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Senior streets-senior places : creating walkable community for the elderly Park, Kyoung Bae 2006

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SENIOR STREETS-SENIOR PLACES: CREATING WALKABLE COMMUNITY FOR THE ELDERLY by Kyoung Bae Park M.Sc , Chungnam National University, 2001 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE i n The Faculty of Graduate Studies UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O U M B I A July 2006 © Kyoung Bae Park, 2006 A B S T R A C T The study was conducted to propose design solutions and alternatives that could be applied on community design and planning to support the needs pf the elderly for their physical activity (walking) and social interaction within the built environment. Cadboro Bay community in Regional District of Saanich, BC was particularly selected for the study considering its large population of the elderly and their increased demand for creating an accessible, safe, and pedestrian friendly community. By reviewing relevant literature and projects for the needs of the elderly for their physical activity and social interaction, and assessing the current condition of built environment and its relationship to physical activity of the elderly within the community context, design principles were proposed and the solutions based on 13 key principles were implemented in three scales of community design for Cadboro Bay: land use pattern, street and transportation network, and design characteristics. These proposed design solutions were also tested and evaluated by walking distance analysis, the assessment of Pedestrian LOS, and visual simulation of walking experience comparing the current condition and the proposed plan. It is found that the adherence to the principles resulted in improving the built environment to accommodate the needs of the elderly for their physical activity and social interaction. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract — - i i Table of Contents i i i List of Tables — v List of Figures vi Acknowledgements — —ix 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Objectives — —3 1.3 Scope of Thesis — 4 1.4 Definition 5 2. A Review of Relevant Literature 6 2.1 Built Environments and Physical Activity 6 2.2 Mobility Needs of the Elderly 9 2.3 Sense of Community -r 13 2.4 Evaluating of Walking Quality 17 2.4.1 Pedestrian LOS— 17 2.4.2 Development of the Redefined Model for the Elderly 25 3. Precedent Study 22 3.1 Dutch Woonerf- 25 3.2 The Arbutus Neighbouhood 28 4. Design Principles 30 5. Case Study: Inventory and Analysis 37 5.1 Overview 37 5.1.1 Regional Context- 3 8 5.1.2 Social Profile and Services 40 5.1.3 Land Use Character and Transportation —45 5.1.4 Historical Resource 53 5.1.5 The Village Centre 55 5.1.6 Measuring Pedestrian LOS 58 5.2 Summary of Inventory and Site Analysis 63 6. Case Study: Recommended Program and Interventions 65 6.1 Land Use and Street Network 65 6.1.1 Land Use Program -65 6.1.2 Street Network 67 6.1.3 Special Walkways 69 6.2 Proposed Plan for Village Centre Area 72 Table of Contents, continued Page 6.2.1 Overview 72 6.2.2 Streetscape 78 6.2.3 Village Centre 83 7. Post Evaluation and Conclusion 91 7.1 Post Evaluation 91 7:1.1 Walking Distance 92 7.1.2 Pedestrian LOS 94 7.1.3 Walking Experience 95 7.2 Conclusion 104 References 106 Appendices— 109 Appendix A 109 iv LIST OF TABLE Page Table 2.1 Assessment sheet for the method of Pedestrian LOS for the elderly 23 Table 2.2 Pedestrian LOS grade scale— 24 Table 3.1 Mean length of stay in terms of average number of five-minute time intervals observed 26 Table 3.2 Users: number and percentage of total observed population (by age group)—26 Table 5.1 Labour force characteristics 1996 41 Table 5.2 Result of the assessment of pedestrian LOS (Cadboro Bay) 61 Table 5.3 Result of the assessment of pedestrian LOS (The Arbutus Lands) 62 Table 7.1 Pedestrian LOS grade after post evaluation— 94 v LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1.1 Location of Cadboro Bay 4 Figure 2.1 Photo showing that sidewalks are good places to put chairs 16 Figure 2.2 Description of assessment stages —-—24 Figure 3.1 Activities observed before and after 27 Figure 3.2 Aerial photo showing the Arbutus neighbourhood r 29 Figure 5.1 Regional Context of Cadboro Bay 38 Figure 5.2 Topography (Contours-10ft intervals) 39 Figure 5.3 Cadboro Bay age comparison, 1986 and 1996— 40 Figure 5.4 Cadboro Bay age comparison, 1986 and 1996—: 41 Figure 5.5 Places for social and cultural services 42 Figure 5.6 Existing land use character 46 Figure 5.7 Openspaces and parks in Cadboro Bay- 47 Figure 5.8 Existing street network shows lack of connection within the community 50 Figure 5.9 Pedestrian networks proposed by local municipal — 51 Figure 5.10 Existing modes of transportation in the community 52 Figure 5.11 Heritage structures and significant trees '- 54 Figure 5.12 Intersection of Cadboro Bay Rd. and Sinclair Rd. 56 Figure 5.13 Bus stops in the Village Centre Photos showing the existing conditions of the bus stops in the Village Centre (Lack of supporting facilities such as bus bulges, shelters, benches, and lights) 56 Figure 5.14 Parking Lot in the Village Centre Photo showing the existing condition of parking lot in the Village Centre 57 vi Table of Figures, continued Page Figure 5.15 Measuring pedestrian LOS along the streets of Cadboro Bay and the Arbutus land Figure 60 Figure 6.1 Proposed land use program for the community —66 Figure 6.2 Proposed new street network for the community 68 Figure 6.3 Proposed Greenway designated for pedestrian experience with nature contact -—70 Figure 6.4 Proposed Heritage Trail connecting locations of significant heritage structures and trees -.— 71 Figure 6.5 Plan for Village Centre area 74 Figure 6.6 Section-Elevation A - A ' cutting through the Village Centre area 75 Figure 6.7 Proposed land use program for the Village Centre area 76 Figure 6.8 Proposed new street network for the Village Centre area 77 Figure 6.9 Residential street type A 77 Figure 6.10 Residential street type B 79 Figure 6.11Residential street type C 79 Figure 6.12 Residential street type D 80 Figure 6.13 Main street r 81 Figure 6.14 Pedestrian-only Street— —82 Figure 6.15 Proposed plan for Village Centre and the main street 83 Figure 6.16 Cub extension with wheelchair ramps 84 Figure 6.17 Raised intersection and crosswalk 85 Figure 6.18 Bus shelter and transit area 86 Figure 6.19 On-street parking 87 vii Table of Figures, continued Page Figure 6.20 Public space with Bosque trees and informal sittings 89 Figure 6.21 Outdoor market place for Saturday or farmers market— 89 Figure 6.22 Extended outdoor market area 90 Figure 7.1 Area of 400m walking distance based on existing street network and new street network 93 Figure 7.2 Diagram of pedestrian trip along the proposed main street for post evaluation -. 96 Figure 7.3 Visualization of walking experience along the main street 97 I viii ACKNOWLEGEMENTS First, I would like to thank my parents, Byung Hun Park and Bae Sun Kim, and my beloved wife, Jin Suk Lee, for their patience and endless support during my pursuit of this degree and the writing of this paper. I would like to thank my advisors, Cynthia Girling and Douglas Patterson for their commitment to this project and for guidance. I also thank Alan Duncan who initiated the interest in this topic. ix 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background In sustainable and livable communities, walking is a normal part of daily life. Unlike driving, walking is the oldest and most basic form of human transportation. It is environmentally-friendly, requires little infrastructure, and is integral to the health of individuals and communities. People who walk often know their neighbors and their neighborhood. A community that is designed to support walking is livable and attractive (The Mid-America Reginal Council (MARC), 1998). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) calls these kinds of places Active Community Environments (ACEs). These communities recognize that providing for active living through community design is a health issue (The Mid-America Reginal Council (MARC), 1998; Local Government Commission, 1999). Creating a walkable community for people means more than just designing and locating special trails, though these might certainly be an important element of an overall plan. Creating an active and walkable community environment means taking a good look at the broader scope of whether or not there are opportunities to walk and to participate in social interactions. This generally involves rethinking land uses for better connectivity and proximity, retrofitting infrastructure for both the motorized and non-motorized transportation, understanding people within built environments, funding, and much more (The Mid-America Regional Council (MARC), 1998; National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW). 2002). Nowadays, life expectancy has dramatically increased and we live longer than ever before. Life expectancy in the United States has extended from forty-nine years in 1 1900 to seventy-six years by 2000. As a result, the older population (sixty-five and older) has been fast growing segment of the population and the dominant age group of society Frumkin et al., 2004). More seriously, it is expected that the baby boomers will create another population boom of elders between 2010 and 2030 when they reached retirement age (Hetzel and Smith, 2001). Therefore, close consideration of the demands of an older population is an important factor in creating walkable and healthy communities. 2 1.2 Objectives The main purpose of this study was to propose design solutions and alternatives that could be applied to community design and planning to support the needs of the elderly for their physical activity (walking) and social interaction within the built environment. For the intent, study was conducted with following objectives. 1. To make a case study for the walkable community design and planning with the elderly in mind 2. To review relevant literature and projects to determine the needs of the elderly in > terms of their physical activity and social interaction 3. To assess the current built environment in case study and evaluate it in relationship to physical activity of the elderly within a community context. 4. To propose design solutions and alternatives to encourage a full range of pedestrian activity of the elderly. 3 1.3 Scope of Thesis This paper will look at appropriate design and planning solutions to encourage physical activity and social interaction of the elderly in the Cadboro Bay community, District of Saanich, BC (Figure 1.1). The theoretical overview of the issues will first be described in order to establish the relevance of the study. Next, the inventory and analysis of the current situation of the community will be described through the study methodology, derived from traditional landscape architectural and planning inventory and analysis methodologies. Alternative design solutions, composed of a several layers of improvements in different scales, will be introduced and discussed for appropriateness to the community and detailed at the site level. Figure 1.1 Location of Cadboro Bay a. Capital Reginal District b. Cadboro Bay Source: a. (from Tourism B.C.) b. (from District of Saanich) 4 1.4 Definition For lack of a more succinct term, throughout this paper, "Pedestrian" is used to include people who walk, sit, stand in public spaces, or use a wheelchair or other mobility-supporting devices, be they children, teenagers, adults, elderly, people with disabilities, workers, residents, shoppers ,or people watchers. "The elderly" are people who are sixty-five and older, with physical needs brought on by the process of aging, and disabled. "Pedestrian-oriented design" is accessible design for the full range of people living, working, volunteering, playing, and visiting. 5 2 A REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1 Built Environments and Physical Activity For several decades, American cities have been expanding toward surrounding countryside. The centres of cities are filled by high-rise business skyscrapers and commercial buildings. Separation between work places and residential homes by suburban sprawl has resulted in automobile-oriented lifestyle. Because of this, the built environment and secentary lifestyle we have created becomes a primary health issue. The built environment affected by suburban sprawl and automobile-oriented streets are major causes of air pollution, high rates of traffic fatalities and injuries, and increase of obesity, diabetes and associated health matters. By contrast, walking yields health benefits from exercise as well as from better air quality. Walking also tends to be less stressful than driving. In community terms, walking allows more frequent informal encounters between citizens. Pedestrian friendly streets give more mobility to citizens who either don't drive or don't own a car, which allows for more involvement and connectedness, as well as addressing an issue of equity (Frank et al., 2003; Leyden, 2003). The existence of pedestrian friendly environments provides some incentive for people to walk rather than drive. A pleasant walking environment with sidewalks, traffic safety measures, weather protection, and attractive landscaping is a step toward encouraging people to choose transit, bikes, or walking over cars. In addition to environmental benefits, this yields social benefits by encouraging informal encounters among neighbors, and health benefits from exercise (Pikora et al., 2003). 6 While public health organizations and agencies are working to find out various factors of physical activity and encourage people to have more physical activities on a daily basis, some researches are focused on how the built environment can promote physical activities that reduces automobile use. Frank (2003) discussed three components of the built environment for physical activity: transportation system in terms of street network, land use patterns by density and mixed use, and urban design characteristics for perception of the public. First, the transportation system determines how well destinations are connected with each other. A transportation system network can also provide either many or few links between places, which will help to determine both how far one has to travel as well as determining how many route options one has to choose from. Second, land use patterns which privilege mixed use spatial patterns rather than the patterns of segregated zoning affect choice of walking by decreasing the proximity between places. Finally, design characteristics influence how an individual perceives the built environment. In making decision about whether or not to walk, people will consider distance and accessibility as well as a slew of intangibles, including safety and attractiveness. Like Frank, Saelen and others (2003) also indicated that the choice of walking is primarily determined by two fundamental aspects of the way land is used: proximity and connectivity. Proximity relates to the distance between trip origins and destinations. Proximity is determined by two land use variables. The first is density, or compactness of land uses. The second variable is land use mix, or the distance between or intermingling among different types of land uses. 7 Whereas proximity considers straight-line distance between land uses, connectivity characterizes the ease of moving between origins and destinations within the existing street and pathway network. Connectivity is high when streets are laid in a grid pattern and there are few barriers. With high connectivity in a grid pattern, route distance is shortened and the choices of taking different routes to the same destination are increased. On smaller scale, Pikora (2003) proposed a further framework to measure pedestrian friendly environments by four different categories of design characteristics that encourage people to walk. These are functional factors (path continuity, street type and width, and traffic volume), safety factors (crossing aids, lighting, and the level of passive surveillance of the paths or side walks), aesthetic factors (landscaping, cleanliness, and architecture), and destination factors (distance to parks, stores, restaurants and work and the presence of transit nodes). According to the results from much research about the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it seems obvious that the physical environment of neighbourhood or community is one of determining factors of physical activity and public health. 8 2.2 Mobility Needs of the Elderly Today, elderly people are healthier and more active than in the past. However, this does not confer they are still physically enabled to take the tasks of younger people. They still have many limitations which are associated with reduced abilities in a number of anatomical and physiological processes. These include declines in visual acuity, sensitivity, and visual field; substantial hearing losses; reductions in depth and motion perception; and significant declines in physical and cognitive capacity (Frank et al., 2003). A t the same point of their lives, because of their physical challenges, the elderly lose ability to drive safely. Rather than driving, the elderly are more likely to depend on walking for many trips. In many cases, it is obvious that these individuals w i l l become transportation-dependent i f built environments for walking are not adequate. In other words, they wi l l be forced to reply on someone else and other modes of transportation-motorized transportation to accommodate their trip needs. According to researched guidelines for walkable community design and pedestrian injury and fatality, walking distance, walking speed, and safety are critical factors for the elderly to choose walking as a travel mode. First, walking distance is the key factor limiting utilitarian walking trips. Although distance is a subjective matter in travel mode choice, Walking trips are predominantly shorter than any other trips. Although acceptable walking distances of the elderly are dependent on trip purpose, total travel time, physical conditions of the individuals, safety and security of walking route, and economic factors, it is obvious that the elderly as pedestrians prefer to limit walking distances (The Bicycle Federation of America and National Center for Bicycl ing and Walking ( N C B W ) , 1998). According to the study report for Mount Pleasant Wellness Walkways (Mooney and 9 Luymes, 1998), people prefer distance for walking of about 40-50m between places of interest or places to rest. However, elderly and infirm people may require shorter distance than this. Although, the elderly prefer shorter distance for walking, a journey which is broken down into manageable segments will be used by those who are compelled to walk (Cullen, 1961: Gehl, 1996). In order to increase connectivity to shorten walking trips, a complete system of interconnected streets and convenient access between popular origins and destinations by using a grid street layout with short blocks should be considered. Also, providing street furnishings and resting spots can encourage older people to walk further. Second, walking speed are generally in the range of 2.5 to 6.0 feet per second with an average of 4.0 feet per second, according to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control devices (MUTCD). However, the research by R L Knoblauch et al (1996) found that the average walking speed for older pedestrians was 4.11 feet per second, compared with 4.95 for younger pedestrians and older females had the slowest walking speed at 3.89 feet per second. He also said that the walking speed is significantly slower for older pedestrians and proposed elderly pedestrian speeds at 2.5 to 3.25 feet per second. In addition, many guidelines suggest that a walking rate of 3.0 feet per second should be considered distances for this group (The Bicycle Federation of America and National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW), 1998; National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW), 2002). These pedestrian walking speeds and the amount of time required for elderly people to cross roadways safely are important in roadway design. Especially, these findings must be taken seriously for traffic signal timing at pedestrian crosswalk. 10 Finally, safe cross is a major issue of creating pedestrian environments for the elderly. In much research, it is found that older pedestrians are highly exposed to traffic accidents while they are crossing streets and intersections (Rivara et al., 1989; Harruff et al., 1998). Older adults are more likely than any other age group to be killed while crossing a street. Although only 12.6% of the US population in 2001 was estimated to be 65 years or older, these older adults accounted for 1049 (21.5%) of 4882 deaths of pedestrians in motor vehicle crashes in that year (Rounge and Cole, 2002; Koepsell et al., 2002). This is because older people have considerable difficulty coping with multiple sources of information such as crossing busy and complicated road networks. Oxley and Fildes (1999) mentioned that despite the availability of traffic signals, marked walkways, and stop signs, older pedestrian accidents often occur at intersections, especially those with minimum traffic control. In crossing the road, the pedestrian must not only look to the left and right in the near-side and far-side lane and often forwards and backwards for turning vehicles, they must also be continually assessing and modifying their walking behaviours as the situation changes. This can place undue demands on older pedestrians who may subsequently focus on simple inappropriate cues when crossing the road, thereby placing themselves at greater risk. Also, there are findings that crosswalk markings appear associated with increased risk of pedestrian-motor vehicle collision to older pedestrians and association between presence of a marked crosswalk and increased pedestrian-motor vehicle collision risk was essentially confined to sites where no traffic-control devices such as traffic signals or stop signs were present to restrict the flow of vehicles because marked crosswalks may give 11 older pedestrians a false sense of security, based on their questionable assumptions about driver behavior (Oxley and Fildes, 1999). Oxley and Fildes also proposed three overall strategies which may improve the safety of crosswalks and prevent traffic accidents of older pedestrians. One strategy would be to improve signalization and signage at intersections. Signalization and improvement of crosswalk visibility and control of vehicle speeds may be taken seriously where frequently used by old pedestrians. A second strategy for improving the safety of crosswalks would be to enforce existing traffic safety laws. A third strategy for improving the safety of crosswalks would be to educate pedestrians and drivers to use crosswalks safely. Particularly, this includes safety education programs for older pedestrians as for children. This can change street crossing behavior among older pedestrians. Also these strategies can be synergized with design details of crosswalks and intersections such as tight curve radius, different colors and textures of crosswalk surface, and lighting at night. 12 2.3 Sense of Community It's oh foot that you see people's faces and that you meet and experience them. That is how public socializing and community enjoyment in daily life can most easily occur, and it's on foot that one can be most intimately involved with the urban environment: with stores, houses, the natural environment, and with people (Jacobs, 1993). There are many ways of experiencing the built environment but walking is the most powerful way of interacting with the environment. In"Walking" in The City as Dwelling: Walking, Sitting, Shopping (1992), Hillman mentioned how people interact with the environment and integrated with neighbours while walking. "As we walk, we are in the world, finding ourselves in a particular space and turning that space by walking within it into a place, a dwelling or territory, a local habitation with a name." Hiss also mentioned the relationship between places and people in his book, The Experience of Place (1990). He said, "We all react, consciously and unconsciously, to the places where we live and work, in ways we scarcely notice or that are only now becoming known to us. Ever-accelerating changes in most people's day-to-day circumstances are helping us and prodding us, sometimes focusing us, to learn that our ordinary surroundings, built and natural alike, have an immediate and a continuing effect on the way we feel and act, and on our health and intelligence. These places have an impact on our sense of self, our sense of safety, the kinds of work we get done, the ways 13 we interact with other people, and even our ability to function as citizens in a democracy. In short, the places where we spend our time affect the people we are and can become. It is believed that humans understand and explore the world while they are walking through the environment. With the simple act of walking, people locate themselves, transport themselves from place to place, understand their neighbourhood, and socializing with others. In addition, some places serve as the social gathering places or spots has called "great good places" by Ray Oldenburg (1989). These places not only have the characteristics that make them special by creating "sense of place" to us but also help us engaged with other people within social boundaries, created by places. Many of the best places for people to get are public places such as streets and sidewalks, parks, cafes, and theaters. These places are important venues for a wide variety of activities include social interactions. Pedestrian activities within these places extend a sense of place and a sense of community which influence mental health and cognitive functions. Particularly, Streets and street networks have been emphasized as public spaces for social interaction. Mark Francis (1987) said, "Streets are an important part of the landscape of daily life. People rely on them for such daily activities as travel, shopping, and interaction with friends and relative." Urban designer, Allan Jacobs (1993) also emphasized the role of streets as a important social infrastructure, "streets are more than public utilities, more than the equivalent of water lines and sewers and electric cables, which, interestingly enough, most often, find their homes in streets' more than permit people and goods to get from here to there." and made for "the symbolic, ceremonial, social, and political roles of streets." 14 Streets and street networks are shaped by human endeavors through time and filled with both physical and social human activities. Therefore, streets and street networks can serve as social environments for the public. In many cases, social isolation causes significant depression in the elderly and social networks and interactions help prevent depression and also predict better cognitive function (Seeman et al., 2001; Seeman and Crimmins, 2001). Not particularly focusing on the old population but several studies have suggested that a sense of community increases when neighborhood are walkable and when well maintained public spaces are located near homes (Glynn, 1981; Lund, 2002; Leyden, 2003). Therefore, reclaiming streets as public spaces for older people and providing secure, attractive, and active spaces where people gather and interact should be considered in creating walkable community for elderly people (Figure 2.1). 15 Figure 2.1 Photo showing that sidewalks are good places to put chairs. Source: from Oldenburg, 1989 16 2.4 Evaluating of Walking Quality 2.4.1 Pedestrian LOS Now, communities are beginning to recognize the value in developing pedestrian facilities which enhance pedestrian safety, public health, and the environmental health. Fortunately, this new trend in pedestrian planning includes the evaluation of pedestrian level of service (LOS). In 1965, the concept of level of service (LOS) was introduced by the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) (Muraleetharan et al. 2004). After that, other pedestrian LOS methods were developed for the evaluation of pedestrian facilities. The principles behind the pedestrian LOS methods are essentially the same as those used in traffic evaluation. In this evaluation, segments of a pedestrian facility or environments are evaluated by the speed and volume of pedestrian movement and the presence of pedestrian facilities. However, as we know, pedestrian facilities provide much more than ease of mobility and perceived safety from traffic. Therefore, it is necessary to extend the concepts of pedestrian LOS based on quantitative assessment to a qualitative assessment by the perspective of their social, economic, aesthetic, and cultural impacts. Recently, the applications of this redefined pedestrian LOS models have been developed by Gallin (2001) and Jaskiewicz (2000) in quantifying pedestrian walking environments, based on experiential quality within a neighborhood context. Gallin (2001) developed a redefined model of pedestrian LOS using three primary categories of factors such as design factors ( path width surface quality, obstruction, crossing, opportunities, and support facilities), location factors (connectivity, path 17 environment, and potential for vehicle conflict), and user factors (pedestrian volume, mix of path users, and personal security). These eleven factors include the following Design Factors (Physical Characteristics) • Path Width: a measure in metre of the width of the path that is available to pedestrians • Surface Quality: a description of the quality of the surface of the path. Excellent quality means a continuous, smooth but skid resistant surface, without cracks and bumps or weed intrusion. • Obstruction: a measure of the number of obstructions per kilometer on the path being assessed. Assessment of this factor is essential to determine the access available to people with disabilities. Obstructions may be permanent (e.g. poles, signs, chairs etc.) or temporary (e.g. bins, parked cars etc.) • Crossing Opportunity: the type and number of facilities provided to assist in the safe crossing of roads and paths by pedestrians includes median refuges, guarded crossing, crosswalk, underpass, and overpass. 'Delay in Crossing' is also a characteristic of this factor. • Support Facilities: the presence of facilities that assist pedestrians during their journey and include tactile paving, colour contrast kerbing, provision of rest stops, kerb ramps, lane markings, signage, landings on long ramps etc. Location Factors • Connectivity: the degree to witch the path provides a useful, direct and logical link between key departure points and destinations. • Path Environment: a measure of the quality of the path environment dictated by its surroundings. The degree of 'pleasantness' of the surrounding environment often related to distance from the roadway. • Potential Vehicle Conflict: a count of the number of potential vehicle conflict points along the route including intersections and driveways. Conflict points to be measured per path 18 kilometer. The potential for pedestrian conflict increases with increased intersection and driveway frequency, User Factors • Pedestrian Volume: a count or estimate of the number of pedestrian using the path expressed as an average daily count • Mix of Path Users: an estimate of the various groups who use he path as percentage of total pedestrians Groups include pedestrian cyclist, roller-skater etc. • Personal Security: qualitative measurement of the degree to which the path is safe for users. Characteristics of this factor include the provision of adequate lighting, path visibility from the surrounding environment, sight distance etc. He also weighted those variables and tested the model to different pedestrian environments: a local residential street and a busy commercial street. Finally, the results from the study show which factor contributes low and high LOS. In addition to Gallin's, Jaskiewicz (2000) also developed a model in order to analyze pedestrian LOS based on pedestrian trip quality. Particularly, the study focused on qualitative factors to measure pedestrian experience. Those qualitative factors are enclosure/definition, complexity of path network, building articulation, complexity of spaces, transparency, buffer, overhangs/awnings/varied roof line. These factors include the following. Qualitative Factors • Enclosure/Definition: a measure of the degree to which the edges of the street are defined. Good closure dictates that the pedestrian's eyes are focused. . 19 • Complexity of Path Network: a measure of the degree of connectivity between origins and destinations. • Building Articulation: a measure of the degree of pedestrian's interest added by store fronts and houses. • Complexity of Spaces: a measure of the degree of variation in the orientation and character of public spaces. • Transparency: the transition between the public space and private space, created through the use of windows, outdoor displays and sittings, sidewalk cafe, front porches etc. • Buffer: the presence of a 'buffer zone' between pedestrian and moving vehicles.. • Overhangs/Awnings/Varied Roof line: a measure of the degree to which items above street level contribute to the experience at street level. Interestingly, this model was created by using pedestrian supporting settings, adopted from the study of pedestrian perception by Rapoport (1997), as qualitative factors to assess pedestrian experience. Because of the use of qualitative factors, this model shows more specific needed improvement for better walking environment at precise locations. There is also other alternative ways of assessing the environmental quality of walking to increase pedestrian LOS. Kroll (2001) also proposed the use of a checklist of desired pedestrian facilities (presence and conditions of sidewalks, widths, buffer zones, curb cuts, etc.) and amenities (seating, bus shelters, wayfinding signs, etc.) and different rating scheme, A flexible rating scheme can be modified in terms of weights, given to evaluation categories. Different weights can be assigned to the chosen evaluation categories depending. For instance, different neighbourhood groups may express their specific values and identity by customized evaluation categories and assigned weights. 20 Particular idea of the method is "walkability audit", which equipped with a predetermined checklist or merely a fresh look. By walking, observing, and recording deficiencies and strengths of their everyday walking environment, pedestrian can "audit" (or evaluate) existing pedestrian facilities and amenities of their neighbourhood using the checklist. The advantage of this method are using of the participants' intimate knowledge of their neighbourhood in order to assess pedestrian environment. In addition, he mentioned potential for further exploration to develop alternative method for social and cultural quality of walking experience. Even though this type of method to evaluate pedestrian LOS is more difficult to quantify, it speaks more to communities who want to evaluate their walking environment. In addition to quantification of level of service, the qualitative assessment of pedestrian facilities are needed to evaluate walking experience of pedestrian at the same time or before useful quantification can take place. Therefore, the application of the redefined model of pedestrian LOS with both qualitative and quantitative factors should be considered and conducted in order to obtain valuable information for planning and designing pedestrian facilities and walkable communities, especially the restraints to certain age groups. 21 2.4.2 Development of the Redefined Model for the Elderly In order to develop an adequate assessment model of Pedestrian LOS which evaluate walking experience the elderly within the built environment, the framework was derived from modification of the model which was developed by Gallin (2001) and then refined with the findings from Rapport (1987), Jaskiewicz (2000), and Frank, Engelke, and Schmid (2004). Factors affecting Pedestrian LOS were classified as design (physical characteristics), location, visual, and user factors. The factors identified, totaling seventeen and shown in Table 2.1. Each factor was weighted primarily based on Galin's model (2001). However, the weight of each factor are adjusted considering the level of its influence on the Pedestrian LOS for the elderly and scored by number. For example, surface quality, wheelchair accessibility, and crossing opportunity which are essential for elderly pedestrians to walk (Oxley and Fildes, 1999) were weighted higher than others. After the factors were defined, most factors were measures during the site visits and through a desktop assessment. Through the simple, steps shown in Figure 2.13, the Pedestrian LOS grade for selected segment of a street or pathway was determined from grade A to E (Table 2.2). 22 Table 2.1 Assessment sheet for the method of Pedestrian LOS for the elderly Category Factor Weight 0 point 1 Point 2 Points 3 points 4 Points Total Design factor Path width 4 No pedestrian path 0-1 m l.l-1.5m 1.6-2.0 m 2.0-2.5 m Surface quality 5 Unsealed and/or many cracks/bumps Poor quality Moderate quality, i.e. some cracks/bumps Reasonable quality Excellent quality Wheelchair accessibility "4 Very poor Poor Moderate Good Excellent Crossing opportunity 5 None provided, difficult to cross Some provided but poorly located Some provided and reasonably well located Several provided and well located or absent but unnecessary Many provided and well located Pedestrian support facilities 3 Non existent Few provided and poorly located Few provided and reasonably well located Several provided and well located or absent but unnecessary Many providedand well located Shade tree 2 Non existent Few provided and poorly located Few provided and reasonably well located Several provided and well located or absent but unnecessary Many provided and well located Location factor Complexity of path network 4 Non existent Poor Moderate Good Excellent Path environment with buffer 2 Unpleasant environment/ close to vehicular traffic Poor environment/ less than 1 m separation from vehicular traffic Acceptable environment/ 1 to 2 m separation from vehicular traffic Reasonable environment/ 2 to 3 m separation from vehicular traffic Pleasant environment/ more than 3 m separation from vehicular traffic Potential for vehicle conflict 3 Severe, more than 2.5 conflict points per 100 m Poor, between 1.6 and 2.5 conflict points per 100m Moderate, between 1.6 and 2.5 conflict points per 100 m Reasonable, between 1.0 and 1.5 conflict points per 100 m No vehicle conflict Visual factor Enc losure/Definition 3 Poorly enclosed - Partially enclosed by either street trees or buildings Enclosed by either street trees or buildings Reasonably well enclosed by street trees and buildings Well enclosed by street trees and buildings Building articulation 2 Very poor Poor Moderate Good Excellent Complexity of spaces 3 Monotonous Few changes in size and element Some changes in size and element Various in size and element Frequently various in size and element Transparency 3 Very poor Poor Moderate Good Excellent Overhang/ varied roofline 2 Non existent Few changes in size and element Some changes in size and element Various in size and element Frequently various in size and element User factor Pedestrian volume/flow 3 More than 30 people at the same time 20 - 29 people at the same time 10- 19 people at the same time 5-9 people at the same time Less than 5 people at the same time Mix of users 4 Majority of path users are non-pedestrians Approx51 -70% of path users are non-pedestrian Between 21 and 50% are non-pedestrians Less than 20% are non-pedestrians Pedestrians only Personal security 3 Unsafe Poor Reasonable Good Excellent security provided Total to OJ Figure 2.2 Description of assessment stages Desk Top Assessment of LOS Factors On-site Assessment of LOS Factors I • • Calculate Score for Each Factor i Calculate Weighted Score for Each Factor i Calculate Total Weighted Score Allocate LOS Grade A - E Table 2.2 Pedestrian LOS grade scale Pedestrian LOS Grade Range of Score Description A 176 or higher Ideal pedestrian environment B 131-175 Pleasant pedestrian environment C 86-130 Basic pedestrian environment D 41-85 Poor pedestrian environment E 40 or lower Pedestrian environment is un suitable 24 3 PRECEDENT STUDY 3.1 Dutch Woonerf Unlike American cities, European cities have pedestrianized their streets and built environment. In many examples in France, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, pedestrian dominant zones and streets are found. These are instrumental in protecting the pedestrian domain from automobiles, returning open spaces to the public realm giving streets to people, thus creating environments that allow social contacts, reflection and vitality. Among many European examples, the Dutch Woonerf is the most recent and interesting of the "protective devices" (Pressman, 1987). The concept of the Woonerf is converting existing residential streets into pedestrian-dominant space. The streets are shared by both pedestrians and cars but cars are usually restricted by traffic control measures. The Woonerf accommodates cars but make them feel unwelcome, eliminating straight line streets and curb separations and carefully placing street furniture and devices for children's play (Wynne, 1980). In addition, it is visually marked with clear entrances and often different pavement surfaces. The study of the Dutch Woonerf neighbourhood in Hannover by Eubank-Ahrens in 1987 shows changes in behavior arid outdoor activities in two streets before and after. According to the study, number of users and their length of stay were noticeably increased in all age groups (Table 3.1, Table 3.2). In particular, while children were the principle users and they used the Woonerf as a playground (Figure 3.1), communication activity mainly occurs among other age groups (Figure 3.1). From the study, it is 25 believed pedestrian-oriented and walkable streets can promote physical activity and social interactions for residential well-being and the public health. Table 3.1 Mean length of stay in terms of average number of five-minute time intervals observed Haspelmath Street Ahrberg Street Before After Before After Children 1.79 2.54 1.94 3.02 Teenagers 2.00 2.50 1.94 5.00 Adults 1.23 2.03 2.08 3.32 Elderly 1.75 1.20 1.88 2.90 Total 1.61 2.34 1.98 3.11 Source: from Eubank-Ahrens, 1987 Table 3.2 Users: number and percentage of total observed population (by age group) Haspelmath Street Ahrberg Street Before (%) After (%) Before (%) After (%) Children 71 (39) 79 (46) 125 (49) 249 (64) Teenagers 21(11) 44 (26) 16(6) 8(2) Adults 62 (34) 38. (22) 91 (36) 88(23) Elderly 28(16) 10 (6) 24 (9) 42(11) Total 182(100) 171(100) 1.98 387(100) Source: from Eubank-Ahrens, 1987 26 Figure 3.1 Activities observed before and after n Haspelmath Street t»for» •Htr H3& JB 9 EH 1 2 3 ,- 4 5 6 7 8 9 lr ' . " activities i Children's play - 2 CommymcaUon {teenagers, adults, and elderly) 3. Vehicle maintenance 4. Observing people and events' "- . 5. Maintaining public open space 1 ' 6. Acnve recreation 7. | fnacinre relaxation 8.' ,8in!ding-related acftvny (looJang at sio:e windows; 9 Anitsoctcd and other behevisr no mo 2D0 Ahrberg Street «|sfai»i-iBa n ^ . —o -.0-3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ZCtiVtliM Source: from Eubank-Ahrens, 1987 27 3.2 The Arbutus Neighbourhood In 1989, the City of Vancouver started a process to rezone industrial lands for housing and the Arbutus Neighbourhood Policy Plan was adopted in 1992 after a public planning process (Planning Department, City of Vancouver, 1992). The policy plan includes land use, building massing, height and form, public amenity, and contributions by the developer, images and character, and vehicle and pedestrian movement. Guided by the plan, the urban design of the project has been well executed and this was given rise to a very livable human-scale feel to the neighbourhood in spite of the high density of 27luph. The surrounding urban area is very mixed. The Arbutus Neighbourhood is a part of a larger industrial area to the east. To the south and west are moderate density, one-and two-family housing neighbourhoods. The adjacent land uses include a school, mixed office-retail-residential, a park, and duplex housing. As part of the development, the City closed west 11th Avenue and turned into a public greenway. This was a part of a larger program to develop a system of greenways in the city. There is also a major public park next to the Arbutus lands. With European style architecture, four storey buildings with the top floor setback from the street created low-rise character of neighbourhood. Also rather than mono-typed entrance, the streetscape is punctured with many individual doorways to the unit through gateway and gardens, integrating the building with the street. The circulation system was created to support both motorized and non-motorized transportation modes. To reduce traffic speed and volume within the neighbourhood, a traffic-calming program was introduced and it seems to alleviate traffic-related concerns 28 of some area residents. Even though the site was contaminated from previous industrial activity, it was not an obstacle. The major obstacle of the development was a great deal of public opposition to the project in the early stages of planning, particularly, because of the density and height of the building. The project has been well integrated into the surrounding neighbourhood by applying design guidelines that ensure appropriated scale, building setbacks and public open space standards. A greenway was created and combined with the closing of two streets and it keeps traffic to the main street wile creating pedestrian-friendly environments within and through the site. Figure 3.2 Aerial photo showing the Arbutus neighbourhood Source: from www.cmhc.ca 29 4 DESIGN PRINCIPLES The built environment of the community such as land 'use pattern, mixed use zoning, block length, transportation and street networks, use of raised intersections, tree canopies, presence of people on streets, visual detail of buildings, attractive parks, definition of an "outdoor room" and others should be designed in combination to encourage the elderly to walk by following principles. In order to help create walkable and livable communities for the elderly, the following 13 key principles of community design were derived from the community design guidelines by N C B W (1998) and Government Commission (1999) and the studies by Pikora (2003), Mooney and Luymes (1998), and Frank (2003). Principle 1. Walkable neighbourhood size and mixed uses The optimal size of walkable neighbourhoods is 400 m to 500 m from centre to outer edge, or about a five to ten-minute walk at an easy pace. By staying within the size, mixed use zoning not only encourages people to walk to many desired destinations such as the post office, the pharmacy, and parks but also reduce traffic within the neighbourhood. • Limit the size of neighbourhood to a walkable distance of 400 m to 500 m (Local Government Commission, 1999) • Encourage a rich mix of land uses such as shops, restaurants, offices, public buildings, residences, public spaces, and even some light industries (Frank, 2003) 30 Principle 2. Public spaces, plazas, and activity centre Vacant lots and barren parking lots in the neighbourhood create "voids" that are unpleasant to pedestrians. Vacant lots and barren parking lot can provide opportunities to improve streets by transforming them into outdoor dining, pocket parks, gardens, pedestrian shortcut, outdoor market places, and staging area for exhibits. • Redevelop vcant lots and parking lots as public spaces, plazas, and activity centres (NCBW, 1998) Principle 3. Interconnected and diverse street network Walkable communities require a variety of different street types, generally set in a rectilinear or grid pattern. Connectivity is high when streets are laid in a grid pattern, route distance is shortened and the choices of taking different routes to the same destination are increased. A balanced mixed of different street types makes neighbourhoods accessible to residents, reduces auto-vehicle speed, moves traffic efficiently, and provides safe, quiet, and pleasant pedestrian environments. • Increase connectivity within the community by providing interconnected street networks (Frank, 2003) Provide a balanced mix of diverse street types (Frank, 2003) 31 Principle 4. Shorter block length Block lengths of 180 m allow drivers to gather speed between intersections and make it difficult for pedestrian to cross the street. By making blocks shorter, traffic speed can be reduced and crossing opportunity can be increased (Local Government Commission, 1999) Make block length shorter with average of 80 m to 120m and maximum of 150 m (Local Government Commission, 1999) Principle 5. Defining "outdoor room" and front porches By adding trees canopies, on-street parking, and placing buildings closer to the street, a sense of more "enclosed" street or "outdoor room" is created and pedestrian comfort is improved. Placing buildings closer to the street helps people walking along the street to feel that they can reach out and talk to someone sitting in front of the building. • Give a street a ratio of 2:1 to 3:1 of width (from building to building) to building height to create comfortable sense of enclosure (NCBW, 1998; Local Government Commission, 1999) • Place Buildings closer to street. Building setbacks should be 12.5 feet for best effect (Local Government Commission, 1999) Principle 6. Speed control through traffic calming measures Traffic calming measures such as narrow lane width, smaller centerline radii of curves, curb extension, and smaller intersection turning radii. When paved width of lane 32 is kept narrow, traffic speed is slowed and when turning radii on curves, at intersections, and at driveways are kept low, drivers turn more slowly and are more likely to yield to pedestrians. • Keeping travel lane width down to 3m per lane on local roadway to achieve speed of 30 kmph levels on streets (Local Government Commission, 1999) • Use narrow-width, smaller-radius intersections to reduce traffic speed (NCBW, 1998) Uses curb extension or "bulb out" to slow traffic(NCBW, 1998) Use a combination of traffic calming measures (Local Government Commission, 1999). Principle 7. On-street parking On-street parking can be used for traffic calming as well as for physical buffer which separates pedestrians from traffic. • Provide on-street parking by preserving sight line at intersection (Pikora, 2003) 33 Principle 8. Landscaping and trees Landscaped areas and street trees create a buffer zone of friendly, walkable environments by separating pedestrians from vehicle traffic and reducing auto speed. Also, the shade that trees provides cooler air temperature during the hot day of summer. • Create "green edge" of 2 m or more on each side of the street • Place street trees at a spacing of 7 m to 10m to improve shade and reduce speed Principle 9. Sidewalks Sidewalks are essential for seniors, children, and disabled to walk safely. Wide sidewalks provide pedestrians comfort while they are walking. Also, sidewalks should be wide enough for two people to walk side by side comfortably and be separated from vehicle traffic through use of landscape edges. • Provide sidewalks which are wider than 2 m with landscaped edges (Pikora, 2003). Principle 10. Street furniture Street furniture such as benches, waste containers, flowers and shrub planters, bollards, and kiosks provide support and encourage people to walk longer distances. Specifically, benches help seniors and the disabled, who need places to rest every 5 to 10 34 minutes when they walk for exercise, or ride transit. Also, street furniture is needed in pocket parks or gathering places to encourage people to sit and socialize with neighbours. • Provide benches and other informal sittings every 40 - 50 m intervals (Mooney and Luymes, 1998) Place street furniture in the gathering points such as pocket parks, bulletin boards, mailboxes, and transit stops (Local Government Commission, 1999; NCBW, 1998) Principle 11. Street lighting People should feel comfortable and secure while they are walking. Street lighting helps pedestrian feel safer at night. • Place low angle, pedestrian scale lamps that emit full-spectrum light which allow more realistic colours (Local Government Commission, 1999; Mooney and Luymes, 1998) Principle 12. Street crossing Crossings should be well defined and well provided on all types of streets. Seniors are easily exposed to traffic accidents while they are crossing. Well defined and well located crossings create more friendly pedestrian environments. 35 Marked crossings, crosswalks, and raised intersections should be used in a combination with traffic signals and signs (Oxley and Fildes, 1999) Principle 13. Transit stops Bus stops should provide shade and benches. Without shade and place to rest, seniors and other riders feel uncomfortable waiting for buses. Provide shade and benches in transit stops (Frank, 2003) 36 5 CASE STUDY: INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS 5.1 Overview Cadboro Bay community in the Regional District of Saanich, B C has recently proposed the creation of a commercial development, a village centre, as an identifiable centre based on factors of location, history, character and social considerations and comprising residential, commercial, institutional, and recreational components which cater to the neighbourhood. The goal is to create an accessible, safe, and pedestrian friendly the Village Centre that provides day to day services for the community and is sensitive to the adjacent residential neighborhood. For the case study of creating walkable community for the elderly, Cadboro Bay community and its village centre were selected. The study of site inventory and analysis started with conducting a site observation of existing physical conditions of Cadboro Bay community and researching documents issued by local municipalities. The information obtained from the study was classified into four main categories: regional context, social profile and services, land use character and transportation, and site conditions. 37 5.1.1 Regional Context Boundaries Cadboro Bay is located in the Capital Regional District and Saannich and is bounded by Gordon Head to the west, Haro Strait to the north and east, Cadboro Bay and the Municipality of Oak Bay to the south. In order to facilitate discussion, the area is generally divided into three neighbourhoods the Village, Queenswood, and Ten Mile Point, as well as the Village Centre (Figure 5.1). Figure 5.1 Regional Context of Cadboro Bay LEGEND NEIGHBOURHOOD BOUNDARY LOCAL A R E A P L A N BOUNDARY Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 38 Topography The topography of Cadboro Bay resembles the shape of bawl. The village area where the Village Centre is located is relatively flat as in the bottom of a bowl except for a long slope that rises up to the west towards Gordon Head. The Queenswood area is relatively level except for the slopes along the Queenswood shoreline, and Ten Mile Point has the steepest slopes of Minnie Mountain (Figure 5.2). Especially, the village Centre area is mainly gentle or moderate (less than 5%). For the mobility concerns, this is not a problem or constraint for the wheelchair access and pedestrian movement of the elderly. However, the long slope of Sinclair Road that rises up from the Village Centre to the west towards Gordon Head might be a constraint which limits accesses by wheelchair, walking and bicycling. Figure 5.2 Topography (Contours-10ft intervals) I Village Centre Area Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 39 4.1.2 Social Profile and Services The age population According to the Cadboro Bay Local Area Plan (2002) and Statistics Canada 1996, the population of Cadboro Bay has increased by 7.0% from 3,625 to 3,900 persons. Particularly the population aged sixty-five and older of Cadboro Bay has increased during the period of 1986 to 1996 while other age groups have declined (0-19 age group) or remained the same(20-64 age group) (Figure 5.3). It is expected that the population of Cadboro Bay will reach 4,740 persons. About 40% of this total population will be elderly in the period between 2020 and 2030. r Cadboro Bay has a relatively lower percentage of youth and middle age adults but a high percentage of seniors in an age comparison between Cadboro Bay, Saanich, and the Capital Regional District (CRD) (Figure 5.4). Figure 5.3 Cadboro Bay age comparison, 1986 and 1996 . jo - , 0 - 4 5 - 9 10-14 15-19 20 - 24 25 - 34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ • Cadboro Bay 1996 • Cadboro Bay 1986 Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 40 Figure 5.4 Cadboro Bay age comparison, 1986 and 1996 % 20-r ' — Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 From the survey of labour force participation rate in order to verify the information about the demographic characteristic of Cadboro Bay, it is shown that Cadboro Bay residents contribute less to labour force than in Saanich as a whole (Table 5.1). This may reflect the higher portion of seniors in Cadboro Bay, and thus a higher rate of retirees, than in Saanich as a whole. Table 5.1 Labour force characteristics 1996 (the percentage of total number of residents) Labour Force Cadborobay Local Area Sannich Participations 54.5 (%) 65.5 ( %) Male 60.2 (%) 70.4 ( %) Female 49.1 (%) 60.0 ( %) Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 41 Therefore, it is necessary that the community consider the increasing needs of its elderly population in any particular project such as the commercial development of the Village Centre. In other words, the built environment of the Village Centre and community should be created to accommodate the needs of the elderly and their pedestrian activities. 42 Social and cultural services Social and cultural services are important components of community. Programs and community facilities for youth, parents/families, and seniors exist locally. Existing local facilities are Goward House, Frank Hobbs Elementary School and two community churches. The majority of programs and facilities are located nearby at the Gorden Head Community Recreation Centre. The University of Victoria also has programs and facilities that are available to the residents of Cadboro Bay. Particularly for the seniors, many recreation activities and leisure programs are offered by Goward House operated by Goward House Society. In addition, two local churches make active contribution to developing and operating programs and facilities for the seniors. These two churches are operating seniors' housing developments, the complex at St. George's Anglican Church and the Sister's of Saint Ann residence. There are no full service nursing homes or residential care facilities and there is a limited supply of multy-dwelling housing or independent-living housing for seniors in this area (Figure 5.5). 43 Figure 5.5 Places for social and cultural services a. St. George Anglican Church b. community garden for seniors c. Pacific Dance Centre d. Chrismas fair at St. George Anglican Church 44 5.1.3 Land Use Character and Transportation Land use character In existing zoning, Cadboro Bay area is zoned predominantly for single family housings and there are a limited number of two and multi-family housings. The denser units are located near the Village Center where commercial uses are concentrated. There is a concentration of institutional uses that have large land holdings at the western end of the area: University of Victoria, Sister of St. Ann, and Queen Alexandra Foundation for Children, Hobbs Elementary School, Two local churches, and a private Kindergarden school (Figure 5.6). Open spaces and parks create opportunities for outdoor recreational activities and preserve natural environment and habitat. Linear open apace often allow for pedestrian, bicycle, and wildlife corridors. The semi-rural character of Cadboro Bay is created by the parks, forest, open space, and the ocean. The community and neighbourhood parks in Cadboro Bay not only provide various opportunities to both residents and visitors but also contribute to creating a local greenway system with municipal and regional connections as origins or destinations. The surrounding open spaces of the Village Centre are Haro Woods, Hobbs Elementary School, Maynard Park, Cadboro-Gyro Park, and Mystic Vale Forest (Figure 5.7). 45 Figure 5.6 Existing land use character 4-Figure 5.7 Openspaces and parks in Cadboro Bay H A R D W O O D S G O W A R D P R O P E R T Y C R A N F O R D P L A C E F R A N K H O B B S E L E M E N T A R Y S C H O O L C A D B O R O G Y R O M A Y N A R D P R O P O S E D F U T U R E P A R K N E I G H B O U R H O O D P A R K fc%S3gSg C O M M U N I T Y P A R K P U B L I C WILD W O O D L A N D N A T U R A L S T A T E O P E N S P A C E P R E S E R V E D BY MUNICIPAL C O V E N A N T Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 47 Transportation and street networks Residential streets influence the character of a neighbourhood, and provide for pedestrian, bicycle, and vehicle mobility. Problems occur not only when these streets can not accommodate increased traffic over their capacity with origins and destinations both within and outside neighbourhood but also when there is lack of connectivity in a community. The existing street network of Cadboro Bay with "cul-de-sacs", road blockages, and large residential blocks causes lack of connectivity between origins to popular destinations within the community (Figure 5.8). There is limited through traffic in the community because of the area's location it being surrounded on three sides by ocean. The majority of traffic is local which vehicle trips either have an origin or destination within the community. However, significant commuter traffic that travels north and south through the community occurs during the weekdays and the traffic to Gyro Park is originated both within and outside the community. "Short-cutting traffic", which occurs for vehicles to avoid traffic signals and delays on major and collector streets causes problems, is not considered as a major problem in Cadboro Bay. The possible concerns are traffic volume and speed on major and collector streets such as Sinclair Road, Cadboro Bay Road, Hobbs Street, and Arbutus Road which are adjacent to the Village Centre and used for commercial trucks, tour buses, and mass transits. In transit services, BC transit provides service from Cadboro Bay to downtown Victoria using the route along Cadboro Bay Road and Arbutus Road. Most of the 48 residents are live within 400 m walking distance to transit service and there are 3 stops in the Village Centre. However, there is lack of supporting facilities such as bus bulges, shelters, benches, and lights (Figure 5.10, Figure 5.12). There are no existing pedestrian networks which provide automobile-free, safer, and walkable environment to encourage people to walk in Cadboro Bay. It is found that only a proposed plan exists for local greenways as pedestrian and wildlife corridors and boulevard streets and green streets as pedestrian and bicycle corridors (Figure 5.9). However, the area's natural settings and open spaces create great potential for the future development of greenways and pedestrian networks. 49 Figure 5.8 Existing street network shows lack of connection within the community » • Major Roads Collector Streets Residential Streets Area with Poor Connectivity o Figure 5.9 Pedestrian networks proposed by local municipal • M H ^ POTENTIAL LOCAL GREENWAY POTENTIAL BOULEVARD STREET - - POTENTIAL GREEN STREETS Source: from Cadboro Bay Local Community Plan, 2002 Figure 5.10 Existing modes of transportation in the community 5.1.4 Historical Resource Throughout the early 1900's, Cadboro Bay remained as a farming community. In 1907, the Cadboro Bay beach Hotel was constructed to take advantage of the beach. As a consequence of city water being extended into the areaa in the 1920's, there was an increase in year round residents moving into the area. Over the years, most residential development in Cadboro Bay has occurred by way of small division. Multy-family housng developments adjacent the Village Centre occurred throughout the 1980's. The Village Centre has been redeveloped and expanded over the years. Heritage buildings/structure According to Cadboro Bay Local Area Plan 2002, 265 sites are identified significant and protected by Saanich Heritage Plan 1999. However, it is found that many of them are difficult to locate and no program is established to increase public awareness(Figure 5.11). Significant trees Significant native and exotic trees are listed and protected to stimulate public interest in trees and educate the public about the importance of tree for their heritage or landmark value, or as wildlife habitat. Most of the identified heritage buildings and significant trees are concentrated near the Village Centre and these resources have great potential as visual indicators of way finding and stimulaters of walking (Figure 5.11). 53 Figure 5.11 Heritage structures and significant trees 5.1.5 The Village Centre This author found that there are no sidewalks and poor pedestrian crosswalks, no traffic signals, or signs and signage along Cadboro Bay Road which is the major street between two commercial areas in the Village Centre. Because of this, a great number of jaywalkers are seen and pedestrians are exposed to the great danger of traffic accident (Figure 5.12 and Figure 5.13) There are regular street lights along the major streets but in many places of the Village, lighting is poor and inadequate. Particularly, pedestrian crossings are not well lit, making them less safe. As a result, nighttime safety is significantly decreased. Also, suburban-like land use patterns and street networks reduce connectivity from all pedestrian origins to the Village Centre (commercial area) and force people to drive from their home to the Village Centre. This dependence on driving has brought the result of massive areas allocated to parking (Figure 5.14). It is found that there is only one senior activity centre and two senior's housing developments adjacent to the Village Centre. However, there are pedestrian barriers between these two facilities and the Village Centre such as poor sidewalk conditions, no street furniture, no pedestrian crossing, etc. 55 Figure 5.12 Intersection of Cadboro Bay Rd. and Sinclair Rd. Photo showing existing conditions of the intersection of Cadboro Bay Rd. and Sinclair Rd. in the Village Centre (No sidewalks and poor pedestrian crosswalks, no traffic signals, or signs and signage) Figure 5.13 Bus stops in the Village Centre Photos showing the existing conditions of the bus stops in the Village Centre (Lack of supporting facilities such as bus bulges, shelters, benches, and lights) 56 Figure 5.14 Parking Lot in the Village Centre Photo showing the existing condition of parking lot in the Village Centre 5.1.6 Measuring Pedestrian LOS The redefined pedestrian LOS model was applied to measure pedestrian facilities and environment of Cadboro Bay comparing them of the Arbutus Lands. This application was intended to understand not only existing conditions of both neighbourhoods but also the exact enhancement which is needed to improve the pedestrian environment for Cadboro Bay (Figure 5.15). According to the result of the assessment of pedestrian LOS, Cadboro Bay is determined as a neighbourhood with a basic pedestrian environment (Pedestrian LOS grade C), scoring 93 in total (Table 5.2), while the Arbutus Lands was considered as a neighbourhood with a pleasant pedestrian environment (Pedestrian LOS grade B), scoring 166 in total (Table 5.3). In comparison with the Arbutus Lands, the results for Cadboro Bay indicate a lack of design factors which provide a safe environment for pedestrians and attract more pedestrian activity. Design or physical factors such as path width, surface quality, crossing opportunity, and pedestrian support facilities which are critical for the physical activity of the elderly are poorly marked as 1 point because of narrow sidewalk, a lack of street furniture, and absence of traffic signals, crosswalk and curb. Especially, the potential for vehicle conflict, one of the location factors, was given 0 point indicates that the pedestrians of Cadboro Bay are exposed to traffic accidents. However, its score on visual factors such as complexity of spaces and overhang and varied roofline are relatively good. / 58 Unlike Cadboro Bay, most of the factors of the Arbutus Lands are considered to have better pedestrian environment and were given 3 point (except for path width and crossing opportunity). Therefore, it is found that Cadboro Bay neighbourhood needs enhancement on design factors (path width, surface quality, crossing opportunity, and pedestrian support facilities) and location factors (path environment with buffer and potential vehicle conflict) of pedestrian LOS. In summary, by improving design factors and location factors, Cadboro Bay could have a better pedestrian environment for the physical activity of the elderly. 59 Figure 5.15 Measuring pedestrian LOS along the streets of Cadboro Bay and the Arbutus land Table 5.2 Result of the assessment of pedestrian LOS (Cadboro Bay) Category Factor Weight 0 point 1 Point 2 Points 3 points 4 Points Total Design factor Path width 4 4 Surface quality 5 5 Wheelchair accessibility 4 8 Crossing opportunity 5 5 Pedestrian support facilities 3 3 Shade tree 2 V 4 Location factor Complexity of path network 4 V 8 Path environment with buffer 2 2 Potential for vehicle conflict 3 V 0 Visual factor Enclosure/Definition 3 3 Building articulation 2 4 Complexity of spaces 3 V 9 Transparency 3 V 6 Overhang/ varied roofline 2 6 User factor Pedestrian volume/flow 3 6 Mix of users 4 V 8 Personal security 3 12 Total 93 Table 5.3 Result of the assessment of pedestrian LOS (The Arbutus Lands) Category Factor Weight 0 point 1 Point 2 Points 3 points 4 Points Total Design factor Path width 4 8 Surface quality 5 V 15 Wheelchair accessibility 4 12 Crossing opportunity 5 V 10 Pedestrian support facilities 3 15 Shade tree 2 8 Location factor Complexity of path network 4 -12 Path environment with buffer 2 8 Potential for vehicle conflict 3 9 Visual factor Enclosure/Definition 3 • V 9 Building articulation 2 — V 6 Complexity of spaces 3 9 Transparency 3 9 Overhang/ varied roofline ' 2 6 User factor Pedestrian volume/flow 3 9 Mix of users 4 12 Personal security 3 9 Total 166 ON to 5.3 Summary of Inventory and Site Analysis Cadboro Bay's demography shows a large portion of the population is elderly. Because of this, the action of looking at the broader scope of opportunities and threats for the elderly to walk should be considered for creating a walkable community. Especially, their limits of mobility and special demands should be addressed in designing built environments. Otherwise, a decrease in pedestrian activities in this community will occur. The inventory and analysis of the site resulted in the recognition of a number of opportunities and constraints which could influence and become determining factors of walkable community design for the elderly. Noticed constraints are the following: • Homogeneous residential developments with single family housing and a lack of multi-family housing reduce proximity between origins to destinations within the community. Also, it provides few options of housing for the elderly who want to downsize. • Large block lengths of average 180 m to maximum 220 m reduce crossing opportunities and increase walking distances. • The lack of interconnected street network, road blockages, cul-de-sacs and road barriers limit route choices and impede connectivity between destinations. Barren parking lots, a lack of landscape strips and street trees, and long building setbacks from the street create an unpleasant pedestrian environment for the elderly to walk. 63 • There is no designated sidewalk, crosswalk, planting buffer, and traffic signals on Cadboro Bay Rd. all of which are essential for seniors and the disabled to walk. • A lack of street furniture and places to rest discourage the elderly to walk and socialize. A lack of street lighting and inadequate lighting along the streets in the Village Centre area creates insecure pedestrian environment at night. However, opportunities are seen in the character of the site itself. For example, the village Centre is surrounded by popular community destinations of open spaces, institutional lands, and senior's housing developments. Also these destinations could be connected by potential development of greenways, boulevard streets, and green streets removing existing pedestrian barriers. In addition, the rich heritage and significant trees in the study area allows for an overlay of points where interpretation could be located. This could help both residents and visitors to better understand and make a strong connection to the neighbourhood. Moreover, the Village Centre would become the hub of the community. 64 6 RECOMMENDED PROGRAM AND INTERVENTIONS 6.1 Land Use and Street Network 6.1.1 Land Use Program The existing land use pattern of Cadboro Bay in which single family housing units are predominant and a limited number of two and multi-family housing units are located near the Village Center where commercial uses are concentrated should be reconsidered to increase proximity between pedestrian origins and destinations within the community. In order to increase proximity, strategies of compact land use and mixed uses with commercial and residential development would be used to increase density. By developing a variety of multi-family housing types-low density with duplex and court house, medium density with two story row houses, and high density with three story apartments-around Village Centre, overall density of the Village Centre would be increased from 10.9 uph to 42.8 uph, and leftover spaces from the multi-family housing development become places for commercial expansion and small park developments connected and working with existing open space (Figure 6.1). Increased proximity by density and a rich mix of uses encourage more people to walk and reduce vehicle trip for household within the community (Frank, 2000; Saelen et al, 2003). In addition, this type of development help people have a wide range of alternative housing options which is important to them as they age, their housing needs change, and they wish to downsize their type of accommodation. This enables them to remain in the area they know and where they have developed social ties. 65 Figure 6.1 Proposed land use program for the community 6.1.2 Street Network The existing street network of Cadboro Bay has low connectivity by larger block size, lack of intersections, road blockage, and few route choices. Thus, increasing connectivity within the community would be suggested based on two practical aspects. One is shortening blocks and reconnecting streets and the other is establishing street hierarchy. ^ In traditional street networks of older cities, blocks are shorter than 400ft and even as short as 200ft. Shorter blocks encourage more pedestrian movement, better opportunities for pedestrian to cross streets, and more routes to choose (Local Government Commission, 1999). Especially, reduced walking distance between origins and destinations by shorter blocks is one of critical determining factors for the elderly to choose walking as a mode of transportation. Shortening blocks are achieved by cutting new streets through existing lots, opening road blockages, and redeveloping undeveloped public right-of-way, and unnecessary large parking lots. Street hierarchy could be established by not only considering volume and speed of traffic but also use of space. Especially, designated pedestrian-only streets provide better safety to elderly pedestrians by separating them traffic flow and shorten their walking trip to major destinations such as Gyro Park, senior community centre, future senior housing and nursing facilities. Another advantage of these pedestrian-only streets is that these streets can be used as a public green space by street trees and landscape planting (Figure 6.2). 67 oc 6.1.3 Special Walkways Providing secure, attractive, active, and accessible walkways encourage more people to walk, gather and interact one another.(Mooney and Luymes, 1998). For pedestrians in Cadboro Bay, two special walkways could be designed: Greenway and Heritage Trail (Figure 6.3, Figure 6.4). Greenway is the designated pedestrian walkway by connecting existing natural spaces with pedestrian-only street. This walkway gives opportunity to people to restore themselves through contact with the element of nature without fear of traffic accidents. As Greenway, Heritage trail is also a special walkway to provide walking experience which recalls the history and memory of Cadboro Bay. The Heritage walkway involves linking locations of significant heritage structures and trees together and is integrated into the proposed street network. Greenway and Heritage Trail are intended to be universally accessible, by any age group of people with different physical and cognitive ability. However, the routes are especially geared for people with mobility constraints to follow the gentlest grades and pass through those intersections that provide the easiest crossing for wheelchairs and other mobility-supporting devices. These special walkways also have wide sidewalk with smooth surfacing, street furnishings, and the mid-block and intersection rest stops 69 Figure 6.3 Proposed Greenway designated for pedestrian experience with nature contact Figure 6.4 Proposed Heritage Trail connecting locations of significant heritage structures and trees 6.2 Proposed Plan for Village Centre Area 6.2.1 Overview About 16-city-block-sized area around Village Centre is projected as a place for the future community growth from 2006 to 2030. This area is expended from current and proposed development for commercial use and multi-family housing along Cadboro Bay Rd by 2002 Official Community Plan. The plan for Village Centre and its surrounding area is proposed with the intent to meet the future needs of elderly population for physical activity and social interaction (Figure 6.5). The Village Centre and its surrounding area are particularly selected for the mobility concerns mainly based on slope. These areas are gentle or moderate (less than 5%) and do not cause a problem or constraint for the wheelchair access and pedestrian movement of the elderly. Based on compactness of density, various housing options and mixed use development within the area could accommodate roughly about 1,100 new residents. This type of development with multi-family housings and residences above street-level shops will provide more convenience for residents to walk to visit a neighbour, to walk to shops, or to get to work. In the arrangement of housing types, the higher density apartments are placed near natural open space such as Gyro Park and ocean, and the density of housing type is increased as height of building becomes higher from the hill to the waterfront. By this kind of arrangement, more people can easily access to the open. In addition, multi-family housing, including supportive housing and independent-living housing for seniors would be better located near Village Centre because of its proximity to transit services, commercial services, and Gorward House senior's activity centre (Figure 6.5-6.7) 72 Based on a grid pattern, residential blocks are shortened by new street connections and street network is laid to increase connectivity between origins to popular destinations such as Village Centre, Gyro Park, and the beach (Figure 6.8). In the street network, three residential streets are laid in northwest to southeast orientation, keeping visual corridors toward the ocean. Pedestrian-only streets are created between Village Centre and residential development and where streets meet open spaces. Within lager residential blocks, are pedestrian pathways which provide better connectivity and accessibility. Three blocks of Cadboro Bay Road, which is running through the Village Centre area, is redesigned as a main street of the community. This section of Cadboro Bay Road would be enclosed by street trees, mixed use development, and buildings. In addition, a Bosque tree planting at both ends of the street define Cadboro Bay Road as a main street and also create sense of entering and leaving to both residents of Cadboro Bay and visitors from outside. The New Cadboro Bay Road as a main street will be interesting and inviting place to walk, focused for civic life, and recognized by the community as a heart of the community. Restored riparian forest along the creek, which starts from Mystic Vale Forest and . empties into the ocean at Cadboro Bay, reinforces the greenway connection defining southwest edge of the Village Centre area. Also, the southeast edge of the Village Centre area is defined by an restored natural forest between Village Centre area and Gyro Park. 73 4-Figure 6.6 Section-Elevation A - A ' cutting through the Village Centre area Figure 6.7 Proposed land use program for the Village Centre area Park Jj|§ Mldlum Density (2story Building) | Streets | | High Density (3story Bulking) Commercial and Mixed Use Low Density {Duplex and Court House 76 Figure 6.8 Proposed new street network for the Village Centre area ^ x - K • / V»Nchki Auto-restricted Pathway (Pvdcttrclart and Bkrycte P*d*strian Connection within Block i 6.2.2 Streetscape In the plan, six types of streetscapes, which differ in the width of sidewalk and median, the number of traffic lanes, the presence of on-street parking, and the purpose of use, are proposed for connectivity, pedestrian safety and security, and walking experience. Residential streets These are connectors which form the heart of quiet and safe neighbourhood streets. These streets function primarily to provide access to community destinations and make numerous connections within the community. All of these streets provide access, utility, and walking infrastructure. Traffic speeds of 25 - 30 kmph are appropriate to such functions. Four types of residential streets (Figure 6.9-6.12) are proposed and their features are outlined below: Figure 6.9 Residential street type A 0 1 2 5m • Two travel lanes (3 m) with striped on-street parking on each side • Sidewalks (2 m) on each side • Median with shade trees (2 m) on each side • Average speed of 30 kmph • Drainage - Curb and gutter 78 Figure 6.10 Residential street type B • Two travel lanes (3 m) with striped on-street parking on each side • Sidewalks (1.5 m) each side • Median with shade trees (1.5 m) each side • Average speed of 30 kmph • Drainage - Curb and gutter Figure 6.11 Residential street type C • Two travel lanes (3 m) without on-street parking • Sidewalks (2 m) on each side • Median with shade trees (2 m) on each side • Average speed of 25 kmph • Drainage - Curb and gutter 79 Figure 6.12 Residential street type D • Two travel lanes (3 m) and informal parking • Sidewalks (2 m) on one side • Median with shade trees (2 m) on one side and park or natural landscape on the other side • Average speed of 25 kmph • Drainage - Curb and gutter Main street The main street provides access to the neighbourhood as well as places for neighbourhood commercial and mixed use buildings (Figure 6.13). In addition to providing access, the main street is designed to anchor neighbourhood commerce, serve pedestrians and bicyclists, and improve transit operations. Since many people live, work, shop, and play within the street environments, on-street parking and average speed of 30-40 kmph is desirable. Due to the low speed environment, bike lanes are not designed. To help pedestrians across the street and calm traffic, intersections are raised and marked, and also "bulbouts" - wider sidewalks that extended into the roadway-are provided. The features of the main street are below: Figure 6.13 Main street • Two travel lanes (3 m) with or without striped on-street parking on each side • Sidewalks (3 m) on each side • Median with shade trees (2 m) on each side • Average speed of 30-40 kmph • Utility location - Underground • Drainage - Curb and gutter • Includes raised intersections, bul and bus bulge. Pedestrian-only streets Pedestrian-only streets are non-motorized or auto-restricted connectors in the neighbouhood (Figure 6.14). These non-motorized streets serve not only as an independent alternative transportation system for pedestrians and bicyclists but also as green spaces with trees and landscape planting. The features of the proposed pedestrian only streets are below: Figure 6.14 Pedestrian-only Street Auto-restricted and used by pedestrians and bicyclists Street width of 6 m Median with shade trees (2 m) in the middle 82 6.2.3 Village Centre The Village Centre should be where most daily activities occur and it should be accessible, safe, and pedestrian friendly. Especially, with the several blocks of the main street, it should create a sense of place within the community, be places for civic life, have historical value as the oldest part of the community, and be the central commercial and business district. The main street in Village Centre should have short blocks, be interconnected with residential streets, provide extended and beautified sidewalks which are enough for outdoor sittings and street furnishings, be pedestrian friendly, and serve as gathering place (Figure 6.15). For this, following design interventions are used. Figure 6.15 Proposed plan for Village Centre and the main street 83 Curb extension Cub extension (also known as "bulbouts") is used to shorten pedestrian crossing distance for the elderly, to improve their visibility to motorists, and widen the sidewalk where space is needed for ramps, signal poles, street furniture, and waiting area. Using curb extension, reduced crossing distance at signalized intersections improves signal timing which is critical for slow-walking elderly pedestrians. In addition to improving signal timing, it increases the visibility of pedestrians to motorists and protects pedestrians from traffic accident (Figure 6.16). Figure 6.16 Cub extension with wheelchair ramps 84 Raised crosswalk and intersection Since older pedestrians are highly exposed to traffic accidents while they are crossing streets and intersections (Rivara et al., 1989; Harruff et al., 1998), it is important to create raised crosswalks and intersections where most pedestrian activities occur. Raised and marked crosswalk and intersections with pedestrian-activated traffic signals provide more safety and accessibility to the elderly and the disabled (Figure 6.17). Figure 6.17 Raised crosswalk and intersection with pedestrian-activated traffic signals Sidewalks The width of sidewalks along the main street is 3 m. This width allows pairs of pedestrians to walk side by side, or to pass each other comfortably. It will also provide enough width for window shopping, some street furniture, and places for people to stop This width of sidewalks also extended more for bus shelters, sidewalk cafes, and other outdoor retail (Figure 6.15) Street furniture As we get older, while we talk, or when we simply reflect on the day, we need places to rest. Therefore, various types of sitting places and furniture such as benches, low walls, and planter edges are created and located along the main street and in Village Centre. Especially, universal street benches are placed every 40 - 50 m intervals (Figure 6.15). Transit area By introducing a cub extension in the bus stop, passengers can easily board and dismount the bus directly without stepping onto the street. This also makes it easier to meet disability requirements (the bus pulls up right next to the curb), provides more waiting area for passengers, and is quicker and more convenient for the bus. Also, a bus shelter and benches are provided for people to wait for the bus. Elderly people who want use mass transit can have benefits from designated transit service area on the main street in the Village Centre (Figure 6.15 and Figure 6.18). Figure 6.18 Bus shelter and transit area Bosque Trees 86 Trees and landscaping Trees do much more than add an attractive canopy over the street. They create comfortable spaces providing shade in the summer, blocking wind in the winter, and absorbing pollutants. A row of trees doesn't impede drivers, it does have pronounced psychological effect by making the road appear narrow and by inviting the driver to linger (Local Government Commission, 1999; NCBW, 1998). Therefore, rows of trees are created by spacing trees within 5 - 7 m to improve shade and better reduce speeds. Also, quality landscape on median or extended sidewalks is designed to increase people's awareness of the immediate environment and alter behaviors (Figure 6.15). On-street parking The degree of traffic calming sometimes depends on how well the parking utilized and managed. On-street parking with curb extension is used on the main street in Village centre to buffer the sidewalk from traffic and increase visibility of pedestrians crossing the street. Also, on-street parking on the main street will tend to slow traffic speed because cars are frequently maneuvering in and out of space (Figure 6.10). Figure 6.19 On-street parking 87 Buildings It is agreed that the best building height to street ratio is around 1:2 to 1:3 and this ratio provides a pleasant sense of enclosure to the street (Local Government Commission, 1999; NCBW, 1998). The buildings of Village Centre, forming unbroken wall of buildings which defines a sense of place, are two or three stories tall keeping the ratio of 1:2 with the main street. In addition, a row of trees is located to help enclose the street when the building front is not located close to property line (Figure 6.15). The continuous row of buildings with windows and entrances along the main street creates an interesting and secure walking environment. Windows on building fronts and side enhance security with "eyes on the street" and encourage window shopping. Also, people will often walk longer distance if their route takes them along visually interesting buildings. Outdoor market places and public spaces The large parking lot which was located between the main street and buildings converted to the public space with Bosque trees and informal sittings (Figure 6.20). Outdoor market place for Saturday or farmer's market (Figure 6.21) and outdoor market area that is extended from the grocery building (Figure 6.22) also bring vitality in to the Village Centre. 88 Figure 6.20 Public spaces with Bosque trees and informal sittings Figure 6.21 Outdoor market place for farmer's market Figure 6.22 Extended outdoor market area 7 POST EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION 7.1 Post Evaluation After all the interventions were completed, post evaluation was conducted to determine whether or not connectivity is increased within the community, how much pedestrian LOS was improved, and what the walking experience will look like. For the increase of connectivity, walking distance analysis was completed based on both existing street network and new street network while the assessment of pedestrian LOS is conducted as a desktop analysis based on the proposed plan. Also, visual experience of walking is illustrated in perspective. 91 7.1.1 Walking Distance The street network or transportation network shapes how people move and what mode of transportation they choose to use. The built environment influences the level of access to activities and destination within the neighbourhood. Increased connectivity means reduced walking distance between origins and destinations. Expanding the area of the street and transportation network that favor walking reduces walking distance and increases connectivity Walking distance analysis based on both existing street network and the new street network shows that connectivity is increased by shortening block size, providing a designated network for non-motorized transportation, and establishing street hierarchy. In addition to increased connectivity, an actual area of 400 m walking distance expands the walkable grid based on the new street network. Increased connectivity and actual areas of 400 m walking distance indicates that more people will choose walking as a mode of transportation and more trips will shorten (Figure 7.1). 92 Figure 7.1 Area of 400m walking distance based on existing street network and new street network 7.1.2 Pedestrian LOS Post evaluation of Pedestrian LOS is often used to determine whether or not the proposed community plan will work and help a designer or a planner understand possible outcomes. During the post evaluation, the same work sheet which was used for Cadboro Bay and the Arbutus Lands was re-used for desktop analysis based on the proposed plan. From the desktop analysis, it was not possible to score user factors on the work sheet. Even though the category of user factors was impossible to score from desktop analysis using the proposed plan and interventions, the final score of new Cadborobay community is 167 (Appendix A) and can be allocated from Pedestrian LOS grade C to B (Table 7.1). This result shows that the built environment of new Cadboro Bay will become more walkable and pedestrian-friendly for the elderly if all the recommended programs and the interventions are successfully completely. Table 7.1 Pedestrian LOS grade after post evaluation Pedestrian LOS Grade Range of Score Description A ' 176 or higher Ideal pedestrian environment B 131 - 1"5 . Pleasant pedestrian environment C 86 - 130 Basic pedestrian environment D 41-85 Poor pedestrian environment E 40 or lower Pedestrian environment is un suitable 94 7.1.3 Walking Experience "As we walk, we are in the world, finding ourselves in a particular space and turning that space by walking within it into a place, a dwelling or territory, a local habitation with a name (Hillmam, 1992 p. 3). " There are many ways of traveling but walking is the most powerful way of interacting with the environment. We like places which are small, partly enclosed, sheltered, and crowded and streets which are narrow, curved, and quiet separation from traffic hazard (Appleton, 1996). If visual experience of places and streets in the built environment is good, then people start to use the environment more actively. In order to find out whether visual experience along the main street of the proposed plan is good, visualization of walking experience is conducted (Figure 7.2). Through the visualization of waking experience, it seems that a person as a pedestrian could experience continuous visual changes and a rich of physical activity and social interaction (Figure 7.3). • • r 95 Figure 7.2 Diagram of pedestrian trip along the proposed main street for post evaluation IIIIJM 96 Figure 7.3 Visualization of walking experience along the main street Stop A . The front parking lot is converted into place with Bosque trees and raised planter providing shade and informal sitting. Also 3 m sidewalks designated on each side of the street and canopies of street trees provide safe and pleasant environment for pedestrians. After 97 Stop B. 3 m sidewalks are provided on each side of the street. Street trees spaced with 7 m interval and building front close to the street create enclosed "outdoor room" defining pedestrian place. After 9 8 Stop C. Varied rooflines of existing old cafe and proposed mixed use building add visual interest and outdoor dining area is partially closed from pedestrian traffic on the sidewalk. After 99 Stop D. Enclosed spaces between building front and street trees become full of pedestrian activities. After 100 Stop D. Large front parking lot is reduced and moved to the back of building and the building front are brought closer to the sidewalk for better enclosure of public spaces. Stop E . Articulated building corner and front invite more pedestrian activity and become public spaces Stop F. End of the main street (new Cadboro Bay Rd) with Bosque trees create a sense of leaving. 7.2 Conclusion Creating a walkable and active community is a benefit to all age groups, not just seniors. The creation of the communities is more than just street and building design, it involves many different considerations such as land use patterns, transportation and street network, and design characteristics of the built environment. By accommodating seniors, in particular, the design interventions and planning decisions benefit all of the population including the youth, adults, and the disabled populations of a given community. A community which encourages walking should include the following: A variety of housing options from low to high density and a rich mix of uses within the size of five to ten-minute walking distance. This creates a walkable, livable, and healthy community for the elderly. • The main street as the heart of the community, which provides the focus of public life and many interesting and inviting places to gather people by encouraging people to walk and making a sense of place. • Interconnected and diverse street networks with shorter block lengths. Street networks with many route choices and a balance of diverse streetscape promotes people to walk and reduce traffic speed. Especially, shorter blocks of average of 80m to 120m provide more crossing opportunities for the elderly Deign characteristics of the built environment within the community which provide comfort to elderly pedestrians such as 2 m wide sidewalks, signalized and marked crosswalks, curb extension, frequent location of 104 street furniture and adequate lighting etc. For the elderly pedestrian, it is essential to provide at lest 2 m wide sidewalk associated with landscape strips and street tree planting. Also, signalized crosswalks with enough crossing time yield more benefits to the elderly pedestrians. 105 R E F E R E N C E Appleton, J. 1996. The Experience of Landscape. Chinchester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Eubank-Ahrens, B. 1987. A Closer Look at the User ofWoonerven. Page 63-79 in A . V . Moudon, editor. 1987. Public Streets for Public Use. New York: Columbia University Press. Francis, M 1987. The Making of Democratic Streets. Page 23-39 in A . V . Moudon, editor. 1987. Public Streets for Public Use. New York.: Columbia University Press. Frank, L.D. 2000. Land Use and Transportation Interaction: Implications on Public health and Quality of Life. Journal of Planning Education'and Research. 20:6-22 Frank, L.D. , P.E. Engelke and T.L. Shumid. 2003. Health and Community Design: the Impacts of the Built Environment on Physical Activity. Washington.DC: Island Press. Frumkin H, Frank, L . D., and Richard, J. 2004. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Washington DC: Island Press. Gallin, N . 2001, Qualifying Pedestrian Friendliness-guidelines for Assessing Pedestrian Level of Service, Australia: Walking the 21st Century: An International Walking Conference 20 - 22 February 2001, Perth, Western Australia. Available at http ://w ww. dpi. wa. gov. auAvalking/pdfs/ A12 .pdf Glynn, T. 1981. Psychological Sense of Community: Measurement and Application. Human Relations. 34:789-818. Harruff, R . C , Avery, A. , Alter-Pandya, A . S. 1998. Analysis of Circumstances and Injuries and 217 Pedestrian Traffic Fatalities. Accid Anal Prev. 30:11-20. Hetzel, L. and Smith, A . 2001.The 65 Years and Over Population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief C2KB/01-10. Washington DC: U . S. Bureau of the Census. Hillman, J. 1980. "Walking" in J. Hillman, W. H . Whhyte and A. Erickson, The City as Dwelling: Walking, Sitting, Shopping. The Center for Civic Leadership. University of Dalas Hiss, T. 1990. The Experience of Place. New York, N Y : Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Jacobs, A . B . 1993.Great Street. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, Jaskiewicz, F. 2000, Pedestrian Level of Service Based on Trip Quality, Urban Street Symposium: Conference Proceedings, Whashington DC: Transportation Research Board. Available at http://gulliver.trb.org/publications/circulars/ecO 19/EcO 19_gl.pdf 106 Knoblauch, R.L., Pietrucha, M.T., and Nitzburg, M . 1996. Field Studies of Pedestrian Walking Speed and Start-Up Time. Transportation Research Record No. 1538, Pedestrian and Bicycle Research. Koepsell, T., et al. 2002. Crosswalk Markings and the Risk of Pedestrian-motor Vehicle Collisions in Older Pedestrians. JAMA.288:2136-2143 Kroll, J. 2001. Moving About in a Technological World: A Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Inquiry of Urban Streets and Freeways as Public Architecture, Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Architecture, University of California, Berkeley. Available at http://www. Walkinginfo.org/ r Leyden k. 2003. Social Capital and the Built Environment: The Importance of Walkable Neighborhoods. A m J Public Health.93:1546-1551. Local Government Commission. 1999. Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods. Local Government Commission. Lund, H. 2002. Pedestrian Environments and Sense of Community. Jounal of Planning Education Research 21:301-312. Moudon, A. V . editor. 1987. Public Streets for Public Use. Columbia University Press. New York. Muraleetaren, T., A . Takeu, H. Toru, K. Seliich, and Ken'etsu, U . 2004. Evaluation of pedestrian Eevel-of-service on Sidewalks and Crosswalks Using Conjoint Analysis, Transportation Research Board 83rd Annual meeting. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW). 2002. Increasing Physical Activity through Community Design: A Guide for Public Health Practitioners. National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW). Oldenburg, R. 1989. The Great Good Places: Cafes, Coffee shops, Community Center, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Marlowe & Co. Oxley, J. and Fildes, B. 1999.5'a/efy of Older Pedestrians: Strategy for Future Research and Action Initiatives. Monash University Accident Research Centre Report - #157. Pikora, T., B Giles-Corti, F. Bull, K Jamrozik and R Donovan. 2003. Developing a Framework for Assessment of the Environmental Determinants of Walking and Cycling. Social Science and Medicine 56:1693-1703. 107 Pressman, N . E. P. 1987. The European Pxperience. Page 40-44 in A . V . Moudon, editor. 1987. Public Streets for Public Use. Columbia University Press. New York. Rapoport, A 1977, Human Aspects of Urban Form, Oxford Press, Rapoport, A . 1987. Pedestrian Street Use: Culture and Perception. Page 80-92 in A . V . Moudon, editor. 1987. Public Streets for Public Use. Columbia University Press. New York. Rivara, F. P., Reay, D.T., and Bergman, A . B . 1989. Analysis of Fatal Pedestrian Injuries in King County, WA, and Prospects for Prevention. Public Health Rep. 104(3):293-7. Runge, J.W. and Cole, T.B. 2002. Crosswalk Markings and Motor Vehicle Collisions Involving Older Pedestrians. J A M A . 288:2172-2174. Saelens,B.E., Sallis, J.D., and Frank, L.D. 2003. Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Finding from the Transportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 25(2):80-91 Seeman, T.E. and Crimmins, E. 2001. Social Environment Effects on Health and Aging: Integrating Epidemiologic and Demographic Approaches and Perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 954;88-117. Seeman, T.E., Lusignolo, T .M. , Albert, M . , and Berkman, L. 2001. Social Relationships, Social Surpport, and Patterns of Cognitive Aging in Healthy, High-functioning Older Adults: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Health Pyschology. 20(4):243-55. The Bicycle Federation of America and National Center for Bicycling and Walking (NCBW). 1998. Creating walkable communities: A Guide for Local Governments. The Mid-America Regional Council (MARC). Transportation Research Board. 2000. Highway Capacity Manual. National Research Council. Washington, DC. Waynne, G. editor. 1980. Learning from Abroad, traffic Restraints in Residential Neighborhood. New Brunswick: Transsaction Books. 108 APPENDICES Appendix A Category Factor Weight 0 point 1 Point 2 Points 3 points 4 Points Total Design factor Path width 4 V 16 Surface quality 5 15 Wheelchair accessibility 4 V 12 Crossing opportunity 5 20 Pedestrian support facilities 3 V 12 Shade tree 2 V 8 Location factor Complexity of path network 4 V 16 Path environment with buffer 2 8 Potential for vehicle conflict 3 12 Visual factor Enclosure/Definition 3 12 Building articulation 2 6 Complexity of spaces 3 12 Transparency 3 12 Overhang/ varied roofline 2 6 User factor Pedestrian volume/flow 3 N/A Mix of users 4 N/A Personal security 3 N/A Total 167 o 

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