a l a c k of commonality i n how the a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n was p e r c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s . Summary of the Anxiety Study In t h i s p a r t of the study a t t e n t i o n was devoted to e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a s i s f o r subsequent p a r t s of the study. The e s t a b l i s h i n g of two equal comparable groups on i n i t i a l a n x i e t y ( g i f t e d as w e l l as n o n - g i f t e d ) , and the evidence t h a t a n x i e t y was induced i n the treatment groups was a v i t a l step b e f o r e examining the s u b j e c t s ' problem s o l v i n g performance under the treatment c o n d i t i o n . I f i n d u c i n g a n x i e t y d i d not r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l of a n x i e t y between the treatment and non-treatment groups, t h e r e would have been no j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o go on with the study. However, once i t was found t h a t the matched-groups on t r a i t a n x i e t y d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the day of the experiment i n t h e i r s t a t e a n x i e t y , the ground was c l e a r 97 to examine the performance of the s u b j e c t s i n r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s and r e l a t e the r e s u l t s to the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s presented i n t h i s study. The second p a r t of t h i s chapter d e a l s with the r e s u l t s concerning the e f f e c t of a n x i e t y on r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance. II. Real-Life-Problem-Solving-Study The r e s u l t s which f o l l o w d e a l with an a n a l y s i s of the o b s e r v a t i o n s on the dependent v a r i a b l e : Performance on the Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g S i t u a t i o n Set (RLPSSS). Descriptive Data Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the RLPSSS performance scores of a l l the groups, treatment, non-treatment, g i f t e d , n o n - g i f t e d , boys and g i r l s are presented i n Table 4.5. These data are used i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s of the r e s u l t s . Table 4.5: Descriptive Data: Real Life Problem Solving Situation Set (RLPSSS) Means (M) and Standard Deviations (S.D.) by Treatment, Giftedness and Gender 98 Non-Treatment Treatment M S.D. N M S.D. N G i f t e d 94.00 26.54 35 87.25 22.07 35 Non-Gifted 74.36 19.14 36 68.03 22.44 36 Boys G i f t e d 90.21 29.38 24 83.63 21.16 24 Non-Gifted 66.82 16.55 19 66.50 17.78 19 G i r l s G i f t e d 102.27 17.31- 11 95.18 22.96 11 Non-Gifted 81.11 19.17 17 69.25 25.97 17 Statistical Hypotheses to be tested The r e s e a r c h hypotheses presented i n Chapter I I I are repeated below f o r convenience to the reader. 1) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .10 l e v e l on the mean score performance on the RLPSSS between the g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. 2) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .10 l e v e l on mean-score performance on 99 the RLPSSS between the treatment groups and the non-treatment groups r e g a r d l e s s of g i f t e d n e s s . 3) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n at the .10 l e v e l due to g i f t e d n e s s and treatment. The f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h h y p othesis i s t a n g e n t i a l t o the c e n t r a l problem s t a t e d i n Chapter 1 and i s of an e x p l o r a t o r y nature. 4) There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the .10 l e v e l on the mean-score performance on the RLPSSS between boys and g i r l s . Analysis of Variance Results The data was analyzed to i n v e s t i g a t e r e s e a r c h hypotheses 1-3 by means of a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e using a 2x2 f a c t o r i a l , f i x e d - e f f e c t s , d e s i g n . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d from Chapter 3 t h a t the l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t e s t i n g a l l hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the performance of the RLPSSS was .10. The r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n Table 4.6 below: 100 Table 4.6: Analysis of Variance of Treatment and Giftedness on Real Life Problem Solving Situation Set (RLPSSS) Mean Performance SOURCE SUM OF OF MEAN S i g VARIATION SQUARES df SQUARE F of F Group 13405.17 1 13405.17 26.07 .000 Treatment 1516.17 1 1516.17 2.95 .088* Group x Treatment 1.49 1 1.49 0.01 .957 R e s i d u a l 70961.96 138 514.22 T o t a l 85884.79 141 609.11 * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the p<.10 l e v e l . Table 4.6 shows t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t Group (g i f t e d n e s s ) e f f e c t s (F=26.07 / p=0.000), and s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment (induced anxiety) e f f e c t s , (F=2.95, p=0.088), but there were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , (F=0.01,p=0.957). 101 As an a i d to i n t e r p r e t i n g these f i n d i n g s , the c e l l means o f g i f t e d vs n o n - g i f t e d by t r e a t m e n t g i v e n i n T a b l e 4 .5 were p l o t t e d as shown i n F i g u r e 4.1 below: NON-TREATMENT TREATMENT F i g u r e 4 . 1 : G i f t e d v s . No n - G i f t e d by Treatment 102 The standard e r r o r of estimate of the c e l l means was 3.83. E r r o r bands of width 3.83, are d e p i c t e d about each c e l l mean. F i g u r e 4.1 a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t there was no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between treatment and g i f t e d n e s s . Research Hypotheses 1-3: Interpretation The r e s u l t s given above are i n t e r p r e t e d to mean t h a t Research Hypotheses 1 and 2 are not t e n a b l e a t the 0.10 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . What the ana l y s e s , both s t a t i s t i c a l and g r a p h i c a l , suggest i s t h a t the g i f t e d group', on the average, performed at a hi g h e r l e v e l i n response to the RLPSSS, than d i d the Non-Gifted group, r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. However, i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y a f f e c t e d the performance of both groups. Both groups performed a t a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t lower l e v e l under induced a n x i e t y . Since the e r r o r bands do not ov e r l a p , the c e l l means were taken to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy about these r e s u l t s i s t h a t a n x i e t y i n d u c t i o n ( c o n s i d e r i n g e t h i c a l standards and a r e g u l a r s c h o o l s e t t i n g ) d i d a f f e c t performance on l i f e -s i t u a t i o n problems. Research hypothesis 3 i s t e n a b l e . No s t a t i s t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found between treatment and g i f t e d n e s s . T h i s i s i n t e r p r e t e d to mean t h a t treatment and g i f t e d n e s s d i d not somehow combine to produce a j o i n t e f f e c t of a more complex nature; only the separate main e f f e c t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 103 As an i n t e r e s t i n g a s i d e , a comparison of p r o f i l e s i s presented below. Each p r o f i l e p r e s e n t s the means of a l l the responses g i v e n to each s i t u a t i o n by a c e r t a i n group, ( g i f t e d , n o n - g i f t e d , treatment, non-treatment, boys, g i r l s ) . The l i n e connecting the means of each group, i s the p r o f i l e of t h i s group. F i g u r e 4.2 below p r e s e n t s performance p r o f i l e s f o r the g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d groups who d i d not experience induced a n x i e t y . 104 F i g u r e 4.2 shows t h a t i n a non-treatment c o n d i t i o n , the g i f t e d group's p r o f i l e (1) appears a t a h i g h e r l e v e l than t h a t of the n o n - g i f t e d group (2) on n e a r l y a l l the s i t u a t i o n s . The ANOVA i n d i c a t e s t h a t the o v e r a l l mean d i f f e r e n c e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 L I F E PROBLEM SITUATION NUMBER OF THE RLPSSS F i g u r e 4.2: The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d and N o n - G i f t e d under Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n 105 F i g u r e 4 . 3 p r e s e n t s the performance p r o f i l e s f o r the g i f t e d groups and the n o n - g i f t e d groups under treatment. F i g u r e 4 . 3 : The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d and N o n - G i f t e d under Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 106 F i g u r e 4.3 suggests the same d i f f e r e n c e i n the l e v e l s of the p r o f i l e s of the two groups when performing under induced a n x i e t y . The g i f t e d p r o f i l e (1) appears hig h e r than the n o n - g i f t e d (2). However, the p a t t e r n seems somewhat m o d i f i e d . The d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two p r o f i l e s seem t o depend on somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Research hypothesis 4: Research Hypothesis 4 was e x p l o r a t o r y i n nature and had to do wit h p o s t u l a t e d gender e f f e c t s . Presumably, i f there were a r e l a t i o n s h i p between g i f t e d n e s s and induced a n x i e t y i n coping with l i f e - p r o b l e m s s i t u a t i o n s , one would wonder whether g i f t e d boys and g i r l s , were a f f e c t e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n t h e i r performance by induced a n x i e t y . While the gender p o s t u l a t e c o u l d not be t e s t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y because of the r e l a t i v e l y small number of g i f t e d g i r l s a v a i l a b l e f o r the study, a d d i t i o n a l n o n - s t a t i s t i c a l data i s giv e n w i t h a view to more r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h under b e t t e r sampling c o n d i t i o n s i n the f u t u r e . Table 4.5 presen t s d e s c r i p t i v e data of boys and g i r l s i n the v a r i o u s groups, g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d , treatment and non-treatment. The t a b l e suggests t h a t because of the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e and small sample s i z e s , a 2x2 ANOVA comparing boys vs g i r l s under the two treatment c o n d i t i o n s would be i n a p p r o p r i a t e because of the unbalanced nature of the d e s i g n . To compensate f o r t h i s , q u a l i t a t i v e data i n the 107 form of p r o f i l e s of performance on each of the 16 problem situations for both boys and g i r l s , g i f t e d and non-gifted, under the two treatment conditions, were obtained. While these p r o f i l e s , at best, are only suggestive, they may point to int e r e s t i n g questions for further study. The r e s u l t s , then, of investigating Research Hypothesis 4, are presented below i n p r o f i l e form: Figure 4.4 suggests that under non-treatment condition the differences in l e v e l of the g i f t e d boys' p r o f i l e (1) and the g i f t e d g i r l s ' p r o f i l e (2) are not consistent. In some situations the g i r l s provided more solutions while on others the boys provide more. For the purpose of the study, t h i s r e s u l t i s important. It indicates that the RLPSSS does not produce consistent d i f f e r e n t i a l gender ef f e c t s when performed under non-treatment condition. 108 101 F E PROBLEM S I T U A T I O N NUMBER OF THE R L P S S S F i g u r e 4 . 4 : The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys and G i f t e d G i r l s under Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 109 When a n x i e t y i s induced and a l l other c o n d i t i o n s remain the same, any d i f f e r e n c e i n p r o f i l e s may be due to a r e s u l t of the e f f e c t of a n x i e t y . Content a n a l y s i s i s beyond the scope of t h i s study. However, j u s t f o r c u r i o s i t y of the reader, i t i s of i n t e r e s t to note t h a t i n S i t u a t i o n s 6, 10 and 15, (see F i g u r e 4.2) i n which the g i f t e d out-performed the n o n - g i f t e d , c o u l d be examined. I t turns out t h a t the boys and g i r l s seemed to c o n t r i b u t e about the same to the high performance on S i t u a t i o n s 6 and 10, i n which the g i f t e d performance was h i g h l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . With r e g a r d t o S i t u a t i o n 15, the g i r l s may have performed somewhat b e t t e r . Is the reason t h a t the s i t u a t i o n d e a l s with f u r n i t u r e or i s i t pure chance? no answer can be p r o v i d e d a t t h i s stage. F i g u r e 4.5 shows the performance p r o f i l e s of g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s under treatment (induced anxiety) c o n d i t i o n s . For the most p a r t , the l e v e l of the p r o f i l e f o r g i r l s appears somewhat high e r than the l e v e l f o r boys. In some s i t u a t i o n s the l e v e l s seem d i f f e r e n t , but the d i s t i n c t i o n f o r these s i t u a t i o n s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of gender on performances under induced a n x i e t y seems worthy of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 110 F i g u r e 4.5: The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys and G i f t e d G i r l s under Treatment C o n d i t i o n s I l l S e arching f o r even f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s between g i f t e d boys and g i r l s , F i g u r e 4.6 shows p r o f i l e s of only g i f t e d boys under the two treatment c o n d i t i o n s , and F i g u r e 4.7 shows p r o f i l e s of g i f t e d g i r l s - u n d e r the two treatment c o n d i t i o n s . F i g u r e 4.6 shows t h a t the l e v e l s of the p r o f i l e s seem to f l u c t u a t e over s i t u a t i o n s , but, the d i f f e r e n c e s between l e v e l s under the two treatment c o n d i t i o n s suggest t h a t g i f t e d boys under induced a n x i e t y perform more p o o r l y on most of the s i t u a t i o n s . These p r o f i l e s compared with those i n F i g u r e 4.7 (the p r o f i l e s f o r g i f t e d g i r l s under the two treatment c o n d i t i o n s ) , suggest a p o s s i b l e gender d i f f e r e n c e . Regarding the g i f t e d g i r l s , one may n o t i c e t h a t a t the b e g i n n i n g of the RLPSSS, the g i f t e d g i r l s under a n x i e t y out-performed t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s who d i d not experience a n x i e t y . L a t e r , the l e v e l s of the p r o f i l e s of the two groups of g i f t e d g i r l s do not seem to d i f f e r very much. One i s tempted to suggest t h a t induced a n x i e t y does not a f f e c t the performance of g i f t e d g i r l s i n the same d i r e c t i o n as i t a f f e c t s g i f t e d boys ac r o s s most s i t u a t i o n s . G i f t e d g i r l s seem to perform b e t t e r under a n x i e t y , while g i f t e d boys seem to perform more p o o r l y . However, t h i s remains to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . 112 i TREATMENT X --NON-TREATMENT 1 ' ' I 1 I ' I ' I 1 — i — ' — I — ' — I — • — i — ' — i — • — i — i — i — • — j — i — i — i — [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 L I F E PROBLEM SITUATION NUMBER OF THE RLPSSS F i g u r e 4 . 6 : The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d Boys under Treatment and Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 113 L I F E PROBLEM SITUATION NUMBER OF THE RLFSSS F i g u r e 4 . 7 : The Performance P r o f i l e s on the RLPSSS of G i f t e d G i r l s under Treatment C o n d i t i o n s and Non-Treatment C o n d i t i o n s 114 Summary Major findings: The e f f e c t of induced a n x i e t y on the performance of g i f t e d students at the i n t e r m e d i a t e grade l e v e l i n elementary school i n d e a l i n g with r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s i s p r e s e n t . S i m i l a r e f f e c t due to induced a n x i e t y i s a l s o found among the n o n - g i f t e d . However, t h e i r performance i s a t a lower l e v e l than t h a t of the g i f t e d s t udents. The d i f f e r e n c e s between the performance of g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d was found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.001 l e v e l , r e g a r d l e s s of treatment. No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between treatment and g i f t e d n e s s e f f e c t s were found. Additional finding: Informal analyses of p r o f i l e s suggested t h a t performance, whether under treatment or not, seems to depend on the s i t u a t i o n s , and t h a t t h e r e may be gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance under induced a n x i e t y . G i f t e d boys' RLPSSS performance seemed to decrease under a n x i e t y , w h i l e g i f t e d g i r l s ' RLPSSS performance appeared to be unchanged, or even i n c r e a s e d under a n x i e t y . These f i n d i n g s are, a t best, t e n t a t i v e . In Chapter 5, the r e s u l t s are d i s c u s s e d c o n c l u s i o n s drawn, and suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and a p p l i c a t i o n made. 115 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS T h i s chapter r e c a p i t u l a t e s the ge n e r a l purpose of the present study and the r a t i o n a l e f o r undertaking i t , as w e l l as the study's r e s u l t s . T h i s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n , c o n c l u s i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Summary Rationale and Purpose of this Study T h i s study i s based on the assumption t h a t modern education's task i s to prepare the next g e n e r a t i o n to d e a l s u c c e s s f u l l y with l i f e problems. The main task of schools i s not j u s t t o t r a n s f e r i n f o r m a t i o n and knowledge from one ge n e r a t i o n to the next one, but to produce a c i t i z e n who i s able to gather, handle, and process i n f o r m a t i o n i n an i n t e l l i g e n t way, so t h a t he w i l l be ab l e t o cope wi t h l i f e problems. In order to s o l v e problems, one has sometimes to take r i s k s and has to be able to make d e c i s i o n s , under a l l kinds of c o n d i t i o n s . One of the most p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s the an x i e t y a person experiences w h i l e f a c i n g e i t h e r a problem or the consequences of i t s s o l u t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , understanding the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h l i f e problems under a n x i e t y i s very r e l e v a n t to the e d u c a t i o n a l 116 process w i t h i n the formal e d u c a t i o n a l system. Such an i n -depth understanding may e f f e c t the c u r r i c u l u m design and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s t o be developed and implemented i n s c h o o l s . Among the s p e c i a l programs t h a t the modern e d u c a t i o n a l system i s supposed to p r o v i d e are programs f o r the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . There i s c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g these s p e c i a l programs. One needs to decide whether they should be j u s t "more" q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , or d i f f e r as w e l l i n q u a l i t y . F i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g the way g i f t e d are h a n d l i n g r e a l l i f e problems and the way they perform under a n x i e t y (with r e f e r e n c e to n o n - g i f t e d ) , may provide more i n s i g h t i n t o the e n t i r e i s s u e of adequate education f o r the g i f t e d . The mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p between the democratic s o c i e t y and i t s g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I. I t appears to be agreed t h a t t h e r e i s a need to c u l t i v a t e the unique q u a l i t i e s of the most able i n s o c i e t y , and there i s the awareness t h a t by p r o v i d i n g them wit h programs t h a t address t h e i r a b i l i t y and needs, both they and s o c i e t y w i l l b e n e f i t . The g e o g r a p h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l circumstances w i t h i n which t h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . I s r a e l , i s a country f a c e d with q u i t e e x t r a o r d i n a r y problems, not the l e a s t of which i s the n e c e s s i t y to s u r v i v e i n a p o t e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e r e g i o n . Consequently, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h s t h a t i t s more g i f t e d c i t i z e n s can c o n t r i b u t e to the common good i s an urgent need. In t h i s r e s p e c t , the i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d with the impact 117 of a n x i e t y on r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g of the g i f t e d seem to be of p a r t i c u l a r importance. The main purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of a n x i e t y on r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n . Having t h i s purpose i n mind leads to the f o r m u l a t i o n of the main problem and the r e s e a r c h questions which f o l l o w . The Problem L i f e i s i n essence a continuous process of problem-s o l v i n g . D e a l i n g w i t h l i f e problems i n v o l v e s the dilemma of whether the s o l u t i o n found w i l l a c t u a l l y s o l v e the problem, or w i l l generate even more complicated ones. T h i s dilemma may cause a n x i e t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l who needs t o make d e c i s i o n s and accept the p o s s i b l e r i s k s of the way chosen f o r the problem t o be s o l v e d . A n x i e t y responses d i f f e r from one i n d i v i d u a l t o another ( S p i e l b e r g e r , 1972). The problem i s , t h e r e f o r e , how does a n x i e t y a f f e c t the performance of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n when they c o n f r o n t r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s t h a t need t o be s o l v e d . The l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s b r o a d l y with many aspects of pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g . There e x i s t s a l s o a v a s t l i t e r a t u r e c o ncerning a n x i e t y and i t s e f f e c t s . The i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o a n x i e t y and g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have been a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d , (see: Chapter I I ) . However, no r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e was found 118 concerning the combined m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l i s s u e : R e a l - L i f e -Problem-Solving/ A n x i e t y / G i f t e d c h i l d r e n . Research Questions The f o l l o w i n g three r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s evolved as a r e s u l t of the main problem, and are concerned with the g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d students i n elementary s c h o o l : 1. Do i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n out-perform t h e i r non-g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s i n s o l v i n g r e a l l i f e problems? 2 . Does a n x i e t y a f f e c t the r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance of g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d students? 3. Does i n t e r a c t i o n between g i f t e d n e s s and a n x i e t y a f f e c t l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance? The f o u r t h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n focused o n l y on the g i f t e d and r e f e r r e d to i t s gender d i f f e r e n c e s . 4. Is t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s on t h e i r r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance when a n x i e t y i s induced? 119 Results and Discussion The r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the f i r s t Research q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t g i f t e d as a group, are b e t t e r r e a l l i f e p r o blem-solvers than are the n o n - g i f t e d . The i n t e r e s t i n t h i s comparison stemmed from the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y f o r the g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n . The g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a very s m a l l percentage of s o c i e t y . However, i t has a high p o t e n t i a l to c o n t r i b u t e m e a n i n g f u l l y to s o c i e t y i n many ways. The mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s o c i e t y and the g i f t e d , i n terms of a p p r o p r i a t e education p r o v i d e d by the former, and the r e c i p r o c a t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n of the l a t e r to the former, are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . T h e r e f o r e , the evidence t h a t the g i f t e d performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than d i d the non-g i f t e d i n coping with r e a l l i f e problems was an important f i n d i n g . One of the myths a s s o c i a t e d with the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are b r i l l i a n t students having high academic achievement, but are l e s s well-endowed f o r d e a l i n g with r e a l l i f e problems. I n f l u e n t i a l t h e o r i e s even viewed g i f t e d n e s s (or genius) as p s y c h o l o g i c a l maladjustment (Freud, 1936; Jung, 1954). Another view emphasizes the h e l p l e s s n e s s f e e l i n g of the g i f t e d i n coping with l i f e problems (Landau, 1976; G a l l a g h e r , 1978; G a l b r a i t h , 1985). T h i s view suggests t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are p r e o c c u p i e d with g l o b a l problems, such as: n u c l e a r war, i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , economy, or 120 with p e r s o n a l problems, such as: being overwhelmed by the number of t h i n g s they can do i n l i f e , by the ambivalent e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y of them, and by t h e i r peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The g i f t e d , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s view, have a deep i n s i g h t i n t o the problems. However, t h e i r understanding of the c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d j u s t i n t e n s i f i e s t h e i r w o r r i e s , and causes a f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s . The r e s u l t s r e l e v a n t to the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r e i n f o r c e another l i n e of t h i n k i n g . T h i s l i n e emphasizes s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g i f t e d n e s s , t h a t may help to e x p l a i n why g i f t e d c h i l d r e n have a h i g h e r a b i l i t y to s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems. Torrance (1980) d i s c u s s e d the r e a d i n e s s of the g i f t e d to depart from t r a d i t i o n a l ways of t h i n k i n g , even i f they may i n v i t e s t r e s s . He suggested t h a t the need and m o t i v a t i o n to f i n d a new order i s so s t r o n g f o r the g i f t e d t h a t they do not shy away from coping with problems even under c o n d i t i o n of s t r e s s . In t h i s context, Perron and Male's (1981) theory r e g a r d i n g the m o t i v a t i o n of eminent people e x p l a i n s the w i l l i n g n e s s of the g i f t e d to take r i s k s i f t h e r e i s a chance to succeed. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to the n o n - g i f t e d who are motivated by f e a r of f a i l u r e and t h e r e f o r e a v o i d t a k i n g any r i s k s . Davidson and Sternberg (1984) d i s c u s s e d the c e n t r a l i t y of i n s i g h t s k i l l s i n g i f t e d n e s s , which may e x p l a i n a l s o the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study r e g a r d i n g h i g h e r performance of the g i f t e d i n s o l v i n g r e a l l i f e problems. Acco r d i n g to Davidson 121 and Sternberg, the r e l e v a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes which i n v o l v e s e l e c t i v e encoding, s e l e c t i v e comparison, and s e l e c t i v e combination, enable the g i f t e d to p e r c e i v e the problem i n many ways and reach new and a l t e r n a t i v e ideas to cope with the problem. The r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study support the view t h a t the g i f t e d d e a l with r e a l l i f e problems b e t t e r than non-g i f t e d . A major i m p l i c a t i o n of the above i s t h a t the myth of the g i f t e d as i m p r a c t i c a l or as h e l p l e s s when con f r o n t e d with r e a l l i f e problems should be s u b s t i t u t e d by the acknowledgement t h a t they have a r i c h r e p e r t o i r e and can handle and cope with a l l kinds of problems. The g i f t e d c h i l d r e n should and can b e n e f i t from programs t h a t w i l l c h a l l e n g e them with p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to cope with r e l e v a n t r e a l - l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n to the t h e o r e t i c a l academic s t u d i e s t h a t t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m p r o v i d e s . The r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t a n x i e t y a f f e c t e d the treatment groups i n the d i r e c t i o n of decreased performance. Anx i e t y i s l i k e l y to remain a f e a t u r e of modern l i f e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , a n x i e t y i s d e a l t with i n t h i s study, not as a p a t h o l o g i c a l t r a i t , but as a f a c t o r t h a t i s connected with the a b i l i t y to d e a l with l i f e problems. One of the c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t educators face i s whether to p u r p o s e l y i n t r o d u c e a n x i e t y i n the 122 e d u c a t i o n a l system, or to av o i d i t as much as p o s s i b l e . T h i s can be put i n phrase such as: "To s t r e s s or not to s t r e s s " ? Many educators support i n t u i t i v e l y the a t t i t u d e t h a t i d e a l l y one should s t r i v e to enable c h i l d r e n to grow i n a p e a c e f u l and harmonious environment and to a v o i d any unnecessary s t r e s s which may e l i c i t a n x i e t y . Such an environment i s supposed to enable the development and growth of the c h i l d i n peace, d e v o t i n g one's energy to one's own p e r s o n a l development without any unnecessary d i s t r a c t i o n s . (Wallach and Kogan, 1965; G e t z e l s and D i l l o n , 1973; Torrance, 1980). On the other hand, some other educators b e l i e v e t h a t i f s t r e s s and a n x i e t y c o n s t i t u t e an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t of modern l i f e , s o c i e t y must f i n d ways of e n l i s t i n g a n x i e t y as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n the performance of e s s e n t i a l d u t i e s (Dirkes, 1983). However, no r e s e a r c h was found to support e i t h e r one of these a t t i t u d e s . Research concerning the d e l i b e r a t e i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y i s very complicated and i s unpopular i n the formal e d u c a t i o n a l system, because of the e t h i c a l concerns which may a r i s e . However, when such an i n d u c t i o n i s w e l l - p l a n n e d and adequately c o n t r o l l e d , and the c h i l d r e n are l a t e r d e b r i e f e d about what was t a k i n g p l a c e , the e t h i c a l i s s u e s seem to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v e d . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the p r e s e n t study may o f f e r an example of such an i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y . 123 A f o l l o w up d i s c u s s i o n with the c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the presen t study, r e v e a l e d t h a t the g i f t e d , as w e l l as the n o n - g i f t e d , r e a c t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o the d e b r i e f i n g , and l i k e d t o d i s c u s s the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n the d e l i b e r a t e i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y , and the pr o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s . Some of them even expressed the f e e l i n g t h a t they were happy and proud to c o n t r i b u t e to e d u c a t i o n a l knowledge by t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study. As expected, a n x i e t y decreased the r e a l l i f e problem-s o l v i n g performance of both g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The importance of these r e s u l t s i s i n the demonstrated t r e n d of d e c r e a s i n g performance when a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the performance under a n x i e t y and under "normal c o n d i t i o n s " was found to be moderate. However, i n view of e t h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which prevented the i n d u c t i o n of d r a s t i c a n x i e t y i n t h i s study, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the l e v e l of the a c t u a l l y induced a n x i e t y was only s u f f i c i e n t f o r o b t a i n i n g a moderate o v e r a l l e f f e c t i n the performance and the r e s u l t s should be eval u a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Given the f a c t t h a t a n x i e t y caused a decrease i n performance, two major i m p l i c a t i o n s should be c o n s i d e r e d . a) I t may be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n with high l e v e l s of a n x i e t y may score lower on t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . These lower scores might determine t h e i r e x c l u s i o n from the g i f t e d program. T h e r e f o r e , i n c l u s i o n of a n x i e t y s c a l e s w i t h i n the b a t t e r y of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s , and 124 weighting t h e i r r e s u l t s with those of the other t e s t s , may c o n t r i b u t e t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d who may not be i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d owing to t h e i r lower performance under a n x i e t y . b) One task of a sound education i s to " t r a i n " c h i l d r e n to work under c o n d i t i o n s of a n x i e t y , so t h a t they l e a r n to overcome t h i s decrease i n performance. The c o n t r o l l e d i n d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y under s u p e r v i s i o n i n s c h o o l s , may prove to be e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n the more g e n e r a l framework of ad a p t a t i o n of s t r a t e g i e s , and development of s k i l l s , to improve performance under a n x i e t y . T h i s s uggestion should be examined i n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t there i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between g i f t e d n e s s and a n x i e t y . A n x i e t y was found to a f f e c t both g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n the same d i r e c t i o n (See F i g u r e 4.1, Chapter I V ) . Although the performance on RLPSSS of both treatment groups decreased under a n x i e t y compared with the performance of the non-treatment matched groups, the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n performance of the g i f t e d as compared with t h a t of the n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n was maintained. The hypothesis concerning the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n between g i f t e d n e s s and a n x i e t y was based on the assumption t h a t the q u a l i t y of the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ' s performance under a n x i e t y i s pr o b a b l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n because of (a) the d i f f e r e n c e i n the 125 i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l as i n d i c a t e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s (conducted i n I s r a e l f o r t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) , (b) the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n x i e t y l e v e l s (Milgram, 1976), and (c) the d i f f e r e n c e i n m o t i v a t i o n to perform under a n x i e t y ; i . e . f e a r of f a i l u r e vs s t r i v i n g t o succeed (Perron and Male, 1985). F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the r e s e a r c h data r e v e a l s t h a t while t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems, th e r e i s no such d i f f e r e n c e concerning the impact of a n x i e t y on the two groups' performance. The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t g i f t e d are not d i f f e r e n t from n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n a l l aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y development. T h e i r advantage i n terms of the i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . However, i t should be kept i n mind t h a t i n s p i t e of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and high performance, the e f f e c t of a n x i e t y on t h e i r performance appears to be no d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h e r e f o r e : a) Teachers of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n should bear i n mind t h a t t h e i r task i s to pay a t t e n t i o n to the g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e i r students, and not only to t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l enrichment. The manner of the performance of the students under a l l kinds of c o n d i t i o n s , (and a n x i e t y i s one of them), should concern the teacher of the g i f t e d , as i t concerns the teacher of the n o n - g i f t e d . b) I f performance under a n x i e t y produces s i m i l a r r e s u l t s with n o n - g i f t e d and with g i f t e d , then any s t r a t e g y of 126 performance under a n x i e t y which i s found to be e f f e c t i v e w ith g i f t e d c h i l d r e n may prove to be e f f e c t i v e with non-g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and v i c e v e r s a . c) Based on the f i n d i n g s t h a t there i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between g i f t e d n e s s and a n x i e t y , and t h a t the g i f t e d r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance i s a f f e c t e d i n the same d i r e c t i o n as t h a t of the n o n - g i f t e d , a new model f o r the g i f t e d e ducation can be suggested f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Any program which enables the g i f t e d to study a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , should a l s o i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the mutual involvement of n o n - g i f t e d peers i n areas of common i n t e r e s t . Both-populations share i n many ways the same l i f e problems, and both respond i n the same way under a n x i e t y . A model which acknowledges the s p e c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l needs of the g i f t e d , w h i l e a t the same time suggests " j o i n t p r o j e c t s " f o r g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d , c o u l d be o f f e r e d as a p a r t of s p e c i a l programs. The " j o i n t p r o j e c t " should i n c l u d e workshops which focus on s t r a t e g i e s to cope wi t h r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g dilemmas, and with a n x i e t y . Instead of the " p u l l - o u t " program, i n which the g i f t e d leave the r e g u l a r "home c l a s s " , the suggested model o f f e r s a " p u l l - t o g e t h e r " program i n which g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d leave t h e i r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s to j o i n on a common ground. In t h i s way both p o p u l a t i o n s may have mutual b e n e f i t . The emotional development of the g i f t e d can b e n e f i t from communicating with t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d peers. The same with the n o n - g i f t e d , 127 who w i l l a l s o b e n e f i t from d i s c u s s i n g p r a c t i c a l l i f e problems wi t h the g i f t e d . Based on the arguments above, i t seems t h a t the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s t h a t R e n z u l l i (1977) suggested f o r h i s Type I I I enrichment program f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n are r e l e v a n t as a b a s i s f o r such a model: "To a s s i s t youngsters i n becoming a c t u a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s of r e a l problems or t o p i c s by u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e methods of i n q u i r y . To p r o v i d e students with o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r takingan a c t i v e p a r t i n f o r m u l a t i n g problems to b e i n v e s t i g a t e d and the methods by which the p r o b l e m s w i l l be a t t a c k e d . To allow students to use i n f o r m a t i o n as raw d a t a r a t h e r than r e p o r t i n g about c o n c l u s i o n s reachedby other persons. To p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r students' i n q u i r y a c t i v i t y to be d i r e c t e d toward some t a n g i b l e p r o d u c t . To p r o v i d e students with an o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p l y t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g p r o c e s s e s to r e a l s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than s t r u c t u r e d e x e r c i s e s " . (Renzulli,1977, p.9). The n o n - g i f t e d may p r o v i d e problems t h a t the g i f t e d even d i d not c o n s i d e r as problems, while the g i f t e d may serve as a model by s h a r i n g the way they s o l v e problems. The mutual b e n e f i t w i l l grow through the o p p o r t u n i t y to communicate about s u b j e c t s of common i n t e r e s t , where each p o p u l a t i o n l e a r n s to understand and r e s p e c t the frame of r e f e r e n c e of the other. T h i s i d e a should, of course, be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d . The f o u r t h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was t a n g e n t i a l to the main study. I t r e l a t e d to gender d i f f e r e n c e s . The l i t e r a t u r e 128 r e p o r t s d i f f e r e n c e s between g i f t e d boys and g i f t e d g i r l s i n the s t y l e and the way each gender d e a l s w i t h problems (Maccoly and J a c k l i n , 1974; Perrone and Male, 1981; O'Tuel, 1989; Cramer, 1989; O'Tuel, 1989; B e l l , 1989) . The r e p o r t s concerned with a n x i e t y l e v e l s suggest t h a t g i f t e d g i r l s have hi g h e r l e v e l s of a n x i e t y than do g i f t e d boys (Milgram, 1976; Taiwan, 1981). The r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g a n x i e t y i n t h i s study are i n accordance with what the l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t s . G i f t e d g i r l s r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of a n x i e t y than g i f t e d boys. However, r e g a r d i n g r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , the data i n d i c a t e d t h a t g i f t e d g i r l s i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y t h e i r performance under a n x i e t y i n c o n t r a s t to g i f t e d boys whose performance decreased under the same c o n d i t i o n . There are two ways to i n t e r p r e t these r e s u l t s . One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may suggest t h a t g i f t e d g i r l s , i n c o n t r a s t to g i f t e d boys, need some k i n d of a n x i e t y to perform b e t t e r . The other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may r e f e r s to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t g i f t e d g i r l s who i n i t i a l l y are a f f e c t e d by t h e i r high a n x i e t y l e v e l s are excluded from the g i f t e d programs due to t h e i r lower performance on the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s . Only the g i r l s who are a b l e to perform b e t t e r under a n x i e t y are i n c l u d e d . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s m a l l percentage of g i f t e d g i r l s who are i d e n t i f i e d and recommended f o r the g i f t e d programs. 129 The suggestion to i n c l u d e a n x i e t y t e s t s and to weight t h e i r r e s u l t s together with the other i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t e s t s may c o n t r i b u t e to a s e l e c t i o n process which c o u l d i d e n t i f y more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d g i r l s who perhaps performed at a lower l e v e l on the t e s t s due to t h e i r high l e v e l s of a n x i e t y . Another i m p l i c a t i o n as regards the gender d i f f e r e n c e i n performance under a n x i e t y r e l a t e s to c o n c l u s i o n s drawn r e g a r d i n g the g e n e r a l g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n . Any such c o n c l u s i o n c o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g i f boys are a f f e c t e d i n one d i r e c t i o n , ( decreasing t h e i r performance), w h i l e g i r l s are a f f e c t e d i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n ( i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r performance) under the same c o n d i t i o n s . The average of these two d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n may mean no t h i n g . In such a case a separate analyses f o r boys and f o r g i r l s s hould be p r o v i d e d and c o n c l u s i o n s should be drawn a c c o r d i n g l y . The i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n the gender d i f f e r e n c e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n needs to be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d . On account of the s m a l l number of g i f t e d g i r l s i n t h i s study any c o n c l u s i o n should be viewed with c a u t i o n , u n t i l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , with l a r g e r samples of g i f t e d g i r l s , c o n f i r m t h i s r e s u l t and/or c l a r i f y p o s s i b l e a m b i g u i t i e s . 130 Conclusions and Educational Implications The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s are based on evidence obtained from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, and the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . The c o n c l u s i o n s seem j u s t i f i e d w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n of the study as s p e c i f i e d i n Chapter I. 1. G i f t e d c h i l d r e n d e a l with r e a l l i f e problems b e t t e r than n o n - g i f t e d . They respond to l i f e dilemmas with more suggestions r e g a r d i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problems i n v o l v e d , p r o v i d e more ideas to s o l v e them, and suggest more a l t e r n a t i v e ways to a v o i d such problems from happening. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s i n c o n t r a s t to the myth t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who are i n v o l v e d i n a b s t r a c t academic spheres are i m p r a c t i c a l , (sometimes even h e l p l e s s ) , when they have to f a c e r e a l l i f e problems. The e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the c u r r i c u l u m f o r the g i f t e d . A t t e n t i o n p a i d to programs which c h a l l e n g e the g i f t e d i n coping w i t h l i f e problems, i n t h e i r c l a s s as w e l l as o u t s i d e the c l a s s , may r e s u l t i n a s s u r i n g the g i f t e d t h a t they are able to handle a l l kinds of l i f e s i t u a t i o n s , and i n p r e p a r i n g them adequately f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b l e t a s k s i n s o c i e t y . 2. A n x i e t y a f f e c t s elementary school c h i l d r e n ' s r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n of d e c r e a s i n g t h e i r performance. T h e r e f o r e , the e f f e c t of a n x i e t y cannot be i g n o r e d . The above c o n c l u s i o n c h a l l e n g e s the c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e of d e a l i n g with a n x i e t y i n schools as a 131 p a t h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e . A n x i e t y i s a giv e n f e a t u r e t h a t has an e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n ' s r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance. The e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are t h a t once a n x i e t y i s re c o g n i z e d and d e a l t w i t h w i t h i n the school system, ways of deve l o p i n g s k i l l s to cope with i t , w i l l be found. The f i r s t step, however, i s to acknowledge the need of d e l i b e r a t e l y d e a l i n g with a n x i e t y as a normative r e a l i t y w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system. No longer can a n x i e t y be igno r e d w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l system, and any c u r r i c u l u m planned should take i t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n (See: Sug g e s t i o n s ) . 3. A n x i e t y a f f e c t s the g i f t e d and the n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ' s performance i n the same d i r e c t i o n : the performance of both p o p u l a t i o n s i n r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g decreased under a n x i e t y . T h i s means t h a t the advantage of the g i f t e d i n terms of i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , which i n c l u d e s a l s o t h e i r t a l e n t to out-perform the n o n - g i f t e d on r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , does not n e c e s s a r i l y apply t o other areas of t h e i r p e r s o n a l growth. When f a c i n g a n x i e t y t h e i r performance i s reduced i n the same d i r e c t i o n as t h a t of t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s . The e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h i s r e s p e c t are t h a t g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d may b e n e f i t from mutual i n t e r a c t i o n . They can share t h e i r experience of a n x i e t y and work out together s t r a t e g i e s of coping with i t . The s h a r i n g of common problem s e t s the stage f o r the f r u i t f u l and mutually b e n e f i c i a l d i s c u s s i o n s i n d e a l i n g with other l i f e problems. The b e t t e r a b i l i t y of the g i f t e d t o sol v e l i f e problems may 132 t u r n out to be an a s s e t to both of these p o p u l a t i o n s (see: D i s c u s s i o n ) . 4. W i t h i n the g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n there i s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e a l l i f e performance under a n x i e t y . G i f t e d g i r l s r e p o r t e d h i g h e r l e v e l s of a n x i e t y , whereas t h e i r r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance was h i g h e r than t h a t of g i f t e d boys when a n x i e t y was induced. An important e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n of the above r e l a t e s t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process of the g i f t e d . Perhaps only g i f t e d g i r l s who perform b e t t e r than t h e i r g i r l peers under a n x i e t y are i n c l u d e d i n g i f t e d programs. T h i s i s s u e has to be f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d b e f o r e any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn r e g a r d i n g the gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance under a n x i e t y . Given t h a t g i f t e d n e s s i s a l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e , t h e r e i s a c a l l f o r p r a c t i c e s t h a t c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y those with the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l , boys and g i r l s a l i k e . T h i s c a l l r e q u i r e s a reassessment of the e x i s t i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n procedures. 133 Recommendation for Further Research Some recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h f o l l o w i n g the l i n e of t h i s study. 1. I t i s recommended t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y measurements as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n be i n v e s t i g a t e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n order to adequately optimize the weighing process ( i . e . the r e l a t i v e 'loads' of the a n x i e t y t e s t r e s u l t s , and the other t e s t s i n the i d e n t i f y i n g t e s t b a t t e r y ) i s c l e a r l y needed. Such p r a c t i c e may ensure t h a t 'high a n x i e t y ' g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the s e l e c t e d g i f t e d group f o l l o w i n g the s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s . 2 . I t i s recommended t h a t a n x i e t y be r e c o g n i z e d by the e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y makers. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a n x i e t y and t r a i n i n g i n terms of coping with i t should be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m of the g i f t e d . In t h i s way, anxious g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who entered the g i f t e d program i n s p i t e of t h e i r a n x i e t y , (see recommendation 1 ) w i l l l e a r n how to cope and d e a l with i t , so t h a t a n x i e t y might not be an o b s t a c l e i n t h e i r performance. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can t e l l us what s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s are the most a p p r o p r i a t e , i n terms of student' achievement enhancement gi v e n the a n x i e t y c o n d i t i o n s under which students perform. 134 3. Based on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, and i n c o n t i n u a t i o n of the s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g with the e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l as the above recommendations 1 and 2, i t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t a new model of g i f t e d education be t r i e d : T h i s model acknowledges the i n t e l l e c t u a l needs of the g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a framework of a s p e c i a l independent c u r r i c u l u m , which a l s o i n c l u d e s r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c h a l l e n g e s . However, as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the program, based on t h i s model, some " j o i n p r o j e c t s " with the n o n - g i f t e d should be i n c l u d e d . In view of the f i n d i n g s t h a t there i s no i n t e r a c t i o n between g i f t e d n e s s and an x i e t y , and t h a t a n x i e t y reduces the performance of both g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d p o p u l a t i o n s i t i s reasonable to suggest t r y i n g a new model of g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n . The g u i d i n g i d e a of t h i s model i s t h a t i n s t e a d of a " p u l l - o u t " type program where the g i f t e d are taken out to t h e i r s p e c i a l programs from the r e g u l a r c l a s s e s , the opposite d i r e c t i o n should apply; t h a t i s , both p o p u l a t i o n s w i l l leave t h e i r s p e c i a l "home-classes" and w i l l be " p u l l e d t o g e t h e r " f o r a common enrichment experience. The f o l l o w i n g purposes of such a model should emphasize: (a) to enable the two p o p u l a t i o n s to l e a r n t o g e t h e r how to cope with the problem of a n x i e t y , ( i . e . awareness, s t r a t e g i e s , s k i l l s , e t c . ) ; (b) to mutually communicate with each other concerning r e l e v a n t common r e a l l i f e problems. In t h i s r e s p e c t , the f i n d i n g t h a t g i f t e d were found to out-perform the n o n - g i f t e d may pr o v i d e them with the o p p o r t u n i t y 135 to share and d i s c u s s t h e i r ideas with t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d peers and thus prove to themselves and to others how p r a c t i c a l and able they are to d e a l with l i f e problems. On the other hand, the n o n - g i f t e d w i l l have the o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s and c o n s i d e r ideas with capable peers r a t h e r than only with a d u l t s (teachers, parents, e t c . ) ; (c) to e s t a b l i s h a b r i d g e between g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d i n which each p o p u l a t i o n l e a r n s to understand the frame of r e f e r e n c e of the other. T h i s purpose might be achieved under w e l l prepared s u p e r v i s i o n t h a t succeeds i n c r e a t i n g a g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d atmosphere. In t h i s way, the enrichment, growth, and b e t t e r r e a l l i f e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g performance of both p o p u l a t i o n s might be enhanced. A study which examines the resources (manpower, c l a s s e s , budget, e t c . ) , which such a model demands i s worthwhile undertaking. 4. I t i s recommended t h a t t h i s study should be r e p l i c a t e d with other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n drawn from a wider area than i t was p o s s i b l e to use i n the p r e s e n t study. Such samples may enable f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g gender d i f f e r e n c e s . 5) There were unavoidable compromises made i n conducting t h i s study due to i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and c o n s t r a i n s . (See Chapter I ) . The RLPSSS which measured r e a l l i f e problem s o l v i n g performance i n the p r e s e n t study, was 136 achieved by employing what was e s s e n t i a l l y a l o c a l a d a p t a t i o n of two t e s t s from the U n i t e d S t a t e s : PEPSI and TOPS. Although i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the RLPSSS d i d not r e s u l t i n any s i g n i f i c a n t b i a s i n the scores of I s r a e l i c h i l d r e n , t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y a need f o r a Real L i f e Problem S o l v i n g Test developed l o c a l l y . T h i s t e s t should i n c l u d e s i t u a t i o n a l items to which boys and g i r l s can r e l a t e e q u a l l y . Such a v a l i d a t e d and r e l i a b l e instrument i s r e q u i r e d f o r f u r t h e r p u r s u i n g t h i s l i n e of r e s e a r c h . Concluding Remarks T h i s present r e s e a r c h i s b e l i e v e d to be a new departure i n s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s of a n x i e t y on the e f f o r t s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n to s o l v e the problems l i k e l y t o be encountered i n d a i l y l i f e . I t i s no more than an e a r l y shot i n the s t r u g g l e to understand young c h i l d r e n ' s performance under c o n d i t i o n s of a n x i e t y . The I s r a e l i c h i l d cannot escape the impact of s t r e s s and t h r e a t of h i s environment. Consequently, when some c o n d i t i o n s are unavoidable, one needs to t u r n them i n t o a s s e t s . With t h i s i n mind, teachers may f i n d the means of c u l t i v a t i n g i n a l l c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g the b r i g h t e s t and most a b l e , the i n n e r s t r e n g t h s t h a t one needs to combat the f e a r of l i v i n g amidst d a i l y p e r i l and f a c i n g an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l h e l p t o : (a) change the approach toward the d e a l i n g w i t h a n x i e t y w i t h i n formal education; (b) p r o v i d e a method of a n x i e t y - i n d u c t i o n f o r 137 r e s e a r c h purposes; (c) c o r r e c t commonly h e l d o p i n i o n s about the a b i l i t y of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n t o s o l v e r e a l l i f e problems and about t h e i r performance under an x i e t y ; (d) l e a d to reassessment of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process of the g i f t e d and, (e) i n i t i a t e a new model i n g i f t e d - e d u c a t i o n i n which g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i l l leave t h e i r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s to meet with t h e i r n o n - g i f t e d c o u n t e r p a r t s to share s t u d i e s of common i n t e r e s t and common need. I. 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, J.L. (1976). Conceptual b l o c k b u s t i n g : A guide t o  b e t t e r i d e a s . New York, London: W.W. Norton. 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(ERIC Document Reproduction s e r v i c e No. 212119). Zachman, L., Jorgensen,C., Huisingh, R., and B a r r e t t , M., (1984). Test Of Problem S o l v i n g (TOPS). Moline, IL 61265. LinguiSystems, Inc. Zeidner, M. (1988). Enhancing students' t e s t coping s k i l l s : Report of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n program. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 80, (1), 95-101. 157 A P P E N D I C E S 158 Appendix A: Anxiety measurements: T A I and SAI HOW-I-FEEL QUESTIONNAIRE Developed by C. D. Spielberger, C. D. Edwards, J. Montuori and R. Lushene STAIC FORM C-1 I59 NAME A G E DATE DIRECTIONS: A number of statements which boys and girls use to describe themselves are given below. Read each statement carefully and decide how you feel right now. Then put an X in the box in front of the word or phrase which best describes how you feel. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend top much time on any one statement. Remember, find the word or phrase which best describes how you feel right now, at this very moment. 1. I feel . . . . . . . • very calm • calm • not calm 2. I feel . . . . . . . • very upset • upset • not upset 3. I feel .......... . . . . • very pleasant • pleasant • not pleasant 4. I feel . . . • very nervous • nervous • not nervous 5. I feel . . . . . . . • very jittery , • jittery • not jittery 6. Heel . . . . . . . • very rested • rested • not rested 7. I feel . . . . . . . • very scared • scared • not scared 8. I feel . . . . . . . • very relaxed • relaxed • not relaxed 9. I feel . . . . . . . • very worried • worried • not worried 10. I feel . . . . . . . • very satisfied • satisfied • not satisfied J , I feel . . . . . . . • very frightened • frightened • not frightened 12. I feel . . . . . . . • very happy • happy • not happy 13. I feel . . . . . . . • very sure • sure G not sure 14. I feel . . . . . . . • very good • good • not good 15. I feel . . . . . . . • very troubled • troubled • not troubled 16. Ifeei . . . . . . . • very bothered • bothered • not bothered 17. I feel . . . . . . . • very nice • nice • not nice 18. I feel . . . . . . . • very terrified • terrified • not terrified 19. I feel . . . . • very mixed-up • mixed-up • not mixed-up 20. I feel . . . . . . . • very cheerful • cheerful • not cheerful n n a v n C O N S U L T I N G P S Y C H O L O G I S T S P R E S S °JBB2ES.: * 7 7 C O L L E G E A V E N U E , P A L O A L T O , C A L I F O R N I A N A M E HOW-I-FEEL QUESTIONNAIRE STAIC FORM C -2 AGE _ D A T £ _ _ _ L 6 H DIRECTIONS: A number of statements which boys and girls use to describe themselves are given below. Read each statement and decide if it is hardly-ever. or sometimes, or often true for you. Then for each statement, put an X in the box in front of the word that seems to describe you best. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any one statement. Remember, choose the word which seems to describe how you usually feel. 1. I worry about making mistakes . . . . • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 2. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 3. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 4. I have trouble making up my mind . . . • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 5. — It is difficult for me to face my problems . • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 6. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 7. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 8. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 9. I feel troubled • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 10. Unimportant thoughts run through my • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 11. s. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 12. I have trouble deciding what to do . . . • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 13. hardly-ever • sometimes • often 14. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 15. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 16. • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 17. I worry about things that may happen . . • hardly-ever • sometimes • often 18. It is hard for me to fall asleep at night hardly-ever • 4 sometimes • often 19. I get a funny feeling in my stomach . . . • h3rdly-ever • sometimes • often 20. I worry about what others think of me • hardly-ever • sometimes • often _JLL1^1L\/MM': CONSULTING PSYCHOLOGISTS PRESS '^3f^': * " C 0 L « - t 0 t A V C N U C . P A L O A L T O . C A L I F O R N I A 161 Appendix B Real Life Problem Solving Situations Set (RLPSSS) 162 g i r l () boy () Name School C l a s s In -front of you are a number o-f p i c t u r e s . Look at each p i c t u r e c a r e - f u l l y and answer the accompanying q u e s t i o n s . For each q u e s t i o n , t h e r e c o u l d be more than one p o s s i b l e answer. If you do not have enough space t o answer, you may co n t i n u e your answer on the back "of the page. P l e a s e remember to w r i t e t h e number of the q u e s t i o n with the c o n t i n u a t i o n of your answer. Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . Enjoy! ! ! 163 The c h i l d r e n hear a knock at the door of t h e i r home. They open t h e door d e s p i t e the warning of t h e i r p a r e n t s not t o do so. A s t r a n g e r i s s t a n d i n g t h e r e . a) What are the problems t h i s s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e s ? i-, b >' Suggest !. ways t o s o l v e t h e s e problems. (What would you a d v i s e t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o do i n .this s i t u a t i o n ? ) c) What c o u l d have been done i n order t o prevent t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? (Think of several, s u g g e s t i o n s ) . P l e a s e answer on t h e back of the page. 164 2 a) How do we know t h a t the mmother has di 4 4 i c u l t a es t a l k i n g on the t e l e p h o n e ? b) Why i s the boy p l a y i n g t h e music at such a h i g h volume? c) Why should the boy not p l a y the music at h i g h volume? 165 a) What, i n your o p i n i o n , a r e the p o s s i b l e reasons -for her s. •feeling c o l d ? b) What would you do i n her s i t u a t i o n i n order t o warm up? c) Suggest ways -for p r e v e n t i n g such a s i t u a t i o n -from happening i n the -future. 166 b) What caused the p o p s i c l e t o d r i p ? c) Why won't the s i s t e r l e t her b r o t h e r h o l d her hand now? d) The p o p s i c l e d r i p p e d on the boy's s h i r t . What c o u l d the boy have done t o prevent h i s s h i r t from g e t t i n g d i r t y ? 167 5 a) How can you t e l l t h i s house i s b e i n g p a i n t e d ? b) Why i s i t not recommended r i g h t now now? c) What can the p a i n t e r do i-f asked t o use? t o shake the p a i n t e r ' s hand he d i s l i k e s the c o l o r he i s d) The p a i n t e r was not c a r e f u l enough and s p i l l e d p a i n t on the lawn. What; c o u l d he have done t o prevent t h i s from happening? 168 a) How da you know t h a t the c h i l d r e n a re p l a y i n g j u s t -for -Fun, r a t h e r than a r e a l game o-f b a s k e t b a l l ? b) Why aren't the c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g with more than one b a l l ? c> The boy s i t t i n g down wants t o p l a y . What can he do i n order t o j o i n the game? 169 I The boy s i t t i n g i n •front o-f the t e l e v i s i o n l o v e s the program. However, we can see •from the p i c t u r e , t h a t he i s having a d i - f - f i c u l t time. a) What do you t h i n k are the reasons -for h i s d i -f -f i cul t i es? v b) What can he do t o enjoy the r e s t of the program? c) Suggest ways t o prevent such a s i t u a t i o n i n the -future. 170 a) What problems does the man -face? b) What problems does the g i r l -face? c) Recommand a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e man t o a v o i d h i s problem. d) Recommand a s o l u t i o n f o r the g i r l t o a v o i d her problem. 171 3 During r e c e s s a f t e r a d i f f i c u l t Math t e s t the teacher i s e x p l a i n i n g t o two students how the problem should have been s o l v e d . The boy s i t t i n g looks sad. a) Give p o s s i b l e reasons f o r the s t u d e n t ' s bad mood. b) How can the student make himself f e e l b e t t e r ? c) Suggest d i f f e r e n t ways t o prepare f o r an Math t e s t . c) Why don't they have t o wash d i s h e s a-fter the meal? d) They ordered a hamburger and -fries? the w a i t r e s s brought them a p i z z a . What c o u l d they do? e) What c o u l d the w a i t r e s s have done t o prevent her mistake? now b> What c o u l d be the reason -for the b l a c k o u t ? c) What should the -fami-ly do? d) The -family was not ready -for the b l a c k o u t . What should they do t o be b e t t e r prepared i n the -future? 174 a) How do we know t h a t there has been an a c c i d e n t ? b) How do you t h i n k the a c c i d e n t happened? c) Why i s there no ambulance? d) What should t h i s l a d y i n the car do? 175 Two s i s t e r s were sent by t h e i r mother t o buy a kilogram o-f apples. To t h e i r s u r p r i s e , t h e r e was a sudden i n c r e a s e i n the p r i c e o-f apples. a> What, i n your o p i n i o n a re the reasons -for t h i s sudden i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e ? b) What would you do i-f you were i n the s i s t e r s ' p l ace? c) What can consumers do t o prevent u n j u s t i - f i e d i n c r e a s e s i n p r i c e s ? b) Why wan't he have t o go t o the h o s p i t a l ? c> What should the boy do now? a) Point out p o s s i b l e reasons why t h e bookcase i s t i l t i n g . b) What co u l d the boy do to s t r a i g h t e n the bookcase? s. c) What would you do t o prevent-the bookcase •from t i l t i n g t o the s i d e ? I o a) Why do you t h i n k the man decided t h a t he needs h i s -fence p a i n t e d once a year? b) If you were one of the c h i l d r e n , what q u e s t i o n s would you ask the man t o make sure you were p a i n t i n g the f e n c e the way he wants i t done? c) What could the man do so t h a t h i s fence does not need t o be p a i n t e d so o f t e n ? 179 Appendix C: Sample of Students' Responses to Real Life Problematic Situations of the R L P S S S 180 SAMPLES OF THE DIFFERENT ANSWERS TO THE RLPSSS SITUATION NUMBER 1 . . 1-A. The man at the door i s a person with negative intentions, (criminal, t h i e f , r a p i s t , t e r r o r i s t , kidnapper, e t c . ) . The children's problem i s : how to avoid his entrance. The man at the door i s a nice person with f r i e n d l y intentions, (friend of the family, r e l a t i v e from USSR, repair man, sales man, doctor, e t c ) . Having opened the door in the f i r s t place creates the problem of i n s u l t i n g a good person by refusing his entrance. The children's problem i s how to say "NO" The children f a i l e d to follow the parents' instructions, therefore they f e e l g u i l t y . The parents might not tru s t them i n the future. The parents might punish them. 1-B. To ask the person to return l a t e r . To apologize. To c a l l the parents and ask them i f they know the person. While one of the children talks to the person, the other one c a l l s for help (parents, neighbors, friends, p o l i c e ) . 181 Have the s t r a n g e r leave a message f o r the par e n t s , w h i l e he stays behind the door. Take a r i s k and l e t him i n . 1-C. Learn s e l f defense. Make sure t h a t there are more than two c h i l d r e n a t home. Keep p a r e n t s ' i n s t r u c t i o n s and never open the door. Peek through the key hole (arrange s p e c i a l low peek h o l e ) . To i n s t a l l a c h a i n , s m a l l peeking window or some other d e v i c e on the door f o r s a f e t y , so t h a t the c h i l d r e n communicate with the person without a c t u a l l y r i s k i n g opening the door. Have the parents i n s t r u c t them as to whom they might expect. To stay w i t h : a b a b y s i t t e r , neighbor, or f a m i l i a r a d u l t . To have a t r a i n e d guard dog, alarm system, p o l i c e number. 182 SITUATION NUMBER 2. 2-A. Mother's f a c i a l e x p r e ssions, (angry f a c e , p l u g g i n g one ear, etc.) Music notes coming out of the r a d i o . 2-B. For the fun of i t . To enrage h i s mother, (nei g h b o r s ) . To draw h i s mother's a t t e n t i o n (to prevent her from t a l k i n g so much on the phone. The boy does not see (or hear) t h a t h i s mother i s t a l k i n g on the phone. He has h e a r i n g problems. He i s s e l f i s h and t h i n k s j u s t of h i m s e l f . 2 - C . I t bothers h i s mother, neighbors. I t may harm h i s ears. I t c r e a t e s an atmosphere a t home t h a t nobody can t a l k q u i e t l y (concentrate on other t h i n g s : watch TV, prepare homework, t a l k on the telephone e t c . ) . 183 SITUATION NUMBER 3 3-A. I t i s c o l d a t home and the g i r l does not expend energy. I t i s a l l i n her mind (her exhaustion may cause her to f e e l c o l d , she may have f a i l e d an exam, she f e e l s l o n e l y and sad) . The g i r l wears no socks, when one's f e e t are c o l d the e n t i r e body i s c o l d . C e n t r a l h e a t i n g not f u n c t i o n i n g . The g i r l i s not dressed s u f f i c i e n t l y . The g i r l i s s i c k . 3-B. Use a b l a n k e t , or h e a v i e r c l o t h e s . Be a c t i v e ( e x e r c i s e to warm up, dance, p l a y b a l l , run, etc.) . Imagine (a heater, summer, sunshine on the beach, pretend t h a t i t i s not c o l d ) . Eat and d r i n k something hot. Check the h e a t i n g system. Take a hot bath. B a t t e r y operated heater, Prepare warm c l o t h e s and b l a n k e t s . Ensure a w e l l f u n c t i o n i n g h e a t i n g system. P r a c t i c e e x e r c i s i n g . B u i l d a c l u b house to which one can go when there i s a problem. To c o o r d i n a t e with other tenants and ensure t h a t the h e a t i n g system works a l l day. 185 SITUATION NUMBER 4. 4-A. A s t a i n on the s h i r t (he looks d i r t y ) . She can smell the smell of the p o p s i c l e . He i s t e a s i n g her t h a t he ate a p o p s i c l e and she d i d n ' t . 4-B. The heat of the sun. He ate too s l o w l y . His body heat caused the p o p s i c l e t o melt q u i c k l y . 4-C. His hand i s s t i c k y and d i r t y . She i s angry t h a t he d i d n ' t share the p o p s i c l e w i t h her. She wants to teach him a l e s s o n t o l e a r n what may happen when he gets d i r t y . 4-D. Be c a r e f u l , may take o f f h i s s h i r t . Eat f a s t e r . Eat i n the shade. To bend forwards so the p o p s i c l e doesn't d r i p on h i s s h i r t . To share i t with h i s s i s t e r so they f i n i s h b e f o r e i t d r i p s . 187 SITUATION NUMBER 5 5-A. A p a i n t e r stands on a ladder, h o l d i n g a brush and p a i n t buckets. Only h a l f the house i s p a i n t e d so f a r . Smell the c o l o r . P a i n t i s d r i p p i n g . 5-B. Our hand w i l l get d i r t y . The p a i n t e r shouldn't be d i s t r a c t e d . The p a i n t e r might f a l l o f f the l a d d e r . He seems strong; h i s handshake may be p a i n f u l t o you. 5 - C . He has no cho i c e ; he i s being p a i d f o r a job. May suggest a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r , t r y c o n v i n c i n g the owner. Can q u i t the job, have someone e l s e s u b s t i t u t e f o r him. 188 To pretend t h a t t h i s i s a c o l o u r he l i k e s , or ignore i t a l l together. To add a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r of h i s l i k i n g to the window frames. To put g l o v e s i n order to keep h i s hands c l e a n . To demand a hig h e r p r i c e . 5-D. Be c a r e f u l . P r o t e c t the lawn with newspapers or p l a s t i c sheets. Clean afterwards. Make the owner r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o t e c t i o n of the lawn. To a p o l o g i z e and compensate the owner. 189 S i t u a t i o n Number 6 6 - A . There i s n e i t h e r a judge or a t r a i n e r , nor an adequate c o u r t . Only t h r e e (3) p l a y e r s . They don't i n c l u d e the boy i n the c o r n e r . Only one basket r a t h e r than two. No audience. They don't seem l i k e s e r i o u s p l a y e r s (no uniform, shouting, one boy s i t t i n g l o s e to the basket, don't f o l l o w the r u l e s ) . 6 - B . There i s only one b a l l . They j u s t p l a y f o r fun or p r a c t i c e . A second b a l l may cause c o n f u s i o n . 6 - C . He should ask to be i n c l u d e d . L e t him o f f e r another b a l l . 190 Pick up the b a l l i f i t i s thrown f a r away. Suggest t h a t i t i s u n f a i r to p l a y 2 a g a i n s t 1, i f he j o i n s they w i l l p l a y 2 a g a i n s t 2. To b r i b e the k i d s ( l e t them r i d e h i s b i k e , e t c . ) . J o i n them n a t u r a l l y . Act as a judge, encourage them and teach them some t r i c k s . SITUATION NUMBER 7 7-A. His f a m i l y i s n o i s y and d i s t u r b s him. He does not understand the movie, ( f o r e i g n language, open the TV i n the middle of the movie e t c . ) . He does not see w e l l , (needs g l a s s e s ) . He i s pr e o c c u p i e d . His f a v o r i t e hero d i e s . He f a i l e d i n school and h i s parents are angry with him. He i s e x p e r i e n c i n g s o c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s with h i s classmates. 191 The movie i s about to end. He deserves i t . He d i s t u r b e d h i s f a m i l y and now they take revenge. His f a m i l y i s not c o n s i d e r a t e . 7 - B . Ask h i s f a m i l y to keep q u i e t , or leave the room. Stop being sad, i t ' s j u s t a movie. Ask h i s parents to t r a n s l a t e the movie. Get h i s eyes checked. Raise the volume of the T.V. Try to r a i s e h i s f a m i l y ' s i n t e r e s t i n the program. Record the program on video and watch i t l a t e r on. 7-C. Get eye g l a s s e s . Make sure t h a t h i s f a m i l y i s more c o n s i d e r a t e . 192 R e t a l i a t e . D i s t u r b them when they are watching a program. Decide not to argue of f i g h t i n f r o n t of the T.V. Arrange a T.V. watching schedule f o r everyone i n the f a m i l y . To ignore the s i t u a t i o n . P r a c t i c e h i s f a s t r e a d i n g ( f o r s u b t i t l e s ) . A f a m i l y d i s c u s s i o n on the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r ot h e r s . Engage h i s s i b l i n g s i n a fun game so they won't bother him. Be c o n s i d e r a t e toward h i s s i b l i n g s so t h a t they w i l l l e a r n to r e s p e c t h i s needs and be c o n s i d e r a t e t o him. 193 SITUATION NUMBER 8. 8-A. He r i s k s b e i n g h i t by the b i c y c l e . He i s l a t e f o r work. His documents are going to be s c a t t e r e d a l l over. He i s going to break h i s g l a s s e s . He may bump i n t o the g i r l and i f she w i l l h u r t h e r s e l f she may sue him. He i s running away because he s t o l e the bag. 8-B She r i s k s h i t t i n g the man and h u r t i n g h e r s e l f . So f a r i t does not seem l i k e she has any problem. The man may sue her. She wants t o get to school e a r l y so she can p l a y . She wants to break the r e c o r d of speeding b i k i n g . She may be stopped by the p o l i c e who'll warn her not to r i d e on the s i d e walk. 194 8-C Get up e a r l i e r and allow more time. "You are b e t t e r o f f l o s i n g a minute i n your l i f e then your l i f e i n a minute" Stop and wait i n the c o r n e r . Take a bus or a r i d e with a f r i e n d . Get h i m s e l f a proper bag f o r h i s papers. Approach the m u n i c i p a l e s to widen the s t r e e t . Not to v i s i t i n the stockmarket. 8-D Slow down and look around. Increase speed and get to the corner b e f o r e the man. Ride on the s t r e e t not the s i d e walk. Get h e r s e l f a b e t t e r b i k e . 195 SITUATION NUMBER 9. 9-A He f a i l e d the t e s t . His g i r l f r i e n d l e f t him. His expensive pen broke. He has no f r i e n d s and i s bored. He i s a g i f t e d c h i l d who i n case of f a i l u r e , i s i n mourning. He w o r r i e s t h a t h i s parents might be angry with him. His parents are about to get d i v o r c e d . The teacher n e g l e c t s him. 9-B Forget about the exam. Have the teacher, a f r i e n d , a parent, e x p l a i n the problem to him. T r e a t h i m s e l f to something new (book, candy). Think of a l l the t e s t s i n which he d i d w e l l . Have a p r i v a t e t u t o r . Make peace with h i s f r i e n d s . 196 9-C Study well the material. Study with a friend, parent, teacher. Create Math games for fun. Memorize a l l the rules. Study a l l year, several hours a day. Study the day before the exam, so that the material w i l l be fresh i n his mind. SITUATION NUMBER 10. 10-A There are c h a i r s , t a b l e s , a w a i t r e s s e , another couple. By the way the food i s served. By the comfortable a p h o l s t a r y . White t a b l e c l o t h e , & a menu. 10-B They are c e l e b r a t i n g . No food at home and the s t o r e s are c l o s e d . They want t o get to know each other. They want to f o r g e t a sad experience. They are on a t r i p and stopped f o r the meal. They have important matters to d i s c u s s ( l i k e b u s i n e s s , d i v o r c e ) . 10-C I t ' s being done by the s t a f f , they p a i d f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . They are not a t home. They don't own the r e s t a u r a n t . Eat the P i z z a , but pay f o r the H. & C. Ask the w a i t r e s s e to b r i n g H. & C. Complain t o the owner. Leave the r e s t a u r a n t . T e l l her t h a t she d i d n ' t l i s t e n t o them. 10-E Write down the order a c c o r d i n g to the t a b l e . Recheck t h e i r order. T e l l them t h a t they are out of H. & C. Concentrate on her job. Get a h e a r i n g aid.Get b e t t e r o r g a n i s e d . S i t u a t i o n number 1 1 1 1 - A The TV does not work. The house i s dark. There i s a thunder-storm o u t s i d e . 1 1 - B t Thunder h i t a n e l e c t r i c p o l e . Branches f e l l on the e l e c t r i c p o l e . A car h i t the e l e c t r i c p o l e . There i s an o v e r l o a d i n the e l e c t r i c company. There i s a s h o r t c i r c u i t . There i s a s t r i k e i n the e l e c t r i c company. The f a m i l y d i d n ' t pay the e l e c t r i c b i l l s , so the e l e c t r i c company s h u t - o f f t h e i r e l e c t r i c i t y . The e l e c t r i c company i s making r e p a i r s i n the e l e c t r i c system. There i s an o v e r l o a d of e l e c t r i c a p p l i a n c e s . 200 1 1 - C C a l l an e l e c t r i c i a n to f i x the e l e c t i c i t y . L i g h t a candle. Turn on a f l a s h l i g h t . Put on an emergency l i g h t . Wait. Replace the f u s e . Check what happened, whether i t i s a l o c a l problem or a ge n e r a l problem. C a l l the e l e c t r i c company. Try to f i x the problem by themselves. 1 1 - D Prepare candles and matches. Put an emergency l i g h t i n a reach a b l e p l a c e , j u s t i n case. L i s t e n to the weather f o r c a s t and when there i s a storm expected, to be prepared. Buy a generator t h a t w i l l keep working when there i s a bl a c k o u t . Prevent over-usage of e l e c t r i c i t y a t home. To i n s t a l l an automatic f u s e . SITUATION NUMBER 12 12-A Cars are very c l o s e to each other. Cars are smashed. Cars b l o c k the road. There are p i e c e s of g l a s s on the ground. A c h i l d i s h u r t and l y i n g on the ground. People are standing o u t s i d e t h e i r c a r . 12-B The d r i v e r s d i d n ' t keep enough d i s t a n c e between the c a r s . The f i r s t c a r stopped unexpectadly and the second c a r c o u l d n ' t stop i n time. There was an u n c l e a r v i s i b i l i t y . A p e d e s t r i a n jumped i n t o the road unexpectadly. 202 A c h i l d d i d n ' t c r o s s e d the road i n a crosswalk. The d r i v e r f e l l a s l e e p . The d r i v e r was drunk. 12 - C There was nobody badly h u r t . There was no one t h a t c o u l d c a l l an ambulance. The ambulance hadn't a r r i v e d y e t . The ambulance had a l r e a d y l e f t the p l a c e . 12-D Stop the c a r . C a l l f o r h e l p . Help calm down the two l a d i e s . C a l l the p o l i c e , n o t i f y the c h i l d ' s p a r e n t s , c a l l a tow-car. Not to do a t h i n g . 203 D r i v e the c h i l d to the h o s p i t a l . To honk so they w i l l c l e a r the road. SITUATION NUMBER 13. 13-A I n f l a t i o n . There i s no subsidy on ap p l e s . The poor c o n d i t i o n s f o r growing apples caused i n c r e a s e d expenses to the farmers. The shop's c o m p e t i t i o n went bankrupt. The owner's daughter i s g e t t i n g m a r r ied and he needs money. I t i s not the apple season. The salesman i s c h e a t i n g the g i r l s . 13-B Go home and ask f o r more money. Barg a i n . 204 Buy the apples and s i g n an I.Q.U. Buy apples somewhere e l s e . Do comparative shopping. Buy l e s s a p p l e s . 13-C Stop coming to. s t o r e s t h a t r a i s e p r i c e s . Complain t o the Government. Buy i n more than one s t o r e so t h a t you can do comparative L shopping. Demonstrate! Organize a demonstration. F i n d out i f the i n c r e a s e i s j u s t i f i e d . Can't do anything about i t . Encourage more farmers to graw apples. Buy apples on s a l e . 205 SITUATION NUMBER 14 14-A He i s c r y i n g c a l l i n g f o r h e l p . We see a b l a c k spot on h i s knee. He i s b l e e d i n g . He s i t s on the ground, on a s t r e c h e r . He holds h i s knee, can't walk. 14-B Perhaps i t ' s a s u p e r f i c i a l wound, s m a l l , not s e r i o u s . F i r s t you use f i r s t a i d , only i f t h a t does not he l p you go to the h o s p e t a l . I t seems as i f he d i d not break anything, so i t i s enough t o c l e a r the wound, s t e r i l i z e i t and put a bandage on i t . 14-C Go home. S t e r l i z e the wound, bandage i t , stop the b l e e d i n g by a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e t o the wound. C a l l f o r h e l p , go to the sch o o l nurse i f i t happens i n sc h o o l , t o get treatment. Ask a f r i e n d , a bypasser, to c a l l home or to walk him home. 206 Crawl home, limp home, there h i s mother w i l l t r e a t the wound. Keep c r y i n g and get a t t e n t i o n . L i e i n bed and wait u n t i l the wound h e a l s . SITUATION NUMBER 15 15-A I t i s b u i l t crooked Somebody moved i t . The f l o o r , w a l l , the base of the bookcase, the house i s crooked. The c h i l d climbed on i t , pushed i t . The c h i l d took something out of i t and p u l l e d on i t too hard. On one s i d e there are many books, on the other s i d e i t i s empty. The bookcase i s o l d and t h e r e f o r e i t doesn't have good balance. One of i t s legs f e l l ; i t i s n ' t b u i l t w e l l . Something f e l l behind, under the bookcase. There was an earthquake. Somebody hammered a n a i l on the other s i d e of the w a l l . That i s the way the bookshelf i s b u i l t . The c l o s e t wasn't f a s t e n d with screws, the screws t h a t h e l d i t to the w a l l are crocked. 208 There i s a d i f f e r a n c e i n the n i g h t of the l e g s of the bookcase. I t i s an o l d bookcase. 15-B The c h i l d can't do anything. Check what i s the reason. Push to the other s i d e and t r y to p other s i d e and t r y to put i t s t r a i g h t . Balance the books, take down the load, push towards the w a l l . Put a book under the bookcase, or f i x a l e g . 15-C Put something beside i t f o r support. C o n s t r u c t a s o l i d base f o r i t . N a i l the bookcase to the w a l l behind i t . F i n d a f l a t s u r f a c e t o p l a c e the bookcase on. Place the books on the s e l v e s , e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i r weight i s spread evenly. Not to put the bookcase i n the c h i l d ' s room. 209 Replace the bookcase. Put the heavy books on the lower s h e l f . SITUATION NUMBER 16 16-A Because the fence i s d i r t y , doesn't look good and to avoide r u s t i n g . So i t w i l l look n i c e , new. He doesn't l i k e the c o l o u r . Maybe the k i d s suggested him and he agreed so t h a t the k i d s w i l l have something to do. The c o l o u r holds f o r on l y one year. That's the way i t i s expected to be. He i s poor and cannot manage to p a i n t i t more than once a year. 16-B Which c o l o u r would you l i k e most f o r the fence? Is t h e r e waterproof p a i n t ? Why do y of us would you l i k e t o p a i n t your fence? Would you l i k e something s p e c i a l ? Would you l i k e us to p a i n t both s i d e s , how many l a y e r s , i n what way? How many c o l o r s do you want us to use? To p e e l the o l d p a i n t , or to p a i n t on top of the o l d p a i n t ? How b i g i s the fence? How much c o l o r does i t need? How much money w i l l we get? When do you want us to f i n i s h p a i n t i n g ? How much p a i n t should we buy? where i s a good s t o r e to buy the p a i n t ? Should we p a i n t h o r i z o n t a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y ? Should we p a i n t something e l s e too? How much time should we work? Which hours are convenient f o r you to have us working? 211 16-C To grow some plants on the fence. To put something on the fence that w i l l keep i t from rusting. To clean the fence p e r i o d i c a l l y . To get a professional to do the painting instead of kids. To take down the fence. 

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