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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Empirical analysis of business location in Greater Vancouve Morris, John Edward 1974

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----- - EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS DR BUSINESS .,. LOCATION IN GREATER VANCOUVER """  by JOHN EDUARD MORRIS B.Sc.  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  i n the f a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s - A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Lie accept required  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July  1974  ii In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I for  Library  further  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment  of  at  University  of  Columbia,  the  make  it  that permission  available  for  It  financial  is  for  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  representatives. thesis  freely  British  by  the  shall  not  requirements  reference copying of  I  agree  and this  of  thesis  copying or  be a l l o w e d  publication  without  my  Urban Land Economics , F a c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Columbia  that  study.  written permission.  Department  for  Head o f my Department: o r  understood that  gain  the  iii  ABSTRACT  This t h e s i s represents l o c a t i o n i n Greater  an e m p i r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f business  Vancouver based upon the a n a l y s i s o f the r e t u r n s  to a l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  This questionnaire  comprises  a p o r t i o n o f the H P S p r o j e c t which i s a l a r g e - s c a l e , s p e c i a l r e search  study o f the Region. The study e m p i r i c a l l y determines which  questionnaire  v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s ) i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n /  r e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D. a n a l y s i s and r e g r e s s i o n models provide  Statistical  an e m p i r i c a l data base f o r  the land use group i n t h e i r development o f models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across The  questionnaire  the Region. r e t u r n s possess l i m i t a t i o n s with r e s p e c t t o  both scope o f coverage and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  format.  A n a l y s i s i s accord-  i n g l y l i m i t e d ; suggestions are made to o b t a i n b e t t e r q u a l i t y e m p i r i c a l data i n f u t u r e The  studies.  t h e s i s d e r i v e s some g e n e r a l  i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s although  the data i s e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d i n a d e c i d e d l y context. portant  intrametropolitan  The i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s d e p i c t which v a r i a b l e s are imi n the l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s f o r each  subpopulation.  In c o n t r a s t , an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n business  loc-  a t i o n p o l i c y i n the G.V.R.D. i s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s h e r e i n . The  i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n a n a l y s i s i s j f e a s i b l e because s i z e ( i . e . number  o f employees) and l o c a t i o n are known f o r most respondents.  An empir-  i c a l s y n t h e s i s v i a some common independent v a r i a b l e s i s suggested  iv to e x i s t , a t l e a s t f o r the G.V.R.D., between i n t e r r e g i o n a l and intrametropolitan  location.  future questionnaire  This u i l l  a i d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  s t u d i e s f o r each subpopulation  r e g i o n a l or i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  at the i n t e r -  l e v e l s i n the G.V.R.D.  Eventually,  location theories of substantial empirical u t i l i t y u i l l for  each  be d e r i v e d  subpopulation. Aside from the e m p i r i c a l v a l u e ,  terms o f a n a l y t i c a l procedure. nique i s a p p l i c a b l e t o other of response s c a l e c o n s t r u c t e d The  The r e g r e s s i o n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  questionnaire  tech-  s t u d i e s where the type  i s i n question.  overview o f l o c a t i o n theory  are furthermore thought t a provide study as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t  t h i s t h e s i s i s valuable i n  and M e t r o p o l i t a n  an a p p r o p r i a t e  a substantial literary  Vancouver  background to t h i s contribution.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  Page INTRODUCTION  1  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study O b j e c t i v e s and L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study General Approach o f the Study Overview o f I n t e r r e g i o n a l L o c a t i o n Theory Subsequent Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n References II  THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND - A REVIEW OF THE LOCATION THEORY LITERATURE Introduction Economic L o c a t i o n Theory o f Urban Land Use C e n t r a l Place Theory E c o l o g i c a l T h e o r i e s o f Urban Land Use Other Theories o f Urban Land Use Summary References  III  METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AIM HISTORICAL, ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS SECTOR SYNOPSIS Introduction M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i) ii) iii)  i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii)  IV  15 15 16 20 30 33 35 36 39 39 40  Overview o f H i s t o r i c a l Development, S p a t i a l Form and S i t e Q u a l i t i e s O u t l i n e o f Land J u r i s d i c t i o n and Ownership P o p u l a t i o n and Economic Summary  Intrametropolitan i n the G.V.R.D.  1 2 5 7 12 1*+  51 51  Location o f Business Sectors 69  Offices Primary I n d u s t r i e s Manufacturing Sectors R e t a i l Trade Wholesale Trade and Storage Infrastructure F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S e r v i c e s . . .  69 70 74 82 85 88 89  Summary  91  References  92  THE PRESENT QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY Introduction The I n t e r ' S i l n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i c y (IPPS) Study  97 97 Simulator 97  vi  Chapter  Page  Questionnaire Technique An Overview o f the L o c a t i o n Survey naire Factors Summary References V  VI  101 Question-  ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA  126  Introduction S i g n i f i c a n c e A n a l y s i s o f Questionnaire Variables I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n L o c a t i o n o f Industry Subpopulations S i z e - L o c a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f Industry Subpopulations • Regression Technique Regression R e s u l t s Summary o f R e s u l t s Derived from the Data References  135 141 144 157 159  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  160  Summary Assessment o f P r o j e c t Worth and Recommendations. Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research.. BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX  108 122 123  126 131 133  ISO 162 165 167  I: II: III: IV: V:  Business S e c t o r s i n the Vancouver Metrop o l i t a n Input-Output Study.  172  Cost, P r i c e and B u i l d i n g S i z e Data Analytical  184  Supplement to Questionnaire Data.  194  Mathematical  217  Appendix  FORTRAN Data Format  224  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure  Page  1  "Weight-gaining"  2  "Weight-losing" process  3  S p a t i a l competition  12  4  Economic Rent and R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n o f Competing A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Uses  17  5  process  S 8  Economic Rent and R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n o f Competing Urban Land Uses  19  6  Consumer p r i c e / d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p  21  7  Consumer p r i c e / q u a n t i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p  22  8  The s p a t i a l demand cone  22  9  Aggregate supply and demand  23  10  Loach's three s m a l l e s t market area s i z e s  24  11  The Loschian economic landscape  25  12  C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the marketing principle C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the t r a n s p o r t principle  13  14  26 27  C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e principle  27  15  Economic r e n t and a h i e r a r c h y of c e n t r e s  28  16  Burgess  31  17  Greater Vancouver Region, 1971  18  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Administration  Harbour  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : of Land Covered by Water  Ownership  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : O f f i c e B u i l d i n g L o c a t i o n s , 1972  Principle  19 20  1  C o n c e n t r i c Ring Theory  42 46  47 0  71  vii'M  Figure 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  28  Page Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use, 1970  Actual  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : I n d u s t r i a l Areas, 1970  Zoned  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : I n d u s t r i a l Land Use, 1970  Actual  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : L o c a t i o n Determinants, 1970  Industrial  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Areas o f P o t e n t i a l Use, 1970  Industrial  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Commercial Land Use, 1970  Actual  73  78 79 80 81 83  Vancouver: E x i s t i n g Commercial Areas and Commercial Zoning with a C h r i s t a l l e r i a n Marketing Hierarchy of C e n t r a l P l a c e s , 1972 Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t :  84  Actual Civic  and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Land Use, 1970  90  29  A P r o d u c t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n System o f the G.V.R.D...  99  30  L o c a t i o n Survey  31  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t ,  102 1968: T r a v e l  Time Zones  110  32  R a i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the G.V.R.D  11^  33  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t :  34  The L o c a t i o n Code, V00S  Sea I s l a n d  116 130  ix  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page I  II III  P o p u l a t i o n o f the G.V.R.D. Compared t o B.C  52  P o p u l a t i o n o f L o c a t i o n s used i n t h i s Study.  53  Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r Vancouver Harbour, 1969 and 197D  54  IV  F o r e i g n Cargo by Commodity, i n m i l l i o n s o f t o n s .  56  V  Employment by Industry f o r Urban Areas CDDO's): Greater Vancouver Average Weekly Earnings by Industry d ' s ) : Greater Vancouver  60  VI VII VIII IX  X XI XII  Business S t r u c t u r e A n a l y s i s o f Greater Vancouver, November, 1972  64  S e l e c t e d I n d i c a t o r s o f Economic Columbia, "1961-1971  67  Activity,British  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Employment i n the Lower Mainland by Industry Group, 1951^-1981  68  Use o f I n d u s t r i a l Land - Metro Vancouver 1966...  76  Acreage o f I n d u s t r i a l Development  77  - 1966  Average Density o f I n d u s t r i a l Development and Average S i t e S i z e o f I n d u s t r i a l Firms, 1966  XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX  62  82  Subpopulation Analyzed  104  V a r i a b l e s Considered i n the S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s  127  Counterpart Q u e s t i o n n a i r e V a r i a b l e s  132  Mean BREAKDOWN o f V004, number o f employees, by V005, l o c a t i o n Mean BREAKDOWN o f V004, number o f employees, by l o c a t i o n group f o r each subpopulation  136 137  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f s e c t o r , number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s  140  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r each s e c t o r group  140  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Many i n d i v i d u a l s have helped  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  t h e s i s and i t mould be impossible to thank them a l l by name. S u f f i c e i t t D say that without  the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f the businessmen  a c t i v e l y engaged i n the economic s e c t o r s o f the Vancouver Metrop o l i t a n Input-Output Study i t c o u l d not have been completed.  My  thanks are a l s o due t o Dr. M. A. Goldberg  f a r h i s valuable  assist-  ance throughout the course o f the study.  Others o f note i n c l u d e  Dr. G. K. White, Mr. P. 3. Rnyce, Mr. S. K i t a , and Mrs. M. Brown. My g r e a t e s t debt, as always, i s t o my parents, Mr. H. E . M o r r i s and Mrs. V. A. M o r r i s . The represented  f i n a l product  o f the r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c a l study as  i n t h i s t h e s i s i s e n t i r e l y my own, and I t h e r e f o r e remain  s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any e r r o r s or o m i s s i o n s .  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION A.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study T h i s t h e s i s i s r e l a t e d to another t h e s i s e n t i t l e d The A n a l y s i s  of Manufacturing L o c a t i o n i n Greater Vancouver by G. M. Richmond.^ Although the same l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s used i n both s t u d i e s , the present study d i f f e r s i n two major r e s p e c t s : 1.  T h i s study c o n s i d e r s the major i n d u s t r y s u b p o p u l a t i o n s , i . e . r e t a i l , wholesale, f i n a n c i a l , e t c . , r a t h e r than j u s t the manufacturing p a p u l a t i o n .  2.  T h i s study u t i l i z e s the data i n a d e c i d e d l y i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n context, given t h a t some g e n e r a l i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s are d e r i v e d . The  i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s d e p i c t which v a r i a b l e s are important  i n the l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s f o r each s u b p o p u l a t i o n .  The  s i m i l a r i t y o f response between these two d e c i s i o n s i s determined with Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . approach,  The i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  i n c o n t r a s t to these r e s u l t s , i s recommended by Richmond:  " . . . i t would be worthwhile to i n c o r p o r a t e the s p a t i a l element i n t o an expanded a n a l y s i s o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s . T h e . . . a n a l y s i s o f the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e . . . ( i s motivated b y ) . . . s p a t i a l l y o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s o f l o c a t i o n w i t h i n urban areas (Goldberg, 1969). Such s t u d i e s suggest t h a t i t would be worthwhile to analyze v a r i a t i o n i n l o c a t i o n f a c t o r p r e f e r e n c e s between c e n t r a l c i t y and suburban o p e r a t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n requirements and p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the accommodation o f . . . ( s u b p o p u l a t i o n s ) . . . i n these two areas o f the city...(may) possess  2 d i s t i n c t differences...Knowledge o f the p a t t e r n s . . . i n t h i s regard would be o f r e l e v a n c e to the formul a t i o n o f . . . z o n i n g schemes to accommodate v a r i o u s types and s i z e s o f . . . ( b u s i n e s s ) . . . a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area."2 C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s provides a l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r , and avoids a m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f , the l o c a t i o n o f s u b p o p u l a t i o n s . it  i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s to develop  Although  intertemporal  q u e s t i o n n a i r e data, a n a l y s i s o f such data i s recommended t o appropr i a t e l y study  l o c a t i o n a l dynamics.  l o s s e s which would otherwise  accrue  Proper  l o c a t i o n f u r t h e r avoids  to entrepreneurs  a whole under a system o f l o c a t i o n a l i n e f f i c i e n c y .  and the c i t y as T h e r e f o r e , an  e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n p o l i c y i n the G.V.R.D. i s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s h e r e i n . Aside from the e m p i r i c a l v a l u e , t h i s t h e s i s i s a l s o o f value i n terms o f methodological  and a n a l y t i c a l procedure.  of the l o c a t i o n survey procedure and format suggested a p p l i c a b l e to business l o c a t i o n surveys t r a n s f o r m a t i o n technique  i n general.  Modifications i n the t e x t are The r e g r e s s i o n  i s a p p l i c a b l e to other q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s  where the type o f response s c a l e c o n s t r u c t e d i s i n q u e s t i o n . Furthermore, the overview o f l o c a t i o n theory and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver are thought to provide an a p p r o p r i a t e background t o t h i s study as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t - a s u b s t a n t i a l l i t e r a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n .  B.  O b j e c t i v e s and L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study T h i s study e m p i r i c a l l y determines which q u e s t i o n n a i r e  vari-  ables ( f a c t o r s ) i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D.  The l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire  comprises a p o r t i o n o f the H P S p r o j e c t which i s a l a r g e - s c a l e , s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h study o f the G.V.R.D.  The l o c a t i o n survey  question-  3 n a i r e was to be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Input-Output naire.  The l o c a t i o n survey  importance o f nineteen  question-  q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures the l e v e l o f  f a c t o r s i n a f i r m ' s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e  i n the G.V.R.D., as w e l l as a f i r m ' s h y p o t h e t i c a l d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the G.V.R.D. quests  p r e c i s e revenue/sales  The Input-Output q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e -  and expenditure  order to c o n s t r u c t an input-output  matrix.  by s p a t i a l s e c t o r i n The SIC number, s e c t o r ,  number o f employees, and s t r e e t address are known f o r both naires.  question-  Thus, wide scape f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i i p a s s i b l e with  both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Meagre response was u n f o r t u n a t e l y r e c e i v e d f o r the Input-Output questionnaire.  Presumably, f i r m s were r e l u c t a n t to d i v u l g e extremely  c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c good. survey  Thus, the l o c a t i o n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r e s e n t l y o f l i m i t e d u t i l i t y t o the economics  group. The  land use group, however, w i l l f i n d the l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire r e s u l t s u s e f u l .  T h i s group i s developing  models to  a l l o c a t e economic and r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s across the Region. Emphasis i s upon the development o f r i g o r o u s housing  models to assess  the impact o f a l l l e v e l s o f government p o l i c i e s on the supply and demand f o r r e g i o n a l housing.  However, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and  r e g r e s s i o n models o f the present  l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire  provide an e m p i r i c a l data base f o r the land use group i n t h e i r  study, develop-  ment of models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s a c r o s s the Region. The  e m p i r i c a l data base f o r t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f 300 usable  r e t u r n s o f the l o c a t i o n survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c e i v e d by February 1972.  Approximately 20 responses were unusable due to i n s u f f i c i e n t  inform-  a t i o n with r e s p e c t to answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s e c t o r number or  I*  location.  This represents  which i s q u i t e poor.  a t o t a l usable  Consequently, i n f e r e n c e s about the l o c a t i o n /  r e l o c a t i o n o f some subpopulations number o f cases f o r these The values.  usable  response r a t e o f 7.9%  are c o n s t r a i n e d  by the l i m i t e d  subpopulations.  response r a t e i s f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d by missing  Although a f e u respondents d i d not r e v e a l the number o f  employees or a t t r i b u t e importance to a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r , s e v e r a l f a i l e d to answer e i t h e r questions questionnaire. question  2.  1 or 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey  15 f a i l e d to answer question  1; 83 f a i l e d to answer  Thus complete responses, i . e . answers to both  questions  1 and 2, were only r e c e i v e d from 202 f i r m s or 67.3 per cent o f the t o t a l number o f f i r m s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s survey. format on both s i d e s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Given the s i m i l a r  i n Figure 4.II and the  l a r g e r number o f n u l l responses to question  2, i t appears t h a t s e v e r a l  respondents d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t there i s a question A major disadvantage o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  2.  i n general  i s that  there i s always some (uncertainty as t o whether scores are t r u e or merely r e p r e s e n t  some degree o f p e r c e p t i o n a l b i a s .  There are some l i m i t a t i o n s t o the present c o u l d be r e c t i f i e d to o b t a i n b e t t e r 1.  questionnaire  which  data.  T h i s study i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d because i t i s unknown when  the d e c i s i o n was made by f i r m s to l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D. 2.  I t i s unknown whether respondents a c t u a l l y i n t e n d to move.  3.  Although i t i s p o s s i b l e to i n d i r e c t l y perform  intrametro-  p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n a n a l y s i s , the importance o f the l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s at the r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l s could be f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and  compared i f a supplement to question  f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s would you please  1 s t a t e s , "For each o f the  i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance  5 in  your d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e your business i n the p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i -  p a l i t y i n the Vancouver Region." 4.  More p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of the f a c t o r s i s r e q u i r e d i n f u t u r e  studies.  For example, i s the f a c t o r "Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " used i n  the context  o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f , cost o f , Dr both?  Is the  "Availability  of l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d " r e q u i r e d f o r a l a r g e p l a n t , o n s i t e expansion, or both? From the above, i t becomes apparent that the q u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and  completeness o f the l o c a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e  l i m i t e d f o r an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  l o c a t i o n study of the G.V.R.D.  through the c o n t i n u a l "de-bugging" of t h i s and n a i r e s t u d i e s can the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s base be C.  survey i s q u i t e  subsequent  Only  question-  u t i l i t y as an e m p i r i c a l data  improved.  General Approach of the  Study  As suggested above, i t i s only p o s s i b l e to i n d i r e c t l y intrametropolitan  location analysis.  Intrametropolitan  perform  location is  concerned with choosing a l o c a t i o n w i t h i n an urban area; i n t e r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n i s concerned with choosing a l o c a t i o n from among s p a t i a l l y separate and The  heterogeneous r e g i o n s  considered  to be p o i n t s i n space.  independent v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n theory  s i d e r e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e to be i n a p p l i c a b l e to l o c a t i o n theory  con-  intrametropolitan  because these v a r i a b l e s d i s p l a y l i t t l e 3  the r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous urban environment.  are  v a r i a t i o n over  T h i s t h e s i s determines  which f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r y subpopulations to choose Metropolitan  Vancouver as a r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n .  Since  metropolitan  f i r m s i z e ( i . e . number of employees) and  the  intra-  l o c a t i o n are  known f o r most respondents, t h i s t h e s i s attempts a l i m i t e d i n t r a -  6  metropolitan is  analysis.  Thus, only one o f the f o l l o w i n g two hypothesis  operative:  1.  I n t e r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e a f i r m ' s choice o f Metro-  p o l i t a n Vancouver as a r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n .  These f a c t o r s are from  a mutually e x c l u s i v e s e t d i s j o i n t from a s e t o f i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e a f i r m ' s l o c a t i o n a l choice w i t h i n Metrop o l i t a n Vancouver. 2.  I n t e r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e a f i r m ' s choice o f Metro-  p o l i t a n Vancouver as a r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n .  Some o f these f a c t o r s can  a l s o i n f l u e n c e a f i r m ' s l o c a t i o n a l choice w i t h i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  Van-  couver. I f hypothesis 1 i s t r u e , then none o f the i n t e r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s would vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y with i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  location.  Hypothesis 1  i s f a l s e because some i n t e r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s vary with s i z e which i n t u r n v a r i e s with i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  location.  Therefore,  some i n t e r -  r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s can a l s o i n f l u e n c e a f i r m ' s l o c a t i o n a l choice Metropolitan  Vancouver.  More o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  within  variables ( i . e .  i n t e r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s ) t y p i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s due to the  g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s at the i n t e r r e g i o n a l l e v e l . An e m p i r i c a l s y n t h e s i s v i a some common independent v a r i a b l e s i s suggested to e x i s t , at l e a s t f o r the G.V.R.D., between i n t e r r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  location.  s t r u c t i o n of future questionnaire  s t u d i e s f o r each subpopulation  the i n t e r r e g i o n a l or i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n questionnaire  T h i s w i l l a i d i n the con-  l e v e l s i n the G.V.R.D.  at Further  s t u d i e s are however r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h a stronger  comparison between the same s e t o f v a r i a b l e s a t both l o c a t i o n l e v e l s .  7 D.  Overview of I n t e r r e g i o n a l L o c a t i o n a)  Least-cost  location  The  o r i g i n of l o c a t i o n theory  Theory  theory n  His theory  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to von  i s a p p l i e d to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n context  Thunen.  i n Chapter I I n  but  i t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t to the i n t e r r e g i o n a l l e v e l ,  approach i s :  von  Thunen's  given the l o c a t i o n , determine which product i s to  be  produced at t h a t l o c a t i o n . Approximately 75 years l a t e r , the Weberian l e a s t cost l o c a t i o n theory  took an opposite  viewpoint:  given the product, determine an  i n t e r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n f o r that product.  Greenhut f u r t h e r notes  that, it  "von Thunen assumes a homogeneous land s u r f a c e and one consuming c e n t r e ; Weber assumes uneven d e p o s i t s of f u e l and raw m a t e r i a l and s e v e r a l consuming c e n t r e s , though h i s geometrical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n s are framed i n terms o f a given buying p o i n t . " 5  Weber's theory  i s based upon a f i r m ' s cost m i n i m i z a t i o n  location factors: forces.  F u e l and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t , labour raw  c o s t , and  of three  basic  agglomerating  m a t e r i a l c o s t s are i n c l u d e d i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  c o s t s to s i m p l i f y the a n a l y s i s .  When t r a n s f e r c o s t s are the  only  s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a t i o n f a c t o r , the l e a s t cost t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s i t e depends upon the product c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Figure 1.1  shows t h a t a "weight  g a i n i n g " product such as s o f t d r i n k s l o c a t e near the market to minimize t r a n s p o r t  costs.  8 Figure  1.1.  "Weight-gaining" process  Transportation cost per u n i t Total transportation costs •Transportation cost of outputs  Transportation cost of i n p u t s  Locate Market  Ratmaterial Source:  here  Smith, W.F., " P r i n c i p l e s o f Urban Development," (Unpublished manuscript, 1972), p. 51a.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a product such as i r o n l o c a t e s at the source of ratm a t e r i a l , as shown i n Figure  Figure  l.II.  l . I I , due to the " w e i g h t - l o s i n g "  process.  " W e i g h t - l o s i n g " process  Transportation cost per u n i t  . |  j ----^i Total transportation costs Transportation cost of outputs  Transportation cost of i n p u t s  Raw material Source:  Market  Smith, W.F., " P r i n c i p l e s of Urban Development," (Unpublished Manuscript, 1972), p. 51a.  U n l i k e von Thunen i Weber acknowledges the r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n o f labour  c o s t s which can o f f s e t t r a n s f e r c o s t s i n the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n  of a labour  intensive firm.  Agglomerating or deglomerating f a r c e s  r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t e n s i f y or counteract p o r t a t i o n and labour labour  costs.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a n s -  Agglomeration t y p i c a l l y e x i s t s when  c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f value  added i n the pro-  d u c t i o n process because such f i r m s can reduce c o s t s by agglomerating. In g e n e r a l ,  agglomerating advantages, i . e . proximity  to a u x i l i a r y  i n d u s t r i e s , b e t t e r marketing o u t l e t s , or economics o f s i z e , the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n whenever t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and labour  influence  differentials  are s l i g h t at a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s . ^ Weber excludes . i n s t i t u t i o n a l and demand f a c t o r s , i . e . i n t e r e s t insurance,  taxes,  c l i m a t e and management, and only accepts f o r c e s  which are independent o f s p e c i f i c economic systems.  Items such as gas  7 water mains and s t r e e t s are i n c l u d e d  as l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s .  S u b s t i t u t i o n between t r a n s p o r t and non-transport cost f a c t o r s is possible.  Weber's isodapane concept i s used to determine the  optimum p l a n t l o c a t i o n when there e x i s t s p a t i a l l y d i s t i n c t and  labour  cost optima.  markets can a c c o r d i n g l y  I t i s evident  that  transport  m u l t i p l e i n p u t s or  i n f l u e n c e the l o c a t i o n o f f i r m s a t the l e a s t  Q cost p o i n t somewhere i n the Weberian polygon. Hoover, a l s o a l e a s t - c o s t t h e o r i s t , d i f f e r s from Weber i n approach r a t h e r than t h e o r y . separated  Location  cost f a c t o r s are f u n c t i o n a l l y  as e i t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r production g  f a c t o r s ; demand de-  terminants are mentioned. Transportation  c o s t s i n c l u d e the c o s t s o f p r o c u r i n g  e r i a l s and d i s t r i b u t i n g f i n i s h e d products, i a t e d with h o l d i n g  raw mat-  as w e l l as the c o s t s assoc-  l a r g e i n v e n t o r i e s and customer d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n due  to  d i s t a n c e and slow s e r v i c e .  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f r e i g h t  are o f g r e a t e r concern to Hoover than Weber.  costs  T r a n s f e r c o s t s do not  i n c r e a s e p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y with d i s t a n c e due to the r e c o g n i t i o n o f f i x e d t e r m i n a l c o s t s which vary by t r a n s p o r t mode.  Therefore, the  higher t e r m i n a l c o s t , the g r e a t e r i s the economy i n a long  distance  shipment. Hoover f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s a more comprehensive a n a l y s i s o f the agglomerating  and deglomerating  f o r c e s as w e l l as i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o s t  f a c t o r s ; a l l o f which comprise p a r t i a l determinants o f production costs.  B e t t e r t r a n s f e r s e r v i c e s , a broader more f l e x i b l e labour market,  more advanced banking f a c i l i t i e s , insurance  and u t i l i t y  b e t t e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , and lower  r a t e s c o n s t i t u t e agglomeration.  Inclusion of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s g i v e s Hoover's a n a l y s i s a c a p i t a l i s t i c  context.  Hoover's a n a l y s i s c o n s i d e r s a l l p o s s i b l e l o c a t i n g f a c t o r s r a t h e r than only general f a c t o r s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l p l a n t l o c a t i o n s .  1 1  Therefore, 12  Hoover adopts Weber's theory The  to be a p p l i e d to e x i s t i n g  situations.  g r e a t e s t weakness o f Hoover's work i s the e x c l u s i o n o f l o c a t i o n a l  interdependence (demand) to j u s t i f y a l o c a t i o n .  Rather, the l o c a t i o n  i s assumed; market and supply areas are a c c o r d i n g l y derived. "^ b) Market area a n a l y s i s 1  U n l i k e the l e a s t - c o s t t h e o r i s t s who assume l o c a t i o n under perf e c t competition,  market area a n a l y s i s assumes l o c a t i o n with s c a t t e r e d  buyers whose s e l l e r s f u n c t i o n under some form o f i m p e r f e c t  competition.  Consequently, s e l l e r s l o c a t e to c o n t r o l d i f f e r e n t groups o f buyers whose demand curve  i s not h o r i z o n t a l a t each l o c a t i o n .  The s i z e and  14  shape o f a f i r m ' s market area i s a c c o r d i n g l y  derived.  Goldberg mentions two b a s i c assumptions which u n d e r l i e market area a n a l y s i s :  "1. 2.  P r i c e s are f.o.b. m i l l p r i c e s ( i . e . quoted the f a c t o r y door.  at  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s are assumed p r o p o r t i o n a l to d i s t a n c e (there are no q u a n t i t y d i s c o u n t s on tonnage or d i s t a n c e , and there are no d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s such as occur at t r a n s f e r p o i n t s ) . " 1 5  From the above, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the market area a n a l y s t s n e g l e c t c o s t s while l e a s t c o s t t h e o r i s t s n e g l e c t demand i n t h e i r theories.  Attempts to s y n t h e s i z e these two  t h e o r i e s are made by  II  Hoover, a l e a s t c o s t t h e o r i s t , and Loach,  a market area a n a l y s t .  Hoover emphasizes c o s t s and only c o n s i d e r s demand with r e s p e c t to n  market area s i z e , shape and number of producers.  Losch does not  emphasize c o s t s but expands the market area theory with the o f the f i r m ' s minimum s i z e market area and the overview 16 agglomeration.  definition  of i n d u s t r i a l  " Losch's theory i s i n t e r r e g i o n a l yet i t i s f u r t h e r  o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  I I to provide a b a s i s f o r c e n t r a l p l a c e theory  which i s a p p l i c a b l e to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t . p r i m a r i l y concerned  I s a r d , who  is  with i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , does however provide a 17  s y n t h e s i s o f the UJeberian and market area a n a l y s i s , c)  L o c a t i o n a l interdependence  In c o n t r a s t to the market area approach which assumes f i x e d l o c a t i o n s and e s s e n t i a l l y analyzes s h o r t - r u n phenomenon, the interdependence c o s t ) or planned  locational  t h e o r i s t s hypothesize e i t h e r movable l o c a t i o n s  (without  f u t u r e l o c a t i o n s i n order to f i n d reasons f o r a  particular location.  L o c a t i o n a l interdependence  e q u i l i b r i u m a n a l y s i s i n the market area c o n t e x t . example i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s  c o n s i d e r s long-run 18 The f o l l o w i n g  theory.  A l i n e a r market i s assumed f o r s i m p l i c i t y i n F i g u r e l . I I I ; s i z e , shape and market area are e s s e n t i a l l y  ignored.  12  Figure l . I I I .  S p a t i a l competition  i  A  -BB' "  ^  An i n f i n i t e l y i n e l a s t i c demand f o r the product f i r m s t o concentrate  '  causes two competing  at the mid-point BB' o f the e n t i r e market area  r a t h e r than to d i s p e r s e to A,A .  I n f i n i t e l y i n e l a s t i c demand p r e -  1  cludes a l e s s e n i n g o f s a l e s due to i n c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s at BB'.  Therefore,  l o c a t i o n a l interdependence e x p l a i n s  o f s i m i l a r f i r m s a t a few p r o d u c t i o n area a n a l y s i s inadequately i s concentrated  centres.  concentrations  Conversely,  market  e x p l a i n s the case where (1) market demand  at a p o i n t or (2) the market areas o f f i r m s are  19 identical. Goldberg f u r t h e r notes r e f o r m u l a t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l l o c a t i o n theory by Alonso and C h u r c h i l l .  Alonso,  f o r example,  introduces  economies o f s c a l e and f a c t o r s u b s t i t u t i o n . V a r i a b l e f a c t o r p r i c e s cause v a r i a b l e f a c t o r p r o p o r t i o n s over space whence t r a n s p o r t cost 20 minimization E.  does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e with p r o f i t maximization.  Subsequent Chapter The  Organization  remainder o f t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s o f f i v e  chapters.  Chapter I I b r i e f l y reviews some o f the r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e , major t h e o r i e s which u n d e r l i e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f c e r t a i n f i r m s . The  t h i r d chapter  presents  an h i s t o r i c a l , economic and business  synopsis o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  T h i s synopsis o u t l i n e s some  t o p i c s which are r e l e v a n t t o the present a i r e study  sector,  l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n , question-  o f f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D.:  13  - h i s t o r i c a l development, s p a t i a l form and s i t e  qualities;  - land j u r i s d i c t i o n and ownership; and - p o p u l a t i o n and economic development. Very b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory of each s u b p o p u l a t i o n .  Chapter  IU c o n s i d e r s the  survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the context of the H P S  location  project.  Discussion  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e technique and the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s used  i n the  present study are a prelude to the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e data i n Chapter  V.  The  f i f t h chapter e x p l a i n s the gen-  e r a l method and summarizes the s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s of the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Chapter UI p r o v i d e s a summary o f con-  c l u s i o n s and recommendations with suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . F i v e appendices  are f u r t h e r p r e s e n t e d .  Appendix I o u t l i n e s  the business s e c t o r s i n the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Input-Output L o c a t i o n , s i z e and economic data appear i n Appendix I I . mathematical  Appendix IV  i s i n c l u d e d f o r the r e a d e r ' s  Appendix III c o n t a i n s data which i s p e r t i n e n t to Chapter d i s c u s s e s the coding of the d a t a .  Study.  A brief convenience; V.  Appendix V  F.  References  R i c h m o n d , G. M., The A n a l y s i s of Manufacturing L o c a t i o n i n Greater V/ancouver ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C: 1973). 2  I b i d . , p. 54.  ^Goldberg, M. A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : P l a n t S i z e and t h e Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1969), p. 4. ^Greenhut, M. L., Plant L o c a t i o n : In Theory and In P r a c t i c e , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a Press, 1956), pp. 8-9. 5 Loc. c i t . 6  Ibid.,  pp. 9-11.  7  I b i d . , pp. 11, 12.  G o l d b e r g , M.A., 9 8  Op. c i t . , pp. 30-32.  Greenhut, M. L., Op. c i t . , 1 D  Ibid.,  Ibid. 12 1 1  1  pp. 17, 18. p. 19.  Goldberg, M.A., 13  p. 17.  Op. c i t . , p. 33.  G r e e n h u t , M. L., Op. c i t . ,  * I b i d . , p. 23. 15 Goldberg, M.A., G r e e n h u t , M.L.,  p. 21.  lf  16  Op. c i t . , Op. c i t . ,  p. 41. pp. 34-37.  17  Goldberg, M.A.,  O p . c i t . , pp. 33-34.  Greenhut, M.L.,  Op. c i t . , p. 25.  IS  pnI b i d . , pp. 39, 40. Goldberg, M.A., Op. c i t . , 1 9  pp. 35-37.  15  CHAPTER I I  THE  THEORETICAL BACKGROUND - A REVIEW OF THE  A.  LOCATION THEORY LITERATURE  Introduction It i s d i f f i c u l t  theory  to apply  a general  intrametropolitan location  to Canadian c i t i e s due to the d i v e r s e types o f f i r m s  therein.  located  Friedmann and Alonso suggest t h a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f human  activities: " . . . . r e s u l t . . . f r o m the interdependencies t h a t g i v e form to economic space. S p a t i a l p a t t e r n s u i l l change with s h i f t s i n the s t r u c t u r e o f demand and o f prod u c t i o n , i n the l e v e l o f technology, and i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the nation.""• Since people tend to make d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s over time or i n other r e g i o n s ,  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to develop a g e n e r a l  a n t i c i p a t e s or even e x p l a i n s t h e i r behaviour.  theory  Nevertheless,  which there  are s e v e r a l broad t h e o r i e s which u n d e r l i e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory  of certain firms.  This chapter i s merely a b r i e f review o f some o f the r a t h e r extensive, theory and  major t h e o r i e s which u n d e r l i e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n  of certain firms.  other  Economic l o c a t i o n , c e n t r a l p l a c e , e c o l o g i c a l  t h e o r i e s o f urban land use are b r i e f l y summarized.  i n t e r e s t e d reader w i l l k i n d l y r e f e r t o the footnotes elucidation.  The  f o r greater  16  B.  Economic L o c a t i o n Theory o f Urban Land  The  foundations  Use  of an urban economic l o c a t i o n theory  are 2  II  a t t r i b u t a b l e to the a g r i c u l t u r a l l o c a t i o n theory o f von  Thunen.  U t i l i z i n g the b a s i c concept of a g r i c u l t u r a l l o c a t i o n , land r e n t , a theory of urban economic l o c a t i o n i s d e r i v e d . of t h i s theory,  as Nourse^ suggests,  The  principle  i s t h a t the c r i t e r i a f o r the  r a t i o n a l choice of a l o c a t i o n f o r a f i r m or residence R e s i d e n t i a l or business  feature  are  given.  l o c a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y r e s u l t s from u t i l i t y  or  p r o f i t maximization. Ricardo  f i r s t mentioned the concept of a g r i c u l t u r a l land r e n t  which i s d e f i n e d as the excess t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l l o c a t e d at the margin would be w i l l i n g to pay land,  a person l o c a t e d at the centre f o r h i s b e t t e r  von Thunen*' f u l l y developed the r e n t concept to suggest t h a t ,  c e t e r i s ) p a r i b u s , i n t e n s i t y of a g r i c u l t u r a l land use from the c e n t r a l market i n c r e a s e s due costs.  decreases as  distance  to the i n c r e a s e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  T h i s statement i s based upon the f o l l o w i n g assumptions: "1. 2.  A uniform p h y s i c a l environment; A completely commercial economy i n which the farmer was both d e s i r o u s and capable of maximizing h i s p r o f i t ;  3.  Only one means of land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and that c o s t s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to d i s t a n c e ; and  with  4.  An area i n which both market and h i n t e r l a n d were s o l e l y dependent on each other f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e (the ' i s o l a t e d s t a t e ' , as Thunen expressed i t ) . " 6  Upon examining the choice of a l t e r n a t i v e uses to which they may  put  their  land, landowners a l t e r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r combination of the f a c t o r s of production  accordingly.  The  slope of each economic rent f u n c t i o n v a r i e s  7 with the land i n q u e s t i o n .  Therefore,  Figure 2.1  shows the  17 l o c a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d uses which might a r i s e under von Thflnen's Figure 2.1  assumptions. Economic Rent and R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n Land Uses.  of Competing A g r i c u l t u r a l  Economic Rent $'s  Distance  Potatoes  Peas  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o transform theory  von Thflnen's  i n t o an urban economic model.  context,  agricultural location  I s a r d suggests t h a t , i n the urban  b i d r e n t i s determined by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : 1.  E f f e c t i v e d i s t a n c e from the c o r e .  2.  A c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the s i t e to p o t e n t i a l customers.  3.  Number, nature and l o c a t i o n s o f  k.  Proximity t o land o f complementary use or uses which both a t t r a c t customers and minimize costs.8  This l i s t  i s by no means exhaustive;  competitors.  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  example, are f u r t h e r f a c t o r s which determine b i d r e n t .  variables, for I t i s however,  beyond the scope o f t h i s study to p r e c i s e l y determine the b i d r e n t for d i f f e r e n t categories of firms.  Nevertheless,  the l o c a t i o n and r e -  l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i n the urban economic model are wrought by the f o l l o w i n g c h a i n o f events: factors The  »» b i d r e n t  «- r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n  scope o f t h i s study i s t o e m p i r i c a l l y determine which  questionnaire  v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s ) i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D. From Isard's  f a c t o r s above, i t seems i n t u i t i v e that d i f f e r e n t  18 types o f f i r m s are i n f l u e n c e d by d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s whence r e l a t i v e location.  Commercial and s e r v i c e f i r m s , f o r example, tend to maximize  t h e i r revenue i n a C.B.D. l o c a t i o n .  The f u r t h e r they l o c a t e from the  C.B.O., revenue decreases and c o s t s such as a d v e r t i s i n g i n c r e a s e t o o f f s e t decreased a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  Consequently, the b i d rent  function  of these f i r m s i s i n f l u e n c e d by the a c c e s s i b i l i t y f a c t o r i n t h e i r location decision.  The b i d rent f u n c t i o n i i f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by r e n t  per acre which decreases f a s t e r with d i s t a n c e The  from the market  centre.  slope o f the b i d r e n t f u n c t i o n i s very steep because a d v e r t i s i n g  c o s t s i n c r e a s e f a s t e r than r e n t per acre distance.  decreases with r e s p e c t to  Since net c o s t s i n c r e a s e with d i s t a n c e , g r e a t e r revenue  per square f o o t o f f l o o r space i s r e q u i r e d .  This r e q u i r e d revenue be-  comes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n as land i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r nonland i n p u t s .  After a c e r t a i n distance,  t h i s breakeven revenue i s un-  obtainable. A d i f f e r e n t b i d r e n t f u n c t i o n a r i s e s f o r manufacturing Here, t o t a l revenues are r e l a t i v e l y unchanged but t o t a l c o s t s s p a t i a l l y f o r each type o f manufacturer.  firms.  vary  Goldberg demonstrates the  t r a d e o f f s which d i f f e r e n t types o f manufacturers make, "between e x t e r n a l economies a t c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s and i n t e r n a l economies at more d i s t a n t g ones."  Since  c e r t a i n manufacturers take advantage o f i n t e r n a l  economies o f s c a l e a t p e r i p h e r a l s i t e s , the b i d rent f u n c t i o n o f manufacturing f i r m s i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t t e r than commercial and s e r v i c e firms. I t i s noted that i n a mathematical approach towards an urban economic model, Alonso only c o n s i d e r s determinant.  one o f Isard's  This i s e f f e c t i v e distance  f a c t o r s as a r e n t  from the c o r e .  Alonso assumes,  "a completely c e n t r a l i z e d c i t y . . . . O t h e r f a c t o r s , which r e l a t e to the interdependence o f business l o c a t i o n s , are too complex f o r a n a l y s i s  here."  The concept o f a b i d p r i c e curve, which, " . . . . i s  combinations o f land p r i c e s and d i s t a n c e s i s i n d i f f e r e n t , " * ' ' condenses the n o t i o n s 1  a set of  among which the i n d i v i d u a l of u t i l i t y ,  composite goods and money i n t o land c o s t and money.  land,  distance,  Consequently, the  i n d i v i d u a l chaoses the l o c a t i o n , "at which the p r i e s s t r u c t u r e touches 12 the lowest o f the b i d p r i c e curves with which i t comes i n c o n t a c t . " Figure 2.II demonstrates the competitive  equilibrium  obtained  from the b i d r e n t curves determined by v a r i o u s f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the d i f f e r e n t urban land uses. F i g u r e 2.II  Economic Rent and R e l a t i v e L o c a t i o n o f Competing Urban Land Uses.  Economic  Distance from market centre  Manufacturing  1  '  (Peripheral)  Residential Manufacturing  (Central)  Commercial and s e r v i c e f i r m s Source:  Nourse, H.O., Regional Economics, (New York: Company, 1968) p. 115.  McGraw-Hill Book  20 Therefore,  the urban economic model demonstrates the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n  of d i f f e r e n t urban land uses i n aggregate; not at the l o c a l C.  level.  C e n t r a l Place Theory I m p l i c i t i n the urban economic model i s the theory o f c e n t r a l  place.  Berry s t a t e s t h a t t h i s i s the theory o f "....the l o c a t i o n , s i z e , nature and spacing o f . . . . . c l u s t e r s o f (economic) a c t i v i t y , and i s the t h e o r e t i c a l base o f much.... "-3 M  urban a n a l y s i s . businesses.  This theory p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i e s t o r e t a i l and s e r v i c e  I t assumes t h a t i d e n t i c a l , c o s t minimizing,  uniformly  d i s t r i b u t e d customers can move i n any d i r e c t i o n over an unbounded p l a i n . In essence, the theory suggests t h a t consumers are b a s i c a l l y l a z y . For items r e q u i r e d most f r e q u e n t l y , they t r a v e l to the l o c a t i o n which r e q u i r e s the l e a s t e f f o r t t o v i s i t .  Moreover, consumers postpone l e s s  frequent purchases so t h a t o n l y a s i n g l e t r i p i s r e q u i r e d .  Berry  further states "For d i f f e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s c e n t r a l i t y t h e r e f o r e has meaning a t d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s ; i n any area a v a r i e t y o f c e n t r a l p l a c e s w i l l thus e x i s t . Businessmen l o c a t e d i n some u i l l a t t r a c t consumers on a frequent b a s i s , but only over s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . Other p l a c e s u i l l be able to provide a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f goods to much u i d e r a r e a s . The c l u s t e r s o f a c t i v i t y i n these p l a c e s vary, along u i t h the s i z e s o f the urban p l a c e s i n which the markets l o c a t e . " 1 5 The  bases o f c e n t r a l place theory are a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Losch 17  and C h r i s t a l l e r .  Berry suggests t h a t  "In C h r i s t a l l e r much o f the u n d e r l y i n g theory i s i m p l i c i t , and i t uas Losch uho, i n an independent d e r i v a t i o n , made it explicit. In each case, the theory i s developed e s s e n t i a l l y detached from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f the behavior o f r e t a i l e r s and consumers over time and i n space. Both t h e o r i s t s agree on the s p a t i a l arrangement o f s t o r e s r e q u i r e d f o r o p t i m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a s i n g l e good t o a d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n . However, t h e i r arguments diverge  s i g n i f i c a n t l y when they seek to o b t a i n l o c a t i o n s f o r many kinds o f goods considered s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , with r e s u l t s t h a t make Lflsch's "economic landscapes" more r e l e v a n t to secondary p r o d u c t i o n at i t s l a t e r marketo r i e n t e d stages, and C h r i s t a l l e r * s h i e r a r c h i e s most a p p r o p r i a t e i n a n a l y s i s of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e business i n the t e r t i a r y sector.""-"* Losch's^  a n a l y t i c approach, based on Chamberlin's economic  theory, assumes a t r i a n g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of n u c l e a t e d villages.  Producer's  l o c a t i o n i s conceived as one  agricultural  type o f  product  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F i g u r e 2 . I l l demonstrates t h a t the consumer p r i c e for  good x i n c r e a s e s l i n e a r l y with r e s p e c t to d i s t a n c e when t r a n s p o r t  c o s t s , mt,  are  Figure 2 . I l l  linear. Consumer p r i c e / d i s t a n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p  Cost p + rt p + mt P Distance m Source:  Berry, B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , M.J., 1967) p. 60.  The p r i c e t h a t a consumer pays f o r good x i f he i s l o c a t e d at m i s p + mt where m i s the number of m i l e s and t i s the t r a n s p o r t c o s t per mile.  Since a l l consumers are assumed to have equal demand f o r good x  Figure 2.IV  shows t h a t the q u a n t i t y , q l , consumed depends on the con-  sumers 's p r i c e at h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n c e .  22 F i g u r e 2.IV.  Consumer p r i c e / q u a n t i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p price p + rt  p + mt  quantity  Source:  The  B e r r y , B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J., 1967) p. 60.  demand cone i n F i g u r e 2.V  F i g u r e 2.V.  The  i s d e r i v a b l e from F i g u r e s  2.III-IV,  s p a t i a l demand cone  quantity  Source:  B e r r y , B.3.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J., 1967) p. 61.  Quantity  consumed decreases u i t h d i s t a n c e due  costs.  The  to higher  transport  area D beneath the demand cone r e p r e s e n t s the t o t a l  quantity  o f good x consumed by customers u h i c h l i v e no f u r t h e r than r m i l e s from 20 the s t o r e .  Berry s t a t e s t h a t :  "Since q u a n t i t y demanded, q, v a r i e s i n response to l e v e l o f r e t a i l p r i c e p l u s t r a n s p o r t c o s t , p + mt, D i s found  23 by i n t e g r a t i n g the f u n c t i o n q = f ( p + mt) out t o the maximum r a d i u s r , and m u l t i p l y i n g by p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y S.  Di = S (  J  h  f ( p ^ + mt)mdm  (Eq.2.1)  dB  I f t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i s repeated f o r a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t s t o r e s e l l i n g p r i c e s , p., cones o f v a r y i n g heights and maximum r a d i i m i l l r e s u l t , and d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t o t a l demand D. may be c a l c u l a t e d . I f these values o f p. and D. are p l o t t e d i n a graph and a l i n e i s f i t t e d to the r e s u l t s , an aggregate-^ demand curve D f o r the market area can be drawn." F i g u r e 2.1/1 shows t h a t a f i r m can s t i l l  remain v i a b l e with i t s s i z e  reduced from XY t o X ^ . 1  F i g u r e 2.VI.  Aggregate supply  and demand  Store p r i c e or production cost  Quantity demanded or produced  Source:  Lflsch, A., The Economics o f L o c a t i o n (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1954) p. 106.  As f i r m s e n t e r the i n d u s t r y which i s assumed to be m o n o p o l i s t i c a l l y competitive, curve  p r o f i t s are competed away t o z e r o .  0 to D  1  T h i s s h i f t s t h e demand  s i n c e an hexagonal market area i s s m a l l e r than the  c i r c u l a r market area which c i r c u m s c r i b e s i t . The hexagon s h r i n k s D  l  i s tangent to the long-run  XY and X^Y 22 radius.  1  average c o s t , LAC, curve  at Y . 1  until  Thus,  r e s p e c t i v e l y determine the maximum and minimum s h i p p i n g  Having s t a r t e d above with the lowest o r d e r good, Losch  develops  t r a d i n g areas which look l i k e v a r i o u s s i z e d hexagonal n e t s , depending on the product*  Figure 2.VII shows the r e s u l t a n t hexagonal t r a d i n g  areas each o f which c o n t a i n s 18 o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s and one village  ( b l a c k dots r e p r e s e n t a v i l l a g e ) .  Figure 2.VII.  Source:  central  Lflsch's three s m a l l e s t market area  sizes.  B e r r y , B.3.L., Geography of Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , 1967) p. 71.  The economic landscape,  shown i n F i g u r e 2.VIII, i s comprised  N.J.,  of s i x  s e c t o r s where c e n t r e s of production are scarce and s i x s e c t o r s where 23 they are f r e q u e n t .  T h i s landscape, p r e d i c a t e d upon e f f i c i e n t  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s , provides a n a l y t i c a l c o r r o b o r a t i o n of Hoyt's sector theory.  25  F i g u r e 2.VIII.  Source:  The Laschian economic  landscape.  B e r r y , B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - M a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , 1967) p. 73.  N.J.,  it  C h r i s t a l l e r takes a more i n d u c t i v e approach than Losch and with the most n a t i o n a l commodity.  begins  I t i s assumed t h a t consumers, l i v i n g 2k  on a uniform p l a i n , r e q u i r e s e v e r a l goods and s e r v i c e s .  In t h i s  r e g a r d , Berry r e l a t e s t h a t "each h i g h e s t - o r d e r s t o r e l o c a t i o n d e f i n e s a c e n t r a l p l a c e from which a l l other goods and s e r v i c e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d . But the minimum s i z e o f market area r e q u i r e d f o r support o f s u c c e s s i v e l y lower-order goods w i l l be p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s than the hexagons f o r the h i g h e s t order good. Given t h a t e x i s t i n g c e n t e r s a l r e a d y provide a l l goods,...(an e n t e r p r i s i n g businessman succeeds at a n e w ) . . . l o c a t i o n e x a c t l y at the midpoint between three of the o r i g i n a l p l a c e s . The good w i l l be one whose t h r e s h o l d market area around the neu l o c a t i o n i s a hexagon e x a c t l y equal to the hexagonal market area f o r the same good as provided by each of the three e x i s t i n g c e n t e r s . New c e n t e r s p r o v i d i n g the good may be l o c a t e d at the midpoint o f every t r i a n g l e o f three m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s , and a second network of hexagons can be drawn completely c o v e r i n g the p l a i n . A l l goods with t h r e s h o l d r e q u i r e ments g r e a t e r than hexagons of the s m a l l e r s e t and l e s s than or equal to the l a r g e r are provided e x c l u s i v e l y by the l a r g e r c e n t e r s . A l l other goods may be p r o v i d e d by both l e v e l s of c e n t e r s . 0 2 5  F i g u r e 2.IX  shows the r e s u l t a n t h i e r a r c h y of market areas and  centers  such t h a t goods are grouped i n t o o r d e r s dependent on market area sizes.  26 F i g u r e 2.IX.  Source:  C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the marketing principle.  Berry, B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , 1967) p. 65.  F i g u r e 2.IX  N.J.,  i s based on the marketing p r i n c i p l e because competing  agglomerate on the assumption that the l a r g e s t market c e n t r e s  firms  provide  a f u l l range o f d i f f e r e n t goods and s e r v i c e s . C h r i s t a l l e r f u r t h e r developed two based upon the t r a n s p o r t p r i n c i p l e and  alternative hierarchies  administrative p r i n c i p l e .  The  t r a n s p o r t p r i n c i p l e suggests t h a t a f t e r the hexagonal d i s t r i b u t i o n metropolitan  centres with corresponding  market areas i s d e r i v e d ,  of  the  next lowest c e n t r e s l o c a t e at the midpoints of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n routes which b i s e c t these m e t r o p o l i t a n market areas,  centre l o c a t i o n s and  on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r i n c i p l e . each p a i r o f m e t r o p o l i s e s politan centres.  centres.  Figure 2.X  t r a n s p o r t routes Therefore,  new  shows  i n a h i e r a r c h y based  c e n t r e s l o c a t e between  r a t h e r than l i e midway among three metro-  T h i s h i e r a r c h y maximizes the number of c e n t r e s which  l o c a t e on main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k a g e s . To enable a r e a l d e l e g a t i o n o f power, the p r i n c i p l e r e q u i r e s t h a t each higher-order  administrative  centre completely  c o n t r o l an  27 F i g u r e 2.X.  C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the t r a n s p o r t p r i n c i p l e .  Source:  B e r r y , B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J., 1967) p. 66.  adjacent  array of s i x louer-order centres.  F i g u r e 2.XI  demonstrates  the arrangement, n e s t i n g , and t r a n s p o r t routes o f a h i e r a r c h y based on 26 the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i n c i p l e . F i g u r e 2.XI.  Source:  C h r i s t a l l e r h i e r a r c h y based on the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e principle.  B e r r y , B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l Distribution, ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , 1967) p. 66.  N.J.,  Given the above overview of c e n t r a l p l a c e theory, i t i s p o s s i b l e to  extend the urban economic model so t h a t the b i d r e n t f u n c t i o n s e x i s t  u i t h i n a s p a t i a l hierarchy of centres.  Figure 2.XII demonstrates  28 t h i s extension where s i m p l i f y i n g assumptions such as uniform  transport  c o s t s are i n o p e r a t i v e . F i g u r e 2.XII.  Economic r e n t and a h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t r e s .  Economic Rent S's Metropolitan/ Regional Centre  \ |W i  1  ! i i  . Source:  Reg.Shopping Centre  Neighborhood Centre 1  1  I  !  i i  1  «  i  i^T i  i  !  i I  8 5  i I  I  •  !  !  i  —i  i  i  Nourse, H.O., Regional Economics, (New Book Company, 1968) p. 120. C e n t r a l place theory  and  V Satelite  !  i t s extensions  v.  City*  FY-  i !  York:  r  McGraw-Hill  f u r t h e r enable e f f i c i e n t  l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s of B e r v i c e and r e t a i l f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as understanding  an  of urban s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e i l l y , f o r example  developed laws o f r e t a i l g r a v i t a t i o n which suggest t h a t the trade boundary between two  towns X and Y,  k i l o m e t r e s between X and 1  i s , i n k i l o m e t r e s from Y, equal t o :  Y  aize of"x V size of Y  +  Good s u r r o g a t e s  (Eq.2.2)  f o r s i z e are p o p u l a t i o n or number o f c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n s .  Eq. 2.2  a p p l i e s only to c i t i e s , l a r g e r r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s , and  areas.  Eq. 2.3,  metropolitan  area  an a l t e r n a t i v e equation  to Eq. 2.2,  r e g i o n s because an absolute breaking  rural  i s required for  p o i n t does not  exist.  where:  P.,:s p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a consumer l o c a t e d at A w i l l centre 1.  visit  r:  the number o f d i f f e r e n t shopping o p p o r t u n i t i e s  5.:  the s i z e o f a p a r t i c u l a r shopping o p p o r t u n i t y  T^:  t r a v e l time from A t o a shopping o p p o r t u n i t y o f s i z e S ^ c  Ai= i oc: a parameter which v a r i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the hierarchy.  P  0  Thus, Eq. 2.3 enables the computation o f s p a t i a l p r o b a b i l i t y curves f o r 27 v i s i t i n g a given metropolitan Although  centre.  c e n t r a l place theory provides some t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s  f o r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory, i n p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e and r e t a i l f i r m s , some c r i t i c i s m i s i n o r d e r .  E s s e n t i a l l y , much o f the c r i t i c i s m  of c e n t r a l p l a c e and other t h e o r i e s i n t h i s chapter, stems from t h e i r a p r i o r i reasoning.  Conclusions  are v a l i d to the extent t h a t the  assumptions are c o r r e c t ; many o f the assumptions, which seem i n t u i t i v e l y a p p e a l i n g , are o v e r s i m p l i f i e d . I s a r d suggests  Losch only c o n s i d e r s p r o d u c t i o n s i t e s which do  not r e q u i r e raw m a t e r i a l s , i . e . s e r v i c e f i r m s , or e x i s t i n an e n v i r o n ment where raw m a t e r i a l s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t equal c o s t s .  The 28  r e a l i s t i c a f f e c t o f s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n s i n input costs i s ignored. Vance f u r t h e r notes s e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s , some o f which are reproduced here: "1. 2.  I t s e x i s t e n c e i s an outgrowth o f an a r e a l l y based support w i t h i n which r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t s p a t i a l economies must be assumed. " R e t a i l g r a v i t a t i o n " i s the main f o r c e shaping s e t t l e -  3D ment p a t t e r n s .  D.  3.  T h i s g r a v i t a t i o n i s shaped by customer convenience, with d i s t a n c e b u i l t i n t o the system i n terms o f a time-and-cost f a c t o r t h a t determines d e c i s i o n s customers make about the " c e n t r a l p l a c e " they m i l l visit.  4.  Expansion i n the system comes from growth i n consumption, r a t h e r than p r o d u c t i o n . Thus, growth i s d i s p e r s e d and must be focused through r e t a i l g r a v i t a t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e t o b r i n g about change.  5.  In c e n t r a l - p l a c e theory there i s the b a s i c assumption t h a t the customer goes t o t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e and, f o r t h a t reason, access t o goods and s e r v i c e s can be seen i n terms o f the w i l l i n g n e s s o f persons t o move over a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e . W i l l i n g n e s s i s measured by d i s t a n c e not t i m e .  6.  The expression o f change i s mechanistic r a t h e r than v a r i a b l e , and i t does not comprehend d i f f e r e n c e s i n human behavior or s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s , e i t h e r e x i s t i n g or h i s t o r i c a l .  7.  Thus, the r o l e o f the entrepreneur i s m i s s i n g from central-place theory. Furthermore, the c e n t r a l - p l a c e s t r u c t u r e i s p r e d i c a t e d upon a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e d system with the c o n s t r a i n t s i t i n t r o d u c e s . Notable among these i s the i n h i b i t i o n o f i n n o v a t i o n i n goods and demands.  8.  I t i s not i l l o g i c a l , o r a g a i n s t a c t u a l experience i n some p l a c e s , t o argue f o r a c e n t r a l - p l a c e model. I t i s , however, both u n j u s t i f i e d and unsupported t o argue f o r the model as a t i m e l e s s u n i v e r s a l r a t h e r than an h i s t o r i c a l l y r e l e v a n t s p e c i a l case."29  E c o l o g i c a l Theories  o f Urban Land Use  A l t e r n a t i v e formulations  derive a concentric l o c a t i o n pattern  o f d i f f e r e n t urban land uses s i m i l a r t o the above urban economic model. Burgess,  3 0  i n h i s study o f the e c o l o g i c a l processes  i n Chicago, developed  a theory o f " i n v a s i o n and s u c c e s s i o n " i n urban land use change.  This  change i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the degree to which land i s u t i l i z e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial or i n d u s t r i a l  activities.  F i g u r e 2.IV/ shouts Burgess centric  1  view o f the c i t y i n f i v e con  zones.  F i g u r e 2.IV. Burgess' C o n c e n t r i c Ring Theory  The f i r s t  zone i s the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t  (C.B.D.).  The second  i s the t r a n s i t i o n a l zone where o l d e r p r i v a t e houses are e i t h e r i n the process o f being usurped by o f f i c e s and l i g h t i n d u s t r y , o r being s u b d i v i d e d t o form s m a l l e r d w e l l i n g u n i t s .  People i n t h i s zone  e i t h e r i n poor housing or i n the h i g h e r c l a s s e d high r i s e In the t h i r d zone are the independent working men's homes.  live  apartments. These  l a b o u r e r s l e f t the d e t e r i o r a t i n g t r a n s i t i o n zone t o l i v e i n an area a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e i r work. apartment  The r e s i d e n t i a l zone c o n s i s t s o f q u a l i t y  and duplex accommodation, as w e l l as e x c l u s i v e d i s t r i c t s o f  single family dwellings.  The commuter zone, w i t h i n one hour from the  C.B.D., c o n s i s t s o f people from both i n n e r and o u t l y i n g a r e a s .  This  zone i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e s i d e n t i a l , i t s i n h a b i t a n t s t r a d e o f f commuting costs f o r e c o l o g i c a l amenities. Growth depends upon the expansion o f p o p u l a t i o n and the economy 32 each zone invades the adjacent outer zone.  Colby  suggests t h a t  c e n t r i f u g a l and patterns.  c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s cause changes i n urban land  C e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s , i . e . higher  land costs,  use  increased  congestion,  e t c . , compel c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s to migrate outward from  the C.8.D.  Conversely, c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s , i . e . a c c e s s i b i l i t y  i n p u t s , p r o f i t a b i l i t y , e t c . , a t t r a c t other These f o r c e s cause movement and process of " i n v a s i o n and " i n v a s i o n " process, inward m i g r a t i o n  i n t e r a c t i o n between zones whence the  succession"  o f urban land use  of c e r t a i n functions. "invasion" process.  cause an outward m i g r a t i o n patterns  f u n c t i o n s toward the C.B.D.  evolves.  The  caused by c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s , commences with  the aftermath o f the  land use  to  The  "succession"  an  process i s  Hers, c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e s  of c e r t a i n functions.  Therefore,  urban  c o n t i n u a l l y change under the process o f " i n v a s i o n  and  succession". Burgess' model ignores  topography and  transportation  routes.  Moreover, t h i s i s a model of a completely l e v e l c i t y with equal ibility  access-  in a l l directions. Hoyt's " 3  5  s e c t o r theory  because i t c o n s i d e r s ation corridors.  i s a refinement over Burgess  the growth o f s i m i l a r land uses along  The  s e c t o r theory  uses although extensions to other  1  theory  transport-  a p p l i e s mainly to r e s i d e n t i a l land  land uses are c o n c e i v a b l e .  Insofar  as r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d uses are beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , the location of residences The  s e c t o r theory  i n f l u e n c e s where v a r i o u s f i r m s cannot l o c a t e .  suggests t h a t :  1.  The c i t y i s c i r c u l a r with d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l areas appearing as wedge shaped s e c t o r s which r a d i a t e outward from the C.B.D. and  2.  High p r i c e d areas tend over time to move outward to the periphery of a given s e c t o r .  T h i s i s based on the f o l l o w i n g assumptions:  33  "1.  The v a r i o u s groups i n the s o c i a l order tend to be segregated i n t o r a t h e r d e f i n i t e areas a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r incomes and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s .  2.  The h i g h e s t income groups l i v e i n the houses which command h i g h e s t p r i c e s and r e n t s , while the lower income groups l i v e i n houses which are o f f e r e d f o r the lower p r i c e s and r e n t s .  3.  The p r i n c i p a l growth o f American c i t i e s has taken place by new b u i l d i n g at the periphery r a t h e r than the r e b u i l d i n g o f o l d e r areas."34  Hoyt r e l a t e s t h a t over time as the houses d e t e r i o r a t e the upper income people seek neu housing.  They must move f u r t h e r away from the c i t y  i n order t o o b t a i n a v a i l a b l e b u i l d i n g space f o r a neu home.  As they  move, t h e i r o l d homes become occupied by l o u e r income p e o p l e .  Eventually  the whole neighbourhood changes. T h i s process o f upper income people moving touards the p e r i p h e r y and l o u e r income groups moving i n t o the o l d homes o f the upper people i s c a l l e d the " f i l t e r i n g " p r o c e s s . process a r e :  income  Some causes o f the " f i l t e r i n g "  d e t e r i o r a t i o n with age, outdated s t y l e , and a g e n e r a l  d e c l i n e i n the neighbourhood's c h a r a c t e r .  Since m o b i l i t y i s a major  35 contingency o f the " f i l t e r i n g " p r o c e s s ,  Hoyt's s e c t o r theory i s over-  simplified. E.  Other T h e o r i e s o f Urban Land Use  P a r a l l e l t o the development o f the l i t e r a t u r e i n e c o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f urban land use uere the l a n d economists o f the 1920's.  The  most n o t a b l e , Haig, suggests t h a t l o c a t i o n r e s u l t s from the t r a d e o f f betueen the l i m i t e d complementarity o f r e n t and the s a v i n g o f t r a n s p o r t c o s t s so as t o maximize a c c e s s i b i l i t y . complementary  These two c o s t items are only  to a degree because t h e i r sum v a r i e s with the s i t e .  3 6  T h e r e f o r e , the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n o f a m e t r o p o l i s , "••.tends t o be determined by a p r i n c i p l e which may be termed the minimizing o f the  costs of f r i c t i o n . " i s not c o n s i d e r e d .  Haig's argument i s c r i t i c i z e d because s i t e Everyone could minimize the c o s t s of  size  friction  and maximize a c c e s s i b i l i t y with the purchase o f a s m a l l l o t i n a very dense c i t y c e n t r e .  Moreover, f i r m s such as r e t a i l e r s ,  tradeoff  s a l e s volume with c o s t s o f f r i c t i o n r a t h e r than merely minimize c o s t s of f r i c t i o n .  Therefore,  minimizing  the  the c o s t s o f f r i c t i o n i s  a s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i o n f o r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n only i f a l l 38 other  c o s t s are assumed to be h e l d  equal.  H a r r i s and Ullman improved upon the s i n g l e centre  assumption  of Burgess' and Hoyt's t h e o r i e s by c o n s i d e r i n g the p r o p e n s i t y  for  v a r i o u s land uses to c l u s t e r about s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t n u c l e i throughout the c i t y .  These n u c l e i develop due  to topography, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , the  interdependency o f v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n 39 supporting  f u n c t i o n s at a given  nucleus.  Ulendt, R a t c l i f f and Dingo make f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e o r i e s o f urban land use.  the  Uendt c r i t i c i z e s the s i m p l i s t i c approach  o f Haig, i . e . a s i n g l e c e n t r e , and o f f e r s a " k i t c h e n s i n k " t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r the aggregate value o f urban l a n d . discounted  aggregate income.  Therefore,  Aggregate value  Ulendt's  theory  deals  i s the with  c y c l i c a l changes i n aggregate land values r a t h e r than the s t a t i c e q u i l i b r i u m and v a r i a t i o n s of i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n land values at one , *.* k0 i n time. R a t c l i f f provides use  succession".  a theory o f urban dynamics based on  point  "land  He s t a t e s t h a t , "...redevelopment...(or development)  . . . i s j u s t i f i e d i f the present c a p i t a l c o s t of the new of the e x i s t i n g property  value of the new  e n t e r p r i s e l e s s the  improvement i s g r e a t e r than the present kl i n o r i g i n a l form."  c o n s i s t e n t with the n o t i o n of competition,  value  This decision c r i t e r i o n suggests t h a t l o c a t i o n /  35  r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s r e s u l t from the p r o p e n s i t y  o f one use t o o u t b i d  another. Ulingo developed an e x p l i c i t mathematical model o f the r e s i d e n t i a l land market founded upon t r a f f i c a n a l y s i s and the t h e o r i e s of land economists.  Rents and t r a n s p o r t c o s t s are complementary,  summing t o the t r a n s p o r t c o s t s o f the most p e r i p h e r a l s i t e .  Transport  c o s t s i n c o r p o r a t e the d o l l a r value o f commuting time based on the marginal value o f l e i s u r e time.  Therefore,  Ulingo's model p a r a l l e l s  n  von Thunen's a g r i c u l t u r a l model. F.  Summary T h i s chapter  i s a b r i e f review o f some major t h e o r i e s which  u n d e r l i e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f c e r t a i n f i r m s . Although these t h e o r i e s o f f e r some e x p l a n a t i o n  o f the urban l a n d use  of c e r t a i n f i r m s , they are too g e n e r a l and inadequate to s p e c i f i c a l l y apply t o a given m e t r o p o l i t a n a p r i o r i reasoning  region.  T h e i r inadequacy r e s u l t s from  and over s i m p l i f i e d assumptions whence a form o f  g e n e r a l i t y couched i n terms o f i m p r e c i s i o n .  Therefore,  the scope o f  t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e m p i r i c a l l y determine which q u e s t i o n n a i r e  variables  ( f a c t o r s ) i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n behaviour o f v a r i o u s f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D. metropolitan  The next chapter  considers  Vancouver i n an h i s t o r i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l context  which  i s r e l e v a n t t o the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f i r m c a t e g o r i e s located therein. category.  T h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d with an overview o f each f i r m  36  G.  References  ""Triedmann, J . and Alonso, UJ., Regional Development (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964), p. 2.  and Planning  v o n Thflnen, J.H., Per i s o l l e r t e Staat i n Beziehung auf L a n d w i r t s c h a f t und W a t i o n a l ~ k o n o m i e , V o l . I, (Hamburg, 1626). 2  ^Nourse, H.Q., Regional Economics, (New York: Book Company, 1968), p. 1.  McGraw-Hill  R i c a r d o , D., P r i n c i p l e s o f P o l i t i c a l Economy and T a x a t i o n , "On Rent", (London: J . M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1911), pp. 33-41. 5  n von Thunen, J . H., as summarized by Gregor, H. F., ed., Geography o f A g r i c u l t u r e : Themes In Research, (Englawood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1970), pp. 57-68. 6  I b l d . , p. 57.  7  I b i d . , pp. 57-68.  N.J.:  g I s a r d , Ul., L o c a t i o n and Space Economy, (New York: John Uliley and Sons, Inc., 1956), p. 200. g Goldberg, M. A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : Plant S i z e and the Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , 1969), p. 96. ""^Alonso, Ul., L o c a t i o n and Land Use, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 44. 1 1  I b i d . , p. 71.  1 2  I b i d . , p. 72.  B e r r y , B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1967), p. 3. 1 3  ^Loc. 1 5  Loc.  cit. cit.  ^ L f l s c h , A., Die raumliche Ordnung F i s c h e r , 1941).  der U l i r t s c h a f t ,  (Jena:  37  n  17  (Jena:  C h r i s t a l l e r , Ul., Die z e n t r a l e n Orte In Suddeutschland, F i s c h e r , 1933). in  Berry, B.J.L., Op. c i t . , p. 59-60. T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y Edwin von Boventer's c o n c l u s i o n i n "Towards a U n i f i e d Theory o f S p a t i a l Economic S t r u c t u r e , " Papers o f the R e g i o n a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 10 (1962), pp. 163-87. 19  n  Losch, A., The Economics o f L o c a t i o n , (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954). 20 B e r r y , B. J . L., Op. c i t . , pp. 60-61. 2 1  I b i d . , p. 61.  22  II  Losch, A., The Economics o f L o c a t i o n , (New U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954), pp. 105-108. 2 3  Haven, Yale  B e r r y , B. J . L., Op. c i t . , pp. 68-73.  **von Boventer, E., "Toward a u n i f i e d theory o f s p a t i a l economic s t r u c t u r e , " Papers and Proceedings o f the R e g i o n a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 10: 1963, pp. 168-172. 2  25 Berry, B. J . L., Op. c i t . , p. 64. 26 B e r r y , B. J . L., Dp. c i t . , pp. 63-68. 2 7  Ibid.  t  pp. 40-42, 128.  2B I s a r d , Ul., L o c a t i o n and Space Economy, (Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1956), p. 274. Vance, J . E., The Merchant's Ulorld: The Geography o f Ulhole" ) , pp.140-142. pp.:" (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e - H a l l , * Inc., 1970),  saling,  B u r g e s s , E.UI., "The Growth o f the C i t y " , Park, R.E. e t . a l . ( e d s . ) , The C i t y , (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1925), pp. 47-62. 3 D  ^ J o h n s o n , J . H., Urban Geography: (Oxford, Permagon P r e s s , 1966), p. 163. 3  An I n t r o d u c t o r y  Analysis,  32 Colby, C.C., C e n t r i f u g a l and C e n t r i p e t a l Forces i n Urban Geography from Mayer and Kohn's Readings i n Urban Geography, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959), p. 287.  38  H o y t , H. and Uleimer, E.UI., R e a l E s t a t e , (Neu York: Ronald Press Co., 1966), pp. 292-293. 3 3  3 f f  The  I b i d . , pp. 293.  3 5  I b i d . , pp. 292-294, 5DQ-5Q1.  3 6  A l o n s o , Ul., Op. c i t . , pp. 6-7.  37 Haig, R.M., "Touard an Understanding o f the M e t r o p o l i s , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics, V o l . 40 (May 1926) pp. 421-423. As quoted i n Alonso, Ul., I b i d . , p. 7. 38 Alonso, Ul., Op. c i t . , pp. 7-8. 39  H a r r i s , C C . and Ullman, E.L., "The Nature o f C i t i e s " i n Mayer, H.M. and Kohn, C F . ( e d s . ) , Readings i n Urban Geography, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1959), pp. 277-286. 40 Ulendt, P.F., "Theory o f Urban Land Values," J o u r n a l o f Land Economics, V o l . 33, (August 1957), pp. 228-240. Ul  R a t c l i f f , R.U., Real E s t a t e A n a l y s i s . (London: Book Co., Inc., 1961) p. 132. 42 Alonso, Ul., Op. c i t . , p. 15.  McGrau-Hill  39  CHAPTER  III  METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER - AIM HISTORICAL, ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS SECTOR SYNOPSIS  A.  Introduction T h i s chapter presents an h i s t o r i c a l , economic and business  s e c t o r s y n o p s i s o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. tended  T h i s synopsis i s only i n -  to o u t l i n e some t o p i c s which are r e l e v a n t to the present  location/  r e l o c a t i o n , q u e s t i o n n a i r e study of f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D. I t i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s to develop these t o p i c s i n d e t a i l . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms of: - h i s t o r i c a l development, s p a t i a l form and s i t e  qualities;  - l a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n and ownership; and - p o p u l a t i o n and economic development. Although these are very broad t o p i c s , a b r i e f summary provides some understanding study.  o f the study area o f t h i s i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n  Furthermore,  the g e n e r a l i z e d l o c a t i o n a l response  o f business  s e c t o r s to the study area i s o u t l i n e d f o r each f i r m c a t e g o r y .  Very  brief  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f each category; a map and the area of each category i s presented where feasible.  40 B.  Metrc-politan Vancouver Overview of H i s t o r i c a l Development, S p a t i a l Form and Qualities a)  Site  H i s t o r i c a l development  The beginnings  of Vancouver came i n 1884  with the extension of  the C.P.R. to the town of G r a n v i l l e , an area h i g h l y s u i t e d f o r a deepsea port.  Vancouver was  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1886;  the f i r s t t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  t r a i n a r r i v e d one year l a t e r , and the boom commenced. reached  some 13,000 people by 1890.  and G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s .  East of Cambie S t r e e t and north of Hastings  By 1900,  and 1910,  and Vancouver  and p o r t c e n t r e .  Between  s t r e e t c a r and other i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a c c e l e r a t e d growth to  a p o p u l a t i o n o f 100,000 people. By 1915,  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  the p o p u l a t i o n doubled  became an e s t a b l i s h e d lumber manufacturing 1900  population  A port f l o u r i s h e d between Cambie  S t r e e t , the o r i g i n a l r e t a i l and o f f i c e centre was area known as Gastown.  The  F i s h i n g became an important  industry.  some p a r t s of B.C.'s i n t e r i o r were s t i l l q u i t e remote to  Vancouver; d i r e c t r a i l and improved road l i n k s i n t o the Caribou and Peace River came i n the 1950's.*  Siemens r e l a t e s t h a t Vancouver,  "...experienced economic ups and downs i n the war and interwar years, with commensurate a c c e l e r a t i o n and d e c e l e r a t i o n o f expansion i n the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s of the c i t y and i n i n - m i g r a t i o n . World War II and the post-war years saw a renewal of i n d u s t r y and t r a d e , as w e l l as major s h i f t s i n the c i t y ' s f u n c t i o n a l zonation and a r a p i d a r e a l expansion. Industry moved beyond the o l d i n d u s t r i a l areas around B u r r a r d I n l e t and False Creek to the North Shore and the north arm of the F r a s e r and eastward along the Great Northern and Canadian N a t i o n a l t r a c k s . Suburbanization became "sprawl," and u n s i g h t l y "ribbon developments" extended along the main roads out of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area."2 b$ S p a t i a l form Concommitant with Vancouver's r a p i d growth has been i t s i n t e g r a t i o n with the surrounding, as New  Westminister.  low d e n s i t y , nucleated settlements  such  The broad t h e o r i e s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I are  kl  e i t h e r too g e n e r a l or o f an h i s t o r i c a l nature, and inadequately e x p l a i n the r e s u l t a n t s p a t i a l form.  Hardwick d e s c r i b e s the present  s p a t i a l form o f m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver as two c o n c e n t r i c r i n g s -hereby: "The centre r i n g i s a r a d i a l l y organized c i t y focused on the t r a d i t i o n a l c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . The outer r i n g i s a c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l y - o r g a n i z e d urbanized area made up o f a s e r i e s o f i n t e r c o n n e c t e d communities and uiork-places. Although some i n t e r a c t i o n takes place along the i n t e r f a c e between the tuo systems, there i s ^ more i n t e r a c t i o n u i t h i n the systems than betueen them." T h i s " c o r e - r i n g " form i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the r e g i o n ' s unique s i t e qualities. F i g u r e 3.1 shous the 20 minute isochrone u h i c h forms the boundary betueen the c e n t r a l and p e r i p h e r a l system.  The c e n t r a l system con-  s i s t s o f Vancouver, West Vancouver and a r e s i d e n t i a l p o r t i o n o f North Vancouver d i s t r i c t  (not c i t y ) .  Since the urban models o f the 1920's  i n f l u e n c e d Vancouver's zoning, Vancouver has r e s i d e n t i a l areas p r o j e c t e d upon a m o d i f i e d c o n c e n t r i c r i n g p a t t e r n o f c e n t r a l l a n d uses. Harduick  states that: " . . . . O f f i c e touers dominate the u a t e r f r o n t - f a c i n g C.B.D. and h i g h - r i s e apartments croud the adjacent West End. Surrounding t h i s c e n t r a l area i s a zone o f t r a n s i t i o n where w a t e r f r o n t , warehouse, and i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n s are being phased out. Beyond t h i s zone, apartments and converted homes provide a l a r g e inner c i t y housing area, t e s t i f y i n g to the e x i s t e n c e o f a f i l t e r i n g process i n past decades. T h i s h i g h - d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l zone blends i n t o the o l d suburban s i n g l e f a m i l y areas, where, as i n many c i t i e s that expanded r a p i d l y i n the 1920's, there are s o c i a l l y - s e g r e g a t e d neighbourhoods organized along s t r e e t c a r r i b b o n s . " 5  The northern component o f the c e n t r a l system c o n s i s t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l commuters who l i v e w i t h i n 6 m i l e s o f the C.B.D."' The p e r i p h e r a l system, with i t s d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n c l u d e s the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f New Westminister,  settlement,  Coquitlam,  Surrey,  Coast Mountains Grouse  Mtn. Major s i n g l e areas  family  Rurban Surrey Upland Main Apartment Areas J Main I n d u s t r i a l Areas CBDs and Major Shopping Centers  •  Main P u b l i c Open Space Non-urban Uses - A g r i c u l t u r a l and Forest Lano]  •  Freeway and a r t e r i a l s 20 minute CBD Isochrohi •Core-Ring Model"  r—i —' r—I —' Figure Source:  Harduick, W.G., "Vancouver: the Emergence o f a Core'Ring' Urban P a t t e r n " i n Geographical Approaches to Canadian Problems, G e n t l i c o r e , R.L., (ed.), (Scarborough, Ont.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1971) pp. 113. 1  1  3.1  Central Radially-Organi z e d System P e r i p h e r a l Circumferent-f i a l l y - O r g a n i z e d System  Greater Vancouver Region, 1971.  43  and  Rmnd., and l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f Burnaby and D e l t a .  Harduick suggests  that, "...The p e r i p h e r a l system i s p o l y - n u c l e a t e d , i n t e r connected by a u e l l developed system o f freeways, a r t e r i a l roads, r a i l w a y s , and navigable waterways. As suggested by the " c o r e - r i n g " model, more r e s i d e n t s f i n d employment, shopping, and r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h i s system,than w i t h i n the Vancouver C.B.D.o r i e n t e d system... The recent expansion o f p o p u l a t i o n i n the p e r i p h e r a l r i n g i s r e l a t e d to growth o f l o c a l economic a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than to growth i n the core city. The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f freeways has improved access between r e s i d e n t i a l areas, work, and shopping w i t h i n the outer m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , but because the freeways stop at the borders o f Vancouver i n t e r a c t i o n with the core system i s r e s t r i c t e d . " 8 In summary, the managerial, p r o f e s s i o n a l , c l e r i c a l and s e r v i c e occupations  c h a r a c t e r i z e the c e n t r a l system; some i n d u s t r i a l and wholesale  f i r m s are moving t o the p e r i p h e r a l system. and  Regional shopping  centres  r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , a l s o f u l f i l l the g  needs o f p e r i p h e r a l neighbourhoods. Metropolitan ities  i n Greater  Vancouver i s comprised o f a l l fourteen  municipal-  Vancouver as w e l l as the e l e c t o r a l areas o f the  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, Ioco-Buntzen, and Bowen I s l a n d . Vancouver m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e :  The Greater  Vancouver, Burnaby, New Westminister,  North Vancouver C i t y and D i s t r i c t , West Vancouver, Coquitlam,  Port  Coquitlam, Port Moody, Richmond, Surrey, White Rock, D e l t a , l_ions Bay. Metropolitan  Vancouver and the Greater  Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t  (G.V.R.D.) are both the same g e o g r a p h i c a l  areas by d e f i n i t i o n .  However,  the G.V.R.D. a l s o r e f e r s t o the r e g i o n a l government whose domain i s M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. c) S i t e Q u a l i t i e s Metropolitan  Vancouver, s i t u a t e d at the western end o f the  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , i s l o c a t e d i n the southwest corner  o f the B r i t i s h  Columbia mainland.  metropolitan  Vancouver " . . . i s the t h i r d l a r g e s t  44  area i n Canada encompassing...(approximately)...half o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f over 2 , • • • , 0 0 0 . H e r e ,  "...the Lower F r a s e r  a f f o r d s a r e l a t i v e l y easy route way through the coast  valley  batholith,  and v i r t u a l l y the only p a r t o f the coast with a c l i m a t e , topography and s o i l s conducive to i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l and urban  development.""^  Stager and W a l l i s suggest t h a t t h i s c l i m a t e i s r e l a t i v e l y m i l d with a "...mean annual temperature...around 50°F.  I t may be one or two 12  degrees higher i n and around M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver...." Vancouver has at l e a s t 200 f r o s t f r e e days. of  Greater  However, the v a r i a b i l i t y  f r o s t i s a p a r t i c u l a r concern o f farmers because i t i s u n c e r t a i n  p r e c i s e l y when the l a s t s p r i n g f r o s t i s o v e r .  Compared t o other  Canadian urban areas, the r e g i o n i s a r a t h e r wet c l i m a t e with great spatial variability i n i t s precipitation l e v e l s . ^  Examples  of yearly  precipitation levels are: "Ladner 36", Vancouver A i r p o r t 41", Vancouver Dunbar 52", Vancouver C i t y 60", Cypress Park (West Vancouver) 67", H o l l y b u r n Ridge 113"."1** I t i s noted t h a t most o f the p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s  as r a i n ; only about  5% f a l l s as snow.''""' The topography o f the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s q u i t e f l a t with l e s s than 500 f e e t o f r e l i e f i n most a r e a s . ^  T h i s p l a i n , which o f t e n  r e q u i r e s dyking, i s s u b j e c t t o p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g i n s e v e r a l areas  l7 and poses a c o n s t r a i n t on p o t e n t i a l u s e s . the  The r e g i o n i s bounded to  north by the Coast Mountain Range and to the southeast by the Cascade  Mountains.  E l e v a t i o n s o f 3,000 t o 4,000 f e e t are common i n the 18  mountainous  areas.  A further topographic feature of Metropolitan  Vancouver i s i t s i c e - f r e e , n a t u r a l harbour.  T h i s harbour i s r e a d i l y  a c c e s s i b l e t o the P a c i f i c Ocean y e t s h e l t e r e d from open waters by Vancouver  Island.  Although about one-half of the V a l l e y has good s o i l f o r 19 agriculture  , Winter s t a t e s t h a t , "...an unfortunate  t r u t h about the  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s t h a t i t has no r e a l l y f i r s t - c l a s s  agricultural  2D soils."  S o i l foundation  c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y important  urban areas, are d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s O u t l i n e of Land J u r i s d i c t i o n and a)  for  chapter. Ownership  Land j u r i s d i c t i o n  Given the above overview of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver's h i s t o r i c a l  development, s p a t i a l form and unique s i t e q u a l i t i e s , a b r i e f review of the j u r i s d c i t i o n and  ownership of the port and  dry land i s r e q u i r e d .  F i g u r e 3.II shows the three f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which c e r t a i n waterways i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. on the nature  administrate  C o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d depends  of ownership of the l a n d covered  by water (Figure 3 . I I I ) .  N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (N.H.B.) e x e r t the s t r o n g e s t c o n t r o l over the inner harbour.  T h i s i s because i t s ownership of the ocean f l o o r  c o n t r o l of s h i p p i n g and n a v i g a t i o n enables lands f o r a given use.  t h i s Board to lease  and  these  In those waterways where the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-  ment or p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s own  the sea, r i v e r bottom or  F e d e r a l c o n t r o l i s lessened because the p r e c i s e nature 21 d i c i t i o n i s not c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  two  foreshore; of t h i s  juris-  Harbour Commissions  r e c e i v e minimal i n t e r f e r e n c e from the N.H.B. because they c o n s i s t e n t l y provide a p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n . the P r o v i n c i a l Government who  Moreover, there i s cooperation  provide t h e i r water lands and  a  with  share  of the revenue i n r e t u r n f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r harbour jurisdiction.  Two  f a c t o r s f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t e to the Harbour Commission'  success: 1. 2.  The p r o f i t motive c r e a t e s an e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n . C o n s t r a i n t s and c o n t i n g e n c i e s are d e a l t with e f f e c t i v e l y because s e v e r a l of the commissioners are l o c a l l y based members.22  Figure 3.II,  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Administration.  Harbour  CD*  I  Fras«r River Vtabour CommCsston NortY* FrfcS**" Harbour Commissioners  N  National  Harbours Board  o Source:  1  £ 3  Griggs, N.J.F., Urban Grouith and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s i n Port Development: A Case Study, Vancouver, B.C. (Unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C.: 1967) p. 197.  k7 Figure  3.Ill  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : of Land Covered by Water  I  I Gov't  of  I  I Gov't  of B.C.  Ownership  Canada  N I f e Private  Source:  Griggs, N.J.F., Urban Growth and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s i n Port Development: A Case Study, Vancouver, B.C. (Unpublished M.A.Thesis, U.B.C: 1967) p. 196.  UB  Further planning  c o n t r o l o f navigable  function of Municipal  the Greater  zoning  organizations.  A l l municipalities i n  Vancouver area border on, or extend i n t o navigable  To implement planning use  waters i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the  by-laws.  water.  and land use d e c i s i o n s , a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s Municipal  t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y can forego  zoning  i s e f f e c t i v e only to the extent  increased  tax and assessment revenue  rendered by market demands f o r changes i n land use or i n t e n s i t y . Few, i f any, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can a f f o r d l o s s e s o f revenue o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The  P r o v i n c i a l government can a l s o amend o r improve a l l M u n i c i p a l  legislation.  Therefore,  Municipal  c o n t r o l o f navigable  waters as w e l l  23 as dry land i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d . A r e g i o n a l government, the G.V.R.D., c o o r d i n a t e s i n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  the r e l a t i v e l y  The G.V.R.D. assumes  f u n c t i o n s which are i m p r a c t i c a l f o r a given m u n i c i p a l i t y to undertake, e i t h e r because they i n v o l v e s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or because they require large finances. provides basis.  The G.V.R.D. approaches area problems and  necessary s e r v i c e s such as r e g i o n a l planning  on a cooperative  Consequently, a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the G.V.R.D. p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the planning  function.  The G.V.R.D. i s f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  h o s p i t a l s , parks, water supply,  p r o v i s i o n o f sewerage  facilities,  2k  housing and a i r p o l l u t i o n . R a i l r o a d s have f u r t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n over dry land due to t h e i r incorporating l e g i s l a t i o n .  T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n provides  of e x p r o p r i a t i o n and the r i g h t to acquire  land.  f o r the r i g h t  R a i l r o a d s are a l s o 25  subject to both F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The  F e d e r a l Government gains  j u r i s d i c t i o n over dry land  p r i m a r i l y through The E x p r o p r i a t i o n A c t o f Canada.  Section 3 of t h i s  49  Act  provides: "Any i n t e r e s t i n land, t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n of the M i n i s t e r , i s r e q u i r e d by the Crown f o r a p u b l i c work or other p u b l i c purpose may be e x p r o p r i a t e d by the ^ Crown i n accordance with the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s P a r t . "  and S e c t i o n  4(1):  "Whenever, i n the o p i n i o n o f the M i n i s t e r , any i n t e r e s t i n land i s r e q u i r e d by the Crown f o r a p u b l i c work or other p u b l i c purpose, the M i n i s t e r may request the Attorney General of Canada to r e g i s t e r a n o t i c e of i n t e n t i o n to e x p r o p r i a t e such i n t e r e s t , etc."27 b) Land Ownership Given the above j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  very  brief  a t t e n t i o n must be paid to the r i g h t s of ownership over port and land.  The  greatest  i n t e r e s t i n r e a l property  Ring suggests t h a t even a fee simple  i s c a l l e d fee  dry  simple.  estate,  " . . . . i s s u b j e c t to c e r t a i n Government l i m i t a t i o n s on ownership, imposed f o r the mutual welfare of a l l citizens. These l i m i t a t i o n s f a l l under: 1. 2. 3. 4. The  The p o l i c e power of government. The r i g h t o f eminent domain. The r i g h t of t a x a t i o n . Escheat to the s t a t e . " 2 8  Land R e g i s t r y Act of B r i t i s h Columbia implements the  Torrens system i n order  to e s t a b l i s h land i n t e r e s t s .  r e g i s t r a t i o n of t i t l e s ,  modifications  acceptable  instruments, i . e . o p t i o n s ,  modified  Aside from  the  enable the r e g i s t r a t i o n of  any  agreements f o r s a l e , e t c . under 29  S e c t i o n 53 and  the r e g i s t r a t i o n of t r u s t s under S e c t i o n  149.  An advantage of the Torrens system i s the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n the r i g h t s of a l l p a r t i e s .  S e c u r i t y of t i t l e  i s provided  by  the  p r i n c i p a l o f i n d e f e a s i b i l i t y which means t h a t which cannot be made v o i d , destroyed or f o r f e i t e d . Invoking t h i s p r i n c i p a l , "...The main o b j e c t o f the A c t . . . i s to save persons d e a l i n g with r e g i s t e r e d p r o p r i e t o r s from the t r o u b l e and expense of going behind the r e g i s t e r , i n order to i n v e s t i g a t e the h i s t o r y o f t h e i r author's t i t l e , and to s a t i s f y themselves of i t s v a l i d i t y . That end  of  50  i s accomplished by p r o v i d i n g t h a t every one mho purchases, i n bona f i d e and f o r v a l u e , from a r e g i s t e r e d p r o p r i e t o r , and e n t e r s h i s . . . ( i n t e r e s t ) ...on the r e g i s t e r , s h a l l thereby a c q u i r e an i n d e f e a s i b l e r i g h t , notwithstanding the i n f i r m i t y of his author's t i t l e . " 3 0 Should anyone lose h i s r i g h t to land through the o p e r a t i o n of the Act, an assurance  fund p r o v i d e s reimbursement.' ''' 5  Lands completely covered with water are not t y p i c a l l y s u b j e c t of c e r t i f i c a t e s of i n d e f e a s i b l e t i t l e .  the  However, Davis  suggests  t h a t i f a stream flows through p r i v a t e l a n d , "...there i s ownership i n the bed of the r i v e r . . . I f the stream i s navigable the p u b l i c w i l l have a r i g h t to pass up and down upon the water, the converse holds i f i t i s not n a v i g a b l e . I f the r i v e r forms the boundaries of two p r o p e r t i e s , each owner w i l l own t o the middle."32 In  .  Johnson v. Anderson, i t i s h e l d t h a t , "...the r i p a r i a n owner s t i l l has the r i g h t to make use o f such water and s t i l l has a remedy a g a i n s t a wholly wrongful and unauthorized d i v e r s i o n of the stream which d e p r i v e s him of such r i g h t . . . " 3 3  T h e r e f o r e , i n the case of land covered with water, as w e l l as dry land, l e g i s l a t i o n covers the r i g h t s of  ownership.  F i g u r e 3 . I l l shows the ownership Most o f the i n n e r harbour for  of land covered by water.  i s ouned by the F e d e r a l Government except  a few p r i v a t e ownerships  of which the Canadian  Company (C.P.R.) i s the p r i n c i p a l owner.  Pacific  Railway  Griggs f u r t h e r r e l a t e s t h a t ,  "...the F e d e r a l Government i s the owner of a l l lands seaward from the o r d i n a r y low water mark, o u t s i d e of the bays, harbours and e s t u a r i e s , to the outer l i m i t of the t e r r e t o r i a l sea of Canada..."35 The P r o v i n c i a l Government owns, "...most of the lands seaward from high water from the F i r s t Narrows to the Port of Vancouver l i m i t s , and of most of the remaining lands below high water mark i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver area, i n c l u d i n g the F r a s e r R i v e r and F a l s e C r e e k . " 3 6  51  P r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s have some h o l d i n g s i n the F r a s e r River and F a l s e Creek. •n dry land, the F e d e r a l Government, " . . . i s of  l i m i t e d to h o l d i n g s  Indian r e s e r v e s , defence establishments,...(Vancouver  A i r p o r t ) . . . , and some other w a t e r f r o n t  International  lands i n B u r r a r d I n l e t and  37 F a l s e Creek."  The P r o v i n c i a l Government owns a l l dry l a n d , " . . . t h a t  has not been a l i e n a t e d , . . . ( i n c l u d i n g ) . . . a l l s t r e e t s and roads i n 38 unorganized  t e r r i t o r y and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s except  Vancouver."  The  M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Vancouver owns a l l s t r e e t s and p u b l i c access w i t h i n 39 its jurisdiction.  Railways such as the C.P.R. f u r t h e r own the lands  a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r trackage The  remaining  and other  facilities.  land i n the G.V.R.D. i s p r i v a t e l y h e l d by s e v e r a l  i n d i v i d u a l s and p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s . P o p u l a t i o n and Economic Summary a)  Population  Any  d i s c u s s i o n o f a r e g i o n a l economy must n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r  that r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n . Table 3.1 shows t h a t f o r the past twenty years, the p o p u l a t i o n of The  the G.V.R.D. has remained a t about k&% o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. present G.V.R.D. p o p u l a t i o n i s approximately  one m i l l i o n  persons.  Table 3.II shows the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o c a t i o n s used i n t h i s study. The  (A map o f these l o c a t i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e  5.1  ).  l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s r e s i d e i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f Vancouver,  Burnaby, and S u r r e y . The  r a p i d growth of both the G.V.R.D. and B.C. p o p u l a t i o n s  i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to r e l a t i v e l y high m i g r a t i o n and low b i r t h r a t e s . It  i sfelt  that v a r i o u s amenities such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ,  Table 3.1  Year  P o p u l a t i o n o f the G.V.R.D. Compared to B.C  P o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. CQDD's)  P o p u l a t i o n G.V.R.D. COOO's)  %  1971  2,184.6  1,021.8  47  1965  1,797.0  887.4  49  1961  1,629.1  783.7  48  1956  1,398.5  664.6  48  1951  1,165.2  557.1  48  Sources:  M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-1971, The Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. "Population 1921-1971", D.B.S., Ottawa:  Catalogue #91-512.  Table 3.II  P o p u l a t i o n o f L o c a t i o n s used i n t h i s Study.  Municipality  1971 Census  1966 Census  1961 Census  1956 Census  1951 Census  Neu Westminster  42,835  38,013  33,654  31,665  28,639  North Vancouver  31,847  26,851  23,656  19,951  15,687  Port Moody  10,778  7,021  4,789  2,713  2,246  Vancouver: C.B.D.  44,260  40,793  33,577  32,482  36,221  Zone 2  101,770  102,428  95,774  95,299  74,182  Zone 3  104,300  100,813  90,845  83,577  99,914  Zone 4  179,445  169,320  155,833  146,695  136,636  125,660  112,036  100,157  83,745  58,376  Coquitlam  53,230  40,916  29,053  20,800  15,697  Delta  45,860  20,664  14,597  8,752  6,701  Richmond  62,121  50,460  43,323  25,978  19,186  Surrey  98,601  81,826  70,838  49,366  33,670  West Vancouver  36,440  31,987  25,454  19,197  13,990  Burnaby  Source:  M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1951-1971, The Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , B.C.  54 a favourable  environment and  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e the p o p u l a t i o n  other  f a c t o r s , some o f which comprise  v a r i a b l e s , cause the economic base to grow whence  increment v i a m i g r a t i o n .  Vancouver i s expected to i n c r e a s e f i v e year p e r i o d s .  Larger  Growth of  at about 14%  f o r each o f the  s t r u c t u r e of M e t r o p o l i t a n  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by, highways, r a i l w a y s The  "...a and  next  r a t e s o f growth are a n t i c i p a t e d f o r the  North Shore, South Vancouver, Richmond, D e l t a , and b) Economic Development The  Metropolitan  Port Moody,  Vancouver's economic base i s  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n focus where t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l airways converge on the Greater  d e s t i n i e s of Vancouver's economy and  Vancouver  port."  i t s p o r t are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d .  Duncan suggests t h a t , T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t h a t the 1971 p a y r o l l c o v e r i n g Longshoremen i n the Lower Mainland amounted to more than $50 m i l l i o n . Aside e n t i r e l y from d i r e c t wages, there are many businesses i n a l l port c i t i e s t h a t are dependent on port a c t i v i t i e s . These i n c l u d e a l l manner o f s e r v i c e s from s h i p s chandlers and tug boats to l a u n d r i e s and t a x i cabs. I t i s estimated t h a t f o r each ton o f cargo passing through the port o f Vancouver, the l o c a l economy i s enhanced by about f i f t e e n d o l l a r s . This suggests t h a t the 35 m i l l i o n tons of cargo handled i n 1971 generated some $500 m i l l i o n . * 2 n L  Table 3 . I l l summarizes the cargo tonnages f o r Vancouver Harbour i n 1969  and  1970.  Table 3 . I I I .  Vessel  Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r Vancouver Harbour, 1969  Arrivals No.  V e s s e l Tonnage No.  Cargo Tonnage No.  and  1970  G r a i n E l e v a t o r Shipments Bu.  1969  19,105  21,283,905  23,080,469  162,292,838  1970  17,276  23,853,639  27,158,913  215,712,297  Source:  Canada Year Book, 1972,  D.B.S., Cat. No.  CS-11-202/1972  Approximately  38 m i l l i o n tons of cargo mere shipped from Vancouver 43  Harbour i n 1972. 1969.  New  Westminster  shipped about 5 m i l l i o n tons i n  The l a r g e s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l export tonnages  Harbour i n 1969 mere: coal i n that order. sisted of:  fuel o i l , sisted of:  wheat,ppotash, s u l p h e r i n o r e s , and  bituminous  The l a r g e s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l import tonnages  sand and g r a v e l , f u e l o i l ,  not l i s t e d .  shipped from Vancouver  s a l t , and other  commodities  Coastwise tonnages were l a r g e s t f o r exports o f :  pulpwood,  hogged f u e l , and g a s o l i n e while the l a r g e s t imports 44 sand and g r a v e l , l o g s , newsprint.  con-  con-  T h e r e f o r e , resource  i n d u s t r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y depend on the port o f Vancouver to d i s t r i b u t e t h e i r goods to market. In order to comprehend the meaning o f these s h i p p i n g tonnages, a comparison with other p o r t s i s r e q u i r e d . Duncan s t a t e s t h a t , "The p o r t of Vancouver i s the l a r g e s t on the west coast of North America, s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeding the tonnage handled by such p o r t s as S e a t t l e , San F r a n c i s c o , and Los Angeles. Indeed, the port o f Vancouver ranks w i t h i n the l e a d i n g f i f t e e n p o r t s o f the world."45 Port a c t i v i t y a l s o f l o u r i s h e s i n p e r i p h e r a l areas due to i n creased shipments  o f c o a l , s u l p h u r , and f e r t i l i z e r s through the  t e r m i n a l s at Port Moody, North Vancouver and Roberts Bank. shows t h a t these commodities  Table  3.IV  r a t h e r than lumber or g r a i n e x p l a i n the 46  continued growth of p e r i p h e r a l p o r t s and port r e l a t e d  activities.  56 Table 3.IV/.  Foreign  Cargo by Commodity, i n m i l l i o n s of  tons.  1965  1966  1967  Wheat  3.6  4.2  3.4  Lumber  1.3  1.1  1.2  Coal  .4  .8  1.1  Sulphur  .5  .5  .8  Fertilizer  .7  1.1  1.1  Source:  Hardwick, W.G., "V/ancouver: the Emergence of a 'Core-Ring Urban P a t t e r n " i n G e o g r a p h i c a l Approaches to Canadian Problems, G e n t l i c o r e , A.L. ( e d . ) , (Scarborough, Ont.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1971) p. 117, as quoted from the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s Report, Cat. #5^-203, 1968.  The  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of Greater  V/ancouver's economic base  i s l i m i t e d to the number of c a t e g o r i e s with a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s . s i t u a t i o n i s due The  to the secrecy  p r o v i s i o n s of the S t a t i s t i c s  economic base of M e t r o p o l i t a n  f l e c t e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the labour economic s e c t o r s .  Act.  f o r c e amongst the  various  I t i s noted t h a t the economic base i s not s o l e l y r e -  with automation and  fewer employees.  In g e n e r a l , much of the labour The  the  intensive.  Table 3.V/ shows the t o t a l employment f o r Greater  service sectors.  increase  Thus, a l a r g e p o r t i o n of  primary s e c t o r i s c a p i t a l r a t h e r than labour  manufacturing and  This  V/ancouver i s somewhat r e -  f l e c t e d by the number o f employees because p r o d u c t i v i t y can  industry.  1  V/ancouver by  f o r c e i s employed i n the  majority  of employees work i n  the durable goods category of the manufacturing s e c t o r and  in either  the f i n a n c e / r e a l e s t a t e or p e r s o n a l sector.  Table 3.V  a l s o shams that i n the past ten years,  employment growth occurred and  s e r v i c e s category of the  service  substantial  i n the manufacturing, s e r v i c e , t r a d e ,  infrastructure categories. wages provide  some i n d i c a t i o n of the more p r o f i t a b l e p o r t i o n s  of the economic base. by i n d u s t r y f o r Greater  Table 3.VI  shows the average weekly earnings  Vancouver.  have the h i g h e s t weekly s a l a r i e s .  Construction  T h i s i s followed  f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r , i n p a r t i c u l a r the paper and category; w h o l e s a l e r s ;  and  by the manu-  allied industries  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  c a t e g o r i e s of the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r . earn c o n s i d e r a b l y  c a t e g o r i e s by f a r  water s e r v i c e  R e t a i l and  service  lower weekly s a l a r i e s than the other  the manufacturing s e c t o r employs the  sectors  sectors.  Thus,  l a r g e s t number of people  and  pays r e l a t i v e l y w e l l , while the s e r v i c e s e c t o r pays q u i t e low  and  employs a l a r g e number of people. of wages and  number of employees, manufacturing i s the most dominant  s e c t o r of M e t r o p o l i t a n The  I t t h e r e f o r e appears t h a t , i n terms  Vancouver.  l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t method helps to i d e n t i f y those  of the Greater economic base.  sectors  Vancouver economy which s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e to The  l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t measures, "...the extent  which employment i n a given  the  to  i n d u s t r y category i n the c i t y exceeds or  f a l l s s h o r t of the pro r a t a share of t h a t c i t y i n t o t a l . . . ( p r o v i n c i a l  kl o r ) . . . n a t i o n a l employment."  Table 3.VII presents  analysis v i a l o c a t i o n quotients  of Greater  Vancouver.  q u o t i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r November, 1972 the time of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e " d i s t i n c t i v e " i n d u s t r y has a "dominant" i n d u s t r y has  study.  a business s t r u c t u r e  i n order  These l o c a t i o n to c o i n c i d e with  For a n a l y t i c a l purposes, a  a l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t which exceeds 1.10 a quotient  greater  than 1.50.  It i s  while  cautioned  Table 3.1/.  Employment by Industry f o r Urban Areas ('OOD's):  SIC #  Industry  100-399  Greater V/ancouver  Feb. '73  Feb. '72  Jan. '71  Jan. '70  J a n . '69  Manufacturing  59.3  58.7  55.6  60.0  56.4  Durable Goods  34.5  34.9  32.0  36.2  34.0  Non-durable Goods  24.8  23.8  23.5  23.8  22.4  100-147  Food and Beverages  9.7  9.0  8.9  9.0  8.9.  100-139  Foods  8.1  7.4  7.4  7.6  7.5  250-259  Wood Products  13.6  14.2  13.4  14.6  15.1  15.6  251  Sam, S h i n g l e and P l a n i n g Mills  6.4  7.1  6.8  7.2  7.7  13.8  252  V/eneer and Plywood M i l l s  4.9  4.9  4.9  5.3  5.4  270-274  Paper and A l l i e d  4.6  4.3  4.5  300-309  Metal F e b r i c a t i n g 5.9  5.9  5.6  6.0  5.1  6.9  11.3  14.0  10.9  11.4  9.6  10.9 7.9  Industries  Industries  ?;  4.7  4.1  400-421  Construction  404,421  Building  8.9  10.9  9.5  9.8  8.2  404  General C o n t r a c t o r s  4.9  5.1  5.4  4.8  4.5  421  S p e c i a l Trade C o n t r a c t o r s  3.9  5.7  4.1  5.0  3.6  500-579  T r a n s p o r t , communic, & 38.2  36.5  32.6  32.9  30.4  other u t i l i t i e s  46.0  6.9  2.7  19.2  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  3.1  P u b l i c U t i l i t y Operation  3.2  500-519  Transportation  19.2  18.5  15.5  17.0  16.0  504-505  Water T r a n s p o r t and Services Communication  7.3 11.6  7.3 10.9  6.4 10.3  7.2 9.1  7.1 8.1  543-548  Feb.'64  6.1 6.5  Table 3.V.  (continued)  Feb. '73  Feb. '72  Jan. '710!  Jan. 78  Jan. J69  Feb. '6'  49.7  48.6  44.1  46.4  44.1  35.5  17.6  17.3  16.4  17.0  15.9  14.0  32.1  31.4  27.8  24.4  28.2  21.5  5.4  5.3  4.7  5.1  4.7  Department S t o r e s  15.7  14.0  13.3  14.3  14.4  Finance, Insurance & Real E s t a t e  17.3  16.7  15.8  15.3  13.8  702-704  Financial  Institutions  11.2  10.1  9.8  9.7  8.3  731-737  Insurance  and Real E s t a t e  6.1  6.6  6.0  5.6  5.4  731  Insurance  Carriers  3.6  4.0  3.9  3.8  3.7  S50-899  Service  31.6  32.0  30.5  29.8  26.1  861-869  Business S e r v i c e s  8.9  8.4  8.8  8.5  7.4  871-879  Personal Services  12.8  14.6  12.6  13.2  11.8  875  H o t e l s , Restaurants and Taverns  11.7  13.7  11.4  11.7  10.4  031-899  I n d u s t r i a l Composite  208.1  207.3  190.2  196.6  181.0  SIC #  Industry  600-699  Trade  600-629  Wholesale  630-699  Retail  631  Food S t o r e s  642 700-737  Source:  Trade  Trade  "Employment Earnings and Hours", D.B.S., Ottawa:  1  14.7  140.0  Catalogue 72-002, Monthly •  T h i s t a b l e i s c o n s t r u c t e d from data which apply to the Vancouver Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area (CMA). T h i s area i s e s s e n t i a l l y the G.V.R.D. with Bowen I s l a n d and Lion's Bay excluded.  Table 3.VI.  Average Weekly Earnings by Industry ( $ ' s ) :  Greater Vancouver.  SIC  Industry  Feb.'73  Feb.'72  Feb.'71  Jan.'70  Jan.'69  Jan.'68  Jan.'67  Jan.'66  Jan.'65  100- •399  Manufacturing  184.89  170.19  150.38  143.13  129.09  121.25  113.27  107.30  102.55  Durable Goods  192.08  175.30  153.13  147.17  131.63  124.08  108.46  109.34  105.30  Non-durable Goods  174.90  162.68  146.54  137.00  125.29  117.17  109.57  104.19  98.54  100- •147  Food and Beverages  172.89  159.22  143.59  133.08  121.96  112.37  104.94  99.15  96.50  100- •139  Foods  169.99  155.73  140.02  132.63  120.61  111.01  102.83  97.36  94.24  250- •259  Wood Products  186.02  168.78  138.78  140.28  126.47  123.86  115.30  109.15  106.34  251  Sau, S h i n g l e and Planing M i l l s  188.03  170.32  142.20  135.95  129.26  124.69  115.70  110.53  105.26  Veneer and Plywood Mills  176.86  162.26  158.76  141.00  116.70  120.14  112.24  103.93  105.39  Paper and A l l i e d Industries  215.65  200.29  124.39  172.77  156.65  145.00  135.79  129.04  117.32  Metal F e b r i c a t i n g Industries  194.34  175.71  180.39  151.27  134.00  122.81  400- •421  Construction  233.39  236.88  194.83  174.76  145.68  141.49  144.28  130.07  116.93  404, 421  Building  229.53  228.46  194.08  173.73  145.11  140.50  143.88  128.82  116.56  404  General C o n t r a c t o r s  220.52  222.85  191.39  168.28  140.84  139.11  421  S p e c i a l Trade Contractors  240.86  233.47  197.54  178.94  149.83  142.10  T r a n s p o r t , communic. 195.23 & other u t i l i t i e s  181.99  161.97  149.49  140.11  131.19  128.10  118.19  109.35  252 270- •274 300- •309  500- •579  Transportation Equipment Public U t i l i t y Operation 500- •519  Transportation  199.67  185.16  173.45  150.06  139.37  131.12  504- •505  Water Transport and S e r v i c e s  202.90  197.32  188.37  154.82  144.87  139.43  Table 3.1/1. (continued) SIC #  Industry  Feb.'73  Feb. 72  Feb.'71  Jan.'70  Jan.'69  Jan.'68  543-548  Communication  174.75  167.71  131.84  135.35  126.42  121.44  600-699  Trade  144.57  130.88  116.56  114.91  104.63  95.65  600-629  Wholesale  182.54  168.07  155.37  140.42  130.08  119.05  630-699  Retail  123.74  110.41  93.57  100.21  90.34  82.55  631  Food S t o r e s  155.52  132.92  54.06  109.55  90.46  82.62  642  Department S t o r e s  103.64  98.91  93.46  90.75  84.33  74.82  700-737  Finance, Insurance & Real E s t a t e  149.64  142.01  127.20  120.74  116.86  102.85  Financial utions  Instit148.41  140.36  125.93  121.25  120.19  103.16  Insurance Estate  and Real 151.91  144.55  129.36  119.86  111.64  102.40  731  Insurance  Carriers  146.72  149.36  131.69  117.08  111.61  103.35  850-899  Service  126.00  112.46  108.20  99.10  92.74  86.19  861-869  Business S e r v i c e s  184.42  173.51  159.92  148.04  137.03  129.49  871-879  Personal Services  92.60  81.67  78.70  72.73  70.38  62.92  875  H o t e l s , Restaurants and Taverns  90.19  79.76  74.13  70.39  69.14  61.63  031-899  I n d u s t r i a l Composite 168.00  156.53  139.09  131.02  119.73  111.88  Source:  "Employment Earnings and Hours", D.B.S., Ottawa:  702.704 731-737  Trade  Trade  1  Jan.'67  Jan. 66  Jan.'65  88.40  85.60  82.89  98.15  95.77  88.91  85.54  81.64  73.60  107.33  101.80  95.85  1  Catalogue 72-002, Monthly.  T h i s t a b l e i s c o n s t r u c t e d from data which apply to the V/ancouver Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area area i s e s s e n t i a l l y the G.V/.R.D. with Bowen I s l a n d and Lion's Bay excluded.  (CMA).  This  62  Table 3.VII.  Business S t r u c t u r e A n a l y s i s a f Greater Vancouver, November 1972.  SIC Group and Industry  No. of Employees V^r^co^ver  L o c a t i o n Quotient (Canada) 3  1  L o c a t i o n Quotient (B.C.) * 4  I . Primary I n d u s t r i e s '  II.  400-£21 C o n s t r u c t i o n  13.1  404,421 B u i l d i n g  10.1 ( 7 7 . 1 % )  404 General Contractors  5.5  (42  421 S p e c i a l Trade Contractors  4.6  (35.1)  )  2  1.15  1.18  1.48  1.11  .9  1.28  Manufacturing 100-399 Manufacturing  59.7  Durable Goods  34.4 (57.6)  1.17  .95  Non-Durable Goods  25.3 (42.4)  .83  1.07  100-147 Food and beverages  10.2  (17.1)  1.34  1.31  100-139 Foods  8.5  (14.2)  1.29  1.28  3.97  .65  3.11  .41  250-259 Wood Products 251 Saw, S h i n g l e & Planing M i l l s 252 Veneer & Plywood Mills  13.7 (23) 6.3  (10.6)  5.0  (8.4)  8.4  1.25  270-274 Paper & A l l i e d Industries  4.6  (7.7)  1.03  .51  300-309 Metal F e b r i c ating Industries  5.9  (9.9)  1.4  1.8  I I I . R e t a i l Trade 600-699 Trade  53.2  630-699 R e t a i l Trade  35.2  (66.2)  .96  .97  5.6  (10.5)  .80  .90  631 Food S t o r e s 642 Department Stores  18.1 (34)  1.43  1.1  1.08  1.06  IV. Wholesale Trade 600-699 Trade  53.2  600-629 Wholesale Trade  17.9 (33.7)  63  Table 3.VII.  Business S t r u c t u r e A n a l y s i s o f Greater Vancouver, November 1972 (continued)  SIC Group and Industry  V. I n f r a s t r u c t u r e  No. o f Employees  L o c a t i o n Quotient (Canada)  L o c a t i o n Quotient (B.C.)  *  500-579 Transp., Communic. & other utilities  37.8  500-519 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  19.0  504-505 Water Transport & Services 543-548 Communication  (50.3)  .85  .80  7.1 (18.8)  3.3  1.54  (29.9)  1.2  1.26  11.3  VI. F i n a n c i a l & Admin. S e r v i c e s 700-899 T o t a l s e r v i c e  49.6  700-737 Finance, I n s . , Real E s t a t e  17.2  (34.7)  .88  .97  702-704 F i n a n c i a l Institutions  10.8  (21.8)  .9  .88  731-737 Insurance & R. E s t .  6.4 (12.9)  .84  1.15  731 Insurance  3.8 (7.7)  .69  N.A.5  Carriers  850-899 S e r v i c e  32.4  (65.3)  1.08  1.02  Serv.  8.7 (17.5)  1.22  1.27  871-879 P e r s o n a l Serv.  14.4 (29.0)  1.06  .81  875 H o t e l s , Restaurants & Taverns  13.4 (27 )  1.13  .83  861-869 Business  Source:  "Employment Earnings and Hours", D.B.S., Ottawa: December, 1972, pp. 16, 18, 20, 40, 42, 70, 72.  Catalogue  72-002,  Footnotes ^This t a b l e i s c o n s t r u c t e d from data which apply t o the Vancouver Census M e t r o p o l i t a n Area (CMA). T h i s area i s e s s e n t i a l l y the G.V.R.D. with Bowen I s l a n d and L i o n ' s Bay excluded. P a r e n t h e t i c a l f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t the per cent o f Greater Vancouver's t o t a l employment i n a given i n d u s t r y s u b p o p u l a t i o n . In the case o f primary i n d u s t r i e s , only the t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n employment i s used due t o the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of data.  Table 3.VII  (continued)  These l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t s are c a l c u l a t e d by t a k i n g f o r each r e s p e c t i v e SIC group (Per cent o f t o t a l Greater Vancouver's manufacturing employment i n r e s p e c t i v e SIC group) 4- (Per cent of t o t a l N a t i o n a l manufacturing employment i n r e s p e c t i v e SIC group). These l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t s are c a l c u l a t e d by t a k i n g f o r each r e s p e c t ive SIC group (Per cent of t o t a l Greater Vancouver's manufacturing employment i n r e s p e c t i v e SIC group) -J- (Per cent o f t o t a l B r i t i s h Columbia's manufacturing employment i n r e s p e c t i v e SIC group). 5 Due to the secrecy p r o v i s i o n s o f the S t a t i s t i c s A c t , p r o v i n c i a l employment i s not p u b l i s h e d f o r Insurance C a r r i e r s . Therefore, the l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t i s not c a l c u l a b l e .  65  t h a t the l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t does not always provide a good estimate of the economic base m u l t i p l i e r due to s i g n i f i c a n t understatement export  of  activities. Table 3.VII suggests t h a t wood products; saw, s h i n g l e , and  p l a n i n g m i l l s ; and water t r a n s p o r t and s e r v i c e s are dominant i n d u s t r i e s i n Greater Vancouver with r e s p e c t to Canada. i n d u s t r i e s are merely r e l a t i v e to B.C.  These wood  d i s t i n c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s i n Greater Vancouver  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t B.C. i s q u i t e a s p e c i a l i z e d  province while Greater Vancouver i s even more s p e c i a l i z e d i n these wood i n d u s t r i e s .  Thus, Greater Vancouver's manufacturing s t r u c t u r e  i s o r i e n t e d about primary r e s o u r c e s .  Metal f a b r i c a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s i n  Greater Vancouver are dominant r e l a t i v e to B.C.; d i s t i n c t i v e to Canada.  relative  T h i s suggests t h a t most of B r i t i s h Columbia's metal  fabric-  a t i n g i s s p e c i a l i z e d i n Greater Vancouver yet t h i s degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s not very high i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . d u s t r i e s with r e s p e c t to B.C. and Canada are: t r a c t o r s ; food and beverages; and business s e r v i c e s .  Distinctive i n -  b u i l d i n g ; g e n e r a l con-  foods; department s t o r e s ;  communication;  B r i t i s h Columbia's insurance and r e a l e s t a t e ;  and s p e c i a l trade c o n t r a c t o r s are s p e c i a l i z e d i n Vancouver but t h i s degree o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s below the n a t i o n a l average.  Hotels,  r e s t a u r a n t s and taverns are d i s t i n c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s i n Vancouver r e l a t i v e to Canada but Vancouver i s u n s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h i s i n d u s t r y with r e s p e c t to B.C. F u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's economic base i s provided i n Table 3.VIII.  Although  t h i s t a b l e r e f e r s to s e l e c t e d  i n d i c a t o r s o f economic a c t i v i t y f o r B.C. i n 1971, i t i s thought these P r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s p o r t r a y the context of M e t r o p o l i t a n  that  66  Vancouver's economic base.  Table 3.VIII suggests t h a t B.C.  an export to import r a t i o o f approximately  tua to one.  maintains  Significant  i n c r e a s e s i n p e r s o n a l income over the past ten years have kept pace with the (Vancouver) consumer p r i c e index. unemployment r a t e i s q u i t e high at 8.7%. a c t u a l value of manufacturing  However, B r i t i s h  I t i s a l s o evident t h a t the  p r o d u c t i o n exceeds t h a t of the  i n d u s t r i e s l i s t e d by a f a c t o r of f o u r .  Columbia's  primary  T h e r e f o r e , the economic base  of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver r e s i d e s i n a f i n a n c i a l l y strong economy c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y high unemployment r a t e and high a c t u a l value of manufacturing Table 3.IX  production.  p r o v i d e s some i n s i g h t i n t o the f u t u r e of M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver's economic base. Mainland,  Although  t h i s t a b l e c o n s i d e r s the Lower  most economic a c t i v i t y of t h i s area comprises M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver.  The  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n as a secondary  rather  than a primary i n d u s t r y i s a r b i t r a r y and does not s i g n i f i c a n t l y forecast  alter  results. Table 3.\IX  I n d i c a t e s the present and f o r e c a s t e d t r e n d of i n -  c r e a s i n g employment i n the t e r t i a r y s e c t o r s and decreasing employment i n the primary and secondary and secondary sectors.  sectors.  In s p i t e o f decreases i n primary  employment, p r o d u c t i v i t y continues to i n c r e a s e i n these  These trends p r e v a i l throughout  the Canadian economy.  the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of the Vancouver Region,  Given  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's  "...manufacturing has a s t r o n g p r o c e s s i n g emphasis with i t s f a b r i c a t i o n geared to s e r v i n g l i m i t e d but growing domestic markets....Expansion of the r e g i o n ' s manufacturing r o l e w i l l depend on growth o f the r e g i o n a l market, i n creased manufacture of equipment f o r use i n the p r o v i n c e ' s expanding resource i n d u s t r i e s and the a b i l i t y of producers to achieve t e c h n i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y i n i n n o v a t i n g and producing f o r mass export markets."^9  67  Table 3.VIII.  S e l e c t e d I n d i c a t o r s o f Economic B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 - 1971  Units Population  (mid-year)  Employment (average) Total Manufacturing Unemployed Personal Income Total Per C a p i t a  '000 •ODQ •000 % rate  Activity  1961 1,629 527 1DD 7.5%  1971 2,185 847 150* 8.7%  Increase 1961-1971 34.1 60.7 50.0  163.1 96.2  $ Million  3,003 1,843  7.900 3,616  Index (1961 * 1DD)  100.0  127.0  R e t a i l Trade  S Million  1.604  3,632  126.4  Cheques Cashed  $ Million  20,434  64,994  218.1  S Million  135  221  63.7  $ Million $ Million 1 Million  ** 180 40  395* 527 59  $ Million  1,927  4,013  108.3  13,421  28,571  112.9  339  645  90.3  1,081 422  2,771 1,340  156.3 217.5  584  1,084  85.6  448  1,167  160.5  Consumer P r i c e s  (Vancouver)  Value o f P r o d u c t i o n A g r i c u l t u r e (Farm Cash Receipts) F o r e s t r y (Logging, value added) Mining F i s h i n g (Landed Value) Manufacturing (Value o f Factory Shipments) E l e c t r i c Power Gasoline  Consumption  Consumption  M i l l i o n kwh Million gal.  •verseas Trade through B r i t i s h Columbia Customs Ports $ Million Exports Imports i Million •000 Motor V e h i c l e s R e g i s t e r e d U.S.  * **  Passenger Cars E n t e r i n g B r i t i s h Columbia  •ODD  27.0  192.8 47.5  Estimated 1961 not a v a i l a b l e due t o change i n r e p o r t i n g concept  Source:  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p. D-10.  68  Table 3.IX  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Employment i n the Louer Mainland* by Industry Group, 1951 - 1981  Actual*** 1951  1961  Forecast 1971  Estimates  1981 range  2000 mean  Percentage Change i n Employment (Rounded) 1971-1981  Agriculture  4.4  2.9  1.6  1.0  (65.5)  Extractive  4.3  2.8  1.4  .8  (71.5)  TOTAL PRIMARY  8.7  5.7  3.0  1.8  Manufacturing  24.0  18.9  19.0  19.0  7.1  6.8  6.8  6.8  TOTAL SECONDARY 31.1  25.7  25.8  25.8  Transportation Group  11.4  11.4  11.6  11.6  Trade  19.2  19.5  19.5  19.5  4.2  5.1  5.5  5.5  7.4  24.0  23.3  24.9  25.9  12.1  9.3  9.7  9.9  6.5  68.6  71.2  72.4  Construction  Finance Group Services**** P u b l i c Administration TOTAL TERTIARY  1.4** 60.2  1-2  1.5  (68.5) .5 no change  22-26  24  no change  1.75 no change  72-77  74.5  5.5  Notes:  * ** ***  Census D i v i s i o n 4, B.C. P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n grouped u i t h " S e r v i c e " u n t i l 1961 1951 and 1961 Census not s t r i c t l y comparable due to SIC r e v i s i o n s and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the "Neu Establishment Concept." ****Community, business and personal s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s .  Source:  Space f o r Industry, G.V/.R.D. Planning Department, Dec.1970, p. 1.  69 The  s e r v i c e s e c t o r i s expanding to accommodate the i n c r e a s i n g r e g i o n a l  market and B r i t i s h Columbia's resource Greater  development.  Therefore,  Vancouver i s becoming the f i n a n c i a l and management centre  of  50 Western Canada.  C.  Intrametropolitan  L o c a t i o n o f Business Sectors i n the G.V/.R.D.  Offices Any  d i s c u s s i o n of the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n o f  various  f i r m c a t e g o r i e s must c o n s i d e r the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e s because a l l s e c t o r s , to some extent,  locate in o f f i c e s .  Since  the v a r i o u s  sectors  have a d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e i r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n , an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory  f o r o f f i c e space i s very  O f f i c e l o c a t i o n i s f u r t h e r complicated inputs and  by the i n a b i l i t y to q u a n t i f y  outputs of the o f f i c e p r o d u c t i o n  function.  Output, f a r  example, i s unatandardized f o r a given f i r m as w e l l as i t s Moreover, Hoover and  competitors.  Vernon suggest that the p r e c i s e measurement of  c o s t s and b e n e f i t s which accrue with function i s uncertain for o f f i c e s . executive  complex.  s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n of the  production  For example, improvements i n  work q u a l i t y at a s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n and the i n c r e a s e d  oper-  51 a t i n g c o s t s to l o c a t e t h e r e are immeasurable.  Therefore,  there i s  no major i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n , o f f i c e l o c a t i o n theory a v a i l a b l e . I t i s noted, however, that i n order to overcome s p a t i a l l y  con-  t i n g e n t c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , o f f i c e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e a C.B.D. l o c a t i o n to a t t a i n interdependence and  take advantage of e x t e r n a l economies.  Firms which l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y u s u a l l y r e q u i r e the o p p o r t u n i t y 52  to  easily  c o l l a b o r a t e on a personal b a s i s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Moreover,  F i s h e r suggests t h a t the advantages of a p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n , i . e .  70 lower land c o s t s , a good working environment,  e t c . , have  little  53 e f f e c t on the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e o f f i c e s .  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s  no e x c e p t i o n t o these g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i g u r e 3.IV shows the p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e b u i l d i n g in  the G.V.R.D.  locations  Note the a x i a l arrangement along the H a s t i n g s ,  Kingsway and Marine Dr./Lonsdale c o r r i d o r s .  T h i s p a t t e r n evolved  over the past kG years as development and zoning r e i n f o r c e and s t a b i l i z e 5k  each o t h e r .  The l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e s on main t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  links  a l s o enables easy s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n whence p e r s o n a l encounters. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's  o f f i c e space grew from 11.9 m i l l i o n  square f e e t i n 1971 to 12.9 m i l l i o n square f e e t by 1972.  Vancouver  i n c r e a s e d i t s o f f i c e space from 10.9 t o 11.7 m i l l i o n square f e e t 1971  to 1972; approximately 8 m i l l i o n square f e e t p r e s e n t l y  the C.B.D. Hastings.  from  occupy  Most o f t h i s growth o c c u r r e d along Kingsway and East Suburban o f f i c e space e x c l u s i v e o f Vancouver comprises 1.27  m i l l i o n square f e e t .  Richmond, Burnaby, and North Vancouver c i t y ex-  p e r i e n c e d the h i g h e s t growth r a t e s ; l i t t l e  growth o c c u r r e d i n West  55 Vancouver.  Appendix I I summarizes the s i z e o f p r i n c i p a l non-government  buildings. Primary  Industries  The i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f primary i n d u s t r i e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y developed by von Thunen.  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, von  Thflnen f u l l y developed the r e n t concept to suggest t h a t , c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , i n t e n s i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l land use decreases as d i s t a n c e from the c e n t r a l market i n c r e a s e s due t o the i n c r e a s e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Game theory models f u r t h e r develop von Thunen's framework. Gregor suggests t h a t ,  costs.  However  P r i n c i p a l Office Building  Locations  Note the a x i a l arrangement about the Hastings, Kingsway, and Marine Dr./ Lonsdale c o r r i d o r s . Source:  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board of Greater O t Vancouver. In Real E s t a t e Trends i n MetroMM""" p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973, (Vancouver, Canada: * S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee) p.C-5. M l l  s  4  3  72  "Game theory s t i l l cannot completely e n l i g h t e n us on the decision-making process, however, f o r i t operates on s e v e r a l assumptions t h a t are untenable i n an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . The two most o b j e c t i o n a b l e o f these are t h a t : (1) d e c i s i o n s are made s o l e l y on economic grounds and with a d e s i r e f o r optimum s o l u t i o n s ; and (2) a l l e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about market o p p o r t u n i t i e s and technology i s u n i f o r m l y a v a i l a b l e and acceptable to the d e c i s i o n maker."56 Game theory  can, however, d e a l with the l o c a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t o f r e -  source a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The l i m i t a t i o n o f these t h e o r i e s i s t h a t they  best apply t o a g r i c u l t u r e ; not a l l primary i n d u s t r i e s . From the above, i t i s expected t h a t more i n t e n s i v e occurs  farming  as near as p o s s i b l e t o the C.B.D.; commercial f i s h i n g  l o c a t e on the waterfront  where break o f bulk o c c u r s .  operations  However, primary  f i r m s such as f o r e s t r y o r mining do not l o c a t e w i t h i n a c i t y on the b a s i s o f resource  a v a i l a b i l i t y or t r a n s p o r t cost o f output.  l o c a t e i n o f f i c e s i n the c e n t r a l c o r e . t i o n f i r m s under the primary s e c t o r .  They  T h i s study c l a s s i f i e s  construc-  The i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n  of c o n s t r u c t i o n f i r m s , however, i s probably  best e x p l a i n e d by the  theory o f i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . no major i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory  Therefore,  there i s  a p p l i c a b l e t o primary i n -  dustry i n the G.V.R.D. F i g u r e 3.1/ shows the areas o f a c t u a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land use i n the G.V.R.D. f o r 1970. south o f the F r a s e r  Approximately 80% o f t h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s  River. 57  In 1966, the Lower Mainland  had 256,235 acres o f t o t a l farm  area o f which 202,096 acres are improved. d e c l i n e from 330,259 acres i n 1941 while 58 s l i g h t l y increased. uses onto farmland.  T o t a l farm area shows steady improved land area  only  T h i s i s due t o the encroachment o f other  land  Figure 3.1/  Greater V/ancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use, 1970.  Actual  •  A  I Agricultural  N Source:  " E x i s t i n g Development, 1970: (Map K21-020), Planning Department, January, 1970.  0  1  Ik  Although approximately 10% of t o t a l primary employment ( i n c l u d e s c o n s t r u c t i o n , please  see Table 3.IX) i n the Lower Mainland  59 i s presently  i n agriculture,  employment i s expected t o decrease  with t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements. As p r e v i o u s l y suggested, mining and f o r e s t r y f i r m s are l o c a t e d i n o f f i c e s o f the c e n t r a l core  ( F i g u r e 3.IV).  L o c a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t i o n  f i r m s i s i m p l i e d i n the proceeding d i s c u s s i o n of manufacturing Manufacturing  firms.  Industries  M. A. Goldberg's"^  0  work i s the f i r s t t h e o r e t i c a l enquiry  the i n t r a r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n o f manufacturing. p r o p e r t i e s of the g e n e r a l i z e d  production  c i t y s i z e , whence i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n . empirical observations  into  I t i s shown t h a t the  f u n c t i o n (GPP) help  explain  The GPP i s c o n s i s t e n t with  f o r i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n , i n c l u d e s extensions  to  more than two v a r i a b l e s and to v a r i a b l e e l a s t i c i t i e s o f s u b s t i t u t i o n , and  considers  w e l l as s i z e . >0>^>  the e f f e c t o f s c a l e o f output on i n t e r n a l economies as The c l a s s o f GPP's i s d e f i n e d by:  O^iLo")  and g i s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  \l = g ( f ) where  f u n c t i o n such t h a t :  1/ = g(o) = o and  f = a n e o c l a s s i c a l production  f u n c t i o n with 22  inputs  V = u n i t s of r e a l output per time u n i t . With the GPP, r e t u r n s to s c a l e and s c a l e i t s e l f are f u n c t i o n s o f location. f o r general  Optimality  c r i t e r i a f o r i n p u t s and l o c a t i o n are d e r i v a b l e  and s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l forms.  However, while each f i r m  l o c a t e s r a t i o n a l l y from i t s viewpoint, l o c a t i o n a l behaviour i s random from the aggregate p o i n t o f view.  T h i s random behaviour a l l o c a t e s f i r m s  over the e q u a l l y l i k e l y s i t e s o f the subset of f e a s i b l e s i t e s .  75  The  e m p i r i c a l evidence, from which the GPP i s c o n s i s t e n t l y  d e r i v e d , suggests a theory  of intrametropolitan  industrial location.  Raymond V/ernon observes that i n d u s t r i e s which u s u a l l y c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s are found to have the f o l l o w i n g  require  traits:  1.  They have unstable output due to v o l a t i l e demand, seasona l i t y or product demand.  2.  They r e q u i r e speed o f communication and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f ideas amongst s e v e r a l , v a r i e d f u n c t i o n s e x t e r n a l to the f i r m i n order to d e r i v e the f i r m ' s output.  3.  They r e q u i r e f a c e - t o - f a c e  contact.  Whenever these i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e o u t s i d e be l a r g e r than t h e i r counterparts  c e n t r a l areas,  they tend to  who l o c a t e i n the C.B.D.  Industries  which u s u a l l y l o c a t e p e r i p h e r a l l y are found to have the f o l l o w i n g characteristics: 1.  They are t r a n s p o r t - o r i e n t e d p l a n t s which d e s i r e t D avoid c e n t r a l congestion and move l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of inputs and outputs.  2.  T h e i r l a r g e s c a l e production r e q u i r e s more space than provided i n the c e n t r a l areas.  3.  They are r a p i d l y expanding i n d u s t r i e s who a n t i c i p a t e p l a n t expansion and r e q u i r e cheap l a n d .  Therefore,  the hypothesis that smaller  p l a n t s o f a given  industry  g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y while l a r g e r p l a n t s o f the same i n d u s t r y g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e p e r i p h e r a l l y i s s u s t a i n e d by Goldberg's work. pending on how the sample i s s t r a t i f i e d , the hypothesis t h a t  De-  plant  growth i s l i m i t e d by the space c o n s t r a i n t s o f the p l a n t - s i z e i s e i t h e r supported or r e f u t e d .  IMo c o n c l u s i o n  can be drawn concerning  t h e s i s t h a t growing p l a n t s move i n g e n e r a l ,  the hypo-  and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t  they move to l e s s dense subareas o f the urban r e g i o n .  There are, how-  ever, s u f f i c i e n t weaknesses i n the data to d i s c r e d i t any estimates based upon i•4.t .62  76  In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , r e f e r e n c e s to i n d u s t r i a l  land  i n c l u d e manufacturing (SIC 200-399); c o n s t r u c t i o n (404-439); t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , storage and communications (514-549); and wholesale (701-729) groups. F i g u r e 3.1/1 shows the zoning metropolitan  c o n s t r a i n t which i n f l u e n c e s i n t r a -  i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n i n the G.V.R.D.  i n d u s t r i a l land can always be extended with fixed. use  zoning  The supply o f and i s by no means  Approximately 20% o f zoned land i s a c t u a l l y under i n d u s t r i a l  i n F i g u r e 3.VII.  T h i s i s p a r t i a l l y explained by F i g u r e 3.VIII  where land under a c t u a l i n d u s t r i a l use c o i n c i d e s with c r i t i c a l  infra-  s t r u c t u r e l i n k a g e s ; l e s s s u i t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l zoned s i t e s to a l e s s e r degree.  Moreover, about 50% o f the i n d u s t r i a l survey  difficult for  foundation  light industry.  claimed  conditions.  d i s t r i c t s have  Such c o n d i t i o n s are u n s u i t a b l e even  F i g u r e 3.IX shows those  areas which can be r e -  f o r i n d u s t r i a l use. Table 3.X shows the number o f acres used by v a r i o u s s e c t o r s i n  Metropolitan  Vancouver.  portion of land:  Manufacturing  by f a r occupies  the l a r g e s t  5,405.8 acres from a t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l acreage o f  7,308 a c r e s . Table 3.X.  Source:  Use o f I n d u s t r i a l Land - Metro Vancouver 1966  Manufacturing Construction Wholesaling T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication and storage  5,405.8 acres 161.3 778.9  T o t a l I n d u s t r i a l Acreage  7,308.0  Space f o r Industry, G.V.R.D. Planning  1- 962.0  Department, 1971, p. 13.  77  T h e r e f o r e , Figure'3.V/IIpredominantly' shows manufacturing  locations.  Table 3.XI and F i g u r e 3,U_ suggest t h a t most o f the i n d u s t r i a l i s i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f V/ancouver  and Burnaby.  acreage  Of the approx-  imately 11,500 acres o f developed i n d u s t r i a l land i n the G.V/.R.D. i n 1969,  V/ancouver,  Burnaby, Richmond and Surrey each c o n t a i n approx-  imately 2000 a c r e s .  Manufacturing f i r m s occupy approximately 35% o f  the t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l acreage i n V/ancouver  and Burnaby.  f u r t h e r suggests t h a t s m a l l e r manufacturing f i r m s occupy l o c a t i o n s while l a r g e r manufacturing f i r m s l o c a t e  Table 3.XI.  Acreage  Area  central  peripherally.  o f I n d u s t r i a l Development^" - 1966  Developed Sites  V/ancouver  Table 3.XII  No. o f Firms  Acres Occupied  1,396  1,897  1,791  Burnaby  353  462  1,594  New  122  159  395  Coquitlam  16  20  530  Port Moody  15  15  647  68  104  185  57  65  245  Richmond  176  215  787  Surrey  121  137  450  2,324  3,074  6,624  Westminster  North V/ancouver Delta  T o t a l Metro Area  City  Includes Manufacturing (SIC 200-399); C o n s t r u c t i o n (404-439); T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , Storage and Communications (514-549); and Wholesale (701-729) groups. Source:  Space f o r Industry, G.V/.R.D. Planning Department, 1971, p. 8.  78 Figure 3.VI  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : I n d u s t r i a l Areas, 1970.  Zoned  Figure 3.VII  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Industrial Land Use, 1970.  Actual  80 Figure 3.V/III  Greater V/ancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : L o c a t i o n Determinants, 1970.  HIMIMI  cWncb  W a t e r  i  I Difficult  Foundation  l~  I IndusW  Survey  1  I Steep Slope  I///I Source:  D e e p  Industrial  Condons  Districts  InoWnft/ Survey DtstricTs uitk Foundation DiSS-iculties  Space f o r Industry, G.V.R.D. Department, 1971, pp. 5-6.  Planning  0 i 2 MiTeS " " l  -  81 Figure 3.IX  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Areas o f P o t e n t i a l Use, 1970.  /  cm  Prime Land: Major Areas:  Industrial  Vacant, s u i t a b l e and  available  Areas R e q u i r i n g S a n d f i l l I n d u s t r i a l Parks Expansion Areas: P o t e n t i a l Reclamation of T i d a l Lands Reclamation of Peat Lands  | Source:  |  Other  Expansion  Space f o r I n d u s t r y , G.V.R.D. Planning Department, 1971, pp. 21-22.  82  Table 3.XII  Average Density o f I n d u s t r i a l Development S i t e S i z e o f I n d u s t r i a l Firms, 1966.  Municipality  Density  (Firms/Acres)  and Average  Average S i t e Size (Acres)  Vancouver  .78  1.3  North Vancouver C i t y  .37  2.7  New Westminster  .31  3.2  Surrey  .27  3.7  Delta  .23  4.3  Burnaby  .22  4.5  Richmond  .22  4.5  Coquitlam  .04  22.7  Port Moody  .02  43.2  Source:  Space f o r Industry, G.V.R.D. Planning Department, 1971, p. 45.  R e t a i l Trade An i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n r e t a i l  l o c a t i o n theory i s o u t l i n e d by the  c e n t r a l place theory of the previous c h a p t e r . F i g u r e 3.X shows the a c t u a l commercial land use i n the G.V.R.D. for  1970.  Commercial development i n c l u d e s a l l r e t a i l as w e l l as some  f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e f i r m s .  Much o f t h i s commercial  land i s i n t h e form o f s t r i p development along the Hastings and Broadway/Kingsway c o r r i d o r s .  Appendix I I presents the amount o f  commercial f l o o r space o f v a r i o u s commercial c e n t r e s i n the G.V.R.D. for  1970.  Approximately o n e - t h i r d o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's com-  m e r c i a l f l o o r space i s i n Vancouver. F i g u r e 3.XI shows e x i s t i n g commercial areas and commercial zoning i n Vancouver with a C h r i s t a l l e r i a n marketing h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t r a l  Figure 3.X  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : Land Use, 1970.  •  A c t u a l Commercia  c  N Source:  " E x i s t i n g Development, 1970" (Map K21-020), Planning Department, G.V.R.D., January, 1970.  o  i  l  84  F i g u r e 3.XI  Vancouver: E x i s t i n g Commercial Areas and Commercial Zoning with a C h r i s t a l l e r i a n Marketing Hierarchy of C e n t r a l P l a c e s , 1972.  Source:  Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 (Vancouver: S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, 1973) P l a t e 1, (Appendix)  places.  Nate the very s t r i k i n g hexagonal market array of  f u n c t i o n s about the r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n of Qakridge. market areas are i m p e r f e c t l y formed due constrained  to zoning  The  hexagonal  which i s mainly  by i r r e g u l a r geography, i . e . waterways, h i l l s ,  a non-uniform p o p u l a t i o n  distribution.  district  No w e l l developed  etc., retail  centre, f o r example, e x i s t s on the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands to the r e l a t i v e l y •akridge  low  d e n s i t y and  transient population.  would be more g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  due  Alternatively,  c e n t r a l to i t s d i s t r i c t  i f Queen E l i z a b e t h Park d i d not e x i s t .  Therefore,  functions  the r e s u l t a n t  hexagonal p a t t e r n D f r e t a i l f u n c t i o n s i n Vancouver i s somewhat p l a i n e d by c e n t r a l place  An i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n remains q u i t e undeveloped.  Storage l o c a t i o n theory  f o r wholesale  trade  T h i s i s because wholesalers perform  t i v e l y high order s p a t i a l f u n c t i o n s with respect  to i n p u t s and  It c o n s i s t s of business t r a n s a c t i o n s which do not n e c e s s a r i l y customers and  ex-  theory.  Wholesale Trade and  ultimate  and  can occur i n an a b s t r a c t f a s h i o n .  relaoutputs.  involve  These t r a n s -  a c t i o n s can a l s o i n v o l v e e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s to enable exogenic c h a n g e . V a n c e u t h e r e f o r e suggests t h a t , "No l o n g e r . . . ( a r e ) . . . n e a t assumptions as to how f a r and i n what s c a l e t r a d e . . . f l o w . . . ( i s ) . . . p o s s i b l e . Even the t o t a l s i z e of trade...(cannot)...be predetermined, because no v a l i d bounding l i n e , short of the t o t a l w o r l d , . . . ( i s ) . . . s e l f - e v i d e n t . Without the determinate q u a l i t i e s o f r e t a i l t r a d e , w h o l e s a l i n g . . . ( i s ) . . . n o t amenable to a n a l y s i s under any theory founded upon endogenic change."64 Consequently, t o o l s of a n a l y s i s such as s c a l e of trade develop a l o c a t i o n theory.  A n a l y s i s of wholesalers,  are unusable to  whether t h e o r e t i c a l  or e m p i r i c a l , i s f u r t h e r plagued by the problem of d e f i n i t i o n because s e v e r a l f i r m s claim to s e l l at wholesale p r i c e s .  It i s also  difficult  86 to u n r a v e l the present i n t e g r a t i o n o f manufacturing, w h o l e s a l i n g , and retailing  activities."'"'  In the absence o f a r i g o r o u s theory, the taxonomy o f the wholes a l e f u n c t i o n i n urban areas has been observed.  Vance and R a t c l i f f e  suggest t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f the o l d warehouse d i s t r i c t s adjacent to the c e n t r a l r e t a i l d i s t r i c t  depended upon the s p e c i f i c mode o f the  o r i g i n a l t r a n s p o r t medium."'"'  Vance f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t ,  "...Great importance i s attached to the d i s t i n c t i o n between customer access and supply o f goods a c c e s s . I f supply o f goods dominates the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , then t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w i l l have g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n , and we may f i n d during the course o f the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y s e v e r a l r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t s i t e s t h a t have been used by a s i n g l e w h o l e s a l i n g f i r m , with one toward the p e r i p h e r y s t a n d i n g as the present home. In c o n t r a s t , when customer access dominates, l o c a t i o n a l s h i f t w i l l be l e s s common, f o r the simple reason that customers and t h e i r t r a n s p o r t have changed l e s s i n the course o f urban h i s t o r y than has the handling o f g o o d s . " 67  Consequently,  the f o l l o w i n g wholeaale  d i s t r i c t s , based on some  combination  of supply o f goods and customer access, e v o l v e : 1.  The Produce D i s t r i c t : Vegetable d e a l e r s l o c a t e i n t h i s d i s t r i c t which i s adjacent to the shopping d i s t r i c t . T h i s enables ready customer a c c e s s . T h i s d i s t r i c t i s d i s a p p e a r i n g from c i t i e s due to the encroachment o f o f f i c e s which r e s t r i c t access f o r both producers and consumers.  2.  The Product Comparison D i s t r i c t : T h i s d i s t r i c t o f t e n occurs adjacent t o the C.B.D. where out o f town buyers stay i n h o t e l s . Thus, buyers can r e a d i l y comparison shop i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . C l o t h i n g and f u r n i t u r e w h o l e s a l e r s c l u s t e r here as a s a l e s strategy.  3.  W i l l - C a l l Delivery D i s t r i c t : Wholesalers l o c a t e d here d e a l with items t h a t possess t i m e l i n e s s . Phonograph r e c o r d s , a p p l i a n c e s and auto p a r t s are examples o f such items. T h i s d i s t r i c t i s l o c a t e d i n the C.B.D. such t h a t i t has good access to the i n t e r n a l m e t r o p o l i t a n highway system. R e t a i l e r s , who g e n e r a l l y possess a minor stock o f such items, can r e a d i l y supplement t h e i r i n v e n t o r y as the need a r i s e s .  h.  Manufacturing Stocks D i s t r i c t : These wholesalers r e q u i r e ready customer a c c e s s . Paper d e a l e r s , f o r example, s e l l a  87  standard item to d i v e r s i f i e d p r i n t i n g manufacturers. Due to the heavy paper demand from commercial and o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s , paper wholesalers l o c a t e c l o s e to p r i n t e r s who i n t u r n l o c a t e near the c i t y c o r e . T e x t i l e wholesalers to the garment i n d u s t r y are a f u r t h e r example. C h a r a c t e r i z e d by time pressure on p r o d u c t i o n , v o l a t i l e demand, s e v e r a l s m a l l manufacturers, and a shortage of working c a p i t a l , garment manufacturers and t h e i r w h o l e s a l e r s tend to l o c a t e centrally. 5.  The O f f i c e Wholesaling D i s t r i c t : Various wholesalers r e q u i r e an o f f i c e d i s t r i c t l o c a t i o n i n order to d e a l i n the t i t l e to goods r a t h e r than t h e i r p h y s i c a l h a n d l i n g . These agents, b r o k e r s , e t c . , r e q u i r e f a c e - t o - f a c e d e a l i n g s , o f t e n with r e s p e c t to market p r i c e . ° 8  The the C.B.D.  above wholesale  d i s t r i c t s are i n t i m a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d with  However, Gottman notes the tendency  f o r some w h o l e s a l e r s  to r e q u i r e l a r g e warehouses with good a c c e s s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r trucks.  Since these requirements  pensive and congested  are not e a s i l y found with the  ex-  land of the urban core, p e r i p h e r a l s i t e s are  69 chosen.  T h e r e f o r e , the wholesale  f u n c t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d both  centrally  and p e r i p h e r a l l y over urban a r e a s . Since M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s a break of b u l k p o i n t between land and sea t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i t serves as an i d e a l entrepftt f o r wholesale activity.  F i g u r e 3.V  i n c l u d e s the l o c a t i o n of wholesale  storage f i r m s which occupy approximately Vancouver.  Prime wholesale  trade and  780 acres i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  d i s t r i c t s are found along the F a i r v i e w Slope  from Main to G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t s and the west end of F a l s e Creek to -Burrard S t r e e t .  These areas are i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the C.B.D.  Development of warehouse f a c i l i t i e s has s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d over the past three y e a r s .  Consequently,  the e s t a b l i s h i n g areas o f C l a r k  D r i v e , Powell S t r e e t , Boundary Road, Lougheed and S.E. Marine Drive are a l s o w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , given t h e i r i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y to other 70 s e c t o r s of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  88 Infrastructure The  intrametropolitan  l o c a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  activities  appears to be based upon c e n t r a l place  theory, given g e o g r a p h i c a l  constraints  T h i s excludes the  and  population  densities.  head o f f i c e s which, of course, are founded upon o f f i c e considerations.  r e a l i s t i c a l l y be used by n o n - o f f i c e , against  works p r o j e c t s promote the  generally  Cost b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s can private sector  consistent  as an a p p r o p r i a t e  to the  t h e o r e t i c a l soundness of cost b e n e f i t  to foresee  assets,  and  the  In  y i e l d s questionable partly  consequences of such p r o j e c t s Cost  and  benefit  income approach to v a l u e .  t h e i r concommitant l o c a t i o n , must  considered f o r d e c i s i o n making purposes. to demand r a t h e r  analysis  l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n of p u b l i c works.  a n a l y s i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a v a r i a n t of the  respect  basis  Economists  p a r t l y because i t i s hard to appraise t h e i r s o c i a l v a l u e s .  R e a l i s t i c a l l y , the  social  of p r o j e c t worth i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t ,  because i t i s d i f f i c u l t  cost  public  funds on the  c r i t e r i a of p r o j e c t worth.  t o o l f o r the  Evaluation  Since  e f f i c i e n c y of p r i v a t e economic and  r e a l i t y , the method i s c o s t l y to implement and results.  f i r m s where  choice of a l o c a t i o n .  there i s a problem to a l l o c a t e scarce  subscribe  only  storage companies, f o r example, would f i n d  b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s u s e f u l i n the  of s e n s i b l e and  choose  measurable c r i t e r i a such as p r o f i t s i s f e a s i b l e .  Taxicab or moving and  activities,  location  I t i s assumed t h a t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f i r m s f u r t h e r  a l o c a t i o n v i a cost b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s .  optimization  l o c a t i o n of  be  In other words, supply with  than demand per se f o r urban i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n  the p u b l i c s e c t o r must be considered i n order to decide how  to upgrade  71 the r e a l value of a given i n v e n t o r y .  T h e r e f o r e , the  l o c a t i o n of  p u b l i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f i r m s v i a cost b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s i s  inappropriate.  89 The  l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f i r m s i s a l s o more  r e s t r i c t e d than c e n t r a l place theory  suggests.  Manners s t a t e s  that,  "...There i s a . . . l a b y r i n t h o f i n f l u e n c e s moulding t h e . . . ( l o c a t i o n ) . . . p a t t e r n s o f e n e r g y . . . ( i . e . e l e c t r i c power, gas and water u t i l i t i e s ) . . . T h e s e f o r c e s — economic and s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l , t e c h n i c a l and, at times f o r t u i t o u s — are a l l i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to each other..."72 Therefore, "Any e m p i r i c a l survey o f the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which are i n v o l v e d i n the l o c a t i o n o f secondary energy production q u i c k l y r e v e a l s the complexity and v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and u n d e r l i n e s the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of each case."74 The i n Figure  l o c a t i o n o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f i r m s i n the G.V/.R.D. i s shown  3.X as w e l l as F i g u r e s 3.IV/, 3\J and 3.X.  In Figure  3.XII,  note the d i f f u s e p a t t e r n o f c i v i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l land uses which serve most p o i n t s i n the G.V/.R.D. F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e No  s i n g l e theory  Services  comprises the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  services.  Financial services usually  l o c a t e on the b a s i s o f o f f i c e l o c a t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . example, u t i l i z e c e n t r a l place t h e o r y .  3.XII.  i n their location decision.  a d i v e r s e s p a t i a l arrangement o f M e t r o p o l i t a n  f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Theatres, f o r  Some government s e r v i c e s  u t i l i z e public infrastructure considerations Therefore,  location of  s e r v i c e s ensues i n F i g u r e s  V/ancouver's 3.IV/, 3.X and  Figure 3.XII  Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t : A c t u a l C i v i c and I n s t i t u t i o n a l Land Use, 1970.  /  Civic  an<)  Institutional  N  Source:  " E x i s t i n g Development, 1970" (Map K21-020), Planning Department, G.V.R.D., January, 1970.  91  D.  Summary  T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s an h i s t o r i c a l , economic and b u s i n e s s s e c t o r s y n o p s i s o f m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver.  The synopsis o u t l i n e s  some t o p i c s which are r e l e v a n t to the present  location/relocation,  q u e s t i o n n a i r e study o f f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D. context o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e study h o p e f u l l y enables the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a . the q u e s t i o n n a i r e study.  spatial  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  The f o l l o w i n g chapter s p e c i f i c a l l y  considers  In p a r t i c u l a r , the present study i s con-  s i d e r e d i n the context o f the H P S study. n a i r e technique  This  and the s p e c i f i c  D i s c u s s i o n o f the q u e s t i o n -  v a r i a b l e s used i n the present  study  are a prelude t o the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e data.  92  References  Siemens, A. H., "The Process of Settlement i n the Louer F r a s e r V a l l e y - i n i t s P r o v i n c i a l Context" i n Louer F r a s e r V a l l e y : Evolution of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, Siemens, A.H., (ed.), (Vancouver, Canada: Tantalus Research L i m i t e d , 1968) pp. 45-47. 2  I b i d . , p. 47.  ^Harduick, W.G., "Vancouver: the Emergence o f a 'Core-Ring' Urban P a t t e r n " i n G e o g r a p h i c a l Approaches to Canadian Problems, G e n t l i c o r e , R. L. (ed.), (Scarborough, Ont.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1971) pp. 112. I b i d . , p.  114.  5 Loc. c i t . *~*Loc. c i t . 7 Loc. c i t . 6  I b i d . , pp. 114,  9  I b i d . , p.  115.  117.  T h e e d i t o r ( s ) , "Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada" (Vancouver and Louer Mainland I n d u s t r i a l Development Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 1971) p. 1. 1 D  Economic  "^McGovern, P.D., Geography, 1961,  " I n d u s t r i a l Development i n the Vancouver p. 191.  Area",  12 Stager, J . K. and W a l l i s , J . H., "The C l i m a t i c F a c t o r V a r i a t i o n s on a Mean" i n Louer F r a s e r V a l l e y : Evolution of a Cultural Landscape, Siemens, A. H., (ed.), (Vancouver, Canada: T a n t a l u s Research L i m i t e d , 1968) prs!9Q. 1  1 3  Ibid.,  l t f  1 5  p. 93.  I b i d . , p. 96.  Ibid.,  pp. 96-97.  93  I b i d . , p.  1 6  98.  17 Winter, G. R., " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the Louer F r a s e r l / a l l e y " i n Louer F r a s e r V/alley: E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, Siemens, A. H., ( e d . ) , (V/ancouver, Canada: Tantalus Research L i m i t e d , 1968) pp. 102-103. 18 Stager,  J . K. and W a l l i s , J . H.,  Op.  c i t . , p.  98.  19  Winter, G.R., 2D  I b j L d . , p.  Op.  c i t . , p.  112.  HI.  21 Griggs, N.J.F., Urban Growth and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s i n Port Development: a case study, V/ancouver, B.C. (unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C.:1967) pp. 203-204. 2 2  I b i d . , p.  207.  2 3  I b i d . , pp.  199,  207-208.  24 "The L i v a b l e Region P r o j e c t " under the auspices of the G.V/.R.D. i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V/ancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, V/ancouver: 1972) p. 1. 2 5  Griggs,  N.J.F., Op.  c i t . , p.  201.  26 Todd, E.C.E., The F e d e r a l E x p r o p r i a t i o n Act, A Commentary (V/ancouver, Canada: The C a r s u e l l Co. L t d . , 1970) p. 95. 2 7  I b i d . , p.  99.  28 Neu  Ring, A.A., The v a l u a t i o n of Real E s t a t e , (Engleuood Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1970) pp. 29-30.  Cliffs,  29  Land R e g i s t r y A c t . and  R.S.  1948,  C.171, s . l . : S e c t i o n s  ^ G i b b s v. Messer i n The Lau of Real Property, Davis, (V/ancouver, Canada: B e s t - P r i n t e r Co. L t d . , 1972) p. 104. 3  L a n d Registry Act. inclusive. 3 1  233  53  149.  R.S.  1948,  I . , (ed.),  C.171, s . l . : S e c t i o n s 221  to  32 Davis, I., "Notes on the Lau of Real Property", Manuscript) pp. 29-30.  (Unpublished  94 33  Johnson v. Anderson i n The Laui o f Real P r o p e r t y , Davis, I . , (ed.), (V/ancouver, Canada: B e s t - P r i n t e r Co. L t d . , 1972) p. 79. 34 G r i g g s , N.J.F., Dp. c i t . , p. 195. 35, . . Loc. c i t . 3 6  Ibid.  1  p. 199.  3 7  I b i d . , p. 195.  3 8  Ibid.,  p. 199.  39. . . Loc. c i t . 40  "Population Trends i n the Louer Mainland 1921-1986" (Neu Westminster, B.C." Louer Mainland R e g i o n a l Planning Board, 1968) Summary Report A p r i l 1968, pp. 1-10, a l s o , " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey uas conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater V/ancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V/ancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, V/ancouver: 1972) p. D-2. 41 Space f o r Industry, G.V/.R.D. Planning Department,  1971, p. 2.  42 Duncan, W., "The Port o f V/ancouver" i n " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972", Op. c i t . , p. C-19. 43. . . Loc. c i t . 44 Canada Year Book, 1972, D.B.S., C a t . No. CS-11-202/1972, p. 902. 45 Duncan, W., Op. c i t . , p. C-19. 46 Harduick, W.G.,  Op. c i t . , p. 117.  47 Smith, W.F., " P r i n c i p l e s o f Urban Development", (Unpublished manuscript, 1972), p. 107. 48 Space f o r Industry, Op. c i t . , p. 1. 49 I b i d . , p. 2. 50. . . Loc. c i t .  95 51 C i t y , New  Hoover, E.M. and Vernon, R., Anatomy o f a M e t r o p o l i s York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1959) p. 97.  (Garden  52 Vernon, R.E., 1960) p. 101-102, 106.  M e t r o p o l i s 1985  (Neu York:  Doubleday  Anchor,  53 F i s h e r , R.M., The Boom i n O f f i c e B u i l d i n g s (Washington, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 58, 1967).  D.C:  54 Graham, W.E., "Vancouver's Suburban Commercial S t r u c t u r e , " i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1972) p. 13. 55  °0ffice  Space Survey, 1972", Op. c i t . , pp. C-15  to  C-17.  "'"'Gregor, H., Geography of A g r i c u l t u r e (Engleuood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1970) p. 70.  N.J.:  57 Census D i v i s i o n S,  B.C.  58 Census o f Canada, Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s ,  1941,  1966.  59 Space f o r Industry, Op. c i t . , p. 1. "'"^Goldberg, M.A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : P l a n t S i z e and the Theory o f Production ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969). "'"''Goldberg, M.A., the Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n "  " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n and (unpublished a r t i c l e , U.B.C, 1971) pp. 1-20.  62 Goldberg, M.A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : Plant S i z e and the Theory o f Production ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969) pp. 220-21.  saling  ^ V a n c e v J . E., The Merchant's World: The Geography o f Whole(Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1970) p. 6. 64. . . Loc. c i t . "'"'ibid., pp. 6,  7.  "'"'Ratcliffe, R. U., I n t e r n a l Arrangement The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959) p. 415. and Vance, J.E., Op. c i t . , p. 130.  of Land Uses  (Chicago:  96  67 Vance, J.E., Dp. c i t . , p. G 8  133.  I b i d . , pp. 131-133.  69 Gottman, J . , M e g a l o p o l i s : The Urbanized Seaboard o f the United S t a t e s (Neu York: Twentieth Century Fund, 1961) p. 51S. 70 " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972:, Op. c i t . ,  p.  C-21.  71 The author wishes to express h i s s i n c e r e thanks to P r o f e s s o r Id. F. Smith f o r the idea o f using r e a l stock v a r i a b l e s to l o c a t e public infrastructure firms. 72 Manners, G., The Geography o f Energy Co. L t d . , 1964) p. 25.  (London:  Hutchinson and  73 Primary energy i s used to produce an a l t e r n a t i v e and more convenient, secondary form o f energy. Transport c o s t s only i n f l u e n c e the t o t a l c o s t but not the l o c a t i o n o f a primary energy s o u r c e . With secondary energy s o u r c e s , which are more p e r t i n e n t to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n context, t r a n s p o r t c o s t s i n f l u e n c e the t o t a l cost o f the energy as w e l l as the l o c a t i o n of the c o n v e r s i o n from a primary i n t o a secondary energy form. 74 Manners, G.,  Op. c i t . , p. 92.  97  CHAPTER IV  THE PRESENT QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY  A.  Introduction The  purpose o f t h i s chapter  q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey  i n the context  i s t o c o n s i d e r the l o c a t i o n o f the IIPS study.  Discussion of  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e technique  and the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s used i n the  present study  are a prelude  to the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the  questionnaire  data.  In p a r t i c u l a r , the f e a s i b i l i t y t o use the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s i n both an i n t e r - r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n study  B.  i s established.  The I n t e r - I n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i c y Simulator  ( H P S ) Study  P e r l o f f notes t h a t urban planning has evolved  i n t o a very com-  plex p r a c t i c e from a f i e l d e s s e n t i a l l y concerned with a e s t h e t i c s . Planning now encompasses:  engineering  f i e l d s t o enable e f f i c i e n t  oper-  a t i o n o f urban components; land use c o n t r o l w i t h i n the scheme o f a r a t i o n a l land use p a t t e r n ; and socio-economic, p o l i t i c a l and p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which enable proper urban a r e a .  1  Planning  development and o p e r a t i o n o f an  f u r t h e r comprises land a c q u i s i t i o n programs,  e c o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l s and s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h programs. The  H P S p r o j e c t , which i s a l a r g e - s c a l e , s p e c i a l  study o f the G.V.R.D., demonstrates the complexity planning has e v o l v e d .  research  t o which urban  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, the C i t y o f  98  Vancouver, the Greater of  Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , the Department  M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and the  M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s are j o i n t l y engaged i n t h i s program. There are three goals f o r t h i s program.  The f i r s t g o a l i s t o c o n s t r u c t  2 a s i m u l a t i o n model  b u i l d i n g process.  Thus, a more r e f i n e d model  evolves due to c o n t i n u a l improvement and updating. i s to a t t a i n i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . p r a c t i c a l experience of  The second g o a l  T h i s p r o v i d e s the  o f the government l e v e l s r e q u i r e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  r e c e n t r e s e a r c h developments t o the Region's p r a c t i c a l needs and  problems.  HPS  t h i r d g o a l i s to c r e a t e a model which c o n s i d e r s r e a l  world problems o f i n t e r e s t to both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d e c i s i o n makers. These s e c t o r s r e q u i r e t o t a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y to a comprehendable model which i s economical to o p e r a t e .  Without the g e n e r a l use o f the model  from both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e a l i t y are u n d e s i r a b l y HPS  i s designed  precluded.  3  f o r g e n e r a l use by the p u b l i c ; u n i v e r s i t y  r e s e a r c h e r s , a l l l e v e l s o f government and p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l have access t o the model. fidential.  None o f the output o f the IPPS model i s con-  Only p r o f i t - m a k i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s w i l l be charged a users f e e .  T h i s f e e covers development and running i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s and maintains  c o s t s , s u b s i d i z e s the use by  a s e r v i c e s t a f f t o implement  clients'  requests and e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s . In order to study something as broad the H P S p r o j e c t i s organized  and complex as the G.V.R.D.,  i n t o nine modelling sub-groups and a  data c o l l e c t i o n and a data management group.  The nine m o d e l l i n g  groups c o n s i s t o f f i v e groups c r i t i c a l t o the H P S modelling  sub-  activity:  p o p u l a t i o n , economics, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , land use, and l o c a l government.  99  Four other  groups are a l s o being  developed:  h e a l t h systems, p o l l u t i o n ,  5 human ecology, and f a c i l i t i e s The  cost.  economics group i s r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r the Vancouver Metro-  p o l i t a n Input-Output Study (VMIS) which w i l l enable present and f u t u r e a n a l y s i s o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n economy.  Figure  4.1 shows a p r o d u c t i o n  d i s t r i b u t i o n system o f the  s i x i n d u s t r y subpopulations i n the present hold s e c t o r .  study as w e l l as the house-  The VMIS determines the s a l e s and purchase r e l a t i o n s h i p s  of the production input-output  Area  d i s t r i b u t i o n system i n order  matrix o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n  a 27 s e c t o r  Vancouver economy.  more than one s e c t o r can comprise a given From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  to construct  industry  (Note t h a t  subpopulation.)  the interdependence o f the area's i n d u s t r i e s and  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with households and governments may be e s t a b l i s h e d . Figure 4.1.  A Production  D i s t r i b u t i o n System o f the G.V.R.D.  Goods and S P T V I H P S  I  r  Infrastructure  Orders Population Residents Bl-foreign)  Orders  Retail ,  .  r  C  1 F i n . and Admin. Services Orders  Wholesale  Manufacturing  Primary  If  J ~ f — t  {Goods and  Orders  Services  100 Input-output  6 a n a l y s i s overcomes the disadvantages o f other  methods which measure economic base because i t acknowledges t h a t an urban economy i s a matrix o f f i r m s t r a d i n g with each other as w e l l as with the consuming p u b l i c and the o u t s i d e w o r l d . to l o c a l export  Firms which  f i r m s are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d  because the number o f export  as export  firms  jobs i n c r e a s e s i n s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d  i n d u s t r i e s whenever the export increments o f these  supply  demand o f one f i r m i n c r e a s e s .  The  i n d u s t r i e s are i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s ; the e f f e c t  upon the community i s d i f f e r e n t i f i n c r e a s e d export Firm X r a t h e r than Firm Y.  Therefore,  s a l e s occur t o  the d e t a i l e d consequences o f  export expansion o r c o n t r a c t i o n i n v a r i o u s f i r m s o f a r e g i o n ' s economic base, help determine a p p r o p r i a t e urban economic p o l i c i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the l o c a t i o n survey  1 0  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o be used  i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Input-Output q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The l o c a t i o n survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures the l e v e l o f importance o f nineteen  factors i n  a f i r m ' s a c t u a l d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., as w e l l as a f i r m ' s h y p o t h e t i c a l d e c i s i o n t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the G.V.R.D. q u e s t i o n n a i r e requests  p r e c i s e revenue/sales  s e c t o r i n order t o c o n s t r u c t an input-output  The Input-Output  and expenditure matrix.  by s p a t i a l  The SIC number,  s e c t o r , number o f employees, and s t r e e t address are known f o r both questionnaires.  Thus, wide scope f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i s p o s s i b l e  with both q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Meagre response was u n f o r t u n a t e l y r e c e i v e d f o r the Input-Output questionnaire.  Presumably, f i r m s were r e l u c t a n t t o d i v u l g e extremely  c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c good. survey group.  questionnaire  Thus, the l o c a t i o n  i s presently of limited u t i l i t y  t o the economics  1D1  The  l a n d use group, however, w i l l f i n d the l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire r e s u l t s u s e f u l .  T h i s group i s developing models to  a l l o c a t e economic and r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s a c r o s s the  Region.  Emphasis i s upon the development of r i g o r o u s housing models t o assess the impact o f a l l l e v e l s of government p o l i c i e s on the supply demand f o r r e g i o n a l housing.  and  However, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s  and  r e g r e s s i o n models of the present l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e study, provide an e m p i r i c a l data base f o r the l a n d use group i n t h e i r ment of models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across the C.  Questionnaire  develop-  Region.  Technique  The e m p i r i c a l data base f o r t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of 300 r e t u r n s of the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e l i k e that o f Eigure 4 . I I . f i r m s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Region's  3800  economic base were contacted such  t h a t the l a r g e s t , i . e . most employees, f i r m was  contacted together with  a random sample o f remaining f i r m s i n each i n d u s t r y s e c t o r .  Thus, a  l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f the economic base i n terms of labour i n p u t s , as w e l l as a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f l a r g e and s m a l l f i r m s , was i f the sampling procedure was By February 1973, survey were r e c e i v e d .  probably surveyed  t o t a l l y random.  only 300 usable responses to the  Approximately  Table 4.1  due to  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a t o t a l usable  r a t e of 7.9% which i s q u i t e poor.  location  20 responses were unusable  i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n with r e s p e c t to answering s e c t o r number or l o c a t i o n .  than  response  shows the s e c t o r sub-  p o p u l a t i o n s to be analyzed w i t h i n the scope of t h i s  thesis.  102  F i g u r e 4.II  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE 1177 West Hastings Street, Vancouver 1, B.C.  L O C A T I O N  1.  V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  S U R V E Y  CONFI DENTI  AL  For each of the following factors would y o u please indicate the level of importance in your decision to locate y o u r business in the Vancouver Region. 1.  unimportant  2.  fairly important  3.  important  4.  absolutely essential  Place ' X ' under appropriate c o l u m n . FACTORS 1.  Nearness to markets  2.  General labour supply  3.  Skilled labour supply  4.  Employee wage scales  5.  Local property and business taxes  6.  T r u c k transportation  7.  Rail transportation  8.  Water transportation  9.  A i r transportation  10.  Land prices or lease rates  11.  Construction costs  12.  Local government attitude to industry  13.  Cost of utilities  14.  Availability of public transportation for employees  15.  Availability of amenities in region  16.  Availability of housing for employees  17.  Availability of large tracts of land  18.  Absence of traffic congestion  19.  High quality environment Other (please specify)  VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN INPUT-OUTPUT STUDY  103 VANCOUVER BOARD OF TRADE  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  1177 West Hastings Street,  VANCOUVER  LOCATION 2.  8,  CANADA  FACULTY OF COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  Vancouver 1, B.C.  SURVEY  CONFIDENTI AL  If y o u were to move from the Vancouver Region, would y o u please indicate the level of importance o f the following factors in y o u r decision to relocate elsewhere. 1.  unimportant  2.  fairly important  3.  important  4.  absolutely essential  Place ' X ' under appropriate c o l u m n . FACTORS 1.. Nearness to markets 2. General labour supply 3.  Skilled labour supply  4.  Employee wage scales  5.  Local property and business taxes  6.  T r u c k Transportation  7.  Rail Transportation  S.  Water Transportation  9.  A i r Transportation  10.  Land prices or lease rates  11.  Construction Costs  12.  Local government attitude to industry  13.  Cost o f utilities  14.  Availability o f public transportation f o r employees  15.  Availability o f housing f o r employees  16.  Availability o f amenities in region  17.  Availability o f large tracts of land  18.  Absence of traffic congestion  19.  High quality environment Other (please specify)  VANCOUVER METROPOLITAN INPUT-OUTPUT STUDY  104  Table 4.1  Subpopulations  Analyzed  Subpopulation 1.  Primary  2.  Manufacturing  3.  R e t a i l Trade  4.  Inclusive Sectors  Industries Industries  1.1 - 4.3  14  5.1 - 13.3  85  14.1  28  Wholesale, Trade and Storage  15.1  30  5.  Infrastructure Industries  16.1 - 17.3  12  6.  F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Services  18.1 - 27.1  131  1.1 - 27.1  300  7.  A l l Industry  Industry  Number o f Cases  Sectors  Inferences about the r e l o c a t i o n and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n o f some subpopulations  are c o n s t r a i n e d by the l i m i t e d number o f cases f o r  these s u b p o p u l a t i o n s .  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the i n c l u s i v e s e c t o r s  appears i n Appendix I . The values.  usable response r a t e i s f u r t h e r c o n s t r a i n e d by m i s s i n g  Although  a f e u respondents d i d not r e v e a l the number o f  employees o r a t t r i b u t e importance t o a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r , s e v e r a l f a i l e d to answer e i t h e r questions 1 or 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey naire.  question-  15 f a i l e d t o answer question 1; 83 f a i l e d t o answer q u e s t i o n 2.  Thus complete responses,  i . e . answers to both q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2, were  only r e c e i v e d from 202 f i r m s or 67.3 per cent o f the t o t a l number o f f i r m s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s survey. of  Given the s i m i l a r format on both s i d e s  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n Figure 4.II and the l a r g e r number o f n u l l  responses to question 2, i t appears t h a t s e v e r a l respondents d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t there i s a question 2. The  f o l l o w i n g suggestions might have improved the q u a l i t y ,  r e l i a b i l i t y and completeness o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s , given the  105  poor response r a t e o f the mailed 1.  A simple  survey.  n o t i c e such as, "There are tuo d i f f e r e n t  questions,  please answer both s i d e s o f t h i s survey" p r i n t e d on both s i d e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e might have caused more complete 2.  The l o c a t i o n survey  responses.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e should have been mailed  s e p a r a t e l y from the input-output  questionnaire.  Although t h i s  g r e a t e r expense, the low response t o the input-output would not impair responsiveness 3.  Although a p e r s o n a l l y administered  time consuming than mailed and  to the l o c a t i o n survey  entails  questionnaire questionnaire.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s f a r more  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the q u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y  completeness o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are more c o n t r o l l e d v i a p e r s o n a l  r a t h e r than w r i t t e n c o n t a c t with p r o s p e c t i v e respondents. the r e s e a r c h e r  could administer  s p o n s i b l e f o r determining although  For example,  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e only to people r e -  the f i r m ' s present  of a q u a l i t a t i v e nature,  location.  Personal f a c t o r s ,  c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d under the  v a r i a b l e "Other (please s p e c i f y ) " .  The v a r i a b i l i t y and magnitude o f  the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s would s e t a s u b j e c t i v e c o n s t r a i n t on data pretation.  inter-  I f the same p e r s o n a l f a c t o r occurs on s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ,  t h i s f a c t o r would appear i n subsequent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s . i n t e r v i e w a l s o enables  A personal  e l a b o r a t i o n on which aspects o f a p a r t i c u l a r  f a c t o r , i . e . high q u a l i t y environment, are important,  as w e l l as c l a r -  i f i c a t i o n o f any misunderstandings about the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A major disadvantage o f both p e r s o n a l and mailed  questionnaires  i s t h a t there i s always some u n c e r t a i n t y as t o whether scares are t r u e or merely r e p r e s e n t some degree o f p e r c e p t i o n a l b i a s . There are some l i m i t a t i o n s t o the present could be r e c t i f i e d to o b t a i n b e t t e r  data.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e which  1.  T h i s study i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d because i t i s unknown when  the d e c i s i o n was made by f i r m s to l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D.  Tables 3.1,  3.V, and 3.VI however, r e v e a l t h a t the G.V.R.D. i s a growing r e g i o n . T h i s i s important because, as Goldberg suggests,  intrametropolitan  l o c a t i o n i s best s t u d i e d i n , "...an area which has been the scene o f r e c e n t l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . Otherwise, what we w i l l observe i s the s k e l e t o n o f d e c i s i o n s made i n years past f o r reasons generally irrelevant today."H There should be a question which determines when the f i r m e s t a b l i s h e d operations  i n the G.V.R.D.  index to question  1.  f i r m could honestly for  The answer would provide  a reliability  Indeed, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether a 30 year o l d  answer question  1 and even i f i t c o u l d , the reasons  i n i t i a l l y l o c a t i n g are not n e c e s s a r i l y the reasons f o r m a i n t a i n i n g  the same l o c a t i o n .  There should  a l s o be a sequel t o question  1 which  reads: " F o r each o f the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s would you please i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance i n your d e c i s i o n to p r e s e n t l y remain l o c a t e d i n the Vancouver Region." S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s and question  1 would r e v e a l the degree o f i r r e l e v a n c y o f previous l o c a t i o n  d e c i s i o n s t o those o f today.  I t c o u l d a l s o be determined a f t e r how  much time, i . e . 7 years, i r r e l e v e n c y between former and present becomes s i g n i f i c a n t .  Thus, only r e c e n t l y , i . e . 7 years or l e s s , say,  l o c a t e d f i r m s would be 2.  A question  analyzed.  should be i n c l u d e d which asks whether respondents  a c t u a l l y i n t e n d t o move.  The hypothesis  d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r present be t e s t e d .  t h a t o l d e r f i r m s are more  l o c a t i o n than newer f i r m s c o u l d then  C o n d i t i o n a l t o f i r m s answering "yes" to t h i s  they should be asked the m u n i c i p a l i t y , province they plan to move.  decisions  In t h i s regard,  question  or country  question, t o which  2 should be re-phrased t o  read,  " I f you mere to move w i t h i n the Vancouver Region, would  please  you  i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n  your d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e . " by s i z e c l a s s e s and  Thus, i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n movement  i n d u s t r y subpopulation  trends  c o u l d a i d the land use  group  i n t h e i r development of models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across the 3.  Region.  Question 1 asks respondents to c o n s i d e r  the importance of  nineteen  l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the Vancouver  Region.  A l l of these f a c t o r s have p o t e n t i a l to s p a t i a l l y vary  intrametropolitan context.  i n an  Question 1 i s i n t e r r e g i o n a l i n nature  because the VMIS c o n s i d e r s  the r e g i o n a l economy as a p o i n t i n space.  However, i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  a n a l y s i s of the l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire  i s p o s s i b l e because the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r most f i r m s i s known. Thus, s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n of these f a c t o r s f o r a subpopulation  w i t h i n the Region i s f e a s i b l e .  e m p i r i c a l l y assess i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n supplement to question would you  please  T h i s l i m i t e d approach to  l o c a t i o n can be improved i f a  1 s t a t e s , "For each o f the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s  i n d i c a t e the l e v e l of importance i n your d e c i s i o n to  l o c a t e your business i n the p a r t i c u l a r m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the Region." and  Vancouver  Thus, the importance of the l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s at the  intrametropolitan  k.  given  l e v e l s c o u l d be f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d and  regional  compared.  More p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of the f a c t o r s i s r e q u i r e d i n f u t u r e  studies.  For example, i s the f a c t o r "Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " used i n  the context  of a v a i l a b i l i t y o f , c o s t o f , or both?  Is the  "Availability  of l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d " r e q u i r e d f o r a l a r g e p l a n t , o n s i t e expansion, or both? From the above, i t becomes apparent t h a t the q u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y and  completeness of the l o c a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e  survey i s q u i t e l i m i t e d  for  an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  l o c a t i o n study o f the G.V/.R.D.  the c o n t i n u a l "de-bugging" o f t h i s and subsequent s t u d i e s can the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s be  D.  utility  Only through  questionnaire  as an e m p i r i c a l data base  improved.  An Overview o f the L o c a t i o n Survey Questionnaire The  Factors  f o l l o w i n g i s an overview o f the l o c a t i o n survey  naire f a c t o r s .  question-  S e v e r a l o f these f a c t o r s appear s u i t e d t o a r e g i o n a l  r a t h e r than i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  l o c a t i o n study because they u s u a l l y  d i s p l a y the most v a r i a t i o n at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  Goldberg s t a t e s ,  " I t should be c l e a r t h a t r e g i o n s from a l o c a t i o n a l viewpoint tend to be q u i t e homogeneous from w i t h i n . Therefore,...the v a r i a b l e s which can be reasonably , u t i l i z e d are few i n number and d i f f i c u l t t o measure."  2  As suggested above, f u t u r e surveys c o u l d measure the d i f f e r e n c e which these v a r i a b l e s have a t the r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  levels.  Thus, i t i s unknown whether or not a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c e s only the r e g i o n a l p o r t i o n o f the l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n or the r e g i o n a l and,  t o some degree, the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  o f a given f i r m i n the G.V/.R.D.  location decisions  The s o l u t i o n t o t h i s query might  provide  an e m p i r i c a l s y n t h e s i s between r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n . T h i s study p r o v i d e s  l i m i t e d i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s o f the  v a r i a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s f o r given subpopulations.  That  spatial  v a r i a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s e x i s t s i n t h i s study a t the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l suggests f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g i o n a l and i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  i n t o the e m p i r i c a l s y n t h e s i s o f  location i s required.  109 1.  Nearness to markets  Nearness to markets can be considered In a r e g i o n a l and metropolitan context.  These tuo concepts,  intra-  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the  present q u e s t i o n n a i r e , vary i n importance f o r d i f f e r e n t f i r m s . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver has r e l a t i v e l y good access to u o r l d u i d e markets due  to i t s break-of-bulk  location.  There are, houever, v a r y i n g  degrees of market a c c e s s i b i l i t y at the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l .  As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, there i s l e s s s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n betueen Vancouver's c e n t r a l and p e r i p h e r a l r i n g s than u i t h i n them because of transportation linkages.  I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n nearness to markets depends  upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y o f t r u c k , r a i l , (i.e.  seaplane) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  i s mainly  The  u a t e r , and a i r  absence o f t r a f f i c  r e l a t e d to t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n although  congestion  i t has  limited  relevance to the other three t r a n s p o r t modes mentioned above.  Figure  4 . I l l demonstrates the s p a t i a l f r i c t i o n of d i s t a n c e i n terms of road t r a v e l time from the C.B.D.  Nearness to the C.B.D. market  decreases  q u i c k l y u i t h r e s p e c t to d i s t a n c e because the t r a v e l time to the C.B.D. r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e s u i t h r e s p e c t to d i s t a n c e .  T h e r e f o r e , f i r m s must  e f f e c t a t r a d e o f f betueen nearness to c e n t r a l and/or p e r i p h e r a l markets i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. 2.  General labour supply and  3.  S k i l l e d labour  supply  The  supply of both g e n e r a l and s k i l l e d labour i s i n f l u e n c e d  by the government's p o l i c i e s on minimum uages, labour l a u s , and employment; as u e l l as the uages and t r a i n i n g o f business izations.  U i t h r e s p e c t to the present study  area,  "Greater Vancouver has...a u e l l - e d u c a t e d p r o d u c t i v e labour f o r c e . . . . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s labour p o o l i s v i r t u a l l y every type o f s k i l l r e q u i r e d by commerce and i n d u s t r y . " 1 3  immigration organ-  Space f o r Industry, Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, December 1970, pp. 9,10.  ,  titles  Ill  Since s k i l l e d workers g e n e r a l l y earn more than u n s k i l l e d workers, i t i s reasonable t o assume t h a t s k i l l e d workers g e n e r a l l y l i v e i n b e t t e r q u a l i t y residences supply  o f labour  than u n s k i l l e d workers.  In other words, the  varies s p a t i a l l y within a metropolitan  area.  It i s  t h e r e f o r e paramount t h a t f i r m s which r e q u i r e a c e r t a i n type o f labour l o c a t e i n c l o s e proximity higher  wages or other  supply.  Consideration  to t h i s l a b o u r .  I f t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e ,  b e n e f i t s are r e q u i r e d to a t t r a c t the labour o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  housing f o r employees are a l s o r e l a t e d to the problem o f procurement of s u i t a b l e labour  inputs to a f i r m ' s production  A t t e n t i o n to labour  cannot be o v e r s t a t e d  p r o d u c t i v i t y t y p i c a l l y r e s u l t s from employee k.  function. since  increased  satisfaction.  Employee wage s c a l e s  F.O.B. labour  c o s t s are e s s e n t i a l l y homogeneous throughout the  intrametropolitan region.  Wage homogeneity i s r e i n f o r c e d by trade  union agreements which t y p i c a l l y apply  throughout an urban  Competitive wage r a t e s , which f u r t h e r strengthen t y p i c a l l y occur i n urban r e g i o n s rates i s e a s i l y obtained.  region.  wage homogeneity,  because knowledge o f r e g i o n a l wage  As suggested above, f i r m s which are r e l a t i v -  e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e to the r e q u i r e d  labour  supply,  may have to provide  a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s , i . e . t r a v e l l i n g time, a company c a r , e t c . , to compensate f o r t h e i r i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y . certain intrametropolitan  l o c a t i o n s r e q u i r e r e l a t i v e l y higher  wage s c a l e s t o procure labour of other  I t i s therefore possible  that  employee  i n p u t s a t a t r a d e o f f f o r the a v a i l a b i l i t y  f a c t o r i n p u t s , i . e . a v a i l a b i l i t y of large t r a c t s o f l a n d .  112 5.  L o c a l property  and business taxes  Goldberg suggests t h a t business taxes are constant region.  Although l o c a l property  taxes vary,  within a  they only comprise a  14 small percentage o f t o t a l business t a x e s .  That l o c a l property  taxes  are u n j u s t l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n the G.V/.R.D. i s e s t a b l i s h e d by Tomko who states: "...Assessment u n i f o r m i t y does not e x i s t w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d , and the degree o f u n i f o r m i t y v a r i e d with the d i f f e r e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . . U n i f o r m i t y of assessments i m p l i e s t h a t the assessments o f p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l j u r i s d i c t i o n are a uniform percentage of t h e i r market v a l u e . . . E q u a l i t y o f assessment between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and land uses are not t r a i t s o f the Property Tax System i n B r i t i s h Columbia...Equalization o f assessments i m p l i e s t h a t the average assessmentmarket value r a t i o s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s be equal."15 Therefore,  there  i s an unjust  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the t a x burden i n the  G.V/.R.D. because e i t h e r u n i f o r m i t y Since  l o c a l property  taxes do vary,  or e q u a l i t y does not exist.'''  6  i t i s possible that t h i s f a c t o r  influences intrametropolitan l o c a t i o n . 6.  Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Trucks y i e l d e x c e l l e n t advantages over other modes o f t r a n s p o r t i n an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  area because they have r e l a t i v e l y lower  l o a d i n g c o s t s and o f f e r door t o door s e r v i c e .  initial  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the G.V/.R.D. i s r e l a t e d t o the major highway network shown i n Figure 3.V/III. t r a n s p o r t , assuming equal bulk, From Figure  Intrametropolitan  costs of truck  depend on time/distance  4 . I l l , a f i r m which depends h e a v i l y on t r u c k  considerations. transportation  to s h i p outputs t o the C.B.D. w i l l f i n d a p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n a d i s advantage with r e s p e c t  to t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Therefore,  the a v a i l -  a b i l i t y and cost o f t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a t i o n can i n f l u e n c e the i n t r a metropolitan  location of certain firms.  113 7.  Rail transportation  R a i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s mainly used t o t r a n s p o r t goods over long d i s t a n c e s due t o r e l a t i v e l y high i n i t i a l economies.  l o a d i n g c o s t s and s c a l e  Consequently, the volume o f i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n r a i l  i s a s m a l l percentage o f t o t a l r a i l f r e i g h t t r a n s p o r t .  freight  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  of r a i l s e r v i c e s shown i n Figure 4.11/ v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h i n the G.V/.R.D. and a c c o r d i n g l y , can i n f l u e n c e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n of c e r t a i n f i r m s .  B. C. Hydro, f o r example, o f f e r s s i t e s along i t s  r a i l r o a d complete with s i d i n g trackage 4.IV The  t h a t t r a f f i c can be interchanged  i f desired.  Note i n F i g u r e  and through r a t e s are a v a i l a b l e .  B. C. Hydro Railway connects i n t o the:  C.N.R., C.P.R., B u r l i n g t o n  R.R., Milwaukee Roadnand B.C. Railway; the C.P.R. connects i n t o the C.N.R., B.C. Railway and Great Northern Railway. 8.  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Metropolitan Figure 3.1: Burrard  Vancouver has three major p o r t areas shown i n I n l e t , Roberts Bank and the F r a s e r R i v e r .  A  f o u r t h area, Sturgeon Bank, i s viewed as a r e s e r v e area, p o t e n t i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r port use only when the above areas approach f u l l ization.  util-  Figure 3.VIII r e v e a l s t h a t the South Arm o f the F r a s e r  River  i s s u i t e d t o deep-sea s h i p p i n g while  the North Arm o f the F r a s e r  i s s u i t e d t o shallow  The s p a t i a l choice o f water t r a n s -  draft vessels.  River  p o r t s e r v i c e s a c c o r d i n g l y i n f l u e n c e s the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n of c e r t a i n f i r m s .  The high demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l waterfront  suggests t h a t p r o x i m i t y some f i r m s .  t o water t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s i s c r i t i c a l f o r  Main waterfront  f i s h canneries, shipyards, 17 minerals i n d u s t r i e s .  property  users are saw, plywood and paper m i l l s ,  petroleum r e f i n e r i e s , and n o n - m e t a l l i c  114 Figure 4.IV/  R a i l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the G.V/.R.D.  B.C.H.B. Railway B u r l i n g t o n Railway B. C. Hydro Railway C. N.R. C.P.R. B.C.Railway  Source:  I n d u s t r i a l Development Dept., B.C.Hydro & Power A u t h o r i t y , Vancouver, B.C.  O i 2 ' •' " M«WS 1  1  3  115  9.  Air transportation  F i g u r e 3.1 shows the l o c a t i o n o f Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l Airport.  Most o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouverfs a i r t r a f f i c flows through  t h i s a i r p o r t except f o r the seaplane base i n Coal Harbour which i s on the north s i d e o f the C.B.D. i m i t y to a i r p o r t s because  prox-  these f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r r a p i d s e r v i c e at  r e l a t i v e l y economical r a t e s . i n B r i t i s h Columbia's  Firms i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r  A s u p p l i e r o f p a r t s f o r equipment used  mining i n d u s t r y would probably choose an i n t r a -  m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n whose t i m e / d i s t a n c e i s r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o the airport.  Should a breakdown occur, the r e q u i r e d part can be rushed  to meet the e a r l i e s t f l i g h t . changing. advantage  Moreover, the t r e n d i n a i r cargo i s  Not only can f i r m s which s h i p low weight to high value take o f a i r f r e i g h t but f i r m s which s h i p b u l k i e r cargo, i . e .  Volkswagen c a r s , o r p e r i s h a b l e cargo, i . e . t r o p i c a l produce, i n g l y take)advantage  increas-  o f the s c a l e economies rendered by Jumbo J e t s .  In order to meet the demands f o r a i r t r a n s p o r t , F i g u r e 4.V d e p i c t s the F e d e r a l Government's 1972 plans t o b u i l d on the northern p o r t i o n o f Sea I s l a n d :  a runway f o r c o n t a i n e r i z e d a i r cargo and a  w a t e r / a i r cargo c o n t a i n e r t e r m i n a l .  Cost o f the new runway system and  a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i s estimated at $lk m i l l i o n .  The major reason f o r  the expansion i s t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g a i r cargo f a c i l i t i e s which are insufficient  to handle the volume o f cargo a n t i c i p a t e d from jumbo j e t s .  A i r cargo tonnage i s expected to i n c r e a s e from 4Q,0QQ tons/year a t present to SD,00D tons/year i n 1977. On t h i s b a s i s , completion date i s s e t f o r 1977-78.  18  Figure 4.V:  V/ancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t :  Sea I s l a n d  Proposed mater/air cargo container terminal  Proposed Runway f o r Cargo Bridge under c o n s t r u c t i o n  Proposed Road Old Road to be  dismantled  E x i s t i n g Cargo F a c i l i l Seaplane Base Areas to be E x p r o p r i a t e d  Source:  An Interview  with D.H.MacLeod, A.A.C.I.:  Department o f P u b l i c Works.  cn  117 ID.  Land p r i c e s or l e a s e  rates  Land p r i c e s and l e a s e r a t e s vary metropolitan  level.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the i n t r a -  T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y caused by d i f f e r -  e n t i a l s i t e q u a l i t i e s and r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n which i n t e r a c t through the supply  and demand mechanism.  m e r c i a l land values  Appendix I I shows i n d u s t r i a l and com-  f o r selected s i t e s i n Metropolitan  I n d u s t r i a l land values  Vancouver, 1972.  continue t o g e n e r a l l y r i s e due to i n c r e a s e d  19 demand. value  Commercial land values  remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e with  increments, due t o i n c r e a s e d  demand, o c c u r r i n g i n the C.B.D. 20  between Thurlow and Seymour S t r e e t s . The  following discussion of lease rates r e f e r s to r e n t a l rates  per annum. R e t a i l lease r a t e s along continued  p r i n c i p a l transportation corridors  to r i s e with demand i n 1972.  only m a r g i n a l l y  Supply o f C.B.D. r e t a i l space  expands i n the major o f f i c e developments.  R e t a i l lease  r a t e s i n the C.B.D. range from $7.00 to $8.00 per square f o o t r i s i n g to over $12.00 per square f o o t f o r the prime corner  location.  Elsewhere 21  i n the G.V.R.D., r a t e s range from $3.50 to $5.00 per square f o o t . Lease r a t e s o f i n d u s t r i a l and o f f i c e s i t e s are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n Appendix II.  Since  rental  the supply  p r e s e n t l y exceeds demand f o r warehouse space,  l e v e l s o f i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s remain r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o r  22 1972.  Rental  demand f o r o l d e r m u l t i - s t o r e y  warehouse and i n d u s t r i a l  b u i l d i n g s , which are mostly l o c a t e d i n the C.B.D., i s d e c l i n i n g . Unrefurbished  b u i l d i n g s r e n t from $.80 t o $1.00 per square f o o t f o r the  ground f l o o r and $.40 to $.75 per square f o o t f o r the upper  floors.  Refurbished b u i l d i n g s r e n t up to $2.50 per square f o o t f o r the ground 23 floor. O f f i c e r e n t a l r a t e s , i n c l u d e d i n Appendix I I , have l e v e l l e d 24 o f f due to an excess o f supply over demand.  118 11. The  Construction  costs  cost to c o n s t r u c t  a b u i l d i n g i s comprised of s e v e r a l  f a c t o r s , some o f which are unique to a given p r o j e c t .  Employee wage  s c a l e s and  financing  but a few  amount of labour, m a t e r i a l s , l e g a l fees and of the c o n s t r u c t i o n cost components.  Some o f these f a c t o r s  are f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d by the t e c h n o l o g i c a l form and o f the p r o j e c t .  s c a l e economies  Aside from employee wage s c a l e s , i t i s reasonable to  suggest t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t f a c t o r i n p u t s o f a given do not vary  are  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a r an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  area.  project  However,  the unique q u a l i t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e can i n f l u e n c e  construction  c o s t s whence i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  foundation  conditions, topographical  location.  The  drainage,  f e a t u r e s , and whether or not the s i t e i s  c l e a r e d , are f a c t o r s which can s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the c o n s t r u c t i o n indeed the f e a s i b i l i t y , o f a p r o j e c t .  The  range of c o n s t r u c t i o n  cost,  costs  f o r d i f f e r e n t s t r u c t u r e s i s shown i n Appendix I I . 12.  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e to  industry  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e to i n d u s t r y i s p r i n c i p a l l y through zoning. zoning  Since m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e q u i r e tax revenue, a s p e c i f i c  p o l i c y within geographical  strengthen  reflected  c o n s t r a i n t s i s adopted i n order  a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s economic base.  by m u n i c i p a l i t y and  accordingly  Therefore,  zoning  to  varies  influences intrametropolitan location  i n the G.V.R.D. Favourable a t t i t u d e to i n d u s t r y i s , however, c o n f e r r e d certain organizations.  by  Operating under p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ,  Hydro encourages i n d u s t r i a l development throughout the Region. f l e x i b l e f i n a n c i a l terms and  B.C. Here,  p r o j e c t development are maintained.  ever a p r o j e c t i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver l i e s beyond the scope of  When-  119 i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c r can be undertaken by a l i a s o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , the G.V.R.D. ( o r g a n i z a t i o n ) f u l f i l l s t h i s need by p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , r e g u l a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s , undertaking works, and, i n general,  e x e r c i s i n g f u n c t i o n s which i t adopts.  Furthermore, the  I n d u s t r i a l Development Commission, c r e a t e d by r e g i o n a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  i n d u s t r y , o f f e r s a wide range o f business s e r v i c e s , i . e . s i t e  availability, and  land p r i c e s , s t a t i s t i c s and l e g a l a d v i c e , without f e e  i n strictest 13. The  confidence.  Cost o f u t i l i t i e s u t i l i t y t a r i f f r a t e f o r gas and e l e c t r i c i t y  out the G.V.R.D.  i s equal through-  E l e c t r i c i t y , f o r example, i s c o s t e d e i t h e r by a  block or demand energy r a t e f o r r e s p e c t i v e l y s m a l l e r or l a r g e r U i t h a block r a t e , p r i c e decreases with g r e a t e r usage.  loads.  A lower p r i c e  per K.U.H. i s charged f o r more e f f i c i e n t usage under a demand energy 25 rate.  Usage and e f f i c i e n c y o f usage vary  Goldberg demonstrates, a f i r m ' s production  s p a t i a l l y because, as f u n c t i o n and s c a l e  itself  26 vary s p a t i a l l y . under a constant  Therefore,  r a t e s t r u c t u r e v a r i e s throughout M e t r o p o l i t a n  Associated  with the cost o f u t i l i t i e s i s t h e i r  I f demand f o r e l e c t r i c i t y transmission  the cost o f u t i l i t i e s t o a given  firm Vancouver.  availability.  exceeds 5,000 K.U.H., the f i r m r e q u i r e s a  l i n e r a t h e r than a d i s t r i b u t i o n l i n e .  Lafarge Cement  L t d . , Hooker Chemicals L t d . and o i l r e f i n e r i e s are examples o f such users.  Since t r a n s m i s s i o n  intrametropolitan  l i n e s vary s p a t i a l l y i n t h e i r  location i s influenced accordingly.  u s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e d by zoning  availability,  Availability i s  such t h a t i f a f i r m r e q u i r e s a C.BiD.  l o c a t i o n and more than 5,000 K.U.H., zoning 27 a C.B.D. l o c a t i o n .  precludes  the f i r m from  120 14. The  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r employees a v a i l a b i l i t y of public transportation  f o r employees v a r i e s  s p a t i a l l y i n the G.V.R.D. i n terms o f s e r v i c e frequency and number of r o u t e s .  Employees are most l i k e l y t o use p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t on  weekdays between 7.00 a.m. and 10.00 a.m., and 4.00 p.m. t o 7.00 p.m. Bus  timetables  reveal significant s p a t i a l variation of service  frequency a t these t i m e s .  For example, between 7.00 a.m. and 8.00 a.m.  on weekdays, 12 buses stop at 41st and G r a n v i l l e heading north i n the same p e r i o d only 2 buses leave  while  the Sexsmith loop f o r Richmond.  S i m i l a r c o n t r a s t s between c e n t r a l and p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s e x i s t on 28 other r o u t e s .  The reason f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n s e r v i c e frequency i s  e s s e n t i a l l y based on aggregate demand which i s r e l a t e d to p o p u l a t i o n density.  Consequently, the employee who l i v e s i n a p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n  receives  l e s s frequent  location.  bus s e r v i c e than i f he l i v e d i n a c e n t r a l  There are a l s o fewer bus r o u t e s i n p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s .  T h i s could cause some inconvenience to walk t o a bus r o u t e . the s p a t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f l u e n c e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n 15.  Accordingly,  f o r employees  could  location of certain firms.  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f amenities i n the r e g i o n  Amenities such as adequate highways, h e a t i n g ,  schools,  l i g h t , water, and f i r e and p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n are g e n e r a l l y throughout M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver.  sewage,  offered  In some p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s how-  ever, the absence o f some o f these important amenities a c c o r d i n g l y fluences  intrametropolitan 16.  in-  location.  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f housing f o r employees  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f housing f o r employees can be important to f i r m s which d e s i r e employee l o y a l t y .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f housing at a p r i c e  121 which employees can a f f o r d v a r i e s s p a t i a l l y as w e l l as by  firm*  Firms which d e s i r e to l o c a t e or r e l o c a t e w i t h i n the Region might d i s c o v e r t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing f o r employees s i g n i f i c a n t l y determines the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n 17.  l o c a t i o n a l choice.  A v a i l a b i l i t y of l a r g e t r a c t s of  The  land  a v a i l a b i l i t y of l a r g e t r a c t s of land i s r e q u i r e d by some  f i r m s to accommodate a land extensive o n - s i t e expansion.  Since  p l a n t and/or to enable  future  l a r g e t r a c t s of land are g e n e r a l l y l e s s  c o s t l y and more abundant i n p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s , i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s f a c t o r . 18.  Absence o f t r a f f i c  T r a f f i c congestion  v a r i e s i n both time and  p o l i t a n Vancouver, congestion l e a d toward b r i d g e s . from 7.00 7.00  a.m.  p.m.,  In Metro-  g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s on main a r t e r i e s which  to 9.00  a.m.  and  away from the C.B.D. from 4.00  Monday through F r i d a y .  congestion  space.  T h i s occurs i n the d i r e c t i o n toward the C.B.D.  micro l e v e l i n the context  p.m.  to  Congestion a l s o occurs at a more  of a c c e s s i b i l i t y whereby absence of  i n r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e i s important.  r e t a i l shopping centres planning  congestion  are u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r a t e  traffic  Large  of t h i s f a c t o r i n  their location. 19. The  High q u a l i t y environment environmental q u a l i t y of a given s i t e depends somewhat upon  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n Nevertheless,  of what c o n s t i t u t e s high q u a l i t y .  the absence of p o l l u t i o n and  the presence of a r c h i t e c t u r a l  and n a t u r a l scenery are environmental q u a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . considerations  vary throughout the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  area and  to be important to o f f i c e and r e t a i l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s .  These are  likely  E.  Summary T h i s chapter e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t the present  n a i r e survey i s of greater group of the questionnaire  HPS  study.  are r e q u i r e d  use  question-  to the land use r a t h e r than economics  However, s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the to f u l l y e s t a b l i s h the  l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s at the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n metropolitan  location  a n a l y s i s of the  level.  importance of Limited  l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  because the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r most f i r m s i s known.  The  the  intrai s possible factors  which comprise the survey appear s u i t e d to a r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than intrametropolitan  l o c a t i o n study because they u s u a l l y d i s p l a y  most v a r i a t i o n at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . these f a c t o r s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y vary  the  I t i s , however, argued t h a t at the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  level.  That s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n of r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s e x i s t s i n t h i s study at the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  l e v e l suggests t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  e m p i r i c a l s y n t h e s i s of r e g i o n a l and required.  intrametropolitan  i n t o the  location i s  123 F.  References  """Perloff, H.S., Education f o r Planning, ( B a l t i m o r e : Hopkins Press, 1957), pp. 11-12.  John  2 T h i s s p e c i f i c s i m u l a t i o n model i s a r e p l i c a , expressed mathematically, o f the way the G.l/.R.D. grows and f u n c t i o n s . Manipul a t i o n o f the model enables assessment o f the present or f u t u r e consequences o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n order t o a v o i d u n d e s i r a b l e p o l i c i e s . ^Goldberg, M.A., "The I n t e r - I n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i c y S i m u l a t o r : H P S " i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973, (Vancouver, B.C.: S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, 1973), p. 5. I b i d . , p. 7. 5  I b i d . , pp. 5-7.  ^ I d e n t i t y o f those f i r m s or a c t i v i t i e s which comprise the economic base and an approximate numerical value o f the economic base m u l t i p l i e r are paramount. Canadian c i t i e s t y p i c a l l y have an economic base m u l t i p l i e r o f approximately two. T h i s means t h a t one export job supports two l o c a l j o b s ; c o n t r o l o f f i r m s i n a c i t y ' s economic base i s d e s i r a b l e . The economic base m u l t i p l i e r i s d e r i v e d from the r a t i o T/E where T = t o t a l urban employment and E = t o t a l export urban employment.7 Three well-known methods to measure the economic base a r e : the "whole i n d u s t r y method", the "value added method!!, and the "minimum requirements method." A g e n e r a l weakness with these three methods i s that c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f employment as e i t h e r export or l o c a l i s not e a s i l y a t t a i n e d ; t h a t over time, l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s change i n t o export a c t i v i t i e s ; and t h a t s i n c e the m u l t i p l i e r i s a f f e c t e d by c i t y s i z e , the n a t i o n p r o v i d e s the only v a l i d measurement u n i t . 8 A l s o , agglomera t i o n economies caused by an export a c t i v i t y can a t t r a c t new j o b s , a s i d e from those l o c a l jobs supported by the export a c t i v i t y , t o an area's economic base.9 Smith, Id. F., " P r i n c i p l e s o f Urban Development", B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972), p. 103.  (Vancouver,  g Roterus, V. and C a l e f , Id., "Notes on the Basic-Nonbasic Employment R a t i o " , Economic Geography, 31, (1955), pp. 17-20. g Smith, Id.F., Op. c i t . , p. 134. I b i d . , p. 133.  124  "^Goldberg, M.A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : S i z e and the Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n , ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1969), pp. 186-187. 1 2  I b i d . , p. 9.  "^The e d i t o r ( s ) , "Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada" (Vancouver and Louer Mainland I n d u s t r i a l Development Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 1971) p. 1. 14 Goldberg,  M.A.,  L o c . c i t . , p. 6.  15 Tomko, Ul. L.,"An A n a l y s i s o f the Real Property Assessments and Taxes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, "(Vancouver, B.C.: unpublished M.Sc. t h e s i s , 1972), pp. 44, 117, 118. 1 6  I b i d . , p. 118.  17  Space f o r Industry, G.V.R.D. Planning Department, 1971, p. 28. 18 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n uas obtained i n an i n t e r v i e w i n February, 1972 with MacLeod, D.H., A.A.C.I., Vancouver Regional Manager o f Property S e r v i c e s f o r the Department o f P u b l i c Ulorks. 19 " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972." T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1972) p. C-20. 2 Q  I b i d . , p. C-24.  2 1  I b i d . , p. C-25.  2 2  I b i d . , p. C-21.  2 3  I b i d . , p. C-22.  2 4  I b i d . , p. C-7.  25 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained i n a telephone i n t e r v i e w on March 6th, 1973 with Mr. George Barnett o f B. C. Hydro. 26 Goldberg, M.A., the Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n "  " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n and (unpublished a r t i c l e , U.B.C, 1971) pp.1-20.  125  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained i n a telephone i n t e r v i e w on March 6th, 1973, with Mr. George Barnett of B.C. Hydro. 28 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from c u r r e n t bus t i m e t a b l e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power A u t h o r i t y .  126  CHAPTER V  ANALYSIS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE DATA A.  Introduction T h i s chapter e x p l a i n s the g e n e r a l method and summarizes the  s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A b r i e f mathematical  Appendix , J V i s i n c l u d e d f o r the reader's con-  venience; Appendix III c o n t a i n s data uihich i s p e r t i n e n t t o Chapter V. The  importance  o f s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s i n the l o c a t i o n /  r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The s i z e / l o c a t i o n f a c t o r r e g r e s s i o n models provide a l i m i t e d e m p i r i c a l data base f o r the land use group i n t h e i r development o f models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s a c r o s s the Region. The  " S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s "  (SPSS)  1  i s used t o perform the a n a l y s i s because: "1.  2.  S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t types o f d e s i r e d data a n a l y s i s can be simply and c o n v e n i e n t l y performed by a person with no programming experience; and SPSS i s extremely formats."2  f l e x i b l e with r e s p e c t to data  There are 43 v a r i a b l e s c o n s i d e r e d i n the s t a t i s t i c a l Table 5.1 d e f i n e s each v a r i a b l e :  analysis;  Table 5.1  V a r i a b l e s Considered i n the S t a t i s t i c a l  ID. Number:  V001  SIC Number:  V0Q2  S e c t o r Groupings:  Analysis  VTJ03 • 15  1.1  -  1.3:  1  15.1 -  2.1  -  2.2:  2  16.1 - 16.7: 16  3.1  -  3  17.1 - 17.3: 17  4.1  -  4.3:  4  18.1 - 18.3: 18  5.1  -  5.6:  5  19.1  19  6.1  -  6.4:  6  20.1  20  7.1  -  7.2:  7  21.1  21  B.2:  a  22.1  22  9  23.1 - 23.2: 23  fl.l 9.1  1D.1 - ID.2: ID  24.1  24  11.1 - 11.2: 11  25.1  25  12.1  12  26.1  26  13.1 - 13.3: 13  27.1  27  14.1 -  14  Number o f Employees:  V004 L o c a t i o n Code:  1.  C.B.D.  2.  Vancouver:  N.bJ.  3.  Vancouver:  N.E.  4.  Vancouver:  S.kl.  5.  Vancouver:  S.E.  6.  Richmond  7.  Delta  a.  Surrey  9.  Coquitlam  V005 10.  Neu Westminster  11.  Burnaby N. (North o f the Lougheed Highuay)  12.  Burnaby S. (South o f the Lougheed Highuay)  13.  Port Moody  14.  North Vancouver  15.  West Vancouver  16.  White Rock  17.  U.B.C. endoument lands  128  Table 5.1  V a r i a b l e s Considered i n the S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s -  L o c a t i o n Survey V a r i a b l e s : Question 1:  VDD6 to V043 i n c l u s i v e  For each o f the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s would you please i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance i n your d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e your business i n the Vancouver Region.  Range o f responses per v a r i a b l e apart  from the n u l l response:  1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  important  3.  important  k,  absolutely e s s e n t i a l  VD06:  Nearness t o markets  VQ.07:  General labour  supply  VDC-S:  Skilled  supply  VDD9:  Employee wage s c a l e s  VOID:  L o c a l property  V011:  Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  VD12:  Rail  V013;  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  VQ14:  Air  VQ15  Land p r i c e s or l e a s e  VD16  Construction  VQ17  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e t o i n d u s t r y  VD18 :  Cost o f u t i l i t i e s  VQ19 :  Availability  o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r employees  VQ20  Availability  o f amenities i n the r e g i o n  VD21 :  Availability  o f housing f o r employees  VQ22 :  Availability  o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  V023 :  Absence o f t r a f f i c  VD24 :  High q u a l i t y environment  Question 2:  continued  labour  and business taxes  transportation transportation rates  costs  congestion  I f you were t o move from the Vancouver Region, would you please i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance o f the f a l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n your d e c i s i o n t o r e l o c a t e elsewhere.  Range o f responses per v a r i a b l e apart from the n u l l  response:  1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  important  3.  important  k.  absolutely e s s e n t i a l  129  Table 5.1  V a r i a b l e s Considered i n the S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s -  VLT25;  Nearness t o markets  1/026  General labour  supply  U027.  Skilled  supply  1/028  Employee wage s c a l e s  V029  L o c a l property  V030  Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  V031:  Rail  VQ32  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  V033  Air  V034  Land p r i c e s o r l e a s e  V035  Construction  V036  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e t o i n d u s t r y  V/037  Cost o f u t i l i t i e s  1/038 :  Availability  o f p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r employees  VQ39 :.  Availability  o f housing f o r employees  V040  Availability  o f amenities i n r e g i o n  MQkl :  Availability  o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  MOkZ :  Absence o f t r a f f i c  V043  High q u a l i t y environment  labour  and business taxes  transportation transportation rates  costs  congestion  continued  130 F i g u r e 5.1.  Source:  The L o c a t i o n Code, V0Q5.  " M u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , " G.V.R.D. Planning Department, 1973.  131  No r e l e v a n t purpose  i s served i n t h i s r e p o r t t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y  analyze V/001, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number, or 1/002, SIC number, a s t a t i s t i c such as the v a r i a n c e i s meaningless ables.  because  f o r nominal  vari-  The meagre response a l s o p r e c l u d e s a n a l y s i s v i a SIC number.  V/001 and V/002 are, however, t r e a t e d as v a r i a b l e s f o r programming convenience, while t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are i n h e r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d v i a subpopulations o f V/005, l o c a t i o n , and V/003, s e c t o r , r e s p e c t ively.  The l o c a t i o n survey v a r i a b l e  "Other ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) " i s  ignored i n t h i s study due t o extremely l i m i t e d and i d i o s y n c r a t i c response. location B.  F i g u r e 4.1 i s a map which shows each area o f V/005, the code.  S i g n i f i c a n c e Analysis o f Questionnaire Variables Frequency  data d e r i v e d from the MARGINALS subprogram i s used  to analyze the q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s , VQ06 t o V043 i n c l u s i v e , i n terms o f t h e i r importance.  This particular analysis i s essentially  i n t e r - r e g i o n a l s i n c e no s p a t i a l v a r i a t i o n a t the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l i s presently considered.  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s are  v i s u a l l y summarized f o r each s u b p o p u l a t i o n i n F i g u r e s I t o V I I I i n c l u s i v e i n Appendix III.'  Rather than d i s c u s s the importance  level of  each v a r i a b l e , Tables I t o VII i n Appendix H I i s o l a t e v a r i a b l e s  con-  s i d e r e d important i n the l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n by subpopulation.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s are grouped  category l a b e l l e d  a r b i t r a r i l y i n the  "important" i f more than 60% o f the responses to a  given v a r i a b l e a r e f a i r l y important ( f a c t o r 2 ) , important ( f a c t o r 3 ) , or a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l ( f a c t o r 4 ) . Approximately one-half o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s are important i n the l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n  132  d e c i s i o n s f o r manufacturing,  r e t a i l , wholesale  trade and s t o r a g e ,  and a l l s e c t o r s . From the above, i t i s apparent t h a t a comparison e x i s t s between l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r each subpopulation because each o f the v a r i a b l e s from q u e s t i o n 1 has a counterpart i n question 2.  The f a l l o w i n g l i s t  summarizes each v a r i a b l e and i t s  counterpart. Table 5 . I I .  Counterpart  V a r i a b l e from question §1  Questionnaire  Variables Counterpart v a r i a b l e from q u e s t i o n #2  V006  VQ25  VDQ7  VD26  VDD8  VD27  V009  VQ28  VOID  VQ29  V011  V03Q  VD12  V031  VD13  V032  VQ14  V033  VQ15  V034  VD16  V0.35  VQ17  VQ36  VD18  VD37  V019  VD38  V02Q  VD39  V021  VD40  V022  VD41  VD23  V042  VQ24  V043  Tables I to VII i n Appendix (III f u r t h e r c o n t a i n a l l counterpart p a i r s which are both important response p a t t e r n f o r q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2. i s used to generate index of responss population.  as w e l l as s i m i l a r i n  The NONPARCORR subprogram  Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s as an  p a t t e r n s i m i l a r i t y f o r counterpart p a i r s by  Nie, Bent and H u l l suggest  sub-  t h a t the Spearman co-  e f f i c i e n t s are a p p l i c a b l e to data which i s at l e a s t o r d i n a l i n scale.  3  A t w o - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s performed because no  e x p l i c i t hypothesis concerning e f f i c i e n t i s made.  the expected  d i r e c t i o n of the  co-  Table VIII i n Appendix I U summarizes s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t , i . e . l e s s than or equal to the .05  l e v e l , Spearman c o r -  r e l a t i o n s o f counterpart v a r i a b l e s by s u b p o p u l a t i o n . V I I I , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t only the primary  From Table  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r s  d i s p l a y a r e l a t i v e l y d i s s i m i l a r response p a t t e r n between questions 1 and 2.  T h i s response p a t t e r n i s v i s u a l l y c o r r o b o r a t e d i n F i g u r e  VIII i n Appendix 'III. Note t h a t the primary  and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r s  are s e v e r e l y c o n s t r a i n e d by a r e s p e c t i v e data p a u c i t y of 11 and  12  cases.  C.  I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n L o c a t i o n of Industry  Subpopulations  This intrametropolitan analysis of industry l o c a t i o n i s based on frequency which y i e l d one-way frequency These f o u r procedures  are:  data.  subpopulation  SPSS c o n t a i n s f o u r subprograms  d i s t r i b u t i o n s and r e l a t e d  statistics.  CONDESCRIPTIVE, C0DEB00K, FASTMARG  MARGINALS; MARGINALS i s used i n t h i s study. produced a b s o l u t e , r e l a t i v e and cumulative  and  Each run o f MARGINALS frequency  tables.  Missing  values caused by no response to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e or incom-  134  p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by a given f i r m are excluded from the tables.  In f a c t , m i s s i n g v a l u e s are excluded wherever f e a s i b l e  throughout  t h i s study because t h e i r i n c l u s i o n causes a degree o f  i n a c c u r a c y which i n c r e a s e s u i t h the number o f m i s s i n g v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o the number o f c a s e s . Tables IX t o XV/ i n Appendix III present the a b s o l u t e and r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s a t each l o c a t i o n f o r a given s u b p o p u l a t i o n . Table XV/ r e v e a l s t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l f i r m s s t u d i e d i s h e a v i e s t i n the c e n t r a l a r e a s :  C.B.D., Vancouver N.W. and IVI.E.  (please r e f e r to F i g u r e s 5.1). The remaining  i n d u s t r y subpopulations  a l s o r e v e a l a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n but with s l i g h t ations.  vari-  Table IX shows t h a t the l o c a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f primary  s e c t o r f i r m s i s h e a v i e s t i n the C.B.D. and moderate i n Vancouver and Richmond.  The l o c a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f manufacturing  N.W.  firms i n  Table X i s somewhat even u i t h h e a v i e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the C.B.D., Vancouver N.E. and IM.W. wholesale  Table XI shows the l o c a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  trade and storage f i r m s i s c e n t r a l u i t h the l a r g e r concen-  t r a t i o n s i n the C.B.D., Vancouver N.W. and IM.E.  The l o c a t i o n  dis-  t r i b u t i o n o f r e t a i l f i r m s i n Table X I I i s c e n t r a l u i t h l a r g e r concent r a t i o n s i n the C.B.D. and Vancouver N.W.  Table X I I I shows t h a t the  location d i s t r i b u t i o n of infrastructure firms i s c e n t r a l l y i n the C.B.D.  concentrated  F i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e are shoun i n  T a b l e XIV to be c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n the C.B.D., Vancouver N.W. and N.E. is,  I t i s noted t h a t the o v e r a l l t r e n d o f c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d f i r m s i n a l l cases, wholly c o n s i s t e n t with M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver's  " c o r e - r i n g " s p a t i a l form and the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n o f busi n e s s subpopulations developed  i n Chapter  III.  I t i s argued t h a t  135  the c e n t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n trends are not caused by the p r o p e n s i t y o f head o f f i c e s t o r e p l y because m u l t i p l e establishment f i r m s mere instructed to report establishments separately. D.  S i z e - L o c a t i o n A n a l y s i s o f Industry  Subpopulations  Given the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f where the v a r i o u s i n dustry groups l o c a t e , a n a l y s i s o f where d i f f e r e n t s i z e s o f an i n d u s t r y c l a s s l o c a t e p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l evidence towards a l o c a t i o n theory which i s at l e a s t a p p l i c a b l e to the Region.  BREAKDOWN i s used  i n t h i s study t o analyze the dependent v a r i a b l e 1/004, number o f employees, with the independent  v a r i a b l e V/005, l o c a t i o n .  Goldberg  suggests t h a t the number o f employees i s a good s u r r o g a t e o f a f i r m ' s size.  Table 5 . I l l shows the mean breakdown o f V/004, number o f em-  ployees, by V/005, l o c a t i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s grouped t o g e t h e r .  Ignoring  l o c a t i o n s with only a few cases, Table 5 . I l l r e v e a l s t h a t f i r m s which l o c a t e i n Richmond, New Westminister, are l a r g e r on the average N.W.,  Burnaby S. and North Vancouver  than those l o c a t e d i n the C.B.D., Vancouver  Vancouver N.E., Vancouver S.W.  and Vancouver S.E.  Although  Table 5 . I l l p r o v i d e s some evidence t h a t l a r g e r f i r m s l o c a t e  centrally  while s m a l l e r firms; l o c a t e p e r i p h e r a l l y f o r f i r m s i n aggregate, i t ' i s unknown whether these f i r m s are from the same i n d u s t r y subpopulation.  Table 5.IV shows the mean breakdown o f VQ04, number o f em-  p l o y e e s , by l o c a t i o n group f o r each s u b p o p u l a t i o n .  Here, V005,  l o c a t i o n , i s grouped as e i t h e r c e n t r a l or p e r i p h e r a l because the t o t a l number o f cases f o r each subpopulation i s too s m a l l to c a l c u l ate meaningful s t a t i s t i c s f o r 17 l o c a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s .  I t i s evident  from Table 5.IV t h a t the mean l e v e l o f employment d i f f e r s sub-  136  Table 5 . I l l  Mean BREAKDOWN o f 1/004, number o f employees, by V/005, l o c a t i o n .  Mean  # o f cases  115.342  111  N.W.  53.520  50  3.  V/ancouver: N.E.  119.143  28  4.  V/ancouver:  5.W.  35.286  7  Vancouver: S.E.  111.000  6  6.  Richmond  159.500  14  a.  Surrey  48.143  7  9.  Coquitlam  82.500  2  139.250  8  1.  C.B.D.  2.  V/ancouver:  35.  10.  Neu Westminster  11.  Burnaby N.  12.  Burnaby 5.  195.765  17  13.  Port Moody  2.000  1  14.  North V/ancouver  217.182  11  15.  West V/ancouver  6.500  4  17.  U.B.C. endoument lands  37.667  3  108.768  271  Entire  20.5  Population  2  s t a n t i a l l y betueen the c e n t r a l and p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s o f each subpopulation  except the manufacturing s e c t o r s .  T h i s mean l e v e l o f  employment d i f f e r e n t i a l suggests t h a t l a r g e r f i r m s l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y for  primary, manufacturing, r e t a i l and wholesale s e c t o r s while  smaller  f i r m s l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y f o r the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and adminis-  trative sectors. for  T h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s q u a l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t  primary, r e t a i l , wholesale, i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s e c t o r s ; only 5, 2, 2, 4, and 9 responses uere r e s p e c t i v e l y  received  from p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s .  manu-  Moreover, the f a c t t h a t s m a l l e r  f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s on average uere p e r i p h e r a l l y l o c a t e d could e a s i l y  Table 5.IV  Mean BREAKDOWN o f V004, number o f employees, by l o c a t i o n group f o r each subpopulation  Peripheral Location Mean  Central Location Mean  Total Population Mean  205.444  (9)  98.600  (5)  167.286  (14)  Manufacturing Sectors  119.404  (57)  84.250  (28)  107.824  (85)  3.  R e t a i l Trade  327.500  (16)  12.500  (2)  292.500  (18)  4.  Wholesale Trade and Storage  105.607  (28)  5.0  (2)  1.  Primary  2.  Sectors  98.9  5.  Infrastructure  88.857  (7)  463.750  (4)  225.182  6.  F i n a n c i a l and Administrative Services  54.067  (104)  181.889  (9)  64.248  Note:  (30) (11)  (113)  Numbers i n b r a c k e t s , i . e . (.), r e f e r to the number o f cases used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n o f a given s t a t i s t i c . C e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s are comprised o f the C.B.D., Vancouver N.E., S.W., S.E., Burnaby North, and Burnaby South.  N.W.,  P e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s are comprised o f Richmond, Surrey, Coquitlam, Neu Westminster, P o r t Moody, North and West Vancouver, and the U.B.C. endoument l a n d s .  occur by chance s i n c e Steed argues,  "Greater Vancouver, houever, even  i n 1965, had a r a t h e r l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f  small...(manufacturing)...  p l a n t s o p e r a t i n g o u t s i d e the i n n e r core...""'  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s un-  c e r t a i n uhether the above s i z e - l o c a t i o n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are v a l i d f o r given subpopulations  due to i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a .  I t can only be  s t a t e d u i t h s l i g h t confidence 'that i n general.";: l a r g e r firmsntend to l o c a t e j p e n t r a l l y u h i l e s m a l l e r f i r m s tend t o l o c a t e p e r i p h e r a l l y , given a c e n t r a l i z e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i r m s i n the G.V.R.D.  138  Since the mean s t a t i s t i c i s best understood  with i t s standard  d e v i a t i o n , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f these s i z e - l o c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s required.  However, the mean and standard d e v i a t i o n per se are  not f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r e d because i n a l l o f the cases i n Tables and 5.IV/, the standard d e v i a t i o n i s approximately the mean.  5.Ill  equal t o twice  At b e s t , the use o f the mean s t a t i s t i c above i s a good  indication of central  tendency.  The s i z e - l o c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s suggested analyzed v i a c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n .  above are f u r t h e r  In SPSS, FASTABS produces the same 7"  output f o r i n t e g e r v a r i a b l e s as GROSSTABS but s i g n i f i c a n t l y cheaper. ' FASTABS i s t h e r e f o r e than GROSSTABS.  used f o r the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s  Each r u n o f FASTABS i s performed  rather  under the d e f a u l t  o p t i o n s i n c e i t i s d e s i r a b l e to exclude m i s s i n g data; p r i n t l a b e l s ; and p r i n t raw, column and t o t a l percentage  tables.  The s t a t i s t i c s  requested f o r each run o f the FASTABS subprogram are summarized as follows: "1.  Chi-square ( F i s h e r ' s t e s t f o r a 2x2 t a b l e when l e s s than 21 cases; Yates' c o r r e c t e d X2 f o r a l l other 2x2 t a b l e s ) .  2.  K e n d a l l ' s Tau B."  A b r i e f mathematical Appendix  8  d i s c u s s i o n o f these s t a t i s t i c s i s found i n  IV. Table 5.V shows the r e s u l t s o f the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n  analysis  o f s e c t o r , number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s .  The  2 very s m a l l X  s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d with V003 x MOQk and  V0Q3 x VQQ5 suggest t h a t these two c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s dependent.  are s t a t i s t i c a l l y  T h e r e f o r e , labour i n t e n s i t y and the number o f employees 2 depend on the s e c t o r i n q u e s t i o n . The X s i g n i f i c a n c e value o f  139  .3168 adds very weak support to the above h y p o t h e s i s t h a t firms  locate  f o r firms  centrally  i n aggregate.  uihile s m a l l e r f i r m s  locate  larger  peripherally  In f a c t , K e n d a l l ' s Tau B s i g n i f i c a n t l y  suggests a very uieak degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n  between s i z e and l o c a t i o n .  Table 5.VI shows the r e s u l t s o f the c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n of the number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r each s e c t o r larger firms  analysis  group.  That  l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y f o r primary and r e t a i l s e c t o r s i s  very weakly supported by F i s h e r ' s  exact t e s t but d e f i n i t e l y supported  by the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f K e n d a l l ' s Tau B.  The s t a t i s t i c s i n Table  5.1/1 do not support the hypothesis that locate c e n t r a l l y .  l a r g e r manufacturing  I t appears that no d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o r manufacturing f i r m s with r e s p e c t  to l o c a t i o n and s i z e .  firms exists This  r e s u l t i s i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the evidence i n Table 3.XII which indicates that  l a r g e r manufacturing f i r m s  l o c a t e p e r i p h e r a l l y and  p vice versa.  Although the c o r r e c t e d  X  t e s t suggests an independent  s i z e - l o c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r wholesale s e c t o r s ,  K e n d a l l ' s Tau B  i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s some tendency f o r l a r g e r w h o l e s a l e r s to locate c e n t r a l l y .  The hypothesis t h a t s m a l l e r f i r m s  f o r the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ported by Table 5.VI.  sectors  locate  centrally  i s somewhat sup-  140  Table 5.1/  Note:  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f s e c t o r , number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s  1/003 i s grouped i n t o 27 c a t e g o r i e s , 1/004 i n t o 4 c a t e g o r i e s and 1/005 i n t o 17 c a t e g o r i e s . 1/004 i s grouped as f o l l o w s : 1 t o 15 employees: 16 t o 60 employees: 61 t o 150 employees: 151 t o 9,999 employees:  group group group group  1 2 3 4  Subpopulation  Crossftabulation  K e n d a l l ' s Taljl) Significance  A l l Sectors  1/003 x 1/004  Not  applicable  272  1/003 x 1/005  Not  applicable  297  t/004 x 17005  .05998/.0706  Table 5.1/1  Note:  # of Cases  271  C r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f number o f employees and l o c a t i o n f o r each s e c t o r group  S t a t i s t i c s o f a s s o c i a t i o n are not computed f o r c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n s which i n v o l v e 1/003 because t h i s v a r i a b l e causes l x l o r 1x2 t a b l e s t o be generated. Mere, 1/005 i s grouped as c e n t r a l o r p e r i p h e r a l while 1/004 i s grouped as f o l l o w s : 1 t o 60 employees: 61 to 9,999 employees:  group 1 group 2 # of Cases  Crosstabulation  Primary sectors  U004 x 1/005  .37762  -.2444/.1117  14  Manufacturing  1/004 x U005  .9935  -.02606/.3620  85 "  R e t a i l Trade  V004 x 1/005  .35948  -.28204/.0511  18  wholesale trade  V004 x U005  .7958  -.18898/.0712  30  Infrastructure  V004 x 1/005  .19697  .44854/.0274  11  .1772  .16691/.0044  113  Finance and A d m i n i s t r a t i o i i 1/004 x UQ05  C o r r e c t e d X of F i s h e r ' s Exact Test S i g n i f i cance  K e n d a l l ' s TaUB/ Significance  Subpopulation  141  E.  Regression Technique  T h i s study u t i l i z e s  stepwise l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s to  determine the nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e p l a n t s i z e o r number o f employees, 1/004, and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to 1/043 i n c l u s i v e .  Since  previous  v a r i a b l e s , 1/006  analysis reveals the r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between 1/004 and l o c a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o determine which questionnaire  v a r i a b l e s i n c r e a s e i n importance f o r f i r m s o f the  same subpopulation  i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y or p e r i p h e r -  a l l y w i t h i n the G.V.R.D. and t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the G.V.R.D. I t i s noted t h a t r e g r e s s i o n can only demonstrate the s t a t i s t i c a l t e n a b i l i t y o f an hypothesized c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Harnett c a u t i o n s  a g a i n s t the " r e g r e s s i o n  Moreover,  fallacy."  "This f a l l a c y occurs when one attempts t o r e l a t e the values o f a v a r i a b l e a t one p o i n t i n time t o the comparable values o f t h a t same v a r i a b l e a t some other p o i n t i n time. The problem i n using r s g r e s s i o h or c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h i s circumstance a r i s e s because o f the tendency f o r unusually high or low values o f a random v a r i a b l e t o be f o l l o w e d by more average v a l u e s . "  g  In order t o compute the r e g r e s s i o n equations, standard  the means,  d e v i a t i o n s and a Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t matrix  based on a l l o f the r e g r e s s i o n v a r i a b l e s , i s c a l c u l a t e d . standard  d e v i a t i o n s are computed such t h a t missing  data are excluded  per v a r i a b l e t o thereby o b t a i n meaningful s t a t i s t i c s .  Calculation of  the Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i s performed with d e l e t i o n o f missing  data i n order t o , " . . . u t i l i z e  Means and  pairwise  as much o f the data  as p o s s i b l e i n the computation o f each c o e f f i c i e n t .  P a i r w i s e de-  l e t i o n has the disadvantage...under some circumstances...of producing c o e f f i c i e n t s . . . b a s e d on a d i f f e r e n t number o f c a s e s . "  1 0  Since the  # o f cases command used i n the r e g r e s s i o n program s p e c i f i e s the  142  number o f cases the c o r r e l a t i o n s  are based on, i t i s p o s s i b l e  to  perform r e g r e s s i o n s u s i n g a maximum or minimum number o f c a s e s . The maximum case i s t h a t  o f the c o r r e l a t i o n which uses more cases  than a l l o t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s  f o r a g i v e n s u b p o p u l a t i o n and v i c e v e r s a .  T h e r e f o r e , what i s v a l i d f o r a r s g r e s s i o n number o f cases i s a l s o  v a l i d u s i n g the maximum number o f cases  because more i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d . necessarily  run u s i n g the minimum  The converse, however, i s not  t r u e although no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  between maximum  and minimum runs o c c u r r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n analysis.  c o e f f i c i e n t s are used i n the r e g r e s s i o n  Nie, Bent and H u l l s t a t e  that:  "The c h o i c e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n procedure t o be used i s u s u a l l y based on the type o f data being employed. In g e n e r a l , Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s are used with i n t e r v a l s c a l e s . Rankings and o r d i n a l c a t e g o r i e s do not u s u a l l y have these q u a l i t i e s . The Spearman and K e n d a l l rank-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are genera l l y used with these o r d i n a l variables....However, i n a c t u a l i t y t h e r e i s no f i r m agreement among p r a c t i c i n g r e s e a r c h e r s on the, s e l e c t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ? s p a r t i c u l a r l y on the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f the use o f Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s with o r d i n a l data."11 Aside from the s c a l e variables,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which apply t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  K e n d a l l ' s Tau i s much more expensive t o c a l c u l a t e  Pearson's c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  data used i n the computation rank c o r r e l a t i o n  than  To process m i s s i n g data, a l l  of both K e n d a l l ' s Tau and Spearman's  c o e f f i c i e n t s must be core r e s i d e n t  throughout  the  12 c a l c u l a t i o n procedure.  Consequently,  the maximum s i z e matrix f o r  f i l e storage o f these o r d i n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s i s 3D x 3 D . 3 9 x 3 9 c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i s needed, the only way correlations  1  3  to use  Since a orginal  i s to keypunch a 3 9 x 3 9 matrix onto cards f o r a l l  seven s u b p o p u l a t i o n s .  T h i s a s t r o n o m i c a l task i s s e v e r e l y prone to  143  error.  Moreover, t r i a l runs o f o r d i n a l c o e f f i c i e n t s are  comparable  to Pearson's c o r r e l a t i o n s . The  main d i f f i c u l t y  questionnaire variables  i n performing r e g r e s s i o n s  i s that  i t i s uncertain  v a l u e s which each q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e can interval scale.  Siegel defines  over  whether the  the four  assume r e p r e s e n t  an i n t e r v a l s c a l e as one  an  which,  "...has a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an o r d i n a l s c a l e , and when i n a d d i t i o n the d i s t a n c e s between any two numbers on the s c a l e are of known s i z e . . . . T h a t i s , i f our mapping of s e v e r a l c l a s s e s o f o b j e c t s i s so prec i s e t h a t we know j u s t how l a r g e are the i n t e r v a l s ( d i s t a n c e s ) between a l l o b j e c t s on the s c a l e , then we have achieved i n t e r v a l measurement. An i n t e r v a l s c a l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a common and constant u n i t which a s s i g n s a r e a l number to a l l p a i r s of o b j e c t s i n the ordered s e t . In t h i s s o r t of measurement, the r a t i o o f any two i n t e r v a l s i s independent o f the u n i t o f measurement and of the zero p o i n t . In an i n t e r v a l s c a l e , the zero p o i n t and the u n i t of measurement are a r b i t r a r y . "1** In order to decide the and  regression  r e a s o n a b i l i t y of whether an  i n t e r v a l scale  equations e x i s t f o r a g i v e n s u b p o p u l a t i o n , the  v a l s are transformed to observe the s t a b i l i t y  o f the  inter-  regression  15 results.  Regressions were performed f o r each s u b p o p u l a t i o n  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a l e :  1.  unimportant, 2. f a i r l y  3. important, and  4. a b s o l u t e l y  equivalent  v e c t o r (•,  to the  reasonable to a t t r i b u t e the words "unimportant" and  essential.  .33,  .66,  value "0"  "absolutely  1). and  important,  This scale i s numerically It i s subjectively "1" r e s p e c t i v e l y  essential."  i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between " f a i r l y important" and doubt as to whether an i n t e r v a l s c a l e e x i s t s . doubt, r e g r e s s i o n s  on  to  the  However, the numer"important" causes To overcome t h i s  were a l s o performed f o r each subpopulation on  scale numerically equivalent  to the v e c t o r (•,  .5,  .66,  o f .5 i s s u b j e c t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the words " f a i r l y  1).  the  A value  important"  144  because i t a l s o seems reasonable to suggest t h a t respondents perc e i v e a l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e between "unimportant" and important" than " f a i r l y  "fairly  important" and ^important".  Interval  vari-  a t i o n i n t h i s f a s h i o n enables meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the regression  results.  occurs using  If l i t t l e  difference  i n the r e g r e s s i o n  equation  e i t h e r s c a l e , one can s t a t e that there i s e s s e n t i a l l y  no v a r i a t i o n i n how respondents i n t e r p r e t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e numbered 1 t o 4.  scale  In other words, respondents c o n s i s t e n t l y assume  an i n t e r v a l s c a l e .  On the other hand, s i g n i f i c a n t r e g r e s s i o n  equation d i f f e r e n c e s between the two s c a l e s i n d i c a t e s the degree o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y due t o the v a r i a t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . amount o f r e g r e s s i o n  change caused by a s u b j e c t i v e  a t i o n p r o v i d e s an index o f response r e l i a b i l i t y  T h e r e f o r e , the  scale transform-  whence the degree t o  which i t i s s u b j e c t i v e l y reasonable to assume t h a t an i n t e r v a l s c a l e exists.  F.  Regression  Results  Question 1; The  A l l sectors  regression  equation f o r a l l s e c t o r s without s c a l e  trans-  formation has a low R square value o f .1862 yet a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . other v a r i a b l e s not c o n s i d e r e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e for  the p r o p o r t i o n  V/004 =  of variance  i n 1/004.  T h i s suggests that can a l s o account  The r e g r e s s i o n  equation i s :  103.1V/022 - 78.63V017 + 40.63V/009 + 23.951/007 + 42.25V/021 - 26.81U024 - 21.23V/020 + 11.07V006 - 22.76V/011 + 31.54V/018 + 16.06V/014 + 21.58V/023 - 18.61V/010 - 11.35V/019 - 18.47V/013 + 21.521/012 - 5.99V015 + 3.97V/008 - 45.95.  145  The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  and  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d uiith confidence  and  1/009.  Therefore,  ( i . e . F^4) f o r V/022, 1/017  the normalized r e g r e s s i o n o r BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s  o f these v a r i a b l e s may a l s o be used: Wariable  BETA  V/022:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  V/017:  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e t o i n d u s t r y  V/009:  Employee wage s c a l e s  .34 -.34 .15  As V/022 and V/009 i n c r e a s e i n importance and V/017 decreases}in  import-  ance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s t o l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., p l a n t s i z e o r the number o f employees, V/004, i n c r e a s e s .  Since  similar r e -  s u l t s e x i s t f o r a l l s e c t o r s under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .66, 1) t o (0, .5, .66,1), i t i s reasonable t o suggest t h a t i s f e a s i b l e with the a l l s e c t o r s subpopulation  Question 2: The formation  .33,  regression  f o r question 1.  A l l sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r a l l s e c t o r s without s c a l e t r a n s -  has a low R square value o f .2018 y e t a l l o f the v a r i a b l e s  i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l . other  (0,  v a r i a b l e s not considered  f o r the p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e  i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n V/004.  T h i s suggests t h a t can a l s o account  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V/004 = 86.02V/041 + 60.76V/026 - 44.Q4V/035 - 49.27V/043 + 39.64V/033 + 411.861/034 - 17.79V029 + 22.141/039 - 14.77V/028 - 9.6V/025 + 26.02VG31 - 21.07V/030c- 2Q.28V/032 - 8.57V036 + B.63V/037 - 6.081/038 - 5.02V040 - 17.11. The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence  ( i . e . F £ 4 ) and  f o r V/041, V/026, V/043,  146  1/033, and 1/035. it  1/035 i s excluded from the a n a l y s i s however, because  i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l s e c t o r s under the s c a l e  The  transformation.  normalized r e g r e s s i o n or BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s o f these v a r i a b l e s  are: Variable  BETA  V041:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  .32  V026:  General labour  .24  V043:  High q u a l i t y environment  V033:  A i r transportation  supply  -.21 .15  As 1/041, VQ26, and 1/033 i n c r e a s e i n importance and V/043 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r a l l s e c t o r s t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, p l a n t s i z e o r the number o f employees, 1/004, i n c r e a s e s . Since s i m i l a r r e s u l t s (except the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  f o r 1/035) e x i s t f o r a l l s e c t o r s under  ( 0 , 6 . 3 3 , .66, 1) t o (0, .5, .66, 1 ) , i t i s  reasonable t o suggest t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s f e a s i b l e with the a l l s e c t o r s subpopulation  f a r question  Question 1: The  2.  Primary  Sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r primary s e c t o r s without s c a l e  transformation  has a maximum R square value o f 1.0.  A l l variables i n  the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l except V017, 1/019, 1/020 and  V015 which are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .1 l e v e l .  The r e g r e s s i o n  equation i s : V004 = -317.6BV017 + 371.29V019 - 75.65V/020 + 386.69V015 - 469.11V010 + 127.92V009 + 76.56V011 + 47.54V022 - 4.161/013 + 151.09 The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence  ( i . e . F"J*4) and  f o r a l l variables i n  147  the above r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e :  Variable  BETA  Y/017:  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e t o i n d u s t r y  V019:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of public transportation  -1.28  f o r employees  .79  1/020:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f amenities i n the r e g i o n  -.24  V/015:  Land p r i c e s o r l e a s e r a t e s  I/O 10:  L o c a l property  1/009:  Employee wage s c a l e s  .41  1/011:  Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  .19  V022:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  .15  .91  and business taxes  1/013: Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n As V019, V015, 1/009, V011, and V/022 i n c r e a s e  -1.19  - .02 i n importance and V017,  1/020, VOID and 1/013 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r primary s e c t o r s t o l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e o r the number o f employees, V004, i n c r e a s e s .  The r e s u l t s are somewhat s i m i l a r f o r  primary s e c t o r s under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o  (0, .5,.66, 1) except t h a t V011 and VD22 are excluded from the r e g r e s s i o n equation and V009 and V020 have BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s o f d i f f e r e n t s i g n and magnitude.  Therefore,  the s t a b i l i t y o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  i s not p e r f e c t f o r question  1, y e t the high R square value  cases i n d i c a t e s t h a t some o f the r e s u l t s are s a l v a g a b l e . V015,  i n both As VQ19,  VQ11 and V022 i n c r e a s e i n importance and V017, VQ10 and V013  decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r primary s e c t o r s t o l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e or the number o f employees, V004, i n creases.  148  Question 2: The  Primary  Sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r primary s e c t o r s without s c a l e  transformation  has a high R square value o f .99997.  A l l variables  i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l except 1/036 which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l . 1/004 =  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  -751.71V036 - 579.19V033 + 130.831/028 - 117.16V/039 + 44.21V040 + 4.44V026 + 2477.35  The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence i n the above r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  ( i . e F">4) and  f o r a l l variables  Only the BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s o f the  f a l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s from the above equation are s i m i l a r i n s i g n and magnitude under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o  (0, .5, .66, 1 ) : Variable  BETA  V036:  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e t o i n d u s t r y  - 2.25  V026:  General labour supply  V022:  A i r transportation  As V026 i n c r e a s e s  .01 - 1.28  i n importance and V036 and V033 decrease i n import-  ance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r primary s e c t o r s t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e or the number o f employees, V004, i n c r e a s e s .  It  i s noted t h a t V028, V039 and V040 i n the above equation do not appear i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation under s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  Therefore,  the above r e s u l t s d e r i v e d from the BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s are accepted, given t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s only p a r t i a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r primary question  2.  sector's  149  Question 1:  Manufacturing  Sectors  The r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r manufacturing  s e c t o r s without  s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has a low R square value o f .2711. a b l e s i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t  Most v a r i -  at the .05 l e v e l except V/009,  V/014 and V/008 a t the .01 l e v e l and V/006 and V/019 a t the .1 l e v e l . V/007 and V/015 are i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V004 = 22.5V/007 - 29.74V/015 + 47.41V/018 + 45.B7V/022 - 50.3U017 + 35.33V/009 - 30.931/014 + 25.86V024 - 9.34V/011 + 34.54V/021 - 29.29V020 + 9.3V013 - 17.26V/016 + 12.4V/008 - 7.35V/006 - G.84V/019 + 21.31 V/018 and V/019 do not appear i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (0, .33, .66, 1) t o (0, .5, .66, 1 ) .  In both  equations, none o f the BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s  Although  regression i s feasible can be s a i d  are s i g n i f i c a n t .  f o r q u e s t i o n 1 o f manufacturing  about the s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n  sectors, l i t t l e  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p  be-  tween V/004 and V/006 t o V/024 i n c l u s i v e .  Question 2:  Manufacturing  Sectors  The r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r manufacturing  s e c t o r s without  s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has a medium R square value o f .4178. ables i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t  a t the .01 l e v e l .  A l l vari-  The r e g r e s s i o n  equation i s : V/004 - 36.96V/039 - 55.091/042 + 74.48V/037 - 22.57V/036 + 19.74V/041 - .41V035 + 15.26V/032 - 19.28V/028 + 30.171/043 - 32.25V/030 + 12.63V/026 + 17.5V/031 - 18.24V/029 - 23.69V/033 - 24.13V034 + 1041U038 + 13.88V/040 + 6.92V/025  49.68.  150  The  BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s o f V042 and 1/037 from the above equation are  s i m i l a r i n s i g n and magnitude under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (0,.33, .66, 1) t o (0, .5, .66, 1 ) : Variable  BETA  V042:  Absence o f t r a f f i c congestion  V037:  Cost o f u t i l i t i e s  -.30 .46  As VQ37 i n c r e a s e s and V042 decreases f o r manufacturing  i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n  s e c t o r s t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, p l a n t s i z e  or the number o f employees, VQQ4, i n c r e a s e s .  Since s i m i l a r  results  (except f o r V026) e x i s t under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i t i s reasonable to suggest  t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s f e a s i b l e u i t h the  s e c t o r s subpopulation  Question;1:  manufacturing  f o r q u e s t i o n 2.  Retail  Sectors  The r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r r e t a i l s e c t o r s without  scale  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has a high R square value o f .9974; a l l o f the v a r i ables c o n s i d e r e d i n the equation The  are s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l .  r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V004 = 256.34V012 + 205.42V022 - 517.87V020 + 530.21V009 - 405.17V017 + 391.Q8V021 + 271.92V016 + 284.23V0-67.57V019 + 18.64V014 - 1810.55 The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d u i t h confidence except  V014 i n the above e q u a t i o n .  s i g n i f i c a n t , are excluded  ( i . e . F > 4 ) and  for a l l variables  V019, VQ09, and V006, although  because they do not appear i n the r e g r e s s i o n  equation under s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e :  151  Variable  BETA  V012:  R a i l transportation  .43  VQ22:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of l a r g e t r a c t s of land  .29  VQ20:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f amenities  VQ17:  L o c a l government a t t i t u d e to i n d u s t r y  V021:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of housing f o r employees  .51  V016:  Construction  .47  As(VTJ12, V022, V021, VD17  i n the r e g i o n  -.64 -.6  costs and  V016  i n c r e a s e i n importance and  V020 and  decrease i n importance f o r r e t a i l s e c t o r s to l o c a t e i n the  G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e or the number of employees, V004, i n c r e a s e s . Of the 15 v a r i a b l e s which appear i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation scale transformation  (•,  .33,  .66,  1) to (0, .5,  do not appear i n the above e q u a t i o n .  are at best  Question 2: The  Retail  the  Sectors f o r r e t a i l s e c t o r s without s c a l e  has a high R square value o f .9993; a l l o f the  ables considered The  r e g r e s s i o n equations;  acceptable.  r e g r e s s i o n equation  transformation  1), 8 v a r i a b l e s  T h i s suggests t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  amount o f change occurs between the two above r e s u l t s  .66,  under the  i n the equation  are s i g n i f i c a n t  at the  vari-  .Ql l e v e l .  r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V0Q4 = 474.8V041 - 694.95V027 + 731.48VD2B - 315.77VQ4Q - 231.47 V029 !  + 57.67VQ26 + 7.D1VQ25 + 524.53 The  regular regression c o e f f i c i e n t s  t h e i r s i g n s may  are s i g n i f i c a n t  be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence  except VQ25 i n the above e q u a t i o n . because other s i g n i f i c a n t  Only V041  ( i . e . F^4)  and  for a l l variables and  VG40 are reviewed  v a r i a b l e s do not appear i n the  regression  152  equation under s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e :  V/ariable  BETA  1/041:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  1/040:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f amenities i n the r e g i o n  .77 -.36  As 1/041 i n c r e a s e s and 1/040 decreases i n importance f o r r e t a i l to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e 1/004, i n c r e a s e s . transformation  the Region, p l a n t s i z e or the number o f employees,  Although the r e g r e s s i o n equation under the s c a l e  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o 0, .5, .66, 1) i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t  from the above equation, Question 1: The  sectors  the above r e s u l t s are c o n s i d e r e d  Wholesale Trade and Storage  acceptable.  Sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r wholesale s e c t o r s without s c a l e  transformation  has a high R square value  o f .9289; a l l o f the v a r i -  ables i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  The r e g r e s s i o n  equation i s : V004 = 319.811/022 - 75.54V013 - 66.3V023 - 84.221/020 + 44.7BV024 + 100.22V011 - 45.15V012 - 42.541/016 - 22.77V006 + 46.731/018 - 20.24V/008 + 73.841/021 - 27.27V019 - 15.931/015 - 110.63 The  regular regression c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence V/011.  ( i . e F> 4) and  f o r V/022, V/013 and  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e : Variable  BETA  V022:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of large t r a c t s o f land  1.06  V013:  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  - »34  VD11:  Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  .**5  As V022 and V011 i n c r e a s e and V013 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r wholesale s e c t o r s t o l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e  -  153 or the number o f employees, V7Q04, i n c r e a s e s .  Of the 17 v a r i a b l e s  which appear i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation under the s c a l e  transform-  a t i o n (0, .33, .66, 1) t o (•, .5, .66, 1 ) , 8 v a r i a b l e s do not appear i n the above e q u a t i o n .  T h i s suggests t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  amount o f change occurs between the two r e g r e s s i o n equations; above r e s u l t s are common t o both Question 2: The  the  equations.  Wholesale trade and storage  sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r wholesale s e c t o r s without s c a l e  transformation  has a high R square value o f .9899; a l l v a r i a b l e s  i n the equation are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  The r e g r e s s i o n  equation i s : V/004 a 399.67V/041 - 204.57V/043 - 71.62U028 - 382.1317032 + 734.851/034 - 297.98V7035 + 333.74V/036 - 212.08V7039 + 75.1V/040 - 54.38V/026 + 273.88V7042 - 537.87V/037 - 161.21V/025 - 291.84V/033 + 133.88V7031 - 108.2V7029 + 71.23V7027 + 469.94 The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  ( i . e . f JJs-4) and  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s i n the above s c a l e s . V/036 i s excluded from the a n a l y s i s however, because i t i s i n s i g n i f i cant  f o r wholesale s e c t o r s under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  V/026,  1/042, V/031, V/029 and V/027 are a l s o excluded because t h e i r c o e f f i c i e n t s d i f f e r i n s i g n and magnitude from the transformed equation.  regression  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t s considered a r e :  Variable  BETA  V/041:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a r g e t r a c t s o f land  1.66  V/043:  High q u a l i t y environment  - .70  V7028:  Employee wage s c a l e s  - .29  V032:  Water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  - 1.8  154  Variable  BETA  V/034:  Land p r i c e s o r l e a s e r a t e s  V/035:  Construction  V/039:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f housing f o r employees  V/040:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f amenities  V/o37:  Cost o f u t i l i t i e s  -2.29  V/025:  Nearness t o markets  - .66  V/033:  Air transportation  -1.3  2.72  costs  -1.32 - .82  i n region  .28  As 1/041, V034 and V/040 i n c r e a s e and V/043, V/028, V/032, V/035, V/039, V/037, 1/025, and V/033 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r wholesale s e c t o r s t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, p l a n t s i z e o r the number o f employees, V/004, i n c r e a s e s .  Since s i m i l a r r e s u l t s (except  f o r V/036) e x i s t f o r wholesale s e c t o r s under the s c a l e (0, .33, .66, 1) to((D, .5, .66, 1 ) , i t i s reasonable  transformation to suggest  t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s f e a s i b l e with the wholesale subpopulation f o r question  2.  Question 1;  The  Infrastructure  r e g r e s s i o n equation  scale transformation  f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e c a t e g o r i e s without  has a high R square value o f .99998.  v a r i a b l e s i n the equation  A l l o f the  are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l except  1/016 and V020 which are r e s p e c t i v e l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05-'and .1 levels.  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V/004 = 384.52V/020 - 1297.31VQ16 + 794.58V/023 + 211.11V/008 - 148.93V/013 - 136.86V/018 + 63.18V019 + 205.57 The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence i n the above e q u a t i o n .  ( i . e . F> 4) and  f o r a l l variables  However, only V/008 has a s i g n i f i c a n t BETA  155  value o f s i m i l a r s i g n and magnitude i n the transformed equation as w e l l .  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t i s :  Variable V0Q8:  BETA  S k i l l e d labour  As VQTJ8 i n c r e a s e s  regression  supply  .50  i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  s e c t o r s to l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e or the number o f employees,  V004, i n c r e a s e s .  S i g n i f i c a n t change occurs i n the r e g r e s s i o n  equation under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o  (0, .5, .66, 1 ) . T h i s suggests t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s not very f e a s i b l e f o r question is  1 o f the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r s yet the above r e s u l t  salvagable. No r e g r e s s i o n s uere performed f o r question  f i r m s because only 6 cases are a v a i l a b l e .  2 of infrastructure  Thus, any r e s u l t s uould be  q u i t e worthless u i t h t h i s data c o n s t r a i n t . Question 1: The  F i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e  sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c t o r s u i t h o u t  transformation  has a low R square value  o f .1687.  Linear  scale  regression  e x i s t s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s i n the equation a t the .05 l e v e l except V019 and VD22 a t the .01 l e v e l and V015, V018, V017, V021 and V007 at the .1 l e v e l .  The r e g r e s s i o n equation i s :  V004 = .38.57V024 + 26.16V019 + 34.87V022 - 22.31V016 + 13.04V00B - 14.81V020 + 13.65V009 - 50.79V011 + 39.65V012 + 20.07V023 - 13.69V015 + 18.57VQ18 - 10.4V017 + 11.64V021 - 8.28V007 + 59.62 The  regular regression c o e f f i c i e n t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  i t s s i g n may be i n t e r p r e t e d with confidence coefficient i s :  ( i . e . F> k) and  f o r V024.  The BETA  156  1/024:  Variable  BETA  High q u a l i t y environment  -.28  As 1/024 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l  sectors  to l o c a t e i n the G.V.R.D., p l a n t s i z e o r the number o f employees, V0Q4, i n c r e a s e s .  Since  similar results exist for financial  under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n it  sectors  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o (0, .5, .66, 1 ) ,  i s reasonable to suggest t h a t r e g r e s s i o n i s f e a s i b l e u i t h the  f i n a n c i a l s e c t o r s subpopulation  Question 2: The  f o r question  1.  F i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  service  sectors  r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c t o r s without s c a l e  transformation  has a l o u R square value  o f .2864.  Linear  e x i s t s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s i n the equation a t the .01 l e v e l .  regression The  r e g r e s s i o n equation i s : V004 = 121.6V031 - 76.54V030 - 42.94V029 + 33.91V038 + 29.56V026 - 33.31V037 + 18.64V036 - 27.93V043 + 16.18V035 + 6.32V040 + 5.38V025 + 11.26V042 - 4.95V027 + 7.33V033 - 7.35V039 - 19.6. The  r e g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e i r s i g n s may be i n t e r p r e t e d u i t h confidence VQ29. and  ( i . e . F> 4) and  f o r V031, V030, and  Houever V030's BETA c o e f f i c i e n t d i f f e r s i n s i z e and s i g n  V029 has an i n s i g n i f i c a n t F value under the r e g r e s s i o n  formation.  The BETA c o e f f i c i e n t i s :  Variable VQ31:  trans-  Rail transportation  BETA .54  As V031 i n c r e a s e s i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l  sectors  to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, p l a n t s i z e or the number o f employees,  VQ04, i n c r e a s e s .  Since s i m i l a r r e s u l t s e x i s t f o r f i n a n c i a l  157 s e c t o r s under the s c a l e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (•, .5, .66, 1), i t i s reasonable  (0, .33, .66, 1) t o  to suggest that r e g r e s s i o n i s  f e a s i b l e uiith the f i n a n c i a l s e c t o r s subpopulation  G.  Summary of Results Derived Approximately one-half  f o r question  2.  from the Data o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  v a r i a b l e s are  important i n the i n t e r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s f o r manufacturing, wholesale, r e t a i l and a l l s e c t o r s . c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t i s evident  Using  Spearman rank  that only the primary and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s e c t o r s d i s p l a y a r e l a t i v e l y d i s s i m i l a r response p a t t e r n between questions A l l subpopulations  1 and 2. at the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l , on the b a s i s  of the data are c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n terms of frequency. l a r g e r firms l o c a t e ' c e n t r a l l y  In g e n e r a l ,  small firms locate p e r i p h e r a l l y .  There  i s some i n d i c a t i o n that l a r g e r f i r m s l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y f o r primary and r e t a i l s e c t o r s ; no d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f o r manufacturing f i r m s with r e s p e c t to l o c a t i o n and s i z e .  Some tendency e x i s t s f o r  l a r g e r wholesale f i r m s t o l o c a t e c e n t r a l l y .  Smaller  firms locate  c e n t r a l l y f o r the i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t o r s . The  regression a n a l y s i s i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n conjunction  with  the above s i z e / l o c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  1.  A l l Sectors:  As V/022 and V/009 i n c r e a s e and V/017 decrease  i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., p l a n t or the number o f employees, V/004, i n c r e a s e s .  size  V/041, V/026, and V/033  i n c r e a s e and V/043 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, as V/004 i n c r e a s e s . 2.  Primary S e c t o r s :  As V/019, V/015, V/011 and V/022 i n c r e a s e  and V/017, V/010, and V/013 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., V/004 i n c r e a s e s .  V/026 i n c r e a s e s and V/036 and  V/033 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, as V/004 i n c r e a s e s . 3. f o r question  Manufacturing S e c t o r s ;  Although r e g r e s s i o n i s f e a s i b l e  1 o f manufacturing s e c t o r s , l i t t l e  can be s a i d about  the s t r e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between V/004 and V/006 to V/024 i n c l u s i v e i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D.  As 1/037  i n c r e a s e s and V/042 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, V/004 i n c r e a s e s . 4.  R e t a i l Sectors:  As V/012, V/022, V/021 and V/016 i n c r e a s e and  V/020 and V/017 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., V/004 i n c r e a s e s .  V/041 i n c r e a s e s and V/040 decreases i n im-  portance i n the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, as V/004) increases. 5.  Wholesale Trade and Storage S e c t o r s :  As V/022 and V/011 i n -  crease and V/013 decreases i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., V/004 i n c r e a s e s .  V/041, V/034 and V/040 i n c r e a s e and V/043,  V/028, V/032, V/035, VV039, V/037, V/025 and V/033 decrease i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region, as V/004 i n c r e a s e s . 6.  Infrastructure:  As V/008 i n c r e a s e s i n importance i n the  d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., V/004 i n c r e a s e s .  Due t o i n s u f -  f i c i e n t data, no r e g r e s s i o n s were performed f o r q u e s t i o n 2. 7.  F i n a n c i a l Sectors:  As V/024 decreases i n importance i n  the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D., V/004 i n c r e a s e s . creases  V/031 i n -  i n importance i n the d e c i s i o n t o r e l o c a t e o u t s i d e the Region,  as V/004 i n c r e a s e s .  159  H.  References  N. H. Nie, D.H. Bent and C H . H u l l are c r e d i t e d f c r des i g n i n g the SPSS computer programs while they attended S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y from 1964 to 1969 i n c l u s i v e . 2 N. H. Nie, D. H. Bent and C H. H u l l , S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970) p. 1. 3  N.  H. N i e , D. H. Bent and C. H. H u l l , Op. c i t . , p. 153.  4  Ibid.  t  p. 149.  5 M. A. Goldberg, I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : Plant S i z e and the Theory o f P r o d u c t i o n (Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1969) p. 186. "'Steed, G. P. F., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n Manufacturing: S p a t i a l Form and L o c a t i o n a l Dynamics i n G r e a t e r l/ancouver (unpublished paper, 1973) p. 7. 7  N.  H. Nie, D. H. Bent and C  H. H u l l , Op. c i t . , p. 116.  g B.C.:  R u s s e l l , R., I n t r o d u c t i o n to SPSS at U.B.C, (Vancouver, B e s t - P r i n t e r Co. L t d . , 1972) p. 26. 9  Harnett, D. L., I n t r o d u c t i o n to S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, (London: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970) p. 350. 1 Q  U  N i e , N. H.,Bent, D. H.,  Ibid.,  1 2  p.  and H u l l , C.H.,  Op. c i t . , p. 184.  144.  I b i d . , p. 153.  " ^ R u s s e l , R.,  Op. c i t . , p. 33.  14 S i e g e l , S., Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o u r a l Sciences (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1956) p. 26. 15 The author wishes to express h i s s i n c e r e thanks to P r o f e s s o r G. K. White o f the U.B.C. Math Department f o r the a i d r e c e i v e d to u t i l i z e t h i s method.  160  CHAPTER VI  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS UITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  A.  Summary T h i s study e m p i r i c a l l y determines  ables  which q u e s t i o n n a i r e  vari-  ( f a c t o r s ) i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e l o c a t i o n / r e l o c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s  f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D.  The l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire  comprises a p o r t i o n o f the H P S p r o j e c t which i s a l a r g e - s c a l e , s p e c i a l research  study o f the Region.  r e g r e s s i o n models o f the present provide  The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and  l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  an e m p i r i c a l data base f o r the land use group i n t h e i r  ment o f models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across I t i s noted t h a t M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver's unique s i t e  study develop-  the Region.  qualities  c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s " c o r e - r i n g " s p a t i a l form. The  t h e s i s d e r i v e s some g e n e r a l  i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s although  the data i s e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d i n a d e c i d e d l y context. portant lation.  intrametropolitan  The i n t e r r e g i o n a l r e s u l t s d e p i c t which v a r i a b l e s are imi n the l o c a t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s f o r each subpopuIn c o n t r a s t , an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  business  l o c a t i o n p o l i c y i n the G.V.R.D. i s d e r i v e d from the a n a l y s i s h e r e i n . The  intrametropolitan  a n a l y s i s i s f e a s i b l e because s i z e (i.e.number  of employees) and l o c a t i o n are known f o r most respondents.  An empir-  i c a l s y n t h e s i s v i a some common independent v a r i a b l e s i s suggested to  lei e x i s t , at l e a s t f o r the G.V/.R.D., between i n t e r r e g i o n a l and i n t r a metropolitan l o c a t i o n .  T h i s w i l l a i d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f u t u r e  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s f o r each subpopulation  a t the i n t e r r e g i o n a l or  i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l e v e l s i n the G.V/.R.D. Aside from the e m p i r i c a l v a l u e , t h i s t h e s i s i s v a l u a b l e i n terms o f methodological the l o c a t i o n survey  and a n a l y t i c a l procedure.  procedure and format suggested  a p p l i c a b l e t o business l o c a t i o n surveys t r a n s f o r m a t i o n technique  i n general.  Modifications of i n the t e x t are The r e g r e s s i o n  i s a p p l i c a b l e to other q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s  where the type o f response s c a l e c o n s t r u c t e d i s i n q u e s t i o n . Furthermore, the overview o f l o c a t i o n theory and M e t r o p o l i t a n V/ancouver a r e thought t o provide an a p p r o p r i a t e background t o t h i s study as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l l i t e r a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n . The  first  chapter provides an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the study as  w e l l as a b r i e f overview o f i n t e r r e g i o n a l l o c a t i o n t h e o r y . b r i e f l y reviews  Chapter I I  some o f the r a t h e r e x t e n s i v e , major t h e o r i e s which  u n d e r l i e the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f c e r t a i n f i r m s .  The  t h i r d chapter presents an h i s t o r i c a l , economic and business s e c t o r synopsis o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. which are r e l e v a n t to the present  T h i s synopsis o u t l i n e s some t o p i c s  location/relocation,  questionnaire  study of f i r m s l o c a t e d i n the G.V.R.D.: - h i s t o r i c a l development, s p a t i a l form and s i t e  qualities;  - land j u r i s d i c t i o n and ownership; and - p o p u l a t i o n and economic development. ^Very b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n l o c a t i o n theory o f each s u b p o p u l a t i o n .  Chapter IV c o n s i d e r s the l o c a t i o n  survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n the context o f the H P S p r o j e c t . of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e technique  Discussion  and the s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e s used i n the  162 present study are a prelude to the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e data i n Chapter V.  The  fifth  chapter e x p l a i n s the  g e n e r a l method and summarizes the s i g n i f i c a n t a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s of the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e . these r e s u l t s a g a i n .  I t i s unnecessary to summarize  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s chapter,  five  appendices  are f u r t h e r presented. B.  Assessment of P r o j e c t Worth and  Recommendations  T h i s study i s v a l u a b l e because i t s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and r e g r e s s i o n models provide an e m p i r i c a l data base f o r the land use group of the IPPS p r o j e c t i n t h e i r development of models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across the Region.  Aside from the e m p i r i c a l v a l u e ,  t h i s t h e s i s i s v a l u a b l e i n terms of methodological cedure.  The  and a n a l y t i c a l  pro-  overview of l o c a t i o n theory and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver  also r e p r e s e n t s s u b s t a n t i a l l i t e r a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n .  Nevertheless,  there are some d e f i c i e n c i e s to which the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are p e r t i n e n t . The  p r i n c i p a l shortcoming  of t h i s case study  i s that the poor  response r a t e and missing values i n h i b i t i n f e r e n c e s about the r e l o c a t i o n of some s u b p o p u l a t i o n s .  These two  d e f e c t s c o u l d be  by c o n t a c t i n g a l a r g e r number of f i r m s and s t a t i n g on the t h a t unanswered f a c t o r s are considered as "1. The  f o l l o w i n g suggestions  location/ rectified  questionnaire  unimportant".  might have improved the  quality,  r e l i a b i l i t y and completeness of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s , given poor response r a t e of the mailed 1.  the  survey.  A simple n o t i c e such as, "There are two  different  questions,  please answer both s i d e s of t h i s survey" p r i n t e d on both s i d e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e might have caused more complete  responses.  2.  The l o c a t i o n survey  q u e s t i o n n a i r e should have been mailed  s e p a r a t e l y from the input-output  questionnaire.  Although t h i s en-  t a i l s g r e a t e r expense, the low response t o the input-output n a i r e would not impair responsiveness  question-  to the l o c a t i o n survey  questionnaire. 3.  Although a p e r s o n a l l y administered  time consuming than mailed and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s f a r more  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , the q u a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y  completeness o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are more c o n t r o l l e d v i a p e r s o n a l  r a t h e r than w r i t t e n c o n t a c t with p r o s p e c t i v e respondents. example, the r e s e a r c h e r people r e s p o n s i b l e  c o u l d administer  f o r determining  Personal f a c t o r s , although  For  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e only to  the f i r m ' s present  o f a q u a l i t a t i v e nature,  under the v a r i a b l e "Other (please s p e c i f y ) " .  location.  could be i d e n t i f i e d  The v a r i a b i l i t y and  magnitude o f the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s would s e t a s u b j e c t i v e c o n s t r a i n t on data i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I f the same p e r s o n a l f a c t o r occurs on s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , t h i s f a c t o r would appear i n subsequent studies.  A p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w a l s o enables  questionnaire  e l a b o r a t i o n on which  aspects o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r , i . e . high q u a l i t y environment, are important, the  as w e l l as c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f any misunderstandings about  questionnaire.  k.  More p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f the f a c t o r s i s r e q u i r e d i n f u t u r e  studies.  For example, i s the f a c t o r "Truck t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " used i n  the context o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f , cost o f , or both?  I s the " A v a i l a b i l i t y  of l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d " r e q u i r e d f o r a l a r g e p l a n t , o n s i t e expansion, or both? 5.  T h i s study  i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d because i t i s unknown when  the d e c i s i o n was made by f i r m s t o l o c a t e i n the G.V/.R.D.  Consequently,  there should be a question which determines when the f i r m e s t a b l i s h e d  o p e r a t i o n s i n the G.V/.R.D. index to q u e s t i o n 1.  The  answer would provide a  reliability  Indeed, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether a 30 year o l d  f i r m c o u l d h o n e s t l y answer q u e s t i o n 1 and even i f i t c o u l d , the reasons  f o r i n i t i a l l y l o c a t i n g are not n e c e s s a r i l y the reasons f o r  m a i n t a i n i n g the same l o c a t i o n . question 1 which reads:  There should a l s o be a sequel to  "For each of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s would  you please i n d i c a t e the l e v e l of importance i n your d e c i s i o n to p r e s e n t l y remain l o c a t e d i n the V/ancouver Region."  Significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s and q u e s t i o n 1 would r e v e a l when the degree of i r r e l e v e n c y between former and present d e c i s i o n s becomes significant.  Thus, only r e c e n t l y , i . e . 7 years or l e s s , say, l o c a t e d  f i r m s would be 6.  analyzed.  A q u e s t i o n should be i n c l u d e d which asks whether  a c t u a l l y i n t e n d to move.  respondents  The hypothesis t h a t o l d e r f i r m s are more  d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r present l o c a t i o n than newer f i r m s could then be t e s t e d .  C o n d i t i o n a l to f i r m s answering "yes" to t h i s  q u e s t i o n , they should be asked  the m u n i c i p a l i t y , province or  country to which they p l a n to move. should be re-phrased  In t h i s regard, question 2  to read, " I f you were to move w i t h i n the  V/ancouver Region, would you please i n d i c a t e the l e v e l o f importance of  the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n your d e c i s i o n to r e l o c a t e . "  i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n movement trends by s i z e c l a s s e s and  Thus,  i n d u s t r y sub-  p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d a i d the land use group i n t h e i r development of models which a l l o c a t e economic a c t i v i t i e s across the Region. 7.  Question 1 asks respondents  to c o n s i d e r the importance of  nineteen l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e i n the V/ancouver Region.  A l l of these f a c t o r s have p o t e n t i a l to s p a t i a l l y vary i n  an i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t .  Question  1 i s i n t e r r e g i o n a l i n nature  165  because the V/MIS c o n s i d e r s  the r e g i o n a l economy as a p o i n t i n space.  However, i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n  a n a l y s i s of the  l o c a t i o n survey  question-  n a i r e i s p o s s i b l e because the p r e c i s e l o c a t i o n f o r most f i r m s i s known.  Thus, s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s of the v a r i a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s f o r  a given subpopulation w i t h i n the Region i s f e a s i b l e . approach to e m p i r i c a l l y assess i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n improved i f a supplement to question f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s would you  please  l o c a t i o n can  1 s t a t e s , "For  i n d i c a t e the  This l i m i t e d  each of  l e v e l of  Vancouver Region."  f a c t o r s at the r e g i o n a l and e s t a b l i s h e d and  C.  municipal-  importance of the l o c a t i o n  intrametropolitan  l e v e l s c o u l d be  fully  compared.  Suggestions f o r Further The  Thus, the  the  importance  i n your d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e your business i n the p a r t i c u l a r i t y i n the  be  Research  intrametropolitan  dynamics of s e v e r a l subpopulations i s  l a r g e l y unresearched f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver.  L o c a t i o n a l dynamics  r e f e r s to the net change i n the number o f f i r m s i n an area over time and  i s expressed as  where  follows:  c = b-  d+  m-  e  c = net  change i n number o f  plants  b = plant b i r t h s d = plant m o r t a l i t i e s m = plants migrating  i n t o the  e = plants migrating  out of the  In p a r t i c u l a r , i n t e r t e m p o r a l  area area.  a n a l y s i s of which f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e  the  d i f f e r e n t subpopulations to r e l o c a t e w i t h i n the Region would g r e a t l y a s s i s t the  land use  group i n t h e i r development o f a dynamic model o f  166 intrametropolitan  location.  The r o l e o f b u s i n e s s as a source o f  m u n i c i p a l revenue and the impact which business has upon the  spatial  form of the G.V.R.D. are f u r t h e r reasons to assess the form, extent and composition o f the i n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n each s u b p o p u l a t i o n .  l o c a t i o n a l dynamics of  167  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Alonso, U., L o c a t i o n and Land Use, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964).  Harvard  Berry, B.J.L., Geography o f Market Centers and R e t a i l D i s t r i b u t i o n , ( P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J., 1967). C h r i s t a l l e r , Ul., Die z e n t r a l e n Orte i n Suddeutschland, (Jena: F i s c h e r , 1933). Friedmann, J . and Alonso, Ul., R e g i o n a l Development and Planning (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T..Press, 1964). Goldberg, M. A., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n : P l a n t S i z e and the Theory o f Production, ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1969). Gottman, J . , M e g a l o p o l i s : The Urbanized Seaboard o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Neu York: T u e n t i e t h Century Fund, 1961). Greenhut, M. L., P l a n t L o c a t i o n : In Theory and In P r a c t i c e , of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1956). Gregor, H., Geography  (University  o f A g r i c u l t u r e (Engleuood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e -  Hal i7n^cT7i^7oyr  Harnett, D. L., I n t r o d u c t i o n to S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, (London: Ulesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970).  Addison-  Hoover, E. M. and Vernon, R., Anatomy o f a M e t r o p o l i s (Garden C i t y , Neu York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1959). HDyt, H. and Uleimer, E. Ul., Real E s t a t e , (Neu York: Co., 1966). I s a r d , Ul., L o c a t i o n and Space Economy, (Cambridge: 19567. Johnson, J . H., Urban Geography: Permagon Press, 1966).  The Ronald Press M.I.T., P r e s s ,  An I n t r o d u c t o r y A n a l y s i s ,  Losch, A., Die raumliche Ordnung der U l i r t s c h a f t , Losch, A., The Economics o f L o c a t i o n , (Neu Haven: P r e s s , 1954). Manners, G., The Geography o f Energy (London: Ltd., 1964).  (Oxford,  (Jena: F i s c h e r ,  1941).  Yale U n i v e r s i t y  Hutchinson and Co.  168  N. H. Nie, D. H. Bent and C. H. H u l l , S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1970). Nourse, H. 0., R e g i o n a l Economics, (New Company, 1968).  York:  McGraw-Hill Book  P e r l o f f , H. S., E d u c a t i o n f o r P l a n n i n g , ( B a l t i m o r e : Press, 1957).  John Hopkins  R a t c l i f f e , R. U., I n t e r n a l Arrangement o f Land Uses (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959). R a t c l i f f , R. U., Real E s t a t e A n a l y s i s , Co. Inc., 1961).  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H., Per i s o l i e r t e S t a a t i n Beziehung auf L a n d w i r t s c h a f t und N a t i o n a l okonomie, V o l . I . , (Hamburg, 1826). B.  REPORTS  Canada Year Book, 1972, D.B.S., Cat. No. CS-11-202/1972. Census o f Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ,  1941,  1966.  The e d i t o r ( s ) , "Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada" (Vancouver and Lower Mainland I n d u s t r i a l Development Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 1971). " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972." T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1972).  169 "Population Trends i n the Lower Mainland 1921-1986" (New Westminister, B.C." Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l Planning Board, 1968) Summary Report A p r i l 1968. Space f o r Industry,  G.V.R.D. Planning Department, 1971.  C. ARTICLES Burgess, E . W., "The Growth o f the C i t y " , Park, R. E . e t . a l . ( e d s . ) , The C i t y , (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1925). Colby, C. C , C e n t r i f u g a l and C e n t r i p e t a l Forces i n Urban Geography from Mayer and Kohn's Readings i n Urban Geography, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959). "The Port o f Vancouver" i n " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972." The e d i t o r ( s ) , "Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada" (Vancouver and Lower Mainland I n d u s t r i a l Development Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 1971). Goldberg, M. A., "The I n t e r - I n s t i t u t i o n a l P o l i c y S i m u l a t o r : HPS" i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973, (Vancouver, B.C.: S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, 1973), p.5. Graham, Ul. E., "Vancouver's Suburban Commercial S t r u c t u r e , " i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver, 1972). "The L i v a b l e Region P r o j e c t " under the auspices o f the G.V.R.D. i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972). Hardwick, Ul. G., "Vancouver: the Emergence o f a 'Core-Ring' Urban P a t t e r n " i n Geographical Approaches to Canadian Problems, G e n t l i c o r e , R. L. (ed.), (Scarborough, Ont. : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1971). !  H a r r i s , C . C. and Ullman, E . L., "The Nature o f C i t i e s " i n Mayer,H.M. and Kohn, C.F. ( e d s . ) , Readings i n Urban Geography, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959). Siemens, A. H., "The Process o f Settlement i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y i n i t s P r o v i n c i a l Context" i n Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : Evolution of a C u l t u r a l Landscape, Siemens, A.H., (ed.), (Vancouver, Canada: T a n t a l u s Research L i m i t e d , 1968). Winter, G. R., " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y " i n Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n o f a C u l t u r a l Landscape, Siemens, A.H., (ed.), (Vancouver, Canada: T a n t a l u s Research L i m i t e d , 1968).  170 D.  UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS  Davis, I . , "Notes on the Lau o f Real Property", Manuscript).  (Unpublished  Goldberg, M.A., " I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n I n d u s t r i a l L o c a t i o n and the Theory D f P r o d u c t i o n " (unpublished a r t i c l e , U.B.C, 1971). Smith, Id.F., " P r i n c i p l e s o f Urban Development", (Unpublished 1972) .  manuscript,  Steed, G.P.F., I n t r a m e t r o p o l i t a n Manufacturing: S p a t i a l Form and L o c a t i o n a l Dynamics i n Greater Vancouver (unpublished paper, 1973) . E.  THESES  Griggs, N.J.F., Urban Grouth and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s i n Port Development: a case study, V/ancouver, B.C. (unpublished paper, M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C: 1967). Richmond, G. M., The A n a l y s i s o f Manufacturing L o c a t i o n i n Greater V/ancouver (unpublished M.A. T h e s i s , U.B.C: 1973). Tomko, Ul. L., "An A n a l y s i s o f the Real Property Assessments and Taxes i n B r i t i s h Columbia," (V/ancouver, B.C.: unpublished M.Sc. t h e s i s , 1972). F.  PERIODICALS  F i s h e r , R.M., The Boom i n O f f i c e B u i l d i n g s (Ulashington, D . C : Land I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 5B, 1967).  Urban  Haig, R.M., "Touard an Understanding o f the M e t r o p o l i s , " Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f Economics, V/ol. kQ (May 1926). As quoted i n Alonso, Ul., I b i d . McGovern, P.D., " I n d u s t r i a l Development i n the V/ancouver Area", Economic Geography, 1961. Roterus, V/. and C a l e f , Ul., "Notes on the Basic-Nonbasic R a t i o " , Economic Geography, 31, (1955).  Employment  von Boventer, E., "Touard a u n i f i e d theory o f s p a t i a l economic s t r u c t u r e , " Papers and Proceedings o f the Regional Science A s s o c i a t i o n , V/ol. 10: 1963. Ulendt, P.F., "Theory o f Urban Land Values," J o u r n a l o f Land Economics, V o l . 33, (August 1957).  171  G.  LEGAL ACT DF PARLIAMENT  Land R e g i s t r y A c t . R.S. 1948, C.171, s . l . : S e c t i o n s 53 and 149, 221 to 233 i n c l u s i v e . H.  LEGAL CASES  Gibbs v. Messer i n The Lau of Real Property, Davis, I . , ( e d . ) , (V/ancouver, Canada: B e s t - P r i n t e r Co. L t d . , 1972). Johnson v. Anderson i n The Lam o f Real Property', Davis, I . , ( e d . ) , (V/ancouver, Canada: B e s t - P r i n t e r Co. L t d . , 1972). I.  INTERVIEWS  A telephone i n t e r v i e w on March 6th, 1973, with Mr. George Barnett of B. C. Hydro. Interview i n February, 1972, with MacLeod, D. H., A.A.C.I., Vancouver Regional Manager o f Property S e r v i c e s f o r the Department o f P u b l i c Works.  172  APPENDIX I  173  Business S e c t o r s i n the V/ancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Input-Output Study  Sector 1: 1.1:  A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h i n g L i v e s t o c k and Crop Farms Includes:  1.2:  S p e c i a l t y Farms and S e r v i c e s Includes:  1.2:  2.1:  SIC041 - Commercial f i s h i n g o p e r a t i o n s SIC045 - F i s h e r y s e r v i c e s (breeding, h a t c h i n g , f i s h i n g gear r e p a i r , e t c . ) SIC0V7 - Commercial hunting and t r a p p i n g  Mining Copper, Lead and Z i n c Includes:  2.2:  SIC019 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s l i v e s t o c k and nursery s p e c i a l t y farms. SIC021 - S e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to a g r i c u l t u r e ( v e t e r i n a r y , h o s p i t a l , hatchery, g r a d i n g , spraying, etc.)  F i s h i n g and Hunting Includes:  Sector 2:  SIC011 - L i v e s t o c k and l i v e s t o c k combination farms. SIC013 - F i e l d crop and f i e l d crop combination farms. SIC015 - F r u i t and vegetable farms. SIC017 - Other crop and l i v e s t o c k combination farms.  SIC059 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s metal mines  Other Mines and S e r v i c e s Includes:  SIC051 SIC052 SIC057 SICQ5B SICQ59  -  P l a c e r g o l d mines Gold quartz mines Uranium mines Iron mines M i s c e l l a n e o u s metal mines  SIC061 - Coal mines SIC064 - Crude petroleum SIC071 SICD72 SICQ73 SIC079  -  and n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r y  Asbestos mines Peat e x t r a c t i o n Gypsum mines M i s c e l l a n e o u s non-metal mines  SIC0B3 - Stone q u a r r i e s SIC087 - Sand p i t s or q u a r r i e s  174 SIC096 - Contract d r i l l i n g f o r petroleum SIC09B - Other c o n t r a c t d r i l l i n g 5ICQ99 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l t o mining Sector 3: 3.1:  Forestry Logging  and S e r v i c e s  Includes:  Sector 4: 4.1:  Construction Building Construction Includes:  4.2:  SIC031 - Logging ( c u t t i n g , booming, h a u l i n g ) SIC039 - F o r e s t r y s e r v i c e s ( f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , reforestration, etc.)  SIC404 - C o n s t r u c t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n s and r e p a i r s  Highuay C o n s t r u c t i o n Includes:  SIC406 - C o n s t r u c t i o n and r e p a i r o f  highuays,  b r i d g e s and s t r e e t s 4.3:  S p e c i a l Trade C o n t r a c t o r s Includes:  SIC409 - Sub-rtrade. c o n t r a c t o r s SIC421 - S p e c i a l - t r a d e c o n t r a c t o r s  Sector 5: 5.1:  5.2:  Food and Beverages Meat, P o u l t r y and F i sP hr o cProducts e s s i n g , p r e p a r i n g , and packing of meat and p o u l t r y products I n c l u d e s : SIC1Q1 P r o c e s s i n g , p r e p a r i n g and packing o f f i s h products. SIC102 Dairy Products Includes:  5.3:  F r u i t and Vegetable Includes:  5.4:  P r o c e s s i n g and packing (milk, b u t t e r , cheese, i c e cream, e t c . )  SIC104  SIC103§- Drying, canning and vegetables  F l o u r and C e r e a l Includes:  Processing and f r e e z i n g of f r u i t  Products  SIC105 - F l o u r and b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l products industry SIC106 - Feed i n d u s t r y  175  5,5:  Beverage Industry Includes:  5.6:  Other Food I n d u s t r i e s Includes:  S e c t o r 6: 6.1:  Milling  7.1:  8.1:  SIC256 - Wooden box f a c t o r i e s SIC258 - C o f f i n and casket i n d u s t r y SIC259 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s wood i n d u s t r i e s fences, etc.)  Pulp and Paper  (poles,  Industries  Mills  SIC271 - Pulp and paper m i l l s ; b u i l d i n g mills  paper  Other Paper Manufacturers and Converters Includes:  Sector a:  SIC254 - Manufacturing (door, sash, moulding, floorings, partitions, kitchen-cabinets, pre-fabricated buildings, etc.  Paper and A l l i e d  Includes:  7.2:  mills  Other Wood Products Includes:  Sector 7:  SIC252 - Plywood and veneer  Sash, Door and Other M i l l w o r k Includes:  6.4:  SIC251 - Sawmills, p l a n i n g m i l l s and s h i n g l e m i l l s  Veneer and Plywood M i l l s Includes:  6.3:  SIC107 - Bakery products i n d u s t r i e s SIC108 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s food i n d u s t r i e s (manuf a c t u r i n g c o n f e c t i o n s , o i l s , seasonings, sugar, e t c . )  wood I n d u s t r i e s  Includes: 6.2:  SIC1Q9 - Manufacturing and d i s t i l l i n g (malts, l i q u o r s , mines, s o f t d r i n k s , e t c . )  SIC272 - A s p h a l t r o o f i n g manufacturers SIC273 - Paper box and bag manufacturers SIC274 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s paper c o n v e r t e r s  Chemical and Chemical Product  Industries  I n d u s t r i a l Inorganic and Organic Includes:  Chemicals  SIC372 - Manufacturers o f mixed f e r t i l i z e r s SIC378 - Manufacturers o f i n d u s t r i a l chemicals  176 8.2:  Other  Chemicals  Includes:  SIC373 - Manufacturers o f p l a s t i c s and s y n t h e t i c resins SIC374 - Msnufacturers o f pharmaceuticals and medicines SIC375 - P a i n t and v a r n i s h manufacturers SIC376 - Manufacturers D f soap and c l e a n i n g compounds SIC377 - Manufacturers o f t o i l e t p r e p a r a t i o n s SIC379 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s chemical i n d u s t r i e s (waxes, pesticides, etc.)  Sector 9:  Petroleum and C o a l Products  9.1:  Petroleum and Coal Products Includes:  SIC365 - Petroleum r e f i n e r i e s SIC369 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s petroleum and c o a l products industries  Sector 10: N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l Products 10.1:  G l a s s and Cut Stone Products Includes:  10.2:  SIC353 - Stone products manufacturers SIC356 - Ready-mix concrete manufacturers SIC357 - A b r a s i v e s manufacturers  Cement, C l a y , Concrete, Gypsum and P l a s t e r Products Includes:  SIC351 SIC352 SIC354 SIC355 SIC358 SIC359  S e c t o r 11: Metal F a b r i c a t i n g 11.1:  Clay products manufacturers Cement manufacturers Concrete products manufacturers Ready-mix concrete manufacturers Lime manufacturers Miscellaneous non-metallic mineral products i n d u s t r i e s  Industries  "Heavy" F a b r i c a t e d Metal Products Includes:  11.2:  -  SIC301 - B o i l e r and p l a t e works SIC302 - F a b r i c a t e d s t r u c t u r a l metal i n d u s t r y SIC303 - Ornamental and a r c h i t e c t u r a l metal industry SIC307 - Heating equipment manufacturers  " L i g h t " F a b r i c a t e d Metal Products Includes:  SIC304 - Metal stamping, p r e s s i n g and c o a t i n g industry SIC305 - Ulire and wire products manufacturers SIC306 - Hardware, t o o l and c u t l e r y manufacturers  177  SIC308 - Machine shops SIC309 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s metal f a b r i c a t i n g industries Sector 12: 12.1:  Printing, Publishing Printing, Publishing Includes:  and A l l i e d and A l l i e d  Industries Industries  SIC286 - Commercial p r i n t i n g 5IC287 - Platemaking, t y p e s e t t i n g bindery i n d u s t r y SIC288 - P u b l i s h i n g only SIC289 - P u b l i s h i n g and p r i n t i n g  and trade  Sector 13: Manufacturing, Wot Elsewhere C l a s s i f i e d 13.1:  Apparel and F a b r i c a t e d Includes:  13.2:  Furniture Includes:  13.3:  T e x t i l e Products  SIC187 - Canvas products, and c o t t o n and j u t e bags i n d u s t r i e s SIC245 - C h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y SIC248 - Foundation garment i n d u s t r y and F i x t u r e s SIC264 - O f f i c e f u r n i t u r e manufacturers SIC266 - E l e c t r i c l i g h t and shade manufacturers  Other Manufacturing Includes:  -  SIC087 SIC162 SIC165 SIG243 SIC244 SIC246 SIC249 SIC261 SIC266 — SIC291 SIC315 SIC321 SIC323 SIC324 SIC327 SIC333 SIC335 SIC336 SIC391  —  Sand p i t s o r q u a r r i e s Rubber products i n d u s t r i e s P l a s t i c s f a b r i c a t i n g industry Men's c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r i e s Women's c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r i e s Fur goods i n d u s t r y Miscellaneous clothing industries Household f u r n i t u r e manufacturers M i s c e l l a n e o u s f u r n i t u r e and f i x t u r e s manufacturers Iron and s t e e l m i l l s M i s c e l l a n e o u s machinery and equipment manufacturers A i r c r a f t and a i r c r a f t p a r t s manufacturers Motor v e h i c l e manufacturers Truck body and t r a i l e r manufacturers S h i p b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r Manufacturers o f l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s Communications equipment manufacturers Manufacturers o f e l e c t r i c a l i n d u s t r i a l equipment S c i e n t i f i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l equipment industries  178 Sector  14:  14.1:  R e t a i l Trade Retail  Trade  Includes:  Sector  15:  15.1:  SIC631 SIC642 SIC652 SIC656 SIC658 SIC663 SIC665 SIC667 SIC669 SIC673 5IC676 SIC678  -  SIC681 SIC691 SIC692 SIC694 SIC695 SIC696 SIC697 SIC699 SIC869  -  Food s t o r e s G e n e r a l merchandise s t o r e s T i r e , b a t t e r y and a c c e s s o r i e s s t o r e s Motor v e h i c l e d e a l e r s Motor v e h i c l e r e p a i r shops Shoe s t o r e s Men's c l o t h i n g s t o r e s women's c l o t h i n g s t o r e s C l o t h i n g and dry goads s t o r e s Hardware s t o r e s Household f u r n i t u r e and a p p l i a n c e s t o r e s Radio, t e l e v i s i o n and e l e c t r i c a l appliance r e p a i r shops Drug s t o r e s Book and s t a t i o n e r y s t a r e s F l o r i s t s ' shops Jewellery stores Watch and j e w e l l e r y r e p a i r shops L i q u o r , wine and beer s t o r e s Tobacconists R e t a i l s t o r e s , n.e.s. M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s to business management  Wholesale Trade and Storage Wholesale Includes:  Trade SIC109 SIC264 SIC335 SIC391  -  SIC602 SIC606 SIC608 SIC611 SIC612 SICG14 SIC615 SIC616  -  SIC617 SIC61B SIC619 SIC621 SIC622 -  Beverage i n d u s t r i e s O f f i c e f u r n i t u r e manufacturers Communications equipment manufacturers S c i e n t i f i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l equipment industries Wholesalers o f farm products Wholesalers o f c o a l and coke Wholesalers o f petroleum products Wholesalers o f paper and paper products Wholesalers o f g e n e r a l merchandise Wholesalers o f food Wholesalers o f tobacco products Wholesalers o f drugs and t o i l e t preparations Wholesalers o f a p p a r e l and dry goods Wholesalers o f household f u r n i t u r e and f u r n i s h i n g s Wholesalers o f motor v e h i c l e s and accessories Wholesalers o f e l e c t r i c a l machinery, equipment and s u p p l i e s Wholesalers o f farm machinery and equipment  179  SIC623 - Wholersalers o f machinery and equipment, n.e.s. SIC625 - U h o l e s a l e r s of metal and metal products SIC626 - Wholesalers o f lumber and b u i l d i n g materials SIC627 - Wholesalers of scrap and waste m a t e r i a l s SIC629 - Wholesalers, n.e.s. Sector 16: 16.1:  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and R a i l r o a d Transport Includes:  16.2:  SIC506 SIC5G7 SIC508 SIC509 SIC512 SIC515 SIC516 SIC517  -  Moving and storage, used goods, uncrated Other t r u c k t r a n s p o r t Bus t r a n s p o r t , i n t e r u r b a n and r u r a l Urban t r a n s i t systems Taxicab o p e r a t i o n s Pipeline transport Highway and bridge maintenance M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to transport SIC519 - Other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Communication Includes:  16.6:  SIC501 - A i r t r a n s p o r t (passenger and f r s i g h t transport, a i r t a x i ) SIC502 - S e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to a i r t r a n s p o r t ( a i r c r a f t r e n t a l and s e r v i c i n g , t e r m i n a l s e r v i c e , f l y i n g c l u b or s c h o o l )  Motor T r a n s p o r t , P i p e l i n e s and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s Includes:  16.5:  SIC504 - Water t r a n s p o r t (barge, f e r r y , f r e i g h t , towing, s h i p p i n g , e t c . ) SIC505 - S e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to water t r a n s p o r t (boathouse s e r v i c e , l o n g s h o r i n g , maintenance, e t c . )  A i r Transport Includes:  16.4:  SIC503 - Railway t r a n s p o r t (passenger and f r e i g h t transport, r a i l r o a d ferry operation, etc.)  Water Transport Includes:  , 16.3:  Communication  SIC543 - Radio and  Telephone and Telegraph Includes:  television  broadcasting  Communication  SIC544 - Telephone systems SIC545 - Telegraph and cable systems  180  16.7:  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communication Includes:  Sector 17: 17.1:  5IC335 - Communications equipment manufacturers SIC527 - Other storage and warehousing SIC574 - Gas d i s t r i b u t i o n  E l e c t r i c Power, Gas and Water U t i l i t i e s E l e c t r i c Companies and Systems Includes:  SIC572 - E l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n , and  17.2:  transmission  distribution  Gas Companies and Systems Includes:  17.3:  SIC574 - N a t u r a l or manufactured gas d i s t r i b u t i o n to consumers Water Supply, I r r i g a t i o n , S a n i t a r y S e r v i c e s Includes:  Sector 18: 18.1:  Finance,  SIC576 - Water supply p r o c e s s i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; i r r i g a t i o n systems o p e r a t i o n , h e a t i n g plant SIC579 - Other u t i l i t i e s , i . e . r e f u s e d i s p o s a l (garbage, ash, sewage, e t c . ) Insurance  Finance Includes:  18.2:  19.1:  SIC721 - Insurance c a r r i e r s (automobile, l i r e , h e a l t h , l i f e , mortgage guaranty, pension, e t c . )  Real E s t a t e Includes:  Sector 19:  5IC7Q1 - Banks and other d e p o s i t a c c e p t i n g establishments SIC7Q3 - Other c r e d i t agencies SIC7Q5 - S e c u r i t y brokers and d e a l e r s ( i n c l u d i n g Exchanges) SIC707 - Investment and h o l d i n g companies  Insurance Includes:  18.3:  and Real E s t a t e  SIC735 - Insurance and r e a l e s t a t e SIC737 - Real e s t a t e o p e r a t o r s  agencies  Personal Services Personal Services Includes:  SIC399 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s manufacturing n.e.s.  industries,  SIC871 SIC872 SIC873 SIC874  Shoe r e p a i r shops Barber and beauty shops P r i v a t e households Laundries, c l e a n e r s and p r e s s e r s (except s e l f - s e r v i c e ) SIC876 - S e l f - s e r v i c e l a u n d r i e s and dry c l e a n e r s SIC877 - F u n e r a l s e r v i c e s SIC879 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s Sector 20: 20.1:  Health and Welfare S e r v i c e s Health and Welfare Includes:  Sector 21: 21.1:  -  Education Education Includes:  SIC631 SIC821 SIC822 SIC823 SIC824  -  SIC825 SIC826 SIC827 SIC828  -  and R e l a t e d and R e l a t e d SIC801 SICB02 SIC803 SIC804  -  SIC8Q5 SIC806 SIC807 SIC809 SIC828 Sector 22: 22.1:  Food s t o r e s Hospitals R e l a t e d h e a l t h care i n s t i t u t i o n s O f f i c e s o f p h y s i c i a n s and surgeons O f f i c e s o f Para-medical personnel (Practitioners) O f f i c e s of d e n t i s t s D i a g n o s t i c and t h e r a p e u t i c s e r v i c e s , n.e.s Miscellaneous health services Welfare o r g a n i z a t i o n s  -  Includes:  Services  Kindergartens and nursery s c h o o l s Elementary and secondary s c h o o l s Schools o f a r t and o f the performing a r t s V o c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s , trade s c h o o l s , and business c o l l e g e s Post-secondary n o n - u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n a l institutions U n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s L i b r a r i e s , museums and other r e p o s i t o r i e s Education and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s , n.e.s. Welfare o r g a n i z a t i o n s  S e r v i c e s to Business Business  Services  Management  Services SIC099 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l t o mining SIC327 - S h i p b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r SIC544 - Telephone systems SIC851 - Employment agencies and personnel suppliers SIC853 - Computer s e r v i c e s SIC855 - S e c u r i t y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s e r v i c e s SIC861 - O f f i c e s o f accountants SIC862 - A d v e r t i s i n g s e r v i c e s SIC863 - O f f i c e s o f a r c h i t e c t s  182  SICB64 - E n g i n e e r i n g and s c i e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s SIC866 - O f f i c e s of lawyers and n o t a r i e s SIC867 - O f f i c e s of management and business consultants SIC869 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s t o business management 5IC895 - Machinery and equipment r e n t a l Sector 23: 23.1:  Amusement, R e c r e a t i o n , Accommdation and Food S e r v i c e s Amusement and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s Includes:  23.2:  -  Motion p i c t u r e t h e a t r e s Motion p i c t u r e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n Bowling a l l e y s and b i l l i a r d p a r l o u r s G o l f c l u b s and country c l u b s T h e a t r i c a l and other staged entertainment services SICB49 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s amusement and r e c r e a t i o n services  Accommodation and Food S e r v i c e s Includes:  Sector 24: 24.1:  SIC8B1 SIC883 SIC884 SIC886  -  H o t e l s and motels Lodging houses and r e s i d e n t i a l c l u b s Camping grounds and t r a i l e r parks Restaurants, c a t e r e r s and taverns  Federal Administration F e d e r a l Government Includes:  agencies  SIC841 SIC842 SIC843 SICB44 SIC845  SIC902 - Defence a d m i n i s t r a t i o n SIC909 - Other f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a l l government departments, s e r v i c e s and i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and not r e p o r t e d elsewhere.  Sector 25: 25.1:  P r o v i n c i a l Administration P r o v i n c i a l Government Includes:  SIC931 - P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a l l government departments, s e r v i c e s , and agencies i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and not r e p o r t e d elsewhere (e.g. hydro and g a s ) . Sector 26: 26.1:  Local Administration L o c a l Government Includes:  SIC951 - L o c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a l l government departments, s e r v i c e s and agencies not r e p o r t e d elsewhere.  183  Sector 27:  M i s c e l l a n e o u s , Mot Elsewhere Includes:  Classified  SIC391 - S c i e n t i f i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l equipment industries SIC896 - S e r v i c e s to b u i l d i n g s and d w e l l i n g s SIC899 - M i s c e l l a n e o u s s e r v i c e s , n.e.s.  APPENDIX I I  185  LOCATION AND SIZE OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL CENTRES - METROPOLITAN l/ANCOUl/ER LOCATION  COMMERCIAL FLOOR SPACE (sq. f t . )  Vancouver West End Point Grey Dunbar Kitsilano Kerrisdale Cambie Oakridge Marpole Mt. P l e a s a n t Sunset Grandvieu Hastings Renfrew Kingsway Fraserview T o t a l f o r Vancouver  294 ,681 211 ,992 3kQ ,359 1,453 ,040 422 ,805 1,576 ,713 576 ,061 435 ,064 1,897 ,770 770 ,531 574 ,755 531 ,889 311 ,321 515 ,429 437 ,489 10,350,399  Burnaby  1,951,859  New Westminster  2,105,671  Coquitlam  333,535  Port Moody  86,087  West Vancouver  915,343  North Vancouver C i t y  989,000  Richmond  1,136,721  Delta  470,259  Surrey Whalley  716,340  Guildford  508,639  Newton  199,848  Cloverdale  158,190  Sunnyside  120,406  Wtijite Rock T o t a l ( e x c l u d i n g Downtown Vancouver) Source:  268,600 20,311,297  Commercial F l o o r Space, Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Department, February, 1970.  186 PRINCIPAL NON-GOl/ERNMENT OFFICE BUILDINGS C i t y a f Vancouver, 1967 - 1972 Year Completed 1967 1967 1967 1967 1968 1968 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1970 1970 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c u/c  Pender and Burrary 1155 W. Hastings  21 8  Rentable Space (sq.ft.) 245,000 97,000  1111 W. Hastings 535 Thurlow 700 West Pender 747 Bute Georgia and Thurlow  13 8 15 3 27  90,000 67,000 83,400 20,000 340,000  1177 West Hastings 1055 West Hastings Pender and B u r r a r d Robson and Hornby Hornby and Dunsmuir 1070 West Broadway Bute and M e l v i l l e Broadway and Cypress 1300 West Georgia Georgia and Howe  27 23 17 20 10 3 4 3 15 30  286,000 260,000 170,000 130,000 65,000 21,000 5,000 20,000 150,000 540,000  10th and G r a n v i l l e 1750 East 10th Ave Georgia and Cardero 814 Richards  12 11 5 5 3 4  75,000 50,000 26,000 33,000 20,000 44,400  8 3  28,000 40,000  885 Dunsmuir Georgia and B u r r a r d  9 37  52,000 450,000  Ft. of Granville Oak and Broadway 1550 A l b e r n i Burrard 1050 West Pender 700 West Pender  28 9 8 31 21 16  350,000 40,000 90,000 453,000 250,000 148,000  1665 West Broadway  18 6  71,500 42,300  1144 B u r r a r d  30  15,000  Location  Building B e n t a l l Centre ( 1 s t Tower) Royal General Insurance Baxter Bldg (Columbia Centre) P h i l l i p s Building Montreal T r u s t B u i l d i n g P a c i f i c Palisades MacMillan B l o e d e l B l d g . Board o f Trade Tower (Columbia Centre) Guinness Tower B e n t a l l Centre (2nd Tower) Avord B u i l d i n g 885 Dunsmuir Wall & Redekop Moore Business Forms Cypress Place Westcoast Transmission Toronto-Dominion Tower ( P a c i f i c Centre) 1090 West Pender The 1177 West Broadway Bank of Montreal East I/an M e d i c a l B u i l d i n g Norwich Union B u i l d i n g 814 Richards S t r e e t B l d g . Fairmont Willow Medical Dental B u i l d i n g K e r r i s d a l e Medical-Dental Sun A l l i a n c e B u i l d i n g (2nd stage) Royal Centre G r a n v i l l e Square ( P r o j e c t 200) B.C.Automobile Assoc. Sandwell & Co.(1st phase) B e n t a l l Centre (3rd Tower) B.C.F.P. B u i l d i n g 700 West Pender St.Bldg®, 805 West Broadway B l d g . (medical-dental) 1665 West Broadway B l d g . Century P l a z a (apartments and commercial)  2525 Willow 42nd and Maple  u/c under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n summer o f 1972  No. o f Floors  187  PRINCIPAL NON-GOl/ERNMENT OFFICE BUILDINGS Greater Vancouver Suburban Areas, 1967 - 1972 ( i n excess o f 5,000 square f e e t )  Year Completed  Building  Location  No. o f Floors  Rentable Space (sq.ft.)  Burnabv 1968 1970 1970 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972  Edmonds B u i l d i n g Operating Engineers Uniot S p e c t a c u l a r Productions Allstate Building H i g h f i e l d Development Royal Bank B u i l d i n g Urban Computers North American L i f e Heathcote Holdings L t d . P l a z a 5000 Buchanan E n t e r p r i s e s Government Employees Union B u i l d i n g  New Westminster 1968 Office 1969 M e d i c a l Dental 1969 Commercial and O f f i c e 1969 Commercial and O f f i c e 1969 R e t a i l and O f f i c e 1970 R e t a i l and O f f i c e 1972 R e t a i l and O f f i c e Coquitlam 1967 1968 1968 1969 1970 1970 1970  Richmond 1968 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972  Caisse Populaire Farwest Investments Coquitlam M e d i c a l - D e n t a l Offices J . Ceuie L t d . Farwest Investments Dan B r a l i c  B.C. Packers L t d . Crestuood Medical C l i n i c Canadian P r o j e c t s L t d R e t a i l and O f f i c e s on 2nd f l o o r Renovation to o f f i c e s Offices Offices Offices O f f i c e s on 2nd f l o o r  2 4 2 2 2 2 1 6 2 3 2  14,000 16,700 13,200 12,000 60,400 12,000 5,874 29,500 16,000 23,200 25,000  4929 Canada Way  3  13,000  313 610 712 765 404 719 450  2 2 1 2 2 2 2  7,200 12,600 5,200 7,500 8,000 5,000 (16,980  1013 Brunette Ave 1062 A u s t i n Ave 218 Blue Mountain S t 946 Brunette Ave 1850 H i l l s i d e Ave. 1046 A u s t i n Ave. Blue Mountain and Lougheed  2 2 1 2 1 2  5,946 5,280 6,15'3 5,304 9,487 9,570  2  5,602  430 Moncton S t . 605 G i l b e r t Rd. 805 Anderson Rd  2 3 3  15,300 15,850 32,000  605 818 387 826 641 363  2 2 2 2 3 2  13,200 16,104 7,500 9,892 19,016 10,000  7879 4333 6440 3876 4259 7291 4025 4221 6545 5000 4489  Edmonds Ledger Oak Norland Ave. Canada Way Kingsway McConnell Kingsway Bonsor block Kingsway Buchanan  Sixth Royal Sixth Sixth Sixth Sixth Sixth  Street Avenue Street Street Street Street Street  No. 3 Road Park Place No. 3 Road G r a n v i l l e Ave Buswell S t . No. 3 Road  188  Greater Vancouver Suburban Areas, 1967-1972 (continued)  Year (R Completed  Building  North Vancouver C i t y 1967 Medical Centre 1968 Offices 1969 O f f i c e s and Apartments 1970 Offices 1971 R e t a i l , O f f i c e s and Apartments 1971 R e t a i l and O f f i c e s 1971 Offices 1972 Commercial and Apartments 1972 Offices  Location  145 East 13th St 2601 Westview Dr. 1441 S t . Georges Ave. 140 west 15th S t .  Rentable Space (sq.ft.)  9 2 16 2  29,160 10,320 20,626 16,700  130-148 west 16th S t . 14 1133-1139 Lonsdale Ave 2 133 west 15th S t . 1 130-144 west 14th S t . 24 145 west 15th S t . 3  12,460 9,537 10,555 5,229 28,020  west Vancouver 1967-71 T o t a l O f f i c e space c o n s t r u c t e d  Source:  No. o f Floors  30,000  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) pp. C-15 to C-17.  189  I n d u s t r i a l Land Values, 1972  $ per Square Foot Vancouver Bambie t o Dak (6th t o 8th Avenue) Cambie to Main (2nd to 8th Avenue) Powell (south s i d e ) South o f Powell ( G l e n - V i c t o r i a Dr.) C l a r k Drive Boundary Road area (poor f o o t i n g s ) Boundary Road area (good f o o t i n g s ) Marine Drive area  7.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 4.00  -  8.00 6.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 40,000 - 50,000 50,000 - 75,000 55,000 - 75,000  Burnaby Lougheed Highway ( a t Boundary Road) Lougheed Highway ( v i c i n i t y o f lilillingdon) Lougheed Highway (areas with poor footings) l i l i l l i n g d o n area Marine Drive area - unprepared - s e r v i c e d and prepared Lake C i t y ( f u l l y s e r v i c e d ) M4 - B e r e s f o r d area  60,000 - 70,000 75,000 - 90,000 40,000 - 50,000 40,000 - 55,000 8,000 15,000 - 20,000 50,000 - 60,000 45,000  North Vancouver* Not w a t e r f r o n t and s e r v i c e d Port  Coquitlam Acreage (not w a t e r f r o n t ) Serviced lots  Richmond  $ Per acre  *25,000 - 40,000  12,000 - 15,000 0.50 - 0.80 20,000 - 40,000  no r e c e n t s a l e s have o c c u r r e d .  Source:  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p. C-20.  190  Commercial Land Values, 1972  $ Per Square Foot Vancouver F i n a n c i a l and R e t a i l Core (area bounded by Hastings-Robson-Seymour-Thurlouj): Hastings and Pender S t r e e t s Georgia Robson Burrard Hornby and Howe S t r e e t s  35.QD 50.00 20.00 50.00 25.00  -  55.00 75.00 35.00 65.00 50.00  Georgia - west o f Thurlow Burrard - Smithe t o Davie Davie, Robson, Denman South G r a n v i l l e Broadway: Granville-Cambie Cambie-Main East Hastings - east o f C l a r k Drive Kingsway  25.00 15.00 15.00 20.00 12.00 8.00 6.00 5.00  -  30.00 20.00 30.00 25.00 15.00 12.00 10.00 7.00  6.00 6.00 5.00 5.00 -  7.00 7.00  Burnaby Kingsway:  Patterson LJillingdon Sperling East Hastings  6.00  North Vancouver Upper Lonsdale Lower Lonsdale  9.00 - 15.00 5.00 - 8.00  North Vancouver:  6.00 -  West Vancouver: Richmond:  Marine Drive Ambleside-Dundarave  8.00 - 14.00 6.00 -  7.00  4.00 -  5.00  Coquitlam North Road Brunette and A u s t i n  4.00 3.00 -  5.00 4.00  Port Coquitlam:  4.50 -  5.00  Surrey:  Source:  Brighouse  8.00  King George Highway  Shaughnessy S t r e e t  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p. C-24.  I n d u s t r i a l Rental Values,  1972  "The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s r e n t a l l e v e l s f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l types of b a s i c space having approximately 10 per cent of the space f i n i s h e d as o f f i c e s or d i s p l a y areas, c e i l i n g h e i g h t s o f 14 f e e t , u n s p r i n k l e r e d , not on r a i l , an o r d i n a r y i d e n t i t y f a c t o r , and bylaw parking and l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s o n l y . The higher r a t e would apply f o r areas of l e s s than 8,000 square f e e t and the lower r a t e would apply f o r l a r g e r areas." Rental F a l s e Creek (North and South s i d e s ) : Main to G r a n v i l l e G r a n v i l l e to B u r r a r d C l a r k Drive area Boundary Road area S. E. Marine Drive area North Vancouver Richmond Port Coquitlam  Source:  1.50 1.50 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.20  Value  -  1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.50 1.40 1.40  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board of Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973 ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p. C-21.  192 O f f i c e Rental Values, 1972  R e n t a l Range  Vacant  Downtown P e n i n s u l a  2.50 - 8.00  2)6-3)6  Broadway  2.00 - 8.00  4)6 - 5)6  East  2.00 - 4.50  yk - 4)6  Fraser  1.50 - 4.00  1 - 2  Main  2.50 - 4.50  2)6-3)6  Kingsuiay  2.50 - 4.50  1 - 2  Other  2.00 - 7.75  4)4 - 5)6  -  3)6 - 4)6  Vancouver  Hastings  -  Total  3 - 4  Suburbs Burnaby  3.00 * 5.50  4)6 - 5)6  North Vancouver C i t y  3.500 -- 5.50  3 - 4  west Vancouver  3.00 - 6.00  1)6-2)6  Richmond  3.00 - 6.00  5 - 6 4 - 5  TOTAL  Source:  -  3 - 4  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972". T h i s survey was conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973. ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p.  193  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver C o n s t r u c t i o n Costs per Square Foot (mid-year) 1969  1972  Office Buildings Wood frame (2 s t o r e y s ) Concrete - up to B s t o r e y s - up to 20 s t o r e y s - over 20 s t o r e y s  13.00 •- 16.00  16.00  19.00 •- 24.00 22.00 •- 27.00 24.00 -- 32.00  20.00 25.00 27.00  3.25 •- 3.75  3.75  -  19.00 25.00 30.00 35.00  Parking Garages S i n g l e r a i s e d deck u i t h on-grade parking Tuo or three s t o r e y s above and on-grade parking M u l t i - s t o r e y parking Basement parking i n c o n j u n c t i o n u i t h m u l t i - s t o r e y parking or office buildings Shopping  4.25 - 5.00 5.50 - 6.50  5.50 6.25  -  4.50 6.50 8.25  9.00  a.00  -  10.00  16.50 •- 20.00  17.50  -  21.00  14.00 •- 16.50 11.00 •- 15.00  15.00 12.50  B.00 •- 11.00 11.00 -- 14.00 0.45 •- 0.55  10.00 11.50 0.45  5.50 •- 7.00 6.50 •- 9.00 7.50 •- 10.00  7.50 a. 00 9.00  7.00 •-  Centres  Concrete department s t o r e s S t e e l frame l a r g e area p r e s t i g e stores Supermarkets Retail unit stores - uood frame and block - l i g h t s t e e l frame and block Parking areas  -  im  17.50 16.00 13.00 14.50 0.60  L i g h t I n d u s t r i a l and Warehouse Buildings Wood frame s m a l l S t e e l and concrete block R e i n f o r c e d concrete  Source:  _  -  -  9.50 10.00 12.00  " O f f i c e Space Survey, 1972." T h i s survey uas conducted by Western Realesearch C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . f o r the Real E s t a t e Board o f Greater Vancouver i n Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1972-1973. ( S t a t i s t i c a l and Survey Committee, Vancouver: 1972) p. C-27.  APPENDIX III  195  Table I .  S i g n i f i c a n c e Analysis of Questionnaire Variables f o r Primary S e c t o r s .  Counterpart Pair  Important  1.  V0Q8:  92.3%  2.  VQ27:  90%  3.  VQD6:  84.6%  4.  VD.26:  80%  5.  V007:  76.9%  6.  V025:  70%  7.  V036:  70%  8.  V015:  61.5%  9.  V017:  61.5%  VQ06 x V025  Spearman Correlation .78  Significance .04  196  Table I I . S i g n i f i c a n c e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r Manufacturing S e c t o r s  Variables  Important  Counterpart Pair  Spearman Correlation  1.  V028:  90.6%  V006: V/025  .64  .001  2.  V006:  90%  V007: V026  .70  .001  3.  V026:  89.1%  1/008: 1/027  .90  .001  4.  V025:  87.5%  V009: V028  .30  .022  5.  V029:  87.5%  VOID: 1/029  .40  .002  6.  1/036:  87.3%  V011: V030  .82  .001  7.  V007:  87.2%  1/015: V034  .43  .001  S.  V030:  85.9%  V016: V/035  .46  .001  9.  V034:  85.9%  17017: V036  .46  .001  10.  V011:  83.8%  V018: V037  .48  .001  11.  1/035:  82.8%  V020: V039  .66  .001  12.  1/037:. 82.8%  13.  1/008:  80%  14.  V027:  76.6%  15.  V015:  75.6%  16.  V017:  74.4%  17.  V/018:  73.1%  18.  V040:  71.9%  19.  V009:  71.8%  20.  V010:  70.5%  21.  V016:  69.2%  22.  V020:  69.2%  23.  U039:  67.2%  24.  V031:  64.1%  25.  V019:  61.5%  26.  V042:  60.9%  Significance  197  Table I I I .  S i g n i f i c a n c e Analysis of Questionnaire Variables f o r R e t a i l Sectors  Important  Counterpart Pair  Spearman Correlation  Significance  1.  VC-06: 96.2%  VDQ7 X V026  .88  .001  2.  VD25: 94.4%  V008 X VQ27  .87  .001  3.  VQ29:  VDQ9 X V028  .77  .001  4.  VQ37:  V010 X V029  .55  .035  5.  aa.9% V04Q: aa.2%  V011 X V030  .7D  .004  6.  VQ2D: 88%  V015 X VD34  .83  .001  7.  VOQfl: 87.5%  V017 X VD36  .72  .004  a.  VDQ9: 84%  V018 X VD37  .57  .028  9.  VQ10: 84% <  VD20 X V039  .69  .005  10.  V011: 84%  VQ21 X VQ40  .76  .002  11.  V03Q: 83.3%  VQ23 X V042  .81  .001  12.  VQQ7: 82.6%  VD24 X VD43  .67  .012  13.  VQ35: 82.4%  14.  VQ27: 77.8%  15.  Vo34: 77.8%  16.  Vo36: 776.5%  17.  V043: 76.5%  18.  V013: 76%  19.  V023: 72.2%  20.  VQ15: 72%  21.  VQ17: 72%  22.  VD21: 72%  23.  V042: 7Q.6%  24.  VD24: 65.2%  25.  VQ19: 64%  26.  VQ23: 64%  27.  VD26: 61.1%  28.  V039: 61.1%  aa.9%1  198  Table IU.  S i g n i f i c a n c e Analysis o f Questionnaire Variables f o r Wholesale Trade and Storage S e c t o r s  Important  Counterpart Pair  Spearman Correlation  Significance  1.  V025: 87%  V/006  X  V025  .65  .001  2.  V034: 87%  V/007  X  V026  .61  .003  3.  V030: 81.8%  von  X  V030  .70  .001  4.  V031: 78.3%  V012  X  V031  .70  .001  5.  1/043: 78.3%  V020  X  V039  .49  .02  6.  V029: 76.2%  7.  V006: 75.9%  a.  V026: 73.9%  9.  V/040: 73.9%  ID.  V/011: 73.1%  11.  Vo35: 72.7%  12.  V/036: 72.7%  13.  V/012: 71.4%  14.  V027: 69.6%  15.  V/028: 69.6%  16.  V/039: 65.2%  17.  V037: 63.6%  18.  V020: 63%  19.  V/007: 61.5%  20.  V038: 60.9%  199  Table V.  S i g n i f i c a n c e A n a l y s i s o f Questionnaire V a r i a b l e s f o r Infrastructure Sectors  Important  Counterpart Pair  Spearman Correlation  1.  V/006 . 86.7%  V/006 x V025  .9  .013  2.  V/027 : 80%  VO0S x V/027  .92  .028  3.  V/OOB : 70%  4.  V025  5.  V/007 : 63.6%  6.  V/014 : 63.6%  7.  V020 : 63.6%  a.  V/021 . 63.6%  Table V I .  Significance  66.7%  S i g n i f i c a n c e A n a l y s i s o f Questionnaire V a r i a b l e s f o r F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Services  Important  Counterpart Pair  Spearman Correlation  Significance  1.  V0Q6  81.5%  V006 x V025  .aa  .001  2.  V025' 78.3%  V008 x V027  .89  .001  3.  V024: 68.6%  V024 x  .89  .001  l*.  VQ27: 67%  5.  V043: 67%  6.  V020 . 65.8%  7.  V008: 63.1%  a.  V040  62.6%  9.  V019  60.3%  M0U3  200  Table V I I . S i g n i f i c a n c e A n a l y s i s o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e V a r i a b l e s f o r a l l Sectors Important  Counterpart Pair  1.  VQ06: 84.2%  V0Q6  X  V025  .79  .001  2.  V025: 62.6%  V007  X  V026  .79  .001  3.  V026: 76.8%  V008  X  V027  .89  .001  4.  V027: 72.5%  V015  X  V034  .68  .001  5.  V008: 71.4%  VQ20  X  V039  .51  .001  6.  V036: 70.7%  7.  V028: 69.2%  8.  V034: 67.3%  9.  V020: 67.2%  10.  V040: 67.1%  11.  V007: 66.4%  12.  V043: 62.8%  13.  V029: 62.7%  14.  V037: 60.5%  15.  V015: 60.4%  16.  V035: tO. 3%  17.  VQ39: tO. 2%  Spearman Correlation  Significance  201 Table V/III.  1.  Spearman C o r r e l a t i o n s Subpopulation  Primary S e c t o r s Variable  2.  o f Counterpart V a r i a b l e s by  Pair  Correlation  Significance  .78  .04  1.  VQQ6 x VD25  2,  V015  x V034  .77  .043  3.  VQ16  x VQ35  .94  .002  4.  V019  x VD38  .97  .001  5.  VQ2D x V039  .84  .018  6.  VD22 x V041  1.0  .001  Manufacturing Sectors 1.  V006 X V025  .64  .001  2.  V007 X V026  .70  .001  3.  V008 X V027  .90  .001  4.  V009 X V028  .30  3022  5.  V010 X V029  .40  .002  6.  V011 X VQ30  .82  .001  7.  V012 X V031  .88  .001  a.  V013 X V032  .80  .001  9.  V014 X V033  .86  .001  10.  V015 X V034  .43  .001  11.  V016 X V035  .46  .001  12.  V017 X V036  .46  .001  13.  V018 X V037  .48  .001  14.  V019 X V038  .67  .001  15.  V020 X V039  .66  .001  16.  V021 X V040  .53  .001  17.  V022 X V041  .62  .001  18.  V023 X V042  .38  .003  19.  V024 X V043  .77  .001  Table VIII  3.  (continued)  R e t a i l Sectors Variable Pair  4.  Correlation  Significance  1.  V007 X VD26  .88  .001  2.  VDD8 X VD27  .87  .001  3.  VQD9 X V028  .77  .001  4.  VOID X V029  .55  .035  5.  VD11 X VD3D  .70  .004  6.  VQ12 X VD31  .92  .001  7.  VD13 X VD32  .87  .DDI  8.  V014 X VD33  .95  .001  9.  VD15 X V034  .83  .001  ID.  V016 X V035  .69  .005  11.  VD17 X V036  .72  .004  12.  VQ18 X V037  .57  .028  13.  VD19 X VQ38  .65  .009  14.  VD2D X VD39  .69  .005  15.  VD21 X V040  .76  .002  16.  V022 X V041  .60  .017  17.  V023 X V042  .81  .001  18.  V024 X V043  .67  .012  1.  V006 X VD25  .65  .001  2.  VD07 X VD26  .61  .003  3.  V008 X V027  .87  .001  4.  VD09 x?V028  .69  .001  5.  VD1D X VD29  .62  .003  6.  VQ11 X VD30  .70  .001  7.  VD12 X VD31  .70  .001  8.  VD13 X VD32  .67  .001  9.  V014 X V033  .80  .001  ID.  VQ15 X V034  .70  .001  11.  V016 X VD35  .78  .001  12.  VD17 X VD36  .87  .001  13.  VD18 X VD37  .85  .DDI  Wholesale Trade and Storage  Table VIII  (continued)  Variable  5.  6.  Pair  Correlation  Significance  14.  Vol9 x V038  .75  .001  15.  V020 x V039  .49  .02  16.  V022 x V041  .78  .001  17.  V023 x V042  .90  .001  1.  V006 X V025  .9  .013  2.  V008 X V027  .92  .028  3.  V011 X V030  .82  .045  4.  Vol2 X V031  1.0  .001  5.  V013 X V032  1.0  .001  6.  V022 X V041  1.0  .001  Infrastructure Sectors  F i n a n c i a l and Administrative Services 1.  V006 X VQ25  .88  .001  2.  V007 X VQ26  .83  .001  3.  V008 X V027  .89  .001  4.  V009 X V028  .68  .001  5.  VQ10 X V029  .68  .001  6.  VQ11 X V030  .69  .001  7.  V012 X V031  .84  . .001  8.  V013 X V032  .74  .001  9.  V014 X V033  .85  .001  10.  V015 X V034  .71  .001  11.  V016 X V035  .87  .001  12.  V017 X V036  .84  .001  13.  V018 X V037  .81  .001  14.  V019 X V03B  .83  .001  15.  V020 X V039  .42  .001  16.  V021 X V04Q  .57  .001  17.  V022 X V041  .85  .001  18.  V023 X V042  .64  .001  19.  V024 X V043  .89  .001  204  Table VIII  7.  AH  (continued)  Sectors Variable  Pair  Correlation  S i g n i f icai  1.  VQQ6 X Vo25  .79  .001  2.  V007 X V026  .79  .001  3.  V0Q8 X V027  .89  .001  4.  V009 X V028  .59  .001  5.  V010 X V029  .66  .001  6.  V011 X V030  .88  .001  7.  V012 X V031  .89  .001  8.  V013 X V032  .78  .001  9.  V014 X V033  .82  .001  10.  V015 X V034  .66  .001  11.  V016 X V035  .74  .001  12.  V017 X V036  .71  .001  13.  V018 X V037  .76  .001  14.  V019 X V038  .75  .001  15.  V020 X V039  .51  .001  16.  V021 X VQ40  .53  .001  17.  V022 X V041  .77  .001  18.  V023 X V042  .60  .001  19.  V024 X V043  .80  .001  205  Table IX.  L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f Primary S e c t o r s .  Location C. B.  Absolute Frequency  D.  R e l a t i v e Frequency(%)  6  42.9  V/ancouver:  N.W.  2  14.3  V/ancouver:  N.E.  1  7.1  Richmond  2  14.3  Surrey  1  7.1  North V/ancouver  1  7.1  West V/ancouver  1  7.1  V a l i d Observations:  14  M i s s i n g Observations : 0  Table X.  L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f Manufacturing S e c t o r s  Location  Absolute Frequency  C.B.D.  R e l a t i v e Frequency  18  21.2%  V/ancouver:  N.W.  10  11.8  V/ancouver:  N.E.  15  17.6  V/ancouver:  S.W.  1  1.2  Vancouver:S.E.  3  3.5  Richmond  9  10.6  Surrey  5  5.9  Coquitlam  2  2.4  New  7  8.2  10  11.8  5  5.9  Westminster  Burnaby S. North Vancouver Valid Observations: Missing Observations:  85 0  (%)  206  Table X I . L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f Wholesale Trade and Storage  Location  Absolute Frequency  C.B.D. V/ancouver:  13  R e l a t i v e Frequency (%) 43.3%  N.W.  6  20  Vancouver: N.E.  5  16.7  Vancouver:  S.W.  2  6.7  Vancouver: S.E.  1  3.3  Neu  1  3.3  Burnaby S.  1  3.3  North Vancouver  1  3.3  Westminister  V a l i d Observations: Missing Observations:  Table X I I .  30 0  L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f R e t a i l S e c t o r s  Location  Absolute Frequency  R e l a t i v e Frequency (%)  C.B.D.  8  30.8%  Vancouver: N.W.  9  34.6  Vancouver: N.E.  2  7.7  Surrey  1  3.8  Burnaby N.  2  7.7  Burnaby S.  3  11.5  West Vancouver  1  3.8  V a l i d Observations: Missing Observations:  26 2  207  Table X I I I .  L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f I n f r a s t r u c t u r e S e c t o r s  Location  Absolute Frequency  C.B.D.  6  V/ancouver:  S.ltl.  R e l a t i v e Frequency (%) 50  1  %  B.3  Richmond  3  North V/ancouver  1  8.3  Ulest V/ancouver  1  a.3  Valid  Observations:  Missing  25  12  Observations:  0  Table XIV. L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f F i n a n c i a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Service Sectors. Location  Absolute Frequency  C.B.D.  R e l a t i v e Frequency (%)  67  51.5%  N.W.  32  24.6  Vancouver: N.E.  10  7.7  5.W.  3  2.3  Vancouver: S.E.  2  1.5  Richmond  1  Burnaby N.  1  .a  Burnaby S.  5  3.8  Port Moody  1  .8  North Vancouver  4  3.1  West Vancouver  1  .8  U.B.C.  3  2.3  Vancouver:  Vancouver:  V a l i d Observations: Missing Observations:  130 1  208  Table XV.  L o c a t i o n Frequency A n a l y s i s o f A l l S e c t o r s  Location  Absolute Frequency  C.B.D. Vancouver:  118  R e l a t i v e Frequency  39.7%  N.W.  59  19.9  Vancouver: N.E.  33  11.1  Vancouver: S.U.  7  2.4  Vancouver: S.E.  6  2.0  15  5.1  Surrey  7  2.4  Coquitlam  2  .7  Neu Westminster  8  2.7  Burnaby N.  3  1.0  Burnaby S.  19  6.4  Port Moody  1  .3  North Vancouver  12  4.0  West Vancouver  •4  1.3  3  1.0  Richmond  U.B.C. V a l i d Observations: Missing Observations:  297 3  (%)  F i g u r e I.  Primary S e c t o r s : Mean responses to questions 1 and 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  4 Level of importance* 3  2  1  i  1  i  2  i  3  l 4  i  5  i  6  i  7  Location factors * 1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  i  a  9  i  LO  i  11  i  12  i  13  i  14  i  16  i  17  I  ia  (as numberec i n F i g u r e 4.II)  important  3.  important  4.  absolutely  mean l e v e l of q u e s t i o n 1 per l o c a t i o n  factor,  mean l e v e l of q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  maximum number of cases 14.  i  15  essential  l  19  Figure I I .  Manufacturing S e c t o r s . Mean responses to q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Level of importance*  a Location f a c t o r s *1.  unimportant mam  2.  fairly  10  11  12 13  15  16  17  18  (as numbered i n F i g u r e 4.II)  important  3.  important  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 1 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  maximum number o f cases 85.  14  4.  absolutely essential  19  Figure I I I .  R e t a i l Trade: Mean responses to q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 o f the l o c s t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  It  Level of importance ! 4  3  1 2  3  k  5  6  Location f a c t o r s *1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  4-  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  Ik  15  16  17  18  (aa numbered i n F i g u r e k.II) important  3.  important  k.  abaolutely essential  — _  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 1 per l o c a t i o n  factor,  i  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  maximum number o f cases 28.  19  Figure  IU.  Wholesale trade and s t o r a g e : Mean responses to questions l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  1 and 2 o f the  4 Level of * importance 3  2  1  *-  i  >  1  2  l  3  1  4  1  5  6  1  7  1  8  •  1  1  g  10  11  1  12  1 .  1  1  1  1  1  1  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  L o c a t i o n f a c t o r s (as numbered i n F i g u r e 4.II) *1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  important  3.  important  4.  absolutely essential  .•mir  mean l e v e l o f question  1 per l o c a t i o n f a c t o r ,  i »i  mean l e v e l o f question  2 per l o c a t i o n f a c t o r ,  maximum number o f cases 3D.  F i g u r e V/.  Infrastructure: Mean responses to q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Level of „ importance 3  3  2  2  1  1  •  2  3  ft 4  Location *  1.  unimportant  2.  i  >  •  5  6  7  a  1  t-  :  9  LO  i  11  1  12  13  14  15  |  16  17  18  f a c t o r s (as numbered i n F i g u r e *••!!) fairly  important  3.  important  4.  mean l e v e l of  q u e s t i o n 1 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  mean l e v e l o f  q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  maximum number o f caaes 12.  absolutely  essential  19  F i g u r e VI.  F i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s : Mean responses to questions 1 and 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Level of importance  t  3  3  5  5  6  7  Location factors 1.  unimportant  2.  fairly  a  9  "  12  13 i*» 15 i s 17  i a 19  (as number i n F i g u r e k.II)  important  3.  important  U.  absolutely essential  1 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n  1  I o i i  maximum number o f cases 131.  ro  F i g u r e V/II.  A l l S e c t o r s : Mean responses to q u e s t i o n s 1 and 2 o f the l o c a t i o n survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Level of importance*!  k  5  6  7  Location factors 1.  unimportant  **•«•*  2.  8  9  ID  11  12  13  Ik  15  16  17  18  19  (as numbered i n F i g u r e 4 . I I )  f a i r l y important  3.  important  k.  absolutely essential  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 1 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  mean l e v e l o f q u e s t i o n 2 per l o c a t i o n  factor.  maximum number o f cases 3D0. r\3 H  216 Figure V I I I .  Mean Responses on Questions 1 and 2 o f the L o c a t i o n Survey Questionnaire by Subpopulation  Question 1  Level of importance  12  3 4 56  Location  78  9 ID 11 12 U 1415 16 17 IB 19  f a c t o r s (numbered as i n Figure 4.II)  Question 2 L e v e l of importance  1 2  3 4  Location  5 6 7 8  9 ID 1112.131?. B 1 6 17 18 19  f a c t o r s (numbered as i n Figure 4.II)  •  1. unimportant; 2. f a i r l y  primary  sectors  manufacturing retail  important; 3. important; 4. a b s o l u t e l y essential.  sectors  trade  wholesale trade and  storage  infrastructure f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e all  sectors  services  217  APPENDIX IU  218  S t a t i s t i c s Used D i r e c t l y i n the Study 1.  The A r i t h m e t i c Mean Nie, Bent and H u l l a t a t e t h a t : ((  The  a r i t h m e t i c mean i s d e f i n e d as the fum o f the s c o r e s o f  a v a r i a b l e d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number o f v a l i d caaes f o r t h a t variable.  The formula f o r the a r i t h m e t i c mean X i s  5 —  N  Xj  where X^ equals the score o f each case, and where N r e p r e a e n t s the t o t a l number o f v a l i d c a s e s .  Ulhen the data i s g i v e n i n grouped  form,  which i s a common p r a c t i c e when a l a r g e number o f cases i s i n v o l v e d , it  i s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y assumed f o r the purpose o f computing  the mean  t h a t the values w i t h i n each category are concentrated a t the midp o i n t o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e I n t e r v a l r a t h e r than evenly d i s t r i b u t e d throughout i t .  The formula f o r computing  the mean when grouped  data  i a i n v o l v e d then becomes *  =  ~ N  where f ^ equals the number o f cases i n the i t h category, m^ equals the midpoint o f the i t h category, and k equals the number o f c a t e g o r i e s involved. N = 2.  In t h i s case h  The Standard D e v i a t i o n and Variance Standard d e v i a t i o n i s the square r o o t o f the a r i t h m e t i c mean  of the squared d e v i a t i o n s from the mean.  In other words, the d e v i -  a t i o n s o f the s c a r e s from the mean are determined, each d e v i a t i o n i s squared and the a r i t h m e t i c mean o f these number i s c a l c u l a t e d , then the square r o o t o f t h a t mean i s taken.  The formula f o r the s t a n d a r d  219 deviations i s  s =  N  where X equals the mean o f the o r i g i n a l s c o r e s . u l a s can be used when computing N~  s -  S e v e r a l other form-  from ungrouped d a t a .  Tuo o f these are  I  N  When computing  from grouped  data, i t i s assumed t h a t each case u i t h i n  a given i n t e r v a l 1 i s l o c a t e d a t the midpoint d^ o f t h a t  interval.  I f x^ i s s e t equal to d^ - X, x^ r e p r e s e n t s the d e v i a t i o n o f the midpoint from the mean. s =  The g e n e r a l formula then becomes  N  Variance i s equal to the square o f standard d e v i a t i o n .  I t s formula  t h e r e f o r e becomes Variance = s  2  =  (^'"^ N  and i t s computing  formulas are found by simply removing  s i g n from any o f the computing 3.  the square-root  formulas f o r standard d e v i a t i o n .  Chi-Square The Chi-square s t a t i s t i c  given i n the t a b l e o f FASTABS  program i s based upon Pearson's Chi-square t e s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n . t e s t s the independence tuo v a r i a b l e s .  (or l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l  Its  I t does not measure the degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n ; i t o n l y  independence  formula i s  It  a s s o c i a t i o n ) betueen  i n d i c a t e d the l i k e l i h o o d o f having a d i s t r i b u t i o n as d i f f e r e n t statistical  sub-  by chance alone as the observed  from  distribution.  with ( r - l ) ( c - 1) degrees  of freedom, where f  served frequency i n each c e l l , f  1  equals the  equals the expected  ob-  frequency,  c  equals the number of columns i n the t a b l e , and r equals the number o f rows i n the t a b l e .  The expected  frequency f  1  i s calculated  as  <i - (W) where c^ i s the frequency i n a r e s p e c t i v e column m a r g i n a l , r ^ i s the frequency i n a r e s p e c t i v e row marginal, and N stands f o r t o t a l number of v a l i d  cases. T h e ^ p r o b a b i l i t y f i g u r e given i n the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s on what  l e v e l the d i f f e r e n c e between the observed pected d i s t r i b u t i o n can be thought  d i s t r i b u t i o n and the  as s i g n i f i c a n t .  I t shows the  p r o b a b i l i t y o f having as much d i f f e r e n c e between the sample u t i o n and the expected u t i o n were  ex-  distrib-  d i s t r i b u t i o n i f i n f a c t the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b -  independent.  For example, i f the p r o b a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with given value 2 of X  i s *os, one can r e j e c t the n u l l hypothesis t h a t the two  a b l e s are independent  vari-  at the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f .05 or g r e a t e r .  Chi-square g i v e a the most accurate r e s u l t when a p p l i e d to t a b l e s with a l a r g e value of N, as chi-square d i s t r i b u t i o n t a b l e s are based on l a r g e sampling.  T h e r e f o r e , when the expected  frequencies i n  some c e l l s of the t a b l e run as low as 5, i t i s a good i d e a to make some c o r r e c t i o n f o r c o n t i n u i t y , as the p o s s i b i l i t i s s o f d i f f e r e n t values f o r chi-square are r a t h e r l i m i t e d when the c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s are s m a l l i n t e g e r s .  The  c o r r e c t i o n which w i l l tend to make the value  f o r chi-square somewhat s m a l l e r , c o n s i s t s o f b r i n g i n g a l l observed f r e q u e n c i e s c l o s e r to the values of the expected adding or s u b t r a c t i n g 0.5  f r e q u e n c i e s by  either  i n each c e l l before computing c h i - s q u a r e .  221  Another way o f g e t t i n g around the problem o f s m a l l f r e q u e n c i e s i s combining  two o r more c a t e g o r i e s .  I f most c e l l v a l u e s are f a i r l y  l a r g e and o n l y a feui are as s m a l l as 5, i t i s not r e a l l y necessary t o make any adjustment 4.  a t a l l before computing c h i - s q u a r e .  F i s h e r ' s Exact T e s t F i s h e r ' s exact t e s t i s used uiith 2 x 2 contingency t a b l e s t o  y i e l d exact, r a t h e r than approximate, u s e f u l f o r s m a l l samples. p  . 1  l 2 l ' 2 N!a!b!c!d! R  where R row  I  R  !  C  C  probabilities.  I t s formula i a  !  equals the frequency t o t a l f o r row 1 , R  1  2, C  1  I t i s most  equals the t o t a l f o r column 1 , C  2  2  equals the t o t a l f o r  equals the t o t a l f o r  column 2 ; a, b, c, and d are a l l the f r e q u e n c i e s o f c e l l s a, b, c, and d, r e s p e c t i v e l y accompanying  b  c  d  l  t h a t the c e l l s are l e t t e r e d as i n the  diagram).  a  C  (assuming  C  2  I f one f i n d s the p r o b a b i l i t y o f the observed  d i s t r i b u t i o n , as  w e l l as every o t h e r p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n g i v i n g as much or more evidence o f a s s o c i a t i o n , then one can t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the given d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p u r e l y a product o f chance by t a k i n g the c a l c u l ated sum o f  values ( o r p r o b a b i l i t y ) as the s i g n i f i c a n c e  level.  F i s h e r ' s exact t e s t i s e s s e n t i a l l y one t a i l e d . The value o f the exact s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l  (or p r o b a b i l i t y )  i s c a l c u l a t e d by computing P^ f o r the given t a b l e and a l s o f o r each p o s s i b l e t a b l e with a v a r i a t i o n on the d i s t r i b u t i o n t h a t i s more  222  extreme than t h a t of the given t a b l e and then adding values of 5.  up a l l the  P^.  K e n d a l l ' s Tau B and Tau  C  K e n d a l l ' s tau b and tau c  both depend upon rank order, but  tau c i s intended f o r t a b l e s uiith an unequal number of rous columns.  The  value of tau b can vary from -1 to +1,  and  depending on  how  much agreement e x i s t s between the ranks of the rows. In c a l c u l a t i n g tau b and tau c, count pairs,  a l l p a s s i b l e number o f  - 1 ) , than p a r t i t i o n these i n t o the f o l l o w i n g  (MON(N  three  groups: P = a l l p a i r s i n which the order on one v a r i a b l e i s the same as the order on the other - concordant p a i r s Q = a l l p a i r s i n which the order on one v a r i a b l e i a the opposite of the order on the other - d i s c o r d a n t p a i r s T = a l l p a i r s i n which a t l e a s t one v s r i a b l e shows a t i e Then Tau b =  1/2N(N - 1 P  Q  ;  -  Tau b can be computed with adjustment f o r t i e s by the use of the Tau b =  -  P 1/2NCN - 1) - T  x  g 1/2N(N - 1) -  T  2  where T^ equals the number of t i e s i n the f i r s t v a r i a b l e , and T^ the number of t i e s i n the second v a r i a b l e . Tau c = 2m(P  -  Q)  N (m  -  1)  2  formula  Tau c has the  equals  formula  where m r e p r e s e n t s e i t h e r the number of rows or the number of columns i n the t a b l e , whichever i s s m a l l e r . Source:  Nie, N . H., Bent, D.H., and H u l l , C.H., S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 197Q) pp. 272-275, 277.  223  6.  Spearman Rank-Order C o r r e l a t i o n  Coefficient  Spearman's rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s d e f i n e d by: rs = 1 -  fc*ffl  where:  = rank d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r the i t h p a i r o f o b s e r v a t i o n s n  Source:  <**  = number o f p a i r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s .  Harnett, D.L., I n t r o d u c t i o n to S t a t i s t i c a l Methods, Addison Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1970).  (London:  224  APPENDIX V  225  THE DATA  The source o f the data u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study was a l o c a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e survey conducted by the V/MIS i n the F a l l o f 1972. 3600 f i r m s i n the G.V/.R.D. mere c o n t a c t e d .  A copy o f the data on  computer cards and r e l e v a n t computer output i s p r o v i d e d to the Urban Land Economics Department i n the F a c u l t y o f Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The study c o n s i s t s o f 300 usable respondents, coded as f o l l o w s : Each q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d e f i n e d over an BO column  field  with format: (F6.0, IX, F3.0, IX, Fk.l, Columns 1 - 6 :  Fk.Q,  IX, F2.0, 38F1.0, 9X, F5.2, 6X)  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Number.  T h i s r e f e r s to the p a r t i c u l a r  f i r m which made the response. Column 7:  Blank,  Columns 8 - 1 0 :  SIC Number ,  Column 11:  Blank  Columns 12 - 15: S e c t o r .  T h i s r e f e r s to the economic s e c t o r as coded  i n the l/MIS. Columns 16 - 19: Number o f Employees Column 20:  Blank  Column 21 - 22:  L o c a t i o n Code.  Columns 23-60:  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e V/ariables.  Please r e f e r to F i g u r e 5.1. 1/006 to V043  Columns 61 - 69: Blank Columns 70 - Ik:  Undefined V a r i a b l e . T h i s r e f e r s t o a v a r i a b l e which was keypunched but subsequently c o n s i d e r e d t o be extraneous. Columns 75 - 80: Blank.  

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