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Going global with the locals : internationalization activity at the university colleges in British Columbia Evans, Karen 2006

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GOING G L O B A L WITH T H E L O C A L S : INTERNATIONALIZATION ACTIVITY AT T H E UNIVERSITY C O L L E G E S IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  KAREN EVANS B . A D M I N . A T H A B A S C A U N I V E R S I T Y , 1984 M.I.R. Q U E E N ' S U N I V E R S I T Y , 1985  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF D O C T O R OF E D U C A T I O N IN  T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  (Educational Leadership and Policy)  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A February 2006 © Karen Evans, 2006  Abstract  This study is about internationalization activity in the British Columbia university colleges. It discusses the environmental context, identifies the types o f internationalization activities which occur and discusses the impact o f this activity on faculty, staff and administrative work.  The investigation employs a nested case study with units o f analysis occurring at five levels. The university college sector is the first level; second, its senior officers; third, its deans and directors; fourth, faculty members; and fifth, staff members. Data collection involved individual and focus group interviews, compiling documentary and historical records, participant-observation and on-site visits to each university college. M y intent was to learn about internationalization, to identify the factors influencing its activity and to discover how the activity influences the university college environment.  The research provided six key findings on internationalization in the university colleges: (1) the meaning o f internationalization is heavily influenced by the external environment; (2) the university college workplace is shaped by growing numbers o f international students; ( 3) the university colleges have been very successful in attracting international students to their programs; (4) internationalization work is both under-valued and under-supported at the university colleges; (5) a separation exists between international education and faculty areas and results in a number o f misperceptions; (6) the university colleges are faced with leadership challenges.  ii  The key findings presented five general conclusions about internationalization in the university colleges: (1) internationalization efforts do not have a legitimate voice nationally, provincially or locally; (2) an institutional discussion and debate regarding the role and purpose of internationalization has not happened at the university colleges; (3) the university colleges run the risk of becoming overly dependent on a 'soft money' source to fund ongoing financial commitments; (4) the university colleges face some ethical challenges as they grapple with the economic imperative of internationalization; (5) the university colleges face an inherent structural challenge that creates tension within and between their internal and external communities.  Policy and practice recommendations are made to government, to higher educators and in particular to the university colleges. The limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are provided.  iii  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  List of Tables  ix  List of Acronyms and Abbreviations  x  Acknowledgements  xii  Dedication  xiii  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  1  Introduction  1  Why This Topic?  2  Internationalization Activity in the University Colleges  3  International Development Study Abroad and Field Schools Exchange Programs International Visits Internationalizing the Campus International Students International Student Growth  4 4 5 5 5 6 6  The Impact of International Activity  7  Gaps in Literature and Research  10  The Research Project  11  The Research Question Aim and Objectives of My Research Contributions to Knowledge Location of the Researcher  12 13 14 14  Thesis Structure  15  CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  18  Definition of Internationalization and Globalization  18  Political Economy and Neo-Liberalism  19  The Rise of Neo-Liberalism  21  iv  Globalization  24  The Context of Higher Education Markets  28  Internationalization  36  Why Internationalize the Academy? The Process of Internationalization Building Educationally- Based Internationalization Programs  36 37 38  Internationalization Policy Development  40  Internationalization in Canada  44  Trends in International Activity  45  Impact on the Academy  47  Impact on the B.C. Post Secondary System and the University Colleges  53  Conclusion  58  CHAPTER THREE: T H E UNIVERSITY COLLEGES  60  History of Higher Education Development in British Columbia  62  A History of the University Colleges  66  The Current Situation in the University Colleges Profiles of the University Colleges University College of the Cariboo Okanagan University College Malaspina University College The University College of the Fraser Valley Kwantlen University College Activity Levels in the University Colleges  70 72 72 75 77 79 81 83  Pattern of Growth in Credentials Conferred Student Growth Internationalization Focus  83 85 86  CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  92  Selection of Method  92  Gathering Multiple Sources of Evidence Selection and Recruitment of Participants  93 96  v  Challenges in Gaining Access to Participants  98  Phase-One Individual Interview Participant Selection  99  Interview Details Phase-Two Focus Group Participant Selection Faculty Focus Groups Staff Focus Groups Faculty and Staff Focus Groups Focus Group Details  102 103 106 107 107 108  Phase-Three Individual Interview Selection  109  Data Documentation and Organization  110  Data Analysis  Ill  Data Collection Observations  112  Site Observations Representation Further Observations on the Interviews and Focus Groups Trustworthiness of the Study Validity, Reliability and Ethics External validity Limitations of My Research  113 113 116 117 117 121 122  CHAPTER FIVE: THE MEANING OF INTERNATIONALIZATION  125  The Two Meanings of Internationalization  125  The Economic Imperative  126  Challenges to the Economic Imperative  133  Internationalization as an Educational Imperative  134  Challenges to the Educational Imperative Public Support Senior Officer Interest Faculty Interest Institutional Structures Student Interest and Barriers to Participation Financial Support  136 137 137 138 141 142 145  The Policy Framework  146  vi  Government and Internationalization Policy  147  The University Colleges and Internationalization Policy  150  Analysis of the Educational and Economic Imperatives  151  Conclusion  154  CHAPTER SIX: THE EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION  157  The Workplace Environment of the University Colleges  157  The Impact of Policy  157  Workload Challenges Faculty  160 160  Staff  163  English Language Observations  164  Classroom Observations  166  The Challenges of Working across Cultures  168  Systems and Structures Student Assessment Quality and Standards Communication The Isolation of International Education Discussion Leadership  171 172 173 174 175 178 181  External Challenges  181  Internal Challenges  184  Discussion  187  Conclusion  190  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS  193  Summary  195  Findings and Conclusion Findings Conclusions  196 196 203  Policy and Practice Recommendations  209 vii  Policy  209  Practice  210  Recommendations for Further Research  211  Concluding Thoughts  214  REFERENCES  217  Appendix A: Sample of Initial Contact Letter to University College Administration. 233 Appendix B : Sample Letter of Contact for Individual Interview  236  Appendix C: Sample of Letter of Initial Contact for a Staff Focus Group Participant 239 Appendix D: Sample Letter of Initial Contact for a Faculty Focus Group Participant 242 Appendix E: Sample Consent to Participate Form - Individual Interviews  245  Appendix F: Sample Consent to Participate - Focus Group Interviews  248  Appendix G : Interview Goals and Sample Questions  251  Appendix H: Summary of Findings to Phase 3 Interview Participants  256  Appendix I: Statistical Information Provided by Request  260  viii  List of Tables Table 1. Pattern of university college credential composition 2001/2002-2003/2004  84  Table 2. University college actual F T E s by fiscal year, 1998-2003  87  Table 3. Comparison of changes in international students enrolments in the British Columbia Public post secondary system  89  Table 4. University college international student headcount as a percentage of total unduplicated headcount 2001/2002, excluding continuing education  91  Table 5. Phase-One individual interviews, by institution and position title  102  Table 6. Phase-Two focus group participants by position designation and institution  106  Table 7. Phase-Three individual interviews, institution and position title  110  Table 8. Participants by institution, position and gender  115  Table 9. Comparison of revenue sources 2003/04 international student tuitions  127  Table 10. Comparison of international and domestic student tuition for general arts, undergraduate program by institution, 2004/2005  128  ix  List o f Acronyms and Abbreviations  ACE AECBC AUCC ACCC BC BCCIE CBIE CEC CECN CFI CIC CIDA CIHR CUSO DFAIT ERASMUS ESL EU GDP HRDC IAU IMF KUC MAE MBA MUC NORDPLUS NSERC OECD OUC OUCFA SFU SOCRATES SSHRC TRU UBC u c c  UCFV UMAP  American Council on Education Advanced Education Council o f British Columbia Association o f Universities and Colleges o f Canada Association o f Canadian Community Colleges British Columbia British Columbia Centre for International Education Canadian Bureau for International Education Canadian Education Centres Canadian Education Centre Network Canada Foundation for Innovation Citizenship and Immigration Canada Canadian International Development Agency Canadian Institutes o f Health Research Canadian University Service Organization Department o f Foreign Affairs and International Trade European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility o f University Students English as a Second Language European Union Gross Domestic Product Human Resource Development Canada International Association o f Universities International Monetary Fund Kwantlen University College Ministry o f Advanced Education Master o f Business Administration Malaspina University College A mobility programme for students at Nordic institutions o f higher education Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Organization for Economic and Cultural Development Okanagan University College Okanagan University College Faculty Association Simon Fraser University European Education Commission Range o f Programs from Primary through Secondary to Higher and Continuing Education Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Thompson Rivers University University o f British Columbia University College o f the Cariboo University College o f the Fraser Valley University Mobility in A s i a and the Pacific  USD UVIC WUSC  United States Dollar University of Victoria World University Services of Canada  Acknowledgements I feel tremendously privileged to have been given the opportunity to work with some very fine individuals during this thesis project. M y gratitude begins with four individuals I admire very much for their scholarly work and leadership in post-secondary. Each in their own way provided me with encouragement, support, wisdom and pragmatic advice throughout this project. First, I want to recognize Don Fisher and Kjell Rubenson, my research cosupervisors, for their many efforts. D o n was a constant source o f information and ideas. H i s insightful comments and practical advice were very useful, in particular, when I discovered the messiness o f data collection and analysis. Kjell's skilful questioning and astute observations helped me move my research forward on many occasions, especially when I thought there was nothing left to be said. Peter Jones was the third member o f my thesis committee. I very much appreciated his in-depth knowledge o f the B . C . post-secondary system and the university colleges. Peter's observations were particularly useful in shaping my chapter on the university colleges and in developing my discussion on internationalization. Garnet Grosjean has been a continual source o f encouragement since I began writing my thesis. He has graciously given o f his time to provide feedback on several iterations o f the thesis. A number o f other people assisted me in my research efforts. First, I would like to acknowledge the university colleges for their willingness to let me conduct the research. Everywhere I went I was greeted with hospitality and made to feel welcome. In particular I want to acknowledge the interview and focus group participants who gave their time and lent their expertise to my research project. Second, I want to recognize my daughter, Kristin Evans, who spent over a year transcribing the interviews and focus groups. Hundreds o f hours o f work were spent transcribing over 800 pages o f text from tapes. The tape quality on several o f the interviews and focus groups was very poor and made the work even more challenging. Third, I appreciate the assistance o f my friend and colleague, Cheryl Dahl, who painstakingly went through my entire thesis, giving me valuable editorial feedback. It has really helped. Fourth, I acknowledge the Buffalo Cohort, the Eddies o f 2001. Y o u have been a constant source o f inspiration, friendship and encouragement throughout my time at U B C . Last, but not least, I want to thank my partner, husband and best friend o f 29 years, Jason Evans. He has been with me since my first foray into post-secondary education over 30 years ago. M u c h of what I have accomplished in my life is due to his constant support and encouragement, and unconditional love.  Dedication  To the memory o f Norah Evans A dear soul who found her peace July 20 2005  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE OF T H E STUDY  This study is about internationalization activity at the British Columbia university colleges. The purpose o f the study is to explore the various forms o f internationalization activity occurring at these institutions and examine how they impact the workplace environment. The study focuses on the environmental context within which university colleges are situated and provides an understanding o f factors influencing the direction o f internationalization activity and its outcomes. In particular, the study addresses the increasingly important role international students play in shaping the workplace environment.  Introduction  The academy has experienced significant growth in internationalization activity and at least two explanations exist. One perspective attributes growth to globalization and the requirement for students to have a greater awareness o f different cultures and languages in preparation for living and working in an increasingly global world. From another perspective, the reality is most o f the growth has been i n the area o f international student recruitment activity rather than any other form o f international activity. While the numbers o f international students have grown across the post secondary system, the university colleges have experienced the most rapid growth in international student numbers.  University colleges are a relatively new type o f institution in British Columbia and are a success story in terms o f student interest and demand for their programs. University colleges have transformed from community colleges to degree granting institutions and over the past ten years have been very successful in building the degree portion o f their programs. The  university college experience provides students with an attractive alternative to a traditional university for several reasons, including their ability to offer degrees in communities close to home, the applied nature o f their degrees, links to the workplace, and until recently, comparably inexpensive tuition fees. More recently economic pressures have forced the university colleges to explore additional ways o f bringing revenue into their institutions and international students have proven to be a good source o f revenue.  W h y This Topic?  Examining international activity within the university college sector is timely. International activity at each o f the institutions has grown, especially since gaining degree-granting status. While each university college possesses a different history, academic program and culture, they share a common base: each began as a community college with emphasis on vocational training, developmental education and university transfer courses. These roots include strong ties to their communities. Community development and increasing access to post-secondary education for the local population were central to their original mandate as community colleges.  International student tuition provides a revenue stream and financial benefits, but is unstable. International student enrolment can both expand and contract rapidly. A b i l i t y to respond to those fluctuations can be challenging, especially i f the institution becomes reliant on those funds for long term use. Reliance on this form o f funding creates a number o f challenges.  2  Several years ago I had administrative responsibility for the continuing education department at my institution. The department was very reliant on short term, or 'soft' funding, dollars to support regular positions in the institution. When the funding diminished it created a tremendous amount o f stress on the institution to fund positions created through this 'soft' funding. The impact on individuals, who had expectations their jobs would be long lasting, when in fact they were heavily dependent on this 'soft' funding, resulted in personal stress and morale issues. If the goal is to bring in this type o f revenue institutions need to understand the challenges it presents.  Internationalization Activity in the University Colleges  Internationalization activity can bring the world into an institution and the communities it serves. A t the university colleges internationalization began with their involvement in international development projects. Recent growth in internationalization activity appears to be more focused on bringing international students to their campuses. International students have found university colleges an attractive post-secondary option, especially since they became degree granting institutions. University colleges offer a different type o f experience than what might be found elsewhere. Students become part o f the community they study and live in; a different experience than campus life, or living in a large city. The result has been a steadily increasing base o f international students who bring with them revenue that is especially welcomed during recent periods o f inadequate funding.  Internationalization at the university colleges can be divided into the following types o f activity: international development; study abroad and field schools; exchange programs; 3  international visits; internationalizing the curriculum and campus and international students. Each activity is fully discussed in the following section.  International  Development  University colleges have been involved in international development for much o f the past two decades. Work is often funded through the Canadian International Development Agency ( C I D A ) or the World Bank and the focus is on assisting a developing area o f the world with education, health or sustainable community projects. Nations and the types o f projects eligible for assistance are identified by these agencies who in turn seek the involvement o f organizations, such as the university colleges. These projects are usually o f a collaborative nature, requiring several institutions to work together and with one taking a lead role in order to carry out the administrative functions, such as annual reporting requirements.  Study Abroad and Field Schools  Study abroad creates opportunities for students to study at institutions in other countries for a period o f time, and usually for one to two semesters. Financial support tends to be limited for these programs and often responsibility rests with the student to secure the funds to study overseas. A t some university colleges there is an office that assists students with locating funding such as scholarships or bursaries, but most o f the funding for study abroad comes from the student.  Field schools provide opportunities for students to travel to other countries and study a particular topic in depth for.a set period o f time. These initiatives are dependent upon faculty  4  involvement in setting up the program and finding students interested in attending a field school.  Exchange  Programs  Faculty and student exchange programs are also developing at the university colleges. These exchanges involve interested faculty who set up exchanges with other institutions. Connections are often personal and may be based upon common academic or research interests. The number o f exchanges varies across institutions and departments and formalized through memorandums o f understanding articulating the details o f each agreement. Funding for these exchanges is usually in the form o f a small subsidy from the sending or receiving institution, or in the case o f European students, through nationally funded programs.  International  Visits  Each university college hosts a number o f international visitors every year and also visit other countries as part o f an educational tour or trade mission. The visits bring together politicians, business people and educators, and are formal events with participation from various levels o f administration and faculty. The relationships develop and often result in linkages between institutions and for the purpose o f exchanging faculty and students. Often the community is involved in hosting events involving key community members including local politicians, cultural groups or other educators.  Internationalizing  the Campus  A number o f events, projects and activities take place on university college campuses and focus on bringing the world on campus. Cultural events and presentations provide students 5  and faculty with opportunities to learn more about a specific culture. Faculty are involved i n internationalizing the curriculum initiatives, where cultural competence is gained by including it as part o f the learning outcome o f a particular subject.  International  Students  A t all institutions the most visible activity is the large group o f international students who pay international student rates to study at a university college. This includes the following activities: international student recruitment, which involves making overseas visits for the purpose of attracting new international students; international students attending classes on campus; offshore programs, where international students study a university college program in another country; advising and counselling services to provide support to the international student population; and, activities such as sporting events, trips, clubs, committees and gatherings to provide recreation and social opportunities to international students.  International Student Growth  Increasing international student numbers is an objective in the strategic plans o f each university college. Finding ways to make the university colleges even more appealing to international students has been a marketing objective at each institution. For example, when the university college presidents requested the word 'college' be removed from the name o f their institutions, one o f the reasons cited was to ensure their institutions would be better understood both nationally and internationally. The name university college lacked clarity in  6  international markets. This lack o f clarity, in turn, impeded recruitment o f international students and in the development o f partnership arrangements outside British Columbia.  1  The B C Progress Board (2002) in their "Learning to W i n " report recommends the number o f international students educated within the B . C . system increase by 50% by 2010. They see the need to prepare a well educated labour force and think international students can assist in meeting the need. They also recognize that international education provides a major economic boost to B . C . communities, especially in the heartland communities where economic stimuli are needed. This factor is well documented in the strategic plans o f the university colleges and is given as one o f the main reasons for expanding international student activity.  T h e Impact of International A c t i v i t y  A growth in any type o f activity w i l l have an effect on all aspects o f institutional activity. For example, at my own institution the English as a Second Language ( E S L ) Department experiences fluctuations in international student enrolment. Five years ago, the department faced employee reductions as a result o f a decrease in international student enrolments. Two years later the same department had to more than double the number o f courses in an attempt to keep up with demand. Because the funding is elastic, faculty are hired in with an understanding their positions are not as secure as what might be found in more stable enrolment areas o f the institution. The funding is 'soft' and is not part o f the institutional  1  T h i s argument has been noted in several documents such as the Malaspina website devoted to the  campaign for university status. This can be viewed at www.malaspina.bc.ca/university.  7  operating budget. The funding is only as secure as the number of international students who pay tuition to take E S L courses.  The Business Department has also experienced significant growth in its international student population over the past decade and pressure to take in more students is an ongoing challenge. In addition, the department is constantly being asked by foreign institutions to partner with faculty to work on shared research interests, and faculty and student exchanges.  Computer studies are very popular with international students. Some of these students, especially in first year classes, are struggling with English literacy. Students have attended ESL classes, but are anxious to leave the program as quickly as possible in order to take academic programs reflecting their educational interests. At times, faculty members feel pressured by students to take them into academic courses before they achieve the minimal standards of language proficiency.  Our Computer Studies Department has been offering the first two years of their program in China. The program allows students to complete their first two years of study in their home country, and then continue with the degree program in Canada for the remaining two years. While faculty members are highly supportive of the initiative, there was much preliminary work involved with setting up the program. The process took over two years to set up, with many meetings and several trips to China at institutional expense. The program worked very well for the first three years and then the education market changed; arrangements were made this past semester to close down the program. Both the department and institution were  8  able to share in the profit generated by the program, and the funding assisted them with other equipment and staffing needs. Whether in fact the institution actually recovered its initial start up costs is yet to be determined.  Other areas have also been affected by the increase o f market based education. Often the demands o f international students tend to be more complex, involving higher staff to student ratios than required by domestic students. The students are viewed as consumers, and on occasion staff is placed in a position o f trying to manage tension between student demands and requirements o f academic departments.  W i t h international student activity come increased requests for counselling and advising assistance, or for admissions processes to assess foreign-based credentials and transcripts. For finance staff, contract-based international activity means new and different types o f billing requirements, activity reports and financial statements. For employee relations staff, issues include the hiring o f additional contract faculty and calculations o f workload for working overseas. These initiatives take human and financial resources, and questions arise as to whether the full cost o f these activities is fully accounted for when support services are factored in.  The existing system in British Columbia has provided infrastructure to support academic initiatives and program development, mainly through public funding. With fewer government funds available to the public post secondary system over the next several years, institutions w i l l seek alternative revenue streams, one o f which w i l l continue to be international activity. A different type o f structure, more market-oriented and cost-sensitive,  9  may be required. The challenge lies i n developing a structure which incorporates the pushpull o f market forces, without comprising the core values o f an institution.  G a p s i n L i t e r a t u r e and Research  Empirical evidence indicates change occurs in the academy when commercially-based activity is introduced, and includes changes in governance and operational structures, organizational values and individual attitudes. The literature provides ample discussion o f activity in other western nations undergoing market reform, but little related to the Canadian scene.  While some information is available on internationalization in Canadian universities (Bond & Lemasson, 1999; Knight, 1999) little is written about university colleges, and even less related to their work in the area o f internationalization. Canadian universities have long standing traditions o f involvement with international work (Shute, 1999), and research focuses on these institutions.  Internationalization research in the universities is still viewed as insufficient by prominent scholars in the field. Knight (1999) observes there has been little formal research on international education and calls for further research and analysis into the trends and critical issues facing the 'marketization' o f international education. For Teichler (1996a), the gathering o f empirical evidence regarding internationalization o f higher education should be  10  the emerging theme o f future higher education policy and research, but this has not yet occurred.  The seminal pieces o f work include Petch's (1998) review o f details on the university colleges. Dennison's (1998) response to the document, as well as his (1996) discussion o f the history o f higher education and the evolution o f the university colleges in British Columbia provide further historical perspective. Day and Schuetze (2001) examine how government policy impacts student access, financing and participation rates in the post secondary system. A comparative analysis o f the Canadian and American college and university college sector was conducted eight years ago by L e v i n (2001; 2003), and while important, was written prior to the changes brought about after the election o f the Liberal government in 2001.  University colleges possess some unique characteristics due to their history and structure. They began as community colleges, with a mandate to serve the regional educational needs of their communities. This local community focus and mandate has defined their development. The empirical work to date has not been able to adequately determine the role of internationalization in the universities, or in the university colleges. The impact o f internationalization and international student enrolment at the university colleges requires further examination.  T h e Research Project  M y research focuses on the impact o f international activity in the university college sector in British Columbia. The project is a nested case study, and initially included all five university 11  colleges: Okanagan University College, University College o f the Cariboo, Malaspina University College, University College o f the Fraser Valley and Kwantlen University College. In the end, four university colleges participated in the interviews and focus groups. The administration from one university college chose to exclude their institution from the study. However, numerical data and institutional information includes all five university colleges.  The information and data includes source documents on government funding, international activity and higher education policy, institutional data, the results o f semi-structured interviews o f selected participants and the results o f focus groups conducted at four o f the institutions. The analysis w i l l examine how international activity is shaping the university colleges in British Columbia.  The Research Question  The primary objective o f this research is to examine the role, purpose and meaning o f internationalization and to determine how the activity shapes the work being done at the university colleges. Internationalization is a goal o f higher education institutions seeking to serve students by preparing them for an increasingly global economy and society. However, at the same time they try to take advantage o f opportunities to increase international awareness, they are seeking new market-oriented revenue streams; one o f these has become the recruitment o f international students. H o w do these two goals, educating for global citizenship and market-oriented revenue production, 1) interact and affect each other? A n d , 2 ) influence the university colleges? Identifying the effects o f expanding international  12  student numbers and projects on employees at the university colleges w i l l be included in the research.  Aim and Objectives of My  Research  Given the increased focus on international activities, I believe this is an opportune time to examine the activity within the British Columbia post secondary system. Information is important to institutions considering structural changes or planning for larger portions o f their revenue from international activity. M y intent in conducting this research is to link scholarly research and the field o f practice through a mutual sharing o f experiences and understanding. In the spirit o f reciprocity, I w i l l provide the findings to each participant who contributed to my study.  The study has three main objectives. The first objective is to identify the scope o f international activity in the university colleges. This w i l l include the following: identifying the purpose, function and role o f international activity; discovering how international activity is structured, and operationalized; determining the variety o f international activity at the university colleges; and, identifying international-related institutional policies and practices. The second objective is to uncover the meaning o f internationalization and to determine i f a commonly shared understanding o f the activity exists across the various participant groups. This w i l l include discussions on the direction and vision o f international activity, where its focus and emphasis is being placed, and how it is evolving. The third objective is to examine how international activity influences and shapes the university college operations. The relationship individuals have with international activity, including related issues, challenges and opportunities w i l l be addressed. The impact o f these factors on the workplace environment and on the practices o f each individual w i l l be explored. 13  Contributions to Knowledge  The information gathered during the course o f my investigation should be useful to the post secondary system for policy, practice and research considerations. The results can be used for considering educational policy directions, and for use in future planning at the system or institutional level. In terms o f practice, I provide a context for understanding the costs and benefits of pursuing entrepreneurial type activity, as well as other related considerations requiring the attention o f the institution, such as strategies for success, or pitfalls to avoid.  I hope to provide a foundation for future comparative analysis between different types o f institutions and on a larger scale, between different systems pursuing entrepreneurial activity. For example, information on how the activity is impacting the culture and climate o f University colleges may be useful for other sectors o f the post secondary system. In particular it may be useful to the community colleges who recently acquired permission to offer applied degrees.  Location of the Researcher  In this section I examine my own research context. I am a university college dean with responsibility for a wide range o f programs, including adult basic education, English as a second language, business and technology related programs. I also view myself as an educator concerned with equitable access to higher education. I advocate for human rights and workplace equity, and work as a volunteer in championing the causes o f several community service organizations.  14  Managing the balance between the 'left and the right leanings' characteristics o f my own work creates perceptual conflicts not only for others, but also within myself. From this location I see parallel tensions in the university college sector. These institutions' histories exhibit commitment to the universality o f access to higher education, and focus on meeting the educational needs o f the local community. University colleges are now caught up in university status aspirations, and this direction could potentially lead to less emphasis on the local community. A t the same time they are actively developing their entrepreneurial side, a further variation from their original commitment.  Thesis Structure  The second chapter is a review o f the literature. I discuss the concepts o f internationalization and globalization, and examine how the economy and neo-liberalism influence higher education decision making and policy development. I discuss the commodification o f higher education and how this trend impacts on the culture, climate and values o f the academy. I complete this section with observations about how the public post secondary system in British Columbia is influenced by these factors.  Chapter Three provides an introduction to the university colleges from a historic, geographic and descriptive perspective. 1 begin with an overview o f the university college sector and provide a short history o f post secondary education in British Columbia. I then provide a profile o f each o f the university colleges outlining their unique history and characteristics, geographic location, current size and program profile. The final section describes internationalization activities at the university colleges.  15  Chapter Four provides an overview o f the type o f study and method employed to gather data. I discuss how the participants for the interviews and focus groups were recruited and selected, and identify some the challenges in gaining access to participants. I review my approach to data documentation and organization, provide observations on the interviews and discuss the validity, reliability and ethics o f my research. I conclude with a discussion on the limitations o f the data collected.  Chapter Five is the first o f the two findings chapters. The meaning o f internationalization in the university colleges is examined and two imperatives emerge: the economic and the educational. The economic imperative is found to dominate internationalization priorities at the university colleges and its reasons for this situation are examined. Ideas on how the educational imperative could become more influential within the academy are discussed. The role o f government and the post secondary system in developing internationalization policy is also discussed.  Chapter Six is the second findings chapter. Here I explore the impact o f internationalization on the university colleges. I look at the workplace environment, including challenges for faculty and staff, and classroom and cultural issues. I discuss how the current systems and structures require modification in order to address assessment, quality and standards and communications concerns. I also discuss how international education departments are positioned within the current structure and how it affects their relationship with other departments. The last section deals with leadership challenges facing those individuals working in the university colleges.  16  Chapter Seven is the conclusion. I summarize my findings and conclusions. I make recommendations to government, to higher educator and in particular to the university colleges. I also identify the limitations of the study and make suggestions for future research on the topic of internationalization. The final section provides some concluding thoughts.  17  CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter provides a review o f literature and examines the environmental context within which the university colleges operate. Definitions o f internationalization and globalization are discussed, as these two terms are frequently conflated in the literature, yet have different meanings. I introduce political economy, resource dependency theory and the commercialization o f higher education as concepts to consider when examining the environment in which higher education systems operate. These ideas provide additional context when describing institutional behaviour, and form the basis o f discussion for the role and purpose o f international activity in higher education. Relevant policy, or lack thereof, is also explored given the influence o f neo-liberalism on government policy development. Implications for the Canadian higher education system and the university colleges are based upon previous experiences in Australia and the United Kingdom, as they moved towards a market based higher education model.  Definition of Internationalization and Globalization  Internationalization and globalization are terms used interchangeably at times throughout the literature. They are, however, processes with different histories and purposes. The earliest documented interest i n internationalization activity dates back to the Sophists movement in ancient Greece and to Confucius in the east, and developed out o f interest i n the advancement o f human knowledge across cultures (Yang, 2002). Today internationalization  18  activity occurs across nation states where ideas and knowledge are exchanged for the purpose o f gaining a better understanding o f the global world in which we live and work.  Globalization activity took off in the 19th century with the rise o f western imperialism and modernization. Its main purpose was to pursue economic profit and to establish a single, worldwide market (Yang, 2002). In today's world, modern technology and communication enable globalization to transcend borders for economic gain and knowledge. People, their values and ideas span these overlapping domains, and with the assistance o f technology, have the capacity to influence government policy.  A n example o f this influence is evident in the currently popular "do more with less" neoliberal platform wending its way through nation states (Callan, 2000; K w i e k , 2001; Yang; 2002). The link between globalization and internationalization i n higher education is a direct result o f the political and economic context within which institutions exist and is examined in the following section.  Political E c o n o m y and N e o - L i b e r a l i s m  "Political economy" studies how economics and government policies interact. A number o f definitions exist in the literature and the definition o f political economy by Johnson (2000) is representative:  A branch o f the social sciences that takes as its principal subject o f study the interrelationships between political and economic institutions and processes...political economists are interested in analyzing and explaining the ways in which various sorts of government affect the allocation o f scarce resources in society through their laws 19  and policies as well as the ways in which the nature o f the economic system and the behaviour o f people acting on their economic interests affects the form o f government and the kinds o f laws and policies that get made. (Johnson, 2000)  In the mid 19 century, political economy theories developed in response to the move from th  an industrial to a post-industrial economy. More recently these theories have evolved into neo-liberalism, post-Keynesian and post-Marxist ideologies. For the purposes o f this paper, neo-liberalism is the ideology under examination; researchers believe the western world is i n the midst o f a neo-liberal movement. This movement, aided by globalizing forces, has generated powerful market-based interests and has influenced public policy decisions (Currie, 1998; Dale, 1997; D i l l , 1997b; Marginson, 1997; Paquette, 1998; Rubenson, 2000; Schugurensky, 1999).  Political economy theory examines the relationship between economic production and power (Marginson, 1997), and provides insight into how policy enables the introduction o f education markets into the publicly funded domain o f higher education ( D i l l , 1997a; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997). This trend is evident in a number o f countries including Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, N e w Zealand and China (Deem, 2001; Marginson, 1997; McBurnie, 2001; Shin et al, 1999; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997; Yang, 2002).  During the 1960s, western society shifted from elite to mass systems o f higher education (Currie 1998; M o k & L o , 2002; Scott, 1998; Stromquist, 1998). Born out o f ideology rooted in notions o f pluralism and the welfare state, proponents believed increasing access to education was an important goal for western society. A l l individuals, regardless o f class,  20  gender or culture, had a right to higher education. Providing individuals with educational opportunity throughout their lifetime would ultimately serve the greater good o f society, and it was the state's responsibility to support the public good function o f education (Dale, 1997). A n educated society would contribute towards social harmony and political stability. A literate population meant each individual could participate in a meaningful way in political discourse, and uphold the ideals o f democracy (Paquette, 1998). In Canada, the introduction of community colleges and institutions and expansion o f the university system did create further educational opportunities for a broader segment o f the general population.  Recent debates question whether the move to a mass system actually provides a more educated populace for the betterment o f society as a whole, or whether in fact it merely provides inexpensive training to meet the labour market requirements o f corporations (Stromquist 1998). For example, Dudley (1998) comments on the shift to mass higher education from an elite system i n Australia and attributes the transition to the country's desire to enter the global economy. Economic rationalism and corporate management factored into public policy and the role o f education became one o f providing skilled workers for the economy, rather than any desire to support the public good. Whether one believes mass higher education benefits people directly or is merely a tool o f the trans-nationals, the expense creates pressure on government budgets (Currie, 1998).  T h e Rise of N e o - L i b e r a l i s m  During the 1980s, the "neo-liberal" movement gained momentum (Rubenson, 2000). Neoliberalism emerged from the common ground where orthodox conservatives and market 21  liberals met. The recession in the early part o f the decade, and the emergence o f new economic powerhouses outside North America, contributed to this movement. Another factor was the influence o f neo-classical economists such as Hayek, Friedman and the Chicago school, all o f whom represented the protectionist interests o f western-based, trans-national corporations (Marginson, 1997).  Critics o f the welfare state and public education system, in particular, pointed to the economics o f the time as an example o f what was wrong with too much government, arguing there was not enough attention paid to what was being taught in our schools and universities (Paquette, 1998). Neave (2000) notes these criticisms may have been the consequence o f the expansion o f massification in the public system:  It may well be that accountability systems are an inevitable accompaniment to the transition o f the university from elite to mass...accountability is a means o f ensuring greater academic productivity. (Neave, p.23)  This movement rejects the view the state is primarily responsible for the public good function o f education; instead, the state is viewed as inefficient. Critics call for less taxation, less government interference, more public choice, more deregulation and privatization, and more accountability by government and its subsidiaries, to taxpayers. (Dale, 1997)  This new state abandons its role as direct economic agent (producer o f goods and services) and as a regulator o f economic life (minimum wages, maximum prices, protectionism, subsidies, etc.), becoming instead a subsidiary agent whose main function is to guarantee a social and economic environment propitious for capital accumulation ... It also implies the withdrawal o f state from the commitment to universal provision o f public services such as education, health, housing and social security, which are now becoming increasingly regulated by market dynamics. (Schugurensky, 1999, p. 285)  22  Within a neo-liberal framework, public choice, marketization and privatization o f education are prevalent themes, emphasizing stronger links between industry training needs and the post secondary sector. These changes manifest themselves in education and other public services in two major ways. First, there is a reluctance to use public funds to fund public services. Second, public institutions increasingly engage in market behaviour to fill the gap between what government w i l l fund and what the institutions need. This creates changes to organizational forms, managerial practices and institutional cultures (Deem, 2001).  Policy changes are accompanied by downloading more financial responsibility onto postsecondary institutions and are characterized by less state funding and an increased emphasis On business practices (Currie, 1998). Clark (1998) observes that themes o f efficiency, effectiveness, excellence and continuous quality improvement are reflected i n the views held in post-secondary organizations.  Marginson (1997) believes global organizations such as the Organization for Economic and Cultural Development ( O E C D ) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), have supported neo-liberalism by purposefully linking education and training to productivity and labour force development. The links between education as an investment and the resulting productivity gains that cause economic growth,  (P)laced responsibility for the productivity o f labour on the individual employee, and on education programmes, and diminished the responsibility o f employers and work organizations, thus protecting negative freedom and managerial prerogative. (Marginson, p. 118)  23  Globalization  In recent years "globalization" has become a familiar addition to our vocabulary. Numerous definitions exist in the literature (Brown, 1999; Currie, 1998; Deem, 2001; Jarvis, 1999; Stromquist 1998). They consistently refer to political, economic and cultural processes originating in nation states but moving beyond national borders into the global community, while supporting the neo-liberal agenda. The result is a growing interrelatedness o f ideas and structures absorbed rapidly and continuously worldwide, aided by networks o f global communication and mass transportation systems. The impact o f globalization is profiled in financial markets, international trade and commerce, political decisions, public protest and public support, and is often referred to as 'globalized capitalism'. Marginson (1997) contends neo-liberal economic policies which have dominated much o f the English-speaking world for the past two decades, are assisted by globalizing forces.  Globalization is a contentious topic. Wide ranging opinion as to its form and function in the world is expressed in the literature (Kirkwood, 2001; Sandlak, 1998; Zesotarski, 2001). Questions arise in the literature and may colour the perception o f globalization. Does it improve the social, economic and political aspects o f a nation, or is it merely promoted as such, in order to garner further support for trans-national market interests, or for the political agenda o f nation states? Can it be a starting point for a coherent vision o f global problems, or is it merely a vehicle to further the interests o f western capitalism? Whose culture, political beliefs and economic policies become dominant i n the discourse? Does this become another  24  form o f colonization? For the academy in nation states, does it lead to diversity or convergence o f higher education systems?  Global forces bring new ideas and ways o f thinking to institutional structures, beliefs and values. Giddens (1999) identifies the positive aspects to the globalization movement as the spread o f democracy, an improvement o f women's rights and overall better economic conditions worldwide. However, according to Giddens, it has also brought with it fear o f change. The rise o f fundamentalism is an example o f reaction to changes perceived as threats to traditional ways o f thinking and acting. A liberal education, thought to be "the cultivation of moral character, intellectual balance and breadth, and commitment to the public good" (Axelrod, 2002, p. 13) may be able to assist with understanding these fears.  Oduaran (2000) points to the positive impact o f globalization on lifelong learning policy decisions in Africa. He views globalization as an economic opportunity for African nations, and reinforces the value o f lifelong education in providing the human development tools necessary for African peoples to participate in globalization opportunities. The goal for his people is liberation from poverty.  A contrasting standpoint views globalization as a major factor in the rise o f western imperialism and the erosion o f indigenous culture. Globalized capitalism builds upon marginalized members o f society, lessening access to education and creating further inequity (Katz, 2001; Stromquist, 1998). Globalization manifests itself in competition, combat, confrontation, exploitation and survival o f the fittest, with benefits being one sided (Yang,  25  2002). In terms of capitalist influence, globalization is used as a tool for politically driven agendas. Katz (2001) found global interests in state power in the Sudan resulted in degradation, not improvement, of the economic condition for individual families. In particular there was an increase, not a reduction of child labour, and with fewer opportunities for these children to attend school. Other writers discount the notion of globalization as a driving force of change, irreversible and inevitable, and beyond the control of human beings. Instead, they view it as an expression of capital accumulation which justifies an acceptance of neo-liberalism by the nation state. Brown (1999) questions whether globalization is anything more than a new term for capitalism. Lingard and Rizvi (1998) make a similar claim, using the Organization for Economic and Cultural Development (OECD) as an example. The OECD provides information to policymakers for possible use in setting their own policy agenda. The policymakers may then use the OCED link to legitimate their position, in turn influencing the type of information gathered by the OCED. The process of globalization and the development of higher education policy is not a direct relationship, whereby the former directly influences the latter, but is highly complex and, I would argue, is used by government for its own purposes.  From a sustainability perspective, Dudley (1998) believes the negative effects of globalization are measured in terms of unregulated growth, industrialization and exploitation of the planet; this situation is unsustainable for the environment. She argues for a rethinking of globalization and suggests a social economy where community and human priorities take precedence over the market. Giddens (1999) believes rapid changes in science and technology, and the dominance of western-thought in the globalization movement has 26  resulted in a world now out o f control. Globalizing influences are becoming increasingly decentred; the west is no longer in control o f the movement. Volatility in financial markets is an example o f a phenomenon taking on a life o f its own, a consequence o f globalization.  Regardless o f how one views the phenomenon, globalizing forces influence higher education (Slaughter& Leslie, 1997). Globalization, and the requisite increase in competition in world trade, influences a nation's growth and position in the global market, which in turn influences government direction on education policy. For example, globalization was a major factor in reforming the Australian higher education system. Massification and internationalizing o f the higher education system were strategic ways o f creating a 'smart country', and not heavily dependent upon the volatilities o f a resource based economy. Government strategy involved promoting increased efficiency and innovation using education markets ( D i l l , 1997a; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997).  According to Pratt and Poole (1999) university leaders use the rhetoric o f globalization when they set the foundation for institutional change and position their institutions for a presence in the education marketplace. This rhetoric is a direct result o f the dominance o f national governments in setting policy related to institutional funding and regulatory controls. Influencing institutional policy is accomplished through the creation o f institutional strategic responses to government policies. The internationalization policies o f institutions, which allow for the creation o f market-based activity within each organization, are an example o f this influence.  27  The Context of Higher Education Markets  Long perceived as a unique characteristic of the U.S. system of higher education, experiments with market competition in academic labour markets, institutional finance, student support, and the allocation of research funds are now evident in the higher education policy of many different nations. (Dill, 1997b, p. 167)  Resource dependency theory (Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003) provides a framework for analyzing the effects of funding changes on institutions. Organizations characteristically seek stable and predictable environments, avoid uncertainty, and purposefully work towards the goal of maintaining existing structures. For example, i f an institution receives less funding from its primary provider, such as government, it will look elsewhere for resources to replace the lost funding. The institution will also make every attempt to maintain its existing systems and structures. In this environment, the greater the competition for resources, the less power and control is maintained by the focal organization. Also, the more unstable the source of supply, the larger the inventory must be in order for the organization to continue to exist. The institution may need to adopt new behaviours in order to be successful in acquiring new resources. Yet, as the authors note, institutions make every effort to maintain the status quo, and only under duress, will they modify their environment. Under these conditions, greater turbulence produces greater efforts to manage the environment and the solution to one problem frequently creates additional problems (Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003).  28  In a neo-liberal environment, institutions are often granted more autonomy from central government, but are then forced to go into the market to seek sponsorship. In order to gain sponsorship they must adapt to new methods and systems in order to secure the new funding source ( D i l l , 2003). According to resource dependency theory, rules are subject to change according to the interdependency established. The social controls accompanying government funding differ from the social controls established in a market environment. In a market environment, the behaviours include academic capitalism and institutional entrepreneurship (Clark, 1998; Marginson, 1997; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997).  Finding new ways o f bringing revenue into institutions has affected higher education systems in several countries and is well documented in the literature. For example, the United Kingdom, Australia and N e w Zealand have undergone extensive educational reform over the past twenty years. The United States has also undergone educational reform, but the effect is less evident because a market oriented approach to higher education has been in their system from the onset. Slaughter & Leslie's (1997) research into entrepreneurial activity in higher education noted Canada was affected the least by educational reforms. However, Canada entered into market reform later than other countries, and the picture today is quite different than it was in 1997; those changes are explained later in this chapter. The reforms in both the United Kingdom and Australia are documented extensively in the literature and can assist with understanding how the Canadian system may be affected as the overall level o f public funding to higher education diminishes (Marginson, 1997; Slaughter & Leslie, 1997).  29  In Australia, the public sector took on certain aspects o f marketization through the implementation o f a quasi-market system. Under this system, institutions still receive funding from government sources but the level diminishes as they develop alternate revenue sources, such as selling training or research to business and industry, and adding full fee payers to their system (Marginson, 1997). This includes both international and domestic students. In other examples, government ceases to be a direct provider o f higher education but instead purchases services from providers who compete with each other for the business. In Canada and the United States, examples include the competitive research grant system, and in the United Kingdom, the competitive bidding system for the delivery o f undergraduate education ( D i l l , 1997b). Some information about the use o f quasi-markets in these countries exists, although less information is available about how effective they are in meeting their financial and educational objectives.  For all the effort that universities have been making to grow their earned income, the impact on the bottom line for many is apparently adding little, i f at all, to surpluses. (Gallagher, 2000, p. 23)  While some institutions fare better than others at bringing other types o f revenue into their institutions, in Australia, the outcome did not meet initial expectations. In one example, it cost the university 92 cents to bring in each dollar o f revenue (Gallagher, 2000). In another example, one British University offered an M B A in Hong K o n g and earned in excess o f 25 million pounds between 1993 and 1997 (Bennell & Pearce, 2003). What the empirical evidence indicates is the majority o f net revenue generation comes from international student tuition, rather than from any other type o f earned income including grants, industry research, or training contracts. 30  Market based activity is influencing our public education system. Slaughter & Leslie (1997) view market sources as more prescriptive than government funding, with greater service and accountability requirements. This places additional burdens on institutions already immersed in efficiency exercises. According to resource dependency theory, the greater the competition in the market for educational services, the less control an institution w i l l have in determining and setting its own destiny, and the greater the need for those revenue streams, the more likely the rules and boundaries w i l l be set in the market place, not in the institution.  On the demand side, the needs o f corporations and emerging economic markets with unmet higher education needs receive most attention. Their ability 'to pay' market rates for their education can result in greater revenue potential for cash-strapped institutions. In response, institutions w i l l do what they can to ensure maintenance o f this revenue source. One reality of education markets is that the more people pay, the more important is assurance o f value for money. For example, corporate universities promote the value o f their employee training programs, and want these programs recognized for credit by the academic community. They want assurance the design and delivery o f academic curriculum will complement their existing in-house training programs and believe they have a right to provide input to the academy as they are paying for the service (Cantor, 2000). [People] want to be sure that what they are paying for - knowledge, skills, competence and qualifications - are in keeping with the ever-changing demands that a dynamic and largely unpredictable economy makes o f our nation. (Mori, 2000, p. 14)  International students also seek value for money and these influence institutional responses. The fact that they are paying large sums o f money to study at public institutions means their expectations w i l l be higher. These expectations are accompanied by the reality that  31  international students require more support due to language barriers and unfamiliarity with their surroundings. If the outcome is unsatisfactory, students w i l l leave and go elsewhere for their educational experience (Jarvis, 1999).  On the supply side, i f the public sector is unable to respond and adapt their curriculum accordingly, private providers o f higher education are poised to fill the gap. The private sector views the provision o f educational services as a viable business opportunity, in both the international and domestic student market, and is showing a competitive presence in the education industry. This is evident in the prominent role private education companies are playing on the stock exchange and the proliferation o f new educational companies and services now publicly traded (Cantor, 2000). The future of higher education in America w i l l include significant partnerships and joint ventures with the private sector business community. N o longer can academe survive within itself, closed off from the business community. (Cantor, p.78)  If the public system does respond with market-oriented behaviour, there w i l l still be increased competition from the private sector for students due to the profit potential. For example, international student programs in English as a Second Language, Business, and Computer Studies, are also attractive to the private sector. These programs have the highest probability o f returning a profit, due to low capitalization costs (Cantor, 2000). The private sector can selectively pick their programs to deliver, based upon areas projected to provide the best profit margins (Cantor, 2000; Collis, 2001). If the public system is expected to provide a broad range of programs, regardless of profit, to their communities, and i f an entrepreneurial approach is what is required in order to meet budget demands, the question then is, which goal w i l l be met, and at what cost?  32  Not only has private enterprise recognized the profit potential in higher education, so have existing higher education institutions and organizations. Technology makes it possible for the provider o f educational services to be housed anywhere in the world and serve the interests of a growing number o f students who are unable to participate in a traditional delivery format or who now have the opportunity to obtain a credential from a world recognized institution (Cantor, 2000; Urry, 1998). Prestigious American institutions such as Harvard, Cornell, Duke, Stanford and M I T are now offering Internet based distance-learning programs, such as the M B A , to a global audience. The highly reputable Open University, situated in the United Kingdom, is now expanding into the United States market, and is providing competition for local institutions. Publishing companies have also entered the higher education business v i a the Internet. This is an inexpensive way to provide text materials to the masses, while offering a credential as well (Bok, 2003; Cantor, 2000).  Linking the public higher education system to entrepreneurial markets and the neo- liberal discourse o f human capital, investment, efficiency and effectiveness w i l l inevitably lead to cultural changes within the academy, and although these changes w i l l be resisted, they w i l l occur (Currie, 1998; Dudley, 1998; Frostd & Taylor, 2001; Slaughter, 1998). Accompanying these values is the development o f curriculum and research in response to the marketplace. It creates potential for certain types o f learning and knowledge to be privileged over others. In particular, knowledge demanded by the marketplace w i l l be privileged.  Particular socio-economic groups may gain at others' expense. For example, i n Australia, an examination o f the relationship between social advantage and educational competition  33  concluded it was the already socially advantaged who acquired a net gain in participation rates after the introduction o f markets in higher education (Marginson, 1997). Marginson points out that linking education to upward mobility made it easier for the new right to "turn education into a site for private investment and market competition" (p. 173), and the deregulation o f the private sector in Australia brought with it a serious public relations problem for the entire higher education sector.  Should the public sector change their systems in order to be competitive in a market system (Collis, 2001; Urry, 1998), or should this become the domain o f the private sector? If the public system determines adopting market based practices is in their best interest, it w i l l need to develop the business acumen required to compete with the private sector, or with other public institutions engaged in entrepreneurial activity (Pfeffer & Salancik, 2003). However, the more activity is leveraged on non-government funding, the more at risk the education core becomes, especially when inevitable shifts occur in the market. Responding to shortterm market demands and funding sources has implications for long-term development and planning; the focus then becomes one o f meeting short-term needs. For example, the decline of government funding to the post-secondary sector in Australia meant institutions had less ability to maintain innovative and internationally competent staff. In another example, during the Asian economic downturn o f the mid 1990's, a number o f the Australian private providers became financially insolvent, resulting in foreign students not receiving their education, and creating a credibility problem for the Australian education system (Marginson, 1997).  Entrepreneurial activity requires different structures than what currently exist in the academy  34  and raises questions about the type o f educational opportunity offered, who gets to participate and whose voices are heard. What are the impacts on the future o f higher education and its existing systems and structures? A liberal education, which educates the populace in democracy and critical thinking skills, may lose ground in the process (Axelrod, 2002; Stromquist, 1998).  The language in which the curriculum is developed and delivered is an important consideration, especially, (G)iven the increasingly hegemonic role o f English as a global language, universities in English speaking countries clearly have a strong comparative advantage i n exploiting the rapidly growing trade in educational services. (Bennell & Pearce, 2003, p. 227)  Higher education is important to emerging economic powers such as China and Taiwan, where labour force development needs are burgeoning alongside their economies. Meeting their immediate educational needs through existing infrastructures is problematic ( M o k & L o , 2002). For these nations, sending students abroad for higher education is one solution to their problem, and is well underway. Another strategy is to use technology and Internet based learning to facilitate access to higher education. Options might include deregulating higher education and opening it up to commercial interests. In an era o f neo-liberal thinking, these solutions are increasingly viewed as ways which allow for a more efficient allocation o f scarce public resources ( D i l l , 1997b; M o k & L o , 2002; Urry, 1998). Again, the question is who gets to participate? Not everyone w i l l have equal access to technology or to commercial education markets.  35  Internationalization Ambiguity in defining globalization and internationalization may in fact be attributable to an institution's own construct o f international activity. If an organization's definition o f internationalization stems from its market activities, then it w i l l exclude much o f what defines internationalization. In Australia, Monash University for example, states a goal o f having 50% o f its student body as international in composition. The distinction between internationalization and globalization is defined accordingly (Monash University, 1999). Internationalization is taken to mean a way o f thinking and acting which is not constrained by national boundaries or traditions and which actively seeks inspiration, understanding and input from outside Australia. Becoming global refers to the process of locating operations, either physically or virtually, around the world. (Monash University, 1999, p. 7)  Why Internationalize the Academy? Internationalization as a market function fits the neo-liberal agenda, but it has quite a different purpose i f it is understood from the perspective o f education for the public good. Educating students to live and work in a global world is the objective o f many internationalization educators. Internationalization promotes a broad interdisciplinary knowledge o f the contemporary world and prepares students for working in a world reflecting the growing diversity o f cultures, language, attitudes and values (Green, 2002).  The purpose o f internationalization as an educational good is to produce graduates fully aware o f the complexities o f the various nation states, as individuals become inextricably linked, globally and locally, to communities and to the workplace. B y using adaptable and flexible thinking, it allows one to make effective contributions towards a more peaceful and  36  culturally tolerant world (Green & Knight, 2003). Successful internationalization programs promote positive outcomes such as cooperation, collaboration, caring, sharing and altruism (Yang, 2002).  The internationalization literature is grounded in the university experience. Discussions about why the universities are involved in internationalization activity are primarily housed in the educational good argument, rather than the economic argument; however, both appear in the literature ( A U C C , 1999; Green & Knight, 2003; I A U , 2003; Knight, 1997; Yang, 2002). Research conducted by A U C C (1993; 1999) compared reasons for university involvement i n internationalization and i n both studies the educational reasons - developing intercultural awareness, strengthening international understanding and perspectives on global issues - ranked higher than the economic reasons. In a recent survey conducted the International Association o f Universities ( I A U , 2003), student, staff and faculty development; academic standards and quality; and international research ranked as the three most important benefits o f internationalization. Another argument identifies the incentive as building the university's reputation and enhancing its prestige at an international level (Knight, 1997); this includes providing programs designed to educate future leaders and contribute to global leadership.  The Process of Internationalization Internationalization in the academy consists o f integrating an international dimension into the teaching, research and service functions o f the institution. Knight (1995) identifies four principal approaches to the internationalization process; approaches include; 1) activity-  37  based; 2) competency-based; 3) cultural and; 4) strategic. A n activity-based approach consists of activities including student and faculty mobility, international student recruitment, technical assistance and knowledge transfer, research co-operation and curricular reform. A competency- based approach focuses on outcomes and goals as measured by the benefit of internationalization to the professional and personal development of individuals. A cultural approach stresses organizational outcomes and goals, such as creating an international culture within the institution. A strategic approach measures the capacity of institutions to develop an integrated strategy in which activities and outcomes are incorporated in a planned way, with the purpose of achieving an international dimension as a feature of the institution.  Within the Canadian system, most activities fall under the first category, an activity-based approach, with the majority of activity occurring in international student recruitment area (Green & Knight, 2003). The findings contrast sharply with earlier research that shows educational reasons for internationalization as far exceeding economic reasons. Earlier research indicated economic reasons were shaping internationalization activity (AUCC, 1999; Knight, 1997), but in a minor way. Universities have recognized that economic related activity becomes increasingly important in times of fiscal restraint. The recruitment of fee paying international students and the development of offshore campuses are valuable sources of institutional revenue.  Building Educationally- Based Internationalization Programs The reasons for further developing the educational focus in internationalization have been previously addressed. In this section I discuss the requirements necessary in order to build a  38  successful, educationally-based, internationalization program. Several elements are identified as necessary requirements when building a successful internationalization experience ( A C E , 2004). These include 1) an intentional, integrative and comprehensive approach; 2) strong leadership both from the top and throughout the institution; 3) widespread faculty engagement; 4) a commitment to meeting student needs; 5) an ethos o f internationalization; and (6) supporting structures and resources. These elements reflect the values, policies and practices o f the institutional culture, articulated in explicit goals and mutually reinforcing strategies.  Other research indicates faculty involvement is critical to the success of the internationalization process, significantly more important than the involvement o f administrators or students ( I A U , 2003). Lack o f financial support at the institutional level for faculty involvement is viewed as a major obstacle.  These observations are reinforced in M c B u r n i e ' s (2000) work on the Australian system. He stresses the importance o f international activities in advancing the core academic functions o f the university and observes that i f these activities were not regarded as central to the academic mission o f the institution, they are marginalized. A t Monash, for example, two principles must exist for a proposed activity to be considered. First, the activity must advance one o f the core functions of education, research or community service. Second, the activity must be considered o f sufficient quality to meet their assurance standards (McBurnie, 2001).  39  In Canada, bridging the differing views o f international activity in the academy remains a challenge; part o f the solution might lie in policy development.  Internationalization Policy Development  Several references are made in the literature about the quality o f internationalization policies and practices. Internationalization policies reflecting clarity, commitment to a long term strategy and grounded in reasoned judgment, are lacking in most jurisdictions (Shinn et al, 1999). "Internationalization has mostly occurred i n a rather ad hoc and incremental fashion, with policy and reflection often occurring after the fact" (Yang, 2002, p. 81).  In one study ( I A U , 2003), two-thirds o f institutions had internationalization policies and strategies in place, yet only half o f those had budgets or a framework for monitoring the progress o f internationalization. Interestingly, rationales for internationalization based on academic considerations ranked higher than rationales based on political or economic ones. Issues requiring attention include development cooperation, quality assurance/ accreditation, funding and research cooperation.  One noted exception is Australia, where examples o f well-developed national policies and direction on international students and immigration are evident. Through the development and implementation o f policy, clear priorities have been established i n areas such as diplomacy, internationalization and economic rationalization (Shinn et al, 1999). Australian students are provided with opportunities to study in foreign countries and this is accomplished through the expansion o f Australian Universities offshore. Quality standards 40  are assessed through international and national quality assurance processes, which make the offshore campuses attractive to both domestic and international students (McBurnie, 2001).  Internationalization has been a priority for members o f the European U n i o n (EU), starting with the Sorbonne Declaration o f 1998 and continuing with the Bologna Declaration o f 1999, when 29 European countries pledged to reform their higher education systems and create a European answer to their higher education needs (Confederation o f European U n i o n Rectors and the Association o f European Universities, Website). One common goal o f all states is nation-building. The goal o f the member states is to provide enhanced employability, opportunity and mobility to its citizens, and build a competitive and world-class European higher education system. It w i l l , it is assumed, contribute to European science and culture, and ultimately attract students from other regions o f the world.  Attention continues to be focused on this goal, and systems and processes are now in place to support European students in their studies. Government funding providing students access to programs such as E R A S M U S , the higher education arm that provides a number o f programs for students, faculty and administrators. It provides project and mobility funding, including overseas opportunities. N O R D P L U S is available to students residing in the Nordic countries and promotes regional student mobility.  Outside o f Europe, U M A P is a regionally based program providing a mobility program to students living in the in the A s i a Pacific. While Canada is an eligible member o f U M A P , it plays a limited role. The most active chapters are located in the Asian countries.  41  Shinn et al (1999) note that international student mobility programs are becoming more market driven, rather than state-driven, or aid-oriented.  The most explicit change i n the pattern o f international student mobility is away from a fast fading vision o f a more altruistic internationalism, towards a more pragmatic focus on improving competitiveness, especially in an era o f heightened budgetary strains in higher education internationally... (Shinn et al, p. 96)  V a n Damme (2001) observes that even with government support, these programs tend to appeal to young fulltime students whose families can afford to pay the surplus expenses associated with learning and living in another country. E U countries, specifically the Netherlands, France and Great Britain are developing national policies in this area (Scott, 1988; V a n Damme, 2001).  While members o f the European Union are further advanced than their North American counterparts in the area o f internationalization policy development, quality assurance is an area requiring on-going work. (Alderman, 2001; Bennell & Pearce, 2003; Lenn, 1998; VanDamme, 2001) A s international activity becomes more market driven, emphasis is required on quality issues. Quality assurance mechanisms need to cover programs at offshore campuses and with partnership programs with foreign institutions.  The internationalization model, prevailing in most countries (especially Europe) is characterized by a rather naive confidence in the quality o f the partners involved and has reached its limits. In an increasingly competitive international market in higher education, quality w i l l have to become a distinguishing characteristic guiding consumers and institutions in their strategic behaviour. (VanDamme, 2001, p. 437)  42  In North America, evidence o f public support for internationalization is not accompanied by financial support. Greene (2002) identifies it as a piecemeal approach to internationalization, reflecting lack o f government commitment to this area. Shinn et al (1999) note that the absence o f a cohesive federal policy in the United States creates complex, confusing and contradictory information for international students; the approach is characterized as constantly shifting, reactive and uncoordinated.  While the United States has some federal study-abroad initiatives such as the Fulbright program, few federally or provincially funded opportunities are available to Canadian students. "The Canadian approach to a national policy on internationalization can probably best be described as a collective, rather than an integrated approach" (Green & Knight 2003, p. 38). Internationalization activities are housed within a number o f federal departments and within provincial government structures. Policy and commitments to internationalization work vary greatly across the country and internationalization activity tends to be a driven by individual institutions rather than concerted public policy efforts (Green & Knight, 2003). The two afore-mentioned surveys by A U C C indicated growing interest in providing students with international exchanges and internships, and study abroad opportunities. The focus on preparation o f students to work and live in a global world is a top priority o f A U C C and is reflected in their statement on internationalization:  [The university ] has the responsibility to prepare students and to familiarize the wider community with living and working in a context o f global interdependence...where human resources are becoming the key to economic growth and social well-being...One means o f preparing students for the 21st century is to provide them with more opportunities to study and learn abroad. The personal, the educational and ultimately the social benefits o f stimulating an international openness and understanding among students are immeasurable. ( A U C C , 1995, webpage) 43  Internationalization in Canada Canadian efforts in internationalization focus on international student recruitment or marketing Canadian education abroad, rather than on student mobility, international research or exchange programs (Green & Knight, 2003). The prevailing view of politicians is that international curriculum is a resource to export, and is a revenue source for institutions (Cappon, 2001).  At the federal level, a number of agencies are responsible for international student activity. The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DF AIT) supports international student recruitment and marketing through Canadian Education Centres (CECs), and is set up in locations around the world. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) works on international student visas and work permits. The introduction by the CIC of the new bill, the Immigration and Protection Act, assists international students who wish to seek landed immigrant status. Human Resource Development Canada (HRDC) is responsible for international mobility programs including the North American Student Mobility program and a Special Initiatives program which provides some financial support for applied research on internationalization within institutions. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funds international development projects focusing on collaborative partnerships between universities, colleges and institutes in emerging economies. Non-governmental organizations such as the Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE), the Canadian Education Centre Network (CECN), the Canadian University Service Organization (CUSO), the World University Services of Canada (WUSC), AUCC and the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) have internationalization activities as part of, or wholly, their  44  mandate. In the case o f C B I E and C E C N , the main purpose is to provide services to support international student recruiting efforts.  Knight (1999) notes in British Columbia and Alberta, provincial agencies were established fairly early in process for the primary purpose o f attracting international students and a secondary purpose to promote other internationalization activities. These agencies are the British Columbia Centre for International Education and the Alberta Centre for International Education. In other jurisdictions, the provincial government is either directly engaged in international student recruitment or it is the responsibility o f individual institutions (Knight, 1999).  W i t h increased competition between public and private institutions for the business, a question arises as to what influence this might have on policy development. Knight (1999) contends Canada is modelling its approach to international education on the Australian trade and market model o f education, and is about 10 years behind Australia in its plan. W i t h this in mind, it might be useful to pay attention to what has happened in Australia and what could be in store for Canada. Trends in International Activity  The work o f Bennell & Pearce (2003) provides insight into international student trends. From 1985 to 1996, the greatest percentage increase o f overseas students studying in host countries occurred in the United Kingdom and Australia. During this timeframe, the United Kingdom experienced an increase o f 238% and Australia over 800%). During this period, these nations are the only two exhibiting a marked increase in international student enrolments. The United 45  States, while having the largest (30% o f the total) number o f international students, had relatively stable enrolment rates during this period (Bennell & Pearce, 2003), and continues to maintain a relatively stable base o f international students; growth is minimal. Their record of accomplishment in sending students abroad is even less evident. Green notes,  We cannot make the common claim to have the best system o f higher education in the world unless our graduates can free themselves o f ethnocentrism bred o f ignorance and navigate the difficult terrain o f cultural complexity. (Green, 2002, p. 14)  Empirical evidence indicates growth i n the number o f international students in Canada over the past two decades, and especially since the mid 1990s. From 1980 to 2001, the number o f international students increased from 36,751 to 133,022. Greater numbers o f international students come to Canada to study than Canadian students going to study abroad. For example, in 1999, 28,477 Canadian students were studying abroad compared to 107,961 international students studying in Canada (Green & Knight, 2003, p.20).  Canada currently sends less than 1% o f its university students abroad to study. One o f the main reasons for this inequity in student flow is the obvious lack o f government funding for international student mobility in comparison to other countries. Canada spends much less than comparable O E C D nations on international exchange and scholarship programs. Canada's support for student mobility ranks the lowest at 0.80 U S D per capita compared to Australia at U S D 9.07, Japan at 4.94, the United States at 4.70, Germany at 3.02, and the Netherlands at 2.96 (Green & Knight, p.22). Knight's research (2000) found 62 % o f Canadian universities provide a limited level o f funding to support student mobility; students cite lack o f funds as the major hurdle to participation in a study abroad program. 46  Internationalization activity has become the responsibility o f each institution, with few mobility programs recognized and funded by the federal or provincial government.  In terms o f other aspects o f internationalization, academic linkages and agreements are with Europe and Asia, and tend to focus on student and faculty mobility and research. Canadian students who take full programs outside Canada tend to go to the United States, as a first choice, followed by the United Kingdom and Australia. Study abroad for Canadian students mainly occurs in Western Europe and Australia/New Zealand, followed by M e x i c o and South America. Only 15 percent o f Canadian institutions stated there was a process in place to review and monitor the international dimension o f its curriculum (Green & Knight, 2003).  I m p a c t o n the A c a d e m y  Negative and positive opinions about globalizing influences, education markets and internationalization processes exist in the academy. H o w outcomes are viewed is subject to individual value and belief systems; what is undeniable is the fact these forces impact on the academy. Marginson (1997) and Slaughter (1998) note it has contributed to a clash o f values and belief systems in the academy, specifically between the traditions o f academic culture and the newer corporate culture. Clark (1998) argues these cultures need to work together i f the system is to move ahead in the current economic political climate.  Slaughter & Leslie (1997) and Marginson (1997) believe globalization creates conditions where nation state educational policies begin to converge in areas including access, curricula, research, and autonomy for faculty and institutions. Existing institutional structures, values 47  and beliefs erode, as higher education develops to meet a specific economic agenda, including an emphasis on international activity (Currie, 1998; Dudley, 1998; Frostd & Taylor, 2001; Slaughter, 1998). For example, Knight (1999) points out that the purpose o f international education has already shifted in the academy. It began as a way o f providing aid to developing nations, then evolved to a position o f mutual benefit, and is now a commodity to trade i n a globalized world.  In contrast, Clark (1998) argues that when a shift in organizational structures, values and attitudes occurs, there can be a positive outcome through institutional renewal and an enhanced funding base. Cantor (2002) believes the public system must be more entrepreneurial, given the increased competition for the provision of educational services and diminished government funding. Cantor insists the system needs to explore alternate options given the political and economic climate.  Educational markets affect institutional governance models and the model has become increasingly corporatized and managerial (Currie, 1998; Fisher and Rubenson, 1998; Marginson, 2000; Pietrykowski, 2001; Schugurensky, 2000; Slaughter, 1998). Faculty have less input into the decision-making process o f the institution as decisions are made by an executive core o f administrators, who increasingly depend on directors and managers o f nonacademic units for advice and guidance on institutional matters. Financial systems are more complex in quasi-market and entrepreneurial-based environments with increased accountability requirements, reporting obligations and budgeting processes. Determining what makes business sense, in assessing various projects and their potential to make a financial contribution to the institution, requires business knowledge. Under these conditions senior administrators w i l l continue to seek business expertise in dealing with institutional 48  matters.  Given the history o f most administrators in the system, whether they are equipped to handle the transition from academic to corporate culture is debatable. Most enter into these senior positions with long and distinguished academic careers, not business leadership or corporate experience. For example, as Australia commercialized their higher education system, lack o f business leadership proved detrimental to particular institutions, as observed by a researcher in the Australian higher education commission. "Lack o f clarity and capacity in university leadership together with ambiguities in the policy framework for the sector make the process of transition especially difficult" (Gallagher, 2000, p. 53). Without a clear understanding o f business principles, the actual viability o f commercial activity, including both industry training and research, is questionable, and he concludes, The commercialization options are marginal rather than integral to the core business; the processes for identifying and realizing commercial income are ad hoc and risk being unsustainable. (Gallagher, p.53) The commercial attraction o f certain types o f activity over the others in the academy can influence educational policy decisions (Scott, 1998; Slaughter 1998). While market practices can improve efficiency and may lead to the adoption o f better managerial procedures and a mutually beneficial relationship with business, Schugurensky (2000) notes it may lead to,  A factory-like model in which the bottom line is acquiescence and cost-effectiveness, learners are outputs, and intellectuals become entrepreneurs. It can lead to an erosion o f the academic environment, to more cases o f censorship and conflict o f interests, to an emphasis on vocational and professional disciplines, to lower support for basic research and non-marketable disciplines, and to further exclusion o f disadvantaged groups, (pp. 300-301)  49  Several researchers predict that there w i l l be a restructuring o f the faculty ranking system and a newly tiered structure in the academy. Porter and V i d o v i c h (2000) see the emergence o f a two-tier system. Individuals closely tied with teaching w i l l have less autonomy and increased accountability to the academy, accompanied by increased supervision o f work, higher teaching loads, and in some areas, redundancies; the exception are those steering their research and teaching activities towards the market (Marginson, 1997; Porter & V i d o v i c h , 2000; Slaughter, 1998). In this climate, those involved in international and commercially based activity hold a privileged position and w i l l enjoy considerable autonomy and opportunity.  In Australia, Marginson (1997) found a three-tier hierarchy, with those immersed in market research in the top tier, and those engaged exclusively in teaching in the bottom tier. Faculty in the lower tier experienced negative changes i n working conditions. There emerged a sense of winners and losers in the academy, accompanied by resentment in those who perceived themselves as being on the losing end o f the scale (Gallagher, 2000). In the United Kingdom, these conditions resulted in greater competition in the academic labour market and the elimination o f tenure ( D i l l , 1997b).  MacFarlane (1999) predicts the role o f teacher in a corporatized academy w i l l consist o f "support, development and management o f learning environments" (p. 139), with provision for specialist, core and foundational teaching sectors. Accompanying this is loss o f autonomy over program development and delivery, as curriculum restructures to meet the job training needs o f business or interest areas o f international students. This has the potential to create  50  tension over who has rights in determining curriculum design and delivery, a prerogative traditionally in the domain o f faculty. The growing use o f part time and casual employees, and the increased role and responsibilities o f professional administrators in teaching and research matters, w i l l result in the further industrialization o f the academic workplace (McFarlane, 1999).  International student activity may lead to changes in courses, programs and teaching styles. For example, international student enrolments are predominantly in applied science and technology, business and selected professions (Cantor, 2000). If market demand dominates enrolment decisions, then these are the subject areas given attention.  One major Australian study (Robertson et al, 2000) examined faculty issues related to teaching international students. Areas o f difficulty identified by faculty included reluctance of students to contribute to classroom discussion, student difficulty in comprehending the content o f lectures, and student difficulty in understanding there might be more than one right answer, heavy reliance on "book" solutions, not taking responsibility for their own work, having little appreciation for critical thinking, and difficulty understanding the concept of plagiarism. Recommendations by students and faculty suggested new teaching approaches by faculty.  Several areas were identified as needing attention. They included encouraging students to read and listen to the news, organizing debates and presentations on topical issues, improving students' awareness o f accepted attitudes and conventions, providing additional written  51  support materials, offering private tutorials, allowing students to retake exams where culturally specific language was a problem, reviewing drafts prior to submission, ensuring a mixture of domestic and international students in group work, and providing adequate time for preparation of material. Writing, speaking, and structuring lectures clearly, providing copies of the lecture on tape, and limiting whole class discussion were suggested ways of providing a better learning environment for international students.  One of salient points that came out of the study was a belief by faculty that the university had not assumed enough responsibility for international students; this resulted in additional pressures being placed on the learning environment. Concerns included references to discriminatory behaviour by some faculty and students towards international students. Participants thought it was the university's responsibility to provide training programs that would educate their community in tolerance and intercultural communications.  Fallon and Brown's (1999) research on faculty perceptions in the United Kingdom yielded similar results. The main benefits of working with international students were cited as broadening their (faculty) minds and possessing a better understanding of other cultures. The experience gave them a new view of their own subject, the opportunity to implement new teaching methods, and greater participation from domestic students in broader classroom discussions. In terms of working with international students, 89% said they enjoyed the experience and 70% felt the international students were beneficial to the learning environment (Fallon & Brown, p. 46). The main problems identified were language problems, managing different student expectations, lack of comprehension of assessment standards, and different attitudes to the role of faculty. Cultural differences created some  52  difficulties, including stress, for faculty members. There was lack o f formal staff training to teach or supervise international students and this was problematic.  Impact on the B . C .Post Secondary System a n d the University  Colleges  In comparison to other O E C D nations, Canada still expends one o f the highest percentages o f Gross Domestic Product ( G D P ) on postsecondary education (Cappon, 2001). Whether this situation w i l l continue is subject to speculation given the economic and political context within which the system operates. The provision o f higher education is a costly item and government has decided students are to pay a higher proportion o f the cost. A s public demand for higher education continues to rise across the country, funding the system means finding additional resources in a climate o f fiscal restraint. Discussion is ongoing across the system on finding ways to become more entrepreneurial, and increase student numbers each year, without relying on additional government funding. With fewer public funds available, emphasis is on sourcing additional revenue, including international activity. A s noted i n Clark's work (1998), a market-oriented approach requires public institutions work differently than in the past.  Canadian higher education has been less active in pursuing entrepreneurial activity compared to the United Kingdom, the United States or Australia and is partially due to the decentralized nature o f our higher education system. Our federal government is unable to exert direct influence on higher education policy. Responsibility for education falls under provincial jurisdiction and each province has handled the funding needs o f higher education in a different way. Although United States' education is also decentralized, Slaughter &  53  Leslie (1997) note Congress was actively involved in legislation which fostered academic capitalism.  Evidence o f a changing direction in Canada is exhibited by a reduction o f federal spending for the post secondary system. Institutions must seek alternative sources o f revenue (Fisher & Rubenson, 1998). A t the federal level, the national research granting councils, and Human Resource Development ( H R D C ) are influencing higher education through their funding priorities. In terms o f research, a competitive climate exists in the granting council, with emphasis on industry-university relationships. For H R D C funding emphasis is on workrelated training. The merging o f education with training has led to increased emphasis on vocationalism in the curricula (Fisher & Rubenson, 1998).  Levin's (2001) study o f seven community colleges in Canada and the United States concluded that government policy, because o f the globalization movement, directs institutions toward economic goals emphasizing workplace-based training, industry partnerships and meeting business needs. In the Canadian institutions researched, changes occurred in several areas including increased institutional focus on funding strategies and diminished public funding, accompanied by the introduction o f productivity requirements. L e v i n found high levels o f tension and stress amongst faculty; these symptoms were largely attributable to job security and managing change in the workplace. The colleges, by following government direction, focused less on fulfilling their original mission o f serving their communities and gave more attention to finding new sources o f funding. Levin's work indicates that educational policy changes create market-based behaviour in the public higher education system.  54  From a historical perspective, British Columbia has been heavily dependent on provincial funding for higher education, and for a number o f years maintained the lowest tuition fees in Canada. Government emphasis has recently shifted to a more entrepreneurial approach to higher education and w i l l encourage institutions to engage more fully in the educational marketplace and in opportunities presented by international activity. The fact is, international student tuition fees are an increasing source o f revenue for institutions, and is welcomed during these times o f fiscal restraint. One o f the outcomes o f globalization is knowledge by the international community o f the value and quality o f the Canadian higher education system, and a willingness to pay a premium for a Canadian diploma or degree. While internationalization activity w i l l continue to provide students, faculty and staff with the opportunity to be part the global community, what began as a way o f promoting global understanding and cultural tolerance may likely gain more prominence in the years ahead as a way to raise money.  In an education market, the provision o f education programs provides the most promising revenue stream for an institution with an international student component (Cantor, 2000; Marginson, 2000). However, in many university settings, the research component is valued over teaching due to its profile and added prestige. Intellectual property residues through applied commercial research usually favour the researcher, not the institution, yet research grants often only pay the costs or a portion o f the costs o f conducting the research. If teaching is relegated to second-class status, unattractive and unappealing to the hierarchy found in academic culture, a dissonance between value and benefit may emerge in the education market (Slaughter & Leslie, 1997). Institutional value and priority is not placed in  55  the area providing the greatest potential for financial return and successful pursuit o f entrepreneurial activity may be hampered as a result.  If the academy is unable to resolve the teaching/research dichotomy, then the private sector may find further reason to expand their role in the educational marketplace. In the private sector, value and benefit are clearly aligned. If they are misaligned, then the enterprise w i l l not be in business for very long. The private system is clear its focus is on teaching students for profit. Research is not part o f the package. Offering courses, certificates, diplomas and degrees are where financial opportunities exist and where emphasis is placed. If the emphasis on research in the public system persists, then the private sector may find this an opportune moment to gain competitive advantage, and quality teachers, dissatisfied with their position in the public sector, may find more recognition and prestige teaching for the private sector.  A s noted earlier, developing countries increasingly require higher education and are unable to build the infrastructure required to meet their training needs. While the west is providing these services by increasing capacity for foreign students at their domestic campuses and through development o f offshore campuses, the outcome may not be desirable for those nations sending their students abroad for study. Sandlak (1998) asserts there is a direct correlation between economic strength, and the capacity o f educational and scientific systems within a nation. If a country is less able or willing to invest in its higher education system, it may ultimately lessen the degree o f its economic strength.  Today the university is being asked, with varying degrees o f assistance, to play an even weightier part i n shaping nations' economic, social and political development. Not only locally, but globally as well...there is a very good case to be argued that only now is  56  trade catching up with that universality o f knowledge which has long been the essential and identifying feature o f academia. ( M o r i , 2000, p. 14)  A s economic and political pressures redefine and reshape the curriculum o f Canadian colleges and universities, concerns arise about the threat o f global markets to the cultivation of intellect in the academy. In particular there is concern that a liberal education w i l l be lost, and w i l l be accompanied by an erosion o f important values and traditions that encompass the social mission o f the university, including its autonomy and academic freedom. The loss o f social goals o f equity and accessibility are possible consequences. Some believe higher education needs to return to its roots, to its original focus, to meet the purpose o f contributing to the public good. The business o f higher education is on teaching and research, not accommodating commercial interests (Allport, 2000; Engel, 2001; Levin, 2001).  D i l l (1997a) believes the environment higher education now faces is not evolutionary, but revolutionary, featuring unprecedented and worldwide economic forces. He argues the pressures created by a competitive, international marketplace means reconsidering past systems and traditions, and recognizing new traditions are created with change. Possessing a strong sense o f identity and purpose is necessary for an institution in order to maintain control over its future direction, especially given the de-stabilizing influence o f a volatile education market.  Clark (1983) states these questions and concerns are not a new phenomenon to higher education. Instead, higher education has been redefining itself since its creation.  57  Broad statements o f purpose and goal, essence and true nature, have served poorly as accounts o f reality and are inappropriate when used as possible guides to the present...efforts to specify in clear and limited terms the purposes o f higher education and even o f the university alone, are irrelevant to a true understanding o f the situation. There is nothing more pointless than the debates that have now lasted for centuries about the ideal nature o f higher education. (Clark, 1983, p.22)  Conclusion  A n increased emphasis on international activity in the academic community is fuelled by globalizing forces, business interests and the burgeoning need by emerging economies for access to higher education. This scenario is aided by the fact public higher education institutions require more funds to operate than those provided by government. International students are an attractive source of needed revenue as international student tuition fees provide institutions with increased operating dollars. The private sector views educational services as a good business opportunity, and recent government policy has clearly opened up the post-secondary system to the private sector. While opportunity exists for the public system to become more entrepreneurial, the increased competition from the private sector for student business is a complicating factor.  Some international activity is based upon a desire to create global awareness and cultural competency. These w i l l be important skills to develop as students prepare to enter the increasingly globalized world o f work. In Canada, however, most activity associated with internationalization has focused on its revenue possibilities for the institutions, and most  58  employees at these institutions associate the word accordingly. This causes confusion of purpose and function in the academy.  Chapter Three discusses the university colleges from a historical, geographic and descriptive perspective, as it lays out the context within which internationalization activity is conducted at these institutions.  59  CHAPTER THREE: T H E UNIVERSITY COLLEGES  In this chapter I provide a detailed examination of the university college sector. Following an overview of the sector I discuss the historical development of post secondary education and university colleges in the province of British Columbia. I include a profde of each institution.  The university college sector in British Columbia has been very successful. Student numbers have grown, programs have expanded, and students have good educational and career outcomes. Success can be attributed to the comprehensive nature of the institutions. Students gain an access point into post secondary education in a unique way. University colleges offer courses and programs typically offered at a community college, such as trades training, certificate and diploma programs, developmental or college and career preparation courses, two year associate of art and associate of science degrees and specialized university transfer programs. As well, they offer undergraduate degrees and now, applied masters degrees.  The university college model facilitates a variety of entry points into post secondary education. Students can enter at different levels depending on their academic experience, taking academic upgrading, certificates, diplomas or trades programs and then carrying on into a degree program within the same institution. Wherever possible, certificate and diploma and some trades programs ladder into the next level, allowing students to count as much of their educational experience as possible towards their next credential. The ability to offer degrees in smaller communities, often closer to home, has given students who may not otherwise have access to longer term academic education, the opportunity to further their 60  studies. The applied nature o f several degree streams and their links to the workplace have resulted in very high job placement rates upon graduation. Increasing numbers o f university college degree recipients are successful in their application to professional schools and graduate studies.  The model has not been without its challenges. University colleges were designed to promote access to higher education in their own communities and one o f their features is a structure o f multiple campuses located within their service region. The model is expensive to maintain, with parallel structures and systems factored into operating costs. It has also has raised expectations in smaller communities who want the same level o f educational services provided in more populated areas. These result in perceptions o f uneven commitment to their communities. A challenge facing university colleges is how to continue to serve the broad mandate o f access while paying attention to the increasing demand for university level programs and degrees.  Another issue is that many o f the current senior faculty members were appointed when these institutions were community colleges. These faculty members have particular views on their institutions' role and contributions towards higher education. More recently appointed faculty have different ideas on their institutions, viewing them as organizations aspiring to full university status. These differing ideals have created challenges in determining vision, focus and future planning. The issue o f governance and responsibility requires further examination and is discussed below.  61  History of Higher Education Development in British Columbia  Ideological, political, and economic influences (Ball, 1990; Dale, 1997; Paquette, 1998; Rubenson, 2000) shaped the events which led to the creation o f the university colleges. Interest groups influenced and created a catalyst for change. For Dennison (1996), growth and expansion o f the system was the direct result o f community efforts and advocacy at a grass roots level, rather than any form o f government planning or strategy. Petch (1998) observes that political decisions undermined the university college ideals from the onset. Communities advocating for a university saw the university college as a second best option. A s a result communities with university colleges have continued to advocate for more recognition as regional universities.  Dennison (1996) views university colleges as deserving o f the reputation for being a new model for post secondary education in British Columbia. While the model is new i n terms o f its most recent history in the province, the university college structure has been in existence for nearly 100 years. It is also found in the United Kingdom and other English speaking countries. In the following section I trace the history o f higher education in British Columbia and discuss how earlier institutions were used as a solution to public demand for higher education.  The first two universities established in the province, the University o f British Columbia ( U B C ) , and the University o f Victoria, ( U V I C ) , were initially structured in a way similar to the university colleges. Victoria College, precursor to the University o f Victoria, had nearly 62  sixty years o f teaching university level courses, under the auspices o f an affiliated university. M c G i l l and then the University o f British Columbia ( U B C ) , provided mentorship prior to U V I C being granted autonomous university status in 1964.  The founding o f U B C initially stemmed from actions taken by both the University o f Toronto and M c G i l l . In 1890 the British Columbia University A c t was passed in Legislature. A t the time there was rivalry between Victoria and Vancouver in determining a location for the first institution o f higher learning in the province. After several unsuccessful attempts at developing a locally based structure, and i n part due to this rivalry, the universities o f Toronto and M c G i l l were engaged. In 1892, the Colombian Methodist College, in affiliation with Toronto and operating in N e w Westminster, provided courses in arts and theology, offering all four years' work to local residents. In 1899, M c G i l l University affiliated with local high schools, first in Vancouver and then in Victoria, offered university level courses. Between 1903 and 1915, Victoria College affiliated with M c G i l l University offered first and second year courses in arts and sciences.  In February 1906, M c G i l l ' s solicitors successfully introduced two B i l l s in the B . C . Legislature, setting up M c G i l l University College o f British Columbia as a private institution under an independent governing body, known as the "Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning". Courses offered led to M c G i l l degrees, and the university college provided up to three years in arts and two years in applied science, in Vancouver, and two years in arts in Victoria. Shortly thereafter, two locally initiated B i l l s were piloted through the legislature. The University Endowment A c t was approved in 1907, and the University A c t in 1908.  63  These two pieces of legislation mark the creation o f the University o f British Columbia (UBC).  The 1915 opening o f U B C meant Victoria College had to temporarily suspend operations in higher education. B y the autumn o f 1920, it re-affiliated, this time with U B C . B y 1961 the College, in partnership with U B C , awarded its first bachelor's degrees. O n July 1, 1963 Victoria College became the degree granting University o f Victoria.  During the 1960s, higher education for the masses became a focus o f public interest. Born out o f ideologies o f pluralism and the welfare state, proponents believed increasing access to education and expanding intellectual capacity were important goals for a democratic, just and civil society (Dale, 1997). In British Columbia, this was also fuelled by an upsurge o f enrolment in post secondary education, first by World War Two veterans wishing to further their post-secondary study, and then by the burgeoning number o f university-age, post- war students.  U B C was the province's only public university, and was under tremendous pressure to meet the increased demand. In this post war period there was growing public outcry at the lack o f access to post secondary education in the province. The situation escalated into a number o f community based protests, especially in Victoria. The protest in Victoria was partially driven by the history o f rivalry between Vancouver and Victoria, and in the community by a general impression their educational needs remained unfulfilled. While U B C continued to offer a  64  presence in Victoria, it was primarily in teacher education and lower level university courses - not enough variety to meet the burgeoning demand.  In 1962, the newly appointed president o f U B C , John Barfoot Macdonald initiated a study that examined the future needs o f higher education in British Columbia. While the study was not endorsed by the provincial government, it became a catalyst for massive change in the higher education system. The report recommended that new and alternative types o f post secondary structures serve the higher educational requirements of communities throughout the province. The idea was enthusiastically embraced by the public and the media. The report recommended an enhancement o f the vocational school structure originally set up in the post war period, as well as increased access to university level education.  Government reaction to the report was swift. Almost immediately two new universities were created. The University o f Victoria ( U V I C ) emerged from Victoria College on July 1, 1963. Intensive planning for the future Simon Fraser University (SFU) resulted in its doors opening in September 1965, a mere two years later. The second step created several colleges, in some cases combining existing vocational schools with academic programming, and resulted in a wide array o f comprehensive colleges, dispersed geographically across the province. These new institutions offered academic upgrading, trades training, the first two years o f university level courses, and a variety o f certificate and diploma level programs. One notable exception was the creation o f the British Columbia Institute o f Technology in 1964, which in joint partnership with the federal government, was specifically mandated to provide two year technology diplomas in health, business and engineering-related occupations.  65  Expansion continued well into the 1970s, signified by the creation o f the College and Institutes A c t in 1977, which gave non-university entities, the colleges and universities, corporate status and legal authority. B y 1980, British Columbia had 24 publicly funded post secondary institutions including 15 community colleges, 5 institutes, a distance learning institution and 3 universities (Dennison, 1996).  A History of the University Colleges  In the late 1980s a Provincial Access Committee was established by the British Columbia government. Its purpose was to examine the educational needs o f communities that lay outside o f the urban centres o f Victoria and Vancouver. A t the time, British Columbia ranked ninth place in Canada for the number o f degrees awarded per capita, and seventh, in the participation rate o f fulltime youth enrolled in post secondary. The committee identified some factors contributing to this poor performance. O f particular concern was the evidence of limited access to university degree completion opportunities for large segments o f the population living in remote and rural regions o f the province, and especially the aboriginal population (Provincial Access Committee, 1988).  A major expansion o f university degree opportunities was recommended for the British Columbia interior. The cities o f Prince George, Kamloops, Kelowna and Nanaimo were identified as areas central to this expansion. This involved expanding the mandate o f designated community colleges to include the provision o f degrees. Initially, the degrees were to be jointly developed in partnership with the universities. They would provide the  66  colleges with the expertise required, and address any anticipated quality assurance issues. This mentoring approach was similar to what had been done with Victoria College and U B C .  In 1989, the government announced that Cariboo College, serving the Cariboo region, and Okanagan College, serving the Okanagan region, would provide degrees to their communities. Malaspina College, serving the mid-Vancouver Island region, was added to the list later in the year. During this same period, political pressure led to a decision i n January 1990 to create the University o f Northern British Columbia ( U N B C ) . The new institution had its own A c t and a full university mandate. Dennison (1996) observes that the creation o f U N B C was a good example o f community action and grassroots support. The action was a way to stimulate economic growth and development in a region o f the province needing an economic boost.  In 1991, Fraser Valley became the fourth, and in 1995, Kwantlen the fifth and final, university college. Kwantlen was unique i n one major aspect. Unlike the other four university colleges, located in outlying and rural regions o f the province, Kwantlen was part of the metropolitan area o f the Lower Mainland, serving the local population along with many other post-secondary institutions in its area. Its mandate was restricted to applied degrees; degrees linked to workplace training and were developed without partnerships with universities. In comparison, the other university colleges had a much broader mandate, offering applied as well as traditional arts and science degrees.  67  In 1994, the College and Institute A c t , B i l l 22, was amended to recognize university colleges as a distinct institutional category. The colleges were re-named university colleges. Legislation gave each institution the authority to develop and confer degrees in their own name. It also introduced a new governance structure to each college and institution in the system. A n education council was created for the purpose o f advising the governing board, a politically appointed entity, on educational planning and policy matters. It is now responsible for curricular matters in the institution. The decision to extend educational councils to all institutions meant university colleges had a similar governance structure to college and institutes, and differing from the universities (Petch, 1998).  In 1998 the five university college presidents, four o f whom were newly appointed, began meeting as a group to discuss issues related to their institutions. These meetings were in addition to regular meetings held with all the colleges, institutes and university colleges under the umbrella organization o f the Advanced Education Council o f British Columbia ( A E C B C ) . The presidents decided that the interests o f the university colleges required a specific focus and they commissioned Howard Petch, former president o f the University o f Victoria, to evaluate the success o f their degree programs.  Petch's (1998) report found the degrees offered were academically sound and met accepted Canadian university standards, but noted they were under-funded and characterized by inadequate library and computing services. Petch discussed expanding the university college mandate to include research, graduate studies, and scholarly activities. He also noted deficiencies in the governance system under the College and Institute A c t . It did not clearly  68  identify the differences between university colleges and the rest o f the college and institute sector. He recommended the creation o f a University College A c t to meet the specific needs of university colleges, and the formation o f a consortium to pursue common interests,  A University College Consortium was established with its own secretariat, and for the following two years representatives including board chairs, education council chairs and presidents, met to discuss and develop positions on a variety o f issues they believed would advance the university college agenda. Discussion focused on the continuation o f special funding for libraries, reform o f formula funding, research, space standards and legislation. The Consortium questioned its continued participation in the Advanced Education Council o f British Columbia ( A E C B C ) which had historically represented the interests o f all colleges and institutes in the province. In June 2001 the consortium cancelled its membership. This event was one o f the contributing factors which ultimately led to the dissolution o f A E C B C later in the year.  In A p r i l 2001, the University College Consortium circulated a draft position paper calling for new legislation. The legislation was to enable the transformation o f university colleges to regional comprehensive universities accompanied by a mandate incorporating research and graduate programs into their offerings.  Several university colleges moved quickly to endorse the goal o f regional university status. Okanagan University College ( O U C ) was the first. Its board accepted a committee report recommending full university status, including an unrestricted instructional and research  69  mandate. A faculty-led senate would replace the existing education council. O U C then opted out o f provincial contract bargaining, and signed a contract providing rank for faculty and much higher pay for senior ranks. The rationale for this decision was based on a view that they were competing for the same quality and type o f faculty as the universities, and therefore it was necessary to bring in a structure similar to the university model.  The board at University College o f the Cariboo ( U C C ) followed O U C ' s lead and declared its intent to become a regional university. In M a y 2001, the board o f the University College o f the Fraser Valley ( U C F V ) followed suit and launched a campaign to build public and political support for the idea (Malaspina University College Website, 2004).  In June 2001, a new Liberal Government was elected with an overwhelming majority. In July, the provincial government fired the board o f O U C for exceeding its jurisdiction in signing a contract providing a university-based compensation system for faculty. The Ministry o f Advanced Education ( M A E ) also reaffirmed its position that moving the university colleges to university status was not a government priority. It was viewed as too costly during a time o f fiscal restraint ( O U C F A Newsletter, 2002).  The Current Situation in the University Colleges In 2002, a long standing tuition freeze was lifted by the provincial government. This was followed by tuition increases across the system, as budget constraints had made it difficult to meet enrolment demand. A t the university colleges this resulted in tuition increases and a general concern that increased tuition would result in less student demand. This did not  70  materialize, however, except for some vocational and academic upgrading programs ( K U C , M U C , U C C , U C F V , and O U C Factbooks 2002-2003). In fact, government policy decisions around educational support may have been more o f a factor in lower enrolments in these areas rather than the actual tuition increases. The institutions now have undergraduate tuition rates similar to the universities.  A s this paper is being written, the structure and function o f the university colleges is changing rapidly. During the past five years, much effort has been made by the five institutions to gain university status, and in 2003 the university colleges were granted the right to offer applied masters degrees. This decision was accompanied by an announcement the college sector would now be eligible to offer applied degrees. Both changes were approved with the passage o f B i l l 35, an amendment to the College and Institute A c t , in October 2003.  In M a r c h 2004 the provincial government announced two o f the five university colleges would undergo structural changes. O U C has now restructured into a distinct college and university, with the university portion now part o f U B C . B y September 2005, university activity w i l l be part o f the newly created U B C Okanagan. Okanagan College w i l l be a separate institution with its own board and governance structure and serve the college level educational needs o f Okanagan residents. A s this is being written, interim governance and administrative structures are in place, following removal o f the President shortly before the March 2004 announcement.  71  U C C has now become a special purpose university and is called Thompson Rivers University ( T R U ) . It has a mandate to offer post secondary degrees at a distance, as well as on campus. Part o f the arrangement was the acquisition o f the Open University, whose physical presence w i l l move from its Burnaby location to the now named T R U . The fate o f the remaining three institutions is still unknown, but all have continued to actively campaign for university status. A more detailed examination o f each o f the university colleges follows.  Profiles of the University Colleges  In this section I provide an overview o f each university college, including their mission statement, campus locations, information on their program offerings and their research status.  University College of the Cariboo  The University College o f the Cariboo is a learner- centred institution which serves people and their communities through quality education, training and scholarship. (Mission Statement, University College o f the Cariboo, Service Plan, 2004-2005)  The forerunner o f the University College o f the Cariboo ( U C C ) , Cariboo College was founded in 1970 after several years o f intense community campaigning. In 1968, the campaign was formalized when six Cariboo communities, assisted by a group o f community leaders and trustees o f their school boards advocated for expanded educational opportunities in their region. Amalgamating a community college with Kamloops Vocational School was the goal. Success came in 1970, with the opening o f Cariboo College, in temporary facilities, at the Kamloops Residential School. B y 1971, Cariboo College moved to its current location,  72  situated on the hillside, with views o f the North and South Thompson rivers, the valley and mountains (Petch, 1998). The campus has the look and feel o f a vibrant and active learning community with modern buildings designed around a common area, with well kept grounds in a stand o f Ponderosa pines. The Williams Lake Campus is smaller and provides trades training, career programs and university transfer courses to the region. Students travel to Kamloops, or elsewhere, to complete their degrees or to attend programs not offered in Williams Lake.  In 1978 Cariboo College was recognized in statute under the Colleges and Institutes A c t . In 1989, and after further community campaigning, Cariboo was given permission to offer degree programs and became known as the University College o f the Cariboo ( U C C ) . A s required by the Ministry o f Advanced Education, Cariboo entered into partnership arrangements with S F U , U B C and U V I C to offer their respective degrees and in 1995, with the amendment to the Colleges and Institutes Act, was granted authority to offer its own degrees. In 1996, U C C was the first university college admitted as a member by the Association o f Universities and Colleges o f Canada ( A U C C ) , the primary body in Canada for recognizing university status. This membership was an important milestone as it signified that U C C met commonly accepted and agreed upon university standards.  2  A national, regional or provincial accreditation body does not exist for the public post secondary  system in Canada; however, A U C C provides criteria that applicants must meet in order to be granted membership into the association. Not all applicant institutions are successful in gaining admission.  73  U C C offers degrees in Arts, Science, Nursing, Social Work, Business, Natural Resources, Education, Computing, Journalism and Tourism, and is currently working towards the addition o f a Masters Degree in Business Administration ( M B A ) .  Research has been a major focus since 1995 resulting in a well developed infrastructure. A vice-president supports the research  office  and assists with a large variety o f research  projects. In scanning the research website, a large number o f projects are evidently underway. U C C currently has two Tier 2 Canada Research Chairs, one in Landscape Ecology and Management and one in Early Intervention and C h i l d Development. Major research themes have evolved at U C C and include Ecosystems and Environment, Health, Community and Human Development, Visual and Verbal Literacy, B C Studies and Advanced Technology and Applications. Faculty receive both S S H R C and N S E R C funding and a number o f projects also receive C F I funding. Several current applications focus on C I H R funding as well.  A s part o f its strategy in moving towards university status, U C C was supported by members of the community. They actively promoted the cause through the establishment o f "Friends of U C C " , a lobby group formed specifically to forward the cause o f U C C becoming a university. Clearly their efforts have proven to be effective given the decision to grant U C C special status as a university in the fall o f 2004.  74  Okanagan University College  Okanagan University College is a public comprehensive university in the southern interior o f British Columbia. The M i s s i o n o f O U C is to serve the people o f the O U C region, British Columbia, Canada and the world and enhance the social, cultural and economic development o f the region and province by: providing a highly qualified and skilled population through the delivery o f academic, professional and vocational educational programs at the post-secondary degree, certificate and diploma levels, and through lifelong learning; undertaking scholarly activity, research and development; developing new opportunities for growth through strategic partnerships for education, training, research, development and innovation; and being a 'window to the world' for the region through increased internationalization o f education, research and development activities. (Mission Statement, Okanagan University College, O U C Business Plan February 2004)  Okanagan College was established in 1965 but its roots date back to 1963 when the B . C . Vocational School in the Okanagan was first founded. Okanagan began offering its first university transfer and career programs in 1968, and by 1974 was amalgamated with the B . C . Vocational School, adding adult education programs to its mandate (Petch, 1998). Okanagan has five campuses serving the communities o f the Okanagan: Vernon; Penticton; Salmon A r m ; and two sites in Kelowna. It encompasses ten school districts. Smaller continuing education centres are located in Osoyoos, Oliver, Summerland, Armstrong and Revelstoke. The two largest campuses are located in Kelowna. The largest campus is situated on a 240 acre site north o f Kelowna, on a hillside overlooking the valley and mountains. The first buildings were built in 1993 and are attractively set in natural, well kept grounds (Petch, 1998).  75  In 1992, the institution changed its name to Okanagan University College ( O U C ) , and by then was well on its way towards offering joint degrees in partnership with the U B C and U V I C . B y 1996, O U C began offering its own degree programs and awarded its first degrees in 1998. O U C currently offers degrees in Arts, Fine Arts, Science, Nursing, Social Work, Business, Education and Computer Information Systems. In 1997, O U C was successful i n gaining membership in A U C C .  Research has been in the institutional plan for the past five years ( O U C Research Web site). In 2003 O U C received appointments for two Tier 2 Canada Research Chairs, one in W o r l d Indigenous Peoples and the other in Human Rights, Diversity and Identity. O U C appointed its first Vice-President, Research in the fall o f 2003. O U C has developed a network o f Centres and Institutes. Included are the Centre for Human Rights, Diversity and Identity, the Centre for Mathematical Biology, the Centre for Population and Health Services Research, the Okanagan Social and Community Research Centre, the British Columbia Freshwater Institute, and Laboratories in Applied Trace Analysis Facility, the Okanagan Forest and Mycorrhiza Ecology/Ecophysiology Lab, the Paleo Lab, the Water Resources Science and Watershed Management Lab, the Wine Chemistry Lab and the Project on Adolescent Trajectories and Health. Faculty are eligible and currently receive funding from S S H R C , N S E R C , C F I , and C I H R in addition to smaller granting and funding agencies.  The efforts o f O U C to pursue university status resulted in a different outcome than U C C . For a number o f years there was active campaigning in the community to have O U C develop into a full research university. This had been advocated in several sectors, and most prominently  76  by the B C Progress Board (2002) in its "Learning to w i n " document. In December 2002 it made a recommendation to extend the mandate o f an existing provincial university to Kelowna; in 2004, U B C became the designated university for the Okanagan region.  Malaspina University College  Malaspina University College is a dynamic and diverse educational organization, dedicated to excellence in teaching, service and research. W e foster student success, strong community connections and international collaboration by providing access to a wide range o f university and college programs designed for regional, national and international students. (Mission Statement, Strategic Plan 2004)  Malaspina College first opened its doors i n 1969 at the old Nanaimo hospital and was the first regional Community College established on Vancouver Island. In 1971 Malaspina merged with the British Columbia Vocational School, which had been in Nanaimo since 1937. With the merger, vocational programs were added to the university transfer and career programs. In 1989, when Malaspina became the third regional college designated for degree programs, it entered into a mentorship arrangement with U V I C . In 1998 Malaspina began granting its own degrees and i n 2000 was admitted as a member o f A U C C . Initially Malaspina was not successful in its membership application, in part, according to the A U C C examining committee, because it wanted to put some pressure on the provincial government to improve the way the provincial government treated all the university colleges. Admission  3  The President o f U B C ,  Dr. Martha Piper, is both a member o f the Progress Board and C h a i r o f the  Education, Skills Training and Technology Expert Panel which made and forwarded the recommendations to the Progress Board.  77  was granted when the Ministry agreed to provide more money for university college libraries.  Malaspina operates four campuses, and includes one in Powell River, on the mainland o f British Columbia, as well as in Cowichan, Qualicum and Nanaimo, located on central Vancouver Island. It serves five school districts. A l l campuses offer academic upgrading, career, technical and vocational, university transfer and continuing education programs. The largest campus, situated in Nanaimo, offers the full range o f programs and all four years o f the undergraduate degree programs. Similar to O U C and U C C , its site is located on a hillside, and has views o f the Georgia Strait, the city o f Nanaimo and the Coastal Mountains. The 110 acre site is well maintained with terraced architecture, and it takes full advantage o f the natural surroundings and location (Petch, 1998).  Malaspina University College ( M U C ) currently offers undergraduate degrees in Arts with selected majors, C h i l d and Youth Care, Education, Science with majors in Biology, Computing Science, Fisheries and Aquaculture, Nursing and a Bachelor o f Tourism Management. In September 2002, M U C began offering an M B A program in partnership with the University o f Hertfordshire in England. Hertfordshire grants the M B A degree.  Research at M U C began with a working group in 1998-1999, and has now evolved into a well developed research infrastructure supported by the V i c e - President Instruction and Research. M U C began reporting research and scholarly activity in 2000. The 2003 report on research initiatives highlight the Institute for Coastal Research, the Applied Environmental  78  Research Lab, the Centre for Shellfish Research, the International Centre for Sturgeon Studies and the Centre for Digital Humanities Innovation, in addition to numerous individual research projects involving both students and faculty. M U C currently receives funding from S S H R C , N S E R C and C F I in addition to a number o f smaller granting agencies (Malaspina University College, Research News Homepage).  M U C has an active community campaign in place as part o f its effort towards university status. M U C has positioned itself as a major economic driver in the City o f Nanaimo, arguing the university name w i l l also generate more student enrolments and international interests. M U C currently has the largest number o f international students enrolled on a per capita basis and in comparison to the rest o f the university colleges. From its newspaper articles and community events, such as the Chamber o f Commerce luncheons and service club functions, it appears the community is very supportive o f their efforts.  The University College of the Fraser Valley  The fundamental purpose o f U C F V is to provide a superb learning experience for our students. We provide our students and the rapidly growing Fraser Valley region with excellence in teaching and research; a supportive, professional and respectful learning environment; innovative, distinctive and comprehensive programming; education directed towards both personal and career development; beneficial local, national and international partnerships. (Mission Statement, U C F V Strategic Plan 2004-2007)  In 1973, after more than a decade o f community campaigning, Fraser Valley College was established in Chilliwack and Abbotsford, and ran courses for the first ten years i n temporary facilities throughout the Valley. The first permanent campus o f the college opened in 1983 in  79  Abbotsford. N e w facilities opened in Chilliwack in 1995, followed by the opening o f the new Mission campus in the fall o f 1996. The M i s s i o n campus is a shared facility and a joint project with the University College o f the Fraser Valley ( U C F V ) , the M i s s i o n School District, the District o f Mission and the community. U C F V has established small centres in Hope and Agassiz. Facilities are jointly shared; the former with a private educational provider and the latter with a school district. U C F V services four school districts in a region extending from Aldergrove in the west, to Boston Bar i n the east.  The main campus o f U C F V is located at the Abbotsford site where approximately 65% o f the student population attends classes ( U C F V Fact book, 2002-2003). The site is nicely landscaped with mountain views and consistently designed and well maintained buildings. The grounds have a campus feel, with a campus green area common to the four larger buildings (Petch, 1998). The smaller campus in Chilliwack is nicely landscaped and maintained, but with an unfinished feel to it. A main classroom building originally slated to be built ten years ago has yet to be built on the site.  U C F V received university college status in 1991, after a major community campaign and participation in the Fraser Valley Access Initiative (Petch 1998). The first four year bachelor's degree programs, i n Arts, Business Administration, and Criminal Justice, began in September 1992, when U C F V entered into a mentorship arrangement with the British Columbia Open University ( B C O U ) , S F U and U V I C to offer degrees. Currently U C F V offers degree programs in several additional areas, including Computer Information Systems, Child and Youth Care, Science, Nursing, Social Work, General Studies and Kinesiology. A s  80  of September 2005, U C F V w i l l accept its first cohort for the Masters Degree i n Criminal Justice. U C F V was granted admission into A U C C in 1997, the same year as O U C .  U C F V entered into the area o f research later than the three former institutions. U C F V appointed a Dean o f Research in 2002, with a major emphasis being on student-centred research. In addition faculty are involved in a number o f community based research projects including the Safe Schools Projects, the Fraser Children and Family Community Project, the Indo Canadian Centre and several smaller community based projects through the Cascade Institute. Currently U C F V is eligible to receive S S H R C and N S E R C funding. In Fall 2004, a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair was appointed to U C F V in the area o f Aboriginal Studies ( U C F V Research Website).  Until very recently, the campaign for university status was very low key. A s o f August 2005, the campaign at U C F V is very public ( U C F V Website).  Kwantlen University College  We create an exceptional learning environment committed to preparing learners for leadership, service and success. (Mission Statement, Kwantlen University College, 2004 Multi-year Plan)  Kwantlen College was created in 1981 when a decision was made to divide Douglas College into two separate institutions. Douglas College was founded in 1970 to meet the expanding need for higher education in the Lower Mainland region. A s the population o f the area increased, it was decided students would be better served by having Douglas serve the north  81  side o f the Fraser River, and Kwantlen the south side, specifically the communities o f Langley, Surrey, Delta and Richmond.  Three campuses were built, in Langley, Surrey and Richmond, to accommodate their programs. Business, academic preparation and career programs are offered on all campuses, and specialized programs on some campuses. For example, applied design and communications programs are located only on the Richmond Campus. In addition, Kwantlen has a fourth campus located i n Newton, which house trades, technology and other vocationally focused programs. Future development includes building a major trades facility in the Cloverdale area over the next five years. This w i l l replace the aging facility in Newton. Campus grounds at Kwantlen are located i n residential and commercial areas in each community and do not have the open spaces and naturally occurring views characterized at the other four institutions. Buildings are relatively new and well kept, and architecturally designed to feature spacious and open common areas, especially on the Richmond and Surrey campuses (Petch, 1998).  Kwantlen ( K U C ) , the largest o f the university colleges, was given degree-granting status in 1995, but from the onset was restricted in the type o f degrees it could offer. Kwantlen was given independence in developing its degrees, and did not have to go through the period o f mentoring as did the others; its mandate was to offer degrees considered to be applied in nature. Degrees are given i n Technology, Nursing, Business Administration and Applied Design (Kwantlen Factbook 2001/2002). A s at U C F V , research at K U C is a relatively recent focus. In January 2004 a Vice-President o f Research was appointed. Current research is primarily through individual faculty based grants and projects. K U C is currently not a  82  member o f A U C C , as it has been unable to meet the criteria set out for membership in the association.  K U C has been actively promoting the notion o f university status within their region but the reality is that two major universities, U B C and S F U , are located within the catchment area shared with Kwantlen.  Activity Levels in the University Colleges In this section I discuss the overall student growth rates at the university colleges and compare these rates across the five institutions. I also examine the level o f international student activity in the university college and compare it with other sectors o f the B . C postsecondary system.  Pattern of Growth in Credentials Conferred The university colleges have each experienced growth in the number o f credentials awarded over the most recent three years o f available data - the academic years from 2001/2002 to 2003/2004. Table 1 indicates the growth has been accompanied by a shift in the composition of the credentials awarded. Credentials include certificates, diplomas and degrees. Significant differences in trends exist between the five university colleges.  K U C is experiencing the highest growth rate in degrees awarded, by 72%, over the past three years; yet, it is experiencing relatively lower growth in its total number o f credentials, at 8% during the same period. This may be explained by the fact K U C began offering degrees later and the larger numbers may reflect a pent-up demand for degrees in their region. The number 83  of degrees is still less than half o f those found at the other four institutions.  Table 1. University college credential composition awarded years 2001/2002-2003/2004. Changes in numbers and percentages of degree credentials awarded in comparison to total credential awarded over 3 years. Years 2001/ 2002 to 2003/2004  01/02  02/03  03/04  141 1540  212 1768  243 1655  +102 +115  72% 07%  MUC Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  439 1526  379 1871  473 1806  +34 +280  08% 18%  OUC Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  394 1258  424 1328  481 1499  +87 +241  22% 19%  UCC Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  453 1626  483 1546  500 1727  +47 +101  04% 06%  UCFV Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  385 1253  412 1517  471 1562  +86 +309  22% 25%  Sector Total Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  1X12 7203  8030  2108 824*)  -1040  20% 15%  Institution Name  KUC Bachelor degree Total # Credentials  4  Change  %  Source: Ministry o f Advanced Education Post Secondary Data Warehouse'Standard Reports: November 2002, June 2004; June 2005  4  Credentials included certificate, diploma and degree completions.  84  Both U C F V and O U C show very similar patterns o f growth, each increasing their degree completions by 22%. O U C presents a total credential increase at 19%. U C F V experienced a total credential increase o f 25% over three years. The growth at both institutions reflects the major emphasis that has placed on building their university programs.  M U C experienced an increase o f only 8% in their degree credentials over the same three year period. B y comparison, M U C saw an 18% increase in the actual number o f credentials awarded during this period  U C C is showing the lowest growth in both degree and total credentials. Degree credentials have increased by 4% overall, whereas the increase in total credentials is 6%. One explanation may lie in the fact that U C C has been providing degrees for five years longer than K U C and may reflect a more mature market. However this explanation does not bear out for O U C , who actually experienced a growth rate o f 22% in degree credentials during this same period. Both O U C and U C C have been granting degrees for the same length o f time.  Student Growth Growth rates in the university colleges vary across the five institutions. Table 2 provides a comparison o f all the university colleges over a five year period. From 1998/1999 to 2002/2003, U C F V experienced a significantly higher growth rate in student F T E  5  numbers  than the other four university colleges. U C F V grew by 45%, from 3800 to 5518, followed by  5  F T E is the arithmetic equivalent o f a student taking a full course o f studies as derived from total  course registration, enrolment and/or hours. It provides a c o m m o n model from which to compare data.  85  O U C at 21%, and from 5685 to 6876. U C C follows with a growth o f 17% from 4725 to 5546. K U C is fourth with a growth o f 12% from 7420 to 8315. M U C experienced the lowest growth, moving from 5463 to 5842 F T E s , representing a 7% increase.  Explanations for this variance may be partially due to the nature o f program offerings, as well as to demographics, such as the population expansion occurring in the Fraser Valley. Given the fact both U C F V and K U C share the Fraser Valley population, U C F V appears to growing much faster. This may be explained by the fact K U C is closer to the catchment area of U B C and S F U , as well as the four urban colleges o f Langara, Vancouver Community College, Douglas and Capilano. Another explanation may be the fact U C F V has a more developed offering o f degree programs, an area which represents the major portion o f credential growth.  Internationalization Focus The university colleges share a common element in their internationalization programs. A review o f their strategic plans, institutional websites and internationalization documents show an emphasis on international student recruitment, and this has contributed to the significant growth in international student numbers. Each university college makes reference to internationalization in their institutional documents, and at least two institutions, M U C and K U C , have developed public documents on their strategic directions for internationalization. U C F V includes internationalization as one o f the goals in their strategic plan. U C C , now T R U , evolved their international education department into a new entity called T R U W o r l d (Welcome to T R U commemorative magazine, March 2005).  86  Table 2. University colleges actual FTEs by fiscal year. Comparison of changes and rate of growth of actual student numbers over 5 year period, 1998-2003. 6  Years 1998-2003 Institution "Name  98/99  W  OUC  5685  MUC  5463  00  % increase in 5 years  0 0 01  01 0 2  02 03  6128  5685  6788  6876  21%  5627  5711  5640  5842  7%  UCFV  3800* 4000* 4900* 5192  5518  45%  UCC  4725  4950  5200* 5650  5546  17%  KUC  7420  7600  7900  8315  12%  8140  Each institution has their own website devoted to international education and while the recruitment o f international students is a central message on all sites, some university colleges have placed a heavier emphasis on the recruitment function than others. For example, O U C , U C C and M U C international education websites include reference to their exchange programs, international development activities and field schools. The U C F V website has some reference to study abroad but mainly emphasizes recruitment. The K U C website focuses exclusively on international student recruitment.  Numbers with asterisks are estimates based upon graphical representation of data in source documents. Sources: Kwantlen University College Factbook 2001-2002, 2000-2001; Data Driven Assumptions; U C F V Fact Book 2002/2003; O U C Annual Report 2003; Factbook 2002/2003; Malaspina Audited Enrolment Report 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004; O U C Historic Growth, Organizational Ratios, April 1999, Funded F T E S by Fiscal Year, U C C Factbook 2001/2002; 2002/2003. 6  87  As illustrated by Table 1, both MUC and UCC experienced the lowest growth in degree credentials in the past five years. This may partially explain their interest in international students. International students can assist with meeting the growth plans of the institution, especially when the domestic student numbers level out or decline.  The university colleges have experienced the highest growth rate in international student activity for long term programs (3 months or longer in duration) of all the post secondary sectors in the province. The complete illustration showing the change in international student enrolments is depicted in Table 3. According to statistics presented in the British Columbia Centre for International Education (BCCIE) annual reports, and summarized in Table 3, much of this growth has been in the degree and university transfer area of the university colleges.  In long term programs, from 1996 to 2003, universities grew by 133%, from 3773 to 8254 enrolments; colleges grew by 120%, from 1974 to 4349 enrolments; institutes grew by 90%, from 187 to 355 enrolments; and the university colleges by 173%, from 1042 to 2846 enrolments. The overall average growth rate for long term programs in all sectors was 127%, which means growth rate in the university college, sector, at 173%, was significantly higher than what is found in the other sectors.  The fluctuations which do occur in the nature and composition of the student market are evident from the data. For example, short term enrolments (3 months or less) grew significantly in the institute sector at 2200%) from 38 to 870, and more modestly in the 88  Table 3. Comparison of changes in numbers of international student enrolments in the British Columbia public post secondary system, years 1996- 2003; by program length and sector. Years 1996- 2003 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03  Sector  %Change  University Long term Short term Total  3774 3866 7640  3381 3395 6776  3943 3122 7065  3965 3570 7535  4792 3453 8245  5302 3627 8929  8254 1868 10122  +133% -52% +32%  College Long term Short term Total  1974 716 2690  2260 1086 3346  1712 908 2620  1933 801 2734  2012 2006 4018  2196 3666 5862  4349+ 910 5259  120% +27% 96%  University College Long term Short term Total  1042 1127 2169  688 1378 1613  890 925 1815  1293 1202 2495  1314 1422 2736  2252 929 3181  2846 729 3575  +173% -35% +65%  Institute Long term Short term Total  187 38 225  291 199 490  477 302 779  506 315 821  199 269 468  220 882 1102  355 870 1225  +90% +2200% +444%  Grand Total Long term Short term  6977 5747  6620 6058  7022 5257  7697 5888  8317 7150  9970 9104  15804 4377  +127% -24%  Total  12724 12678 12279 13585 15467 19074 20181  +59%  7  8  Source: BCCIE, BC Public Post Secondary Statistics: 1996/97 to 2000/01; 2001/2002; 2002/2003  7  Greater than 3 months is considered long term  8  Less than 3 months is considered short term I  89  college sector at 27% from 716 to 910. Both the university colleges and universities experienced a decline in short term enrolments, at -35% and -52%, respectively.  Short term enrolments often include skills-based training such as English as a Second Language (ESL), or vocational courses. This may be partially explained by the increased number o f private training institutions delivering E S L which results i n more choice for international students attending English language training. A t the same time the universities and university colleges have placed more emphasis on recruiting international students for longer term stays. The large increase in short term enrolments in the institute sector may be attributed to some specific focus or arrangements made to provide vocational training to international students. A n example o f this would be the emphasis that B C I T has placed on providing industry specific training to the mining sector in Chile ( B C C I E Web site).  Table 4 illustrates that the percentage o f international students varies across the university colleges and provides data for the 2001/2002 academic year for comparative purposes. K U C has the lowest percentage o f international students at 3.6% o f the total student headcount. Both U C F V and O U C have similar percentages. O U C has 4.6% and U C F V 4.7% international students o f their total headcount. U C C and M U C have highest numbers o f international students and the highest percentages overall. U C C has 7.7% international students, and M U C is the highest with 9.4% international students.  90  Table 4. University college international student headcount, as a percentage of total unduplicated headcount 2001/2002, excluding continuing education enrolment. 9  Institution KUC MUC OUC UCC UCFV Total  Total Headcount 15,155 11,345 10,735 11,892 9,795 58,922  International Headcount 544 1071 497 918 458 3,488  % Total Headcount 3.6% 9.4% 4.6% 7.7% 4.7% 5.9%  Source: UCBC Response to Mandate Review 2002  The importance of international activity in an unprecedented time of globalization may now be accompanied by a heightened awareness of its revenue potential. In Chapter Two I discussed empirical work done in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia on internationalization and suggested that introducing increased levels of non-government funding influences institutional culture, values and climate.  For the university colleges, who rely heavily on government funding and have built their organizational structures accordingly, the emphasis placed on international activity raises questions about the impact this will have on the direction and future of each institution. Their original mandate of focusing their energies on the educational needs of their local communities has the potential to be transformed as the institutions consider further internationalization activity. What these changes will look like is addressed in Chapters Five and Six. In Chapter Four I introduce the research project conducted at the university colleges.  9  Unduplicated Headcount is defined as the number o f students registered in a course or program as o f  a specific date. Each student is counted only once regardless o f the number o f courses each has registered in. Based Funded refers to the courses that are funded through government sources and provided to the operating budget o f each institution.  91  CHAPTER FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In this chapter I explain the methodology o f this study. The chapter consists o f four main sections. The first section outlines how I arrived at the decision to conduct a case study o f the British Columbia university college sector. The next section discusses the underlying orientation and assumptions I am working with in research design, data collection and analysis. I take the reader through the data gathering, documentation and organization, and analysis processes used in conducting my research. The third section provides observations on the study, including challenges encountered along the way and representation in the sample size. The final section addresses the applicability, trustworthiness and limitations o f the findings.  Selection of Method  I designed my project as a nested case study o f the B . C . university college sector, with units o f analysis occurring at f i v e different levels o f responsibility and authority ( Y i n , 1994). The university college sector presents the first level; the senior officers o f the university colleges the second level; the third level includes the deans and directors o f academic areas and service departments; the fourth level includes faculty members; and the fifth level includes staff members. Adopting a case study approach provided a way to comprehensively examine international activity at the university colleges. In designing the approach I adhered to the three main principles o f data collection in case study research: using multiple sources o f evidence, creating a case study database and maintaining a chain o f evidence ( Y i n , 1994, p. 79).  Y i n (1994, p. 78) identifies six sources o f evidence for case studies. These include documents, archival records, interviews, direct observation, participant- observation and physical artefacts. I incorporated each o f these sources o f evidence into the research plan. In addition to the literature review, I reviewed government documents and legislation related to higher education, examined institutional data and documents, and made site visits to each university college. I kept notes on what I observed during these visits, as well as at meetings and discussions where I became a participant-observer. I conducted interviews with members of the university college sector, and higher education policymakers. Physical artefacts i n the form o f brochures and documents were collected and included in the database.  The next section fully examines the multiple sources o f evidence and is followed by an explanation o f how I adhered to the second and third principles o f data collection: creating a case study database and maintaining a chain o f evidence.  Gathering Multiple Sources of Evidence  Initially my investigation included a review o f literature on higher education, political economy, globalization, marketization or commercialization, and international education. Interest in this research problem began in the fall o f 2001, during participation in a course in Higher Education Policy at U B C . In the beginning, the investigation was broad based and was largely exploratory. A s summarized in Chapter T w o , the literature pointed to a link between neo-liberalism and an increasing focus on entrepreneurialism in the academy. These factors affect the direction o f government policy, and in particular, policy related to higher  93  education. The broader political and economic framework assisted in identifying some common themes developing across systems and nations. This work led me to believe there was a direct relationship between globalizing activity, neo-liberal ideology and the direction international activity was taking at my own institution. This context provided the backdrop as I proceeded with my investigation, analysis and interpretation of the impact of international activity at each institution.  Information was gathered from federal, provincial and international agencies including the Canadian Bureau of International Education, the Association of Canadian and University Colleges of Canada, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, Statistics Canada, Human Resources Development Canada, provincial ministries of higher education, and the British Columbia Centre for International Education. Information from the OECD, UNESCO and the Australian and United Kingdom government provided an international context for comparative purposes. Data from each university college included information on student numbers, types and numbers of credentials awarded, international students, breadth of programs and funding levels.  As a participant-observer, I was involved at my own institution with our education council, with our strategic planning process, was a member of our senior management group and was a founding member of our internationalization committee. I had also worked on several international projects and had presented at international conferences. As my topic became more defined, I began taking notes during meetings on topics relating to budgets, revenue challenges and international activity. During the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003, several  94  informal, exploratory discussions on the topic o f international activity occurred with members o f the university college sector. The notes taken from these discussions and from other meetings I attended assisted with further refinement o f my topic.  The information obtained from documents assisted me in developing preliminary interview questions. Individual interview questions underwent revision during the first five interviews, as issues and problems gained clarity. These pilot interviews helped me determine the breadth and depth o f questions and I reworked several questions based upon feedback obtained from the interviewees. The open-ended nature o f the questioning in the pilot interviews also assisted i n structuring the focus group questions. The first ten interviews were conducted prior to the start o f the focus group sessions, allowing me to further refine my original set o f focus group questions. I wanted to carefully structure the questions to minimize the risk o f chaotic data collection which may accompany focus group sessions (Kvale, 1996, p. 101). I structured four main questions for the focus groups and asked each group to answer the same questions. The interviews and focus group discussions assisted i n designing the second set o f individual interview questions.  In the spring o f 2003 I received permission from the ethics committees o f each o f the six institutions, including U B C , the institution which provided me with my research supervisors and committee, and each o f the five university colleges.  95  Selection and Recruitment  of  Participants  The introduction and expansion o f international activity in the university colleges affects people with varying levels o f responsibility and in a variety o f positions across each institution. I decided to incorporate five units o f analysis into the investigation. The first was at the university college sector level, second with university college presidents and vicepresidents, third with deans and directors, fourth with faculty and fifth with staff. Criteria 10  used to determine participation in the research included the position and level o f responsibility o f employees in the institution.  M y sampling strategy was purposeful (Patton, 1980) and based upon the idea I must select a sample from which the most can be learned (Merriam, 1998, p. 61). I wanted to draw information out from all o f these groupings; it would provide a wide range o f perspectives. While there was valuable information to be gained by interviewing individuals directly involved in international activity, I wanted to hear how it affected people who were less directly involved but still dealing with the activity as part o f their overall work responsibilities.  I wanted to ensure the interviews represented the views and opinions o f a wide range o f individuals across the institution. Staff, including student advisors and counsellors, lab assistants and monitors, admissions and registration staff, librarians, student employment  Interview coding was assigned to each hierarchical level as follows: M I N (ministry officials); S O (senior officer, consisting o f presidents and vice-presidents); ID (deans, directors and managers); F G F (faculty focus groups); F G S (staff focus groups); F G F S (combined faculty and staff focus groups).  96  staff, student activities staff and campus services, could comment on their interactions with international students, based upon the type o f work performed. Faculty could comment on their work with international students including those involved with classroom and on-line teaching, and international projects and activities, including development projects, exchange programs or teaching overseas. Deans and directors would be able to comment on how international activity impacts their administrative and academic areas o f responsibility in terms o f policy development, implementation and practice. This grouping included academic deans, persons with administrative authority and responsibility for international education, and heads o f administrative units such as student services. Presidents and vice-presidents would be able to comment on their vision o f international activity and how it factored into the strategic planning process and institutional policy.  I was also curious about how international activity was perceived by educational policy makers in the province. M y literature review determined that there was an absence o f policy and direction from both the federal and provincial government in this area, yet international activity had undergone tremendous expansion in the public education sector, and in particular, at the university colleges. This was quite different from what had occurred in both the United Kingdom and Australia. When they embarked upon major educational reforms which included both commercialization o f higher education and internationalization, they also developed policy providing direction and purpose to the change process. This did not occur in Canada. I was curious about the lack o f attention to this policy area, by government, and hoped my questions about the policy gap would be answered by inviting policymakers in the area o f higher education to participate in the research.  97  Challenges in Gaining Access to Participants  In spite of ethics committee approval, I was unsuccessful in gaining access to one of the university colleges, after a number of repeated attempts. I gained approval from the ethics committee to conduct interviews at this institution in June 2003.1 sent out my initial letters of contact for request for participation in the individual interviews in July 2003, and in August followed up with an email query asking whether they would be interested in participating. One individual answered positively and I followed up with the second letter which included additional details and a consent form.  A few days later, I received an email from the institution's vice-president who indicated several concerns with my topic, and in particular, expressed concern that my research would interfere with the planning process currently underway. I followed up with a query asking for specific concerns I could address. After several email and telephone discussions during the Fall of 2003,1 was advised that a senior management representative would assist me in setting up a research process their administration would be more comfortable supporting. After several attempts to follow up with this individual, in December 2003,1 was advised there would be an opportunity to come on campus to conduct interviews in January 2004.1 was also advised that their administration wanted to decide who could participate in the interviews and focus groups.  In January 2004 another telephone discussion with this same individual led to a commitment to allow me to come on campus in February; however, the issue of participant selection had 98  not been resolved. After several additional unsuccessful attempts to address this situation, I made a decision in M a r c h 2004 to remove this institution from my interview pool. Part o f the decision was related to timing concerns with the project. W i t h the exception o f this university college, the phase-one individual interviews and phase-two focus groups were complete. The other concern was related to interference with the recruitiment and selection process for individual interviews and focus groups participants. I felt this interference compromised the integrity o f my project and the ethics approvals I had already received from the six institutions.  Phase-One I n d i v i d u a l Interview P a r t i c i p a n t Selection  Individual interview participants were recruited and selected based upon their knowledge, experience and influence in their institutions. Selection criteria included responsibility for setting policy or overseeing policy for the institution, division or department with requisite budgetary responsibility and authority. Each individual would be directly involved in carrying out the mission and vision o f the institution, and have division or departmental responsibilities in developing and implementing the strategic plan. These individuals were in a position to influence the setting o f institutional priorities.  Ministry individuals responsible for high level policy decisions in higher education were also selected and contacted. The Minister o f Advanced Education, the Deputy and Assistant Deputy Ministers in British Columbia and the Deputy Minister o f Advanced Education in Manitoba were contacted by letter in July 2003. The reason for the latter contact was based upon the individual's previous work as a dean in the British Columbia university college 99  sector. A s an educational policy-maker with field experience, this perspective would be particularly useful as the individual would be in a position to comment on the role, purpose and function o f international education from different contexts.  From both British Columbia and Manitoba, two senior level officials o f Advanced Education Ministries agreed to participate. In terms o f gender representation, one interviewee was male and the other female. Both interviewees had extensive experience in post secondary education i n British Columbia and were able to provide their perspective on international activity. One interview was conducted by telephone. With this interview I expressed my desire to record the telephone interview and the individual agreed to have the conversation tape recorded. Another interview was conducted in a coffee-shop. This interview was also recorded and transcribed.  Presidents, vice-presidents, and deans and directors o f academic and administrative units in the university colleges were contacted by letter in June, July, August and September o f 2003 and asked to participate in an individual interview. A total o f 58 letters were sent out to individuals at the five institutions. A follow up query by email or telephone was conducted two to three weeks after the letters were sent to find out whether the individual was interested in participating. O f the initial group contacted, 28 agreed to participate in the individual interviews. O f these, 8 were unable to participate due to other commitments such as prolonged travel out o f the country and meeting schedule conflicts. A total o f 20 individuals formed the individual interview pool at the four institutions.  100  Individual interviews were conducted with three presidents and six vice-presidents (VPs) at the university colleges. T w o presidents had been with their institutions for less than six years and one for more than twenty years. T w o had previously been in leadership positions in the university sector and one in a leadership position in both the college and university college sectors.  O f the V P group, two had direct responsibility for international education and four did not, but were engaged in discussions on the activity at the management level. T w o V P s had responsibility for academic areas, two were responsible for student services areas, one was in the finance and administration area, and another had responsibility for institutional planning and development. A l l but one V P had more than ten years experience working at the same institution. This individual had been at the institution and in the same position for over four years. The other five had been in a variety o f other positions from faculty to lesser administrative at their institutions. In terms o f gender representation all interviewees were male. The interview findings for presidents and V P s have been collapsed into one category called Senior Officers (SOs).  Eleven individual interviews were conducted with deans, directors and managers. O f these, 4 were directly responsible for international activity and in positions with administrative and decision making responsibility for, or an area within, the international department. O f the remaining 7, 5 were academic deans or directors and 2 were responsible for the Student Services area at their institution. T w o individuals had been at their institutions for 5 years or less and nine had been at their institutions longer than 10 years. In terms o f gender representation, 8 interviewees were female and 3 were male. The interview findings for this  101  group have been collapsed into one category called instructional deans/directors/managers (IDs).  Table 5 indicates the number and position o f individuals who participated in the first round of individual interviews at each university college. Interviews were conducted from June to December 2003. Twenty interviews were conducted on premises o f the university colleges.  Table 5. Phase-One interviews. Individual interview participants by institution and position title.  A  By Institution B  C  D  Total  By Position Manager Director Dean V P Academic V P Administrative President  Total  2 1 11  2 1 6  1 1 1 1 1 5  1 4 .1 2 j  1 6  1 4 6 2 4 3 20  Interview Details  Each individual interview was semi-structured allowing for further exploration o f thoughts and ideas raised during the interview. Each interview lasted between 1 to 1.5 hours in length. Each interview was tape recorded and transcribed. Each transcription was returned to the interviewee for review and comment.  " Includes V P positions in areas including administration and finance and student services.  102  Phase-Two Focus G r o u p P a r t i c i p a n t Selection  Recruitment o f focus group participants targeted faculty and staff at the university colleges. Selection criteria included employment at the university college i n a staff or faculty position, and contact with international students in the workplace or experience working with international projects or activities. Eight focus groups were conducted with faculty and staff at the 4 university colleges. The purpose o f the focus groups was to gain an understanding o f the impact o f international activity on faculty and staff working with international students and projects. Participants were volunteers from a number o f academic departments and support services areas and their details are provided below.  M y plan was to send out an announcement about the project over the intranet system o f each institution. I had determined, in consultation with the information technology staff at each institution, this was the most effective way o f gaining access to faculty and staff members at the university colleges. I formally requested permission to access the intranet system and received permission from all four institutions to use their system. The announcement was sent out on three occasions, once in July, then August and finally September, when employees had returned to the workplace. Approximately 4,000 employees at the university colleges were made aware o f the project, on at least three occasions, through this medium. Individuals expressing interest in gaining further information were instructed in the message to contact me at my home telephone number or home email.  103  I adopted this approach due to perceived issues o f power in the workplace, given my position as a dean in a university college. I discussed this approach with several individuals, some at my institution, including the ethics committee, as well colleagues holding similar positions to my own, but at other institutions. B y introducing the project and myself to the institution, v i a the institution's internal group messaging system, I hoped to address what could be perceived as a power imbalance/issue. Individuals could decide whether they wanted to participate based upon their level o f comfort at being interviewed by a dean. Whether an individual felt they had anything to contribute to a discussion on international activity was their decision. One drawback o f self selection is it does not provide a true representation, or sampling o f the institution. The risk in this approach was I could be faced with either no response or responses from limited areas. Later in this chapter I address the limitations I faced more fully.  I had 128 individuals respond, expressing interest in participating i n a focus group session. I sent out a detailed explanation o f the project by post, fax or email, depending on their preference, to interested parties. I followed up with each individual two to three weeks after initial contact. The follow up yielded 72 individuals who expressed interest in participating in the focus group during the fall o f 2003.  I planned to conduct a minimum o f 2 focus groups per institution, with an optimum o f 5 to 8 participants per group. Timing and location o f the focus groups affected attendance at the sessions. It became apparent, after several scheduling attempts, it would be very difficult to accommodate everyone's schedule i n setting a focus group time and date. Each o f the focus  104  group participants who initially expressed interest in the project, and then did not attend a session, cited reasons such as teaching assignments or other scheduling conflicts which prevented them from being able to participate at the stated time and date. A total o f 8 focus groups were conducted, with participation ranging from 2 to 8 individuals per session. T w o individuals from the same institution requested separate individual interviews, so I arranged two individual interviews with these participants and asked them the same questions asked in each focus group. Their interviews have been included in the faculty focus group findings and are counted as 1 o f the 8 focus groups.  A s Table 6 indicates, a total o f 41 individuals participated in the focus group session. This included 4 faculty and 3 staff groupings as well as 1 grouping that was a combination o f both faculty and staff. The focus group interviews were conducted between September and December 2003. There was a fairly equal representation o f faculty and staff participation, at 22 and 19 respectively.  105  Table 6. Phase-Two interviews. Focus group participants, by faculty and staff designation and by institution.  A  By Institution B  By Designation  c  D  Total  Faculty Teaching Administrative  7 3  6 0  2 0  4 0  19 3  Faculty Total  10  6  2  4  22  3 3 0 1 0 2  2 0 3 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  3 0 0 1 1 0  8 3 3 2 1 2  Staff total  9  5  0  5  19  Staff/Faculty Total  19  11  2  9  41  Staff International Advising Library Registration Administration Student Programs  12  Faculty Focus Groups A total o f 18 faculty participated in the 4 faculty focus group discussions. A l l faculty, with the exception o f one, were primarily engaged in teaching. Their observations are mostly based upon their experiences with having international students in their classes. Seven faculty made reference to involvement in teaching assignments overseas, either through their institution or other opportunities such as church-based assignments, or under contract to other educational institutions. One focus group member was a department head and had  12  Includes staff in work study, student employment and co-op programs.  106  responsibility for overseeing the administration o f a large E S L program. Nine participants were male and nine were female.  Staff Focus Groups  A total o f 12 staff members participated i n the 2 staff focus group discussions. Composition o f the first group included 3 individuals involved with student advising and program support, 2 from student employment services and cooperative education, 1 from international education and 1 from the admissions and registration office. The second group included 3 librarians, 1 representative from international education and 1 from student employment services. A l l participants were female.  Faculty and Staff Focus Groups  Two focus groups sessions, consisting o f a total o f 11 faculty and staff participants, were conducted at two university colleges. In the first group there were 2 faculty participants and 5 support staff participants. Support staff participants included 1 admissions and registrations clerk, 1 international education clerk, 1 administrative assistant acting as a liaison to the international education department and 2 advisors to international students, under the direction o f the international education department. The second group consisted o f 2 faculty participants and 2 staff members from the international education area who provide clerical support and assistance to the department. In terms o f gender representation, there were 7 females and 4 males in the focus groups. O f the 4 faculty, 2 were department heads and 2 were primarily engaged in teaching duties.  107  Focus Group Details  Similar to the individual interviews, I made a request o f each group to have the discussion tape recorded and transcribed. I received permission to record the session from each focus group participant. Each focus group session lasted between 1 to 1.5 hours in length. Each focus group session was transcribed from the tape recording. Participants were contacted and offered a copy o f transcription for review and were encouraged to make comments on their portion o f the transcripts. I discussed the confidential nature o f the material with each focus group member and asked them not to share the transcript with anyone else.  I received positive feedback on this process. Thirty-five participants requested copies o f the transcripts and 12 individuals commented on how valuable the focus group session had been, and in particular, how useful the transcripts were in helping them sort through their own thoughts and ideas on international activity. Editorial comments mainly consisted o f individual responses expressing surprise and some concern around the way they spoke in the focus group, not in terms o f content, but rather on their verbal skills. One individual made reference to poor verbal skills in the interview compared to writing skills and felt some discomfort at seeing the transcribed conversation. I reassured this individual any quotes from the interviews would be anonymous and unattributed, unless otherwise requested.  108  Phase-Three I n d i v i d u a l Interview Selection  The second set o f individual interviews built upon the findings o f the first set o f individual interviews and the focus group discussions. The main criteria for selection o f this smaller grouping o f interviewees was based upon three factors: availability during the A p r i l and M a y 2004 timeframe, in a senior leadership position within the university college and an expressed interest or request for a follow-up interview. Each interviewee had participated i n the first round o f individual interviews and had signed a consent form to participate in both sets o f interviews.  In March 2004,1 contacted 11 individuals who had previously agreed to be re-interviewed. For some individuals, there were timing challenges given their very busy schedules. After several attempts I was able to successfully schedule 7 interviews. I interviewed 3 presidents, 3 vice-presidents and 1 dean. I followed up on several issues and themes which developed during the first set o f individual interviews and focus groups. A s Table 7 indicates I was able to get at least one interview from each institution. In three institutions I was able to interview two senior managers.  In preparation for the interviews, I provided each interviewee with a condensed, oral report of the findings o f the Phase-One and Phase-Two discussions. The purpose was to provide  109  T a b l e 7. P h a s e - T h r e e i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v i e w s , b y i n s t i t u t i o n a n d b y p o s i t i o n .  B y Institution  A  B  C  D  Total  1  Position  Dean V P Academic V P Administrative President Total  1  1  1 2 1 3  2  2  7  1 1 2  further context for responding to my questions. It also provided each interviewee with the same information, as I had anticipated interest in hearing the outcome o f the first two phases. I was able to furnish each interviewee with my general findings without spending a great deal o f the interview time answering specific questions.  These interviews were conducted in A p r i l and M a y 2004. Each interview varied in length from 30 to 60 minutes depending on interviewee response to the question. Again, the interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, with a transcripted copy offered to each participant. I received a few minor editorial suggestions, but overall the transcripted version remained intact.  Data Documentation and Organization  The second and third principles o f case study research address the importance o f following certain protocols in order to increase the reliability o f the research. Effectively documenting and organizing the data collected w i l l increase the reliability o f the case study ( Y i n , 1994, p.  110  94) and assist with maintaining a chain o f evidence. I have organized the data in a manner which allows an external observer to retrieve and review the evidence directly, follow the source o f evidence from questions posed and answered, to the conclusions reached, or trace the research process backwards from conclusion to initial questions.  The data collected has been organized and presented in a file identifying the source documents used. One category includes field notes. A second category includes the transcribed interviews and identifies the times, date and location o f interviews. A third category is a listing o f international, national, provincial and institutional documents used in the investigation. These documents are listed within the reference section o f my thesis.  Data Analysis  Data analysis assists in making sense o f the data and brings structure and order to the material gathered throughout the research process (Merriam, 1998). From the onset, I analyzed the data as it was being collected. M y purpose was to capture a broader perspective of related thoughts and ideas, which were not apparent in my initial set o f questions. What I discovered provided me with direction for future interview questions, in particular during the early stages o f interviewing.  In addition to the various documents gathered and read, data collection included writing field notes during site visits to the various campuses, during conversations and meetings where I sat in as a participant-observer, and upon completion o f each individual interview and focus group discussion. These notes assisted me in developing patterns o f ideas and activities.  Ill  Initial analysis involved sorting through data and determining common themes and categories from the pages o f transcripted information collected during the interview process (Merriam, 1998). These groupings formed the basis for future inquiry in keeping with the iterative nature o f my research, as it moved from description to analysis to themes, concepts and assertions (Schwandt, 1997). I began this analysis in the summer and fall o f 2003 and found this exercise particularly useful in structuring the phase two focus group questions and phase three individual questions. Documentation, including government and institutional source documents, as well as field notes, were catalogued and edited with the transcripts to ensure the analysis encompassed all facets o f the study. This allowed me to return to the material at a later point, when I pursued a particular topic or set o f issues developed during an earlier stage o f the research.  I found this approach particularly useful during the spring and summer o f 2004 when the bulk o f transcripts were returned to me. Due to technical difficulties with the quality o f several o f the tape recordings, it had taken the transcriptionist longer than anticipated to complete the transcriptions. This meant some o f the analysis o f the phase-two focus group sessions and most o f the phase-three interviews happened later than what had originally been expected. B y having ready access to source documents, I was able to complete my analysis in an efficient and timely manner during the summer o f 2004.  Data Collection Observations In this section I provide more detail on the specific aspects o f my data collection, including  112  site observations, participant representation and additional observations related to my particular research project.  Site Observations  Site visits provided another source o f evidence. I visited each o f the four campuses in order to create an opportunity for direct observation ( Y i n , 1994). M y observations were casual and included walking around the university college campus, walking through the various buildings, watching where students congregated, identifying building construction, and the condition o f buildings and furnishings. M y notes were used i n constructing the Chapter Three profile o f each o f the university colleges.  Representation  One o f the issues with using a self-selection method i n participant selection is achieving an adequate representation o f different areas in each institution. In selecting participants for the focus groups, I was unsure who would actually volunteer their participation. I could not determine whether it would be mainly individuals from one particular area, or i f I would get volunteers representing different areas in the institution. A s Table 6 indicated, several staff areas are represented. The largest individual grouping consisted o f international staff, comprising just under 50% o f the entire grouping. This sample does not reflect the actual distribution o f positions. International staff are a much smaller grouping in each institution than what was represented in the sample. Given the fact my goal was to hear from individuals who believed international activity was part o f their work, or impacted on their work, international department staff comprise a significant portion o f the participants. If there were a greater pool o f volunteer participants to draw upon from the staff area, then it 113  might have been feasible to have the focus group more representative o f the composition o f employees in each institution.  Table 6 also indicates a larger number o f faculty attached to teaching positions, compared to administrative positions, self-selected into the focus groups. The most reasonable explanation for this outcome is the fact that faculty members teaching international students are more likely to relate to the research and be interested in participating than program administrators, who would likely have less contact with students. Another underlying assumption is more teaching than administrative faculty exist although the actual breakdown o f administrative to faculty teaching positions is not known.  Table 8 indicates balanced gender representation in the interviews and focus groups. This was done without targeting a specific sample size based upon institutional representation. There were two areas in particular where there was under-representation o f gender. In Phase 3 , only one female was interviewed out o f the seven in total. A s mentioned earlier, this was partially due to interview timing, availability and interest in a follow-up interview.  Another discrepancy occurred in the number o f female to male staff respondents in the focus group category, at 18 and 1 respectively. Given the fact a proportionally large number o f females occupy support staff positions in the library, advising and counselling, registration and international education, the discrepancy is explainable. Several groupings o f employees did not participate. Individuals working in ancillary services such as the bookstores,  114  cafeteria, facilities and instructional media services were not represented. If there had been interest  Table 8. Participants by data profile and includes by institution, by position and by gender.  A  By Institution B  C  D  Total  2 1  3 3 6  12 8 20  0 2 2 ' 0 0 0  0 2 2 5 2 7 9  1 12 13 18 10 28 41  1 1  6 1  Data Profile Phase-one interviews Males Females Total Phase-two focus groups Male Staff Male Faculty Total Male Female Staff Female Faculty Total Female Total  4 2  3 2  1111111* HfMHHjB 1 5 6 8 5 13  0 3 3 ' 5 -s J  8  f> II rliKiSSli1 S I 9 M K l  Phase-three interviews Males Females lolal  2 0 2  2 0  Total Male Total Female (•rand Total  12 15 27  8 10 18  i 0  1111111 5 1 b  6 11 17  31 37 68  from the ancillary services area o f the university colleges, the numbers o f male and female staff participants may have been more representative, as there may be more males working i n these areas. Females and males i n the faculty focus groups were equally represented at 10 and 12 respectively.  115  Further  Observations on the Interviews and Focus Groups  A t two institutions I had faculty offer to bring students to the focus group sessions. I did not have ethics clearance for students and declined the offer. I believe the student perspective is critical in examining the institution as a whole, but it was beyond the scope o f this investigation.  In all three phases o f data gathering, participants were not identified by their institutional affiliation, but identified by their level o f responsibility within their institution. If a participant expressed concern they might be harmed by the research, specific reference to their position title was removed from the research documents. This was achieved through coding the transcriptions to ensure confidentiality and anonymity, and by providing individuals with their transcriptions for review. If they wished to have part o f the conversation edited out o f the original transcript, I accommodated the request. Several individuals requested editorial changes to their transcript and three individuals requested small sections o f the transcript be deleted for several and varying reasons: it was determined the discussion had revealed more information than what they felt comfortable disclosing; the content o f the discussion could potentially reveal the identity o f the individual or institution; the disclosure had happened in the heat o f the conversation, and upon reading the transcript the individual did not feel comfortable with having this information recorded in a document. There were two requests to have a specific reference edited out. In both cases the participant felt this reference would easily identify them and their institution and would compromise their level o f comfort with the research.  116  I felt well supported i n my efforts by staff, faculty and administrators at the four university colleges. Not only was there a great deal o f interest exhibited by faculty, staff and senior administration, administrative staff made every effort to accommodate m y space requests for the focus groups. I was conducting focus group sessions during the daytime and in the Fall 2003 term, so this was not a particularly easy accommodation. A great deal o f effort was made by administrative staff to work around schedules and accommodate my requests.  Trustworthiness of the Study  Conceptualization o f a study, including data collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation, must take into consideration how the outcome o f the study w i l l be received by the wider audience. Merriam (1998) notes research results are considered trustworthy when there has been some accounting for the standards used i n conducting the research. These standards involve validity and reliability criteria and are discussed throughout the literature on research methods (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Merriam, 1998; Stake, 1995; Y i n , 1994). Merriam (1998, p. 213) notes ethical dilemmas are likely to occur in the collection o f data and in the dissemination o f findings. In this section I discuss how I address the issue o f trustworthiness in my study.  Validity, Reliability and Ethics Internal validity deals with the question o f how the research findings match the reality o f the situation under study (Merriam, 1998, p. 201). Reliability in research is concerned with the extent to which the findings can be replicated (Merriam, 1998, p. 205). While human behaviour cannot be fixed to a set formula for validity and reliability, techniques can be  117  employed to ensure the results reflect reality and are dependable. These include identifying the investigator's position, triangulation and providing an audit trail (Merriam, 1998. p. 206207). In the following discussion I address how these points were incorporated into the investigation.  Several strategies can be used to enhance internal validity and include triangulation, member checks, long term or repeat observations, peer examination, participatory or collaborative modes o f research and identifying researcher's biases (Merriam, 1997, p. 205). I employed these strategies whenever possible. Triangulation, or using multiple sources o f data, is a strength o f case study research ( Y i n , 1994, p. 91). I sourced a variety o f evidence including: documentation, archival records, interviews, participant-observation, direct observation, interviews and the physical artefacts gathered during my campus visits. Member checks were conducted by providing each participant with a copy o f their transcribed interview and inviting them to make further comment and observations. I have offered each participant a copy o f my findings. In terms o f long term and repeat observations, I conducted my investigation over three phases and it took approximately one year to complete. I made a minimum o f three visits to each campus during my data collection. Peer review and collaboration are addressed below.  Ethical dilemmas could arise in collecting data at my own institution and the other university colleges, and in disseminating the findings. I wanted the methodology to be credible and the investigation conducted "as i f someone was always looking over my shoulder" ( Y i n , 1994,  118  p.37). I believed the credibility o f my study would be contingent upon resolving these dilemmas.  The first dilemma was twofold: it involved collecting data at m y own institution where I was known, and collecting it at other institutions, where I was less well known. A t my own institution I was concerned there was already a perception I had a pre-determined bias in favour o f entrepreneurial and international activity, and any work I would do would reflect this bias. M y previous career, known to many within my institution, spanned several years within the corporate world. I was well connected with business communities throughout the Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley through various service clubs and organizations. I had also travelled extensively for both personal and professional reasons and was known as a supporter and promoter o f international activity.  A second issue stemmed from my location as both an insider and outsider in the research process; one o f the issues in conducting research at my own institution relates to perceptions of power (Wolf, 1996). Being viewed as an objective, outside researcher was not possible. Not only do the traditional power issues found between researcher and the researched factor into the design, but also my position as a dean in a university college brought other aspects o f power into the researcher/subject relationship. This was compounded by the fact several departments already engaged in entrepreneurial and/or international activity reported to me and would be logical candidates to include in the research. The dilemma given this context, was who would be in the pool o f participants and how would I recruit them, given the potential power issue?  119  I addressed these concerns by sharing my proposed study with the research ethics committee at my own institution and solicited their ideas and thoughts on research design. I also discussed this issue with my research co-supervisors. Based upon the advice o f all, I tried to minimize the impact o f a power dynamic as much as possible. Individual interviews were structured with volunteer participants in equal or greater positions o f power than my own. A s mentioned earlier, I also structured the recruitment o f volunteers for the focus groups as unobtrusively and with as much neutrality as possible by employing the internal email system as the primary method o f recruitment.  The second dilemma related to being a U B C student collecting data at the other four university colleges. While I knew some o f the actors, the dynamics operating at the other institutions were unknown. Building trust and confidence in order to gain access to participants at their institutions was important to my study, yet I was virtually unknown to them. M y motives for being there could be regarded as suspect. Was I trying to gather trade secrets on international student recruitment, or was I there to report back to U B C on what was going on at the university colleges? Both questions had been asked o f me during informal discussions. I approached this dilemma by working with the research ethics committee at each institution for permission, feedback and guidance.  I engaged in research only after receiving permission to proceed from each committee. I advised participants to answer questions or participate in the discussion only i f they felt comfortable doing so, and I provided them with a list o f interview questions in advance,  120  when requested. Each participant was given a statement o f purpose o f the research and an overview o f the data collection procedure. I asked each participant to read over the information before signing the consent form and encouraged them to ask questions or address any concerns with me at any time. I provided them with contact numbers and addresses. Concerns regarding focus group confidentiality were addressed at the beginning o f each session.  The third dilemma was how to disseminate the findings and not compromise the study findings, yet provide the assurance o f confidentiality to each participant. I decided to manage the data by conducting an analysis based upon levels o f responsibility and authority within the sector rather than by doing a comparative analysis o f each institution. Findings would then be based upon those levels and would assist in maintaining the privacy o f participants.  External validity External validity is concerned with the extent to which the findings o f one study can be applied, or how generalizable they are, to other situations (Merriam, 1998, p. 207). Generalizability was addressed in the breadth and depth o f the investigation. Information obtained from the literature review and documentation provided the background context for what was happening in other countries and systems. The descriptions o f each university college, and an overview o f the policy context within which they are situated, provides a future reader/researcher with context to assist them in determining whether the situation can be transferred to their own research situation. Asking participants to describe the types o f international activity at each university college should assist researchers in determining  121  whether they can make similar comparisons study. M y investigation was structured as a multiple-site design with units o f analysis occurring at various levels o f responsibility and authority within the sector. This was achieved through purposeful sampling to allow for a broader application than what is feasible through a single site or single unit o f analysis.  Limitations of My Research  M y design was structured to specifically interview faculty, staff and administrators in the university colleges and provincial government policymakers. Wherever possible, purposeful sampling allowed me to gather information from the groupings identified. However, there were particular areas where I was either unable to find volunteer participation or where volunteers came forward from areas that were not part o f the research. For example, international and domestic students were not interviewed; the focus was on employees in the university college sector.  Employees not represented in my study include those working in ancillary services such as the bookstore, cafeteria, student gym, janitors, security staff and gardeners. Volunteer participants did not step forward, although it is very likely these individuals would have some interaction with international students. Therefore, my findings do not represent the . above-mentioned areas.  A t two university colleges I had difficulty finding volunteers for the focus groups. A t one institution I was unable to find staff volunteers for the focus group. I found this curious since I had a great deal o f interest in staff focus group participation at the other university colleges.  122  I also knew this institution had international students. It was at this same institution 2 faculty volunteers had specifically asked to be interviewed individually and not as part o f a focus group. In spite o f these anomalies, the interviews and focus groups conducted produced similar findings and a large number o f responses were similar across institutions and categories. This gave me confidence my interview pool was large enough to develop thematic areas from my findings. The other limitation was discussed earlier in this chapter. I was unable to gain access to one o f the university colleges in spite o f repeated attempts.  The third limitation relates to the depth and breadth o f my findings. In terms o f breadth, a comparative analysis between the university colleges may have yielded more information regarding specific details on the impact o f international activity at each site. This type o f research would have been difficult to undertake for a couple o f reasons. First, there were sensitivities in the system about other case studies done in the past and how it might colour perceptions their particular institution, especially i f they were easily identified. This was o f particular concern given the current push for university status. There were also concerns about disclosure and confidentiality when informants were too easily identified. These concerns had arisen earlier in the process when I was exploring possibilities in the research design. Taking a sectoral approach in disseminating the findings lessened these concerns and gave me a number o f willing research participants. This would not have occurred i f I had undertaken individual case studies on the university colleges and done the comparison. In terms o f depth, there were additional issues and central themes I want to pursue, but were beyond the scope o f this research project. I w i l l address these areas i n Chapter Seven.  123  In Chapters Five and Six I fully examine my findings. Chapter Five w i l l focus on the meaning o f internationalization and how meaning is constructed. Chapter Six discusses the impact o f internationalization on the people working in the university colleges.  124  CHAPTER FIVE: THE MEANING OF INTERNATIONALIZATION Chapter Five explores the meaning o f internationalization and how it is operationalized at the university colleges. The interviews, data and documents are used as the basis for my findings. I present two main interpretations: internationalization as an economic imperative and internationalization as an educational imperative. I discuss how both meanings are shaped by individual attitudes, and influenced by fiscal reality and the policy framework with which the university colleges operate.  The Two Meanings of Internationalization  One characterization o f internationalization is as a commercial process which provides financial benefits to institutions and their communities through revenue generated from international student tuition. The contribution to institutional operating budgets is widely understood and acknowledged at the university colleges. A second characterization o f internationalization is as an educational process providing the institution's employees, students and external communities with opportunities to gain a broader understanding o f the world around them. Internationalization activity assists in preparing students for working and living in a globalized world. It can also provide aid to developing nations through education and training programs. A major distinction between the two imperatives is the former makes money for the institution, while the latter is considered an expense. The following section discusses these two distinct characterizations more fully.  125  T h e E c o n o m i c Imperative  The concept o f education as a market, as a commercial entity, is illustrated by data presented in Tables 9 and 10, as well as in the interviews and focus group findings discussed later in this chapter. Supporting documentation for these figures can be found in Appendix I.  Table 9 provides revenue data for the 2003/2004 year, the first year international student tuition revenue is presented as a separate line item in institutional reports. In previous years domestic and international student revenues were combined in the report and made it very difficult to ascertain the actual contribution international student tuition made toward institutional operating budgets. The table indicates the amount o f revenue from international education revenue sources in comparison to funding provided by the Ministry o f Advanced Education and other sources o f funding such as revenue received for domestic student tuition apprenticeship training, contract training and research. International education revenue comprises a significant portion o f institutional budgets at the university colleges. It also represents a higher proportion o f institutional budgets than is found i n the overall college and institute sector o f the B . C . post-secondary system. Two university colleges show a very high proportion o f international student tuition revenue in their institutional budgets, when compared with the overall college and institute sector, at 19% and 17% respectively. In comparison to the college and institute system overall, four university colleges are higher than the average o f 9% with only university college falling below the system average.  Table 10 provides a comparison between four B . C . universities and the five university colleges and indicates the significant differences between international and domestic tuition fees. 126  Table 9. Comparison of revenue sources 2003/04. International student tuition amount as a part of the operating budget, by institution and by percentage. University colleges compared to rest of the college and institute sector.  Institution  Advanced Education  r  International  Total  Student Tuition  Combined  International as a 13  % Combined  Funding  UC#1  53,815,392  5,902,371  59,717,763  9.93%  UC#2  40,198,771  9,598,763  49,797,534  19.28%  UC#3  47,842,841  3,436,763  51,279,604  7.2%  UC#4  41,044,250  8,487,860  49,532,110  17.14%  UC#5  37,147,868  4,643,038  41,790,906  11.11%  College and Institute Wide  656,544,528  65,100,383  721,644,911  9.02%  14  Source: P. Beatty-Guenter, B . C . Post Secondary Finance Branch December 31, 2004.  Clearly, the university colleges are competitively positioned for international students seeking an undergraduate degree. Tuition prices on average are more than $ 4,000 less than the universities for a similar undergraduate program and the percentage difference between the costs o f tuition for a domestic student compared to international students is notably  This does not include any other sources of funding such as apprenticeship training funds, contract training or research funding. 13  1 4  Data includes the 22 publicly funded colleges and institutes in British Columbia.  127  higher at the universities in comparison to the university colleges. These two factors may partially explain why the growth in international student numbers in long term programs, as noted in Chapter Three, is significantly higher in the university colleges.  Table 10. Comparison of International and Domestic Student Tuition for General Arts, Undergraduate Program by Institution, 2004-2005. Institution  International Student Tuition in $CDN  Domestic Student Tuition in SCDN  Net Difference  16, 260 12,089 12,495 14,271 13,778  4,011 4,110 3,635 4,269 4,006  12,249 7,979 8,860 10,002 9,774  405% 298% 344% 334% 345%  9,000 11,400 8,850 10,500 9,000 9,750  3,489 3,210 3,300 3,000 3,870 3,373  5,511 8,190 5,550 7,500 5,130 6,376  258% 355% 268% 350% 233% 293%  in $ CDN  % Difference between international and domestic student tuition  University UBC UNBC UVIC SFU Sector Average  University College MUC KUC UCFV UCC OUC Sector Average  Source: Institutional Websites; Mary Francis Lawlis, Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada, December 9, 2004.  One point o f interest is K U C charges the highest tuition for international students at $11,400 per year and the second lowest domestic student tuition at $3,210 per year, making the  128  tuition differential the highest at 8,190 or 355%, higher than the average in the university sector.  This may be partially explained by the fact K U C is the most urban o f the university colleges and is competing with the Universities for both domestic and international students. However their approach towards the two markets is quite different. The international student tuition is priced similarly to university levels whereas the domestic student tuition is priced much lower.  T R U w i l l be charging international student fees o f $12,000 effective September 2005, representing a $1500 increase from last year ( T R U Web site). While this represents a significant financial increase to international students over last year, T R U w i l l still have the most affordable international tuition fees o f the Universities.  From a consumer's point o f view, the university colleges are more affordably priced in comparison to the universities, although it is evident from the recent steps taken by T R U , some o f this affordability may be based on the perceived value o f the degree and the name 'University'. From the university college perspective international students provide a significant amount o f revenue for their institutional budgets, and may provide even more i f they too are named 'University' rather than 'University College'.  The economic imperative is also evident in the use o f business and commerce terminology, and the efficiency and effectiveness themes developed during the interviews and focus groups. Business language is used when discussing the purpose and function o f the activity,  129  and includes terms such as markets, competition, and supply and demand. The excerpt below provides an example o f the terminology. W e ' v e commodified education as an export...we see it as a product to make money, and we've been fortunate in the sense that we have been able to really encroach on that market because o f the way that Canada has been viewed by other nations. Y o u know, for one, it's a great place to learn English with an accent that's very hard to place. (S06)  Branding the institution, a marketing term and strategy, provides a way o f defining the university college, creating an identity, and capturing a share o f the education market. Other institutions are identified as competitors and students described as clients and customers. Providing service to these students is identified as customer service. A student can just as easily go to Australia, say, than come to Canada so there has to be something that compels them to come here, and we know it in marketing i f it's not your client meeting you and recommending you to others, then it's a uphill battle. So our job is to make sure that they are so satisfied that when they leave they want their sister and brother and cousin to come here as well. (ID8)  Ministry officials are clear about the purpose o f internationalization, viewing it as a way o f bringing extra funding to higher education institutions and increasing commerce for the local business community. This commercial orientation is also illustrated in their discussions on marketing higher education abroad, and the requirement these services and programs be cost recovery, and not state funded. The issue was not i f government should provide financial support for internationalization, but whether it should charge for its services. The federal government has to say it's worth it to have an infrastructure because as an economic activity development in Canada, this has these implications and this number of jobs and etc, etc. Maybe they don't have to collect fees for everything that they do. If we then go to provincial organizations that have to collect fees, then to some extent, that's fair. But again, I would just say how many levels o f government can collect fees from people before it starts to make pretty significant inroads into the person that is ultimately paying the tab... which is international students. (IMIN1)  130  Selling Canadian education abroad is a major feature o f internationalization. Ministry officials express a similar rationale to Cappon (2001) on selling education services abroad. They discuss the significant revenues international activity contributes to the university colleges. International student revenues supplement institutional budgets, as financial needs are not fully met through public funding. Part o f the internationalization is recognizing that there's a market here. That market can generate the income you need ....I know that sometimes it sounds, well, very crass... well it's just about money. W e l l no. It's not just about money. In fact it's about internationalization. (IMIN1)  Senior officers at the university colleges acknowledge the financial contribution international education revenue provides to their operating budgets and identify this as a significant aspect of the activity. International revenues supply the additional funds used for building projects and for increasing course offerings. There has been a growing emphasis i n Canada on international activity as a bringing o f large numbers o f international students to Canada at foreign fees ... The motivation for that, not to put too fine a point on it, has been significantly financial, since foreign students pay full fees, and i f you are in a system where you feel you are being squeezed by a provincial government, you can very often improve your financial systems, situation with foreign students. ( S O I )  Administrators and support staff from international departments also emphasize the commercial aspects o f internationalization. They understand international student revenues to be central to their mission and purpose. Their positions are funded from international student revenues and their jobs dependent upon the success o f this activity.  Academic administrators, faculty and staff state similar views on the role o f international education. They believe tremendous pressure is placed on their international area to bring more revenue into the institution and describe the activity as tied more closely to revenue 131  generation than in the past. Other forms o f internationalization are ancillary to this main purpose. The revenue role is not viewed as ideal, but reflects reality in the current fiscal climate. Really the bottom line has to be that we do it for money, which means that the discussion o f the intended outcome often goes by the wayside and we're simply saying, well, this is good for the university because we bring i n students and we make money off o f it. (FGFS2)  H o w to deal with community concerns regarding international students is another reason for making the economic arguments. One senior officer noted that in the past the issue o f international students taking seats away from local student makes segments o f his community quite hostile toward the university college. He and his colleagues spend a great deal o f time managing this particular issue and their strategy is to emphasize the positive economic benefits associated with the international student population. There used to be a fair bit o f hostility in the community ... the rhetoric was why we are taking these international students when they take spaces from other students. A g a i n I can only speak for the time I've been here... but the time I've been here, we've always taken a very aggressive and proactive approach to say, on every occasion we have, that international students don't take spaces; they create spaces. Without the revenue...the revenue from those international students, we would turn domestic students away and we're getting that message through. (SOS) They know the economic spin off, apart from all the other advantages that the international students bring ... I mean they're driving new cars, some o f them have bought homes. They sure spend money at the malls. So they know the benefit that way; they see it everyday. (S02)  International student tuition revenues are identified throughout the interview as a major source o f funding at each university college. These findings are similar to the work o f Bennell & Pearce (2003) and Gallagher (2000) who identify comparable economic trends in Australia and the United Kingdom. Cantor's (2000) research found similarities in the private higher education sector in the United States and attributed part the expansion to opportunities 132  in the international student market. Statements such as those found in Cappon's (2001) speech regarding the interest o f the Department o f Foreign Affairs and International Trade ( D F A I T ) in selling educational services abroad, sends a clear message linking internationalization to an economic imperative.  Marginson (1997) and Slaughter & Leslie's (1997) research on markets link changes in the political economy to a neo-liberal climate which enables commercialization in the academy. The neo-liberal characteristics identified by Currie (1998) and Clark (1998) are evident in the institutional orientation described above. The market behaviour and institutional entrepreneurship identified in the research o f Marginson (1997), and Slaughter & Leslie (1997) is evident in the type o f internationalization activity practiced at the university colleges. While some interviewees are not comfortable with the direction and focus o f internationalization activity at their institution, they view it as part o f the political economy in which they are now working.  Challenges to the Economic Imperative  Academic administrators and faculty are critical o f what they consider a narrow purpose and vision o f internationalization. They believe their institutions must look beyond international education and its financial contributions and think about the broader context in which international activity is placed. These are ideological concerns. Faculty members, i n particular, think further discussion and resolution is required. I sometimes get concerned that we need to keep this in line with what it's all about and not just become a business in terms o f raking in income, resources to the institution. I know that can happen very easily...I think it's really a slippery slope to not get into just doing it because we can make some money here, but thinking about what really  133  this is about, in terms o f quality o f education. Exporting culture, not only education, but doing that and the dangers o f that and this kind o f thing. (FGFS1)  If revenue generation from international students continues to be the primary form o f internationalization, it w i l l be difficult to get support and commitment from faculty. International activity as a money making venture, is not seen as part the institution's legitimate, core activity. There's always a danger that international is seen as out there making money and it's not really linked to what...the rest o f the institution does... it's easy for it get away on you and it's easy to underestimate how tricky it is to keep it very tightly in sync with the rest o f the institution. (S07)  Other faculty express an alternate perspective. If making money is the stated goal, departments need to be rewarded for their role in generating the revenue. If faculty do not see benefits to their area, they w i l l not support the activity. L i n k i n g education to commercial activity is not the issue; instead, linking the revenue more closely to areas generating international student enrolments is the challenge. The institution needs to be more "consumer friendly"; the current system is bureaucratic and unresponsive to its customers. Cantor (2000) notes i f the institutions do not become customer service oriented they w i l l lose customers and their market share. Cantor would argue the university colleges need to operate with a business model i f they want to remain competitive in the international student market.  Internationalization as an Educational Imperative The desire to move internationalization beyond revenue-related activity is articulated by Ministry officials, senior officers, administrators, faculty and staff. They state support for, and commitment to, the broad goals o f internationalization at each institution. Reasons include the following: preparing students, employees and the broader university college  134  community to live and work i n a global world; incorporating differing perspectives into their critical thinking and analysis; building an understanding o f other cultures and societies; participating in service work in developing countries; and developing an appreciation and tolerance o f different world views. International activities identified with this form o f internationalization include international development projects, field schools, study abroad, international exchange programs for students and faculty, and internationalizing the curriculum.  Green & Knight (2003) and Yang's (2002) research highlight the importance o f these activities, especially i f the purpose o f internationalization is to build cultural awareness and tolerance in a time o f increasingly complex and inextricably linked relations between nation states. The importance o f internationalization is supported in the comments made by participants. I actually think that the purpose o f our international program is in creating a more worldly tolerant atmosphere . . . i n a small town within an industrial base it has the potential to be redneck heaven; it is absolutely...I think the home stay program, the connections that international makes keeps that moving. There are lots o f champions i n the community.. .who are supporters o f our international program. (ID6) Certainly the community has embraced the international student. There are a lot o f them that are home stays - hundreds o f them, and they become members o f the family. So, the Canadian families get a better appreciation o f what it, to a certain degree, what it's like having someone else from another country live with them and communicate with them. (S02)  Each university college engages i n internationalization beyond revenue-generating activities, but the extent varies greatly between institutions. Most interviewees think internationalization is not fully developed at their own institution. For example, at one university college, internationalization activities mostly focus on one major international  135  mobility project for design students and faculty. This project involves both faculty and students with design programs at other institutions and includes an international exchange component. A t two institutions, emphasis is placed on international field schools, and at another institution, on international development projects in Vietnam and Bangladesh. Each project involves student and faculty participation and is described as very successful, but limited, in terms o f participation and accessibility. For several participants the increasing numbers o f international students each year bring new cultural activities and events. Although domestic students are encouraged to attend, internationalization opportunities for domestic students are limited.  While the literature discusses the obvious educational benefits o f internationalization, the reality is that in the university colleges, the educational facet is under-developed, underfunded and is a lesser priority than the economic facet. Reasons why this has occurred are discussed in the following section.  Challenges to the E d u c a t i o n a l Imperative  Knight (1997) and A U C C (1993; 1999) identify reasons why institutions would want to internationalize, beyond revenue generation. The main reasons are reputation, prestige, and cultural and political understandings. The university college experience is similar to other Canadian institutions, especially in its desire to provide students with a better understanding o f the broader cultural and political world in which they work and live. This finding is also supported by Knight (1995) who identifies this form o f internationalization as the most typical amongst Canadian institutions.  136  Yet, the educational imperative has been subsumed by economic thinking and the explanation for this can be attributed to several factors: public support, senior officer interest, faculty interest, institutional structures, student interest and financial support. I discuss each below.  Public Support  Part o f the challenge in changing how internationalization is viewed is in defining its educational value to the general public. The value o f internationalization and its educational benefits are less understood than the economic benefits, which can be defined and tangibly measured. The educational benefit can be more difficult to define, as one individual noted during a public presentation on the benefits o f internationalization. When I discuss the fact that having a lot o f international students here is the flip side o f what happens in Canada with our great multi-cultural culture, the eyes glaze over a bit externally. (SOI)  The general public and in particular the university college communities may have difficulty understanding the educational argument especially coming from examples such the abovementioned.  Senior Officer Interest  The success o f broader internationalization initiatives is linked closely to perceptions o f the level o f senior officer interest and commitment to the activity. Administrators and staff in international departments emphasize the value and importance o f senior officers in promoting internationalization. In one'case, the president is enthusiastic and deeply committed to internationalization. This commitment is expressed by participation i n overseas 137  visits to other institutions, receiving visitors and hosting them, often at home, and being publicly supportive o f internationalization events, activities and programs.  Faculty members observe that senior officer commitment is mostly related to activities promoting the commercial aspect o f internationalization. Commitment by senior officers to other forms o f internationalization, such as promoting or providing funding for faculty and student exchanges, or study abroad programs, or adequately training faculty and staff i n howto deal with international students in their practice, is less evident.  Faculty Interest  Senior officers believe the key to developing a strong internationalization program is faculty initiative and involvement. A t two institutions concern is expressed about the lack o f faculty interest; faculty either ignore or resist the activity. The exceptions are a few faculty members who carry out their own projects, year after year. One senior officer talks about the lack o f discourse on the topic. There has been so little discussion around me, by the faculty when they come in, around international. I don't know what the different perspectives are. People know it's there and they enjoy the benefits; they know they get some benefits o f international. (SOI)  Another interviewee notes not only is there little interest, but actual resistance to internationalization activities. Expanding interest beyond the few currently involved and broadening the base o f activity are challenges to overcome, especially i f the activity is to develop. I mean the departments are going to have to decide whether they want to actually encourage more internationalization. Right now there is a fair bit o f resistance ... not  138  spoken directly, but you see it in the actions...the resistance to taking students into classes because they are more work, that kind o f thing. (S05)  In contrast, at two university colleges, senior officers observe a great deal o f interest in internationalization activity. Faculty are interested in participating and being even more involved in faculty and student exchanges and field schools. One interviewee observes that his institution has over 150 faculty participate in field schools, and involve several hundred students. He attributes success to enthusiastic and involved faculty and staff, rather than administrative direction or strategy. These observations are supported by the I A U (2003) report which states faculty and student mobility were the most important reasons for internationalization; faculty involvement was the key determining factor in the level o f success.  From a faculty perspective, those who engage in internationalization are committed to their international program or project from onset to completion. These opportunities create professional affiliations, spark creativity and develop new ideas between faculty from different institutions and cultures. Incentive to continue on with a project comes from these positive educational exchanges and experiences. The economic imperative, while recognized, is not a reason why they engage in the activity. There are much deeper reasons for that and I think people are too embarrassed to talk about it sometimes, but there are you know friendships between nations and things that they've... happen along...far down the road as a result o f trade partnerships, or people understanding us because they have studied here or us understanding (them). Those things are terribly important and I say I think they go by the wayside because we're concentrating on the bottom line these days, and yet those are very important things...those are the things that motivate me more than making the bottom line. (FGFS2)  The introduction o f international activity into institutions provides many other positive  139  outcomes besides the obvious financial benefits. Faculty members discuss how international has impacted on their lives, on their colleagues and the transformative effect it has on their students. Speaking for myself, I know that it's very much changed my attitudes towards foreign students. I think they were always benign attitudes, but it's opened my mind up so much more to the problems they face, particularly having been a foreigner that couldn't read signs, that couldn't tell which washroom, was men's and which was women's.. .couldn't use a public telephone, couldn't get on a bus, couldn't get in a taxi. I was absolutely helpless. (FGFS2) They (students) stayed there for six months, had an absolutely wonderful time. I think they are coming back with experience behind them that no one can buy...the more people going over and coming back w i l l see the enrichment quality. With these kids coming back they w i l l spread the word.. . I ' m sure o f it. (FGF1) Faculty have all enjoyed the experience. I think that everybody feels that they want to go back again...they've had a wonderful adventure. It's opened their eyes to the rest o f the world. It's internationalized them personally, and to some degree, internationalized our program. (FGFS2)  Most faculty express a positive perspective towards international experiences for their students, a few express concern about the quality o f the experience for the student. We have an exchange program in business with a university in Mexico. W e haven't had a student go on it for about three years because the last student that went down was given this song and dance about this great co-op position that they would have, and it turned out to be standing over a photocopier and being harassed by the boss. There's no point in sending someone to a foreign country i f they're going to have a miserable experience and come back bad-mouthing the place. (FGF1)  This example shows the impact o f a negative experience on both the student as well as on the faculty member who was dealing with the student upon her return. Just as a positive experience can influence, so can a negative experience influence opinion and participation in an international initiative. This story was an exception, however, as most faculty related very positive international experiences for their students.  140  These reasons are supported in the research conducted by Knight (1995), Knight and Green (2003), McBurnie (2001), and Yang (2002). They conclude faculty interest i n internationalization is based upon educational rather than economic factors. These findings also provide a reason why there may be a lack o f commitment by faculty to internationalization. Financial reasons for the activity are an administrative solution to a budget need and are not an incentive for faculty to engage with the process.  Institutional Structures Another challenge is the direct link between internationalization efforts and international education departments. A t the university colleges, international education departments are tasked with all aspects o f internationalization, from international student recruitment to facilitating study abroad and exchange programs. A s mentioned earlier, at some institutions field schools have proven highly successful and these programs are run by academic departments.  Some o f the strongest proponents for creating a broader meaning o f internationalization are members o f international education departments. International education administrators talk about the importance o f taking the activity beyond international student recruitment and revenue, and using the surplus funds to develop study abroad, curriculum initiatives and faculty and student exchanges. Their perspectives are reflected i n the following conversation. If we lost all our money, i f one day the world fell apart... which it potentially could... I would hate to think that international could just be pulled out, and I've worked really hard ... to ensure that it is an integral part o f what the institution does, rather than on the margins - which is how I felt when I came in, that potentially because it was we do this for money. (ID3)  While a commitment to internationalization is evident in the above statement, my findings 141  show faculty think international education departments operate as money making arms o f their institution and are entities separate from the core academic areas. They are removed from the mainstream o f the institution. Most faculty do not want to be associated with this type o f activity.  Both McBurnie (2001) and Knight (1997) suggest internationalization efforts would be more successful i f they were seen to advance the core functions o f education and to integrate with academic teaching, research and service activities. Linking the academic areas more closely to internationalization activities, while leaving the commercial side o f the activity to international education departments is suggested by faculty as a way to gather more support from academic areas.  Student Interest and Barriers to Participation  Each institution makes international opportunities available to students, but factors do constrain student interest and participation. Two differing explanations are offered and discussed below.  One explanation attributes interest level to what is valued and what is not in the overall educational experience. Internationalization falls into the category o f what is not valued, or seen by local students and their parents as an important facet o f their education. The issue is the fact that student exchange, study abroad is not seen in the Canadian attitude or context by...particularly, probably by parents, and by assimilation, with the students... is not seen as being a valuable part o f the educational experience. (S03)  Students no longer have to leave their communities in order to interact with people from different cultures. International students are already in their classes and students gain a better 142  understanding o f global issues and international affairs as result o f these interactions. In some programs these opportunities come from landed immigrants as well as international students. We have on average twelve nationalities per class, so we are internationalized anyway. W e have lots o f immigrants from especially east Europe and Serbian immigrants and Iranian students, so it's a matter o f we've got that anyway. (FGF1)  Another explanation links lack o f participation to cost. A faculty member from a modern languages department comments her students are frequently asking her for overseas opportunities. The difficulty lies in meeting all o f the requests and determining how to provide the resources necessary in order to make the exchanges possible. I've never had a student express negative ideas to me either about internationalization...about having international students. For me the real push towards exchange programs and study abroad is coming from students....they knew I was going, they were in my office the first week o f classes just to say what did you bring back; what can we do; where can we go? (FGF2)  Administrators acknowledge the challenges and while resources are placed in study abroad and exchange programs, these are small commitments. A s a result the international opportunities presented are not financially viable for many students. The study abroad programs are all cost recovery...The program makes those students pay, so i f there were someway to have study abroad programs as part o f the normal, what used to be called base funded activity o f the department, that would cut the cost for students... which are pretty high for the moment. (FGF2)  One faculty member supports a commercially run international program which.provides an opportunity for students to hone their professional skills. Although he views the program as of tremendous benefit and value to his students, the costs associated with participating are identified as a major obstacle. Without financial assistance interested students are unable to take advantage o f these opportunities. "Our Canadian students could never afford ... eight  143  thousand dollars U S , per semester, to go to Paris or to Portugal or to Taiwan.. .what I see is cost that's prohibitive" (FGF4).  Participation in international programs can also come at an academic cost. Students studying broad often need to extend their length o f time in a program in order to complete academic requirements at their home institution. Recognizing credit for academic work done at another institution is not factored into many arrangements. One faculty member felt this issue needed resolution i f the objective was to build a strong exchange and study abroad program.  H o w do we motivate our students for the other way? We have to make it easier for them and it's.. .right now, it's like an absolute nightmarish obstacle course for our students to go the other way... (FGF1)  The situation is complicated by the number o f students who combine paid work with their academic work, and may have their own families. Finding ways to get these students involved in an overseas educational experience can be challenging. I think some o f the difficulties we have now relate to the fact that students don't go through the programs very quickly. They take a year, two years, three years longer because they are trying to pay their way and consequently they lose quite a bit i f they themselves go abroad on an exchange o f some kind...they lose their connection to the workplace that they had...whatever that was... and it takes them even longer to finish. (S05)  In addition to financial challenges, another barrier involved credit transfer difficulties. A t present, most programs are not set up to accommodate a semester abroad. In order to make an internationalization experience more attractive to students, departments need to adjust their programs and recognize the international component as meeting part o f the program requirements. It requires restructuring programs, developing articulation agreements with overseas institutions and providing support in the form o f expertise and funding to 144  departments. Again, these changes require financial support.  Financial Support The financial challenges mentioned above hinder the development o f internationalization programs and activities. Whereas international students bring revenue to the university colleges, other forms o f internationalization have costs attached. H o w to pay for these costs is an issue at each institution.  Ministry interviewees state institutions must self fund their internationalization efforts and suggest the university colleges set aside a portion o f their international student revenue to develop their programs. I emphasize the economic side, because the internationalization side, i f you don't have revenue to support it, isn't going to last for very long. People's good intentions are great, but i f you don't have money to support field schools and international faculty exchanges, and so on and so forth, people w i l l not give up their regular money to support departments to do that. (IMIN1)  Senior officers and international education administrators are frustrated with the lack o f government commitment to internationalization. For example, the federal government has not responded to A U C C on funding recommendations for student exchanges and study abroad programs. While some funding is available through C I D A for international development projects and through H R D C for student mobility projects, access to these projects is not readily accessible due to the limited funds allocated to these programs. This finding is supported by Green & Knight (2003) who observe Canada ranks the lowest amongst comparable O E C D nations in their funding for student mobility and continues to send less than 1% o f their students abroad to study.  145  While government places financial responsibility for internationalization onto individual institutions, incentives to fund expansion o f these activities do not exist, especially in the current neo-liberal climate. Faculty acknowledge the current amounts o f funding available for exchanges or study abroad are inadequate and view this as the major reason why internationalization is slow to develop. Some o f the problems with it are, I suppose, funding and finances. I mean, we just don't have the infrastructure and the funding set up which makes it very easy for students to go somewhere else... (FGFS1)  Without funding support it is difficult to get university college students to go abroad and to encourage faculty to develop articulation agreements and exchange programs with overseas institutions. Allocating more resources to the development o f these activities means there would need to be a re-ordering o f institutional priorities. In the next section one o f the major factors influencing internationalization activity, the policy framework, is discussed.  T h e Policy F r a m e w o r k  The over-arching challenge in developing both the economic and educational imperatives rests with the policy context within which internationalization currently operates. Federal, provincial and institutional policies on internationalization are addressed i n this section. Interviewees talk about the challenges o f doing international work in a system where internationalization, while recognized for its economic benefit, is not formally recognized through public policy. Lack o f policy makes it difficult to support an expanded mandate o f internationalization, and move the activity beyond its current economic focus.  146  A national vision, stated purpose or policy on internationalization is absent in Canada and the lack o f policy is mentioned in interviews with ministry officials, senior officers and administrators. Shinn (1999) and Green & Knight's (2003) work support this finding. Other nations what have successfully evolved their internationalization programs have developed policy guidelines for this activity. Policy statements focus on the public good aspects o f internationalization such as creating cultural understandings and preparing students for work in a global world. For example, although Australia recognizes and publicly embraces the market aspects o f international education, the educational imperative is also represented in their internationalization policy.  Government and Internationalization  Policy  In Canada, at the federal and provincial level, different agencies are involved in various aspects o f internationalization. Interviewees noted these result in conflicting or overlapping roles and responsibilities which make it difficult and often frustrating to understand, especially for those working i n international education. A s mentioned in Chapter T w o , agencies include D F A I T , the Canadian Education Centre, and provincial marketing agencies, such as the British Columbia Centre for International Education and the overseas embassies and consulates.  While a national vision and direction for international education and internationalization is viewed as the ideal, the federal government does not set educational direction or policy. This is a provincial responsibility and is cause for concern, as noted below.  147  I do worry that because we have a pretty fragmented national picture in post secondary education, that we are denying a large body o f our students that ability... to sound cliche about it.. .to kind o f compete effectively in the global economy. (IM1N2)  Creating consistent policies on education and internationalization is difficult, given provincial jurisdictions in education, and the territorial nature o f federal-provincial politics. Green and Knight's (2003) work supports these observations. They found a lack o f internationalization policy resulted in inconsistencies across provinces and between federal and provincial levels o f government. I think there are many who would probably welcome federal initiatives in this regard, but we've never put it toward a public policy division because, in general, ministers wouldn't back it. In general people feel threatened ... i f the Government o f Canada moves more into areas o f post secondary education w i l l they ultimately just take over the whole field, and we won't have jobs in the future... (IMIN2)  Not only are policies on internationalization undeveloped, integrated policies on international students, immigration and visa processing are missing. Decisions are characterized as ad hoc and lacking principles or strategy, similar to the findings described in Green and Knight's (2003) work. Our provincial government said, okay...double the number o f international students, but no wherewithal on how to do that. This is integrated with immigration and immigration needs to be involved with this... (ID3)  In British Columbia, the government policy approach is to leave institutions alone, as much as possible, to set their own agendas on education priorities and issues. I see the lack o f public policy, here, simply a reflection o f the lack o f public policy in higher education generally in this province. I think this province...going back...well it's really strange, it's always been a.. .1 don't think there is any concerted public policy for higher education in this province. I really don't. (ID 10)  Differences exist in how provincial governments support and direct international activity. Provincial policy in Manitoba enabled the expansion o f international activity within their 148  educational system. The program allowed institutions to acquire start up funding for the purpose o f developing internationalization. A n expansion o f the number o f international students i n the system was the result. We suggested making an investment by making a very small unit i n government which would have....a loan fund not a grant fund, but it's interest free and i f you can demonstrate downstream revenue, the institutions can apply for up to 50,000 dollars... So we put all o f that in the policy, it was passed and that was the first year I was here, and since then we've doubled our international student enrolment. (IMIN1)  Government was involved in setting the direction for international activity through the development o f policy, accompanied by an expectation individual institutions would determine the type o f program and level o f activity. We don't make a program. W e made a policy and we put some people in place to support the development o f that policy, but it's our institutions and our school divisions which are quite active here that make things work. (IMIN1)  In British Columbia, responsibility for the activity falls directly on individual institutions. Ministry officials attribute the success o f international student revenues to the individual efforts o f institutions, as well as to the vital role B C C I E plays i n supporting the efforts o f post secondary institutions involved in international activity. The attempts o f B C C I E to have the province set policy and direction on internationalization are well documented in the interviews and in the B C C I E reports, but little support for policy making exists. In fact with their funding recently eliminated, the future role o f B C C I E remains uncertain. One suggestion was to have each institutional member contribute towards its operation.  Ministry interviewees are very aware o f the annual growth in international student revenue and o f the contributions to institutional operating budgets, yet internationalization is not a priority issue provincially. The activity is questioned by politicians who, on occasion, hear  149  from their constituents about increased numbers of international students and how this creates seat shortages for domestic students. The concern and interest diminish when the revenue advantages are explained, but the financial benefit does not stimulate more than mild interest. One interviewee captures this observation in the following statement: "I've never really seen a ministry at a political or at a bureaucratic level push international ed as a strategy in a way that I think it could be" (IMIN2). The provincial government, despite its neo-liberal orientation, has not yet picked up on the opportunity to publicly recognize the economic importance of this activity. Currently the revenue created from international student tuition supports building projects and academic programs, and results in less requirement for government to spend in those areas. Why that message has not made its way to the general public is a question that needs to be answered.  The University Colleges and Internationalization  Policy  At the university colleges, internationalization is not recognized through policy, but instead through institutional practice. Broad references to internationalization are made in many documents such as mission statements, position papers and strategic plans linking globalization and internationalization to educational value and benefit (Pratt and Poole, 1999). Faculty and staff are aware of the existence of these documents, although most think the documents and statements are created by their international education departments, and not through any institution wide discussion or consultation. This finding contrasts with the best practices promoted by Green and Knight (2003) and Shinn (1999) who observe that broad discussion is necessary in order for an institution to move ahead with internationalization in a strategic and organized way. Internationalization policies and  150  measures must be articulated across the institution i f they are to gain acceptance by its members.  M a k i n g money for the institution is the mandate most understood. The university colleges have not focused on the development o f statements, explicit goals, strategies or performance measurements ( A C E , 2004; I A U , 2003; Shinn, 1999) necessary to move the focus o f internationalization beyond revenue generation. For example, internationalizing the curriculum is not discussed as an activity undertaken by academic areas, yet is viewed i n the literature as one o f the key activities o f institutions embarking on internationalization. While faculty and academic administrators emphasize the importance o f internationalization as part of the educational preparation required in today's world, practices at the institution do not reflect their rationale. The ideals are evident i n the discourse but not in practice.  Analysis of the Educational and Economic Imperatives One o f the major themes which emerged during the investigation was the lack o f commitment by government to furthering internationalization efforts. Interviewees perceive government as unclear about its role in, and its responsibility to internationalization. Policies, systems and procedures related to internationalization are absent at both federal and provincial levels o f government and internationalization efforts are not seen as a priority for government.  This viewpoint was evident in the limited amounts o f funding set aside to advance the educational aspects o f internationalization. Some activity and related funding i n the  151  university colleges for international development projects is accessed through C I D A , A C C C or A U C C , but I did not find this to be a major activity at any institution. Other forms o f funding for activities such as study abroad or faculty and student exchanges are either not available or not known. Both provincial and federal government agencies involved in internationalization focus on marketing higher education and are considered to be cost recovery. One Ministry interviewee notes federally funded and supported study abroad and exchange programs are not a priority; the government had not responded to several recommendations by A U C C on funding these activities. The probability o f the federal government investing its own resources into internationalization activities is low in the current fiscal climate.  The literature and the investigation undertaken support the educational imperative o f internationalization efforts, but the financial resources required to further these activities are limited, or not well known to the majority o f participants. The current environment makes it very difficult to advance the educational imperative.  The economic imperative, while driving internationalization activity at the institutional level, is not well articulated across the various levels o f government. Government identifies various agencies and government units responsible for the activity, but the financial benefits are not publicly acknowledged. A t the political level, the activity is tolerated, and at best, viewed favourably by politicians i f their constituents are content with the activity.  Why is government silent on internationalization? I suggest at least three reasons exist. The first reason considers the public good notion o f education in comparison to the  152  commercialization o f education. Current political discourse focuses on the amount o f government dollars spent on education. If international student revenues were acknowledged as replacing government funds at their institutions, it would negate their message. The general public is unlikely to consider their public institutions as commercial entities, as evidenced by protests in British Columbia in recent years over rising tuition costs. These costs were a direct result o f less dollars being made available to the public education system. The fact higher education is still viewed as a public good and not a commercial entity may be one reason government has not developed policy or statements publicly acknowledging the commercial nature o f internationalization activity.  A second reason is also related to the current neo liberal climate and the reluctance to add another commitment to government spending priorities. I believe part o f this reluctance to be politicians who do not want to fund international activities. If internationalization gains a legitimate place in postsecondary through public policy recognition, then it may require public support.  The third reason lies in the difficulty in setting policy and direction in a system lacking a national educational policy. While the federal government provides transfer payments for public services such as education, the provinces have control over education policy and direction. Whereas the federal government sets a national trade agenda which includes selling Canadian education abroad, education is still a provincial rather than federal responsibility. This has contributed to confusion as to who is responsible for what in internationalization efforts.  153  Without policy or direction international activity has been implicitly defined by its commercial practice. The commercial discourse o f international activity has influenced and shaped attitudes at the university colleges towards the activity, yet the degree o f effort involved in creating a large and ever increasing source o f revenue is not given much public attention. Interviewees spoke about their frustration with this lack o f recognition.  In British Columbia, neo-liberalism is evident in the adoption o f particular economic strategies. Providing public institutions with funding that is inadequate in meeting their needs, and creating legislation enabling private, commercially based educational enterprises to compete for post secondary students are examples o f how the provincial government has influenced the development o f internationalization activity. The university colleges are faced with seeking out other sources o f funding, in an increasingly competitive climate. A n economic imperative is evident by the practices in each institution.  Conclusion The educational value o f internationalization is recognized by many working at the university colleges. In spite o f its fuzzy definition, especially for members o f the general public, the desire exists to go beyond revenue production. Positive views were reflected throughout the interviews as participants talked about the positive experiences o f living, travelling and working abroad, participating in successful international projects and in working with immigrant groups. The experiences were considered to be very useful, as they assisted individuals in gaining a broader understanding o f global issues and cultural contexts. The importance o f creating more internationalization opportunities for students, faculty and  154  staff is stressed by the interviewees.  In contrast, the economic imperative, while more clearly defined, is met with some trepidation. Institutional practices focus on revenue rather than on activities such as exchanges, study abroad or curricular reforms, and internationalization is identified by nearly all respondents with generating revenue through international students. Opinion is mixed on whether revenue generation should be its main purpose, but Ministry officials and executive officers view it as an important contributor to institutional budgets. They recognize the important role the international student revenue plays at their institutions in providing building capital and creating more student capacity.  Internationalization has not expanded beyond this focus for various reasons. Ministry officials think the impetus for internationalization depends on institutional interest and willingness to provide the resources necessary to advance the activity. Senior officers believe the level o f interest and support for international activity depends primarily upon the individual interests o f staff, faculty and students. Academic administrators think interest is hampered by lack o f institutional funding for study abroad and exchange programs. Faculty state their students are unable to bear the full costs o f an international experience and more financial support is required i f students are to participate. Senior officers attribute it to lack o f student and faculty interest. Academic administrators and faculty attribute it to lack o f adequate financial support for exchanges, study abroad and field schools. Faculty link internationalization to commercialization and are uncomfortable with the revenue generating focus o f international activity at their institutions.  155  The absence o f clear policies around internationalization and the practices o f a neo-liberal government influence internationalization activity. Policy absence contributes to a situation where the university colleges construct their own meaning o f internationalization based upon their own and immediate financial needs. In a neo-liberal environment public institutions are expected to be more responsible and efficient in their operations and find their own sources of revenue. A t the university colleges, they have found this source in international students.  These circumstances result in setting aside the educational imperative, which is outlined in the literature as being the most important facet o f internationalization for members o f an educational community. It creates a disconnect between the ideals o f internationalization and the reality o f practice. The impact w i l l be addressed in Chapter Six.  156  CHAPTER SIX: T H E EFFECTS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION H o w and why the economic imperative dominates the internationalization agenda was discussed in the last chapter. In this chapter I discuss how this economic focus affects the university college environment and the communities these institutions serve. Three major themes emerge from the research findings-the effects o f internationalization activity on the workplace, the impact o f the activity on its institutional systems and structures, and the challenges for institutional leadership.  The Workplace Environment of the University Colleges The workplace climate is influenced by internationalization. This section discusses how people working at university colleges are affected by public policy, workload pressures, and language, classroom and cultural challenges.  The Impact of Policy The university college workplace is affected by federal and provincial public policy. Marketization o f higher education and the current focus o f internationalization in the university colleges, two outcomes o f existing public policy, significantly influence the workplace environment.  Administrators from international education departments discuss the challenges o f working in an environment where various Canadian agencies and organizations operate in an uncoordinated fashion. The situation contributes to a poor image abroad, and hinders their  157  ability to market the Canadian education system effectively. Canada just can't get it together and is so slow to respond. From international people they also see it as the Canadian government is hopeless, whereas other governments are much faster to respond. (ID3)  Government policy also affects the work o f administrators. In the current environment senior officers observe they must be much more entrepreneurial in their thinking than in the past. Government sources o f funding no longer fully meet the financial needs o f their institutions, and results in additional responsibility being placed on them and their boards to find alternate funding sources. It has fundamentally changed the way i n which they work. For example, a president's work has moved from an internally to an externally-based focus in recent years. In the past, attention focused on the inner workings o f the institution; now daily operations are left in the hands o f vice-presidents. So it's freed me up to do all this other work which is now heavily involved in community, international, business, fundraising...fundraising takes up an enormous amount o f my time now. It's unbelievable, and we never used to do that...the government gave us the money; we did the job. (S02)  In Chapter Five I discussed how the economic facet o f internationalization assists in meeting funding challenges. One benefit o f international student tuition is the fact the institution has discretionary control over the funds. This opportunity is not presented very often in public post secondary institutions. Government funds come with conditions attached; directing funds to specific academic programs, or specifying which building projects meet government approval are examples. International student revenue provides a discretionary source o f income to the university colleges. One o f the few areas where we have autonomy is around international because we're not accountable for the F T E s in the same way. If you don't deliver, well the ministry doesn't care. If you do deliver, you don't get any...I mean you can deliver on your revenues, so I mean you can use the money for whatever purposes internally you 158  choose to use it for. So one o f the great notions, i f you like, o f international is the level of control you do have over everything. (S07)  W i t h the opportunity also comes with the challenge o f how to formally recognize the activity in the system. International student F T E s , while counted in institutional enrolment reports, do not count towards meeting ministry obligations such as numbers o f students in a business or computing program. Without formal acknowledgement, the activity remains on the periphery o f the institution's operations. It also impact on the people working with international activity. Those individuals feel their efforts are largely unrecognized by government. Y o u don't even get credit for the number o f F T E ' s you have internationally and the amount o f money it brings in. A n d by credit I mean formally, officially, i n some provincially acknowledged w a y . . . w h y not get the recognition for the time and effort and the work that we undertake and take some pride in it, because the education sector then, post secondary, could say look, we bring in across the province, this number o f students - they generate this amount o f economic activity. (S07) When I look at the provincial level, I guess all I ' m saying is, for God's sakes, say a few words about us. I ' m not asking for much help marketing ... say a few words for us, talk about it, publicly in British Columbia... what an important industry this is. Start to talk it up for us. (S08)  One o f the major challenges created by the international student activity is accommodating the needs o f the student population. Providing international students with campus amenities such as housing, recreation, and places to socialize are additions to the current operations. Building structures at the university colleges reflect the earlier profile o f commuter campuses and do not meet the needs o f international students. These students spend more time on campus than the commuter students. Adding new space and structures is very expensive, but also viewed as necessary and long overdue.  Using international student revenue to build new structures is one solution, and is weighed 159  against other financial priorities. The question o f how to use the surplus funds from international education has been answered in a number o f ways but there is no consensus across the institutions. Faculty believe the funds should go into creating more classes and staff believe it should go into providing more student support services. Senior officers want the funds available for discretionary purposes such as building projects.  Workload Challenges  Internationalization activity affects the workload o f both faculty and staff. H o w it influences varies according the observations and experiences o f individuals. Some participants observe the activity contributes to heavier workloads and greater stress in both the classroom environment and in student support areas. Others view the experience as positive for them as well as for their students.  Faculty  The prevailing view is that international students are more time consuming to work with than native English-speaking students. Different learning styles, cultural contexts and language barriers are brought into the classroom, and these create challenges. Faculty say they spend more time with students after class, in office hours and in explaining instructions on assignments. When marking assignments, papers and exams, more feedback is required on grammar and punctuation. A n example o f this is cited below by one o f the interviewees. Y o u look out there and you see ... 350 students and 150 to 175 students are international students, and the good news is they're very, very keen; they're very, very interested. The bad news is they're lined up at your door day after day after day after day; asking you to explain to them what it is that you just explained to everybody in the classroom... (ID4)  160  Not only is more assistance required with the academic components, but students often need emotional support. Some are lonely and unhappy, and turn to faculty members for assistance and advice. Faculty members express uncertainty about how they should handle these situations, due to the complexities o f culture and language. I think that this institution has really kind o f left the instructors high and dry. I know some feel high and dry and I do because I...particularly with Asian students. I try, but I ' l l be damned i f I can do it very successfully. I feel...basically... I fail every year. I say, gee you know, that kid just hasn't done very well ... (FGF2)  Many faculty members express support for expanding internationalization beyond the economic imperative. Challenges occur in their attempts to stimulate interest amongst their colleagues and managing departments actively resisting internationalization efforts. The result is the majority o f internationalization activity is done by the same few faculty members. Members currently involved think they are doing more than their fair share.  For example, student mobility projects, considered very beneficial for students, are funded by government grants for finite periods o f time, such as two or three years. Faculty find the work initiating these projects quite extensive, and with little or no guarantee the project w i l l actually be funded. These projects usually involve time consuming and extensive collaboration amongst various institutions and with few resources. This situation adds to the faculty workload.  Management o f these projects within the institution or by the agency responsible for the tendering process is another challenge. Often short deadlines lead up to proposal development and result in these same individuals feeling pressured to do even more work under very tight deadlines. Since little financial support exists for developing proposals,  161  individuals try to fit the work in around other responsibilities. A frequent comment heard during interviews is that the activity is mostly done "off the side of my desk" and is normally done due to personal interest in the project.  For younger faculty, competing interests and responsibilities are the issues they face as they involve themselves in international work. Finding ways of attracting newer and younger faculty to internationalization initiatives is necessary in order to build or even sustain the existing level of internationalization. How do we lever other people in? And I don't know whether you get more philosophical when you get older, or you're just more interested in travel or what, but really I don't think we've really levered many of the newer staff in. Now they may be all wrapped up in families and other issues and maybe aren't quite as free in that situation and so oh. (FGF2) One participant spoke about the challenges of going abroad when she had young children at home. In particular, she mentions the amount of preparation involved in dealing with childcare arrangements while she is away. This situation presents a resource issue for the institution and a support issue for the faculty member who wants to participate in international activity initiatives. I have two small children, my kids are seven and four....so for me to go to France for eight days took a lot of strategic planning, because the money wasn't there to take my kids with me. So ... who can come and look after them and how are we going to juggle this? (FGF2) One solution is to have internationalization interests reflected in university college hiring practices for new faculty members. Establishing criteria and priorities reflecting international work or experience is one example. I think we have to hire a next generation and you shouldn't tell them after they get here, you tell them...and maybe we'll have to change our ads in some cases to talk 162  about commitment to...we're interested i n people who want to, or used to study abroad...it's standard across so many institutions, especially in Europe...(S07)  This suggestion may solve part o f the problem but does not address the workload issues identified. It also does not address the supports required by newer and younger faculty. Hiring the expertise is only part o f the solution; the other part lies in adequately supporting the activity.  Staff  Working with the international student population consumes far more staff time than working with the domestic student population. International students require access to more support services in comparison to local students. Reasons include language difficulties, cultural differences, the relatively young age o f the students and the fact the students are far removed from their personal support systems.  The increased workload accompanying growing numbers o f international students is not recognized or validated at their institutions. Staff positions are under-resourced and the effect is illustrated in the following example. When I started to do this I had a hundred and fifty students. N o w there's me, and four hundred and forty students. It grew and now we're also running twelve months o f the year. I see a lot o f paperwork, and I see a lot o f students the first semester, second semester, and sticking with it third and fourth semester. (FGS1)  Student employment staff make note o f the fact, and contrary to generally held opinion, not all international students are wealthy. M a n y international students need to work. Staff assists with tasks such as composing letters o f application and developing their resumes. Larger  163  portions of time are required to work with international students due to their needs for assistance with English grammar and punctuation. Few employment opportunities actually exist for international students and exacerbate the situation. Staff spends more time counselling and supporting them in their job search efforts than they would when working with local students. We've concentrated on customer service, so to speak...our students are placed at the top and they pay high tuition fees...different from our domestic students and we feel that they should get the red carpet treatment and we really do bend over backwards, I think, for our students. And it's noticed....they, they come to us for that. They know that we will treat them exceptionally well and give them very good service. (FGFS1)  Librarians find international students more adept with new technologies than the local student population. This situation affects the type and level of knowledge necessary to assist these students with their library and technology needs. Library staff are required to update their technical knowledge more frequently in order to be of assistance to these students. Library budgets are inadequately funded for the level of learning support required to properly assist more technologically advanced students.  English Language  Observations  A major concern expressed by faculty members is the English language skills possessed by international students. This issue is multi-faceted. Many international students struggle with understanding course content, especially those in Canada less than one year. Concerns are expressed by faculty from a variety of disciplines and areas. There is a growing concern in the sciences of the ability of spoken English in the labs not being good enough from the foreign students, and that's actually deterioration from the foreign students we used to see...it's not written English; it's the spoken English that is our problem... (FGF3)  164  The English as a Second Language ( E S L ) program is less valued by international students, or their parents in comparison to other university level programs. The goal is to leave E S L as quickly as possible. There is a tendency to disparage what we do, to look for a way around us and sometimes it comes from students...and students... sometimes it's because o f their parents or the pressures...I can remember one student who was about in the middle o f our program, so probably four or five semesters from the end, and the parents said you've got three months to get your English up to par, and then you've got to get onto real courses....totally unrealistic but the student was under intense pressure from home. (FGF1)  The complexities o f culture and language create a longer and more difficult transition period into the university college sector for the international student. This impacts on workload as the amount o f time spent advising an international student increases significantly, due to the poor success rates. I have seen transcripts where students have repeated every course ...not just twenty courses, they've done forty courses, but doubled in everything...sometimes three times, because they're just really, really struggling. Sometimes it's an exorbitant amount o f time that we have to spend with these students because, maybe, they do not understand the academic rules. (FGS1)  One academic advisor observes the appointment time allotted to an international student is much longer than the time designated for a domestic student. Language challenges, unfamiliarity with the system, and dealing with institutional processes unique to an international student advising appointment are the contributing factors. (There is) no way you get through an international appointment in three quarters o f an hour. Y o u ' r e talking at least an hour with the student, and at least anywhere from fifteen minutes to a half an hour, i f not more, worth o f paperwork that goes along with that. I've sat in on several appointments and have begun to realize what an incredible workload that is and it's because we have to have special permissions; we have to have waivers o f prerequisites; we have to have special admits to programs, we have to have agreements that show that, we have to keep track o f those agreements... (FGS1)  165  Classroom Observations The impact of international students on their classes is perceived in several ways by faculty members. These differing perceptions are based upon their own experiences. International students have different expectations of the learning experience than domestic students. Given the amount of money they are paying for tuition, they will question the delivery model. The following example illustrates what can occur when student expectations are not met. Our experience is that if you gave these students a case and you gave them a set of questions, and you asked them to come to class the next week prepared, they weren't prepared. Not only were they not prepared, but most of them didn't show up. Their view is, "I'm not listening to the professor. You're asking me to provide for my own education? You're asking me to converse with these other students and learn from them?" They're not happy with that... (ID4) For other faculty bringing international experiences into their classes provides for additional learning opportunities and adds value to the core curriculum. One faculty member described international students as raising the bar of intellectual development. His classes function at a much higher level with the mix of international and local students. Another faculty member provides the following comments. To have international students for my classes is a big asset because I'm teaching marketing and also international business, and most of the Canadian students because they... I understand they have very limited working experience.... also in terms of the financial affordability, they can not go to overseas, but because of the blend, the mixture with the international students, they start learning about different cultures...to appreciate different cultures and different perspectives. (FGF3) Faculty experience difficulties in their attempts to integrate international and local students on classroom or course based assignments and projects. Assigning students to group activities may result in group self selection which breaks down along culture and language. When attempts are made to break apart those groups and have students work across those  166  boundaries, students experience difficulty working together on assignments. The following comments highlight the challenge o f integration in the classroom. If there is a group participation component to a course, international students may not participate as fully, because in their culture that isn't acceptable, or because they feel more visible. They're nervous or embarrassed and sometimes they don't feel particularly encouraged to participate when groups are competitive and that sort o f thing ... (FGFS2)  Other challenges are created when too many second language learners are in one class and is further complicated i f there are too many international students from one country in one class. If classes are full o f international students then a Canadian educational experience or the goal o f internationalizing a course is less feasible. Maintaining balance between educative and economic reasons is challenging, especially when the institution is trying to make money from the activity. From the international students perspective I ' m not sure i f they want any more international students; they want a Canadian experience...if we're too successful, they're not getting what they're paying for. If we're too successful at attracting them then we're just moving their school here and they're not getting a Canadian experience, which is what they are looking for... (FGF3)  International education staff say the language issue is often the explanation given rather than the actual reason, which may have more to do with the cultural challenges faculty are faced with their classroom and in their interactions with international students. We're starting to see some o f the faculty react to the growing number o f students and the fact that they're ... they don't behave like Canadian students and so they're tending to... some o f them do not want international students in their classes ...the number one thing they say is their English level isn't high enough, and I guess from my perspective, I think that's an easy target but I think more often it's...they're used to different educational systems, their culture is different...(FGFS2)  167  T h e Challenges of W o r k i n g across  Cultures  Staff members comment on their own vulnerabilities and limitations i n working with the international student population. While most interviewees state they enjoy their work with international students, they also feel inadequately trained for the work. Understanding and adjusting to cultural differences is a challenge for staff as well for the international student population.  Faculty raise the issue o f cultural adjustment. For students, cultural adjustment not only occurs when they enter their new institution, but it re-occurs when they return to their home countries. Faculty have watched the effect this has on their students. H o w to properly prepare students for this experience is the issue. W e operate with about twenty percent o f our classes with international students. They have great difficulty with first year i f they are Asian because they are so reserved, and we expect a high level o f participation. B y the time they have done their first co-op, and absolutely by the time they're done their second co-op, it's just like a lotus flower and it opens, and they understand how we do things and we send them back over to be totally culture shocked all over again! This, I think, is a very serious problem because they're neither fish nor fowl when they do get back home... for a number o f years. (FGF2) They are very polite and very obedient because this is their culture and they cannot change overnight, but y o u ' d be surprised once they graduate from here...when they go back to their country, they w i l l have another culture shock because they are being trained here to be more independent and also more assertive. (FGF3)  In addition to the challenges o f understanding the academic culture, international students encounter difficult social situations. While these situations directly affect the student, they also have an impact on the employee working with the student. I had one Turkish student say ... he was at a party and this one guy had too many drinks and he was saying something about Turkish people ... (the student) said, you  168  know, I thought that there wasn't racism in Canada, or that it wasn't as bad as in the States. I said, W e l l you know, I ' m sure there is some racism in Canada. (FGFS1)  A t three o f the institutions staff and administrators provide examples o f incidents involving international students where there was much concern for student safety. A t each institution they relate stories o f predatory behaviour towards international female students. They believe these students are more at risk from unwanted sexual advances and harassment than the general student population. Stories involve different ethnic backgrounds, but focus on the victimization o f young, female international students. I see those dynamics happen a lot...older men from Canada seeking out young international female students... I don't know a lot about this area and I sense that this is a vulnerable group and there are people that recognize that vulnerability ...I mean we see...we see it with some guys and they're always sitting beside real young, you know... (FGS2)  Vulnerability is compounded by concern with inadequate support systems to assist at risk students. The role o f the institution in educating young women about sex education and harassment awareness is discussed at length in one focus group. Young women from some cultures do not receive this type o f information in their home countries; the topic is culturally taboo. These female students are now part o f their student population and this issue needs to be dealt with at their institutions. Their advising needs can be different, and we're not trained...this is the thing I always find difficult too...as an advisor, we don't have any real...it's just our common sense, and hopefully some kind o f compassion, that we can invest a little bit more time and energy i n these students. I think that they're... they are a special cohort, and they do need more, and maybe more support. (FGS1)  Participants in several focus groups comment on their general lack o f cultural knowledge. They are ill-prepared to handle cultural differences and feel ineffective in how they respond to particular situations. A n example o f this is provided in the following two quotes which  169  highlight the perception o f support staff in relation to gender, position and culture. Just in terms o f the challenges for us is i n some students...some male students from other cultures ...have a way o f interacting with women that is different than Canadian women might be used to and I think that we find that...and I speak for myself and I know that the women in my office find that challenging at times, where certain types o f behaviours or certain ways o f communicating for us,is comfortable and for them it's different so it's...there's a challenge there . . . I ' l l speak for myself... I feel that because I ' m a woman and it's a male student from a culture where women are second class citizens... are not regarded in an equal way as men...I don't get that validation that i n the same way I would feel as comfortable giving that message to a Canadian student... (FGS2) I would say that not only the basis o f gender, but on the basis o f the job that you are in. They don't want to speak to the frontline person. They want someone in authority to tell them the truth.. .they don't believe the frontline person a lot o f times. (FGS2)  For international support staff in particular, they experience unique situations most university college employees are unlikely to experience. These incidents cross personal and professional boundaries, and are attributed to different relationship expectations o f international students towards these staff members, in comparison to domestic students. The following is an excerpt o f a story told during the focus group. A t three thirty am.. .1 got a phone call from a student. So she woke up everybody in my house and I pick up the phone. I said what's the emergency? The student said, "I couldn't sleep. I just want to chat with you." So she started to ask me questions... you can wait for that.... it's not that urgent. So finally I said, "do you realize what time it is? " O h yes. I ' m sorry." So she hung up. Everybody went to bed. A n hour later, four thirty, she called me again. It was just very annoying, but as a professional we try to be patient and not blame them. (FGFS1)  Other stories relate situations where personal and ethical dilemmas were created, often encountered by new staff hired on a contract basis to work specifically in the international education area. In the following comments an international education staff member provides an example o f a situation she and her colleagues regularly encounter. I'll call you in the middle o f the night, but you know, I ' l l slip you a fifty or something. It's not about that. It's about being considerate ...actually people have offered. N o t my 170  students so much, as I've heard. I guess it depends on the cultural aspects, but I've heard o f students, like parents, bringing an envelope full o f money for the advisors and o f course not accepting it... (FGFS1)  These challenges are mostly attributed to the economic imperative o f internationalization; other system and structural issues also require examination.  Systems and Structures Systems and structures play a vital role i n providing staff, faculty and administration with the support required to do their work. The success o f an activity is dependent upon how effective the infrastructure is in meeting operational needs. International student entry requirements, the different operating models between international departments and other areas o f their institutions, and system supports are identified as in need o f attention. I think there are pockets o f frustration and there is frustration around expectations and what we can and can't do. There is a tension between the various operating models o f international activity, and their approach around design, planning and there is a tension that flares up periodically in sectors. (ID6)  University college systems and processes are part o f the legacy from their earlier community college roots. The open door ideology and access orientation characterize the sector. Students lacking particular skills and education are encouraged to enrol i n adult basic education courses in preparation for future academic work or workplace preparation programs. This contrasts to the university sector where readiness is measured by a more prescribed measure of outcomes such as English and math scores and evidence o f successful completion o f high school. A t the university colleges, assessments may be used to enter directly into academic programs. A s discussed i n Chapter Three, admittance to the institution is far less prescriptive and involves high school completion or the student being older than nineteen years o f age.  171  Existing institutional systems and structures are cited by interviewees as inadequate in handling a growing international student population. "I think now that the numbers are so huge there's a lot o f discomfort there and I don't think the students are getting served as well as they should be" (FGFS2). Several examples are provided o f situations where students register in courses they are academically unprepared for; the current system is unable to prevent this from occurring. The impact this has on the success o f the student is significant. There are a lot o f first year courses that have absolutely no prerequisites, so there isn't anything from preventing them from taking the course, and then this is where we get into sort o f the downward spiral, because they really weren't ready, they didn't have to take a test to take it and so it's all o f the well...damage control that we often see. (FGS1)  Student Assessment  Current institutional policies and accompanying guidelines on assessing student readiness are major contributing factors to the dilemma facing the international student population. One individual states this situation has become an ethical issue. I don't know how strongly to say this, but it's almost unethical for us to recruit students as conditionally accepted when I know there's such a little chance o f them being able to meet the requirements to actually get into a program...I'd like to be really proud o f our institution and how it deals with people... but when you are asking them to leave their homes and families and commit a lot o f time and money, we have an obligation to provide them with a good educational experience... and i f we can't deliver that, should we be doing that? (FGFS2)  Some students w i l l do whatever is necessary to shorten the length o f time it takes to accomplish their goals. The tremendous financial cost placed on the families o f international students is a contributing factor. The following example provides insight into the amount o f determination one international student possessed as he attempts to pass a language test in order to get into university.  172  I had a guy the other day ...he was planning to write the L P I ...twenty to thirty times. That was his goal. Write the L P I twenty to thirty times to get into S F U , and I said well you're ...you're not going to pass any entrance test. W e l l even though he wasn't...that's what he was going to do, and I'm saying...once you get into the course... what are you going to do? Even i f you manage to pass, and get through, what are going to do when you're in class? Y o u ' r e driving a car with three wheels... (FGS1)  Quality and Standards  Quality and standards are another issue. Inadequate English language skills in the classroom affect the learning environment as students are less likely to succeed in their classes. Faculty are reluctant to allow students with poor language skills into their classes. Some faculty believe their attempts to prevent poorly prepared international students from gaining entry to their programs are not well received by their administrators and believe their administrators are prepared to compromise standards in order to make money. I think the issue that we see over and over again ...is being asked to compromise the quality or the offering in our program to get on that gravy train, and I w o u l d . . . i f I had to summarize our thoughts, it's that these students are going to come out with the same degree as our domestic students, for lack o f a better word, and our perspective is then they should do the same work, and be held to the same standard. A n d I have to say we've taken a lot o f flack for that... (FGF1)  The situation is compounded when the contextual background o f a student is unknown. The non-native English-language students, such as the landed immigrant are, on occasion, categorized as international students. Faculty are unable to differentiate between landed immigrant students and international students and may make assumptions about how these students do, based upon their ethnicity. Faculty note it is actually a greater challenge to work with the landed immigrant student who is less likely to have been put through the rigorous assessments than the international student. "I've never had problems in class with international students.. .not with their English, not with their work ethic or anything like that..."(FGFlX 173  I'd say the real problems are the landed immigrants where we have no language entrance requirements, so they come straight in, even i f they can't speak a word. They can come i n and register i n courses and it's much harder to convince them they need to spend a year in E S L . (FGFS2)  The teaching styles o f different academic departments within the same institution are identified by international education staff as a major challenge for international students. Not only are students subject to a different academic culture, they must deal with different teaching pedagogies within their new institution. The following is an example o f comments heard by international education staff from their students. W h y can I show up for my English class or be five minutes late and not have it be a big deal or hand in my homework or not hand in my homework for a academic class and that's ok? I ' l l just be marked accordingly. Yet i n my E S L class the teaching style is so extremely different that I feel like we're being treated like we're in kindergarten or something... (FGFS1)  Communication  Communicating these concerns to departments within the institution is identified as a problem. The reluctance o f international students to write down their concerns in an instructor evaluation or communicate concerns directly to their instructors compounds an already delicate situation. Complaints about classes are directed to the international education staff instead o f to the instructors. Students tend to develop their relationships with these staff rather than with staff and faculty i n the program areas. A t three institutions the relationship between the international department and academic departments had become strained as a result o f these encounters. One major challenge identified by international education staff was how to communicate international student issues back to a department without appearing to interfere in their academic matters.  174  The Isolation of International  Education  I think the dilemma is we forced our international people to take this external entrepreneurial approach that is resisted by their colleagues inside o f the institution who are....and maybe this is harsh, but I think most o f us are all about the status quo, and trying to use the limited resources we have to maintain the quality o f service that we're providing. We don't have the same mandate to be entrepreneurial .... (ID9)  Existing perspectives on the purpose o f international education create an isolating effect on international education departments. Operating styles o f international departments are different when compared to academic and support areas. This viewpoint is compounded by the current structures and systems at the university colleges. Academic areas view international as operating as a separate entity, unbound by the same set o f rules and guidelines they have to work within.  The prevailing view o f international education as a commercial entity within the academy is held by nearly all interviewees and begins at senior bureaucrat levels. International education is a commercial service which provides an opportunity for university colleges to engage i n market type activity. This viewpoint is noted in the following quote which discusses the university college name. Marketing the university colleges, internationally, is challenging given the name. I think in terms o f international marketability, it's a lot easier to sell a University than a University College because I think most people would go, "well what is that?" Are you a University or a College and yes you're both...but it's not exactly the name that rolls off the tongue very easily, or is a simple one to market. (IMIN2)  In another interview, a senior officer promotes international student activity as an important source o f revenue and asserts the international education department should remain autonomous. The department should run as a business venture and be free o f the restrictions  175  created by a bureaucratic structure. I think we have to treat it like a business, and we have to trust the person to run it the right way and not be controlling it, and trying to get in their way, but have to offer support... when they run into a road block we've got to be able to fix it for them in a way that is so flexible that they can make their money. (S04)  In contrast, another senior  officer  points to the consequences o f being too dependent on  international students as an ongoing revenue source. He believes it can affect how decisions are made and whose opinions heard i n discussions leading to a decision. One example is the lack o f consultation in developing a plan for deciding on total numbers o f international students. This issue is raised at each institution. Wide spread consultation would have occurred i f their institution were planning a significant increase o f domestic student numbers. The situation contributes to a commonly held view o f international education departments: they are able to circumvent institutional processes because o f the power they are given as a result o f bringing revenue to the institution. This power is greater during times when institutions are facing funding shortages. So they've become a player and the tradition was that money comes into management; in the old days the base budget comes in, your capital money comes in and the political process that goes with the resources is one i n which it follows the structure o f the organization and now you've got another player who is not at the table, who is a big player in terms o f resources, and they get to call the shots. (S06)  Perceptions o f international education are compounded by the language used by staff throughout the transcripts. Terminology such as consumer, client, repackage, marketing, competition, positioning and reinvestment are used to identify students and the approaches used i n working with these students. A l l you have to do is listen to the discourse. The discourse in international liaison officers or international education officers, or whatever the unit's name happens to be, is about "clients" and "product". It isn't about citizens; it isn't about students, or some  176  subset o f those people. The discourse isn't about students and quality o f instruction and those kinds o f things, but the discourse alone tells you what the values are... (ID 9)  Academic support areas have difficulty adapting to this model and is evident in a resistance to change. I could not get them to understand that this was a business venture, these were potential customers/clients, and that there were different business practices that had to be followed. The email requests had to be answered the same day ... they ... just could not do i t . . . philosophically opposed to it. (S08)  International education administrators claim they try to integrate their department as fully as possible with the rest o f the institution, working closely with other areas. Academic areas offer a differing opinion. Academic administrators note international representation is often absent at administrator meetings, educational council meetings and at other governance committees. One consequence is international viewpoints are left out and not represented in the discussions. Another consequence is the reinforcement o f the perception that the international area is not held to the same institutional processes and procedures as the rest o f the institution. Communication difficulties result, and lead to frustration and tension between international education and academic and support areas. For example, international education staff members believe their students are not always welcome into the classes they are academically prepared to take. They attribute this to faculty not understanding the cultural context from which an international student comes rather than lack o f academic capability.  The separation between international education and faculty areas also results in perceptions around existing practices. Using the English language issue as an example, faculty and staff perceive the international department as bending the rules and allowing students entry into courses requiring higher language levels; international wants to keep entry requirements low  177  in order to boost its number o f students. The example below provides some insight into the level o f animosity felt by some faculty towards international education. I really think that somebody here needs to sit down with the international ed department, and have a really good chat with them about quality issues... making money is one thing, but it's not good for the institution to bring i n students that are under qualified just because they can afford to come. Y o u shouldn't be expecting departments to water down their standards to get these students in either. To be asked to compromise that just to make bucks, to me, just sells away what it is that you have to offer. I don't see that message getting through to international ed and I think it needs to be communicated. (FGF1)  For those working in international education, they are aware o f this animosity from other areas o f the institution. The situation makes them feel unwelcome and less important than the academic areas. One administrator notes: Y o u get some really nasty comments about international... (they) don't see it as academic... (they) see it as a revenue generator and has really no academic viability ... we're always on the margins. (ID 3)  Discussion  Difficulties with using the existing structure for international activity are highlighted in the interviews. The inability o f faculty to discern the difference between international students and landed immigrants leads to perceptual problems. With inadequate information and open access into courses lacking a pre-requisite structure, assumptions are made about students with poor English language or study skills. This is a structural problem and can result in faculty making generalizations about the quality o f the international student in their class, when in fact the student may or may not be an international student. These perceptions also reflect negatively on the international education departments.  While international students make good use o f the services within the international 178  department, these students are also using support services in other areas o f the institution. For example, the longer advising and counselling appointments with international students are not accompanied by additional resources for staff support. Both faculty and staff state their institutions need to provide more support to areas affected by the growing international student population. Support includes financial as well as adequate training for faculty, staff and students in the areas mentioned earlier.  Participants believed it was the university's responsibility to provide additional training programs to faculty. Faculty participants felt the university had not assumed enough responsibility for international students and the pressures this placed upon the learning environment. Included were references to discriminatory behaviour by some faculty and students towards international students and the importance o f educating the community in tolerance and intercultural communications.  A t several o f the institutions the business culture only resides in the international education department. This culture is viewed by the academic areas as different and not particularly complementary to the academy. The net effect is the business culture and its expertise is marginalized within one area and does not expand into other areas o f the institution serving the student/customer. The implications o f this are enormous i f one considers the effect o f not having in place systems and processes to support market driven efforts. A s the university colleges rely heavily on the revenues o f international students, providing systems to support this orientation is necessary i f the institution is to have ongoing success in the international student market.  179  This finding is supported by the literature. Cantor (2000) observes a student paying market rates for his education has expectations o f service and quality in the educational experience which exceeds those o f students who are provided with subsidized student tuition. If their needs are not being met they have a right to complain. If service expectations are not met, these students w i l l go elsewhere and find an institution which is able to meet their expectations (Jarvis, 1999).  International students need a better understanding o f English language competency issues, harassment awareness and their rights, the dynamics o f the Canadian classroom, study skills and faculty expectations in the classroom. In addition, understanding the different teaching cultures between developmental programs such as E S L and academic programs, such as first year university math, is important.  The classroom and cultural challenges university college faculty face, when working with international students, are similar to issues which appear in other studies (Fallon & Brown, 1999; Katz, 2001; Robertson, 2000; Stromquist, 1998). In particular, lack o f classroom participation, the different expectations o f professors, difficulties with English, and different learning styles were reported in Robertson (2000) and Fallon and B r o w n (1999). Faculty concerns about providing a western-based education to emerging nations were also reported in Katz (2001) and Stromquist (1998). The promulgation o f western interests and values through education could lead to the further erosion o f indigenous culture. Similar concerns were expressed by some participants at the university colleges. If internationalization activity is to be accepted, these concerns need to be heard by institutions.  180  Maintaining current structures may be more advantageous i f attracting international students is the goal. Admissions policies reflecting an 'open door' ideology has made it difficult to regulate the admissions o f international students. The vestiges o f a college heritage and the tremendous educational value many faculty assign to this past may in fact enable the economic agenda. While current structures are considered outdated by faculty, adapting new structures and systems could potentially create access barriers for international students. For example, i f the objective is to put in place more rigorous assessments for determining academic suitability and readiness, the effect could be that fewer international students enrol. This would impact on revenue generation. The current structure allows the lesser prepared international students in the door, and may not necessarily serve the best educational interest o f the students as much as the economic needs o f the institution.  Leadership  In Chapter Five I discussed the absence o f internationalization policy at both the federal and provincial levels. A t the beginning o f this chapter I discussed how lack o f policy influences the workplace environment. In this section I discuss how this situation creates external and internal leadership challenges at each institution.  External  Challenges  Although internationalization activity is not publicly recognized for its economic or educative contributions, tensions between the two imperatives exist in the university college sector. One participant observes this is representative o f the tension surrounding the issue o f entrepreneurship in the public education system 181  I think there's tension inside the B C system, regardless o f international, around entrepreneurship versus government funding. There's a kind o f expectation...there is the C I E A (union) view that government should fund it all. There's the federation o f students views about tuition ... it should be free, you know. So, there's a clash ideologically between people who believe that higher education is a right, and a public good should be funded at whatever level, and then there would be the other extreme that talks about it as being; a) you can't do it and b) shouldn't, for whatever other reasons. A n d then there's everything i n between. A n d I think that tension is particularly acute i n B C given its history politically and given its left/right kind o f dichotomy... (S07))  While government understands the revenue generated from international student tuition provides funding for additional classes and new building projects, this is less understood by the general public. Given the roots o f the university colleges, their communities often expect them to be locally focused in their mission and purpose.  The university colleges, as well as many o f the colleges and universities, are actively engaged in international student recruitment for the purpose o f financial gain; the activity is viewed with some trepidation by ministry officials. Community reaction to international students is mixed and each community has its own ideas and perception o f the value and benefit o f bringing international students into their midst. These perceptions are often communicated to their politicians. Ministry officials find themselves in the position o f having to defend their institutions' work against the negative comments expressed by politicians. I certainly have had M L A s or ministers make comments to me over the years about, "such and such a president....well they're never there because they're off in China trying to"... people have the impression that it's a great big holiday when the institution doesn't have a vibrant international ed culture and can't show within a couple years that there are real benefits to this...the public perception is often translated to local politicians. (IM1N2)  Not all institutions do equally well at managing public perception. One ministry interviewee  182  expressed reservations about whether all public institutions should be involved in international education. He suggests institutions re-consider the amount o f investment and resources, especially in light o f community perception. One o f the worries I have about international ed is, my sense is that o f our twenty seven institutions, there are probably ten or twelve who do a pretty good job and then the other ten to fifteen... you kind o f wonder i f they should be in the game at all. Y o u know that they probably don't have sufficient resources to make the sustained effort you need to make. They don't maybe have the array o f programs to compete effectively, but they are out there marketing and pushing because they feel like they have to be involved... (IMIN2)  The perception that international students are taking seats away from local students requires attention and careful management by university college leaders. This point is raised in nearly every interview and focus group discussion. In spite o f various publicity efforts through media campaigns, public presentations and speaking engagements, this issue is still a central concern. I talk to people who are not involved in post secondary education and who don't have a home stay student living with them, they say " W e l l why are we bringing them i n here? They're taking seats away from our kids and you read in the paper everyday about how hard it is to get into university and you're letting somebody i n from China" ... and you start to try and explain to them how it works and you can just see .. they're not open to hear that... (S08) Y o u hear debates in the community all the time...it's very rare ... that i f I don't mention international, explain how we do it... it's rare when I ' m giving a talk out i n the communities that they...someone won't say aren't international students taking seats away?... then you explain that no, they're adding seats and they get, oh well that's all right then. (SOI)  A major leadership challenge is finding a way to effectively promote the university college as a place which embraces globalization, international students and an outward-reaching educational orientation. Communities still expect the role and purpose to reflect its local interests. Managing these expectations is critical.  183  I think every university college having grown up from the system o f community colleges was responsible to the community. But the communities are changing and the definition o f community is now on different scales. It raises the question how much can you give out? H o w can you be responsible to the local community? (FGF4)  Internal  Challenges  Wide ranging opinions exist regarding the general vision and mandate o f the university colleges. These opinions highlight the ideological differences within each institution and at several levels, ranging from the broader mandate question to the specifics o f international activity.  Creating an articulated vision o f internationalization has not yet occurred at any o f the institutions, and was particularly noted by the focus groups and administrators. This exercise is viewed as work for the president and board. One senior officer attributes the inattention to the current political and economic climate. He believes the main problem stems from being too busy to pay attention to some o f the detail. I don't think administrators, me included, have very much time to talk about vision or philosophy or stance we're going to take on a whole range o f issues, and to build any sense o f comfort in with some common vision. ( S O I )  Given the climate, establishing priorities is difficult especially when multiple interests, differing ideologies and scarce resources are part o f the mix. One faculty member characterizes its effect in the following statement. So at the top level there is no clear guidance that you should spend thirty percent o f your time doing research stuff, or doing international activities, or doing consulting work, or whatever the percentage is. There is no rough idea o f the level and then lower down, there's no direction. (FGF4)  Participants from the faculty focus groups have similar views on the current vision o f  184  international; it is mainly the creation o f their international education department. The vision incorporates a commercial view and sets aside the academic rationale. Their senior officers have not paid enough attention to the issue and its implications. The conflict between commercialization and internationalization needs resolution i f internationalization activity is to be successful. I don't think we have an institutional vision and it's not one that we can articulate about internationalization...somebody had mentioned kind o f a schizophrenic thing, and I think that the money thing is very much there and very dominant. I think that as long as it remains that, it's going to be hard to get a lot o f buy in from faculty and staff to make a commitment to internationalization. (FGF1)  Participants discuss the tension and divisiveness amongst and between different academic and support areas on the topic o f mandate and vision. This is a contentious issue within the university college community and the tension created is uncomfortable for faculty working in the midst o f it. Y o u can see there are some people who have been here for many, many years and they are very resentful to the push in this institution to want the university model, and those people are very, very upset and they're resisting very much...it's almost like they are pulling back, and there are some people that are pulling forward. So in my opinion what I experience here happening is two forces...one going this way...the other one going that way, and some people caught in the middle. (FGF2)  This identity struggle situates internationalization i n the midst o f the university and college debate. Two comments which follow illustrate this clash o f local versus global. The first comment illustrates the argument for keeping the local with emphasis on community and on the local student population. The second comment identifies with the link between international education and the financial benefits associated with the activity. I have experience in quite a few committees. I saw when people were talking about globalization, internationalization or anything internationally that looks international, some faculty on the committee just were upset. After that I remember a couple o f occasions some o f them speaking very emotionally against it and saying ...we are 185  happy here, we don't want any o f this... we are here...that's why we are here...we want this like this and we don't want any o f these foreign things impacting us. (FGF2) It's good economic development. They (the students) shop at Wal-Mart or Office Depot and also they have to pay for their rent and they pay for the gas, the telephone. W i t h the present international students we have right now they spend about twenty five million dollars, just to the school. W i t h living expenses, the contribution is about fifty to seventy million dollars in four years. So I think it's a good situation and also the Canadian economy is not very good .. .1 think this is very good, not only for the school and also for the community. (FGF3)  Several faculty and administrators want to see a more altruistic reason for doing international education, such as faculty and student exchanges, and internationalization o f the institution and their communities. Several had participated in international projects and these projects were clearly not for profit. These individuals were unclear about institutional expectations o f their contributions to the project. The absence o f an institutional vision made it difficult to contextualize the experience. Y o u know even as I was going over to Vietnam and benefiting from a project... I worried about that. I wondered, what is the greater good here? What is it we're supposed to be doing? What is it we're striving for? I'd like there to be a more idealistic vision o f why we're involved in internationalization or international education. (FGF1)  Others question whether internationalization related functions are a good use o f their executive officers' valuable time, given the activity is not viewed as a core function o f the university college. This raises another leadership challenge. If four days out o f five your role is to squire visiting business men, basically that's what they are, or senior bureaucrats, and take them out for dinner, and over, and over, and over again, sell yourself, you're going to pretty soon hope that somebody else is priming the pump in terms o f that central mission o f the institution because that's the product you have to sell. Is it any wonder that we have some gaps between what happens internationally and what happens on campus when people are trying to do what really feels like contradictory activities? (ID9)  The economic imperative is not widely endorsed by faculty and academic administrators in  186  the university colleges. Staff and faculty raise questions as to whether commercial activity should even be undertaken in a public institution. Harmonizing the values and ideology o f academia with entrepreneurship is a major leadership challenge. I mean there are a lot o f people in our institution that feel that it's not our job to make money; it's our job to provide education and it's up to the government to provide us with the funds in order to do that. So there's a whole cultural shift that needs to take place... to allow different kinds o f activities to occur, and it's important to a well thought out plan as to why we're doing this, and how we're going to do it, so that people can support those kinds o f changes. I think that's the biggest challenge that we have. (S09)  People hired to work in the university colleges are not entrepreneurs; i f this is what now required, current hiring criteria do not reflect a business orientation. A n affinity with marketoriented activity in the public higher education system is not part o f the current selection process. W e bring in people who basically want a life in the post secondary education culture and what we're asking them to do is operate in the business culture... I think it would be better to bring business people in to do that. (ID4)  Discussion Developing a vision and purpose for internationalization is a complex process. It requires a solid understanding o f the multiple interests and the differing value and belief systems represented in the composition o f a university college. Senior officers, administrators, faculty, staff, students, ministry officials, local politicians and communities are part o f the composition. The task o f creating a vision is complicated by prevailing neo-liberal ideology and the challenge o f doing more with less funding. International education helps with the financial challenges facing each institution, but the contributions o f international staff and students have mixed support from their internal and external communities.  187  L e v i n (2001) identifies increased levels o f tension and stress in employees who undergo changes in their workplace as a result o f market activity and globalization. I found similar evidence in my discussions with senior officers, administrators, faculty and staff. They spoke o f the pressures placed upon them and their colleagues as they attempted to work through funding challenges, increased workloads, and the dynamics o f working with classes o f culturally diverse students.  Adding to the tension and stress identified by L e v i n is the added layer o f complexity found i n institutions with strong, historical ties and obligations to their local communities, to their politicians, and to a faculty composition o f university professors and researchers, as well as college level instructors. The historical focus on local service, with funds provided by government, has shifted to accommodate international service with funds raised in an entrepreneurial model. Faculty teaching at the university level are most familiar with the educational activities o f internationalization and expressed a great deal o f support for the educational value o f internationalization. Several related their own experiences studying and working abroad. Some faculty in college level programs were more likely to be involved in initiatives and projects in their local communities, and resistance to the idea o f going global was evident i n the interviews. The situation is further compounded by the fact that neither group o f faculty are particularly supportive o f the economic imperative. A situation where internationalization is considered an economic imperative in a locally based institution presents a set o f challenges.  Globalization and in particular, globalized capitalism, influence public policy around the  188  world. In Canada, the neo-liberal agendas o f both our federal and provincial governments create an environment where institutions such as the university colleges must seek revenue from sources other than government. Expansion o f internationalization, and especially the international student base, changes the socio-economic and cultural compositions at the institutions. A growing student base o f younger, affluent, culturally diverse, international students changes the nature o f work at an institution who has largely dealt with a contingent of older, part time, commuter learners. While the local profde may also be changing towards a younger and more culturally diverse student base, the fact remains that growing numbers o f international students represent a significant demographic change for the university colleges.  The external environment contributes to changes in the workplace. Globalization, political agendas, social conditions and the economic climate create a changing context at the workplace, and influences how people are feeling about their work. Tension is created and the outcome o f the tension is contingent upon the unique characteristics and experiences o f each individual. Specific behaviours and reactions are a direct result o f an interaction with the changing context, and each response is shaped by individual values and beliefs, personal experiences and personalities. Throughout the interviews examples o f these variables were provided. For example, two members o f the same department, with the same level o f education teaching the same students had two very different perspectives. One person viewed international students as a significant workload issue; the other did not see it as an issue. Another example is the influence o f personal experience such as studying or travelling abroad and how it shapes views on the economic and educational imperative. Individuals with international experiences talked about the educational benefits o f internationalization and, in particular, about the benefits in having international students in their classes  189  The reaction o f leaders to this changing context and the resulting behaviours are mixed. Some leaders appear able to handle these challenges and others appeared less able or willing to do so. While change may be inevitable, attention must be paid to where the tensions lie, especially as globalization and marketization adds a further layer o f complexity to what, I would argue, are already complex institutions.  Conclusion The current neo-liberal political climate has influenced policy direction, leadership and ultimately the workplaces in the university colleges. A n institutionally articulated and accepted vision for internationalization does not exist at the university colleges. Not enough time is spent dealing in a public way with wide ranging, institutional issues. The situation may be partially explained by the pressures placed on leaders. In efforts to meet their funding challenges, other interests and issues are set aside i n their quest for additional financial resources. The existence o f a supportive infrastructure that could assist with internationalization activity is also absent. Impact is felt at every level o f the institution and in the communities it serves.  The funds generated from internationalization activity meet some o f the financial needs o f the university colleges. The activity influences the institution in at least four ways. First, are concerns about increased workload, and concerns over the academic readiness o f international students and their vulnerabilities. Second, is debate over the question o f why their institutions are engaged in internationalization, and what to do with the surplus funds  190  generated by international students. Third, more centralized decision-making gives faculty the impression their ideas are not considered. This situation differs from past practice where there has been an opportunity to be involved i n the institutional planning process. Fourth, there does not appear to be an opportunity to focus on these issues and satisfactorily resolve them.  The current structure works well i n terms o f attracting international students to the institutions, but university colleges need to pay attention to the implications. The focus on access has made it easier for students to gain entry to the university colleges i n comparison to the universities. Poorly prepared students result in an overall greater need for academic assistance and support. Without the provision o f additional resources, workload challenges result for staff and faculty.  These conditions influence how international education departments are viewed by the academic and support areas o f the university colleges. In addition to what has already been mentioned, their terminology and language, operating style, and entrepreneurial focus cause them to be viewed as marginal to the rest o f the institution; thus they are isolated from the rest o f the institution.  i  Finally, the pressures facing the university colleges require their leaders to respond to both their internal and external communities. They face questions about their institutions and who they now serve. Expectations from both internal and external communities require constant monitoring and consistent attention.  191  Chapter Seven is the next and final chapter. I summarize the study, draw conclusions and make recommendations for further research.  192  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS  The university colleges have an evolutionary history. Created as community colleges, and in response to a societal need for access to higher education, their mandate and accompanying values focused on building educational capacity within their communities. A l o n g the way, and i n response to their communities, degrees and university programs were added to their mandate. T w o o f the university colleges have now evolved into universities and the remaining three are actively campaigning for university status, again in response to community need. The distinction between the university college and the university is the emphasis on community. The evolution has created tension within the university colleges and with their communities as expectations around the mandate o f these institutions continue to shift.  Internationalization and related scholarly activities have always been part o f the university experience. The global, far reaching emphasis o f the university is captured by its very nomenclature. In recent years the university colleges have made attempts to develop an outward-reaching global orientation, but much o f the activity is very narrow in focus and specific to international students. A broader focus on internationalization has been difficult to achieve due to a number o f factors, including the expense o f internationalizing, a growing dependency on international student revenues and the issue o f being a globally-focused, rather than a locally-focused institution. Identity, mandate and the meaning o f internationalization at the university colleges are ongoing issues that add to the complications.  193  The international student focus has met with mixed review at the university colleges and in their communities. The activity has influenced faculty and staff work by introducing both favourable and unfavourable aspects to their practice. The economic and educational benefits of an international student population are continually reinforced by their advocates, but are secondary to community concerns about international students disadvantaging local students. International activity is not viewed as an integral component to the institution and sits on the periphery o f educational value in both the academic and external communities.  In contrast, the economic contributions made by international students are well recognized by senior officers who regularly deal with the financial challenges facing the university colleges. A s funding needs increase, so w i l l reliance on the international revenue stream; it is now being used to fund buildings and extra classes and to cover budget shortfalls. The problem lies in the fact the funding is not reliable and can fluctuate yearly. Another problem lies with the perception international education does not have to play by the same set o f rules as everyone else, because they are supplying money to the institution. Shared values such as equity, access and collegiality rub up against notions o f preferential treatment and add to the isolation o f international departments from the academic areas. The educational aspects o f internationalization have been subsumed by the economic imperative.  The study investigated internationalization activity in the university colleges, examined how internationalization was constructed and explored its effects on the people working in the university college environment. The remainder o f this chapter provides a summary o f the study, presents conclusions and makes several recommendations.  194  Summary The primary objective o f this research was to examine the role, purpose and meaning o f internationalization and to determine how the activity shapes the work being done at the university colleges. H o w do the two goals, educating for global citizenship and market-oriented revenue production, 1) interact and affect each other; and, 2) influence the university colleges?  This study was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding o f internationalization activity at the British Columbia university colleges. The study examined faculty, staff and administrator experiences with the activity and addressed the environmental factors within which the activity is situated at the university colleges.  M y study was carried out at four university colleges in British Columbia, all o f whom carry out internationalization activities and, more specifically, have significant numbers o f international students. I reviewed documents that provided a historical context and addressed the current environment within which the university colleges operate.  The project was designed as a nested case study. Units o f analysis correlated to levels o f responsibility and authority within the post-secondary system; included were the university colleges as a subset o f the post-secondary system, senior administration, deans and directors, faculty and staff. The study utilized several methods for data collection purposes. I reviewed government documents and legislation related to higher education, examined institutional  195  data and documents, and made site visits to each university college. I kept notes on what I observed during these visits and during several meetings at my own institution when discussion focused on internationalization. I conducted formal interviews and focus groups with university college employees, and government officials. In-depth interviews were conducted with government officials, senior officers, deans and directors. The questions focused on their understanding and vision o f the activity, and explored underlying factors that influence and shape the types o f activity found at the university colleges. The focus group discussions centred on individual understandings o f the vision, purpose and function of internationalization at their respective institutions, and explored how the activities affected an individual's work. M y purpose was to gain a comprehensive understanding o f international activity at the university colleges and consider its implications for my practice and for the post secondary system.  Findings and Conclusion The study produced six key findings and five general conclusions. In the following section,  the findings are presented first and are followed by the conclusions.  Findings 1. The meaning o f internationalization is heavily influenced by the external environment; in particular, the neo-liberal ideology o f government and the absence o f internationalization policy at both federal and provincial levels are key factors. Whereas the literature indicated globalizing forces were shaping higher education policy and claimed higher education leaders were using the rhetoric o f globalization 196  to enable the introduction o f market based activities, I found that in a neo-liberal environment, it is the absence o f policy that promotes an economic focus on internationalization. Neo-liberalism creates the conditions which shape this response. In the current environment the university colleges are expected to do more with less government funding; they have discovered a good revenue opportunity in international student tuition fees. The opportunity provides money for capital projects, program development and funding shortfalls. Canada has not developed enabling policy that clearly links internationalization to public higher education; the meaning o f internationalization is shaped by economic rather than educational reasons. The situation is further complicated by employee preference for an educational rather than economic focus. M a n y solid reasons for developing the internationalization agenda are present i n the literature, but formal recognition through policy development has not occurred. University colleges have selfdetermined their direction and focus on internationalization and financial circumstances have directed most o f their efforts towards international student revenue opportunities. The focus on economic reasons may conflict with educational values and goals found at the university colleges. The situation is compounded by the fact international student money is not placed in areas supporting educational opportunities; instead it funds administrative priorities.  2. The university college workplace is shaped by growing numbers o f international students; the student profile at the university colleges is changing. A major influence is the international student population who tend to be younger, recent graduates from  197  high school, from relatively privileged backgrounds, come from a wide array o f cultural backgrounds and are living away from home for the first time. The profde is noticeably different than the profile o f the local university college student, who is likely to be older, commuting to school and often balancing work, family and academic obligations. The literature discussed how a market orientation leads to cultural changes within the academy. M y findings were similar. A changing student profile changes the classroom dynamics, the type o f educational and counselling support services required, and even the type o f buildings constructed. Faculty and staff feel inadequately trained and supported to work with this changing environment. The students have educational and personal needs requiring a different and more intense level o f support, and these demands are influencing the nature o f faculty and staff work. International students require additional assistance understanding course material, need more feedback on assignments and exams and express more personal problems to faculty; a situation that faculty do not encounter as frequently with the local student population. Staff experience a similar situation when advising and counselling students. International students require more time and attention whether it is related to setting up personal counselling, or academic advising, or when explaining registration procedures to a student whose English language comprehension may be at a fairly l o w level. Faculty and staff need training in order to work effectively with international students. M y findings concur with the literature; institutions have not placed enough emphasis on training and educating faculty and staff. While the literature did not address the challenges in generating interest and attendance in training initiatives, it did surface in my research. What also surfaced  198  was the fact previous training attempts in this area were not well attended by either faculty or staff. One o f the reasons may be the mandate to provide the training has been given to the international education departments, an area that is viewed as removed for mainstream activity.  3.  The university colleges have been very successful in attracting international students to their programs. While part o f this reason may lie in the attractiveness o f their programs, the 'open door' ideology and structure is a significant factor. The university colleges provide an easier entry point to a Canadian degree than the universities. In addition, tuition fees are less at the university colleges. Most students begin in an English language program and gradually move into academic programs as their language skills improve. The advantages for international students are obvious as they can start and finish their studies at one institution, with minimal disruption and with less expense than it might cost at a university. H o w an institution responds to change is discussed in the literature. Resource dependency theory states systems w i l l change and adapt to do what is necessary in order to attract the required amount of resources. Institutions w i l l change their organizational forms and practices in order to adapt to a neo-liberal framework and market-oriented policies. For the university colleges the existing structures already facilitate market behaviour. A requirement to change is less critical as market behaviour is supported by the current structure.  4.  Internationalization work is both under-valued and under-supported at the university colleges. Individuals engaged in internationalization work found it consumed a great  199  deal o f their time, and with little institutional recognition or support. Projects promoting internationalization were done with inadequate funding. Under these conditions, little incentive exists. A comment heard frequently during interviews was internationalization is mostly done " o f f the side o f my desk". Due to the turnaround time on many international opportunities, faculty felt pressured to respond under very tight deadlines and often they were unable to respond due to other priorities, such as teaching, marking, and committee work. In some departments individuals were pulling away or actively resisting internationalization. This finding contrasts sharply with the literature observations that faculty engaged in international work or in teaching efforts towards the market would garner prominence within their institutions. One explanation might lie in fact that the type o f international activity conducted at the university colleges has not attained international prestige; instead activity is centred on teaching international students for profit, and while significant from a revenue perspective, is not highly regarded work; its current value lies mainly in the eyes o f the senior officers who depend on the revenue. I believe international activity is still on the periphery at the university colleges due to the economic imperative and likely w i l l remain there until a broader educational focus is incorporated into its purpose.  A separation exists between international education and faculty areas and results in a number o f misperceptions and disparate viewpoints. Those who work in departments outside the international area view international as a revenue generator rather than as a contributor to the educational 'good' o f the institution. The work o f the department is seen as removed from mainstream activity, operating in isolation and working 200  outside the established set o f institutional rules and regulations. From an alternate perspective, individuals working within the international area view themselves as committed to the broad goals o f internationalizing the institution. International students provide local students with an opportunity to interact with people from different cultures; an experience that may otherwise not be possible. Internationalization is the overarching goal; international students are an important way o f contributing towards the goal. International staff try to find ways to engage more fully with academic areas but feel their efforts are often stifled by bureaucratic systems and negative individual attitudes towards their department. The two contrasting viewpoints lead to a polarization between academic areas and the international department, with each pointing to the other with anecdotal stories o f why they face challenges. Similar to the literature, my findings show institutional governance models and practices are influenced by educational markets and contribute to the tension found between international departments and the rest o f the institution.  6.  The university colleges are faced with leadership challenges, some o f which stem from the rapid expansion o f international student numbers at their institutions and some from their heritage as community colleges. I identify three significant challenges, (a) Senior administrators and faculty hold disparate views on the purpose and priorities o f internationalization. Widespread faculty engagement in developing internationalization goals is discussed in the literature as one key factor; adhering to an institution's core values in the process is another. I suggest the lack o f discussion has contributed to the evident resistance to internationalization. While the ideal is 201  stated as working towards the broader goals o f internationalization, the practice is quite different. A t every institution, international revenue is used to meet infrastructure and operational needs, rather than to support broader internationalization efforts. International student revenues are a significant source o f funding for the university colleges, and as noted in the literature, financial success in the international student market has the potential to outperform any other source o f earned income; (b) the university college heritage also contributes to the leadership challenge. Not all faculty members are i n support o f a globally oriented institution. The local emphasis is important to many employees and the notion o f reaching out beyond their local communities is not considered to be part o f the mandate o f a university college. The argument is further complicated by the fact the university colleges are rooted in the values o f access to education for the masses and a belief that anyone who wants an education should be able to attend. International students tend to come from wealthy families who can afford to send their children abroad for their education. Some argue this is not the purpose for which public colleges were established; (c) the university colleges are not autonomous institutions and their communities have close ties and bonds which create a sense o f ownership and voice. Managing public perception about internationalization is a major challenge, and o f particular significance is the notion that international students are taking seats away from local students. The situation requires continual attention and monitoring; the benefits that accompany additional revenue or an international component i n the community are messages difficult to communicate to the public in a way that is understood and accepted. Similarly, trips undertaken by university college employees  202  to what may be viewed as frivolous or exotic places, and spending what might be perceived as public funds can be easily misconstrued. The literature discusses the conditions under which an institution must operate in a neo-liberal climate. Accountability and prudent use o f public funds are key considerations. Trips abroad have the potential to create perceptions about due diligence and spending habits. Each of these perceptions must be strategically managed i n the public sphere and especially at university colleges, given their relationship to their communities.  Conclusions From these findings I draw five conclusions. In the following section I discuss each conclusion and provide comments on areas where the post-secondary system, and the university colleges, i n particular, need to focus their internationalization efforts.  Conclusion One: Internationalization efforts do not have a legitimate voice nationally, provincially or locally.  Government, at both federal and provincial levels, has not provided the Canadian higher education system with the support necessary in order to successfully promote its internationalization efforts. Part o f the problem may be due to their reluctance to acknowledge the important economic contributions made into a publicly supported higher education system. Lack o f enabling policy and the fact responsibility for international activity is scattered across various agencies and organizations, results i n legitimacy issues for those attempting to promote an internationalization agenda inside and outside o f Canada. The  203  agenda is confusing and alternates between reference to educational and economic imperatives.  During a time when globalization is a major force to be reckoned with, when the education market is so competitive, and when providing an internationally focused education experience is essential in preparing our own students for living and working in this global economy, government needs to be especially mindful o f the importance o f setting a direction which w i l l favourably position Canada on the world stage.  In contrast, the European Union, with the advent o f the Bologna declaration is already there. Nation building is the primary objective and policymakers recognize the contributions an internationalized higher education system can make towards meeting economic, social and cultural goals. Intentions are very specific and policy has been developed that w i l l facilitate the process. Canada faces the possibility o f being left behind, as other progressive nations strategically position their internationalization policies to meet the objective o f building capacity within their nations. A neo-liberal strategy focused on short term savings may, in effect, deter longer-term economic growth and development, and impede our progress.  Conclusion Two: An institutional discussion and debate regarding the role and purpose of internationalization has not happened at the university colleges.  In theory, both economic and educational reasons for developing internationalization activity exist, but the economic argument dominates in practice. Most activity associated with internationalization has focused on revenue, and employees o f those institutions associate the word accordingly. The university colleges present an interesting juxtaposition: the economic  204  interests o f the institution may in fact be served by their educational ideology.  The perception that somehow faculty are disinterested in internationalization needs to be discussed alongside the reality that faculty do not feel their views or concerns about international students are heard. Two questions need to be asked o f the university colleges. First, how does one determine what is the correct imperative? Second, who is making that decision? A public discussion, or more likely, debate on the role and purpose o f internationalization needs to occur i f the activity is to move ahead in a meaningful way, or become more than a 'cash cow' for the institution. M o v i n g the discussion forward is difficult i f the goals o f international education focus mainly on economic aspects and the goals o f the academic units focus mainly on educational aspects.  Conclusion Three: The university colleges run the risk of becoming overly dependent on a 'soft money' source to fund ongoing financial commitments.  Apart from ideology, is the reality o f becoming dependent on 'soft money'. Financial risks are incurred when an institution becomes dependent on this revenue source for their operational budgets, especially given the volatility o f the international student market. The situation is compounded by the fact international education is viewed as operating i n relative isolation. The more dependent an institution becomes on international money, the closer the department needs to be to the mainstream o f the operation.  205  Conclusion Four: The university colleges face some ethical challenges as they grapple with the economic imperative.  University colleges are benefiting financially from the current system. The existing structure allows for significant amounts o f money to flow in from international student revenues. A n y changes to the existing structure could potentially compromise the revenue source. For example, higher academic requirements w i l l create barriers to entry for international students, and may negatively influence revenue streams. Fewer academically eligible students result in less revenue. From a resource dependency perspective, making these changes do not make sense i f an institution wants to sustain or increase the revenue source, especially as it becomes more financially dependent on the activity.  In the case o f a failing international student who is paying a significant amount o f money to attend school, and was initially accepted into the institution with low academic skills, the question that needs to be answered is, how w i l l the institution deal with the student? The student has been accepted at the institution, paid money and now has expectations. What is the obligation o f the institution to this student? The literature indicates the student is viewed as a customer in a market-oriented environment. The customer may have higher expectations of the level o f service and support in order to improve poor academic performance, or think the academic record is 'negotiable'.  Educational reasons for doing internationalization create another dilemma. With the exception o f international students, all other forms internationalization w i l l cost the institution money. A s the institution becomes more reliant on 'soft money' to fund on-going  206  costs, there might be less willingness to give up this revenue source in order to fund study abroad programs or exchanges, or additional support services, such as additional staffing or training programs.  Conclusion Five: The university colleges face an inherent structural challenge that creates tension within and between their internal and external communities.  A fundamental structural issue exists at the university colleges and is revealed in the examination o f internationalization. The tension between the university model, on the one hand, and the community college model on the other, is evident. The university model assumes that the goal o f the institution is to create a community o f scholars to create knowledge; the goal o f the community college is to prepare students to either j o i n the scholarly community, or j o i n the workforce. The former contributes to the social ideals o f society through knowledge-seeking and knowledge-building, and while beneficial to society, it may or may not directly benefit the communities served by the university colleges. The college model is different in that it builds capacity in direct response to the community, and also provides education to the disenfranchised. A s the university colleges take on more o f the characteristics o f the universities, it means their communities need to make a transition in the way they think about their institutions. Internationalization is an example o f the challenges that are created in response to those changes.  Implications The findings o f the study have implications for other parts o f the post-secondary system. First, there are the broader implications for higher education; second, there are the  207  implications for community colleges. The entire post-secondary system is operating within the same neo-liberal climate as the university colleges and it is likely a similar drive for finding new funding sources is underway; more focus on international student revenue is a probable outcome. Workload issues, inadequate English language skills, inadequate support systems for international students and the need for additional training and education o f employees, w i l l be faced by all institutions with a growing international student population. Leadership challenges may also be similar. While the universities may not have the same external community challenges, the internal challenges o f articulating an institutional vision about internationalization, the relationship o f international education departments to academic units, the challenges o f operating an entrepreneurial unit in an academic culture and the debates arising over the economic versus educational imperative, are issues that w i l l require the attention o f higher educators.  The second set o f implications is specific to the British Columbia community colleges. The colleges are now authorized to offer applied degrees. Degree growth w i l l be accompanied by similar challenges to those faced by the university colleges. If the track record o f the university colleges is any indication, as colleges begin offering more degree options, there w i l l be increased interest in those degrees by international students. Accompanying this interest w i l l also be expectations o f existing staff and faculty, as well as local politicians and community groups, to have local needs adequately met. Community colleges w i l l be subject to some o f the growing pains experienced by the university colleges. The expansion o f degree programs is accompanied by new faculty, with different credentials and ideas. The internationalization component adds another layer o f complexity to the work place.  208  Balancing community interest and the expectations o f existing and new faculty, with international students and the revenue opportunities, w i l l be a major challenge facing the colleges as they incorporate degrees into their programming.  Policy and Practice Recommendations  The findings and implications o f the study lead to two policy and three practice recommendations. Six areas are identified for further research. These observations are not exclusive to the university colleges. The recommendations and research areas w i l l be useful for both government and for institutions developing or expanding their international activity.  Policy The first recommendation is for government to legitimate internationalization through enabling policy. The policy must be communicated to, and endorsed by, local politicians and their communities. This w i l l facilitate a better understanding o f the activity in local communities, as well as regionally, nationally and internationally.  Second, institutions must develop their own vision and set priorities for internationalization. The lack o f recognition and support by the federal and provincial governments creates an even greater need for the university colleges to work with their constituencies in developing an acceptable and understood vision and purpose. Leadership, direction and support are necessary ingredients in building a successful internationalization program. When planning for major changes such as growth in the international student population, a wider consultation needs to occur. The process should involve a cross-section o f participants  209  representing the spectrum o f the academic community. Senior officers need to understand what is required by the academic and support area in order to effectively manage the changes.  Practice  First, institutions need gain a better understanding o f how the increasingly large body o f international students affects the workplace. N e w counselling and advising services for international students, especially those identified as being at risk, academically or emotionally, are necessary; more o f the same w i l l not provide the solutions. Faculty need to adopt new approaches and methodologies both inside and outside the classroom as they consider the needs o f international students in their teaching practice. Faculty and staff require additional training in supporting the academic and emotional needs o f international students, in managing the dynamics o f gender and position with different cultural groups, and i n upgrading their skills to support the growing technical needs o f students.  Second, i f the purpose o f internationalization is an economic one, then the institution must be prepared to transform its organizational culture to one which recognizes and validates entrepreneurial behaviour. Academic areas need to be convinced o f the benefits accrued by having international students in their classes. If the academic heartland is where there is the greatest opposition to entrepreneurialism, then finding ways o f communicating and working towards common goals and interests is necessary. Closer working relationships need to be forged between international education departments and academic and support areas. International education should be able to call upon academic units for resources and 210  guidance, and in return, academic and support areas should be able to expect the same level of resources from the international department.  Third, i f the goal is to more fully internationalize the institution, then faculty, staff and administration must work collaboratively in developing a common understanding o f the activity, its purpose and its direction. Formal institutional recognition o f the activity is the first step. Creating a space for ongoing dialogue and discussion o f the activity is the next step. Providing the necessary level o f financial commitment is the final step.  Recommendations for F u r t h e r Research  During my investigation, it became evident several areas required further study, but they did not fit within the scope o f my current research project. Further investigation would inform the field o f higher education.  University colleges are still dealing with the identity issues which have followed them over the past thirty years, i n their transition from a college to a university college, and now in their bid to become universities. The research question could address how institutional values and priorities change as these institutions undergo transformation. It could also address more fully the degree o f influence these transformations have on their internal communities and on the broader, regional communities they serve.  A second area is the issue o f leadership. Both the literature and my own research identify the  211  need to explore leadership in higher education. Leaders are clearly challenged with the constant and rapid changes occurring as a result o f political decisions, globalization, the increasing influence o f market forces on their institutions, the changing demographics within their institutions, and related issues such as faculty retention and recruitment. H o w these leaders cope, or do not cope, would be useful for both scholars and practitioners to research and understand.  Third, a broader base o f data needs to be collected on the topic internationalization in the university colleges. There are three identifiable sets o f data to collect and include international students, local students and the communities in which the institutions are situated. M y interviews were only able to touch on their experiences through the stories and observations o f the faculty, staff and administrators at the university colleges. Their own stories would add much to the context, and would also provide some good information when comparing their actual experiences with what the university college employees thought to be their experiences. I discovered there was little information on the actual experience o f international students at the university colleges, such as reports or surveys. For the local student population, some basic questions need to be asked o f them about study abroad opportunities, and about engaging with international students in a classroom environment or working collaboratively on a project. What benefits or challenges do they see in the internationalization experience? The impact o f internationalization on the communities served by institutions also needs to be researched. In particular, given the fact most o f the activity is in the area o f international students, what has the community experience been i n dealing with the international student population? What are some o f the benefits and the  212  challenges of having international students mingling with the local population? Where is the voice of the aboriginal people?  Fourth, future research must undertake a broader investigation of internationalization and fully examine what other OECD nations are doing in this area. Other nations have addressed the development of internationalization in a much more strategic and focused way than Canada. Examining this topic more fully, looking at the successes and challenges faced by those who have already developed their internationalization programs may assist Canada in charting its future internationalization agenda.  A fifth area requiring fuller examination is the legitimacy question. Why has government been so reluctant to acknowledge internationalization through any formal process or mechanism? As the study indicated, policy incorporating a well articulated position on internationalization is necessary when guiding the activity nationally, or even provincially. While our government speaks in broad, general statements about the importance of understanding we live and work in an increasingly globalized world, programs that could prepare us for this new environment are not evident. The question to be answered is, why?  The final area requiring attention is the lack of data available on internationalization activity and international students, in particular. Data on internationalization is not being gathered in a consistent way across the country, or across the various post secondary sectors. For example, Statistics Canada gathers data on international students from the university sector, but not from the college or institute sector. When I asked why, the answer was the latter  213  sector falls underneath the provincial reporting system; data is not gathered in a consistent manner across the provinces. In British Columbia data on international students is too recent to use for comparative purposes. For example, 2003-2004 was the first year international student tuition revenues were reported separately from domestic student tuition revenues, therefore making it difficult to compare the changes in revenue over time. The current categorization o f the international student enrolment data is not based on program area, such as business or computers, but instead, is based upon broader categories such as academic and career. These categories make it difficult to compare across institutions, or to monitor changes in enrolments in areas where international students tend to enrol. B y creating more specific data categories, the comparison would be more meaningful for purposes o f data collection and analysis.  Concluding Thoughts The findings answered the research question raised at the beginning o f the study but several more developed during the course o f my investigation, and remain unresolved. The questions relate to the value and meaning o f education in a neo-liberal climate. What do we give up by adopting practices drawn from the world o f business? H o w do we balance efficient management with democratic governance, given the fact the private sector has more experience in the business side o f education than the public system? In terms o f leadership and governance, how do we structure our internal operations to adapt more readily to a volatile international educational market? H o w do we address the internal tensions created when new types o f activity may be privileged over older and more traditional activity in the academy? W i l l scholars become entrepreneurs, or 'academic capitalists'? H o w do we  214  continue to give voice to the idea we are indeed unique, a public higher education system and not a business operation? These questions and others need to be asked as higher education navigates its way through our current political climate, the globalization movement and the rapidly expanding numbers o f international students making their way into our system.  The questions are specific to the current environment but history shows higher education institutions are evolutionary by nature; debates surrounding their mandate have been going on for thousands o f years. The resiliency o f higher education over time may in fact be due to its ability to change and shift along with the society it serves. If one follows the argument, then perhaps the only consistency o f purpose i n higher education, from ancient to modern times, has been its willingness to change and adapt to societal needs. In ancient Greece, older men o f privilege tutored and mentored younger men o f privilege. In medieval times, the development o f the modern university began in vocational schools where male students o f privilege were prepared for service in the church, or for mastery o f the secular professions o f law, medicine or teaching. In the nineteenth century, debate raged on between Newman's idea o f a university, as a place for teaching and conserving universal knowledge, and Humboldt's vision o f the modern university as a place to nurture the discovery o f knowledge, through research. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the issue o f access to higher education for women o f privilege dominated academic discussions, and more recently i n the latter half o f the past century, in moving higher education from an elite to a mass system.  215  The university colleges should look to the past as they prepare for their journey ahead. The journey may be new, but the path is well travelled, familiar, and centuries old.  216  References Alderman. G . (2001). The globalization o f higher education: some observations regarding the free market and the national interest. Higher Education in Europe. 26 (1), 47-52. Allport, C . (2000). 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Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis i n partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the degree o f Doctor o f Education from U B C , Faculty o f Graduate Studies, Department o f Educational Studies. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359; or email kiell.rubenson@ubc.ca ; and Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295 or email donald.fisher@ubc.ca. In addition to being a doctoral student, I am also a Dean at the University College o f the Fraser Valley, and am very interested i n examining the role, function and purpose o f international activity, and in determining whether these have changed over time, or remain the same. I am also curious as to how institutions are responding to what appears to be an increasingly significant activity within the system. While there is some information written on international activity in the universities, there is little written about University Colleges i n general, and even less related to international activity. One o f the intended outcomes o f my research is to provide the University Colleges with information that may be used for comparative or planning purposes. This research project involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. A portion o f the research includes conducting interviews and focus groups with selected participants. Interview participants w i l l be selected based upon their knowledge, experience and influence over international activity in their institutions. For example board members, senior administrators, including presidents and vice-presidents, administrators responsible for international education, and deans or department heads involved in international activity are being.asked to participate in the interviews. Focus group volunteers w i l l be invited from areas o f each institution that are involved and familiar with international activity and may include individuals working as student advisors or counsellors, faculty, admissions and registration staff, and librarians.  234  Appendix B : Sample Letter o f Contact for Individual Interview  (Letter o f Initial Contact for an Individual Interviewee) [Date] [Name o f Potential Participant] Dear [Name o f Potential Participant] I am conducting a research project entitled Going Global with the Locals: A Study o f International Activity in the University Colleges. Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis in partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the degree o f Doctor o f Education from U B C , Faculty o f Graduate Studies, Department o f Educational Studies. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359; and Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295. In addition to being a doctoral student, I am also a Dean at a University College and am very interested i n examining the role, function and purpose o f international activity, and in determining whether these have changed over time, or remained the same. I am also curious as to how institutions are responding to what appears to be an increasingly significant activity within the system. While there is some information written on international activity in the universities, there is little written about University Colleges in general, and even less related to international activity. One o f the intended outcomes o f my research is to provide the University Colleges with information that may be used for comparative or planning purposes. This research project involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. A portion o f the research involves conducting interviews and focus groups with selected participants. Interview participants w i l l be selected based upon their knowledge, experience and influence over international activity in their institutions. For example board members, senior administrators, including presidents and vice-presidents, administrators responsible for international education, and deans or department heads involved in international activity are being asked to participate in the interviews. Focus group volunteers w i l l be invited from areas o f each institution that are involved and familiar with international activity and may include individuals working as student advisors or counsellors, faculty, admissions and registration staff, and librarians. I am inviting you to participate in two separate, one hour interviews. The first interview w i l l focus on questions related to the role, purpose and function o f international activity. A follow-up interview w i l l focus on elaborating or clarifying themes arising from the previous interview and any focus group discussions that follow the first set o f individual interviews. 237  Appendix C : Sample o f Letter o f Initial Contact for a Staff Focus Group Participant  239  (Letter o f Initial Contact for a Staff Focus Group Participant) [Date] [Name o f Potential Participant] Dear [Name o f Potential Participant] I am conducting a research project entitled Going Global with the Locals: A Study of International Activity in the University Colleges. Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis in partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the degree o f Doctor o f Education from U B C , Faculty o f Graduate Studies, Department o f Educational Studies. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies i n Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359; and Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295. In addition to being a doctoral student, I am also a Dean at a University College and am very interested i n examining the role, function and purpose o f international activity, and i n determining whether these have changed over time, or remained the same. I am also curious as to how institutions are responding to what appears to be an increasingly significant activity within the system. While there is some information written on international activity in the universities, there is little written about University Colleges in general, and even less related to international activity. One o f the intended outcomes o f my research is to provide the University Colleges with information that may be used for comparative or planning purposes. This research project involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. A portion o f the research involves conducting interviews and focus groups with selected participants. Interview participants w i l l be selected based upon their knowledge, experience and influence over international activity i n their institutions. For example board members, senior administrators, including presidents and vice-presidents, administrators responsible for international education, and deans or department heads involved in international activity are being asked to participate in the interviews. Staff focus group participants w i l l be invited from areas o f each institution that are involved and familiar with international activity and may include individuals working as student advisors or counsellors, admissions and registration staff, and librarians. Faculty focus group participants w i l l be invited from departments that are actively engaged in international projects or have international students in their programs. I am inviting you to participate in the staff focus group session, as one o f five members. The session w i l l focus on questions related to the role, purpose and function o f international 240  Appendix D: Sample Letter of Initial Contact for a Faculty Focus Group Participant  242  (Letter o f Initial Contact for a Faculty Focus Group Participant) [Date] [Name o f Potential Participant] Dear [Name o f Potential Participant] I am conducting a research project entitled Going Global with the Locals: A Study of International Activity in the University Colleges. Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis in partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the degree o f Doctor o f Education from U B C , Faculty o f Graduate Studies, Department o f Educational Studies. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359; and Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies i n Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295. In addition to being a doctoral student, I am also a Dean at a University College and am very interested in examining the role, function and purpose o f international activity, and in determining whether these have changed over time, or remained the same. I am also curious as to how institutions are responding to what appears to be an increasingly significant activity within the system. While there is some information written on international activity in the universities, there is little written about University Colleges in general, and even less related to international activity. One o f the intended outcomes o f my research is to provide the University Colleges with information that may be used for comparative or planning purposes. This research project involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. A portion o f the research involves conducting interviews and focus groups with selected participants. Interview participants w i l l be selected based upon their knowledge, experience and influence over international activity i n their institutions. For example board members, senior administrators, including presidents and vice-presidents, administrators responsible for international education, and deans or department heads involved in international activity are being asked to participate i n the interviews. Staff focus group participants w i l l be invited from areas o f each institution that are involved and familiar with international activity and may include individuals working as student advisors or counsellors, admissions and registration staff, and librarians. Faculty focus group participants w i l l be invited from departments that are actively engaged in international projects or have international students i n their programs.  243  Appendix E : Sample Consent to Participate Form - Individual Interviews  245  (Consent to Participate Individual Interviews)  [Date] [Name o f Potential Participant] Dear [Name o f Potential Participant] A s indicated in my initial letter, I am conducting a research project entitled Going Global with the Locals: A Study of International Activity in the University Colleges. Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis in partial fulfdment o f the requirements for the Doctor of Education degree. M y research involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359, or email kiell.rubenson@ubc.ca; and/or Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295, or email donald.fisher(Sjubc.ca . They are both located in the Department o f Educational Studies, U B C . Thank you for indicating your interest in participating in the individual interviews. A portion of the research involves conducting interviews with selected participants. Potential interview participants were identified and approached based upon their knowledge, experience and influence over international activity in their institutions. For example, board members, senior administrators, including presidents and vice-presidents, administrators responsible for international education, and deans or department heads involved in international activity are being asked to participate in the interviews. A s a participant, you w i l l be asked to participate in two separate one-hour interviews. The first interview w i l l focus on questions related to the role, purpose and function o f international activity at your institution. A follow-up interview w i l l elaborate on, or clarify themes arising from the previous interview and the focus group discussions. Y o u may decline to participate in any interview. Should you decline to participate, I w i l l ask you to clarify whether you wish to be contacted about the second interview. Y o u can stop the interview at any time and can refuse to answer any questions you may not wish to answer. In order to preserve confidentiality and to give you control over the release o f information arising out o f these interviews, I w i l l return transcripts o f your individual interviews to you so that you may have the opportunity to review and edit them. Data provided by participants w i l l be kept anonymous i f requested. The transcriptions w i l l be coded to ensure both anonymity and confidentiality is maintained. Tape recordings, diskettes on which transcriptions are stored, and printed copies o f the transcriptions w i l l be kept in a locked filing cabinet in my office until five years after the completion o f the dissertation and publication o f any articles or papers about the project. 246  Appendix F: Sample Consent to Participate - Focus Group Interviews  248  (Consent to Participate Staff Focus Group Interviews) [Date] [Name o f Potential Participant]  Dear [Name o f Potential Participant]  A s indicated in my initial letter, I am conducting a research project entitled Going Global with the Locals: A Study of International Activity in the University Colleges. Data collected is for the purpose o f writing my thesis i n partial fulfilment o f the requirements for the Doctor of Education degree. M y research involves a case study o f international activity within the B . C . University Colleges. M y research supervisors are Dr. Kjell Rubenson, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5359, or email kjell.rubenson(g>ubc.ca; and/or Dr. Donald Fisher, Professor and Co-Director, Centre for Policy Studies in Higher Education and Training, who can be reached at 604-822-5295, or email donald.fisher(g>ubc.ca . They are both located in the Department o f Educational Studies, U B C . Thank you for indicating your interest i n participating in the focus group session. A portion of the research involves conducting focus groups with selected participants. Staff focus group participants have been invited from areas o f the institution that are involved and familiar with international activity. A s a participant, you w i l l be asked to participate i n a 1.5 hour focus group. The session w i l l focus on questions related to the role, purpose and function o f international activity and how it is impacting on your practice. Y o u may decline to participate i n the focus group at any time, and can refuse to answer any questions you may not wish to answer. Data provided by participants w i l l be kept anonymous i f requested. The transcriptions w i l l be coded to ensure both anonymity and confidentiality is maintained. Transcripts o f focus group interviews w i l l not be returned to focus group members, but upon request, members may review with me their own portions o f the focus group interview. Tape recordings, diskettes on which transcriptions are stored, and printed copies o f the transcriptions w i l l be kept in a locked filing cabinet in my office until five years after the completion o f the dissertation and publication o f any articles or papers about the project.  249  Appendix G : Interview Goals and Sample Questions  (Interview Goals and Sample Questions) Interview Goals: First Interview with University College Administrators To gain a general understanding of international activity in the university college system. To explore the direction and vision o f international activity, and where the focus and emphasis is being placed, and whether the emphasis has changed over the years. To determine i f the direction and vision is shared across different areas o f the institution, or whether there are different understandings. To gain an understanding o f the purpose, function and role o f international activity at each institution. To learn how international activity is structured, and operationalized. To document the variety o f international activity at the University Colleges. To determine the general level o f awareness o f institutional policies that covers this type o f activity. To understand some o f the issues and challenges associated with international activity. To determine if international activity is changing shape or focus To identify growth areas o f international activity at each university college and determine what affect, i f any, this is having on the institution. To understand the interviewee's relationship to international activity and the role they see themselves playing in its development. Identify criteria that determine whether an international activity is considered to be successful or unsuccessful. Sample Questions: First Interview What does international activity look like at your institution? Can you define it for me? W h y do you do international? What purpose does it serve?  252  Does everyone share the same sense o f purpose or vision? Has this purpose changed over time? If so, how? D o you think it w i l l change in the future? Why? H o w does it function within the organization, in terms o f reporting relationships, responsibilities? Can you tell me about your involvement with international activity? What is your role? Tell me about the benefits o f doing international activity? What is the downside o f this type o f activity? What is the general feeling o f the institution towards international activity? D o you think they see it as an integral part o f its future or as a peripheral activity? Tell me about a success story in international. What about a situation that was unsuccessful? What happened? What do you feel is required to build a solid international program or project? What does it take within the institution to make it happen? What does the future hold for international activity? Where do you see it going? What role w i l l you play in its future development?  Staff Focus Group Interview Goals: To address questions to a wider group o f long term staff involved i n international activity at each university college to discover how the implementation o f activity affects their practice. To determine i f the direction and vision is shared across different areas o f the institution or whether there is different understanding.  Sample Staff Focus Group Questions Vision, purpose and function of international activity What do you think is the vision o f international activity at your institution? Its purpose and function? Has international activity increased here over the past ten years? H o w has it affected the organization? Can you give me some examples? Do you see international activity in the long-term vision o f the institution? W h y or why not?  Impact on Practice H o w does international activity affect your work? Can you give me some examples? 253  Has international activity changed what you do in a day or where you spend your time? In what way? What affect has this had on your work over the years? What do you like about international activity? Dislike? What if anything needs to be done to address international activity? Are you familiar with any institutional policies related to international activity? Do they impact you in any way? Any further thoughts or comments?  Faculty Focus Group Interview Goals: To address questions to a group of faculty involved in international activity at each university college to discover how the implementation of activity affects their practice. To determine if faculty have an understanding of the vision, purpose and function of international activity that is shared with administration and staff.  Sample Faculty Focus Group Questions Vision, purpose and function of international activity. What is the vision of international activity at your institution? Its purpose and function? Has international activity increased here over the past ten years? How has this increase affected the organization? Can you give me some examples? Do you see international activity in the long-term vision of the institution? Why or why not?  Impact on Practice Can you each share with me your involvement here in international activity? What has been your experience with international projects? Can you tell me a bit about it? What about international students? What has been your experience with them in the classroom? What do you see as some of the positive aspects of doing international work? Negative aspects?  254  What i f anything needs to be done to address international activity, or are you satisfied with the way activity is currently conducted? Are you familiar with any institutional policies related to international activity? D o they impact on you in any way? A n y further thoughts comments?  Interview Goals: Second Interview University College Administrators To address major themes that have emerged during the first set o f interviews and focus groups, by presenting a short summary o f information collected to date to the interviewees. This information will be sent out one week ahead of the scheduled second interview by email or mail to allow interviewees time to review the summary in advance. The interviewees will also have their transcribed interviews to review prior to the second interview. To provide interviewees with an opportunity to respond in a general way to these themes, add insights or clarification on particular points, or to build upon an idea or theme themselves or others may have raised during the first set o f interviews and focus groups.  Sample Second Interview Questions Since our last interview have you thought o f anything further that you would like to elaborate on from that discussion? After reviewing the transcription o f our interview, is there anything else that you think I should have asked in the first interview? Regarding the summary that I sent you, did anything appear surprising or new to you? Do you have any comments or thoughts on the findings?  255  Appendix H : Summary o f Findings to Phase 3 Interview Participants  Summary Provided to Phase 3 Individual Interviewees prior to interviews April 7, 2004 Observations based on preliminary findings: The most positive experiences around international were related to faculty that had worked in study abroad, exchanges and mobility projects. Faculty could see transformative effect this had on their students. Faculty and staff who were most positive around international education tended to have personal experiences in this area. There is a disconnect between international education and faculty areas. Not enough exchange o f ideas at various levels. Staff feel that they may not be doing an adequate job o f support international students. They would like to see more resources put in place such as training. Faculty areas don't see the benefit o f international ed revenue- not enough resources put into teaching area. Very different perceptions between international ed and the other areas o f the institution in terms o f role, purpose and function. International ed clearly sees their role as broader than what others do. Most o f the participants felt there should be a more academic connection to international ed. International Student Challenges: Student language levels are poor. Too many international students from one country compromises goal o f internationalizing a campus. Workload issue for both faculty and staff - more needy and bring with them personal issues that normally are handled outside the institution in domestic students. Workload implications have not been adequately addressed. Some o f the worst students. International Student Benefits: Internationalizing courses. Some o f the brightest students  Institutional Challenges Faculty W e are chasing too many things and run the risk o f totally diluting our programs or fragmenting what we do - it's a danger. International ed has a vision but its not necessarily shared or endorsed by the whole institution. Many conflicting views and tie into question are we a university or a college? Turnaround time on some o f these projects are too quickpeople get upset. Some departments and individuals are pulling away or actively resisting 257  internationalization, others are in support. Internationalization activities are not adequately funded. Pots o f money aren't big enough to do a good job. International activity seems to be driven from a top down model. A l l recognize the huge pressure international ed is under to bring more revenue into the institution. Very important for faculty to understand cultural context from which these students come. (Some faculty are biased - comments) Staff  Support staff frustrated because they feel they can't provide student with support they need. Not enough in place to help these students. Some blame international department for situation. Polarization - them and us. International students are taking too much time and taking time away from local students. Resources for support do not keep up with increased numbers o f students and programs. Existing policy around entry inadequate. Perception that int ed wanted to keep entry requirements low to boost numbers. D o not feel consulted about impact o f decisions such as increasing int student number. Frustration with getting other faculty on board with new international initiatives- not all faculty interested Not a clear vision o f what international means - it's a scattered approach. There is a belief that internationalizing domestic students should be an important priority- isn't happening yet Institutional Benefits People engaged in international are personally committed, see the value and believe in its benefits. Energized by the possibility. Exchange and study abroad programs were discussed. There is a great deal o f interest and enthusiasm i n these initiatives. Stems from a personal interest i n seeing it happen. Not factored into workload, so some are doing it others are not. The exchange programs are due to faculty interest and determination. International ed often funds the trip but done off the sides o f their desk.  Vision V i s i o n is around the financial aspects o f bringing i n more international students. Role and purpose has changed a great deal over past fifteen years. N o w international is all about money. Purpose is two fold - make money and provide domestic students with opportunity to meet international students. If it's about money then we need to be more consumer friendly - current system isn't. A s long as money dominates reason for int ed it w i l l be difficult to get buy in from faculty.  Recommendations There needs to be an articulated vision o f international education. Not clear why it is being done, except for money. Would like to see a more altruistic reason for doing int ed - adding richness to faculty and student exchange, internationalization. International education needs to pay attention to quality issues. Set standards high and that is who you w i l l attract. Need to have an advisory group that helps int ed keep in synch with rest o f the institution.  258  Should have academics working in int ed dept in some capacity. Some felt the dept should be led by a person from an academic background. Questions: Many of these preliminary findings have implications for educational leaders as they try to lead in a rapidly changing climate. Reaction time often must be quick and still work with the bureaucracies of each institution. Do you think leading an institution is different today than it was when you first entered into the system? What do you see as some of the challenges of being an educational leader today? How have you risen to the challenge? It appears that the people that excel in international work tend to have tremendous energy and commitment to the activity. How can you help them sustain this level? How can you get more people enthused? What will it take?  259  Appendix I: Statistical Information Provided by Request  a.  Ministry o f Advanced Education Post-Secondary Finance Branch, 1. December 31, 2004. Revenues Using N e w Format 2003/2004  b.  B C Ministry o f Advanced Education Post-Secondary Planning and Data Management Branch Credentials awarded by Credential Type, by Year: 1. 2001/2002; 2. 2002/2003; 3. 2003/2004  260  Revenues Using New Format 2003/04 Institution  ITA International  TOTAL All Sources  BCIT  $86,150,834  $19,814,017  $2,835,571  $214,111,742  CAM  $38,717,291  $3,408,933  $5,633,806  $74,293,360  CAP  $32,328,200  $587,714  $2,881,889  $62,985,935  CNC  $23,998,765  $3,517,317  $1,524,831  $42,775,179  COR  $13,999,903  $2,149,802  $750,893  $23,242,342  DOUG  $43,625,553  $0  $4,964,540  $78,267,519  ECIAD  $9,881,921  $0  $1,432,628  $15,894,374  MG  $1,879,653  $0  Jl  $6,670,155  $0  $0  $33,919,366  KWAN  $53,815,392  $3,696,477  $5,902,371  $100,512,221  LANG  $36,148,394  $0  $5,463,248  $75,037,483  MALA  $40,198,771  $4,106,908  $9,598,763  $84,203,653  $3,848,198  $0  $0  $5,820,535  NIC  $18,679,274  $2,482,982  $88,010  $27,700,047  NLC  $15,473,000  $1,774,000  $618,000  $23,916,000  NWCC  $15,620,317  $1,125,823  $23,333  $21,772,060  OUC  $47,842,841  $3,161,904  $3,436,763  $91,022,743  OLA  $19,876,983  $0  $260,894  $42,447,384  SEL  $24,134,271  $1,824,763  $1,023,930  $36,333,074  UCC  $41,044,250  $5,022,534  $8,487,860  $82,137,077  UCFV  $37,147,868  $2,380,133  $4,643,038  $66,846,921  VCC  $45,462,694  $9,270,959  $5,530,015  $89,526,072  $656,544,528  $64,324,266  $65,100,383  $1,294,977,765  NVIT  ho  AVED  SubTotal  P. Beatty-Guenter Post-Secondary Finance Branch  $2,212,678  Copy of Revenues-Karen Evans  Credentials Awarded by Credential Type  1  Academic Year 2001-2002 Institution British Columbia Institute of Technology Camosun College Capilano College College of New Caledonia College of the Rockies Douglas College Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design Institute of Indigenous Government Justice Institute of British Columbia  ADGR ADIP APPR  BACH  CERT CITN  DIPL Subtotal  2  NCRD NONE OTHR SPEC  Total 5,231  5,231"  0  0  0  503  1,914  0  1  0  0  1,915  0  60  0  61  2,902  0  2,208  133  0  0  0  1,278  0  0  0  0  0  708  62  541  1,311  0  307  0  0  1,618  37  12  0  0  594  0  188  831  0  0  0  0  831  16  0  0  0  567  0  91  674  0  0  0  0  674  300  56  0  0  356  0  580  0  0  0  270  0  0  0  16  0  0  0  22  0  0  0  837  0  0  0  0  0  1,292  0  212  0  0  1,504  "-• 270  0  0  0  0  - 270  38  0  0  0  0  38  :  837  0  • 0  0  0  837  :  0  Kwantlen University College  133  0  0  149  665  179  533  1,659  0  0  42  Langara College  106  27  0  0  89  0  534  ;- 756  0  0  0  0  756  Malaspina University-College  5  0  0  439  821  0  276  ", 1,541  1,166  0  0  0  2,707;  Nicola Valley Institute of Technology  0  0  0  0  69  0  47  116  0  3  0  0  445  0  97  571  0  0  0  0  1,701  ,: 119* 571  North Island College  29  0  0  0  Northern Lights College  19  0  115  0  162  0  116  .'412  0  0  0  0  4  0  0  0  352  0  34  390  0  11  0  0  401  545  0  258  1,208  0  0  0  0  1,208  924  0  0  0  0  924  677:  0  37  0  0  Northwest Community College  -  ;  412  11  0  0  394  Open Learning Agency  5  0  0  555  321  0  43  Selkirk College  0  0  0  0  357  0  320  University College of the Cariboo  23  0  0  464  870  0  320  '1,677  0  0  16  0  ' 1,693,  University College of the Fraser Valley  57  0  0  383  392  0  420  1,252  197  0  0  32  1,481  Okanagan University College  Vancouver Community College Sector Count 1  714  0  0  0  0  1,951  0  172  2,123  9  44  12  0  2,188  894  155  115  2,715  14,303  241  7,281  25,704  1,372  615  70  32  27,-793  A D G R = Associate Degree, ADIP= Advance Diploma, A P P R = Certificate of Apprenticeship, BACH= Bachelor's Degree,  CERT= Certificate, CITN= Citation, DIPL= Diploma, NCRD= Non-Credit Credential, NONE= Program does not offer credential, OTHR= Program offers a credential but not one of the above, S P E C = Specialization.  2  K>  Subtotal of degrees, diplomas, and certificates to be used in the Accountability Framework Performance Measures for  British Columbia Post-Secondary Institutions.  June 2003 Data Submission Query date: August 14, 2003  Accountability Branch Ministry of Advanced Education  Standard Reports 34 of 40  Credentials Awarded by Credential Type  1  Academic Year 2002-2003 Institution  ADGR  ADIP A P P R  BACH  CERT  CITN  DIPL Subtotal  NCRD NONE OTHR S P E C  Total  5,405  0  0  0  0  5,405  512  1,926,  0  0  0  0  1,926  0  67  1  92  2,999  0  2,246  Camosun College  151  0  0  0  1,263  0  Capilano College  British Columbia Institute of Technology  2  201  0  0  50  1,023  53  571  1,898  0  4  33  0  1,935  College of New Caledonia  46  19  0  0  546  0  215  826  0  0  0  0  826  College of the Rockies  23  0  0  0  590  0  81  694  0  0  0  0  694 1,758  291  17  0  0  344  0  668  1,320  0  438  0  0  Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design  0  0  0  295  0  0  0  295  0  1  0  0-  Institute of Indigenous Government  7  0  0  0  20  0  0  0  0  0  0  Justice Institute of British Columbia  0  0  0  0  1,663  0  0  1,663  0  0  21  0  1,684  Kwantlen University College  222  0  0  212  648  151  535  1,768  0  0  29  0  1,797  Langara College  Douglas College  27.:  296 27'  211  3  0  0  90  0  668  972  0  0  0  0  972  Malaspina University-College  6  0  0  379  1,189  0  297  1,871  1,024  0  0  0  2,895  Nicola Valley Institute of Technology  0  0  0  0  32  0  22  0  6  0  0-  *  North Island College  17  0  0  0  412  0  90  519  0  0  0  0  519  Northern Lights College  12  0  75  0  143  0  66  296  0  1  3  0  300  Northwest Community College  20  0  0  0  313  0  38  371.  0  1  0  0  372,  424  628  0  267  1,328;  0  0  0  0  1,328  541  60  Okanagan University College  9  0  0  Open Learning Agency  4  0  0  396  347  0  48  795;  0  0  0  0  795  Selkirk College  0  0  0  0  307  0  265  572'  0  46  0  0  618  University College of the Cariboo  29  0  0  483  679  0  355  1,546  0  0  12  0  1,558  University College of the Fraser Valley  74  0  0  412  618  0  413  1,517.  0  2  0  10  1,529  0  0  0  0  2,237  0  240  2,477;  0  46  37  1,323  106  76  2,743  16,091  204  7,597  28,140'  1,024  545  135  Vancouver Community College Sector Count  1  0 10  '2,560  ;  29,854  A D G R = Associate Degree, ADIP= Advance Diploma, A P P R = Certificate of Apprenticeship, BACH= Bachelor's Degree,  C E R T = Certificate, CITN= Citation, DIPL= Diploma, NCRD= Non-Credit Credential, NONE= Program does not offer credential, OTHR= Program offers a credential but not one of the above, S P E C = Specialization.  2  K) Os  Subtotal of degrees, diplomas, and certificates to be used in the Accountability Framework Performance Measures for  British Columbia Post-Secondary Institutions.  June 2004 Data Submission Query date: August 25th, 2004  Planning and Data Management Branch Ministry of Advanced Education  Standard Reports 2 of 4  Credentials Awarded by Credential Type Academic Year 2003-2004 Institution  5  6  Total  6  0  5,799 1,929  Masters Bachelors Associate Diploma Certificate Citation Subtotal APPR NCRD NONE OTHR SPEC Degree Degree Degree  British Columbia Institute of Technology  1  0  282  0  2,372  3  2  3,081  0  5,735  58  4  0  0  Camosun College  0  0  178  447  1,304  0  1,929  0  0  0  0  0  Capilano College  0  128  269  666  1,102  88  2,165  86  0  0  0  0  2,339  College of New Caledonia  0  0  24  258  610  0  892  0  0  0  0  0  892  College of the Rockies  0  0  16  97  701  0  814  0  0  0  0  0  814  Douglas College  0  0  516  842  414  0  1,772  0  0  463  0  0  2,235  Emily Carr Institute of Art and Design  0  270  0  0  0  0  270  0  0  0  0  0  270  Institute of Indigenous Government  0  0  5  0  19  0  24  0  0  1  0  0  Justice Institute of British Columbia  0  0  0  0  1,341  0  1,341  0  0  0  0  0  1,341  Kwantlen University College  0  243  346  543  523  98  1,655  0  0  0  55  0  1,808  Langara College  0  0  303  552  72  7  927  0  0  2  0  0  936  Malaspina University-College  0  473  9  298  1,032  0  1,812  49  612  0  0  0  2,473  Nicola Valley Institute of Technology  0  0  0  15  20  0  35  0  0  6  0  0  41  North Island College  0  0  17  77  355  0  449  0  0  0  0  0  449  Northern Lights College  0  0  13  88  223  0  324  96  0  0  0  0  420  Northwest Community College  0  0  31  47  246  0  324  0  0  0  0  0  324  Okanagan University College  0  481  8  372  638  0  1,499  0  0  0  0  0  1,499  Open Learning Agency  0  257  6  43  217  0  523  0  0  0  0  0  523  Selkirk College  0  0  22  282  346  0  650  0  0  62  0  0  712  University College of the Cariboo  0  502  22  335  874  0  1,733  0  0  0  25  0  1,758  University College of the Fraser Valley  0  471  75  330  686  0  1,562  0  0  2  0  6  1,570  Vancouver Community College  0  0  2,743  Sector Count  0  3,107  1  0 1,860  356  2,265  0  8,020  16,069  193  2,621 29,056  0  0  112  10  0  289  612  648  96  6 30,900  The Diploma category includes - Diplomas (DIPL), Advanced Diplomas (ADIP) and Post-Degree Diplomas (PDDP).  2  The Certificate category includes - Certificate (CERT), Professional Certificate (PCER), Post-Degree Certificate (PDCT) and Teachers Certificate (TCER).  3  The A P P R category refers to a Certificate of Apprenticeship and Journeyman Certificate.  4  25  The N C R D category refers to a Non Credit Credential.  to  5  The OTHR category refers to a Credential offered by an institution but not defined by Data Warehouse standard definitions.  ^  6  The S P E C category refers to a Specialization credential.  June 2005 Data Submission Query date: September 27th, 2005  Planning and Data Management Branch Ministry of Advanced Education  Standard Reports 2 of 4  

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