UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Confluence : a masterplan for Riverside Park Menard, Elise Patricia Maureen 2006

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2006-0581.pdf [ 18.61MB ]
[if-you-see-this-DO-NOT-CLICK]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0092734.json
JSON-LD: 1.0092734+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0092734.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0092734+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0092734+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0092734+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0092734 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0092734.txt
Citation
1.0092734.ris

Full Text

C O N F L U E N C E : A Masterplan for Riverside Park  by  ELISE PATRICIA M A U R E E N M E N A R D  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r 2006  © Elise Patricia M a u r e e n M e n a r d , 2006  ABSTRACT Riverside Park located in downtown K a m l o o p s b e g a n developing a s Citys' premiere park in the early 1900's. At this time there w a s a n e m p h a s i s on programming for sport. T h r o u g h the years the Park's focus h a s shifted from sport to a gathering s p a c e for community events and celebrations. T h i s transition, however, has occurred in the a b s e n c e of an overarching vision for Riverside Park a s a vital cultural s p a c e for K a m l o o p s ' citizens. A s a result, the Park lacks c o h e s i v e n e s s not only within its boundaries, but also with regard to the adjacent river s y s t e m a n d downtown area. Riverside Park, therefore, fails to meet its full potential a s the premiere park for the City of K a m l o o p s . B y a d d r e s s i n g three important i s s u e s of connectivity: 1) within Riverside Park itself, 2) between Riverside Park and the T h o m p s o n Rivers, a n d 3) between Riverside Park and downtown K a m l o o p s , this d e s i g n proposal consists of a masterplan c o n c e p t for Riverside Park which explores how this urban park c a n benefit from strengthened connections between the natural river s y s t e m , park and urban fabric.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  .....iii  LIST O F T A B L E S  vi  LIST O F F I G U R E S  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  ix  CHAPTER 1 - PROJECT OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY 1.1 S T A T E M E N T O F I N T E N T 1.2 P R O J E C T G O A L 1.3 P R O J E C T O B J E C T I V E S  1  1.3.1  River-Park Objective  1  1.3.2  City-Park Objective  1  1.3.3  Riverside Park Objective  2  1.4 D E S I G N C R I T E R I A  2  1.5 B A C K G R O U N D A N D R A T I O N A L E  3  1 . 6 T H E S I S LIMITATIONS 1.7 P R O J E C T M E T H O D O L O G Y  ...3 3  CHAPTER 2 - THE PROCESS: STUDY A P P R O A C H AND M E T H O D S 2.1 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W  5  2.1.1 City of K a m l o o p s  5  2.1.2 Urban Parks  8  2.1.3 P a r k - U s e r s  11  2.1.4 Regional Representation of L a n d s c a p e  14  C H A P T E R 3 - T H E SITE: INVENTORY A N D A N A L Y S I S 3.1 T H E R E G I O N : T H O M P S O N N I C O L A  16  3.2 T H E M U N I C I P A L I T Y : K A M L O O P S  16  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  3.3 T H E S I T E : R I V E R S I D E P A R K  17  3.3.1  Location  17  3.3.2  Size  17  3.3.3  Designation  18  3.3.4  Program  18  3.4 H I S T O R Y  18  3.5 S I T E I N V E N T O R Y A N D A N A L Y S I S  18  3.5.1 G e o m o r p h i c Setting a n d T o p o g r a p h y  20  3.5.2 Soils  21  3.5.3 Vegetation  21  3.5.4 Hydrology  22  3.5.5 T o p o g r a p h y a n d V i e w s  23  3.5.6 Park C o n n e c t i o n s to River  23  3.5.7 Park C o n n e c t i o n s to the City of K a m l o o p s  30  3.5.8 C o n n e c t i o n s Within Riverside Park  37  C H A P T E R 4 - T H E SITE DESIGN 4.1 M A S T E R P L A N  39  4.2 C O N N E C T I O N S B E T W E E N R I V E R S I D E P A R K A N D T H E T H O M P S O N RIVERS  42  4.2.1 Riparian A r e a s  42  4.2.2 B e a c h A r e a  42  4.2.3 Uji Lookout D e c k  45  4.3 C O N N E C T I O N S WITHIN R I V E R S I D E P A R K  45  4.3.1 Festival Field #1 a n d #2  45  4.3.2 Rivers Trail Entries Into Riverside Park  46  4.3.3 Lawn Bowling  47  4.3.4 E a s t Entry from 3  r d  Ave  49  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  4.3.5 Uji Pavilion  49  4.3.6 Riverside Park Main Entrance  51  4.3.7 Heritage H o u s e P l a z a  52  4.3.8 Rivers Lookout  52  4.3.9 Rivers Play..  53  4.4 C O N N E C T I O N S T O D O W N T O W N K A M L O O P S 4.4.1  1  st  4.4.2 2  n d  4.4.3 3  r d  Ave  :  54 54  Ave  55  Ave  57  4.4.4 Old C o u r t h o u s e Viewpoint  58  CHAPTER 5 - CONCLUSIONS  59  BIBLIOGRAPHY  64  V  LIST O F T A B L E S  T a b l e 01: T h o m p s o n River at K a m l o o p s - Daily W a t e r L e v e l s  22  vi  LIST O F F I G U R E S  Figure 01: T h o m p s o n Nicola Region  16  Figure 02: Satellite Photo - City of K a m l o o p s  16  Figure 03: Aerial Photo - Riverside Park  17  Figure 04: High W a t e r P l a z a Photo  25  Figure 05: Public B e a c h C o n n e c t i o n  26  Figure 06: Public B e a c h Photo  26  Figure 07: Rivers Trail A l o n g Public B e a c h Photo  26  Figure 08: Pier a s C o n n e c t i o n to Riverside Park  27  Figure 09: Looking North F r o m Rivers Trail Photo  28  Figure 10: Looking South F r o m E n d of Pier Photo  28  Figure 11: Pier Structure Photo  28  Figure 12: Looking W e s t Photo  28  Figure 13: Looking North Photo  28  Figure 14: Look E a s t Photo  28  Figure 15: Trail Leading to T h o m p s o n River Photo  29  Figure 16: 1  31  st  A v e n u e C o n n e c t i o n to L o m e Street  Figure 17: Driving W e s t on L a n s d o w n e Street Photo  32  Figure 18: Looking North T o w a r d s C P Railway O v e r p a s s Photo  32  Figure 19: Looking South F r o m Beneath O v e r p a s s  32  Figure 20: 2  34  n d  A v e n u e C o n n e c t i o n to L o m e Street  Figure 21: Driving W e s t on L a n s d o w n e Street Photo  34  Figure 22: Looking North T o w a r d s 2  35  Figure 23: Looking North on 2 Figure 24: 3  r d  n d  n d  A v e n u e Photo  A v e n u e Photo  A v e n u e C o n n e c t i o n to L o m e Street  Figure 25: Looking North on 3  rd  A v e n u e Photo  35 36 36  Figure 26: Looking North-East F r o m Rivers Trail Photo  38  Figure 27: V i s u a l E x p e r i e n c e of Walking A l o n g Rivers Trail Photo  38  Figure 28: Masterplan  39  vii  LIST O F F I G U R E S  Figure 29: C o n c e p t Diagram - Park to River C o n n e c t i o n s  40  Figure 30: C o n c e p t Diagram - C o n n e c t i o n s Within Park  40  Figure 31: C o n c e p t Diagram - Park to City C o n n e c t i o n s  41  Figure 32: Overall C o n c e p t Diagram  41  Figure 33: Perspective Sketch Showing Floating Boardwalk  42  Figure 34: Perspective Sketch Showing D o c k  43  Figure 35: Perspective Sketch of Relocated Rivers Trail  43  Figure 36: Axonometric Showing B e a c h A r e a  45  Figure 37: Plan V i e w of Rivers Trail W e s t Entry  46  Figure 38: Section/Elevation Showing Entry S i g n a g e  47  Figure 39: Plan V i e w of Lawn Bowling A r e a  48  Figure 40: Section/Elevation Showing Lawn Bowling A r e a  48  Figure 41: Plan V i e w of Uji Cultural Pavilion  50  Figure 42: Section/Elevation Showing Parking A r e a  50  Figure 43: Plan V i e w of Main Entry  51  Figure 44: Section/Elevation of Front Entry  51  Figure 45: Section Elevation Looking at Heritage H o u s e P l a z a  52  Figure 46: Section/Elevation Showing Rivers Lookout  52  Figure 47: Plan V i e w of Rivers Play A r e a  53  Figure 48: Section/Elevation showing C o n f l u e n c e C a f e  54  Figure 49: Section/Elevation Showing Climbing Boulders  54  Figure 50: Plan V i e w of 1  54  st  A v e n u e Entry  Figure 51: Section/Elevation Showing 1 Figure 52: Plan V i e w Showing 2  n d  st  A v e n u e Entry  A v e n u e Entry  55 56  Figure 53: Section/Elevation Showing Station Platforms  56  Figure 54: Section/Elevation Showing Street T r e e Planting  56  Figure 55: Plan V i e w Showing 3  57  rd  A v e n u e Entry  Figure 56: Section/Elevation Showing 3  rd  A v e n u e Entry  Figure 57: Perspective Sketch Showing View to Old C o u r t h o u s e  57 58  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F o r their insightful contributions to this project I would like to thank William M a r s h a n d D o u g l a s P a t e r s o n . Y o u r d i s c o u r s e a n d g u i d a n c e throughout the d e s i g n p r o c e s s has b e e n enlightening and inspiring. I would also like to thank family a n d friends both inside the l a n d s c a p e architecture studio a n d out. Y o u r support and e n c o u r a g e m e n t w a s the n e c e s s a r y fuel to m a k e it through the past three years.  ix  CHAPTER 1 - PROJECT OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY  1.1 STATEMENT OF INTENT Situated between the K a m l o o p s City-core and the confluence of the North a n d South T h o m p s o n Rivers, Riverside Park functions a s a pivotal transition between a naturally occurring river s y s t e m and an urban city-fabric. A n existing weak relationship between the park, the community a n d the river s y s t e m , a s well a s a lack of fundamental order and c o h e s i v e n e s s within the park itself serve to dissolve a n d disguise rather than reinforce connections between river, park and city. T h e intent of this project is to define and e x a m i n e existing constraints and explore design solutions both within and adjacent to Riverside Park.  1.2 PROJECT GOAL T o e x p a n d the role of Riverside Park in the community a n d region by creating an effective integration between river, park a n d city.  1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES T h e objectives for this l a n d s c a p e design study include:  1.3.1 RIVER-PARK OBJECTIVE: Integrate the T h o m p s o n Rivers with Riverside Park by bringing (a) elements from the river into the park and (b) elements from the park into the river.  1.3.2 CITY-PARK OBJECTIVE: Integrate downtown K a m l o o p s with Riverside Park by (a) bringing elements from the downtown into the park and (b) elements from the park into the downtown.  1  1.3.3 RIVERSIDE PARK OBJECTIVE: C r e a t e a clear and logical order to the internal park d e s i g n with appropriate types of facilities at s c a l e s which meet the n e e d s of an e x p a n d e d user group.  1.4 DESIGN CRITERIA T h e following d e s i g n criteria exhibit m e a s u r e s a n d are a combination of factors taken from the City of Kamloops (2004) a n d Albert Rutledge's Anatomy  - Parks  and Recreation  Masterplan  of a Park. T h e s e elements have b e e n  adopted to a c h i e v e the specified project objectives:  1.  D e s i g n for park-users;  2.  D e s i g n everything with a purpose. H a v e g o o d relations of the park to its surroundings, u s e areas and structures;  3.  Provide adequate opportunities for growth in leisure;  4.  Protect preserve and e n h a n c e the environment;  5.  D e v e l o p an aesthetically appealing and functionally suitable environment;  6.  Establish a substantial experience, including effects of lines, forms, textures and colours, d o m i n a n c e and enclosure;  7.  Establish an appropriate experience, suited to the personality of the place, user, function and scale;  8.  D e s i g n with sensitivity to the costs of maintaining and e n h a n c i n g parks and recreation infrastructure;  9.  W h e r e possible m a k e u s e of existing facilities;  10. Provide linear recreation that is p a s s i v e and e n c o u r a g e s alternative m e a n s of transportation between community destinations; 11. Provide appropriate park design for aging cohort of baby b o o m e r s ;  2  1.5 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE T h e park w a s o b s e r v e d on numerous o c c a s i o n s in all s e a s o n s , most times of the day a n d during events. T h e s e observations reveal that d i s c o n n e c t s exist not only within the park itself, but between the adjacent river s y s t e m and the downtown a r e a of K a m l o o p s . It is evident that the site is a vital place for the City of K a m l o o p s b e c a u s e it is where events s u c h a s C a n a d a Day, the Rivers Family Festival, M u s i c in the Park, running races etc, are s t a g e d . T h e s e events draw large numbers and serve to strengthen a s e n s e of culture and community in K a m l o o p s . Furthermore, the proximity of the park to the confluence of the North and South T h o m p s o n Rivers a n d to downtown K a m l o o p s also highlights the necessity of the park a s a link between the natural a n d built environments of Kamloops.  1.6 THESIS LIMITATIONS T h e intent of this study is to formulate design solutions at a conceptual level. T o implement these c o n c e p t s further design d e v e l o p m e n t would, understandably, have to be completed.  1.7 PROJECT METHODOLOGY T h e project followed a methodological p r o c e s s . T h e principal outcome of the study is a conceptual masterplan for Riverside Park.  1) Site Selection 2) Meeting with City of K a m l o o p s Parks and Recreation M a i n t e n a n c e Staff. 3) Literature Review and precedent s e a r c h e s that f o c u s e d on: •  T h e City of K a m l o o p s  •  Park D e s i g n  •  Park-Users  •  Regional Representation of L a n d s c a p e  3  4) Contextual A n a l y s i s •  Regional context: the role of Riverside Park in the T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a Region  •  Municipality context: the role of Riverside Park in the City of K a m l o o p s  •  Historical context: the past history of Riverside Park  5) Site A n a l y s i s •  Existing relationship between the T h o m p s o n Rivers a n d Riverside Park.  •  Existing relationship between downtown K a m l o o p s and Riverside Park  •  Rivers Trail: examined a s a corridor of m o v e m e n t through Riverside Park  •  Inventory of Riverside Park and current patterns a n d u s e s in the park.  6) C o n c e p t u a l D e v e l o p m e n t 7) D e s i g n D e v e l o p m e n t 8) Masterplan C o n c e p t 9) P o s t - d e s i g n A n a l y s i s  4  CHAPTER 2 - THE PROCESS: STUDY APPROACH AND METHODS  2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW T h e literature review for this project f o c u s e d on four a r e a s . T o begin with, a further understanding of K a m l o o p s w a s gained by reviewing various d o c u m e n t s prepared by the City of K a m l o o p s . S e c o n d l y , urban park design applications were r e s e a r c h e d . T h i s information was a d d e d to by studying several precedents of urban parks. Finally, regional representation of l a n d s c a p e w a s reviewed to a d d r e s s the n e e d for providing a s e n s e of the T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a R e g i o n within Riverside Park.  2.1.1 City of Kamloops T o better understand the community context a n d future goals K a m l o o p s I b e g a n with a review of d o c u m e n t s relevant to the future growth a n d development, especially where parks a n d culture were c o n c e r n e d . D o c u m e n t s including: the City of K a m l o o p s Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (2005), City of K a m l o o p s Cultural Strategic Plan (2005), a n d the City of K a m l o o p s Parks and Recreation Master Plan (2004), provided valuable insight into the City's goals and objectives. T h e City of K a m l o o p s Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (2005) listed several goals for the Parks and Recreation Department to work towards. A s u m m a r y of these goals, derived from the quality of life section of the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (2005) include: •  e n s u r e that all citizens of K a m l o o p s have a d e q u a t e opportunities for personal growth in their leisure, thereby enriching the life of individuals a n d the community;  •  protect, preserve and e n h a n c e the environment for the enrichment of the community and the enjoyment of all people;  5  •  e n s u r e that public parkland of all types is distributed throughout the community in an equitable m a n n e r to meet the community's needs;  •  develop and maintain an aesthetically appealing environment;  •  support the development of a strong community image.  T h e s e goals help identify and create a f o c u s for d e s i g n applications to Riverside Park and are consistent with the City of K a m l o o p s Official Community Plan (2005). T h e City of K a m l o o p s Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004) is a c o m p r e h e n s i v e document representing growth of all parks in the K a m l o o p s a r e a . T h e masterplan states the vision for parks a s "to provide the opportunity for an outstanding quality of life" (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004, p.8). T h e supporting goal for this vision is "to provide outstanding parks, trails and natural a r e a s that e n h a n c e the quality of life for K a m l o o p s ' citizens" (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004, p.8). T h i s vision and goal for Parks in the City is n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e of changing social and geographic n e e d s in K a m l o o p s . T h e s e d y n a m i c forces will continue to impact the future a s well. Specifically a s s o c i a t e d with Riverside Park, the major influences c a n be s u m m a r i z e d a s : •  costs of maintaining and e n h a n c i n g parks a n d recreation infrastructure;  •  expectation that there will be less m o n e y available in the future to meet community desires a n d n e e d s ;  •  where possible m a k e u s e of existing facilties;  •  partnerships with volunteers and organizations;  •  public involvement;  •  linear recreation that is passive a n d e n c o u r a g e s alternative m e a n s of transportation between community destinations;  •  K a m l o o p s citizens and visitors have higher expectations of quality for parks in the area;  6  •  aging cohort of baby b o o m e r s will continue to m a k e significant u s e of parks and recreation facilities, though increasingly for health benefits;  •  a w a r e n e s s and prevalence of social i s s u e s (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004).  For the future s u c c e s s of Riverside Park it is n e c e s s a r y to develop a masterplan that considers potential influences on the park. Particularly important is the necessity for the park to provide social a n d cultural opportunities, resulting in strong ties and ownership. In addition, the City of K a m l o o p s Cultural Strategic P l a n , d e v e l o p e d in 2005, has many points that support, although not directly, the n e e d for Riverside Park to b e c o m e a cultural stronghold in the community. O n e e x a m p l e is the desire to create more events like M u s i c in the Park, weekly musical entertainment during s u m m e r months. T h i s activity w a s identified a s o n e of the significant cultural a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s in K a m l o o p s a s part of a City-wide survey on culture in K a m l o o p s (City of K a m l o o p s , 2005). Building on the idea of culture in parks, it is important to a c k n o w l e d g e the definition of 'Riverside Park' established by the City of K a m l o o p s . T h e City designates Riverside Park a s a City-wide park. Further defined, City-wide Parks include: "those City-owned park lands that are located and d e v e l o p e d to provide a range of functions for the entire community. T h e parks vary in size, but are generally greater than ten hectares in size. In addition, they are strategically located within the City a n d are a c c e s s i b l e to all residents by private a n d public transportation. Typically, these parks require a high d e g r e e of maintenance" (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004).  7  Exploring the City of K a m l o o p s d o c u m e n t s provided valuable insight to K a m l o o p s specific and the City itself. T h e Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (2005), in its quality of life section, revealed the important contributing factors to community and individual health. A d d i n g to the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (2005), the Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004), while promoting growth of parkland in K a m l o o p s , m a d e it clear that the e m p h a s i s for parks is to create an outstanding quality of life by providing parks, trails and natural areas that e n h a n c e life. Lastly, the Cultural Strategic Plan (2005) e n c o u r a g e d the development of more events that create the opportunities for cultural interaction in the City of Kamloops.  2.1.2 Urban Parks Building on the understanding of Riverside Park specific to K a m l o o p s , it was n e c e s s a r y to explore design applications for urban parks. T h e r e is a rich tradition of park study a n d d e s i g n in l a n d s c a p e architecture, and it may be enlightening to review the work of s o m e prominent l a n d s c a p e architects and researchers in this a r e a . Frederick Law O l m s t e d , a pioneer of l a n d s c a p e architecture, has helped define both the city a n d national park c o n c e p t s in the nineteenth century. A m o n g other parks, he w a s responsible for the d e s i g n of Central Park and P r o s p e c t Park. O l m s t e d not only viewed the park a s 'nature', he also viewed the park a s a social structure, a n d , more significantly, as a place where society could be improved (Wills & J o n e s , 2005). O l m s t e d defined the park a s "a s p a c e of ground u s e d for public or private recreation, differing from a garden in its s p a c i o u s n e s s and the broad, simple, and natural character of it's s c e n e r y a n d from a "wood" in the more scattered arrangement of its trees and greater e x p a n s e of its  glades". Frederick  Law Olmsted, 'Park', in the American  Cyclopedia  (1875).  8  Historically, s o m e of the first parks, dating from the sixteenth century, were typically formal and elaborate outdoor s p a c e s with small w o o d e d a r e a s created a n d set a s i d e for the delectation of the court, only s o m e t i m e s o p e n e d up to the public (Wills & J o n e s , 2005). T h e s e early formal parks provided passive enjoyment of outdoor s p a c e s . In contrast to these architecturally structured places, it w a s the picturesque l a n d s c a p e park that inspired public park design in North A m e r i c a and E u r o p e ( J a c k s o n , 1975). Typically, the representation of nature w a s the principle motive in the development of the art of park d e s i g n (Baljon, 1992). Increasingly with time parks evolved into designated s p a c e s for public enjoyment. Social c h a n g e has occurred since the first parks were d e v e l o p e d in the sixteenth century. Understandably, these c h a n g e s must be reflected in current design principles and practices to a d d r e s s changing u s e r - n e e d s relative to public outdoor s p a c e s . W h e n considering the potential future of a park through the design p r o c e s s it is important to r e m e m b e r that e a c h generation will have different o p e n s p a c e n e e d s . In addition, o v e r t i m e there has been population growth and an increasing transient manner in which people m o v e between cities. This has resulted in a d e c r e a s e d s e n s e of place and community b e c a u s e people are less likely to development attachments to their community of residence. F o r this reason it is important that a c c e s s i b l e s p a c e s are available in the public realm, bringing people together, resulting in a stronger s e n s e of community and place. T h e notion that green places are important in the city has been e m p h a s i z e d by ecological planner Ian M c H a r g who stated: "We need nature a s m u c h in the city a s in the countryside" ( M c H a r g , 1992, pg.5). This statement further supports the n e e d for a strong link between the City of K a m l o o p s and Riverside Park. U r b a n planning critic J a n e J a c o b s s u g g e s t s that the inability of neighbourhoods or districts to attach t h e m s e l v e s to a park c a n be attributed to a combination of negative factors. First, s h e s u g g e s t s  9  possible park candidates are h a n d i c a p p e d b e c a u s e of insufficient diversity in their immediate surroundings, a n d c o n s e q u e n t dullness; a n d s e c o n d l y , s h e g o e s on to s a y that what diversity a n d life available are d i s p e r s e d and dissipated a m o n g too many parks, too similar in purpose to e a c h other ( J a c o b s , 1961). Further into her discussion on parks, J a c o b s distinguishes four elements that contribute to intensive u s e including: intricacy, centering, sun and enclosure. Intricacy is related to the different r e a s o n s which people c o m e to a park. Different e x a m p l e s of this could include the rise of ground, groupings of trees, openings leading to various focal points those subtle expression in difference. T h e s e differences in setting are then exaggerated by the differences in u s e that grow upon them. T h e s e c o n d element, centering, is the designation of a centre of a park. T h e finest of these centers are stage settings for people. Third, is the role of s u n s h i n e in a park setting, s h a d e d sun in s u m m e r months. T h e fourth and final element, e n c l o s u r e , is the intention to bring a definite s h a p e to the s p a c e ( J a c o b s , 1961). Furthering the information by J a n e J a c o b s , B u r g e s s et al, present their findings of urban o p e n s p a c e research in their paper 'People,  and the Urban Green: A Study of Popular Spaces  Meanings  Parks  and Values for Open  in the City'. Their research, relative to the G r e e n w i c h O p e n  S p a c e Project, s h o w s that the most highly valued o p e n s p a c e s are those which e n h a n c e the positive qualities of urban life. T h e s e positive qualities include: 1) a variety of opportunities and physical settings and 2) sociability and cultural diversity. R e s e a r c h performed on the G r e e n w i c h Project s u g g e s t s three criteria to evaluate the s u c c e s s of existing parks a n d o p e n s p a c e s . First, parks are judged in terms of their ability to provide a desired mixture of opportunities (Burgess et al., 1988). T o create o p e n s p a c e that caters to cultural a n d social encounters it is n e c e s s a r y to present opportunities within the park that promote s u c h encounters. In providing the desired  10  mixture of opportunities it is important to e n s u r e that the park s e r v e s not only social interactions, rather, that cultural interactions are also promoted. S e c o n d , harmonious multiple u s e must exist a s people desire a variety of environmental features and leisure facilities in o p e n s p a c e s (Burgess et al., 1988). F r o m a design viewpoint it is important to e m p h a s i z e relationships between these environmental a n d leisure entities within o p e n s p a c e s . Third, adventure play and exploration of the natural world must be recognized a s a park function. E x p o s u r e to outdoor s p a c e s must give adults and children alike the opportunity to revel in the s e n s u o u s qualities of nature (Burgess et al., 1988). Insight into urban parks by B u r g e s s et al. and other l a n d s c a p e specialists provides a general understanding of n e c e s s a r y design for urban parks. Consideration and application of t h e s e c o n c e p t s through design will result in a stronger masterplan for Riverside Park.  2.1.3 Park-Users Building on the n e c e s s a r y c o m p o n e n t s of urban parks, it is of value to develop a c o m p r e h e n s i o n of park-user n e e d s . A c c o r d i n g to William W h y t e , pioneer in analyzing the social u s e of urban s p a c e s , "It is hard to design a s p a c e that will not attract people. W h a t is remarkable is how often this has been a c c o m p l i s h e d " (Whyte,  1979).  T o avoid the accomplishment Whyte refers to, an understanding of programming for park-user n e e d s is n e c e s s a r y . M a n y studies support the idea that initially addressing u s e r - n e e d s is a requirement to making good parks, plazas and urban o p e n s p a c e s . Furthermore, a s l a n d s c a p e architect a n d researcher Mark Francis s u g g e s t s , s u c c e s s f u l public s p a c e s are those that are responsive to the n e e d s of their users; are democratic in their accessibility; and are meaningful for the larger community a n d society (Francis, 2003). Francis p r o c e e d s to define user-  11  n e e d s a s "those amenities and experiences that people s e e k in enjoying public o p e n s p a c e s . N e e d s provide the basic level of support a n d function in o p e n s p a c e ; they are the prerequisite for having an enjoyable l a n d s c a p e experience and provide the basis for m u c h design criteria" (Francis, 2003, pg. 4). Furthering the work of William W h y t e , the non-profit group Project for Public S p a c e s has f o c u s e d its research on developing p l a c e s for people.  T h e following is a summary, according to Project for Public S p a c e s , of why public s p a c e s fail. 1.  L a c k of g o o d places to sit  2.  L a c k of gathering points  3.  P o o r entrances and visually inaccessible s p a c e s  4.  Dysfunctional features  5.  Paths that don't go where people want to go  6.  Domination of place by vehicles  7.  Blank walls or d e a d z o n e s around the e d g e s of a place  8.  Inconveniently located transit stops  9.  Nothing going on  Contrary to the failure of public s p a c e s , Francis provides specific recommendations by laying out six considerations for the d e s i g n and m a n a g e m e n t of public s p a c e s . T h e six p r o p o s e d design and m a n a g e m e n t considerations include: comfort, relaxation, p a s s i v e e n g a g e m e n t , active e n g a g e m e n t , discovery a n d fun (Francis, 2003). Descriptions of these considerations include: 1) Comfort o  providing e n o u g h comfortable places to sit or m a n a g e m e n t practices that invite u s e ;  12  o  n e e d for f o o d , shelter from elements, or a place to rest when tired requires s o m e d e g r e e of comfort to be satisfied;  o  without comfort it is difficult for other n e e d s to be met;  o  relief from sun or a c c e s s to s u n .  2) Relaxation o  research of o p e n s p a c e s indicates that people frequently s e e k outdoor settings for relaxation;  o  experience of psychological comfort is something people s e e k in o p e n s p a c e s ;  o  water and vegetation c a n have restorative effects;  o  o p e n s p a c e c a n promote stress reduction;  o  o p e n s p a c e c a n create perceived or real relaxation.  3) P a s s i v e E n g a g e m e n t o  c a n lead to s e n s e of relaxation but differs in that it involves the need for an encounter with the setting w/out becoming actively involved, e g . enjoyment of watching a passing s c e n e ;  o  performers of programmed activities often facilitate this kind of activity  4) Active E n g a g e m e n t o  opportunities for physical involvement with the s p a c e ;  o  providing for various types of sports or physical activities;  5) Discovery o  viewing public art and sculpture to stumbling upon unexpected places;  o  o p e n s p a c e c a n provide important opportunities for d i s c o v e r y - b a s e d learning and education.  13  6) F u n o  desire for fun a n d excitement in public s p a c e s , e g . Adventure playgrounds or skateboard parks. (www.pps.org, 2005).  Prior knowledge of park-users is a vital c o m p o n e n t of any park masterplanning p r o c e s s . Significant knowledge on the subject will lead to the d e s i g n of park s p a c e suitable to those using it. K e y points have been represented by authors like W h y t e , Francis, J a c o b s a n d Projects for Public s p a c e s that have helped inform the programming n e e d s of parku s e r s for Riverside Park. Ultimately, l a n d s c a p e s that are a c c o m m o d a t i n g a n d e a s y for people to u s e will result in places that are e m b r a c e d and upheld by its u s e r s .  2.1.4  Regional Representation of Landscape Another notable area of park design that promotes a significant  relationship between the l a n d s c a p e and its users is the idea of representing a region to aid in defining an individual's place. Identity of a place c a n be defined "simply a s that which provides its individuality or distinction from other p l a c e s a n d s e r v e s a s the b a s i s for its recognition a s a separate entity" (Lynch, 1972, pg.8). A s towns a n d cities are largely perceived through their exterior environment (Hough, 1995) it is important that the region is represented in outdoor places in the city. L a n d s c a p e researcher, J o h n Brinckerhoff J a c k s o n , furthers this point with his example about a stranger coming to a new land where every s c e n e , every encounter, every l a n d s c a p e taught them something and the resulting s h a r p n e s s of their s e n s o r y r e s p o n s e b a s e d on that experience ( J a c k s o n , 1975). Creating a l a n d s c a p e that is unique and representational of the g r a s s l a n d s surrounding K a m l o o p s could e v o k e the emotional dimension that J a c k s o n s p e a k s of.  14  Often it is the l a n d s c a p e that serves to help us interpret our understanding of the world we live in making it vital that these places are a c c e s s i b l e in the communities we live in. It is n e c e s s a r y to e n s u r e that constant and direct experience assimilated through daily e x p o s u r e to, and interaction with the places o n e lives in, are a c c e s s i b l e s o that literacy about the environment around us and our relationship to it is possible (Hough, 1995); Representation of place in l a n d s c a p e allows the opportunity for individuals to identify, understand and perceive their surroundings and resulting relationships with them. Riverside Park is an outdoor setting that could potentially be a symbol of the surrounding T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a Region.  15  C H A P T E R 3 - T H E SITE: INVENTORY A N D A N A L Y S I S  3.1 T h e R e g i o n : T h o m p s o n N i c o l a T h e T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a Region is situated in the southern portion of British C o l u m b i a . T h e r e is an approximate population of 120,000 people. Although water is abundant in K a m l o o p s by virtue of its location on the T h o m p s o n Rivers, it is typically a drier area b e c a u s e it is situated east of the C o a s t Mountain range. T h i s contributes to the  Figure 01 Thompson Nicola Region Source: www.tnrd.bc.ca  grassland l a n d s c a p e that m a k e s up most of the region.  3.2 T h e M u n i c i p a l i t y : K a m l o o p s  K a m l o o p s , B C is the warmest city in C a n a d a and has a population of eighty-four thousand people. T h e City has b e e n designated a s the T o u r n a m e n t Capital of C a n a d a . Although it is located at the confluence of the North and South T h o m p s o n Rivers, it is c o n s i d e r e d semi-arid and receives an a v e r a g e annual rainfall of 2 1 8 m m . Primary industries in the area include: forestry, c o p p e r mining, ranching and tourism (Venture  Figure 02 Satellite Photo of Kamloops Source: www.city.kamloops.bc.ca  K a m l o o p s : fast facts w e b p a g e s ) .  16  In 2001 the n a m e "Tournament Capital of C a n a d a was adopted a s an initiative to further e n h a n c e recreation and athletic d e v e l o p m e n t in the community, with the intent that it b e c o m e a catalyst for diversification and growth of the local e c o n o m y (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004).  3.3 The Site: Riverside Park 3.3.1 location Riverside Park is situated south of the confluence of the North and South T h o m p s o n Rivers and North of the downtown core of K a m l o o p s . In addition to its position between natural and built s y s t e m s , the C P Rail Line bisects Riverside Park from downtown K a m l o o p s creating a distinct separation between the park and city.  Figure 03: Aerial Photo of Riverside Park  3.3.2 size Riverside Park is twenty-five hectares in size. T h e site takes on a linear form similar to that of the T h o m p s o n River shoreline. T h e size of the park provides adequate s p a c e to a c c o m m o d a t e major festivities and Rivers Trail traffic while still providing the opportunity to layer in other programming n e e d s on the site.  17  3.3.3. designation T h e City of K a m l o o p s Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004) d e s i g n a t e s Riverside Park a s K a m l o o p s 'premiere urban park'. T h i s label is d u e to the parks primary a c c e s s to waterfront a n d its role a s a major community gathering and event s p a c e . In addition, the d o c u m e n t classifies Riverside Park a s a 'city-wide' park m e a n i n g that it is typically a destination larger than ten hectares in size, is a c c e s s i b l e to all residents, and generally requires a higher d e g r e e of maintenance (City of K a m l o o p s , 2004).  3.3.4. program Currently, Riverside Park provides facilities for a multitude of activities. T h e s e include walking, jogging, cycling, sunbathing, picnicking, lawnbowling, tennis courts, playground, waterpark, a n d Rotary B a n d s h e l l for various performing arts activities. Within Riverside Park there is parking available for 202 automobiles.  3.4  HISTORY F o r t h o u s a n d s of years the S h u s w a p people have lived in villages  c o m p r i s e d of pit h o u s e s at the confluence of the North and S o u t h T h o m p s o n Rivers. T h e first E u r o p e a n s arrived less than 200 years a g o , in 1811 fur traders from the Pacific F u r C o m p a n y c r o s s e d the land from the O k a n a g a n to s p e n d the winter. T h e s a m e fur traders returned the following y e a r a n d c a m p e d at a place called C u m c l o u p s by the natives, near the entrance to the north branch of the T h o m p s o n River. In N o v e m b e r 1812 these fur traders were followed by traders from the Montreal-based North W e s t C o m p a n y . T h e North W e s t C o m p a n y w a s bought by the H u d s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y , which operated at a fort north of the T h o m p s o n River from 1821 until it w a s relocated to the North S h o r e in 1842, from there they again m o v e d to the South S h o r e in 1862 (City of K a m l o o p s , 2005).  18  G o l d w a s d i s c o v e r e d in the late 1850's causing an influx of fortune s e e k e r s to the Interior of British C o l u m b i a (Norton & Schmidt, 1992). Following this influx of entrepreneurs w a s the construction of the C a n a d i a n Pacific Railway along the south bank of the T h o m p s o n River in the early 1880's. Introduction of this rail s y s t e m into the city solidified K a m l o o p s ' position a s a major supply and distribution point for industries including: r a n c h e s , lumber a n d mining in the region. In 1884, J o h n A n d r e w M a r a and two other partners formed the New Townsite Syndicate. T h e new town was defined by laying a perfect grid of streets, blocks and lots. T h i s layout still exists in the downtown core of K a m l o o p s today (City of K a m l o o p s , 2005). Agriculture, with a focus on cattle ranching has always b e e n an important part of the e c o n o m y in the K a m l o o p s area. Fertile flat lands of the T h o m p s o n River Valley, in addition to the hot, dry s u m m e r s provide an excellent growing environment for different fruits and vegetables. F o r over fifty years canneries for p r o c e s s i n g locally grown vegetables, especially tomatoes, served a s an important industry for K a m l o o p s (Balf, 1975). Following E u r o p e a n settlement of the area, Riverside Park w a s the site of a pig farm a n d lumber mill owned by J a m e s M c i n t o s h . During the s u m m e r s , Mcintosh allowed a c c e s s to the east end of his property for picnics, cycling, and swimming. In 1901 the mill burned down and the City of K a m l o o p s bought part of the land for a park. Nine years later an athletic field and grandstand were built. B y 1913, a weekly farmer's market was set up in the new exhibition building. Shortly following the c o m m e n c e m e n t of the farmer's market a bathing pavilion was built by the river. T h e park grounds were u s e d during W W I a s a training b a s e for the army. During the 1920's a Parks Board w a s d e v e l o p e d by the City of K a m l o o p s . Establishment of a Parks Board saw Riverside Park grow into a popular place for recreation a n d social activities. T h e exhibition building w a s u s e d a s a g y m n a s i u m where community m e m b e r s enjoyed basketball, g y m n a s t i c s , and  19  theatre. O n the park grounds a large checkerboard and lawn bowling facility w a s built. In the early 1930's the park was c l o s e d off to automobiles, increasing the use of the park a s a picnic site. At this time a children's wading pool w a s also created. W h o l e neighbourhoods would often gather at Centennial P o o l , built in 1958, where they would s p e n d the day swimming and barbecuing (Norton & Schmidt, 1992).  3.5 SITE INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS 3.5.1 Geomorphic Setting and Topography K a m l o o p s is in the heart of the C a n a d i a n Cordillera. It has been portrayed a s "a great wall rimmed by mountain battlements on e a c h side, with an elevated platform between" (Bostock, 1948,  p.3).  W h e r e ice o n c e d a m n e d the valley's outlet, meltwater accumulated against the glacier and formed silty lakes on either side of it. T h e silt slowly settled out on the lake bottoms. After the glacier d i s a p p e a r e d and the lakes drained, the silty lake bottoms remained a s flat b e n c h e s on either side of the valley. Erosion of these f a c e s over time h a s created the s c e n i c silt cliffs characteristic of the South T h o m p s o n R e g i o n . L a n d s c a p e of the K a m l o o p s region today, with the large valleys forming a giant inverted T - s h a p e , w a s not by violent activity, but by more gentle forces working beneath the earth's crust. T h i s period is the reason for current minor fault z o n e s along the North a n d S o u t h T h o m p s o n which gradually pulled apart to create lakes and river valleys. Silt cliffs on both sides of the river valley were gullied a n d sculpted by the water and rain of immediate post-glacial times. T h e y still exist today b e c a u s e of K a m l o o p s ' hot, dry climate (Vyse, 1994). Silt along the South T h o m p s o n valley is not unique considering similar deposits o c c u r in other valleys in the Interior plateau. However, the silt of the South T h o m p s o n is likely the most extensive a n d best e x p o s e d deposit in the  20  province a s it o c c u p i e s approximately thirty miles of the S o u t h T h o m p s o n River Valley and occurs in vertical e x p o s u r e s of up to three hundred feet (Fulton, 1963). G r a v e l , s a n d a n d glacial till lie below the silt at several p l a c e s along the e d g e of the South T h o m p s o n Valley (Fulton, 1963). Most of the valley is overlain by modern alluvial and wind deposits (Fulton, 1963).  3.5.2 S o i l s Riverside Park lies directly adjacent to the s h o r e s of the T h o m p s o n River. T h i s location along the alluvial plain of the T h o m p s o n River valley results s a n d y loam native soils. However, over the y e a r s the original soils that existed here have b e e n a d d e d to by significant a m o u n t s of fill. A s a result m u c h of the imported soil has b e e n increasingly c o m p a c t e d over the y e a r s . D u e to the problems with compaction topsoil is typically brought in for any plantings within the park.  3.5.3 V e g e t a t i o n Mature trees in Riverside Park are o n e of the main defining features. T h e c a n o p y , primarily d e c i d u o u s in nature, gives the park a feeling of p e r m a n e n c e in the City. A variety of tree s p e c i e s exist  including: Acer, Aesculus, Quercus,  Robinia,  Betula,  Gleditsia,  Picea,  Pinus,  Pseudotsuga,  and Salix. T h e a g e s of these trees range from  approximately o n e - h u n d r e d years old to new plantings in 2005. T h e trees create a valuable o a s i s in the downtown core of K a m l o o p s a n d should be incorporated into future design applications. Unfortunately, d u e to the mountain pine beetle epidemic that has recently shown its effects in the K a m l o o p s region, m a n y (if not all) of the Pinus ponderosa  will likely  s u c c u m b to the beetles' invasion. S h r u b s and perennials o c c u r throughout the park, although they account for only a minimal amount of vegetation.  21  A popular location in the western part of the park is the Peter W i n g R o s e G a r d e n . T h i s existing feature hosts a variety of tea a n d shrub roses with p l a c e s for park-users to sit. A l o n g L o m e Street several annual plantings are d o n e in b e d s and planters. T h e s e planters bring colour and life to the southern e d g e of the park. O n e of these plantings, the ' S u n s h i n e G a r d e n ' , is planted e a c h year by elementary-aged school children. This initiative is a n excellent opportunity for s c h o o l - a g e d children to b e c o m e e n g a g e d a n d interactive with city parks a n d the beautification of K a m l o o p s .  3.5.4 H y d r o l o g y Riverside Park has a relatively consistent s l o p e that c a n drain from south to north. K a m l o o p s typically has minimal precipitation throughout the year, contributing to a site that usually will not get very saturated. T h i s is also a result of naturally occurring s a n d y loam soils. In addition, the changing water level of the T h o m p s o n River is an annual o c c u r r e n c e that varies in severity from y e a r to year. T h e following table s h o w s these c h a n g e s throughout the y e a r s starting in 1911.  Year  Overall Mean  Maximum Daily  Minimum Daily  Total Level  1911  Not available  8.394 (June 17)  Not available  Not available  1948  5.095  9.705 (June 01)  3.742 (March 25)  1864.611  1972  Not available  9.876 (June 14)  Not available  Not Available  2000  4.328  7.393 (June 11)  2.858 (Dec 12)  1584.009  2001  3.983  6.946 (June 04)  2.624 (Feb 28)  1453.808  2002  4.153  8.269 (July 02)  2.813 (March 23)  1515.700  2003  3.870  7.112 (June 12)  2.623 (March 12)  1412.456  2004  4.127  6.488 (June 13)  2.686 (March 01)  1510.376  2005  4.403  7.137 (May 18)  3.328 (Dec 14)  1607.074  Table 01: Thompson River at Kamloops - Daily Water Levels source: www. wsc. ec. gc. ca/hydat/H20  22  Data for daily water levels were selected to represent the history of the river starting in 1911, a s this w a s the first y e a r data on the river w a s available. T h e following years, 1948 and 1972, were provided a s they were years of major flooding and represent potential water flows through the river s y s t e m . T h e final five years, 2000 through 2005, were provided to represent the river in recent years. T h e data clearly s h o w that the river typically e x p e r i e n c e s high levels during J u n e a n d low levels during M a r c h , with fluctuations between these two periods being a s high a s six metres. Relative to Riverside Park, the river data further e m p h a s i z e s that this is a d y n a m i c system and must be c o n s i d e r e d in a n y future development of the park. T h i s is especially true along the northern perimeter, where the park runs adjacent to the T h o m p s o n River shoreline.  3.5.5 Topography and Views Riverside Park lies on the valley floor of the T h o m p s o n River resulting in a relatively flat site. With the majority of the park rising gently up from the north to south, the greatest c h a n g e in elevation o c c u r s at the eastern e d g e with a c h a n g e in elevation of approximately s e v e n metres (from the low water point to the intersection of L o m e Street a n d 3  r d  A v e n u e ) . T h e c h a n g e in topography provides a g o o d vantage point from which the park c a n be viewed.  3.5.6 Park Connections to River T h e T h o m p s o n Rivers are dynamic forces that, through the y e a r s , have s h a p e d and defined the City of K a m l o o p s . T h e confluence of the North a n d South T h o m p s o n Rivers, in addition to the backdrop of the dry, rugged rolling hills is easily identifiable within the T h o m p s o n Nicola Region.  It is these river s y s t e m s that have s h a p e d the valley walls over  the years a n d provided the l a n d s c a p e upon which K a m l o o p s h a s grown. Having played s u c h a vital role, it m a k e s s e n s e that the river is a place  23  that people are e n c o u r a g e d to visit and experience, promoting the understanding and respect for s u c h a d y n a m i c force in the city. T h i s c o n s i d e r e d , Riverside Park could potentially provide the n e c e s s a r y link to build a relationship between people and the river a n d should therefore be c o n s i d e r e d a platform from which the rivers c a n be appreciated. T h i s could be achieved by creating strong connections between Riverside Park and the T h o m p s o n Rivers. T h e setting of Riverside Park next to the confluence of the North a n d South T h o m p s o n Rivers (beginning of the T h o m p s o n River) requires an overview to understand the existing relationship between the park and river s y s t e m to inform future planning of river to park connections. D u e to the linear form of the park, the entire northern portion runs directly adjacent to the shoreline of the river. Currently, four major connections exist between the park and the T h o m p s o n River: High W a t e r P l a z a ; the public b e a c h area; the pier, and riparian area. High W a t e r P l a z a , the first of the park to river c o n n e c t i o n s , has been a s u c c e s s f u l addition to Riverside Park. Implemented a s a portion of the Rivers Trail this public plaza has peek holes cut into large sculptural rock elements showing different river levels throughout history. T h i s park element is intuitive and promotes an understanding of changing water levels. Although the plaza is popular and well u s e d by the public it feels a s though it has been placed next to the river, rather than integrated with the river. T h e placement (as o p p o s e d to integration) of the plaza at s u c h a prime location in the park has c a u s e d a physical d i s c o n n e c t between park-users and the South T h o m p s o n River. C o n s i d e r i n g that High W a t e r P l a z a is located at the north-eastern e d g e of Riverside Park it would be appropriate if this entry served a s a gateway that e n c o u r a g e s not only a visual connection with the river, but a physical connection a s well.  24  Figure 04: High Water Plaza Photo by author S e c o n d l y , the public b e a c h is a popular a r e a of the park during s u m m e r months and throughout the remainder of the year. S w i m m e r s and sunbathers o c c u p y the b e a c h during s u m m e r months while the remainder of the year s e e s people stroll along the b e a c h getting close to the shore to enjoy the river. T h i s area of the park provides the opportunity for park-users to a p p r o a c h the water and b e c o m e e n g a g e d with the river s y s t e m . During larger festivities and events in s u m m e r months the public b e a c h r e a c h e s capacity a s the entire area is filled with people. Although it is exciting to a p p r o a c h and be part of a crowded b e a c h , it also suggests that e x p a n s i o n is n e c e s s a r y to a c c o m m o d a t e larger n u m b e r s . In addition, the b e a c h area lacks any designated entry or point of arrival. T h e T h o m p s o n Rivers are an integral part of not only Riverside Park, but the City of K a m l o o p s . T h e journey towards this specific area requires more recognition than currently exists. A significant transition a n d celebration of arrival must occur when moving from the park into the b e a c h area that a c k n o w l e d g e s the significance of the river s y s t e m .  25  T H O M P S O N RIVER  PUBLIC B E A C H  A 1 1  RjVErtSTBAl^  ^  +  RIVERSIDE PARK  Figure 05: Public beach as a connection to the Thompson River  26  T h e third of the park to river connections is the existing pier structure located at the north-west e d g e of the public b e a c h a r e a . T h e pier often has people occupying it, either a s a place to fish from or to get an improved vantage point of the river confluence and rolling hills b e y o n d . Detracting from the park-users experience of the pier is a poor connection down to the public b e a c h area and lack of seating a n d shelter at the end of the pier. Improving these pier features would optimize the overall experience of this elevated viewpoint of the river.  Figure 08: Pier as connection to Riverside Park  27  Figure 09: Looking north from Rivers Trail towards river confluence Photo by author  Figure 12: Looking west Photo by author  Figure 10: Looking south from end of pier towards Riverside Park Photo by author  Figure 13: Looking north Photo by author  Figure 14: Looking east Photo by author  28  Finally, the riparian area in Riverside Park not only s e r v e s a s an important environmental element of the park, but a s an educational feature a s well. Currently, the City of K a m l o o p s is required to maintain and e n h a n c e the existing riparian vegetation adjacent to the water as it provides habitat to life relative to the T h o m p s o n River. In several a r e a s along the vegetated river bank, small trails have b e e n established down to the waters e d g e . T h e s e small informal trails create valuable connections down to the water in a m a n n e r that is adventurous and exploratory. Further implementation of riparian a r e a s in the park should serve a s features that e n c o u r a g e interactions that are similar to these small informal trails.  Figure 15: Trail leading down to Thompson River from Rivers Trail through riparian area Photo by author  29  3.5.7 P a r k C o n n e c t i o n s to the C i t y o f K a m l o o p s T h e downtown of K a m l o o p s is o n e of the oldest a r e a s of the City. M a n y of the finest heritage buildings are located here contributing to a feeling of maturity and character. During the s u m m e r months the streets c o m e to life with festivities and events like the farmers' market that s e e s an entire block closed to traffic so sellers c a n set up booths to display fruits, v e g e t a b l e s , meats, baked g o o d s , and plants for s a l e . T h e community c o m e s out to support these events in large n u m b e r s ensuring their continuum in the City. Unfortunately, the downtown core, despite the energy created by organized events c a n be an unpleasant experience for pedestrian a n d cyclist traffic. T h r e e of the downtown streets including: L a n s d o w n e Street, St. Paul Street and 3  rd  A v e n u e are large o n e - w a y streets with high traffic  s p e e d s , creating an unpleasant atmosphere to be part of. Alternatively, Victoria Street, the main downtown street, is wonderful to walk through with large street trees, outdoor c a f e s , decorative planters and crowded streets. Using Victoria Street a s a model for future revitalization for other streets will e n s u r e a downtown that is lively a n d s e r v e s a s a popular destination for locals and visitors alike. C o n n e c t i n g the downtown core with Riverside Park is important a s the cultural a n d social benefits of both p l a c e s would be linked, resulting in a strengthening of community. Currently, the C P Rail Line w e a k e n s this link a n d is viewed a s a hindrance in the City that acts a s large barrier to Riverside Park a n d the T h o m p s o n Rivers. Rather than seeing the C P Rail Line a s a obstruction between the downtown and park it should be s e e n a s the doorway that leads from o n e exciting part of the city to the next. T h i s connection c a n be initiated at e a c h of the intersections into the park on L a n s d o w n e Street at 1 , 2 st  n d  and 3  rd  Avenues.  T w o roads parallel the rail lines, o n e to the north a n d o n e to the south. L o c a t e d to the north is L o m e Street, also known a s Mark R e c c h i W a y , which runs adjacent to Riverside Park. T o the south is L a n s d o w n e  30  S t r e e t , a m a j o r o n e - w a y s t r e e t t h a t s u p p o r t s all t y p e s o f traffic. L i n k i n g t h e s e two r o a d s a c r o s s the Rail L i n e s are 1 , 2 st  n d  and 3  r d  Avenues. The  f o l l o w i n g s i t e a n a l y s i s o f R i v e r s i d e P a r k to d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s e x a m i n e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n s at t h e s e t h r e e a v e n u e s . The 1  st  A v e n u e c o n n e c t i o n f r o m L a n s d o w n e S t r e e t to L o m e S t r e e t  r e q u i r e s v e h i c l e s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s to p a s s b e n e a t h t h e C P R a i l L i n e o v e r p a s s . N o r e c o g n i t i o n is g i v e n t o t h e u p c o m i n g p a r k e n t r y d e n y i n g a n y v i s u a l e v i d e n c e of R i v e r s i d e P a r k . S t r o n g e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of l a n d s c a p i n g in a d d i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y i n g t h e o v e r p a s s a s a g a t e w a y w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n t h i s p o i n t of c o n n e c t i o n into t h e p a r k .  RIVERSIDE PARK  Figure 16: 1 Avenue connection to Lome Street s  31  Figure 17: Driving west on Lansdowne Street arrow indicates 1 Avenue Photo by author s  Figure 18: Looking north towards CP Railway overpass Photo by author  Figure 19: Looking south from beneath overpass Photo by author  32  After crossing the L a n s d o w n e Street intersection on 2  Avenue  from downtown, traffic is confronted with the C P Rail Line. Unlike the other two connections e x a m i n e d , the 2  n d  A v e n u e connection requires  pedestrians to wait for trains to p a s s . At this entry there is nothing to signify that o n e is making a transition from the city into the park. A n opportunity presents itself to create a connection here a s a clear view into Riverside Park exists b e c a u s e it is situated at a higher elevation than the park. After an analysis of this connection it b e c a m e clear that three interventions would greatly improve the existing transition from city to park. First, the intersection of L a n s d o w n e Street a n d 2  n d  A v e n u e could be  strengthened by creating a l a n d s c a p e that is park-like a n d aesthetically a n d physically pleasant to o c c u p y . S e c o n d l y , the pedestrian experience of waiting for the train to p a s s should be treated a s an event. T h e creation of a designated area to wait for trains to p a s s could be a safe and exciting place w h e n entering into or leaving the park. Finally, b e c a u s e of the central location and great visual a c c e s s acquired, the main entry into Riverside Park should be located at the end of 2  n d  A v e n u e where it meets  L o m e Street.  33  34  Figure 22: Looking north towards 2 Avenue towards connection from Lansdowne Street Photo by author m  Figure 23: Looking north on 2 Avenue to Riverside Park on the north side of CP Rail Line Photo by author  Consistent with the connection between 1 Street, vehicular traffic on 3 the other connections, 3  rd  rd  and 2  A v e n u e s and L o m e  A v e n u e must cross the C P Rail Line. Contrary to  A v e n u e allows for pedestrian traffic to p a s s over train  traffic via a large bridge structure. A g a i n visual indicators are n e c e s s a r y at the intersection of L a n s d o w n e Street and 3  rd  A v e n u e to bring attention to the park  beyond.  35  Photo by author  3.5.8 Connections Within Riverside Park Throughout history, Riverside Park h a s evolved from a sports and leisure park into a park that has a stronger f o c u s on culture and leisure. A s o n e of the premiere parks in K a m l o o p s c o m b i n e d with its location c l o s e to the downtown core, this designation s e e m s appropriate one. Currently, Riverside Park is a modest o a s i s in the semi-arid city. It is a wonderful place to visit throughout the year, whether it is during o n e of the major festivals where every part of the park is o c c u p i e d or individually after a snowfall where it is only your footprints in the s n o w that a c c o m p a n y y o u . It would s e e m that Riverside Park is quite acceptable in its current state. However, it is looking into the future where c o n c e r n is raised. T h e current programming of the park is suffering from stress during larger events. M u c h of the existing infrastructure is outdated and unpractical for current applications. T h r o u g h site analysis a n in-depth exploration has b e e n d o n e on the park to determine the necessity of e a c h of its park elements. O n e major element in the park, the Rivers Trail, runs along the entire northern e d g e of Riverside Park and c o n n e c t s the eastern part of the park with the west. It is typically a 3-metre wide asphalt path that a c c o m m o d a t e s both pedestrian and cyclist traffic. T h e quality of hard surface material u s e d for the portion of trail running through Riverside Park d o e s not reflect the importance of this park in the City of K a m l o o p s a n d the fact that it is located at a very important junction of two major river s y s t e m s . A more appropriate u s e of trail surfacing materials should be implemented in the future. Currently, for the majority of the park, the Rivers Trail is situated very c l o s e to the e d g e of the river. A s a result conflict is occurring at two specific a r e a s in the park: at the public b e a c h and the riparian area west of the pier. A l o n g the southern e d g e of the public b e a c h the Rivers Trail acts a s a n e d g e . H e a v y u s e of the trail during s u m m e r months c o m b i n e d with b e a c h users results in trail congestion. Alleviating this problem  37  r e q u i r e s r e l o c a t i n g t h e R i v e r s T r a i l f u r t h e r into t h e p a r k t o a l l o w f o r a c o n t i n u o u s f l o w o f p e d e s t r i a n a n d c y c l i s t traffic. T h i s w o u l d a l s o a l l o w f o r a m u c h n e e d e d e x p a n s i o n of the public b e a c h a r e a . T h e s e c o n d a r e a of c o n c e r n , t h e r i p a r i a n a r e a , is a s e c t i o n o f t h e trail w h i c h r u n s t o o c l o s e t o t h e v e g e t a t e d r i v e r b a n k . A s a r e s u l t , b r a n c h e s o f t e n c r o w d t h e trail a n d r o o t s c a u s e s d a m a g e to t h e a s p h a l t s u r f a c e . S i m i l a r t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n f o r the p u b l i c b e a c h a r e a , t h e R i v e r s Trail a l s o n e e d s to b e m o v e d further s o u t h into t h e p a r k t o a d d r e s s t h i s p r o b l e m .  Figure 26: Looking north-east from the Rivers Trail towards the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers with Mt. Peter and Mt. Paul in the background Photo by author  Figure 27: visual experience of walking along Rivers Trail Photo by author  38  C H A P T E R 4 - T H E SITE D E S I G N  4.1 M A S T E R P L A N T h e overall design is driven by three key ideas. T h e s e ideas reflect the necessity of connections a s a key driver behind the p r o p o s e d design solution. T h e three main connections a d d r e s s e d in this project include: 1) a connection between Riverside Park and the T h o m p s o n Rivers 2) connections within Riverside Park itself and 3) connections between Riverside Park and downtown Kamloops.  Figure 28: Situated between the Thompson Rivers and downtown Kamloops the proposed masterplan for Riverside Park requires attention to not only the park itself, but connections to the river system and urban fabric.  39  C o n n e c t i o n s between Riverside Park and the T h o m p s o n Rivers are intended to maintain riparian integrity along the river shoreline and increase opportunities for river interaction and experience. T h i s would be a c h i e v e d by maintaining existing riparian habitat along the river shoreline a n d creating places that promote river encounters.  Figure 29: Concept diagram showing connections from Riverside Park to the Thompson Rivers.  C o n n e c t i o n s within Riverside Park will create more c o h e r e n c e , thus optimizing park u s e a s a cultural gathering point in the City. T h e p r o p o s e d relocation or replacement of existing facilities would contribute to a more functional park a s a whole. Introduction of new facilities and entries to Riverside Park will also contribute to the overall goal of a masterplan for the Park.  Figure 30: Concept diagram showing connections within Riverside Park.  40  C o n n e c t i o n s to d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s a d d r e s s a r e a s d i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e C P R a i l L i n e . T h e d e s i g n reflects a n attempt to i m p r o v e c o n n e c t i v i t y c o n s t r a i n t s c a u s e d b y t h e railway. P a r t of this f o c u s is to c o n t i n u e a ' g r e e n n e t w o r k ' into t h e e x i s t i n g city g r i d w h e r e t h e p e d e s t r i a n e x p e r i e n c e is e n h a n c e d with street tree plantings a n d outdoor furnishings.  Figure 31: Concept diagram showing connections with downtown Kamloops.  41  4.2 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN RIVERSIDE PARK AND THE THOMPSON RIVERS 4.2.1 RIPARIAN AREAS C o n t i n u e d m a i n t e n a n c e a n d e n h a n c e m e n t of e x i s t i n g r i p a r i a n h a b i t a t a l o n g t h e n o r t h e r n e d g e of R i v e r s i d e P a r k w o u l d f u r t h e r e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s by the C i t y of K a m l o o p s P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n Staff. A s a result, a v i a n a n d riparian habitat w o u l d improve.  E x i s t i n g informal trails l e a d i n g  d o w n to t h e R i v e r s h o u l d b e m a i n t a i n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n n e c t p a r k - u s e r s w i t h t h e w a t e r . E x p o s u r e t o t h e R i v e r will f o s t e r e d u c a t i o n through e x p e r i e n c e , ultimately strengthening the c o n n e c t i o n between individuals and there place.  4.2.2 BEACH AREA T o a c h i e v e a m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t e n t r y into t h e e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r k v i a t h e R i v e r s T r a i l a trellis s y s t e m h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d a r o u n d H i g h W a t e r P l a z a . T h i s s t r u c t u r e s e r v e s a d u a l f u n c t i o n , first a s p r o t e c t i o n f r o m t h e s u n a s w e l l a s s e r v i n g a s a g a t e w a y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k a n d t h e public b e a c h a r e a . T o provide a c o n n e c t i o n with the R i v e r below, a b o a r d w a l k l e a d s f r o m H i g h W a t e r P l a z a d o w n to a l o w e r d o c k . T h e f l o a t i n g b o a r d w a l k a n d d o c k w o u l d d e f i n e a s a f e a r e a f o r s w i m m i n g . In a d d i t i o n , t h e d e c k will p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b o a t s to a c c e s s Riverside Park.  Figure 33: Perspective sketch showing floating boardwalk leading up to Highwater deck.  42  Figure 34: Perspective sketch showing dock at the end of the floating boardwalk.  Lying adjacent to the south of Highwate  ig  a r e a is p r o p o s e d and would serve a s a public s p a c e in the event that a convention centre w a s built beside the park. Although the development of s u c h a facility is only speculative at this point it is n e c e s s a r y to create a relationship between the convention centre and Riverside Park that benefits the park and park-users. T o a d d r e s s the problem of the Rivers Trail being located to c l o s e to the public b e a c h area the trail would be situated further south into the park. Relocating the trail to this area would a c h i e v e a more efficient flow for users of the Rivers Trail and allow for e x p a n s i o n of the existing public beach.  Figure 35: Perspective sketch of relocated Rivers Trail.  43  T o highlight the fact that the Rivers Trail is running through a significant portion of K a m l o o p s , next to the confluence of the North and S o u t h T h o m p s o n Rivers, a boardwalk is p r o p o s e d instead of the existing application of asphalt for the Rivers Trail. T h e difference of texture and aesthetics of the boardwalk will highlight the section of trail that p a s s e s next to the river confluence. In place of the old Rivers Trail that currently runs adjacent to the public b e a c h area a stepped boardwalk would act a s the new transition between the existing ' s a n d ' b e a c h area and the p r o p o s e d 'grass' b e a c h a r e a . T h i s new boardwalk will be u s e d for p a s s i v e movement, sunbathing a n d b e a c h play. T h e new g r a s s area increases the amount of room available for park-users wishing to enjoy the proximity to water. F r o m the grass b e a c h area connections are m a d e through the trees to the relocated Rivers Trail. T o highlight the p a s s a g e from the park out to the public b e a c h a r e a , a designated entry is situated at the mid-point where the park o p e n s up to the b e a c h and river vista. Linking the Rivers Trail to the b e a c h boardwalk, the b e a c h entry has pathways on either side of a raised g r a s s a r e a . T h r e e large s h a d e structures would be located on this g r a s s area to provide respite from the hot s u m m e r sun and act a s a focal point leading into the b e a c h . Building on the main public b e a c h entry an important link is p r o p o s e d between the park and the river at C o n f l u e n c e P l a z a . T h i s plaza acts a s an a n c h o r to the western e d g e of the b e a c h area in addition to joining Festival Field #1,  the b e a c h a r e a , the Rivers Trail and the c o v e r e d pier.  New buildings for a cafe and w a s h r o o m facility are p r o p o s e d to a c c o m m o d a t e existing programming n e e d s relative to the park. T h i s plaza a r e a e n c o u r a g e s movement out to the river, either via the covered pier or along the b e a c h boardwalk. Excellent views out to the river confluence and beyond are afforded from this p l a z a .  44  Fig. 36: Axonometric showing beach area  4.2.3. UJI LOOKOUT DECK A d d i n g to p r o p o s e d c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n R i v e r s i d e P a r k a n d t h e T h o m p s o n R i v e r s , Uji L o o k o u t D e c k is a n e w d e c k p r o p o s e d f o r t h e w e s t e r n portion of the park. Jutting t h r o u g h the riparian v e g e t a t i o n a n d o u t o v e r t h e T h o m p s o n R i v e r it will b e a n e w v a n t a g e p o i n t f r o m w h i c h o p t i m a l v i e w s o f t h e r i v e r c o n f l u e n c e a n d r o l l i n g hills b e y o n d c a n b e v i e w e d . C o n n e c t i n g u p t o t h e n e w Uji C u l t u r a l P a v i l i o n t h i s d e c k will s e r v e a s a n e x c e l l e n t s p o t for pavilion u s e r s to e n j o y t h e v i e w a n d t a k e p h o t o s of m e m o r a b l e m o m e n t s s u c h a s w e d d i n g s , a n n i v e r s a r i e s , g r a d u a t i o n , birthdays, etc.  4.3 CONNECTIONS WITHIN RIVERSIDE PARK 4.3.1 FESTIVAL FIELD #1 & #2 T o a c c o m m o d a t e future d e m a n d s of i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s u s i n g the e x i s t i n g b a n d s h e l l a r e a it is p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e b e r e l o c a t e d to t h e a r e a s o u t h - w e s t o f its c u r r e n t l o c a t i o n . S i t u a t i n g t h e b a n d s h e l l h e r e w o u l d a l l o w f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e t h e n u m b e r o f s p e c t a t o r s t a k i n g in a n e v e n t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e b a n d s h e l l w o u l d b e r e n o v a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e n t to better represent the local a r e a through the u s e of materials a n d colour.  45  P r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l f e s t i v a l s p a c e , F e s t i v a l F i e l d #2,  l o c a t e d to the  e a s t o f F e s t i v a l F i e l d #1, w o u l d b e a l a r g e o p e n g r a s s a r e a a b l e t o a c c o m m o d a t e v a r i o u s festivities a n d e v e n t s . T h i s p r o p o s e d festival field w o u l d r e p l a c e the existing w a t e r p a r k r e c o m m e n d e d for r e m o v a l from the park. T h e two festival fields are s e p a r a t e entities with c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s to L o m e S t r e e t a n d the b e a c h a r e a . T h i s distinction a l l o w s for two s e p a r a t e e v e n t s t o t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r o n e l a r g e e v e n t to f l o w f r o m o n e f i e l d into t h e n e x t .  4.3.2  R I V E R S T R A I L E N T R I E S INTO R I V E R S I D E P A R K  T h e R i v e r s T r a i l c u r r e n t l y b r i n g s p e o p l e into t h e p a r k at t h e e a s t a n d w e s t e n d . N e w s i g n a g e w i t h o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t i n g s , a s p r o p o s e d in t h e d e s i g n , w o u l d w e l c o m e v i s i t o r s into t h e P a r k a n d h i g h l i g h t t h i s a s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r k in d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s .  46  Figure 38: Section/elevation drawings showing entry signage portion of cross section A-A1  4.3.3 L A W N B O W L I N G P r o v i d i n g a m a i n entry point c e n t r a l to the p a r k r e q u i r e d that the d e s i g n a t e d lawn bowling facilities b e m o v e d from their existing location ( n e x t t o H e r i t a g e H o u s e ) to t h e a r e a w e s t o f t h e p r o p o s e d Uji C u l t u r a l Pavilion. With a decorative steel f e n c e a r o u n d the g r e e n s a n d the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c t a t o r s e a t i n g t h i s p a r k a c t i v i t y b e c o m e s o n e t h a t is i n c l u s i v e o f all p a r k - u s e r s w h e t h e r t h e y a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a g a m e o r o n l y w a t c h i n g it.  47  Figure 39: Plan view of lawn bowling area located at the west end of the park  ma  « • - • nftfe "  |  HA  *i  Figure 40: Portion of section/elevation of B-B1 showing lawn bowling area with Uji Cultural Pavilion in the background  48  4.3.4  EAST ENTRY FROM 3  rd  AVE.  T h e E a s t Entry entry at the intersection of 3  r d  Ave. and L o m e  Street has b e e n e x p a n d e d in size to create a more o p e n , inviting a p p r o a c h to the park. R a i s e d seating wall plantings create corridors for pedestrians to p a s s by ornamental plantings a s they m a k e their way into the park. T h e s e planters also double a s great p l a c e s to sit, relax a n d watch street activity.  4.3.5  UJI P A V I L I O N T o a d d r e s s the n e e d for additional social gathering s p a c e , the Uji  Cultural Pavilion has been p r o p o s e d to a c c o m m o d a t e larger indoor events and festivities. Included in the building would be public w a s h r o o m s (accessible from outside and inside the building), a kitchen a r e a , banquet/dining hall, and storage area. F a c i n g out onto the p r o p o s e d garden area this pavilion would allow for events to take place both indoors and out at the s a m e time. In addition, this pavilion would provide an opportunity for winter activities to take place in the park.  y  49  Figure 41:  „  _z—~|  Figure 42: Portion of section/elevation C-C1 showing parking area relative to CP Rail Line  50  4.3.6 RIVERSIDE PARK MAIN ENTRANCE T h e p r o p o s e d m a i n e n t r y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k , R i v e r s P l a z a , w o u l d s e r v e a s o n e of t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s a c t i n g a s a g a t e w a y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k . V i s i t o r s p a s s b e n e a t h a v i n e c o v e r e d trellis a s t h e y e n t e r into R i v e r s P l a z a w h i c h h a s b e n c h e s a n d r a i s e d p l a n t e r s filled with o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t s . T h i s a r e a w o u l d s e r v e a s a p a s s a g e w a y into t h e p a r k a s w e l l a s p r o v i d e p l a c e s for sitting a n d e a t i n g l u n c h u n d e r the s h a d e of large p i n e a n d a s p e n t r e e s . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s t h i s p l a z a w o u l d b e t r a n s f o r m e d into a f e s t i v e winter s c e n e . Lighting a n d s e a s o n a l installations w o u l d create a transition into t h e p a r k t h a t c r e a t e s e x c i t e m e n t t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s e a s o n s in t h e y e a r .  Figure 44: Portion of section/elevation H-H1 showing front entry into Rivers Plaza  51  4.3.7  HERITAGE HOUSE PLAZA S t e p p i n g d o w n f r o m the R i v e r s P l a z a ( m a i n entry) p a r k - u s e r s  w o u l d p a s s through Heritage H o u s e P l a z a . E x t e n d i n g out from the existing H e r i t a g e H o u s e this a r e a w o u l d b e a n o t h e r s o c i a l s p a c e a m o n g s t o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t i n g s a n d o u t d o o r s e a t i n g . It w o u l d a l s o c r e a t e a n o p p o r t u n i t y for u s e r g r o u p s of the H e r i t a g e H o u s e to m a x i m i z e interactions with p a r k - u s e r s .  Figure 45: Portion of section/elevation 1-11 looking at the Heritage House Plaza with outdoor seating and ornamental plantings  4.3.8 R I V E R S L O O K O U T T o c r e a t e a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e e n t i r e p a r k f r o m its p e r i m e t e r , t h e R i v e r s L o o k o u t is p r o p o s e d at t h e e x i s t i n g s i t e o f C u n l i f f e H o u s e w h e r e it w o u l d r e p l a c e C u n l i f f e H o u s e . L o c a t e d b e l o w t h e l o o k o u t is c e n t r a l i z e d p a r k m a i n t e n a n c e s h e d . T h e m a i n t e n a n c e s h e d r o o f w o u l d b e a g r e e n - r o o f t h a t a l l o w s a c c e s s to v i e w t h e p a r k f r o m t h e s o u t h - e a s t corner. Figure 46: Portion of section/elevation H-H1 showing Rivers Lookout  52  4.3.9  RIVERS PLAY T o p r o m o t e t h e p l a y a n d e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n in R i v e r s i d e P a r k ,  the R i v e r s P l a y a r e a w o u l d e n c o u r a g e a child's interaction with l a n d s c a p e b y s i t u a t i n g e l e m e n t s into t h e p l a y a r e a t h a t e n c o u r a g e e x p l o r a t i o n a n d learning. E x a m p l e s of t h e s e e l e m e n t s include large b o u l d e r s that c a n b e c l i m b e d a n d p o l e s e x t e n d i n g s k y w a r d w i t h l a r g e s c u l p t u r a l n e s t s at t h e t o p . B r i d g e s j o i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of t h e p l a y a r e a t h a t is s u r r o u n d e d w i t h o r n a m e n t a l g r a s s a n d p e r e n n i a l plantings that h a v e s e a s o n a l c h a n g e a n d represent the g r a s s l a n d s surrounding K a m l o o p s .  Figure 47: Plan view of Rivers Play area  53  Figure 48: Portion of section/elevation J-J1 showing Confluence Cafe in relation to the Rivers Play area  Figure 49: Portion of section/elevation J-J1 showing climbing boulders, nested poles and ornamental plantings in Rivers Play area  4.4 C O N N E C T I O N S T O D O W N T O W N K A M L O O P S 4.4.1 1  s t  Ave.  T o c r e a t e a p a r k - l i k e e n t r y at t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f 1  st  Avenue and  L a n s d o w n e S t r e e t t h e planting of t r e e s , s h r u b s a n d p e r e n n i a l s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d o n both s i d e s of the o v e r p a s s . C o l o u r f u l b a n n e r s w o u l d b e situated a m o n g s t t h e n e w planting to g i v e v i s u a l indication that t h e o v e r p a s s is a g a t e w a y t o s o m e t h i n g s i g n i f i c a n t o n t h e o t h e r s i d e .  54  4.4.2  2  N A  AVE.  T o create a focus on 2  A v e . a s t h e m a i n e n t r y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k  three d e s i g n a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d . First, the railway c r o s s i n g w o u l d feature a 'station platform'. T h e s e w o o d e n platforms w o u l d provide a s a f e p l a c e f o r p e d e s t r i a n to sit o r s t a n d a s t h e y w a t c h e d t r a i n s p a s s b y . S e c o n d l y , t h e c o r n e r s at t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n w o u l d h a v e c o r n e r c o n f l u e n c e l a n d s c a p e s . T h e s e l a n d s c a p e s w o u l d r e q u i r e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d at intersections w h e r e opportunities exist for street beautification. T h e s e l a n d s c a p e d p o c k e t s p r o v i d e p e d e s t r i a n respite a n d e n j o y m e n t . A r e a s of s e a t i n g in a m o n g s t l a n d s c a p e p l a n t i n g s p r o v i d e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m traffic a l l o w i n g p e o p l e t o s t o p a n d r e l a x . In a d d i t i o n , t h e c o r n e r c o n f l u e n c e c o n t r i b u t e s to a p a r k - l i k e f e e l i n g , c r e a t i n g a n e c e s s a r y link a c r o s s t h e C P R a i l L i n e to R i v e r s i d e P a r k . F i n a l l y , 2  nd  A v e . w o u l d b e tree lined directing  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m a i n e n t r y t o w a r d s t h e m a i n e n t r y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k a t L o m e Street.  55  I;,. •• z ^ n ^ ^ i — i k -  ,  _—,  Figure 53: Portion of section/elevation E-E1 showing station platforms at CP Rail Line Crossing  Figure 54: Portion of section/elevation F-F1 showing street tree plantings along 2 Avenue with commercial/residential development behind  56  4.4.3 3  r d  AVE.  The 3  rd  A v e . entry across the rail line would be a d d r e s s e d by  implementing street tree plantings, outdoor seating, colourful entry banners, and confluence corners. T h i s l a n d s c a p e application would continue a c r o s s the C P Rail Line to 3  r d  A v e . and L o m e Street. C o m b i n e d  with the existing pedestrian o v e r p a s s this entry into the park will be more inviting and celebrate the entry into Riverside Park.  Figure 56: Portion of section/elevation G-G1 showing outdoor cafe seating and confluence corner with ornamental plantings and colourful banners  57  4.4.4 Old Courthouse Viewpoint T o a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e of c o n n e c t i o n s b e i n g m a d e f r o m w i t h i n R i v e r s i d e P a r k to t h e C i t y a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n is b e i n g p r o p o s e d f r o m C o n f l u e n c e P l a z a ( n e x t t o C o n f l u e n c e C a f e ) . F r o m t h i s p o i n t in t h e P a r k a v i e w to o n e of K a m l o o p s m o s t v a l u e d h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s , t h e O l d C o u r t h o u s e , is c a p i t a l i z e d o n w i t h s e a t i n g b e n e a t h s h a d e t r e e s t h a t p r o v i d e c l e a r s i t e l i n e s to t h e o l d b r i c k h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g . T h i s c a u s a l p o s i t i o n i n g of s e a t i n g in t h e p a r k w o u l d b r i n g a n e l e m e n t o f s u r p r i s e t o p a r k - u s e r s s i t t i n g in b e n c h e s f a c i n g s o u t h - w e s t f r o m C o n f l u e n c e P l a z a .  58  CHAPTER 5-CONCLUSIONS  T h e following c o n c l u s i o n s are an evaluation of the p r o p o s e d d e s i g n criteria listed in section 1.3.3.  1. D e s i g n for Park U s e r s  Park d e s i g n elements have b e e n a p p r o a c h e d with the park-user in mind. Overall circulation of Riverside Park has b e e n c o n s i d e r e d by restructuring pathways inside the park and identifying main entries. More specifically, the Rivers Trail has b e e n relocated along the northern e d g e of the park to a d d r e s s issues of constraint and e n h a n c e the experience of the pedestrian relative to the river. N e w pathways link all p r o g r a m m e d a r e a s to optimize the functional, aesthetic and experiential quality of the park-user. P r o g r a m m e d a r e a s have also b e e n a p p r o a c h e d with the intent to create positive outdoor p l a c e s . T h i s is evident in the Rivers Play area where children are e x p o s e d to education through interaction. Large nested poles captivate the child's imagination a s they tower high a b o v e the play a r e a , conjuring up i m a g e s of avian life that m a y exist within the nests. Down at ground level children would be able to run down narrow pathways that lead through long flowing g r a s s e s intersected by large climbing boulders. T h i s play area i m m e r s e s children into a clearly defined a r e a that permits them to explore and learn through imagination and play.  2. D e s i g n everything with a purpose. H a v e g o o d relations of the park to its surroundings, u s e a r e a s and structures.  V i s u a l and physical links were created in the d e s i g n to e n s u r e that g o o d relations would exist between Riverside Park and its surroundings. Relative to Riverside Park, links to the downtown were a d d r e s s e d at 1 , st  59  2  , and 3  A v e n u e s to create a connection over the existing C P Rail  Line. T h i s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d by improving pedestrian and cyclist a c c e s s a n d by drawing attention to the fact that these should act a s park entrances. Similarly, relationships would be created between Riverside Park a n d the T h o m p s o n Rivers with design intervention p r o p o s e d at High W a t e r P l a z a , the public b e a c h , the pier and Uji Lookout D e c k . T h e s e design applications would promote interactions with the river s y s t e m s both physically a n d visually.  3. Provide adequate opportunities for growth in leisure.  Opportunity for growth has been a d d r e s s e d in several different a r e a s in the park. Mainly this has been a c h i e v e d by re-structuring existing p l a c e s in the park to a c c o m m o d a t e larger numbers of people, ie. the public b e a c h and festival fields #1 and #2.  T h e s e two a r e a s have been  e x p a n d e d to a c c o m m o d a t e approximately double their existing capacity. A l s o with the intent to provide for leisure activity, p l a c e s s u c h a s hte Rivers P l a z a , C o n f l u e n c e C a f e , and the Uji Cultural Pavilion would e n c o u r a g e social and cultural interactions a m o n g park-users.  4. Protect preserve and e n h a n c e the environment.  Incorporating the riparian e d g e along the northern e d g e of the park a s a d e s i g n element would result in education and preservation of the environment. T h i s would o c c u r a s a result of e x p o s u r e to the riparian area a n d the resulting a w a r e n e s s that people would have. In addition, water tolerant plantings would be r e c o m m e n d e d a s part of the planting s c h e m e for the park.  60  5. D e v e l o p an aesthetically appealing and functionally suitable environment.  Ornamental g r a s s e s grouped with other perennial plantings reminiscent of the surrounding g r a s s l a n d s will create an aesthetically appealing and regionally suitable look to the park. Designated a r e a s in the park have been specifically d e s i g n e d to a c c o m m o d a t e the anticipated user-groups, for example, the Rivers Play area has f o c u s e d on creating a place that is functionally suitable to children.  6. Establish a substantial experience, including effects of lines, forms, textures a n d colours, d o m i n a n c e and enclosure.  Building on the idea of regional representation in l a n d s c a p e , many of the p r o p o s e d design materials and compositions have b e e n inspired by the community of K a m l o o p s a n d the surrounding T h o m p s o n - N i c o l a R e g i o n . T h i s would be evident in new structures p r o p o s e d for the park which would follow the s a m e design specifications of heritage buildings in Kamloops.  7. Establish an appropriate experience, suited to the personality of the place, user, function and s c a l e .  Literature specific to the City of K a m l o o p s and to park d e s i g n have influenced a n d informed much of the design for Riverside Park. T h i s research has been c o m b i n e d with my own repeated e x p o s u r e and personal interpretation of the park over the past ten years.  61  8. D e s i g n with sensitivity to the costs of maintaining a n d e n h a n c i n g parks and recreation infrastructure.  Sensitivity to the cost of revitalizing Riverside Park h a s b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d through the design p r o c e s s . S i n c e this is the core urban park for K a m l o o p s , consideration w a s given to the fact that a higher level of implementation, often associated with higher c o s t s , would be appropriate for Riverside Park, Existing infrastructure has b e e n incorporated into the park masterplan where appropriate.  9. W h e r e possible make u s e of existing facilities.  W h e r e opportunities presented t h e m s e l v e s in the park an effort w a s m a d e to incorporate existing facilities into the d e s i g n . Unfortunately, only a few of the existing buildings were appropriate for future u s e in the park. A n e x a m p l e of o n e structure that has b e e n incorporated into the d e s i g n , although relocated, is the Rotary B a n d s h e l l , which h a s b e e n m o v e d further east to allow for larger events a n d festivals.  10. Provide linear recreation that is passive and e n c o u r a g e s alternative m e a n s of transportation between community destinations.  Modification of the existing Rivers Trail route improves the opportunity for passive recreation and better a c c o m m o d a t e s alternative m e a n s of transportation. T h i s w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d by relocating the trail in designated a r e a s to alleviate conflict with other u s e s on the trail  62  11.  Provide appropriate park design for aging cohort of baby b o o m e r s .  T h e p r o p o s e d o p e n layout for this park in addition to attention given to accessibility i s s u e s creates a place that will be appropriate for an aging cohort of baby b o o m e r s . In addition, p l a c e s for social interaction have b e e n created throughout the park.  T h e best evaluation of the design's capacity would, understandably, c o m e with the implementation of the design applications. T h e realization of this masterplan c o m b i n e d with the p a s s a g e of time would reveal the true s u c c e s s of the d e s i g n .  63  BIBLIOGRAPHY Balf, Ruth. 1975. Kamloops:  1914-1945.  Baljon, Lodewijk. 1992. Designing Approaches  to Design.  Parks:  Examination  of  Contemporary  T h e Netherlands. Architecture and Natura P r e s s .  Bostock, H . S . 1948. Physiography Reference  C a n a d a . P e e r l e s s Printers Ltd.  of the Canadian  to the Area North of the Fifty-Fifth  Cordillera  Paralell:  With  Special  Geol. Surv., C a n a d a ,  M e m . 247, 106p. B u r g e s s , J . , Harrison and C M . , Limb, M. 1988. ' P e o p l e , Parks a n d the U r b a n G r e e n : A Study of Popular M e a n i n g s and V a l u e s for O p e n S p a c e s in the City', Urban  Studies,  V o l . 25, pp. 455-473.  C a n n i n g s , S y d n e y & C a n n i n g s , Richard. 1999. Geology Journey  Through  of British  Columbia  - A  Time. V a n c o u v e r , B C . G r e y s t o n e B o o k s .  City of K a m l o o p s , Parks and Recreation S e r v i c e s . Parks  and Recreation  Master  Plan. Ekistics, K a m l o o p s , B C , 2004. City of K a m l o o p s , Official  Community  Plan, K a m l o o p s , B C , 2005.  A c c e s s e d : S e p t e m b e r 12, 2005 http://www.city.kamloops.bc.ca/downloads/index.html City of k a m l o o p s . Cultural  Strategic  Plan. K a m l o o p s , B C , 2005.  A c c e s s e d : S e p t e m b e r 12, 2005. http://www.city.kamloops.bc.ca/downloads/index.html Fulton, R . J . 1963. Deglaciation  of the Kamloops  Region  British  Columbia.  Region,  An Area  E v a n s t o n , Illinois. Northwestern University P r e s s . Fulton, R . J . 1967. Deglaciation Moderate  Studies  in the Kamloops  of  Relief. British C o l u m b i a . Ottawa, C a n a d a . C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t  Printing B u r e a u . Francis, Mark. 2003. Urban  Open Space - Designing  for User  Needs.  W a s h i n g t o n , D C . Island P r e s s . H o u g h , M i c h a e l , 1995, Cities and Natural  Process.  N e w York. Routledge.  J a c o b s , J a n e . 1961. The Death and Life of Great American  Cities.  N e w York.  Random House.  64  BIBLIOGRAPHY J a c k s o n , J . B . 1975. Discovering  the Vernacular  Landscape.  London. Yale  University P r e s s . J o n e s , K a r e n R. & Wills, J o h n . 2005. The Invention Garden  of Eden to Disney's  Magic Kingdom.  L y n c h , K e v i n . 1972. What Time is This Place? M c H a r g , Ian L. 1992. Design  With Nature.  of the Park-  1893-1993.  U S A . J o h n Wiley & S o n s P r e s s .  Around  - One Hundred  Years  of  Merrit, B C . Sonotek Publishing Ltd.  V y s e , A l a n & V y s e , F r a n c e s . 1994. Kamloops Landscape  the  U S A . T h e MIT P r e s s .  Norton, W a y n e & Schmidt, Wilf (eds.).1992. Kamloops Community  From  U S A . Polity P r e s s .  Kamloops  - The Thompson  River  (in) Reflections - T h o m p s o n Valley Histories,  (eds.) Norton, W a y n e & Schmidt, Wilf. K a m l o o p s , B C . Plateau P r e s s . Whyte, William. 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces.  Washington,  D . C , T h e Conservation Foundation. 2005. Projects for Public S p a c e s - Building Community, Creating P l a c e s , Using C o m m o n S e n s e [online]. Available from http://www.pps.org/ [Cited 6 D e c e m b e r 2005]. Environment C a n a d a . 2003. Archived Hydrometric Data [online]. Available from http://www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/hydat/H20/index_e.cfm?cname=main_e.cfm  [Cited 10  A u g u s t 2006].  65  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United States 4 0
Germany 3 2
China 3 10
France 2 0
Argentina 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 6 2
Ashburn 3 0
Shenzhen 2 10
Kansas City 1 0
Beijing 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0092734/manifest

Comment

Related Items