UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Time and narration : a study of sequential structure in Chinese narrative verse Lin, Zongzheng 2006

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_2006-200186.pdf [ 15.55MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0092825.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0092825-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0092825-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0092825-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0092825-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0092825-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0092825-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0092825-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0092825.ris

Full Text

TIME A N D NARRATION: A STUDY OF SEQUENTIAL STRUCTURE IN CHINESE NARRATIVE V E R S E by TSUNG-CHENG L I N B.A. Fu-jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, 1988 M . A . Indiana University, Bloornington, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Asian Studies) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A October 2006 © Tsung-Cheng Lin, 2006 11 Abstract The subject of my doctoral dissertation is sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry, which is a fundamental feature of narrative expression in Chinese poetry. Texts and genres covered include the Shijing f # $ i l (Book of Songs), Music Bureau (yuefu ^  fl?f) and ancient-style poetry (gushi c i j §#) of the latter Han and Six Dynasties, Tang poetry, and Early Qing poetry. The main purposes of my study are to examine the development of sequential structure, primarily non-temporal and anachronic sequential structures, in Chinese narrative poetry, as well as to explore the interplay of sequential structure between poetry and other literary genres. My dissertation found that the development of sequential structure in Chinese poetry can be divided into four stages. The first stage extends from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties. The development of sequential structure in Chinese poetry originated in the Shijing, the sequential structure of which became the foundation of sequencing in Chinese poetry during subsequent ages. This tradition of sequencing evolved further in the Han and Six Dynasties. The second stage comprises the Tang dynasty, when the development of sequential structure reached its first high point. No further significant progress in narrative poetic development was made in the third stage, stretching from the Song to the Ming, and the development of sequencing stagnated. Lastly, the fourth stage began in the Early Qing dynasty when the successful development of narrative poetry revitalized the development of sequencing in Chinese poetry, beginning a golden period of Chinese narrative poetry, especially long narrative poetry. My dissertation research makes potential contributions to the following three areas: it reviews the status of a number of poets in the development of Chinese poetry; it assesses the significance of certain poetic works in the development of Chinese poetry; and it appraises the contribution of the poetic works of a specific period, e.g., Tang poetry, to the development of Chinese poetry. Furthermore, understanding the tradition of Chinese narrative poetry can help us comprehend the scope of lyricism in Chinese poetry that is the main focus in traditional Chinese literary criticism. Furthermore, such an understanding is a key to studying narrative forms in Chinese literature in general. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv Acknowledgements v Chapter 1 Introduction -. 1 Chapter 2 Non-temporal Sequential Structure in Chinese Narrative Verse 15 Chapter 3 Anachronic Sequence in the Narrative Verse from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties 91 3.1 Introduction: Theoretical Background 91 3.2 Anachronic Sequences of the Shijing 102 3.3 Anachronic Sequences in the Narrative Verse of the Han and Six Dynasties 108 Chapter 4 Anachronic Sequence in Tang Narrative Verse 130 Chapter 5 Anachronic Sequence in Wu Weiye's Narrative Verse 157 Chapter 6 Conclusion 215 Bibliography 234 Appendix 1 Translations ...251 Appendix 2 , Chinese Texts 397 Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to my supervisor Professor Jerry D. Schmidt for his supervision, inspirations, and encouragements during these past eight years. It is him who brought me into the field of narrative studies, led me to a better understanding and appreciation of classical Chinese poetry, and opened the door for me to the world of Qing poetry, a golden age of classical Chinese poetry but ignored for many decades. His devotion to academic research has set the model of an ideal scholar for me. I would like also to express my gratitude to Professor Daniel Bryant at University of Victoria for his great helps in many ways. I am really fortunate to have him on my supervisory committee. It is him who encouraged me to study the interplay of narrative form between poetry and other literary genres, introduced me to the Chinese studies in Japan, and helped me fulfill my dream of conducting post-doctoral research at Kyoto University. My many thanks also go to Professor Michael S. Duke, my supervisory committee member, and two University Examiners, Professor Steven Taubeneck and Professor Jinhua Chen for their insightful comments. I am particularly grateful to External Examiner Professor Jonathan Chaves of the George Washington University for his valuable comments and inspiring suggestions, which will be one of the guides for my future research. I also want to thank my long-term friend Mr. Yu-Yu Tsai H j * t r ? of Fu-jen Catholic University for answering many questions about my translations of Qing verse and providing me useful information about Chinese narrative poetry. The person whom lam most deeply indebted to is my late father Mr. Chin-Yen Lin You introduced me to the wonders of fictions and literature. I still remember that in my childhood, I sat in front of you, listening to the stories you told from classical Chinese tales. I believe that you are the best storyteller, and that the versions of fiction you told are the most lively and fantastic versions I have ever read and heard. I wish I could have an opportunity to listen to your story again. I wish I could share with you what I found from the literary works that I have read during these past several years. I wish I could see your smile as you always did after listening to my fictions. I miss you so much, father! I still clearly remember that one evening in late summer many years ago, you took me to the countryside on your motorcycle. I sat behind you, holding you tightly. I looked up at the flying clouds in the sky, letting the gentle breeze touch my hair. They are the most beautiful clouds and gentlest breeze I have ever met. They are the treasures you left to me, and I promise I will pass them unto your granddaughter. I would like to express my deep gratitude to my mother Ms. Hsiu-0 Chuang $±^f my uncle Mr. Yung-Lan Wu ^MW\, my two sisters Ms. Huei-Jung Lin ^fc|!3§r and Ms. Chao-Huei Lin Wlpl! , and my parents-in-law, Mr. Hung-Yeh Chia WSSIrt and Mrs. Chu-Ying Chia JJSt^l, for their patience and enduring supports throughout these past years. I want to thank a beautiful young lady, my little daughter Elana You-Lan Lin Btf. These past months were the final stage and the most difficult time of my dissertation writing. Your angelic smile always made me forget the hardship I had gone through. Your sweet kiss always filled me with energy to move forward again and again. You are truly a gift from Heaven, and I love you so much. But please don't tear up your father's research works, no matter they are good or not, or if you like them or not. Last of all, I must thank my wife Ai-Lan Chia Wftlil- Since we first met fifteen years ago in Bloomington, a small beautiful college town in Indiana, you have been the first and most important reader of my research and literary works. It is due to your accompany that my works are no longer a monologue. You care every word I wrote. It is you helping me enjoy writing more than I expected. It is you making my academic career to become much more meaningful and colorful. You are not only the ideal reader of my works* but also the best friend of mine. It is your participation, especially your infectious laughter and surprised look, that made the stories I fictionalized, scary or comic, to be much more interesting and joyful. Whenever I came across difficulties in my writing, your intellectual input and your comfort as well as encouragement helped me overcome many obstacles, enabled me to successfully produce one work after another, and allowed me to patiently finish my dissertation. Thank you for your accompany, support, and love. This dissertation is dedicated to you and our little daughter Elana. 1 Chapter One: Introduction With its emphasis on "speaking of the aspirations" (yanzhi 1J>S) or "following feelings" (yuanqing UHl?), traditional Chinese literary criticism has been biased in favour of lyrical poetry rather than narrative. The lack of a doctrine of mimesis discouraged the objective qualities necessary for the full development of narrative poetry and narrative theories. However, despite the preeminence of lyrical verse in China, and the failure to develop narrative theories in early times, an important tradition of narrative poetry did exist.1 Moreover, the tradition of narrative poetry has played an important role in the development of Chinese literature. Specifically, Chinese narrative poetry has been influenced by the lyrical tradition in poetry. However, the lyricism in narrative poetry is different from the lyricism in lyrical poetry. One of the major distinctions between Chinese lyrical poetry and narrative literature is in their linguistic features. The language of lyrical poetry is imagistic, while the language of narrative literature is propositional. Imagistic language needs no specific agent, and its syntax is discontinuous. On the contrary, propositional language requires the presence of an agent, 1 Jerry D. Schmidt, Harmony Garden: The Life, Literary Criticism, and Poetry of Yuan Mei (1716-1798) (London: Routledge, 2003), p. 415. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as Harmony Garden. 2 and its syntax is continuous. Moreover, imagistic language is free from temporal reference, while prepositional language tends to be temporal. Chinese narrative poetry, on one hand, has been influenced by the lyrical convention in poetry, but on the other hand, it also carries narrative features. As a result, the imagistic and prepositional traditions of expression coexist in Chinese narrative poetry.2 Compared with lyrical poetry, the linguistic features of Chinese narrative poetry tend to be less imagistic and more prepositional. Chinese narrative poetry requires a more explicit presence of an agent, and its syntax is more continuous and temporal than lyrical poetry. In other words, lyricism in Chinese narrative poetry carries narrative features, which are different from lyricism found in lyrical poetry. Thus, an understanding of the tradition of Chinese narrative poetry can help us comprehend the scope of lyricism in Chinese poetry. In addition, Chinese narrative poetry could hardly have avoided fertilization from the tradition of narrative in other literary forms such as Ming and Qing vernacular novels and novellas. Yet the narrative form in poetry differs from narrative forms in other literary genres. As mentioned above, Chinese narrative poetry carries both imagistic and prepositional conventions of expression. Compared with other narrative 2 For a discussion of the distinctions between narrative and lyrical traditions of expression in Chinese poetry, see Dore J. Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry: the Late Han through Tang Dynasties (Durham: Duke University Press, 1988), pp. 25-27. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as Chinese Narrative Poetry. See also Kao Yu-kung and Mei Tsu-lin, "Syntax, Diction, and Imagery in T'ang Poetry," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 31 (1971): 49-136. 3 genres such as vernacular novels, the linguistic features of Chinese narrative poetry appear less prepositional and more imagistic. Therefore, its syntax is less continuous, and the presence of an agent is less explicit than in novels. In other words, the narrative tradition in Chinese narrative poetry has a strong sense of lyricism, setting it apart from the narrative tradition found in novels. Thus, an understanding of the tradition of Chinese narrative poetry is a key to understanding narrative form in Chinese literature better^  The subject of my doctoral dissertation is sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry. The reason I have chosen sequential structure to be the subject of my study is that sequential structure is a fundamental feature of narrative expression in Chinese poetry.3 Texts and genres covered are as follows: the Shijing frflM (Book of Songs); Music Bureau (yuefu ^j£f) and ancient-style poetry (gushi T5"§#) of the latter Han and Six Dynasties; Tang poetry; and Early Qing poetry. The main purposes of my study are to examine the development of sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry, as well 3 For a discussion of the fundamental aspects of narrative expression in Chinese poetry, see Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry, pp. 16-18. The eighteenth-century poet Yuan Mei JE$C (1716-1798) pointed out that one of the central concerns of good narrative verse was sequential structure. See Schmidt, Harmony Garden, p. 422. Sequential structure is a favourite topic in contemporary criticism of the modem Western novel. For a general discussion of sequential structure in Western novel, see Gerard Genette, Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method, translated by Jane E. Lewin (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980), pp. 33-85. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as Narrative Discourse. See also Mieke Bal, Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, 2nd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), pp. 80-99. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as Narratology. as to explore the interplay of sequential structure between poetry and other literary genres. This study argues that the development of sequential structure in Chinese poetry can be divided into four stages. The first stage extends from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties; the second stage comprises the Tang dynasty; the third stage stretches from the Song to the Ming; and lastly, the fourth stage begins in the Early Qing dynasty. The four stages of development are outlined as follows: The First Stage: The development of sequential structure in Chinese poetry originated in the Shijing, the earliest anthology of poetry in China, which is a collection of over three hundred poems from the Zhou Dynasty (1020-249 B.C.).4 The sequential structure in this anthology became the foundation of sequencing in Chinese poetry during subsequent ages. This tradition of sequencing evolved further in the Han and Six Dynasties (206 B.C.-588 A.D.). The most important development of sequencing in the poetry of that age is found myuefu and ancient-style poems. Among the poetry of that age, "Southeast the Peacock Flies" ("Kongque dongnan fei" ?L^^f^7Tl) stands out as the most significant poem. It would be safe to say that the tradition of sequencing in the poetry from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties reached its apex in this work. 4 Stephen Owen, ed. and trans., An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911 (New York: Norton, 1996), p. 10. An important study of this anthology is Wang Jingzhi 3ij§?2i, Shijing tongshi | f $ eighth edition (Taipei: Fu-Jen Catholic University Press, 1981), pp. 1-32. 5 The Second Stage: The development of sequential structure reached its first high point in the Tang dynasty (618-907). The most important development of sequencing in the poetry of that age can be seen in the works of Li Bai ^Fij (701-762), DuFu ttrW (712-770), Liu Zongyuan'HP^7C (773-819), Yuan Zhen jrM (779-831), Bai Juyi E3 jgB (772-846), and Wei Zhuang ^:<j± (ca. 836-910). Among these, Wei Zhuang's "Song of the Lady of Qin" ("Qinfu yin" ^^p%) is exemplary, and the tradition of sequential structure in the poetry from the Shijing to the Tang reached its summit in this poem. The Third Stage: No further significant progress in narrative poetic development was made in the following three dynasties, the Song (960-1279), Yuan (1280-1368) and Ming (1368-1644); therefore, the development of sequencing stagnated. This is probably because the critical attitude of the poets and critics of these dynasties was indifferent or even hostile to narrative poetry.5 The failure to continue the tradition resulted in the failure to continue the development of sequential structure in poetry during this stage. The Fourth Stage: Chinese narrative poetry, particularly long narrative poetry, did not enter its golden age in China until the second half of the seventeenth century, i.e., the 5 Schmidt, Harmony Garden, p. 416. 6 first fifty-some years of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).6 The successful development of narrative poetry revitalized the development of sequencing in Chinese poetry. The most important poet in this development was Wu Weiye (1609-1672). In addition to the influence of past poetry, Wu adapted narrative devices from other literary forms, such as Ming and Qing vernacular novels (baihua xiaoshuo S IS 7 - ] ^ ) and novellas (huaben i S ^ ) , to create new sequential structures, resulting in the most preeminent examples of sequencing in Chinese narrative poetry. Although an important tradition of narrative poetry did exist in China, Chinese narrative poetry has been ignored for decades by modern Chinese and Western scholars in Chinese literary studies. Most of the research on Chinese narratives focuses either on novels or historical writings. It was not until the last three decades that modern scholars in Chinese studies became truly interested in Chinese narrative poetry. However, as compared with the field of the vernacular novel, there are still very few scholars who deal with Chinese narrative poetry.7 Among them, the most important scholars in the 6 Schmidt, Harmony Garden, p. 416. 7 The most important works on Chinese narrative poetry written by modern Chinese scholars are: Liang Rongyuan "Tangdai xushishi yanjiu" Mi^MMWW^ (Taipei: Taiwan daxue zhongyansuo shuoshi lunwen MMJZ^*tJffiff(lM±WB~k, 1972); Wu Guorong ^ S H , "Zhongguo xushishi yanjiu" • ^ P i & ^ f f W ^ S (Taipei: Zhongguo wenhua daxue zhongyansuo shuoshi lunwen, ^WAi^CiZ^^^ ffrM±Sm3C, 1985); Huang Jingjin MM'M, "Zhongguo xushishi de fazhan" c p S i ^ g f rft#Jl, in Zhongguo wenhua fiixing yundong tuixing weiyuanhui ^M^CihW-MMMlt^J^M^, ed., Zhongguo shige yanjiu 4 ,§SI#3Wf3'5 (Taipei: Zhongyang wen wu, 1985); Huang Jinzhu jl[!ffjg£, "Wu Meicun xushishi yanjiu" ^M^^MWWi9£ (Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo shuoshi lunwen HiUBiJi field of Chinese narrative poetry are Professor Ching-hsien Wang, Professor Dore J. Levy, and Professor Jerry D. Schmidt. Professor Wang published a pioneering article on Tang narrative verse twenty years ago, entitled "The Nature of Narrative in T'ang Poetry." Professor Levy published a monograph on Chinese narrative verse, entitled Chinese Narrative Poetry: The Late Han through T'ang Dynasties. Professor Schmidt published an important article on Qing narrative poetry, entitled "Yuan Mei and Qing-dynasty Narrative Verse." Not only have their studies made significant m±^Mffiffim±i$i3t, 1986); Lin Mingzhu #BJSfc, "Bai Juyi xushishi yanjiu" SJg^&CW$?W3S (Taipei: Dongwu daxue zhongyansuo shuoshi lunwen M^iZ^^WrfiMztMSi, 1990); Chen Shaosong WPfa, "Qingdai de xushishi j i qi lilun chutan" miXffiffiC^WRMWmWW., Nanjing shifan daxue t xuebao (shehui kexue ban) jg3fCeWfc*;Wffi (MfWJiS) 3 (1991): 80-7; Tian Baoyu ffl^5, "Zhongguo xushishi de chuancheng yanjiu: yi tangdai xushishi weizhu" 4*ll§tfcff r^^#Mpc5Ff^ 5 - &. iHt'(X$(9mfMzE (Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo boshi lunwen fii^Sll^^^S^f^fMiafe 3t, 1993); Qiu Xieyou 6fl^£;, Zhongguo lidai xushishi ^WM^MM^ (Taipei: Sanmin, 1993); HongShunlong gyiJIPfl, Shuqingyu xushi fffm^^M (Taipei: Liming wenhua, 1998); Wu Fumei ffi i l l ! , "Meicunshi de xushi gexing" MHWfflfflU^Mft, in Wu, Wu Meicun shigeyishu xinlun isi#ifcf!f W:WW§xM (Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue, 1998), pp. 131-82; and Lin Caishu W&ffl., "Hanwei xushishi yanjiu" WiMffl(^W$t^ (Taipei: Zhongguo wenhua daxue zhongyansuo shuoshi lunwen tfiWH X'fbA^ ,:PW^ fl®drife3t, 1998). Useful anthologies of Chinese narrative verse in modern Chinese are: WangYuqi JE^fg and Wen Guoxin miHlfr, ed., Lidai xushishi xuan JEftifclM^Tll (Guiyang: Renmin, 1984); Zhi Fang ffij^ and Chu Kui 23tH, ed. and comm., Lidai xushishi xuanyi Mi^MMm MM (Nanjing: Jiaoyu, 1984); Peng Gongzhi ed., Zhongguo lidai zhuming xushishi xuan cpS MiXM^i^MMM (Zhengzhou: Huanghe wenyi, 1985); Lu Nanfu ed., Zhongguo lidai xushi shige: xianqin lianghan weijin nanbeichao bian ^ MMiX^Ml^Wi - Jh^MMMWffilt^ftM (Jinan ^$f: Shandong wenyi, 1987); and Wu Qingfeng ^±§t$&, ed. and comm., Lidai xushishi shangxi MfWt mmnm (Jinan $?j£: Mingtian, 1990). Some of the best English-language studies on Chinese narrative verse are: Joseph Roe Allen, "Early Chinese Narrative Poetry: The Definition of a Tradition," Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1982, and "The End and Beginning of Narrative Poetry in China," Asia Major 2 (1989): 1-24; Cai Zongqi, "Dramatic and Narrative Modes of Presentation in Han Yueh-fu," Monumenta Serica 44 (1996): 101-49; Dore J. Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry; Kao Yu-kung and Mei Tsu-lin, "Syntax, Diction, arid Imagery in T'ang Poetry," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 31 (1971): 49-136; Ching-hsien Wang, "The Nature of Narrative in T'ang Poetry," in Lin Shuen-fu and Stephen Owen, eds., The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to T'ang (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986), pp. 217-52; and Jerry D. Schmidt, "Yuan Mei and Qing-dynasty Narrative Verse," Journal of Oriental Studies 37 (1999): 1-33; and Harmony Garden, pp. 415-51. 8 contributions to the field, their findings have also had a great impact on my research. My research owes a great deal to the research of the aforementioned scholars, particularly that of Professor Schmidt. However, there are some major differences between my research and previous studies. First, my dissertation deals with Chinese narrative poetry covering periods that range from the earliest times to the last dynasty, the Qing. Second, my dissertation displays the development of sequential form in Chinese poetry. Third, my dissertation examines and illustrates the interplay of narrative form between poetry and other literary genres. The narrative theories that I use in my dissertation are taken from the works of modern European scholars, principally the theory of Gerard Genette. There are three major reasons for choosing Genette's theory as my primary theoretical foundation. First, Genette's theory is one of the most widely used narrative theories in the study of Chinese narrative literature. Many modern Chinese scholars, such as David D.W. Wang ^MM, Karl S.Y. Kao M¥M, Yi Yang # § ^ , Zhihong Li and Dan Shen tf* ;Ff, use Genette's theory to analyze narrative forms in traditional or modern Chinese novels, and have in turn made significant contributions to the field.8 Second, Genette's 8 Please see Wang Der-wei jEtilJSSL "Chulun Shen Congwen Bian Cheng de aiqing chuanqi yu xushi tezheng" WMffl&S&Ci VAMl) fi5g«&^H&lPr#&, in Wang Der-wei, ed., Zhongsheng xuanhua: sanlingyu baling niandai de zhongguo xiaoshuo ^j^nHBp: H O f 2 / \ O ^f^fr5 cf ]^ /JNift (Taipei: Yuanliu, 1988), pp. 111-23; and "Shuohua yu zhongguo baihua xiaoshuo xushi moshi de guanxi" iftfrSfl 9 theory consists of many important narrative topics, and the discussions and analyses of each topic are precise and detailed. The application of these topics helps to elucidate the complexity of sequential structure in Chinese poetry. Third, Genette's theoretical frameworks are clear, practical, and systematic. They can be applied to narrative studies easily, and moreover, serve as excellent aids in analyzing the complexity of sequential structure in Chinese poetry. It is noteworthy that traditional Chinese literary criticism did pay attention to the study of narrative literature. Important critics were Jin Shengtan ^ ^ t | | (1608-1661), Mao Zonggang (fl. 1660), and Zhang Zhupo 3gf f t£ (1670-1698). Although their narrative theories are mostly concerned with narrative technique, narrative function, and structural pattern, they indeed paid particular attention to narrative time, and created some terminologies to refer to textural linking, textural arrangement, and fictional sequence.9 However, their classifications of narrative time or sequential structure are tfiM Fi5S /JNiSi5CS^^&1)iS'f^, in Wang Der-wei, ed., Cong Liu E dao Wang Zhenhe: Zhongguo xiandai xieshi xiaoshuo sanlun t ^ M l l f J i ' M f f l : ^MWXWUA^BM (Taipei: Shibao, 1990), pp. 24-54. GaoXinyong i U ^ J i , "Xiyou bu yu xushi lilun" WWW^W^WWa, in Ning Zongyi andLu Decai ed., Lun Zhongguo gudian xiaoshuo deyishu M^Ml^^4^$$ftWWs (Tianjin: Nankai University Press, 1984), pp. 188-208; and Karl S.Y. Kao (M¥M) "Aspects of Derivation in Chinese Narrative," Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 7 (1985): 1-36. Yang Y i #§fi, Zhongguo xushi xue t$W}$tM^ (Jiayi: Nanhua guanli xueyuan r S ^ ^ f f l ^ ^ , 1998). L i Zhihong ^Wfc, "Rulin Waishi xushi yishu yanjiu" M^-^i-^MMW^W:^ (Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo shuoshi lunwen MMM^J^W®\fftW±W$L, 1996). Dan Shen, "Defense and Challenge: Reflections on the Relation between Story and Discourse," Narrative 10.3 (October 2002): 222-43. 9 The terminologies in their narrative theory are mostly concerned with narrative technique, narrative function, and structural pattern. For example, qicheng $=E;p: (introduction and development), zhaoying 10 relatively simple and basic, and are apparently not sufficient to account for the complexity of sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry. For example, "backward narration" (daoxu Mix" ) is termed "analepsis" in modern Western narratology. In Chinese narrative poetry, there are seven types of analeptic sequence. The simple, basic term daoxu cannot account for the variety of analeptic sequence found in Chinese narrative poetry. Moreover, their terminologies cannot pinpoint the ending point of a narrative, which is important for the classification of sequential form. Without detailed classification of sequential form, we cannot fully understand the sophisticated technique of sequencing and the complexity of sequential structure in Chinese narrative verse. Although Genette's theory works well iri the study of Chinese narrative poetry and other narrative genres, it does have some limitations. The first is the detenriination of narrative speed. Genette's theory is built upon the narrative features of novels. Novels are long. The language of novels is highly descriptive and propositional, and narrative reference in novels is explicit. It is not difficult to detennine the speed of a narrative. MM (projection and reflection), caoshe huixian ^Lfy\iM$k (snake in the grass line), genian xiazhong M ^ " F S (sowing seeds a year in advance), fubi i^M; (to plant narrative threats to be taken up later), chenran WMk (highlight), fanzhao fzM. (contrastive reflection), shixu Kiffit. (direct narrative), and xuxu |jJi$Sj (indirect narrative). The terminologies which refer to textural linking, textural arrangement, or fictional sequence are cixu ^M. (order), cidi (sequence), pailie (arrangement), buxu (complementary narrative), shunxu lit$ft (forward narration), daoxu (backward narration), zhuishu xl lM (follow-up narration), daocha MJS (advance insertion), jiadai 3^ r^ (peripheral narration),y/awxM MML (simultaneous narration), and so on. For a discussion of the narrative theories and terminologies developed by these three critics, see David L. Rolston, ed., How to Read the Chinese Novel (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 75-243. 11 However, Chinese narrative poetry is short. Its language is imagistic and highly refined. It is extremely difficult to establish a base-line to tell the difference between different narrative speeds in Chinese narrative poetry. Every narrative speed could only be defined relatively in Chinese poetry. In addition to limitations in deteraiining narrative speed in Chinese poetry, Genette and other modern narratologists such as Mieke Bai use modern syntactic and semantic theory to determine the narrative voice and perspective of a narrative. As mentioned above, their theories are built upon the linguistic features of novels. However, lyricism plays an important role in Chinese narrative verse. Chinese poetry usually avoids the clear indication of pronouns, i.e., omission of clear indication of narrative agent. In many cases, it is extremely difficult to determine the narrative voice and perspective of certain poetic lines. The same can be said of the determination of narrative time. Since the indication of time and place is explicit in novels, it is much easier to determine which paragraph describes the past and which describes the present. But, due to the influence of lyricism, temporal reference in narrative poetry is less explicit than in novels. In other words, Chinese narrative poetry frequently avoids the clear indication of time. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the narrative time of a poetic line. For example, Chinese poets like 12 to describe their emotions or reflections after an account of past events. Because there is no explicit indication of time, such description of emotions or reflections can be seen as having occurred in the past, but can also be seen as being the poet's present feelings. In general, sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry can be divided into two major categories: temporal and non-temporal. Events in a temporal sequence are organized according to their temporal order, while events in a non-temporal sequence are not. In Chinese narrative poetry, there are several techniques of organizing events into a non-temporal sequence, which will be discussed in the following chapter. ' Temporal sequences can be further divided into two types: chronological and anachronic. A simple distinction between these two types is that sequences in which events are organized according to their chronological order are denned as chronological, while sequences in which events are not arranged in chronological order are termed anachronies or chronological deviations.10 The order of events in chronological sequences must obviously be chronological, i.e., events must follow one another according to their chronological order; therefore, the movement of events appears to be 1 0 According to Western narrative theories, differences between the two orderings of story and narrative are called anachronies or chronological deviations. For a definition and discussion of anachrony, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 35-47; see also Bal, Narratology, pp. 83-97, and Steven Cohan and Linda M . Shires, Telling Stories: A Theoretical Analysis of Narrative Fiction (hereafter abbreviated Telling Stories), (New York: Routledge, 1988), pp. 84-85.1 will elaborate on the definition of anachrony in Western narrative theories in later chapters. 13 regular. This regularity of movement restricts the form of presentation of events, resulting in a lack of liveliness and variety of content, and evoking a sense of monotony in the reader. Conversely, anachronies do not have these problems associated with chronological sequences. Anachronies allow events to move back and forth between present and past without restriction, and consequently the movement of events is rendered dynamic. The dynamic temporal movement allows the form of presentation to be more diverse, which together with the movement of events can elicit liveliness and accommodate variety of content, and even convey a special meaning. In the history of Chinese narrative verse, the level of complexity of anachrony accompanies the development of narration in poetry, i.e., the poetry of later ages progressively displays a higher level of complexity in the use of anachrony. It would be safe to say that the level of complexity of anachrony can serve as an index indicating the development of narration in Chinese poetry. In addition to this Introductory Chapter and the final Concluding Chapter, the main body of my dissertation consists of four chapters. Chapter Two discusses non-temporal sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry. Special attention is paid to the techniques of sequencing that Chinese poets used to arrange events into non-temporal sequences. The following three chapters examine the development of anachronic 14 sequential structure in Chinese narrative poetry. Chapter Three traces the development of anachronic sequential structure during the first stage, i.e., from the Shijing to the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. In other words, this chapter examines the origin of anachronic sequencing in Chinese poetry and its earlier stages of development. Chapter Four examines anachronic sequencing in Tang poetry. Special attention is paid to the increased level of complexity of anachrony in Tang poetry. Chapter Five looks specifically at Wu Weiye's achievements in the development of anachronic sequencing and his contribution to it. This chapter also examines the interplay of sequential structure, between poetry and other literary genres. Appendix 1 is the translation of the Chinese narrative poems used in my dissertation. Some English translations are cited from other scholars' works, while in some other translations, I have made changes according to commentaries that I believe to be superior. Note that most of Wu Weiye's poems used in my dissertation are my own original translations. Appendix 2 is the Chinese text of these translated narrative poems. 15 Chapter Two: Non-temporal Sequential Structure in Chinese Narrative Verse In Chinese narrative verse, non-temporal elements such as cardinal points and astronomical patterns are used to organize events into non-temporal sequences. This , mode of writing is one of the writing techniques in the principle of fu discussed by ancient Chinese critics.11 The principle of fu may be interpreted as "display, description, or narration" (puchen MM., or fuchen ®[|^) or "direct display, direct description, or direct narration" (zhichen ~^LM).12 In Chinese narrative poetry, the use of the principle 1 1 It is noteworthy that the sequences in which events are organized by the principle offu can be either temporal or non-temporal. Moreover, the order of events in the temporal sequences that are formed by the principle of fu is mostly chronological. While this is generally true for Chinese poetry, it does not mean that events in every chronological sequence are arranged by the/w principle. 1 2 Zheng Xuan (117-200) writes in his annotation of Zhou Li MM, "The reason that the principle of/w means display is that it is the way to directly display the good and evil of the current political and religious affairs" K £ B j$, m.MM.^ZM.mM. See Zheng Xuan, Zhouli Zhengjian ffi£S8&k (Taipei: Xinxing, 1976), juan # 23, p. 124. LiuXie MiSci (ca. 465-522) elaborates on Zheng's idea in his Wenxin diaolong 3$0L>lflH as follows: "The principle offu is narrative display, that is, using literary expressions to display objects and describe feelings and aspirations" WM, U l t l ; Mffl$3C, la^ /^^> t i l . See Liu Xie, Wenxin diaolong (Taipei: Sanmin, 1996), p. 121. Kong Yingda I L H I I (574-648) continues Zheng Xuan's and Liu Xie's ideas, writing in his annotation of Mao Shi ^3i#, "Verse that directly displays events and has no use of analogy is verse composed according to the principle of/u" f# SjfflSJ^, WJKSrife. See Kong Ymgda, Mao Shi zhengyi € ^ P i E « (Taipei: Xinxing, 1979), p. 26. ZhuXi (1130-1200) points out the same idea in his Shijizhuan &fMW "The principle of/w is displaying events, and describing them directly." I f c i ^S ( iMi lLW^# t ! l - See Zhu X i , Shijizhuan (Taipei, Zhonghua, 1973), p. 3. Concerning the English translation of the principle oifu, different scholars have different points of view. Chen Shih-hsiang translates it as "narrations" (See Shih-hsiang Chen, "The Shih Ching: Its Generic Significance in Chinese Literary History and Poetics," in Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology [Academia Sinica] 39.1 [1968]: 371-413; reprinted in Cyril Birch, ed., Studies in Chinese Literary Genres [Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974], pp. 8-41.) Following Chen Shih-hsiang, Ching-hsien Wang translates the principle ofju as "narrative display." (See Ching-hsien Wang, "The Nature of Narrative in T'ang Poetry," pp. 218-9). Pauline Yu, in "Metaphor and Chinese Poetry," (CLEAR 3.2 [July 1981]: 214, 216), translates it as "exposition" and "direct description." Dore J. Levy, in Chinese Narrative Poetry, pp. 35-38, translates it as "enumeration." For a discussion of the ' 16 of/u as a means of non-temporal sequencing originated in the Shijing, and moreover, most of the elements that are used to order events in non-temporal sequences were well developed in this anthology. The techniques of non-temporal sequencing of the Shijing had a great impact on later poets, who inherited techniques from this anthology with only a few elaborations. In other words, the techniques of non-temporal sequencing used in Chinese narrative verse are similar. Thus, in this chapter, the discussions concerning these techniques will be presented as a whole, rather than divided into different time periods (i.e., the Shijing, Han and Six Dynasties, Tang Dynasty, and Qing Dynasty). In general, there are four major elements that are used to order events into non-temporal sequences in Chinese narrative poetry. In the first, different parts of the human body, or different articles of clothing, act as the order of sequencing. This particular technique is most often used to describe a character's outer appearance. A good example of this technique in the Shijing is the second stanza (lines 8-14) of Poem 57, "A Splendid Woman" ("Shuoren" ftpfA), which details this technique nicely: translations of the principle of/w, see Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry, pp. 35-38.1 personally prefer "display," "description," or "narration" for puchen MM. or fuchen %M, and "direct display," "direct description," or "direct narration" for zhichen jlTJii. 17 Hands white as rush-down, Skin like lard, Neck long and white as the tree-grub, Teeth like melon seeds, Lovely head; beautiful brows. Oh, the sweet smile dimpling, The lovely eyes so black and white.13 These seven lines show how different parts of the Lady of Zhuang's body are taken as the order of sequencing to describe her beauty. The focus of the portrayal starts with a description of her hands, then shifts to her skin, neck, teeth, head, eyebrows, smile, and finally, her eyes. This technique of describing a beauty in this poem stands out significantly, and in the opinion of some scholars, may indeed be regarded as the origin of the technique used to portray women in the Chinese fu genre (translated as "rhapsody" below).14 In rhapsody, one of the best examples of this technique is Song 1 3 The translation is from The Book of Songs, translated by Arthur Waley and edited with additional translations by Joseph R. Allen (New York: Grove Press, 1996), p. 48. Hereafter this work will be cited as The Book of Songs. For the Chinese text, see Wang JingzHi, Shijing tongshi, p. 142. 1 4 See Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, p. 143. Wang claims that this work is the origin of fu genre works on beautiful women. Following Wang, my study discovers that in addition to having a great impact on the fu genre, the techniques of description in "Shuo ren" can be further regarded as the origin of the same techniques in Chinese shi poetry. I will illustrate this point later in this chapter. mtsmm, 18 Yu's 5f5i (ca. 290-223 B.C.) "Rhapsody on Master Dengtu the Lecher" ("Dengtuzi haosefu" ^m^immy. Her eyebrows are like kingfisher plumes, Her skin is like white snow, Her waist is like bundled silk, Her teeth are like cowry shells.15 In this work, the focus of description starts with the woman's eyebrows, then moves to her skin, waist, and finally, to her teeth. Cao Zhi's Hlg (192-232) "Rhapsody on the Luo River Goddess" ("Luoshen fu" ^1$®) provides another excellent instance of this technique. In this work, the Goddess's beauty shifts item by item: from her shoulders, then to her waist, neck, throat, hair, brows, lips, teeth, and finally moving to her eyes and their glances. It is apparent that the technique of description of a woman's beauty became much more detailed in Cao Zhi's work: 1 5 The translation is from David R. Knechtges, translated with annotations, Wen xuan or Selections of Refined Literature (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), vol. 3, p. 351.For the Chinese text, see Zengbu Liuchenzhu Wenxuan i^Mr\^MSM (Taipei: Huazheng, 1980), p. 349. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as ZLWX. 19 Her shoulders seem as if sculpted, M^fMf$i, Her waist is like bundled silk. MtRffiM-On her long throat and slender neck, M S f ^ B l , White flesh is clearly revealed. M S -Fragrant oils she does not apply, ^WMlNl, Flower of lead she does not use. In^^fW-Billowy chignons rise high and tall, Jtffll&lflc, Long eyebrows are delicately curved, &MW>$f=l, Scarlet hps shine without, fJW^Jtfi, White teeth gleam within. 6nl§ PW-Bright eyes do well at casting sidelong glances, ^S^Hrrl^, Dimples lie on either cheek.16 fiiffltf&ll-In addition to having a great impact on rhapsody, the technique of using different parts of the human body or different articles of clothing as the order of sequencing in the Shijing was adopted as the principal vehicle of description of beautiful women in yuefu poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. Typical evidence of this technique can be seen in 1 6 Knechtges, Wenxuan, vol. 3, p. 359. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, p. 351. 20 "Mulberries by the Path" ("Moshang sang" P@±^). Lines 7-12 read: The straps of her basket are of blue silk, Its handle, a branch of cinnamon. Her hair has a trailing ponytaiL In her ears are bright moon pearls. Her skirt below is saffron damask, Of purple damask, her vest above.17 These three couplets describe the female protagonist Luofu's JUlfc attire. The description starts from the basket she holds in her arms, shifts its focus up to her hair-style and ear ornaments, then moves down to her skirt, and finally moves up to her vest. The movement of description goes back and forth, from the middle, up, down, and finally back to the middle. In following this movement, the reader is given a close picture of Luofu's attire, and thereby appreciates her beauty in slow detail. 1 7 The translation is from Owen, p. 234. For the Chinese text, see Guo Maoqian fl^-fra (A- 1264-1269), Yuefu Shiji (Taipei: Liren, 1999), pp. 410-11. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as YFSJ. Another example of this sequencing technique is the Eastern Han yuefu poem "Officer of the Guard" ("Yulin lang" 33#f fl). Four couplets (lines 7-14) describe the beauty of a Hu f+fj girl. The description starts with her long-hung skirt, then moves up to her vest, then up to her head and ear ornaments, and finally, over to her hair-style. This poem's descriptive movement is structured in a downward to upward motion, and finally stops at the beauty's hair-style, displaying a movement different from that of "Mulberries by the Path": A long-hung skirt, twined-ribbon sash, :S!S«Effl'rfr, Billowing sleeves, acacia vest. M^ka WiWi-On her head she wore Lan-tian jade, • ISJlMffliE, In her ears she wore pearls from Rome. SP^I j^M^k-Her hair in two buns was so lovely There was nothing like them in the world. — tJ£i§:$f M-One bun was worth five million in gold, ^ ( 1 5 FJ rSL And the two together, more than ten.18 WWf'Mi^k-The translation is from Owen, pp. 235-36. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 909. This technique of sequencing is elaborated more in the anonymous Han yuefu "Southeast the Peacock Flies." In lines 97-104, the movement of description of Lanzhi's jUri^ l attire moves between downward and upward foci several times, providing a very detailed portrayal of the lady's beauty. The initial four lines describe articles of clothing, starting from her silk shoes, then shifting up to her hairpin, then down again to the flowing white gauze at her waist, and finally moving up to her earrings. The following two lines describe the natural beauty of her body. The focus of description in the two lines moves from the previous description of her ear ornaments down to her slim, white fingers, and then up again to her bright red lips. In the final couplet, the focus of description shifts down again to her delicate steps to further emphasize the completeness of her beauty: ^ On her feet she wore a pair of silk shoes, ST^MMM, On her head tortoise-shell combs shone; WlAz^M^fc-Round her waist she wore flowing silk gauze, M^^iMiM, On her ears she wore a pair of moon-bright J^PH^ M Ill-pearl pendants; 1 9 The translation of these eight lines is mine. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 1035. 23 Her fingers were white and slim like pared scallion stems, Her lips were colored bright red as if scarlet cinnabar were in her mouth. She walked with delicate steps, Such beauty no one can match in the world. The use of articles of clothing, actions, and physical appearance of the character to establish the order of narration continued to be one of the principal means of sequencing in Tang poetry. A good example is Bai Juyi's "The Old Man from Xinfeng with a Broken Arm" ("Xinfeng zhebi weng" Iftlllffff II)- The initial four lines read: In Xinfeng there lives an old man of eighty-eight, His hair, his eyebrows and beard as white as snow; As his grandson's grandson helps him past the inn, 2 0 The translation is from Xianyi Yang and Gladys Yang, trans., Poetry and Prose of the Tang and Song (Beijing: Panda Books, 1984), p. 119. For the Chinese text, see Bai Juyi Quanji S fyHr^ l f t (Shanghai: Guji, 1999), p. 40. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as BJYQJ. — A + A , 24 His left arm in on the boy's shoulder, his right hangs TjcWMM^WJ/f • useless.20 In the initial two lines, the description of the old man begins with his age, and then proceeds to a description of the color of his hair, the hair at his temples, eyebrows, and > beard. In the following two lines, the description shifts its focus to the old man's posture and his two arms: the left arm is used to support himself, and the right is broken. Bai Juyi's "An Old Charcoal Seller" ("Maitan weng" gfl^ll) is similar in this respect. In lines 3-4, the sequence of description follows the targeting of vision, i.e., the description focusing first on his face, then shifting to the hair at his temples, and finally down to his fingers: His face smeared with dust and ash the color of ^MMMMiK^,, woodsmoke, His hair gone grizzled and grey, his ten fingers H M -utter black.21 2 1 The translation is from David Hinton, trans., The Selected Poems of Po Chii-i (New York: New Directions, 1999), p. 26. For the Chinese text, see BJYQJ, p. 50. 25 Different parts of the human body and different articles of clothing are also used to set the order of sequencing in Wu Weiye's poetry. An example of this technique can be seen in "The Child from Jinshan" (Jinshan er" Mlillrl). In the description of the child's miserable experiences (lines 16-17), the movement of description goes from upward to downward, starting from his naked body, and then moving down to his bare, injured feet: His body wore no trousers and vest, His feet wore nothing but the stings of caltrop. Another example of this technique in Wu's poetry is "Song of Painting Orchids" ("Hualan qu" fiiUffi)- In lines 5-8, the poet uses this technique to describe the beauty of Bian Min T"!$[. The descriptive focus begins with her fragrant lipstick, then shifts to her light and supple wrist, and finally moves to the heavy bracelet she wears at her wrist. This movement of description proceeds slowly, suggesting the poet's careful observation and his sincere appreciation of his beloved: 2 2 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see Wu Meicun Quanji ^I#itir3ilit (Shanghai: Guji, 1990), p. 89. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as WMCQJ. By the window she unfolded fine paper from Shu, and painted an orchid, Her lipstick spread a sweet scent, entering her painting brush. Her light and supple wrist could draw an orchid sprout easily, But the heavy bracelet at her wrist made it a bit difficult to paint orchid branches and leaves/ In addition to different parts of the human body, physical appearances and articles of clothing, different landscapes or geographical locations (the second element) can be used to order the sequencing in Chinese narrative verse. One example of this technique in the Shijing is Poem 108, "Oozy Ground by the Fen" ('Tenjuru" i ^ M l ) . This poem recounts that the ruler of Wei ^ state is diligent and frugal. He often goes to the bank of the Fen River to pluck vegetables himself, but this extraordinary frugality offends the tradition of nobility.24 This poem is divided into three stanzas, each stanza 2 3 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 43. 2 4 For a discussion on the theme of this work, see Wu Hongyi , Baihua shijing F ^ f r J ^ I S (Taipei: Lianjing, 1998), vol. 2, p. 341. 26 27 recounting the ruler of Wei going to a different place to pluck different vegetables. In the first, he plucks sorrel in the oozy ground of the Fen River; in the second stanza, he plucks mulberry- leaves beside the Fen; and the third recounts that he plucks water-plantain at the river bend. The poet uses three different locations as the order of events to organize the three stanzas into a sequence: There in the oozy ground by the Fen, WtftUM, He went plucking the sorrel. W ^ ^ S I -Such a gentleman he was, , $t5C^L~f% Lovely beyond compare. U M l i ! . Lovely beyond compare, More beautiful than any that ride with the duke in his coach. There on the riverside by the Fen, '^3, He went plucking mulberry leaves, W ^ R ^ H I -2 5 The translation is based on the Book of Songs, p. 85, but I have made some changes according to Wang Jingzhi's (Shijing tongshi, pp. 229-31) and Wu Hongyi's (Baihua shijing, vol. 2, pp. 341-44) commentaries. For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 229-31. 28 Such a gentleman he was, Lovely as the glint of jade. H$Q^. Lovely as the glint of jade, More splendid than any that attend 1T-the duke in his coach. There in the bend of the Fen, r WR—ffl, He went plucking water-plantain. H ^ R ^ r l f • Such a gentleman he was, Lovely as jade. H$03L Lovely as jade, |€$|]3L, More splendid than any that escort ^M^F^AI^-the duke in his coach/5 i Another example of using different landscapes or geographical locations to order the sequencing is Poem 110, "Climb the Wooded Hill" ("Zhihu" ^Hl£). This poem describes a soldier thinking of his family members.26 Of this poem's three stanzas, the 2 6 For a discussion of the theme of this work, see Wu Hongyi, Baihua shijing, vol: 2, p. 353. initial two lines of each start the narration with an account of the soldier thinking of his various family members in different locations. The opening two lines of the first stanza describe his thoughts of his father on a "wooded hill"; those of the second stanza relate his thoughts of his mother on a "bare hill"; those of the third recount his thoughts of his elder brother on a "ridge": I climb that wooded hill, And look toward where my father is. My father is saying, "Alas, my son is on service, Day and night he knows no rest. Grant that he is being careful of himself, So that he may come back and not be left behind! I climb that bare hill, Arid look toward where my mother is. 2 7 The translation is from The Book of Songs, pp. 86-87. For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 232-33. 30 My mother is saying, "Alas, my young One is oil ® 0 : " i j M ^ p , service, Day arid night he gets no sleep. ^§M^MW-Grant that he is being careful of himself, Jtfjliffccjfe, So that he may come back, and not be cast away." ® 3 f 5 ^ ^ . " I climb that ridge, W$M*$, And look toward where my elder brother is. WiSL^lfio-My brother is saying, "Alas, my young brother is "tH^lll, on service, Day and night he toils. f r f 8 ^ & f t f § ! Grant that he is being careful of himself, JifJlBfcilc, So that he may come back and not die."27 %k$iM$h" This technique of using different landscapes or geographical locations to order events continued to serve as a principal vehicle of sequencing in the narrative poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. A typical example is the Eastern Han yuefu poem 'Meeting" ("Xiangfeng xing" f@Mfr)- In lines 7-12, the poet uses different locations to set the 31 order of sequencing to describe the sumptuousness of the mansion owned by a family of high-ranking officials, and to display the family's wealth and extravagance. The description starts from the gate of the mansion, then proceeds to descriptions of the hall, a party in the halt, the trees in the courtyard, and finally centres the focus of description on the lanterns in the courtyard. The movement of description goes from outside to inside the house: Golden is your gate, White jade is the hall. And in the hall are flasks of wine, And Han-dan singers there perform With cinnamon tree in the courtyard Where sparkling lanterns brightly shine. Another example of this technique is "At Fifteen I Joined the Army" ("Shiwu congjun zheng" ~f~St^^|lE). Lines 7-10 describe the deserted scenes of the house to which the old man returns after a long period of service in the army. The movement of description 2 8 The translation is from Owen, p. 231. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 508. 32 in this poem is the same as that in "Meeting," shifting from outside to inside. These deserted scenes serve to highlight the old man's suffering during the upheavals of the age: Hares come in through the dog-holes, ^,l»b^lRA, And pheasants fly up from the beams. ^.^tWAzM-Wild grains grow in the courtyard, ^Ji^BK^h Greens take root by the well.29 IhJ-Az^MM-Another example of this technique can be found in the anonymous Northern Dynasties yuefu poem "Ballad of Mulan" ("Mulan shi" 7fcHl#). In lines 21-28, the poet uses different geographical locations, first the Yellow River and then Black Mountain, to create the order of events. The movement of different locations suggests the passage of time and the shifts in Mulan's moods, from thoughts of her parents to fears of possible threats by Hu horsemen. As mentioned above, sequences that are formed by the principle of fu can be either non-temporal or temporal. We can see from these eight lines that the events are arranged according to the fu principle, and that the sequence is 2 9 The translation is from Owen, p. 261. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 365. 33 chronological, i.e., the movement between different locations follows the passage of time: At dawn she took her parents' leave, ' By the Yellow River she camped at dusk. W^MMT&', She did not hear her parents' calls, ^WiMW$k~PM, She heard only the sounds of the waters of iHM^M£lt7}cP§i the Yellow River rolling. In the morning she left the river, MMWM^ She came to Black Mountain at dusk. 9&M;lUWi', She did not hear her parents' calls, ^^iW^PM, She heard only the sad whinnying {MM^IiJr^if ^ 1 from Hu horsemen on Mount Yan.30 This technique of using different scenery or geographical locations to set the order of sequencing continued to be one of the principal means of sequencing in Tang poetry. An 3 0 The translation is from Owen, p. 242, but I have made a minor change. Owen translates Hu as "Turkish," but I would prefer to translate it "Hu." For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 374. 34 exemplary instance of this technique is Du Fu's "Journey to the North" ("Beizheng" it fit). In lines 33-40, the poet uses different autumnal scenery to order events in order to describe his experiences on his return from Fengxiang M<M to his hometown. The description begins with the scene of chrysanthemum blossoms in autumn, and then moves, scene by scene, from the rocks bearing ruts of ancient war-carts, to clouds in the clear sky, and finally, to the various colors of mountain berries. The poet's appreciation of these autumnal scenery suggests shifts in his mood, from his worries about the national crisis, i.e., the An Lushan ^fltlll (705-757) Rebellion, in the first part of the poem, to a gradual amelioration of his mood later on:" Chrysanthemums hang blossoms of this autumn, Rocks carry ruts of ancient chariots. Blue clouds move me to elation, Secluded things are, after all, a joy. Mountain berries most of them tiny, delicate, 3 1 For a general discussion of this work, see Liang Jianjiang I^UtE , selected and annotated, Du Fu shixuan It^mr*!! (Taipei: Yuanliu, 1998), pp. 154-172. For a biography of An Lushan, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu f r K ^ t f l f i t (Taipei: Dingwen, 1994),juan # 200, pp. 5367-72. 3 2 The translation is from Victor H. Mair, ed., The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), p. 210. For the Chinese text, see Qiu Zhaoao tJyffcji:, Dushi xiangzhu ttfrf#£E. (Beijing: Zhonghua, 2004), vol. l ,p . 397. 35 Spread and grow mixed with acorns and chestnuts. Some red like dust of cinnabar, Some black like dots of lacquer.32 Another example of this technique of sequencing in Tang poetry is Bai Juyi's "Song of Everlasting Sorrow" ("Changhen ge" j>|fjlift). In lines 43-50, the poet uses different landscapes to order the sequencing in describing Emperor Xuanzong's JSC^K (R-713-756) grief at the loss of his beloved concubine. The focus of description starts from a scene of yellow dust spreading and cold wind blowing as the emperor climbs up to the Jian'ge Mffi Pass, and then moves to the desolate landscape at the foot of Mount E'mei where travelers are very few, the royal banners shed no light, and the sunbeams are pale. Afterwards, the focus of description shifts to the Shu Ifj landscape, then moves to the sorrowful moonlight scene in an exile's palace that deepens the pain in the emperor's heart, and finally ends with the sad sound of bells in the night rain that fills him with sorrow: 36 The yellow dust dispersed, the wind blew cold, The trail in the clouds twisted around to climb the Jian'ge Pass. Under E'mei Mountain a few people passed, l®Hti4T r ^ ; > tTA, Without light, the day-bright colors of flags and WMMJt 0 pennants faded. The water of the Shu River is green, Shu Mountain ItJ^jd^itJllfW, is blue, The Emperor, day after day, night after night, ^ lEffJ^Si f f i t • grieved. Pacing the palace, he looked at the moon, ?Tt§TMHII§;Lvfe5. his wounded heart full of longing, In the night rain he heard bells, but his feelings cut off their sounds.33 Wu Weiye also used this technique as one of the principal vehicles of sequencing in his narrative verse. One good example of this technique is "Fanqing Lake" ("Fanqing hu" 3 3 The translation is from Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry, p. 131. For the Chinese text, see BJYQJ, p. 159. 37 l i f r f In lines 153-58, the internal character-narrator Qingfang i=f Jjf, a cousin of the poet, uses different deserted landscapes around his ancestral house to order the sequencing in order to describe his suffering during the disorders of the age.34 Qingfang chooses to lead the life of a recluse in his ancestral house near Fanqing Lake in order to escape from the military uprisings of the age, but heavy taxes force him to sell his estate, causing the house to be deserted and eventually ruined. The six lines begin with a description of the courtyard where trees are chopped down, leaving only a few dry stumps, and then moves, item by item, from the withered lotus to the dry pond where has nothing left but mud sediment, and from the fields where his house once stood to the now weedy stairs: The trees in the courtyard grew densely, JiMtfff and below them we used to enjoy the cool, But now they were chopped down and all that is left fSfJcrT-frj^-is a few dry stumps. 3 4 An "internal character-narrator" is a character in the story that the poet-narrator tells, and also a narrator telling another story or his own experience. I will discuss the classification of the narrator's status in the following chapter. 3 5 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 229. 38 The lotus in the pond is withered and has not t&fnnX-^plI , blossomed for a long time, The pond has long been nothing but mud sediment M^MM^-for years. The ancestral house is ruined and levelled to become a field, Wild shepherd's purse grows on the stairs.35 ^^^.Prlf^-Another example of using different landscapes to order the sequencing in Wu's poetry is ; "Second Song of the Donggao Thatched Hut" ("Hou Donggao caotang ge" f ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ WO- This poem recounts the miserable life of Qu Shisi HffrfEj and his family after the fall of the Ming, and describes the poet's grief. The Donggao Thatched Hut, located at the foot of Mount Yu JHUj, near Changshou is the name of a famous garden owned by Qu. After the fall of the Ming, Qu went to the Guangdong jjjjifjll and Guangxi l l f l l l areas to defend the Southern Ming from the invading Manchu troops, eventually dying for the empire. While Qu was gone, his family members were constantly mistreated by cruel local officers. Finally, his son, Qu Songxi H f t j i § , had no choice 39 but to sell the garden in order to save their lives.36 The poet revisited the garden in 1648, i.e., the fifth year of the Shunzhi Jllito emperor (r. 1644-1661), but found that it had been ravaged and deserted. Through the description of the scenes, the poet expresses his sorrow for the misfortune of the Qu family. The description in lines 29-34 begins with the ruins of a pavilion where nothing is left but the foundations of its pillars, then moves to a dilapidated hedge and its cracked door, a broken bridge and the dried willows lying by it, the shaky wall over which dried creepers hang, the abandoned ancestral temple where thorns grew densely, and finally ends with a description of the memorial tablet hidden in the grass: The stone foundations of pillars are left, but there is ^H^St^-^lB^, no sign of the pavilion, The hedge remains, but is dilapidated, and its door is WLMM&^rMF^-half ruined. 3 6 For a biography of Qu Shishi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi $f$VfcBM$l (Taipei: Dingwen, 1994), juan 280, pp. 719-84. For a discussion of the historical background of the poem, see Wang Tao 3 £ ? # , selected and annotated, Wu Meicun shixuan ^sMfriWM (Taipei: Yuanjing, 2000), pp. 106-8; see also Zhao Y i H H , Oubei shihua IE:{tl#fr§ (Beijing: Remin, 1998), juan 9, pp. 138-9. According to Zhao Y i , Qu Songxi did post a notice to sell his house, but in feet it was just a strategy to escape troubles and protect his family. The house was not sold. 3 7 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, pp. 67-68. 40 The broken bridge slants, by its side withered willows ^^Eii fBKfi lW, drowse, No one raises up the drunken wall, and only dried W^M^M^M-creepers hang over it. The abandoned ancestral temple is still there, in which T f^e mMW.MW-, thorns grow densely, In there the memorial tablet, hiding among wild grass, § W ^ ^ ® f j S l t t is still legible.37 A famous poem of Wu's, "Visiting the Grave of Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing in the Forest of Beautiful Trees" ("Guo jinshulin Yujing daoren mu" jfl^M#5^MA^), is also a typical example of this technique. In lines 13-16, the order of sequencing follows the different landscapes surrounding the grave. The description starts from the tallow trees at twilight, then proceeds to the beautiful forest and the light rains, and finally moves to the Xiuling pavilion, near the grave, that is surrounded by mist, becoming blurred: 41 The tallow trees are covered with the frost, JMflff SfcM^Rl. over which the twilight glows, In the beautiful Brocade city, Wenjun is buried.38 $$>i$$ttW>W$M-Yanzhi rain is falling haphazardly H l l t ] S 8 L ^ 3 § ! H I ? on your Red Chamber,39 The Xiuling pavilion before your grave is blurred M l i l j ^ H H I l f f i t - 4 0 by the mist. The third element that is used to order the sequencing in Chinese narrative verse involves different figures, or different descriptions of the same figure. A typical example of this technique in the Shijing is Poem 57, "A Splendid Woman." In lines 3-7, the poet takes the lady's various social capacities and titles to order the sequencing, so as to stress her noble family background: 3 8 Brocade (Jin | § ) city originally refers to Jinguan city, another name for Chengdu j$M>, where Wenjun and Sima Xiangru 5] JffiH&I (179-117 B.C.) used to live. Here Jin city refers to the beautiful forest where Bian Yujing ~}v3iJS was buried. The reference to Wenjun and by association the poet Sima Xiangru implies that Bian fell in love with the poet. See the commentaries in Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 194-95. For a biography of Sima Xiangru and Zhou Wenjun, see the Biography of Sima Xiangru ("Sima Xiangru zhuan" W U I f M S ) ofXinjiaoben Shiji f f ^ i ^ I f i (Taipei: Dingwen, 1993), juan 117, pp. 2999-3074; see also the Biography of Sima Xiangru ("Sima Xiangru zhuan" WJ^f@$rf|Hf:) ofXinjiaoben Honshu %rfc#M9 (Taipei: Dingwen, 1995), juan 57, pp. 2529-2612. 3 9 The Red Chamber originally refers to the one in which Bian used to live, but here refers to her grave. Yanzhi rain refers to the rain with the scent of rouge that brings memories of Bian to the poet. 4 0 The translation of the four lines is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 251. 42 Daughter of the Lord of Qi, W&Z.^, Wife of the Lord of Wei, f W f ^ £ # -Sister of the Crown Prince of Qi, Called sister-in-law by the Lord of Xing, ffifPI5l#5l3 Calling the Lord of Tan her brother-in-law.41 W&tffl^k-In addition to the different social roles or statuses of a figure, the Shijing uses different talents or characteristics of a figure to order the sequencing. An example of this technique is Poem 77, "Shu is Always in the Hunting-Fields" ("Shu yu tian" Ix^pffl). Shu refers to Gongshu Duan 4 ^ ^ ^ , 4 2 who was a younger brother of Duke Zhuang $± Q (r. 743-701 B.C.) of Zheng f&. Their mother, Lady Jiang H , wife of Duke Wu j £ 4A , hated Duke Zhuang but loved Duan deeply. She wished to make Duan heir to the throne of Zheng, and so repeatedly attempted to persuade Duke Wu to change his successor from Duke Zhuang to Duan, but to no avail. After Duke Wu died, and when Duke Zhuang became the ruler of Zheng, Lady Jiang asked Duke Zhuang to assign the city of Zhi ff'J to his younger brother. Duke Zhuang refused her request on the pretext 4 1 The translation is from The Book of Songs, p. 48. For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, p. 142. 4 2 Gong 4t is the name of the state where Duan was exiled after losing a battle with Duke Zhuang of Zheng. Shu or Tai Shu is the term that the people of Jing ^ used to show their respect for Duan. 43 that Zhi was a strategic city, and gave Duan the city of Jing j&rt instead. The city of Jing, which was located near the capital city Xinzheng was one of the biggest cities of Zheng. When governing Jing, Duan won the people's support and came to be called the TaiShu ;fcJ5( or Grand Uncle of Jing City (Jingcheng taishu ilR^AlK)- He also began to expand his territory and plotted to usurp the throne from his brother. Later; after Duke Zhuang discovered his brother's ambition and bis conspiracy, he ordered his troops to attack Shu, who later fled the state and went to Gong.43 This poem describes Duan winning the admiration of the Jing people, thereby increasing bis political power while governing the city of Jing, suggesting the poet's implicit criticism of Duke Zhuang's incapacity to both deal with Duan and conduct the affairs of his state.44 This poem is divided into three stanzas, each describing a different personal quality of Duan. The first tells of his beauty and goodness; the second recounts that he is beautiful and loved; the third says that he is beautiful and brave. In other words, the poet uses Duan's characteristics to order the three stanzas into a sequence: 4 3 See Han Xichou WBM, ed. and comm., Zuozhuan fenguo jizhu &M-frMMf£, second edition (Taipei: Huashi, 1978), pp. 490-493. See also Burton Watson, trans., The Tso Chuan: Selections from China's Oldest Narrative History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), pp. 1-4. 4 4 For a discussion of the historical background of this poem, see Wu Hongyi, Baihua shijing, vol. 2, pp. 149-51. 44 Shu is away in the hunting-fields, ^ ^ f f l , There seems no one living in our lane. A -Is it possible that there is no one ia$&IIA? living in our lane? No, but no one is like Shu, •* ^$LTMfe, So beautiful, so good. ^ H H C l . Shu has gone hunting in winter, MrF-fif, There seems no one drinking wine in our lane. ^$&1$.M-Is it possible that there is no one iMMifcM'? linking wine in our lane? No, but no one is like Shu, ^tUMiQ, So beautiful, so loved. ^IIIL^F-Shu has gone to the wilds, There seems no one driving horses in our lane. ^ ^ f l l ^ l l -4 5 The translation is mostly based on The Book of Songs, pp. 65-66, but I have made some changes according to Wang Jingzhi's (Shijing tongshi, pp. 180-82) and Wu Hongyi's (Baihua shijing pp. 149-52) commentaries. For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 180-82. 45 Is it possible that there is no one driving horses in our lane? No, but no one is like Shu, So beautiful, so brave.45 This technique continued to be one of the principal methods of sequencing in the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. One of the best examples of this technique is "Mulberries by the Path." In lines 13-20, the poet uses the reactions of different characters, including passers-by, young men, plowmen, and hoers, to order the sequencing, so as to describe the beauty of Luofu. Specifically, the opening two lines describe the stunned reaction of passers-by, who put down their loads and stroke their beards; the following two lines (lines 15-16) describe the reaction of young men, who take off their caps and nervously adjust their headbands. In lines 17-18, the focus of description first moves to the plowmen forgetting their plows, and then to the hoers forgetting their hoes. The final couplet serves as the conclusion of the previous six lines: When passers-by see Luofu, they iT^Mil i fSt 4 6 The translation is from Owen, pp. 234-35. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 411. 1 » 46 Drop their loads and stroke their beards; ~fWl¥§MWi', When young men see Luofu, ^^jILlilfc, Their hats fall off and their headbands show; JPIll^lr^Sl; Men at the plow forget the share, l##/ef^2£!, Men with the hoe forget the hoe. M^&Mffli When they go home there's always a fight, ^WP^WCSM, All because of seeing Luofu.46 U^HHIt Another example of this technique is "Meeting." In lines 25-28, the poet uses different figures to order the sequencing: the eldest wife comes first, then the middle wife, and finally the youngest wife: The eldest wife weaves the silken mesh, XWsMMWk, The middle wife weaves the yellow floss; ^MWMM', The youngest wife does nothing at all, 'hWiMfifiM, Harp in her arm, she mounts the hall.47 J b i ^ j ^ 4 7 The translation is from Owen, p. 232. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 508. 47 The "Ballad of Mulan" is also a typical example of using different figures to set the order of sequencing. The focus of description in lines 43-48 starts from Mulan's parents, then moves to her elder sister, and finally to her younger brother: When her father and mother heard that their daughter had come, They came out from town, leaning on each other. When the elder sister heard that her little sister had come, At the window she made herself up with rouge. When the younger brother heard that his elder sister had come, He sharpened his knife and darted like lightning Toward the pigs and sheep.48 This technique was also used as a means of sequencing in Tang poetry. A typical example of this technique in Tang poetry is Du Fu's "Journey to the North." In lines 4 8 The translation is mostly based on Owen, p. 242, but I have made some changes. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 374. 48 63-72, the poet uses the appearance of different family members to order the sequencing in order to recount his arrival at home after a long journey, as well as to describe his excitement and happiness at reuniting with his family after a separation of many years. The focus of description begins with his little son, then moves to his two daughters: The little son that I have spoiled all my days, Has a face paler than snow. Seeing his father, he turns his back and cries, His dirty and grimy feet wear no socks. Next to my bed my two little girls stand, In patched dresses that just cover their knees. The seascapes of billows and waves on the patchwork, broken and not matched, Cut out from an old embroidery, out of order and crooked. 4 9 The translation of these ten lines is mine. For other translations of this poem, see David Hinton, trans., The Selected Poems ofTu Fu (New York: New Directions, 1989), pp. 32-33; Mair,, The Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature, pp. 209-13; Arthur Cooper, ed. and comm., Li Po andTu Fu (London: Penguin Books, 1973), pp. 183-87. A useful modern Chinese commentary on this poem is in Liang Jianjiang, Du Fu shixuan, p. 160. For the Chinese text, see Dushi xiangzhu, vol. 1, pp. 399-400. mmmmff. 49 The pictures of two sea gods, AS^JPI^JlL Sky Wu and Purple Phoenix, Upside down on their short coarse clothes.49 MM&M.^-Another example is Du Fu's "Ballad of Pengya" ("Pengya xing" g i^Wfj)- This poem recounts the hardships that the poet and his family members experienced as they fled from Pengya g^ jrlj to Tongjiawa [n]f|[||| after the An Lushan rebels'sack of Tong WL Pass in the fifteenth year of TianBao A J f (756).50 In lines 9-14, the poet uses different members of his family to order the sequencing in order to describe their hunger during their flight: Crazed with hunger, my daughter bit me, crying, Wt&W$%M,, While I feared a tiger or wolf might hear. Stopping her mouth I carried her in my arms, I f t^^S^CL While she struggled, howling even more. ^MIWMM:-My son, thinking he was clever, 4S^MM^-, 5 0 For a discussion of the historical background of this poem, see Wang Yuqi and Wen Guoxin, Lidai xushishi xuan, p. 93. Further citations from this work will be abbreviated as Lidai xushishi xuan. See also Liang Jianjiang, Du Fu shixuan, p. 169. 50 Demanded bitter, wild berries to eat 51 This technique can also be found in Du Fu's "The Conscripting Officer at Shihao" ("Shihao li" In lines 7-12, the internal character-narrator, the old lady (the inn owner's wife at Shihao Village), uses different members of her family as the order of sequencing in order to describe the miserable plight of her family during the military uprisings of the age. The focus of description moves back and forth from her surviving son to those who have died. Specifically, the initial two lines describe her three sons all joining the army in the defense of Yecheng The following two lines first tell that one of her sons is still alive, and then that the other two have been just killed. In the final two lines, the description shifts back to the surviving son, who can barely manage to live on, and ends with the dead ones, who are gone forever: I heard as she stepped forward to speak: WMWi^m' 5 1 The translation is from Xianyi Yang, Poetry and Prose of the Tang and Song, pp. 48-49. For the Chinese text, see Dushi xiangzhu, vol. 1, p. 414. 5 2 The survivor(s) in this line could refer to either only the old lady's surviving son, who is still in the garrison at Yecheng and who sent a letter home, or to the old lady, her husband, herself, and her other family members. Since the following four lines (13-16) recount the difficult lives of her grandson and her daughter-in-law, I prefer to interpret it as her surviving son. 5 3 The translation is partially based on Mair, p. 214, but I have made some changes. For the Chinese text, see Dushi xiangzhu, vol. 2, p. 529. 51 "All my three sons went off in the garrison at Yecheng. One son sent a letter just arrived, Telling that my two sons have just been killed in battle. The surviving one barely clings to life,52 But the dead ones are gone forever."53 The use of different figures to order the sequencing can be commonly found in Wu Weiye's narrative verse. An example is "Fanqing Lake." Following sixteen lines relating a series of descriptions of the hardships and dangers that the poet and his family members experience while fleeing to Fanqing Lake to seek help from his relatives, lines 33-40 describe the frightened and weak appearances of the poet's family members after their safe arrival at Fanqing Lake. In these eight lines, the poet uses his different family members to order the sequencing. The description first centres on his father's wife, Madam Lu |H, and concubine, Madam Zhu 7^, who is the poet's mother; then moving to the poet's grandmother, Madam Tang jH, then the poet's wife, Madam Yu and his two concubines, Pu and Zhu 7^, and finally moves on to the poet's eldest daughter: 52 My two old, weak mothers, Need to attend upon my grandmother. She experiences the difficulties of the age, and her hair is all gray, She needs assistance to move about. My wife and concubines are ill and emaciated, Vomiting along the road. My eldest daughter, only nine years old, Is still sobbing after our arrival.54 Another example is "Reflection on Meeting an Old Man in the Garden of the Southern Chamber [of the Imperial Academy in Nanjing]: A Poem in Eighty Rhymes" ("Yu nanxiangyuan sou ganfu bashi yun" j S f ^ ^ @ ^ ^ ® / \ - r ' ^ ) . 5 5 In lines 125-28, the internal character-narrator, the old man of the Southern Chamber, uses different historical figures to order the sequencing in order to recount the causes of the fall of the 5 4 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 227. 5 5 The Southern Chamber (nanxiang or called nanjian j^fla) refers to the Imperial Academy of the Ming Dynasty, located in Nanjing j^jijC. The Hongwu emperor (also called Emperor Taizu | i ) of the Ming (r. 1368-98) established it as the Imperial Academy in Nanjing. After the Yongle -%J$k emperor (also called Emperor Chengzu J^oH) of the Ming (r. 1403-24) moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing itSR and established another imperial academy in the capital, the original one in Nanjing came to be called the Southern Chamber in order to distinguish the two. See Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 69, 73, pp. 1678, 1790-91; see also Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 204-05. m±mxik. 53 Southern Ming. The first two lines recount that after the Hongguang 3A3fc emperor (r. 1644) of the Southern Ming was enthroned in Nanjing f^ l ir? , 5 6 Ma SMying Hdr5i (1591-1646) and Ruan Dacheng fsJi&M (1587-1646) attempted to hold absolute power to conduct the affairs of the imperial government and eliminated those who did not belong to their own cliques, causing vicious factional battles and resulting in the inversion of the proper order of the state.57 The following line relates that two Ming generals Gao Jie (ft. 1645) and Huang Degong (fl. 1645) did not devote themselves to the defense of the Empire, but fought each other for possession of Yangzhou i§jf[.58 The final line narrates that Zuo Liangyu . 2Ej5l3£ (1599-1645), the commander of the troops of Wuchang jScH, led his troops down to the Southern Capital to eliminate Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng, and to take revenge on them for seizing the power of the imperial government.59 Ma and Ruan therefore removed the main troops -which were supposed to defend the Empire from the invasion of the Manchu warriors — 5 6 For a biography of the Hongguang emperor, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 120, pp. 3651. 5 7 For a biography of Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 308, pp. 7937-45. 5 8 The troops led by the four Ming generals Gao Jie Liu Zeqing HUf^R (A- 1645), Liu Liangzuo MJslfS: (A- 1645), and Huang Degong MWrtf] were called the Four Major Military Camps of Jiangbei (Jiangbei sizhen £D|bE9IX). They commanded, respectively, the troops of Sizhou iBJ'/rl, Huai'an l^.^, Linhuai B§$i, and Luzhou JKlNi At the beginning of the reign of the Hongguang emperor, Shi Kefa $1 nf i £ (1601-1645), a loyal minister of the Southern Ming, established these camps to defend the Empire from Manchu invasions. For a discussion of these historical events, see Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 220-21. For a biography of Gao Jie, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7003-6; for a biography of Liu Zeqing, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7006-8; for a biography of Liu Liangzuo, see Qingshigao iff (Taipei: Dingwen, 1981), juan 248, p. 9660; for a biography of Huang Degong, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 268, pp. 6901-3. For a biography of Shi Kefa, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 274, pp. 7015-24. 5 9 For a biography of Zuo Liangyu, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 6987-98. 54 from the front line of battle to Nanjing in order to fight against Zuo.6 0 These factional battles among the niilitary generals and ministers of the Southern Ming resulted in the downfall of the empire:61 Once Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng became the prime ISIfcfl^ ftK*, ministers,62 They conducted the affairs of the imperial government f T ^ ^ a f f -at their own whim63 Gao Zhen fought against Huang Degong for the {SJW&MW> possession of Yangzhou,64 Zuo's troops came from Wuchang.65 ^.^^M,m-6 0 For a discussion of the historical background, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, 308, pp. 6997-98, 7940, 7942-43; see also Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 220-21. 6 1 The translation of the following four lines is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 26. 6 2 In feet, Ruan Dacheng was the Minister of War (bingbu shangshu J^pBfnJlr) of the Southern Ming, not the prime minister. However, he collaborated with Ma Shiying to conduct state affairs, so the poet calls them "prime ministers." For a biography of Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 308, pp. 7937-45. 6 3 This line relates that Ma and Ruan eliminated those who did not belong to their own clique, and that they were absorbed in factional battles rather than the business of defending the empire. 6 4 Gao Zhen iSjfi is Gao Jie. For his biography, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7003-6; for a biography of Huang Degong, Gao's opponent in this battle for Yangzhou, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 268, pp. 6901-3. 6 5 Zuo indicates Zuo Liangyu. For his biography, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 6987-98. For a discussion of the historical background, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, 308, pp. 6997-98, 7940, 7942-43. 55 This technique of sequencing can be found in the "Song of Donglai" ("Donglai xing" i i l ^ i T ) - This work, which was written in the fifth year of the Shunzhi emperor (1648), recounts the stories of four historical figures of the late Ming dynasty before and after its falL describing the poet's lament for the loss of his friends.66 The four martyrs, viz., Jiang Cai (jingshi &± 1631), Jiang Gai W% (1614-1653), Song Mei ' (fl. 1644) and Zuo Maodi tcM&& (1601-1645), have become known as the "Four Martyrs of Donglai" {Donglai sishi ^ ^ H d r ) in honor of their loyalty to the Ming.67 The poet's account of the four martyrs serves to convey his deep sorrow over the Ming's downfall. In lines 33-44, the poet first relates the story of Song Mei, a famous poet and scholar in the late Ming, whose talent was highly respected by the Chongzhen If?®! emperor (r. 1628-1644).68 He was promoted to a high-ranking official position at the age of thirty. However, factional battles were vicious in the late Ming court, and Song's uprightness offended the corrupt officials of the imperial court. In spite of his dedication to state affairs and his loyalty to the emperor, Song was relieved of his official duties and banished to his hometown, Laiyang 3rtrl§. Later, at the time of the Manchu invasion 6 6 For a discussion of the historical background of this poem, see Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, p. 91; see also Wang Jiansheng 3EM3£, Zengdingben Wu Meicun yanjiu ^IT^^fSHW^S (Taipei: Wenjin, 2000), pp. 155,392. 6 7 The four martyrs were all from Laiyang an area near Donglai county in the northeastern part of the Shandong u l | ^ peninsula. Thus, they were called 'Tour Martyrs of Donglai." 6 8 The Chongzhen emperor plays an important role in Wu Weiye's poetry of historical events. For a biography of the Chongzhen emperor, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 23, 24, pp. 309-36. 56 in the last year of the Chongzhen emperor (1644), Song fought to death for the Ming and in defense of Laiyang.69 Following the story of Song Mei, Wu Weiye tells the tale of Zuo Maodi, who served as a high-ranking official during the reigns of the Chongzhen and Hongguang emperors. After the fall of the Ming, Zuo was sent by the Hongguang emperor to be a special envoy for peace negotiations with the Qing court. After Zuo's arrival in Beijing, the Qing court attempted to persuade him to take office there. However, Zuo insistently refused, and was finally sentenced to death.70 The final two couplets recount the story of the brothers Jiang Cai and Jiang Gai, who were also high-ranking officials in the late Ming court. The Chongzhen emperor relied heavily on them in state affairs. But their straightforward and serious criticism of the emperor's favourite officials, such as Wei Zhongxian W&&\fi (1568-1627) and Ruan Dacheng, offended the emperor. Jiang Cai was therefore severely punished and imprisoned. While in prison, his father died, and Jiang Gai resigned from the imperial court in order to return home to bury his father. Later, due to military uprisings in the Shandong area, Jiang Gai and his family fled to Suzhou H'Jf |. During the reign of the Hongguang emperor of the Southern Ming, Jiang Cai was released and later joined his family in Suzhou. However, Ruan Dacheng then controlled the Southern Ming court, and the 6 9 For a biography of Song Mei, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 267, pp. 6879-82. 7 0 For a biography of Zuo Maodi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 275, pp. 7048-51. 57 Jiang brothers fled elsewhere: Cai to Huizhou H['jfj, and Gai to Ningbo After Ruan was killed, they planned to join each other in Suzhou, but Cai had to return to their hometown, Laiyang, to take care of their mother, leaving Gai alone in Suzhou. Thus, due to these circumstances in combination with military uprisings, they could not meet, but could only miss each other greatly:71 Song Mei usually indulged himself by composing fine R I ^ ^ H 1 %1j£ /nj, 7 1 For a biography of Jiang Cai, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 258, pp. 6665-68; for a biography of Jiang Gai, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 258, p. 6668. The following translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 70. 7 2 "Minister of Works" (sikong an official title of high rank in charge of construction and industry, was originally used for one of the six ministers in the central government system of the Western Zhou Jtf| dynasty. Song Mei used to serve as the vice minister of the Ministry of Works (gongbu Xp|5). Thus, the poet uses sikong to refer to Song Mei. See Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 93-94. 7 3 The mission refers to the peace negotiation with the Qing court. As mentioned above in the main text, ZuO refused the proposal offered by the Qing court and was willing to die for the Ming instead. Moreover, when the Southern Ming attempted to negotiate peace with the Qing, Zuo's mother died in his hometown of Tianjin already occupied by Qing troops at that time. On his way to Beijing to carry out the mission, Zuo risked the return home to bury his mother. Thus, the poet praises Zuo for his completion of both loyalty and filial piety. "Vice Censor-in-chief' (zhongcheng c f 3 ^ ) is the official title of imperial censor in the Censorate (duchayuan 135^^ ) in the Ming. Zuo used to serve as court censor. Thus, the poet uses this title to refer to Zuo. See Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, p. 99. For a biography of Zuo Maodi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 275, pp. 7048-51. 7 4 Ruqing MM originally refers to Su Ruqing WMM (ca- first-century B.C.), a younger brother of Su Wu (140-60 B.C.), but here is taken to refer to Zuo Maotai (fl. 1644), a younger brother of Zuo Maodi. Longsha ft£J> is the name of desert area in the northern frontier, and refers to the place where Su Wu was exiled by the Xiong Nu "SjJ$jJ. In this line, the poet uses the allusion of Su Ruqing to indicate that Zuo Maotai did not follow his brother to die for the Ming, suggesting Wu Weiye's disapproval of this and his criticism of Zuo Maotai's disloyalty. See Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, p. 99. For a biography of Su Wu, see Xinjiaoben Hanshu, juan 54, pp. 2459-68; for a biography of Su Ruqing, see Xinjiaoben Hanshu, juan 54, pp. 2464-65. For a biography of Zuo Maotai, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 275, p. 7051. 7 5 Chaishi ^rfT is originally the place where the Southern Song martyr Wen Tianxiang S i ^ M (1236-1283) was sentenced to death, but here refers to where Zuo died. Su Ziqing Wffi-ffli is Su Wu. The poet praises Zuo by likening the Ming martyr Zuo's loyalty to that of Wen to the Song and that of Su to poetic lines, 72 Resigned and returned home from his official position ^ p U f f f ^ f i ^ f l l l Sc-atter writing a thousand poems. When the war drums came eastward, his entire family WMM^.&'W^, was reduced to white bones in the cold, The moonlight shone on Mount Lao - where could — ^ lU^ ItMlll? their spirit go? Zuo Maodi's remarkable reputation left a page in the S^ltfr^Mff 1=f> history annals, Crossing the river to carry out his mission, he attained Wkt^^^WPP^-both loyalty and filial piety.73 If Su Ruqing had also died in Longsha desert, llflPifil^ fi^ ^E, beyond the northern frontier,74 the Han. See Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 99-100. For a biography of Wen Tianxiang, see Xinjiaoben Songshi $r f£fc5f^ (Taipei: Dingwen, 1994), juan 418, pp. 12533-40. 7 6 As mentioned above in the main text, the Jiang brothers offended Ruan Dacheng in the later reign of the Chongzhen emperor. After Ruan gained power over the Southern Ming court, they fled to separate places to avoid both of them being caught together. 7 7 As mentioned above in the main text, after Ruan was killed, Jiang Cai returned to Laiyang to take care of his mother, while Jiang Gai moved back to Suzhou. Due to the military uprisings of the time, these two brothers also lived apart. 7 8 The poems of homesickness (sigui shi refer to those that Jiang Gai wrote to his elder brother. 7 9 The letters about missing his younger brother (yidi shu ilf) refer to those that Jiang Cai wrote to Jiang Gai. Huqiu originally refers to Mount Haiyong $g?j§, located in Suzhou, which the poet uses to refer to Suzhou, where Jiang Gai lived. See Wang Tao, Wu Meicun shixuan, pp. 100, 191. 59 There would have been no one crying for the death ^TfJfRTA^rpJiP-of Su Ziqing in Chaishi.75 You two brothers had no one but each other to rely HH5HJf3^H3£, 76 upon, and traveled from place to place, Not only lonely and drifting around, but also separated M^ffi^f^MPH-by the uprisings.77 The poems of homesickness were sent through the ^Ml^WWi&lWft, currents of Guangling,78 The letters about missing his younger brother were W^W^-^HAS-sent to Mount Huqiu.79 In addition to different figures, Wu Weiye also uses the different characteristics of a figure to order the sequencing in his works. One of the best examples of this technique is the "Ballad of Rongcheng" ("Rongcheng xing" 1?#£fj). This poem recounts the story of the notorious, corrupt Ming general, Ma Fengzhi HJH^O (1609-1657), the commander of the troops of Rongcheng which refers to today's Songjiang ^£C-Ma was originally a bandit in the late Ming. He defected to the Manchus after the Ming fell, and was later promoted to commander of the troops of Rongcheng in the twelfth 60 year of the Shunzhi emperor (1655). During his tenure there, he committed numerous crimes and misdeeds, including robbery, murdering innocent citizens, and kidnapping women. Moreover, he conspired with Zheng Chenggong (1624-1662) to attack the Manchu troops in Nanjing, which is not to revive the Ming, but for his own ambitions. After Zheng's attempt failed, Ma's conspiracy was discovered, and he was then arrested and imprisoned in Beijing in the seventeenth year of the Shunzhi emperor (1660). In the early years of the Kangxi Ut®< emperor (r. 1661-1722), he was sentenced to death in Beijing.80 In lines 45-48, the poet uses Ma's misdeeds to order the sequencing. The first line describes his addiction to alcohol; the second line shows his arrogance; the third recounts how he seized the wives of commoners as his own; and the fourth tells that he shot innocent people for fun: The general was addicted to drinking and did not know MW^UvM^^G^h, when to stop, 8 0 For a biography of Ma Fengzhi, see Qingshigao, juan 243, pp. 9588-89; see also Huang Yongnian j f ^C^E and Ma Xueqin MiWT^, trans, and comm., Wu Weiye shi xuanyi %^^^WW (Chengdu: Bashu, 1991), p. 217. 8 1 Wu Bo Qi ffiffiS, "Wu Bo's wife," was the beautiful wife of Wu Bo ffifS, a soldier in the late Eastern Han. His superior official was attracted to his wife and tried to carry her off as his own. She killed herself to preserve her chastity. "Wu Bo Qi" came to connote the beautiful and chaste wife of a subordinate official, but it can also refer to the wives of other people. 8 2 The translation is mine. For the Chinese text, see WMCQJ, p. 247. 61 Sitting in a squatting position in front of banquets, ^M'M^HM^-he commanded people with only a tilt of the chin and without speaking. Drawing a sword, he snatched wives of commoners W.M^^kitriB^, • 81 as his own, And shot arrows to kill the people of good families.82 RlHIII^xJifi^ A. The fourth major element that is used to order events in non-temporal sequences in Chinese narrative verse is the cardinal points. Examples of using the cardinal points as the order of sequencing are very few in the Shijing. I only found two works from this anthology, Poem 48, "She was to Wait" ("Sangzhong" and Poem 51, "A Rainbow" ("Didong" that can be considered examples of this technique. Poem 48 is divided into three stanzas, each recounting a man thinking of a different place where he has a tryst with a different woman.83 The poet uses different places (the village of Mei, the north of Mei, and the east of Mei) to initiate each stanza and to order the sequencing in the work. In the latter two stanzas, two cardinal points (north and east) 8 3 This work can be regarded as critical of the social customs of the Wei #f state, which were considered dissolute and degrading, or as simply describing the secret meeting of two lovers. For discussions of the theme of this poem, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 123-24, and Wu Hongyi, Baihua shijing, vol. 1, pp. 307-8. 62 are used to indicate different places. Therefore, Poem 48 can be considered an example of this technique: I am going to gather the dodder ^^fcllt^;, In the village of Mei. WZMtk-Of whom do I think? Sf l^ig? Of lovely Meng Jiang. H She was waiting for me at Sang-zhong, ^MkrP^ktf*, And came with me all the way to Shang-gong, IIS^-L'rlj, And saw me off on the banks of the Qi. gsM^MZil-i I am going to gather goosefoot A To the north of Mei. £ & f t ^ . Ofwhomdolthink? ^IfeZW Of lovely Meng Yi. ItiS -^^-She was waiting for me at Sang-zhong, P^c^^^K 8 4 The translation is mostly based on The Book of Songs (pp. 40-41), with my minor changes according to the commentaries of Wang Jingzhi (Shijing tongshi, pp. 124-25) and Wu Hongyi (Baihua shijing, vol. 1, pp. 306-10). For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 124-25. 63 And came with me all the way to Shang-gong, And saw me off on the banks of the Qi. I am going to gather charlock To the east of Mei. Ofwhomdolthink? Of lovely Meng Yong. She was waiting for me at Sang-zhong, And came with me all the way to Shang-gong, And saw me off on the banks of the Qi. 8 4 Poem 51 recounts a young lady who elopes with a man rather than waiting for her parents to decide who she will marry.85 This poem is divided into three stanzas, the first two recounting the elopement, and the last expressing the poet's disapproval of her conduct. In the opening two stanzas, the poet uses two cardinal points (east and west) as the order of narration:86 8 5 For a discussion of the theme of the work, see Wu Hongyi, Baihua shijing, vol. 1, pp. 323-27. 8 6 The first line of the first stanza, "there is a rainbow in the east," indicates that the events in the stanza take place in the evening, while the first line of the second stanza, "there is a morning rainbow in the west," sets the time frame as morning. These two stanzas, therefore, show that the young lady runs away 64 There is a rainbow in the east, No one dares point at it. A girl has run away, Far from father and mother, far from brothers young and old. There is a morning rainbow in the west, f=?m, The rain will last till noon. t-f-lt d A girl has run away, Far from brothers young and old, far from mother and from father. To our surprise, she is such a one, Tb%UxLsKi%, What she thinks is all about marriage. fe#$St&-Never will she do what she has promised, A^fafe from her family to join her lover in the evening, stays with him overnight, and elopes with him the next morning. In other words, this work is an example of temporal sequence in which events are organized by the principle offu. As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, the sequences in which events are arranged by the principle offu can be either non-temporal or temporal. 8 7 The translation is mostly based on The Book of Songs (pp. 42-43), but I have made some changes according to the commentaries of Wang Jingzhi (Shijing tongshi, pp. 130-31) and Wu Hongyi (Baihua shijing, vol. 1, pp. 324-27). For the Chinese text, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 130-31. 65 Never will she accept her lot. 87 The technique of using the cardinal points as the order of sequencing was not often used in the Shijing, but was commonly found and well developed in the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. This is possibly because of the great influence the fu genre (rhapsody), particularly the Han rhapsody on palaces, had on the narrative verse of the Han and Six Dynasties. In the rhapsodies of that age, the cardinal points were commonly used to arrange events into a non-temporal sequence. An example of this is Ban Gu's JiBiES (A.D. 32-92) "Western Capital Rhapsody" ("Xidu fu" ©tflflft). In lines 102-31, Ban Gu uses the cardinal points to order the sequencing in describing the richness of natural resources in the countryside around the capital. The description starts from the north of the capital, then moves to the eastern suburbs, and finally ends with its western suburbs: .88 To the north: It is crowned by Nine Peaks, 8 8 In lines 102-17, a description of the northern suburbs of the capital, the poet uses the upper part (the mountains) and lower part (the base of the mountains) as the order of sequencing. 8 9 The translation is from Knechtges, Wenxuanvol. 1, pp. 111-14. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, p. 25. Joined by Sweet Springs Mountain. Here there are divine palaces rising in the middle of the mountain; The most spectacular vistas of the Qin and Han, All eulogized by Wang Bao and Yang Xiong, Are in this place preserved. At the base of the mountain: There are the fertile lands watered by the Zheng and Bo, Those sources of food and clothing. The entire acreage totals fifty thousand, With borders and plots arranged like silk squares. The ditches and ridges were etched and carved out, With plateaus and bogs dotting the area like dragon scales. Dredging canals, they made rain fall; 66 67 Shouldering spades, they formed clouds. ffiM$M-The five grains hung heavy with spikes; IxWc^M, Mulberry and hemp spread and flourished. §kMMM-In the eastern suburbs: ^^PMW There are transport canals, great waterways. By breaching the Wei, opening the He, tftM^M, They could sail their boats east of the mountains. tf^ffrlJ-IilU By diverting the Huai and its nearby lakes, They merged the waters with the waves of the sea. In the western suburbs: H ^ M l J W - t r H I ^ G , There are imperial enclosures and the forbidden park. Their woods and forests, meres and marshes, ffiMWM^, Across sloping terrain stretch to Shu-Han. Pi£^^^llj?lt, Surrounding the park is a circling wall, ^ i U i ^ M , 68 Which extends over four hundred //. The detached palaces and separate lodges Are thirty-six in number. Sacred ponds and divine pools Are located here and there.89 In lines 439-44 of the same fu, a description of the emperor's traveling on and around Kunming J|Bfj Lake, the cardinal points are again used to order the sequencing. The order of description in lines 441-44 starts from the south, and then moves to the north, east and west: Then rising like the wind, tossed like the clouds, WJ^W^Wi-They roam at will, gazing everywhere. To the south, they ascend the Qinling; fu^-SHot, To the north, they cross Nine Peaks. W&7\M, In the east, they reach the He and Mt. Hua; j ^ ^ f M P , In the west, they traverse Qi and Yong.90 WS^&M-The translation is from Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, p. 143. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, p. 32. ra~r3t£Jt. mmm, 69 This technique is also employed in Ban Gu's "Eastern Capital Rhapsody" ("Dongdu fu" iflitf$K)- m "hes 206-9, Ban Gu uses the cardinal points to order the sequencing in order to recount the emperor's conquest of the barbarian tribes on the four borders. In each of four successive lines, Emperor Guangwu jfcjj^ (r. A.D. 25-57) subdues the Rong j% tribes on the western border, the Yi ]P| tribes in the east, the Di %k tribes on the northern frontier, and finally the Man gf tribes of the south: Westward he sends tremors to the source of the He; Eastward he shakes the strands of the seas. Northward he stirs the Dark Cliff; Southward he illumines the Vermeil Boundary.91 Some years later after Ban Gu's completion of these two rhapsodies, known as "Liangdu fu" pli$Sii£, Zhang Heng (A.D. 78-139), another famous Eastern Han poet, claimed his dissatisfaction with Ban's works, and thus composed his own pair of rhapsodies, "Western Metropolis Rhapsody" ("Xijing fu" H ^ H C ) and "Eastern Metropolis Rhapsody" "Dongjing fu" jftirtiiO, known collectively as "Liangjing fu" 9 1 The translation is from Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, p. 165. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, p. 37. mmm, 70 M ^ S S , to prove that he was superior to Ban Gu in writing rhapsody. Although both writers share many writing techniques, Zhang's rhapsodies are more cleverly crafted in terms of the technique of using the cardinal points as the means of sequencing.93 An example of this can be found in lines 33-62 of his "Western Metropolis Rhapsody," where in addition to the cardinal points serving as the primary order of sequencing, relative geographical distances, e.g., distant and nearby areas, are employed to order the sequencing in order to describe the significance of the capital's location, and the richness and wealth of natural resources of its surroundings. The order of description starts from the eastern suburbs, then moves to the west, south, and finally to the northern rear. In the description of the geographical location of the northern area and its richness in natural resources, Zhang employs different geographical distances to order the sequencing, moving from distant areas to nearby locales: To the left [east], there are 1xMW^Wtfk, 9 2 SeeOuyangXun l£|S§r&J (557-641), Yiwen leiju MSMW (Beijing: Zhonghua, 1973), juan 61, p. 1098. 9 3 From my point of view, both writers' works are similar in the use of many writing techniques such as the structure of composition in their works. But Zhang's works truly show better achievement in the skills of writing than Ban's. In addition to the technique of using the cardinal points to be the means of sequencing, Zhang's works are more rich and clever in terms of the techniques of display and hyperbole. Moreover,«Zhang's works also describe more content concerning the current cultures and social customs of the Han than do Ban's. 71 The double defiles of Yao and Han, The barrier of Taolin, MW^xLM-Connected by the Two Hua peaks. lg.£i.I23jl, Here the Giant Spirit, exerting great force, Ef iAJB, Reached high with his hands, stretched his legs, WJW-T&M-,, Thereby allowing the winding He to flow through. J t^fftMfll, His prints still survive today. M5$®f-f-To the right [west], there is The gap of Longdi,95 Which partitions China from the barbarian lands. Mounts Qi, Liang, Qian, and Yong, The Chen treasure, with its crowing cocks, are here. At its southern front, there are StftCfS'MlflA—% Zhongnan and Taiyi, 9 4 "The left" refers to the east. 9 5 "The righf' refers to the west. 9 6 The translation is from Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, pp. 183-85. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, pp. 42-43. Twisting upward tall and stately, Jagged and rough, steeply scarped, Their ridges forming a chain with Bozhong. They enfold Du, swallow Hu, Inhale the Feng, disgorge the Hao. Then, there is Lantian, That source of precious jade. At its northern rear, there are High hills and level plains, Leaning on the Wei, nestled against the Jing. Broad and flat, sloping and slanting, They form a buttress for the capital environs. In the distance, there are Nine Peaks and Sweet Springs, Frozen and dark, cloistered and cold. mmm. mmmm, 73 Even when the sun reaches north they are enveloped in a freezing chill, And thus here one can be cool in summer's heat. And then The broad plateaus, fertile plains, Their fields are upper first class. This truly is the most mysterious region and most sacred frontier on earth!96 This technique of sequencing is also employed in Zhang's "Eastern Metropolis Rhapsody." In lines 171-230, the cardinal points and different geographical distances are used as the order of sequencing in order to describe the magnificence of the buildings located in the Eastern Capital Luoyang $t$k. The primary movement of events in these fifty-nine lines follows the order of cardinal points, i.e., starting from the north, then moving to the south, the east, and finally the west. However, this work displays a different form of movement of events, going from the nearby to the distant, opposite to "Western Metropolis Rhapsody," which moves from distant to nearby places. Mffl±±, 74 Specifically, the starting point of the description in these fifty-nine lines is the Hall of Virtuous Light (Deyang dian WtMWi), located in the Northern Palace of the capital. Following this, the description first moves to buildings near the Hall, and then to buildings distant from the Hall, all the while staying within the Northern palace. Afterwards, the focus of description shifts to buildings in other palaces: Then they restored the Hall of Exalted Virtue, Built the Hall of Virtuous Light, Opened the conspicuous portaL the Principal Gate of the South, And erected the receiving gate, standing grand and stately. The emperor revealed humane kindness in the Gate of Exalted Worthies [east],97 And proclaimed words of justice at the Gate of 9 7 The Gate of Exalted Worthies was a gate on the east side of the Northern Palace. According to the theory of "Five Phases" ("Wuxing" S f j ) , east corresponds to the element "wood," and to the virtue of "humane kindness" (ren Ll) . See Xinyi Zhaoming Wenxuan IftlpHS^jSGll (Taipei: Sanmin, 1997) p. 107; see also Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, p. 256. yOK"l/Ci>j m.mwmm. 75 the Metallic Chord [west].98 They launched the Cloud Dragon fMSH^#i&, on the Spring Road [east],99 Stationed the Divine Tiger ^MtifLt^fXJj. in the western quarter [west], And built the two towers of symbolic grandeur MMM>xLMW., To make known the ancient provisions of Mf\^ZMm~ the Six Canons. Inside the main gate there are: ^ P ^ M ^ " ^ The halls of Embracing Virtue, Resplendent Terrace, Celestial Blessing, Manifest Brilliance, ^.^M^M, Gentle Commands, Greeting Spring, $mi7jjffl#, 9 8 The Gate of the Metallic Chord was a gate on the west side of the Northern Palace. According to the theory of Five Phases, west corresponds to the element "metal," and to the virtue of "justice" (yi H ) . See Xinyi Zhaoming Wenxuan, p. 107; see also Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, p. 256. 9 9 According to the theory of Five Phases, the "Spring Road" is the "eastern road." The dragon was the guardian spirit of the east. See Xinyi Zhaoming Wenxuan, p. 107; see also Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, p. 256 1 0 0 The translation is from Knechtges, Wen xuan, vol. 1, pp. 257-61. For the Chinese text, see ZLWX, pp. 65-66. Everlasting Peace, Perpetual Tranquility. Through flying pavilions the emperor moves like a spirit; To no one can our lord reveal Wmself. In Sleek Dragon, Fragrant Grove, Nine Valleys, Eight Streams, Lotus covers the water's surface, Autumn thoroughwort blankets the banks. [...] bjc, On the south there are: Front Hall and Divine Tower, Harmonious Enjoyment, Peace and Good Fortune. The winding towers of the Separate Gate Obliquely abut the moats below the walls. Unusual trees, rare fruits, Are the charge of the Hook-and-Shield. [...] mmmm. [...] In the east, there are Grand Lake and its pristine preserve. Its green waters, pitching and rolling, Within teem with river life, Without thrive with marsh grass and miscanthus. For imperial tribute it has soft-shelled turtles, clams, tortoises, and fish; For sacrificial offerings it has snails, mussels, water chestnuts, and fox nut. On the west, there is The Peaceful Joy assembly area, And its belvedere visible from afar. With the dragon-bird coiled around it, And the celestial horse rearing itself proudly, All is unique and unusual, wondrous and strange, Glittering and glistening, bright and sparkling. mm. 78 Though lavish, it is not extravagant; ^^J&J&'i Though frugal, it is not crude. ^ M ^ P f i l -The model adheres to the royal standard; M M T i l i i ; All actions conform to the established ideal. [...]100 i & ' t J f # ® - [• • •] As mentioned above, the remarkable achievement in the technique of using the cardinal points to order the sequencing in Han rhapsody may have inspired the poets of the Han and Six Dynasties to use this technique of sequencing and to develop this technique further in their poems. One of the most outstanding pieces that uses this technique is the anonymous yuefu "South of the River" ("Jiangnan" ttrlO- hi this work, the movement of description follows the order of cardinal points, displaying a lively scene of fish playing around lotus leaves in the pond, and the pickers' joy in the course of their lotus picking: South of the River [we] can pick lotus, tXM RfJ>iclI, 1 0 1 The translation is from Zongqi Cai, "Dramatic and Narrative Modes of Presentation in Han Yuefu," Monumenta Serica 44 (1996): p. 113, and also from Cai, The Matrix of Lyric Transformation: Poetic Modes and Self-Presentation in Early Chinese Pentasyllabic Poetry (Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan 1996), p. 30. For a discussion of the function of the cardinal points in this work, see Zongqi Cai, "Dramatic and Narrative Modes of Presentation in Han Yuefu," pp. 113-14, and also The Matrix of Lyric Transformation, pp. 30-31. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 384. 79 The lotus leaves are so luscious, luscious. Fish play among lotus leaves. Fish play east of lotus leaves, Fish play west of lotus leaves, Fish play south of lotus leaves, Fish play north of lotus leaves.101 Another example of this technique is the anonymous Hanyuefu "Ballad of the Orphan" ("Gu'er xing" BR^Efr). In lines 7-16, the poet uses different techniques of sequencing to describe the hardships of the orphan during his stay with his brother and sister-in-law after the death of his parents. In lines 9-10, the cardinal points are used to order the sequencing in order to describe his long-term, long-distance travels as a peddler. In lines 13-14, different parts of his body are used as the order of description to portray his dirty outer appearance, displaying his hardships and fatigue after his travels. In lines 15-16, different figures are used to order the sequencing in order to depict his restlessness after his return home, suggesting mistreatment at the hands of his brother and sister-in-law: 80 Father and Mother are gone, Big brother and Sister-in-law make me travel as a peddler. South as far as Jiujiang, East as far as Qi and Lu. In the twelfth month I come home, Not daring to speak of my suffering. My head is full of lice, My face is full of dust. Big brother tells me to cook dinner, Sister-in-law tells me to look after the horses 102 In "Ballad of Mulan," the cardinal points are used to order the sequencing, and to cooperate with a series of descriptions of actions in order to portray the young lady's swiftness of movement, creating an atmosphere of haste on the eve of her departure for military service: 1 0 2 The translation is mostly based on Hans H Frankel, The Flowering Plum and the Palace Lady: Interpretations of Chinese Poetry (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976), pp. 62-63, except that I interpret the narrator of lines 13-16 to be the orphan, while Frankel takes the poet to be the narrator here. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 567. In the east mart she bought a fine steed, jflrfflli In the west mart bought blanket and saddle. ffiffJM^H-In the north mart she bought a long whip, i^rfjftl!?Si, In the south mart bought bit and bridle.103 4fc rt?MJlffl-The same technique of description, i.e., using the cardinal points to cooperate with the description of action, is also used in lines 49-50 to describe Mulan's movements in her room, emphasizing the excitement of her homecoming: Then I opened the door to my room in the east, |iflf£3^lfSf"l And I sat on my bed in my room in the west.104 ^ ^ S c H K J ^ -This technique of using the cardinal points to order the sequencing continued to be one of the principal vehicles of sequencing in Tang poetry. One of the best examples is "Song of the Lady of Qin," which displays the highest achievement in the use of this technique in Chinese narrative verse. In lines 53-84, the internal character-narrator, the 1 0 3 The translation is from Owen, pp. 241-42. For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 374. 1 0 4 The translation is mostly based on Owen, p. 242, except that I take the narrative agent of the lines to be the young lady, translating wo ^ as "I," while Owen takes the narrator of the lines as the poet, translating wo as "she." For the Chinese text, see YFSJ, p. 374. Lady of Qin, uses the cardinal points to order the sequencing in her detailed description of the tragic fates of the young daughters of her neighbors. These thirty-two lines are composed of four segments of heptasyllabic regulated verse (qiyan lushi-t^^^). Each segment of eight lines describes the misfortune of a woman living to the east, west, south, and north respectively. The first segment describes the young lady of the eastern neighbour, who was carried off by rebels, and the second depicts her western neighbour's daughter, who was killed resisting a rapist. The southern neighbour's daughter was murdered, and her sisters, paralysed by despair, committed suicide by throwing themselves together into a well. Finally, the young wife of the northern neighbour, trapped by a fire, was forced to hang herself: Our eastern neighbor had a girl just beginning to MM^i tcMWill, paint her eyebrows, A beauty to overthrow city or state; f^Bf^M-^ ^niJf-her quality yet unknown. Long spears forced her to climb up into M^WJ^JlM^-, a warrior's chariot, 1 0 5 The translation is from Levy, pp. 140-42. For the Chinese text, see Lidai xushishi xuanyi, p. 140. Turning her head to her fragrant boudoir, tUffi SE. her tears filled her handkerchief. Now she pulls out golden threads, learning to mend their banners, And climbs up to a carved saddle, to be taught how to ride a horse. Sometimes from her own horse she may catch a glimpse of her 'husband'; She dares not turn away her eyes, but helpless her tears fall. Our western neighbor had a girl; truly, a fairy spirit! ffiUPW^ jiPflll^P, Sidelong glances flashed like waves from her large, — TTfft l!i bewitching eyes. Her toilette complete, she was gazing at her spring beauty in the mirror, Still young, she did not know what went on outside her gate. Some scoundrel jumped in over the wall —"A^^-h^r*^, and leaped up the golden steps, M i n g her clothes half off her shoulders, MU^MWtf^b. he tried to rape her; Dragged by her gown, she was unwilling to ^^Pf^[{ij^:f% leave her vernulion gate -So rouge, fragrant ointments, and all, she perished II^^HiTJT^^fc-under the knife. . Our southern neighbor had a girl whose name rlf^W^^FlBMi, I do not recall, Just the day before a good matchmaker had exchanged Iff 0 J^JPr^lftlrlF-betrothal gifts for her; On the shimmering tiles of the staircase she did not ^ ^ I ^ J I T ^ I S J T T , hear footsteps coming, Through her shades of kingfisher blue she saw their WZ^MT^JEMMZ--shadows too late. Suddenly we saw her at the courtyard's edge, ^ J I L M P I I T J JJRH, but a sword blade rang; Her head and body were severed in an instant. M^l&fflt&iSfffiii-Looking to Heaven, then covering their faces with a single cry, Her younger and elder sisters together threw tC^tC^Ml AT^F-themselves into the well. The young wife of our northern neighbor was 4 t $ S l ^ ^ i T t B { l l 5 hurrying to depart, Just shaking out her cloudlike hair and IMffiMMffiMWi-wiping green pigment from her brows; Already she heard battering sounds at her tall gate, Ei!flip|lTJjSr^if,ll Without thinking, she climbed out onto the eaves ^jItflliJilillrl. and up to her second storey. Soon from all sides the blaze of fires came; M B ^ H S A T T J ^ , When she tried to come down the spiral stairs, WCfMW^^lW.-the stairs had already collapsed. While her loud screams from the midst of the smoke AR£J$lR^§fc 86 still begged for her rescue, Her corpse hanging on the rafters was already §|c_hMf^SfPK-burned to cinders.105 In addition to the cardinal points, astronomical phenomena or patterns are also used to order the sequencing in this work. In lines 41-48, a shower of falling stars is used to order the sequencing, signifying the stampede of the populace of the capital in the rebel's sack of the city, as well as suggesting that the emperor and his attendants had deserted the capital and the commoners, leaving them to fend for themselves: Fires burst out with golden sparks which fly up to Ajft^M_t7LA, the Ninth Heaven, The Twelve Municipal Thoroughfares fill up with +—HffiMigM-flames and smoke. The sun's wheel descends to the west, its cold rays B I M H T ^ T T J S, are white, The Lord of Heaven still speaks no word - in vain Al^Mm^MM-1 0 6 The translation is from Levy, p. 140. For the Chinese text, see Lidai xushishi xuanyi, p. 140. 87 the mind throbs with horror! Dark clouds ring the sun with a halo of haze, ^MMMi^MM, like troops in formation for siege, The Mnister Stars fall from their paths, t £ # » t l M $ n i f a f e . tinged with blood, Purple vapours stealthily follow the Royal Throne ^M^Wt^^^, as it shifts position, Weird rays of light shoot through the darkness, ifc^dfimMJJEMJlT-to destroy the Three T'ai Lords' stars.106 In summary, this chapter discusses the techniques of non-temporal sequencing in Chinese narrative verse, and has found that the use of non-temporal elements to arrange events into a sequence is one of the writing techniques in the principle of fu. The techniques of non-temporal sequencing originated in the Shijing and were well developed in this anthology. Later poets inherited these techniques from this anthology, making only a few elaborations on these techniques. Generally speaking, four major elements are used to organize events into non-temporal sequences in Chinese narrative verse. 88 The first involves parts of the human body or articles of clothing. The sequences in which these elements are used as the order of sequencing are often used to describe a person's outer appearance, and particularly to portray a woman's beauty, in both Chinese poetry and rhapsody. Some of the best examples include Poem 57, "A Splendid Woman," in the Shijing, Han rhapsody such as Song Yu's "Rhapsody on Master Dengtu the Lecher," and Cao Zhi's "Rhapsody on the Luo River Goddess," and well-known yuefu poetry such as "Mulberries by the Path," "Officer of the Guard," and "Southeast the Peacock Flies." The second element involves different landscapes or geographical locations. The sequences in which these elements are used are mostly used to describe a long journey, convey a special feeling such as longing for someone or shifts in mood, or sketch a certain scene, such as desolation. This element is commonly used in Chinese narrative verse, and typical examples can be found in Poem 108, "Oozy Ground by the Fen," in the Shijing, yuefu poems of the Han and Six Dynasties such as "At Fifteen I Joined the Army" and "Ballad of Mulan," Tang poetry such as Du Fu's "Journey to the North" and Bai Juyi's "Song of Everlasting Sorrow," and the early Qing poet Wu Weiye's poems such as 'Tanqing Lake," "Second Song of the Donggao Thatched Hut" and "Visiting the Grave of Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing in the Forest of Beautiful Trees." The third type of non-temporal element that Chinese poets use to arrange events into a sequence is different figures, or different descriptions of the same figure. The sequences in which these elements are found are often used to describe a woman's beauty, a typical example of which is "Mulberries by the Path"; to convey a particular emotion such as happiness, examples of which are "Ballad of Mulan" and Du Fu's "Journey to the North"; to describe a certain experience of hardship, misfortune, or the like, examples of which can be found in Du Fu's "Ballad of Pengya," his "The Conscripting Officer at Shihao," and in Wu Weiye's "Fanqing Lake"; and to describe a person's social position, status, or characteristics, examples of which are Poem 57 of the Shijing and Wu Weiye's "Ballad of Rongcheng". The fourth major element is the cardinal points. The technique of using the cardinal points to order the sequencing in Chinese literature achieved its first high point in Han rhapsody. The best examples can be found in the rhapsodies that describe the imperial palaces, such as Ban Gu's "Liangdu fu" and Zhang Heng's "Liangjing fu." The achievement in this technique in Han rhapsody may have had a great influence on the yuefu poets of the Han and Six Dynasties; therefore, the development of this technique in Chinese poetry reached its first high point in the yuefu poetry of that age. This technique became more elaborate and reached its full development in Tang poetry. The most preeminent example of this technique is the late Tang poet Wei Zhuang's "Song the Lady of Gin." 91 Chapter Three: Anachronic Sequence in the Narrative Verse from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties 3.1. Introduction: As mentioned in the first chapter, temporal sequences can be divided into ones that are chronological, and those that are termed anachronies (also termed chronological deviations). In the tradition of Chinese narrative verse, most works of early ages and short works of late periods appear to be chronological, while anachrony tends to be used more often in long poems with complicated stories in later periods. Furthermore, the level of complexity of anachrony in poetry appears to be more radical as Chinese narrative verse develops. Why did anachrony develop so richly in the narrative poems of later periods, but not in those of early ages? My understanding of the development is still elementary, but it may be possible to offer two provisional explanations for this development. First, in the tradition of Chinese narrative verse, the achievement in narration in past poetry always has a great impact on the poets of later ages, who tend to create new forms to refine the art of narration in their works, transcending the achievements of past poets, and presenting more accurately the current historical and social circumstances that they witness or experience. As a result, the narrative form in Chinese poetry develops gradually, and appears to have been more complex in the works of later ages. Second, in most early narrative poetry, except for a very few masterworks such as "Southeast the Peacock Flies," the story appears to be relatively simple, while the story in the works of later periods tends to be more complex. A complicated story needs more explanation. In turn, this need for explanation would require anachronic structures to refer back or point ahead in order to bring the many different threads of a story together to form a coherent unity. The above two reasons suggest that the level of complexity of a story is increased in the works of later ages, and that a complicated story often leads to a complex form of anachrony in Chinese poetry. The development of anachrony parallels the development of narration in Chinese poetry. Therefore, the development of anachrony can be seen as a representation of the development of Chinese narrative verse. Since the development of anachrony has played a very crucial part in the development of narration, particularly in the development of sequential structure, in Chinese poetry, I will focus my study in this chapter and the following two chapters on the form of anachrony and its 93 development in Chinese narrative verse. Before illustrating the development of anachronic sequences in each period, I would like to briefly introduce the definitions of different types of anachrony. According to Western narrative theories, narrative is a doubly temporal sequence. It deals with the order of events in the narrative and their chronological sequence in the story.107 "Narrative time" refers to the rearranged order of events that may be identical with or different from that in the story, and thus is also called "pseudo-time."108 "Story time" means the original chronological order of events without being arranged to meet the needs of narrative presentation. The chronological sequence in the story is a theoretical construction, which we can make on the basis of the laws of everyday logic that govern common life.109 To study the temporal order of a narrative is to compare the order in which events are arranged in the narrative discourse with the order of succession these same events have in the story.110 For example, a narrative may begin with an account of a man and a woman unexpectedly meeting each other at a coffee shop in New York in 1994 after having been divorced for a year. Then it proceeds with a tale relating their wedding and married life 1 0 7 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 33; Bai, Narratology, p. 80. 1 0 8 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 34. 1 0 9 Bai, Narratology, p. 80. 1 1 0 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 35. in 1992. Next, the narrative recounts their quarrels and their divorce in 1993, and finally, ends with a happy memory of their first encounter at the same coffee shop in 1991. These four units can be represented by A, B, C, and D according to the order in which they are presented in the narrative. Chronologically, however, their positions are 4, 2, 3, and 1 in the story. Thus, the formula that can synthesize their sequential relationship is as follows: A4-B2-C3-D1. Anachrony, therefore, refers to the various types of discordance between the two temporal orderings of story and narrative.111 Every anachrony comprises, with respect to the narrative into which it is inserted, a narrative that serves to be the first narrative, and a narrative that is temporally second, subordinate to the first. So-called "first narrative" refers to the temporal level of narrative with respect to which anachrony is defined as such. The embeddings (i.e. anachronies) can be more complex, and a case of * * 112 anachrony can assume the role of first narrative with respect to another that it carries. In general anachrony can be divided into two groups: analepsis (retrospection) and prolepsis (anticipation). Analepsis refers to any evocation after the fact of an event that took place earlier than the point in the story where we are at any given moment, while prolepsis refers to any maneuver that consists of narration or evoking in advance an 1 1 1 Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 33-35,40. 1 1 2 Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 48-49. 95 event that will take place later on. 1 1 3 Analepsis can be former divided into three types: external, internal, and mixed. In external analepsis, the entire temporal field of the analeptic segment remains external to that of the first narrative.114 For example, if my doctoral studies at UBC from 1998 to 2005 serve as the first narrative, a retrospective narrative of my undergraduate studies at Fu-Jen Catholic University from 1984 to 1988 that is inserted into the first narrative can be defined as a case of external analepsis. Internal analepsis occurs where the entire temporal field of the analeptic segment remains internal to that of the first narrative.115 To use the above example, the temporal field of the first narrative ranges from 1998 to 2005, during which I have been doing my doctoral studies. But then the first narrative is interrupted in 2001 and a retrospective tale is inserted, the temporal field of which ranges from 1999 to 2000. This embedded section is an example of internal analepsis. Mixed analepsis occurs when the temporal field of the analeptic segment begins before and ends at a point later than the begmning of the first narrative.116 For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted in 2001 with a 1 1 3 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 40. 114 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 49. 1 1 5 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 49. 1 1 6 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 49. 96 retrospective event, the temporal field of which ranges from 1996 to 2000. This inserted segment is defined as a case of mixed analepsis. External analepsis can be further divided into two forms: partial and complete. Partial external analepsis recounts a moment from the past that remains isolated in its remoteness, and does not seek to join that moment to the present.117 In other words, it ends at a moment earlier than the starting point of the first narrative and does not rejoin the first narrative. Partial external analepsis poses no problem of joining or narrative juncture: the analeptic tale plainly interrupts itself on an ellipsis, and the first narrative picks up right where it has stopped.118 An example of this is the same as the above illustration of external analepsis. Complete external analepsis joins the first narrative without any gap between the two sections of the story.119 In other words, complete external analepsis ends at the beginning point of the first narrative. In the above example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted in 2001 with an inserted analeptic tale that starts from 1996 and ends at the moment that I came to UBC for my doctoral studies in 1998. This embedded analeptic tale is defined as complete external analepsis. 1 1 7 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 62. 1 1 8 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 63. 1 1 9 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 62. 97 Internal analepsis can also be further divided into two forms: partial and complete. In a case of partial internal analepsis, it ends at a point earlier than the point where the first narrative was interrupted to give up its place to the analeptic segment. For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted in 2003 with a retrospective event covering a temporal field from 1999 to 2002. This inserted section is a case of partial internal analepsis.120 Complete internal analepsis starts at a point later than the beginning point of the first narrative, and ends precisely where the first narrative was interrupted to give up its place to the retrospection.121 For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted at the moment that I moved from Vancouver to Victoria on August 15, 2001 to insert a retrospective section that starts from 1999 and ends at the same moment that the first narrative was interrupted, August 15, 2001. Mixed analepsis can also be grouped as partial and complete. A case of partial mixed analepsis has a temporal field that starts at a point earlier than the begiruiing point of the first narrative, passes beyond this point, and then ends at a point earlier than the interrupted point of the first narrative.122 For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of 1 2 0 Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 62-63. 1 2 1 Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 62-63. 1 2 2 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 62. 98 the first narrative is interrupted in 2002, and a retrospective tale is inserted, the temporal field of which starts from 1996, two years before I came to UBC, and ends in 2000, two years after the beginning of my doctoral studies. Complete mixed analepsis rejoins the first narrative not at its temporal starting point but at the very point when the first narrative was interrupted to give up its place to the analepsis. In other words, complete mixed analepsis starts at a point earlier than the beginning of the first narrative and ends at the interrupted point of the first narrative.123 For example, the first narrative is interrupted to insert an analeptic tale at the moment I moved from Vancouver to Victoria on August 15, 2001, this embedded segment recounting a tale starting from 1996, two years before I came to UBC, and ending with an account of my moving from Vancouver to Victoria. Prolepsis (anticipation) appears much less frequently than analepsis (retrospection) both in the Western narrative tradition and Chinese narrative verse.124 The most frequently used form of anticipation in Western narrative literature and Chinese narrative verse is the summary at the beginning.125 This form of anticipatory summary suggests a sense of fatalism, or predestination, because nothing can be done and the 1 2 3 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 62. 1 2 4 For a discussion of the use of prolepsis in the Western narrative tradition, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 67. 1 2 5 For a discussion of this form in the Western narrative literature, see Bai, Narratology, p. 95. 99 reader can only watch the progression toward the final result. It also decreases the sense of suspense in the narrative. In other words, the sense of suspense generated by the question "How is it going to end7' disappears because we already know the final result. However, another kind of suspense, or rather a tension that keeps the reader engaged, may take its place, prompting questions like "How could it have happened like this?', with such variants as "How could the hero(ine) have been so stupid?" or "How could society allow such a thing to happen?" or "How did the hero(ine) find out about this?' and so on. 1 2 6 Theoretically speaking, prolepsis can be divided into three groups: external, internal, and mixed. So-called external prolepsis is an episode or episodes that take place at a point later than the ending point of the first narrative.127 In other words, the entire temporal field of the prolepsis remains external to that of the first narrative. For example, the temporal field of the first narrative ranges from 1998 to 2005, and the proleptic event takes place in 2007. This type of anticipation is therefore defined as external prolepsis. Internal prolepsis occurs where the entire temporal field of the proleptic segment remains internal to that of the first narrative. Specifically speaking, internal prolepsis 1 2 6 For a discussion of the function of anticipatory summary at the begging of a given narrative, see Bai, Narratology, p. 95; see also Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 67. 1 2 7 Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 68. External prolepses functions most often like a kind of epilogues, serving to continue one or another line of action on to its logical conclusion. For a discussion of the function of external prolepses, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 68. 100 starts at a point later than the point where the first narrative is interrupted and ends at a point earlier than the ending point of the first narrative. For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted in 2001, and an anticipatory segment is inserted, the temporal field of which starts from 2003 and ends in 2004. This type of anticipatory segment is thus defined as internal prolepsis. Mixed prolepsis starts at a point later than the point where the first narrative is interrupted and earlier than the point where the first narrative completes, and ends at a point later than the ending point of the first narrative. For example, the 1998-2005 temporal field of the first narrative is interrupted in 2002, and a proleptic tale is inserted, the temporal field of which starts from 2004 and ends in 2007. This embedded tale is an example of mixed prolepsis. Each of these three types of prolepses can theoretically be further divided into two forms: partial and complete. However, prolepses are mostly of the partial type both in the Western narrative literature and Chinese narrative verse.128 Moreover, although prolepses, as mentioned above, can be divided into three types (external, internal, and mixed), I could hardly find any examples of external and mixed prolepses in Chinese narrative verse, and it seems that all prolepses are of the internal type. For a discussion of the use of these three types of prolepses in the Western narrative literature, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 77. 101 The tradition of anachronic sequences in Chinese narrative verse originated in the Shijing, and was further developed in the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties, particularly in "Southeast the Peacock Flies," a work that represents the highest achievement in anachronic sequencing in the poetry from the Shijing to the Six Dynasties. This tradition reached its first high point in the Tang dynasty. Not only was there a significant increase in the level of complexity of anachronic sequence, but all types of anachrony in Chinese narrative verse were fully established in the poetry of the Tang dynasty. As has been mentioned in the first chapter, the three dynasties following the Tang were not great ages for narrative poetry; therefore, the tradition of anachronic sequencing did not develop further during these times. The tradition of anachronic sequencing did not enter its golden age until Wu Weiye. Wu inherited the rich tradition of anachronic sequence from past.poetry, particularly from Tang poetry, but he also adapted sequential forms from other literary genres such as Ming and Qing novels and novellas to enhance the art of narration in his works. As a result, Wu's works display the most complex sequential form in Chinese narrative verse. Such complex sequential form in Wu's works serves to present the political upheaval of that age and to recount the current historical events and figures of his time. 102 3.2. Anachronic Sequences of the Shijing: Anachronic form, whether analepsis or prolepsis, is relatively simple and basic in the Shijing. Generally speaking, this anthology has two types of analepsis: partial external and complete internal. An example of partial external analepsis is Poem 31, "They Beat Their Drums" ("Jigu" This works recounts how a soldier of Wei Hi state joins the army and leaves home, going far to the south. Due to long campaigns, he finds he cannot return home to live with his wife, causing him great sorrow.129 This poem is divided into five stanzas, among which the first, second, third and fifth stanzas serve as the first narrative. It begins with an account of the soldier joining the army and leaving for the south (first stanza), proceeding to a description of his feelings of homesickness, these feelings deepening with time (second stanza), and then to a description of the loss of morale among the troops due to the length of their campaign (third stanza). After this account of the problems with morale, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective section (fourth stanza), which relates the soldier's recollection of the promise he made to his wife before joining the army. This embedded segment ends at a point earlier than the starting point of the first narrative, so 1 2 9 For a discussion on the theme of this work, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, pp. 88-89, and Wu Hongyi, Baihua Shijing, vol. 1, pp. 197-200. 103 its entire temporal field remains external to that of the first narrative. After this analeptic account, in the fifth stanza, the first narrative resumes and describes the soldier's sorrow in the face of his seeming eternal separation from his wife. This stanza also serves to conclude the entire narrative. Another example of partial external analepsis in the Shijing is Poem 59, "Bamboo Rod" ("Zhugan" TJ^p)- This poem describes a man's thoughts of his beloved lady, who has been married to another man and is living in a distant place.130 This poem has four stanzas: the first and fourth stanzas serve as the first narrative, while the second and third are embedded retrospective segments. The first stanza recounts the man fishing in the Qi River and longing for his beloved lady after she married another man. Following this, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a series of descriptions of the lady's wedding (the second and third stanzas), including an account of her taking leave of her parents and brothers, and a description of her lovely smile and charming ways and gestures. The inserted retrospective section recounts a moment from the past that remains isolated in it's remoteness, and does not join that moment to the present. Therefore, it can be categorized as an instance of partial external analepsis. In 1 3 0 There are several different interpretations of the theme of this work. For a discussion of the theme of this work, see Wang Jingzhi, Shijing tongshi, p. 150, and Wu Hongyi, Baihua Shijing, vol. 2, pp. 37-39.1 prefer Wang's interpretation. 104 the fourth stanza, the first narrative picks up where it had stopped, and recounts that the man sails a boat to comfort himself. A typical example of complete internal analepsis in the Shijing is Poem 156, "Eastern Hills" ("Dongshan" jfltil). This poem has four stanzas and consists of two types of analepsis: complete internal and partial external. Complete internal analepsis appears in the third stanza, and partial external analepsis occurs in the fourth stanza. Such a work with two types of analepsis, displaying a complex analeptic structure, was rarely found in the Shijing, but commonly found in works of later ages. Specifically, the first narrative begins with a description of a reUmiing soldier's thoughts and feelings on his way home (the first stanza), then proceeds to a portrayal of the desolate scenes around his house that he sees upon his arrival (the second stanza). Following this, in the initial four couplets of the third stanza, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective section, which begins with an account of his wife's reaction when she learned her husband was returning home, including her sighing at his absence in her chamber, her worrying over his safe return in the rain, and her cleaning up the house in order to welcome him home, and finally ends with an account of the soldier's arrival. This inserted analeptic account starts at a point (the wife learning that her husband was returning home), which may be later than the oeginning point of the first narrative (the 105 returning soldier on his way home), and ends at a point (his arrival) where the first narrative is interrupted to give up its place to the retrospection. Therefore, it can be categorized as a complete internal analepsis.131 Folio wing this analeptic account, the first narrative resumes and describes their happy reunion in the last two couplets of the third stanza. Later, in the initial five couplets of the fourth stanza, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of a retrospective segment recounting the soldier's recollection of their joyful wedding in the past. The entire temporal field of this embedded retrospection remains external to that of the first narrative, and ends with an ellipsis, without rejoining the first narrative. Therefore, it is a case of partial external analepsis. In the final couplet, the first narrative picks up where it had stopped, and ends the poem with an account of the soldier and his wife enjoying themselves together, serving as a happy ending to the entire narrative, as well as highlighting the happiness of their reunion after a long period of separation. As has been mentioned above, prolepsis can, in principle, be divided into three types: external, internal and mixed, and each of the three types can be further divided 1 3 1 There is no clear evidence that we can use to determine absolutely if the starting point of the embedded retrospection (when the wife knew her husband was returning home) is later than the teginning of the first narrative. However, in ancient times, the delivery of messages over long distances required a considerable amount of time. It is very likely that the wife did not receive the message bearing news of her husband's return until he had already started returning. Thus, I take the starting point of the retrospection as a point later than the starting point of the first narrative. 106 into two forms: partial and complete, though all prolepsis is of the partial internal type in Chinese narrative verse. The earliest use of internal prolepsis in Chinese narrative verse can be found in the Shijing. An example of this is Poem 58, "A Simple Peasant" ("Mang" tg). This poem consists of six stanzas, and has two types of narrators: an external character-narrator (also termed extradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator) and an unknown external narrator who is not a character in the story that he/she tells (also termed extradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrator).132 The external character-narrator appears Traditional criticism tries to classify narrators through linguistic designation: first-person and third-person pronouns. (Cohan: p. 90; Bai: p. 21) However, the classification of first- and third-person narrators confuses the narrative voice with perspective. In other words, traditional classification confuses the difference between who tells and who sees. (Genette: p. 186) In narratives, narrators are not necessarily the focalizor who provides perspective. A third-person narrator can tell a story from a first-person's perspective. A male narrator can tell a story through a female point of view. A narrator can use two or more perspectives to recount a story. In addition, traditional classification fails to distinguish the difference between narrative levels. In a narrative, there can be two or more narrators. They can be the same grammatical person, e.g., the "third-person" narrator, or different grammatical person, e.g., one is the "third-person" narrator, and the others are "first-person." For example, in a narrative with two third-person narrators, one of the narrators is the poet narrator who tells the primary story, while the other is a character in the story that the poet tells, and also a narrator recounting another story. Both of the two narrators are "third-person," but they stand at different narrative levels: the poet narrator stands at extra-diegetic level, while the other at (intra-) diegetic level. I will discuss the difference of narrative levels later on. The same limitations of traditional classification can occur in the "first-person" narrator case. For example, in a case of a narrative with three first-person character-narrators, namely A, B, and C, narrator A is the poet narrator who tells the primary story; B is a character in the story that the poet recounts, and also a narrator telling a story of himself; C is a character in the story that B tells, as well as a narrator telling his experience. One of the best examples of a case with three first-person character-narrators in Chinese narrative verse is the famous Tang poem "Song of the Lady of Qin." The above cases show that in a narrative with different narrators who stand at different narrative levels, traditional classification, i.e., "first-person" and "third-person" narrators, confuse narrative voice with perspective but also fail to show the difference between narrative levels. In order to avoid the abovementioned limitations of traditional classification, Genette instead defines the narrator's status both by its narrative level (extra- or intradiegetic) and by its relationship to the story (hetero- or homodiegetic). (Genette, p. 248) According to Genette, narrative levels are divided into extra-diegetic, (intra-) diegetic, meta-diegetic and so on, according to their different hierarchical positions. For example, Wei Zhuang writes the "Song of the Lady of Qin." Wei Zhuang's writing of "Song of the Lady of Qin" is a literary act carried out at a first level, which Genette calls extradiegetic. The events told in the "Song of the Lady of Qin" (including an old man's narrating his experience of suffering) are within the first level, so Genette describes them as diegetic, or intra-diegetic. The events told in the old man's narrative are therefore described as meta-diegetic. (Genette: p. 228) In addition, the narrator who is absent 107 in the first, second, fifth, and sixth stanzas, and the unknown external narrator in the third and fourth. The external character-narrator's account serves as the first narrative of this work, while the unknown external narrator's account is an embedded segment. The first stanza recounts a lady falling in love with a man. The second stanza first describes her worries and uneasiness as she waits for her beloved's marriage proposal, and ends with an account of her joyful fulfillment with their wedding after a long period of waiting. Afterwards, in the third and fourth stanzas, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a section foretelling the unhappy end of their marriage. Following this proleptic account, the first narrative resumes and recounts the hardships and domestic violence that the lady experiences after her wedding (the fifth stanza). In the sixth and final stanza, the first narrative ends the story with the lady's feelings of deep regret and from the story he/she tells is defined as"heterodiegetic," while the narrator who is present as a character in the story he/she tells is defined as "homodiegetic." (Genette, pp. 244-245) Therefore, if we define the narrator's status by its narrative level and by its relationship to the story, the four basic types of narrator's status can be represented as follows: (1) extradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrator, a narrator in the first level who tells a story from which he/she is absent; (2) extradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator, a narrator in the first level who tells his/her own story, (3) intradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrator, a narrator in the second level who tells a story from which he/she is absent; and (4) intradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator, a narrator in the second level who tells his/her own story. (Genette: p. 248) In traditional classification, the first and third types of narrator are termed the third-person omniscient narrator; the second and fourth are termed the first-person retrospective narrator. Genette's classification successfully distinguishes the difference between who tells and who sees and the difference in levels, but I would prefer to term these four types of narrator's status in a simpler way in order to provide general readers a clearer understanding of the classification. This first type is therefore simply termed the "external narrator," who stands at the first level and is not a character in the story he/she tells. The second is the "external character-narrator," who stands at the first level and is also a character in the story he/she tells. The third is the "internal narrator," who stands at the second level and is not a character in the story he/she tells. The fourth is the "internal character-narrator," who stands at the second level and is also a character in the story he/she tells. 108 sorrow over her marriage. The embedded anticipatory segment (the third and fourth stanzas) starts at a point later than the point where the first narrative was interrupted to give up its place to the proleptic segment, and ends at a point earlier than the point where the first narrative completes. Therefore, it represents a typical example of partial internal prolepsis. However, the use of internal prolepsis in the middle of narration to foretell an event that will take place later in the story is rarely found in Chinese narrative verse. The traditional form of anticipation is rather the summary at the beginning in most Chinese narrative poems, a point which I.will illustrate below. In conclusion, the anachronic forms in the Shijing are relatively simple and basic, and complex anachronic forms are rarely found in this anthology. However, these simple and basic forms became the foundation of anachronic sequence in Chinese narrative verse in subsequent ages. Moreover, in those few works with two or more anachronies such as Poem 156, the use of complex anachronic sequence to enrich the variety of content and to underline a special meaning, such as the conjugal love in Poem 156, had a great impact on the works of later ages. 3.3. Anachronic Sequences in the Narrative Verse of the Han and Six Dynasties: 109 The tradition of anachronic sequences was further developed in the narrative verse •*>f the Han and Six Dynasties. Not only were more forms of anachrony used in the poetry of that age, but there was also an increased level of complexity in anachronic sequences. Among the works of that age, "Southeast the Peacock Flies" stands out as the most significant poem In my opinion, the tradition of anachronic sequencing in poetry from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties reached its apex in this poem Prolepsis mostly appears at the beginning and rarely in the middle of narration in Han and Six Dynasties narrative works. One of the traditional forms of prolepsis in the narrative works of that age is a metaphor or a description of scenes which appears at the beginning of the work to create the basic atmosphere for the following story. An example of this form can be found in "Watering My Horse by the Great Wall" ("Yinma changchengku xing" WiMj^MMfl)- The initial line "Green, green the grass by the river" f|^:fB[|l^ljlE describes the expanse of green grass by the river. The line serves as a metaphor that evokes a specific impression associated with the following line, "Thoughts on far travels go on and on" | f H f S @ ^ M , which describes a lady's endless thoughts of her absent husband.133 The opening two lines deliver a strong sense of her ceaseless pining, which in turn creates the basic atmosphere for the entire story. The rest 1 3 3 The translation is from Owen, p. 258. 110 of the story provides a detailed description of the atmosphere presented in the initial couplet. Another example of this is "Song of White Hair" ("Baitou yin" In the opening two lines, "As bright as the snow on mountaintop, / as clear as the moon between clouds" 6i$nUj±|f, i ^ j f f f l l l H , 1 3 4 the poet uses "bright snow" and "clear moon" as metaphors to suggest the young lady's purity, her sincere attitude toward love, and her straightforward and upright personality. Her attitude and personality presented in the initial couplet coincides with her reaction and decision that are recounted in the story that follows, i.e., that she breaks up with her lover without regrets when she learns that he has fallen in love with someone else. In other words, the description of her attitude and personality in the initial couplet serves to predict the development of the story and its final ending. The other traditional form of prolepsis is a summary at the teginning of a given narrative that serves to briefly foretell the story that will be told in detail later. A good example of this form is the Eastern Han poet Xing Yan'nian's ¥M^f "Officer of the Guard" ("Yulin lang" ® f W ) . 1 3 5 The initial four lines, "A bondsman of the house of 1 3 4 The translation is from Owen, p. 233. 1 3 5 There is no reference about Xin Yan'nian's life background. A l l we know about Xin is that he was an Eastern Han poet. I l l Huo, / Feng by name, Feng Zi-du. / Hid behind the Lord General's power, / And trifled with the Hu tavern girl" H^M^f^,136 serve to introduce the primary characters, Feng Zidu and the Hu girL and provides an outline of the story. The rest of the story is a detailed account of the summary presented in the initial two couplets. Analepsis plays a major role in anachronic sequence in the narrative poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. There are five types of analepsis found in the poetry of that age: complete external, partial external, complete mixed, complete internal, and partial internal. An example of complete external analepsis can be found in "East of Pingling" ("Pingling dong" ^ISifC). This work is a typical example of beginning in medias res, followed by an expository return to an earlier period of time.137 This work has two types of narrators: the first, an external narrator (also called an extradiegetic-heterodiegetic 1 3 6 The translation is mostly based on Owen, p. 235, but I made a minor change. Owen translates Hu ?S as Turkish, but I prefer to simply translate it "Hu." There are some reasons for this. Hu sometimes means Xiongnu •fejj®. For example, in Zhouli Zhengzhu jnl/lljtftii: by Han literary critic Zheng Xuan f$~& and the Honshu )§t||| (Record of the Han), "Hu" refers to Xiongnu fej$X- According to Hou Honshu IHllr (Record of the Eastern Han), "Hu" is a general term referring to the tribes in the northern and western borders regions of China. According to the late Qing literary critic and historian Wang Guowei U S U I (1877-1927), the term Xiongnu fefltX first appeared during the Warring States period (403-221 B.C.), and it was also called "Hu" The tribe resided in Gansu "tfiH, Shaanxi and Shanxi [JL® areas. During the Eastern Han, the tribe was divided into two parts: the Southern Xiongnu (Nan Xiongnu Wi&jiJO and the Northern Xiongnu (Bei Xiongnu 4fc"^J$30- The Southern Xiongnu later surrendered to the Han, and resided in the north of Shanxi (JjJ?§ area, while the Northern Xiongnu resided in Mongol and Russia territory, and later moved to Europe. The Northern Xiongnu were a people of Turkish prigin known in the West as the Huns. Although the Northern Xiongnu were a people of Turkish origin, there were no Turks around the Han dynasty. Thus, it would be better just translate the term as "Hu". 1 3 7 For a definition of beginning in medias res, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, p. 36, and Bai, Narratology, p. 93. 112 narrator) who is not a character in the story that he tells, and moreover acts like a onlooker who has no idea about the events; and the second, an internal character-narrator (also called an intradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator) who serves as the primary narrator of the story.138 The external narrator only appears in the initial three lines to sketch the pastoral setting and to ask the question, "who has kidnapped our good lord?" ^ ^ f 5 f A ^ f r i l ^ " - These three lines serve to initiate the first narrative, as well as to establish a context in which the tale of the lord being kidnapped is told from the point of view of an anonymous eyewitness narrator. After the initial three lines, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective tale that is told by the internal character- narrator. The internal character-narrator first indicates the place where the lord was kidnapped, then points out that the kidnappers were corrupt, bullying officials, tells of the amount of ransom (a million coins and a pair of the swiftest steeds), and finally recounts that because he was poor and the ransom was far more than what he could pay, he was on his way home to sell his own brown calf in order to ransom the lord. This inserted retrospection begins before the beginning of the first narrative, and its end rejoins the first narrative at its starting point. For the classification of narrator's status and their definitions, see Note 132. 113 The second type of analepsis in the narrative poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties is partial external. An example of this is "She Went up the Hill to Pick Angelica" ("Shangshan cai miwu" Ji[Ij^i |3§t). This poem has two types of narrators: an external narrator (the poet-narrator) who is not a character in the story that he/she tells (extradiegetic-heterodiegetic narrator) and two internal character-narrators (intradiegetic-homodiegetic narrators), viz., an abandoned wife and her former husband.139 The poet narrator only appears in the initial three lines to introduce the characters and describe their unexpected encounter after their divorce. The initial three lines serve to initiate the first narrative and to establish a context in which the rest of the story will be recounted by the internal character-narrators. Afterwards, the narrative voice shifts to the abandoned wife, who asks her former husband, now remarried, how he finds his new wife. He answers that his new wife is fine, but lacks his ex-wife's excellence. After hearing his words, she recounts her miserable experience of being abandoned on the day of his wedding to his new wife, amounting to a complaint directed at him. Her account of her past suffering is a retrospection which remains external to the temporal field of the first narrative, and ends with an ellipsis, without rejoining the first narrative. After this retrospection, in the final six lines, the first narrative resumes and 1 3 9 For the classification of narrator's status and their definitions, see Note 132. 114 the narrative voice shifts to the husband, who confesses again that his new wife cannot equal his ex-wife. His confession betrays his deep regret, and there is a sense of apology for what he has done to her. This also serves to conclude the work. The third type of analepsis is complete mixed, which did not appear in Chinese narrative verse until the Han and Six Dynasties. An example is Ruan Yu's l^ tiJ^  (d. 212) ballad, "Driving My Chariot through the Northern Suburbs Gate" ("Jiachu beiguomen xing" ^tB^bfPf'^fj)- This work has two types of narrators: an external character-narrator (the poet-narrator) who is a character in the story that he tells (extradiegetic^  homodiegetic narrator), and an internal character-narrator (an orphan) who is a character in the tale that he recounts (intradiegetic-homodiegetic narrator).140 The poet-narrator tells the first narrative of the story, while the orphan tells the retrospective tale. In the initial eight lines, the first narrative starts, recounting the poet driving his chariot out of town, but his horses balking and refusing to move on when he arrives at the Northern Suburbs. The poet does not know what to do but gets off his chariot to walk around. Suddenly, a cry from a funeral-grove catches his attention, arouses his anticipation to encounter the orphan, and piques his curiosity about the orphan's story. Afterwards, in lines 9-22, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment 1 4 0 For the classification and definition of narrator's status, see Note 132. I 1 5 recounting the orphan's suffering. The orphan's tale starts with a description of a series of abuses that he experienced at the hands of his stepmother after his mother died. He had no food to eat and no clothes to wear in winter, and was frequently beaten with a whip. Moreover, his stepmother confined him to a secret cell, so that his father could not find him. Finally, his tale ends with the statement that he could no longer tolerate the tortures that his stepmother had subjected to him, so that he escaped to his mother's grave to pour out his sorrow to his late mother. Following this, in the final couplet of the ballad, the first narrative resumes and describes the poet's reflections after he learns of the orphan's story. The inserted analeptic tale of the orphan starts at a point earlier than the beginning point of the first narrative, passes beyond it, and then ends at where the first narrative is interrupted to give up its place to the analeptic tale. The fourth type of analepsis in the poetry of the Han and Six dynasties is partial internal. I will illustrate this type of analepsis later in the discussion of the sequential structure of "Southeast the Peacock Flies." The fifth type is complete internal analepsis. In the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties, complete internal analepsis is often used in combination with the first narrative or first analepsis to form a special type of sequence, which I term "co-occurring narratives / analepsis." The "co-occurring narratives / analepsis" refer to two or more consecutive occurrences of narrative or analepsis 116 recounting different events that take place within the same temporal field. The best example of this sequential structure is "Southeast the Peacock Flies." This work is not only well-known for its tragic love story, which becomes the basis of tragic romance in Chinese narrative literature in subsequent ages, but also for its complex sequential structure, which, as has been mentioned above, is the most preeminent example of complex sequential structure in Chinese poetry from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties. This work has six types of anachrony that consists of one type of prolepsis -internal prolepsis — and five types of analepsis -complete external, complete internal, partial internal, complete mixed, and co-occurring narratives. Specifically, the poem can be divided into five episodes that consist of fourteen sections in total. The first episode (lines 1-92) narrates that Liu Lanzhi is sent away and returns to her parents' home. This episode can be further divided into three sections. In the first section (lines 1-22), Lanzhi relates how she can no longer tolerate her mother-in-law's (Mother Jiao) abuse, and asks her husband Jiao Zhongqing M f ^ J i P to beg his mother to send her away. The initial two lines (lines 1-2) describe that a pair of peacocks love each other deeply but cannot fly away together because the hen is ill, and that the cock lingers and looks back for her every five leagues. These two lines not only engender a sad 117 atmosphere for the main story, but also anticipate the tragic nature of the upcoming events. The rest of this section comprises Lanzhi's words to Zhongqing, retrospectively recounting the changes in her life before and after she married him. This retrospective segment first describes in detail Lanzhi's early education before her marriage, which strongly suggests her good upbringing at an early age; it then recounts her, suffering after her marriage, including her hardship in performing her duties and her mother-in-law's constant grumbling about her slowness regardless her endeavors; finally this segment ends with an account narrating that she could no longer tolerate her mother-in-law's abuse, and therefore wished to be sent away. The temporal field of Lanzhi's retrospective account remains external to that of the first narrative, and its ending point joins the first narrative at its starting point. Thus, this is an example of complete external analepsis. Following Lanzhi's retrospection, in the second section of the first episode (lines 23-56), the first narrative begins, relating Zhongqing's conversation with his mother after learning of Lanzhi's plight. This section begins with Zhongqing's words to his mother, in which he describes his love for Lanzhi, his wish to stay with her, and defends her character. He then questions his mother as to why she treats Lanzhi unkindly. Zhongqing's words, however, do not change his mother's mind; she still insists that he marry a new wife and divorce Lanzhi, ignoring bis pleas and the fact that Lanzhi is a good wife. Finding her adamant, Zhongqing replies that he will never marry again if she sends Lanzhi away. The straightforward manner of Zhongqing, a normally filial son with a timid personality, enrages his mother. Her anger renders him speechless; he dares not speak again to his mother, but hurriedly and helplessly returns to his room to see Lanzhi. The third section (lines 57-92) describes the couple's reaction to Mother Jiao's intransigent stance, beginning with Zhongqing's words to Lanzhi that he cannot change his mother's mind and must report to his office shortly. Thus, he feels he has no choice but ask her to return to her parents' home for a while, telling her that he will fetch her after his return from his office. Hearing Zhongqing's words, Lanzhi believes that their separation is unavoidable and that there is nothing she can do to save their marriage. She says to him: "Once in the past, in early spring, I left my family, came to your noble gate. Did all I could to serve your honored mother, mm, 1 4 1 The translation is from Burton Watson, trans, and ed., The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: From Early Times to the Thirteenth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 1984), p. 84. 119 When was I ever willful in my ways? Day and night I kept at my duties, Though ache and exhaustion wrapped me around. I know of no fault or error of mine, I strove only to repay the great debt I owe her. And now I'm being driven away, How can you speak of my coming again?"141 This segment is a retrospective account of her past sufferings, beginning at the moment of their wedding and ending at the moment of her being driven away. This retrospection begins at a point earlier than the starting point of the first narrative, and ends at a point where the first narrative is interrupted to give up its place to the retrospective segment. Thus, it is an example of complete mixed analepsis. After this retrospection, the first narrative resumes and recounts Lanzhi giving her clothes and articles of clothing to Zhongqing as a memento of her love, asking him not to forget her after he remarries. • v The second episode (lines 93-151) describes Lanzhi's parting from the Jiao family. It can be further divided into two sections. The first (lines 93-126) describes Lanzhi's taking leave of her mother-in-law and sister-in-law. On the day of her departure, she mnmrnm, {jsmmm, 120 dresses herself and takes leave of Mother Jiao, without a tear and showing no unwillingness to part from her. Afterwards, however, she takes a lachrymose leave of her little sister-in-law. Following this sad scene, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment, narrating that Lanzhi first joined the Jiao family as a bride, when her sister-in-law was so young that she could only stand up with help. Now, as Lanzhi is being sent away, her sister-in-law is as tall as she is. This retrospection, as in the one discussed above, is an example of complete mixed analepsis. After this analeptic account, the first narrative resumes and recounts Lanzhi's final words to her sister-in-law as she walks out of the gate, asking her not to forget the good times they had together. The second section (lines 127-151) describes the sad scenes of the couple's separation, their marriage vows, and Lanzhi's worries about the difficulties that she will encounter after her return to her parents' home. After their marriage vows, Lanzhi tells Zhongqing that her father and brother are violent in temper and will force her to remarry, so she wishes Zhongqing to come to fetch her as early as possible. This segment describing Lanzhi's worries serves to foreshadow the upcoming events that she will soon experience. In other words, this segment serves as an internal prolepsis foretelling the difficulties that Lanzhi will encounter in the future. 121 The third episode (lines 152-251) relates the events that occur after Lanzhi's return to her family. This episode can be divided into four sections. The first section (lines 152-166) recounts Lanzhi's meeting with her mother (Mother Liu) after returning home, beginning with a description of her sad and shame-filled appearance during the meeting. Then, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment, in which Mother Liu expresses surprise and anger at seeing her daughter returning home. Mother Liu first describes Lanzhi's early upbringing, suggesting that her efforts to educate and raise Lanzhi were admirable, but Lanzhi failed to meet her expectations. Then she blames Lanzhi for her apparent betrayal of her marriage vows, including her promise to be a good wife and daughter-in-law of the Jiao family. Finally, she questions Lanzhi as to why she was sent home if she did not commit any faults: This retrospection begins before the starting point of the first narrative and ends by joining the first narrative at its point of interruption. Thus, it is an instance of complete mixed analepsis. After this analeptic account, in lines 164-166, the first narrative resumes, narrating that Lanzhi feels ashamed in her mother's presence and makes a mere simple statement of her innocence, suggesting her deep sorrow and helplessness. After hearing this, Mother Liu finally shows some compassion for her daughter's suffering. The second section (lines 167-189) tells how the county magistrate sends a 122 matchmaker to propose marriage to Lanzhi for his third son, and how Lanzhi refuses the proposal. This happens after she has been home about ten days. Mother Liu offers no opinion and asks Lanzhi to decide. Lanzhi tells her mother that she will not break her vow to Zhongqing. After learning this, Mother Liu, on behalf of her daughter, then declines the proposal. Lanzhi's account of her vow to Zhongqing (lines 176-180) is retrospective. Its temporal field remains internal to that of the first narrative, and it ends before the point when the first narrative is interrupted. Thus, it is an example of partial internal analepsis. The third section (lines 190-224) narrates that a few days after the magistrate's matchmaker leaves, an aide comes from the governor with a similar proposal for his fifth son. Lanzhi attempts to refuse, but her older brother, who severely rebukes and threatens her, forces her to accept. This description of her brother's violent temper, mercilessness and strong desire for wealth, echoes the prolepsis described in lines 146-149. The use of the technique of echoing to describe Lanzhi's misery shows that her tragic end is inevitable. The fourth section (lines 225-251) describes the delight of the governor's family, who are busily making arrangements for the wedding. This atmosphere of elation in this section contrasts sharply with Lanzhi's deep sorrow described in the following section. 123 This contrast emphasizes and highlights Lanzhi's suffering. The fourth episode (lines 252-343) describes the actions of Lanzhi and Zhongqing on the eve of the wedding. This episode can be divided into four sections. The first section (lines 252-267) describes Lanzhi's sadness while making her wedding dress and waiting for Zhongqing's arrival. This section first describes how Mother Liu mercilessly rushes Lanzhi to make her wedding clothes, asking her not to spoil her marriage this time. Then Lanzhi's sadness is described in the face of her imminent wedding. The following six lines (260-265) only describe her action in making the clothes, without any description of her sadness or her weeping. The six lines read: She moved her crystal-studded couch, Placed it in front of the window. In her left hand took her knife and ruler, In her right hand held her satins and gauzes. By morning she had finished her lined embroidered skirt, By evening she had her unlined gauze jacket.142 The translation is from Watson, p. 89. 124 Lanzhi's silence described in these six lines resembles the silence described in Bai Juyi's "The Ballad of the Lute" ("Pipa xing" ^§f j ) , suggesting a strong sense of despair, i.e., the female musician's despair over her life. Alternately, Lanzhi's silence resembles the sense of loss conveyed in the last line of Li Qingzhao's ^pfM (1084-ca, 1151) "A Long Melancholy Tune" ("Shengsheng man" S^ISl ) , which reads, "how can that one word'sorrow'grasp it?" flU^^Tffl-1 4 3 Lanzhi's silence seems to communicate a sorrow that is beyond words. Following this, the last two lines of this section (lines 266-267) relate that after a long wait, as the day wears away and darkness falls, Lanzhi goes out the gate to see whether Zhongqing has arrived, but finds no one. Lanzhi cannot keep from bursting into tears. The second section (lines 268-305) recounts the final meeting of Lanzhi and Zhongqing, and can be divided into three subsections. The first subsection (lines 268-275) is a retrospective segment telling that after hearing of Lanzhi's impending second marriage, Zhongqing asked for leave from office in order to see her. She, hearing his horse neigh sadly as he neared the Liu house, emerged to greet him. The temporal field of this retrospective account remains internal to that of the first narrative, and it ends by joining the first narrative at its point of interruption. Thus, it constitutes an 1 4 3 The translation is from Owen, p. 581. 125 instance of complete internal analepsis. Additionally, the events that this retrospection recounts take place at the same time that the events in lines 252-267 occur. Therefore, both segments constitute co-occurring narratives. This analeptic tale of Zhongqing's reactions after learning of the wedding serves as a compensation for a gap in the story.144 After this retrospection, the first narrative resumes and the second subsection (lines 276-299) begins. This subsection begins with Lanzhi's explanation to Zhongqing, which tells of the coercive actions of her parents and her brother. Unfortunately, Zhongqing disregards her suffering, delivering a strong and angry response, and blaming her for breaking her promise. Firstly, he congratulates her on her rise in social status by her marriage to the governor's son, which conveys a strong sense of sarcasm towards her acceptance of the marriage proposal. Afterwards, Zhongqing increases his sarcasm further by saying, "The boulder is square and solid / It can last for a thousand years. / But the rush or the reed - its moment of strength / Lasts no longer than dawn to dusk"145 £tt&m, o J J ^ f ^ . W — M J , ffifeM.$m (lines 288-291), a bitter criticism of Lanzhi for breaking her words, when she said, "You must be like the solid boulder, /1 like a rush or a reed. / Rushes and reeds can be strong as well as pliant, / Just For a discussion of the function of internal analepsis, see Bai, Narratology, pp. 91-92. The translation is from Watson, p. 90. 126 so the boulder does not move"146 S f f r ^ l B . ^ftWW- WWWtUB, ^ (lines 142-145). Finally, Zhongqing says to Lanzhi that he will go to the Yellow Springs alone, which serves to further harden his blame of her. Lanzhi has already experienced deep sorrow at her capitulation to remarry, and her only hope is Zhongqing's understanding, but his words severely break her heart. Completely helpless and hopeless, she says to Zhongqing that all had been forced on her against their will, and that she will meet him again in the Yellow Springs: What do you mean by such words! Both of us were forced against our will, You were, and so was I! In the Yellow Springs we will meet again, No betraying the words I speak today!"14 In the first three lines, Lanzhi refutes Zhongqing's criticism, while in the last two lines, she reveals her determination to keep her promise. Following this, in the third subsection (lines 300-305), the third-person poet narrator appears and comments on the 1 4 6 The translation is from Watson, p. 86. 1 4 7 The translation is from Watson, p. 90. 127 couple's decision to commit suicide. The third section (lines 306-326) narrates how Zhongqing bids farewell to his mother before committing suicide. This section first tells of him returning home for this farewell. His words to his mother are filial and express his sadness at parting with her. After she learns of his planned suicide;, she weeps bitterly and tries to change his mind. However, her words still betray a biased and hostile attitude toward Lanzhi, paying no * attention to the couple's love for one another, and displaying again her selfish, stubborn, and difficult personality. In the end, she fails to change her son's mind. The fourth section (lines 327-343) recounts the couple's suicide, and can be further divided into three subsections. The first subsection (lines 327-331) narrates that after taking leave from his mother, Zhongqing returns to his empty room and sighs incessantly. He is finally determined to see his promise through, yet he nevertheless hesitates to carry it out. In the second subsection (lines 332-339), the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment recounting Lanzhi drowning herself after parting from Zhongqing. The entire temporal field of this retrospection remains internal to that of the first narrative, and ends just where the first narrative is interrupted. Thus, it is an example of complete internal analepsis. In addition, the events in this retrospection occur at the same time that the events in the first subsection take 128 place. Thus, both subsections constitute an example of co-occurring narrative. This analeptic account of Lanzhi's suicide not only serves as compensation for a gap in the story, but also serves as contrastive description. In contrast to Zhongqing's weak and indecisive hesitation, Lanzhi's utter lack of hesitation in carrying out her promised suicide strongly displays her fortitude and determination. Following this analeptic tale, the first narrative picks up where it had stopped and recounts that while he was still sitting irresolute in his room, Zhongqing hears of Lanzhi's death. He finally realizes that his promise could not be reversed and that he would never see his beloved wife again. He then makes up his mind, but still hesitates, walking around the tree in the garden, until he finally hangs himself from the southeast limb. The fifth episode (lines 344-357) is the epilogue of the story, relating how the two families agree to bury the couple together on the side of Mount Hua ijllij. After several years, the branches of the trees planted around their graves join together to make a canopy of leaf entwined about leaf; in their midst, a pair of birds raise their heads and cry to each other. This epilogue echoes the initial two lines of the ballad, stressing a strong sense of sadness throughout the entire story. * As has been mentioned above, this work not only displays the most complex anachronic structure up to its time, but also shows the most advanced sequencing 129 technique in poetry ranging from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties. Tang narrative verse demonstrates significant innovations in the forms and techniques of sequencing. Nevertheless, if examining the complexity of sequential structure within one single poem, and not across poems of a historical period, "Southeast the Peacock Flies" is regarded as the single best example demonstrating sophisticated craft in complex sequencing. A higher level of complexity of sequential structure did not appear until the works of the Qing poet Wu Weiye. 130 Chapter Four: Anachronic Sequence in Tang Narrative Verse The development of anachronic sequence in Chinese narrative verse reached its first high point in the Tang dynasty. As mentioned in Chapter Three, all types of anachrony in Chinese narrative verse were present, and moreover, there was an increase in the level of complexity of anachronic sequence in the poetry of that age. The technique of sequencing and the different forms of sequential structure in Tang narrative verse had a great influence on the works of later poets, especially on the poems of Wu Weiye. Prolepsis appears less frequently in Tang narrative verse than in the narrative works of previous times, and all prolepsis used in Tang poetry is of the internal type. Additionally, most internal prolepsis appears at the beginning of a given narrative, and seldom in the middle. Why is this the case? Three provisional explanations may account for this development. First, Chinese narrative verse is mostly short. Prolepsis occurring at the beginning or in the middle of a narrative often decreases the sense of suspense. Second, compared with poetic works of previous times, Tang narrative verse pays more attention to the sense of suspense. As a result, prolepsis appears less frequently in Tang 131 poetry than in previous works. Third, in Chinese narrative verse, prolepsis that appears at the beginning of a given narrative mostly serves as an anticipatory summary of the story, or to create a special sense or atmosphere for the entire story, while prolepsis that appears in the middle of a narrative mostly serves to foretell events that will take place later. Although prolepsis appearing at the beginning can hardly avoid giving the effect of decreasing the sense of suspense in a narrative, this effect has a lesser impact compared to the effect of prolepsis that occurs in the middle of a narrative. Consequently, prolepsis in Tang narrative verse mostly appears at the beginning and only rarely occurs in the middle of a narrative. A similar situation exists in the works of Wu Weiye, as will be illustrated in the discussion of Wu's narrative verse. An example of prolepsis appearing in the middle of a narrative to foretell future events is Li Bai's "Ballad of Changgan" ("Changgan xing" -j^k^ff). The narrator of this work is a merchant's wife who awaits her husband's return home. The initial nine couplets (lines 1-18) are a partial external analeptic tale, first recounting the couple's initial encounter in childhood, then their marriage, and finally their inevitable separation. After her account of getting used to the new environment of her husband's home up to the second year of their marriage, a proleptic segment (lines 13-14) is inserted, anticipating her husband's departure: "I have the good faith of someone who stands by a 132 pillar, why should I climb the Terrace for waiting for husbands? " ^^fSttfrf, st-hW. ^ H . 1 4 8 Following this, the lady describes her husband's departure for the west the next spring. After this analeptic tale, the first narrative (lines 19-30) begins, describing her sadness and loneliness while she waits for her husband's return in the season that the autumn winds come and the leaves fall. Examples of prolepsis appearing at the beginning of a narrative can be found in Bai Juyi's 'The Salt Merchant's Wife" ("Yanshang fu" igfU f^f). The initial five lines of this work not only serve to introduce the primary character, but also serve as an anticipatory summary of the merchant's wife's wealth and luxurious lifestyle, which is described in detail later in the main story. The initial five lines read: The salt merchant's wife !HlFnJ#fp, Has plenty of money, i^ Hferfi, 1 4 8 The translation is mine. For other translations of this poem, see Cooper, Li Po and Tu Fu, pp. 125-6. See also John Minford and Joseph S.M. Lau, ed., Classical Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Translations, vol. 1 (New York: Columbia University Press & Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2000), p. 743; and David Hinton, trans., The Selected Poems of Li Po (New York: New Directions, 1996), p. 12. 1 4 9 The translation is from Yang, p. 125. She needn't farm, breed silk-worms or weave. Wherever she goes she always has a home, 133 The boat her house, wind and water her home.149 M^ft^itnflNE-Another good example of prolepsis appearing at the beginning is Bai Juyi's "The White-haired Lady of Shangyang Palace" ("Shangyang baifa ren" _ b i § E 3 i 8 A ) - The initial eight lines of this work are a brief account of the lady's suffering after being chosen as an imperial concubine of Emperor Xuanzong 3JCIK 0". 713-755), while the following lines provide a detailed account of her plight. Even though the initial eight lines already serve as an anticipatory summary of the main story, they do not decrease the sense of suspense, but instead arouse the reader's curiosity to look ahead for a detailed account of what exactly happens to her. The eight lines read: The lady of Shangyang, lady of Shangyang, Her bloom gone, age creeps on, white grows her hair. The palace gate is guarded by eunuchs in green -How many springs have passed since she was immured there? 1 5 0 The translation is from Yang, p. 117.1 have changed "Ming Huang's reign" in the fifth line to "Emperor Xuanzong's reign" in accordance with the Chinese text. ±&§A, First chosen at the end of Emperor Xuanzong's reign, Sixteen when she came to the palace, now she is sixty. The hundred beauties and more brought in with her Have flickered out through the long years, leaving her alone.150 An example of prolepsis serving to create the basic atmosphere for an entire work at the beginning can be found in Bai Juyi's ''Ballad of the Lute" ("Pipa xing" f l l l f T ) . The initial six lines of this work indicate the place (on the banks of the Xunyang River) and time (one night in late autumn) of the parting, and describes the landscape and the poet's feelings while he sees off his friend. The indication of the time and place of parting serves to initiate the story, while the description of the landscape and the poet's feelings creates the basic atmosphere for the entire narrative. Specifically, the second, fifth and sixth lines describe the dreary landscape of late autumn and the poet's sadness at parting, together conveying a strong sense of sorrow, solitude and loss. This atmosphere described at the beginning dominates the entire narrative, and also serves to predict the sad stories to come, namely the female musician's and the poet's suffering These initial six lines read: 135 151 On the banks of the Xunyang River, I was seeing off W^tTM-^M.^-, a guest one night, The autumn wind sighing in the maple leaves and W^Wi^fXMM-reed-flowers. As host, I dismounted and joined my guest on the boat, ZrlAl^ M^-r-Eff}, Where we raised up our wine and were ready to drink, 0ffiWt1ifcM^'&-but had no music of pipes or strings. Though tipsy, we could not stir up feelings of joy, and WPfjfcW$B%^ffl}, were on the point of parting, As we said farewell, the moon seemed half-submerged S'JB#^$£ffi§l£J in the boundless river. As mentioned above, the tradition of analeptic sequence achieved a remarkable 1 5 1 For a discussion of the use of prolepsis in Bai's narrative works, see also Lin Mingzhu's Bai Juyi xushishi yanjiu, pp. 218-9. 1 5 2 The translation is from Levy, p. 134. 136 development in Tang verse, and all types of analepsis in Chinese narrative verse were present in the poetry of the time. My research has found seven types of analepsis in Tang narrative verse. The first is complete external analepsis. One of the best examples is Liu Zongyuan's "Wei Dao'an" ("Wei Dao'an" # J I S c ) , a work which recounts the story of Wei Dao'an (ca. eighth-ninth century, Han Yu's (768-824) contemporary), a chivalrous man, who confronts the conflict between the claims of friendship (yi H ) and of loyalty (zhohg j£) to the emperor, and who finally decides to sacrifice himself in order to preserve both values. The first narrative begins with an account that while passing by Mount Taihang >fcfj at dusk, Wei suddenly hears a cry, which he discovers to be corning from an old man trying to hang himself. After this, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (lines 7-16) recounting the old man's suffering. This tale narrates that he was a former Prefect (cishi Mjfe) recently relieved from his official duties and banished to the western capital.153 However, while passing through Mount Taihang on his way to the western capital, he and his family were attacked by a group of bandits who looted all of his property and kidnapped his two daughters. His daughters gone, he now sees no option but suicide. Following this retrospection, the first narrative resumes and recounts that after learning of the old man's 1 5 3 Prefect (cishi JJflJSt) is the head of a Prefecture (zhou jt[). See Charles O. Hucker, A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985), p. 559. 137 suffering, Wei's righteous indignation is stirred up, and he proceeds to fight the bandits and rescue the daughters. The entire temporal field of the inserted retrospective tale remains external to that of the first narrative, and the retrospection joins the first narrative at its starting point. Thus, it is an example of complete external analepsis.154 After his daughters are rescued and returned, the old man is grateful to Wei Dao'an and wishes that Wei would marry his daughters. However, Wei does not accept the marriage proposal and instead leaves for his long journey. The following eight couplets (lines 43-58) tell of Wei's later experiences and his eventual suicide. After leaving the old man and his two daughters, Wei Dao'an devotes himself to learning the classics and Confucian thought for ten years, finally becoming an erudite person. Later on, he meets Zhang Jianfeng 5 S ^ ^ f (ca. 734-800) and wins Zhang's respect, serving as a high-ranking officer in Zhang's troops.155 Soon after Zhang Jianfeng's death, Zhang Yin jjUfli (d. 806), Zhang Jianfeng's son, wants to succeed to his father's rank, but the government does not grant his request, and thus Zhang Yin leads his troops in revolt 1 5 4 This inserted retrospective tale can also be viewed as complete mixed analepsis. The reason for this is that the story described in the beginning of the first narrative is very short - only six lines. The entirety of the content described in these initial six lines, from Wei Dao'an passing by Mount Taihang, to finding the old man attempting to kill himself, can be seen as th&beginning point of the first narrative, but can be also seen as a sequence of descriptions. If we take the six lines as a sequence of descriptions, i.e., passing by Mount Taihang, then hearing the cry, and finally finding the old man, then this retrospective tale joins the first narrative at its point of interruption, not its starting point. Thus, it is an example of complete mixed analepsis. 1 5 5 Zhang Jianfeng used to serve as the Military Commissioner (jiedushi f5S^) of Xuzhou (a high-rank official position in charge of all civil and military affairs). Han Yu had served on his staff. 138 against the government.156 After Zhang Jianfeng's death, Wei is still serving as an officer in Zhang Yin's troops, and he tries to prevent Zhang from rebellion but fails. In the face of the conflict between his friendship to Zhang Jianfeng and his loyalty to the emperor, Wei has to make a choice, and finally decides to sacrifice himself in order to preserve both values. At the end of this poem, the poet praises Wei Dao'an's virtue and nobility, and criticizes the moral degeneration of his age. Another example of this type of analepsis is Yuan Zhen's "Song of Lianchang Palace" ("Lianchanggong ci" ^IIKM)- 1 5 7 This work is one of the best representations of Yuan Zhen's political and social poems. The exact date of its composition is unknown, but since it describes late spring in its initial lines and makes a reference to the Wu Yuanji ^jt^ (d. 818) Rebellion, which broke out in 815 and was quelled in 817,158 it could have been written in the spring of the year 818.159 The primary narrator of the work is an old man, an eyewitness- narrator, who provides 1 5 6 For a biography of Zhang Jianfeng, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 140, pp. 3828-32; for a biography of Zhang Yin, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 140, p. 3832-33. 1 5 7 Lianchang Palace, which was built in 658, is located in Shou'an WS: County in Hen an Mffi Province, approximately seventy-six //' west of the eastern capital, Luoyang It was a temporary palace on the route between the eastern capital and the western capital, Chang'an jsl^ t, and was used for the comfort and convenience of the emperors when they made excursions from one capital to another. For a brief historical introduction to Lianchang Palace, see Angela C.Y. Jung Palandri, Yuan Chen (Boston: Twayne, 1977), pp. 71-72; see also Lidai xushishi xuanyi, p. 90. 1 5 8 For a biography of Wu Yuanji, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 145, pp. 3948-52. 1 5 9 For a discussion on this work's composition date, see Lidai xushishi xuanyi, pp. 90-92, and Palandri, Yuan Chen, p. 71. 139 firsthand information of what he experienced during the upheaval of that age, while the poet Yuan Zhen is a passive listener-narrator who in the initial lines establishes a context for the old man to recount his story. Only twice more in the poem does the poet intrude on the old man's narrative, once in the middle of the old man's narrative, and the other time before the conclusion of the poem.160 This work is an excellent example of a Tang verse demonstrating complex sequential structures. Specifically, the initial five lines begin with a description of the neglected and deserted palace grounds that the poet sees when he visits Lianchang Palace after a long military uprising, and then proceeds to an account of how he comes across an old man weeping by the palace gate. These five lines are used to establish a context in which the tale of the upheaval will be told from the voice and point of view of the old man. Then, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of this retrospective tale (lines 6-64), and the narrative voice and perspective shift to the old man. The old man first describes the prosperous days of the palace before the outbreak of the uprising. Then, he gives an account of the An Lushan Rebellion and the misery of the common people during the upheaval. Finally, his tale ends with an account that several years later, after the An Lushan Rebellion had been quelled, he returned home 1 6 0 Palandri, in Yuan Chen, p. 72, claims that the poet intrudes before the conclusion of the poem only once. In fact, he interrupts the narrative twice, once in lines 65-66, and again in the final two lines, 89-90. 140 from his flight, but found that the once-magnificent palace had been deserted. He could not help but weep at the sight of the deserted building. After the old man's tale, the first narrative picks up where it had stopped, and the.narrative voice and perspective shift to the poet. He first describes his grief after learning of the old man's story, then questions who it is that brings peace and war to the empire. The entire temporal field of the retrospective tale remains external to that of the first narrative, and it ends at the starting point of the first narrative (i.e., the deserted palace and the old man weeping by the gate). Thus, this constitutes an example of complete external analepsis.161 Following the poet's query, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of another retrospective section recounting the changes in the political and social situation before, during, and after the An Lushan Rebellion. In this retrospection, the narrative voice and perspective revert to the old man. He first recounts that in the early period of Emperor Xuanzong, when Yao Chong W(M (650-721) and Song Jing T^ift (663-737) were ministers, peace reigned over the state, high officials were upright, and 1 6 1 This inserted retrospective tale can be also viewed as complete mixed analepsis. The reason for this is the same as that explained concerning Liu Zongyuan's "Wei Dao'an." Specifically, the story described in the beginning of the first narrative is very short, only five lines. A l l of the content described in these lines, including the deserted landscape of the palace and an old man weeping by the gate, can be seen as the beginning point of the first narrative. At the same time, it can also be seen as a sequence of descriptions. If we take the five lines as a sequence of descriptions, i.e., the poet seeing the deserted palace, and then seeing the old man weeping, then the retrospective tale joins the first narrative at its point of interruption rather than its starting point. Thus, it can be seen as an example of complete mixed analepsis. 141 local magistrates were just.162 However, after the deaths of Yao and Song, Yang Guifei fl?M#B (719-756), known as High Consort Yang,163 and An Lushan dominated the palace and controlled the court, causing turmoil in government, and finally bringing about a fifty-year period of political turmoil and military uprisings. After this upheaval, the present Emperor Xianzong (806-820) and far-sighted and loyal ministers such as Pei Du HJ^ (765-839) quelled the Wu Yuanji Rebellion in Huaixi r i® (also called the Huaixi Rebellion) and restored peace.164 The old man's tale ends with an account of his family's return and subsequent life of peace after the rebels were captured. Then, the first narrative resumes, and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the poet who concludes the poem with his admonition to the present government. This inserted retrospective segment of political and social change before and after the upheaval ends at the moment when the first narrative starts (i.e., the initial encounter of the poet and the old man before the palace), as does the first retrospective tale. Thus, this constitutes an example of complete external analepsis. The second type of analepsis in Tang verse is partial external. One of the best examples is Du Fu's "Song of Pengya" ("Pengya xing" s^^jfffj). This poem, written in 1 6 2 For a biography of Yao Chong, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 96, pp. 3021-29. For a biography of Song Jing, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 96,pp. 3029-36. 1 6 3 For a biography of Yang Guifei, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 51, pp. 2178-81. 1 6 4 For a biography of Pei Du, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 170, pp. 4413-33. 142 757, recounts the journey made by the poet and his family as they flee north from Chang'an H ^ c in order to avoid the rebel army of An Lushan. In the sixth month of the fifteenth year of the Tianbao A S ? era (756), after the An Lushan rebels' assault in Tong Pass WUM, the poet and his family fled north. On the road to Pengya, they met with dangers and difficulties, but finally passed safely. At the marsh of Tongjia [RI Infill, as dusk fell, an old friend Sun Zai received them warmly. In the eighth month of 757, on his way from Fengxiang MM toFuzhou M>jf\, Du Fu wrote this poem to recount this journey and to express his gratitude to Sun Zai. 1 6 5 This poem begins with a retrospective tale (lines 1-42), followed by the first narrative (lines 43-46). The orjening lines "I recall when I first fled the rebels, / northwards through dangers and difficulties''166 MmMMffl, ItT&Mf&Wi indicate that the following narrative is an autobiographically retrospective account of the poet's flight northwards to avoid the rebels. Following this, lines 3-8 describe the distress and exhaustion that Du Fu and his family endured on the trip, as well as the desolate landscape they witnessed upon arriving at Pengya Road late at night. The following lines, 9-24, describe a series of dangers and difficulties they experienced while trudging along the Pengya Road, such as hunger and fear, recurrent thunderstorms, lack of 1 6 5 For a discussion of the historical background of this poem, see Liang Jianjiang, Du Fu shixuan, p. 169. 1 6 6 The translation is from Xianyi Yang and Gladys Yang, Poetry and Prose of the Tang and Song, p. 48. 143 protection against the rain, muddy ground, discomfort in trudging along rocky streams, and the inconvenience of having to pitch camp in thick fog. The following six lines recount their arrival at the marsh of Tongjia after surviving these tribulations. Just as he planned to leave via Luzi Pass HTPBI, the poet chanced upon Sun Zai. The retrospection ends with an account of Sun Zai's hospitality and their stay at his house. Then, the first narrative begins, describing the poet's thoughts of and gratitude to Sun after parting from him for a year. The retrospection ends at a point earlier than the starting point of the first narrative, and thus constitutes an example of partial external analepsis. The third type of analepsis is partial internal. An example of this is Bai Juyi's "Song of Everlasting Sorrow." In addition to the internal prolepsis appearing in the initial two lines, summarizing the whole story and foreshadowing the upcoming events, the rest of the work appears to be chronological until its concluding part. Specifically, following the initial two lines, the first narrative begins with an account of the initial encounter of the lovers, Emperor Xuanzong and High Consort Yang, then recounts their romance, the succeeding rebellion led by An Lushan, Yang's suicide at Mawei Slope H the emperor's grief during and after his exile, and the emperor's sending a Taoist priest to search for High Consort Yang. After the Taoist priest finds her on an island of 144 immortals in the sea, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (lines 102-112), in which the narrative voice and perspective shift to the internal character-narrator, High Consort Yang, who describes her endless sorrow and longing for the emperor after her suicide.167 Following this, the first narrative resumes and ends the poem with the poet's comments on this tragic romance. The entire temporal field of this retrospection remains internal to that of the first narrative, and it ends before the point where the first narrative is interrupted. Thus, it constitutes an example of partial internal analepsis. However, this retrospection may also be seen as a complete internal type (the fourth type of analepsis in Tang verse). This is because of the lack of a reference that we can use to detennine whether this retrospection ends at a point earlier than the point of interruption of the first narrative, or if it joins the first narrative at its point of interruption High Consort Yang's eternal longing may last from the past to the "present" of the point of interruption of the first narrative - when she meets the Taoist priest. If so, this retrospection may be considered a case of complete internal analepsis. I will discuss complete internal analepsis later in my discussion of Wei Zhuang's "Song of the Lady of Qin." ' • The fifth type of analepsis in Tang verse is complete mixed, a typical example of 1 6 7 For the classification and definition of narrator's status, see Note 132. 145 which can be found in Bai Juyi's "Ballad of the Lute." This work is one of the best examples of complex sequential structure in Tang poetry, containing three types of anachrony: internal prolepsis, complete external analepsis, and complete mixed analepsis. Specifically, the first narrative of the poem starts with a description of the poet seeing off his friend on the bank of the Xunyang River one night in late autumn, then proceeds to the initial encounter of the poet and the female musician, her first performance on the lute, her account of her life story, and the poet's tale of banishment and solitude in exile, which serves to respond to the musician's tale. It ends with a description of the poet's emotions after listening to a second performance by the musician. The description of parting in the initial six lines of the work, as has been discussed above, conveys a strong sense of sorrow, which creates the basic atmosphere for the entire narrative, as well as predicts the sad stories to come. After these lines, the first narrative recounts that the poet and his friend, on the point of parting, suddenly hear the sound of a lute coming over the water. It then proceeds with a series of descriptions of the poet's efforts to find the musician, suggesting the poet's eagerness to find a zhiyin ^Ullf (literally, "someone who knows music") who can truly recognize and share his sad feelings in exile. After the poet's incessant pleas, the musician finally emerges and performs for him and his friend. The sadness conveyed in the music corresponds to the 146 sorrow described in the first six lines, highlighting the sense of sadness, as well as establishing a special atmosphere for the upcoming account of the musician's life. After the description of her first performance, there is a shift in the narrative voice, and perspective to the musician with the first narrative's interruption by the insertion of a retrospective segment recounting the story of the musician's life. Her account begins with her family background and early life experiences, and then proceeds to the prosperous, happy, and carefree days of her youth, followed by several sad events, such as family deaths, aging, and loneliness. Finally, she married a merchant and languished in despair. She relates that since her husband went to Fuliang W-W: to buy tea a month ago, she has been living in a boat alone, with only the bright moon and cold water of the river accompanying her. She then tells of a dream in which she cried out for the old days that were long gone. Following her story, the first narrative resumes at the point where it had stopped, and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the poet, who proceeds to describe his emotions. The musician's retrospection begins at a point (her early life experiences) earlier than the starting point of the first narrative (the poet seeing off his friend on the bank of the Xunyang River), and its ending point (when she .cried out in her dream) can be seen as the one which takes place at the same time that the first narrative begins. Thus, this can be considered an example of complete external analepsis. 147 On the other hand, the end point of the retrospection may be seen as a general description of her suffering after the departure of her husband. In other words, the "late at night" in line 61 may not refer to the night when she meets the poet, but to all of the nights since her husband's departure. If so, this retrospection may be seen as a case of partial external analepsis. In my opinion, the former interpretation (i.e., that the end point of the retrospection joins the first narrative at its starting point) fits the development of the story better. That is, when the poet is seeing off his friend on the bank of the Xunyang River, the musician is suffering from her loneliness in the empty boat, and when the poet and his friend are on the point of saying farewell, the musician comes out, playing a lute to comfort herself. Following the description of the poet's reactions to the musician's story, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of a second retrospective segment recounting the poet's suffering during his exile. The poet's tale begins with his banishment to the city of Xunyang the year before, then proceeds to a series of descriptions of his solitude and sadness in exile, and finally, ends with his delight upon hearing the music that the musician performed. After this, the first narrative resumes at the point where it had stopped, with the poet asking for another song. The second retrospection begins at a point before the starting point of the first narrative, and joins 148 the first narrative at its point of interruption. Thus, it constitutes an example of complete mixed analepsis. The poet's tale of banishment not only echoes the musician's life story, but also provides a focus for his description on his emotions in the concluding part of the poem The sixth type of analepsis in Tang narrative verse is analepsis within analepsis. It refers to analepsis in which one or more retrospections are inserted. This type of analeptic sequence is rarely found in poetry before the Tang. One of the best examples of this analeptic sequence in Tang narrative verse is Wei Zhuang's "Song of the Lady of Qin." The first narrative of this poem, which appears in the opening eleven lines, describes the initial encounter of the poet and the lady outside Luoyang's city walls in early spring, establishing a context in which the tale of the Huang Chao j i f JH (d. 884) Rebellion will be told by the lady; the first narrative also appears in the final couplet (lines 237-238), describing how the lady asks the poet to tell her story to the Marquis of Jinling ^t&i, with whom she wishes to take refuge.168 The rest of the story (lines 12-236) is a retrospective tale, the primary narrator of which is the lady, who recounts Huang Chao's sack of Chang'an H ^ c and the ensuing suffering of the An important study of this poem can be found in Levy, Chinese Narrative Poetry, pp. 86-102, 114-20. 149 common people.169 In the lady's retrospective account, two minor analeptic tales are inserted to serve as complementary accounts, which detail and highlight the misfortune that the upheaval brings to the people. Specifically, after the opening eleven lines, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment, and the narrative voice and perspective shift from the poet to the lady. The initial five lines of her tale (lines 12-16), a brief account of her suffering during the Huang Chao Rebellion, provide an anticipatory summary foreshadowing the disorder and suffering that she will describe in detail later. Thus, these five lines can be seen as an example of internal prolepsis, and moreover, since it is inserted in a retrospective segment, it is also an example of prolepsis within analepsis. After the proleptic description in the initial five lines, the lady's retrospection starts to recount in detail her and the people's misery during the political upheaval. Her tale begins with a description of the tranquility of the capital city Chang'an before the rebels arrived, then proceeds to a series of events during and after the rebels' sack of the city: the fear and helplessness of the commoners when the rebels attacked, the subsequent slaughter that took place after the sack of the city, the rebels' reversal of the proper order of the state in their attempts to administer the imperial government, the elation of the 1 6 9 For a biography of Huang Chao, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 200, pp. 5391-98. 150 captives upon hearing rumors of rescue by imperial troops, followed by their hopes shortly being dashed when the troops met with failure, the rebels and captives being beset by famine and forced to flee, and the lady's flight with other refugees from one place to another. Finally, the lady's tale ends with a description of her hopes for peace under the Marquis of Jinling. The lady's retrospection begins at a point before the starting point of the first narrative, passes beyond that starting point, and ends at the point where the first narrative is interrupted with the retrospection. Thus, the lady's tale is a complete mixed analeptic account. As has been mentioned above, there are two retrospections inserted into the lady's tale. In order to clearly show the relationship between the embedded retrospections and the lady's retrospection, I take the lady's retrospection as the first analepsis. Specifically, in the lady's account of her flight on the second day, there is another retrospection inserted to recount another victim's suffering during the upheaval. Specifically, on the second day of their flight, when the lady and other refugees passed by Mount Hua ^ j l l i j , they saw nothing but desolation: ruined houses, deserted fields and gardens, and destroyed trees. She despaired deeply. By the roadside, she encountered an abandoned village idol, the Golden Spirit (Jintian shen jfeAij^O, and asked it why it had brought such disaster on innocent people. Afterwards, her retrospection (the first analepsis) is 151 interrupted with the insertion of another retrospection (lines 163-74), the narrator of which is the Golden Spirit. He first recounts his own miserable experience during the upheaval, then tells that he was powerless to save himself and hence, was only able to watch the people's sufferings, and finally, ends his tale with his lament for his impotence and the people's misfortune. The entire temporal field of the Golden Spirit's retrospection remains internal to that of the first analepsis, and thus it is an example of internal analepsis. However, there is no clear reference that we can use to determine whether the Golden Spirit's retrospection joins the first analepsis at its point of interruption, or whether it ends at a point earlier than the point of interruption. Thus, it can be considered either a case of complete internal or partial internal analepsis. In either case, the Golden Spirit's retrospection and the first analepsis constitute an example of analepsis within analepsis. Generally speaking, in Chinese narrative verse, the second analepsis of this special sequential structure serves as a complementary account, broadening the scope of the content of the first analepsis, and underscoring the special meaning conveyed in the first analepsis. In this poem, the Golden Spirit's retrospection recounts the suffering of a specific victim, which serves as a complementary account to the lady's description of the commoners' misfortunes. The description of different people's sufferings broadens the scope of the content in the 152 lady's account of the people's misery, and emphasizes that fate is completely beyond their control. In addition, the Golden Spirit's retrospection occurs concurrently with the lady's tale, and thus these two retrospections constitute an example of co-occurring analepsis. After the Golden Spirit's retrospection, the first analepsis resumes, and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the lady, who describes her emotions after hearing the Golden Spirit's sad story. Afterwards, the first analepsis recounts that on her way from the Shaanxi ffiM plateau to Luoyang, she saw a peaceful, exhilarating landscape that filled her with the hope of finding a place to live again. She praised the virtue of the governors of the area. However, her hopes were soon deflated when she came upon an old man begging for gruel by the roadside. Following this, the first analepsis is interrupted again with the insertion of another retrospection (lines 197-216), the narrator of which is the old man, who recounts his story, starting with an account of the happiness and wealth of his family before the uprising. He then recounts the destruction and looting of half of his property by the Huang Chao rebels, and the pillaging of the rest of his property by imperial troops who were supposed to protect the people from the violence of the rebels but who turned out to be even more violent than the rebels. He ends his tale with an account that because of the loss of his property and 153 his family, he now leads a lonely and wretched existence. His retrospection starts at a point earlier than the starting point of the first analepsis, and ends at a point later than the starting point. Thus, it is a case of mixed analepsis. Moreover, it is likely that the end point of the old man's retrospection (his "currently" miserable life) joins the first analepsis at it's point of interruption (the old man begging for gruel), and thus I take this to be a case of complete mixed analepsis. However, it is not entirely clear that the end point of the old man's retrospection joins the first analepsis at its point of interruption, and thus it can be considered to be a case of partial mixed analepsis as well. The old man's retrospection and the lady's account constitute another example of analepsis within analepsis, which, as in the former example, serves as a complementary account to highlight the suffering of the commoners. However, it is noteworthy that because the old man's retrospection does not occur completely within the temporal frame of the lady's tale, the two do not constitute a case of co-occurring analepsis. The seventh type of analepsis in Tang narrative verse is co-occurring analepsis. Some of the best examples can be found in Wei Zhuang's "Song of the Lady of Qin." As noted above, the tales of the Golden Spirit and the lady constitute an example of this type of analepsis, but the description of the tragic fates of the lady's four neighbors is perhaps an even better example. In her account, the cardinal points are used to order the sequencing in order to describe their misery at the hands of the rebels, starting with the daughter of the eastern neighbor, then the daughter of the western neighbor and the daughters of the southern neighbor, and ending with the wife of the northern neighbor. Their misfortunes all took place at the same time, i.e., shortly after the rebels' sack of the capital city. The description of their fetes underscores the misfortune of the commoners, and suggests that women suffer the most during such violent times.170 Another example of co-occurring narrative is Yuan Zhen's "The Pheasant Decoy" ("Zhimei" £§$§0. The first narrative of this work begins with a description of a happy pair of pheasants flying wing to wing, and then narrates how one of the pair flies ahead alone and is caught by hunters, who proceed to mutilate it so that it can be used as a live decoy. Following this, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (lines 17-22), recounting that after its mate suddenly disappeared, the other pheasant returned to the places where they used to live together in order to look for its mate, and cried out by their nest, mourning. Afterwards, the first narrative resumes with a tale of the free pheasant spying its mate from afar after a long search. It naively approaches the decoy, then is trapped by the hunters. After being captured, the trapped pheasant blames its mate for betrayal. The temporal field of the retrospective 1 7 0 For a detailed discussion, see pp. 72-76. 155 account of the pheasant looking for its mate remains internal to that of the first narrative, and it ends before the point where the first narrative is interrupted. Thus, this constitutes a case of partial internal analepsis. Moreover, the events in the retrospection take place at the same time that the events in the account of the pheasant being captured and tamed to become a decoy occur, and thus, both together create a co-occurring narrative structure. The function of the partial internal analepsis in the co-occurring narrative is the same as that of the retrospective account of Zhongqing's reaction after hearing of Lanzhi's imminent remarriage in "Southeast the Peacock Flies." That is, it serves as a compensation for a gap in the story, and to provide information about an actor who has been concerned with other things and disappears during the first narrative, but later turns out to be of importance. Tang poetry made a significant contribution to the development of anachronic sequencing, but unfortunately, as stated in the first chapter, no significant progress was made in narrative poetry during the three dynasties following the Tang, and therefore, the development of anachronic sequencing stagnated during these times. It was not until the early Qing dynasty that the tradition of narrative poetry was revived and the development of anachronic sequencing reached its summit. Why did narrative poetry develop so richly during the early Qing dynasty? This is probably because the dramatic events surrounding the fell of me Ming dynasty and the rise of the Manchus provided the poets a wealth of material for narrative poems on historical and political themes. Moreover, the poets of the seventeenth century began to reject imitative theories of literature from the mid-Ming period, and tried to search for new approaches to literature. In addition, seventeenth- century critics were truly interested in narrative poetry and began to provide theoretical frameworks for narrative discussion.171 The most important figure in the development of sequential structure in the early Qing dynasty was Wu Weiye. Wu was inspired by the achievement of Tang poets and inherited the sequential form from Tang poetry in his works. In addition, Wu adapted new forms from other literary genres, and was thus able to produce the most complex forms and preeminent techniques of sequencing in Chinese narrative poetry. 1 7 1 For a discussion of the reasons why narrative poetry developed so richly during the early Qing dynasty, see Schmidt, Harmony Garden, pp. 418-421. 157 Chapter Five: Anachronic Sequence in Wu Weiye's Narrative Verse As has been mentioned above, Wu Weiye's verse displays the most sophisticated craft in complex sequencing in Chinese narrative verse, if we study the complexity of sequential structure in single poems. All types of anachronic sequence in Chinese narrative verse have been illustrated in previous sections, and thus, in this section, there will be no further discussion regarding each individual type of anachronic sequence. Instead, I will analyze the sequential form in the nine works of Wu Weiye that best exemplify the complexity of sequential structure in his verse. One of Wu's best poems of complex anachronic sequence is "Song of Donglai." As mentioned in the second chapter, this work recounts the stories of four late Ming loyal martyrs, Jiang Cai, Jiang Gai, Song Mei, and Zuo Maodi, collectively known as the Four Martyrs of Donglai, and shows Wu's lament for the loss of his friends.172 This work includes three cases of analepsis, all of which are partial external. Specifically, the opening twenty-eight lines of the poem are a retrospective account that can be divided 1 7 2 For a biography of Jiang Cai, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 258, pp. 6665-68; for a biography of Jiang Gai, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 258, p. 6668; for a biography of Song Mei, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 267, pp. 6879-82; for a biography of Zuo Maodi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 275, pp. 7048-51. 158 into two sections. The first section (lines 1-12) is a, general account of the four martyrs, who were highly trusted and respected by the Chongzhen emperor of the Ming in the early stages of their imperial service. The second section (lines 13-28) describes the suffering of the Jiang brothers in the late stages of their official careers. This section can be further divided into three subsections. The first subsection (lines 13-20) tells of Jiang Cai's straightforward criticism of government affairs and how his impeachment of the corrupt officials, who caused political disorder, irritated the emperor. Jiang Cai was therefore imprisoned and flogged severely. The second subsection (lines 21-24) recounts that after learning of this, Jiang Gai resigned from the imperial court and returned to his hometown. Later in the reign of the Chongzhen emperor, he and his family fled to Suzhou in order to avoid the military uprising in the Shandong area. The second subsection ends by narrating that after Jiang Gai learned of the emperor's death, he considered suicide to demonstrate his loyalty, but decided to live so that he could take care of his elderly mother. The third subsection (lines 21-28) begins by relating that during the period when Ruan Dacheng gained control of the Southern Ming court, the two brothers fled to separate places in order to stay alive, and ends with a description of their sorrow over the death of the emperor and the fall of the Ming. The entire temporal field of the retrospection remains external to that of the first narrative. Thus, it 159 constitutes a case of partial external analepsis. Following this retrospection, the first narrative begins and recounts the poet's surprise encounter with Jiang Gai in Suzhou in the autumn of the fifth year of the Shunzhi emperor (1648), some few years after Jiang Gai returned there from Ningbo. Following the description of this meeting, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of another retrospective segment (lines 33-36) recounting the story of Song Mei. Like Jiang Cai, Song strongly criticized corrupt officials and was therefore banished to his hometown. While the Manchu troops attacked the Shandong area, Song and his entire family fought to the death for the Ming. Immediately following the tale, of Song Mei, a third retrospection (lines 37-40) is inserted to recount the story of Zuo Maodi. Zuo, like the other three martyrs, was an upright Wgh-ranking official who strongly criticized the failings of the imperial government; but unlike the other three, he was not punished or even relieved of his official rank. After the exodus of the Ming court from Beijing to Nanjing in 1644, the Hongguang emperor ascended the throne there, and made Zuo a special envoy of the Southern Ming for peace negotiations with the Qing court in Beijing. During Zuo's duties there, he was sentenced to death because of his refusal to take high office in the Qing court. The events in these three partial external retrospections occur at the same time, i.e., before and after the fall of the Ming, 160 and thus, they constitute a form of co-occurring analepsis. Although each of the three retrospections tells a different story, they echo each other, underlining the tragic fates of the martyrs during the dynastic change, and highlighting the general chaos and calamity of the age. Following this, the first narrative resumes, recounting that the Jiang brothers save themselves from persecution by corrupt officials, but live separately for years due to rnilitary uprisings (lines 41-44). The following four lines (45-48) show the poet's grief over the tragic fates of his friends. The concluding lines of the work (lines 49-58) tell how the poet wishes that Jiang Gai could join him in retirement in the mountains. These final fourteen lines suggest the poet's strong sense of loss at the collapse of the Ming dynasty. The "Second Song of the Donggao Thatched Hut" is another prime example of complex anachronic sequence. This work recounts how the poet revisits the Donggao v Thatched Hut after the martyrdom of its occupant, Qu Shisi l i t J t ^ (1590-1651).173 In this poem, the poet recalls his friend's past and describes how the hut had changed, conveying his longing for his friend as well as his sadness over the fall of the Ming. This poem opens with a twenty-eight line retrospective account, telling of Qu's 1 7 3 For a biography of Qu Shishi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan"280, pp. 7179-84. 161 suffering during and after his service in the imperial court, and describing the hut's changes over time. This retrospection can be divided into two sections. The first section (lines 1-16) begins with a description of the serenity and elegance of the hut in the past, then recounts Qu's experience of taking office in the late Ming court. Like the Four Martyrs of Donglai, Qu was a Mgh-ranking and upright official, who impeached corrupt officials, recommended good and loyal candidates for service in court, and criticized the affairs of the imperial government. His earnest endeavors and uprightness offended the corrupt officials, and he was later persecuted and imprisoned. The Chongzhen emperor knew of Qu's loyalty, and therefore released him, after which Qu retired to his thatched hut. The second section (lines 17-28) first recounts that after the fall of the Ming, Qu left his hometown to join the Southern Ming court in Nanjing, and led troops south to defend the Ming from Manchu aggression in the Guangdong and Guangxi areas but was defeated and finally died for the Ming. Following the story of Qu's death in the south, the descriptive focus shifts to the misery of his family and to the changes in the Donggao Thatched Hut. After Qu left for the south, his family suffered continual harassment and extortion from corrupt officials, prompting them to leave the hut to escape. After they left, the hut was looted by neighbors and left in ruins. Following this, the first narrative begins, describing the desolation that greets the poet when he revisits 162 the hut and its garden some years later, after Qu has died and his family members have gone. The retrospection ends at a point (the present desolation of the hut) where the first narrative begins, and thus it is an example of complete external analepsis. The repetitive description of the hut's desolation stresses the poet's feelings of sorrow and sympathy for Qu. After the description of the present desolation of the hut, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (lines 37-40) in which the poet recalls the joyful times Qu and he had spent together during his first visit to the hut and its garden in the past. This retrospective account remains entirely external to the temporal field of the first narrative, and thus, it is a case of partial external analepsis. The poet's description of past joys in this retrospection contrasts with the hut's present dilapidation that is described in the previous segment. The contrast emphasizes the disparity between past and present, and moreover, this disparity fiirther underlines the poet's strong sense of loss and his longing for his friend Qu. Afterwards, in the concluding sixteen lines of the work, the first narrative resumes and focuses on the poet's emotions and reflections upon seeing the changes in the hut: his sadness over the desolation of the garden, his longing for and sorrow for Qu, and his praise for Qu's loyalty and patriotism Before the conclusion, the narrative shifts 163 between past and present several times in order to focus on the description of the disparity between present and past. The description of change conveys the poet's sorrows about it. The description of the poet's emotions in the conclusion echoes the rest of the narrative, and thereby underscores the poet's sense of loss and suggests his sorrow over the fall of the Ming. A special technique of description in these two aforementioned poems, i.e., "Song of Donglai" and "Second Song of the Donggao Thatched Hut," is noteworthy. Specifically, in the first part of both poems, the poet acts like a historian using an objective, less personal and less emotional point of view to recount the historical events and to describe the suffering of the historical figures, while the poet's tone becomes more personal and his description becomes more emotional in the later part of the poems. This is one of the typical techniques of description used in the "poetic histories" (shishi f r f of Chinese narrative verse, a technique which is termed "inverted triangle description" by a modern scholar.174 The best examples of this technique in poetry before Wu Weiye's time are Poem 27 of the Shijing, "The Green Coat" ("Luyi" £§^c ) in the "Airs of Bei" ("Beifeng" MB*), Cai Wenji's (ca. late second-early third century) "Poem of Affliction" ("Beifen shi" and Du Fu's "Journey to the 1 7 4 See Wang Ching-Hsien E r f g£, Chuantongde yu Xiandaide (Taipei: Hongfan, 1987), pp. 37-51. North." Through the use of this technique, the focus of description gradually shifts from the ''telling" of historical events to the "expression" of the poet's personal emotions. In works that employ this technique, narrative and lyricism coexist. Therefore, narrative does not disrupt lyricism, and lyricism does not overwhelm narrative. In other words, narrative contains a strong flavor of lyricism This descriptive technique is one of the most striking devices of Chinese "poetic history," and is also a distmguishing feature that differentiates Chinese narrative verse from other narrative genres. The "Poem of Yuan Lake" ("Yuanhu qu" If ftjfjffil) is another well-known work which relates both historical events and the suffering endured by a friend of the poet. This work has a different sequential structure from the two poems just studied. These two poems begin with retrospection, followed by the first narrative, while "Poem of Yuan Lake" starts with the first narrative, then proceeds to retrospection. Specifically, in the opening eight lines, the first narrative starts and recounts the poet revisiting Wu Changshi's (d.1643) residence at Yuan Lake some years after Wu has died. There, he sees the beautiful scenery surrounding the lake as it was in the past, refreshing his memory of past days that Wu and he had spent together. The description in the initial eight lines serves as a prelude for the story that follows. The first narrative is then interrupted by this story, a retrospective segment (lines 9-40) that 165 recounts Wu's suffering during the period of his decline.175 This retrospection can be divided into two sections. The first (lines 9-28) begins by describing the joyful banquets held at Wu's residence after he passed the Civil Service Examinations. Wu then left for the capital to take office in the imperial court. Then, the retrospection recounts how Wu was respected, heavily relied upon, and quickly promoted by the Chongzhen emperor. The second section (lines 29-40) first narrates that due to vicious factional battles at court, Wu was persecuted, imprisoned, and executed. The section ends with the poet's return to Wu's residence years later, where nothing is left but buildings and landscape.176 The end point of this analeptic tale joins the first narrative at its starting point, and thus it constitutes an example of complete external analepsis. Following this retrospection, the first narrative resumes. In the concluding twelve lines of the work, the poet laments Wu's tragedy, and complains about the unpredictability of life. 1 7 5 For a biography of Wu Changshi, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 24, 252,253,254, 258,308, pp. 333, 6524, 6540-41,6565-66, 6670-71, 7928-31. 1 7 6 In the fifteenth year of the Chongzhen emperor (1642), Wu was recommended by the current Prime Minister Zhou Yanru (1593-1643) and promoted from the Director of the Bureau of Ceremonies (yizhi langzhong ^SJHPtp) in the Ministry of Rites (libu JjUnft) to the Director of the Bureau of Appointments (wenxuan langzhong P )^ in the Ministry of Personnel (libu jr£nl$). This was the fifth-highest ranking appointment and one of the most powerful positions in the late Ming court. Its duties include the appointment, promotion and dismissal of officials. However, factional battles became vicious in the late Ming. The year after Wu was promoted (1643), Zhou Yanru was forced to step down from his position by a rival faction; Wu, then without Zhou's protection, was persecuted by Jiang Gongchen MWk BE (A- 1643), charged with corruption and bribery, and finally sentenced to death. For a discussion of these historical events, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 308, pp. 7930-31; see also Wang Jiansheng, Wu Meicun yanjiu, p. 185, and Huang Yongnian, Wu Weiye shixuanyi, pp. 19-20. For Wu Changshi's official positions, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 24, 254,258, pp. 333, 6565, 6670. For a biography of Zhou Yanru, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 308, pp. 7925-31. 166 Another of Wu Weiye's historical poems is "Song of the Old Courtesan from Linhuai" ("Linhuai laoji xing" There are two types of anachrony in this poem: one is internal prolepsis, which appears in the beginning section; and the other is complete external analepsis, which serves as the primary story of the work. The narrator of the primary story is the old courtesan, who was a courtesan in the family of the notorious Ming general Liu Zeqing WIWWI (A. 1645). The poet-narrator acts as a listener-narrator, only appearing in the beginning and the concluding parts. The first narrative of the work begins at the moment that the poet encounters the courtesan, some years after Liu was sentenced to death by the Qing court. Specifically, the initial four lines of the work provide a brief account of Liu Zeqing's life, recounting Liu's indulgence in sexual pleasure in his early years, the time that he was the commander of the troops of Huai'an, and his eventual execution by the Manchus after he surrendered to the Qing court.177 These initial four lines serve as an anticipatory summary of the story that will be told in detail later. Following this, in lines 5-8, the first narrative begins and recounts the initial encounter of the poet and the courtesan, which serves to introduce her and to establish a context in which the following story will be told through her voice and point of view. Then, the first narrative 1 7 7 For a biography of Liu Zeqing, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7006-8. 167 is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment, and the narrative voice and perspective shift from the poet to the old courtesan. The following fifty-nine lines (9-67) narrate the courtesan's analeptic account of Liu Zeqing's life story. Her retrospection starts with the story of her early life, then proceeds to the tale of Liu's life. Her account of Liu begins with a description of his early profligacy, then tells of his flight to Huaiyin fflit^ after the Manchus defeated his troops, and describes his eventual surrender to the Qing court. Her tale finally ends with an account of how Liu still led an extravagant life while in the custody of the Qing court in Beijing, blind to the impending danger. It was only when he was about to be executed at the Western Market (Xishi ©rff) that he finally realized his dream of becoming a king or marquis had come to naught. After this analeptic tale of Liu's life, the narrative shifts back to the present in lines 62-67, and the courtesan concludes her tale with a description of her sadness at the fall of the Ming. The temporal field of the courtesan's tale remains external to that of the first narrative, and its end point joins the first narrative at its starting point. Thus, it is a case of complete external analepsis. In the concluding four lines of the work, the narrative voice and perspective reverts to the poet, who comments on the story of Liu Zeqing's life. This serves to echo the opening four lines and stresses Wu's criticism of the notorious general. 168 Among Wu Weiye's narrative poems, the "Two Artists from Chu" ("Chu liangsheng xing" ^ M ^ f e f j ) is one of the best examples of the beginning in medias res. In the poem, the narrative begins in the middle of the story, then proceeds with a recollection of preceding events. The poem narrates the life experiences of two artists, famed singer Su Kunsheng and master storyteller Liu Jingting before and after another notorious Ming general, Zuo Liangyu, dies.178 Specifically, the opening four lines first describe the prosperous days of the two artists when Zuo appreciated and respected their talents, then proceeds to a description of their suffering after Zuo's death. They wander around the Jiangnan £Q^f area, leading lives of poverty. The story described in the opening four lines is told again in detail later in the poem. Thus, the four lines can be seen as an example of internal prolepsis. Following the opening four lines, the first narrative begins in lines 5-20. These sixteen lines can be divided into two sections, each telling the story of one of the artists. The first section (lines 5-12) recounts Liu's suffering after Zuo's death. Liu leads a life of destitution, wandering from place to place and living on storytelling. Eventually, he has no other way for a better life than to serve as storyteller under another notorious For a biography of Zuo Liangyu, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 6987-98. 169 Ming general, Ma Fengzhi.179 However, no one recognizes his talent like Zuo did. Lonely and sorrowful, Liu fishes by a river to comfort himself. The second section (lines 13-20) relates Su's similar plight. After Zuo's death, Su too is homeless and wanders through the Jiangnan area singing in his sad and beautiful voice to make a living. He sings songs about Zuo Liangyu and the Southern Ming, and they move his audiences in the Su'nan region. Since the stories of Su and Liu occur at the same time, they constitute a case of co-occurring narratives. Following the stories of the two artists' suffering, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment that recounts the dramatic changes in Su's life before and after Zuo's death. The retrospection begins with an account relating that due to his talents, Su became immensely popular with Zuo's guests, but that Zuo himself was old and weak at the time. Then the retrospection proceeds to explain that Zuo's son, Zuo Menggeng TJII^II (fl. 1645), surrendered to the Manchus soon after Zuo passed away.180 Su then left Zuo's troops, and subsequently, led the life of a vagabond. Finally, the retrospection ends with a description of Su's current life of destitution after he moved to the Su'nan area. The retrospection begins at a point earlier than the starting 1 7 9 For a biography of Ma Fengzhi, see Qingshigao, juan 243, pp. 9588-89. 1 8 0 Zuo Menggeng surrendered to the Qing court in the fifth month of 1645. For a biography of Zuo Menggeng, see Qingshigao, juan 248, pp. 9660-61. 170 point of the first narrative, then passes beyond the starting point, and finally ends at a point where the first narrative is interrupted by the retrospective segment. Thus, this is a case of complete mixed analepsis. This retrospection repeats the events that were already recounted in previous sections, Le., the opening and the first narrative section before the retrospection. This repetition stresses the dramatic reversal of the two artists' fortunes, and their misery after the fall of the Ming. Following this retrospection, the first narrative resumes and shifts the focus of the description from the life story of the historical figures to the poet's expression of emotion. The poet first describes his longing for Liu, then expresses his sympathy for the plight of the two artists. In the concluding lines of the work, the poet invites Su and Liu to join him in retirement, suggesting the poet's strong desire to lead a life of reclusion. , , The aforementioned five poems already surpass the achievements of Tang narrative verse in the technique of complex sequencing. The following four masterworks of Wu Weiye exceed "Southeast the Peacock Flies," and display the most complex sequential structure in Chinese narrative verse up to Wu Weiye's time. Typical examples of highly intricate sequential structure can be found in the first of the poems that I will discuss, Wu's best-known poem, "Song of Yuanyuan" ("Yuanyuan qu" MMtfiO-171 In the opening four lines, the first narrative begins, recounting how the Ming general Wu Sangui j?|3£fc (1612-1678) defected to the Manchu side and led the Manchu troops to break into the capital after learning that his favorite concubine, Chen Yuanyuan PHIHIH (1623-1695), had been captured by the rebel general Liu Zongmin MttWi (A- 1644), a commander of the rebel troops led by Li Zicheng ^ (1606-1645).181 Since his motivation for invading the capital city is not for the sake of reviving the Ming but for the sake of his favorite concubine, these lines serve as a severe censure of Wu's betrayal and his selfishness. Then, in lines 5-8, the narrative voice and perspective shift from the poet to Wu, who maintains that his act of treason is not on account of his favorite concubine, contradicting the poet's comment in lines 1-4. This serves to disclose another of Wu's characteristics — hypocrisy — in addition to his disloyalty and selfishness. After this, in lines 9-40, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 1) and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the poet, recounting the romance of Wu Sangui and Chen Yuanyuan. The retrospection begins with a description of the initial encounter and the 1 8 1 For a history of Wu Sangui going over to the Manchu side to rescue Chen Yuanyuan, see Qingshigao, juan 474, p. 12836. For a biography of Wu Sangui and an account of the romance of Wu and Chen, see Qingshigao, juan 474, pp. 12835-53. For a biography of Liu Zongmin, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi,'yuan 309, pp. 7955, 7956, 7960, 7963, 7965-66, 7968. For a biography of L i Zicheng, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 309, pp. 7948-69. marriage vows between Wu and Chen, then recounts the Chongzhen emperor ordering Wu to defend the empire from Manchu invasion, and finally ends with a description of Chen's suffering after being seized by the rebel general Liu Zongmin. The retrospection ends at a point earlier than the point where the first narrative is interrupted (i.e., Wu's treason and his invasion of the city after he learned of Chen's capture), and thus is a case of partial external analepsis. This analeptic tale serves to provide information about the antecedents, which are of importance for the development of the story. Analepsis 1 can be further divided into three sections. The first section (lines 9-12) is an account of the initial encounter of the couple and their marriage vows. Following this, in the second section (lines 13-32), analepsis 1 is interrupted with the insertion of another retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 2) recounting Chen's suffering in her earlier years. Analepsis 2 first relates Chen's family background. She was originally a lotus picker from Wanhua ^-/S village near Suzhou. She was lovely and refined, and had dreamed of becoming the favorite concubine of the emperor since her childhood. Following this, analepsis 2 recounts her abduction by Tian Hongyu B B ^ i S (fl. 1644), who abducted her because of her beauty. Chen was later recommended by Imperial Consort Tian B B M $ B (d. 1644), a daughter of Tian Hongyu and the favorite concubine 173 of the Chongzhen emperor,182 to be a concubine of the emperor. Unfortunately, Chen did not win the emperor's favor, and led a life of sadness and loneliness in the palace. She was later transferred to become a courtesan of Tian's household. Because of her beauty and talents, Chen became immensely popular with Tian's guests, but remained sad and lonely because she could not find a man who could truly love and appreciate her. Finally, analepsis 2 ends with an account of the initial encounter between Wu and Chen and their eventual marriage vows. Analepsis 2 begins at a point earlier than the starting point of analepsis 1, passes beyond the starting point, and ends at a point where analepsis 1 is interrupted to give up its place to analepsis 2. Therefore, analepsis 2 is a case of complete mixed analepsis. In addition, analepsis 2 is inserted into analepsis 1, constituting a form of analepsis within analepsis. This kind of analeptic sequence is rarely found in poetry before Wu Weiye's time. In the third section (lines 33-40), analepsis 1 resumes, narrating that immediately after making their marriage vows, Wu was ordered by the emperor to lead the imperial troops against the advancing Manchu armies. Finally, analepsis 1 ends with a description of Chen's suffering at the hands of the rebels. Following analepsis 1, in lines 41-58, the first narrative resumes, recounting the 1 8 2 For a biography of Imperial Consort Tian, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 114, p. 3545. 174 reunion of Wu and Chen. Lines 41-50 narrate that after breaking into the capital, Wu subjugates the rebels, finds Chen, and they finally lead a life of great wealth together. Lines 51-58 tell of Chen's fame spreading through her hometown. Then, in lines 59-64, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of a third retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 3) and the narrative voice and perspective shift from the poet to persons from Chen's past, including her singing teacher and the companions who laundered silk with her in the past. The retrospection starts with a recollection of Chen's suffering during her abduction, and ends with a description of her current life of wealth and luxury, suggesting their admiration for the dramatic turn of Chen's fate - how the "swallow" alighting on a branch has been transformed into a "phoenix." Analepsis 3 begins at a point earlier than the starting point of the first narrative, then passes beyond its starting point, and ends at the point where the first narrative was interrupted to give up its place to the retrospection. Therefore, analepsis 3 is an example of complete mixed analepsis. This retrospection serves to highlight the dramatic changes in Chen's life, and to suggest a satirical intention on the part of Wu Weiye: that the price of Chen's transformation from a commoner into a noble is the fall of the Ming dynasty. The poet's satire in these lines echoes his criticism in the opening lines, which stresses the blame that the poet places on Wu's disloyalty and selfishness. 175 In the concluding fourteen lines (lines 65-78), the first narrative resumes and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the poet, who uses historical allusions to convey his strong criticism of the couple's romance, and to suggest that Wu Sangui will inevitably suffer a tragic fate. The latter point eventually reveals itself as prophetic. According to the history of the Qing dynasty, in the twelfth year of the Kangxi emperor (1673), Wu Sangui rebelled against the Qing court and led his troops to resist the Qing. In 1678, Wu set himself up as the King of Zhou in Hu'nan WM, but died the same year. Soon after, in 1681, Wu's kingdom was destroyed by Qing armies and most of his family members were killed.183 Although Wu Weiye had no way of knowing what would happen when he composed this work, the tragic fate of Wu Sangui described in this poem foretells what will actually happen. Thus, we may see it as an "external prolepsis" of the upcoming historical events - Wu Sangui's tragic end. Another of Wu Weiye's best examples of complex sequential stmcture is "Reflection on Meeting an Old Man in the Garden of the Southern Chamber [of the Imperial Academy in Nanjing]: A Poem in Eighty Rhymes." One of the most striking features of this poem is the repeated back and forth movement between present and past. This movement of time serves to describe the change in the Nanjian jl^ lS (or called 1 8 3 For a history of Wu Sangui's rebellion against the Qing court and his final failure, see Qingshigao, juan 474, pp. 12843-53. 176 Nanxiang Mftfi, the Imperial Academy of the Ming in Nanjing), which conveys the poet's strong sense of loss in the face of the dramatic change in the academy from the past to the present, and his lament for the tragic end of the Ming. The first narrative of the work begins with an account of the poet revisiting the academy in Nanjing in the fourth month of the tenth year of the Shunzhi emperor (1653), where he comes across the old man, a former member of the poet's staff. It then proceeds with the poet's recollection of the bygone prosperous days of the academy, the old man's account of the changes in the academy and in society that occurred during and after the Manchu's sack of the city, and finally ends with a description of the poet's sorrow over the dynastic change. In the opening twenty lines, the first narrative begins, narrating that some years after the fall of the Ming, the poet returns to the Imperial Academy of the Ming where he once served as the Director of Studies (siye WJH).184 Here, he meets up with the old man. With the old man as a guide, the poet tours the academy and its garden - his old haunts. In the following lines, 21-102, the first narrative is interrupted several times by the insertion of several retrospections, including complete and partial external types, to 1 8 4 "Director of Studies" (siye WJlit) is the second executive official of the Imperial Academy, subordinate only to its Chancellor (jijiu See Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 69, 73, pp. 1678, 1790-91; see also Hucker, pp. 130, 459. . 177 recount the prosperous days of the academy in the past and its current desolation. These embedded retrospections center on the changes of certain things, such as scenery, buildings, politics, plants, ceremonial instruments, and valuable books. The result is the constant sWfting of time back and forth, from present to past and back to the present. This temporal shifting portrays the passing of the "good old days," and conveys the poet's feelings of deep sorrow over the fall of the Ming dynasty. According to these shifts in the temporal setting of the story, the eighty-two lines can be divided into seven sections. The first section (lines 21-36) recounts the poet's recollections of the prosperous days of the academy. This section first describes the students of the academy as carefully selected, highly talented, and outstanding; then describes the past beautiful natural scenery around the academy; and finally relates how the academy was highly regarded by high-ranking Ming officials. The second section (lines 37-50) is the poet's account of the decline of the once-prosperous Ming dynasty. In the initial line (37), the first narrative resumes and is immediately interrupted in the following nine lines with the insertion of another retrospective segment, telling that because of the endeavors of talented officials and generals such as Li Wenzhong (1339-1384), Deng Yu jgr (1337-1377), Xu Da ^ (1332-1385), and Chang Yuchun S?§# (1330-1369), who were all among the most important founding figures of the Ming, the dynasty was 178 established and became strong and prosperous. In the final four lines of the section, the first narrative resumes and relates that the "good old days" of the Ming, however, are now gone. The third section (lines 51-56) recalls the decay of the once eminent Lord Zhongshan ^ i f f i Xu Da's family. The third section supplements the final lines of the second section and stresses the decline of the Ming, which suggests the poet's deep sorrow over the changes effected by this decline. The fourth section (lines 57-64) highlights the changes in the Tongtai Temple |5j## from past to present. In the initial two lines of the section, the first narrative resumes and describes the present desolation of the temple. The foUowing eight lines are a retrospective account of the former magnificence of the temple. The direction of movement in the form of description in this section, i.e., from current desolation to past prosperity, moves opposite to previous descriptions, which shift from past to present. The form of description in this section conveys the poet's longing for the bygone dynasty and underlines the poet's sense of loss in the face of its fall. The fifth section (lines 65-82) tells of the ruin of Guanxiang Terrace WMM. (Observation Terrace). The first narrative resumes in the first line and is immediately interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment for the next fifteen lines. This retrospection relates the important role of the Terrace in the history of the Ming. In the final two lines of the section, the first narrative resumes to describe the 179 poet's lament for the passing of the bygone age. The sixth section (lines 83-94) recounts the tragic fate of ancient trees in the royal Ming graveyard. The initial four lines of the section tell of the poet's recollection of these trees that were majestic in their height. The following two lines recount that after the dynastic fall, these trees were cut down. The final six lines show Wu Weiye's reflection over this event, which he renders tragic. The seventh section (lines 95-102) laments the rain of the lecture hall and the loss of the valuable book collections and ceremonial instruments of the academy. After this description of the poet's tour around the academy, the first narrative continues in lines 103-110. The old man invites the poet to his home for a meal, establishing a context in which the following tale will be told from the point of view of the old man. In lines 111 -152, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis A), with the narrative voice and perspective shifting from the poet to the old man, who recounts the changes of society during and after the Manchus' takeover of Nanjing. The old man's tale (analepsis A) first describes the chaos that occurred while the Manchu's sacking of the city and the commoners' suffering at the hands of the Manchus. Then, this retrospection is interrupted with the insertion of a second retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis B) recounting the political turbulence of the Southern Ming court before the 180 sack of Nanjing. This embedded retrospection (analepsis B) first relates that the common people around the Jiangnan area lived prosperous and peaceful lives before the Southern Ming court was established in Nanjing. Analepsis B then recounts how dishonest Southern Ming officials corrupted the state and caused misery among the common people. Then it tells that factional battles amongst the corrupt generals created an empire-wide crisis and caused the dynasty to. fall.185 The temporal field of analepsis B remains external to that of analepsis A, and it ends at a point earlier than the starting point of analepsis A Thus, analepsis B is a case of partial external analepsis. Since analepsis B is inserted into analepsis A, both retrospections constitute a typical form of analepsis within analepsis. The second retrospection informs the reader of events necessary for an understanding of the political situation of the Southern Ming court, which is set in contrast to the one of the Qing court that is described next. This contrast suggests the old man's censure of the officials and generals of the Southern Ming for indulging in factional battles rather than trying to save the state. After analepsis B, analepsis A resumes, narrating that after taking Nanjing, the Qing stamped out 1 8 5 The corrupt officials are Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng. The corrupt generals are Zuo Liangyu, Gao Jie, Liu Zeqing, Liu Liangzuo, and Huang Degong. As has been mentioned above, the troops led by the latter four generals are called the Four Major Military Camps of Jiangbei. For a biography of Ma Shiying and Ruan Dacheng, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 308, pp. 7937-45. For a biography of Gao Jie, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7003-6; for a biography of Liu Zeqing, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 273, pp. 7006-8; for a biography of Liu Liangzuo, see Qingshigao, juan 248, p. 9660; for a biography of Huang Degong, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 268, pp. 6901-3. 181 corruption, restored order to society in the Jiangnan area, and gave peace back to the common people. The entire temporal field of the old man's retrospective tale remains external to that of the first narrative, and remains isolated in its remoteness. Thus, it constitutes a case of partial external analepsis. As noted above, the old man's account censures the officials and generals of the Southern Ming for creating the crisis, and reveals his delight over and praise of the Qing court for restoring political and social order. His comments suggest that the common people only care about whether society is in order, rather than who controls the state.186 In the concluding eight lines of the work (lines 153-160), the first narrative resumes and the narrative voice and perspective revert to the poet. In the concluding part, the poet, on the one hand, describes his delight in seeing society return to normal, but on the other again expresses his sorrow over the fate of the Ming, as well as his reluctance to serve the Qing. The sense of ambivalence in these concluding lines echoes the It is apparent that the poet used a "public" voice for his private expression. In other words, the poet used the old man's voice to express his praise of the Qing court, which contrasts with the poet's sorrow over the fall of the Ming. Such a contrast can also be found in other works of Wu Weiye, such as "Fanqing Lake." Why did the poet lament for the fall of the Ming on the one hand, and praise the capability of the Qing court on the other? He never explained this in his works, but it may be possible to see these contradictory feelings as the poet's expression of his feelings of ambivalence before taking office in the Qing government: loyalty to one's emperor is a primary virtue of the Confucian official, and it is shameful to serve two dynasties. At the same time, an official is responsible for contributing meaningfully to society. This perennial tension may be underlying Wu's ambivalence. Moreover, the Qing appeared to be better at conducting the affairs of state and more capable of bringing people a better life than the late Ming or the Southern Ming. The ambivalence that the poet felt is, in fact, what many Ming loyalists felt after the dynastic collapse. 182 description of his emotions in the rest of the work. Wu Weiye's "A Song on Hearing the Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing Play the Zither" ("Ting nudaoshi Bian Yujing tanqin ge" 8§&M±1^3i3R3P#9J0 constitutes another remarkable example of a historical poem that is structured by complex sequencing. This poem, written in the eighth year of the Shunzhi emperor (1651), recounts the change of fates of the royal concubines and courtesans of the Qinhuai area before and after the fall of the Southern Ming. 1 8 7 This work displays a very high level of complexity in sequential structure. In the opening six lines, the first narrative starts with an account of how in the first month of the eighth year of the Shunzhi emperor, the poet unexpectedly comes across Bian Yujing, his once beloved gklfiiend, in the Suzhou area after a long period of separation The six lines start with a description of the sound of flying geese, then shift focus to the beautiful sound of a zither coming from a distance, which catches the poet's attention and arouses his curiosity to look for the zither player, and finally ends with the poet's realization that the zither player is Bian Yujung. Wu's technique of describing Bian's first appearance was apparently inspired by Bai Juyi's "Song of the Lute," in which Bai initiates the work with a description of 1 8 7 The best study of this work in a Western language is Kang-I Sun Chang, "The Idea of the Mask in Wu Wei-yeh (1609-1671)," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48.2 (1988): 289-320. For a discussion of the date of composition of this work and its related historical events, see Wang Jiansheng, Wu Meicun yanjiu, p. 394; see also Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 300. 183 outdoor scenery, then shifts the focus of description to the sound of the lute and the poet's search for the musician, and ends with the appearance of the musician. Specifically, Bai Juyi's description of the female musician's initial appearance starts with, "Suddenly I heard coming over the water the sound of a pi-pa; II forgot all about going home, and my friend did not set out" MM^KJ^MMW, i A ^ i f ^ F i s t (lines 7-8). The reader is surprised to suddenly hear the sound of a lute through the aural perception of the narrator. The above lines are followed by, "We followed the sound and discreetly asked who the player might be" Ip^Qa follPP^fii (line 9). In this line, not only does the reader follow the narrator in search of the musician, but he also anticipates an encounter with her. Following this, the line, "The sound of the pi-pa halted, reluctantly she answered" J§ll8j^^§n>ll (line 10), creates a sense of suspense, as the narrator wonders whether he will actually meet the musician. And then, "We moved our boat to the side of hers and invited her to meet us; / We ordered more wine, renewed the lanterns, and again began the feast, / A thousand calls, ten thousand pleas, before she emerged" ^fl&fflifiltfBiL j ^ @ 0 j g f i | i l * . (lines 11-13). These lines heighten the sense of suspense and once again promote the reader's sense of anticipation. Finally, under the reader's high expectation, the musician appears; however, she is "Still holding the pi-pa in such a way as half to hide her face" 184 (line 14).188 The musician still retains her mystery, which arouses curiosity in both the narrator and the reader. Following the opening six lines that describe Bian Yujing's initial appearance, in lines 7-10, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 1), with the poet still as narrator. The retrospection recounts his initial encounter with Bian many years ago and Bian's early life, a time that remains temporally isolated and does not join the first narrative at its starting point. Thus, it is a case of partial external analepsis. This analeptic tale of Bian's early life has two functions. The first is to introduce Bian as witness-narrator, recounting the tragic fates of the royal concubines and courtesans during the fall of the Southern Ming. The second is to establish a context in which the tale of the victims will be told from her voice and point of view. After the analeptic tale of Bian's early life, the presence of the poet is forgotten until the last four lines of the poem, where the poet reflects upon Bian's tale, forming the conclusion of the work. Following the analeptic tale of Bian's early life, in lines 11-67, the narrative voice and perspective shift from the poet to Bian, and another retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 2) is inserted to tell the story of the royal concubines and courtesans of 1 8 8 The translation of the eight lines is from Levy, p. 134. 185 Nanjing during the fall of the dynasty. These fifty-seven lines can be divided into three sections, the first (lines 11-51) of which recounts the tragic fate of the royal concubines, and which can be further divided into three subsections. The first subsection (lines 11-35) narrates the change in Maiden Zhongshan's c^Ui tH fate before and after the fall of the Southern Ming. She was the daughter of Lord Zhongshan ^UfE , and was ehosen as the imperial consort of the Hongguang emperor of the Southern Ming. The first subsection can be further divided into two parts: lines 11-23 and lines 24-35. The initial nine lines of the first part recount Maiden Zhongshan's early life before being chosen to be the imperial consort, describing her noble family background, her talent in music, her beauty, and her happy early life. In the following four lines, the focus of description shifts from her early life to the historical events during the fall of the Ming. In 1644, the rebels, led by Li Zicheng, broke into Beijing, causing the Chongzhen emperor to commit suicide at Mount Mei j^[Xf.189 After the emperor's death and the loss of the capital, Prince Fu $§3E and the Ming government officials fled to Nanjing. Later in the same year, Prince Fu was enthroned in Nanjing as the Hongguang emperor, establishing the Southern Ming dynasty. He then For a biography of the Chongzhen emperor, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 23, 24, pp. 309-36. 186 issued an edict to recruit beauties to court and did not attempt to recover the state.190 Following this historical account, the second part starts and tells of the tragic fate of Maiden Zhongshan after being chosen for the court. In the initial four lines (lines 24-27), the focus of description shifts back to Maiden Zhongshan and recounts that she was chosen to be the imperial consort for her beauty. In lines 28-29, the mood changes sharply to one of foreboding. The witness-narrator Bian Yujing says, "They all said taking on the yellow-canopied carriage was most honorable, / But who could have known her life would be ruined in the twinkling of an eye?" HtM ll'OTff IIS, PS^^I ^^IMM: (lines 28-29), an internal prolepsis that foretells Maiden Zhongshan's tragic fate and signals the change in atmosphere from cheerfulness to sadness and chaos.19' The following six lines narrate that shortly after Maiden Zhongshan was chosen, Manchu troops attacked Nanjing, causing the Hongguang emperor to flee to a military camp run by the Southern Ming general Huang Degong. Maiden Zhongshan, who had not met the emperor, was instead given to the Manchus by a certain treacherous Ming official.192 Immediately following the retrospective account of Maiden Zhongshan's suffering, 1 9 0 See Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 308; see also Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 120, p. 3651. 1 9 1 The translation is from Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 314. 1 9 2 For a discussion on the historical background, see Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 319; see also Huang Jinzhu, Wu Meicun xushishi yanjiu, p. 155. 187 analepsis 2 is interrupted by the second subsection (lines 36-43), which constitutes a third retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 3). This segment recounts the tragic fate of two royal concubines, Qi flft and Ruan (5t, after the fall of the Southern Ming. The two concubines experienced the same tragic fate as Maiden Zhongshan: they were also selected for their beauty and talent, but never met their new master, and were given to the Manchus. The entire temporal field of the third analepsis remains internal to that of the second analepsis, and thus, it constitutes a case of an internal analepsis.193 After the analeptic account of the tragic fate of these concubines, in the third subsection (lines 44-51), Bian Yujing describes her sympathy towards them and her sorrow over their tragedies. The description of Bian's feelings in these eight lines serves to move the focus from historical events and figures to Bian herself, and initiates her account of her own suffering. Following the description of these royal concubines' misfortunes, the second section (lines 52-59) begins with a fourth retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 4) that recounts Bian's hardships after the fall of the Southern Ming. She first recounts that after the sack of Nanjing, the Manchus carried off the courtesans from the 1 9 3 Since there is no clear reference that we can use to determine whether the end point of the third retrospection is earlier than the end point of the second retrospection, we cannot determine whether this is a case of partial or complete analepsis. 188 city and neighboring regions. She was nearly captured, but escaped by becoming a Taoist priestess, remaining secluded and leading a life of poverty in order to avoid capture.194 The entire temporal field of the fourth analepsis remains internal to that of the second analepsis, and thus, this constitutes a form of an internal analepsis. Among the aforementioned three analeptic tales (i.e., the tragic fate of Maiden Zhongshan in the second analepsis, the misfortune of the concubines Qi and Ruan in the third analepsis, and Bian Yujing's suffering in the fourth analepsis), the latter two retrospections serve as complementary accounts to the former one. Moreover, all three tales occur at the same time (after the fall of the Southern Ming), and thus, they together constitute a typical form of co-occurring analepsis. This concurrence serves to stress the women as innocent victims of violence during the political upheaval, and suggests the poet's censure of the Hongguang emperor's indulgence in sensual pleasures and neglect of state matters.195 The third section (lines 60-67) of the second analepsis shifts back to the present and serves as the ending of her entire song. This section describes the current desolation of Suzhou. Bian first tells of Suzhou's former prosperity, when it was known for singing 1 9 4 See Kang-I Sun Chang, pp. 302, 304, 320. 1 9 5 For a discussion of the accusation that the Hongguang emperor and the Southern Ming court indulged themselves in the pleasures of Nanjing rather than tried to save the nation, see Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 318. 189 and dancing, and that now it is silent and desolate, and most of her courtesan friends are gone. She ends her song with her lament for the misery of her friends, suggesting her, deep sorrow over the passing of the Ming. The beginning point of the second analepsis (the early life of Maiden Zhongshan) is earlier than the starting point of the first narrative (one day some years later, after the fall of the Ming, when the poet appears somewhere in Suzhou), and its end point (when Bian plays a melody before audiences in Suzhou) joins the first narrative at its point of interruption (when the poet hears Bian's song). Thus, it constitutes an example of complete mixed analepsis.196 1 9 6 Lines 11-67 in totality can be seen as a single retrospection in which another two retrospective tales are inserted. They can also be viewed as a single narrative, moving from past, to present, to past, and back to present. Specifically, lines 11-35 are the retrospective account of Maiden Zhongshan's life before and after the fall of the Southern Ming. This retrospection itself is an example of partial external analepsis (hereafter called the second analepsis). Immediately following the retrospective account of Maiden Zhongshan's experience of suffering, in lines 36-43, another retrospection (hereafter called the third analepsis) begins and recounts the tragic fate of the two royal concubines after the fall of the dynasty. The entire extent of the third analepsis remains external to the extent of the first narrative, and thus the third analepsis itself is a case of partial external analepsis. After the analeptic account of the tragic fate of the royal concubines of the Southern Ming, in lines 44-51, the narrative shifts from past to present, and tells of Bian's reflection on the miserable plight of the royal concubines. Afterwards, in lines 52-59, another retrospection (hereafter called the fourth analepsis) is inserted to recount Bian's experience of suffering after the fall of the Southern Ming. The entire extent of this retrospection remains external to the first narrative, and thus her life tale itself is a case of partial external analepsis. In the following eight lines (60-67), the narrative shifts back to the present and describes the current desolation of the Suzhou region, as well as her deep sorrow over the tragic fetes of her courtesan friends. It is apparent that the third and fourth retrospections serve as complementary accounts to the second one, and that all of the three analeptic tales (that is, the later part of the second analepsis, the third analepsis, and the fourth) occur at the same time, i.e., during the dynastic change. Thus, these three tales constitute a form of co-occurring analepses. As has been mentioned in the main text, these co-occurring analepses serve to stress the miserable plight of women during the age of political upheaval, and suggest the poet's accusations of the imperial court's corruption. It happens often in Chinese narrative poetry that different approaches or perspectives result in different analyses of sequential structure of a poetic work. This is because the Chinese language does not have verb tenses. It is difficult to determine exactly whether certain lines or words refer to the present or the past. Moreover, one of the striking features of Chinese narrative poetry is its strong lyricism. Often in Chinese narrative poetry, an expression of emotion, or a reflection, 190 In the final four lines of the work (68-71), the first narrative resumes, and the narrative voice and perspective reverts to the poet, who ends the entire story with his reflections on Bian's tale. The poet's expression of sorrow in the final lines echoes Bian's sadness described in previous lines, which serves to underline the poet's sympathy for the victims of the dynastic change, and suggest his grief over the collapse of the Ming. The entire story concludes with a sense of pervasive sadness. The work that displays the most complex sequential structure in Wu Weiye's poems - and indeed in Chinese narrative poetry up to Wu's time - is the "Song of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate" (Xiaoshi qingmen qu" llf j^ Wf^ fflO. The exact date of the composition of the work is unknown, but it is possible that it was written sometime between 1653 and 1656 (i.e., between the tenth and thirteenth year of Shunzhi's reign), when the poet took office in the Qing court in Beijing.197 This poem is a well-known work about the dramatic change in the fate of the princesses of the Ming and their husbands (viz, Princess Rongchang (fl. seventeenth-century); Princess Ningde H (ft 1644) and her husband Liu Youfu mWU (ft 1644); Princess Le'an (d. immediately follows narration. It is difficult to determine whether certain lines of expression of emotion which follow a sequence of retrospection should be seen as a part of the retrospective account or as the poet's current feelings. 1 9 7 According to Wang Mian, the work was possibly written between 1653 and 1656. See Wang Mian 3 i Wu Weiye (Taipei: Sanmin, 1993), p. 93. However, according to Kang-I Sun Chang, this poem was written in the decade after the fall of the Ming. See Kang-I Sun Chang, p. 297. 191 1643) and her-husband Gong Yonggu (d. 1644); and Princess Changping 4^zp (1627-1645) and her husband Zhou Shixian MHJtH (A- 1645)) before and after the fall of the Ming.1 9 8 The dramatic change in the fate of these princesses parallels the change of the Ming dynasty itself. The name "Xiao Shi" H j£l refers to Zhou Shixian, and the "Green Gate" ("Qingmen" ffpl) refers to the Zhangyi Gate the location of Princess Changping's grave, which is surrounded by green willow trees.199 The narrator of the primary story of the work is Zhou Shixian, ari internal character- narrator, and the secondary narrator is Princess Ningde, a character-narrator inside the story told by Zhou Shixian.200 The poet-narrator, acting as an audience for Zhou's tale, appears only in the opening lines and then remains silent throughout the rest of the work. Specifically, in lines 1-8, the first narrative of the work starts with the narrator as the poet, who describes the desolate scene of the graveyard where Princess 1 9 8 These princesses described in the work have different statuses. Princess Rongchang was the daughter of Emperor Shenzong iff ^  (r.1573-1619) and the aunt of the Chongzhen emperor (r.1628-1644), and was thus entitled Grand Senior Princesses (Dazhang gongzhu A R ^ i ) . Princesses Ningde and Le'an were the daughters of Emperor Guangzong (1620) and the sisters of the Chongzhen emperor, and were thus entitled Senior Princesses (Zhang gongzhu ;ftfi\E£)- Princess Changping was the daughter of the Chongzhen emperor, and was thus entitled Princess (Gongzhu £-42). In other words, the title of Grand Senior Princess refers to the aunt of the current emperor; the title of Senior Princess refers to the sister of the current emperor; and the title of Princess refers to the daughter of the current emperor. See Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 121, pp.3676-78; see also Cheng Muheng H^Hfif, Wu Meicun shiji jianzhu #| 1§Wi#ftiii£ (Hong Kong: Guangzhi), pp. 148-52. 1 9 9 SeeMaLing'na Mi^M, "Luetan Wu Meicun de qiyan gushijiqi xiaoshi qingmen qu" ffl§§ic^|$ifcf $}±:m~&3$RM:M$ZW^$, Wenxue Yichan Zengkan 3 t^ t | g igT! l 11 (October 1962): 45. See also Huang Jinzhu, Wu Meicun Xushishi yanjiu, p. 158. 2 0 0 For the classification and definition of narrator's status, see Note 132. 192 Changping lies, and narrates that one night some years later, after the fall of the Ming, Zhou Shixian stands before the graveyard and laments the passing of the Ming. The poet's description of the desolation and of Zhou's sorrow in the opening lines serves to introduce Zhou as the primary narrator, and establishes a context in which he will tell the tale of the princesses in his voice and from his perspective. Moreover, the sadness conveyed in these initial lines creates the basic atmosphere for the rest of the story. In other words, the mood set in the opening lines serves as an internal prolepsis that foreshadows the story of the princesses. Then, in lines 9-70, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of this retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 1), and the narrative voice and perspective shift to Zhou. The first analepsis starts from the wedding of Princess Le'an and Gong Yonggu, and ends with the plight of Princess Ningde and her husband after the fall of the Ming. The end point of the first analepsis may join the starting point of the first narrative, and thus it may be seen as a case of complete external analepsis.201 The sixty-two lines can be divided into seven sections. Specifically, the first section (lines 2 0 1 There is no clear reference in the work that can be used to determine whether the first analepsis joins or ends earlier than the starting point of the first narrative (i.e., when Zhou stands before the graveyard, and laments the bygone dynasty). According to Xinjiaoben Mingshi (juan 121, pp. 3677-3678), Princess Changping died in the third year of Shunzhi's reign (1646), i.e., three years later after the fall of the Ming. After the dynastic turnover, Princess Ningde and her husband wandered destitute from place to place with only their lives. It is possible that the first analepsis ends the same point in time as the beginning of the first narrative. Thus, I consider the first analepsis to be an example of complete external analepsis. 193 9-18) first describes that Gong Yonggu was courteous, talented, and fond of scholarship and learning. Gong won recognition from the Chongzhen emperor, and married Princess Le'an in the first year of Chongzhen's reign (1628).202 Following the description of their wedding, in the second section (lines 19-28), the first analepsis is interrupted with the insertion of a second retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 2) recounting the sumptuous wedding of Princess Ning'de and Liu Youfu during Xizong's H T H reign (1621-1627).203 The entire temporal field of analepsis 2 remains external to that of analepsis 1, and thus, it constitutes an example of partial external analepsis. Moreover, analepsis 2 is inserted into analepsis 1, and thus, both retrospections constitute a form of analepsis within analepsis. In addition, it is noteworthy that although both retrospections describe royal weddings, their techniques of description are different. In the first retrospection, the poet describes the wedding of Princess Le'an and Gong Yonggu simply and briefly, without any detail. By contrast, in the second retrospection, the poet uses detailed and hyperbolic description to portray the extravagance of the wedding of Princess Ningde and Liu Youfu. This technique can be termed "contrastive parallelism" 2 0 2 For a story of Princess Le'an and Gong Yonggu, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, )um 55, 121, pp. 1400, 3677. 2 0 3 Emperor Xizong (Zhu Youjiao 7fcE£|f£) and Emperor Sizong (Zhu Youjian 7fcfi]$J0, i.e., the Chongzhen emperor, were the first and fifth sons of Emperor Guangzong. After the death of Xizong, Chongzhen ascended the throne. Please see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 22, 23, pp. 297-298, 309-310. 194 ("fandui" ELM) which serves to reveal the subtle nuances of difference within the sameness.204 This difference in description serves to foreshadow the difference in conduct of the two couples in the face of the fall of the Ming. In the sixteenth year of the Chongzhen emperor (1643), in the midst of national crisis in the late Ming, Princess Le'an died of worry and sadness. The next year (1644), during the sack of the capital and after the death of the emperor, Gong Yonggu and his children committed suicide for the Ming, but Princess Ningde and Liu Youfu chose to lead a life of destitution,205 implying the poet's praise for Le'an and Gong's loyalty and his censure of Ningde and Liu's misconduct. After the description of Princess Ningde's wedding, in the third section (lines 29-34), the first analepsis resumes and recounts that the two princesses and their husbands led a life of wealth and glory after getting married, and that the two sisters' families got along well. In the following section (lines 35-42), the first analepsis continues to describe the members of the royal family, but shifts the focus of description 2 0 4 For a discussion of this technique, see Rolston, How to Read the Chinese Novel, p. 107. 2 0 5 On the nineteenth day of the third month of the seventeenth year of the Chongzhen emperor (1644), the L i Zicheng rebels sacked the capital city and the emperor committed suicide. See Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 121, p. 3677: "The Princess [Le'an] was dead but had not been buried yet. [Gong] Yonggu tied five of his children with yellow string to the Princess's coffin, and said that 'They are the emperor's nieces and nephews and must not be insulted by the rebels.' Then he cut his own throat with sword and burned his whole family to death." -fi-ZEBSE, MW, * @ M M » £ £ A f i i * E ^ , B : "jlfc^gjth,, ^V3M 195 from the sisters to the Grand Senior Princess Rongchang, who was elderly but still in good physical shape, leading a life of luxury and happiness early in the reign of the Chongzhen emperor. The third and fourth sections serve to describe the prosperity of the Ming in the past. Immediately following the description of the prosperity of the royal family, in the fifth section (lines 43-56), the atmosphere changes sharply from prosperity and happiness to decline and sadness. Line 43, "It is regrettable that all the prosperities eventually came to an end" rfSlp^llpPpi'#ti£, is the turning point of the story, serving as an indication of the passing of prosperity, as well as an internal prolepsis foretelling the tragic fate of the Ming. The following lines (44-52) describe Le'an's death and Gong's sorrow over his loss. Afterwards, lines 53-56 tell of the difficulty of the Chongzhen emperor, who was lonely after Le'an's death, as he had only one sister, Ningde, left to comfort him during the crisis. The sixth section (lines 57-62) describes the tragic fate of the royal family members during and after the fall of the Ming. The section first tells that Queen Zhou MMin (1614-1644) and the emperor committed suicide within two days of each other during 196 the Li Zicheng rebels' sack of the capital.206 The folio wing lines tell that Gong Yonggu died for the Ming after its fall, and that Princess Ningde chose not to commit suicide simply because she did not want to be separated from her husband. Finally, in the seventh section (lines 63-70), the first analepsis ends with an account relating the suffering of Ningde and Liu, recounting how they sold their property to eke out a scanty uvelihood. Immediately following this first analepsis, in lines 71-84, another two retrospective segments (analepsis 3 and 4) are inserted to serve as complementary accounts to the first analepsis. Here, the narrative voice and perspective shift from Zhou Shixian to Princess Ningde. These fourteen lines can be divided into two sections. The first section (lines 71-78) describes the tragic life of Princess Changping during and after the fall of the dynasty. This section (analepsis 3) first narrates that during the sack of the capital the Chongzhen emperor cut off Princess Changping's left arm, intending to let her bleed to death in order to save her from being kidnapped by the rebels. But Changping merely lost consciousness, awaking five days later to live a life of grief. In the second year of the Shunzhi emperor (1645), Princess Changping wrote to the emperor to ask his 2 0 6 Queen Zhou committed suicide on the eighteenth day of the third month of the seventeenth year of the Chongzhen emperor; the emperor committed suicide one day after his queen's death. For an account of the emperor's and his queen's suffering on the eve of the fall of the Ming, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 24, 114, pp. 334-336, 3542-3545. 197 permission to become a Buddhist nun, which he denied, asking her rather to follow her father's will and marry Zhou Shixian. A year later, after marrying Zhou, Princess Changping died of sadness.207 The entire temporal field of this retrospection remains internal to that of the first analepsis, and it ends before the end of the first analepsis. Thus, this constitutes a case of partial internal analepsis.208 Moreover, the tale of Princess Changping occurs concurrently with the tale of Princess Ningde, both forming co-occurring analepsis, which serves to emphasize the tragic fate of the royal family during the dynastic change. Following the story of Changping's suffering, the second section (lines 79-84, analepsis 4) recalls the prosperous days in the early period of the Chongzhen emperor and the prosperous and joyful lives of the members of the royal family. The entire temporal field of this analeptic tale remains internal to that of the first analepsis, and it ends before the end of the first analepsis, and thus it is an example of partial internal analepsis. The atmosphere of happiness and prosperity described in this section contrasts with the sadness described in the previous section on Princess Changping's tragedy. The 2 0 7 In the last year of the Chongzhen emperor (1644), when Princess Changping was sixteen, the emperor selected Zhou Shixian to be her husband, but due to the advance of the rebels on the capital, the wedding was postponed. For an account of Princess Changping's experience, see Xinjiaoben Mingshi, juan 121, pp. 3677-3678. 2 0 8 By definition, partial internal analepsis refers to a case that ends at a point earlier than the point where the first narrative is "interrupted" to give up its place to the analeptic segment. In this work, the point where the first analepsis is interrupted to give up its place to the retrospections is its end point. 198 contrasting descriptions in these two sections serve to convey a strong sense of sadness over the loss of the dynasty, which in turn serves to echo the sense of desolation described in the concluding part of the work. In the final eight lines of the poem (lines 85-92), the narrative moves from past to present, and the narrative voice and perspective shift from Princess Ningde to Zhou Shixian. The first four lines describe the current desolation before Princess Changping's grave, which suggests that prosperous times have become part of the past. In the following two lines, Zhou describes the prosperity of the new dynasty on the one hand, and the decline and desolation of the past dynasty on the other. The contrasting descriptions in these two lines stress again the sense of sadness over the fall of the Ming. In the final two lines, the story ends with Zhou's lament for the dynastic change. The atmosphere of sadness and helplessness displayed in the final eight lines serves to echo the atmosphere in the rest of the narrative, as well as to underscore the tragic fate of the Ming. Through the concluding lines, the sense of sadness and helplessness lingers after the end of the narrative. As has been mentioned above, the level of complexity in sequencing in Wu Weiye's verse was unprecedented. This may have been due to his talent, but it may also have been inspired by other literary forms. Professor Qian Zhonglian ^fff7^, one of 199 the great modern experts on Qing-dynasty verse in general, pointed out that Wu adapted the narrative form of Ming drama (chuanqi fllof) to use as a vehicle of narration in his works.209 As Wu himself was a playwright, this influence was indeed possible. However, it is also possible that complex sequential form in Wu's verse was inspired by other narrative genres such as vernacular novels and novellas, both of which were well developed in the Ming dynasty. Because their substantial length provides enough space for a complex story, vernacular novels display the most intricate sequential structure in Chinese literature. However, Chinese narrative verse is relatively short in length. It would have been difficult for poets to use the complex sequential structure of novels in the much shorter form of narrative verse. A more valid comparison might be made with the novellas, for in spite of their short length, they display highly complex sequential structure. Therefore, it is appropriate to compare Wu's narrative verse with Ming novellas to show the interplay of sequential structure between these two different narrative genres. However, it is uncertain whether the complex sequential structure in Wu's verse was definitely influenced by novellas; it is nevertheless an alternative way to 2 0 9 "Meicun form was transformed from 'Changqing form' (i.e., Yuan Zhen's and Bai Juyi's style) and adopted the beautiful language from the 'Four Great Poets of the Early Tang' (Wang Bo 3£^ J [649-676], Yang Jiong [650-C.694], Lu Zhaolin MMffi [c.634-c.684], and Luo Binwang |&gEE [640-684]) and the narrative style of Ming drama." fSfcffi&SfflB—W3s ^MOT^fHBJftW^rf feT —ffi See Qian Zhonglian, Mengtiaoan Qingdai wenxue lunji ^^MffiiXSL^WaMk (Ji'nan: Qilu, 1983), as cited in Pei Shijun MW$t, Wu Meicun shige chuangzuo tanxi ^ M^MWMYf^W^ (Yinchuan: Ningxia renmin, 1994), p. 105. 200 explore the interplay of narrative form between Wu's narrative verse and other literary The Chinese novella was developed during the Song and Yuan dynasties and achieved its maturity in the late Ming. 2 1 0 The most important figures in this development were the late Ming literati Feng Menglong MWWL (1574-1646) and Ling Mengchu i^MW (1580-1644). Their anthologies, Feng's Sanyan H U and Ling's Liang pai pjg JFJ, displaying highly complex sequential structure, made significant contributions to the novella form.211 Comparatively speaking, Liang pai demonstrates a higher level of complexity of sequential form than San yan. Moreover, the sequential structure of some novellas in Liang pai displays a form similar to that in Wu's narrative works.212 Therefore, a novella (chapter 20) from Chuke pai 'an jingqi, a work with 2 1 0 See Shuhui Yang and Yunqin Yang, trans., Stories Old and New: A Ming Dynasty Collection (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), pp. xix-xx. Important studies of the development of Chinese novellas are Meng Yao Zhongguo xiaoshuoshi ^ IS/hlft^ (Taipei: Zhuanji wenxue, 2002), pp. 149-304, and OuyangDaifa WMjXM, Huaben xiaoshuoshi fS^JMffefe (Wuchang: Wuhan daxue, 1994). Important studies of the narrative form of Chinese novellas are Wang Xin 3£Bf, Huaben xiaoshuo de lishi yu xushi t&^hWffiM.^^$(M (Beijing: Zhonghua, 2002), and Liu Hengxing :§!If®Pi> "Huaben xiaoshuo xushi jiqiao xilun" ^^I'^MM^PS^fxWi (M.A. thesis, Taiwan Zhongshan (^-U University, 1994). 2 1 1 Feng's San yan is the collective title of three collections of forty novellas each, including Yushi mingyan iflrtl^lf (Enlightened Words to Instruct the World), Jingshi tongyan I f ^ M ! ! (Universal Words to Alarm the World), and Xingshi hengyan (Lasting Words to Awaken the World). Ling's Liang pai is also the collective title of two collections, including Chuke Pai'an jingqi WMI^^M iff (Stories at which to Pound the Table in Amazement, Volume One), containing forty novellas, and Erke Pai'an jingqi Z l MftlJilJSnf (idem, Volume Two), comprising thirty-nine novellas and one comedy drama (zaju HlM). For a useful introduction to these collections of novellas, see Wilt ldema and Lloyd Haft, A Guide to Chinese Literature (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Chinese Studies, 1997), pp. 214-217. 2 1 2 An important study of Ling Mengchu's Liang pai is Patrick Hanan, "The Nature of Ling Meng-ch'u's genres. 201 complex sequential structure, will be used to illustrate the possible interplay of narrative form between Wu's works and this literary genre. This work tells the story of a good, pMantoopic-minded man, Liu Yuanpu ^Ijt U , whose kindness and charity earn him a fortune, illustrating the belief that good deeds are always rewarded. In the opening passage of the main story, the primary narrator (a third-person omniscient narrator) outlines the story, creating an internal prolepsis that foretells events that will take place later.214 In other words, the main story begins with an anticipatory summary of the story, and the rest of the story serves to provide the explanation or detailed account of the outcome presented at the beginning. This form, i.e., the summary at the beginning, is often employed in novellas to initiate the main story. Theoretically speaking, this form suggests a sense of predestination and may rob the narrative of suspense. However, the sense of suspense can still be generated if the following story can create enough tension to keep the reader engaged. Ling Mengchu successfully generates a sense of suspense and creates a series of tensions that keep the Fiction," in Andrew H. Plaks, ed., Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), pp. 85-114. 2 1 3 Many works in Liang pai demonstrate a high level of complexity in sequential form. Among these, chapter 11, 12, 20, 24 and 27 stand out as the most significant works. 2 1 4 In Ling's Liang pai, the typical form of narrative usually consists of three parts: a highly opinionated introduction, then a very short story, and finally a main story of some length. The introduction serves to direct the angle of the reader's attention to both the short story and the main story, while the short story serves as a prologue or prologue story. The prologue often differs from the main story. In some cases, the prologue may be a fabliau or an apologue, while the main story is a drama. In other cases, the prologue may be a fantasy, while the main story is realistic. See Hanan, "The Nature of Ling Meng-ch'u's Fiction." 202 reader engaged by using two special narrative techniques: a highly intricate sequential structure, and paralipsis.215 I will illustrate these two techniques in the following discussion. Following the anticipatory summary, the first narrative recounts that at the age of sixty, Liu retires from office and returns to Luoyang ^Wo, his hometown. Shortly after his retirement, he marries a Luoyang woman surnamed Wang 3E, and starts helping local people in various ways. However, for years, the couple is unable to bear children. During the Qingming ?pf0£j Festival,216 he comes across a Taoist priest while on his way home from visiting the graves of his family members. The priest explains to him that his wife's nephew, Wang Wenyong 3i]$t FfJ, who is also the chief of staff in Liu's business, treated some townsfolk cruelly when they came to seek help, bringing bad luck to Liu's family. Liu reprimands Wang for his conduct and tries to compensate the people by treating them charitably so that Wang Wenyong's sins could be absolved. After this, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of a retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 1) telling how Li Kerang ^j^HI, the magistrate of 2 1 5 Paralipsis refers to the omission of some important action or thought of the focal hero, which neither the hero nor the narrator can ignore, but which the narrator chooses to conceal from the reader. See Genette, pp. 195-196. This is termed the "principle of deferred or postponed significance" by Jean-Yves Tadie in Proust et le roman (Paris, 1971), p. 124, as cited in Genette, p. 57. 2 1 6 Qingming ?RE[H , a festival for visiting family graveyards, falls on the fifth or sixth day of the fourth month, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day. 203 Qiantang HJ | f County, wrote a letter on the eve of his death to entrust his family to Liu. The first retrospection starts with an account that at the age of thirty-six, Li passed the Civil Service Examinations and was appointed magistrate of Qiantang County. Following this, analepsis 1 is interrupted with the insertion of a second retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 2), recounting Li's suffering in his youth, his poverty, and financial incapability, which rendered him unable to take the examinations in the capital. Some years later, he finally took, and passed, the examination, and was thereby appointed magistrate. The temporal field of the second analepsis remains external to that of the first analepsis, and its end point rejoins the first analepsis at its starting point. Thus, it is a case of complete external analepsis. Moreover, it is inserted into the first analepsis, thus both retrospections constitute a form of "analepsis within analepsis." The second retrospection serves to indicate the antecedents that the first retrospection does not reveal. After the analeptic account of Li's difficulty in his youth, the first retrospection resumes, recounting that less than a month after he took office in Qiantang County, he became ill. He heard from his friends that Liu Yuanpu was a charitable man, so he wrote a letter before his death to entrust his family to Liu. The first analepsis ends with an account telling that after Li's death, his wife and son brought his letter to seek help from Liu. The temporal field of the first analepsis remains internal to that of the 204 first narrative, but there is no clear reference that determines whether its end point joins the point where the first narrative is interrupted. Thus, we c^ n only regard it as a case of internal analepsis. This inserted internal analeptic tale serves as a sidetrack to the story that the first narrative tells, and gives information about a newly introduced actor who, during the events of the first narrative, has been concerned with other tilings that afterwards turn out to be of importance to the development of the primary story.217 Moreover, the first analepsis occurs at the same or similar time as the above-mentioned part of the first narrative, and thus both constitute a case of co-occurring narratives. Each of them tells a different story of different actors, and then joins the other to make a single narrative at the moment when Li's wife and son come to seek Liu's help. Following the first analepsis, the first narrative resumes, telling of the meeting between Li's family and Liu. In spite of the fact that Liu has never met Li Kerang before, he pretends to be an old acquaintance, giving Li's wife and son a warm welcome and saying that because of his advanced age, he cannot remember when he had met them before. Li's son, Li Yanqing ^Mif, responds that he and his mother have never met Liu, but his late father had been a close friend of his. Then, the first narrative is For a discussion of the functions of internal retrospection, see Bai, Narratology, pp. 91-92. 205 interrupted again with the insertion of a retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 3), and the narrative voice and perspective shift from the third-person narrator to Li Yanqing, who tells the story of his family. Yanqing's retrospection first recounts his father passing the examinations and being appointed the magistrate of Qiantang, his father's subsequent illness and death, and finally tells of the letter. This story is exactly the same as the one told in the first retrospection, and indeed such identical repetition often appears in Chinese novels. For example, in vernacular novels, the narrator often uses several chapters as a unit to recount the story of a hero, and another series of chapters as a unit to tell the story of another hero. When the first hero reappears following his absence during the stories of the other heroes, the narrator often briefly re-sketches the first hero's story in order to remind the reader of the hero, and to connect his story with the new episode. This narrative form was apparently influenced by the tradition of storytelling. In this tradition, the storyteller briefly retells a story in order to provide background for a new story, so that audiences may follow the transition, or briefly recounts the story of a hero introduced earlier that has been absent in order to refresh the audience's memory of the hero. Following the third analepsis, the first narrative resumes, recounting that after hearing Yanqing's words, Liu becomes more confused. He opens Li Kerang's letter to 206 figure out exactly what had happened, but finds that the paper is blank. After thinking for a while, Liu suddenly realizes what Li's intention is: since Li did not know Liu at all, he felt it inappropriate to ask Liu directly to accept his family. Leaving the letter blank would allow Liu more alternatives in making the decision. However, neither the omniscient narrator nor Liu points out Li's motives. Instead, it is concealed from the reader until the end of the story. This principle of deferred or postponed significance fits into the mechanism of enigma, which serves to create a sense of suspense, arousing the reader's curiosity for disclosure of the secret. After understanding Li's actions, Liu happily accepts responsibility for Li Kerang's wife and son, treats them as he would treat his own family, and takes good care of them Afterwards, the focus of the first narrative shifts to another story with new characters. Liu and his wife (Madam Wang) have been married for years, but remain childless. Feeling guilty for failing to produce an heir for Liu, she sends her nephew Wang Wenyong and matchmaker to the capital to seek a concubine for Liu. After this, the first narrative is interrupted again with the insertion of another retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 4) recounting the story of Pei Anqing H:£r]lP, the provincial governor of Xiangyang WkWb, and his daughter Pei Lansun ^MM-The retrospective tale first describes Pei as a kind and morally upright official who 207 won the support and trust of his subjects. One day, in the sixth month of some year, Pei, worried that prisoners might be unable to endure the extreme summer heat, ordered their chains unlocked and gave cool water to them Following this, the retrospection is interrupted with the insertion of an internal prolepsis foretelling that the prisoners would escape from prison and that Pei would be himself imprisoned. After this prolepsis, the retrospection resumes, narrating that one day in the seventh month of the same year, after a festival celebration, the prisoners took advantage of the inebriation of the jailers, killed them, then broke out Of prison. But because they were grateful to Pei Anqing, they did not kill him or his daughter. Pei was therefore imprisoned for dereliction of duty, later died of illness in prison. Lansun had no money to bury her father. She felt she had no choice but to sell herself as slave so that she could give him a proper burial. The retrospection ends with an account in which the matchmaker, who was an old acquaintance of Pei's, happened to meet Lansun in the capital. The first narrative starts at the moment Liu turns sixty, and is interrupted at a point when he is nearly seventy, and his wife sends the matchmaker to find a concubine. The retrospective tale about Pei and Lansun takes place within a few years. Thus, the temporal field of the retrospection remains internal to that of the first narrative. Moreover, the end point of the retrospection joins the first narrative at its point of interruption. Therefore, the 208 retrospection is a case of complete internal analepsis. As does analepsis 1, this internal analeptic tale serves as a sidetrack to the story that the first narrative tells, providing information about a newly introduced actor who is important to the development of the story. Additionally, the events in the retrospective tale take place at the same time as the abovementioned segment in the first narrative, and thus, both constitute a form of co-occurring narrative. Each of the two narratives, telling a different story with a different hero, joins the other to become a single narrative when the matchmaker meets Lansun. Following the analeptic tale of Pei Anqing and Lansun, the first narrative resumes, relating that Lansun comes to see Liu Yuanpu. Liu is touched by the story of Pei's good deeds and feels sorry about Pei's misfortune. He rejects his wife's marriage arrangement, and moreover, adopts Lansun as his daughter and betroths her to Yanqing. One night, after Liu gives Li Kerang and Pei Anqing an elaborate funeral, Li and Pei appear in his dream to express their gratitude to him They give him two messages. First, because of Liu's good deeds, God will prolong his life for thirty years. Second, God will grant Liu two sons, and one of them will marry Li Kerang's posthumous daughter, who is yet to be born. These two messages foretell events that will be told later in the poem, and thus, they can be regarded as examples of internal prolepsis. In the passages that follow, the first narrative recounts that the next morning, Li Kerang's widow gives birth to a baby girl exactly as Liu had dreamed the night before. Soon, Liu's wife becomes pregnant. Afterwards, the focus of the first narrative shifts to another story recounting Yanqing setting forth to the capital to take the Civil Service Examinations. Afterwards, the first narrative is interrupted with the insertion of another retrospective segment (hereafter called analepsis 5), telling of Lansun's uncle's search for her. Several months earlier, Lansun's uncle Zheng lift was promoted from the post of Military Commissioner (Jiedu shi Wl§L&l) of Xichuan Hfjll to become the Vice Commissioner (Fushi S'JlSD of the Bureau of Military Affairs (Shumiyuan W$J$TO- It was not until Zheng took office that he learned of his brother-in-law's misery. He then started to look for Lansun, finally discovering that Lansun and Yanqing were married and living in Liu's house. Zheng invited the couple to join him in Luoyang. The temporal field of this retrospection remains internal to that of the first narrative. Moreover, it ends at the moment that Zheng discovers the couple in Luoyang. The first narrative, however, is interrupted at the point when Yanqing sets forth to Luoyang to take the examinations. It seems likely that the end point of the retrospection is earlier than the point of interruption of the first narrative. Therefore, the retrospection may be best regarded as an example of partial internal analepsis. This tale not only serves as a 210 sidetrack to the story that the first narrative tells, but also provides information about a newly introduced actor who is important to the development of the primary story. In addition, the retrospective tale takes place at the same time or at a similar time as the story that tells of Lansun's entry into Liu's family. Thus, both narratives constitute forms of co-occurring narrative. FoUowing the analeptic tale of Uncle Zheng's search for Lansun, the first narrative resumes and tells that on the eve of Yanqing and Lansun's departure for the capital, the Liu and Li families agree on marriage arrangements for their newly born children (Liu Yuanpu's son Liu Tianyou MAfrj and Li Kerang's posthumous daughter Li Fengming ^Jiflli) who will indeed marry in their adulthood. In the following passages, the focus of the first narrative shifts to another story, telling that Liu Yuanpu takes his maid Zhaoyun' as his concubine, and that several months later, she gives birth to his second son (Liu Tianci §PJAHJ ) - The next day, Liu receives news that Yanqing has not only passed the State Examinations, but also has earned the title of Zhuangyuan ffijt (top examinee at the capital). Following this, the first narrative recounts that Yanqing is later promoted to the position of the Minister of Rites (libu shangshu WLfffif^Wi)- Yanqing then writes to the emperor praising Liu's charity, asking the emperor for permission to return to Luoyang for a visit, which the emperor grants. Yanqing and his family then go to visit Liu to express their gratitude. 211 During the banquet, Liu explains to Yanqing and his mother the reasons that he helped them several years ago when they first came to seek his aid. Liu's retrospection (analepsis 6) starts with a description of them coming to him, then relates that when he found that Li Kerang's letter was blank, he was perplexed, but after thinking it over, divined Li's true intention and welcomed the destitute family. The contents of this partial internal analeptic tale mostly overlap with the one told in the first narrative, but the tale also serves as a complementary account providing the information that had been concealed in the previous tale. As has been mentioned previously, this narrative technique of concealing important information until the end is termed paralipsis, a device that enables deferred or postponed significance. This device is the principal vehicle of promoting the sense of suspense in Chinese novels. After Liu's retrospection, the first narrative resumes, telling that years later, Liu's two sons successfully pass the examinations at all levels, and also marry good wives who bear them sons. The first narrative ends with an account of Liu's death at the age of one hundred. One of the most striking narrative features in this work is the use of various anachronic sequences, which operates along with the constant movement of narrative focus from one character to another, to create an intricate sequential structure, as well as 212 to tell a complex story. This technique acts as a principal narrative device in Wu Weiye's verse. For example, in "Song of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate," the narrative movement goes from the current desolation of Princess Changping's grave and Zhou Shixian's sorrow, to a retrospective account of Princess Le'an's wedding. It then shifts to an inserted retrospection of Princess Ningde's wedding, and then to the story of Le'an's and Ningde's happy lives in the early period of the Chongzhen emperor. After a series of shifting focuses, the story then moves: to the tale of Princess Rongchang, to the death of Le'an, to the emperor's difficulties during the national crisis, to Ningde and her husband's suffering after the fall of the Ming, to an inserted retrospective account of Princess Changping's tragic fate during and after the fall of the dynasty, to another inserted retrospection of the royal family members' happy past, and finally, back to the current desolation of Princess Changping's grave and Zhou Shixian's deep sorrow over the dynastic change. The second feature of this work is the use of special narrative forms - analepsis within analepsis and co-occurring narratives - to tell a story that had not been told in a previous section or to repeat a story that had been told previously. These two sequential forms were not commonly used in poetry before Wu Weiye's time, but were frequently employed in Wu's poems to increase the level of complexity of sequential structure, as well as to convey specific meaning. A typical example of this is demonstrated in Wu's "Song of Yuanyuan." In the analeptic account of the romance of Wu Sangui and Chen Yuanyuan, the poet-narrator uses analepsis within analepsis to relate the twists in Chen Yuanyuan's fate before, during, and after meeting Wu Sangui. This form increases the level of complexity of the sequential structure in this work, while it also conveys the poet's criticism of the couple's romance — its cost, this change in Chen Yuanyuan's fate, is the fall of the Ming. Another good example of these narrative devices is seen in "Song of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate." Following the tale of Ningde's suffering, two retrospective accounts are inserted to tell different stories. One tells of Changping's tragic fate, while the other tells of Ming royal members' prosperity in the early reign of the Chongzhen emperor. The events described in these two retrospections take place at the same time as the events described in the first analepsis. Moreover, these two retrospective tales are inserted within the first analepsis. Thus, both retrospections together with the first analepsis constitute a case of co-occurring analepsis, as well as analepsis within analepsis. These complex forms of sequential structure serve to describe the vicissitudes of the Ming while also allowing the poet to express his deep sorrow over the dynastic fall. 214 The third feature of this work is its complex but coherent story. In Chapter Twenty, several side tales are inserted into the primary story. These side tales serve as complementary accounts to the primary story, and also provide important information about newly introduced actors who are important to the development of the story. Although these inserted tales tell of different actors and events, they are also closely related to the primary story. And while their inclusions render the story complex, they also render it coherent. Such characteristics were rarely found in poetry before Wu Weiye's time, but were commonly found in Wu's poems. For example, in "A Song on Hearing the Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing Play the Zither," Maiden Zhongshan's suffering serves as the primary story, while the royal concubines' fates, and Bian's plight, serve as side tales. Overall, all these stories together stress the tragic fate of women in the Jiangnan area during the dynastic change. 215 Chapter Six: Conclusion The present dissertation examines sequential structure, primarily non-temporal and anachronic sequential structures, in Chinese narrative verse, and has found that the technique of non-temporal sequencing in Chinese narrative verse originated in the Shijing, and that later poets inherited these techniques from this anthology with only a few elaborations. I also show that four major elements are used to organize events into a non-temporal sequence. The first type of non-temporal element that Chinese poets used to order the sequencing is different parts of the human body or different articles of clothing. These sequences in which these elements are used to order the sequencing are mostly used to portray a person's outer appearance, or to describe the beauty of a woman in Chinese poetry and rhapsody. The second major device is to use scenery or geographical locations. These sequences in which these elements occur are often used to describe a long journey, to convey a special meaning or emotion, e.g., longing for someone, to describe shifts in mood, or to sketch a certain scene or landscape, e.g., desolation. The third type of non-temporal element involves different human figures, or different descriptions of the same figure. These sequences in which these elements appear are normally used to describe a beautiful woman, to convey a special meaning or 216 emotion, e.g., happiness, to describe a certain experience, e.g., hardship or misfortune, or to describe a person's status or characteristics. The fourth major element is the cardinal points. The technique of using the cardinal points as the order of sequencing in Chinese poetry may have been inspired by Han rhapsody on imperial palaces, and reached its first high point of development in yuefu poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. This technique became more elaborate and reached its full development in Tang poetry. Anachrony in Chinese poetry developed gradually, with its level of complexity increasing in the works of later ages. Anachrony can be divided into two groups: analepsis and prolepsis. There are seven types of analepsis in Chinese narrative verse: partial external, complete external, partial internal, complete internal, complete mixed, analepsis within analepsis, and co-occurring. In Chinese narrative verse, prolepsis appears much less frequently than analepsis. The most frequently used form of prolepsis in Chinese narrative verse is the summary at the beginning of a given narrative. Moreover, all instances of prolepses in Chinese narrative verse are of the partial internal type. The development of anachronic sequence in Chinese narrative verse can be divided into four stages. The first stage ranges from the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties. Only three types of anachrony were used in the Shijing: partial external analepsis, 217 complete internal analepsis, and internal prolepsis. Moreover, the anachronic form, either analepsis or prolepsis, is relatively simple and basic in this anthology, and r complex anachronic forms are rarely found. However, it was these basic forms that later became the foundation of anachronic sequencing in Chinese narrative verse. Additionally, in those few works, e.g., Poem 156, the technique of using a more complex form of anachrony to enrich the content or to underscore a special meaning influenced the later works. This tradition of anachronic sequencing evolved further in Han and Six Dynasties poetry. More forms of anachrony were developed, and the complexity of anachronic sequencing increased as well in the poetry of that age. Prolepsis mostly appears at the beginning of a given narrative, and rarely in the middle. One of the traditional forms of prolepsis in the narrative poetry of that age is a metaphor or a description of scenery which appears at the beginning of a narrative, establishing the basic atmosphere for the entire story. The other traditional form of prolepsis is a summary at the beginning of a given narrative that briefly foretells the story that will be told in detail later. Analepsis plays a major role in anachronic sequencing in the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties. Five types of analepsis can be found in the poetic works of this period: complete external, partial external, complete mixed, complete internal, and partial 218 internal. In addition, complete internal analepsis is often used in combination with the first narrative or first analepsis to form a special sequential structure, i.e., "co-occurring narratives / analepsis." The most important development of anachrony in Han and Six Dynasties poetry is found in yuefu and ancient-style poems, among which "Southeast the Peacock Flies" stands out as the most significant poem There are six types of anachrony in this work, including one type of prolepsis — internal prolepsis - and five types of analepsis -complete external, complete internal, partial internal, complete mixed, and co-occurring narratives. This work displays the most complex anachronic structure and the most advanced sequencing technique in poetry from its inception in the Shijing to the Han and Six Dynasties. A more complex sequential structure did not appear until the works of Qing poet Wu Weiye. The second stage of development of anachronic sequencing is the Tang dynasty, during which this development reached its first high point. All types of anachrony in Chinese narrative verse were present in Tang poetry, and anachrony became more complex than before. Prolepsis was used less frequently in Tang narrative verse than in narrative poems of previous times, and most (internal) prolepsis appeared at the beginning of a given narrative, and seldom in the middle. Prolepsis appearing at the 219 beginning is most often used to introduce a character, to create a special atmosphere for an entire work, or to provide a brief account of the upcoming story, while prolepsis appearing in the middle of a given narrative is often used to foretell events that will take place later. Seven types of analepsis are found in Tang narrative verse: partial external, complete external, partial internal, complete internal, complete mixed, analepsis within analepsis, and co-occurring analepsis. The most important developments in analeptic sequencing in Tang poetry are found in the works of Li Bai, Du Fu, Liu Zongyuan, Yuan Zhen, Bai Juyi, and Wei Zhuang. Among these works, Wei Zhuang's "Song of the Lady of Qin" is the most significant poem, demonstrating the preeminent example of analeptic sequencing in Tang narrative verse. The following three dynasties (the third stage), i.e., the Song, Yuan, and Ming, were not great ages for narrative poetry, and the development of anachrony stagnated. It was not until the early Qing dynasty (the fourth stage) that the tradition of narrative poetry was revitalized, and that the development of anachrony entered its golden age. The most important poet of this development was Wu Weiye, whose poetry displays the most sophisticated anachronic sequencing in Chinese narrative verse. Of his works, those which exhibit the most highly complex sequential structure are "Song of 220 Donglai," "Second Song of the Donggao Thatched Hut," "Poem of Yuan Lake," "Song of the Old Courtesan from Linhuai," "Two Artists from Chu," "Song of Yuanyuan," "Reflection on Meeting an Old Man in the Garden of the Southern Chamber: A Poem in Eighty Rhymes," "A Song on Hearing the Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing Play the Zither," and "Song of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate." The first five poems already surpass the achievement of Tang poetry in the technique of sequencing, while the latter four poems exceed "Southeast the Peacock Flies," and display the most complex sequencing in Chinese narrative verse up to Wu Weiye's age. Among these works, "Song of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate" stands out as the most significant poem, demonstrating the most sophisticated sequencing technique in Chinese poetry. It would be safe to say that the tradition of sequencing in Chinese narrative verse reached its apex in this poem My research has also suggested that the highly complex sequential structure in Wu's verse may have been influenced by other literary genres such as Ming novellas, because of the fact that some novellas in Liang pai display a narrative form similar to that found in Wu's narrative poems. My dissertation research, i.e., the study of sequential form in Chinese narrative verse, makes potential contributions to the following three areas: it reviews the status of a poet in the development of Chinese poetry; it assesses the significance of a poetic 221 work in the development of Chinese poetry; and it appraises the contribution of the poetic works of a specific period, e.g., Tang poetry, to the development of Chinese poetry. As mentioned earlier, traditional Chinese literary criticism has been biased in favor of lyrical poetry rather than narrative verse. As a result, lyrical poetry has been considered to be the most important poetic genre in the tradition of Chinese literature for centuries, and lyricism has become the defining feature of Chinese poetry. Traditional Chinese literary criticism tends to define the status of poets by their achievement in the lyrical tradition, to treat narrative verse as lyrical poetry, and to use lyrical aesthetics to study the features and styles of narrative verse. As a result, there is no major difference between lyrical and narrative poetic works in terms of style and form, and the definitive styles and forms of narrative verse have therefore been ignored. However, an important tradition of narrative verse did exist in China; therefore, the bias that traditional literary criticism used lyrical aesthetics as the absolute criteria to determine the worth of all contributions to the development of Chinese poetry can now be challenged in light of the important tradition of narrative verse. The study of the tradition of Chinese narrative verse is key to fully understanding the style of Chinese poetry, to more accurately defining the status of poets, and to assessing the achievement of the poetic works of a 222 specific period in the development of Chinese poetry. The famous narrative poem, "Southeast the Peacock Flies," can be used to illustrate the points I have described above. Traditional and modern Chinese literary criticism regards this work as one of the masterpieces of Chinese narrative verse. However, studies of this work mostly focus on its theme or feelings that this work expresses, often concluding that this work is a masterpiece of tragedy, that it represents the misfortune of innocent women in patriarchal society, and that the female protagonist Liu Lanzhi is the typical representation of tragic women in traditional Chinese society. It is apparent that the study of theme, feelings, or characterization cannot distinguish the difference between lyrical and narrative poetic works. On the contrary, poetic form, an essential element in poetic works, can serve as an important index to differentiate narrative from lyrical poetry. Specifically speaking, due to the short length of lyrical poetry and its special emphasis on "speaking of the aspirations" or "following feelings," temporality is presented as either simply past or present in lyrical poetry, which serves to stress the poet's current feelings conveyed in the work. However, narrative verse is different in its presentation of time. Despite the influence of the lyrical tradition on Chinese narrative verse, the objective of narrative poetry is to tell a story. A story mostly consists of 223 various temporal forms, e.g., past, present, and future, and moves frequently between different temporal points. These different arrangements of time result in different forms of presentation of a story. A particular form of presentation of a story can increase tension, elevate the sense of suspense, or convey a certain feeling or meaning. How to arrange events, i.e., how to use special sequential forms, to tell a story is one of the primary tasks of narrative verse. Therefore, sequential form can serve as one of the most important indexes to determine the achievement of a narrative work in narration. Because the length and complicated story of "Southeast the Peacock Flies" are not found in other works of the same period, its date of composition has been questioned.218 If only theme and expression of feeling are examined, no conclusive evidence can be ascertained to date it to the Eastern Han, the Six rjynasties period, or the Tang. This is because there is no significant difference, as far as these poetic elements show, between this poem and other works such as the Eastern Han yuefu "Ballad of the Sick Wife" ("Fubing xing" M lif ff), or Cao Pi's (187-226) "Poem of a Widow" ("Guafu shi" MMW) or "In Qinghe I saw a Boat Puller Parting from his New Bride" ("Qinghe jian wanchuanshi xinhun yu qibie zuo" 7f M M t & S S i f f ^ i J^IIMfrO* a u of which describe the tragic fate of women and convey a strong sense of sadness. On the contrary, 2 1 8 "Southeast the Peacock Flies" is the longest Chinese shi poem at 353 lines and 1765 characters. (Other versions have 355 lines and 1775 characters, or 357 lines and 1785 characters.) 224 the study of narrative form, e.g., sequential form, shows clear differences between this poem and other contemporary poetic works. "Southeast the Peacock Flies" demonstrates a far richer complexity of sequential form than those poems, and this difference can be revealed only through the analysis of sequential structure. Consequently, the study of narrative form offers a valid alternative to the accurate dating of the poem As mentioned above, in addition to detennining the achievement of a specific work in the development of narrative verse, the study of narrative form can serve to define the status of a specific poet. The work of "poetic histories," a special kind of narrative verse in China, can be used to illustrate this point. Traditional and modern literary criticism of "poetic histories" has established that Du Fu is the most significant shishi j£ poet, while other important poets such as Yuan Zhen, Bai Juyi, and Wu Weiye are merely regarded to be his successors who were unable to surpass Du's achievement in the writing of this genre. Such opinions can be challenged if we study their shishi poems by studying the narrative forms of their works. The Qing poetic critic Shen Deqian ttW^W (1673-1769) defined shishi as "reflecting upon the problems of his age and feeling sorrowful about upheaval, the poet uses poetry as history [to record recent historical and political events]" *§B#^gL, i ^ f l t S t 2 1 9 Zhao Yi MM (1728-1814), a famous poet 2 1 9 See Shen Deqian, Qingshi biecaiji iffiWBiMM, as cited in Pei Shijun, p. 34. The translation is mine. 225 as well as an important literary critic of the Qing, described shishi as follows: 'Teeling sorrowful about the current [historical and sociopolitical] events of his age, and facing his experience of life,... the poet uses his poems to verify history, and uses history to prove [what he writes in] his poems" St tBf*, I W I f f i , . . , @H&t#&, HBNf 2 2 0 In other words, in poetic histories, the poet both describes what he witnesses of the historical and sociopolitical events of his age, and expresses his emotions he feels towards these events. Du Fu and Wu Weiye are the great poets of the genre, having largely historical corpuses concerned with the current historical and sociopolitical events v and the common people's suffering during the political upheaval of their ages. Moreover, their shishi works describe personal involvement in the problems of their times, expressing their personal sentiments and political opinions. In areas of theme and sentiment, Du clearly influenced Wu's poetic histories a great deal. However, in narrative form, i.e., the form of recounting historical events, Wu apparently outdid Du. In other words, different perspectives or approaches can lead to different opinions of the relative poetic achievement. Even considering Du's profound influence, Wu's poetic histories represent the best examples of narrative form in the shishi tradition. Consequently, the study of narrative form can lead to a more accurate evaluation of 2 2 0 Zhao Yl , Oubei shihua, juan 9, pp. 130, 137. The translation is mine. 226 poetic merit, and the re-evaluation of a poet's contribution to the development of Chinese poetry. In addition, the study of narrative form can be used to redefine the contribution of the poetic works of a specific period to the development of Chinese poetry. Traditional and modern literary criticism alike have been biased in favour of lyricism, frequently taking the development of lyrical poetry as representing the entire Chinese poetic tradition. This has led to the common misconception that the poetic tradition as a whole reached its summit in the Tang, and even the belief that little poetry was written after the Tang. Instead, the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing are known only as the high points of development for other literary genres, namely lyrics (ci fsj) in the Song, drama (qu fg]) in the Yuan, and the novel in the Ming and Qing. This unfortunate notion seriously degrades the valuable contribution of the poets of these four dynasties to the development of Chinese poetry. As has been illustrated in Chapters 2-5, in spite of the preeminence of lyrical poetry, an important tradition of narrative verse did exist in China. The development of Chinese narrative verse entered its golden age in the Qing dynasty, whereas the Tang served rather as an important period of development for Chinese narrative verse, not its "golden age." More significant development of narrative poetry occurred after the Tang. In a similar line of argument, my dissertation found that Qing 227 dynasty actually shows a rich tradition of classical Chinese poetry, which directly challenges the opinions commonly held by modern scholars in Chinese studies after May Fourth that considered vernacular literature to be the primary literary works characterizing the period of Qing Dynasty. Therefore, the study of narrative form in poetry can also serve to challenge and break down this long-standing biased literary view, enable scholars to redefine the relative status of the poetic works of a specific period, and provide a more complete picture of the tradition of Chinese poetry. In addition to the study of narrative form, which can serve to compensate for the limitations of traditional studies of Chinese poetry, my research deals with the entire development of Chinese narrative poetry rather than the narrative verse of a specific poet or period. A study of Bai Juyi's narrative verse in isolation, for example, can provide a detailed understanding of the features and style of the poet's works, but obviously, does not give a complete picture of the development of Chinese narrative verse. Rather, an understanding of the entire development of the narrative verse tradition is needed to properly measure the contribution of a given poet or period to this tradition. My dissertation is the first study that proposes a four-stage theory in an attempt to 228 account for the entire sweep of the development of traditional Chinese narrative verse.221 This theory could serve as a theoretical foundation for further research on Chinese narrative verse, and also as an index to gauge the achievement of a particular poet, or ascertain the value of the works of a specific period. The present study is limited in a way, but it opens up important new areas for possible future research in the field. Specifically, in addition to sequential structure, narrative focalization, catenation (dingzhen ge 111JCf§)> and rhyme change are the important topics for the study of Chinese narrative verse. Narrative focalization, a major topic in the study of Western and Chinese narrative, consists of a triadic relation formed by the narrator who tells, the focalizor who provides narrative perspective, and the focalized which is being seen and told.222 The tradition of focalization in Chinese narrative verse originated in the Shijing, further developed in the poetry of the Han and Six Dynasties, and reached its apex in the Tang dynasty, which displays the most complex form of focalization Why did focalization develop so richly during the Tang dynasty? Two provisional explanations may be able to account for this development. 2 2 1 My theory of four-stage is inspired by Professor Schmidt's research, which provides a concise and precise account of the development of Chinese narrative verse. See Schmidt, Harmony Garden, pp. 415-421. 2 2 2 Cohan, Telling Stories, p. 95. For a detailed discussion of focalization and narrator, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, pp. 161-211,212-262; see also Bai, Narratology, pp. 19-31, 142-161. For current studies of focalization in Western narrative literature, see Genette, Narrative Discourse, and Bai, Narratology. For current studies of focalization in Chinese narrative literature, see Note 7. 229 First, the development of classical tales (chuanqi xiaoshuo iW^Nt&X in reaching its high point in the Tang, refined narrative focalization and other techniques of description used in their composition. This may have prompted Tang poets to use similarly sophisticated techniques of description in their works of narrative verse. Second, Tang narrative poems are largely concerned with current political or social events of that age, and many of them suggest the poets' criticism of the current sociopolitical situation. Multiple focalizations, which are formed by multiple narrative voices and perspectives, can strengthen the appearance of objectivity in narration, which in turn can be of use in the evasion of political attacks. This tradition of focalization continued to develop in Wu Weiye's verse. Wu used intricate form of sequential structure in combination with the complicated form of focalization to produce the best examples of complex narrative form in Chinese poetry. Catenation is a major narrative device in Chinese poetry. Some modern scholars have been aware of the importance of catenation in Chinese narrative verse, and their studies mostly focus on the role of catenation in sequential structure. However, catenation has many other important additional functions. In general, it primarily serves to promote the smoothness of narration, and is often used in combination with transitions between plots, events, narrative times, or narrative voices. For example, in 230 Wu Weiye's poems with complex sequential structure, such as "Sbng of Xiao Shi at the Green Gate," catenation is mostly used in combination with transitions between narrative times. The frequent movement of narrative times in this work creates a sense of chaos occurring during the dynastic change. The smoothness of narration that catenation produces causes readers to neglect transitions of times, and thereby results in a sense of time confusion, which in turn promotes the sense of chaos. The strong sense of chaos suggests the poet's sorrow over the collapse of the Ming. The development of catenation in Chinese narrative verse originated in the Shijing, the most important example being Poem 243, "Footsteps here Below" ("Xiawu" ~fM,), which established the foundation of catenation for the poetry of subsequent ages. This tradition continued to develop in yuefu and ancient-style poems of the Han and Six Dynasties, with "East of Pingling," "Ballad of the Western Island" ("Xizhou qu" Hjfflft), and Cao Zhi's "Presented to Biao, the Prince of Baima" ("Zeng Baimawang Biao" I^FJMiM) as the most important examples. In the early Tang, catenation occurs more frequently in narrative poetry, but poets mostly inherited the form and narrative function from past poetry and did not make significant contributions to its development. It was not until the mid and high Tang that this development reached its first high point, notably in the poetry of Li Bai, Du Fu, and Bai Juyi. This tradition began to decline in the late Tang, 231 when poets seemed uninterested in catenation. Indeed, there were only a few late Tang narrative works that used catenation as a device of narration, and no new forms were created. During the following three dynasties, the development of catenation stagnated. It was not until Wu Weiye's time that the development of catenation was revitalized and entered its golden age. Like catenation, rhyme change is a principal device of narration in Chinese poetry. Rhyme change primarily serves to stress a specific sense, meaning, or feeling in Chinese narrative verse. It is often used in combination with transitions between plots, events, feelings, atmospheres, narrative times, or narrative voices. For example, in Wu Weiye's works about the tragic fates of the innocent people during the dynastic change, such as "A Song on Hearing the Taoist Priestess Bian Yujing Play the Zither," rhyme change is mostly used in combination with transitions between plots. The variety of plots richly represents the immensity of people's suffering experienced in political upheaval, while different rhymes serve to convey different senses of sadness. In combination, rhyme change and these plot transitions dramatically underscore and intensify the tragic fetes of individuals during the fell of the dynasty. The development of rhyme change in Chinese poetry originated in the Shijing. However, rhyme change was rarely used in this anthology, and did not carry a significant function of narration. It was not until the Han and Six Dynasties that yuefu poets began to realize the importance of rhyme change in narration and became interested in the use of rhyme change in their works. The most important examples of rhyme change in yuefu poetry of that age are "Ballad of the Orphan" and "Ballad of the Sick Wife."223 Rhyme change reached its first high point with the mid Tang poet Bai Juyi. This is possibly because modern-style poetry (jinti shi jfrfsf^ F) and the theory of rhyme and tonal pattern in Chinese poetry had become well established by that time. In some of his long poems, Bai uses the form and rhyme pattern of regulated verse (lushi v$&f) and quatrains (fueju %&nj) to construct poems that indeed appear just like combined sections of regulated poems and quatrains. The most important examples of rhyme change in Bai's narrative verse are "Ballad of the Lute" and "Song of Everlasting Sorrow." In these two works, the narrative function of rhyme change was elevated, and rhyme change itself became more strictly formalized. Specifically, rhyme change in these two poems mostly occurs every four lines, with a few exceptions of every eight or twelve lines.224 Compared with his predecessors, Bai Juyi paid much more attention to rhyme change. Still, in most of his works rhyme either changes arbitrarily or not at all. The tradition of rhyme change entered its "golden age" 2 2 3 For an analysis of rhyme change in yuefu poems of the Han and Six Dynasties, see Xie Yunfei HJISffll Wenxueyuyinyun ^ ^ l l e f a ! , second edition (Taipei: Dongda, 1994), pp. 103-106. This edition provides a useful introduction to the use and function of rhyme in Chinese poetry. 2 4 An important study of rhyme change in Bai Juyi's narrative works is Lin Mingzhu, Bai Juyi xushishi yanjiu, pp. 247-258. 233 with Wu Weiye, who promoted the role of rhyme change in narration to the highest level seen in all Chinese narrative verse up to his time. Wu further formalized patterns in rhyme change, and his employment of the device was generally highly crafted. In most of his heptasyllabic ancient-style poems, now called "Meicun form" (Meicunti ^trfll), Wu changed rhyme every four lines, and used rhyme shift in combination with catenation to disturb equilibrium of his works.225 In summary, sequential structure, focalization, catenation, and rhyme change are the four most fundamental topics in the study of narrative form in Chinese poetry. This dissertation has analyzed and traced the development of sequential form in Chinese narrative verse. For a better understanding of narrative form and its development in Chinese poetry, a complete study of the other three topics is essential and necessary; therefore they will be the focus of my future research. 2 2 5 For a discussion of rhyme change in Wu's poems, see Schmidt, Harmony Garden, p. 417; see also Schmidt, "Yuan Mei and Qing-Dynasty Narrative Verse," Journal of Oriental Studies 37 (1999): p. 2. Bibliography 234 Allen, Joseph Roe. "Early Chinese Narrative Poetry: The Definition of a Tradition." Ph.D. diss. University of Washington, 1982. . "The End and Beginning of Narrative Poetry in China." Asia Major 2 (1989), pp. 1-24. . "From Saint to Singing Girl : The Rewriting of the Lo-fu Narrative in Chinese Literati Poetry." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48.2 (1988), pp. 321-61. -—. In the Voice of Others: Chinese Music Bureau Poetry. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1992. . " A n Introductory Study of Narrative Structure in the Shi J i . " Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 3 (1981), pp. 31-66. Bai Juyi FJjgjJS. Bai Juyi Quanji fiJlalli^Sl- Shanghai: Guji, 1999. Bai, Mieke. Narratology:. Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, second edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. . On Storytelling: Essays in Narratology. (Sonoma: Polebridge Press, 1991). Bao Mingwei t§B£JlH|. Tangdai shiwen yunbu yanjiu J l f f^ !#^Hp |Wr5S. Jiangsu: Guji, 1990. Birrell, Anne. Popular Songs and Ballads of Han China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. . "Mythmaking and Yueh-fu: Popular Songs and Ballads of Warly Imperial China." Journal of the American Oriental Society 109.2 (April-June 1989), pp. 223-35. Burton, R.F. Plantains in the Rain: Selected Chinese Poems ofDu Mu. London: Wellsweep, 1990. Cai, Zongqi. "Dramatic and Narrative Modes of Presentation in Han Yuefu." Monumenta Serica 44 (1996), pp. 101-49. . The Matrix of Lyric Transformation: Poetic Modes and Self-Presentation in Early 235 Chinese Pentasyllabic Poetry. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1996. Chang, Kang-I Sun. "The Idea of the Mask in Wu Wei-yeh (1609-1671)." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48.2 (1988), pp. 289-320. — . (Sun Kang-I MMS). "Wu Meicun de nuxing rentong" ^WiffitcME^- In Gudian yu xiandaide nuxing chanshi ^^^^i^^JtCtiMW^- Taipei: Lianhe, 1998, pp. 165-80. — - . "The Concept of Time in the Shih Ching." Journal of Chinese Studies 12.1-2 (December 1979), pp. 73-84. — - . "Symbolic and Allegorical Meanings in the Yueh-fu pu-t'i Poem Series." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 46.2 (December 1986), pp. 353-85. . Six Dynasties Poetry. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. . "The unmasking of Tao Qian and the indeterminacy of interpretation." In Cai, Zong-qi, ed. Chinese aesthetics: the ordering of literature, the arts, and the universe in the Six Dynasties. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004. pp. 169-190. . "Description of landscape in early Six Dynasties poetry." In Lin , Shuen-fu and Stephen Owen, eds. The vitality of the lyric voice: Shih poetry from the late Han to the Tang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. pp. 105-129. — . "Chinese lyric criticism in the six dynasties." In Bush, Susan and Christian Murck, eds. Theories of the arts in China. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983, pp. 215-224. . " L i u Xie's idea of canonicity." In Cai, Zong-qi, ed. A Chinese literary mind: culture, creativity, and rhetoric in Wenxin diaolong. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001, pp. 17-31 . The late-Ming poet Chen Tzu-lung: crises of love and loyalism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991. Chen Youbing PJ|C^7j\. Lianghan nanbeichao yuefu jianshang WlMMitW^^^M-Taipei: Wunan, 1996. Chen Shaosong WPfa- "Qingdai de xushishi j i qi lilun chutan" r f \X^W(MW'SlMM Wfifflffi- Nanjing shifan daxue xuebao (shehui kexue ban) M J ^ C C T S E A ^ ^ I S ( I i #? -mS)3(1991) ,pp .80 -7 . 236 Chen, Shih-hsiang. "The Shih Ching: Its Generic Significance in Chinese Literary History and Poetics." Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology (Academia Sinica) 39.1 (1968), pp. 371-413. Reprinted in Cyri l Birch, ed., Studies in Chinese Literary Genres. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, pp. 8-41. Chen Shouchang P|f#!||, ed. Nanhua zhenjing zhengyi (Zhuangzi zhengyi) ]^lj§Jt^g JE$& (MTfiM)- Taipei: Xintiandi, 1977. Cheng Muheng fMfJslll- Wu Meicun shiji jianzhu ^ ^ ^ f # j j l l l l i . Hong Kong: Guangzhi. Chou, Eva Shan. "Allusion and Periphrasis as modes of Poetry in Tu Fu's 'Eight Laments.'" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 45.1 (1985), pp. 77-128. . Reconsidering Tu Fu: Literary Greatness and Cultural Context. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. . "Tu Fu's Social Conscience: Compassion and Topicality in His Poetry." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 51.1 (1991), pp. 5-53. Chunqiu Zuozhuang Zhengyi ^fXiEiM-lEm- Taipei: Taiwan guji, 2001. Cohan, Steven and Linda M . Shires. Telling Stories: A Theoretical Analysis of Narrative Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1988. Cooper, Arthur, ed. and comm. Li Po and Tu Fu. London: Penguin Books, 1973. Cutter, Robert Joe. "Cao Zhi's Symposium Poems." CLEAR 6.1 (1984), pp. 1-32. . "On Reading Cao Zhi's Three Good Men: Yong shi shi or Deng l in shi?" CLEAR 11.4 (December 1989), pp. 1 -11. . "The Incident at the Gate: Caozhi, the Succession, and Literary Frame." T'oung Pao 71.4-5 (1985), pp. 228-62. Dewoskin, Kenneth J. "On Narrative Revolutions." CLEAR 5 (1983), pp. 29-45. Ding Fubao TWsi^z- Quan han sanguojin nanbei chao shi ^ t J IHSl f l^bfjjflf • Taipei: Yiwen, 1968. 237 D u M u fch%. Fanchuan shiji zhu ^JI|g#J||££. Taipei: Hanjing, 1983. Egan, Ronald C. "Narratives in Tso Chuan." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 37 (1977), pp. 323-52. Frankel, Hans H . The Flowering Plum and the Palace Lady: Interpretations of Chinese Poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976. . "The Development of Han and Wei Yueh-fu as a High Literary Genre." In Lin , Shuen-fu and Stephen Owen eds. The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to the T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 255-86. . "The Chinese Ballad 'South-east Fly the Peacocks.'" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 34 (1974), pp. 248-271. . "The Formulaic Language of the Chinese Ballad 'South-east Fly the Peacocks.'" Bulletin of the Institute of History and Philology 39.2 (October 1969), pp. 219-244. . "The Relation Between Narrator and Characters in Yuehfu Ballads." Chinoperl Papers 13 (1984-85), pp. 107-27. . "Yueh-fu Poetry." In Birch, Cyril ed. Studies in Chinese Literary Genres. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, pp. 69-107. . "Fifteen Poems by Ts'ao Chih: A n Attempt at a New Approach." Journal of the American Oriental Studies 84 (1964), pp. 1-14. Frodsham, J.D. and Cheng Hsi, ed. An Anthology of Chinese Verse: Han Wei Chin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967. . "The Origins of Chinese Nature Poetry." Asia Major, New Series 8.1 (1960), pp. 68-104. Fusek, Lois Mckim. The Poetry of Ts 'ao P 'i. Ph.D. diss. Yale University, 1975. GanBao ^%.Xinjiao Soushenji f f^HWlS. Taipei: Shijie, 1979. GaoZhangcai fljjpi^. Wu Weiye shi xuanzhu ^{llljtlfMfE- Shanghai: Guji, 1986. Genette, Gerard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980. 238 . Narrative Discourse Revisited. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983. Guo Maoqian fl^ ff- Yuefu Shiji ^kMWM- Taipei: Liren, 1999. Han Yu f f l l J . Han ChangliJi f i | | | | j ? | j | . Taipei: Heluo, 1975. Han Xichou fJtJ^if, ed. and comm. Zuozhuanfenguojizhu &fl | ;^HJfl | i , second edition. Taipei: Huashi, 1978. Hanan, Patrick. "The Nature of Ling Meng-ch'u's Fiction." In Andrew H . Plaks, ed. Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977, pp. 85-114. Hardy, Grant. "Form and Narrative in Ssu-ma Ch'ien's Shih chi." CLEAR 14 (1992), pp. 1-23. Hawkes, David, trans. The Songs of the South. London: Penguin Books, 1985. Hightower, James Robert, trans, with commentary and annotation. The Poetry ofT'ao Ch'ien. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. . "Allusion in the Poetry ofT'ao Ch'ien." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 31 (1971), pp. 5-27. Hinton, David, trans. The Selected Poems of Po Chii-i. New York: New Directions, , trans. The Selected Poems ofTu Fu. New York: New Directions, 1989. , trans. The Selected Poems of Li Po. New York: New Directions, 1996. Hong Shunlong Shuqingyu xushi fiHif Taipei: Liming wenhua, 1998. Holbrook, David, compiled. Plucking the Rushes: An Anthology of Chinese Poetry. Translated by Arthur Waley et al. London: Heinemann, 1968. Hu Chusheng ®j}$t^ fi. Liu wenxuanxi W^CM^Jf- Taipei: Huazheng, 1983. 1999. 239 Huang, Jie jgrffj. Xie Kangle shi zhu i f J g ^ f & . Taipei: Yiwen, 1987. Huang Jingjin "Zhongguo xushishi de fazhan" ^ISIftlMf fitlitli- In Zhongguo wenhua fuxing yundong tuixing weiyuanhui ^S^fttSPIMSfj^fT HHH", ed. Zhongguo shige yanjiu ^Hlf Taipei: Zhongyang wenwu, 1985, pp. 1-27. Huang Jinzhu W&fc- "Wu Meicun xushishi yanjiu" ^fgfcfi&lMfW^. M.A. . Thesis. Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo B^BtPfSA^SWFifj 1986. Huang Yongnian jf^M^ and M a Xueqin MjS~rr, trans, and comm. Wu Weiye shi xuanyi JLf| |Hf^jllfi. Chengdu: Bashu, 1991. Hucker, Charles O. A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985. Idema, Wilt and Lloyd Haft. A Guide to Chinese Literature. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1997. Jian Zongwu M^^a-Han fu shilun MM^Mm- Taipei: Dongda, 1993. . Han fuyuanliuyu jiazhi zhi shangque WLMMffii^MW^MtfU- Taipei: Wenshizhe, 1980. Jiang Ji j#H, comm. Shandaige zhu Chuci {l^W^S^M- Taipei: Chang'an, 1984. Kao Yu-kung and Mei Tsu-lin. "Syntax, Diction, and Imagery in T'ang Poetry." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 31 (1971), pp. 49-136. Karl S.Y. Kao. "Aspects of Derivation in Chinese Narrative." CLEAR 1 (1985), pp. 1-36. . (Gao Xinyong iSJ^H). "Xiyou bu yu xushi lilun" WMW^^Mm- In Ning Zongyi J P T K — " and Lu Decai Utiles ed. Lun Zhongguo gudian xiaoshuo de yishu l i t i t J l l l ^ ^ / J ^ ^ S f J-Tianjin: Naiikai daxue, 1984, pp. 188-208. . (}f5^J§). Xingmingxue yu xushulilun ]&^^^$^WM- Taipei: Lianjing, 1987. 240 Ke Qingming MS^- Zhongguo wenxue de meigan ^WiSCM^^.^.- Taipei: Maitian, 2000. Kent, George W. Worlds of Dust and Jade: 47 Poems and Ballads of the Third Century Chinese Poet Ts 'ao Chih. New York: 1969. Knechtges, David R., trans, with annotations. Wen xuan or Selections of Refined Literature. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996. KongYingda Mao Shi zhengyi ^ I # I E i l . Taipei: Xinxing, 1979. Kung, Wen-kai. "The Prosody and Poetic Diction of Tu Mu's Poetry." T'sing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies 12 (1979), pp. 281-307. / . Tu Mu: His Life and Poetry. San Francisco: Chinese Materials Center, 1990. . "Tu Mu's Poetry of Social Criticism and the Historical Past." Chinese Culture (Taipei) 26.1 (March 1985), pp. 47-77. Kwong, Charles Yim-tze. Tao Qian and the Chinese Poetic Tradition: The Quest for Cultural Identity. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1994. Levy, Dore J. Chinese Narrative Poetry: the Late Han through T'ang Dynasties. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988. . "Constructing Sequences: Another Look at the Principle of Fu | ^ 'Enumeration.'" Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 46:2 (December 1986), pp. 471-93. L i Shangyin 2j£j5J||!. Li Yishan Shiji $fl[J_[|#M- Taipei: Shangwu, 1983. LiYuegang $S|S|!J. Zhongguo cifu liubian shi ^SiffKMflt^.- Taipei: Guoli bianyiguan, 1997. L i Zhihong "Rulin Waishi xushi yishu yanjiu" Wfaft^$MWffilW$t- M . A . thesis. Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo ^MMW.'f^^MWPff, 1996. Liang Jianjiang y^MtL, ed. and comm. Du Fu shixuan ttSf#M- Taipei: Yuanliu, 1998. 241 Liang Rongyuan %&§kM. "Tangdai xushishi yanjiu" j j f f ^ ^ s f f f l ^ . M . A . thesis. Taipei: Taiwan daxue zhongyansuo MMJK^^WPJI, 1972. Liao Meiyun 0Jift- Yuan Bai xinyuefu yanjiu TUFJif^ iv^W^- Taipei: Xuesheng, 1989. Lin Caishu ffi&M- "Ffanwei xushishi yanjiu" WkWl$XW^f^¥t^- M . A . thesis. Taipei: Zhongguo wenhua daxue zhongyansuo ^ H X ^ A I ^ ^ W P / f ) 1998. Lin Mingzhu "Bai Juyi xushishi yanjiu" &Wi%ifflMWR@t- M . A . thesis. Taipei: Dongwu daxue zhongyansuo I f^A^^WFJf, 1990. Lin , Shuen-fu and Stephen Owen, eds. The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. Lin , Tsung-Cheng. "Yuan Mei's (1716-1798) Narrative Verse." Monumenta Serica 53 (2005), pp. 73-111. . "Historical Narration Under Multiple Temporalities: A Study of Narrative Style in Wu Weiye's (1609-1672) Poetry." Asian Cultural Studies 30 (March 2004), pp. 127-43. Lin Wenyue ~$f$C.H • Xie Lingyun ji qishi Taipei: Taiwan daxue wenxueyuan, 1966. .Xie Lingyun MMM- Taipei: Heluo, 1977. LiuHengxing §?!HMf|. "Huaben xiaoshuo xushi jiqiao xilun" IS^4Nt£§J^K£5fMm-M . A . thesis. Taiwan Zhongshan daxue ^^tfJU-lA'^P, 1994. Liu Lu §IJJS- Gushi shijiushou jishi Taipei: Shijie, 1997. Liu Xiang f f ! j | q ] . Liexian zhuan ^{[Ijfil. Taipei: Yiwen, 1967. Liu Xie iPJjgg. Wenxin diaolong SC'b'MM- Taipei: Sanmin, 1996. LiuZongyuan $ P ^ 7 C . Liu Zongyuan quanji WMft^lM- Shanghai: Guji, 1997. 242 Lo, Irving Yucheng and William Schultz, eds. Waiting for the Unicorn: Poems and Lyrics of China s Last Dynasty 1644-1911. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Lu Nanfu fi^M^, ed. Zhongguo lidai xushi shige: xianqin lianghan weijin nanbeichao bian ^mmmmmm. - ^mnmmMmntm. Jman mm-. Shandong wenyi, 1987. L u Qinli Wi^XlL- Tao Yuanmingji M^MM- Taipei: Liren, 1985. Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng. From Historicity to Fictionality: The Chinese Poetics of Narrative. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. Luo Genze M^W- Yuefu wenxue shi ^Jff^tHjfe- Taipei: Wenshizhe, 1974. M a Ling'na HifiSI- "Liietan Wu Meicun de qiyan gushi j iqi xiaoshi qingmen qu" B§ i^f§faW-bs*f#RKiff^WHft. In Wenxue Yichan Zengkan f 0 11 (October 1962), pp. 43-6. Mair, Victor H. , ed. 77ze Columbia Anthology of Traditional Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. . "The Narrative Revolution in Chinese Literature: Ontological Presuppositions." C L ^ T ? 5 (1983), pp. 1-27. Martin Wallace. Recent Theories of Narrative. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986. McCraw, David R. Du Fu's Laments from the South. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1992. Meng Yao Zhongguo xiaoshuoshi ^H'-hlfefe- Taipei: Zhuanji wenxue, 2002. MiWenkai WSCM, Pei Puxian i i l l R . Shijing xinshang yu yanjiu g # ! f J f t M J ^ W f L , 4 Vols. Taipei: Sanmin, 1987. 1986. 243 Minford, John and Joseph S.M. Lau, eds. Classical Chinese Literature: An Anthology of Translations, vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press & Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2000. Nienhauser, William H . "Floating Clouds and Dreams in L i u Tsung-yuan's Yung-chou Exile Writings." Journal of the American Oriental Society 106.1 (January-March 1986), pp. 169-82. . Liu Tsung-yuan. New York: Twayne, 1973. . " L i u Tsung-yuan's Recent Translations." CLEAR 3.2 (July 1981), pp. 251-61. . ed. The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature, second revised edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986. Ning Zongyi and Lu Decai # f l ^ , eds. Lun Zhongguo gudian xiaoshuo de yishu l ^ ^ g ^ M / j N i ^ ^ g f j j t j . Tianjin:Nankai daxue, 1984. Ouyang Daifa W^WaiXWt- Huaben xiaoshuoshi IS^/J^SEi. Wuchang: Wuhan daxue, 1994. Ouyang Xun WM^- Yiwen leiju Beijing: Zhonghua, 1973. Owen, Stephen, ed. and trans. An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911. New York: Norton, 1996. . The Great Age of Chinese Poetry: the High T'ang. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980. . The Poetry ofMeng Chiao and Han Yu. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1975. Palandri, Angela C.Y. Jung. Yuan Chen. Boston: Twayne, 1977. Pei Shijun flltf^. Wu Meicun shige chuangzuo tanxi %W^WWM\i^-Wif\• Yinchuan: Ningxia renmin, 1994. Peng Gongzhi W^fl^, ed. Zhongguo lidai zhuming xushishi xuan ^MM{X^^$C$ aWM- Zhengzhou: Huanghe wenyi, 1985. Plaks, Andrew H. , ed. Chinese Narrative: Critical and Theoretical Essays. Princeton: 244 Princeton University Press, 1977. QiTingting JTPTW- Lianghan yuefu yanjiu WM^BW^h- Taipei: Xuehai, 1980. Qian Zhonglian HH f^ff- Mengtiaoan Qingdai wenxue lunji W^MXMiXSC^m^-Ji'nan: Qilu, 1983. QiuXieyou ffiM.'M- Zhongguo lidai xushishi ^MMiXi^MW- Taipei: Sanmin, 1993. Qiu Zhaoao fA^H. Dushi xiangzhu ttf#!¥£E- Beijing: Zhonghua, 2004. Qu, Wanli JSHJt. Shijing shiyi W@M%&- Taipei: Wenhua daxue, 1988. Quan Tangshi Beijing: Zhonghua, 1996. Rao Zongyi i ^ E S , ed. Shishou xinyu jiaojian WW$f\%uW\% Taipei: Zhengwen, Rimmon-kennan, Shlomith. Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London: Routledge, 2002. Rolston, David L . , ed. How to Read the Chinese Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. . '"Point of View' in the Writings of Traditional Chinese Fiction Critics." CLEAR 15 (1993), pp. 113-42. Schmidt, Jerry D. Harmony Garden: The Life, Literary Criticism, and Poetry of Yuan Mei (1716-1798). London: Routledge, 2003. . "Yuan Mei and Qing-dynasty Narrative Verse," Journal of Oriental Studies 37 (1999), pp. 1-33. . Within the Human Realm: The Poetry of Huang Zunxian 1848-1905. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. . "Disorder and the Irrational in the Poetry of Han Yu." T'ang Studies 7 (1989), pp. 137-67. . Han Yu and His Ku-shih Poetry. M . A . thesis, University of British Columbia, 1969. 1976. 245 Shen, Dan. "Narrative, Reality, and Narrator as Construct: Reflections on Genette's 'Narrating.'" Narrative 9.2 (May 2001), pp. 123-9. . "Defense and Challenge: Reflections on the Relation between Story and Discourse." Narrative 10.3 (October 2002), pp. 222-43. Shi Fengyu ffijUM- Li Bai shi deyishu chenjiu ^ f i f ^ W S f l l J ^ S f e - Taipei: Da'an, 1992. SunMingjun J&RRWi- San Cao yu zhongguo shishi H W ^ I T J S l f ^ i - Taipei: Shangding wenhua, 1996. Tian Baoyu EH j | 3 £ . "Zhongguo xushishi de chuancheng yanjiu: yi tangdai xushishi weizhu" ^mim^m^m^ - MMttffiMUM^.. Ph.D. diss. Taipei: Taiwan shifan daxue guoyansuo MWMWiJ^^Mffiffi, 1993. Waley, Arthur, trans. The Book of Songs. Edited with additional translations by Joseph R. Allen. New York: Grove Press, 1996. . One Hundred and Seventy Chinese Poems. London: Constable, 1962. Wang, Ching-hsien. "The Nature of Narrative in T'ang Poetry." In L i n Shuen-fu and Stephen Owen, eds. The Vitality of the Lyric Voice: Shih Poetry from the Late Han to T'ang. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 217-52 . (Wang Ching-Hsien EE£iJtD Chuantongde yu Xiandaide M^t^^MiX^J- Taipei: Hongfan, 1987. . The Bell and the Drum: Shih Ching as Formulatic Poetry in an Oral Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974. . From Ritual to Allegory: Seven Essays in Early Chinese Poetry. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1988. . "The Countenance of the Chou: Shih Jing." Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong 7 (1974), pp. 425-49. Wang Der-wei BiflUiSc- "Chulun Shen Congwen Bian Cheng de aiqing chuanqi yu xushi tezheng" m$Sffifc>C: « « » S f t g 1 1 { » J & « # l t In Wang Der-wei. Zhongsheng xuanhua: sanlingyu baling niandai de zhongguo xiaoshuo ^I^KlEIlp: EL O IMA O ^IX&J^M/hM- Taipei: Yuanliu, 1988, pp. 111-23. 246 - — . "Shuohua yu zhongguo baihua xiaoshuo xushi moshi de guanxi" IftlSilS^K&frj /hi&$%WtW:~^'ti'f3Mi%- hi Wang Der-wei. Cong Liu E dao Wang Zhenhe: Zhongguo xiandai xieshi xiaoshuo sanlun |^§!JH?!j3ilSfP: ^M^i'XM'M^^MXm-WangFuzhi 3 i ^ ^ etal. Qingshihua tfafnS- Shanghai: Shanghai Guji, 1999. Wang Jiansheng rEH^.. Zengdingben Wu Meicun yanjiu iftsT^^fSWiff^x:. Taipei: Wenjin, 2000. WangJinling zE^zift. Zhongguo wenxue lilunshi: shanggupian ^ l l^^Sll t j j fe: _h "rJjfU. Taipei: Huazheng, 1987. . Zhongguo wenxue lilunshi: liuchaopian ^H^^Sfrajfe: / N ^ S I . Taipei: Huazheng, 1988. Wang Jingzhi i f f Shijing tongshi eighth edition. Taipei: Fu-Jen daxue, 1981. Wang Mian Wu Weiye ^MM. Taipei: Sanmin, 1993. WangQi ed. with annotation. Li Taibaijizhu ^ A f i ^ i i - T a i p e i : Xinxing, 1968. Wang Tao selected and comm. Wu Meicun shixuan ^W¥iWM.- Taipei: Yuanjing, 2000. Wang Wei Wang Moujie quanjijianzhu HlPfn^Jfctlit Annotated by Zhao Dianchen fflggtffc. Taipei: Shijie, 1962. Wang X i n 3£BJf. Huaben xiaoshuo de lishiyu xushi iS^^I&WMjfeJ^lftlfl-- Beijing: Zhonghua, 2002. Wang, Y i Chu Cizhangju J t i f f ^ ' q J . Taipei: Shijie, 1965. WangYunxi iBi!^- Yuefu shi lunshu ^Jf^fjtjZft. Shanghai: Shanghai guji, 1996. . WangYuqi E E T M S andWenGuoxin MHJIff, ed. Lidai xushishi xuan MiXWCf-t^M-Taipei: Shibao, 1990, pp. 24-54 247 Guiyang: Renmin, 1984. Watson, Burton, trans. The Tso Chuan: Selections from China's Oldest Narrative History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. . trans, and ed. The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry: From Early Times to the Thirteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. . Chinese Lyricism: Shih Poetry from the Second to the Twelfth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. . Chinese Rhyme-Prose: Poems in the Fu Form from the Han and Six Dynasties Periods. New York: Columbia University Press, 1971. Westbrook, Francis A . "Landscape Transformation in the Poetry of Hsieh Ling-yun." Journal of the American Oriental Studies 100.3 (July-October 1980), pp. 237-254. Wu Fumei flrflli. "Meicunshi de xushi gexing" In Wu Fumei. Wu Meicun shige yishu xinlun ^WH^WM^^TmS Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue 1998, pp. 131-82. . Wu Meicun shige yishu xinlun I^SMIff^ f^ilfilflro Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue, 1998. Wu Guorong ^M^k, "Zhongguo xushishi yanjiu" ^Kifc^B^W^u- M . A . thesis. Taipei: Zhongguo wenhua daxue zhongyansuo lTJH^'(-kA§lTJWFJf, 1985. WuHongyi —. Baihua shijing fifj§f##§. Taipei: Lianjing, 1998. • Qingdai shixue chutan f&iXf&^WW- Taipei: Xuesheng, 1986. Wu Qingfeng ^Uill$, ed. and comm. Lidai xushishi shangxi MiXWM-WIKffi- Ji'nan $ll^ f: Mingtian, 1990. Wu Weiye Wu Meicun Quanji ^ f S f ^ ^ r l f l . Shanghai: Guji, 1990. Xiao Difei MW-tP-- Han Wei Liuchao yuefu wenxueshi iWMfsWi^M^^1^- Taipei: Chang'an, 1981. Xiao Tong ft M, ed. with annotations by L i Shan f^jf et al. Zengbu Liuchenzhu 248 Wenxuan i f M7\Elici t . Taipei: Huazheng, 1980. XieYunfei Hfftfft. Wenxue yu yinyun 'SCM^sW., second edition. Taipei: Dongda, 1994. Xinyi Zhaoming Wenxuan f/fiPpB^^CsI- Taipei: Sanmin, 1997. X u Donghai jff-jC$§. Li Bai shifu jiaorong de duomianxiang kaocha ^Erjf^iSXSifl ' i l Taipei: Wenjin, 2000. Yan Kunyang MMWs- Du Mu f ± f e Taipei: Heluo, 1978. YangJialuo | § ^ ! & , ed. Qingshigao fn£M- Taipei: Dingwen, 1981. . Xinjiaoben Chenshu i f f U ^ K * - Taipei: Dingwen, 1993. . Xinjiaoben Hanshu Wf'^CfcWkti- Taipei: Dingwen, 1995. . Xinjiaoben Jinshu § f | ^ ^ # # . Taipei: Dingwen, 1992. . Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu i f f f ^ ^ l f MiSt- Taipei: Dingwen, 1994. . Xinjiaoben Mingshi f J f ' K ^ ^ ^ - Taipei: Dingwen, 1994. . Xinjiaoben Nanqishu l/pK^MWlSr- Taipei: Dingwen, 1993. . Xinjiaoben Nanshi ^fpR^l^]^- Taipei: Dingwen, 1994. . Xinjiaoben Shiji §Fft5£$S£IE. Taipei: Dingwen, 1993. -—. Xinjiaoben Songshi fJrf&2^7f5jfe. Taipei: Dingwen, 1994. .Xinjiaoben Weishu ^pK^Stllr- Taipei: Dingwen, 1993. . Xinjiaoben Yuanshi f i f -K^TC^!. . Taipei: Dingwen, 1992. Yang, Shuhui and Yunqin Yang, trans. Stories Old and New: A Ming Dynasty Collection. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000. Yang, Xianyi and Gladys Yang, trans. Poetry and Prose of the Tang and Song. Beijing: Panda Books, 1984. YangYi U§fi. Zhongguo xushi xue ^HifcJ^P- Jiayi: Nanhua guanli xueyuan ]^ )lj§ wmrn. 1998. Ye Jiaying m ^ H H . Du Fu Qiuxing bashou jishuo ^iM^XM J\MMt^- Taipei: 249 Zhonghua congshu bianshen weiyuanhui ^PlillrffliiSlMIt", 1966. Yu, Anthony. "History, Fiction, and the Reading of Chinese Literature." CLEAR 10 (1988), pp. 1-19. YuHua i ^ 1 1 (1616-1696). Banqiao zaji fi^SHlfi. Shanghai: Guji, 1995. Yu, Pauline. The Poetry of Wang Wei: New Translations and Commentary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. . "Allegory, Allegoresis, and the Classic of Poetry." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 43.2 (December 1983), pp. 373-412. . The Reading of Imagery in the Chinese Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987. Yuan Zhen TGIM- Yuan Zhen Ji jt^mM.- Beijing: Zhonghua, 2000. Zhang Qingzhong 5S?ff lit- Gushi shijiu shou huishou shangxiyu yanjiu c&ff "hAW^ MM^^M^- Taipeo: Shangwu, 1998. Zhang Nianrang jMn^fll. Zhongguo gudaixiaoshuo yishu jiaocheng ^Sn&f^^l&ll f$ji£fM- Shandong: Jiaoyu, 1991. Zhang, Shuxiang 5SM§. Li Yishan shi xilun ^Wi\hW%f\m- Taipei: Yiwen, 1974. Zhao Y i MM- Oubei shihua §S4tl#IS- Beijing: Remin, 1998. Zhao Youwen M$)J1>C ed. with annotation. Caozhi ji jiaozhu Wfilltll£££- Taipei: Mingwen, 1985. Zheng Xuan Zhouli Zhengjian MWLf&Wk- Taipei: Xinxing, 1976. Zhi Fang '/n j^ and Chu Kui $tH, ed. and comm. Lidai xushishi xuanyi WLi%i$M-W MW- Nanjing: Jiaoyu, 1984. Zhou Zhefu. "The Legacy of Han, Wei and Six Dynasties Yueh-fu Tradition and its Further Development in T'ang Poetry." Translated by Chang, Kang-I Sun and Jans H . Frankel. In The Vitality of the Lyric Voice, pp. 287-95. Zhu X i 7^^. Shijizhuan g^Jflfll. Taipei, Zhonghua, 1973. 251 Appendix 1: Translations The Shijing (Book of Songs) Poem 31: They Beat Their Drums226 (jigu l|8g£) They beat their drums with a loud noise, Leaping and prancing weapon in hand, Building earth-works at the capital or fortifying Cao. We alone march to the south. We were led by Sun Zi-zhong To subdue Chen and Song, He does not bring us home; M y heart is sad within. The translation is from The Book of Songs, pp. 27-28, but I have made a minor change according to the commentaries of Wang Jingzhi (Shijing tongshi, pp. 88-90) and Wu Hongyi (Baihua Shijing, vol. 1, pp. 195-200). 252 Here we stop, here we stay, Here we lose horses And here find them again Down among the woods. "For good or i l l , in death as in life; This is the oath I swear with you, I take your hand As token that I wil l grow old along with you." Alas for our bond! It has not lasted even for our lifetime. Alas for our troth! I cannot perform my vow. Poem 58: A Simple Peasant211 (mang £g) 2 2 7 The translation is from The Book of Songs, pp. 49-51, but I have made a minor change according to the commentaries of Wang Jingzhi (Shijing tongshi, pp. 145-50) and Wu Hongyi (Baihua Shijing, vol. 2, pp. 25-33). We thought you were a simple peasant Bringing cloth to exchange for thread. But you had not come to buy thread; You had come to arrange about me. You were escorted across the Qi As far as Beacon Hi l l . "It is not I who want to put it off; But you have no proper match-maker. Please do not be angry; Let us fix on autumn as the time.'' I climbed that high wall To catch a glimpse of Fuguan, And when I could not see Fuguan M y tears fell flood on flood. At last I caught sight of Fuguan, And how gaily I laughed and talked! You consulted your yarrow-stalks And their patterns showed nothing unlucky. You came with your cart And moved me and my dowry. Before the mulberry-tree sheds its leaves, How soft and glossy they are! O dove, turtle-dove, Do not eat the mulberries! O ladies, ladies, Do not take your pleasure with men. For a man to take his pleasure Is a thing that may be condoned. That a girl should take her pleasure Cannot be condoned. The mulberry-leaves have fallen A l l yellow and seared. Since I came to you, Three years I have eaten poverty. The waters of the Qi were in flood; They wetted the curtains of the carriage. It was not women who were at fault; It is men who have altered their ways, It is men who are unfaithful, Whose favors are cast this way and that. Three years I was your wife. I never neglected my work. I rose early and went to bed late; Never did I idle. First you took to finding fault with me, Then you became rough with me. M y brothers disowned me; "Ho, ho," they laughed. And when I think calmly over it, I see that it was I who brought all this upon myself. 256 I swore to grow old along with you; I am old, and have got nothing from you but trouble. The Qi has its banks, The swamp has its sides; With hair looped and ribboned How gaily you talked and laughed, And how solemnly you swore to be true, So that I never thought there could be a change. No, of a change I never though; And that this should be the end! Poem 59: Bamboo Rod22* (zhugan f j ^ ) How it tapered, the bamboo rod " With which I fish in the Qi! It is not that I do not long for you, 2 2 8 The translation is from The Book of Songs, pp. 51-52, but I have made some changes according to the commentaries of Wang Jingzhi (Shijing tongshi, pp. 150-2) and Wu Hongyi (Baihua Shijing, vol. 2, pp. 35-39) But it is so far that I cannot come. The Well Spring was on the left; The Q i River on the right. When a girl was married She was far from brothers, from father and mother. The Qi River was on the right The Well Spring was on the left; But, oh, the grace of her loving smile! Oh, the quiver of her girdle stones! The Q i spreads its waves; Oars of juniper, boat of pine-wood. I take a boat, sailing away, That I may be rid at last of my pain. Poem 156: Eastern Hills229 (dongshan MOS) I went to the eastern hills; Long was it till I came back. Now I am home from the east; How the drizzling rain pours! I am back from the east, But my heart is very sad. You made for me that coat and gown I wi l l not join the army, going secret ways. Restless the silkworm that writhes When one puts it on the mulberry-bush; Staunch I bore the lonely nights, On the ground, under my cart. I went to the eastern hills; Long, long was it till I came back. 2 2 9 The translation is from The Book of Songs, pp. 124-5, but I have made some changes according Wang Jingzhi's commentary in Shijing tongshi, pp. 321-5. Now I am home from the east; How the drizzling rain pours! The fruit of the bryony Has spread over the eaves of my house. There are sowbugs in this room; There are spiders' webs on the door. In the paddock are the marks of wild deer, The light of the watchman glimmers. These are not things to be feared, But rather to rejoice in. I went to the eastern hills; Long, long was it till I came back. When I came from the east, How the drizzling rain did pour! A stork was crying on the ant-hill; M y wife sighed in her chamber. Sprinkled and swept the house, I am back from our campaign. There are the gourds piled up, So many, on the firewood cut from the chestnut-tree. Since I last saw them Ti l l now, it is three years! I went to the eastern hills; Long, long was it till I came back. When I came from the east, How the drizzling rain did pour! The oriole was in flight, Oh, the glint of its wings! A girl was going to be married. Bay and white, sorrel and white were her steeds. Her mother had tied the strings of her girdle; A l l things proper had been done for her. "When newly married the bride was beautiful, But how does she look when she becomes old?" 261 Han and Six Dynasties Narrative Verse Watering My Horse by the Great Wall130 (yinma changchengku xing |^ JiJIftSclgfr) Green, green the grass by the river, Thoughts on far travels go on and on; I can't bear to think on his travels, I saw him last night in my dreams, In dream I saw him right by my side, When I woke he was off in another land, In another land and a different place, I tossed and turned and saw him no more. The mulberry, bare, knows Heaven's wind, The ocean's waters know Heaven's cold. Whoever comes shows love for his own, And no one wants to comfort me. The translation is from Owen, p. 258. A stranger came from a far-off land, And gave me a paired-carp letter case; I called for the boy to cook the carp And in it I found the letter. I read the letter on my knees, And what did the letter say? -It began, "Take care of yourself," And ended, "I love you forever." Song of White Hair2^ (baitouyin As bright as the snow on mountaintop, As clear as the moon between clouds, I have heard that you love another, I have made up my mind to break it off. 1 The translation is from Owen, pp. 233-34. We meet today with a flask of wine, Then tomorrow at dawn, by the royal moat, We' l l linger there by the royal moat, Where the water flows off east and west. Sad and dreary, sad and dreary, When a woman marries, she should not cry, I wanted a man with a faithful heart, Til l white hair came, never to part. The bamboo pole bends with the strike, The fish's tail flips violently. In a man value true feeling; Money is no use at all. Officer of the Guard232 (yulin lang 55^^ (5) 2 3 2 The translation is from Owen, pp. 235-36, but I have made a minor change. Owen translates Hu "Turkish," but I would prefer to translate it "Hu." See Note 136. A bondsman of the house of Huo, Feng by name, Feng Zidu, Hid behind the Lord General's power And trifled with the Hu tavern girl. Fifteen was the Hu maid, Alone at the bar one day in spring, A long-hung skirt, twined-ribbon sash, Billowing sleeves, acacia vest. On her head she wore Lantian jade, In her ears she wore pears from Rome, Her hair in two buns was so lovely There was nothing like them in the world: One bun was worth five million in gold, And the two together, more then ten. "I never expected this dashing guard To stop by our tavern so gallantly, His silver saddle sparkling, His blue-covered coach waiting empty." 265 "And he comes to me wanting clear wine: I brought him a rope-handled jug. And he comes to me wanting fine things to eat; A golden plate with carp fillet. And he gives me a green bronze mirror And grabs hold of my skirts of red gauze." "I don't care i f my red gauze gets torn, Such cheap treatment is what I expect: A man always wants a new woman, But a woman values the man she has; In human life there are new things and old, The highborn do not mix with the low. No thank you, officer of the guard, Private love isn't worth it." East of Pingling233 (pingling dong ZpUt The translation is from Owen, p. 229, but I have made some changes. 266 "East of Ping-ling, the royal tomb, Beech tree, cypress, and pine, Who has kidnapped our good lord?" "They kidnapped our good lord Right from his own great hall, The ransom is set at a million coins and a pair of the swiftest steeds. A pair of the swiftest steeds Is going to be hard indeed: I look back and see the wardens coming, my heart quails and grows cold, M y heart grows cold within, The blood drains dry, I am going home to tell the kin that the brown calf must be sold." She Went up the Hill to Pick Angelica234 (shangshan cai miwu AllUW-VM) She went up the hill to pick angelica; She came down the hill and met her former husband. 2 3 4 The translation is from Watson, pp. 102-3. 1 have placed quotation marks around lines to indicate the narrative agent. 267 She knelt and asked her former husband, "How do you find the new wife?" "The new wife I would say is fine, But she lacks the cold wife's excellence. In face and complexion they're much alike, But quite unlike in skill of hand." "When the new wife came in the gate, The old wife left by the side door." "The new wife is good at weaving gauze, The old wife was good at weaving plain stuff. Weaving gauze, one does a bold a day, Weaving plain stuff, five yards or more. And when I compare the gauze with the plain stuff, I know the new wife can't equal the old!" Driving My Chariot through the Northern Suburbs Gate235 (jiachu beiguomen xing 2 3 5 The translation is from Minford and Lau, p. 421. 268 I drove my chariot through the Northern Suburbs Gate, When my horses balked and refused to gallop on. I got down from my chariot, not knowing what to do, Looked up and broke a branch from a dead willow-tree. Turning my head, I heard from a funeral-grove, The sorrowful sound of someone weeping there. I called to the mourner, begged him to come out, And asked him what had brought him to this place. " M y mother died and left me all alone, M y stepmother hates me, orphan that I am. Hungry and cold, I have no clothes or food, At every move I am beaten with a whip. M y bones dissolve, my flesh is cut away. M y body is like the bark of a withered tree. They hide me away within an empty room, When my father comes home, he does not know where I am. I came to this graveyard to look for our old tomb, But the living and dead are thrust apart for ever. 269 How can I ever see my mother again? M y tears fall down, my voice is hoarse with sobbing. They have cast me away and left me in this place, What have I done to merit such poverty and danger?" I have set down this story for later generations, That through this they may understand such things.. Southeast the Peacock Flies236 (Kongque dongnan fei -fLifiSll^IfH) Southeast the peacock flies, And every five li it hesitates in flight. "At thirteen I knew how to weave plain silk, At fourteen I learned to cut clothes; At fifteen I played the many-stringed lute, At sixteen recited from the Odes and Documents. At seventeen I became your wife, The translation is from Watson, pp. 82-92. But in my heart there was always sorrow and pain. You were a clerk in the government office, I guarded my virtue and was never untrue. At cockcrow I began my work at the loom, Night after night never resting. In three days I turned out five measure of cloth, But the Great One grumbled at my slowness. It's not that I'm so slow at weaving, But it's hard to be a bride in your home. The work is more than I can cope with -What use in my staying any longer? So I beg of your honored mother, Let her send me away at once!" When the clerk heard this, He ascended the hall, addressed his mother: "Your son is blessed with little fortune, But luckily I've found this wife. 271 From the time we bound our hair, we've shared pillow and mat, And we ' l l go together to the Yellow Springs. But it's scarcely been tow or three years, No time at all since we married. There's nothing wrong in the woman's conduct -Why do you treat her so harshly?" His mother said to the clerk, "How can you be so foolish and doting! This wife knows nothing of propriety, Her actions are selfish and willful. For a long time I've found her infuriating -How dare you try to have your own way! The family east of us have a virtuous daughter -Qin Luofu is her name, Beautiful in form, no one to rival her -Your mother wil l arrange it for you. This other must be sent away at once. Send her off and don't dare detain her!" The clerk, humbly kneeling, replied, "I beg to say this to my mother, If this wife of mine is sent away, Ti l l death I wi l l never have another!" His mother, hearing this, Pounded on her chair in a fit of rage. "Little one, have you no caution? How dare you speak up for your wife! I've wasted kindness enough on her already -You ' l l never have my permission for this!" The clerk was silent, unspeaking; He bowed once more, then returned to his room, Started to tell his wife what had happened But sobs choked him till he couldn't speak. "I 'm not the one who's sending you away -M y mother forces me to it. Just go home for a little while. I must report to my office, But before long I wi l l return And then I wi l l surely come and fetch you. Let these words of mine calm your fears, Take care and do not disobey them!" The young wife said to the clerk, "No more of this muddling talk! Once in the past, in early spring, I left my family, came to your noble gate, Did all I could to serve your honored mother -When was I ever willful in my ways? Day and night I kept at my duties, Though ache and exhaustion wrapped me around. I know of no fault or error of mine -I strove only to repay the great debt I owe her. And now I'm being driven away -How can you speak of my coming again? I have an embroidered vest So lovely it shines with a light of its own. I have double bed curtains of scarlet gauze With scent bags hanging from each of the four comers. I have boxes and hampers, sixty or seventy, Tied with cords of green and turquoise and blue. Each is a little different from the rest, And in them are articles of all kinds. But i f a person is lowly, her things too must be worthless They would never do for the one who comes after. But I leave them so they may be used for gifts. From now on we won't be meeting again -Look at them sometimes i f it should please you, And over the long years, do not forget me!" Cocks crowed, outside the dawn was breaking; The wife rose, dressing herself with care, ' Put on her lined embroidered skirt, Going through each motion four or five times. On her feet she wore silken shoes, On her head shone a tortoiseshell comb; Round her waist she wrapped some flowing white gauze, In her ears fastened moon-bright pearls. Her fingers were slim as scallion roots, Her mouth as though lined with vermilion or cinnabar. Lithely she walked, with delicate steps, In loveliness unequalled in all the world. She ascended the hall, knelt before the mother; The mother agreed to let her go, did nothing to stop her. "In the past when I was a child, Being born and bred in the countryside, I had no proper training or instruction, And added to my disgrace by entering your noble family. I've received from you numerous coins and bolts of cloth, Yet have never succeeded in serving you well. Today I go back to my old home, Though I fear my departure may leave your household short-handed." Then she went to take leave of her little sister-in-law, Tears falling like strands of pearls. "When I first came here as a bride, You could barely stand up by holding to the bed, Yet today, when I'm being sent away, You're fully as tall as me! / Be diligent, take good care of your mother, And look out for yourself as well. When the seventh and the twenty-ninth come around, Remember the games and good times we had together." Then she went out the gate, mounted the carriage and left, Her tears falling in a hundred streams or more. The clerk had ridden off on horseback, The wife set out later by carriage, Bump-bump, rumble-rumble went the wheels, When the two chanced to meet at the entrance to the highway. The clerk dismounted, climbed into the carriage, Lowered his head and spoke into her ear, "I swear I wi l l never leave you -Only go home for a little while. I must be off to the government office But before long I wi l l be back. I swear to Heaven I won't be untrue!" The young wife said to the clerk, "I am grateful for your kind concern. If indeed you think so much of me, I may hope you wil l come before long. You must be like the solid boulder, I like a rush or a reed. Rushes and reeds can be strong as well as pliant, Just so the boulder does not move. But I have a father and older brother With tempers as violent as thunder. I doubt they wi l l let me have my way -Just thiriking of it makes my heart blanch!" They lifted their hands in endless endearments, Two souls bound by a single longing. Through the gate, into her house went the young wife, Not knowing how to face her family. Her mother slapped her palms together: "I never expected this child to return! At thirteen I taught you to weave, At fourteen you knew how to cut clothes; At fifteen you played the many-stringed lute, At sixteen understood the rules of decorum. At seventeen I sent you to be a bride, Thinking you would never betray your vows. But now, i f you haven't committed some fault, Why have you come home unsummoned?" Lanzhi was ashamed before her mother, "Truly, I've done nothing wrong!" And her mother felt great pity for her. When she had been home ten days or so, The magistrate sent his matchmaker: "It concerns the magistrate's third son, A handsomer young man nowhere in the world, Just turned eighteen or nineteen, Clever in speech, a boy of many talents - " The mother said to her daughter, "Here is a proposal worth answering!" But her daughter, tear-choked, replied, "When I came home this time, The clerk pleaded with me again and again, And we made a vow that we'd never part. Today if I went against those feelings, I fear nothing lucky could come of it! 1 Let us break off these negotiations, Or say we need time to think it over slowly." The mother informed the matchmaker, "This child of our poor and humble home Has just been sent back from her first marriage. If she wasn't fit to be the wife of a clerk, How could she be suitable for a magistrate's son? I beg you to make inquiries elsewhere -We could never give our consent." A few days after the matchmaker left, A n aide came from the governor with a like request, Saying that Lanzhi's family For generations had served as officials, That the governor's fifth son, A favorite child, was as yet unmarried, That the aide had been sent as go-between, Had come with a secretary to open discussions. "In the governor's family," he reported, "There's this fine young gentleman -They wish to conclude a marriage alliance And hence have sent me to your honored house." The mother apologized to the matchmaker: " M y daughter has given her word elsewhere -What can an old woman like me say?" When Lanzhi's older brother heard of this, He was troubled and angry in heart. He went and said to his little sister, "How thoughtless a way to plan things! Formerly you were married to a clerk, Now you could marry this gentleman. Your lot would be as different as heaven from earth You could assure yourself of a brilliant future! If you do not marry this fine gentleman, How do you intend to get along?" Lanzhi lifted her head and answered, "What you say is quite reasonable, brother. I left my family, went to serve a husband, But midway came back to my brother's house. Your wishes should rule in this matter -How could I hope to have my way? Though the clerk and I made our promises, I seem fated never to see him again. Let us give our consent at once And get on with the marriage arrangements." The matchmaker got down from his seat, With "Yes, yes," and then "Fine, fine!" He returned and reported to the governor, "Your servant has carried out his task -The tasks have ended in splendid agreement." When the governor heard this, His heart was filled with delight. He looked at the calendar, consulted his books, Decided that this month was just right. "The six accords are right now in agreement, The thirtieth is an auspicious day. Today is already the twenty-seventh -Go again and arrange the wedding!" Talks were held, preparations rushed, Unceasing bustle like streams of floating clouds. Green sparrow and white goose boats, Dragon pennants at their four corners Fluttering gracefully in the wind, Golden carriages with jade-trimmed wheels, Dapple-gray horses stepping slowly, Gold-threaded saddles with colored pompons, A wedding gift of three million cash, A l l the coins strung on green cords, Three hundred bolts of cloth in assorted hues, Rare seafoods purchased in Jiao and Guang, Attendants, four or five hundred, A l l setting out in droves from the governor's gate. The mother said to the daughter, "You have received the governor's letter. Tomorrow they wil l come to fetch you -Why aren't you making the clothes you'll need? Don't go and spoil things now!" The daughter was silent, unspeaking, Her handkerchief muffling her sobs, Her tears coming down in cascades. She moved her crystal-studded couch, Placed it in front of the window, In her left hand took her knife and ruler, In her right hand held her satins and gauzes. B y morning she had finished her lined embroidered skirt, B y evening she had finished her unlined gauze jacket, And as the day wore away and darkness fell, With somber thoughts she went out the gate weeping. When the clerk heard of this change in matters, He asked leave to go home for a while, And when he was still two or three l i away, His weary horse began to neigh sadly. The young wife recognized the horse's neigh, Stepped into her shoes, went out in greeting, Peering into the distance anxiously, And then she knew that her husband had come. Raising her hand, she beat on the saddle, With sobs that tore at her heart. "Since I took leave of you, Unimaginable things have happened! I can no longer be true to my former promise, Though I doubt you wil l understand why. I have my parents to think of, And my brother has pressed me as well, Making me promise yourself to another man -How could I be sure you would return?" The clerk said to his wife, "I compliment you on your rise in the world! The boulder is square and solid -It can last for a thousand years. But the rush or the reed - its moment of strength Lasts no longer than dawn to dusk! You wil l grow mightier, more exalted daily -I wi l l go alone to the Yellow Springs." The young wife said to the clerk, "What do you mean by such words! Both of us were forced against our wil l , You were, and so was I! In the Yellow Springs we wil l meet again -No betraying the words I speak today!" They clasped hands, then went their separate ways, Each returning to his own family. Still alive, they were parted as though by death, With grief and regret beyond describing, Thinking now to take their leave of the world, Knowing that their lives could last no longer. The clerk returned to his home, Ascended the hall, bowed to his mother: "Today the winds blow fierce and cold, The cold winds break the tree limbs, And harsh frost collects on the orchids in the garden. Your son today goes into darkness, Leaving you behind all alone. I do this bad thing of my own wil l -Do not rail at the gods or spirits. May your years be like the rock on the southern mountain, Your four limbs sturdy and straight." When his mother heard this, Her tears fell in time to her words: "You are the son of a great family Who have served in high government office. Don't be foolish and die for this woman, When she is so far beneath you! The family to the east have a virtuous daughter, Her beauty the boast of the whole city. Your mother wil l arrange for you to have her, It wi l l be done in the space of a day!" The clerk bowed once more and withdrew, In his empty bedroom sighed unendingly, Then made his plan, determined to see it through, Turned his head, looked toward the door, Grief pressing in on him more cruelly than ever. That day the cattle lowed, the horses neighed, When the bride entered the green enclosure. And after the darkness of evening had come, When all was still and people had settled down, She said, " M y life wil l end today, M y soul take leave, my body remaining." She lifted her skirt, stepped out of her silken shoes, And threw herself into the clear pond. When the clerk heard of this, He knew in his heart they must part forever. He circled the tree in the garden, Then hanged himself from the southeast limb. The two families agreed to bury them together, To bury them by the side of Flower Mountain. To east and west they planned pine and cypress, Left and right set out parasol trees. The branches came together to make a canopy, Leaf entwined about leaf. And in their midst a pair of flying birds, The kind called mandarin ducks, Raised their heads and cried to each other 290 Night after night till the hour of dawn. Travelers halted their steps to listen, Widows got up and paced the room. And this I say to you of later ages: Take warning and never forget this tale! Tang Narrative Verse L i Bai ^ f i (701-7'62): Ballad ofChanggan231 (changgan xing g^fj) While my hair was still cut straight across my forehead I played about the front gate, pulling flowers. You came by on bamboo stilts, playing horse, You walked about my seat, playing with blue plums. And we went on living in he village of Changgan: Two small people, without dislike or suspicion. 2 3 7 The translation is from Minford and Lau, p. 743, but I have changed the translation of lines 13-14. See Note 148. At fourteen I married M y Lord you. I never laughed, being bashful. Lowering my head, I looked at the wall. Called to, a thousand times, I never looked back. At fifteen I stopped scowling, I desired my dust to be mingled with yours "I have the good faith of someone who stands by a pillar, Why should I climb the Terrace for waiting for husbands?" At sixteen you departed, You went into far Qutan yan, by the river of swirling eddies, And you have been gone five months. The monkeys make sorrowful noise overhead. You dragged your feet when you went out. By the gate now, the moss is grown, the different mosses, Too deep to clear them away! The leaves fall early this autumn, in wind. The paired butterflies are already yellow with August Over the grass in the West garden; They hurt me. I grow older. If you are coming down through the narrows of the river Kiang, Please let me know beforehand, And I wi l l come out to meet you as far as Changfeng Sa. D u F u ttff (712-770): Song of Pengya21* {pengya xing Wffifl) I remember when we first fled the rebels, Hurrying north over dangerous trails; Night deepened on Pengya Road, The moon shone over White-water Hills. A whole family endlessly trudging, Begging without shame from the people we met: Valley birds sang, a jangle of soft voices; 2 3 8 The translation is from Watson, pp. 223-4. We didn't see a single traveler returning. The baby girl in her hunger bit me; Fearful that tigers or wolves would hear her cries, I hugged her to my chest, muffling her mouth, But she squirmed and wailed louder than before. The little boy pretended he knew what was happening; Importantly he searched for sour plums to eat. Ten days, half in rain and thunder, Through mud and slime we pulled each other on. There was no escaping from the rain, Trails slick, clothes wet and clammy; Getting past the hardest places, A whole day advanced us no more than three or four l i . Mountain fruits served for rations, Low-hung branches were our rafter and roof. Mornings we traveled by rock-bedded streams, Evenings camped in mists that closed in the sky. We stopped a little while at the marsh of Tongjia, Thinking to go out by Luzi Pass; A n old friend there, Sun Zai, Ideals higher than the piled-up clouds; He came out to meet us as dusk turned to darkness, Called for torches, opening gate after gate, Heated water to wash our feet, Cut strips of paper to call back our souls. Then his wife and children came; Seeing us, their tears fell in streams. M y little chicks had gone sound to sleep; He called them to wake up and eat from his plate, Said he would make a vow with me, The two of us to be brothers forever. At last he cleared the room where we sat, Wished us goodnight, all he had at our command. Who is willing, in the hard, bleak times, To break open, lay bare his innermost heart? Parting from you, a year of months has rounded, 295 Tartar tribes still plotting evil, And I think how it would be to have strong wings That would carry me away, set me down before you. LiuZongyuan W^jt (773-819): Wei Daoan239 Wei Dao'an was originally a young Confucian scholar, Famous for his talent in shooting and swordsmanship. At twenty, he traveled to Mount Taihang, One night, at dusk he heard the sound of a cry. He came forward hurriedly to find out what it was, And there was an old man, wearing a hat with lovely tassels hanging down. 2 4 0 The old man said: "I used to be a district magistrate, I was recently relieved of my duty, and on my way returning to the Western Capital. 2 4 I happened to meet a group of bandits, who looted all of my property, I have nothing left at all. 2 3 9 The translation is mine. 2 4 0 "Wearing a hat with lovely tassels hanging down" (chuhuayin Htljlil) describes the old man who was downcast and sad. 2 4 1 The Western capital refers to Chang'an ft^. 296 The loss of material goods and money do not matter, But both of my two daughters are pretty and young. They were carried off hurriedly, Who knows i f they are dead or alive? I planned to ki l l myself here, And had decided not to leave for my trip tomorrow." Learning of this, Wei Dao'an's righteous indignation was stirred up, His eye sockets popped out, and his liver and gall boiled with anger. He hung up his bow, and asked the old man where the bandits went, Then he swiftly and vigorously crossed steep mountains. He found the bandits hiding by a cold mountain brook, Quarrelling with one another over the division of the old man's property. Wei Dao'an shot an arrow and killed the chief of the bandits, The remaining bandits were crying and terrified. Wei Dao'an ordered the bandits and tied them one by one, And then bound them together with rope. 2 4 2 Zilie (literally, eye sockets were broken) describes Wei who was so angry, it looked as if his eyes might pop out. Gandan U f B f i (literally, liver and gall) refers to the heroic spirit. Gandan heng Iff-ft flf (literally, his liver and gall were angry) refers to Wei's heroic spirit or his courage being stirred up. 297 The two beauties were frightened out of their wits, Waiting to be killed by a knife blade. Wei Dao'an treated them modestly and courteously, And told them that he was following their father's orders. 2 4 4 He gathered everything together, and carried it on his shoulders, And then started to return, following the same way he came. While traveling in the night, they used flints to light torches, With this light, the forest was as bright as it is in daytime. When the father and daughters were reunited, they embraced each other, Weeping profusely.2 4 5 The old man bowed to Wei Dao'an, and wished to give him money and goods. And to betroth his daughters to h im. 2 4 6 Dao'an flourished his robe, then left. 2 4 7 He valued justice and despised profit. Literally, "Wei Dao'an stands backwards, having no hand contact between him and the two ladies." Queli ffliL literally means "stand backwards," and here is used to describe Wei Dao'an's politeness and modesty. Bu qinshou ^ F f H f § literally means "no contact between a man and a woman," or "no passing objects from hand to hand," and here is used to describe Wei's courtesy. 2 4 4 The Chinese character f j can be read as "xing" with the second tone, which means "orders" (ming pp), or "hang" with the second tone, which means "generation" (bei Jf). According to the context, the former reading is favored. 2 4 5 Literally, "Their tears and blood were intermingling," "Their tears of blood were intermingling." 2 4 6 Jiu i t means "father-in-law," sheng 5 ^ means "son-in-law." Literally, "And to betroth his daughters to him, and then they can call each other father-in-law and son-in-law." 2 4 7 An alternate translation: "Dao'an declines the old man's offers, and then flicks his clothes and leaves." 298 Forced wedding has been regarded as a disgrace since ancient times, 2 4 8 Marriage should not be arranged by force. 2 4 9 250 Henceforth, Wei devoted himself to learning the ways of the Confucian scholar, After ten years, he learned the essence of Confucianism. How generous and chivalrous Zhang Xuzhou was, 2 5 1 Before his official, red-painted residence, his military flag fluttered.2 5 2 Wei Dao'an sought to serve under Zhang, and was appointed to the position he desired, He served as a vanguard, leading the troops out of the capital. At the gate of the office of the general, a remarkable man stood. 2 5 3 Over the Huai river, the autumn wind rises. 2 5 4 Once Zhang Jianfeng passed away, His subordinate officers and generals fought each other. 2 4 8 "Forced wedding" (shihun Btji£ff) means "gaining wife or concubine by military power or force." See Xinjiaoben Weishu IffS^StliF (Taipei: Dingwen, 1993), juan 4 xia ~~f> PP- 104-5. 2 4 9 Hexing o'S literally means "combining two surnames" and refers to marriage. 2 5 0 Rushu f f l f t f j (the ways of the Confucian scholar) refers to the classics and Confucian thought. 2 5 1 Zhang Xuzhou 5S^jt( is Zhang Jianfeng 55^^f, who used to serve as the Military Commissioner (fiedushi) of Xuzhou. 2 5 2 Zhudi 7^ £B (red-painted official residence) refers to Zhang's official residence in the capital. This line describes Zhang's visit to the capital to see the emperor. 2 5 3 Qishi orifc (a remarkable man) refers to Wei Dao'an. 2 5 4 This is an allusion to a couplet by Tao Yuanming's MfflRM (365-427) "In Praise of Jing Ke" ("Yong Jing Ke" !§cM$RD: "A plaintive wind begins its lonely wail, / The cold waves surge in the swelling flood" MWZkMM., Wd&WML^L- The translation is from James Robert Hightower, The Poetry ofT'ao Ch 'ien (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970), p. 224. For the Chinese text, see Lu Qinli jikifcLL, Tao Yuanmingji p(g $S^ HI (Taipei: Liren, 1985), pp. 131-2. The poet uses Jin Ke to describe Wei Dao'an's bravery and loyalty. For a biography of Jin Ke (d. 227 B.C.), see Xinjiaoben Shiji, juan 86 (Cike liezhuan M^ r^ 'JfiDj pp. 2526-38. 299 They then supported Zhang's son as his successor against the emperor's orders/ Consequently, the sound of bells and drums spread across the open countryside. Wei Dao'an could not stop the water from flowing out of dike, And changing allegiances was not what he wanted. He raised his head and killed himself, In order to preserve the value of justice, he did not care for his body. A martyr does not despise death, And his death is always in the name of loyalty. Alas! Those who die for political power, Still struggle restlessly for power and fame even at their prime. M y song does not lament his death, What I lament is the ways of the world. 2 " Soon after Zhang Jianfeng's death, Zhang's son, Zhang Yin, wanted to succeed to his father's rank, but the government did not grant his request, and thus Zhang Yin led his troops in revolt against the government. For a biography of Zhang Jianfeng, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 140, pp. 3828-32; for a biography of Zhang Yin, see Xinjiaoben Jiutangshu, juan 140, p. 3832-33. 2 5 6 This line describes Zhang Yin leading his troops in revolt against the government. 2 5 7 An alternate translation is: "Wei Dao'an could not stop the overflowing of evil tides." Hengliu fjf&lt refers to Zhang Yin's rebellion against the emperor. 2 5 8 "His death" refers to Wei Dao'an's. 300 Yuan Zhen J G I M (779-831): Song of Lianchang Palace259 (lianchanggong ci aHHlIf M) Lianchang Palace is overgrown with bamboo, Long years untended, it has turned into a thicket; The double-flowering peach trees, towering above the wall, Shed red showers when the wind stirs. B y the palace gate an old man with tears told me: "Once in my youth I was there to bring food to the palace. The Grand Emperor was in Wangxian Hall, Taizhen leaned against the railing by his side. Above the hall and in front, whirled jade and pearls, Sparkling, reflecting heaven and earth. I left as i f in a dream, with my sense gone. How could I relate in full these palace affairs? The translation is from Angela C Y . Jung Palandri, pp. 73-75. 301 "The Feast of Cold Food had just come, a Hundred and six days after winter solstice, No chimney smoke rose from rooftops and palace trees were turning green. At midnight when the moon was high string music was heard upstairs -Master He'spipa set the stage for chamber music. "Then Eunuch Gao called out the order to find Niannu, Who was elsewhere entertaining her guests in private. Soon she was found and urged to hurry; B y special edict, the streets were lit with candles. A scene of spring loveliness, she lay amid red silk; Tidying her cloudlike hair, her hurriedly dressed. "When she sang her voice soared to the ninth heaven, Followed by the treble of Prince Pin's flute. The twanging music of Liangzhou filled the palace, The deeper tunes of Qiuci followed along. Outside the palace wall, holding his flute, L i M u stole several new melodies he overheard. "At dawn the imperial entourage departed from Lianchang, And thousands of people danced in joy along the road; Processions of officials avoided the path of Prince Qi and Xue; In their carriages, the Yang sisters raced with the wind. "In the tenth month of the following year, the Eastern Capital fell: The imperial road, still intact, the rebels now trod. Pressed for provisions, no one dared to hide. Silently the people shed secret tears. "Six or seven years after both capitals were restored, I came back to search for my homesite near this palace -The village was razed by fire, only dried wells remained; The palace gate was shut: trees and gardens were still there. "Since that time six emperors have ascended the throne, But Lianchang Palace remains long unvisited, Young travelers coming here, talked about Chang'an: They said Xuanwu Tower was now completed, but Hua'e abandoned. "Last year an order came to cut down the palace bamboo, By chance I found the gate open and stepped in: Thorns and brambles thickly clogged the imperial pond, Proud foxes and doltish hares capered about among the trees; The dance pavilion had collapsed, its foundation still there; The ornamented windows were dim, but the screens still green; Dust covered the old filigree on painted walls; Crows had pecked the wind chimes, scattering pearls and jade. "The Grand Emperor enjoyed terraced flowers, His royal couch still lay aslant above the garden steps. Snakes emerged from swallows' nests and coiled on beams; Mushrooms grew out of the altar in the central hall. Adjoining the royal bedchamber was Duanzheng Tower Where Taizhen once washed and combed her hair. In the early dawn the curtains which cast dark shadows -Even now, are hung by coral hooks, upside down. "Pointing out these things to others, I could not but grieve, M y