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Soil-plant relationships around an inland, saline slough Parsons, David Cecil 1974

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SOIL - PLANT RELATIONSHIPS AROUND AN INLAND, SALINE SLOUGH by DAVID CECIL PARSONS B.Sc.  (Agr.) U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE'REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of SOIL SCIENCE  We accept t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming to the  standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1974  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  in  is  financial  British for  for extensive by  gain  Depa r t m e n t  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment of  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT S o i l - p l a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s around an i n l a n d , slough were i n v e s t i g a t e d .  saline  I t was found t h a t the  r e l e a s e o f s o l u b l e s a l t s from f e l d s p a r m i n e r a l s i n s o i l and rock m a t e r i a l s , and the g r a d u a l t r a n s f e r o f s a l t s downslope had l e d to the s a l i n i z a t i o n o f the slough.  The s a l i n i t y o f the slough was found t o be  r e l a t e d t o annual and s e a s o n a l c l i m a t i c c y c l e s . osmotic p r e s s u r e and s a l t content o f the s o i l  High  solution  a d j a c e n t t o the slough p r e c l u d e d the growth o f nonhalophytic plant species.  W i t h i n the area o f s o i l s  a f f e c t e d by s a l t s around the s l o u g h , i t was found  that  S a l t g r a s s # 1 , which o c c u p i e d the zone a d j a c e n t t o the slough was more t o l e r a n t o f s a l i n e and a l k a l i  soil  c o n d i t i o n s and o f prolonged i n u n d a t i o n than S a l t g r a s s # 2 which grew i n the second  zone.  Although the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f halophytes and non-halophytes related to s o i l  was  s a l i n i t y and a l k a l i n i t y , the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  n o n - h a l o p h y t i c p l a n t communities w i t h i n the zone  of  normal s o i l s was c o n t r o l l e d by v a r i a t i o n s i n s i t e  m i c r o c l i m a t e due t o the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the landscape.  Weathering, the nature and f o r m a t i o n o f  the s a l i n e slough, and the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the s o i l s and p l a n t communities were found t o be  mutually  dependent and  the products o f the same  five factors:  climate, r e l i e f , geologic  organisms, and  time.  materials,  - iv -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW  5  METHODS AND  MATERIALS  21  RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  .30  PART I :  SOIL-PLANT RELATIONSHIPS AROUND S L I P P Y SLOUGH  30  A.  GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA  30  B.  THE NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS S L I P P Y SLOUGH  40  C.  THE NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS AROUND THE SLOUGH  D.  SOIL-PLANT RELATIONSHIPS  E.  SUMMARY  OF 46  i  PART I I : WEATHERING A. B.  INTRODUCTION BEDROCK GEOLOGY  62 73 79 79 80  C.  WEATHERING EXPERIMENTS USING A PERFUSION APPARATUS  84  D.  WEATHERING EXPERIMENTS USING ION EXCHANGE RESINS  92  E,  SUMMARY  115  r-  V'.  -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  SUMMARY AND  (CONT'D)  CONCLUSIONS  LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX I :  S I T E DESCRIPTIONS  APPENDIX I I :  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF S O I L SAMPLES COLLECTED I N MAJOR PLANT COMMUNITIES  - v i i  L I S T OF TABLES  Table I II III IV V  VI  Page SALINE AND ALKALI SOIL CHARACTERISTICS . 8 LONG-TERM AVERAGE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS AT VERNON  32  SOIL DEVELOPMENT AND PLANT COMMUNITIES AROUND SLIPPY SLOUGH  38  CHANGES IN THE CHEMICAL CHARACTER OF THE SLOUGH WATER DURING 1970  43  THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE SLOUGH DURING 1970  44  CALCULATED OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF WATERS DURING 1970  45  LAKE  VII  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: SOLUBLE CATIONS  48  VIII  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS  50  IX  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: pH, CONDUCTIVITY, ESP, AND CEC  52  X  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN, AND C/N RATIO.  54  XI  TOTAL SALT CONTENT OF SOILS  60  XII  S O I L C L A S S I F I C A T I O N ACCORDING SALINITY AND ALKALINITY  XIII  SELECTED CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS UNDER MAJOR PLANT COMMUNITIES  66  XIV  ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SELECTED PLANT SPECIES  72  TO  63  -  Vll.  L I S T OF TABLES  (CONT'D)  Table  Page  XV  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEDROCK SAMPLES  83  XVI  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF TRACHYANDESITE IN A PERFUSION APPARATUS  85  XVII  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF GRANITE IN A ' PERFUSION APPARATUS  86  XVIII  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF QUARTZ MONZONITE IN A PERFUSION APPARATUS  87  XIX  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF TRACHYANDESITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND H RESIN  93  XX  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF TRACHYANDESITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND OH~RESIN  95  XXI  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF TRACHYANDESITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER  97  XXII  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF GRANITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND H RESIN  98  XXIII  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF GRANITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND OH~ RESIN  100  XXIV  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF GRANITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND OH RESIN  102  XXV  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF QUARTZ MONZONITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND H RESIN  103  XXVI  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF QUARTZ MONZONITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER AND OH " RESIN  105  XXVII  SIMULATED WEATHERING OF QUARTZ MONZONITE WITH D I S T I L L E D WATER  107  X X V I I I SUMMARY OF CATION REMOVAL FROM TRACHY-ANDESITE  108  +  +  - viii-  LIST OF TABLES  (CONT'D)  Table  Page  XXIX  SUMMARY OF CATION REMOVAL FROM GRANITE  10 9  XXX  SUMMARY OF CATION REMOVAL FROM QUARTZ MONZONITE  HO  - ix -  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure I  Page GENERAL LOCATION OF THE SLIPPY SLOUGH STUDY AREA  3  II  PERFUSION APPARATUS USED IN WEATHERING STUDIES  27  III  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF PLANT COMMUNITIES ALONG TWO TRANSECTS  35  -  X  '  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s has grown o u t o f a l o n g with the Soils  Department and t h e F a c u l t y o f  A g r i c u l t u r e a t U.B.C. individuals  association  To a t t e m p t  to single out  f o r acknowledgement i s i m p o s s i b l e ;  many s t a f f members a n d s t u d e n t s h a v e made c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o my g r o w t h soils. thanks  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  I must t h e r e f o r e e x t e n d a c o l l e c t i v e word o f t o a l l o f these  I would, and B e r n i e . if  lasting  people.  however, l i k e Without  their  t o thank A n n i e , P a t , B e t h , assistance, i t i sdoubtful  t h e e x t e n s i v e l a b o r a t o r y work i n v o l v e d i n t h i s  s t u d y c o u l d have been completed. t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  Most o f a l l , I w i s h  t o L e s and V a l e r i e  f o r the  s u p p o r t a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h e y h a v e shown me this  study.  And f i n a l l y , for  throughout  I would  like  t o thank  a w a k e n i n g my a w a r e n e s s t o t h e b e a u t y  harmony o f N a t u r e .  Slippy  Slough  and t h e  THE  S O I L - OUR  TEACHER  The s o i l i s t h e s t a r t i n g p l a c e f o r a l l h o r i c u l t u r a l knowledge. I t i s n o t a medium f o r experiment - Nature conducted a l l the necessa experiments long before the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o f s c i e n t i s t s was b o r n - b u t t h e s o i l i s w e l l w o r t h a l l o u r s t u d y n o t s o much f o r t h e purpose of improving i t , but r a t h e r w i t h the o b j e c t o f f i n d i n g out what i t can t e a c h . Everyday of our l i v e s Nature r e v e a l s the way t o t h o s e who w i l l t a k e t h e t r o u b l e t o l o o k f o r i t , b u t i n f a r t o o many c a s e s s c i e n c e i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t N a t u r e m u s t be w r o n g and i n t e r f e r s u n n e c e s s a r i l y . Nature w i l l n e v e r w i l l i n g l y s u b m i t t o be m e a s u r e d by t h e y a r d s t i c k o f s c i e n c e , nor w i l l she a l t e r h e r l a w s t o s u i t man. The r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s o f t o d a y a r e a l l f o l l o w i n g i n each o t h e r ' s t r a c k s . We n e e d a f r e s h g e n e r a t i o n o f s c i e n t i s t s w i t h no l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f t h e i r experiments except the obvious p r o v i s o t h a t t h e y must work w i t h i n t h e bounds s e t by Mother E a r t h . The t r u e i n v e s t i g a t o r m u s t h a v e f r e e d o m t o f o l l o w , u n h a m p e r e d by a r t i f i c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e l i g h t as i t i s r e v e a l e d t o him. But t o t r a n s g r e s s the laws o f N a t u r e , t o a s p i r e t o c o n t r o l Nature, or to overstep her boundaries which a r e g e n e r o u s e n o u g h t o meet e v e r y n e e d o f man, t o i g n o r e t h e m and t r a m p l e them down, i s m e r e l y t o p e r v e r t human n a t u r e and t o r u n amok. I t i s time t o s t o p the i s o l a t i o n of each p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m - t o s t o p , as i t w e r e , a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n a f t e r i t has been w r e n c h e d f r o m i t s c o n t e x t ; by a l l means l e t the expert i n the r e l e v a n t f i e l d b r i n g h i s s p e c i a l knowledge t o b e a r upon t h e problem, b u t l e t him view i t a g a i n s t the complete background of Nature's laws.  - F. C. K i n g " G a r d e n i n g W i t h Compost" 1944.  INTRODUCTION As salts  a result  are r e l e a s e d from rocks  These s a l t s  are normally  drainage waters arid by  of weathering  and  the shortage  and  leached  carried  a r e a s , however>  processes,  minerals i n the from the s o i l  away by  the l e a c h i n g process  of water.  With  of s a l t s  the r a t e of  place of o r i g i n , sites  localized  of s i g n i f i c a n t  p o n d o r l a k e may controlled  inhibited  the  Lacking  completely  d e p r e s s i o n s may  from  their  become  the  concentrations of s a l t s .  the b a s i n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w a t e r - t i g h t , a develop,  i t s v o l u m e and  semi-  salt  that  i s o f t e n observed.  e n o u g h w a t e r t o remove t h e s a l t s  In  is  soil.  by  streams.  removal r e t a r d e d , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g accumulation  soluble  If  saline salinity  by w i n t e r snow p a c k , s p r i n g r u n o f f ,  and  summer e v a p o r a t i o n p a t t e r n s . Soil  formation i n areas of s a l t accumulation  s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by soils soils.  are normally  the presence  of s a l t .  r e f e r r e d t o as s a l i n e  S a l i n e s o i l s c o n t a i n an e x c e s s  or  is  Such alkali  of s o l u b l e  s a l t s , present  i n s u f f i c i e n t amounts t o i m p a i r  productivity.  A l k a l i s o i l s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e  an e x c e s s is  of s o l u b l e s a l t ; t h e i r primary  an u n u s u a l l y h i g h l e v e l o f e x c h a n g e a b l e  their  characteristic sodium  -  2 -  p r e s e n t on t h e e x c h a n g e c o m p l e x .  Transitional  w h i c h h a v e b o t h an e x c e s s o f s o l u b l e s a l t s l e v e l of exchangeable sodium  are termed  soils,  and a h i g h  saline-alkali  soils. Plant species associated with s a l i n e water bodies and w i t h s a l t - a f f e c t e d s o i l s  a r e known as h a l o p h y t e s .  U n l i k e m o s t p l a n t s o f n o n - s a l i n e a r e a s , h a l o p h y t e s as a group can t o l e r a t e p e r i o d i c immersion i n s a l t a n d c a n g e r m i n a t e and g r o w i n s a l i n e s o i l s .  Individually,  t h e i r t o l e r a n c e s o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s v a r y and of d i f f e r e n t species or communities  water  zones  are o f t e n observed  around the p e r i m e t e r s of s a l i n e water b o d i e s . Numerous i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d i n t o  the  causes of the observed zonal d i s t r i b u t i o n of h a l o p h y t e s , b u t m o s t o f t h i s w o r k h a s b e e n done on c o a s t a l  salt  marshes.  inland  Much l e s s a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d t o  s a l t m a r s h e s o r l a k e s and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  p l a n t s p e c i e s on a d j a c e n t s o i l s . The p r e s e n c e o f s m a l l s a l i n e w a t e r b o d i e s i n t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has recognized.  long  been  T h i s p a p e r r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o g a i n  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l o c a l , and a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s  inland s a l i n e water bodies  and p l a n t s .  The  soils  and  p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d a r o u n d one l a k e , S l i p p y Slough, s i t u a t e d near Vernon, Columbia  (Figure  1).  such  British  -  FIGURE I:  3  -  General l o c a t i o n of the S l i p p y  Slough study a r e a .  - H -  A primary objective of t h i s  s t u d y was t o e x p l o r e  the i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s o i l s , t h e s l o u g h i n an e f f o r t distribution  the p l a n t s ,  t o understand  o f p l a n t s around  and  the observed  the slough.  Another  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s a l i n e nature of the Slough bedrock  itself.  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f  m a t e r i a l s present i n the watershed,  the r e l e a s e  o f w e a t h e r i n g p r o d u c t s f r o m them, a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e of  rock weathering  on s o i l  and l a k e s a l i n i t y  were  a l s o examined. A b o v e a l l , t h e r e was a T h o r e a u v i a n s p e n d some t i m e w i t h a s m a l l e c o s y s t e m , understand  desire to learning to  and a p p r e c i a t e t h e harmony w i t h w h i c h i t s  components f u n c t i o n e d t o g e t h e r . .  -  5  -  LITERATURE REVIEW  The  soluble  mostly of and  s a l t s that  chlorides  magnesium.  and  P o t a s s i u m s a l t s and and  lesser  (Richards,  salts the  present  n i t r a t e s normally  and  characteristics  1954).  of  and  soils.  s a l t s imparts  conductivity  to  permeability  and  of  soils  and  the  growth of  occur to  The  a much  nature of  the  affects  morphological  a rather may  high  pH  a relatively  an  and  affect their  water a v a i l a b i l i t y .  only  calcium,  carbonates,  structure,  Salt-affected  have a u n i q u e e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r ,  favorable  small  number  plants. Richards  classification and as  sodium,  Among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  abundance o f  for  consist  t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance  chemical, p h y s i c a l ,  soils  in soils  s u l f a t e s of  bicarbonates, extent  occur  influence those which  present  of of  outlined  soils  contain  reflected  This  i n the  e x t r a c t which  Saline an  excess of  conductivity  in arid  to  greater or  the  presence  are  defined  soluble  impair  soluble of  for  the  soils  excess of  amounts t o  is usually  salinization  a system  according  salts.  in sufficient  productivity.  Soil  (1954)  the than  semi-arid  salts,  their  salts is saturation 4 mmhos/cm. climates  -  6 -  is usually the r e s u l t of the gradual s a l t s by w a t e r from u p l a n d area.  areas  R e s t r i c t e d drainage,  evaporation  transfer of  to a depressional  low r a i n f a l l  and h i g h  c o n t r i b u t e t o the degree o f s a l i n i z a t i o n  obtained. Alkali  s o i l s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have an e x c e s s  of s o l u b l e s a l t s . is  Their primary  the unusually high  present  l e v e l of exchangeable  on t h e exchange complex.  Sodium P e r c e n t a g e  characteristic sodium  The E x c h a n g e a b l e  (E.S.P. = E x c h a n g e a b l e Sodium C a t i o n Exchange C a p a c i t y  i s u s u a l l y g r e a t e r than  15%. An e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n  e x i s t s between c a t i o n s on t h e exchange complex and those  i n the s o i l  solution.  As a r u l e ,  c a l c i u m and  magnesium a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e c a t i o n s i n t h e s o i l s o l u t i o n and on t h e exchange complex o f n o r m a l in  arid regions.  in  the s o i l ,  When e x c e s s  As  solution.  i n the soil  Through  evaporation,  solution are concentrated.  t h i s happens t h e s o l u b i l i t y  magnesium s a l t s  l i m i t s o f c a l c i u m and  (CaSO^, CaCO^, a n d MgCO^) a r e  exceeded and t h e s e  salts  are precipitated.  p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f c a l c i u m a n d magnesium g i v e s to  a corresponding  This rise  increase i n the r e l a t i v e  p r o p o r t i o n o f s o d i u m as a s o l u b l e s a l t solution.  accumulate  s o d i u m f r e q u e n t l y becomes t h e d o m i n a n t  cation i n the s o i l the s a l t s  soluble salts  soils  i n the s o i l  T h i s change i n p r o p o r t i o n s e n a b l e s t h e  -  sodium  ions  i n solution  7 -  to replace  some o f t h e c a l c i u m  and magnesium i o n s o n t h e e x c h a n g e c o m p l e x . general, sodium will  at least  50% o f t h e s o l u b l e  b e a b s o r b e d by t h e e x c h a n g e  s i m p l e terms  identify  also  soils.  common t o b o t h  Quite predictably, soils  soils  such s o i l s  a r e termed  a n d a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  exchangeable  sodium  4 mmhos/cm a n d  p e r c e n t a g e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 15%.  o f course, there a r e those s o i l s n o t by s a l t s  o r t h e "normal" values  of less  sodium  accounts  - t h e n o n s a l i n e and n o n a l k a l i  soils. than  Such s o i l s  4 mmhos/cm  for less  exchange c a p a c i t y .  are u s u a l l y  less  than  have  conductivity  and exchangeable 15% o f t h e c a t i o n  than  soils,  8.5.  and o f s a l i n e  soils  V a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 8.5  a r e common o n l y i n t h e n o n s a l i n e - a l k a l i  This  soils  pH v a l u e s o f n o n s a l i n e - n o n a l k a l i  of saline-alkali  i n which  have  and a l k a l i  values o f g r e a t e r than  affected  which  saline  conductivity  And,  systems  found n e c e s s a r y t o  those t r a n s i t i o n a l  saline-alkali  complex.  to define natural  i t has been  characteristics  soils,  c a t i o n s must be  i o n s b e f o r e a p p r e c i a b l e amounts o f s o d i u m  As w i t h any a t t e m p t in  In  soils,  pH v a l u e s as h i g h as 10.0 may be e n c o u n t e r e d . system  of soil  classification i s  summarized below i n T a b l e I .  - 8 TABLE I SALINE AND  Soil  ALKALI SOIL CHARACTERISTICS  Classification  C o n d u c t i v i t y E x c h a n g e a b l e Sodium (mmhos/cm)  Percentage  Saline  >4  <15%  Saline-Alkali  >4  >15%  Nonsaline-Alkali  <4  >15%  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  <4  <15%  The  formation of  above i s commonly salinization however, in  soil  soils of and in  that either  formation.  As  f o r m e d as  soil-forming  processes,  the degree or  So As  i t i s with  are  of  misleading,  are  singly out,  effects  active  D i f f e r e n c e s between  result  but  r a t h e r a r e due  of  different to  w i t h which each o f  differences the  active.  salinization  mentioned e a r l i e r ,  discussed  transfers,  the  intensity  above f o u r p r o c e s s e s  soils  (1959) p o i n t e d  a l l four processes  t h e r e f o r e not  <8.5  o f the combined  formation of a l l s o i l s . are  8.5-10  operated  - a d d i t i o n s , removals,  transformations; the  process  8.5 <8.5  I t w o u l d be  Simonson  a result  <  to the processes  alkalization.  to imply  are  salt-affected  attributed  four processes  soils  in  and  the  pH  and  salinization  alkalization. implies  the  -  9  -  accumulation  of soluble s a l t s  alkalization  implies the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of these  i n the s o i l  s o l u t i o n such  i n soils  whereas salts  t h a t c a l c i u m and magnesium  s a l t s a r e p r e c i p i t a t e d a n d s o d i u m becomes t h e d o m i n a n t exchangeable  cation  ( R i c h a r d s , 1954).  Both  processes  involve the gradual t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , removal, transfer of salts  from s o i l s o f one a r e a and t h e  a d d i t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e s a l t s downslope.  and  to soils  The a l k a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s c a n n o t  operate  i n s o i l s w i t h o u t some d e g r e e o f s a l i n i z a t i o n  having  f i r s t occured.  process  And y e t as soon as t h e f i r s t  has begun, t h e second processes  can a l s o begin.  The two  a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , b o t h o c c u r i n g t o some  extent a l l the time. Many w r i t e r s h a v e s a i d i n many ways t h a t s o i l s a r e p r o d u c t s o f c l i m a t i c and o r g a n i c f o r c e s , m o d i f i e d by  topography,  and a c t i n g on g e o l o g i c m a t e r i a l s o v e r  a p e r i o d of time. Dokuchaiev  T h i s c o n c e p t was i n i t i a t e d  by  and by H i l g a r d and i m m o r t a l i z e d by Jenny  (1941) i n a f u n c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n r e l a t i n g t h e variables i n weathering Soils -  and s o i l  formation as:  j ( c l i m a t e , topography, organisms, p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , and t i m e ) . o r , more commonly a s :  P l a n t e c o l o g i s t s soon r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t s ,  like soils,  reflected  t h e same f o r m a t i v e  -  10  -  influences, and the equation became: Soils and Plants  f  =  j '  (c, r,  o, p,  t)  Most of the work on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of halophytes has been done on coastal s a l t marshes.  As noted by  Adams (1963), "the occurrence of s a l t marsh and of the various smaller communities within the marsh has been explained primarily on the basis of inundation, s a l i n i t y , or a complex of several factors of which s a l i n i t y and inundation are the most important. Various workers disagree on the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t environmental f a c t o r s , since few studies of salt-marsh communities have been intensive enough to yield significant statistical  data."  Chapman (1940) studied the vegetation of s a l t marshes on the New England coast and concluded that inundation was the most important factor determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of plant communities within the marsh. This tends to support e a r l i e r work by Johnson and York (1915) who f e l t that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s a l t marsh communities was related to periods of t i d a l inundations according to submergence - to - emergence r a t i o s . Other workers,  (Reed, 1947; Bourdeau and Adams,  1956)  found correlations between s o i l s a l i n i t y and plant distribution.  Reed (1947) f e l t that s a l t marsh  communities were limited along their lower periphery  -  by  11 -  inundation, s a l i n i t y ,  their  and p o o r  drainage,  upper p e r i p h e r y by c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h  and a l o n g  other  angiosperms. Dodd e t a l (1964) and Dodd and C o p e l a n d have i n v e s t i g a t e d  soils  and p l a n t s i n s a l i n e  t h e g r a s s l a n d zone o f s o u t h e r n these  drainage  l a k e o r pond. five  to prevent  Soils  usually  Saline Gleyed  occupied the center  found  Saline  Calcareous  a t t h e upper  d e p r e s s i o n s w i t h S a l i n e Rego Chernozems position  between s o i l s  those of the uplands.  S a l i n e Gleyed depression unvegetated rooted plant  of  classified  associated i n a catenary  a n d S a l i n e Meadow s o i l s ;  a transitional  The  the formation of a  Regosols  C h e r n o z e m s were n o r m a l l y  and  Although  t h e d e p r e s s i o n s , f o l l o w e d s u c c e s s i v e l y by S a l i n e  Gleysols  of  Saskatchewan.  o f t h e s e a r e a s were  subgroups,  sequence. of  areas o f  a r e a s o c c u p i e d d e p r e s s i o n s t h e r e was a p p a r e n t l y  sufficient  into  (1966)  Regosols  annual. occupying  Prairie  any p e r e n n i a l s , were o f t e n samphire,  a shallow  b u l r u s h was u s u a l l y  supported  species; a zonal d i s t r i b u t i o n observed  that the  the only  o f the S a l i n e G l e y s o l subgroup.  S a l i n e Meadow s o i l s  apparently  of the depressions  They a l s o o b s e r v e d  supported  soils  occupying  a t the center o f the  d i d not support or else  perimeters  i n these  a greater variety o f p l a n t s was  soils,  however.  m a j o r d o m i n a n t s o f t h e S a l i n e Meadow s o i l s  The  i n succession  -  from the Nuttall and  center of  alkaligrass,  foxtail  Calcareous and in  mat the  that be  barley.  largely  of  He  authors  felt could  i n tolerance to  (1967) f o u n d  a l s o concluded  were a b l e  to withstand  that  on  saline  the marshes  that  although  high  salinities  environment.  t h a t t h e most s a l t - t o l e r a n t  highly  saline  areas  species.  This lends  suggested  earlier  of lower  where t h e y support  competition with  a l s o p o i n t s out  along  other  a r e e l i m i n a t e d due t o the  high osmotic  o f most o f  were t h e  than  the  pioneer  that s a l t their  marsh  upper  areas,  periphery  Ungar the  inability  pressure  i n the  communities.  (1967)  prairie  to t h e i r  t h e marsh  in  hypothesis  angiosperms.  that i n saline  It  s p e c i e s made  salinity  to the  (Reed, 1947)  c o m m u n i t i e s were l i m i t e d  solution  The  dominance  d e p e n d e n t upon s p e c i e s t o l e r a n c e t o  growth i n areas  adjust  shared  relationships  d i d not need a h i g h l y s a l i n e  species  Saline  of p l a n t species  variations  soil-plant  better  by  two  the  wheatgrass,  of p l a n t s p e c i e s around s a l i n e  salinity.  found  wheatgrass,  salinity.  i n Kansas, Ungar  distribution  was  latter  distribution  to s o i l  In a study  they  the  i n p a r t by  and  halophytes  arrow-grass,  dominant p l a n t s of  S a l i n e Rego C h e r n o z e m s o i l s .  flooding  soil  were  desert saltgrass, The  muhly, w h i l e  explained  was  depression  Chernozems were g r e a s e w o o d ,  the observed  soils  the  -  12  to  soil  -  The  z o n a t i o n of p l a n t  water bodies are  13  not.  suggested  communities  i s abundantly  Warming that  distribution  (1909),  the  -  clear;  around  the causes  an e a r l y  plant  communities  and  clear  ascribed  factor  and what t o  Clements felt  that  factors of  involved  factors and  factor of  to  and  such  c o m m u n i t i e s was  physical  included He  differences  felt  factors.  that  symmetrical with  i n water,  r e s p e c t to the  the  (as i n t h e c a s e  vegetation  distribution  the l i n e which connected  saline  in  their  around  lakes).  (1961) s u g g e s t e d  line,  that  or  concerned.  of  (as  the  Clements d e f i n e d  "ecotone".  halophytes  can d e v e l o p h i g h o s m o t i c  tissues.  area  t h e p o i n t s o f change i n  a r e a as a s t r e s s  soils  physical  more o r  factor  along streambanks) o r r a d i a l  on  caused  decisive  from  vegetation  Walter  and  temperature,  t h e change i n a  be b i l a t e r a l  a symmetrical  one  r i n g s ) whereas  took p l a c e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s  Symmetry may  means  Biological  g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y , making the h a b i t a t  less  no  t h i n g s as t h e g r o w t h h a b i t s  ( e . g . mushroom f a i r y  light.  i t i s by  another.  zonation of p l a n t  plants  singly  (1907) s t u d i e d p l a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n  by b o t h b i o l o g i c a l  zonation  the  n e v e r work  b u t work i n complex c o m b i n a t i o n i n a l l c a s e s what must be  of  geographer,  f a c t o r s which determine  of p l a n t  saline  growing  pressures  Apparently, these plants  can  -  tolerate and  high  concentrations  chloride, in their  concentrations are  normally Ungar  -  14  of  of  ions,  tissues.  (1967) s t u d i e d  the  g e r m i n a t i o n of  of  salinity.  He  ability  conditions  and  under v a r i e d  t o germinate under  found t h a t  soils.  seeds which would  germinate  in saline solutions  germinate  i f t r a n s f e r r e d to d i s t i l l e d  an  (0.5  to  5.0%  water.  that  the  c h i e f e f f e c t of  o s m o t i c one  and  not  an  to maintain  of o s m o t i c a l l y  Should  of  the  turgor,  s o l u t i o n be  greater  will  not  a b s o r b e d by  flow  outwards toward the  will  cause w i l t i n g , l o s s of  death of  be  the  plant.  interfere with halophytes  the  the  that  than that the  saline soils dry",  for  (Daubenmire,  (Daubenmire,  cell but  i n the sap,  will  and  so  o f w a t e r by  This  been  obviously nonconsidered  even though p h y s i c a l l y 1967).  water  ultimately  salts  have l o n g  soil  instead  solution.  turgor,  I t i s because  protoplast  salts  i n the  external  "physiologically these plants  of  plants,  absorption  salinity  concentration  any  i t s water supply concentration  From  toxicity.  a c t i v e substances of  must e x c e e d t h a t 1967).  ion  not  NaCl) would  concluded  In o r d e r  levels  saline  i t s distribution in saline  F u r t h e r m o r e , he  seeds  found a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  a species'  was  plants  toxic.  several s a l t - t o l e r a n t species  he  sodium  Similar  sodium i n n o n - h a l o p h y t i c  of  this  including  wet,  -  Daubenmire  IS -  (1967) went on t o p o i n t out t h a t the  concept of p h y s i o l o g i c a l drought does not apply however t o h a l o p h y t e s .  "Halophytes experience no  d i f f i c u l t y i n absorbing water solutions,  from h i g h l y  concentrated  as i s demonstrated by t h e i r h i g h  t r a n s p i r a t i o n r a t e s and by g u t t a t i o n , evidenced i n many s p e c i e s .  which may be  The importance o f t h i s  osmotic aspect of t h e i r n a t u r a l environment and their close  adjustment t o i t i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t  t h a t the osmotic p r e s s u r e o f halophytes  varies  d i r e c t l y w i t h the s a l i n i t y o f t h e i r water supply over a wide range of c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . "  Halophytes can  t h e r e f o r e be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m , o t h e r p l a n t s not o n l y by t h e i r a b i l i t y to endure h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s c e r t a i n i o n s i n t h e i r water  of  supply, but also to  absorb water w i t h ease under these c o n d i t i o n s (Daubenmire,  1967).  In the I n t r o d u c t i o n i t was mentioned b r i e f l y t h a t as a r e s u l t of weathering p r o c e s s e s , salts soil  soluble  are r e l e a s e d from rocks and m i n e r a l s i n the and t h a t i n s e m i - a r i d areas these s a l t s may  accumulate  i n l o c a l i z e d depressions.  An awareness  of weathering and an understanding of the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the r e l e a s e  of soluble salts  from s o i l s  and rocks i s important to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the formation of s a l i n e water bodies and s a l t - a f f e c t e d soils.  -  Reiche response the  (1950) d e s c r i b e d w e a t h e r i n g  o f m a t e r i a l s w h i c h were i n e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h i n  t h e atmosphere;  still  the hydrosphere,  i t s contact  and p e r h a p s  more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e b i o s p h e r e .  nature  i s well indicated  rocks  from  combination first  (19 66)  I t s general  as " t h e c h a n g e  t o the. c l a s t i c  state."  regard weathering  as "a  o f d e s t r u c t i o n and s y n t h e s i s .  Rocks  b r o k e n down i n t o  eventually  into  a r e composed. the m i n e r a l s forces  by P o l y n o v  the massive  Buckman and B r a d y  are  as " t h e .  l i t h o s p h e r e t o c o n d i t i o n s a t o r near  with  of  -  16  s m a l l e r r o c k s and  the i n d i v i d u a l minerals Simulanteously,  therein  . . .  rock  o f which  they  f r a g m e n t s and  a r e a t t a c k e d by  weathering  and a r e c h a n g e d t o new m i n e r a l s by m i n o r  modifications changes.  (alterations)  o r by c o m p l e t e  These changes a r e accompanied by a c o n t i n u e d  decrease  i n particle  size  and by t h e r e l e a s e o f  soluble  c o n s t i t u t e n t s , most o f w h i c h  to loss  i n drainage  The  according  and m i n e r a l s  changes.  cause  which grouped  physical  U n d e r most c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e  m a g n i t u d e o f change c a u s e d processes  processes  a r e commonly  t o whether the p r o c e s s e s  or chemical  are subject  waters."  many d i f f e r e n t w e a t h e r i n g  may a c t upon r o c k s  physical  chemical  by c h e m i c a l  i s f a r g r e a t e r than  weathering  that resulting  f o r c e s mentioned e a r l i e r .  from t h e  Physical forces,  -  which  cause  17  disintegration  -  and a d e c r e a s e  i n particle  s i z e w i t h o u t change i n c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , i n c l u d e ( R e i c h e ; Buckman and B r a d y ) : on u n l o a d i n g ; d i f f e r e n t i a l contraction; salt  plucking, growth  i n c l u d i n g t h e growth o f  and f r o s t h e a v i n g ;  colloid  accompanying a l t e r n a t e - w e t t i n g and d r y i n g ;  and movement o f p l a n t s a n d a n i m a l s ; a n d e r o s i o n  and d e p o s i t i o n b y a g e n t s and  consequent  t h e r m a l e x p a n s i o n and  c r y s t a l growth,  and i c e c r y s t a l s  expansion,  such  as w a t e r ,  i c e , wind,  gravity. Chemical weathering  i s a s u r f a c e phenomenum,  o c c u r r i n g o n l y a t t h e i n t e r f a c e s between  different  materials.  down  As r o c k m a t e r i a l s a r e broken  s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r f r a g m e n t s  into  under t h e combined  i n f l u e n c e s o f p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l f o r c e s , t h e s u r f a c e a r e a exposed weathering,  increases.  The i n t e n s i t y o f  t h e r e l e a s e o f s o l u b l e s a l t s and t h e  a l t e r a t i o n of minerals a l l increase with the surface area.  The r a t e o f w e a t h e r i n g w i l l  increase u n t i l  t h e rock o r m i n e r a l has d i s a p p e a r e d  entirely or u n t i l I f the environment  only r e s i s t a n t minerals around  only slowly o r not a t a l l ,  p r o d u c t s a r e removed  then chemical  may s l o w down o r s t o p a l t o g e t h e r . major chemical weathering  remain.  t h e r o c k s t a g n a t e s i n some  way a n d t h e r e l e a s e d w e a t h e r i n g  colloid  continue t o  weathering  I n c l u d e d as t h e  processes are:  s o l u t i o n , and  formation; hydrolysis; hydration; oxidation;  -  reduction;  and i o n e x c h a n g e .  Prescott to  (1949) r e c o g n i z e d a l e a c h i n g f a c t o r  r e l a t e weathering  to the c l i m a t i c  v e g e t a t i o n o f any a r e a . weathering,  for  l e a c h i n g o r the removal  weathering,  and  i . e . , t h e amount o f w a t e r  i s determined  transpiration.  lost  regimes.  i s a constant with  A value f o r the c l i m a t i c corresponded  E i s evaporation,  i n d e x o f from  availability  (and  soil  1.1  t o 1.5  t o a p o i n t where p r e c i p i t a t i o n  an e x c e s s  Jenny  expressed  a mean v a l u e o f 0.73.  b a l a n c e d by e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n . indicate  would  and t h e  f o r continued chemical leaching.  gave t h e v a r i a b l e s  formation)  was  A higher index  of precipitation  o f water  (19 41)  evaporation  and compare  T h i s i n d e x was  m  "m"  through  f o r l e a c h i n g under  a s P / E , where P i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and  of  Prescott derived a single-value  t h e amount o f w a t e r a v a i l a b l e climatic  available  by t h e amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n  index w i t h which t o determine  different  available  o f the end-products  and t h e amount o f w a t e r  climatic  c o n d i t i o n s and  The amount o f w a t e r  for  received  -  18  i n weathering  as c l i m a t e , p a r e n t  biological  activity,  topography,  particular  p o i n t i n time  weathering  processes  properties  are related  rock,  and t i m e .  at a given  and p r o d u c t s  A t any  locale,  and r e s u l t a n t  to climatic  variables  constants  "o, r , p, and t " ( C a r r o l ,  constancy  i s known as t h e " s t e a d y  1970).  state."  soil  by t h e This  Jenny  (1941)  -  suggested  19 -  t h a t two o f the major c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s  i n f l u e n c i n g the nature  of s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were  temperature and moisture.  S o i l p r o p e r t y - moisture  f u n c t i o n s were g i v e n as: S  = f  ( m )  T , o, r , p, t  and s o i l p r o p e r t y - Temperature f u n c t i o n s were g i v e n as: m, o, r , P/ t . C a r r o l l ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a decrease w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n r a i n f a l l ,  i n calcium  an i n c r e a s e i n s o i l  n i t r o g e n and o r g a n i c matter w i t h r a i n f a l l ,  and an  i n c r e a s e o f c l a y content i n s o i l w i t h i n c r e a s e d mean annual temperatures,  were common m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f  these s o i l - c l i m a t e f u n c t i o n s . C a r r o l l (1970) i n d i c a t e d t h a t once a s t e a d y - s t a t e or e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n of s o i l - c l i m a t e had been obtained,  the v a r i o u s c a t i o n s and anions  i n the  system would be d i s t r i b u t e d i n an o r d e r l y manner between the s o i l s o l u t i o n  (the r e s u l t o f r a i n f a l l )  and  the m i n e r a l p a r t i c l e s  (the weathering r o c k ) .  The  r e s u l t s o f remaining  expressed  i n t h i s environment a r e  as s o i l v a r i a t i o n s on a l a r g e s c a l e i n  c l i m a t e s , and on a s m a l l s c a l e as t o p o g r a p h i c and drainage  v a r i a t i o n s due t o m i c r o c l i m a t e s .  A microclimate  i s the c l i m a t e near the ground,  a v a r i a t i o n o f the major c l i m a t e o f a r e g i o n ,  -  -  20  and t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f p l a n t s  and a n i m a l s .  D e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e , microclimates  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  communities of p l a n t s which f i n d favourable  t o them.  i t i s the microclimate  p a t t e r n o f s o i l s and p l a n t s weathering taking place 1970)  .  that  environment  Although the macroclimate  determines the main c h a r a c t e r region,  distinctive  of weathering i n a which i n f l u e n c e s  the  and w h i c h e x p r e s s e s t h e  i n a small  area  (Carroll,  -  -  21  METHODS AND  MATERIALS  Climate An an  understanding  of c l i m a t i c  factors  i n t e g r a l p a r t of a l l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  I t must a l w a y s be ecosystem the  borne  climatic  influences.  that  the  collection  over  as  s h o r t an  In t h i s  and  and  study,  any  as  a few  beneficial.  of  cycles of  i t was  felt  of miscellaneous weather  interval  data  months w o u l d Limitation  manpower s t r e n g t h e n e d  form  ecosystems.  integrated expression  o f many y e a r s  more m i s l e a d i n g t h a n materials,  of  i n mind however, t h a t  r e p r e s e n t s the  combined e f f e c t s  should  be  of  time,  this  decision. Climatic  records  f o r the nearby  city  of Vernon  (Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t ,  1967)  as  aspect of the  the main d a t a  source  for this  Some m e a s u r e o f c o r r e l a t i o n was three  rain  M a r c h 24, each o f  gauges s e t o u t 1970,  the  one  rainfall  trip  slough,  to the  September  adjacent  was on  obtained  i n the v a l l e y  u p p e r e a s t e r n and  Accumulated  were  to the  J u n e 29,  study.  through on  l a k e and  western  m e a s u r e d on  utilized  one  slopes. each  August  15,  subsequent and  19.  A more p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t  of  the  on  local  climate  - 22 -  was o b t a i n e d w h i l e M a r c h and d i g g i n g  hiking  i n k n e e - d e e p snow i n  observation pits  weather d u r i n g J u l y .  The r a p i d l y  i n 90 - 1 0 0 ° shrinking  t o t h e e v a p o r a t i v e powers o f t h e mid-summer  lake  testified  atmosphere.  Lake Grab s a m p l e s o f l a k e w a t e r were c o l l e c t e d trip  t o the study  (March 21, May  7, J u n e  September 1 9 ) . laboratory  area during 6, J u n e  t h e 1970 s t u d y  Conductivity  +  *Z Mg  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  +3  to the  a n d pH o f  e a c h sample were d e t e r m i n e d , u s u a l l y w i t h i n of sampling.  period  29, A u g u s t 15, and  T h e s e s a m p l e s were r e t u r n e d  for analysis.  on e a c h  o f Na  one d a y  4-2.  + , K  , Ca  +3  , Fe  , and A l  , i n t h e l a k e w a t e r were  d e t e r m i n e d by a t o m i c a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t r y . The m i n e r a l o g i c a l salts  collected  composition  f r o m t h e l a k e s h o r e were d e t e r m i n e d  by X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n On one t r i p 1970,  analysis.  i n the e a r l y  the deepest portion  by r a f t  o f some s a m p l e s o f  to obtain  spring,  on M a r c h 28,  o f t h e l a k e was  an e s t i m a t e o f maximum d e p t h .  L a k e l e v e l s were r e c o r d e d on s u b s e q u e n t thereafter, September  i . e . on J u n e  19.  traversed  visits  29, A u g u s t 15, and  S h o r e l i n e p o s i t i o n s were marked a t  t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d i n g estimating water l o s t  a c r u d e method f o r  through evaporation.  ,  -  23 -  Vegetation Major p l a n t s p e c i e s and communities were observed and t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the l a k e recorded.  Two  t r a n s e c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d ,  one  t r a v e r s i n g the b a s i n from south to n o r t h and the o t h e r from west t o e a s t .  Each major change i n  s p e c i e s composition of communities the at  t r a n s e c t s was  recorded.  encountered along  Modal s i t e s were s e l e c t e d  each p l a n t community i n o r d e r t h a t s o i l  topographic c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d be Samples o f the above-ground  and  investigated.  p o r t i o n o f g r a s s e s and  t r e e leaves or needles from the lower branches were c o l l e c t e d i n J u l y , 1970, Mill.  Ground  d r i e d , and ground i n a Wiley  samples were ashed, taken up i n  c o n c e n t r a t e d a c i d , and c a t i o n c o n t e n t determined by atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometry. Soils S i t e s were s e l e c t e d which appeared t o r e p r e s e n t the  modal s o i l  c o n d i t i o n s of each p l a n t community.  S o i l p i t s were dug a t each s i t e and to v a r y i n g depth, the  depth b e i n g determined by shallowness t o bedrock,  high water t a b l e , or t o the depth o f the c o n t r o l section  (100  cm).  As each h o r i z o n was t h i c k n e s s was  i d e n t i f i e d , i t s average  r e c o r d e d and g r o s s m o r p h o l o g i c a l  « -  features  were o b s e r v e d .  according Canada  Classification for  i n the l a b o r a t o r y .  sieve.  Gravel  and s t o n e  o f t h e s a m p l e s were r e c o r d e d ;  were removed p r i o r Dried  these f r a c t i o n s  to crushing.  and c r u s h e d  multitude  o f chemical  most p a r t  analyses  s a m p l e s were s u b j e c t e d  Science  Columbia  were c o n d u c t e d  Department  (Lavkulich,  unusually  high  salt  usually  methods.  1974).  f o l l o w i n g methods  content  o f a number o f t h e t o modify the  Any s u c h m o d i f i c a t i o n s presented  U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 60:  Diagnosis  of  (Richards,  and A l k a l i  A list  o f the  However, b e c a u s e o f t h e  b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n  Saline  For the  a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  s a m p l e s , i t was o f t e n n e c e s s a r y standard  to a  and p h y s i c a l a n a l y s e s .  common u s e i n t h e P e d o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y  Soil  1970).  were c o l l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s  and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s  t o p a s s a 2 mm  contents  the  classified  t o a n a l y s i s , t h e s a m p l e s were a i r - d r i e d and  crushed  in  was  (Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,  chemical  Prior  Each s o i l  t o t h e System o f S o i l  Samples o f e a c h h o r i z o n of  24 -  Soils  of the analyses  conducted  were  i n the  a n d Improvement 1954). includes  following: pH  Calcium  Conductivity  % Carbonate  Cation  exchange  capacity  carbonate  % Organic  Carbon  Carbon  equivalent  -  Exchangable Exchange Soluble  25 -  cations  % Nitrogen  acidity  Saturation  cations  Particle  percentage  size  distribution  Geology Field  investigations  of s u r f i c i a l bedrock  deposits  samples  involved  visual  observation  and o f r o c k o u t c r o p s .  were c o l l e c t e d  outcrops encountered.  Thin  Fresh  from s e v e r a l o f the  sections  o f each  sample  were p r e p a r e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f s e v e r a l and  staff  o f the Geology  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Department  These  thin  to determine the m i n e r o l o g i c a l samples each Total  and t o c l a s s i f y  a t the U n i v e r s i t y  s e c t i o n s were  O t h e r samples o f  a 100-mesh  e l e m e n t a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e s e samples  conducted  according  used  composition of the  the rocks.  r o c k were c r u s h e d t o p a s s  students  t o t h e method  sieve. were  i n s t a n d a r d use i n  the Pedology L a b o r a t o r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia. Because  chemical weathering i s a surface  phenomenum, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a t t e m p t  to standardize  the s u r f a c e  simulated  a r e a s o f a l l samples  weathering experiments. were g r o u n d  during  Accordingly,  to uniform size  rock  and t h e p a r t i c l e  of each  sample  determined i n kerosene.  of each  sample  was t h e n m e a s u r e d o u t w h i c h  corresponded  samples density  A weight  t o a s t a n d a r d v o l u m e o f sample  f o r experiment.  -  Bedrock  samples  a 100-mesh s i e v e , used of  in a series  filter in  which  of p e r f u s i o n  combined  p u l p ; and  a perfusion  Four hundred each  flask  connected  control.  Si  50 ml  c c was  taken.  These  ml  i n the  A  withdrawn  of d i s t i l l e d  from  each  water.  o f Na,  K,  was  s e t up  intervals,  sample  Mg,  f o r e a c h o f t h e 50 ml  as  a  continuously  and  Conductivity, Ca,  added  apparatus  p u l p was  At weekly  (1966). were  flask  admitted to the f l a s k s  were d e t e r m i n e d  inch  perfusion  water  of each fourth  cc of f i l t e r  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  - washed  u n i t s were p a t t e r n e d  of d i s t i l l e d  the a i r i n l e t  20  1/8  d e v e l o p e d by Kaufman  - week p e r i o d .  a l i q u o t was  and  fifty  A i r was  a five  with  II.  system  and  only  weight  to ensure continued p e r m e a b i l i t y .  t o an a i r s u p p l y .  containing  for  and  were A  a number o f g l a s s b e a d s ,  r e s u l t i n g m i x t u r e s were p l a c e d  after  ml  experiments.  pass  w i t h an e q u a l volume o f a c i d  columns shown i n F i g u r e  to  been c r u s h e d t o  t o a v o l u m e o f 20  d i a m e t e r were added  The  had  b u t n o t a 140-mesh s i e v e ,  sample e q u i v a l e n t  T h i s was  26 -  a  50  replaced pH,  F e , A l , and aliquots  withdrawn. Other bedrock 140-mesh s i e v e .  remained  f o r experiment.  density,  a weight  were c r u s h e d t o p a s s  T h i s m a t e r i a l was  t h a t p o r t i o n which used  samples  After  of each  on  wet-sieved  and  a 200-mesh s i e v e  determining  a  was  particle  sample e q u i v a l e n t  t o 25  cc  II:  Perfusion  apparatus used i n weathering s t u d i e s .  -  was  28  r  w e i g h e d i n t o a c i d - w a s h e d , 250 m l p l a s t i c  each c o n t a i n i n g  100 m l d i s t i l l e d  water.  bottles,  Equal  volumes o f each r o c k sample were weighed i n t o 3 separate b o t t l e s ; was  7.52  gm o f a b a s i c  a d d e d t o one b o t t l e ,  ( R e x y n 101)  4.35  resin  gm o f a c i d i c  was a d d e d t o t h e s e c o n d .  added t o t h e t h i r d  sample.  (Rexyn resin  No r e s i n was  The b o t t l e s  t i g h t l y , p l a c e d on a r e c i p r o c a l  201)  were  s h a k e r , and  stoppered agitated  a t m o d e r a t e s p e e d f o r 7-day i n t e r v a l s . At  t h e end o f each weekly p e r i o d ,  bottles  t h e sample  w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e s h a k e r a n d t h e pH a n d  conductivity  o f each s o l u t i o n  m i x t u r e was t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d funnels. solution.  S u c t i o n was a p p l i e d  determined.  Each  t o porous g l a s s to extract the  The r e s i d u e o n t h e f i l t e r  (i.e. the r e s i n /  r o c k m i x t u r e o r r e s i n a l o n e ) was t h e n r i n s e d t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e 10 m l v o l u m e s o f d i s t i l l e d The  filter  r e s u l t i n g s o l u t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d  v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k , made t o v o l u m e w i t h w a t e r , and s e t a s i d e f o r a n a l y s i s .  with water.  t o a 150 m l distilled  The r e s i n /  r o c k m i x t u r e s were s e p a r a t e d by w e t s i e v i n g and the  rock returned t o the o r i g i n a l  The  r e s i n f r a c t i o n was r e t u r n e d t o t h e g l a s s f i l t e r a n d  recharged through the a d d i t i o n , r e m o v a l by s u c t i o n NaOH.  sample  and s u b s e q u e n t  o f 75 m l o f 0.1  The r e s i n was t h e n r i n s e d  bottles.  N H C l o r 0.1  with three  N  successive  -  29 -  50 ml volumes o f d i s t i l l e d water. transferred  The l e a c h a t e was  t o a 250 ml v o l u m e t r i c f l a s k , made t o  volume w i t h d i s t i l l e d water, and s e t a s i d e f o r analysis. Al,  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe,  and S i i n each s o l u t i o n was determined.  recharged  r e s i n s were r e t u r n e d t o the o r i g i n a l sample  b o t t l e s and s u f f i c i e n t d i s t i l l e d the volume  The  water added t o make  to 100 ml o f d i s t i l l e d water.  were stoppered 7-day p e r i o d .  The b o t t l e s  and r e t u r n e d t o the shaker f o r another  -  30  -  RESULTS AND Part A.  DISCUSSION  I - Soil-Plant Relationships G e n e r a l D e s c r i p t i o n Of 1.  Physiography  Slippy  and  the  The  ten miles  in  the  To  separating  east,  t o the In  the  lake.  tall,  1800's and  rise  the  before,  Slippy  hunting  and  the  lake,  being  Slough  parties. the  grass  deeper,  A d i t c h dug  was  through  "berm" o f  the  lake  a t t e m p t made d u r i n g  the  e a r l y 1900's t o  the road  lake at  Although  level. the the  about  roll  f o r e s t on  t h e n more p l e n t i f u l ,  more p o t a b l e .  north  Kalamalka  Grasslands  y i e l d i n g to  a b a s e camp f o r I n d i a n  probably the  Okanagan and  level  southeast.  W i l d l i f e was was  (Figure I ) .  depression  the west, f o r e s t e d h i l l s  away t o t h e  was  a trough-like  metres above the  hills  Columbia  Vernon  m e t r e s e l e v a t i o n above s e a  ridge  lakes. 170  830  Commonage,  southwest of  British  Slough occupies about  Area  i s l o c a t e d i n the  I n t e r i o r of  at  Study  Slough  History  Slough  approximately in  The  Around S l i p p y  end  represents  H i g h w a t e r s made t h e of  lake  the level  lake  lower  wagon  impossable.  still  an  fluctuates  -  -  31  markedly,  the normal depth  feet  than  less  i t was  i s some 6 t o 8  i n those  early  times  (Thompson, 1970) .  2.  Climate Krajina  (1969) has  a r e a as b e l o n g i n g Bunch g r a s s  Formation.  zone i s d e f i n e d dry steppe  climatic Vernon 1967)  3.  to the Ponderosa  study  Pine-  Zone o f t h e S e m i a r i d C o l d  Biogeoclimatic  cool,  d e s c r i b e d the  Climate of  Steppe this  ( a f t e r Koppen) as s e m i a r i d , (BSk).  Long-term  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the nearby  average city  of  (Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t , are p r e s e n t e d  i n Table I I .  Geology Jones  (1959),  been c o m p l e t e l y  d e s c r i b e d t h e a r e a as  c o v e r e d by  the  Cordilleran  ice-sheet of P l e i s t o c e n e times. now site  o c c u p i e d by  of a small, stagnant  as were t h e valleys.  V a r y i n g depths  diorites, till  deposits.  and  the  glacier, Kalamalka till  granites,  rocks.  i s overlain with  valley  probably  of g l a c i a l  or Cretaceous allied  The  valley  l a r g e r Okanagan and  the J u r a s s i c  the  t h e s l o u g h was  having  cover  grano-  I n most p l a c e s  a veneer  of  aeolian  TABLE I I Long-Term A v e r a g e C l i m a t i c C o n d i t i o n s A t Vernon Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sept  Oct  Nov  Dec  Year  23.2  27.2  36.8  48.1  56.9  62.8  68.4  66.0  58.0  46.1  34.8  28.7  46.4  Mean D a i l y Maximum Temperature  28.4  33.7  45.3  60.0  69.7  75.0  82.4  79.5  69.9  54.6  40.2  33.4  56.0  Mean D a i l y Minimum Temperature  17.9  20.7  28.2  36.2  44.0  50.5  54.4  52.4  46.1  37.6  29.3  23.9  36.8  56  70  67  84  92  98  104  97  92  80  65  65  104  -31  -25  -15  15  22  33  38  39  23  12  -8  -20  -31  Mean R a i n f a l l Mean S n o w f a l l  0.25 14.2  0.27 9.8  0.62 3.0  0.69 0.2  1.22 0.0  1.65 0.0  1.14 0.0  1.06 0.0  1.18 0.0  1.35 0.6  0.85 5.5  0.41 15.4  10.69 48.7  Mean T o t a l Precipitation  1.67  1.25  0.92  0.71  1.22  1.65  1.14  1.06  1.18  1.41  1.40  1.95  15.56  Mean D a i l y Temperature  (Deg. F)  Maximum Temperature Minimum Temperature (Inches)  •N3 I  -  4.  33  -  S o i l s and P l a n t s Owing to t h e i r l i m i t e d s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l or f o r e s t r y purposes,  the  soils  of  the study area have not as y e t been mapped  or  classified.  K e l l e y and S p i l s b u r y  (1949)  surveyed the a r a b l e s o i l s of the Okanagan and Similkameen v a l l e y s .  In t h e i r  survey,  most of the area between Okanagan and l a k e s was  Kalamalka  regarded as rough mountainous l a n d ,  g e n e r a l l y u n s u i t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l use, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Black Chernozemic S o i l s which o c c u p i e d south s l o p e s up to an e l e v a t i o n of  about 1,365  metres.  These s o i l s were  regarded as having g r e a t value f o r g r a z i n g purposes, p r o v i d i n g s p r i n g and f a l l  range f o r  c a t t l e and sheep.  rough  In a d d i t i o n , the  mountainous lands were important areas f o r watershed, The  f o r e s t r y , and r e c r e a t i o n a l  a n c e s t r a l - p a r e n t m a t e r i a l of a l l  mineral s o i l s glacial  purposes.  till  i n the Okanagan d i s t r i c t i s d e r i v e d from many s o u r c e s .  some c a s e s , the t i l l  In  has been weathered i n  p l a c e t o form s o i l , but i n most i n s t a n c e s s o i l have developed  from t i l l  t h a t has been  eroded, re-worked, and r e - d e p o s i t e d . and S p i l s b u r y  Kelley  (1949) f e l t t h a t moisture  and  temperature r e l a t i o n s h i p s gave r i s e vertical  zonation of s o i l s  Zonal  soils,  i n order  lower  e l e v a t i o n s to those  from t h o s e  e l e v a t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d D a r k Brown S o i l s , B l a c k On valley  i n the  a very general a p p e a r e d t o be  to  a  Okanagan. formed  at  occurring at as B r o w n  Soils  and  higher  Soils, Podzol  o r macro s c a l e , one  Soils. the  w i t h a narrow  lake  i n i t s centre, grasslands  interspersed with  deciduous trees occupying  the  trough, slopes.  and  coniferous  I n one  f o r e s t s on  sense, the s o i l  communities of the v a l l e y i n t o two by  zones.  One  zone was  normal s o i l s  s a l t s ) and  plant separated  characterized  ( i . e . not  by p l a n t s n o t  (xerophytes).  comprised of the two  very  The  l a k e and  distinct  tolerant grasses.  t o l e r a n t of  grass  The  first  zone  was  the exposed  lakebed, salt-  grass  o f o n l y one  halophytic  community n e a r e s t  l a k e , h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as  salt  semi-arid  Each of these  made up  species.  affected  communities of  c o m m u n i t i e s was  and  (halophytes),  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r i d or  regions  and  and  the  upper  the presence of s a l t - a f f e c t e d s o i l s  t h e o t h e r by  but  the  c o u l d be  s a l t - t o l e r a n t plant species  by  remainder of  the  Saltgrass  #1,  c  tT!  I—I  I—I  Douglas fir/ Ponderosa pine  1—1  1—1  b  CO O  ^  ro ro  fD  CQ 3 r+  s  o  P  rt HO  r+ H  a  D  cn  fi)  cn  Ponderosa pine .  o jg rt  cn Cn •  A 8 pen  o  Rush  I-1  Saltgrass 2  0>  rt  fD  SLIPPY  a  SLOUGH  cn  r+  Non-vegetated Lokebed ->i  H-  C  c r+  Saltgrass  0  Saltgrass 2 Rush  HO  Hi  I  CD  s  Aspe n 1 ' 1  G r ass la nd Woxberry  nt  DJ  o o g  BC  m w  Grassland . Aspen  ro ro  % w  H*  rt H-  fD CO  -  SC  -  is  36  -  t h o u g h t t o have been N u t t a l l  (Puccinellia airoides), confirmed.  The  which w i l l  was  (Distichlis  identified  as D e s e r t  stricta).  A l l the other  Salt-  o b s e r v e d and s t u d i e d ,  (Juncus s p p . ) , aspen  waxberry  never  second s a l t g r a s s community,  p l a n t communities rush  a l t h o u g h t h i s was  h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as  S a l t g r a s s #2, grass  Alkali-grass  the  (Populus tremuboides),  (Symphoricarpus a l b u s ) , g r a s s l a n d ,  f o r e s t communities  belonged to the  and  second  zone o f n o n - h a l o p h y t e s . On  closer examination this  p i c t u r e g a v e way Ponderosa  first  t o a much more c o m p l e x  (Pinus ponderosa)  was  fir  shores.  And  especially  a l t h o u g h Douglas  ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z j e s i i ) was  restricted  one.  seen t o e x t e n d  a l m o s t t o t h e l a k e on t h e n o r t h a n d on t h e w e s t  simple  primarily  t o g r o w i n g on t h e u p p e r s l o p e s  on t h e w e s t , e a s t , a n d s o u t h e a s t , i t t o o  was  found growing near the l a k e , but only i n relatively  deep g u l l i e s .  Waxberry  seemed t o  be a d i v e r s e p l a n t , g r o w i n g sometimes i n t h e company o f t h e f i r s , s o m e t i m e s w i t h O c c a s i o n a l l y w a x b e r r y was s t a n d s g r o w i n g by i t s e l f . in  low-lying  aspen.  found i n almost Rushes were  pure  found  areas near the s l o u g h , sometimes  - 37  by  themselves,  but at other times w i t h  grass # 2 , aspen, Only  -  or the n o n - h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s e s .  the s a l t - t o l e r a n t g r a s s  ( S a l t g r a s s # 1 and  #2) occupied  communities  rigorously  d e f i n e d p o s i t i o n s i n the landscape. b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e two very abrupt, such  The  grass species  was  that i t occupied only a  i n c h e s on t h e g r o u n d As m e n t i o n e d  earlier,  two  t r a n s e c t s were  t r a v e r s i n g the v a l l e y  w e s t t o e a s t and  the o t h e r from south  S o i l s were examined under  from to  each  d i s t i n c t i v e p l a n t community e n c o u n t e r e d these transects. communities  The  around  be  along  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t  t h e s l o u g h i s shown i n  F i g u r e I I I . A complete soils  d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  and p l a n t s a t e a c h o f t h e s e s i t e s  found  few  surface.  e s t a b l i s h e d , one  north.  Salt-  i n Appendix  I.  To  fully  can  appreciate  the environmental f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s v a l l e y would r e q u i r e s e v e r a l v i s i t s , a few d a y s d u r a t i o n , and c o u r s e o f a t l e a s t one  each  spread out over  annual  of the  cycle.  Recognizing the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of t h i s  f o r most  r e a d e r s , i t i s hoped t h a t the s i t e  descriptions  and p h o t o g r a p h s  help  t h e s l o u g h and  i n Appendix  I will  i t s surrounding  put  landscapes  -  38  -  TABLE I I I Soil  D e v e l o p m e n t And P l a n t  Transect  Site Number  u  o 2  +> a)  -P W  w  Slippy  Slough  Soil Development  Douglas f i r  Orthic  2  Mixed p a s t u r e grasses  Rego B l a c k  Mixed and  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  3  xi •P  Dominant Vegetation  Around  1  xi -P O CO  Communities  grasses rushes  Eutric  Brunisol  Chernozem  4  Saltgrass  #2  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  5  Saltgrass  #1  S a l i n e Humic  Gleysol  6  Non-vegetated lakebed  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  Non-vegetated lakebed  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  8  Saltgrass  #1  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  9  Saltgrass  #2  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  10  Rush  11  Ponderosa  12  Douglas f i r / Ponderosa pine  Orthic  Eutric  Brunisol  13  Ponderosa  Orthic  Eutric  Brunisol  14  Aspen  Orthic  Black  Chernozem  15  Rush  Orthic  Humic  Gleysol  16  Saltgrass  S a l i n e Humic  Gleysol  17  Non-vegetated lakebed  Saline  18  Saltgrass  #1  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  19  Saltgrass Rush  #2/  Saline  Humic  Gleysol  20  Rush  C a r b o n a t e d Humic  21  Aspen  Orthic  O r t h i c Dark Chernozem pine  pine  #2  Brown  Orthic Black Chernozem  Gleysol  Black  Gleysol  Chernozem  -  39  -  TABLE I I I (Continued) S o i l . D e v e l o p m e n t And Transect  w  Site Number  P l a n t Communities  Around S l i p p y  Dominant Vegetation  22  Mixed  23  grasses  Slough  Soil Development Orthic  Black  Chernozem  Waxberry  Orthic Black  Chernozem  24  Grassland  Orthic Black  Chernozem  25  Aspen  Orthic Black  Chernozem  -  in  their  proper  Table of  this  and  40  -  perspective.  III represents a p a r t i a l  appendix  and  dominant p l a n t s  summary  shows t h e s o i l characteristic  development of  each  site.  B.  The  Nature  And  Since has  Characteristics  the i n c e p t i o n  been c o n t i n u a l l y  Of  of this  Slippy  Slough  study, the  amazed a t t h e  ever-changing,  dynamic n a t u r e o f the l a k e environment. slough's on  c h a r a c t e r was  many-faceted.  t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e s and  looked p a s t o r a l surrounded  by  and  The  From  especially  park-like.  waters  o f r o t and The of  displayed  a l l the greens  lake appeared cycles.  t o be  The  first  recharge.  This  cycle  h o t summers s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  second  and  c a n be  however.  In the s p r i n g  was  0.3  1970.  and  cycle  browns  I n 1974,  metres  autumn  through  i s a product of  the  o f t h e Okanagan  not so r e a d i l y o f 1972,  h i g h e r than  i t was  kinds  involved  observed every year.  k i n d o f c y c l e was  about  weed-  s u b j e c t e d t o two  summer e v a p o r a t i o n f o l l o w e d by  climate  several  decay.  climatic  spring  summer,  crystals,  c e n t i m e t r e s d e e p , t h e warm, s h a l l o w and choked  above,  i n spring, i t  In l a t e  an e x p a n s e o f s a l t  author  at least  The observed  the lake i t had 0.3  level  been i n  t o 0.5  metres  41  -  -  h i g h e r again than i t had been i n 1972. of p r e c i p i t a t e d s a l t  around the lake shore i n  was observed to be much l e s s been i n 1970.  It  The amount  i n 1972  than i t had  i s d o u b t f u l i f any s a l t s  be p r e c i p i t a t e d i n 1974.  1972  These changes  will  are  o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d to annual v a r i a t i o n s i n c l i m a t i c conditions — cooler, w e t t e r recharge  shorter  periods.  summers a n d / o r l o n g e r ,  O b s e r v a t i o n of  lake  l e v e l s over an extended p e r i o d of time would probably r e v e a l the c y c l i c a l nature and frequency of occurrence  of such h i g h water p e r i o d s .  In  the p r e s e n t s t u d y , however, most a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the nature of seasonal c y c l e s ,  the  and not the annual ones.  In l a t e s p r i n g , f o l l o w i n g r u n - o f f and snowmelt, its  the lake i s u s u a l l y both i t s deepest and  freshest.  Under the i n f l u e n c e of  extremely  warm temperatures,  winds, and low r e l a t i v e  h u m i d i t y , however,  significant quantities  of  water are r e l e a s e d to the atmosphere each summer through the process the s a l t  of e v a p o r a t i o n .  As a r e s u l t ,  content of the lake i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  an ever d i m i n i s h i n g volume of water. the waters reach s a t u r a t i o n , centimeters  into  Very q u i c k l y  leaving several  of p r e c i p i t a t e d s a l t s  f r e s h l y exposed by the r e t r e a t i n g  on the  shores  lake.  The nature  -  of  this  trend  change  towards  was r e a d i l y the in  42 -  i s demonstrated increasing  apparent.  i n Table  salinity  d u r i n g t h e summer  Especially  the water observed  dramatic  were  Utilizing the  between June  29 and A u g u s t 15.  i n f l u e n c e o f c l i m a t e on t h e p h y s i c a l  characteristics  of the slough  a planimeter  i s shown i n T a b l e  and an a e r i a l  late  summer i t was f o u n d  decreased  t o approximately  4.1 h e c t a r e s  area. they  These  do p r o v i d e  shrinkage  a useful  experienced  with  the increasing  salt  the reader w i l l  63% o f t h e s u r f a c e  indication  depth,  of the a r e a l  the s a l t  By c o n s i d e r i n g  a n d volume  together  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s shown i n g e t an i d e a o f t h e  magnitude o f the f o r c e s a c t i n g Although  area had  2.4 h e c t a r e s , a r e d u c t i o n  by t h e l a k e .  change i n l a k e a r e a ,  Iv,  i n spring.  a r e o n l y rough e s t i m a t e s , b u t  this  Table  t o be a b o u t  depth  that this  or approximately  figures  V.  photograph  a r e a o f t h e s l o u g h was d e t e r m i n e d  6.5 h e c t a r e s when a t i t s maximum  of  The  i n c r e a s e s i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Na, K, and C a  The  In  IV.  contents  upon t h e s l o u g h . of s o i l  water  were n o t m e a s u r e d , t h e l a k e w a t e r s p r o v i d e an interesting  and u s e f u l  water c o n d i t i o n s . of  approximation  of  soil-  In Table VI the osmotic  the lake waters a t v a r i o u s times  have been c a l c u l a t e d  from  the data  pressure  d u r i n g 1970 given i n  TABLE IV Changes  In The Chemical C h a r a c t e r Of The Slough Water During 1970 S A M P L I N G  Parameter  March 28  May 7  D A T E  June 6  June 29  August 15  September  PH  8.6  8.6  8.9  9.3  9.5  8.7  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  5.3  18.6  24.2  30.4  35.0  41.0  47.0  183.0  218.0  270.0  700.0  520.0  1,081  4,209  5,014  6,210  16,100  11,900  30.8  33.2  1,204.3  1,298  Na  (meq/1)  Na  (ppm)  K  (meq/1)  0.04  0.12  0.16  0.20  K  (ppm)  1.6  4.7  6.3  7.8  Ca  (meq/1)  2.2  4.0  3.7  3.8  Ca  (ppm)  Mg  (meq/1)  Mg  (ppm)  Total Dissolved S o l i d s (ppm)  44 2,200 268.4  1,395  80  74  75.0  98.0  76 122.0  12.0  14.0  240  280  180.0  200.0  915  1,195.6  1,488.4  2,196  5,208.7  6,289.9  7,782.2  19,740.3  2,440  15,978  CO I  -  44  -  TABLE V  The  I n f l u e n c e Of C l i m a t e On The P h y s i c a l Of The S l o u g h D u r i n g 1970  Parameter Observed Precipitation (cm) Mean M o n t h l y  March to June Received Temp.  6.65 56  28 29  J u n e 29 to A u g u s t 15 5.97  70  Character  A u g u s t 15 to September 4.72  Total 17.34  61  (°F> Shoreline Retreat - S o u t h End  (m)  3.35  7.95  1.95  13.25  Shoreline Retreat - N o r t h End  (m)  5.20  41.50  2.45  49.15  Shoreline Retreat - West S i d e  (m)  0.12  0.14  0.10  0.36  Shoreline Retreat - East Side  (m)  8.55  6.72  2. 68  A p p a r e n t Drop Lake L e v e l  17.95  In (cm)  - West  Side  31.8  -  East  Side  29.2  -  Average  30. 5  -  45  -  TABLE VI C a l c u l a t e d Osmotic P r e s s u r e Of Lake Waters During 1970 S A M P L I N G Osmotic Pressure Na  March 2 8  May  7  D A T E  June 6  June 29  August  15  Sept. 19  1.2  4.5  5. 4  6.6  17.2  12. 8  1T K  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.8  0.8  V Ca  0.0  0.1  0.1  0.1  0.2  0.2  Mg  0.3  0.9  1.2  1.5  2.2  2.5  1.5  5.5  6.7  8.2  20.4  16.3  TT  TT  Iir  -  46  -  Table I V u s i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  salt  c o n t e n t and o s m o t i c p r e s s u r e  TT =  Where  RTc  osmotic pressure  - 1  T  =  Temperature  C  =  Concentration of salt  osmotic pressures c a l c u l a t e d  by p l a n t s growing  - 1  ),  (°K), a n d  g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s e v e r e endured  (atmosphere),  U n i v e r s a l Gas C o n s t a n t (0.0825 1. atm. d e g mole  R  The  =  (moles/1).  i n Table VI  conditions  close t o the slough.  Because o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y o b s e r v e d between s l o u g h w a t e r and ground  w a t e r and because e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n  a c t s t o f u r t h e r c o n c e n t r a t e groundwater it  salts,  i s reasonable t o expect the concentration of  s a l t s i n groundwater  under t h e p l a n t zones  t o be  of  a s i m i l a r magnitude t o t h a t i n t h e slough water.  As  t h e s h o r e l i n e r e c e d e s , t h e s o i l s d r y o u t and  salts this  a r e p r e c i p i t a t e d on t h e s u r f a c e .  During  stage, the osmotic pressure of the s o i l  s o l u t i o n i s p r o b a b l y much h i g h e r t h a n 20 b a r s . C.  The N a t u r e And C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s O f S o i l s The S l o u g h To  fully  characterize the soils  S l i p p y Slough drainage would  require  Around  of the sampling  -  and  47  -  a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s many t i m e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r .  Only  i n t h i s way w o u l d i t be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y  the changes i n s o i l  properties that r e f l e c t the  influences of the ever-changing regime  and c l i m a t e .  t r a v e l allowance of  field  trips  set  limit  The l i m i t a t i o n s o f a m o d e r a t e  and t h e t i m e consumptive  nature  and l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s  i m p r a c t i c a l however. to  groundwater  made  this  I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y  analyses t o those conducted  o f samples c o l l e c t e d  i n July,  o n one  1970.  complete  For this  r e a s o n , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o keep i n mind t h a t t h e r e s u l t s of these analyses are r e l a t e d only t o the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t o b t a i n e d a t t h e time o f sample collection. The  r e s u l t s presented i n Tables V I I , V I I I ,  IX and X a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e soils  i n each  zone o r c o m m u n i t y , a n d t h e r e b y  provide a u s e f u l b a s i s f o rcomparison. anticipated  It i s  that although d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s  be o b t a i n e d a t a n o t h e r t i m e , t h e t r e n d s by t h i s s e t o f d a t a p o i n t s w o u l d s t i l l  might  indicated be  evident. The by and in  f i r s t and most o b v i o u s  trend  indicated  t h e s e d a t a was t h e i n c r e a s e i n pH, c o n d u c t i v i t y , c o n t e n t o f s o l u b l e and e x c h a n g e a b l e soils  cations  s u p p o r t i n g h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s e s and i n t h e  TABLE V I I SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: S o l u b l e Ca  S o l u b l e Mg  SOLUBLE CATIONS S o l u b l e Na  Soluble K  SAR  (meq/lOOgm) Site Number 1  12  11,13  Community  Master Horizon  Douglas F i r  Douglas F i r / Ponderosa Pine Ponderosa Pine  A AB C A B BC C  Range  Avg.  -  0.2 0.2 0.8  —  —  —  A B C  0.1-6.1  0.4 0.3 1.4 0.4  Range —  —  _  -  —  -  0.1-0.4  0.1-0.2  2.1 0.1 0.2  Avg. 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.2  0.1-0.2  -  0.2 0.2 0.2  25  Upper Aspen  A  0.9-2.4  1.2  0.2-0.6  0.4  24  Upper Grassland  A C  0.6-1.9  1.3 0.4  0.2-0.6  0.4 0.1  23  Waxberry  A  0.4-1.9  1.0  0.3-1.5  0.8  2,22  Lower Grassland  A BC C  0.1-4.8  1.7 0.1 0.2  0.1-0.6  0.3 0.0 0.9  —  -  —  -  Range _  -  -  0.0-1.6  Avg. 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1  Range _  —  -  -  Avg. Range  Avg.  0.0 0.0 0.0  0.2 0.3 0.5  0.1 0.8 0.0 0.6  —  — —  -  0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2  0.0-0.1  -  0.6 0.0 0.1  0.1-0.4 0.3 0.0-1.8 0.0 0.0-0.1 0.1 0.0-0.2  -  0.1  0.2-1.1 0.6  0.1 0.0  0.1-0.6 0.4 0.1-0.2 0.1  0.2 0.2  0.2  0.1-1.1 0.6 0.1-0.3  0.2  0.1 0.0 0.2  0.0-0.1 0.0 0.0-0.2 — 0.0 0.0  0.1 0.0 0.3  _  0.0-0.3  -  —  -  —  -  —  -  -  0.6 0.0 0.1 0.1  TABLE V I I (CONT'D) SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: S o l u b l e Ca  S o l u b l e Mg  SOLUBLE CATIONS S o l u b l e Na  Soluble K  SAR  (meq/lOOgm) Site 14,  3,  Master jrizon  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg.  1.2 0.9 0.2 0.0  0.0 0.0-0.9 0.0-0.5 1.1  0.0 0.3 0.3 1.1  21 Lower Aspen  LF A B C  1.5-5.1 0.3-2.0 0.8 0.6  3.3 1.9 0.8 0.6  0.8-2.0 0.2-1.0 0.3-0.5 0.5  1.4 1.0 0.4 0.5  0.0-0.1 0.1-0.7 0.0-0.4 0.8  0.1 0.2 0.2 0.8  0.7-1.6 0.1-0.7 0.1-0.2 0.0  10 Rush  A  0.1-15.4 0.0-7.0 0.0-1.5  3.5 1.8 0.5  0.4-6.4 0.1-2.7 0.0-0.5  2.4 1.0 0.2  0.1-0.4 0.2-0.9 0.2-0.5  0.3 0.5 0.4  0 . 2 - 0 . 3 0.2 0 . 0 - 0 . 3 0.1 0 . 0 - 0 . 1 0.0  0 . 0 - 0 . 4 0.2 0 . 0 - 1 . 3 0.5 0 . 0 - 2 . 2 0.6  0.5-16.3 0.0-20.8 0.1-16.4  6.9 6.2 5.8  0.1-6.9 0.1-5.3 0.3-6.8  3.6 2.1 2.8  0.1-5.6 0.3-5.7 0.9-5.6  3.0 2.5 2.4  0 . 1 - 0 . 8 0.5 0 . 2 - 0 . 9 0.5 0 . 2 - 0 . 7 0.5  0 . 1 - 5 . 3 1.7 0 . 5 - 1 . 9 1.3 0 . 6 - 4 . 0 2.1  B C  1 4 . 7 - 2 4 . 1 20.8 1 1 . 6 - 3 2 . 8 18.9 1 9 . 7 - 3 3 . 5 24.4  6.8-10.2 3.7-3.1 4.3-8.2  8.9 5.9 5.7  4.1-6.9 5.6-8.8 6.9-13.7  5.9 7.5 9.2  0 . 4 - 0 . 8 0.6 0 . 4 - 1 . 0 0.6 0 . 5 - 1 . 0 0.7  1 . 3 - 1 . 7 1.5 1 . 9 - 2 . 7 2.2 2 . 0 - 3 . 0 2.3  A B C  1 8 . 5 - 4 8 . 0 36.0 1 3 . 7 - 2 6 . 0 19.2 1 4 . 6 - 2 3 . 9 19.4  4.8-9.7 3.2-5.3 3.8-5.8  7.8 4.4 5.1  9.0-19.8 15.6 4.9-19.4 7.4 3.0-12.8 8.1  0 . 7 - 1 . 6 1.2 0 . 4 - 0 . 9 0.6 0 . 5 - 0 . 9 0.7  2 . 6 - 3 . 7 3.3 1 . 6 - 2 . 6 2.1 0 . 9 - 3 . 6 2.3  B C 4, 9 S a l t g r a s s 16,19  #2  5, 18  #1  8 Saltgrass  6, 7 Nonvegetated lakebed  A B C A  TABLE  VIII  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: EXCHANGEABLE Ca  EXCHANGEABLE Mg_  EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS  EXCHANGEABLE Na  EXCHANGEABLE K  EXCHANGE ACIDITY  (meq/lOOgm) Site lumber 1  12  Community  Master Horizon  Douglas F i r  Douglas F i r / Ponderosa Pine  11,13 P o n d e r o s a Pine  A AB C A B BC C  —  -  —  —  —  A B C  -  A  -  25  Upper  24  Upper Grassland  A C  23  Waxberry  A  2,22  Lower Grassland  A BC C  Aspen  Range  —  —  Avg.  Range  24.8 18.6 3.0  —  11. 5 4.8 2.5 3.4  —  —  -  —  18.5  —  4.2  —  -  -'  11 .5-14.6 13.1 9.9 —  Avg. 2.6 1.8 0.3  Range —  -  —  0.7 0.8 0.2 0.6  _  3.4  —  —  -  1.0  -  --  -  -  -  1.1-1.6 —  1.4 0.1-0.2 1.2 —  -  -  -  -  _  _  _  _  -  -  -  -  -  -  Avg.  Range  0.0 0.1 0.0  —  0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0  _  0.1  —  -  0.1  -  -  -  -  -  0.2 0.0-0.2 0.0 -  -  -  -  -  Avg. 0.4 0.3 0.2  Range  Avg.  -  12.4 10.4 1.6  -  _  0.4 0.0 0.2 0.0  -  0.9  -  3.6-6.2  0.4  2.6-4.1  -  10.4-20.7  0.1 0.1  -  -  6.2-7.8  -  4.7 6.5 3.4 4.7 5.1 0.5 3.3 14.5 7.0 6.9  -  16.6-33.1  29.6  _  10.4-26.1  16.0 2.4 2.1  -  -  TABLE V I I I  (CONT'D)  SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS: EXCHANGEABLE Ca  EXCHANGEABLE Mo;  EXCHANGEABLE CATIONS EXCHANGEABLE Na  EXCHANGEABLE K  EXCHANGE ACIDITY  (meq/lOOgm)  Master Horizon  Avg.  Range  39.1-48.0 43. 6 18.3-25.5 21.3 2.8 2.8  3.9-4.5 1.7-3.0 0.6  4.2 2.3 0.6  0.2 0.0-0.3 0.0  0.2 0.0-0.4 0.2 0.4-6.2 0.1 0.4-0.7 0.6 0.0-1.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 6.2  3.3 0.5 6.2  5.1-24.2 23.8 2.1-23.0 9.4 0.8-17.3 5.8  0.7-2.6 0.0-2.5 0.4-1.9  1.7 1.4 0.9  0.0-0.6 0.0-0.7 0.1-1.1  0.2 0.2-1.6 0.6 4.7-8.3 0.3 0.2-0.9 0.4 1.0-8.8 0.4 0.1-0.8 0.4 0.5-1.6  5.7 3.9 1.2  10.5-48.0 25.7 1.1-20.2 13.3 0.5-24.8 13.7  0.5-16.3 1.1-5.0 0.9-2.1  5.3 3.3 1.2  0.0-27.9 0.0-11.2 0.9-9.5  7.0 0.2-4.7 1.8 0.0-10.4 3.3 6.7 0.5-3.4 1.7 0.5-2.1 1.2 2.1 3.7 0.1-2.2 0.7 2.1  B C  34.4-85.3 55.6 12.8-29.7 21. 9 5.3-14.1 8.6  4.3-15.1 11.4 13.7-29.8 20.2 2.0-3.9 3.0 3.4-13.8 6.7 14.3-22.3 17.6 1.9-2.1 2.0 2.8-6.6 4.9 10.0-24.7 18. 5 1.3-2.3 1.9  A B C  10.8-35.3 26.1 8.3-32.1 20.6 4.2-110.8 46.6  6.0-25.6 16.0 15.3-41.8 34. 8 1.3-3.7 2.8 5.6-3.7 7.0 13.9-19.2 16.2 1.0-1.7 1.4 4.8 15.5-21.5 19.4 1.5-1.6 1.5 3.0-6.7  LF A B  Lower Aspen Rush  A B C  Saltgrass  #22  Saltgrass  #1L  NonVegetated Lakebed  Range  2  1  A  B C A  Range  Avg.  Avg.  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg.  TABLE IX SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS; pH Site Number 1  12  Community Douglas F i r  Master Horizon A AB C  Range —  —  Douglas F i r / Ponderosa Pine  A B BC C  Ponderosa Pine  A B C  6.1-6.6  25  Upper Aspen  A  24  Upper Grassland  23  11,13  2, 22  14,21  p H , CONDUCTIVITY, ESP, AND CEC  CONDUCTIVITY (mmho/cm) Avg. 6.1 6.0 6.5  Range —  -  Avg. 0.2 0.3 1.0  7.2-7.4  7.3  0.2-0.5  0.4  A C  6.1-6.2  6.2 6.3  0.4-0.6  0.5 0.2  Waxberry  A  6.5-6.8  6.6  0.6-0.9  0.8  Lower Grassland  A BC C  6.4-7.9  -  7.0 6.8 8.4  0.3-2.6  1.1 0.1 2.5  LF A B C  6.8-6.9 7.0-7.3 6.8-6.9 6.8  6.9 7.1 6.9 6.8  0.3-0.5 0.1-0.4 0.5-0.7 1.2  Lower  -  —  -  -  0.3 0.0  -  _  0.2-0.3  -  _  0.3 0.2 0.2  6.3 6.5 6.7  -  _  _  _  -  _  0.5 0.5 0.1 0.7  6.8 6.3 5.9 6.1  —  EXCHANGEABLE CATION EXCHANGE SODIUM CAPACITY PERCENTAGE (meq/lOOgm) Range Avg. Range Avg.  0.4 0.2 0.6 1.2  0.3-0.6  -  0.9 0.0 4.6 0.0  —  -  0.2  -  0.8  0.5 0.0  46.6 31.6 10.0 21.9 16.6 10.9 10 .6 40.9  —  -  —  11.9  -  30 . 4 - 3 2 . 5 31.5 22. 2  -  -  -  -  —  —  —  -  -  -  0.3-0.4 0.0-0.8 0.0-0.3 0. 0  0.4 0.3 0.2 0.0  56 . 6 - 6 6 . 3 61.5 23 . 1 - 4 2 . 2 34. 0 25 .3-33.4 29.9 9 .7 9.7  TABLE IX (CONT'D) SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS;  CONDUCTIVITY (mmho/cm)  PH Site Number 3, 15,  10 20  4, 9 16, 19 5, 18  8  6, 7 17  Master Horizon  Community Rush  Saltgrass  Saltgrass Nonvegetated lakebed  #2  #1  pH, CONDUCTIVITY,  ESP, AND CEC  EXCHANGEABLE CATION EXCHANGE SODIUM CAPACITY PERCENTAGE (meq/lOOgm) Range A v g . Range A v g .  Range  Avg.  Range  Avg,  A B C  6. 8-7. 8 7. 3-8. 3 6. 7-8. 1  7. 1 7. 5 7. 6  0. 4-2.6 0. 2-4.4 0. 2-3.3  0. 9 1. 4 1. 2  0. 0-1.0 0. 0-5.7 1. 1-9.2  A B C  7. 7-8. 3 7. 3-8. 5 7. 0-8. 6  8. 2 8. 3 8. 1  0. 0-22.6 1. 7-12.8 1. 4-19.8  8. 0 6. 8 8. 4  0. 0-54.6 IS.9 16.3-50.6 0. 8.1-29.1 0. 0-38.5 0-42.8 H.O 22.4 8.1-22.2  29. 7 20. 0 13. 2  A B C  8. 2-8. 6 8. 2-8. 7 8. 4-9. 3  8. 4 10. 4-17.8 12. 4 8. 5 11. 6-19.0 15. 8 8. 8 19. 6-23.7 21. 6  28. 5-60.7 39.7 45.9-60.4 28. 7-92.5 6L6 21.3-52.2 45. 9-19 .9 93 9 18.1-21.3  51. 8 32. 5 20. 0  A B C  8. 7-9. 1 8. 5-9. 0 8. 6-9. 2  8. 9 20. 1-44.9 29. 6 8. 7 19. 4-24.6 21. 3 8. 8 24. 0-25.0 24. 5  56. 3-113.1 80.4 2 7 . 2 - 5 8 . 1 54. 3-90.7 76.8 17.2-25.6 70. 8-U9.1 94 3 17.8-23.1  42. 4 21. 8 20. 9  0.3 17.8-61.3 35. 7 2.8 10.6-16.3 13. 0 3.8 7.5-11.9 9. 2  OJ  TABLE X SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS:  ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN, AND C/N RATIO  % Organic Carbon Site Number 1  Douglas F i r  Master Horizon A AB C  Range —  —  A B BC C  _  Ponderosa Pine  A B C  3.6-4.6  25  Upper Aspen  24  12  11,  Community  13  23 2,22  Douglas F i r / Ponderosa Pine  —  Avg. 4.2  % Nitrogen Range —  -  -  2.1 0.7  _  0.3  0.1  -  -  -  Avg. 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.05  C/N Ratio Range —  _  -  Avg. 10.5  -3.0  21.0 7.0  -  -  2.0  15.3-18.0 7.0-10.0  -  16. 7 5.0 8.5  -  0.1-0.3  0.5-0.7  4.1 0.5 0.6  0.05-0.1  -  0.2 0.1 0.1  A  4.8-6.6  5.7  0.4-0.6  0.5  11.0-12.0  11.5  Upper Grassland  A C  2.9-4.4  3.7 1.4  0.3 0.1  9.7-14.7  12 .2 14.0  Waxberry  A  7 . 9 - 1 2 . 9 10.4  0.6-0.9  0.8  13.2-14.3  13.8  Lower Grassland  A BC C  0.6-4.2  0.2-0.3  0.3 0.1 0.05  2.0-14.0  8.0 2.0 4.0  —  -  -  2.4 0.2 0.2  —  -  -  -  -  -  TABLE X (CONT'D) SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SOILS;  ORGANIC CARBON, NITROGEN, AND C/N RATIO  % Organic Carbon Site Number  Community  Master Horizon  Range  % Nitrogen  C/N Ratio  Avg.  Range  Avg.  Range  0.7 0.2 0.2 0.05  12.3-18.0 10.0 4.0  15.3 10.0 4.0  Avg.  14,  21  Lower Aspen  LF A B C  1.8-4.9 2.0 0.2  3.3 2.0 0.2  0.6-0.8 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.05  3, 15,  10 20  Rush  A B C  2.6-7.9 0.2-7.5 0.01-0.2  4.7 2.5 0.13  0.2-0.6 0.35 0.05-0.1 0.08 0.03-0.05 0.05  12.0-16.5 4.0-75.0 0.3-4.0  13.7 25.0 2.6  1.7-5.7 0.1-1.5 0.1-4.0  3.4 0.6 1.3  0.1-0.5 0.95-0.1 0.05-0.3  0.25 0.07 0.14  11.0-17.0 2.0-15.0 2.0-13.3  14.1 7.2 6.8  C  5.3-8.8 1.0-5.8 0.8-1.5  6.7 3.2 1.2  0.5-0.7 0.1-0.5 0.1  0.6 0.25 0.1  7.6-17.6 10.0-13.5 8.0-15.0  11.8 11.7 12.3  A B C  2.9-7.7 1.0-1.6 1.1-1.5  5.8 1.4 1.3  0.3-0.8 0.1-0.2 0.1  0.6 0.13 0.1  9.6-9.7 8.0-15.0 11.-15.0  9.63 11.0 12.7  ' 9 16,19  Saltgrass -  5,8 IQ  S a l t g r a s s #1  4  6, 17  7  Nonvegetated lakebed  #2  A  B C A B  -  lakebed.  Soils  -  56  supporting  rushes appeared to  chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  more s i m i l a r  the  communities  grassland  and  forest  supporting  halophytes.  Because  h i g h e r pH,  conductivity,  under  the rush  transitional affected  between the normal  slightly Sodium  the  soils  position  soils  and  the  salt-  soluble  and  exchangeable  soils.  cation present  the dominant  i n the normal  s u p p o r t i n g Douglas waxberry,  these s o i l s , sodium.  i . e . , those  f i r , Ponderosa p i n e , and  cation i n  f o l l o w e d by p o t a s s i u m and  h o r i z o n s o f the lower aspen but  was  most m a r k e d l y  the  Saltgrass  #1 and  soils.  dominant  and r u s h  different  exchangeable sodium sodium  present,  cation.  i n the  and  the s o l u b l e  of  i n the  continued  t o be  and  tremendously,  magnesium as t h e s e c o n d  This  increase  i n t h e Sodium  i n sodium  c o n t e n t was  reflected  Ratio  and t h e E x c h a n g e a b l e Sodium  (SAR)  lower  communities,  content increased  replaced  t h e n by  i n the s o i l s  #2 c o m m u n i t i e s  Although calcium  cation  most a b u n d a n t  t o change  aspen,  rush.  the second most abundant  T h i s p a t t e r n began  such t h a t  soils,  non-halophytic grasses,  Magnesium was  the  seem t h a t a  of  than to those  of t h e i r  community o c c u p i e d  C a l c i u m was  lakebed  to s o i l s  and E x c h a n g e a b l e  P e r c e n t a g e , however, i t w o u l d  have  Adsorption Percentage  -  (ESP). 0.0  The  to  SAR  a high  of  57 -  the  value  normal s o i l s  of  1.1  l o w e r a s p e n community. of  from  The  ESP  1.3  to  3.3  values  exception  of  Douglas  the  12).  The  rush in  ESP  i n the  of  increased  soils  observed  c a t i o n s was cation found and  site,  slightly  the  ESP  increase  t h a t CEC,  and  a l s o the  carbon present  tended  at  of  in  low  the  Site  the however,  salt-  to  94.3%.  exchangeable  increase Instead,  in i t  percentage of  was  nitrogen  v a r i e d from s i t e  to decrease with  the  community  very  an  (CEC).  (with  horizon  f r o m 17.0%  a c c o m p a n i e d by  range  i n t h e BC  i n s o l u b l e and  exchange c a p a c i t y  but  are  the  soils.  t o 3.8%  values  which ranged  not  organic  pine  These v a l u e s  comparison with  The  salt-affected  observed  of  to a  f o r normal s o i l s  4.8%  from  C horizon  increased  fir/Ponderosa  community.  affected  This  obtained  single  i n the  ranged  to  d e p t h a t any  one  site. In that in  the  the  soils  sum  of  each s o i l of  occurred  only  adjacent  to the  the  portion  of  the  the  exceeded the  horizons.  i n the  salts  i t was  exchangeable cations  horizon,  capacity  using  a f f e c t e d by  Since  l a k e , i t would  phenomenon  soils  soluble salts  immediately  appear t h a t  a n a l y t i c a l methods d e s c r i b e d , the  present  c a t i o n exchange  this  salt-affected  found  present  by  some  were  being  d e t e r m i n e d as e x c h a n g e a b l e s a l t s . difficult,  or rather  impossible  Because i t i s  to  completely  s e p a r a t e a l l s a l t c r y s t a l s , o r s o i l - w a t e r and water containing  soluble salts  sample p r i o r to d e t e r m i n a t i o n  from the of the  s a l t content,  i t i s doubtful  be  Furthermore, since  overcome.  c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s i n the  soil  exchangeable  i f t h i s problem  soil  an  be  r e g a r d e d as  s a l t s are  between s o l u b l e  a f i x e d value.  removed from the  s a l t s move i n t o s o l u t i o n . soluble cations will  be  (Richards, The  in  inherent the  in soils  the p a s t  system,  =  t h e ESP  long  the exchange  involved  c o n t e n t o f s o l u b l e and of a r i d regions  (Richards,  (Richards,  Using t h i s  exchangeable  s o l u t i o n phase,  19 5 4 ) .  has  One  as there  complex  19 54) 100 1  exchangeable  been  a fairly  b e t w e e n ESP (-0.0126 (-0.0126  high  recognized  method t h a t  been found and  0.01475 0.01475  relationship, i t i s possible  with  in  has  t h i s problem i s based  a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t has  exist  contents  soluble  S i m i l a r l y , as  difficulties  been s u g g e s t e d t o d e a l w i t h on  As  and  19 54) .  determining cations  soil  e x i s t i n the  a d s o r b e d c a t i o n s on  can  equilibrium  exchangeable s a l t s , n e i t h e r of these s a l t can  lake-  degree of  to  SAR: SAR) SAR) to  estimate  accuracy,  -  59  -  p r o v i d e d t h e ESP i s n o t g r e a t e r t h a n 5 0 % . In view of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d mining soluble  and e x c h a n g e a b l e c a t i o n s  i n deter-  and s i n c e  an e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n b o t h forms o f c a t i o n s  i n s o i l s , i t was f e l t t h a t  analysis of t o t a l s a l t a more l o g i c a l of s o i l  contents of s o i l s  and d e f e n s i b l e b a s i s  conditions  an  constituted  f o r comparison  under d i f f e r e n t p l a n t  communities  t h a n d i d a c o m p a r i s o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s o l u b l e and exchangeable c a t i o n concentrations. expressed i n d i v i d u a l l y  The d a t a  i n Tables V I I , V I I I ,  have been summarized  and a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n Table XI f o r t h i s  purpose.  and I X  collectively  I t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e sum o f e x c h a n g e a b l e c a t i o n s exchange  t o exceed the c a t i o n  c a p a c i t y was r e s t r i c t e d  high t o t a l  s a l t content.  to soils with  I t c a n a l s o be s e e n  a that  t o t a l s a l t c o n t e n t was h i g h e s t i n t h e l a k e b e d , just slightly  l e s s i n s o i l s under S a l t g r a s s  and e v e n l o w e r u n d e r S a l t g r a s s total  #2.  #1,  Although the  s a l t c o n t e n t o f the s o i l s under S a l t g r a s s  #2  was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t  found i n the normal s o i l s , i t  was n o t g r e a t l y s o .  I t was t h e h i g h c o n t e n t o f  soluble salts the  that distinguished this  s o i l s n o t a f f e c t e d by The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  soil  from  salts.  scheme o u t l i n e d i n t h e  TABLE XI TOTAL SALT CONTENT OF SOILS  Site Number'  Community  Master Horizon  C a t i o n Exchange Capacity  Sum o f E x c h a n g e a b l e Cations (meq/lOOgm)  Sum o f Soluble Cations  Total Cation:  46.6 31. 6 10.0  40.2 31.2 5.1  0.5 0.4 1.5  40.7 31. 6 6.6  Douglas F i r / A B Ponderosa Pine BC C  21.9 16.6 10.9 10.6  17.4 12.1 6.8 8.7  0.6 1.3 2.4 1.3  18.0 13.4 9.2 10.0  Ponderosa Pine  A C  40.9 11.9  28.0 8.0  1.1 0.3  29.1 8.3  25  Upper Grassland  A C  31.5 22.2  21.8 18.1  2.2 0.6  24.0 18.7  14,21  Lower Aspen  LF A B C  61.5 34.0 29.9 9.7  51.5 24. 8 26.5 9.6  6.0 4.0 1.6 1.9  57.5 28.8 28.1 11.5  A B C  35.7 13.0 9.2  32.0 15.4 8.7  6.4 3.4 1.1  38.4 18.8 9.8  A B C  29.7 20.0 13.2  43.1 26.2 21.4  14.0 11. 3 11.5  57.1 37.5 32.9  1  Douglas F i r  12  11  3,10 15,20  4, 9 6,19  Rush  S a l t g r a s s #2  A AB C  TABLE XI  (CONT'D)  TOTAL SALT CONTENT OF SOILS Site Number  Community  Master Horizon  C a t i o n Exchange Capacity  Sum of Exchangeable Cations  Sum of S o l u b l e Cations  Total Cations  (meq/lOOgm) 5/  6, 17  8  7  saltgrass  Nonvegetated lakebed  #1  A B C  51. 8 32.5 20.0  90.2 48.2 43.9  36.2 32.9 40.0  126.4 81.1 83.9  A B C  42.4 21.8 20.9  79.7 45.2 72.3  60.6 31.6 33.3  140.3 76. 8 105.6  I  I  -  Introduction the  soils  slough,  -  62  (Richards,  1 9 5 4 ) , has  as  shown i n T a b l e X I I .  i n those s o i l s  near the  Once a g a i n  soils  lake  soils the  i n the  slopes  l a k e e v e r had  equal  examined i n the  surrounding  the  i n t o one  of the  (1954).  The  D.  can  four s o i l  Relationships  most s t r i k i n g  be  soils  and  f o u n d on  soils  soil  the normal s o i l s .  non-  The  the  classified Richards  in this  area  at l e a s t  between  the  that only non-halophytic  s a l i n e or a l k a l i  to a  two  types.  g r e w on  appeared t o have a s l i g h t l y  and  neatly  relationship  species  the  immediately  p l a n t s o b s e r v e d i n t h e v a l l e y was  halophytic grass  position  shoreline  i n common w i t h  Soil - Plant  and  zones  m a j o r i t y of the  salt-affected  The  Even  t y p e s d e f i n e d by  three  feet  Less than h a l f of  three  slough  have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  lake l e v e l .  zone, which occupy a  condition.  only  w i t h i n a few  t o the h i g h e s t  the  i t is  found  i n the p a s t , have r e t u r n e d  saline-nonalkali soils  rush  are  and  o f e l e v a t i o n above the p r e s e n t  on  to  of each p l a n t community sampled around  apparent that s a l t - a f f e c t e d  the  been a p p l i e d  only  salt-affected  plants  rush  higher  that  soils  were  communities  tolerance  c o n d i t i o n s than other  w e r e o b s e r v e d t o o c c u p y somewhat o f  of  non-halophytes a  TABLE X I I SOIL C L A S S I F I C A T I O N Site lumber  Community o r Zone  P  H  ACCORDING TO SALINITY AND  ALKALINITY  Conductivity  ESP  Soil  Classification  Douglas F i r  <8. 5  <4.0  <15  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  12  Douglas F i r / Ponderosa Pine  <8. 5  <4.0  <15  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  11 13  Ponderosa  <8. 5  <8. 5  <4.0 <4.0  4.15 —  Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali  25  Upper Aspen  <8. 5  <4.0  —  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  24  Upper  <8. 5  <4.0  <15  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  23  Waxberry  <8. 5  <4.0  —  Nonsaline-Nonalkali  2 22  Lower  <8. 5 <8. 5  <4.0 <4.0  — —  Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali  14 21  Lower  <8. 5 <8. 5  <4.0 <4.0  <15 <15  Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali  3 10 15 20  Rush  5 5 5 5  <4.0 <4.0 <4.0 <4.0  <15 <15 <15 <15  Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali  4 9 16 19  Saltgrass  <8. 5 5 <8. 5 6.8.5  >4.0 >4.0 >4.0 24.0  CIS  Saline Saline-Alkali Saline-Alkali Nonsaline-Nonalkali/ Saline A l k a l i  1  Pine  Grassland  Grassland Aspen  <8. <8. <8. <8. #2  >15 >15  2.15  TABLE XII  (CONT'D)  SOIL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SALINITY AND ALKALINITY Site Number  Community o r Zone  Saltgrass  #1  8 18 6 7 17  Non-vegetated lakebed  pH  Conductivity  ESP  Soil  Nonsaline-Alkali/ Saline A l k a l i Nonsaline-Alkali Saline-Alkali/ Nonsaline-Alkali  £8.5  > 4.0  >15  <8.5 >8.5  >4.0 >4.0  715 715  >  >4.0  >15  8.5  >8.5  >  4.0  >15  >  74.0  >15  8.5  Classification  Saline-Alkali/ Nonsaline-Alkali Saline-Alkali/ Nonsaline-Alkali Saline-Alkali/ Nonsaline-Alkali  transitional  position.  The data presented i n T a b l e s VII through XI showed t h a t s o i l s having pH above 8.0, c o n d u c t i v i t y of 8.0 mmhos/cm o r more, and/or an Sodium Percentage  Exchangeable  of g r e a t e r than 15% would o n l y  support the growth of h a l o p h y t i c p l a n t s .  The  t o t a l s a l t content of these s o i l s ranged to 140.3 meq/100 gm.  from 32.9  T o t a l s o l u b l e s a l t s were  found t o be g r e a t e r than 10 meq/100 gm; s o l u b l e and exchangeable  individual  c a t i o n s were u s u a l l y  h i g h e r i n the s o i l s s u p p o r t i n g halophytes than i n other  soils. Increased s o i l s a l i n i t y  appeared  t o be an  important f a c t o r s e p a r a t i n g the S a l t g r a s s #2 community from the rushes and s e p a r a t i n g S a l t g r a s s #1 from S a l t g r a s s #2.  The d u r a t i o n o f the inundated  p e r i o d probably p l a y e d an e q u a l l y important r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h a l o p h y t e s ; the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r was n o t determined i n t h i s study however. The magnitude o f changes i n s o i l  salinity  f a c t o r s downslope through non-halophytes,  rushes,  S a l t g r a s s #2, and S a l t g r a s s #1 t o the lakebed are summarized i n Table X I I I . I t i s thought  t h a t the v a l u e s shown i n  Table X I I I , which are r e a l l y average  values f o r  -  -  66  TABLE X I I I S e l e c t e d C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s Of S o i l s Under M a j o r P l a n t Communities Plant Community  Master Horizon  S o i l Chemical pH  Conductivity (mmhos/cm)  Properties  Exchangeable Sodium Percentage  Total Soluble Salts (meq/100 gm)  Non-  A  6.6  0.5  0.3  1.4  Halophytes  B  6.4  0.2  0.3  1.4  Rushes  A  7.1  0.9  0.3  38.4  B  7.5  1.4  2.8  18.8  Saltgrass #2  A  8.2  8.0  18.9  57.1  B  8.3  6.8  17.0  37.5  Saltgrass #1  A  8.4  12.4  39.7  126.4  B  8.5  15.8  61.6  81.1  8.9  29.6  80.4  140.3  8.7  21.3  76.8  76.8  NonVegetated lakebed  B  -  several  sites  a range  in soil  best  adapted It  account  67 -  i n each  community, p r o b a b l y  c o n d i t i o n s which each  that  these  soil  halophytes  in  salt  from  non-halophytes.  may  account  of these p l a n t s . factors,  soil  conditions,  played important  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  o f these p l a n t s .  i n addition  thought  that^other factors,  related  soil  determining  slopes. lower  to saltroles  of plant  confined to sites  I t i s easy  that  communities. Douglas  on t h e h i g h e r  a n d on n o r t h o r w e s t  t o see here,  probably  spring,  as  facing  receive a l i t t l e  t h e snow l a s t s  and t h e s i t e s  a more  easterly  elsewhere  species occur, the  of s i t e microclimate.  precipitation, the  However, i t i s  play important  t h e I n t e r i o r where b o t h  sites  i n determining  P o n d e r o s a p i n e was more common a t somewhat  significance fir  roles  e l e v a t i o n s and a t s i t e s w i t h  aspect. in  to salt-related  has been mentioned e a r l i e r  slopes of the v a l l e y  supporting  i n addition  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  was n o r m a l l y  variations  However, i t i s t h o u g h t  other  conditions,  separation  i n p a r t f o r the d i s -  that  fir  Minor  content o f the normal s o i l s  non-halophytes,  It  was  characteristics  i n l a r g e measure f o r t h e o b s e r v e d  of  in  plant  to tolerate.  i s understood  tribution  represent  The D o u g l a s more  a little  are probably  longer i n a few  degrees  -  -  68  c o o l e r i n summer t h a n P o n d e r o s a s i t e s .  Neither  s p e c i e s c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y compete w i t h g r a s s e s f o r the l i t t l e valley.  b i t of moisture  And o n l y  x e r o p h y t i c than  a v a i l a b l e i n t h e main  the Ponderosa, being  more  t h e D o u g l a s f i r , c a n become  e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e e a s t f a c i n g and l o w e r So  slopes.  t o D o u g l a s f i r , o n l y t h e h i g h e s t and w e t t e s t  slopes  are u s u a l l y  left.  How c a n we a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f D o u g l a s fir  i n a gully  almost a t l a k e l e v e l , then?  again i t i s the landscape a proper is  understanding  the nature  subsurface  which holds  t h e key t o  o f t h i s phenomenum.  of g u l l i e s  slopes.  the drainage As a r e s u l t ,  more w a t e r e n t e r s t h e s o i l s o f t h e l o w e r and  bottoms o f g u l l i e s  slopes.  It  t o a c t as s u r f a c e and  pathways c o l l e c t i n g  from the surrounding  Once  much  slopes  falls  on t h e u p p e r  I n other words, the s o i l  landscape i s  able to a l t e r added m o i s t u r e  than  waters  s o i l microclimate. received i n these  s i t e s was s u f f i c i e n t  t o support  Apparently  the  gully-bottom the normal  growth  o f s u c h a w a t e r - d e m a n d i n g s p e c i e s as t h e D o u g l a s fir. W a x b e r r y was o f t e n o b s e r v e d  growing i n  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Douglas f i r , sometimes w i t h and,  o c c a s i o n a l l y , by i t s e l f .  that the d i s t r i b u t i o n  I t i s believed  o f w a x b e r r y and a s p e n ,  aspen,  -  69  -  l i k e Douglas f i r i n the g u l l y , to the i n f l u e n c e of landscape Sites all  moisture. 23  p o s i t i o n s i n the landscape  base o f l o n g , concave s l o p e s . p o s i t i o n , such the m o i s t u r e  attributed  on s o i l  1 4 , 2 1 , and 25 ( a s p e n ) a n d S i t e  occupied  and  c a n be  (waxberry) at the  By t h e i r  very  s i t e s m u s t h a v e c o l l e c t e d much o f  escaping  f r o m t h e s l o p e s above them,  r e t a i n e d i t t o remain moister f o r a longer  time  than  adjacent  soils.  The r u s h c o m m u n i t i e s w e r e r e s t r i c t e d l o w - l y i n g and n o n - s a l i n e o r o n l y v e r y saline soils  of the v a l l e y  s i t e s were p r o b a b l y communities.  to the  slightly  near the l a k e .  Such  t o o wet f o r t h e o t h e r p l a n t  The r u s h e s , b e i n g more h y d r o p h y t i c  i n n a t u r e , w e r e a b l e t o do w e l l t h e r e , w e r e a b l e t o t o l e r a t e t h e sometimes w a t e r l o g g e d one a r e a , r u s h e s site  growing  found.  withered  In  i n a drier  a f e w f e e t h i g h e r up t h e s l o p e t h a n  normally and  were observed  soils.  they  The p l a n t s h a d a s l i g h t l y  were  brown  appearance; they were r a t h e r w i d e l y  s p a c e d a n d c o u l d n o t be d e s c r i b e d a s l u x u r i a n t o r thriving. was a r e l i c had in  I t was a t f i r s t b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s o f a c o m m u n i t y w h i c h some y e a r s  marked t h e l i k e l y relation  l o c a t i o n of the rush  t o a much d e e p e r l a k e .  was l a t e r r e a l i z e d  site  ago community  However, i t  t h a t t h i s community o c c u p i e d  a  70  -  large  s w a l e and  drainage  and  landscape  observed  r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f  runoff waters  Increased the  soil  i s thought  above.  The  results  of  due  composition  are presented  i n Table  conducted  XIV.  (from S i t e  D o u g l a s f i r (one Site  25),  aspen  above S i t e and  one  25),  from  from (one and  just  The  19),  site from  one  from  21  and  one  Ponderosa pine  above S i t e  25).  (one  later mislaid;  analyses  sodium  c a n be i n the  Saltgrass  #2  were f o u n d contrast, contents The  near from  from  but  just  Site  13  the  were  of these p l a n t s could  presented.  seen  t h a t the  tissues  concentrations of  o f S a l t g r a s s #1  were t h r e e t o f o u r t i m e s  i n the  10),  Samples o f  g r a s s e s were c o l l e c t e d ,  It  18),  (from S i t e  and  Site  determine  samples  (from S i t e  rush  21  grasses.  plant species  non-halophytic  t h e r e f o r e n o t be  was  to  of v e g e t a t i o n  e x a m i n e d i n c l u d e d S a l t g r a s s #1 #2  communities  of the v a l l e y  analyses  in  f o r the  t h e more x e r o x p h y t i c  the elemental  Saltgrass  to p o s i t i o n  the p l a n t  rest  by  above.  to account  of  The  occupied primarily  from  moisture  distribution  discussed  -  tissues  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of  as h i g h  of other p l a n t s .  the n o n - h a l o p h y t i c of potassium,  and  p l a n t s had  calcium, iron,  and  as  In  much h i g h e r  magnesium.  aluminum, and  silica  -  were s i m i l a r i n the apparent exception aluminum i n the high  silica  -  71  t i s s u e s of a l l p l a n t s , w i t h of high  l e v e l s of i r o n  No  d i f f e r e n c e s were o b s e r v e d between the of p l a n t s  growing c l o s e t o the  c o m p o s i t i o n of s i m i l a r p l a n t s Of had  a l l the p l a n t s  the h i g h e s t  analyzed,  the  a "calcium  t h a t e x t r a c t s an u n u s u a l l y soil.  growing  From the  composition the  upslope. aspen t i s s u e s Aspen i s  pumper" o r a  high  amount o f  q u a n t i t i e s o f p o t a s s i u m and  soils the  in i t s tissues.  i t  high  m a g n e s i u m as w e l l  The  d e c a y and  as  h i g h base content  u n d e r a s p e n c o m m u n i t i e s i s p r o b a b l y due  aspen  i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the  soil  of to  of  basic  litter. The  high  concentration  t i s s u e s of S a l t g r a s s a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r  #1  and  ability  tolerate saline conditions. defined  by  Daubenmire  group of p l a n t s only  plant  calcium  d a t a i n T a b l e XIV,  appears t h a t t h i s p l a n t a l s o accumulates  calcium  and  consistent  l a k e and  t o t a l base content.  o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as  from the  and  needles of Ponderosa p i n e ,  l e v e l s i n Douglas f i r .  the  of  sodium p r e s e n t i n  Saltgrass  as h a l o p h y t e s  (1967) as  an an  concentrations  i n t h e i r water supply,  but  can  be  to  H a l o p h y t e s were  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  t o endure h i g h  #2  the  "ecologic ability  not  of c e r t a i n  ions  a l s o to absorb water  TABLE XIV E l e m e n t a l Composition Of S e l e c t e d P l a n t Species Plant Species  % Ash  5  •  Ca  (ppm)  Mg  Fe  Al  S i _  S a l t g r a s s #1  5.8  49,546  153,363  15,548  38,785  2,672  862  6,204  S a l t g r a s s #2  9.9  60,378  41,470  18,825  23,030  1,242  404  23,483  10.2  17,604  480,362  21,757  46,034  1,429  1,429  62,854  • 2.7  9,196  173,778  352,555  52,919  3,889  7,036  115,163  Rush ^Site^lf^ ^msar^Site^S)  2  ,  5  12/139  199,410  360,720  63,232  4,000  4,400  105,000  ^ S i t e 21)  4  ,  7  13,305  343,171  330,453  51,099  2,234  6,810  34,686  t n e a r S i t e 25)  4  ,  2  16,422  269,982  262,434  110,021  2,333  2,143  23,096  1 ' 12  391,000  29,392  87,147  13,667  12,000  60,000  Hf495  268,812  180,359  96,267  9,167  1,083  54,166  ^Site*?!*  P  i  n  G  m2a? site 25? r  P  1  1  ,  5  ,  2  9  3  -  with and  73 -  ease under these  conditions."  S a l t g r a s s #2 o c c u p i e d  adjacent with  to the lake.  S a l t g r a s s #1  positions  These s o i l s  immediately were  inundated  s a l i n e w a t e r f o r much o f t h e y e a r .  surface  soil  dried  out during  As t h e  t h e summer,  only  the B and C h o r i z o n s remained s a t u r a t e d w i t h ground water, which, b e i n g l a k e w a t e r was p r o b a b l y Table  saline.  19, 1970, t h e s o d i u m c o n t e n t  water ranged potassium calcium  from  ranged  from  1,081 ppm t o 16/100 from  In  contents  Given  these  of cations, especially  tissues  h a d much h i g h e r  than  the a b i l i t y  water supply  high  that the sodium  content  the non-halophytic p l a n t s . to tolerate  i s probably  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  from  sodium, i n t h e  i t i s not surprising  halophytic grasses  In f a c t ,  ppm,  44 ppm t o 280 ppm, and magnesium  water supply,  their  of the slough  1.6 ppm t o 1,298 ppm,  268.4 ppm t o 2,440 ppm.  E.  also very  with the  I V i t was shown t h a t b e t w e e n M a r c h 28 and  September  in  contiguous  a  sodium-enriched  a key f a c t o r  determining  of halophytes.  Summary  Slippy in  Slough  the I n t e r i o r  investigations  i s a small, saline  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  have been c o n d u c t e d  water  body  A series of  to characterize  -  and  define this  74  -  slough, the surrounding s o i l s ,  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of plant  species.  between t h e s l o u g h , t h e s o i l s , also  interactions  and t h e p l a n t s were  examined. Two k i n d s o f c l i m a t i c  influence by  The  the slough.  annual v a r i a t i o n s  temperature determined normal  cycles  A long-term i n climatic  and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . fluctuations  over a p e r i o d  appeared  c y c l e was  caused  conditions of These  variations  i n lake level  of years.  to  above o r below  A more  readily  observed  c y c l e was o f a s e a s o n a l n a t u r e and  involved  e v a p o r a t i o n i n t h e summer f o l l o w e d b y  recharge  from  of  autumn t o s p r i n g .  During  1970, t h e s u r f a c e a r e a o f S l i p p y  observed result  t o d e c r e a s e by more t h a n  o f l a r g e water l o s s e s  t h e r e was salt  a significant  through  from  magnesium f r o m time,  c a l c i u m from  As a  evaporation  sodium potassium  from  44 t o 280 ppm, a n d  268 t o 2,440 ppm.  the c o n d u c t i v i t y  was  increase i n the soluble  1,081 t o 16,100 ppm,  t o 1,298 ppm,  t h e summer  Slough  50%.  c o n t e n t o f the remaining water;  increased 1.6  and  A t t h e same  of the slough water i n c r e a s e d  from  5.3 t o 41.0 mmho/cm and t h e pH r o s e t o 9.5  from  8.6. Major  in  changes i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n  the v a l l e y  of plants  were r e c o r d e d and t h e s o i l s  under  each  75  -  community were examined.  -  The  non-vegetated  soils  e x p o s e d as t h e s h o r e l i n e r e c e d e d w e r e c l a s s i f i e d S a l i n e G l e y s o l s and S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l s .  as  Two  species of h a l o p h y t i c or s a l t - t o l e r a n t grasses grew i n d i s t i n c t slough.  zones around t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e  S o i l s under b o t h zones were c l a s s i f i e d  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l s . rushes; t h i s  zone s u p p o r t e d  zone r e p r e s e n t e d a t r a n s i t i o n  salt-affected soils normal s o i l s  A third  as  between  s u p p o r t i n g h a l o p h y t e s and  supporting non-halophytes.  under r u s h e s were c l a s s i f i e d  variously  Soils as  Saline,  O r t h i c , and C a r b o n a t e d H u m i c G l e y s o l s and as  Orthic  Dark Brown Chernozems.  to  These  soils  g a v e way  B l a c k Chernozems under a s p e n , g r a s s l a n d ,  and  Ponderosa p i n e communities.  higher  At s l i g h t l y  e l e v a t i o n s , a s p e n , g r a s s l a n d , and w a x b e r r y w e r e f o u n d on B l a c k C h e r n o z e m i c fir  soils  and  communities Douglas  and P o n d e r o s a p i n e c o m m u n i t i e s on O r t h i c  Eutric  Brunisols. S o i l s s u p p o r t i n g the h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s e s had h i g h e r pH and c o n d u c t i v i t y v a l u e s , h i g h e r adsorption ratios  and e x c h a n g e a b l e  p e r c e n t a g e s , and h i g h e r s o l u b l e , and t o t a l  salt  characteristics  sodium  exchangeable,  contents than the s o i l s  p l a n t communities.  sodium  of other  I t i s believed that these  are d e r i v e d  from the  intimate  soil  - 76 -  association of the s o i l s with the s a l i n e  waters  o f t h e s l o u g h and t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s l o u g h and t h e s o i l s  i n f l u e n c e d by i t p r e c l u d e  the growth o f n o n - h a l o p h y t i c p l a n t s p e c i e s . The  soils  a d j a c e n t t o t h e s l o u g h were  to e x h i b i t both  s a l i n e and a l k a l i  characteristics.  S a l i n i z a t i o n implies the accumulation salts  i n the soils  of arid  found  of soluble  and s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s .  A l k a l i z a t i o n on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i m p l i e s t h e concentration of salts  i n the s o i l  solution to the  p o i n t t h a t c a l c i u m and magnesium s a l t s a r e precipitated,  l e a v i n g sodium as t h e d o m i n a n t  exchangeable c a t i o n . b o t h o c c u r t o some  S a l i n i z a t i o n and a l k a l i z a t i o n ectent a l l t h e time.  S a l i n i z a t i o n , however, i s p r o b a b l y most pronounced d u r i n g t h e autumn, w i n t e r , and s p r i n g period.  An abundance o f a t m o s p h e r i c  moisture  at this  weathering  of s o i l  and r o c k m i n e r a l s and t h e downslope.  are t r a n s f e r r e d t o the lowlands  t h e d r y summer p e r i o d h o w e v e r . for alkalization. the annual  and s o i l  time promotes t h e c h e m i c a l  r e l e a s e and t r a n s f e r o f s o l u b l e s a l t s Few s a l t s  recharge  during  Summer i s t h e t i m e  Something l i k e  7 5 % o r 80% o f  evaporation probably occurs during the  summer, c a u s i n g t h e l a k e t o s h r i n k r a p i d l y i n size,  and c o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e s o l u b l e s a l t s  i ni t s  - 77 -  waters.  I t i s during this  becomes a d o m i n a n t p r o c e s s  time t h a t  i n the s o i l s  So i t s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g soils  reflecting  alkalization nearby.  a t a l l t o see these  t h e combined i n f l u e n c e s o f both  processes. Although both processes operated zones,  alkalization  and s a l i n i z a t i o n  i n t h e s o i l s under t h e h a l o p h y t e  i ti s thought  the intensity  of these  processes  was much g r e a t e r i n t h e z o n e o c c u p i e d b y S a l t g r a s s #1 t h a n i n t h e S a l t g r a s s #2 z o n e . Saltgrass  Because t h e  #2 zone o c c u p i e d a p o s i t i o n h i g h e r o n  t h e s l o p e t h a n S a l t g r a s s #1, i t was i n u n d a t e d f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f time each y e a r .  During  this  p e r i o d o f i n u n d a t i o n t h e s l o u g h was a t i t s f u l l e s t , and  therefore i n i t s least saline  A l s o , because o f t h e i r  condition.  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p o s i t i o n on  the s l o p e , t h e A and B h o r i z o n s under t h e S a l t g r a s s #2 c o m m u n i t y w e r e u s u a l l y d r a i n e d a n d f r e e of  l a k e water  d u r i n g t h e summer p e r i o d .  amount o f s o l u b l e s a l t a v a i l a b l e was r e s t r i c t e d An  almost  The  f o r concentration  t o t h a t l e f t by t h e r e c e d i n g w a t e r s . infinite  present i n the water  amount o f s a l t was  o f t h e s l o u g h however.  S i n c e t h e s o i l s o f t h e S a l t g r a s s #1 c o m m u n i t y remained  saturated f o r a longer period of time,  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s o l u b l e and  exchangeable  -  cations The  78  -  i n t h e s e s o i l s r e a c h e d much h i g h e r  t o t a l s a l t content of the s o i l s  Saltgrass  levels.  under  #1 was f o u n d t o be a b o u t 2.5 t i m e s a s  h i g h as t h a t o f t h e S a l t g r a s s  #2 s o i l s .  Both  salinization  are l i k e l y  t o have  and a l k a l i z a t i o n  b e e n more p r o n o u n c e d i n the Saltgrass this  under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s  #2 z o n e .  I t i s believed  difference i n the intensity  results  than  that  of these processes  i n environmental conditions  of higher  s a l t c o n t e n t and h i g h e r o s m o t i c p r e s s u r e s t o w h i c h Saltgrass  #1 i s b e t t e r a d a p t e d t o t o l e r a t e  Saltgrass  #2.  By d e f i n i n g t h e u p p e r b o u n d a r y plant species, of  halophytic pine,  i n the s o i l s adjacent to i t  t h e lower boundary  plants.  The D o u g l a s  o f t h e nonf i r , Ponderosa  a s p e n , w a x b e r r y , and g r a s s l a n d  were r e s t r i c t e d salts.  of the halophytic  t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s l o u g h and  the excess s a l t s  also defined  that variations i n site  especially  were r e s p o n s i b l e  communities  t o normal s o i l s n o t a f f e c t e d by  I t i s believed  microclimate,  increased  s o i l moisture,  f o r the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n  t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e zone o f n o r m a l soils.  than  of  PART I I Weathering Introduction As  r o c k s and  soils  are weathered  q u a n t i t i e s of soluble s a l t s . the l i b e r a t e d soil  salts  they r e l e a s e  I n humid a r e a s ,  are t r a n s p o r t e d through  to surface bodies of fresh water  to the sea.  In a r i d  and  and  water  near t h e i r s i t e of o r i g i n .  g r a d u a l l y become s i t e s o f s a l t  and  i f the watershed  depressions  accumulation  develop.  It i s believed that Slippy i n t h e manner j u s t d e s c r i b e d . rock weathering  S l o u g h was  and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f  and p l a n t s a r o u n d  a s e r i e s of experiments the weathering  were conducted  of bedrock.  formed  In order to better  (and, t h e r e f o r e , t h e n a t u r e  d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s  remain  of the d e p r e s s i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y  l a r g e , a s a l i n e l a k e may  experiments  tend to  Undrained  may  the slough,  there i s  available for transport that  s o l u b l e s a l t s r e l e a s e d by w e a t h e r i n g  understand  ultimately  s e m i - a r i d a r e a s , however,  where e v a p o r a t i o n exceeds p r e c i p i t a t i o n , so l i t t l e  the  The  are d i s c u s s e d below.  and the  slough)  to simulate  r e s u l t s of  these  - 80 -  B.  Bedrock  Geology  Jones vicinity  (1959) mapped t h e p a r e n t  o f the slough  or Cretaceous) and  allied  Coast  as M e s o z o i c  intrusions  rocks.  rock  ( J u r a s s i c and/  of granites, granodiorites  These r o c k s , i d e n t i f i e d  as t h e  I n t r u s i o n s , a r e d e s c r i b e d as g e n e r a l l y b e i n g  o f medium g r a i n  (5 t o 10 m i l l i m e t r e s ) .  types  from  and  i n the  may r a n g e  g r a n i t e through  granodiorite to quartz-diorite  Rock  quartz  monzonite  and may c o n t a i n  crystals  of feldspar (particularly orthoclase),  biotite,  muscovite,  Although Intrusions several  and/or  the g r a n i t i c  appeared  outcrops  hornblende. rocks o f the Coast  t o predominate  of intrusive  around t h e s l o u g h ,  rocks  that  belonged  t o t h e Kamloops G r o u p  observed  on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y .  rocks  (Jones,  probably  1959) were  o f t h e Kamloops Group a r e composed  The  largely  o f v o l c a n i c r o c k s o f m i d - T e r t i a r y age i n t h e Cenozoic  Era.  trachytic, gray  Some o f t h e l a v a s  o r even r h y o l i t i c  and w h i t e  to light  "are a n d e s i t i c ,  and range from  pink, green,  Porphyritic  t e x t u r e s a r e common w i t h  phenocrysts  of a u g i t e , hornblende  the  darker b a s a l t s ,  biotite  and f e l d s p a r s ,  i n the l i g h t e r  Samples o f r o c k s  and brown. small  and o l i v i n e i n q u a r t z , and  coloured r h y o l i t i c thought  light  to belong  lavas."  t o both  -  the Coast I n t r u s i o n s  81  -  and the Kamloops Group were  collected for analysis. The  specimens b e l o n g i n g t o the Coast  were i d e n t i f i e d from t h i n s e c t i o n s monzonite and g r a n i t e .  as q u a r t z  Those i d e n t i f i e d as q u a r t z  monzonite were found t o c o n t a i n orthoclase  Intrusions  about 30% each of  and p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r s , l e s s than  40% q u a r t z ,  1% t o 10% b i o t i t e  1% t o 2% c l i n o pyroxene  (altered to c h l o r i t e ) ,  ( l o c a l l y e p i d o t i z e d ) , and  t r a c e s o f sphene, z i r c o n , a p a t i t e , and oxides such as magnetite and i l m e n i t e .  The g r a n i t e s were  comprised of approximately 40% q u a r t z , feldspars  ( m i c r o c l i n e and o r t h o c l a s e  moderately s e r i c i t i z e d ) , 1% t o 2% oxides  50% K -  perthite, a l l  5% p l a g i o c l a s e  feldspar,  (magnetite), and t r a c e s of c h l o r i t e ,  sphene, and a p a t i t e . A l l samples of the Kamloops group which were examined c o n t a i n e d and  orthoclase  ( 0 . 1 mm).  1-5 mm phenocrysts o f p l a g i o c l a s e  i n a m a t r i x of f e l d s p a r m i c r o l i t e s  In one sample, thought to be a r h y o l i t e  porphyry, the m a t r i x was made up e n t i r e l y of o r t h o c l a s e microlites. orthoclase,  T h i s specimen c o n t a i n e d only  about 80%  15% to20% p l a g i o c l a s e , 2% to 3%  each o f b i o t i t e and d i o p s i d e ,  and minor amounts of  a p a t i t e and oxides or s u l p h i d e s . sample, thought t o r e p r e s e n t  In another  an a l t e r e d  trachy-  -  82  -  a n d e s i t e , both o r t h o c l a s e and p l a g i o c l a s e  microlites  were p r e s e n t i n the m a t r i x .  accounted  for  approximately  Each m i n e r a l  45% o f the rock  composition.  About 5% to 10% o f h i g h l y a l t e r e d pyroxene phenoc r y s t s and 4% b i o t i t e were a l s o p r e s e n t .  In  a d d i t i o n to the m i n e r a l p r e s e n t as d e s c r i b e d above, X-ray of  a n a l y s i s of rock samples showed the  presence  c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f dolomite. The  i n f l u e n c e of q u a r t z on the  composition  chemical  of these rocks i s apparent  i n Table  XV.  G r a n i t e , c o n t a i n i n g 40% o r more q u a r t z , c o n t a i n e d the most s i l i c a and the l e a s t sodium,  potassium,  c a l c i u m , and magnesium of a l l three r o c k s .  The  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r content of these l a t t e r f o u r elements i n q u a r t z monzonite than i n g r a n i t e probably r e f l e c t s the h i g h e r amount of f e l d s p a r s p r e s e n t i n the q u a r t z monzonite. a n d e s i t e s c o n t a i n e d more bases, aluminum and l e s s s i l i c a other rocks. phenocrysts  The iron,  trachyand  than e i t h e r of the  T,he presence  of numerous f e l d s p a r  i n a m a t r i x of f e l d s p a r m i c r o l i t e s ,  and the r e l a t i v e absence of q u a r t z no doubt accounted  i n l a r g e measure f o r these i n c r e a s e s .  Furthermore,  the i n c l u s i o n of from  a l t e r e d pyroxenes  5% to 10% of  ( s i l i c a t e s of i r o n , magnesium,  and c a l c i u m , sometimes w i t h aluminum and  sodium)  perhaps c o n t r i b u t e d to the h i g h e r content of some  TABLE XV C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n o f Bedrock Samples Parameter %  Trachy-Andesite  Granite  Quartz  Monzonite  Na 0 2  8.61  3.58  6.79  K 0 2  3.90  3.74  3.91  CaO  0.32  0.001  0.01  MgO  0. 88  0.05  0.10  2°3 A1 0  3.05  0.97  0. 89  6.23  5.66  3.57  Si0 "  77.01  85.99  83.73  TOTAL  100.00  100.00  100.00  F e  2  3  2  S i l i c a d e t e r m i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e ; i . e . = 100 - (Na 0 + K 0 + CaO + MgO 2  2 o  + Fe^O  2 3  + A1 0 ) % 2  3  components, e s p e c i a l l y calcium,  magnesium and  Weathering Experiments Using A P e r f u s i o n The  trachy-andesite  monzonite,  were weathered i n p e r f u s i o n  are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s XVI, With the e x c e p t i o n  of pH,  XVII, and  a l l values  these t a b l e s have been c o r r e c t e d by s m a l l values  Although not  at  units  XVIII.  subtracting leachate  ( f i l t e r pulp o n l y ) .  i n d i c a t e d i n the t a b l e s , i t  be noted t h a t the pH  of the d i s t i l l e d  the b e g i n n i n g of the experiment was  should  and  shown i n  measured i n the  from the c o n t r o l sample  should  Apparatus  r e s u l t s of s i m u l a t i o n experiments i n which  crushed samples of g r a n i t e , quartz  the very  iron.  a l s o be mentioned t h a t the pH  water  6.1.  of  It  the  water i n the c o n t r o l p e r f u s i o n u n i t to which rock m a t e r i a l was  added had  4.1,  by  3.9,  third,  and  4.1  f o u r t h , and  respectively.  f i f t h weeks o f  operation  s o l u b l e s a l t s were v i r t u a l l y from the  control  u n i t throughout the experiment, however.  and  second,  remained a t or near  non-detectable i n the l e a c h a t e  there was  4.8,  the ends of the f i r s t ,  Conductivity  0.00 3 mmho/cm and  dropped to 4.7,  no  no rock m a t e r i a l  s i n c e there was  no  Since  i n the c o n t r o l u n i t  apparent change i n  the  chemical composition of the water i n t h a t u n i t , i t would appear t h a t the  increased  acidity  of  TABLE XVI Siimilatecl Weathering o f Trachy-Andesite In a Perfusion Apparatus  Weekly Intervals 3 4  Parameter  1  2  PH  4.2  4.1  4.0  3.8  3.7  0.14  0.07  5  Conductivity  (mmho/cm)  0.08  0.09  0.04  Ha  (ppm)  6.9  2.3  4.6  —  6.9  (ppm)  21.0  19.1  19.1  —  15.3  (ppm)  46.1  34.1  32.1  —  30.1  (ppm)  34.0  30.4  29.2  —  24.3  Fe 3  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  —  0.0  Al 3  (ppm)  29.3  45.0  31.5  —  29.3  Si ^  (ppm)  382.0  517.0  562.0  +  K* Ca * 4  +  +  +  __  TABLE XVII Simulated Weathering of Granite i n a Perfusion Apparatus Weekly Intervals Parameter  1  2  pH  4.3  4*5  4  5  4.3  4.4  4.3  0.04  0.00  3  Conductivity  (noaho/cm)  0.04  0.05  0.05  Na  (ppm)  6.9  4.6  4.6  (ppm)  5.7  7.6  3.8  (ppm)  42.1  36.1  34.1  —  38.1  Mg *  (ppm)  2.4  2.4  1.2  —  2.4  Fe 3 +  (ppm)  0.7  0.5  0.0  —  1.8  Al  + 3  (ppm)  6.8  22.5  22.5  —  22.5  (ppm)  157.0  247.0  247.0  —  K  +  +  4  Si * +  .  —  6.9 3.8  —  TABLE m i l ; Simulated Weathering of Quartz Monzonite In a Perfusion Apparatus tyflflfrly Intervals 3 4  Parameter  1  2  pH  3.9  3.9  3.7  3.5  3.6  0.12  0.09  5  Conductivity  (mmho/cm)  0.12  0.12  0.14  Na  (ppm)  9.2  9.2  9.2  —  11.5  K  +  (ppm)  9.6  11.5  5.7  —  5.7  Ca"  (ppm)  u.i  24.0  20.0  —  4.0  Mg " 44  (ppm)  12.2  12.2  13.4  —  14.6  Fe  + 3  (ppm)  10.1  5.6  5.6  —  6.3  Al  + 3  (ppm)  31.5  45.0  45.0  —  45.0  Si*  (ppm)  472.0  697.0  697.0  +  -  88  -  t h e w a t e r must h a v e b e e n due t o t h e p a s s a g e through  it.  The pH o f t h e l e a c h a t e s i n a l l f o u r appeared  of a i r  units  t o r e a c h an e q u i l i b r i u m v a l u e b y t h e  t h i r d o r f o u r t h week. w e r e b e t w e e n 4.3  and 4.4  f o r the c o n t r o l u n i t , a n d e s i t e , and 3.5  The e q u i l i b r i u m pH v a l u e s for granite,  3.7  and 3.6  a n d 3.8  3.9  and  4.1  f o r trachy-  f o r quartz  monzonite.  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c a t i o n s i n t h e l e a c h a t e s r e a c h e d a maximum a f t e r t h e f i r s t o r s e c o n d week of perfusion. In fact,  No f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s w e r e  observed.  i n many c a s e s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f  certain cations, especially  sodium,  c a l c i u m were found t o d e c r e a s e . o f w a t e r i n each u n i t remained  p o t a s s i u m , and  S i n c e t h e volume constant throughout  the experiment, the decrease i n c a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o u l d o n l y have been t h e r e s u l t o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f s a l t s o r d i l u t i o n w i t h f r e s h w a t e r due t o sampling.  I t i s unlikely  that salt  precipitation  occurred - the weathering environment  and t h e  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o t h e r c a t i o n s remained constant.  too  T h e r e f o r e t h e o b s e r v e d d e c r e a s e must  h a v e b e e n c a u s e d by t h e r e m o v a l o f a 50-ml o f l e a c h a t e e a c h week and i t s r e p l a c e m e n t d i s t i l l e d water.  However,  aliquot with  since the leachate d i d  n o t resume i t s f o r m e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to these p a r t i c u l a r  cations,  i t m u s t be  concluded  -  89  -  t h a t a l l the r e a d i l y weathered c a t i o n s had been removed from the rock m a t e r i a l .  F o r example,  v i r t u a l l y a l l the potassium, c a l c i u m , and magnesium which c o u l d be r e l e a s e d from t r a c h y - a n d e s i t e , under the environmental  c o n d i t i o n s d e s c r i b e d , had  been r e l e a s e d d u r i n g the f i r s t week. all  Similarly,  the r e a d i l y leached c a l c i u m i n q u a r t z monzonite  was a l s o r e l e a s e d i n the f i r s t week. The  r e l e a s e o f some o t h e r c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  aluminum and s i l i c a ,  from q u a r t z monzonite and.  g r a n i t e , showed a tendency t o a t t a i n  distinctive,  e q u i l i b r i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the l e a c h a t e . Whereas the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c a t i o n s l i k e and magnesium tended t o decrease sampling and at  calcium  each week a f t e r  and d i l u t i o n , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f s i l i c a  aluminum tended t o reassume the same c o n c e n t r a t i o n s the end o f each week.  concluded  From t h i s i t can be  t h a t under the environmental  p r e v a i l i n g i n the p e r f u s i o n apparatus,  conditions these  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t an e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between the s o l u t i o n and the rock materials. In comparison w i t h quartz monzonite and t r a c h y andesite, r e l a t i v e l y from the crushed to  little  granite.  s i l i c a was r e l e a s e d T h i s was probably due  the high quartz content o f the g r a n i t e ; q u a r t z  i s one o f the most r e s i s t a n t m i n e r a l s .  The s m a l l  -  amount o f s i l i c a the r e l a t i v e l y  90  r e l e a s e d from  the g r a n i t e ,  and  l a r g e r amounts p r e s e n t i n t h e  l e a c h a t e o f t h e o t h e r two from  -  rocks, probably  arose  the breakdown of s i l i c a t e m i n e r a l s o t h e r  than  quartz. The  absence of i r o n i n the l e a c h a t e from t r a c h y -  a n d e s i t e was  somewhat p u z z l i n g .  I t was  that the pyroxenes present i n t h i s l e a s t s t a r t to break iron. and  down and  expected  rock would  r e l e a s e some o f  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the breakdown of  c l i n o p y r o x e n e may  have accounted  l e a c h e d from q u a r t z monzonite. a s e r i e s from c l i n o e n s t a t i t e clinoferrosilite  ( F e , Mg)  S i  present are probably of the  from  their  biotite  f o r the  iron  Clinopyroxenes (Mg 2  O  S i g  2  Og)  .  t h a t the  form  to  The  relatively  h i g h c o n t e n t s o f i r o n and m a g n e s i u m i n t h e from q u a r t z monzonite suggest  at  leachate  clinopyroxenes  the c l i n o f e r r o s i l i t e  end  series.  I t has  l o n g b e e n r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some m i n e r a l s  a r e more s t a b l e , a r e more r e s i s t a n t t o f o r c e s , than others. of rock weathering  Goldich  weathering  (1938) i n a  summarized the  study  relative  r e s i s t a n c e s of v a r i o u s m i n e r a l s i n the m i n e r a l stability  s e r i e s o u t l i n e d below i n which  mineral l i s t e d below i t .  each  i s l e s s r e i s t a n t than those  shown  -  91  -  Olivine Calcic Augite  Calci-alkalic plagioclase A l k a l i - c a l c i c plagioclase Alkalic plagioclase  Hornblende Biotite  The  plagioclase  Potash f e l d s p a r Muscovite Quartz  r e l a t i v e amounts of c a l c i u m and  p r e s e n t i n a l l l e a c h a t e s was the p o s i t i o n s of Ca  potassium  i n agreement w i t h  - p l a g i o c l a s e and K - f e l d s p a r  ( o r t h o c l a s e ) i n the G o l d i c h S t a b i l i t y  Series.  The c o n s i s t e n t l y lower values of sodium p r e s e n t i n the l e a c h a t e can probably be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d s t a b i l i t y of Na plagioclase.  - p l a g i o c l a s e over  As shown i n T a b l e XV,  content of unweathered rocks was than the c a l c i u m c o n t e n t .  the sodium  very much h i g h e r  During  f i v e weeks of  l e a c h i n g i n the p e r f u s i o n apparatus there was  however,  more c a l c i u m r e l e a s e d from the  than sodium.  Ca  rocks  C a l c i u m - p l a g i o c l a s e m i n e r a l s must  be very r a p i d l y leached indeed slowly leached)  (and s o d i u m - p l a g i o c l a s e  f o r t h i s to occur.  a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d the presence unweathered rock samples.  X-ray  of dolomite  i n the  It i s possible,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t some p o r t i o n , perhaps a major p o r t i o n , of the c a l c i u m present, i n the l e a c h a t e s was  r e l e a s e d from  dolomite.  -  D.  92 -  Weathering Experiments  Using Ion Exchange Resins  Using the methods d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , volumes o f f i n e l y crushed  equal  rock samples were  placed i n p l a s t i c bottles containing H  o r OH  resin  and/or d i s t i l l e d water and a g i t a t e d f o r a p e r i o d of  n i n e weeks.  Each week the pH and c o n d u c t i v i t y  of  the d i s t i l l e d water was measured, and the  r e s i n s recharged. Mg  + 2  -V3  , Fe  "t 3  , Al  The amounts o f Na -V 4  , and S i  +  , K  +  , Ca  +2  ,  removed from the rock  samples and p r e s e n t i n the d i s t i l l e d water o r desorbed  from the r e s i n s were determined.  r e s u l t s o f these experiments Tables XIX t o XVII.  The  are presented i n  These data p r o v i d e an  i n d i c a t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e o f pH (ranging from h i g h l y b a s i c t o near n e u t r a l i t y  to h i g h l y a c i d i c )  on the r a t e o f m i n e r a l breakdown and c a t i o n r e l e a s e from t h r e e types of r o c k s . summarized i n T a b l e s XXVIII,  The data have been XXIX and XXX t o  demonstrate c l e a r l y the magnitude o f weathering observed It  d u r i n g the experiment. i s e v i d e n t from these t a b l e s t h a t the r a t e  and magnitude o f weathering  and i o n exchange  f o r c e s were much g r e a t e r under c o n d i t i o n s o f low 4-  pH w i t h an H  r e s i n than under the o t h e r  conditions studied.  I t i s known t h a t the H"^ i o n ,  with i t s s i n g l e charge  and s m a l l hydrated r a d i u s ,  Table XIX Simulated Weathering of Trachy - Andesite with Distilled Water and H Resin T  Parameter  Weekly Intervals 5 4  Total  7  8  9  1  2  (ppm)  211.5  627,4  2110.5  786.3  4811.6  99.6  70.6  482.3  54.3  9254.3  (ppm)  214.7  39.5  28.2  31.7  32.5  46.1  23.9  24.6  25.0  466.2  (ppm)  1362.0  0.0  12.4  0.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  137^.6  Mg (ppm) +3 (ppm) Fe  3660.2  856.1  1951.7  1129.7  2.8  189.7  111.6  81.8  85.9  8069.5  2568.1  983.9  2011.8  785.1  497.6  266.6  198.2  138.9  157.6  7607.8  A l 3 (ppm)  3066.0  659.4  1476.5  755.8  315.5  97.5  137.6  106.1  187.8  6802.2  S i * (ppm)  29.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  72.7  29.6  26.7  0.0  0.0  Na K  +  +  Ca  + 2  +2  w  +  3  6  4  158.0  Table XIX (Continued) Simulated Weathering of Trachy - Andesite with Distilled Water and HT Resin Parameter  Weekly Intervals 4 5  6  7  3.7  3.7  3.9  3.8  0.08  0.07  0.11  0.05  0.05  2.5  0.7  2.1  3.9  1.2  2.3  55.9  4.7  2.4  3.1  3.1  0.8  3.1  5.5  95.4  1  2  3  PH  3.4  3.5  3.8  3.5  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.29  0.58  0.41  0.14  Na  (ppm)  40.9  0.7  1.6  (ppm)  72.7  0.0  K  +  +  Total  8  —  9  Ca  +2  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Mg  +2  (ppm)  3.9  1.3  6.0  8.6  4.5  2.8  3.5  2.8  0.6  34.0  Fe ^ (ppm)  30.1  11.5  83.1  107.5  71.0  55.7  31.0  25.2  11.5  426.6  Al  104.8  0.4  57.6  77.6  65.9  40.1  22.9  17.2  14.3  400.8  5705.6  2223.0  4732.6  19,957.0  1867.1  1407.6  1060.8 831.4  4  + 3  (ppm)  S i ^ (ppm) +  688.1  38,473.2  Table XX Simulated Weathering of Trachy - Andeslte vrlth Distilled Water and OH" Resin Parameter  2  3  Weekly Intervals 5 4  Total  6  7 0.0  8  9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Ca"*^ (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  3.4  0.0  1.6  0.0  0.0  5.0  o  Mg  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  1.3  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  1.3  Fe  + 3  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  oo 0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Al  + 3  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  S i 4 (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  oo  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  n  •H CO  s  Na  1  Ad sorbed  Phase  K  +  +  +  +2  0  .  0.0  Table XX (Continued)  Simulated Weathering of Trachy - Andesite with Distilled Water and 0H~ Resin Parameter  1  2  PH  10.3  10.1  9.9  10.1  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.06  0.05  0.06  0.06  Na  (ppm)  26.0  0.0  8.3  (ppm)  29.7  6.3  (ppm)  0.0  (ppm)  K  +  +  Ca  + 2  Mg Fe Al  +2  J  + 3  (ppm) (ppm)  S i * (ppm)  3  4  Weekly Intervals 5 6  7  8  Total 9  10.2  10.5  10.3  9.3  0.04  0.06  0.07  0.07  0.07  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  3.9  37.2  13.7  22.3  16.0  11.7  10.6  12.9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  2.8  0.0  0.0  0.0  2.8  20.6  1.6  6.3  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  28.5  104.8  6.8  28.5  0.5  0.0  4.6  0.0  0.0  0.0  145.2  83.9  19.0  27.2  0.0  108.5  86.8  59.7  0.0  0.0  385.1  352.5  81.3  108.7  54.5  613.5  234.0  180.0  13.8  0.0  1638.3  —  38.2 160.4  Table XXI  Simulated Weathering of Trachy - Andesite with Distilled Water Parameter  Weekly Intervals U 5  6  7  6.4  6.8  7.2  6.9  0.06  0.03  0.01  0.02  0.02  —  0.0  6.9  3.7  5.3  3.7  3.2  54.0  17.6  25.0  23.5  8.2  15.3  12.1  3.1  196.6  0.0  5.8  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  8.2  1  2  3  pH  6.5  6.6  6.7  6.2  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.03  0.06  0.04  0.04  Na  (ppm)  14.9  3.0  13.3  (ppm)  65.6  26.2  Ca " (ppm)  2.4  Mg  K  +  +  4  Fe  Al  2  Total  8  9  +2  (ppm)  27.6  8.4  21.3  24.7  27.7  9.2  3.2  19.9  5.5  147.5  + 3  (ppm)  49.8  0.5  42.3  58.2  118.4  60.9  100.5  60.3  18.5  509.4  (ppm)  44.6  5.4  26.5  42.4  99.2  47.6  74.1  37.0  26.5  403.3  264.6  40.4  133.9  1350.6  265.4  106.9  463.0  301.6  105.8  3032.2  + 3  S i * * (ppm)  Table XXII Simulated Weathering of Granite with Distilled Water and H* Resin Parameter  Weekly Intervals 6 5  8  62.1  50.3  40.5  49.7  607.5  84.5  56.7  43.8  42.6  51.2  872.5  2.4  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  132.0  100.9  25.5  0,0  1.2  0*6  1.2  1.6  344.1  226.6  318.1  203.1  18.7  12.7  12.7  8.7  11.5  1826.2  233.2  218.8  329.3  145.1  38.2  98.5  76.6  54.7  111.6  1306.0  13.4  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  24.3  0.0  0.0  2  3  4  (ppm)  73.6  61.8  124.4  99.3  45.8  (ppm)  110.0  83.3  205.3  195.1  (ppm)  64.8  0.0  64*8  +2  (ppm)  112.2  100.9  + 3  (ppm)  1014.1  A l 3 (ppm) S i 4 (ppm)  Na  +  K+ Ca  + 2  Mg Fe +  +  Total  7  1  9  37.7  Table XXII (Continued) Simulated Weathering of Granite with Distilled Water and H+ Resin Parameter  2  1  3  Weekly Intervals 4 5 6  Total  8  7  9  pH  4.2  4.0  3.8  3.3  —  3.7  3.9  4.0  3.9  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.05  0.18  0.12  0.21  0.15  0.08  0.06  0.05  0.05  Na  (ppm)  4.8  0.0  0.0  3.9  0.2  0.0  2.3  0.5  5.1  16.8  K"  (ppm)  10.2  0.0  0.0  4.3  3.9  3.1  0.8  0.8  0.0  23.1  Ca  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.4  0.4  0.0  0.1  12.2  0.0  0.4  0.0  0.2  13.7  Fe 3 (ppm)  25.6  5.5  23.3  5.5  7.5  1.9  0.3  0.0  0.0  69.6  Al+3 (ppm)  51.8  0.0  5.3  19.0  5.5  1.1  1.4  0.0  0.0  84.1  Si * (  1421.7  983.8  2022.2  7765.6  790.2  572.0  629.1  465.0  547.1  +  4  Mg  +2  +  4  p p m  )  15,196.7  Table XXIII Simulated Weathering of Granite with Distilled Water and OH" Resin Phase  «  Parameter  1  3  6  7  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Mg+2 (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  Fe  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  Al+3 (ppm)  0.0  S i * (ppm)  0.0  Na K  +  +  •H  CQ  &  o o  •o8 co  5  Weekly Intervals  2  Ca  + 2  + 3  u  Total  8  9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  5  o o  Table XXIII (Continued) Simulated Weathering of Granite with Distilled Water and OH" Resin Parameter 1  2  3  Weekly Intervals 4 5 6  pH  10.3  10.2  10.1  10.3  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.06  0.07  0.07  0.10  Na  (ppm)  18.9  2.1  13.3  (ppm)  22.3  5.1  K  +  +  7  8  Total 9  10.5  10.7  10.5  10.6  0.07  0.12  0.13  0.12  O.UL  0.0  0.0  1.4  0.0  0.0  10.4  46.1  14.5  9.4  11.3  8.2  7.4  4.3  7.0  89.5  —  Ca  42  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  18.6  2.2  64.1  45.3  34.5  21.2  40.5  226.4  Mg  +2  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  Fe 3 (ppm)  2.6  0.0  0.0  0.3  0.0  4.8  1.1  5.9  0.0  14.7  Al+3 (ppm)  0.0  18.6  0.0  0.0  32.0  37.4  26.6  0.0  0.0  114.6  S i 4 (ppm)  53.5  0.0  0.0  79.7  206.3  139.3  232.3 0.0  0.0  711.1  +  +  Table XXIV Simulated Weathering of Granite with Distilled Water Parameter  Weekly Intervals 5 6 7  8  9  6.5  6.7  6.6  6.7  0.05  0.03  0.03  0.02  0.02  0.0  3.7  4.1  2.3  1.8  1.8  25.0  11.3  10.2  11.7  5.9  7.8  9.0  3.1  73.5  0.0  23.4  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  5.0  0.0  30.8  3.2  0.7  1.6  0.7  0.5  0.2  0.6  23.4  0.2  31.1  0.0  0.0  0.5  0.0  9.2  10.4  5.2  2.6  0.0  27.9  A l 3 (ppm)  18.1  5.1  0.0  0.0  5.2  5.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  33.6  Si  116.8  25,4  362.1  388.3  51.3  25.1  194.7  129.8  77.9  1  2  3  4  PH  6.4  6.5  6.6  6.8  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.01  O.U  0.03  0.06  Na  (ppm)  6.0  0.0  5.3  (ppm)  13.3  1.2  (ppm)  2.4  (ppm) (ppm)  K  +  +  Ca  +2  >fe Fe  +2  + 3  +  + 4  (ppm)  —  Total  1371.4  Table XXV Simulated Weathering of Quartz Monzonite with Distilled Water and I f Resin Parameter  Weekly Intervals 6 5 4  1  2  57.5  29.0  120.9  2.5  1882.9  116.1  58.7  152.9  199.7  48.6  0.0  20.0  112.2  100.9  Fe 3  1336.8  Al+3 Si*  Na  +  & Ca  +2  Mg  +2  +  Total  7  8  9  91.5  53.3  38.4  47.8  2323.8  64.9  52.4  39.9  41.5  48.1  774.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  68.6  100.9  25.5  0.0  1.2  0.6  lo2  1.6  344ol  132.3  325.7  232.9  16.5  15.9  11.7  9.6  15.2  2096.6  307.7  107.5  336.0  136.3  26.7  91.4  69.9  45.7  105.7  1226.6  39.8  0.0  0.0  0.0  53.8  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  3  93.6  Table XXV (Continued) Simulated Weathering of Quartz Monzonite with Distilled Water and E " Resin 1  Parameter 1  2  Weekly Intervals 4 5 6  3  pH  4.3  4.1  4.0  3.4  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.04  0.16  0.13  0.16  Na  (ppm)  15.9  92.2  0.7  (ppm)  12.9  2.7  (ppm)  0.0  (ppm)  Total  8  7  9  3.8  3.9  3.9  3.9  0.08  0.06  0.06  0.05  0.05  4.8  0.5  0.7  1.2  0,5  0.7  117.2  3.1  0.8  3.1  2.7  0.8  0.8  0.0  26.9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.4  0.4  0.0  0.1  12.2  0.0  0.4  0.0  0.2  13.7  Fe 3 (ppm)  29.0  4.0  22.9  4.0  4.7  1.0  1.6  0.0  13.4  80.6  Al  51.3  0.0  5.1  0.0  5.4  2.7  1.3  0.0  0.0  65.5  1665.6  724.2  1488.7  4511.8  532.2  398.9  618.3  457.0  483.9  Ca  +  +2  Mg  +2  +  + 3  (ppm)  S i 4 (ppm) +  10,880.6  Table XXVI Simulated Weathering of Quartz Monzonite with Distilled Water and OH" Resin Phase  Parameter  Weekly Intervals 6 5  1  2  3  A  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  (ppm)  0.0  •oB  A l 3 (ppm)  3  S i * (ppm)  Na  +  CO  &  Ca  +2  o o +>  Mg  13 CD  Fe  CO  +2  + 3  +  Total  7  8  9  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  1.6  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  1.6  0.0  0.0  02 o  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.2  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  o.c  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  o  Table XXVI (Continued) Simulated Weathering of Quarts Monzonite with Distilled Water and Oh*" Resin Parameter  1  2  3  Weekly Intervals 6 4 5  PH  10.3  10.2  10.1  10.2  Conductivity (mmho/cm)  0.06  0.16  0.08  0.09  Na  (ppm)  29.2  12.6  14.5  (ppm)  43.4  10.2  K  +  +  7  8  Total 9  10.4  10.8  10.8  10.5  0.05  0.10  0.12  0.19  0.10  0.0  0.0  13.6  0.0  0.0  8.1  78.0  13.3  5.1  60.6  6.3  8.6  4.3  5.5  157.3 514.0  Ca  + 2  (ppm)  51.2  0.0  16.0  2.0  43.7  25.1  26.5  334.7  14.8  Mg  +2  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0,0  0.0  Fe  + 3  (ppm)  0.0  0.0  0.5  0.0  0.0  24.9  15.5  15.0  8.0  63.9  Al  + 3  (ppm)  0.0  18.6  0.0  0.0  22.4  38.7  26.6  0.0  0.0  106.3  26.7  0.0  0.0  53.0  139.4  85.8  526.3  0.0  0.0  831.2  Si * ( 4  p p m  )  In Solution  to  CD  r= s? d= Vjj *CJ  •rJ  *c  *tJ  w  *t3  *t3  ro t+  CD  »1  vO  O  • JO JO 00  JO  VJI  vn vo  H  VjJ  • CO  jo  -J  o o  o o  s  VO  p3  K  Vo  vo  o o  o  fc  vn  •  ON  o  ON  JO  •  o o  ON  e  ON  JO  VO  r3  ON  VO  CD  o o  O •  o  VO  ON  O  JO  o o o  ^3 ^3 •  CN  ON  O JO  o  ^3  JO JO  JO  o o  vn  VO  o  o  o  JO  v* o o  OO  vO  JO  o  •  JO  vO •  00 ON  o o JO  ON  JO  vO  o  o ON  vO  ON  o  o  ON  vO  VO  O  o  o  o o  ON ON  CO  ON  00  o  o  a  o  VO  00  r-3  VO  H  o o  VO  JO  M •  o CD  •  o  00  •  Vo  JO  -  AO I -  H CD  9  Table XXVIII Summary o f Cation Removal from Trachy-Andesite  Parameter Na K  +  +  Amount in unweathered Rock (ppm)  Amount Removed by OH" Resin and D i s t i l l e d Water (ppm) (fl  86,128.1  38.2  0.04  39,045.3  160.4  0.41  Amount Removed by H+ Resin and D i s t i l l e d Water (ppm) (fl 9,310.2 561.6  Amount Removed by D i s t i l l e d Water (ppm)  (fl  10.81  54.0  0.06  1.44  196.6  0.50  3,168.3  7.8  0.25  1,374.6  43.39  8.2  0.26  +2  8,853.7  29.8  0.34  8,103.5  91.53  147.5  1.67  + 3  30,535.9  146.5  0.48  8,034.4  26.31  509.4  1.67  Al 3  62,268.8  385.1  0.62  7,203.0  11.56  403.3  0.65  Si+4  770,010.0  1,638.3  0.21  38,631.2  3,032.2  0.39  Ca  % Fe  + 2  +  5.02  Table XXIX Summary of Cation Removal from Granite  imeter Na  +  Amount In unweathered Rook (ppm)  Amount Removed by OH" Resin and Distilled Water (ppm) (30  Amount Removed by H Resin and Distilled Water (ppm) (» +  Amount Removed by Distilled Water (ppm)  (*)  35,760.4  46.1  0.80  624.3  1.75  25.0  0.07  37,379.6  89.5  0.24  895.6  2.40  73.5  0.20  Ca  +2  84.2  226.4  268.88  132.0  156.77  30.8  36.58  Mg  +2  510.7  0.2  0.04  357.8  70.06  31.1  6.09  + 3  9,664.7  14.7  0.15  1,895.8  19.62  27.9  0.29  Al 3  56,601.4  114.6  0.20  1,390.1  2.45  33.6  0.06  860,000.0  711.1  0.08  15,234.4  1.78  1,371.4  0.16  Fe +  SI*  o  Table XXX Summary of Cation Removal from Quartz Monzonite  Parameter  Na  +  Z+  Amount i n Unweathered Rock (ppm) 67,852.3 39,135.2  Amount Removed by OH- Resin and Distilled Water (ppm) (%) 78.0  0.11  Amount Removed by H Resin and Distilled Water (ppm) (%) +  2,441.0 801.1  Amount Removed by Distilled Water (ppm)  (%)  3.60  44.3  0.07  2.05  84.4  0.22  157.3  0.40  515.6  408.23  68„6  54.32  42.2  33.41  357.8  37.25  31.1  3.24  Ca  +2  126.3  Mg  +2  960.6  0.2  0.02  Fe  + 3  8,428.9  63.9  0.76  2,177.2  25.83  11.1  0.13  Al 3  35,696.2  106.3  0.29  1,292.1  3.62  19.1  0.05  Si *  847,300.0  831.2  0.10  10,974.2  1.30  971.1  0.11  +  4  o I  -  will As  g e n e r a l l y tend  Reiche  I l l  -  t o d i s p l a c e most o t h e r  (1962) s u m m a r i z e d , " t h e  cations.  readiness  with  which ions attach themselves to a chemically surface  i s r e l a t e d to the  t h i c k n e s s of  adsorbed water f i l m s w i t h which they The  g r e a t e r the t h i c k n e s s , the  active  the  are  surrounded.  less strongly  the charge w i t h which the i o n s are equipped a t t r a c t e d by  the o p p o s i t e  i o n i z e d sheath The  surrounding  sheath  and  i o n s t o e l b o w t h e i r way  displace other  the  f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s have been worked Anions :  S0  Cations:  L i <Na;  4  < F < N0  3  K <Mg  those  in either series."  It  out:  should  occur  the most hydrogen i o n s .  observed degree of weathering r e s i n was  . . . < OH  to the r i g h t tend  f o l l o w s then t h a t the g r e a t e s t  of c a t i o n s from rocks having  in position.  < Ca < S r < Ba < A l  those  left  that  < C l < B r < I < CMS  I n a g e n e r a l way, to the  surface. better  into  ions already  be  inner  the p a r t i c l e or  t h i n n e r the adsorbed water f i l m s ,  able are the  The  charges of the  much g r e a t e r t h a n by  displacement  i n those  Therefore c a u s e d by  solutions the  the  e i t h e r the  H~^ OH  Weathering i n the  r e s i n s o l u t i o n seemed v e r y  comparable to  distilled  water alone.  the r e l e a s e of anions  during  these  . . . < H  to displace  r e s i n or d i s t i l l e d water.  c a u s e d by  can  OH  that  However,  had  weathering  s t u d i e s been o b s e r v e d t h i s p i c t u r e might have  -  112  -  appeared somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Under a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s the r e l e a s e of was  g r e a t e s t from t r a c h y - a n d e s i t e  granite.  Once again,  and  least  t h e r e f o r e , agreement  demonstrated between c a t i o n r e l e a s e and  was  Trachy-  comprised mostly of o r t h o c l a s e  plagioclase feldspars. sodium and  from  the  s t a b i l i t i e s of the c o n s t i t u e n t m i n e r a l s . a n d e s i t e was  cations  The  and  r e l a t i v e amounts of  c a l c i u m removed from the rock would  suggest t h a t the p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r s  present  were p r i m a r i l y a l b i t e , at the sodium end  of  the  sodic-calcic plagioclase series. Reiche  (1950) p o i n t e d out t h a t the  nature of aluminum may  lead to i t s s o l u t i o n i n  e i t h e r a c i d or a l k a l i n e waters. Tables  XXVIII t o XXX,  amphoteric  the H  As  shown i n the  r e s i n s removed at  l e a s t 10 or 20 times as much aluminum from rocks water. at  as d i d e i t h e r the OH In the g r a n i t e and  r e s i n s or  the  distilled  quartz monzonite samples  l e a s t , however, the removal of aluminum  was  much g r e a t e r i n the presence of OH " r e s i n s than i n d i s t i l l e d water alone. that during  the 5th,  study there was  I t was  6th, and  g e n e r a l l y observed 7th weeks of  a n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the  amount of aluminum removed by  the OH  tendency towards s l i g h t l y h i g h e r s o l u t i o n was  the  a l s o n o t i c e d at t h i s  resins.  pH v a l u e s time.  A  i n the  -  I t was calcium,  113  -  a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to observe t h a t  i r o n , and  s i l i c a displayed  a pattern  r e l e a s e somewhat s i m i l a r to t h a t shown by  of  aluminum.  That i s , the amount of each element removed under a l k a l i n e conditions middle and is  tended to i n c r e a s e d u r i n g  l a t t e r stages of the experiment.  i n q u i t e d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the p a t t e r n  under a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s  the This  displayed  i n which the amounts  r e l e a s e d tended to decrease w i t h time. These o b s e r v a t i o n s The  first  demonstrated two  i s that a c i d i c conditions  r a p i d weathering.  This  things.  tend to promote  i s probably r e l a t e d  the replacement power of the H ^ i o n .  The  to  release  of c a t i o n s through weathering proceeds much more slowly The  under n e u t r a l or a l k a l i n e  conditions.  second t h i n g i s t h a t the r a t e of weathering  of an exposed rock o r m i n e r a l decreases w i t h time.  surface  generally  I f t h i s were not  t r u e , then  the amount of each element removed each week have remained c o n s t a n t T h i s d i d not  throughout the  always happen, however.  r e l a t i v e l y high  of r e a d i l y leached  elements from the  f r e s h l y exposed rock or m i n e r a l are i n very  experiment. The  removals at the b e g i n n i n g of  r e l e a s e p e r i o d probably represented  intimate  should  the  the  loss  outer,  surfaces.  These  c o n t a c t with the weathering  114  -  -  s o l u t i o n and o b v i o u s l y s u s c e p t i b l e to a t t a c k . Even though somewhat ragged and remaining  mineral  tended to p r o v i d e  disrupted,  s k e l e t o n s on the outer a partially effective  the  surface barrier  to f u r t h e r l o s s e s of i n n e r m i n e r a l c o n s t i t u t e n t s . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the weathering of f e l d s p a r minerals  and  the consequent r e l e a s e of sodium,  potassium, and  calcium  (and s i l i c a )  accounted f o r  a major p o r t i o n of the amounts of these  elements  removed from the rock samples by both i o n exchange and p e r f u s i o n .  F i e l d observations  of exposed  rock  s u r f a c e s o f t e n showed the l o s s of f e l d s p a r phenocrysts.  T h i s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of rocks  the Kamloops Group ( r h y o l i t e porphyry and andesite)  and most n o t a b l y where rock  of  trachy-  surfaces  were i n d i r e c t c o n t a c t wrth s o i l s or p l a n t s . undersides  of rocks  l y i n g on the s o i l  surface  were commonly p i t t e d with h o l e s the exact shape o f the remaining  The  size  and  p o r p h y r i t i c feldspar minerals.  Removing mosses growing on rocks r e v e a l e d a considerable  amount of grus and  of f e l d s p a r m i n e r a l s These o b s e r v a t i o n s feldspar minerals parent was  rock and  o f t e n the absence  from the rock s u r f a c e below.  i n d i c a t e d t h a t some of may  be  the  l o s t q u i t e r e a d i l y from the  t h a t the i n t e n s i t y of weathering  g r e a t e r at the i n t e r f a c e between rocks  and  -  115 -  the b i o s p h e r e than a t the rock-atmosphere E.  interface.  Summary Bedrock samples c o l l e c t e d from outcrops  near  the slough were i d e n t i f i e d as q u a r t z monzonite, granite,and trachy-andesite.  Determination of  the chemical composition o f these rocks r e v e a l e d t h a t t r a c h y - a n d e s i t e c o n t a i n e d more bases and l e s s s i l i c a than q u a r t z monzonite, which i n t u r n had more bases and l e s s s i l i c a than g r a n i t e . amount o f bases  (sodium,  potassium,  The  c a l c i u m , and  magnesium) p r e s e n t i n each rock was r e l a t e d t o t h e i r feldspar contents. Simulated weathering  experiments  were  conducted  to  examine the r e l e a s e o f c a t i o n s from  or  " p h y s i c a l l y weathered" samples of each o f the  three k i n d s o f r o c k s .  In one s e t o f  crushed,  experiments,  samples o f the crushed rock m a t e r i a l s were leached w i t h d i s t i l l e d water f o r f i v e weeks i n p e r f u s i o n units.  In a second  experiment,  the crushed  rock  m a t e r i a l s were shaken w i t h d i s t i l l e d water and + with H  o r OH  i o n exchange r e s i n s . i n  distilled  water f o r nine weeks. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the lowered  pH  observed  i n the p e r f u s i o n u n i t s was due t o the a b s o r p t i o n of  atmospheric  acid.  CO2 and the f o r m a t i o n o f c a r b o n i c  H^CO-, d i s s o c i a t e s -in water, making H  ions  -  116  -  a v a i l a b l e f o r weathering of rock m i n e r a l s . observed  The  r e l e a s e o f c a t i o n s from the rock m a t e r i a l s  i n t h e p e r f u s i o n u n i t s was t h e r e f o r e p a r t l y due to  the a c t i v i t y o f c a r b o n i c a c i d and p a r t l y due  to  s o l u t i o n , h y d r a t i o n , and h y d r o l y s i s .  these processes  Although  e f f e c t e d the r e l e a s e o f c a t i o n s  from a l l three rock types, and d i f f e r e n t  amounts  from each rock type, the e x t e n t o f c a t i o n removal was not g r e a t . C o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r amounts o f each c a t i o n were r e l e a s e d when the rock m a t e r i a l s were shaken with d i s t i l l e d water than when they had been s u b j e c t e d to p e r f u s i o n . factors:  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h r e e  the constant a g i t a t i o n produced more  i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t o f the rock w i t h the water, the s o l u t i o n was r e p l a c e d w i t h f r e s h d i s t i l l e d  water  each week, and t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e o f the rock m a t e r i a l was s m a l l e r so t h a t a l a r g e r s u r f a c e area was exposed. did  Adding OH  r e s i n t o the d i s t i l l e d  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n c r e a s e the amounts o f  c a t i o n s removed from the r o c k s . exceptions  water  The most n o t a b l e  t o t h i s g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n were  the r e l a t i v e l y high amounts o f c a l c i u m and aluminum r e l e a s e d from g r a n i t e and q u a r t z monzonite i n the presence of the OH can probably  resin.  These i n c r e a s e s  be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d  -  -  117  s o l u b i l i t y of c e r t a i n c a l c i u m and  of aluminum at pH  of anions by the OH was  10.  Although the  r e s i n was  assumed to occur.  compounds a t pH  I t was  removal  not measured, i t f e l t t h a t such  removal would r e s u l t i n the breakdown of s t r u c t u r e s , f o l l o w e d by but  t h i s was The  not  8  the r e l e a s e of  mineral  cations,  observed.  pH of the H ^ r e s i n systems v a r i e d w i t h  time and between samples, but were g e n e r a l l y  around  pH  pH  4.0.  value  T h i s i s the same as the e q u i l i b r i u m  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p e r f u s i o n u n i t s .  However,  a g r e a t many more c a t i o n s were removed from rock m a t e r i a l s by  the H * r e s i n s than by  perfusion units.  This served  the  the  t o demonstrate  the  g r e a t importance of i o n exchange as a weathering force. The  experimental r e s u l t s obtained  s t u d i e s cannot be The  from these  a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o Nature.  environmental c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g i n the  p e r f u s i o n u n i t s or i n the b o t t l e s  containing  r e s i n s do not e x i s t at S l i p p y Slough. rainwater  does absorb CO2  i s therefore  acidic.  from the atmosphere  Carroll  t h a t the rainwater  of n o r t h e r n  average pH of 5.47  and  was  between pH  rainwater  6 and  over rocks  However,  (1970)  and  reported  Europe had  t h a t of the U n i t e d  an States  7.  During the passage of  and  through s o i l s ,  hydration,  -  118 -  h y d r o l y s i s , s o l u t i o n , and i o n exchange a l l occur to v a r y i n g e x t e n t s . to  The mere exposure o f m i n e r a l s  a i r leads t o weathering through o x i d a t i o n -  reduction  reactions.  So i t would appear t h a t the weathering p r o c e s s e s observed i n the l a b o r a t o r y are o p e r a t i v e i n the f i e l d ,  although i t i s n o t known i f they  operate t o the same e x t e n t o r a t the same r a t e . I t i s thought, however t h a t the weathering environment  i n the p e r f u s i o n u n i t s might  approximate  weathering c o n d i t i o n s i n the s o i l mantle d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f abundant s o i l m o i s t u r e . Weathering  o f bedrock o u t c r o p s due t o the  i n f l u e n c e s o f moisture alone would be expected t o be much slower than weathering o f s o i l m i n e r a l s because o f the s m a l l s u r f a c e area exposed. i s o f f s e t i n the f i e l d the  t o some e x t e n t however by  presence o f organisms  lichens.  This  such as mosses and  Such organisms were observed t o be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c t i v e weathering of rock s u r f a c e s . I t was f e l t t h a t the amounts o f i n d i v i d u a l c a t i o n s r e l e a s e d from each rock c o u l d be r e l a t e d to  the m i n e r a l o g i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the r o c k s .  In  g e n e r a l , t h e r e was r e a s o n a b l y good c o r r e l a t i o n  between c a t i o n r e l e a s e , m i n e r a l o g i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , and the G o l d i c h S t a b i l i t y  Series.  Based on the  observed c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f r e l e a s e d c a t i o n s , on  -  119  the known s t a b i l i t i e s  -  of the c o n s t i t u e n t  and  on f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s  was  concluded t h a t the weathering of  minerals  of weathered r o c k s , i t  (sodium p l a g i o c l a s e and  perhaps d o l o m i t e , was  minerals,  orthoclase),  responsible  the sodium, potassium, c a l c i u m ,  feldspar  f o r most of  and  magnesium  released  from the rock m a t e r i a l s .  minerals  are dominant c o n s t i t u e n t s o f most  i n the study area and of s o i l s  derived  from these r o c k s .  developed on parent  weathering f o r c e s , m o d i f i e d microclimate,  The  feldspar  are probably a major  mineral  rocks constituent  materials  It i s believed by  and  that  the i n f l u e n c e s  of  topography,.and organism, have  a f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t removal of sodium, potassium, calcium, soils  and  and magnesium from the f e l d s p a r - r i c h rocks  of the study area d u r i n g  g l a c i a t i o n p e r i o d and  t h a t the s a l i n i t y  Slough can be a t t r i b u t e d to the g r a d u a l , t r a n s f e r of these s o l u b l e weathering  the  post-  of S l i p p y downslope  products.  -  120  SUMMARY AND S l i p p y Slough  -  CONCLUSIONS  i s a s m a l l , s a l i n e l a k e i n the  I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia near Vernon.  Two  of s a l t - t o l e r a n t grasses  Saltgrass  were observed  t o occupy very d i s t i n c t  salt-affected soils slough.  ( S a l t g r a s s #1  and  a third,  d o m i n a t e d by  the  somewhat l e s s  d e f i n e d zone a b o v e t h e h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s e s . p l a n t communities,  well-  Other  a s p e n , common r a n g e  or pasture g r a s s e s , waxberry, Douglas f i r ,  or  pine occupied p o s i t i o n s i n the surrounding  Ponderosa  landscape  t h a t were s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l d e f i n e d t o i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n environmental distribution.  factors controlled  This thesis  c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s l o u g h and p l a n t communities; the weathering  observed  that  their  r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t  to  the surrounding s o i l s  t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f r o c k m i n e r a l s and  the surrounding s o i l s ;  and  and  between  the s a l i n i t y  the slough; to e x p l o r e the i n f l u e n c e of the s l o u g h on  of  saline  to e x p l a i n the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t communities i n the  valley. Examination  of l o c a l bedrock  t h a t o r t h o c l a s e and  #2)  zones i n t h e  around the perimeter of  Rushes o c c u p i e d  species  materials revealed  sodium p l a g i o c l a s e f e l d s p a r s  -  -  121  were dominant c o n s t i t u e n t m i n e r a l s . experiments conducted to simulate forces,  i t was  As  a r e s u l t of  c e r t a i n weathering  c o n c l u d e d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t amounts  sodium, potassium, c a l c i u m ,  and  from bedrock m a t e r i a l s ,  e s p e c i a l l y from the  minerals.  I t was  and  magnesium were  a l s o concluded t h a t the  released  rate  feldspar of  r e l e a s e was  greatest  under a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s .  r e l e a s e was  a l s o r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c l e s i z e of  the  rock  m a t e r i a l s , t o the degree of  intimacy  the  rock  materials  length  the  rock  m a t e r i a l s were s u b j e c t e d  t o the  w a t e r , t o the  a fresh supply  f o u n d t o be  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the observed i n the It  i s believed  t h e b e d r o c k and  organisms.  The  Ion  and  weathering exchange force  The weathering  t h a t i n the post g l a c i a t i o n p e r i o d , of the v a l l e y have been  i n f l u e n c e of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  slow release  periods  l e d to the  w a t e r body i n the  time  field.  s o i l materials  downslope d u r i n g  The  of  r o l e of organisms i n rock  t h e s e e a r t h m a t e r i a l s , and  abundance has  of water.  or h y d r o l y s i s .  s l o w l y weathered under the and  between  a much more p o t e n t w e a t h e r i n g  than s o l u t i o n , h y d r a t i o n ,  was  Cation,  to weathering,  replacement of s o l u t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g  products with was  and  of  of  of s o l u b l e s a l t s  t h e i r gradual temporary  from  transfer  moisture  development of the  saline  depression.  volume of w a t e r i n the  slough  was  observed  -  12 2  to f l u c t u a t e i n response conditions.  The  -  to changes i n annual  climatic  s a l i n i t y of the lake v a r i e d s e a s o n a l l y ,  i n c r e a s i n g d u r i n g the summer as water was  lost  through  e v a p o r a t i o n and d e c r e a s i n g t h e r e a f t e r as the l a k e rose again d u r i n g the f a l l  level  to s p r i n g recharge p e r i o d .  S o i l c o n d u c t i v i t y , pH,  and content of s o l u b l e ,  exchangeable, and t o t a l s a l t s were g r e a t e s t i n the s o i l s of the exposed lakebed through lake.  each p l a n t community zone outward from the A t the upper boundary o f the S a l t g r a s s #2  a marked decrease The  and decreased p r o g r e s s i v e l y  i n these s o i l  f a c t o r s was  zone  apparent.  rush community t h e r e f o r e marked the boundary between  " s a l t - a f f e c t e d " s o i l s and  "normal" s o i l s .  The  salt-  a f f e c t e d s o i l s were o c c u p i e d only by h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s s p e c i e s , and perhaps near t h e i r upper boundary by rushes  to a l i m i t e d extent.  of the s o i l s o l u t i o n and cannot be t o l e r a t e d by  The h i g h osmotic  pressure  the abundance of s o l u b l e s a l t s non-halophytes.  W i t h i n the area o c c u p i e d by the h a l o p h y t i c g r a s s e s , S a l t g r a s s #1  o c c u p i e d the zone immediately  to the s l o u g h .  adjacent  S o i l s of t h i s zone had h i g h e r  pH,  c o n d u c t i v i t y , and s a l t content than s o i l s o f the second zone which supported  S a l t g r a s s #2.  t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the landscape, grass #1  Because of  the s o i l s o f the  zone were most s t r o n g l y , i n f l u e n c e d by  s a l i n e slough.  A l k a l i z a t i o n and  Salt-  the  s a l i n i z a t i o n of  these  -  soils  were t h e r e f o r e  under S a l t g r a s s in  more p r o n o u n c e d t h a n  #2.  I t i s believed  a significant  distribution  this  difference  and  than S a l t g r a s s  Saltgrass  Saltgrass  l a r g e l y by t h e l e n g t h  I t i s possible  than S a l t g r a s s  Salt-related  edaphic  a significant  distribution  and  elevation  and  drainage waters  microclimate In  with  that the  changes  i n the  i n slope,  aspect,  t h e amount o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n  that  and r e t a i n e d  r e f l e c t e d these  then, t h i s  at different  the observed d i s t r i b u t i o n  due t o t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n  summary,  i n the normal  c o n t r o l l e d by v a r i a t i o n s  Variations  received  I t i s believed communities  was  associated  influence  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  communities  I t i s believed  of the landscape.  of p l a n t  that  f a c t o r s d i d n o t appear t o  of these plants  microclimate  sites.  therefore,  r o l e i n determining  of the v a l l e y .  nature  the s a l i n e  #2.  the non-halophytic p l a n t  site  with,  o f time  #1 i s a l s o more t o l e r a n t o f p r o l o n g e d  inundation  soils  alkali  #2.  were i n u n d a t e d by, o r s a t u r a t e d  waters o f the slough.  play  #1  d i f f e r e n c e i n the degree o f i n t e n s i t y o f these  p r o c e s s e s was d e t e r m i n e d soils  alkalization  r o l e i n determining the  of the s a l t - t o l e r a n t grasses.  conditions The  in  that  i n the s o i l s  t h o u g h t t o be more t o l e r a n t o f s a l i n e and  soil  of  -  the degree of i n t e n s i t y o f s a l i n i z a t i o n  played  is  12 3  changes  in site  of the landscape.  s t u d y h a s shown t h a t t h e  -  -  12H  n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s are t r u l y relief, I t has  and p l a n t  a function of the " f i v e  organisms,  communities  factors":  geologic materials,  and  climate, time.  a l s o b e e n shown, h o w e v e r , t h a t w e a t h e r i n g  and  the f o r m a t i o n of i n l a n d , s a l i n e water bodies are f u n c t i o n s o f t h e same, f i v e t h e s l o u g h and t h e s o i l s , p l a n t communities  factors.  and  And  also  t h a t because  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  a r e p r o d u c t s o f t h e same  of  five  f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s , they are each m u t u a l l y dependent on t h e o t h e r s .  I n f a c t , t h e e q u a t i o n c a n now  be  a l t e r e d to read: Weathering, Soils,  j. , f ( c , r , o, p ,  = Plants, Saline The  and Sloughs  p e r s o n a l r e v e l a t i o n of the honesty i n h e r e n t  i n t h i s e q u a t i o n was  perhaps  t h e most i m p o r t a n t , s i n g l e  d i s c o v e r y r e s u l t i n g from the examination of Slough.  I t was  the v a l l e y  slowly realized  c o u l d n o t be  u n d e r s t a n d H e r , we  Slippy  t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of  a t t r i b u t e d t o any  N a t u r e o p e r a t e s as a c o m p l e t e  organism.  . » t)  organism;  single  factor.  i f we w i s h  to  m u s t be p r e p a r e d t o s t u d y t h e w h o l e  LITERATURE CITED Adams, D.A. 1963. F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g v a s c u l a r p l a n t zonation i n North C a r o l i n a s a l t marshes. Ecology, V o l . 44, No. 3, 445-456. Bourdeau, P.F. and D.A. Adams. 1956. F a c t o r s i n v e g e t a t i o n a l z o n a t i o n o f s a l t marshes near Southport, North C a r o l i n a ; as c i t e d by Adams, 1963. Buckman, H.O. and N.C. Brady. 1960, S i x t h E d i t i o n . The nature and p r o p e r t i e s o f s o i l s . The Macmillan Company, New York. 544 pp. Canada Department o f T r a n s p o r t , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch 1967. Temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n t a b l e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. C a r r o l l , D. 1970. Rock weathering. Plenum P r e s s , New York. 187 pp. Chapman, V . J . 1940. S t u d i e s i n s a l t marsh e c o l o g y ; as c i t e d by Adams, 1963. Clements, F.E. 1907. P l a n t p h y s i o l o g y and e c o l o g y . Henry H o l t and Company, New York. pp. 289303. Daubenmire, R.F. 1967, Second E d i t i o n . P l a n t s and environment. John Wiley and Sons, I n c . , New York, 373 pp. Dodd, J.D. and R.T. Coupland. 1966. V e g e t a t i o n o f s a l i n e areas i n Saskatchewan. E c o l o g y , V o l . 47, No. 6, pp. 958-967. Dodd, J.D., D.A. Rennie, and R.T. Coupland. 1964. The nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s a l t s i n u n c u l t i v a t e d s a l i n e s o i l s i n Saskatchewan. Can. J . S o i l S c i . , V o l . 44, pp. 165-175. G o l d i c h , S.S. 1938. A study o f rock weathering. Jour. G e o l . , V o l . 46. pp. 17-58. Jenny, H. 1941. F a c t o r s of s o i l f o r m a t i o n . McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . New York and London. 2 69 pp.  - 12 6 -  13.  Johnson, D.S. and H.H. York. 1915. The r e l a t i o n of p l a n t s t o t i d e l e v e l s . C i t e d by Adams,  1963.  14.  Jones, A.G. 1959. G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, Memoir 296: Vernon Map-Area, B r i t i s h Columbia. Canada Department o f Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys. 163 pp.  15.  Kaufman, D.D. 1966. An i n e x p e n s i v e , p o s i t i v e p r e s s u r e , s o i l p e r f u s i o n system. Weeds,  14, pp. 90-91.  16.  K e l l e y , C C . and R.H. S p i l s b u r y . 1949. S o i l survey o f the Okanagan and Similkameen V a l l e y s , B r i t i s h Columbia. Report No. 3 of B r i t i s h Columbia Survey. The B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms S e r v i c e , Dominion Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e .  17.  K r a j i n a , V . J . 1969. Ecology o f Western North America. V o l . 2, No. 1. Department o f Botany, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 147 pp.  18.  L a v k u l i c h , L.M. 1974. Methods o f s o i l a n a l y s i s , Pedology L a b o r a t o r y , U.B.C. Department of S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. 229 pp.  19.  P r e s c o t t , J.A. 1949. A c l i m a t i c index f o r the leaching factor i n s o i l formation. Jour. S o i l S c i . , 1, pp. 9-19.  20.  Reed, J . F . 1947. The r e l a t i o n o f the Spartinetum g l a b r a e near B e a u f o r t , North C a r o l i n a , t o c e r t a i n edaphic f a c t o r s . C i t e d by Adams,  1963.  21.  Reiche, P. 1950. A survey o f weathering processes and p r o d u c t s . New Mexico Univ. P u b l . i n Geology, No. 3, 95 pp.  22.  R i c h a r d s , L.A., E d i t o r . 1954. D i a g n o s i s and improvement o f s a l i n e and a l k a l i s o i l s . U.S. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e Handbook No. 60. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D.C.  - 12  7  -  23.  Simonson, R.W. 1959. O u t l i n e theory of s o i l g e n e s i s . Am. Proc., V o l . 23, pp.  24.  Thompson, A.  25.  Ungar, I.A. 1967. V e g e t a t i o n - s o i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on s a l i n e s o i l s i n Northern Kansas. Am. M i d i . N a t u r a l i s t , V o l . 78, No. 1, pp. 98120.  26.  Walter, H. 1961. The a d a p t a t i o n of p l a n t s t o s a l i n e s o i l s . A r i d Zone Research, UNESCO, Geneva, S q i t z e r l a n d , 14, pp. 129-134.  27.  Warming, E. 1909. Ooceology of p l a n t s (an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the study of p l a n t communities). Oxford a t the Clarendon Press. 373 pp.  1970.  of a g e n e r a l i z e d S o i l S c i . Soc. 152-156.  P e r s o n a l communication..  -  128  -  APPENDIX I SITE DESCRIPTIONS  - 129 -  A e r i a l view of S l i p p y Slough showing l o c a t i o n of t r a n s e c t s .  general  -  A. 1.  130  South  -  Transect  Site 1 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) K i n n i c k i n n i c k ( A r c t o s t a p h y l o s Uva-ursi) Pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubescens) Twinflower (Lmnea b o r e a l i s ) Heart-leaf arnica (Arnica c o r d i f o l i a )  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Gently r o l l i n g  c)  Aspect: North-northwest  d)  S o i l Subgroup: Orthic Eutric Brunisol  e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon LFH  Depth 1.2-0  (cm)  Description A t h i n s u r f a c e c o v e r i n g of forest l i t t e r i n various stages of decomposition. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . Abrupt, smooth boundary t o :  Ah  0-30.5  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e ; abundant r o o t s ; few cobbles; 2 1 % gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.1. Gradual boundary to:  AhBm  30.5-48.2  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; few cobbles; 2 4% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s ; pH 6.0. C l e a r boundary to:  -  Horizon C  Depth  131  -  (cm)  4 8.2-71.2 v+)  Description Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; s t r o n g medium angular b l o c k y ; f i r m ; few r o o t s ; some c o b b l e s ; 4 4% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. pH 6.5.  -  Site  132 -  2  a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Timothy (phleum p r a t e n s e ) Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa p r a t e n s i s ) Smooth Brame (Bromus inermis)  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Gently sloping  c)  Aspect: North  d)  Soil  Subgroup:  Rego e)  Soil  Profile  Horizon Ap  C  Black  Chernozem Characteristics:  D e p t h (cm) 0-35.6  Description B l a c k (10 YR 2 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam; moderately coarse angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; s t o n e f r e e ; 19% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. pH 7 . 9 . G r a d u a l boundary t o :  35.6-76.2(+)  L i g h t g r a y ( 2 . 5 Y 7/2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; m o d e r a t e medium angular b l o c k y ; very l o o s e ; some c o b b l e s ; 24% g r a v e l . Moderately calcareous. pH 8 . 4 .  -  Site  133  -  3  a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : T i m o t h y (Phleum p r a t e n s e ) Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa p r a t e n s i s ) Rush ( J u n c u s spp.)  b)  Topographic Class: Very g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: North  d)  S o i l Subgroup: S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l  e)  Soil  Profile Characteristics:  Horizon Ap  Bgs  Cg  Depth  (cm)  0-30.5  30.5-48.2  48.2-71.2 C+)  Description B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; g r a n u l a r ; v e r y f r i a b l e ; abundant r o o t s ; stone-free. Very s t r o n g l y calcareous. pH 7 . 8 . C l e a r , smooth b o u n d a r y t o : L i g h t g r a y (5 Y 7/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; weak medium angular blocky; very f r i a b l e ; few t o many r o o t s ; s t o n e f r e e ; 1% g r a v e l . Extremely calcareous. Weakly s a l i n e . pH 8.3. C l e a r , smooth boundary t o : D a r k y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 4/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; weak medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o f i n e and medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; few r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e , 34% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 8.1.  -  134  -  Site 4 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #2 (Distichlis  b)  Topographic C l a s s : L e v e l to very g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: North  d)  Soil  stricta)  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ah  Bgs  Cgs  Depth (cm) 0-25.4  Description Very dark gray (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; c l a y loam; medium angular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r ; abundant roots-; s t o n e - f r e e . Extremely calcareous. Weakly s a l i n e . pH 8.2. C l e a r boundary t o :  25.4-66.0  L i g h t gray t o gray (5 Y 6/1-moist); s i l t loam; weak coarse angular b l o c k y breaking to granular; l o o s e ; very few g r a v e l s . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.5. Abrupt boundary t o :  66.0-96.5  L i g h t gray (5 Y 7/2 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; weak medium subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; stonefree. Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Weakly s a l i n e . pH 8.4.  - .13 5 -  Site  4:  Saltgrass  42  -  136  -  Site 5 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #1  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Level  c)  Aspect: Not a p p l i c a b l e  d)  S o i l Subgroup: S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l  e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description  Ap  0-15.2  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t y c l a y loam; modera t e l y coarse angular blocky breaking to g r a n u l a r ; abundant r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; no g r a v e l . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.6. Abrupt, smooth boundary t o :  Bgs  15.2-27.9  O l i v e gray (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; moderately coarse angular b l o c k y breaking to granular; l o o s e ; no r o o t s ; stonefree. Extremely c a l c a r eous. Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.5. C l e a r boundary t o :  BCgs  27.9-45.7  Gray (5 Y 4/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; no r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.4. Gradual boundary t o :  - 137 -  Horizon Cgs  Depth  (cm)  45.7-76.2  Description Dark gray (5 Y 5/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; medium moderate angular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; no r o o t s ; stonefree. Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.8.  -  6.  -  138  Site 6 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : No t e r r e s t r i a l v e g e t a t i o n apparent; some red algae on s o i l s u r f a c e .  b)  Topographic C l a s s : L e v e l to d e p r e s s i o n a l  c)  Aspect: Not a p p l i c a b l e  d)  S o i l Subgroup: S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l  e)  Soil Profile Horizon  Characteristics:  Depth  (cm)  Description  Ahgs  0-20.3  Very dark gray (5 Y 3/1 m o i s t ) ; loam; weak coarse subangular blocky b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; appear to be some decaying r o o t s o r other o r g a n i c matter; stone-free. Extremely calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 9.1. Clear smooth boundary t o :  Bgs  20.3-45.7  O l i v e (5 Y 5/3 m o i s t ) ; s i l t y c l a y ; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; stonefree. Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.5. Abrupt boundary t o  Cgs  4 5. 7-73.7W  G r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; sandy c l a y loam; medium angular b l o c k y and coarse g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; stone-free. Extremely calcareous. Strongly s a l i n e . Numerous coarse s a l t c r y s t a l s . pH 8.6.  -  B.  -  139  North  Transect  Site 7 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : No t e r r e s t r i a l v e g e t a t i o n apparent; some r e d algae on s o i l s u r f a c e .  b)  Topographic C l a s s : L e v e l to d e p r e s s i o n a l  c)  Aspect: Not a p p l i c a b l e  d)  Soil  e)  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description Black (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; s i l t ; weak coarse subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r ; loose; p l e n t i f u l f i n e roots; stone-free. Extremely calcareous. Strongly s a l i n e ; pH 8.7. Abrupt smooth boundary t o :  Ahgs  0-15.2  Bgs  15.2-30.5  P a l e o l i v e (5 Y 6/3 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; medium and coarse subangular b l o c k y breaking to granular; loose; s t o n e - f r e e ; no r o o t s . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . S t r o n g l y s a l i n e . pH 8.5. C l e a r boundary t o :  Cgs  30.5-50.8  O l i v e gray (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; s i l t loam; g r a n u l a r ; very l o o s e and soupy; s t o n e - f r e e ; no r o o t s . Extremely calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 8.7.  -  140  -  S i t e 10 (Rush), l o o k i n g south over S i t e 9, S i t e 8, and S l i p p y Slough  Exposed lakebed a t S i t e 7. N o t i c e the s h o r e l i n e r e t r e a t of 5.2 m between March 2 8 and June 29, 1970.  -  141  -  Site 8 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #1  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Level  c)  Aspect: Not a p p l i c a b l e  d)  Soil  e)  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description Very dark gray (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; f i n e sandy loam; medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; abundant r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.2. C l e a r smooth boundary t o :  Ahs  0-7.6  Bgs  7.6-17.8  Dark gray (5 Y 4/1 m o i s t ) ; f i n e sandy loam; moderate medium t o coarse angular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; many r o o t s ; stone-free. Extremely calcareous. Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.2. C l e a r smooth boundary t o :  Cgs  17.8-40.6  O l i v e (5 Y 5/3 m o i s t ) ; loam to s i l t loam; medium t o coarse angular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; few r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.4.  -  142  -  Site 9 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #2 (Distichlis  b)  Topographic C l a s s : L e v e l t o very g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: South  d)  Soil  e)  stricta)  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; c l a y loam; medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; very few cobbles; 7% g r a v e l . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . 2 to 3 cm l a y e r of white s a l t c r y s t a l s on s o i l s u r f a c e . pH 8.4. C l e a r smooth boundary t o :  Ahs  0-15.2  Bgs  15.2-27.9  Dark gray (5 Y 4/1 m o i s t ) ; s i l t y c l a y ; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; many r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.5. Abrupt smooth boundary t o :  Cgs  27.9-50.8  O l i v e gray (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; s i l t y c l a y ; moderate coarse angular b l o c k y ; few r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e . Many s n a i l s h e l l s p r e s e n t . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.5.  -  4.  Site  14 3  10  a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Rush ( J u n c u s spp.)  b)  Topographic Class: Gently sloping  c)  Aspect: South  d)  Soil  Subgroup:  Orthic e)  -  Soil  D a r k Brown C h e r n o z e m  Profile Characteristics:  Horizon Ah  D e p t h (cm) 0-10.2  Description V e r y d a r k g r a y (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; g r a n u l a r ; f r i a b l e ; abundant medium and c o a r s e r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 19% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.9. Gradual boundary t o :  Bm  10.2-30.5  V e r y d a r k g r a y (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; weak s u b a n g u l a r blocky breaking to granular; l o o s e ; few r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 27% g r a v e l . pH 7.2. C l e a r boundary t o :  C  30.5W  O l i v e g r a y (5 Y 5/2 moist); g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; m o d e r a t e medium a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; compact b u t friable; no r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 37% g r a v e l . pH 6.7.  -  5.  Site a)  144  -  11 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Douglas a s t e r (Aster d o u g l a s i i ) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) S p r i n g sunflower (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Cinquefoil (Potentilla milligrana) Wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum)  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Undulating  c)  Aspect: South  d)  Soil  Subgroup:  O r t h i c B l a c k Chernozem e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ap  C  Depth (cm) 0-20.3  Description Ah and Bm mixed i n many p l a c e s by r o a d - b u i l d i n g , g r a z i n g , and l o g g i n g disturbances. Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam to g r a v e l l y loamy sand; g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; many stones and c o b b l e s ; 41% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. pH 6.6.  20.3-38.1 th)  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 3/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate to s t r o n g medium angular b l o c k y ; compact; many f i n e to medium r o o t s ; many stones and cobbles; 51% g r a v e l . pH 6.7.  -  C. 1.  Site  14 5  -  West T r a n s e c t  12  a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) Ponderosa p i n e (Pinus ponderosa) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) B i t t e r b r u s h (Purshia t r i d e n t a t a ) Saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.) S p r i n g sunflower (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) P i n e g r a s s (Calamagrostis rubescens) Bluebunch wheat grass (Agropyron spicatum)  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Moderately to s t r o n g l y r o l l i n g  c)  Aspect: South  d)  S o i l Subgroup: Orthic Eutric Brunisol  e)  Soil Profile Horizon  Characteristics:  Depth  (cm)  Description  Ah  0-7.6  Very dark g r a y i s h brown (10 YR 3/2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y and cobbly loam to g r a v e l l y and cobbly sandy loam; weak medium subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; abundant r o o t s ; many c o b b l e s ; 44% g r a v e l . pH 6.8. C l e a r smooth boundary t o :  Bm  7.6-28.0  Dark brown (10 YR 3/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam to g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o g r a n u l a r ; very f r i a b l e to l o o s e ; many r o o t s ; many cobbles; 58% g r a v e l . pH 6.3. Gradual boundary to:  -  Horizon  Depth  14 6  -  (cm)  Description  BC  28.0-40.6  Brown t o dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam to g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium coarse angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e . Very few r o o t s ; many c o b b l e s ; 55% g r a v e l . pH 5.9. Gradual boundary to:  C  40. 6-50. 8 kt)  Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam t o g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; compact but f r i a b l e ; many c o b b l e s ; 45 % g r a v e l . pH 6.1.  -  2.  Site  147  -  13 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Ponderosa p i n e (Pinus ponderosa) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) W i l d Rose (Rosa nutkana) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) S p r i n g Sunflower (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Large p u r p l e a s t e r (Aster conspicuus) Junegrass ( K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a ) Wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) Kentucky B l u e g r a s s (Poa p r a t e n s i s )  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Strongly sloping  c)  Aspect: East-southeast  d)  S o i l Subgroup: Orthic Eutric Brunisol  e)  Soil Profile Horizon  Characteristics:  Depth  (cm)  Description  LFH  10.2-0  A f a i r l y thick l a y e r of decomposing f o r e s t and g r a s s litter. Abrupt boundary t o :  Ah  0-10. 2  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium crumb or g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; abundant f i n e r o o t s ; very few c o b b l e s ; 25% gravel. pH 6.1. Gradual boundary t o :  Ah  10.2-30.5  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate coarse to medium a n g u l a r b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to crumb; f r i a b l e ; many f i n e r o o t s ; 22% g r a v e l . pH 6.3. Clear smooth boundary t o :  -  Horizon Bm  Depth  14 8 -  (cm)  30.5-48.3  Description D a r k b r o w n (10 YR 3/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; m o d e r a t e medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; few t o many f i n e a n d medium r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 30% g r a v e l . pH 6 . 5 . Abrupt boundary to: D a r k y e l l o w i s h b r o w n (10 YR 3/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m ; weak f i n e t o medium angular blocky; friable; v e r y few r o o t s ; v e r y few c o b b l e s ; 47% g r a v e l . pH 6.7.  -  149  -  Site  12  Site  13  -  te  150  -  14 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Aspen (Populus tremuloides) W i l d Rose (Rosa nutkana) Saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.) Oregon Grape ( B e r b e r i s nervosa) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) S p r i n g Sunflower (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Large p u r p l e a s t e r (Aster conspicuus) Golden a s t e r (Chrysopsis h i s p i d a ) Junegrass ( K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a ) Topograhic C l a s s : Gently s l o p i n g Aspect: East-southeast S o i l Subgroup: O r t h i c Black Chernozem Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description  LFH  5.1-0  A continuous l a y e r of l i t t e r c o v e r i n g the m i n e r a l s o i l ; mostly aspen leaves and i n a l l stages o f decomposition; some f u n g i v i s i b l e . Weakly calcareous. pH 6.8. Abrupt boundary t o :  Ah  0-6.3  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam; l i g h t and f l u f f y f i n e crumb or g r a n u l a r very f r i a b l e ; many f i n e r o o t s s t o n e - f r e e ; 25% g r a v e l . pH 7.0. C l e a r boundary t o :  AB  6.3-21.6  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam t o g r a v e l l y s i l t loam; weak coarse subangular b l o c k y ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 23% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.9. Gradual boundary t o :  -  Horizon  Depth  151  -  (cm)  Description  Bmh  21.6-36.9  Very dark gray (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y s i l t loam; moderate coarse angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l medium r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 22% g r a v e l . pH 6.8. Abrupt smooth boundary t o :  C  36.9-68.6 (+)  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 4/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam t o g r a v e l l y loam; medium to coarse angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; very few r o o t s ; f r e q u e n t cobbles and stones; 49% g r a v e l . pH 6.8.  -  4.  152  -  S i t e 15 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Rush (Juncus spp.) Canada T h i s t l e ( C i r s i u m a r y e n s i s ) Sedge (Carex spp.)  b)  Topograhic C l a s s : Very g e n t l y s l o p i n g t o g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: East  d)  Soil  Subgroup:  O r t h i c Humic G l e y s o l e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ah  Depth (cm) 0-10.2  Description Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r i t t y and g r a v e l l y loamy sand; moderate medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e t o very f r i a b l e ; abundant r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 22% g r a v e l . pH 7.1.  Ahg  10.2-25.4  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy sand; s t r o n g medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; many f i n e r o o t s ; very few stones; 25% g r a v e l . pH 7.0. Abrupt smooth boundary t o :  Bg  25.4-48.3  O l i v e (5 Y 5/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy c l a y loam; moderate coarse angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; moderate m o t t l e s ; few to many r o o t s ; very few cobbles or stones; 45% gravel. pH 7.3. Abrupt smooth boundary t o :  Cg  48.3 (+)  Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/4 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak medium t o coarse angular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; promi n e n t red m o t t l e s ; some r o o t s ; some stones and c o b b l e s ; 49% g r a v e l . pH 7.4.  -  5.  153  -  S i t e 16 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #2 (Distichlis  b)  Topographic Class: Very gently s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: East  d)  Soil  stricta)  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ah  D e p t h (cm) 0-1.3  Description B l a c k ( 1 0 YR 2 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d ; moderate medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; many r o o t s ; s t o n e free; 32% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 8 . 2 . A b r u p t smooth boundary t o :  Ahgs  1.3-6.3  S a l t and peppery d a r k g r a y (5 Y 4 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y l o a m y s a n d ; m o d e r a t e medium t o coarse subangular blocky; l o o s e , except f o r adherence to roots; stone-free; 1 8 % gravel. pH 8 . 3 . Clear boundary t o :  Bgs  6.3-16.5  O l i v e g r a y (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y s i l t y c l a y ; weakly p l a t y t o moderate coarse angular blocky; f r i a b l e ; few r o o t s ; f r e q u e n t m o t t l e s ; stone-free; 16% gravel. pH 7 . 3 . Abrupt boundary t o :  -  Horizon Cgs  Depth  154  -  (cm)  16. 5-50. 8  (+1  Description G r a y i s h b r o w n (2.5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy s a n d t o g r a v e l l y s a n d ; weak angular blocky; very loose; few f i n e and medium r o o t s ; prominent rusty mottles; some p o c k e t s o f f i n e c o b b l e s ; w a t e r t a b l e a t 15 i n c h e s a t t i m e o f o b s e r v a t i o n ; some pockets o f f i n e cobbles; 20% g r a v e l . pH 7.0.  -  D.  155  East  -  Transect  S i t e 17 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : No t e r r e s t r i a l v e g e t a t i o n apparent; " a i r weed" observed growing i n water-covered p a r t of t h i s zone d u r i n g mid-summer.  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Depressional to l e v e l  c)  Aspect: Not a p p l i c a b l e  d)  S o i l Subgroup: Saline Gleysol  e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ags  Depth (cm) 0-15.2  Description O l i v e gray (5 Y 5/2 m o i s t ) ; c l a y loam; coarse angular blocky breaking t o granular; l o o s e ; few r o o t s ; stonefree. Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.9. C l e a r smooth boundary t o :  Bgs  15.2-30.5  L i g h t brownish gray (2.5 Y 6/2 m o i s t ) ; sandy loam; weak medium t o coarse angular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; very few r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 1% g r a v e l . Extremely calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 9.0. Gradual boundary to:  Cgs  30.5-45.7  L i g h t brownish gray (2.5 Y 6/2 m o i s t ) ; sandy loam; medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e and soupy; no r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 1% g r a v e l . Extremely calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 9.2.  -  156  -  S i t e 18 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #1  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Very g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: West-northwest  d)  S o i l Subgroup: S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l  e)  Soil Profile Horizon Ahgs  Characteristics:  Depth (cm) 0-18.4  Description Very dark gray (5 Y 3/1 m o i s t ) ; sandy loam; moderate coarse to medium angular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e and medium r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 4% g r a v e l . Extremely calcareous. Moderately saline. pH 8.3. C l e a r boundary t o :  Bgs  18.4-33.0  L i g h t brownish gray (2.5 Y 6/2 m o i s t ) ; sandy loam; moderate coarse angular blocky breaking to granular; l o o s e ; many f i n e and medium r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; abundant medium s a l t c r y s t a l s . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Strongly s a l i n e . pH 8.7. C l e a r boundary t o :  Cgs  3 3.0-50.81+)  L i g h t brownish gray (2.5 Y 6/2 m o i s t ) ; sandy loam t o sandy c l a y loam; g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e and soupy; no r o o t s ; abundant s a l t c r y s t a l s ; stone-free. Extremely calcareous. Strongly saline. pH 9.3.  -  3.  157 -  Site 19 a)  b) c) d)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S a l t g r a s s #2 (Distichlis Rush (Juncus e f f u s u s )  stricta)  Topographic C l a s s : Gently s l o p i n g Aspect: West-northwest Soil  Subgroup:  S a l i n e Humic G l e y s o l e)  Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ah  Ah  2  Bgs  Depth  (cm)  0-15.2  Description Black ( 1 0 YR 2 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate coarse angular blocky breaking t o granular; l o o s e ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e and medium r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 17% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. Gradual boundary t o :  15.2-30.5  Black ( 5 Y 2 / 2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate coarse angular blocky breaking to granular; l o o s e ; many f i n e r o o t s ; stone-free; 21% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 8 . 3 . Gradual boundary t o :  30.5-55.9  Dark gray ( 5 Y 4 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak coarse angular b l o c k y breaking to granular; loose; no r o o t s ; few cobbles; 32% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l careous. pH 8 . 5 . Abrupt boundary t o :  Horizon  Depth  (cm)  Description  Bsg  55.9-66.0  Pale o l i v e (5 Y 6/3 m o i s t ) ; c l a y ; medium g r a n u l a r ; loose and soupy; no r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 9% g r a v e l . Moderately c a l c a r e o u s . Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.5. Abrupt boundary t o :  Csg  66.0-83.8(+)  O l i v e gray (5 Y 4/2 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loamy sand; medium g r a n u l a r ; loose and soupy; no r o o t s ; stonef r e e ; g r i t t y ; 43% t r a v e l . Extremely c a l c a r e o u s . Moderately s a l i n e . pH 8.6.  -  .15 9  -  Looking  east  Site Site Site Site  -  18 19 20 21  over:  S a l t g r a s s #1 S a l t g r a s s #2 Rush Lower A s p e n  -  160 -  te 20 Dominant Vegetation: Rush (Juncus spp.) Canada T h i s t l e (Cirsium arvensis) Topographic Class: Gently sloping Aspect: West-northwest S o i l Subgroup: Carbonated Humic Gleysol Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon Ah  Depth (cm) 0-7.6  Description Black (10 YR 2/1 moist); gravelly loamy sand; medium to coarse granular; loose; many f i n e roots; stonef r e e ; 21% g r a v e l . Strongly calcareous. pH 6.8. Gradual boundary t o :  Bmg  7.6-30.5  Very dark gray (10 YR 3/1 moist); gravelly loamy sand; moderate medium granu l a r ; many medium roots; few to many mottles; stonefree; 23% g r a v e l . pH 7.3. Gradual boundary t o :  Cg  30.5-48.3  Olive gray (5 Y 5/2 moist); gravelly loamy sand; moderate medium granular; compact but f r i a b l e ; no roots; prominent mottles; s t o n e - f r e e ; 23% g r a v e l . Weakly calcareous. pH 8.0.  -  te  161-  21 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ) W i l d Rose ( R o s a n u t k a n a ) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) Northern Bedstraw (Galium b o r e a l e ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Douglas a s t e r (Aster d o u g l a s i i ) Timothy (Phleum p r a t e n s e ) Smooth Brome (Bromus i n e r m i s ) Wheatgrass (Agropyron spp.) Topographic C l a s s : Strongly t osteeply sloping Aspect: We s t - n o r t h w e s t S o i l Subgroup: O r t h i c B l a c k Chernozem Soil  Profile  Horizon  Characteristics: Depth  (cm)  Description  LFH  2.5-0  A thin surface covering of decaying organic l i t t e r ; often discontinuous Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6 . 9 . Abrupt boundary t o :  Ah  0-20.3  B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam t o loam; m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g coarse angular blocky; very f r i a b l e ; abundant r o o t s ; f e w c o b b l e s ; 28% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7 . 0 . D i f f u s e boundary to:  20.3-40.6  B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; loose; p l e n t i f u l roots; few c o b b l e s ; 28% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7 . 1 .  Ah  2  - 162 -  Depth  (cm)  40.6-60.9  Description Black ( 1 0 YR 2 / 1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky breaking t o granular; loose; p l e n t i f u l r o o t s ; few cobbles; 3 2 % gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7 . 3 .  -  163 -  S i t e 22 a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : S p r i n g Sunflower (Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) B l u e l e a f Strawberry ( F r a g a r i a glauca) Yellow Penstemon (Penstemon deustus) Cinquefoil (Potentilla milligrana) Quackgrass (Agropyron repens) Bearded Wheatgrass (Agropyron caninum) Kentucky B l u e g r a s s (Poa p r a t e n s i s ) Red Top ( A g r o s t i s alba) Chess (Bromus s e c a l i n u s )  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Very g e n t l y s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: Northwest  d) e)  S o i l Subgroup: O r t h i c B l a c k Chernozem Soil Profile Characteristics: Horizon  Depth (cm)  Ap  0-20.3  Ah  20.3-50.8  Description B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o crumb; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e and medium r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 24% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.4. D i f f u s e boundary t o : Black (7.5 YR 2/0 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky; f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 23% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.6. Gradual boundary to:  - 164 -  Horizon BmC  Depth  (cm)  50.8-78.7  Description Brown to dark brown (10 YR 4/3 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy loam t o g r a v e l l y loamy sand; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; s t o n e - f r e e ; 25% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.8.  -  7.  Site  165 -  23  a)  Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Waxberry (Symphoricarpus a l b u s ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) L u p i n e (Lupinus spp.) Large purple a s t e r (Aster conspicuus) Junegrass ( K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a ) B e a r d e d W h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n caninum)  b)  Topographic Class: Steeply sloping  c) d)  Aspect: West-northwest Soil  Subgroup:  Orthic e)  Soil  Black  Profile  Horizon Ah  Chernozem  Characteristics:  D e p t h (cm) 0-20.3  Description B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam; m o d e r a t e medium s u b a n g u l a r blocky and crumb; v e r y f r i a b l e ; a b u n d a n t medium a n d f i n e r o o t s ; few t o many c o b b l e s ; 40% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6, D i f f u s e boundary t o :  Ah  2  20.3-40.6  B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y s a n d y loam; m o d e r a t e medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 52% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.6. D i f f u s e boundary to:  Ah  3  40.6-60.9  B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y sandy l o a m t o g r a v e l l y loam; m o d e r a t e medium s u b a n g u l a r blocky; f r i a b l e ; many r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 49% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.5,  View from S i t e 24 Looking west over: S i t e 24 - Upper Grassland S i t e 23 - Waxberry S i t e 22 - Lower Grassland  S i t e 24 (Upper Grassland) and S i t e 25 (Upper Aspen)  -  8.  167  -  S i t e 24 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Bearded Wheatgrass (Agropyron caninum) Bluebunch Wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) Quackgrass (Agropyron repens) Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa p r a t e n s i s ) Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) S p r i n g Sunflower (Balsamerhiza s a g i t t a t a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Yellow Penstemon (Penstemon deustus) Large P u r p l e A s t e r (Aster conspicuus) Lupine (Lupinus spp.) Saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.) Waxberry (Symphoricarpus albus) b)  Topographic C l a s s : Undulating to gently r o l l i n g  c)  Aspect: We st-northwest  d)  Soil  Subgroup:  Lithic e)  Black Chernozem  Soil Profile Horizon Ah  Characteristics:  Depth  (cm)  Description  0-5.1  Black YR 2/1 m o its o t); g r a v e l l(10 y sandy loam g r a v e l l y loamy sand; weak medium subangular b l o c k y ; l o o s e ; abundant r o o t s ; few c o b b l e s ; 47% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.2. C l e a r boundary t o :  5.1-20.3  Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; weak medium subangular blocky breaking e a s i l y to g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; many r o o t s ; many c o b b l e s ; 74% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6.1. C l e a r boundary t o :  -  Horizon CR  Depth 20.3  168  -  (cm) (+)  Description V e r y d a r k g r a y (10 YR 3/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y s a n d y l o a m ; medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; v e r y few r o o t s ; some a n g u l a r c o b b l e s ; 74% a n g u l a r gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 6 . 3 .  -  Site a)  169  -  25 Dominant V e g e t a t i o n : Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Saskatoon (Amelanchier spp.) W i l d Rose (Rosa n u t k a n a ) Yarrow ( A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m ) Douglas A s t e r (Aster d o u g l a s i i ) Golden A s t e r (Chrysopsis h i s p i d a ) N o r t h e r n Bedstraw (Galium boreale) Vetch ( V i c i a spp.) Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa p r a t e n s i s ) W h e a t g r a s s ( A g r o p y r o n spp.)  b)  Topographic C l a s s : Very gently s l o p i n g  c)  Aspect: West  d)  S o i l Subgroup: O r t h i c B l a c k Chernozem  e)  Soil  Profile Characteristics:  Horizon  Ah  Ah  0  Depth  (cm)  Description  0-20.3  B l a c k (7.5 YR 2/0 moist); g r a v e l l y loam; m o d e r a t e medium g r a n u l a r ; l o o s e ; a b u n d a n t f i n e and medium roots; stone-free; 20% gravel. Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7.4. D i f f u s e boundary to:  20.3-40.6  B l a c k (10 YR 2/1 moist); g r a v e l l y loam; weak medium s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y breaking to granular; l o o s e ; abundant r o o t s ; v e r y few c o b b l e s ; 28% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7.2. D i f f u s e boundary t o :  -  Horizon Ah  3  Depth  17 0 -  (cm)  40.6-60.9  Description Black (10 YR 2/1 m o i s t ) ; g r a v e l l y loam; moderate medium g r a n u l a r t o v e r y weak subangular blocky; many r o o t s ; very few c o b b l e s ; 23% g r a v e l . Weakly c a l c a r e o u s . pH 7.2.  -  171  -  P a d d l i n g around the Slough, measuring  i t s depth.  APPENDIX II Selected Chemical Analyses of S o i l Samples Collected i n Major Plant Communities  Appendix II ; Table  Site Number 1  Dominant Vegetation Douglas f i r  Horizon  pH  LFH Ah AhBm C  6.1 6.0 6.5  Exch. Ca + +  24.8  18.6  3.0  Exch. Me 4 4  2.6  1.8  0.3  I  Exch. Exch. Na K+ m e q / i +  0.0 0.1 0.0  0.4 0.3 0.2  Exch. Acidity  12 .4 10.4 1.6  2  Mixed pasture grasses  Ap C  7.9 8.4  3  Mixed grasses and rushes  Ap Bgs Cg  7.8 8.3 8.1  23.0  17.3  0.7 0.0 0.4  0.6 0.5 0.3  1.6 0.2 0.1  8.3 8.8  S a l t g r a s s #2  Ah Bgs Cgs  8.2 8.5 8.4  36.2 19.0 24.8  5.4 2.9 0.0  4.0 0.0 2.6  1.8 2.5 0.3  10.4 2.1  P Bgs BCgs Cgs  8.6 8.5 8.4 8.8  85.3  27.6 17.4  14.8 6.1 3.5 2.8  29.8 22.3 10.0  3.9 2.0 2.0 1.3  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  9.1 8.5 8.6  32.2 16.3 21.3 • 6.6 24.8 4.8  47.4 13.9 21.5  3.3 1.0 1.6  4  5  6  S a l t g r a s s #1  Non-vegetated lakebed  A  14.1  Exch. Sodium Percentage  46.6 31.6 10.0  0.0 0.3 0.0  61.3  1.0 4.7 3.6  41.9 19.4  l.C o.o 27.7  49.1 32.5 24.1 21.3  60.7  10.4 2.1  —  62.1  Cation Exch. Capacity  18.9  — -  10.6 8.4  .  9.4  41.9  25.6 23.1  58.2 92.5 46.9 113.1 54.3 93.1  Appendix II : Table II Selected Chemleal Analyses - North Transect  Site Number  Dominant Vegetation  Horizon  pH  Exch. Ca""*"  Exch. Mg  1  Exch. Exch. Na"" K m e q / i 41.8 3.7 19.2 1.5 15.5 1.5 1  Exch. Acidity  Cation Exch. Capacity  Exch. Sodium Percentage  58.1 22.5 21.9  71.9 85.3 70.8  60.4 52.2 20.6  28.5 28.7 119.9  i  55.1 38.5 42.8  i  7  Non-vegetated lakebed  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  8.7 8.5 8.7  10.8 32.1 110.8  25.6 8.7 3.0  8  Saltgrass #1  Ahs Bgs Cgs  8.2 8.2 8.4  47.2 29.7 5.3  15.1 13.8 6.6  17.2 15.0 24.7  3.1 1.9 2.3  Ahs Bgs Cgs  8.4 8.5 8.5  48.0 13.0 14.2  16.3 5.0 2.1  27.9 11.2 9.5  4.7 3.4 2.2  E  50.6 29.1 22.2  9  Saltgrass #2  10  Rush  Ah Bm C  6.9 7.2 6.7  24.2 8.5 2.7  1.5 0.6 0.6  0.1 0.1 0.1  0.4 0.2 0.1  4.9 2.6 0.5  40.0 12.8 7.5  0.2 0.8 1.3  11  Ponderosa pine  Ap C  6.6 6.7  18.5 4.2  3.4 1.0  0.1 0.1  0.9 0.4  5.4 2.6  40.9 11.9  0.2 0.8  Appendix II : Table III Selected Chemical Analyses - West Transect Site Number  12  13  14  15  16  Dominant Vegetation Douglas f i r Ponderosa pine  Ponderosa pine  Aspen  Rush  Saltgrass #2  Horizon Ah Bm BC C LFH Ah Ah2 Bm C  PH  Exch. Ca**  6.8  11.5  6.3 5.9 6.1  4.8  2.5 3.4  6.1 6.3 6.5  • - ...  LF Ah AB Bmh C  6.8  43.0 25.5 23.0  Ah Ahg Bg Cg  7.1 7.0 7.3  18.0  Ah Ahgs Bgs Cgs  8.2 8.3 7.3 7oC  6.7  7.0 6.9  6.8 6.8  7.4-  — —  16.7 2.8  Exch.  Exch. Exch. K+ Na m e q /I +  0.7 0.8  0.2 0.6  0.1 0.0 0.5 0.0  — —_  3.9 2.3  1.8  1.4 0.6  —  C.2  0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0  1.6 2.0 2.5 1.9  0.0 0.0  12.1  4.0  10.5  1.0 1.1  8.9 0.0 0.7 0.0  5.1 2.1 2.5  lol  0,5  0.6  0.4 0.0 0.2 0.0  0.7  1.1  Exch. Acidity 4.7  6.5 3.4 4.7  6.2 3.6 0.5 4.1  0.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2  6.2 1.0 3.6 5.2 6.2  0.2 0.3 0.9  4.7 5.7  0.8 1.7 0.2  0.5 0.3  1.0 1.6  —— 0.5  2.1  Cation Exch. Capacity  21.9  16.6  10.9 10.6  ——— —  Exch, Sodium Percent*  0.9 0.0 4.6 0.0  ... i — ——  66.3 42.2 33.4 25.3  0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0  25.0  0.0 0.0  9.7  17.8  12.2 11.9 16.3 17.2 8.1 8.1  O.C  5.7  9.2  54.6 0.0 8.6 0.0  Appendix II : Table IV Selected Chemical Analyses - East Transect  Site Number 17  18  19  Dominant Vegetation Non-vegetated lakebed Saltgrass #1  Saltgrass #2  Exch.  Exch. Exch. r Na m e q / i  Cation Exch. Capacity  Exch Sodium Peroents  — -  27.2 17.2 17.8  56.3 90.7 119.1  — -  45.9 21.3 18.1  29.8 67.1 114.9  28.8 23.1 24.4 18.8 13.1  1.0 2.6 12.7 25.0 19.1  Ewsh. Acidity  #  Horizon  pH  Exch. Ca**  Ags Bgs Cgs  8.9 9.0 9.2  35.3 8.3 4.2  6.0 5.6 6.7  15.3 15.6 21.2  1.3 1.7 1.5  Ahgs . Bgs Cgs  8.3 8.7 9.3  34.4 12.8 6.4  4.3 3.4 5.2  13.7 14.3 20.8  2.0 2.1 2.0  Ah Ah Bgs Bsg Csg  7.7 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.6  28.9 19.5 13.3 20.2 16.1  0.5 4.4 3.6 3.8 2.1  0.3 0.6 3.1 4.7 2.5  1.1 1.4 1.4 0.5 0.1  6.8 7.3 8.0  9.4 4.0 0.8  2.6 2.3 0.6  0.0 0.0 0.1  0.4 0.3 0.5  3.6 4.7 3.1  24.4 16.3 8.8  00 0.0 1.1  6.9 7.0 7.1 7.3  39.1 20.4 21.0 18.3  4.5 1.7 2.2 3.0  0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0  0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6  10.4 2.6 6.7 5.5  56.6 37.5 33.1 23.1  0.4 08 0.3 0.0  2  20  Rush  Ah  21  Lower aspen  LF  Bjag Cg Ah  Ah  2  Aho  +  — -  CD  1.6 - — — — —  %  o  Appendix II : Table IV Continued Selected Chemical Analyses - East Transect Site Number 22  23  Dominant Vegetation  25  Exch.  Exch. Exch. K+ Na m eq /I  Exch. Acidity  Horizon  PH  Lower Grassland  Ap Ah BmC  6.4 6.6 6.8  26.1 11.4 2.4  Waxberry  Ah Ah Ab.3  6.8 6.6 6.5  33.1 31.1  Upper Grassland  Ah Ah CR  6.2  Upper Aspen  Ah Ah Ah3  2  24.  Exch. Ca-H"  2  2  6.1 6.3 7.4  7.2 7.2  +  Cation Exch. Capacity  Exch. Sodium Percentage  16.6  11.5 14.6 9.9 —  1.6  1.1 1.2  0.1 0.2 0.0  0.0 0.2 0.1  6.2 7.8 6.9  10.4  12.4 20.7  30.4 32.5  22.2  0.3  0.6  0  Appendix II: Table V Selected Chemical Analyses;  Dominant Site Number Vegetation  Horizon  Conductivity Soluble (mmhos/cm) C a  South Transept  Soluble  + +  Soluble Na  Soluble  CaCOS.A.R. Equiv". {%)  1  Douglas f i r  LFH Ah AhBm C  0.2 0.3 1.0  0.2 0.2 0.8  0.2 0.1 0.3  0.1 0.1 0.4  0.0 0.0 0„0  0.2 0.3 0.5  3.9 1.6 1.6  2  Mixed pasture grasses  Ap C  2.6 2.5  4.8 0.2  0.6 0.9  0.3 0.2  0.0 0.0  0.1 0.3  3.7 10.2  3  Mixed grasses and rushes  Ap Bgs Cg  2.6 4.4 3.3  15.4 7.0 1.5  6.4 2.7 0.5  0.4 0.9 0.2  0.2 0.0 0.0  0.1 0.4 0.2  28.3 44.7 4.1  4  Saltgrass #2  Ah BCgs Cgs  5.3 10.0 5.9  16.3 9.1 4.0  6.9 4.0 3.1  3.8 4.8 1.1  0.6 0.3 0.3  1.1 1.9 0.6  77.2 77.0 81.2  5  Saltgrass #1  Ap Bgs Bgs Cgs  17.8 14.3 19.0 19.6  14.7 15.5 15.7 19.7  6.8 6.2 5.4 4.5  4.1 8.8 7.1 6.9  0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5  1.3 2.7 2.2 2.0  63.5 81.2 79.6 76.9  6  Non-vegetated lakebed  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  44.9 19.4 25.0  41.6 13.7 14.6  9.7 4.8 5.7  17.9 4.9 3.0  1.6 0.4 0.5  3.5 1.6 0.9  70.3 84.0 86.0  Appendix II: Table VI Selected Chemloal Analysis: North Transect  Site Dominant Number Vegetation  Horizon  Conductivity Soluble (mmhos/cm) Ca-"  Soluble M*  Soluble Na  Soluble K  ++  +  CaCOS.A.R. EquiV. (%)  7  Non-vegetated lakebed  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  23,9 19.9 24.0  48.0 26.0 19.8  8.9 5.3 5.8  19.8 10.4 12.8  1.3 0.9 0.9  3.7 2.6 3.6  62.6 72.4 64.8  8  Saltgrass #1  Ahs Bgs Cgs  10.6 11.6 23.7  24.1 32.8 33.5  10.2 8.1 8.2  6.7 8.5 13.7  0.7 1.0 1.0  1.6 1.9 3.0  60.6 74.1 78.8  9  Saltgrass #2  Ahs Bgs Cgs  22.6 12.8 19.8  14.5 20.8 16.4  6.5 5.3 6.8  7.7 5.7 5.6  0.8 0.4 0.7  2.4 1.6 1.6  57.8 68.8 67.0  10  Rush  Ah Bm C  0.4 0.2 0.2  0.3 0.3 0.4  0.3 0.1 0.2  0.0 0.0 0.0  0.4 0.1 0.1  0.0 0.0 0.0  1.7 0.8 0.2  11  Ponderosa pine  Ap C  0.3 0.2  0.3 0.1  0.4 0.1  0.0 0.0  0.4 0.1  0.0 0.0  2.1 0.1  Appendix I I : Table VII Selected Chemical Analysis:  Site Number  Dominant Vegetation  Horizon  Douglas f i r / Ponderosa pine  Ah Bm BC C  13  Ponderosa pine  LFfl Ah Ah Bm C  0,5 0.5 0.1 0.7  15  16  Aspen  Rush  Saltgrass #2  0.40.3 1.4 0.4  CaCOo S.A.R. Equiy. (%)  Soluble Hg  Soluble Na  Soluble K*  0.1 0.1 0.8 0.2  0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1  0.1 0.8 0.0 0.6  0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2  0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0  +i  —  i  0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2  6.1 0.1 0.1 0.2  0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2  0.1 0.6 0.0 0.1  0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0  0.1 1.8 0.0 0.2  0.4 0.4 00 0.4  LF Ah AB Bmh C  0.5 0o4 0.5 0.7 1.2  5.1 2.0 0.8 0.8 0.6  2.0 1.0 0.3 0.5 0.5  0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.8  1.6 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.0  0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 1.1  2.8 1.2 0.0 0.2  . Ah Ahg Bg Cg  0.7 0.5 0.6 - —  0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0  0.5 0.4 0.1 0.1  0.3 0.1 0.3 0.5  0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1  0.4 0.2 1.3 2.2  0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0  16.3 3.8 1.7 1.4.  1.7 0.8 0.0 0.1  0.2 1.4 0.1 0.3  0.8 5.6 0.4 1.8  0.4 0.6 0.2 0.2  0.8 5.3 1.8 4.0  1.4 0.4 0.1 Ool  2  14  Conduct!vity Soluble (mmhos/cm) C a + +  12  West Transect  Ah Ahgs Bgs Cgs  o  Appendix II: Table VII Selected Chemical Analysis: East Transect ConductiHorizon v i t y Soluble (mmhos/cm) Ca m  Site Dominant Number Vegetation 17  18  Non-vegetated lakebed S a l t g r a s s #1  Soluble Na  Soluble  18.5 18.0 23.9  4.8 3.2 3.8  9.0 6.9 8.5  0.7 0.5 0.6  2.6 2.1 2.3  73.5 80.5 78.6  21.9 11.6 19.9  9.7 3.7  0.8 0.5  1.7 2.0 2.0  63.1 67.7  4.3  6.9 5.6 7,0  74.7  S a l t g r a s s #2  7.4  6.4  0.5 0.5 0.4 2.7  6.5 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.9  0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.9  0.2 0.1 0.9 0.8 0.6  0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 2.0  0.0 5.1 13.2 53.0  Ah Bmg Cg  0.5 0.2 0.2  0.2 0.1 0.0  0.4  0.1 0.2  17.4  0.4  0.4  0.3 0.3 0.0  0.2  0.3 0.0  0.0  0.8 1.0  LF Ah Ah Ah  0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1  1.5 0.9 0.3 0.5  0.8 0.3 0.2 0.4  0.0 0.7 0.0 0.1  0.7 0.5 0.1 0.2  0.0 0.9 0.0 0.1  3.6 2.5 1.9 1.1  0.4  0.3 0.1 0.1  0.7 0.1 0.0  0.1 0.0 0.0  0.1 0.0 0,0  0.2 0.0 0.0  2.0 1.3 1.2  20.1  Ags Egs Cgs  24.4  Ahgs  10.4  Bgs Cgs  19  Ah Ah Bgs Bsg Csg  24.6  18.3  21.4  0.1  2  20  21  22  Rush  Lower Aspen  Lower grassland  CaCO, S.A.R. Equit (%)  Soluble  2 3  Ap Ah BmC  3.0 6.7  0.3 0.1  0.4  4,1  Appendix I I :  Table V I I Contd.  Selected Chemical A n a l y s i s :  Site Number  23  24  25  Dominant Vegetation Waxberry  Upper grassland  Upper aspen  Horizon  ConductiSoluble vity (mmhos/cm) C a  East Transect  Soluble  + +  Soluble Na*  Soluble  S.A.R.  CaCO EquiV.  (%)  0.9 0.8 0.6  3.0 0.9 0.6  1.5 0.6 0.3  0.2 0.2 0.2  0.1 1.1 0.7  0.1 0.2 0.3  4.4 2.9 3.5  Ah Ab^ CR  0.4 0.6 0.2  1.9 0.6 0.4  0.6 0.2 0.1  0.1 0.1 0.1  0.6 0.1 0.1  0.1 0.2 0.2  1.7 1.8 1.7  Ah Ah Ah  0.5 0.4 0.2  2.4 1.0 0.9  0.6 0.3 0.2  0.1 0.1 0.1  1.1 0.5 0.2  0.1 0.1 0.1  3.7 2.4 3o7  Ah Ah Ah  2 3  2 3  i  i—' IS}  1  Appendix II : Table IX Selected Chemical Analyses - South Transect Site Number 1  Dominant Vegetation Douglas f i r  Horizon  % Organic Carbon  % Nitrogen  C/N Ratio  4.2  ——  LFH Ah AhBm C  0.3  0.4 0.3 0.1  —  10.5 3.0  2  Mixed pasture grasses  Ap C  4.2 0.2  0.3 0.05  14.0 4.0  3  Mixed grasses and rushes  Ap Bgs Cg  7.9 7.5 0.2  0.6 0.1 0.05  13.2 75.0 4.0  4  Saltgrass #2  Ah Bgs Cgs  4.40.7 0.4  0.4 0.1 0.1  11.0 7.0 4.0  5  Saltgrass #1  P Bgs BCgs Cgs  6.1 2.7  10.1 13.5  1.4  0.6 0.2 0.1 0.1  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  6.7 1.6 1.5  0.7 0.2 0.1  9.6 8.0 15.0  6  Non-vegetated lakebed  A  —  14.0  Appendix II t Table X Selected Chemical Analysis - North Transect Site Number 7  Dominant Vegetation Non-vegetated lakebed  Horizon  % Organic Carbon  % Nitrogen  C/N Ratio  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  7.7 1.5 1.2  0.8 0.1 0.1  9.6 15.0 12.0  8  Saltgrass #1  Ah Bgs Cgs  8.8 5.8 1.5  0.5 0.5 0.1  17.6 11.6 15.0  9  Saltgrass #2  Ah Bgs Cgs  5.7 1.5 0.8  0.5 0.1 0.1  11.4 15.0 8.0  10  Rush  Ah Bm C  4.8 0.7 0.1  0.4 0.1 0.05  12.0 7.0 2.0  11  Ponderosa pine  Ap C  4.6 0.7  0.3 0.1  15.3 7.0  Appendix II : Table XI Selected Chemical Analyses - West Transect Site Number 12  13  Dominant Vegetation Douglas f i r / Ponderosa pine  Ponderosa pine  Horizon  15  16  Aspen  Rush  Saltgrass #2  3^6  0.2 0.1 0.1  18.0  —  — .  0.1  LF Ah AB Bmh C  C/N Ratio  21.0  0.7  LFH Ah Ah Bm C  % Nitrogen  0.1 0.1 0.05  2.1  Ah Bm BC C  2  14  % Organic Carbon  0.5 0.5 4.9 —  2.0 0.2  Ah Ahg Bg Cg  2.6  Ah Ahgs Bgs Cgs  1  —  0.2 0.2 1.7  0.3 0.1  0.05  0.05  7.0  — -  2.0  —  5.0 10.0  0.8  0.4 0.2 0.2 0.05  12.3  0.2 0.0 0.05 0.05  13.0  0.2 0.1 0.05 0.05  10.0 4.0  4.0 4.0 -  17.0  6.0 2.0  Appendix II t Table XII Selected Chemical Analyses - East Transect Site Number  Dominant Vegetation  Horizon  % Organic Carbon  % Nitrogen  C/N Ratio  17  Non-vegetated lakebed  Ags Bgs Cgs  2.9 1.0 1.1  0.3 0.1 0.1  9.7 10.0 11.0  18  Saltgrass #1  Ahgs Bgs Cgs  5.3 1.0 0.8  0.7 0.1 0.1  7.6 10.0 8.0  19  Saltgrass #2  Ah Ahg Bgs Bsg Csg  1.7 0.3 0.1 4.0  0.2 0.1 0.05 0.05 0.3  17.0 6.0 2.0 13.3  3.3 1.4 0.01  0.2 0.1 0.03  16.5 14.0 0.3  0.6 0.2 0.2 0.1  15.5  20  Rush  Ah Bmg Cg  21  Lower Aspen  LF Ah Ah AI13 2  1  3.1 — —  1.8  .  18.0  Appendix II : Table XII  Continued  Selected Chemical Analyses - East Transect Site Number  22  23  24  25  Dominant Vegetation  %  %  C/N Ratio  Horizon  Organic Carbon  Nitrogen  Lower Grassland  Ap Ah BmC  0.6  0.3 0.2 0.1  2.0  Waxberry  Ah Ah  12.9"  14.3  0.2  2.0  AI13  7.9  0.9 0.8 0.6  Upper Grassland  Ah Ah~  4.4 2.9 1.4  0.3 0.3 0.1  14.7 9.7 14.0  Upper aspen  Ah Ah Ah^  6.6  0.6 0.5 0.4  11.0  2  cur 2  ——  ——  4.8  —  13.2  12.0  

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