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The development and evaluation of a nutrition education program for the third and fourth grades MacKay, Joyce Elizabeth 1973

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION O F A NUTRITION EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR THE THIRD AND FOURTH GRADES by J O Y C E ELIZABETH MACKAY B. H . Ec., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E c D E G R E E OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the D i v i s i o n of HUMAN NUTRITION SCHOOL O F HOME ECONOMICS We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written per-mission. Department of Human N u t r i t i o n , School of Home Economics The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, B. C. Date December 1§, 1973 ABSTRACT A n u t r i t i o n education program f or the t h i r d and fourth grade l e v e l s was developed within a sound educational structure, namely a systematic approach i n v o l v i n g the f i v e dimensions of motivation, concepts and generalizations, behavioral objectives, learning experiences and evaluation. To test the effectiveness of the n u t r i t i o n education program, 117 children i n two Vancouver schools p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an experimental program. F i f t y eight of these children were treated as two control groups, one group from each school. The other 59 children were treated as two experimental groups, one group i n each school. Both the control and the experimental groups were pre- and post-tested using tests designed to evaluate the competency l e v e l of learning (Krathwohl et a l . , 1964; Bloom, 1965). The con t r o l groups did not receive any n u t r i t i o n education. The experimental groups a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n n u t r i t i o n education learning experiences for f o r t y minutes, twice each week for s i x weeks. Evaluation proceeded during the week immediately before and immediately a f t e r the n u t r i t i o n education program. The n u t r i t i o n education program was found to improve s i g n i f i -cantly n u t r i t i o n knowledge and comprehension f o r both grades. Although r e s u l t s of a parent questionnaire indicated that there had been s i g n i f i -cant improvement i n n u t r i t i o n a t t i t u d e s at home, there was no general tendency toward improvement of dietary patterns r e f l e c t e d i n the remain-ing t e s t s . i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S To my professional colleagues, friends and family members who gave much encouragement throughout my Master's program, I extend my sincere thanks. I especially appreciate the cooperation and understand-ing displayed by my advisor, Dr. Melvin Lee, as wel l as h i s help f u l solutions to the many questions that arose during my thesis project. I am grateful to Dr. Norman E l l i s from the Research Department of the Vancouver School Board for his assistance i n obtaining permission to conduct the n u t r i t i o n education program i n the Vancouver schools; the pri n c i p a l s and teachers of the classes involved for t h e i r interest i n and help with the program; and Dr. S. S. Lee from the Faculty of Education, U.B.C. who assisted with the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data obtained from the experimental program. I also thank Mrs. Jean Dyson for her expertly typed copy of my thesis and for her desire f o r i t to be perfect. Without the help of these people my thesis could not have been accomplished. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES Chapter I INTRODUCTION II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Early Foundations of N u t r i t i o n Education Development of Teaching Techniques N u t r i t i o n Education Programs N u t r i t i o n Education Since 1950 III METHODS OBJECTIVE ONE Motivation Concept and Generalizations Behavioral Objectives Evaluation: Pre- and Post-Testing Instruction - Course Content Learning Experiences OBJECTIVE TWO S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Discussion of Individual Tests 1. Knowledge Test 2. A p p l i c a t i o n of Knowledge Tests A. Menu Planning Test B. Analysis of D i e t Test 3. Willingness to Respond Tests A. Vegetable A t t i t u d e Test B. Parent Questionnaire C. Free Food Meal Choice Test D. 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l General Discussion V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Recommendations REFERENCES CITED Primary Sources Secondary Sources APPENDIXES A. Lewin's Food A t t i t u d e Test (1943) B. Preliminary Tests C. Pre- and Post-Tests, Teachers Instructions and Scoring Systems D. Lesson Plans E. Student Raw Scores i v 1 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Behavioral Objectives Designed to R e f l e c t I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization I 27 2. Behavioral Objectives Designed to R e f l e c t I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization II 28 3. Behavioral Objectives Designed to R e f l e c t I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization III 29 4. Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization I 31 5. Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization II 32 6. Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization III 34 7. Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization I 36 8. Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization II 37 9. Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization I I I 39 10. Description of the Four Classes Involved i n the N u t r i t i o n Education Program 42 11. Names and Descriptions of the Pre- and Post-Tests 46 12. Groups Compared to Determine the Effectiveness of the N u t r i t i o n Education Program 47 13. Knowledge Test 48 14. Menu-Planning Test 50 15. Analysis of Diet Test 53 v LIST OF TABLES (continued) Table Page 16. Vegetable Attitude Test 55 17. Parent Questionnaire: Attitude of Student at Home 56 18. Free Food Meal Choice Test 58 19. 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l 62 20. Percent Change Observed from Pre-Test to Post-Test 66 v i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Popham's I n s t r u c t i o n a l Model 24 2. An Expansion of Popham's I n s t r u c t i o n a l Model 25 3. Behaviors i n the Cognitive Domain 64 4. Behaviors i n the A f f e c t i v e Domain 65 v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The c a l l for n u t r i t i o n education began at the turn of the twentieth century when poverty and ignorance combined to create a problem of malnutrition i n many parts of Europe and North America (Rosen, 1958). Today malnutrition i s a more complex problem encompas-sing over-nourishment as w e l l as lack of nourishment. Poverty, ignorance, change i n food choices and lack of exercise could be given as reasons f o r present malnutrition. Increased concern about the n u t r i t i o n of the population has given r i s e to renewed demands for n u t r i t i o n education. This i s wit-nessed by many recent developments at the n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s . Concerned n u t r i t i o n i s t s have formed the pr o f e s s i o n a l organization, the Society for N u t r i t i o n Education and the associated Journal of N u t r i t i o n Education. The National Department of Health and Welfare i n Canada, has been recently organized to make pro v i s i o n f o r a N u t r i t i o n Programs D i v i s i o n to develop and coordinate n u t r i t i o n educa-tio n programs. Dr. J . A. Campbell (1972) recently stated that r e s u l t s of the N u t r i t i o n Canada Survey w i l l demonstrate a need f or more know-ledgeable consumers. The B. C. N u t r i t i o n Coordinating Committee has approached the P r o v i n c i a l Government, requesting that n u t r i t i o n educa-tio n be i n s t i g a t e d i n schools. Teachers are asking f o r assistance i n designing n u t r i t i o n programs for t h e i r students. 1 2 Although there i s an expanded i n t e r e s t i n n u t r i t i o n education, as Dr. Campbell (1972) has pointed out, "a b r i e f review of n u t r i t i o n information and n u t r i t i o n education has ind i c a t e d many d e f i c i e n c i e s .... There i s l i t t l e information available on n u t r i t i o n education techniques and no experience with the ones a v a i l a b l e elsewhere". As w i l l be shown i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e , most reports have been outlines of n u t r i t i o n education techniques and programs, but few have given evidence to support the effectiveness of these approaches. Those studies that have been.concerned with program e f f e c t i v e -ness have not been complete i n t h e i r measurement techniques. As d i s -cussed i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e , Lovett (1970) tested the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the C a l i f o r n i a Dairy Council program at the knowledge, a p p l i c a -t i o n and acceptance l e v e l s described by Bloom (1965). Baker (1972) also tested the effectiveness of her program at the knowledge, a p p l i c a t i o n and acceptance l e v e l s . Both authors ignored the p o s s i b i l i t y that the test they used f o r acceptance (dietary r e c a l l or record) r e f l e c t s verbal s k i l l s and the t r a d i t i o n s and at t i t u d e s of the family perhaps more than the c h i l d ' s acceptance of the importance of a well-balanced d i e t . The diet of the primary and elementary school aged c h i l d i s p r i m a r i l y con-t r o l l e d by the mother (Dairy Council of C a l i f o r n i a , 1973) and her choices are r e f l e c t e d i n the dietary r e c a l l . The purpose of the following research project was twofold. The f i r s t objective was to develop an i n t e r e s t i n g n u t r i t i o n education program relevant for a p a r t i c u l a r elementary grade l e v e l . The program was to be developed within a sound educational structure, namely a systematic approach i n v o l v i n g the f i v e dimensions of motivation, concepts and generalizations, behavioral o b j e c t i v e s , learning experiences and evaluation. The second objective of the research p r o j e c t , but an i n t e g r a l part of the n u t r i t i o n education program, was to develop a network of tests to determine the effectiveness of the program. This evaluation was designed to show the l e v e l ( s ) at which learning had occurred: an improvement i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a change i n at t i t u d e towards ce r t a i n foods, a change i n dietary behavior. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE Early Foundations of Nutrit i o n Education Nutrition education had i t s beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The economic and s o c i a l world at this time was i n a period of advancing i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , accompanied by an expansion of urban communities. In the United States, a flood of immigration had caused a severe congestion of l i v i n g areas resulting i n an acute public health problem. The wealth derived from i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was i n the hands of a few f i n a n c i a l leaders with a large part of the national income devoted to c a p i t a l expenditure rather than to s o c i a l reform. Poverty and malnutrition became widespread (Rosen, 1958). During the l a s t part of the nineteenth century a marked decline i n the death rate i n North America and Europe had been accom-plished through public health programs which included improved sanita-tion and pasteurization of milk. Some of those engaged i n health and s o c i a l work were not s a t i s f i e d that maternal and c h i l d welfare had been improved to a desirable l e v e l and there were obvious ways of improvement. For example, knowledge of n u t r i t i o n was not common; food habits were based on t r a d i t i o n (Rosen, 1958). Di s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the general welfare of the population started a broad movement concerned with the problems of s o c i a l welfare. Sociall y minded c i t i z e n s , physicians, clergymen, s o c i a l workers, 4 5 educators and government o f f i c i a l s found common ground for action i n the prevention of tuberculosis, reduction of health hazards i n f a c t o r i e s , reduction of i n f a n t mortality, improvement of the health of school children, and s i m i l a r concerns (Rosen, 1958). Increasing awareness of the conditions of a l l phases of c h i l d l i f e was a prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the movement f o r s o c i a l ameliora-t i o n . This movement was directed toward general hygiene f o r disease prevention, dietary improvement and antipartum care (Rosen, 1958). The reasons for the above movement are c l e a r . Soon a f t e r 1870, a decrease i n the number of b i r t h s was apparent i n many countries. Then i t became evident that many young men examined f o r m i l i t a r y service were found to be p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t . Findings of this sort aroused concern i n England at the time of the Boer War and i n the United States at the time of World War I. C l e a r l y , here was a n a t i o n a l resource that was being wasted. Whatever i t s motivation, a community that placed a high value on c h i l d l i f e could not overlook the problem of improving the health of the school c h i l d . School medical inspection i n the United States began spo r a d i c a l l y i n the 1870's, but not u n t i l 1894 was organized medical inspection of schools f i n a l l y e s tablished. This was a crude method of screening out the worst cases of i n f e c t i o u s diseases. I t was soon r e a l i z e d that a more concerted e f f o r t was needed to educate the parent and c h i l d about health care and n u t r i t i o n . Dr. W.R.P. Emerson has been credited with conducting the f i r s t n u t r i t i o n class i n the United States i n 1908 (Roberts, 1944). As a physician at the Boston Dispensary, he became aware of the great need 6 h i s u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d p a t i e n t s h a d f o r i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e o f n u t r i t i o n . He e n c o u r a g e d t h e c h i l d r e n a s s o c i a t e d ' w i t h t h e d i s p e n s a r y t o come i n g r o u p s f o r w e e k l y i n s t r u c t i o n i n f o o d s e l e c t i o n a n d i n g e n e r a l g o o d h e a l t h h a b i t s . T h e p r o g r a m w a s d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r g r o w t h p r o f i l e t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i o n i n w e i g h t g a i n . T h e c h i l d r e n d i d make r e m a r k a b l e g a i n s i n t h e i r h e a l t h s t a t u s . W h i t e h e a d ( 1 9 5 7 a ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e p r o g r a m ' s s u c c e s s , w h i c h c r e a t e d m u c h i n t e r e s t , may b e r e g a r d e d a s a " p r o v o c a t i v e f o r c e " w h i c h c a u s e d e d u c a t o r s t o e x a m i n e h e a l t h e d u c a -t i o n p r o g r a m s i n t e r m s o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n . E m e r s o n ' s c l i n i c a p p r o a c h t o w a r d n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n s e r v e d a s a b a s i s f o r e a r l y w o r k i n t h e s c h o o l s ( M a r t i n , 1 9 5 4 ) . S t u d e n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g s c h o o l s w o u l d v i s i t a l o c a l h e a l t h u n i t w h e r e d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t n u t r i t i o n w e r e l e d b y t h e p h y s i c i a n . A g a i n , t h e m a i n t e c h n i q u e w a s t o e n c o u r a g e c o m p e t i t i o n i n w e i g h t g a i n b u t s i n c e t h e c l a s s e s w e r e l a r g e r , r e p r e s e n t i n g a w i d e r r a n g e o f h e a l t h s t a t u s t h a n t h o s e o f E m e r s o n ' s , t h i s t e c h n i q u e m e t w i t h m o r e l i m i t e d s u c c e s s . T h e w o r k o f H u n t e t a l . ( 1 9 2 1 ) i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n i n a New Y o r k P u b l i c s c h o o l i n 1 9 1 8 r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t c o m p e t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i n w e i g h t g a i n s , t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n a t home w a s e s s e n t i a l , t h a t n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n n e e d e d t o b e i n a r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m a n d t h a t a n u t r i t i o n w o r k e r r a t h e r t h a n a p h y s i c i a n s h o u l d l e a d t h e c l a s s d i s c u s -s i o n s . When t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e p u t i n t o e f f e c t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e a u t h o r f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s a p l a c e f o r n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d l e s s o f p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , i n t h e s c h o o l . H u n t a l s o r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s i n n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n b e b r o a d e n e d f r o m t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a l o r i e i n t a k e t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b a l a n c e d d i e t s a n d 7 adequate vitamin intake. Hunt's l a s t recommendation r e f l e c t s the advances i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge that had occurred since Emerson's f i r s t attempt at n u t r i t i o n education i n 1908. Justus von L i e b i g (1803 - 1873) c l a s s i f i e d the nourishment of animals and men i n t o three fundamental categories: prote i n , carbohydrate and f a t . U n t i l as l a t e as 1912, attention concen-trated on the f u e l values of foods and l a c k i n g knowledge of the roles of vitamins and minerals i n n u t r i t i o n , early workers often condemned foods that are today considered n u t r i t i o u s . Green vegetables, tomatoes and oranges were considered to be a t t r a c t i v e additions to a meal but not sources of n u t r i e n t s . F i n a l l y i n 1912, Hopkins demonstrated i n a ser i e s of convincing experiments that an animal d i e t must contain minute amounts of c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l substances other than p r o t e i n , f a t and carbohydrate i f the organism was to remain i n good health. The discovery of several i n d i v i -dual vitamins occurred shortly thereafter. Thus the n u t r i t i o n educators were to change t h e i r stress from adequate c a l o r i e intake to choice of well-balanced d i e t s (Rosen, 1958). Correspondingly, the measure of n u t r i t i o n education success was to change from weight gain to improved dietary h a b i t s . The l a t t e r change was to occur slowly since i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to measure change i n habits than to measure change i n weight. Through the dedicated work of Mary Harper, Dr. Lydia Roberts and Mary Rose, the recognition of the place of n u t r i t i o n education i n schools became a r e a l i t y and Hunt's recommendations were implemented throughout the United States. Working together and independently, from the 1920's onward, these pioneers sought the improvement of the 8 n u t r i t i o n a l status of a l l children through education. They f e l t that the school was the place f o r n u t r i t i o n education and based t h e i r feelings on the rati o n a l e that almost every c h i l d can be reached i n schools, not j u s t those i n need of medical care. They developed n u t r i t i o n c u r r i c u l a using the classroom teacher as the i n s t r u c t o r , since the teacher, not the n u t r i t i o n i s t i s s k i l l e d i n pedagogy and since the teacher has greater knowledge of her students. The spectacular weight gains of c h i l d r e n i n these n u t r i t i o n classes indicated to these n u t r i t i o n i s t s the success of, and the need f o r , such an approach (Roberts, 1944; Martin, 1954; Whitehead, 1957a). There were other developments which also focused on the school as an important place for learning about n u t r i t i o n . In the 1920's the U. S. O f f i c e of Education, i n cooperation with the C h i l d Health Organization, sponsored a nation-wide campaign to promote, through school lunch programs and health education v i s u a l aids, the improved weight gain of children (Brown, 1929; Roberts, 1944). Brown concluded from her studies conducted i n North Dakota that i n s t r u c t i o n designed to improve food habits i s most e f f e c t i v e when given during the c h i l d ' s early years. Thus, i t i s important to teach the c h i l d about n u t r i t i o n at t h i s time. Eichelberger's (1927) data showed that n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c -t i o n resulted i n a marked reduction of the number of underweight children among those who were exposed to n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n f o r one year. A f t e r a three year program of i n s t r u c t i o n there were even fewer under-weight c h i l d r e n . The school provides an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r such con-tinuous education. At v i r t u a l l y the same time that those i n the medical f i e l d 9 were developing t h e i r approaches to n u t r i t i o n education, those i n the teaching profession were evolving quite a d i f f e r e n t concept. The former advocated the creation of another subject, a separate curriculum for n u t r i t i o n with s p e c i a l equipment and advisory personnel, with accelerated weight gain as a c r i t e r i o n of success. In contrast, accounts written by educators indicated that there were opportunities for n u t r i t i o n education within current school programs. Educators were advocating the c o r r e l a -tion of a l l subjects, including n u t r i t i o n , into an integrated program. The c r i t e r i o n of success was not to be weight gain because this singled out the underweight c h i l d as being d i f f e r e n t . Success would be i d e n t i -f i e d i n terms of increased i n t e r e s t i n food and w i l l i n g n e s s to eat a balanced d i e t , but s p e c i f i c tools of measurement were not i d e n t i f i e d . Leggett (1914) reported the introduction of Home Economics i n an ungraded school where the students preparation of hot food f o r t h e i r lunches was correlated with the study of food p r i n c i p l e s during arithmetic, s p e l l i n g and science. Langworthy (1913) offered i n s i g h t as to how school lunch programs should act as a laboratory for the study of n u t r i t i o n , food costs and the r e l a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n to working e f f i c i e n c y . Both the correlated subject matter approach of the physicians and n u t r i t i o n i s t s during the f i r s t three decades of t h i s century formed the foundations of the modern concepts of n u t r i t i o n education. M o d i f i -cations of these two approaches have been gradually inter-woven. The r e s u l t are today's n u t r i t i o n education programs based on the needs, i n t e r e s t s and age l e v e l s of a l l c h i l d r e n , integrated into a l l aspects of school l i f e . Accelerated weight gain has become a minor parameter i n determining success of n u t r i t i o n education. Far more important 10 than weight gain are improved attitudes toward food and improved n u t r i -t i o n a l h abits. Development of Teaching Techniques Both of the above basic approaches were designed to give out n u t r i t i o n information, i n keeping with the educational theory of the times that d r i l l and r e p e t i t i o n were the most useful devices for i n s t r u c -tion (Beck, 1965). It i s now established that mere dissemination of information to students does not n e c e s s a r i l y lead to improved dietary patterns, even though r e s u l t s of tests may i n d i c a t e improved n u t r i t i o n knowledge. Evidence from studies support t h i s conclusion (Botto, 1932; Segner, 1932; Beeuwkes, 1959; Poolton, 1972). Results of a study by Botto (1932) showed that high school home economics students had s i m i l a r dietary patterns to non-home economics p u p i l s . Segner (1932) demon-strated that pupils who showed improvement on n u t r i t i o n knowledge tests f a i l e d to show improvement i n s e l e c t i o n of foods. This same conclusion has been voiced more recently by Beeuwkes (1959) and Poolton (19 72). Since the prime objective of any n u t r i t i o n education program should be to improve food h a b i t s , such a program can only be determined e f f e c t i v e when that objective i s reached. Thus the f i r s t modification of both i n i t i a l approaches was to develop teaching methods and tools designed to improve dietary habits rather than to promote only improved n u t r i t i o n knowledge. One of the f i r s t studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of designing teaching methods to promote a change i n food habits as recorded i n dietary r e c a l l s was conducted by Hatcher (1940). She demonstrated that when students were encouraged to evaluate t h e i r own 11 d i e t s , decide on necessary changes and check t h e i r own progress, there were f a r better improvements than when teachers used the t r a d i t i o n a l lecture method. A seri e s of studies by Lewin (1943) also showed that student decision, rather than teacher admonition, changed food habits more e f f e c t i v e l y . Lewin's studies made use of the food a t t i t u d e s , habits, l i k e s and d i s l i k e s questionnaire shown i n Appendix A. There are many accounts i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the f o r t i e s describing i n t e r e s t i n g teaching techniques designed to influence dietary patterns. Unfortunately, most of these reports f a i l to include measure-ments of success. W h i t t i n g h i l l (1943) describes a course of study for the f i r s t grade where d i f f e r e n t health p r i n c i p l e s (which included a n u t r i t i o n topic) were emphasized each month i n a l l aspects of school l i f e . Martin and Reynolds (1943) reported how f i r s t graders prepared vegetable soup and how t h i s was incorporated into the rest of the curriculum. McLeod (1943) , when working with food choices of children i n grades one through three, showed that foods were r e a d i l y accepted when the i n i t i a l experience was pleasant and when parents reinforced t h i s pleasant experience at home. The above work of Hatcher, Lewin and McLeod and that of others (Thomas, 1943; Benson, 1944; E l l i o t t et a l . , 1944; C l i n e , 1947; T i n s l e y , 1947; Radke and Caso, 1948; Moore, 1951) during the f o r t i e s demonstrated that a n u t r i t i o n education experience could change student food habits at a l l grade l e v e l s , i f the experience involved student evaluation of h i s own d i e t and student discovery about the changes that were needed. Most of the authors observed that students were keenly 12 motivated to change the i r dietary patterns when they were learning i n a r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n , not j u s t analyzing t h e i r own d i e t s , but a c t u a l l y pre-paring meals. This observation p a r a l l e l l e d the f u n c t i o n a l i s t theory of education which proposed that i f the needs or m o t i v e s o f the student could be tapped and used i n teaching, learning would take place (Beck, 1965). The work of Sperry (1944) i n Washington demonstrated the need for the next step which was to follow i n the h i s t o r y of n u t r i t i o n educa-t i o n . Following the educator's approach, he integrated n u t r i t i o n with other subjects at the grade three l e v e l . However, there was no evidence that i n t e g r a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n into the curriculum assured improvement i n food habits. Sperry observed that few teachers receive t r a i n i n g i n n u t r i t i o n . Therefore they see few p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r teaching n u t r i t i o n except i n a very t r a d i t i o n a l manner and so the valuable r e a l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s were not being used. He concluded that there was need for n u t r i t i o n i s t s to act as resource personnel with v i s u a l aids and back-ground information to help teachers b u i l d appropriate n u t r i t i o n programs for t h e i r classes. The merging of the two i n i t i a l approaches would thus be complete. N u t r i t i o n programs taught by classroom teachers would be integrated into the e x i s t i n g school curriculum and would not be a separate subject. However, the n u t r i t i o n i s t s would be a v a i l a b l e to act as resource personnel, for b a s i c n u t r i t i o n information, ideas for teach-ing methods and sources of v i s u a l aids. N u t r i t i o n Education Programs The r e s u l t s of several studies have given d i r e c t i o n to the n u t r i t i o n i s t s ' new r o l e of consultant. Bosley (1947) emphasized that the n u t r i t i o n i s t should help the teacher survey the e x i s t i n g dietary habits to e s t a b l i s h what kind of information i s la c k i n g . The n u t r i t i o n -i s t should give the classroom teacher a t r a i n i n g i n n u t r i t i o n and develop or use a twelve year graded plan of n u t r i t i o n education into which each teacher may f i t . The guide should encompass the following fundamental p r i n c i p l e s : (a) children learn by doing. (b) learning takes place through a r e p e t i t i o n of experiences and requires time. (c) learning takes place most r e a d i l y when information i s adapted to the i n t e r e s t l e v e l and a b i l i t y of the learner. (d) learning i s a cumulative process and elementary experiences provide the foundations f o r a true understanding of more complicated f a c t s . (e) tools appropriate to the subject being taught are e s s e n t i a l to r e a l learning. The work of Neel (1946) was designed to discover i f elementary school children could assimilate technical n u t r i t i o n a l subject matter. From t h i s work i t was concluded that elementary grade ch i l d r e n could acquire rather advanced information about n u t r i t i o n and that they evidenced some a b i l i t y to apply the information to t h e i r own eating habits. Seven to nine year o l d children were capable of learning to d i s t i n g u i s h between f r u i t s and vegetables, and how to cook them. Children i n t h i s age group were able to learn from rat demonstrations, the importance of a balanced d i e t . They were also able to learn from experi-ence which foods contain f a t , sugar, starch and prot e i n . Ten to eleven year olds were interes t e d i n s c i e n t i f i c facts and r e a d i l y learn about digestion, t e s t i n g foods f o r pr o t e i n , carbohydrate and f a t content, 14 how much food they need each day and how to plan and prepare a w e l l balanced meal. One of the f i r s t major programs where a n u t r i t i o n i s t provided background t r a i n i n g and v i s u a l aids to teachers, and where Bosley's basic recommendations were followed, was developed by Whitehead (1947, 1952) i n the p u b l i c schools i n Ascension Parish, Louisianna. During the period 1944 - 1948, the teachers and the n u t r i t i o n i s t made annual appraisals of student food h a b i t s . Seven day dietary records were kept by the p u p i l s . Two analyses were applied to the data. In one, the food habits were rated according to the number of points achieved. Each day's record was scored by giving one point f o r each serving of eggs, whole grain cereals, meat, raw vegetables, cooked vegetables, f r u i t , milk, butter and/or margarine. The other analysis was made to determine the frequency of intake of the above protective food groups. The teachers then developed teaching units based on the s p e c i f i c needs of the students to coincide with t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and age l e v e l s . Teachers and p u p i l s studied t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l problems i n informal classroom discussions. They also sat together i n the lunchroom. Students p a r t i -cipated i n many n u t r i t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s and teachers often d i s -cussed breakfast and supper menus with parents. The program was very e f f e c t i v e , inasmuch as i t caused a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n food habits of school age chil d r e n as judged by changes i n the above annual appraisals. The program was also e f f e c t i v e i n that i t continued to operate at the conclusion of the o f f i c i a l study i n 1948. A further survey i n 1951 demonstrated that teachers and the community were able to continue s u c c e s s f u l l y without the resources of the in v e s t i g a t o r . 15 Similar r e s u l t s were reported with adolescents i n Kansas C i t y , Missouri (Whitehead, 1960) and with residents of Cape Sable Island (Archibald, 1953). N u t r i t i o n Education Since 1950 In the 1920's Roberts recognized the value of n u t r i t i o n educa-t i o n programs i n schools because a l l children could be reached and teachers could give the n u t r i t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . In 1954, Martin was s t i l l t r y i n g to persuade educators of the importance of n u t r i t i o n i n schools. He wrote, "... n u t r i t i o n education of c h i l d r e n belongs to the school because the school i s responsible f o r f i t t i n g the c h i l d f o r society and helping him be responsible f o r himself and h i s health; the c h i l d has a r i g h t to know what to eat and why and how i t a f f e c t s h i s h e a l t h " (Martin, 1954, p. 34-7) • N u t r i t i o n education f o r c h i l d r e n had been a l i v e f o r h a l f a century and yet generally the concept was not applied i n schools. Since 1950 various factors have added impetus to the drive for n u t r i t i o n education.programs i n schools. N u t r i t i o n Education Conferences have been held every f i v e years since 1957 and have served to unite the e f f o r t s of n u t r i t i o n educators (Proceedings, 1957, 1962, 1967, 1972). The growing evidence that n u t r i t i o n plays a v i t a l r ole i n the development of the b r a i n and the a b i l i t y to learn has caused educa-tors to look with increased i n t e r e s t at n u t r i t i o n education programs (Leverton, 1969; Selph, 1972). The Ten State N u t r i t i o n Survey conducted i n the United States i n 1968 - 1969 (Schaefer, 1969), showed that under-n u t r i t i o n i s a problem i n the United States, thus r e i n f o r c i n g this i n t e r e s t i n n u t r i t i o n education. Also, the subsequent White House Conference (1970) on Food, N u t r i t i o n and Health which recommended the immediate organization of graded n u t r i t i o n education curriculum i n the schools, has strengthened the demand for n u t r i t i o n education i n the schools. Perhaps more important than conferences and surveys, i s the growing recognition by the p u b l i c that there are many forces, besides family eating habits, which are constantly i n f l u e n c i n g the food choices of c h i l d r e n . At the 1962 N u t r i t i o n Education Conference, Margaret L a n t i s , an anthropologist, discussed some of the c u l t u r a l factors which influence children's food habits, emphasizing the r o l e that s e l f service (vending machines, c a f e t e r i a s and candy counters) has played i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a snaeking population. She concedes that n u t r i t i o n educa-tors have a s l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of promoting control of so'ft drink, baking, confectionary and advertising i n d u s t r i e s . She concludes that the c h i l d and the family must be educated to become wise consumers (Lantis, 1962). Advertisements i n the media are designed to exert an influence on children's food choices. Gussow (1972) reports that children are bombarded with cou n t e r - n u t r i t i o n a l messages during children's programs on t e l e v i s i o n . For the week monitored, out of 388 network commercials run during 29 hours of children's t e l e v i s i o n , 82 percent were f o r i n d i g e s t i b l e items. Analysis of these food commercials showed the f o l -lowing d i s t r i b u t i o n : Breakfast cereals 38^% Cookies, candies, gum, other snacks 17 % Vitamins 15 % Canned desserts, frozen dinners, d r i v e - i n s , peanut butter, oranges 9 % Beverages and beverage mixes 8 % Frozen waffles and pop t a r t s 7h% Canned pasta 5 % These advertisements not only attempt to s e l l n u t r i t i o n a l l y u n s a t i s f a c -tory foods, but also 15% promote vitamins - "to keep you growing r i g h t even i f you don't eat r i g h t " (Gussow, 1972, p. 50). One of the messages delivered by children's t e l e v i s i o n com-mercials has to do with what i s not advertised. The four food groups are very poorly represented. There are no milk products (though there are flavours to make milk taste good), no eggs, no meat, no vegetables and j u s t a s i n g l e f r u i t . There i s a n u t r i t i o n a l message here - a negative one. I t t e l l s children that these are food not to be excited about. As T y l e r (1962) points out, the advertisements i n the mass media must be e f f e c t i v e . The products are sold i n quantities to s a t i s f y the sponsor, the a d v e r t i s i n g agency and the broadcaster. Contracts are renewed and new products are launched with an emphasis on broadcast adve r t i s i n g . Tyler f e e l s i t i s safe to conclude that advertisements do influence the eating habits of the young through the promotion of s p e c i f i c products. Children do have some cont r o l over what they eat. In a study by Ward (1971), i t was found that mothers of ch i l d r e n f i v e to seven years old were usually w i l l i n g to y i e l d to children's wishes: 88% on breakfast cereals, 52% on snack foods, 40% on candy, 38% on s o f t drinks. By the time the children were eight to ten, 91% of the mothers were y i e l d i n g to t h e i r children's influence on which cereal to purchase. Children also control t h e i r food consumption by t h e i r own food purchases with spending money and by the amount of waste they leave on t h e i r plates (Gussow, 1972) . I t i s important that c h i l d r e n choose t h e i r foods wisely f o r optimum growth. It has been shown i n North America that food preferences i n childhood p a r a l l e l those i n adulthood. During childhood, vegetables are the most frequently d i s l i k e d while milk and cake are the l e a s t frequently d i s l i k e d (Breckenridge, 1959; H a r r i l l et a l . , 1972). The same i s true for adults (Pilgrim, 1961) . Since one of the major i n f l u -ences on preference i s f a m i l i a r i t y (Alford and Tibbets, 1971; Ireton and Guthrie, 1972), i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that c h i l d r e n who do not l i k e and do not taste vegetables, become adults who do not choose them. It seems important for optimum n u t r i t i o n that c h i l d r e n l e a r n to l i k e many foods. Since recognition of the need for n u t r i t i o n education i n schools has broadened beyond n u t r i t i o n i s t s and p u b l i c health o f f i c i a l s to teachers and some of the p u b l i c , there has been greater stimulus for the development of n u t r i t i o n education programs. Examples are those reported by Sinacore and Harrison, 1970; Whipple et a l . , 1970; Von Housen, 1971; and Selph, 1972. Their programs were developed with the major goal being attainment of good dietary habits. Their programs are complex, i n v o l v i n g l i m i t e d behavioral objectives, to be attained over short periods of time, which are i n tune with the i n t e r e s t s and courses of study of each l e v e l from kindergarten to grade twelve. The programs are not prescribed courses f o r teachers to follow but are help-f u l guides which l i s t several learning experiences s u i t a b l e f o r various s i t u a t i o n s which would help the students a t t a i n the suggested behavioral objective. Some of the programs also include performance tests f o r teachers and students to rate r e s u l t s . Concepts to be learned that are common to most programs are: 1. N u t r i t i o n i s the use of food by the body. 2. Adequate n u t r i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l for ph y s i c a l health and for the r e a l i z a t i o n of growth p o t e n t i a l . 3. The body needs nutrients rather than s p e c i f i c foods; there are many combinations of foods which can provide an adequate d i e t . 4. Many factors determine what food people eat. 5 . Food i s the most sensible source of n u t r i e n t s . At the primary l e v e l (K - 3), the learning experiences work toward helping the c h i l d develop p o s i t i v e attitudes toward food and eating, accept a v a r i e t y of foods, recognize differences i n how and what people eat, and begin to understand the re l a t i o n s h i p of food to health and growth. At the intermediate l e v e l s (4 - 6), the curriculum i s geared toward helping the student understand i n some d e t a i l the rel a t i o n s h i p s among food, health and growth; understand how to s e l e c t food to meet n u t r i t i o n a l needs; develop an appreciation of food as part of man's phy s i c a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment. 20 At the j u n i o r high school l e v e l (7 - 9), the learning experiences work toward helping the student apply knowledge of n u t r i t i o n to everyday s i t u a t i o n s ; r e a l i z e that i n d i v i d u a l differences e x i s t i n requirements and use of food, appreciate the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l and environmental factors on n u t r i t i o n a l health; and r e a l i s t i c a l l y evaluate h i s own n u t r i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . The senior high school curriculum seeks to r e l a t e the student's understanding of n u t r i t i o n to broad s o c i a l concerns and to encourage him to understand that h i s eating habits a f f e c t h i s own long-range health and the health of the next generation; to explore the problems of malnutrition and hunger i n h i s own country and the world; and to become aware of unanswered questions i n the f i e l d of n u t r i t i o n . Weight control may be used as an example of how one topic may be found at a l l grade l e v e l s , but the learning experiences are s p i r a l l e d according to a b i l i t i e s and needs at each l e v e l to provide a deepened understanding. At the primary l e v e l , c h i l d r e n learn that i t i s normal for people to be d i f f e r e n t from one another - i n s i z e and other charac-t e r i s t i c s . Elementary pupil s l e a r n the e f f e c t s of too much and too l i t t l e food f o r the needs of the body. They observe i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a -tions i n the need f o r c a l o r i e s , and note the phasic nature of growth and development which r e s u l t s i n temporary chubby and lean stages for many youngsters. In the j u n i o r high school curriculum guide there may be an extensive section on weight c o n t r o l , with information on what factors a f f e c t body weight, how to determine whether one has a weight problem, and how to go about s e t t i n g a sensible course of action to cope with a weight control problem. In senior high school, students 21 can study obesity as a health problem of the society; learn about current research i n the area of obesity and study society's a t t i t u d e s toward the obese i n d i v i d u a l (Sinacore and Harrison, 1970). The development of such a l l - i n c l u s i v e programs i s quite a recent event, and the c o l l e c t i o n and evaluation of data on the r e s u l t s of such programs w i l l be a complex process. Very few such data have been reported as yet. There are a l i m i t e d number of studies, e s p e c i a l l y at the elementary l e v e l , which have been undertaken to determine the e f f e c -tiveness of n u t r i t i o n education programs. They f a l l i nto two categories: those designed to study a t t i t u d e s toward s p e c i f i c foods and those designed to test both n u t r i t i o n knowledge and dietary h a b i t s . The standard procedure for the former type of study i s to e i t h e r observe food preferences and plate waste i n c a f e t e r i a s or to give written food preference t e s t s . The subjects are involved i n food preparation and t a s t i n g p a r t i e s , where the l e a s t l i k e d foods are pre-pared i n a v a r i e t y of ways. The subjects are then re-tested. Results of such studies i n d i c a t e that increased f a m i l i a r i t y improves attitudes toward the l e a s t l i k e d foods. This i s true with pre-school c h i l d r e n (Glaser, 1964; H a r r i l l et a l . , 1972; Ireton and Guthrie, 1972), elementary school c h i l d r e n (Carver and Patton, 1958; Hunt et a l . , 1958; Patton et a l . , 1958; Breckenridge, 1959; A l f o r d et a l . , 1971; Baker, 1972), high school students (Botto, 1932; Kunkel and H a l l , 1958) and adults (Pilgrim, 1961)., Only two studies have been reported that were designed to test both knowledge and habits. The Dairy Council of C a l i f o r n i a has adopted a n u t r i t i o n education program where teachers are trained, i n n u t r i t i o n education workshops, f o r knowledge and teaching techniques. Lovett evaluated the effectiveness of t h i s program at the second grade l e v e l , i n v o l v i n g 1,720 students (Lovett et a l . , 1970). Three groups of students were established: an experimental group whose teachers attended the workshops, were trained and equipped with materials; a semi-control group whose teachers were equipped with the same materials and were given the general objectives but no t r a i n i n g ; and a control group whose teachers were only supplied with the same general ob j e c t i v e s . The three groups were pre-tested and post-tested for knowledge ( a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y the four food groups), a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge ( a b i l i t y to make a balanced meal s e l e c t i o n ) , and a p p l i c a t i o n to c h i l d ' s own l i f e , (breakfast r e c a l l ) . There was marked improvement i n the three tests f o r the experimental group with a smaller improvement noted i n the other two groups. Baker (1972) c o l l e c t e d dietary r e c a l l s and dietary records, scores on a n u t r i t i o n knowledge test, ratings of vegetable preferences and scores of s c h o l a s t i c achievements from 200 c h i l d r e n . Changes i n these variables i n the experimental groups were compared with changes i n the control groups to determine the influence of the program. The n u t r i t i o n unit was comprised of many student a c t i v i t i e s designed to help the children meet four behavioral objectives. The a c t i v i t i e s included an animal feeding demonstration, various p h y s i c a l and chemical food t e s t s , and class t a s t i n g p a r t i e s . The program con-tinued for thirte e n lessons, each t h i r t y minutes i n length, plus two follow-up lessons. Scores on the n u t r i t i o n tests were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p - 0.01) f o r experimental classes than for control classes, when r e t e s t i n g was done within a week a f t e r completion of i n s t r u c t i o n . No s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n d i e t due to the program were observed. Although the reports by Lovett (1970) and by Baker (1972) tested f o r change i n dietary behavior, they ignored the f a c t that a dietary r e c a l l does not n e c e s s a r i l y demonstrate behavior change. Dietary r e c a l l also r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n s and attitudes of the family. A more su i t a b l e t e s t f o r change i n dietary behavior would be to observe changes i n s e l e c t i o n of food when the children i n the sample are given a wide choice of food and where parental control i s absent. Thus the only two studies which have reported the effectiveness of n u t r i t i o n education programs i n terms of knowledge and behavior are incomplete i n t h e i r evaluation. CHAPTER III METHODS OBJECTIVE ONE Objective One: To develop an i n t e r e s t i n g n u t r i t i o n education program relevant to t h i r d and fourth grade c h i l d r e n . The t h i r d and fourth grade l e v e l was chosen because several authors (Rose, 1932; Martin, 1963; Sinacore and Harrison, 19 70) have found that t h i s i s the f i r s t l e v e l at which some c l e a r l y formulated n u t r i t i o n p r i n c i p l e s may be most p r o f i t a b l y developed. The n u t r i t i o n program was developed b a s i c a l l y following the i n s t r u c t i o n a l paradigm developed by Popham and Baker (1970c) shown i n Figure 1 where evaluation i s an i n t e g r a l part of the planning process. Figure 1 Popham's In s t r u c t i o n a l Model Behavioral Objectives Pre-Test Instruction Post-Test Since i t was thought that the above model was too simple to be complete, an expanded paradigm (Figure 2) was designed following suggestions by Hunter (1971 - 73) and by Vaines (1972). 24 Figure 2 An Expansion of Popham's I n s t r u c t i o n a l Model 25 Motivation Concept and Generalizations Post-Test Behavioral Objectives i Instruction Pre-Test Each of the steps i n formulating the program as shown i n Figure 2 w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l . Motivation A strong factor i n the success of a l e a r n i n g experience i s the degree to which the p u p i l i s motivated to l e a r n . Interests, needs Martin (1963) describes the general i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n at Children i n the intermediate grades are increasingly interested i n people and things outside t h e i r immediate environment. They have a desire to discover things f o r themselves. They want to know why things happen. This s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e can be u t i l i z e d as a motiva-t i o n technique. Finding out how people l i v e , how animals eat and grow, how they feed themselves, can develop and become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , are t y p i c a l i n t e r -ests of t h i s age. Children f e e l the need to prove to themselves that food of s u i t a b l e kind and amount i s a prime f a c t o r i n n u t r i t i o n and health (p. 23). The above d e s c r i p t i o n served as a guidepost for developing and problems can a l l serve as motives. the intermediate grade l e v e l as follows: the motive to learn during the teaching period. Interests, needs and problems s p e c i f i c to the c h i l d r e n i n the population sample were recog-nized throughout the program and these elements were u t i l i z e d as motives. Concept and Generalizations The general concept of the program was to cause an improvement i n a c h i l d ' s d i e t i f i t was low i n c e r t a i n nutrients as assessed by Canada's Food Guide. It was determined that before a c h i l d would be w i l l i n g to a l t e r h i s food h a b i t s , he must be able to accept the follow-ing generalizations. Generalization I To maintain optimum health one must eat a balanced d i e t as w e l l as get enough exercise and sleep. Generalization II The body uses food for growth, for r e p a i r , for energy and for regulation. Generalization III A balanced d a i l y d i e t must include a wide var i e t y of foods selected from each of the four food groups. Behavioral Objectives S p e c i f i c behavioral objectives were designated to i d e n t i f y acceptable terminal behavior, which would demonstrate that the student had comprehended the above generalizations. These objectives were arranged i n h i e r a r c h i e s , according to complexity. For each behavior, a l e v e l of competence and/or i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n from taxonomies of educa-t i o n a l objectives (Bloom, 1965; Krathwohl et a l . , 1964) were i d e n t i f i e d to test whether the objectives were arranged within true h i e r a r c h i e s . Tables 1, 2 and 3 l i s t the generalizations with the r e l a t e d behavioral o b j e c t i v e s . Table 1 Behavioral Objectives Designed to Re f l e c t I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization I Generalization I To maintain good health one must eat a balanced d i e t as w e l l as get enough sleep and exercise. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l demonstrate by recognition i n w r i t i n g , h i s understand-ing of good health by (comprehension)*: A. s e l e c t i n g from a l i s t of phrases a d e f i n i t i o n of good health that means optimum well being (knowledge). B. w r i t i n g i n h i s own words at l e a s t three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good health (knowledge). C. choosing from a l i s t the four ingredients necessary for good health: adequate n u t r i t i o n , sleep, exercise and clothing (comprehension). D. drawing corr e c t conclusions, i n w r i t i n g , about the health of two animals, given d e t a i l s about the diets (comprehension). * Words i n parentheses are l e v e l s of competency from Bloom (1965). N> Table 2 Behavioral Objectives Designed to Reflect I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization II Generalization II The body uses food f o r growth, for energy, for repair and for regulation. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l demonstrate h i s understanding of the functions of food by (comprehension)*: A. l i s t i n g i n w r i t i n g the four functions of food i n the body (comprehen-sion) . B. matching the word 'digestion' with a simple de s c r i p t i o n meaning the breakdown of food (comprehension). C. matching the word 'absorption' with a simple description meaning the passing of food from the i n t e s t i n e into the blood (comprehension). D. matching the word 'transport' with a simple d e s c r i p t i o n meaning carry-ing of food to d i f f e r e n t parts of the body (comprehension). E. i d e n t i f y i n g to which group a food belongs by i t s nutrient content (comprehension). * Words i n parentheses are l e v e l s of competency from Bloom (1965). Ni 00 Table 3 Behavioral Objectives Designed to Ref l e c t I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of Generalization III Generalization III A balanced d a i l y diet must include a wide var i e t y of foods selected from each of the four.food groups. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l demonstrate h i s knowledge of Canada's food guide by (ap p l i c a t i o n and responding)*: A. matching the number of servings required by a c h i l d of the same age with the appropriate food group (knowledge). B. planning from a wide variety of food pictures a balanced s e l e c t i o n of foods for one day for a c h i l d of the same age (applic a t i o n ) . C. choosing a balanced meal from a wide variety of foods offered i n pictures ( a p p l i c a t i o n and willingness to respond). D. showing an improvement from pre-test to post-test i n h i s own 24-hour dietary r e c a l l (application and willingness to respond). E. showing an improved attitude toward vegetables as shown by h i s score on a hedonic scale vegetable test (willingness to respond). F. showing an improved attitude toward food at home as r e f l e c t e d by parental contact through a questionnaire or by telephone (application and w i l l i n g -ness to respond). * Words i n parentheses are l e v e l s of competency from Krathwohl (1964)and Bloom (1965). 30 Evaluation: Pre- and Post-Testing An important phase of an education program i s the evaluation of the student's learning. In the program which was developed i n the present study, the t e s t i n g techniques were a natural outcome of the behavioral objectives from the knowledge competence l e v e l to the comprehension l e v e l . The knowledge test followed a s i m i l a r format to that of Lovett (1970) and Baker,! (1972) . A multiple choice menu planning test was developed to test a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge. This test was a modification of Lovett (1970). A vegetable preference test was used to test w i l l i n g -ness to respond (Baker, 1972; Breckenridge, 1959; Ireton, 1972). To test a p p l i c a t i o n and willingness to respond, two tests were used : a 24-hour dietary r e c a l l (Martin, 1963) and free choice balanced meal s e l e c t i o n . A t h i r d test of a p p l i c a t i o n and wi l l i n g n e s s to respond which was included was a parent questionnaire to determine i f the students had r e f l e c t e d any change i n a t t i t u d e or behavior toward food at home. Samples of a l l the tests are included i n Appendix C. The scor-ing system accompanies each of the tests i n Appendix C. As shown i n the scoring systems for the Balanced D i e t , Free Food Meal Choice and 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l t e s t s , the term "extra foods" was used to describe foods which supplied very few nutrients but many c a l o r i e s . Examples which were included i n t h i s category are soda pop, potato chips and candy. Cake and cookies were scored as one-half extra foods and one-half c e r e a l . Instruction - Course Content Based on the behavioral objectives, the facts i n Tables 4 - 6 were included i n the program. The l e t t e r s of the facts correspond to the appropriate behavioral objective. Table 4 Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization I Related Behavioral Facts Included i n the Course. Objective(s) You are healthy when you are at your best i n body, mind and r e l a t i o n s with others. Health includes having good posture, b r i g h t eyes, sound teeth, shining h a i r and clear skin. Health includes having an a l e r t mind. Health includes getting along well with others. Everyone i s responsible f o r h i s own health. We can a l l try to c o n t r o l our own d i e t , amount of exercise, amount of sleep and wear adequate cl o t h i n g for the environment. N u t r i t i o n i s the food you eat and how your body uses i t . By eating properly (as science has shown i s the best way), you can r e a l i z e your optimum health. Table 5 Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization II Related Behavioral Facts Included i n the Course. Objective(s) A The body needs b u i l d i n g blocks to grow, to repair damaged tissue, and to give you energy. The body also needs b u i l d i n g blocks to help balance i t s work. Food supplies these necessary b u i l d i n g blocks. They are c a l l e d n u t r i e n t s . When your body grows or repairs i t s e l f , i t needs protein. Muscle, skin, h a i r and bone a l l need protein to grow and repair. Bones and teeth need calcium arid phosphorus to stay hard. Enzymes are s p e c i a l proteins i n the body which help regulate the production of new materials and energy. Enzymes are helped by vitamins and minerals. Vitamins and minerals are necessary for regulation. A l l foods can be used for energy but since proteins are e s p e c i a l l y needed f o r growth and r e p a i r , the most economical ways to get energy are from carbo-hydrates and f a t . B, C, D Before the nutrients i n food can be used by the body, food must be broken down into small pieces (digested), taken from the i n t e s t i n e to the blood (absorbed), and c a r r i e d i n the blood to the parts of the body that need the nutrients (transported). E Foods are a combination of n u t r i e n t s . Table 5 (continued) Related Behavioral Objective(s) E (continued) Facts Included i n the Course. Foods are grouped into t h e i r classes on the basis of t h e i r major.nutrients: Meat group Milk group Cereal group F r u i t and Vegetable group protein and i r o n calcium, phosphorus and protein vitamins, i r o n and c a l o r i e s vitamins and minerals Table 6 Facts Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization III Related Behavioral Facts Included i n the Course. Objective(s) A The following amounts of food from each food group and recommended for fourth-grade children: Meat 1% - 2 servings Milk 2 - 3 servings Cereals 3 servings F r u i t s and Vegetables 3 servings, one with high Vitamin C This food guide helps you plan your d i e t . B, C, D To stay healthy, a body needs nutrients to grow, repair i t s e l f , have l o t s of energy and operate smoothly. Since the nutrients for these functions come from a l l four food groups, we must select foods from a l l the groups to make sure we are healthy. E A person i s more l i k e l y to get a l l the nutrients he needs by eating a wide v a r i e t y of foods, e s p e c i a l l y a wide variety of f r u i t s and vegetables. Co Learning Experiences The learning experiences shown i n Tables 7 - 9 were developed to help the students a t t a i n the behavioral objectives. The learning experiences were based on the i n t e r e s t s and motivations of students i n t h i s grade l e v e l . The lesson plans, which r e f l e c t how these learning experiences were organized and the extent to which they were emphasized, are included i n Appendix D. The l e t t e r s of the learning experiences correspond to the appropriate behavioral objectives. Table 7 Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization I Related Behavioral Learning Experiences Objective(s) A, B Imagine a healthy boy or g i r l . Discuss i n a group how he/she would look, f e e l , act. Find pictures that portray c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of good health and poor health or draw p i c t u r e s . Make a b u l l e t i n board display of the p i c t u r e s that the students bring. C, D Read a story to the children about two children, one with good habits and one with poor health habits. Ask them i n a class discussion to t e l l what the good habits were and what the poor habits were. Ask them to compare t h e i r habits with those of the children i n the story. A, B, C, D Conduct an animal feeding demonstration with one p a i r of r a t s on a good d i e t and another p a i r on a poor d i e t . At the end of three weeks put both p a i r s on the good di e t to show that the difference between them was j u s t the d i e t . Table 8 Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization II Related Behavioral Objective(s) Learning Experiences. Show pict u r e s of the following: a baby, a c h i l d of about 1 0 years, an adult, a c h i l d reading, a c h i l d running. a person with a scraped knee, a person with a broken bone. a cartoon of "Johnny" cleaning up h i s room without Mother's presence ("Johnny" playing with h i s toys), a cartoon of "Johnny" cleaning up his room with Mother's presence. From comparison of these pictures conclude" that the body must grow, r e p a i r , give energy and that these functions must be regulated. The b u i l d i n g blocks for these functions must come from food. B, C, D On a model and on student diagrams show where the food goes from the mouth to the i n t e s t i n e s . To demonstrate digestion have the students: mix some of the i r s a l i v a with cornstarch. simulate the grinding action of t h e i r teeth by mashing a potato with a fork. simulate swallowing by squeezing a bead down a straw. mix o i l and water, then add detergent, to simulate the action of the b i l e . mix pepsin, .IN H C 1 and milk, to demonstrate protein digestion. To demonstrate absorption have the students sprinkle granulated sugar i n the center of a paper draped over a cup. Pour water on the sugar. Taste the l i q u i d i n the cup to ascertain i f sugar passed through the towel. Table 8 (continued) Related Behavioral Objective(s) D Learning Experiences Show a diagram of the c i r c u l a t o r y system. Feel pulse. With each pulse imagine food and water being pushed out from the i n t e s t i n e into a l l the parts of the body. Again show the pictures of people i l l u s t r a t i n g growth, repair, energy and regulation. Discuss: what happens when you grow (re: muscles, bones, skin and h a i r ) . what must happen when something i s repaired (use examples of gluing broken dish together, sewing a patch on clothes ) . what i s energy (use example of car or t r a i n ) . what happens i f we are not regulated (or supervised). B u i l d i n g blocks c a l l e d nutrients are necessary for the body functions. To show that t h i s i s true: test muscle, skin, bone and h a i r f o r the presence of prot e i n . d e c a l c i f y bone. burn f a t , sugar, protein to give o f f heat. read and act out s t o r i e s from the booklet, "The Great Vitamin Mystery". E Nutrients come from food. Foods are a combination of nutrients. As an example, have the students test meat for protein, f a t and water. E Post a pi c t u r e of the Four Food Groups. Discuss each of the food groups i n terms of the food o r i g i n . Divide the class into four groups. Have each group analyze the foods i n a p a r t i c u l a r food group by te s t i n g the food f o r the presence of: protein, sugar, f a t , minerals, vitamin C, vitamin A and starch. E Have the c h i l d r e n bring box tops, l a b e l s , pictures and drawings of the food they eat. Play the grocery bag game with these to develop food grouping a b i l i t y . Table 9 Learning Experiences Related to the Behavioral Objectives of Generalization III Related Behavioral Learning Experiences. Objective(s) ' Review: Know what the body needs and know that food supplies these needs. A How do you know how much individuals need? Discuss the difference between children and adults to show that t h e i r requirements are d i f f e r e n t . A Post a simple version of Canada's Food Guide for children. Have the students write down what they ate i n the past 24 hours. B, C, D Using a point system, have each c h i l d evaluate h i s d i e t , at the same time taking the clas s scores f or each food group. Then have each c h i l d decide how he should change his d i e t to get a top score. C Using food models i n a c a f e t e r i a s t y l e s i t u a t i o n , have each c h i l d choose a lunch and check to see i f i t i s balanced. E Using r e s u l t s of the pre-test vegetable preference question, introduce new and l e a s t l i k e d vegetables, discuss t h e i r o r i g i n , f e e l smell, taste them raw and have the students prepare, cook and eat them. C, D Plan a well balanced meal with the students and have them prepare i t i n c l a s s . 40 OBJECTIVE TWO Objective Two: To determine the effectiveness of the n u t r i t i o n educa-t i o n program which was developed as described i n Objective One. Effectiveness was to be determined as a change i n test r e s u l t s at the knowledge, a p p l i c a t i o n , willingness to respond l e v e l s of the cognitive domains (Krathwohl, 1964; Bloom, 1965). Permission was granted by the Vancouver School Board f o r the author to conduct the experimental n u t r i t i o n education program at the t h i r d and fourth grade l e v e l s . P r i n c i p a l s of three socio-economically related schools consented to have the program. The schools were Begbie Elementary (B.), Chief Maquinna Annex (M.A.) and Queen Alexandra Elementary (Q.A.). The socio-economic des c r i p t i o n of the population which the schools served would be: mixed immigrant, low to low middle class (Armour, 1973). In December, 1972, one cl a s s of t h i r t y - f i v e t h i r d and fourth grade pupils at B. was given the preliminary tests shown i n Appendix B. The purpose of the preliminary t e s t i n g was to determine i f the evalua-t i o n tests were worded c o r r e c t l y for the grade l e v e l and i f the s k i l l s involved i n answering the questions were s u i t a b l e . Several changes i n wording were found necessary and one question was eliminated because i t was r e p e t i t i o u s of another that proved better. From January 8, 1973 to March 2, 1973, two classes each from M.A. and Q.A. were involved i n the experimental program. One class each from M.A. and Q.A. received the n u t r i t i o n education. These classes formed the experimental groups. The remaining class i n each of the two 41 schools received no n u t r i t i o n education during the experimental period. These classes were treated as the control groups. A d e s c r i p t i o n of each of the four classes i s shown i n Table 10. During the week of January 8 - 1 2 , the tests shown i n Appendix C were given to a l l four classes, one per day, i n the following order: knowledge te s t , analysis of d i e t t e s t , menu planning t e s t , free food meal choice t e s t , and vegetable a t t i t u d e and 24-hour dietary r e c a l l test combined. The t e s t s were administered by the classroom teachers. At t h i s time a l e t t e r to the parents was also sent, informing them of the i r c h i l d ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experimental program. The learning experiences were conducted by the author twice each week for s i x weeks, January 15 - February 23. The lessons were approximately f o r t y minutes long. The lesson plans are shown i n Appendix D. The students of a l l four classes were tested again during the week of February 26 - March 2, immediately following the n u t r i t i o n education program. The same tes t s were administered i n the same order as the previous t e s t s . An a d d i t i o n a l test involving parental contact through questionnaire, and i f necessary, telephone, was administered following the other t e s t s . A t o t a l of 117 children were pre-tested and post-tested. The tests were.administered by the classroom teachers to eliminate any tendency of members of the experimental groups to bias t h e i r answers to impress the author, e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r d i e t a r y r e c a l l s and t h e i r free food meal choices. To control the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the tests were discussed i n d e t a i l with each teacher with reference to the objectives Table 10 Description of the Four Classes Involved i n the N u t r i t i o n Education Program Assigned Group Number Grade Number of Students Queen Alexandra (Q.A.) Experimental 1 Control 32 17 17 Maquinna Annex (M.A.) Experimental 4 5 Control 13 14 24 of each t e s t , how the questions could be answered and unfamiliar termino-logy. The teachers were asked to follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s which were attached to t h e i r own test copies. These i n s t r u c t i o n s preface each of the tests i n Appendix C. Since none of the teachers had any background i n n u t r i t i o n , i t was f e l t that the author should conduct the learning experiences. The teachers of a l l four groups were informed of the general objectives of the program. They were asked to r e f r a i n from having n u t r i t i o n r e l a t e d projects of t h e i r own i n t h e i r classrooms during the eight week period of t h i s p r o j ect. The teachers of the experimental classes were encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the learning a c t i v i t i e s . Their advice was frequently sought concerning i n d i v i d u a l students, the cla s s e s ' responses to c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s and the i n t e r e s t s of the classes. According to the teachers, none of the classes had received any n u t r i t i o n education i n s t r u c t i o n during the 1972 school year. The teachers' backgrounds varied from two years to twelve years teaching experience. A l l of them had a Bachelor of Education degree. They were a l l interested i n learning new approaches to teaching health and n u t r i -t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l Techniques Because the sample was f a i r l y small (N = 117), not randomly selected and from two d i f f e r e n t schools, the classes from each of the two schools were treated separately. The difference i n the mean scores from pre-test to post-test was the s t a t i s t i c used to evaluate the performance of each group. To determine i f the means of the experimental and control groups were from the same population, an analysis of the variance of the means was applied to the data. This test was also applied to determine i f the program was equally e f f e c t i v e f o r the t h i r d and fourth grades. The acceptable l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was designated by the s t a t i s t i c a l advisor to be p - 0.05. CHAPTER IV ' RESULTS AND DISCUSSION As reference for the reader, the names and descriptions of the tests administered to the students are l i s t e d i n Table 11. It should be noted that for the tests l i s t e d i n Table 11, the  differences between the mean scores of the post-tests and the pre-tests  were compared as shown i n Table 12 to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  score changes that occurred. Since the grade three experimental group and the grade three control group were i n d i f f e r e n t schools, the r e s u l t s of these two groups could not be compared. The only method used to deter-mine the effectiveness of the n u t r i t i o n education program at the grade three l e v e l was to compare each grade three group with the grade four group which received the same treatment i n the same school. This com-parison only indicated whether the grade three and grade four groups were from the same population and not the degree of influence the treatment had on the grade three groups. 45 46 Table 11 Names and Descriptions of the Pre- and Post-Tests Test Name Level of Learning Tested* Description of Test Knowledge Knowledge An objective r e c a l l test i n v o l v i n g multiple choice and short word answers. Menu Plan-ning Comprehension Student required to s e l e c t a balanced d i e t f o r one day for a c h i l d , from 49 n u t r i t i o u s and non-n u t r i t i o u s foods shown i n i l l u s -t r a t i o n form. Analysis of Diet Comprehension Student required to c l a s s i f y the foods shown i n a f i c t i t i o u s 24-hour d i e t of a c h i l d . Student required to determine how many more servings should be included to make a balanced d i e t . Vegetable Attitude Willingness respond to Student required to mark at t i t u d e toward 19 vegetables on a 5 point hedonic s c a l e . Parental Contact (post-test) Willingness respond to Parents asked i n a l e t t e r or by telephone i f any change had been noticed i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e toward food and/or n u t r i t i o n . Free Food Meal Choice Willingness respond and Valuing. to From 23 pictures of foods, the student was asked to sel e c t the foods desired for one meal and to ind i c a t e which of these foods would not be eaten, i f there were too many chosen. 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l Willingness respond and Valuing to A f t e r each meal the student was asked to write down everything that had been eaten. * (Krathwohl et a l . , 1964; Bloom, 1965) 47 Table 12 Groups Compared to Determine the Effectiveness of the N u t r i t i o n Education Program Group Number Description Group Number Description Q . A . Experimental Grade 4 M . A . Experimental Grade 4 Compared with 3 Compared with 6 Q . A . Control Grade 4 M . A . Control Grade 4 Q . A . Control Grade 3 Compared with 3 Q . A . Control Grade 4 M . A . Experimental Grade 3 Compared with 5 M . A . Experimental Grade 4 Q . A . Experimental Grade 4 Compared with 5 M i A . Experimental Grade 4 48 DISCUSSION OF INDIVIDUAL TESTS 1. Knowledge Test The r e s u l t s of the knowledge test In Table 13 show that the experimental program was e f f e c t i v e i n improving n u t r i t i o n knowledge at the fourth grade l e v e l . Both experimental grade four groups showed a s i g n i f i -cant improvement i n test scores (p-0.05). Since there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the mean difference scores of M.A. experimental grade three group (group 4) and M.A. experimental grade four group (group 5), there i s i n d i c a t i o n that the n u t r i t i o n education program was also e f f e c -t i v e i n improving knowledge at the grade three l e v e l . Table 13 Knowledge Test• Group Difference Between Post-Number Group Description and Pre-Test Mean Scores 1 Q.A. Experimental Grade 4 3 Q.A. Control Grade 4 5 M.A. Experimental Grade 4 6 M.A. Control Grade 4 p * 0.05 p =• 0.05 Q.A. Control 0.9 ± 3.5 Grade 3 M.A. Experimental 4.6 ± 3.9 Grade 3 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r comparisons not marked. 49 As shown i n Appendix E, the raw scores of the experimental and control groups were s i m i l a r i n the pre-test. For example, the mean score for group .1 was 14.9 and the mean score f o r group 3 was 13.4, with a pos-s i b l e t o t a l score of 38. A l l the experimental groups and the control groups scored l e s s than 50 percent on the pre-test. On the post-test, only the experimental groups achieved mean scores of greater than 50 per-cent . 2. A p p l i c a t i o n of Knowledge Tests A. Menu Planning Test. The r e s u l t s of this test (Table 14) show that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement at the fourth or t h i r d grade l e v e l i n the a b i l i t y of the students to plan a d i e t f o r one day, based on Canada's Food Guide. Group 1 did show a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the number of high c a l o r i e or extra foods chosen as compared with group 3 0=0.05) . Pre- and post-test raw scores for a l l groups were high. The maximum t o t a l score was 25. The mean pre-test scores ranged from 21 to 23. The chance for improvement was l i t t l e . The mean post-test scores ranged from 22 to 24. For the children tested, the Menu Planning test was a poor measure of a b i l i t y to apply knowledge. There are two possible reasons for the high pre-test mean scores: e i t h e r the students were at a more advanced l e v e l of learning than e i t h e r the author or the teachers had r e a l i z e d , or the balanced d i e t t e s t did not measure student compre-hension. Since the r e l a t e d Knowledge pre-test scores were l e s s than 50 percent, i t would seem that comprehension of that knowledge would also be low. Therefore the Menu Planning test scores must r e f l e c t an 50 unmeasured v a r i a b l e . Table 14 Menu Planning Test Difference Between Post- and Pre-Test Means Number of Group Group Description Test Scores Extra Foods Chosen  1 Q.A. Experimental 1.3 ± 4.0 -0.7 ± 2.3 Grade 4 3 Q.A. Control 1.8 ± 3.1 0.3 ± 2.3 Grade 4 5 M.A. Experimental 0 . 9 ± 3 . 0 -0.5 ± 1.5 Grade 4 6 M.A. Control -0.3 ± 2.3 -0.4 ± 1.1 Grade 4 2 Q.A. Control 1.6 ± 3.1 0.9 + 1.2 Grade 3 4 M.A. Experimental 0.9 ± 3.5 -0.6 ± 2.2 Grade 3 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r comparisons not marked. p « 0.05 Es p e c i a l l y i n the pre-test f o r the experimental groups, and i n both tests for the control groups, where the student would not know the meaning of a "Balanced d i e t " , he/she would choose foods on the basis of family eating patterns, and preferences, rather than for the n u t r i t i o n a l value. To eliminate the tendency of the students to choose on the basis of t r a d i t i o n rather than n u t r i t i o n , the Menu Planning test could be administered only to those who c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the recommended numbers of servings for each food group i n the Knowledge te s t . 51 However, the high scores cannot be e n t i r e l y explained by good family eating habits because the 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l mean scores were not equally high. Investigation of the i n d i v i d u a l student Menu Planning tests reveals that students i n a l l the groups were unable to l i m i t the number of th e i r food choices to the number that a c h i l d would eat i n one day. Since no r e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed on the number of foods that could be chosen, i t was possible to obtain a high score by choosing many foods. Thus the Menu Planning test as i t was administered cannot be interpreted as a v a l i d measure of the a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge l e v e l of learning. There were no r e s t r i c t i o n s l i m i t i n g the number of foods which could be chosen because i t was thought that such r e s t r i c t i o n s would make the question too d i f f i c u l t for the grade l e v e l being tested (Armour, 1973). However, during the test the teachers did stress that only enough food for one day should be chosen. The teachers also directed the students to think of each of the meals and snacks i n a day and to choose foods accordingly. I t was hoped that t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n would help the students l i m i t q u a n t i t i e s . Since children of the t h i r d and fourth grade l e v e l s appear to have d i f f i c u l t y grasping the concept of quantity, a more appro-p r i a t e test would be to o f f e r fewer foods and to divide the test into meals: breakfast, lunch, supper and snacks. A test such as t h i s would help the student focus his/her attention on one meal at a time, and the task of s e l e c t i n g food' would be e a s i e r . Using food models instead of pictures could also improve the children's a b i l i t y to choose from the s e l e c t i o n of food o f f e r e d . 52 B. Analysis of Di e t Test. Both experimental grade four groups showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n a b i l i t y to analyze a d i e t , as com-pared to t h e i r controls (p-0.05). Only Q.A. experimental grade four group (group 1) showed a corresponding s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n the number of i n c o r r e c t answers, as compared to i t s control group (group 3). The comparison of M.A. experimental grade three group (group 4) with M.A. experimental grade four group (group 5) demonstrated that the two groups were from the same population. Therefore group 4 also showed an improve-ment i n the a b i l i t y to analyze a d i e t . These r e s u l t s are shown i n Table 15. Both grade four experimental groups showed a s i g n i f i c a n t improve-ment (p-0.05) over th e i r control groups i n the second part of the Analysis of Diet Test i n which the students were asked to write the number of each of the food groups required to make the d i e t balanced according to Canada's Food Guide. Results from comparison of scores of M.A. experi-mental grade three group (group 4) with M.A. experimental grade four group (group 5) do not i n d i c a t e an improvement i n a b i l i t y of the grade three group to balance a d i e t . Comparison of group 4 with group 5 showed that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups. By deduction, since group 5 had shown improvement, group 4 had not shown improvement. One of the teachers involved i n the testing suggested that the question involved solving a word problem, a s k i l l which grade three students do not normally have (Armour, 1973). The pre-test means for a l l the groups except group 5 were approximately 50 percent (range 5-6, possible t o t a l 11; group 5 mean, 8 out of possible t o t a l of 11). The pre-test mean scores ind i c a t e d that Table 15 Analysis of Diet Test Difference Between Post- and Pre-Test Means Question 1 Question 2 firoup Group Description Number of Correct Answers Number of Number of Incorrect Answers Correct Answers Q.A. Experimental 2.0±2.3' Grade 4 Q.A. Control Grade 4 -0.1±1.5 p^0.05 (.p^O.05 0.112.2'' 0.4±1.5 M.A. Experimental 0.9±0.9^ Grade 4 M.A. Control Grade 4 Q.A. Control Grade 3 0.4+1.8 J 0.1±1.2 \ p^0.05 -0.5±0.9 0.3±1.0 0.7±1.5 M.A. Experimental 0.8±2.5 Grade 3 -0.4±1.3 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r comparisons not marked. 0.9±1.4. -0.2±1.7<' p^0.05 p^0.05-{ •1.5±1.5^ lp^0.05 -0.110.7' - O . l i l . l 1 0.2±1.0 54 the students had not yet attained the l e v e l of learning being tested. The experimental n u t r i t i o n education program was e f f e c t i v e i n improving comprehension as r e f l e c t e d by a l l the experimental groups' post-test correct scores f o r question one. The s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n number of inc o r r e c t answers by group 1 and the s i m i l a r trend f o r group 5 further supports the conclusion that the program was successful i n helping the students reach the comprehension l e v e l of learning. 3. Willingness to Respond Tests A. Vegetable Attitude Test. Part number s i x of the vegetable attitude test was eliminated from the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis because i t was a function of parts one through f i v e : e i t h e r the students could show how they l i k e d a vegetable or they had never tasted that vegetable. None of the mean scores of the experimental groups varied s i g n i -f i c a n t l y from t h e i r controls i n t h i s t e s t . The teachers involved sug-gested that at the t h i r d and fourth grade l e v e l , the average student was only able to d i s t i n g u i s h between l i k e and hate. They f e l t that there was probably a l o t of guessing involved i n the answers between the l i k e and hate a t t i t u d e s . B. Parent Questionnaire. The scoring system f o r th i s test i s included i n Appendix C. Results from parent responses to the written or telephone questionnaire show that a l l three experimental groups of children had demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p^0.05) improved attitudes toward food and i n t e r e s t i n n u t r i t i o n at home. A subjective evaluation of the experimental program through parental contact indicated that the tests also had considerable influence on the control students; several mothers Table 16 Vegetable Attitude Test Difference Between Post- and Pre-Test Means Group Group Description Like very much Like Neither l i k e nor d i s l i k e D i s l i k e D i s l i k e very much Q.A. Experimental 0.412.9 Grade 4 Q.A. Control Grade 4 M.A. Experimental 0.9±2.4 Grade 4 M.A. Control Grade 4 Q.A. Control Grade 3 -0.5±2.1 -0.2±2.0 0.1+1.7 -1.1±2.1 -0.4±1.4 0.8+1.4 -0.3±1.3 0.8±2.3 0.6±2.2 0.1+1.4 1.1+2.0 0.311.2 O.Oil.3 0.8±1.5 -0.6±2.0 0.512.0 0.111.2 0.1+1.0 -0.1 12.2 0.511.8 0.411.1 0.111.0 -0.811.6 M.A. Experimental 0.613.6 Grade 3 1.412.1 0.311.2 -0.211.5 0.2H.6 A l l comparisons were not s i g n i f i c a n t U i 56 wrote long comments about t h e i r children's increased i n t e r e s t i n food and n u t r i t i o n . Some of these ch i l d r e n had only been exposed to n u t r i t i o n education through the pre- and post - t e s t s . Table 17 Parent Questionnaire: Attitudes of Student at Home Group Group Description Difference Between Post-and Pre-Test Means 1 Q.A. Experimental Grade 4 0.4 ± 0.5 -> • p < 0.05 3 Q.A. Control Grade 4 0.2 ± 0.4-J 5 M.A. Experimental Grade 4 0.6 ±(0.5 •> - r p =" 0.05 6 M.A. Control Grade 4 0.3 ± 0.4-^ 2 Q.A. Control Grade 3 0.2 ± 0.4 4 M.A. Experimental Grade 3 0.5 ± 0.5 There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r comparisons not marked. C. Free Food Meal Choice Test. The f i r s t question of t h i s t e s t , "Do you l i k e the foods you have chosen?", was answered by a l l the students for both pre-test and post-test with the word "yes". The second question, "Why did you choose the foods that you ordered?", was answered i n one or both of two ways: l i k i n g reasons and/or health reasons. On the post-test, a l l three experimental groups plus the M.A. control group (group 6) showed trends toward including health as a reason f o r choosing foods. 57 As shown i n Table 18, only Q.A. experimental group (group 1) demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement (p-0.05) on this question. The answers to the fourth and f i f t h questions were recorded as i n d i c a t i n g the foods which the student had chosen but which would not be eaten, usually because too many foods had been chosen f o r one meal. The term, "rejected foods" was given to these foods. As shown i n the scoring system f o r t h i s test (Appendix C), four scores were given for the choice of foods: a score for a l l the n u t r i -tious foods chosen (those which could be c l a s s i f i e d i n Canada's Food Guide, i n c l u d i n g the rejected foods; a score for a l l the extra foods chosen (those which contributed mainly c a l o r i e s ) , i n c l u d i n g the rejected foods; a score f o r only the n u t r i t i o u s foods which would be eaten; a . score f o r only the extra foods which would be eaten. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r any of the n u t r i t i o u s food choice scores, with or without the rejected foods. Although the high mean pre-test scores could i n d i c a t e that the students were competent at t h i s l e v e l of learning, since the scores f o r the Knowledge and Analysis of D i e t were low, a b e t t e r explanation i s necessary. As with the Menu Planning t e s t , no r e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed on the allowable number of foods to be chosen. The teachers stressed that the students should only choose what could be eaten but many pupils chose more than enough and then f a i l e d to l i s t what they would leave i f they were too f u l l to eat a l l . The large numbers of foods chosen resulted i n high scores, thus i n v a l i d a t i n g the t e s t r e s u l t s . Pictures of foods were used i n the Free Food Meal Choice test because neither of the schools had a lunch program where student food Table .18 Free Food Meal Choice Test Difference Between Post- and Pre-Test Means Group Group Description Like Reasons Health Reasons Score with Rejects Score without Rejects Number of Extra Foods with Rejects Number of Extra Foods without Rejects Q.A. Experimental Grade 4 Q.A. Control Grade 4 -0.2±0.5-j 0.2+0.5^ 0.5±1.5 •p=0.05 >p="0.05 0.1+0.2'' -0.1±0.2-^ -0.2±1.7 0.5+1.6 -0.9tl.6-. r-0.8±1.5 -0.2±1.9 / •p=0.05 0.4±1.4 ^-0.4±1.: M.A. Experimental Grade 4 M.A. Control Grade 4 -0.2±0.6 0.4±0.5 0.3±1.5 0.1±1.4 -0.1±0.4 0.2±0.5 0.1+1.5 0.0±1.6 -0.4±1.2-v -0(.2±1.1 •p=0.05 0.0+1.3 -0.2±1.2 2 Q.A. Control Grade 3 0.0±0.0 0.0±0.0 0.6±1.2 0.8±1.4 0.1+1.2 0.1±1.3 00 Table 18 (continued) Difference Between Post- and Pre-Test Means Group Group Des c r i p t i o n Like Reasons Health Reasons Score with Rejects Score without Rejects Number of Extra Foods with Rejects Number of Extra Foods without Rejects M.A. Experimental -0.2+0.4 0.2±0.4 Grade 3 0.8±2.2 1.1+2.1 -0.4±1.5 -0.411.3 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r comparisons not marked. 60 choices could be observed. The pictures introduced another v a r i a b l e as r e f l e c t e d by a remark by one of the c h i l d r e n . "Of course I can eat a l l that I've chosen. Those pictures are r e a l l y small." The pi c t u r e s were not f u l l - s i z e and the c h i l d thought she was choosing exactly what she saw. Even a f t e r the teacher explained that the pictures represented normal servings, the c h i l d could not imagine the amount of food she had ac t u a l l y chosen. The grade 4 experimental groups did show a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n number of extra foods chosen i n the post-test (p^0.05). Since there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between M.A. experimental grade three group (group 4) and M.A. experimental grade four group (group 5), i t can be assumed that the n u t r i t i o n education program also influenced the number of extra foods chosen by the grade 3 experimental group. The Free Food Meal Choice test could be redesigned i n one of several ways to make i t a more v a l i d measure of willingness to respond. The i d e a l test would be to give each student money and send them to a c a f e t e r i a to s e l e c t t h e i r own meal from the v a r i e t y of foods o f f e r e d . The choices would be recorded by an observer. However, since few elem-entary schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia have a lunch program, such a test would be very i m p r a c t i c a l . A second, le s s elaborate test could be one where f u l l - s i z e p i c -tures or p l a s t i c food models were used i n the same manner as used i n the present study. To ensure student i n d i c a t i o n of foods which would not be eaten, the teacher could discuss q u a n t i t i e s with each student. This would only be a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n where the teacher would be w i l l i n g to spend the time required. 61 Other solutions to the Free Food Meal Choice test would be to place r e s t r i c t i o n s on the numbers of foods to be chosen, or to l i m i t the amount of money to be spent. Although the students would then have to decide which foods he/she would r e a l l y order from the menu, i t might be very hard for a nine - ten year old c h i l d to make th i s decision (Armour, 1973) when offered the same wide v a r i e t y (23 foods). It would also be necessary to l i m i t the number of foods o f f e r e d . Since the students involved i n the present study were from many ethnic backgrounds, i t would then become desirable to design several equal sets of food choices, each set designed for s p e c i f i c ethnic backgrounds. D. 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l . The scoring system f o r t h i s test i s shown i n Appendix C. The scores did not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y for the grade four experimental groups. However, the grade three experimental group did improve by 4.0 points out of 25. When compared with the matched experimental grade four group, the two groups were shown to be from d i f -ferent populations, so i t i s possible that the program did have a p o s i -t i v e influence on the grade three experimental group. The number of extra foods chosen did not vary f o r any of the groups. 62 Table 19 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l Group Group Description Nutritious Foods Score Number of Extra Foods 1 Q.A. Experimental Grade 4 -0.715.0 -0.211.6 3 Q.A. Control Grade 4 -0.4±3.2 0.011.8 5 M.A. Experimental Grade 4 1.612.5 — j | i l 0.711.7 6 M.A. Control Grade 4 i -0.512.2 ; i fp^0.05 -0.411.6 2 Q.A. Control Grade 3 1.115.1 } I i i -0.812.0 4 M.A. Experimental Grade 3 1 4.0+4.0 - J -0.211.5 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference f o r comparisons not marked. 63 GENERAL DISCUSSION The foregoing discussion of r e s u l t s treated each of the tests and the r e s u l t s i n d i v i d u a l l y without reference to the interdependency that existed amongst them. As demonstrated by Figures 3 and 4, the learning l e v e l s tested i n the present study are a hierarchy where competence or behavior at each l e v e l i s determined by competence or behavior at the preceding l e v e l s . In the present study the Knowledge test was administered to determine student competency at the knowledge l e v e l of learning i n the Cognitive domain. The Analysis of Diet and Menu Planning tests were developed to evaluate comprehension i n the Cognitive domain. The Analysis of Diet t e s t evaluated the lower t r a n s l a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u b d i v i -sions; the Menu Planning test measured a higher extrapolation subdivision of the comprehension l e v e l . The Menu Planning test also was designed to measure receiving behavior i n the A f f e c t i v e domain. The second A f f e c -t i v e domain behavior, responding, was tested by the Vegetable A t t i t u d e t e s t , Parent Questionnaire, Free Food Meal Choice test and 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l . The l a t t e r two tests also measured the valuing behavior of the A f f e c t i v e domain. The r e s u l t s of the tests generally r e f l e c t the hierarchy of learning. Except f o r part two of the Analysis of D i e t t e s t s , the greatest improvement was shown i n the Knowledge t e s t , and l e s s change noted i n tests for comprehension. It i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that although more than 50 percent of the parents for groups 4 and 5 had noted a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change (willingness to respond), the students Figure 3 Behaviors in. the Cognitive Domain EVALUATION ( a b i l i t y to j udge the value of ideas, SYNTHESIS procedures ( a b i l i t y to methods, etc., put together using appro-parts and p r i a t e c r i t e r i a ) ANALYSIS elements into ( a b i l i t y to a u n i f i e d Requires break down organization synthesis a communica- or whole) APPLICATION tion into con-( a b i l i t y to use sti t u e n t parts ideas, p r i n c i - to make organi- Requires Requires p l e s , theories zation of analysis analysis COMPREHENSION i n p a r t i c u l a r ideas clear) ( a b i l i t y to ap- and concrete prehend what i s sit u a t i o n s ) Requires Requires Requires being communi- application a p p l i c a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n cated and make use of the idea without r e l a t - Requires Requires Requires Requires KNOWLEDGE ing i t to other comprehension comprehension comprehension comprehension ( a b i l i t y to ideas or material r e c a l l , to or seeing f u l -b r ing to l e s t meaning) mind the appropriate Requires Requires Requires Requires Requires material) knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge Levels of thinking as applied to learning, using the major objectives of the cognitive domain. From Brown (1963) as adapted from Bloom (1965) . Figure 4 Behaviors i n the A f f e c t i v e Domain RECEIVING (Attending) (Become aware; be w i l l i n g to learn and try a p a r t i c u l a r response RESPONDING ( I n i t i a l l y may react out of compliance, l a t e r out of w i l l i n g n e s s and s a t i s f a c t i o n ) I n i t i a l l y involves attending. VALUING (The process of accepting the worth of an object, idea, or a behavior; attempting to promote i t as a value; and developing commitment) I n i t i a l l y involves attend-ing; requires a response. ORGANIZATION (Determining i n t e r -relationships of values; e s t a b l i s h i n g a hierarchy) I n i t i a l l y involves attending; requires a response and development of values. CHARACTERIZATION BY A VALUE COMPLEX (Generalization of selected values into c o n t r o l l i n g tenden-cies with subsequent inte g r a t i o n into a t o t a l philosophy I n i t i a l l y involves attending; requires a response and develop-ment and organization of values. Modified from unpublished materials developed by Brown ( 1 9 — ) , as adapted from Krathwohl et a l . (1964). had not accepted the worth of good n u t r i t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y to show a s i g n i -f i c a n t change i n t h e i r Free Food Meal Choice post-test or t h e i r 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l . Table 20 Percent Change Observed from Pre-Test to Post-Test Group 1 Group 5 Group 4 Knowledge Test 15.0 20.8 12.4 Analysis of Diet Score 18.1 7.3 7.3 Food Rules 22.5 37.5 -7.5 Menu Planning 5.6 3.2 3.6 Free Food Meal Choice 6.3 2.5 12.5 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l -2.8 6.8 16.0 Pos i t i v e A t t i t u d e Change Noted Through Parental Contact 43 57 54 A l t h o u g h t h e p e r c e n t i m p r o v e m e n t r e s u l t s s h o w g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e l e v e l s o f l e a r n i n g o f B l o o m ( 1 9 6 5 ) a n d K r a t h w o h l ( 1 9 6 4 ) , t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e M e n u - P l a n n i n g , F r e e F o o d M e a l C h o i c e , V e g e t a b l e A t t i t u d e a n d 2 4 - H o u r D i e t a r y R e c a l l t e s t s r e f l e c t m o r e t h a n w h a t w a s b e i n g t e s t e d . A s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , t h e M e n u - P l a n n i n g a n d F r e e F o o d M e a l C h o i c e t e s t s r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e 67 quantity of foods which could be consumed by a c h i l d . The Menu Planning and 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l tests r e f l e c t e d family eating patterns. The Vegetable Attitude test could not show attitude changes to any s i g n i f i -cant amount because during the experimental program only two vegetables were introduced to the c h i l d r e n . Despite the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n the evaluation, i t can be concluded that the n u t r i t i o n education program was e f f e c t i v e i n improving n u t r i t i o n knowledge and comprehension. Behavior was also recorded through the parent questionnaire i n d i c a t i n g that the students were w i l l i n g to respond to the n u t r i t i o n education program but there was no evidence i n d i c a t i n g that the students valued a balanced d i e t to the extent that t h e i r r e a l or imaginary meals were changed. These conclu-sions are true for both l e v e l s : grade three and grade four. The major difference between t h i s study and other s i m i l a r pro-f grams was the i n c l u s i o n of the Free Food Meal Choice test which was developed to minimize the recorded influence of family choice on student food choices. I t was hoped that the r e s u l t s of this test might be interpreted to discover whether or not the n u t r i t i o n education program had been e f f e c t i v e i n a l t e r i n g the student's valuing system s u f f i c i e n t l y to modify dietary behavior. Unfortunately, the students were unable to l i m i t the quantities of food chosen and no such i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be made. The r e s u l t s obtained i n this study are i n agreement with those of other evaluations of s i m i l a r n u t r i t i o n education programs. Baker (1972) taught t h i r d and fourth grade students t h i r t y minutes each day f o r t h i r t e e n consecutive days. She measured s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n knowledge but none i n q u a l i t y of d i e t . Lovett et a l . (1970) tested second grade pupils who were taught one hour per day f o r three weeks. They found marked improvement i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge scores and a b i l i t y to apply n u t r i t i o n knowledge i n s e l e c t i n g balanced meals; some improve-ment i n breakfast habits was also noted. B e l l and Lamb (1973) observed that f i f t h grade chi l d r e n who were involved i n a s i x week n u t r i t i o n education module increased t h e i r knowledge of n u t r i t i o n but did not modify t h e i r behavior. Boysen and Ahrens (1972) studied second grade children whom they taught t h i r t y minutes per day for four weeks. They noted improvements i n n u t r i t i o n knowledge, a b i l i t y to apply knowledge and breakfast behavior. Lunch habits did not a l t e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y although parents reported improvements i n food attitudes at home. George (1971) reported an improvement i n both n u t r i t i o n knowledge and habits of s i x t h grade students during a n u t r i t i o n education u n i t . Students i n a l l the studies c i t e d as w e l l as i n the present study improved t h e i r n u t r i t i o n knowledge scores (and i n some, a p p l i c a -t i o n of knowledge scores) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than control students who did not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the n u t r i t i o n education programs. Yet the dietary patterns of the experimental students generally did not improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Analysis of the behavioral objectives of a l l the studies reveals that the students were not intended to reach the highest l e v e l s of Cognitive learning ( a p p l i c a t i o n , a n a l y s i s , synthesis and evaluation) at which point there might be a d i r e c t e f f e c t on A f f e c t i v e behavior. Further analysis of a l l the programs shows that only at the knowledge and comprehension l e v e l s was the p r i n c i p l e of appropriate r e p e t i t i o n 69 (Hunter, 1972b, 1973b) followed i n the learning experiences. Without repe t i t i o n of application of knowledge learning experiences, elementary school age children cannot be expected to r e f l e c t modified dietary patterns. Thus even trends showing willingness to respond, as shown i n this study, as well as others (Lovett et a l . , 1970); George, 1971; Boysen and Ahrens, 1972) demonstrate the effectiveness of the n u t r i t i o n education programs and support the thesis (Travers, 1963) that a r e l a -tionship exists between information acquired and Affective behavior. The results of this study appear to have been influenced by a phenomenon similar to that reported by Emmons and Hayes (1973). They observed that the n u t r i t i o n practices of mothers and their children were better than would have been suggested by th e i r knowledge of n u t r i -t i o n . The subjects could name foods important to th e i r health but few could give n u t r i t i o n a l reasons for t h e i r importance. Food choices by mothers were based on attitudes and customs rather than knowledge. In turn, their children's food habits were being i n s t i l l e d without n u t r i -t i o n a l reasoning. The students i n the present study may also have made choices i n the Menu Planning, Free Food Meal Choice and 24-Hour Dietary Recall tests based on t r a d i t i o n rather than knowledge. Such a conclusion would explain the discrepancy between the low Knowledge pre-test scores and the high pre-test scores for the above three tests. At the outset of the project i t was stated that the general objective of any n u t r i t i o n education program should be the improvement of student dietary patterns where necessary. Upon review of this state-70 ment and study of the r e s u l t s , i t becomes evident that the general objective should be modified. Several reports have shown that although n u t r i t i o n knowledge i s valuable only to the extent that i t i s p r a c t i c e d , those with n u t r i t i o n knowledge do choose more adequate di e t s than those without n u t r i t i o n knowledge (Young et a l . , 1956 a-b; Jalso et a l . , 1965). If the general objective of a n u t r i t i o n education program was only to improve dietary behavior where necessary, the r e s u l t s of the Menu Plan-ning, Free Food Meal Choice and 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l pre-tests would have suggested that such a program would be of l i t t l e b e n e f i t to the students since these scores were high. The low Knowledge pre-test scores indicated that the behavior was not based on knowledge and that a program was necessary. Therefore.the general objective should be reworded to be that the students w i l l consciously choose to consume a well balanced d i e t of n u t r i t i o u s foods according to Canada's Food Guide. Modi f i c a t i o n of the general objective would also help d i r e c t s u i t a b l e changes i n the program and the evaluation measures. The major change which should be made i n the program should be to include more pr a c t i c e i n choosing and eating balanced meals. Even though purchasing foods f or use i n the classroom i s expensive, good food habits r e s u l t from repeated experience with p r a c t i c e of good habits. Practice with food pictures i s an a l t e r n a t i v e , but p r a c t i c e with r e a l food promotes l a s t i n g changes i n habit ( H i l l , 1972). Such a program as outlined above where pr a c t i c e i n making food choices would be a major a c t i v i t y would require a much longer period of time than the s i x weeks a l l o t t e d f o r the present study. The r e i n f o r c e -ment of learning which would take place i n these a c t i v i t i e s over 71 the e n t i r e school year would ensure the effectiveness of the program. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The effectiveness of a n u t r i t i o n education program, which was developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i r d and fourth grade c h i l d r e n , was tested i n two Vancouver schools. The experimental program involved 117 children: 58 chi l d r e n were included i n three control groups and received no n u t r i t i o n education; 59 children were included i n three experimental groups and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the n u t r i t i o n education program f o r f o r t y minutes twice each week for s i x weeks. Both control and experimental groups were pre- and post-tested to evaluate i n d i v i d u a l student com-petency at the knowledge, comprehension and willingness to respond l e v e l s of learning. For the twenty-one variables of each group, differences between the mean post-test and the mean pre-test scores were s t a t i s t i -c a l l y treated by analysis of variance to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s . The n u t r i t i o n education program was found to improve s i g n i f i -cantly student competency f o r a l l experimental groups at the knowledge l e v e l . The one ap p l i c a t i o n of knowledge t e s t , which was believed to be v a l i d , also showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement f o r a l l experimental groups. 72 Comments by parents demonstrated that the students were responding at home to the n u t r i t i o n education program. However there was no general i n d i c a t i o n from the r e s u l t s of the r e s t of the tests that dietary pat-terns had changed. Recommendations Following i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s , several recommenda-tions can be made. 1. The general objective of the program should be to promote student conscious choice to consume a w e l l balanced d i e t of n u t r i t i o u s foods according to Canada's Food Guide. 2. Three tests should be al t e r e d to obtain more v a l i d r e s u l t s . (a) The Menu Planning test should be divided into a ser i e s of four smaller tests according to meals: breakfast, lunch, supper and snacks. (b) The Free Food Meal Choice test should be redesigned to eliminate choice of excessive numbers of foods e i t h e r through r e s t r i c t i o n or teacher guidance. (c) The Menu Planning, Free Food Choice and 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l tests should a l l include questions to determine reasons f o r food choices. 3. More r e p e t i t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge and desirable dietary patterns should be included i n the program. Wherever po s s i b l e , r e a l foods should be used. 4. 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Lamb, M.W., Food acceptance, a challenge to n u t r i t i o n education - a review, J . Nutr. E d u c , 1(2):20-22, 1969. Leverton, R.M. and Coggs, M., Eood choices of Nebraska c h i l d r e n , J . Home Econ., 43:176-178, 1951. Litman, T.J., Cooney, J.P. and S t i e f , R., The views of Minnesota school children on food, J . Amer. D i e t e t . Assn., 45:433-440, 1964. Lockhart, H.S. and Whitehead, F.E., N u t r i t i o n Education i n Elementary and Secondary Schools, N u t r i t i o n Foundation, Inc., New York, 1952. M i l l s , E.R., Applying learning theory i n teaching n u t r i t i o n , J . Nutr. E d u c , 4(3):106-107, 1972. Moore, M.E. N u t r i t i o n Education i n the Elementary School, - An Evalua-tion of Selected A c t i v i t i e s Used i n Primary and F i f t h Grades, Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1947. 83 Morgan, A., How schools improve the n u t r i t i o n of p u p i l s , J . Home Econ., 34:721-726, 1942. Parker, E., Big ideas i n n u t r i t i o n education, School Lunch, J . , 2594: 34-36, 1971. R i t c h i e , J.A.S. and Kung-Wagner, B., Education i n N u t r i t i o n : A Selected L i s t of M a t e r i a l s , F.A.O., 1957. Sipple, H.L., Problems and progress i n n u t r i t i o n education, J . Amer. Di e t e t . Assn., 59:18-21, 1971. Smey, J . , N u t r i t i o n education i n the elementary schools, J . Home Econ., 50:335-339, 1958. Wight, N.M., Teaching n u t r i t i o n to f i r s t and second graders, J . Home Econ., 35:15-16, 1943. Wilson, C. and Knox S., Methods and kinds of n u t r i t i o n education (1961-72): A selected annotated bibliography, J . Nutr. E d u c , 5(1): 74-108, 1973. Wilson, E.H., Lawroski, M.A., and Wallace, A., Puppets are e f f e c t i v e teachers, J . Nutr. E d u c , 4(l):22-23, 1972. Yudkin, J . , The teaching of n u t r i t i o n : A summary, Proceedings of the Nu t r i t i o n Society, 12:198-199, 1953. APPENDIX A LEWIN'S ATTITUDE TEST 84 85 SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE Type of questionnaire for i n v e s t i g a t i n g food habits suggested by Dr. Kurt Lewin of the State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, U.S.A., with suggestions for using the answers. 1. Write down the d i f f e r e n t foods a person i n a family l i k e yours eats almost every day. Foods Why? 2. Both Jim and Bob stayed at f r i e n d s ' houses over the weekend. Monday morning they were t a l k i n g about i t on the way to school. Bob sa i d : "I had a great time because the food was j u s t swell; each meal was wonderful!" Jim said: "Oh, I had awful meals; the food was t e r r i b l e . It was no fun at a l l . " * Name the foods served at the house Bob v i s i t e d Name the foods served at the house Jim v i s i t e d Breakfast Breakfast Lunch Lunch D inner Dinner 3 . Name a food which someone i n a family l i k e yours would eat and would be praised for eating. Food Who would praise them? Why would they praise? 86 4. Name a food which someone i n a family l i k e yours would.eat and would be scolded for eating. Food Who would scold? Why would they scold? 5. This question asks for the name of the respondent and data on sex, grade at school, n a t i o n a l i t y of parents, and any other relevant i n f o r -mation by which natural groupings can be made. The answers to Question 1 should ind i c a t e the foods which form the basic part of the d i e t and which arouse no c o n f l i c t i n the home or the community - foods that are accepted by everyone automatically. In design-ing an educational program, the consumption of these foods can be assumed and no teaching i s needed to encourage t h e i r use. This makes i t possible to s i m p l i f y the program. The educator can then concentrate on teaching the use of foods which w i l l supplement these i n order to provide a w e l l -rounded d i e t . The answers to Question 2 t e l l the educator what foods are e s p e c i a l l y esteemed; therefore, the consumption of these would be e a s i l y increased i f supplies were assured. They also show which foods are des-pised or d i s l i k e d and would therefore be d i f f i c u l t to popularize. Answers to Questions 3 and 4, i f given by chil d r e n , i n d i c a t e the at t i t u d e s and reasons why c e r t a i n foods are l i k e d or d i s l i k e d , or at l e a s t the reasons given by th e i r parents. If the same questionnaire i s answered by the parents, a comparison of r e p l i e s may reveal i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s on the parents' attitude,toward food and toward t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n i n eating h a b i t s . Questions 3 and 4 also i n d i c a t e the person with the most,autho-r i t y i n the household with regard to food, and hence the most important person to reach i n an educational program. Question 5 gives data which enables those answering the questionnaire to be put into s u i t a b l e c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s for the p a r t i c u l a r community. Habits, l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , and attitudes common to the group should be evident from examination of the answers. Such a questionnaire may give useful guidance on how and where to s t a r t a program of education. (Lewin, 1943) APPENDIX B PRELIMINARY TESTS Page Knowledge Test 88 Teacher's Instructions 91 Menu Planning Test 92 Teacher's Instructions 93 Analysis of D i e t Test 94 Teacher's Instructions 96 Vegetable A t t i t u d e Test 97 Teacher's Instructions 98 Free Food Meal Choice Test 99 L i s t of Foods Offered 100 Teacher's Instructions 101 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l 102 Teacher's Instructions 103 87 88 Answer a l l the questions as w e l l as you can. Ask your teacher to t e l l you the meaning of any words that you do not know. GROUP I You may see more than one correct answer to these questions. Put a check ( ) beside each of the correct answers that you see. 1. What does the meaning of health include? being at one's best i n body being at one's best i n mind getting along w e l l with others 2. What are the things you need to be healthy? adequate sleep adequate exercise adequate clothes adequate n u t r i t i o n f riends 3. What parts of food does your body need to be healthy? protein f a t carbohydrate vitamins minerals 4. Which nutrients can be used to provide energy? protein carbohydrate f a t vitamins minerals 89 GROUP II There i s only one correct answer to these questions. Pur a check ( ) beside the correct answer 1. What i s the job of vitamins i n the body? Vitamins provide b u i l d i n g blocks f o r the body to grow. Vitamins can be used f o r energy. Vitamins help enzymes. 2. Which nutrients make teeth and bones hard? calcium and i r o n calcium and phosphorus phosphorus and ir o n GROUP III Match the correct word i n the r i g h t column with the words i n the l e f t column. 1 . What are the functions of the food groups? (There may be more than one correct answer) Meat Group 1 . B u i l d Milk Group 2. Repair Vegetable Group 3. Energy F r u i t Group 4. Regulate Regulate How does food get to be used by the body? The food i s broken into 1. Absorbed small pieces. The food goes from the i n t e s t i n e 2. Transported to the blood. The food goes to d i f f e r e n t 3. Digested parts of the body. 90 3. In which food groups do these foods belong? (They may belong i n more than one group.) Ice Cream 1. Meat Group Spinach 2. Cereal Group Cornflakes 3. Milk Group Apple 4. Vegetable Group Chicken 5. F r u i t Group Cheese Hamburger GROUP IV Answer these questions i n your own words. 1. Write the three things that help you know that someone i s healthy j u s t by looking at that person. 2. Box and Cox are two white r a t s . Box i s fed meat, milk, bread, a f r u i t and a vegetable every day. Cox i s fed j e l l y sandwiches, cake or cookies and coffee or pop every day. Is Box healthy? How can you t e l l ? Is Cox healthy? How can you t e l l ? If you wanted to be healthy would you eat Box's food or Cox's food? 91 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Go through each question with the students to ensure that they understand what they are to do. Give students d e f i n i t i o n s of any words they do not understand, as long as your definition-does not answer that or any other question. You may help the students with question number one i n Group IV by suggest-ing to them that when they look at a person they see h i s or her h a i r , face, posture and how that person moves. How would these aspects of a person appear i f he or she were healthy? 92 NAME Put an X beside the foods that you could choose f o r your f r i e n d that would give him a balanced d i e t f o r one day. You may choose a food more than once by putting more than one X by that food. _ % B & c)3)<§ \\ bread milk soup salad carrots H apple cheese juice. grapes. peas cake. coffee tea 62> potato bacon ;ce. crean cereal potato chips meat sanduiicK A CO <®>' k •: homfcujutr chicken cocoa koolaid beets doughnut* 99 peanut butfer ianduich cjraen beans bonana cookies. cheese sandcuich orange. peanuts. rt)i fried! ta+oe\ voo bologna hot dog baked) beans fch pop a d & .A 0 pear i i var hoi cereal spaghetti tomato celery 93 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS The best way to conduct t h i s exercise w i l l be to have the students mark what they would give t h e i r f r i e n d f o r breakfast, then for recess, then for lunch, then for snacks, then f o r supper. They should only mark the number of foods that a ten year old could eat. Emphasize that they should choose foods f o r a balanced d i e t , but do not t e l l them what a balanced d i e t i s . The purpose of the question i s to determine whether or not they know what a balanced d i e t i s . 94 Answer a l l the questions as w e l l as you can. Ask your teacher to t e l l you the meaning of any words that you do not know. This i s what Jan and J i l l each had f o r breakfast. Jan J i l l h grapefruit peanut butter sandwich ( 2 s l i c e s of bread) 1 cup of milk 1 % cup tomatoe j u i c e 1 s l i c e of ham 2 pancakes with syrup 1 cup of milk Which sentence i s more correct? Jan's breakfast i s more n u t r i t i o u s than J i l l ' s Both breakfasts contain foods from four food groups and are adequate. This i s what Paul had to eat one day. Breakfast Lunch Snack Toast Butter Milk Grape Pop Supper Pork Chop Mashed Potatoes Bread and Butter Peach Ice Cream Cheese Sandwich Apple Chocolate Cake Milk SG HOW many servings did Paul have from the Vegetable Group? servings. How many servings are recommended f o r children f o r the Vegetable Group? two servings three servings four servings How many more servings of vegetables does Paul need to have a balanced diet? He would not need any more servings. He would need two more servings. He would need three more servings. He would need four servings. 96 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Mention that to get the answer to the l a s t question, a l l the students have to do i s subtract the number of vegetable servings that Paul ate from the number recommended on the Canada's Food Guide. Do not, however, t e l l them how many are recommended. 97 NAME Put an X under the face which t e l l s how you f e e l when you taste these vegetables. If you have never tasted a vegetable, put an X i n the Never Tasted column. Never Tasted Carrots Peas Beans Squash Cabbage Bean Sprouts Potatoes Yams Celery Lettuce Eggplant Beets Mushrooms Turnip Green Pepper Spinach Corn Onions Zucchini You may add other vegetables to the l i s t , 98 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Each c h i l d must put one X for every vegetable l i s t e d . If a c h i l d thinks of another vegetable he/she may add i t to the l i s t . You are out f o r dinner with a f r i e n d . You may order whatever you wish from the menu. Your menu i s the foods i n the p i c t u r e s . * On t h i s paper, write the numbers of the foods you w i l l choose f o r your dinner. Do you l i k e the foods that you w i l l order? W i l l you eat a l l that you have ordered? * Food Models available from: Milk Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, L i s t of Foods Offered f o r Free Meal Choice apple bread b r o c c o l i cake candy carrots chicken coffee cookies french f r i e d potatoes hamburger hot dog ice cream j e l l o macaroni and cheese milk peanut butter sandwich peas pie potato salad s o f t drink stew 101 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS T e l l the students to take the pictures out of the envelopes. T e l l the students to look at the p i c t u r e s c a r e f u l l y . Then read the question with them, again giving d e f i n i t i o n s where necessary. T e l l the students to pick out the foods they would l i k e to order f o r one meal. Then have them put the other foods back i n the envelope. Have them answer the questions. 102 NAME The foods that I have eaten since I woke up t h i s morning are: The foods that I have eaten f o r lunch and f o r snacks since the morning record are: The foods that I ate between the noon record and bedtime are: 103 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS MORNING RECORD When the students are ready to begin t h e i r school day, have the students write down i n the space provided everything they have eaten since they woke up. Emphasize that they should write down e.g. _3 cookies, not j u s t cookies, and i f they had cereal with milk and sugar that the milk and sugar should be included, LUNCH RECORD This should include any food eaten at recess and during the lunch break. If a sandwich was eaten, the student should record how many s l i c e s of bread i t included and the type of f i l l i n g . Mention that they should think about what they are eating so that they w i l l be able to record accurately a l l the food they eat from lunch to bedtime. EVENING RECORD At the beginning of the second morning, the students should record a l l food eaten during the afternoon, at supper and between supper and bedtime of the previous day. To help them remember go step by step from a f t e r the lunch break to bedtime. APPENDIX C PRE- AND POST-TESTS Page Knowledge Test 105 Teacher's Instructions 109 Scoring System 110 Menu Planning Test 111 Teacher's Instructions 112 Scoring System 113 Analysis of Diet Test 116 Teacher's Instructions 117 Scoring System 118 Vegetable A t t i t u d e Test 119 Teacher's Instructions 120 Scoring System 121 Free Food Meal Choice Test 122 L i s t of Foods Offered 123 Teacher's Instructions 124 Scoring System 125 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l 127 Teacher's Instructions 128 Scoring System 129 Parent Questionnaire 130 Scoring System 131 104 105 NAME Answer a l l the questions as we l l as you can. Ask your teacher to t e l l you the meaning of any words that you do not know. GROUP I You may see more than one correct answer to these questions. Put a check mark ( ) beside each of the correct answers that you see. 1. What does "good health" mean? . —• being at one's best i n body being at one's best i n mind getting along well with others 2. What do you need to be healthy? adequate sleep adequate toys adequate n u t r i t i o n ' adequate clothes adequate books adequate exercise 3. What parts of food does your body need to be healthy? protein carbohydrate f a t vitamins minerals 4. Which nutrients can be used to provide energy? protein carbohydrate f a t vitamins minerals 106 GROUP II There i s only one correct answer to these questions. Put a checkmark ( ) beside the correct answer. 1. What i s the job of vitamins i n the body? Vitamins provide b u i l d i n g blocks f o r the body to grow. Vitamins can be used f or energy. Vitamins help enzymes. 2. Which nutrients make teeth and bones hard? calcium and ir o n calcium and phosphorus iron and phosphorus Group III Match the correct word i n the r i g h t column with the words i n the l e f t column. 1. What Food Group i s the main source of each of these nutrients? protein 1. Milk Group calcium 2. F r u i t and Vegetable Group vitamins 3. Meat Group carbohydrates 4. Cereal Group iro n 2. How does the food get to be used by the body? The food i s broken into 1. Absorbed small pieces. The food goes from the 2. Transported i n t e s t i n e to the blood. 3. Digested The food goes to d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. 107 3. How many servings of each of the Four boy or g i r l need? F r u i t and Vegetable Group Milk Group Meat Group Cereal Group Food Groups does a ten year old 1. one 2. one and one-half 3. two 4. three 5. four 6. f i v e 108 GROUP IV Answer these questions i n your own words. 1. Write the three things that t e l l you someone i s healthy when you look at that person. 2. Box and Cox are two white r a t s . Box i s fed meat, milk, bread, a f r u i t or vegetable every day. Cox i s fed j e l l y sandwiches, cake or cookies and coffee or pop every day. Is Box healthy? Is Cox healthy? 3. Write down the four ways your body uses food. 109 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Go through each question with the students to ensure that they understand what they are to do. Give the students d e f i n i t i o n s of any words they do not understand, as long as your d e f i n i t i o n does not answer that or any other question. You may help the students with question number one i n Group IV by suggest-ing to them that when they look at a person they see h i s or her h a i r , face, posture and how that person moves. How would these aspects of a person appear i f he or she were healthy? 110 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE KNOWLEDGE TEST 1 point given f o r each correct answer. T o t a l Points Possible: 38 points. I l l NAME Put an X beside the foods that you could choose f or your f r i e n d that would give him a balanced d i e t f o r one day. You may choose a food more than once by putting more than one X by that food. bread candy milk soup salad jftlly carrots cheese grapes. peas cake. coffee apple tea potato bacon /ce. crearr cereal potato chips, rneat sanduiich homturcjer chicken CO cocoa koolaid beets dougkriut &9 peanut ianduicK cjraen bears } banana cookies cheese sandwich ^ ) orange peanuts . ncK Fried taloev bologna hot dog baked beans pop nee pear It vex Kot cereal ioaoKetri 0 tomato celery 112 TEACHER1' S INSTRUCTIONS The best way to conduct t h i s exercise w i l l be to have the students mark what they would give t h e i r f r i e n d for breakfast, then for recess, then for lunch, then f o r snacks, then for supper. They should only mark the number of foods that a ten year old could eat. Emphasize that they should choose foods for a balanced d i e t , but do not t e l l them what a balanced d i e t i s . The purpose of the question i s to determine whether or not they know what a balanced d i e t i s . 113 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE MENU PLANNING TEST Cereal Group: 1 point each, bread prepared cereal r i c e hot cereal hot dog bun spaghetti Cereal Group: 2 points each• sandwiches hamburger bun F r u i t and Vegetable Group: 1 point each soup salad carrots apple peas grapes j u i c e potato hamburger green beans banana orange pear tomato celery beets Meat: 1 point each meat sandwich bacon hamburger chicken eggs peanuts peanut butter sandwich bologna roast beef hot dog f i s h baked beans l i v e r 114 Milk; 1 point each milk cheese i c e cream cereal cocoa cheese sandwich hot cereal Extra Foods: 1 point each candy j e l l y coffee tea potato chips ko o l - a i d pop Foods: two \ points cake: cereal, extra food doughnut: c e r e a l , extra food cookies: c e r e a l , extra food f r e n c h - f r i e d potatoes: f r u i t and vegetable, extra food The t o t a l points f o r each food group was recorded. The d i e t was scored i n the following way, based on the requirements of 9 - 1 0 year o l d children as described by the D a i l y Food Guide Score Sheet.* * A v a i l a b l e from the.,Milk-Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, 115 Cereals - 2 points each serving, maximum 6 points. F r u i t s and Vegetables - 2 points each serving, plus 1 point f o r a Vitamin C source, maximum 7 points. Meat - 2 points each % serving, maximum 6 points Milk - 2 points each serving, maximum 6 points. T o t a l points for extra foods was recorded as scored. 116 NAME This i s what Paul had to eat one day: Breakfast Lunch Snack Supper Toast Butter Milk Cheese Sandwich Apple Chocolate Cake Mi l k Grape Pop Pork Chop Mashed Potatoes Bread and Butter Ice Cream Name the foods that Paul ate from the: F r u i t and Vegetable Group Milk Group Meat Group Cereal Group If Paul wanted to eat a balanced d i e t , how many more servings does he need to eat from the: F r u i t and Vegetable Group  Milk Group  Meat Group Cereal Group 117 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Mention that to get the answer to the l a s t question, a l l the students have to do i s subtract the number of servings of each Food Group that Paul ate from the number recommended on Canada's Food Guide. Do not, however, t e l l them how many are recommended. SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DIET TEST C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Foods: 1 point f o r each correct answer. T o t a l possible,. 11 points. Incorrect score also t o t a l l e d . 1 point f o r each i n c o r r e c t answer. Food Rules. 1 point f o r each correct answer. T o t a l p o s s i b l e , 4 points. 119 Put an X under the face which t e l l s how you f e e l when you taste these vegetables. If you have never tasted a vegetable, put an X i n the Never Tasted column. Carrots Peas Beans Squash Cabbage Bean Sprouts Potatoes Yams Celery Lettuce Eggplant Beets Mushrooms Turnip  Green Pepper  Spinach  Corn Onions Zucchini You may add other vegetables to the l i s t . 120 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS Each c h i l d must put one X f o r every vegetable l i s t e d . I f a c h i l d thinks of another vegetable, he or she may add i t to the l i s t . 121 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE VEGETABLE ATTITUDE TEST Total number of points were recorded f o r each column of a t t i t u d e s . 122 NAME You are out for dinner with a f r i e n d . You may order any of the foods that you see i n the pictures .* Put the pictures of the foods that you WILL NOT ORDER back i n the envelope. Now put your dinner on your desk so that you can see a l l the foods that you ordered. Do you l i k e the foods that you ordered? Why did you choose the foods that you ordered? W i l l you be able to eat a l l the food that you ordered? I f you cannot eat a l l the food that you ordered, what w i l l you leave? On the pi c t u r e s of the food, you can see black numbers. Write the numbers of the food that you ordered i n the space below. Put the pictures back i n the envelope. *Food Models a v a i l a b l e from; Milk-Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, L i s t of Foods Offered f or Free Meal Choice apple bread b r o c c o l i cake candy carrots chicken coffee cookies fr e n c h . f r i e d potatoes hamburger hot dog i c e cream j e l l o macaroni and cheese milk peanut butter sandwich peas pie potato salad s o f t drink stew 124 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS T e l l the students to take the pictures out of the envelopes. T e l l the students to look at the pictures c a r e f u l l y . Then read the questions with them, again giving d e f i n i t i o n s where necessary. T e l l the students to pick out the foods they would l i k e to order f o r one meal. Then have them put the other foods back i n the envelope. Have them proceed to answer the questions. 125 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE FREE FOOD MEAL CHOICE TEST F i r s t Question 1 point for p o s i t i v e response. 0 points for negative response. Second Question 1 point f o r " L i k i n g " reasons. 1 point for "Health" reasons. Third Question No score given since the question was rela t e d to the fourth question. Fourth Question Foods l i s t e d were scored as "Rejected Foods". T o t a l numbers of Rejected Foods were recorded f o r each food group. F i f t h Question 1. A l l foods chosen were c l a s s i f i e d into the four food groups or as an extra food. Extra foods were c l a s s i f i e d as foods providing few nutrients for the number of c a l o r i e s present. Extra foods were candy, coffee, j e l l o , lemon-meringue p i e , soft drinks. Foods which were scored as % cereal and % extra foods were cake and cookies. French-fried potatoes were scored as % f r u i t and vegetable, \ extra food. The food choices were scored i n the following way. Cereal - 2 points for each serving, maximum 2 points. F r u i t s and Vegetables - 2 points each serving, maximum 2 points. Meat - 2 points each % serving, maximum 2 points. 126 Milk - 2 points each serving, maximum 2 points. T o t a l possible score, 8 points. The number of extra foods chosen was recorded. 2. The number of rejected foods i n each food group was then subtracted from the food group t o t a l . The remaining t o t a l f o r each food group was scored as above to deter-mine whether there was a difference i n the scores of foods chosen and the scores of foods which would be eaten. 127 NAME The foods that I have eaten since I woke up this morning are: The foods that I have eaten since the Morning Record, f o r lunch and for snacks are: The foods that I ate between the Noon Record and bedtime were: 128 TEACHER'S INSTRUCTIONS MORNING RECORD When the students are ready to begin t h e i r school day, have them write down in the space provided everything they have eaten since they woke up. Emphasize that they should write down q u a n t i t i e s , e.g. .3 cookies, and i f they had cereal with milk and sugar that the milk and sugar should be included. LUNCH RECORD This should include food eaten at recess and during the lunch break. I f a sandwich was eaten, the student should record how many s l i c e s of bread i t included and the type of f i l l i n g . Mention that they should think about what they are eating a f t e r school so that they w i l l be able to record a l l the food they eat from lunch to bedtime. EVENING RECORD At the beginning of the second morning, the students should record a l l food eaten during the afternoon, at supper and between supper and bedtime of the previous day. To help them remember go step by step from a f t e r the lunch break to bedtime. 129 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE 24-HOUR DIETARY RECALL Each food eaten was c l a s s i f i e d into the four food groups and/or the extra food group. The t o t a l number f o r each of the groups was recorded. The d i e t was scored i n the following way, based on the requirements for 9 - 1 0 year o l d children as described by the D a i l y Food Guide Score Sheet*. Cereals - 2 points each serving, maximum 6 points. F r u i t s and Vegetables - 2 points each serving plus 1 point f o r a source of vitamin C, maximum 7 points. Meat - 2 points each ^ serving, maximum 6 points. Milk - 2 points each serving, maximum 6 points. *Available from the'-Ml-lk—Founda-t-ion of .British,Columbia, THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 8, CANADA 130 SCHOOL OF HOME ECONOMICS February 28, 1973 Dear Parent: As you know, f o r the past s i x weeks your c h i l d has been p a r t i -c i p a t i n g i n a n u t r i t i o n education p i l o t study. I t would be very h e l p f u l to those conducting the study to have your answers to the following questions. Please have your c h i l d return t h i s l e t t e r with your answers i n the spaces provided, as soon as p o s s i b l e . Thank you for your co-operation. Sincerely, (Mrs.) Joyce Mackay School of Home Economics, U. B. C. In the past s i x weeks have you noticed any change i n your c h i l d ' s attitudes or ideas about foods, or any change i n your c h i l d ' s eating habits? If you have noticed any change at a l l please describe the change. 131 SCORING SYSTEM FOR THE PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE 1 point f o r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e change; 0 points f o r negative or no change. APPENDIX D LESSON PLANS 132 133 LESSON PLAN 1 Generalization 1 Behavioral Objectives To maintain optimum health one must eat a balanced d i e t , have adequate cloth i n g , get enough sleep and enough exercise. The student w i l l demonstrate his understanding of term 'optimum health' by drawing a picture of someone who i s healthy. The picture w i l l i l l u s -t r a t e the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of health: shiny h a i r , good posture, strong teeth, clear s k i n , b r i g h t eyes, able to get along well with others, t r y i n g to do as we l l as possible and l o t s of energy, Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) 5 •>- 2 5 10 15 A c t i v i t y Introduce the class to the purpose of the pro-gram. Ask the students what they think such a program w i l l do for them. When you think of someone r e a l l y being healthy, what do you think this person looks, f e e l s and acts l i k e ? When you think of someone being un-healthy, what do you think this person looks, f e e l s and acts l i k e ? Write the students' answers on the board under the two headings -Health and Unhealthy. Show pictures of people from posters and maga-zines and ask the students which ones look l i k e healthy and unhealthy people. Ask how they can t e l l . R.ead pages 2-6 from Annie Apple's G i f t . Ask the students to draw Annie and Prince Michael and to write which one they think i s healthy and which one i s unhealthy. Ask the students to act out these s i t u a t i o n s : You are on the playground of the school. You are j u s t l i k e Annie Apple and are very healthy. It i s lunch time and you are playing with your other very healthy f r i e n d s . You are on the playground of the school. You do not have good health habits and are not as healthy as you could be. You are playing with your f r i e n d s . Equipment Blackboard, Chalk Pictures "Annie Apple's G i f t " story* * Available from the Milk Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, You are very healthy but you are playing with your friends who are very unhealthy. Have the r e s t of the class guess who i s healthy. 135 LESSON PLAN 2 Generalization I To maintain optimum health one must eat a balanced d i e t , have adequate c l o t h i n g , get enough sleep and enough exercise. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l write the important ingredients of good health. The student w i l l demonstrate his understanding that good health requires good health habits by comparing i n class Annie Apple's health and habits with Prince Michael's health and h a b i t s . The student w i l l demonstrate h i s acceptance of the importance of good health habits by comparing his or her health habits with Annie Apple and s t a t i n g i n class what needs, to be improved. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) 5 A c t i v i t y Read the remainder of the story Annie Apple's G i f t . Discussion of the story. Why was Annie so healthy and strong? What are some other good health habits we a l l should have? Did Prince Michael have any good health habits? Read the health poem. Have the c h i l d r e n say what the blanks should be. Equipment "Annie Apple's G i f t " story Poem from the story with health habits l e f t blank. 10 Have each student look very c a r e f u l l y i n the mirror to decide i f he or she looks healthy. 5 What are your health habits? Do you get enough sleep? Do you wash every day? Do you play every day? Do you wear warm clothes when you should? Do you eat f r u i t , vegetables, milk, meat, f i s h , eggs and cereal? T e l l the class whether you are healthy and what you can do to improve your health h a b i t s . 12 Do you try foods that you have never tasted or do not l i k e ? Introduce zucchini using the vegetable Mystery Box. Mirrors Mystery Box 136 LESSON PLAN 3 Generalization II The body uses food f o r growth, f o r re p a i r and for regulation. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l l i s t f o r four functions of food i n the body: growth, energy, r e p a i r and regula-t i o n . Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y 10 Show pictures which describe the func-tions of food. Have the student i n t e r -pret the pictures so that they i d e n t i f y the functions during the discussion. 15 Students w i l l : Use blocks to show how growth occurs. Use broken china and glue to demon-str a t e r e p a i r . Burn a peanut to learn about food and energy. Play a game without i n s t r u c t i o n s , then with i n s t r u c t i o n s to demonstrate regu-l a t i o n . Equipment Pictures: baby, c h i l d , adult; c h i l d running, c h i l d s i t t i n g ; accident v i c t i m ; cartoon of how mother's presence regu-l a t e s a c t i v i t y . blocks broken saucer glue peanut me t a l cup match 10 Discussion of food and i t s r o l e i n the above a c t i v i t i e s . Ask how they think these functions take place. 1 3 7 L E S S O N P L A N 4 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n I I T h e b o d y u s e s f o o d f o r g r o w t h , f o r r e p a i r , f o r e n e r g y a n d f o r r e g u l a t i o n . B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e s T h e s t u d e n t w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e a t t e n d i n g ( K r a t h w o h l , 1 9 6 4 ) b y e v a l u a t i n g h i s / h e r own d i e t a n d c o n c l u d -i n g t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s e e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f e l i m i n a t i n g g o o d f o o d s f r o m t h e d i e t . L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s T i m e A c t i v i t y E q u i p m e n t ( m i n ) 30 S t u d e n t s w i l l l i s t a l l f o o d s e a t e n i n t h e p a s t 24 h o u r s . T h e y w i l l t h e n e v a l u a t e t h e d i e t a s d e s c r i b e d o n G u i d e t o G o o d E a t i n g E v e r y D a y * . 1 0 T h r o u g h c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , d i s c o v e r w h a t t h e s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e w i l l h a p p e n i f t h e y d o n ' t e a t p r o p e r l y . * A v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e M i l k F o u n d a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 138 Generalization II LESSON PLAN 5 The body uses food for growth, f o r repair, for energy and for regulation.' Behavioral Objective The student w i l l demonstrate h i s understanding of the importance of good n u t r i t i o n f o r optimum growth, energy, repair and health by comparing the e f f e c t s of a good d i e t and a poor diet on two groups of white r a t s . Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y Explain the o u t l i n e of the animal feeding demon-s t r a t i o n * Equipment 5 Discuss the two di e t s to be given to the r a t s . 5 Children w i l l name the r a t s . 10 Children w i l l weigh the rats and record the weight. 10 Children w i l l observe appearance and behavior of the r a t s . Food Models* Weighing can Scale Rats Cages * Av a i l a b l e from the Milk Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, See also Harden and Lamb (1970). 139 Generalization II LESSON PLAN 6 The body uses food for growth, f o r energy, f o r r e p a i r and f o r regulation. Behavioral Objective The student w i l l s e l e c t simple d e f i n i t i o n s of diges-t i o n , absorption and transport. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) 35 A c t i v i t y Discussion - when we eat a potato can we see that potato l a t e r on our body? - No! That means something must happen to the potato before our body uses i t . We a c t u a l l y eat food to get nutrients - p r o t e i n , v i t a -mins, minerals, carbohydrate and f a t . Where does a potato s t a r t changing. DIGESTION Cut i t with a k n i f e on the p l a t e . chew (mash with a f o r k ) . s a l i v a - sugar t e s t before and a f t e r . swallow - push pea down straw. stomach - acid - rennet, .1NHC1, milk b i l e action - f a t , water, detergent Equipment p l a t e , k n i f e , fork, Benedict's rennet, milk .1NHC1, o i l water, detergent, 2 j a r s 140 LESSON PLAN 7 Generalization II The body uses food f o r growth, f o r energy, f o r repair and f o r regulati o n . Behavioral Objective The student w i l l s e l e c t simple d e f i n i t i o n s of diges-t i o n , absorption and transport. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) 10 10 A c t i v i t y ABSORPTION -Place paper napkin over a cup, sugar on napkin, pour warm water over sugar. Taste sugar water i n cup. TRANSPORT -Have each student f e e l pulse, imagine nutrients being pushed through the body with each pulse. Equipment sugar, warm water, paper napkin c i r c u l a t i o n chart 10 Student Discussion of: digestion, absorption, transport, to reinforce simple meanings of these terms. 10 The f i v e nutrients needed are: carbohydrate protein f a t vitamins minerals Describe the functions of each i n t h e i r bodies. 141 LESSON PLAN 8 Generalization II The body uses food f o r growth, f o r r e p a i r , f o r energy and for r e g u l a t i o n . Behavioral Objective The student w i l l demonstrate h i s knowledge that foods are grouped by t h e i r n u t r i e n t content by s t a t i n g the major nutrient found i n each of the four food groups. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y Equipment 40 Have each student perform at l e a s t two of the follow-ing t e s t s . STARCH cookie potato orange bread macaroni milk meat cornstarch foods, te s t tubes iodine PROTEIN feather foods h a i r hot plate meat aluminum f o i l eggs orange bread VITAMIN C orange foods apple j u i c e (vitaminized) apple bread cheese CALCIUM d e c a l c i f y chicken bone i n vinegar chicken bone vinegar j a r 142 Generalize from the tests about how the food groups were formed: cereal - starch or carbohydrate (plus vitamins) f r u i t and vegetables - vitamins and minerals, meat - pr o t e i n and i r o n milk - calcium and phosphorus 143 LESSON PLAN 9 Generalization I I The body uses food for growth, for repair, for ener and for regulation. Behavioral Objectives The student w i l l demonstrate his understanding of the importance of nutrients by id e n t i f y i n g the d i f -ferences between the two sets of rate on the d i f f e r ent d i e t s . The student w i l l i d e n t i f y the groups to which various foods belong. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) 20 15 A c t i v i t y Students w i l l weigh rats and record weights. Students w i l l compare the two sets of rats: - weights - appearance - temperament - a c t i v i t y Grocery bag game to i d e n t i f y food groups. Equipment rats, scale, weighing can coloured flash card empty food cartons, cans, etc. 5 Mystery box - yams hot yams cold yams 144 Generalization III  Behavioral Objectives Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y LESSON PLAN 10 A balanced d a i l y d i e t must include a wide variety of foods from each of the four food groups. The student w i l l be able to l i s t the recommended number of servings for each food group for his/her age. The student w i l l evaluate his/her own d i e t and sug-gest changes to improve i t . Each student w i l l l i s t foods eaten f o r past 24 hours. Then score diets as shown on pamphlet -based on number of recommended servings. Change to make perfect score. Guide to Good Eating* Divide class into 5 groups. Give each group a d i e t . Have them make the d i e t a balanced one. Show and t e l l at the end of the period. 5 poor diets on large flashcards * A v a i l a b l e from the Milk Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, 145 LESSON PLAN 11 Generalization III A balanced d a i l y d i e t must include a wide var i e t y of foods from each of the four food groups. Behavioral Objective Given a wide v a r i e t y of foods, a student w i l l s e l e c t a balanced d i e t for one day. Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y Equipment 20 Divide class into 5 groups. Food Models* Set up 5 restaurants. Choose balanced meals for whole day. Discuss choices with each group. 20 Same groups. Plan a balanced breakfast they w i l l prepare next day. Plan who w i l l do the work. * Available from the Milk Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, 146 LESSON PLAN 12 Generalization III A balanced d a i l y d i e t must include a wide v a r i e t y of foods from each of the four food groups. Behavioral Objective The student w i l l prepare a balanced breakfast that i s fun to eat and n u t r i t i o u s . Learning A c t i v i t i e s Time (min) A c t i v i t y Equipment 25 Prepare and eat breakfast. as l i s t e d by students 8 Analyze the breakfasts - food groups - nutrients - taste good? - good f o r you? 7 Observe changes in. r a t s , e s p e c i a l l y since change from poor to good d i e t . APPENDIX E Page Legend to Test Names 148 147 148 LEGEND TO TEST NAMES KNO Knowledge Test BDS Menu Planning - Score BDE Menu Planning - Number of Extra Foods Chosen ADC Analysis of Die t - Number of Correct Answers ADI Analysis of Die t - Number of Incorrect Answers FRS Analysis of Die t - Food Rules Score Free Food Meal Choice Test: LIK Like Reasons HEA Health Reasons SWR Score with Rejected Foods SNR Score without Rejected Foods EWR Extra Foods Chosen Including Rejected Foods ENR Extra Foods Chosen Without Rejected Foods RES 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l Score REE 24-Hour Dietary R e c a l l Extra Foods Vegetable Attitude Test: ATI Like Very Much AT2 Like AT3 Neither Like Nor D i s l i k e AT 4 D i s l i k e AT 5 Hate AT6 Never Tasted PAR Parent Questionnaire R A W S C O R E S F O R P R E T E S T S S T U D E N T N U M B E R am- a a - « a P R E T E S T S " K t t f l B t > 3 BxJE frDi- F-^ S-a a 9 w « -H&A- -s-wt- -sw*—-e*m-a 9 - « • w m a m P R E T E S T S - 9 - a - a a R * S R £ 1 E t\rH A - T - 2 A + 3 A T 4 A T 5 G R O U P 1 ~ 1 2 3 4 6 7 — r 1 0 - i l -i a 13 1 5 1 6 - t r -i e 1 9 - 2 3 -2 1 2 2 ~ 2 3 ~ 2 4 2 5 - 2 6 ~ 2 7 2 8 3 1 32 G R O U P 1 7 -rs-8 1 8 2 2 2 4 2 1 1 4 2 0 ~ 2 5 ~ 2 5 2 S 0 0 • 5 0 3 . 5 6 S 9 0 - e -o o i 1 0 6 4 0 0 "ttr 1 6 1 5 ~tr i s 1 9 0 0 -rr 1 6 2 0 " 2 - 5 " ' 2 5 •as — o -0 4 3 2 5 0 7 6 0 2 -Q-0 0 4 7 0 0 1 2 9 -Th 1 6 1 7 - 1 9 -1 6 2 1 -29-2 5 1 6 . 5 9 . 0 5 3 0 0 3 5 1 0 4 1 0 0 -20-1 8 1 7 - i - r 1 0 1 8 - 2 5 -2 4 2 5 - t 9 -1 6 2 S - 6 5 -0 0 ~ 2 3 ~ 0 3 5 8 2 0 1 - 7 -9 9 1 6 2 0 - 2 3 -4 . 5 3 . 0 1 9 1 9 - 2 1 — a»3 - t : 0 -2 0 3 . 0 -33-'•1 7 8 0 0 -r 1 0 3 5 0 4 0 2 1r 8 6 - 0 -3 0 4 8 - 5 — 53 3 2 2 0 . 8 - 0 — 0 1 _ 2 — 2 3 -2— o.c 0 -o-0 0 0 0 - 0 -0 0 1 0 - 0 -0 0 3-0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 -e-0.1 6 . 0 - f r 0 -6 . 0 - 8 3 -4 . 0 6 . 0 ~ 8 3 ~ 6 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 6 . 0 8 : 0 -6 . 0 8 . 0 - f t 0 -6 . 0 4 - 0 6 . 0 4 . 0 - 6 0 8 , 0 8 . 0 8 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 - 8 3 8 3 8 . 0 8 . 0 - 6 . 0 -8 . 0 6 . 0 - 6 3 -8 . 0 6 0 ~Q~G~ 8 0 6 0 - 6 3 ~ 8 . 0 8 . 0 - 8 3 -6 . 0 8 . 0 - 5 0 -G.8 6 . 0 8 0 ~ 6 3 ~ 8 0 6 . 0 - 6 3 -8 . 0 6 0 - 8 - 0 -8 . 0 4 0 - * 3 ~ 8 . 0 8 . 0 - 8 0 -6 - 0 8 0 - 5 0 -t-7 0 - t s -1 . 5 1 0 — 0 -1 0 3 0 - 3 0 -3 0 1 - 5 ~ i 5 ~ 4 . 5 S — 0 -4 0 2 . 0 — 0 ~ 0 -tSr 1 - 5 0 — 0 -0 3 0 - 3 0 -3 . 0 1 . 5 - 3 5 -2 0 - t o -1 6 2 4 2 0 1 8 -i-o-1 8 1 4 ~ 2 ' 3 ~ 0 — 5 -1 . 0 1 0 —s~ 1 . 0 3 - 0 — 0 -1 0 1 . 0 ~ 3 S ~ 4 5 8 ~ 6 -3 - 3 -4 3 3 - 2 -2 5 • 5 " 1 3 -4 - 5 • • 5 — 0 -1 0 2 0 — 0 -2 5 •5 - t o -1 7 1 8 - 2 3 -1 6 1 7 - 1 - 8 -2 2 2 0 - 2 5 -1 . 0 3 - 0 -85-6 1 3 — 0 -3 3 —tit 4 1 1 - 9 -0 1 0 1 - 0 -7 0 3 . 0 ,3 1 1 1 3 -9 4 1 0 - 4 -5 2 -4 1 -3-1 2 3 5 ' 2 2 ~i~ 2 0 -s-3 3 -2-2 0 - 0 -.8-0 - 0 -1 1 2 . 0 1 . 0 7 . 0 1 . 5 — 0 -3 0 3 5 0 2 . 0 - 2 3 -1.3 2 0 1 0 -+0-7 0 1 0 — 0 -3 0 3 . 5 1 - 5 0 2 0 - 2 3 -i - 7 2 5 1 6 - 2 3 -1 4 1 4 -Hr 1 8 2 0 - 1 - 8 -1 6 2 2 1 - 9 -<8.3 0 0 0 1 0 — 0 -4 - 5 4 5 1 0 0 13-/4 S 1 3 — 8 -1 6 S — 9 -9 9 5 4 - 6 — 7 . 3 4 0 - 0 -0 4 \r 3 1 ~ 3 ~ 2 3 -4-3 0 -0-0 2 -©-0 3 0 -0-0 0 2 0 3-3 1 -8-.2 -6-1 :3 -1-0 0 0 a.5 0 4 3 3 2 0 0 1 3 3 -1 0 ~ 3 -2^  1 - f -5 8 3 0 - 3 -2" 3 - 4 -2.. 2 2 3 6 -0 I 0 1 §. -0-1.3 0 2 6 1 -5 6 ~ 5 ~ S 4 - 5 -1 1 5 5-- 3 -9 - 3 ' - " 3 ~ - 3 ' 6 - 3 -S 3 • 3 . 3 - 9 -0 2 - 4 -5.3 9 9 - 3 — 3 3 3 4 - 3 5 -3 6 3 7 - 3 8 -3 9 4 0 - 4 1 -4 2 4 3 4 5 1 5 1 0 - 2 1 -7 1 7 -j-3-7 1 7 —s-1 3 1 1 - 9 -1 4 •2S 2 5 - 2 5 -2 3 2 5 2 5 -2 0 2 2 - 2 5 -2 3 2 0 as 3 0 1 . 5 —5-3 . 5 4 . 0 - 4 5 -1 - 5 1 - 5 - 2 3 -2 5 1 0 ~ 2 . 5 -2 . 5 6 - 4 -1 2 - 7 -4 4 - 5 -6 7 4 - 3 -1 1 0 1 3 -0 1 0 - 0 -0 0 - 3 -0 0 - 3 -0 0 - 0 -0 0 - 3 -0 0 _ h 0 0 - 0 -0 0 3~ 8 . 0 8 . 0 - 6 3 -ao 6 . 0 - 6 . 0 -6 . 0 6 . 0 - 8 3 -8 . 0 8 0 ao 6 3 8 . 0 - 6 3 -8 0 6 . 0 - 6 . 0 -6 0 4 0 - 8 3 -8 . 0 8 0 U.Q 8 0 0 2 . 5 - 3 3 -l . 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A 3.0 A 3.0 ft 15 1.0 6 1 1 2 3 6 69 70 7 i 1 a 20 — 6 2a 21 2 3 1.5 25 — r 5 a 7 6 1 3 — l V 0 1 — A 1 u 0 0 ft o.u 8.0 8.0 ft ft 6.0 60 ft n 0 2.0 00 Q 20 2.5 — i a — 10 21 —25 2.0 0 0 6 5 —1 0 2 — 0 — 0 3 - — 2 3 2 3 0 3 — 9 6 0 72 73 7-a 10 17 13 2a 21 ~ - 2 - 3 — * 0 2.0 — j 3 9 5 — g A I 2 3 w 0 1 — g ! w 0 0 _ 0 o . u 60 80 -vfl O.v 6.0 8.0 ft .9 .5 •5 1 ft ~ T> .5 .S E 1 g — 23 13 3 h — 25 0 — 7 -9 8 — 0 0 3 A — 1 — 0 3 A — T 2 0 2 A —2 •3' 2 — 7 7 1 75 76 Tf 16 15 H r 25 25 •5 6.5 —23 8 6 — 7 2 a — a I* 2 0 ! 0 0 0 84) 2-0 /1 ft o . u 8.0 2.0 /1 ft i-sU 23 35 < ft 3 •2-5 35 < ft — e - U 23 23 Q 2.0 .5 rt — 9 13 10 0 0 2 A — 0 0 1 — 0 0 2 — S 0 2 — S 6 2 78 79 —fweArro 16 10 — i ^ t t — 21 23 —ota~Sc— 1-5 20 ~Q f 6 a — — 0 a —j9—m a 0 J w 1 0 64 80 *».y 6.0 80 1.0 15 1 / — H > 10 15 — * - ? 21 23 9 5 3.0 9 13 7 — 0 0 i — 0 0 1 — 0 1 0 — 5 -1 3 — 5 a 7 GROUP 5 8-0 - H —25 -3-O (o.O — 9 — 2 LO — 1 0 ft fl ft t».iT Rft Ms n n I . S " "3 ft — r ^ ~ 7 — «> 1 IrA s c — < A 0 : 2 — A —0 ; S — r a — 5.3 81 82 8-3 23 19 -1-2 2a 20 —2-3 5 to —t-o 9 10 — 9 2 0 — Q # 1 1 1 \ V 0 0 ft o.u 6.0 6.0 h ft o . u 6.0 6.0 A f t .5 0 ft —ca S 0 A — C - 3 25 17 O B —<53i 0 30 A —1-0 5 0 — 0 2 •5-—2^ 5 2 A — 0 1 ;2 — 3 2 0 — a a 2 ea 16 25 2.5 9 V 1 4 2 1 0 P.W 8.0 8.0 u 0 tf-0 —e-3 21 0 3-0 — § • 5 — a i — 0 3 — 0 1 — 1 -0 — g 5 R A W S C O R E S FOR P R E T E S T S 151 ••-••••a -w • P R E T E S T S • • ••• • •«••» •w--9- «• P R E T E S T'-S ••« <••-• —STUDENT NUMBER — f i e r i H P — i s -KNO BBS BDE ADC API FRS U K HEA SWR SNR EWR ENR RES REE ATI AT2 AT3 AT4 AT5 —A-T-6 < 85 ft* 16 i~ti 25 9-t .5 — t f - f t 9 Q 1 A 1 4—: 1 4 0 rt 8.0 rt rt 8.0 1.5 0 21 -.8/ 9 1 0 0 •2 7 o o 87 88 an 1 M 19 19 — ? P C J 24 23 — 0 10 «-fS O 9 7 4-ft V 0 2 1 1 1 0 B 1 I 1 A Q 0 0 4 8.0 80 8.0 - V A 8.0 8.0 8.0 i_ A IS .5 50 „ , , A 15 .5' 45 • A 18 :24 19 — t s ^ — 1.0 5 % ••I. 5 A — - 3 6 1 1 3 •3 — 1 2 0 7 !-a. 6 — r 3 -•3. •8. 90 91 93 c c 17 16 —9tfi C 3 25 20 H9 eo 0 — i s 8 7 t r f l i 0 •2. 4 G 0 1 * u 1 1 4 1 0 0 A 6.0 8.0 —t.-f\ 6.0 8.0 L. A V i.o 2.5 A 0 — to 15 — 22 13 — — 2-0 0 8 7 6 1 0 2 — 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 4 '2 7 ;5'. ~c 93 frfrfli+P— 15 25 3.0 1 V 6 I•2 i.o 1 I.I I 1 O.q w 0 CO 6-0 8-0 7.1 60 80 n.i 0 0 1.0 0 0 0 . 8 22 23 L5 50 /•5 —17 11 7./ 0 2 SI — 0 - — 0 a.o — 0 — 0 0 . 9 0 — -5 —-2-t: 3.7 w r> w W r w 94 -915 is — 1 - 5 25 — 45 — - t t f i 9 1. 2 — f t 0 4 1 A 0 4 60 fl rt 6.0 O A .5 4 A >.S: 18 4.0 i A 9 " g . 0 t :2- •5'. • 3 96 97 n o l «? 13 1? — 1 _ * — 23 23 a r 25 1.0 »-e_ o 4 6 i» u 1 1 4 1 0 2 a W 1 1 a 1 0 0 4 0.0 40 8.0 i . A 0 . 0 4.0 80 L. ft 1-0 2.5 ••s-4 A 1.0 2.S •5 23 23 23 10 6.0 10 A 5 9 10 4 0 4 — - 3 - — 1 1 4 .•a. 0 1 2 I — ^ 5 ' 3 99 100 H r i 15 21 — t - s — 21 25 —i>*5 1-3 5.0 1-5 t r f l •4 6 9 9 i 0 1 A u 1 1 A V 1 1 . 4 1 0 0 A p-U : 80 8.0 A n O.V 80 6.0 Q A VP3.5 1,0 10 35 0 23 24 20 3.0 to 9 7 10 — q 1 2 — - 2 - — 2 0 — 0 — 0 0 3 — 7 4 * v * 102 103 t-o-a * 15 24 __^4 c3 25 :25 JWj 0 60 (L-C f 6 9 a U 0 2.. A u 0 0 1 I 1 1 . f t 00 0 1 O.v8.0 8.0 iL-A 60 8.0 8.0 un 1-5 1,0 .5 4 C ' 1.3 10 5 4 e 23-25 21 4 0 — — -;5' to 1 A 6 6 11 — 3 4 0 — * — 4 1 — — '2. 3 — * •-8- • 0 —-2 I 4 105 106 HJ-f 20 16 —22 25 23 g3 M.3 15 •5 — 1 - 5 y9 6 — i - f l V 0 0 A * 2 0 n u 1 1 4 1 0 0 ft 80 80 H n o.U 8.0 8.0 n n 1.5 0 • P : 1.3 " 15 0 c 18 18 18 4 a —i©-0 20 A ^ 9 10 —~2-1 3 c -g 2 0 -1 0-0 0 A JL •8. 0 — 5 •6: * w r 108 109 4-4-A 22 12 —15 •as-18 —«a 20 3.0 —pf. Jr V 9 4 Q V 0 1 0 1 4 * 1 1 — ...4 V 0 0 - A o.u 6.0 80 A n OA) 60 8.0 an 3 0 4.5 • 9 0 4.5 16 — 20 10 «J A — 9 0 0 4 C 1 — - 5 " •g„ — ^ - — 5 4 — 3 2 5 • a — 0 2 5 A —-0 3 0 — 6 -5 -3" * * w 111 na H-3 * 20 13 — H 23 18 —2-a ••5! 2.0 c-6 6 a 0 0 ft-i 1 0 p 1 I 1 4 u 0 0 n 60 40 ii (\ O.U 6.0 40 /I A 1 - 3 10 to - -> A i-s 10 to 7 A CM 20 20 ^ A — J J | H 35 to rt H 8 9 1 - — 6 1 'a 1-2 Q_ 0 t — i :8: — 3 -!8 a * * 114 us A if 20 14 —i-2 .23 23 — 20 l.S /» A o 6 5 — f . V 1 2 • p s0 1 4 I 1 1 1 u 0 0 rt 60 60 6.0 6.0 t* n 30 5 to 5 10 4 c d 0 19 20 w 1.0 .5' H A — H 8 8 i A —-31 •s-rt —i 0 1 A 0 0 :2. A —-2-•5; i — 3 -•5 117 S i W * % 19 Ik,* -e 25 513.0 15 a-3 w 8 7 - 0 <r 1 0.7 * 1 0.7 0 0 . 8 u 1 0 / 2 -o.w 8.0 US 0*1 80 US 0 /.3 1-P -0 1.2 24 e-0 10 — J H 3 6 g.o g_ 1 A. Co Q0 1.5" — 0 i.o — 7 3 . a —& 3 3.7 EXECUTION TERMINATED SSIGNOFF R A W S C O R E S FOR P O S T T E S T S • • »••/•«»•••• P O S T T E 3- T' S • • m- m »• •»••'»• »> s -B-P 0 S T 'T E:-8 ' T . $•-••••••**•**'••«*•. STUDENT KNO BDS BDE ADC ADI FRS U K HEA SWR SNR EWR ENR RES REE ATI AT2 AT3 ATO AT5 AT6 P*R NUMBER G R O U P 1 j -28 "25 -0 * 0 1 1 0 8 3 8-0 0 0 "23 0 5 3 -3 "0" 4 © 2 2 2 2 5 2.5 6 I 0 1 0 6.0 6.0 2.5 2 5 0 1-0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 ° 3 2 0 2 0 .5 8 0 1 1 0 6 0 6-0 1.0 1 0 2 2 0 5 7 2 3 1 1 ° 0 3 D — g 5 0 I D 0 0 0 1 8:0-- 8 4 0 0 Zi 5 H> 0- 0 ~i i =3 1 5 2 1 2 2 1 0 8 1 1 0 l 0.0 0 0 .5 5 2 2 0 9 1 1 0 6 2 I 6 2 0 2 1 0 6 2 1 1 0 8.0 8.0 0 0 1 6 2 0 6 0 3 1 2 3 6 -1 tn 2 5 5 4 - 6 0 * 1 O ft© -W 2=5 ^ — — H - * 4 - 8- * * 1 ^ * © 8 2 2 1 0 1.0 7 0 0 1 0 & 0 8 0 2 5 2 6 8 2.0 1 2 5 1 6 0 i 9 1 5 2 1 1 5 7 0 0 1 0 8,0 8 4 2.0 2 3 2 5 1.5 5 3 0 3 0 0 0 jrU Tfce 3 4 7 0 1 1 "4 ^ 73 W 1 4 H 0 * * 5 -0 S 0 ' 1 1 1 5 2 5 7.5 5 5 1 1 1 8 4 6.0 3 S 3 5 1 6 3-0 5 5 3 2 2 2 o 1 2 1 8 2 0 1 5 8 0 1 0 1 8.0 a O 3.0 3 4 1 9 0 6 3 0 0 3 3 O M -21» -23 1 4 t 3 2- 0 1 0 6 4 0 4 5 5 H -2=5 H 2- 1 0 ^ 1 G 1 0 3 2 2 0 0 8 0 3 1 0 6.0 6 4 ,5 5 2 5 1.0 1 0 0 2 I I I ® 1 5 1 0 2 0 .5 0 0 2 1 0 8 4 8 4 2 4 .5 2 0 0 0 2 2 1 3 7 © H , 1 5 m 5 1 4 2- 1 0 1 8=0 6 4 ^ & 1-6 1 4 9 0 1 0 * -2 1 1 7 2 3 2 3 .5 1 0 0 3 0 1 6.0 6 0 1-0 0 2 5 0 1 2 0 0 0 5 2 O 1 8 1 5 2 2 1 0 7 0 2 t 0 8.0 8.0 1 4 5 2 5 2 4 1 9 0 0 0 0 0 • 1 9 2 5 2 5 1 3 5 O 0 1 O ft0 a o 1 3 £ H ^33 « 2- 0 0 * 6 © 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 7 2 0 1 0 8 4 8.0 2 5 1.5 1 9 2.0 8 0 0 1 1 1 O 2 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 a o &0 t O 1 4 2 1 1 4 3 0 0 3 3 2 • 2-2 FT 2 5 1 4 9 0 1 0 1 6 4 -63 0 0 1-0 W H> 1 O 0 1 1 ' 2 3 1 5 2 3 0 7 1 0 1 0 8.0 8.0 1 4 1 0 2 3 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 6 3 I 2 0 1 3 2 1 I S 0 1 0 1 0 8 0 8 4 0 0 2 2 1.0 1 2 1 0 0 5 1 I 2 5 1 9 2 t 3 3 9 1 -3 1 O 6 4 -63 0 - 0 fr2 1 3 1 5 -0 -| 1 5 e 2 6 1 2 2 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 6,0 6 4 O 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 I 2 7 2 0 2 2 1 5 7 2 0 1 0 8.0 8 4 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 1 2 6 ' H g- a -§ 6 Q 1 j —Q £ 0 8 4 0 4 H £ 0 ~6 1 5 3 * 2 Q — 2 9 2 9 2 3 0 9 0 0 1 0 8.0 8 4 0 0 1 8 5 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 I 3 0 1 9 1 2 1.5 6 2 2 1 0 8 0 8 4 .5 .5 2 0 SO 2 1 3 1 8 0 o 3 1 1 8 -25 5- 0 -3 0 ~ t 0 8 3 8 4 O 0 H> -24 3- * 1- 0 7 5 © 3 2 2 0 2 5 5 7 0 0 1 0 8 4 a o LO 1.0 2 3 1 4 6 0 2 3 2 g ' (TIEAN ao-i aa.7 7-a ©•* *M o.s 0.3 7.3 7.2. 1 .0 0.8 l7C i-i. 7-7 n-i* ai ©9 3.0 n.s o.»/ wtwp—2-3 3 1 3 2 5 5.0 5 1 1 1 0 6.0 6 4 2.5 2.5 1 6 0 7 0 3 2 0 7 0 3-0 1-2 2 5 1 0 7 3 0 1 9 8 4 8 4 ^ 4 ^23 H 0 5 6 -3 3 — 0 © 3 5 2 1 2 0 .5 0 0 1 1 0 8.0 8.0 2.0 1 4 1 8 0-5 6 0 1 0 3 S o 3 6 1 0 2 5 3.5 0 0 0 1 0 8.0 8 4 3 0 3.0 1 8 1.0 0 5 1 0 1 8 o ^ ^ 4-Q 3 3- 0 } R — R—, b$ -24 -24 1 9 0 9 4 4 1 -2- ^0 Q~~~~ 3 8 1 0 3 0 5 4 6 0 1 0 1 8.0 6 4 1 4 1 4 1 8 2 4 0 0 0 2 1 0 I 3 9 9 2 3 3.5 3 1 0 1 0 8 0 8.0 3 4 2 0 8 0 3 t 2 1 8 0 o 0 3 H 3 5 3 4 3 0 - 0 - 1 0 8 3 8 4 1 3 0 2-2 0 4 — -2- ^ -0 1 -7 0 0 1 1 0 2 5 0.5 5 0 0 1 0 8.0 8.0 5 0 5 0 1 3 0 7 2 0 0 1 9 O 0 2 1 3 2 3 3 4 8 2 2 1 0 8.0 a o 0 0 2 1 0 8 1 1 1 1 7 6 0-3 1-0 2-0 1 0 7 2- 1 1 0 8 3 8 3 2 5 2 5 1-2 1 3 -7 0 0 1 -3- 0 Q 0 0 7 2 5 5.0 6 1 0 1 0 6 0 6 0 2 5 2 5 1 9 .5 3 1 0 0 6 9 I 0 5 1 7 2 5 3 4 8 1 0 1 0 8.0 8 4 1 5 1 5 1 8 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 G R A W ? 5 C 0 R £ S FOR P 0 S T T I S T S 153 ••»•»»•'P 1 3 8 T T E S T S •«•• 'tm-'r' P O S T T E S T ••$:*.*? 1 W W"" '• W" > STUOINT NUMBER KNO 808 BDE ADC ADI FRS U K HEA SWR SNR EWR ENR: RES REE; ATI AT2 ATI AT 4 ATS AT6 < PAR GROUP itk— • 2; —>fi— -SH — — S H » e -9 A ..4.. n / ft L. ft m A m ty ^« 4 A 47 48 — — — — C U 12 9 c \ .25 • 2S CM 5.5 4.5 3 6 _—™a___ e :2: 5 U 0 0 _ / V _ 1 1 1 _—— u 0 0 6.0 ao ao —A-A to 6.0 8.0 13 33 4.5 1,0 3.0 4.5 21 24 22 4 0 13 13 0 r 3 — 7 8 2-6 0 mm . .g-4 2-A 1— 1 :8. 0 0 1 -4 1 6 — 0 O 1 " GROUP 3 T l3.\ *.v 5.2 0 6.1 U o-9 w 0 . 0 O.v 75 7 - 4 179 — 3 — CU _ — _ g . 3 — — l.6> _ @ 0.9 —.— . . a.z — e - — — 0 . 2 . 50 51 12 13 24 25 30 3-0 • 5.5 6 5 5. 0 fl-— 0 1 A— 1 1 1 0 0 4.0 6.0 an „ 4.0 6.0 2.5 3.5 2.5 •3.5" ___A 16 20 15 4 8 2 2 O • 0 3 0 .2 7 T 3 2 A G 53 54 T « M S * 1 12 16 — — >25 -25 ; s -a— 2.0 0 -5 6 7 — 4 3 1 — -xi~— 0 1 « 1 1 4 0 0 ft 8.0 60 ft A 8.0 63 R n .5 3.0 . TIC. — g .5 20 « tr — t ^ F - — — 19 14 13 23 4 c . — f — ~ -3: — ~ 6 r — — •z> I ' A 7 — 4 0 _ 0 _ _ :2 1 5 0 3 9 — O 0 56 S7 13 17 25 •2.5' 3-5 6 7 1 0 • <2 _n I •a. 0 ___4. — 1 1 1 4 u 0 0 8.0 4.0 6.0 2J0 3.3 .5 30 •i-30 16 21 1.? 1.0 13 A — f — ••i. Q 3 3 — 0 3 • 4 J — 1 1 . ' 4 1 2 5-9 4 — 1 1 59 60 mTi 1 I 14 17 4 <y 2S 25 a e — 15 3S 9 7 1 2 —: 4-0 0 A 1 1 ft 0 0 A ao ao ft A 8.0 8.0 1*1 A 13 3.0 Am 10 3.0 TT 18 20 — 0 — 3.5 6.0 4 A ____J__ 14 6 - J — -'2. 2 ;2; 4 0 1 — — i ~ — 1 3 — ^ 9 — — 0 -%• — a — 1 0 O J, 63 63 16 13 —«-*— 25 3TI S.0 3.5 0 5 3 ____«t___ 6 4 1 0 0 0 a 1 1 1 4 0 0 0 A ao 6.0 8.0 a ft 83 6.0 8.0 —~J3-ft™™ IS ^25: •s-15 25 • S t A 16 go 18 , 1 A 13 13 .5 4 A S — 5 8 4-.2. 1 —t— 2 0 3 0 5 — 2 4 4 •5: 6 — e 0 6 65 66 —1 w*v\n\ Kl j J 14 15 —m—tT— • ejl 21 21 •4.W 1-0 23 _^ 8 8 r 1 V1 0 1 0 0 20 8.0 2.0 8.0 3.0 3-0 13 3*3 3.0 J 18 14 ~ i 3 — 23 23 4 - " •5-9 ^ j - — — 1 0 — i — 0 0 0 1 5' '•2: . — — 4 8 — 0 — ~ . 0 0 GROUP 4 J>A 2 . 5 __-» 0.4- 1.6 o.O lo.X — a n 2 . 0 2.0 T ft 17 . tr U ft I.9 4 A ii J.o <3.l 1-2. 11 0 . 2 , 68 69 21 19 O f t — C V • 25-25 — 9 ^ — 0 23 A ———3 _ 8 8 a 1 2 a u 0 0 A I 1 1 A 0 0 80 ao /, A 0,0 83 8.0 £ ft 0 1.0 0 13 A 22 25 ~T3 - — 0 10 A 4 — 6 7 i 0 — « — • 0 0 ;5' 0 4 3 . . ; | 9 _—Q.—. . O O f U 71 72 — f^l-T— CO 14 16 C 3 16 25 -2-a-.— U 4.5 0 0 1 11 _ e '2 1 y 0 2 Q 1 0 1 0 1 A _ _ _ o.U 6.0 8.0 _J1JL— 63 60 83 0 0 10 0 0 13 A 15 19 v— 1.0 1.5 A 9 — 6 13 4 4 -2-2 0 — 2 i — 0 0 - t — 0 0 4 -3 — 4 .2- • 4 — - 2 -5 4 \ 0 0 1 r Jr 74 75 -7-A— 19 16 O A #••* • 25' 23 31 0 0 A 3 7 8 f 1 :2 * — 2 1 < t 1 V 0 0 8,0 8.0 A n 83 8.0 p n ____^ _„ .5-.5 . <*e? > —~y-—i— s .5' t c •'.'•»? •• 25 ^ _ 25 1-5 ^ A — m 12 •5' 0 7 0 ,3. • —~ Ir 0 0 4 ' — 1 — . 4 0 —.r(g—-3 4 . — 1 _ — „ 1 1 f w 77 78 — — _ C v 20 16 4_A_ C 1 23 u 23 2.5 _—-< n — f 9 9 . ~—M l 2 1 a__„ i 2 •8-i\ 1 i 1 < u 0 1 A o.u 8.0 6-0 a-A O.U ao 6.0 35 23 *'«? • 3.5' 13 . 'TS ft C3 25 23: - e 3 — 0 23 c -6-— 13 11 4 0 2 — 4 - — 0 .2... - i 1 2 A 6-3 3 1^  — 0 1 1 f T mcAM GROUP 5: 18.0 £3 13 .\ J.v 1/2 C8 O.S 1 0.8 0 6.1 7.5- 75 - ^ 3 — 1.2. l-l — .23.7 —-5.— — — 9 — 88 . y __ - H e — 1./ — 0-— l-l ——••4—— o.S 80 81 _—_ 22 29 20 25 _— 0 13 9 10 •2. 0 2 3 1 1 „ _JJ 0 0 A 8.0 80 ~AA ao ao QJV—— 1.5 0 ——I^A„ 1.5 0 1 n 21 25 4 0 3.0 15" i ft 12 4 •2. 3 (£• 0 6 0 1 it 2 4 •a •3. 1 1 0 1 83 84 c ** 19 27 25 23 13 .5 * i 10 10 t 0 J 1 4 1 1 w 0 1 cs y 6.0 6.0 63 6.0 0 0 rM 0 0 25 • • * 9 10 1-0 5.0 — — ~ 3 — -7 2 -5^- —• '3 • 4 3—-•i> 4 — — 4 — 3 4 — — 3 - — 2 2 • 3. — - 1 — 0 0 J ( A R A W S C O R E S FOR P O S T T E S T S 99 9 P 0 S T T % S T S •••••• B - - ••• P 0 S T T E S T S » "It • * • • STUDENT NUMBER KN0 BD3 BDE ADC ADI FRS U K HEA SWR SNR EWR ENR RES REE ATI AT2 AT3 AT4 ATS AT6 < GROUP 5 —3"1 9^ 4-ft 4-ft A a A 4 Q A n ft 86 87 a-a c 1 25 27 — ' V f j — 25 24 l.V 10 1.5 A 1 u 7 9 a u 0 0 a e 2 4 i j — 0 0 1 A 1 1 0 4 8.0 8.0 8.0 A A 8.0 8.0 8.0 D A 0 1.0 .5 0 to 25 20 24 — 3 ^ — 30 0 H — 8 4 0 — 1 7 0 — 1 2 — — 0 — 0 '3: 1 5 0 4-4 3 — 0 89 90 e-« J V 31 26 — 1 " 9 — 25 25 r S - r t V.5 2.0 — f i — O10 10 <l . C 0 0 A «* 3 4 * — u 1 1 i 1 1 0 A O.Q 8.0 8.0 L. A 8.0 8.0 6.0 1.0 0 1.5 to 0 to 23 24 • 25 3-0 1.0 4.5 g-r-9 8 0 — 3: 1 0 — 4 4 4 — .3 1 6 0 3 — - 4 — 0 :2 ; ™ * 92 93 1 ~ 29 •23 — — c •» 2S 22. — i-u 0 1-0 _™_ 11 8 V1 1 I 4 0 1 1 0 u 0 1 6.0 8.0 6.0 60 80 6.0 2.0 0 1-0 2.0 0 to 20 25 25 1.5 0 3-0 ~i— 19 12 2 0 :2. -2i 0 0 — - 0 — 0 0 8 - — 0 1 ^ 0 4 — 0 1 0 GROUP 6 9TS 33.1 — 1 - 8 — — tr-ft 4 2.(0 A 0.7 4 — a / A n.3 L. A ©•7 G.(o * ** 5.a 2.6 SIC* 95 96 QJf 1 o 17 14 — t - f — 25 25 4-=» 2.0 1.0 _ g — t y 6 9 j. 4 0 '2-1 — W 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 A 6.0 60 6.0 fl A 6.0 6.0 6.0 A ft 1.5 2.0 0 4 A 15 10 0 4 A 20 -24 21 1.0 1.0 to 9 — 5 8 r2^~ 2 1 1 — 1 2 0 — 4 2 * — 2 — - 4 — 2 4 — © 0 0 * f 98 99 f-frQ i f 9 12 —1-7 4 r 23 25 P^K 15 55 fr-fl 8 8 fr-fl 4 0 1 3 1 0 1 A I U1 0 a O.u 8.0 8.0 n n O.V 8,0 8.0 Q A 1-0 0 25 A to • 0 15 A • 2 0 20 20 20 — 0 as 9 — 9 4 4-— 4 4 r3. •2 1 0 — 2 1 0 1 1 r | ~ 1 8 — © 0 0 - 4 V v 101 102 - f - f i - * -i f 14 13 —•-3 25 23 &j 1.5 0 C-fl 4 VI 7 7 a C 0 2 A u 0 1 A i U1 1 A 6.0 6.0 iv n O.U 6.0 6.0 L A 0 0 to 4 A 00 to 4 A 1 8 -24 19 ^ n — - 2 0 — 0 0 ^ A — t o — 10 4 3-— 1 6 A 0 — 3 4 i — 1 3 1 0 ,J2r, •3 3 — & 0 0 104 105 HJ-6 12 11 -\-h 25 24 —-2-1 3.U 6.5 1.5 — f - f l — i 9 9 Q V0 0 A U1 1 A ! U0 0 4 O.U 6-0 6.0 A ft 6.0 ao 6.0 #1 A 1.0 3.0 2.0 A to .5 2.0 A 21 18 a i. — a o — 2.0 0 . A 8 — 7 6 -0 1 6 • H8— 2 0 0 — 0 1 2 4 0 — 5 6 Q 1 O 107 108 » 0 9 4 V 16 24 -4 - 5 — G 4 23 24 22 1.5 2.0 hfl T 7 8 a w1 2 — n — V0 1 A !  0 0 , A 0 . 0 7.0 6.0 H ft O.U7.0 6.0 A ft O .5 2.0 /l A 02.0 /I A 1 6 18 17 4 A — - 2 0 — 10 2.0 • O A 9 — 6 3 -2-— 4 .4 - £ ! — 1 2 0 — 1 .2 - 0 — 2 4 — 6 5 4 — 6 0 O 110 111 H r ? 14 9 —1-0— 21 -23 1-8 i'w 5 2.5 A 8 7 & V 1 0 1 — V1 0 i i u 0 0 A O.O 6.0 6.0 /•. rt —-Oat 6.0 6.0 L ft 0 35 *».v• 0 2.0 — — 20 2 2. r£6 0 10 A -2 9 6 j _ — 6 it — J J — 1 2 i -- 4 — 0 1 3 4 2-— 5 2 2 l 1 113 114 — — i - t 5 -4 21 ~l~ti— 4 w 21 23. — 2 - 3 V 0 3.0 I-C— *» 9 7 e _ _ 4 1 2 3 1 3 0 4 — 0 -u 1 0 1 O.U 6-0 70 fl ft 6.0 6.0 6.0 A A 1.5 2.0 •15 20 ft E"0 !21 20 3 a 0 — 0 2.0 A 7 — 6 10 4-— •3-7 — - J ; — 3 1 3 — 1 0 a HI ,3' 0 a — - 2 -3 1 — 6 f O 116 117 rwEA-iv) * ~ 12 18 —IIL i 19 25 3.5 1.0 6 6 «? 0 3  1 0 V 0 0 1 1 1 Q.U 8-0 80 8.0 80 w 5-5 .5 .5 c-c-— 23 22 B 10 s f — to 14 — — - 6 - — 0 Q _g_— 0 0 1 0 0 1 7 1 —-2- , 2 — - 1 — — 0 I ill W f r r v STOP EXECUTION 0 TERMINATED 7-4- '•0 0.5 O . i f 1.3 1-0 1-0 7.4- 3./ 1./ —SSIGNOFF J 

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