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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Confluence : a masterplan for Riverside Park 2006

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C O N F L U E N C E : A Masterplan for Riverside Park by E L I S E PATRICIA M A U R E E N M E N A R D A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 2006 © Elise Patricia Maureen Menard, 2006 ABSTRACT Riverside Park located in downtown Kamloops began developing as Citys' premiere park in the early 1900's. At this time there was an emphasis on programming for sport. Through the years the Park's focus has shifted from sport to a gathering space for community events and celebrations. This transition, however, has occurred in the absence of an overarching vision for Riverside Park as a vital cultural space for Kamloops' citizens. A s a result, the Park lacks cohesiveness not only within its boundaries, but also with regard to the adjacent river system and downtown area. Riverside Park, therefore, fails to meet its full potential as the premiere park for the City of Kamloops. By addressing three important issues of connectivity: 1) within Riverside Park itself, 2) between Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers, and 3) between Riverside Park and downtown Kamloops, this design proposal consists of a masterplan concept for Riverside Park which explores how this urban park can benefit from strengthened connections between the natural river system, park and urban fabric. T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S .....iii LIST O F T A B L E S vi LIST O F F I G U R E S vii A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S ix C H A P T E R 1 - P R O J E C T O V E R V I E W A N D S U M M A R Y 1.1 S T A T E M E N T O F INTENT 1.2 P R O J E C T G O A L 1.3 P R O J E C T O B J E C T I V E S 1 1.3.1 River-Park Objective 1 1.3.2 City-Park Objective 1 1.3.3 Riverside Park Objective 2 1.4 D E S I G N CRITERIA 2 1.5 B A C K G R O U N D A N D R A T I O N A L E 3 1 . 6 T H E S I S LIMITATIONS ...3 1.7 P R O J E C T M E T H O D O L O G Y 3 C H A P T E R 2 - T H E P R O C E S S : S T U D Y A P P R O A C H A N D M E T H O D S 2.1 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W 5 2.1.1 City of Kamloops 5 2.1.2 Urban Parks 8 2.1.3 Park-Users 11 2.1.4 Regional Representation of Landscape 14 C H A P T E R 3 - T H E S ITE: I N V E N T O R Y A N D A N A L Y S I S 3.1 T H E R E G I O N : T H O M P S O N N I C O L A 16 3.2 T H E MUNICIPALITY: K A M L O O P S 16 i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S 3.3 T H E SITE: R I V E R S I D E P A R K 17 3.3.1 Location 17 3.3.2 Size 17 3.3.3 Designation 18 3.3.4 Program 18 3.4 H I S T O R Y 18 3.5 S ITE I N V E N T O R Y A N D A N A L Y S I S 18 3.5.1 Geomorphic Setting and Topography 20 3.5.2 Soils 21 3.5.3 Vegetation 21 3.5.4 Hydrology 22 3.5.5 Topography and Views 23 3.5.6 Park Connections to River 23 3.5.7 Park Connections to the City of Kamloops 30 3.5.8 Connections Within Riverside Park 37 C H A P T E R 4 - T H E S ITE D E S I G N 4.1 M A S T E R P L A N 39 4.2 C O N N E C T I O N S B E T W E E N R I V E R S I D E P A R K A N D T H E T H O M P S O N R I V E R S 42 4.2.1 Riparian Areas 42 4.2.2 Beach Area 42 4.2.3 Uji Lookout Deck 45 4.3 C O N N E C T I O N S WITHIN R I V E R S I D E P A R K 45 4.3.1 Festival Field #1 and #2 45 4.3.2 Rivers Trail Entries Into Riverside Park 46 4.3.3 Lawn Bowling 47 4.3.4 East Entry from 3 r d Ave 49 iv T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S 4.3.5 Uji Pavilion 49 4.3.6 Riverside Park Main Entrance 51 4.3.7 Heritage House Plaza 52 4.3.8 Rivers Lookout 52 4.3.9 Rivers Play.. 53 4.4 C O N N E C T I O N S T O D O W N T O W N K A M L O O P S 54 4.4.1 1 s t Ave : 54 4.4.2 2 n d Ave 55 4.4.3 3 r d Ave 57 4.4.4 Old Courthouse Viewpoint 58 C H A P T E R 5 - C O N C L U S I O N S 59 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 64 V LIST O F T A B L E S Table 01: Thompson River at Kamloops - Daily Water Levels 22 v i LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 01: Thompson Nicola Region 16 Figure 02: Satellite Photo - City of Kamloops 16 Figure 03: Aerial Photo - Riverside Park 17 Figure 04: High Water Plaza Photo 25 Figure 05: Public Beach Connection 26 Figure 06: Public Beach Photo 26 Figure 07: Rivers Trail Along Public Beach Photo 26 Figure 08: Pier as Connection to Riverside Park 27 Figure 09: Looking North From Rivers Trail Photo 28 Figure 10: Looking South From End of Pier Photo 28 Figure 11: Pier Structure Photo 28 Figure 12: Looking West Photo 28 Figure 13: Looking North Photo 28 Figure 14: Look East Photo 28 Figure 15: Trail Leading to Thompson River Photo 29 Figure 16: 1 s t Avenue Connection to Lome Street 31 Figure 17: Driving West on Lansdowne Street Photo 32 Figure 18: Looking North Towards C P Railway Overpass Photo 32 Figure 19: Looking South From Beneath Overpass 32 Figure 20: 2 n d Avenue Connection to Lome Street 34 Figure 21: Driving West on Lansdowne Street Photo 34 Figure 22: Looking North Towards 2 n d Avenue Photo 35 Figure 23: Looking North on 2 n d Avenue Photo 35 Figure 24: 3 r d Avenue Connection to Lome Street 36 Figure 25: Looking North on 3 r d Avenue Photo 36 Figure 26: Looking North-East From Rivers Trail Photo 38 Figure 27: Visual Experience of Walking Along Rivers Trail Photo 38 Figure 28: Masterplan 39 vii LIST O F F I G U R E S Figure 29: Concept Diagram - Park to River Connections 40 Figure 30: Concept Diagram - Connections Within Park 40 Figure 31: Concept Diagram - Park to City Connections 41 Figure 32: Overall Concept Diagram 41 Figure 33: Perspective Sketch Showing Floating Boardwalk 42 Figure 34: Perspective Sketch Showing Dock 43 Figure 35: Perspective Sketch of Relocated Rivers Trail 43 Figure 36: Axonometric Showing Beach Area 45 Figure 37: Plan View of Rivers Trail West Entry 46 Figure 38: Section/Elevation Showing Entry Signage 47 Figure 39: Plan View of Lawn Bowling Area 48 Figure 40: Section/Elevation Showing Lawn Bowling Area 48 Figure 41: Plan View of Uji Cultural Pavilion 50 Figure 42: Section/Elevation Showing Parking Area 50 Figure 43: Plan View of Main Entry 51 Figure 44: Section/Elevation of Front Entry 51 Figure 45: Section Elevation Looking at Heritage House Plaza 52 Figure 46: Section/Elevation Showing Rivers Lookout 52 Figure 47: Plan View of Rivers Play Area 53 Figure 48: Section/Elevation showing Confluence Cafe 54 Figure 49: Section/Elevation Showing Climbing Boulders 54 Figure 50: Plan View of 1 s t Avenue Entry 54 Figure 51: Section/Elevation Showing 1 s t Avenue Entry 55 Figure 52: Plan View Showing 2 n d Avenue Entry 56 Figure 53: Section/Elevation Showing Station Platforms 56 Figure 54: Section/Elevation Showing Street Tree Planting 56 Figure 55: Plan View Showing 3 r d Avenue Entry 57 Figure 56: Section/Elevation Showing 3 r d Avenue Entry 57 Figure 57: Perspective Sketch Showing View to Old Courthouse 58 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS For their insightful contributions to this project I would like to thank William Marsh and Douglas Paterson. Your discourse and guidance throughout the design process has been enlightening and inspiring. I would also like to thank family and friends both inside the landscape architecture studio and out. Your support and encouragement was the necessary fuel to make it through the past three years. ix CHAPTER 1 - PROJECT OVERVIEW AND SUMMARY 1.1 STATEMENT OF INTENT Situated between the Kamloops City-core and the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, Riverside Park functions as a pivotal transition between a naturally occurring river system and an urban city-fabric. A n existing weak relationship between the park, the community and the river system, as well as a lack of fundamental order and cohesiveness within the park itself serve to dissolve and disguise rather than reinforce connections between river, park and city. T h e intent of this project is to define and examine existing constraints and explore design solutions both within and adjacent to Riverside Park. 1.2 PROJECT GOAL T o expand the role of Riverside Park in the community and region by creating an effective integration between river, park and city. 1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES The objectives for this landscape design study include: 1.3.1 RIVER-PARK OBJECTIVE: Integrate the Thompson Rivers with Riverside Park by bringing (a) elements from the river into the park and (b) elements from the park into the river. 1.3.2 CITY-PARK OBJECTIVE: Integrate downtown Kamloops with Riverside Park by (a) bringing elements from the downtown into the park and (b) elements from the park into the downtown. 1 1.3.3 RIVERSIDE PARK OBJECTIVE: Create a clear and logical order to the internal park design with appropriate types of facilities at scales which meet the needs of an expanded user group. 1.4 DESIGN CRITERIA The following design criteria exhibit measures and are a combination of factors taken from the City of Kamloops - Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004) and Albert Rutledge's Anatomy of a Park. T h e s e elements have been adopted to achieve the specified project objectives: 1. Design for park-users; 2. Design everything with a purpose. Have good relations of the park to its surroundings, use areas and structures; 3. Provide adequate opportunities for growth in leisure; 4. Protect preserve and enhance the environment; 5. Develop an aesthetically appealing and functionally suitable environment; 6. Establish a substantial experience, including effects of lines, forms, textures and colours, dominance and enclosure; 7. Establish an appropriate experience, suited to the personality of the place, user, function and scale; 8. Design with sensitivity to the costs of maintaining and enhancing parks and recreation infrastructure; 9. Where possible make use of existing facilities; 10. Provide linear recreation that is passive and encourages alternative means of transportation between community destinations; 11. Provide appropriate park design for aging cohort of baby boomers; 2 1.5 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE The park was observed on numerous occasions in all seasons , most times of the day and during events. These observations reveal that disconnects exist not only within the park itself, but between the adjacent river system and the downtown area of Kamloops. It is evident that the site is a vital place for the City of Kamloops because it is where events such as C a n a d a Day, the Rivers Family Festival, Music in the Park, running races etc, are staged. T h e s e events draw large numbers and serve to strengthen a sense of culture and community in Kamloops. Furthermore, the proximity of the park to the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers and to downtown Kamloops also highlights the necessity of the park as a link between the natural and built environments of Kamloops. 1.6 THESIS LIMITATIONS The intent of this study is to formulate design solutions at a conceptual level. T o implement these concepts further design development would, understandably, have to be completed. 1.7 PROJECT METHODOLOGY The project followed a methodological process. The principal outcome of the study is a conceptual masterplan for Riverside Park. 1) Site Selection 2) Meeting with City of Kamloops Parks and Recreation Maintenance Staff. 3) Literature Review and precedent searches that focused on: • The City of Kamloops • Park Design • Park-Users • Regional Representation of Landscape 3 4) Contextual Analysis • Regional context: the role of Riverside Park in the Thompson-Nicola Region • Municipality context: the role of Riverside Park in the City of Kamloops • Historical context: the past history of Riverside Park 5) Site Analysis • Existing relationship between the Thompson Rivers and Riverside Park. • Existing relationship between downtown Kamloops and Riverside Park • Rivers Trail: examined as a corridor of movement through Riverside Park • Inventory of Riverside Park and current patterns and uses in the park. 6) Conceptual Development 7) Design Development 8) Masterplan Concept 9) Post-design Analysis 4 CHAPTER 2 - THE PROCESS: STUDY APPROACH AND METHODS 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW T h e literature review for this project focused on four areas. T o begin with, a further understanding of Kamloops was gained by reviewing various documents prepared by the City of Kamloops. Secondly, urban park design applications were researched. This information was added to by studying several precedents of urban parks. Finally, regional representation of landscape was reviewed to address the need for providing a sense of the Thompson-Nicola Region within Riverside Park. 2.1.1 City of Kamloops T o better understand the community context and future goals Kamloops I began with a review of documents relevant to the future growth and development, especially where parks and culture were concerned. Documents including: the City of Kamloops Official Community Plan (2005), City of Kamloops Cultural Strategic Plan (2005), and the City of Kamloops Parks and Recreation Master Plan (2004), provided valuable insight into the City's goals and objectives. The City of Kamloops Official Community Plan (2005) listed several goals for the Parks and Recreation Department to work towards. A summary of these goals, derived from the quality of life section of the Official Community Plan (2005) include: • ensure that all citizens of Kamloops have adequate opportunities for personal growth in their leisure, thereby enriching the life of individuals and the community; • protect, preserve and enhance the environment for the enrichment of the community and the enjoyment of all people; 5 • ensure that public parkland of all types is distributed throughout the community in an equitable manner to meet the community's needs; • develop and maintain an aesthetically appealing environment; • support the development of a strong community image. T h e s e goals help identify and create a focus for design applications to Riverside Park and are consistent with the City of Kamloops Official Community Plan (2005). The City of Kamloops Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004) is a comprehensive document representing growth of all parks in the Kamloops area. T h e masterplan states the vision for parks as "to provide the opportunity for an outstanding quality of life" (City of Kamloops, 2004, p.8). The supporting goal for this vision is "to provide outstanding parks, trails and natural areas that enhance the quality of life for Kamloops' citizens" (City of Kamloops, 2004, p.8). This vision and goal for Parks in the City is necessary because of changing social and geographic needs in Kamloops. T h e s e dynamic forces will continue to impact the future as well. Specifically associated with Riverside Park, the major influences can be summarized as: • costs of maintaining and enhancing parks and recreation infrastructure; • expectation that there will be less money available in the future to meet community desires and needs; • where possible make use of existing facilties; • partnerships with volunteers and organizations; • public involvement; • linear recreation that is passive and encourages alternative means of transportation between community destinations; • Kamloops citizens and visitors have higher expectations of quality for parks in the area; 6 • aging cohort of baby boomers will continue to make significant use of parks and recreation facilities, though increasingly for health benefits; • awareness and prevalence of social issues (City of Kamloops, 2004). For the future success of Riverside Park it is necessary to develop a masterplan that considers potential influences on the park. Particularly important is the necessity for the park to provide social and cultural opportunities, resulting in strong ties and ownership. In addition, the City of Kamloops Cultural Strategic Plan, developed in 2005, has many points that support, although not directly, the need for Riverside Park to become a cultural stronghold in the community. O n e example is the desire to create more events like Music in the Park, weekly musical entertainment during summer months. This activity was identified as one of the significant cultural accomplishments in Kamloops as part of a City-wide survey on culture in Kamloops (City of Kamloops, 2005). Building on the idea of culture in parks, it is important to acknowledge the definition of 'Riverside Park' established by the City of Kamloops. T h e City designates Riverside Park as a City-wide park. Further defined, City-wide Parks include: "those City-owned park lands that are located and developed to provide a range of functions for the entire community. The parks vary in size, but are generally greater than ten hectares in size. In addition, they are strategically located within the City and are accessible to all residents by private and public transportation. Typically, these parks require a high degree of maintenance" (City of Kamloops, 2004). 7 Exploring the City of Kamloops documents provided valuable insight to Kamloops specific and the City itself. The Official Community Plan (2005), in its quality of life section, revealed the important contributing factors to community and individual health. Adding to the Official Community Plan (2005), the Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004), while promoting growth of parkland in Kamloops, made it clear that the emphasis for parks is to create an outstanding quality of life by providing parks, trails and natural areas that enhance life. Lastly, the Cultural Strategic Plan (2005) encouraged the development of more events that create the opportunities for cultural interaction in the City of Kamloops. 2.1.2 Urban Parks Building on the understanding of Riverside Park specific to Kamloops, it was necessary to explore design applications for urban parks. There is a rich tradition of park study and design in landscape architecture, and it may be enlightening to review the work of some prominent landscape architects and researchers in this area. Frederick Law Olmsted, a pioneer of landscape architecture, has helped define both the city and national park concepts in the nineteenth century. Among other parks, he was responsible for the design of Central Park and Prospect Park. Olmsted not only viewed the park as 'nature', he also viewed the park as a social structure, and, more significantly, as a place where society could be improved (Wills & Jones , 2005). Olmsted defined the park as "a space of ground used for public or private recreation, differing from a garden in its spaciousness and the broad, simple, and natural character of it's scenery and from a "wood" in the more scattered arrangement of its trees and greater expanse of its glades". Frederick Law Olmsted, 'Park', in the American Cyclopedia (1875). 8 Historically, some of the first parks, dating from the sixteenth century, were typically formal and elaborate outdoor spaces with small wooded areas created and set aside for the delectation of the court, only sometimes opened up to the public (Wills & Jones , 2005). T h e s e early formal parks provided passive enjoyment of outdoor spaces . In contrast to these architecturally structured places, it was the picturesque landscape park that inspired public park design in North America and Europe (Jackson, 1975). Typically, the representation of nature was the principle motive in the development of the art of park design (Baljon, 1992). Increasingly with time parks evolved into designated spaces for public enjoyment. Social change has occurred since the first parks were developed in the sixteenth century. Understandably, these changes must be reflected in current design principles and practices to address changing user-needs relative to public outdoor spaces. W h e n considering the potential future of a park through the design process it is important to remember that each generation will have different open space needs. In addition, overt ime there has been population growth and an increasing transient manner in which people move between cities. This has resulted in a decreased sense of place and community because people are less likely to development attachments to their community of residence. For this reason it is important that accessible spaces are available in the public realm, bringing people together, resulting in a stronger sense of community and place. The notion that green places are important in the city has been emphasized by ecological planner Ian McHarg who stated: "We need nature as much in the city as in the countryside" (McHarg, 1992, pg.5). This statement further supports the need for a strong link between the City of Kamloops and Riverside Park. Urban planning critic Jane Jacobs suggests that the inability of neighbourhoods or districts to attach themselves to a park can be attributed to a combination of negative factors. First, she suggests 9 possible park candidates are handicapped because of insufficient diversity in their immediate surroundings, and consequent dullness; and secondly, she goes on to say that what diversity and life available are dispersed and dissipated among too many parks, too similar in purpose to each other (Jacobs, 1961). Further into her discussion on parks, Jacobs distinguishes four elements that contribute to intensive use including: intricacy, centering, sun and enclosure. Intricacy is related to the different reasons which people come to a park. Different examples of this could include the rise of ground, groupings of trees, openings leading to various focal points - those subtle expression in difference. T h e s e differences in setting are then exaggerated by the differences in use that grow upon them. The second element, centering, is the designation of a centre of a park. The finest of these centers are stage settings for people. Third, is the role of sunshine in a park setting, shaded sun in summer months. The fourth and final element, enclosure, is the intention to bring a definite shape to the space (Jacobs, 1961). Furthering the information by Jane Jacobs , Burgess et al, present their findings of urban open space research in their paper 'People, Parks and the Urban Green: A Study of Popular Meanings and Values for Open Spaces in the City'. Their research, relative to the Greenwich O p e n S p a c e Project, shows that the most highly valued open spaces are those which enhance the positive qualities of urban life. T h e s e positive qualities include: 1) a variety of opportunities and physical settings and 2) sociability and cultural diversity. Research performed on the Greenwich Project suggests three criteria to evaluate the success of existing parks and open spaces . First, parks are judged in terms of their ability to provide a desired mixture of opportunities (Burgess et al., 1988). T o create open space that caters to cultural and social encounters it is necessary to present opportunities within the park that promote such encounters. In providing the desired 10 mixture of opportunities it is important to ensure that the park serves not only social interactions, rather, that cultural interactions are also promoted. S e c o n d , harmonious multiple use must exist as people desire a variety of environmental features and leisure facilities in open spaces (Burgess et al., 1988). From a design viewpoint it is important to emphasize relationships between these environmental and leisure entities within open spaces. Third, adventure play and exploration of the natural world must be recognized as a park function. Exposure to outdoor spaces must give adults and children alike the opportunity to revel in the sensuous qualities of nature (Burgess et al., 1988). Insight into urban parks by Burgess et al. and other landscape specialists provides a general understanding of necessary design for urban parks. Consideration and application of these concepts through design will result in a stronger masterplan for Riverside Park. 2.1.3 Park-Users Building on the necessary components of urban parks, it is of value to develop a comprehension of park-user needs. According to William Whyte, pioneer in analyzing the social use of urban spaces , "It is hard to design a space that will not attract people. What is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished" (Whyte, 1979). T o avoid the accomplishment Whyte refers to, an understanding of programming for park-user needs is necessary. Many studies support the idea that initially addressing user-needs is a requirement to making good parks, plazas and urban open spaces. Furthermore, as landscape architect and researcher Mark Francis suggests, successful public spaces are those that are responsive to the needs of their users; are democratic in their accessibility; and are meaningful for the larger community and society (Francis, 2003). Francis proceeds to define user- 11 needs as "those amenities and experiences that people seek in enjoying public open spaces . Needs provide the basic level of support and function in open space; they are the prerequisite for having an enjoyable landscape experience and provide the basis for much design criteria" (Francis, 2003, pg. 4). Furthering the work of William Whyte, the non-profit group Project for Public S p a c e s has focused its research on developing places for people. The following is a summary, according to Project for Public S p a c e s , of why public spaces fail. 1. Lack of good places to sit 2. Lack of gathering points 3. Poor entrances and visually inaccessible spaces 4. Dysfunctional features 5. Paths that don't go where people want to go 6. Domination of place by vehicles 7. Blank walls or dead zones around the edges of a place 8. Inconveniently located transit stops 9. Nothing going on Contrary to the failure of public spaces , Francis provides specific recommendations by laying out six considerations for the design and management of public spaces . The six proposed design and management considerations include: comfort, relaxation, passive engagement, active engagement, discovery and fun (Francis, 2003). Descriptions of these considerations include: 1) Comfort o providing enough comfortable places to sit or management practices that invite use; 12 o need for food, shelter from elements, or a place to rest when tired requires some degree of comfort to be satisfied; o without comfort it is difficult for other needs to be met; o relief from sun or access to sun. 2) Relaxation o research of open spaces indicates that people frequently seek outdoor settings for relaxation; o experience of psychological comfort is something people seek in open spaces; o water and vegetation can have restorative effects; o open space can promote stress reduction; o open space can create perceived or real relaxation. 3) Passive Engagement o can lead to sense of relaxation but differs in that it involves the need for an encounter with the setting w/out becoming actively involved, eg. enjoyment of watching a passing scene; o performers of programmed activities often facilitate this kind of activity 4) Active Engagement o opportunities for physical involvement with the space; o providing for various types of sports or physical activities; 5) Discovery o viewing public art and sculpture to stumbling upon unexpected places; o open space can provide important opportunities for discovery-based learning and education. 13 6) Fun o desire for fun and excitement in public spaces , eg. Adventure playgrounds or skateboard parks. (www.pps.org, 2005). Prior knowledge of park-users is a vital component of any park masterplanning process. Significant knowledge on the subject will lead to the design of park space suitable to those using it. Key points have been represented by authors like Whyte, Francis, Jacobs and Projects for Public spaces that have helped inform the programming needs of park- users for Riverside Park. Ultimately, landscapes that are accommodating and easy for people to use will result in places that are embraced and upheld by its users. 2.1.4 Regional Representation of Landscape Another notable area of park design that promotes a significant relationship between the landscape and its users is the idea of representing a region to aid in defining an individual's place. Identity of a place can be defined "simply as that which provides its individuality or distinction from other places and serves as the basis for its recognition as a separate entity" (Lynch, 1972, pg.8). A s towns and cities are largely perceived through their exterior environment (Hough, 1995) it is important that the region is represented in outdoor places in the city. Landscape researcher, John Brinckerhoff Jackson, furthers this point with his example about a stranger coming to a new land where every scene, every encounter, every landscape taught them something and the resulting sharpness of their sensory response based on that experience (Jackson, 1975). Creating a landscape that is unique and representational of the grasslands surrounding Kamloops could evoke the emotional dimension that Jackson speaks of. 14 Often it is the landscape that serves to help us interpret our understanding of the world we live in making it vital that these places are accessible in the communities we live in. It is necessary to ensure that constant and direct experience assimilated through daily exposure to, and interaction with the places one lives in, are accessible so that literacy about the environment around us and our relationship to it is possible (Hough, 1995); Representation of place in landscape allows the opportunity for individuals to identify, understand and perceive their surroundings and resulting relationships with them. Riverside Park is an outdoor setting that could potentially be a symbol of the surrounding Thompson-Nicola Region. 15 C H A P T E R 3 - T H E S ITE: I N V E N T O R Y A N D A N A L Y S I S 3.1 T h e R e g i o n : T h o m p s o n Nico la The Thompson-Nicola Region is situated in the southern portion of British Columbia. There is an approximate population of 120,000 people. Although water is abundant in Kamloops by virtue of its location on the Thompson Rivers, it is typically a drier area because it is situated east of the Coast Mountain range. This contributes to the grassland landscape that makes up most of the region. 3.2 T h e Municipal i ty: K a m l o o p s Kamloops, B C is the warmest city in C a n a d a and has a population of eighty-four thousand people. T h e City has been designated as the Tournament Capital of C a n a d a . Although it is located at the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, it is considered semi-arid and receives an average annual rainfall of 218mm. Primary industries in the area include: forestry, copper mining, ranching and tourism (Venture Kamloops: fast facts webpages). Figure 01 Thompson Nicola Region Source: www.tnrd.bc.ca Figure 02 Satellite Photo of Kamloops Source: www.city.kamloops.bc.ca 16 In 2001 the name "Tournament Capital of C a n a d a was adopted as an initiative to further enhance recreation and athletic development in the community, with the intent that it become a catalyst for diversification and growth of the local economy (City of Kamloops, 2004). 3.3 The Site: Riverside Park 3.3.1 location Riverside Park is situated south of the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers and North of the downtown core of Kamloops. In addition to its position between natural and built systems, the C P Rail Line bisects Riverside Park from downtown Kamloops creating a distinct separation between the park and city. Figure 03: Aerial Photo of Riverside Park 3.3.2 size Riverside Park is twenty-five hectares in size. The site takes on a linear form similar to that of the Thompson River shoreline. T h e size of the park provides adequate space to accommodate major festivities and Rivers Trail traffic while still providing the opportunity to layer in other programming needs on the site. 17 3.3.3. designation T h e City of Kamloops Parks and Recreation Masterplan (2004) designates Riverside Park as Kamloops 'premiere urban park'. This label is due to the parks primary access to waterfront and its role as a major community gathering and event space. In addition, the document classifies Riverside Park as a 'city-wide' park meaning that it is typically a destination larger than ten hectares in size, is accessible to all residents, and generally requires a higher degree of maintenance (City of Kamloops, 2004). 3.3.4. program Currently, Riverside Park provides facilities for a multitude of activities. T h e s e include walking, jogging, cycling, sunbathing, picnicking, lawnbowling, tennis courts, playground, waterpark, and Rotary Bandshell for various performing arts activities. Within Riverside Park there is parking available for 202 automobiles. 3.4 H I S T O R Y For thousands of years the Shuswap people have lived in villages comprised of pit houses at the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers. T h e first Europeans arrived less than 200 years ago, in 1811 fur traders from the Pacific Fur Company crossed the land from the Okanagan to spend the winter. T h e same fur traders returned the following year and camped at a place called Cumcloups by the natives, near the entrance to the north branch of the Thompson River. In November 1812 these fur traders were followed by traders from the Montreal-based North West Company. The North West C o m p a n y was bought by the Hudson's Bay Company, which operated at a fort north of the Thompson River from 1821 until it was relocated to the North Shore in 1842, from there they again moved to the South Shore in 1862 (City of Kamloops, 2005). 18 Gold was discovered in the late 1850's causing an influx of fortune seekers to the Interior of British Columbia (Norton & Schmidt, 1992). Following this influx of entrepreneurs was the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway along the south bank of the Thompson River in the early 1880's. Introduction of this rail system into the city solidified Kamloops' position as a major supply and distribution point for industries including: ranches, lumber and mining in the region. In 1884, John Andrew Mara and two other partners formed the New Townsite Syndicate. The new town was defined by laying a perfect grid of streets, blocks and lots. This layout still exists in the downtown core of Kamloops today (City of Kamloops, 2005). Agriculture, with a focus on cattle ranching has always been an important part of the economy in the Kamloops area. Fertile flat lands of the Thompson River Valley, in addition to the hot, dry summers provide an excellent growing environment for different fruits and vegetables. For over fifty years canneries for processing locally grown vegetables, especially tomatoes, served as an important industry for Kamloops (Balf, 1975). Following European settlement of the area, Riverside Park was the site of a pig farm and lumber mill owned by James Mcintosh. During the summers, Mcintosh allowed access to the east end of his property for picnics, cycling, and swimming. In 1901 the mill burned down and the City of Kamloops bought part of the land for a park. Nine years later an athletic field and grandstand were built. By 1913, a weekly farmer's market was set up in the new exhibition building. Shortly following the commencement of the farmer's market a bathing pavilion was built by the river. The park grounds were used during WWI as a training base for the army. During the 1920's a Parks Board was developed by the City of Kamloops. Establishment of a Parks Board saw Riverside Park grow into a popular place for recreation and social activities. The exhibition building was used as a gymnasium where community members enjoyed basketball, gymnastics, and 19 theatre. On the park grounds a large checkerboard and lawn bowling facility was built. In the early 1930's the park was closed off to automobiles, increasing the use of the park as a picnic site. At this time a children's wading pool was also created. Whole neighbourhoods would often gather at Centennial Pool , built in 1958, where they would spend the day swimming and barbecuing (Norton & Schmidt, 1992). 3.5 SITE INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS 3.5.1 Geomorphic Setting and Topography Kamloops is in the heart of the Canadian Cordillera. It has been portrayed as "a great wall rimmed by mountain battlements on each side, with an elevated platform between" (Bostock, 1948, p.3). Where ice once damned the valley's outlet, meltwater accumulated against the glacier and formed silty lakes on either side of it. T h e silt slowly settled out on the lake bottoms. After the glacier disappeared and the lakes drained, the silty lake bottoms remained as flat benches on either side of the valley. Erosion of these faces over time has created the scenic silt cliffs characteristic of the South Thompson Region. Landscape of the Kamloops region today, with the large valleys forming a giant inverted T-shape, was not by violent activity, but by more gentle forces working beneath the earth's crust. This period is the reason for current minor fault zones along the North and South Thompson which gradually pulled apart to create lakes and river valleys. Silt cliffs on both sides of the river valley were gullied and sculpted by the water and rain of immediate post-glacial times. They still exist today because of Kamloops' hot, dry climate (Vyse, 1994). Silt along the South Thompson valley is not unique considering similar deposits occur in other valleys in the Interior plateau. However, the silt of the South Thompson is likely the most extensive and best exposed deposit in the 20 province as it occupies approximately thirty miles of the South Thompson River Valley and occurs in vertical exposures of up to three hundred feet (Fulton, 1963). Gravel , sand and glacial till lie below the silt at several places along the edge of the South Thompson Valley (Fulton, 1963). Most of the valley is overlain by modern alluvial and wind deposits (Fulton, 1963). 3.5.2 S o i l s Riverside Park lies directly adjacent to the shores of the Thompson River. This location along the alluvial plain of the Thompson River valley results sandy loam native soils. However, over the years the original soils that existed here have been added to by significant amounts of fill. A s a result much of the imported soil has been increasingly compacted over the years. Due to the problems with compaction topsoil is typically brought in for any plantings within the park. 3.5.3 Vegetat ion Mature trees in Riverside Park are one of the main defining features. The canopy, primarily deciduous in nature, gives the park a feeling of permanence in the City. A variety of tree species exist including: Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Gleditsia, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Quercus, Robinia, and Salix. The ages of these trees range from approximately one-hundred years old to new plantings in 2005. The trees create a valuable oasis in the downtown core of Kamloops and should be incorporated into future design applications. Unfortunately, due to the mountain pine beetle epidemic that has recently shown its effects in the Kamloops region, many (if not all) of the Pinus ponderosa will likely succumb to the beetles' invasion. Shrubs and perennials occur throughout the park, although they account for only a minimal amount of vegetation. 21 A popular location in the western part of the park is the Peter Wing Rose Garden. This existing feature hosts a variety of tea and shrub roses with places for park-users to sit. Along Lome Street several annual plantings are done in beds and planters. T h e s e planters bring colour and life to the southern edge of the park. O n e of these plantings, the 'Sunshine Garden' , is planted each year by elementary-aged school children. This initiative is an excellent opportunity for school-aged children to become engaged and interactive with city parks and the beautification of Kamloops. 3.5.4 H y d r o l o g y Riverside Park has a relatively consistent slope that can drain from south to north. Kamloops typically has minimal precipitation throughout the year, contributing to a site that usually will not get very saturated. This is also a result of naturally occurring sandy loam soils. In addition, the changing water level of the Thompson River is an annual occurrence that varies in severity from year to year. T h e following table shows these changes throughout the years starting in 1911. Year Overall Mean Maximum Daily Minimum Daily Total Level 1911 Not available 8.394 (June 17) Not available Not available 1948 5.095 9.705 (June 01) 3.742 (March 25) 1864.611 1972 Not available 9.876 (June 14) Not available Not Available 2000 4.328 7.393 (June 11) 2.858 (Dec 12) 1584.009 2001 3.983 6.946 (June 04) 2.624 (Feb 28) 1453.808 2002 4.153 8.269 (July 02) 2.813 (March 23) 1515.700 2003 3.870 7.112 (June 12) 2.623 (March 12) 1412.456 2004 4.127 6.488 (June 13) 2.686 (March 01) 1510.376 2005 4.403 7.137 (May 18) 3.328 (Dec 14) 1607.074 Table 01: Thompson River at Kamloops - Daily Water Levels source: www. wsc. ec. gc. ca/hydat/H20 22 Data for daily water levels were selected to represent the history of the river starting in 1911, as this was the first year data on the river was available. The following years, 1948 and 1972, were provided as they were years of major flooding and represent potential water flows through the river system. The final five years, 2000 through 2005, were provided to represent the river in recent years. The data clearly show that the river typically experiences high levels during June and low levels during March, with fluctuations between these two periods being as high as six metres. Relative to Riverside Park, the river data further emphasizes that this is a dynamic system and must be considered in any future development of the park. This is especially true along the northern perimeter, where the park runs adjacent to the Thompson River shoreline. 3.5.5 Topography and Views Riverside Park lies on the valley floor of the Thompson River resulting in a relatively flat site. With the majority of the park rising gently up from the north to south, the greatest change in elevation occurs at the eastern edge with a change in elevation of approximately seven metres (from the low water point to the intersection of L o m e Street and 3 r d Avenue). The change in topography provides a good vantage point from which the park can be viewed. 3.5.6 Park Connections to River The Thompson Rivers are dynamic forces that, through the years, have shaped and defined the City of Kamloops. T h e confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, in addition to the backdrop of the dry, rugged rolling hills is easily identifiable within the Thompson Nicola Region. It is these river systems that have shaped the valley walls over the years and provided the landscape upon which Kamloops has grown. Having played such a vital role, it makes sense that the river is a place 23 that people are encouraged to visit and experience, promoting the understanding and respect for such a dynamic force in the city. This considered, Riverside Park could potentially provide the necessary link to build a relationship between people and the river and should therefore be considered a platform from which the rivers can be appreciated. This could be achieved by creating strong connections between Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers. The setting of Riverside Park next to the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers (beginning of the Thompson River) requires an overview to understand the existing relationship between the park and river system to inform future planning of river to park connections. Due to the linear form of the park, the entire northern portion runs directly adjacent to the shoreline of the river. Currently, four major connections exist between the park and the Thompson River: High Water Plaza; the public beach area; the pier, and riparian area. High Water Plaza, the first of the park to river connections, has been a successful addition to Riverside Park. Implemented as a portion of the Rivers Trail this public plaza has peek holes cut into large sculptural rock elements showing different river levels throughout history. This park element is intuitive and promotes an understanding of changing water levels. Although the plaza is popular and well used by the public it feels as though it has been placed next to the river, rather than integrated with the river. T h e placement (as opposed to integration) of the plaza at such a prime location in the park has caused a physical disconnect between park-users and the South Thompson River. Considering that High Water Plaza is located at the north-eastern edge of Riverside Park it would be appropriate if this entry served as a gateway that encourages not only a visual connection with the river, but a physical connection as well. 24 Figure 04: High Water Plaza Photo by author Secondly, the public beach is a popular area of the park during summer months and throughout the remainder of the year. Swimmers and sunbathers occupy the beach during summer months while the remainder of the year sees people stroll along the beach getting close to the shore to enjoy the river. This area of the park provides the opportunity for park-users to approach the water and become engaged with the river system. During larger festivities and events in summer months the public beach reaches capacity as the entire area is filled with people. Although it is exciting to approach and be part of a crowded beach, it also suggests that expansion is necessary to accommodate larger numbers. In addition, the beach area lacks any designated entry or point of arrival. T h e Thompson Rivers are an integral part of not only Riverside Park, but the City of Kamloops. The journey towards this specific area requires more recognition than currently exists. A significant transition and celebration of arrival must occur when moving from the park into the beach area that acknowledges the significance of the river system. 25 T H O M P S O N RIVER PUBLIC B E A C H A 1 1 RjVErtSTBAl^ ^ + RIVERSIDE PARK Figure 05: Public beach as a connection to the Thompson River 26 T h e third of the park to river connections is the existing pier structure located at the north-west edge of the public beach area. The pier often has people occupying it, either as a place to fish from or to get an improved vantage point of the river confluence and rolling hills beyond. Detracting from the park-users experience of the pier is a poor connection down to the public beach area and lack of seating and shelter at the end of the pier. Improving these pier features would optimize the overall experience of this elevated viewpoint of the river. Figure 08: Pier as connection to Riverside Park 27 Figure 09: Looking north from Rivers Trail towards river confluence Photo by author Figure 10: Looking south from end of pier towards Riverside Park Photo by author Figure 12: Looking west Figure 13: Looking north Figure 14: Looking east Photo by author Photo by author Photo by author 28 Finally, the riparian area in Riverside Park not only serves as an important environmental element of the park, but as an educational feature as well. Currently, the City of Kamloops is required to maintain and enhance the existing riparian vegetation adjacent to the water as it provides habitat to life relative to the Thompson River. In several areas along the vegetated river bank, small trails have been established down to the waters edge. T h e s e small informal trails create valuable connections down to the water in a manner that is adventurous and exploratory. Further implementation of riparian areas in the park should serve as features that encourage interactions that are similar to these small informal trails. Figure 15: Trail leading down to Thompson River from Rivers Trail through riparian area Photo by author 29 3.5.7 Park C o n n e c t i o n s to the Ci ty of K a m l o o p s The downtown of Kamloops is one of the oldest areas of the City. Many of the finest heritage buildings are located here contributing to a feeling of maturity and character. During the summer months the streets come to life with festivities and events like the farmers' market that sees an entire block closed to traffic so sellers can set up booths to display fruits, vegetables, meats, baked goods, and plants for sale. The community comes out to support these events in large numbers ensuring their continuum in the City. Unfortunately, the downtown core, despite the energy created by organized events can be an unpleasant experience for pedestrian and cyclist traffic. Three of the downtown streets including: Lansdowne Street, St. Paul Street and 3 r d Avenue are large one-way streets with high traffic speeds , creating an unpleasant atmosphere to be part of. Alternatively, Victoria Street, the main downtown street, is wonderful to walk through with large street trees, outdoor cafes, decorative planters and crowded streets. Using Victoria Street as a model for future revitalization for other streets will ensure a downtown that is lively and serves as a popular destination for locals and visitors alike. Connecting the downtown core with Riverside Park is important as the cultural and social benefits of both places would be linked, resulting in a strengthening of community. Currently, the C P Rail Line weakens this link and is viewed as a hindrance in the City that acts as large barrier to Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers. Rather than seeing the C P Rail Line as a obstruction between the downtown and park it should be seen as the doorway that leads from one exciting part of the city to the next. This connection can be initiated at each of the intersections into the park on Lansdowne Street at 1 s t, 2 n d and 3 r d Avenues. Two roads parallel the rail lines, one to the north and one to the south. Located to the north is Lome Street, also known as Mark Recchi Way, which runs adjacent to Riverside Park. T o the south is Lansdowne 30 S t r e e t , a m a j o r o n e - w a y s t ree t that s u p p o r t s al l t y p e s of t raf f ic. L i n k i n g t h e s e two r o a d s a c r o s s the R a i l L i n e s a r e 1 s t, 2 n d a n d 3 r d A v e n u e s . T h e f o l l ow ing s i te a n a l y s i s o f R i v e r s i d e P a r k to d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s e x a m i n e s the c o n n e c t i o n s at t h e s e t h r e e a v e n u e s . T h e 1 s t A v e n u e c o n n e c t i o n f r o m L a n s d o w n e S t r e e t to L o m e S t ree t r e q u i r e s v e h i c l e s a n d p e d e s t r i a n s to p a s s b e n e a t h the C P R a i l L i n e o v e r p a s s . N o recogn i t i on is g i v e n to the u p c o m i n g pa rk en t ry d e n y i n g a n y v i s u a l e v i d e n c e of R i v e r s i d e P a r k . S t r o n g e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of l a n d s c a p i n g in add i t i on to ident i fy ing t h e o v e r p a s s a s a g a t e w a y w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n th is po in t of c o n n e c t i o n into the park . RIVERSIDE PARK Figure 16: 1 s Avenue connection to Lome Street 31 Figure 17: Driving west on Lansdowne Street arrow indicates 1 s Avenue Photo by author Figure 18: Looking north towards Figure 19: Looking south CP Railway overpass from beneath overpass Photo by author Photo by author 32 After crossing the Lansdowne Street intersection on 2 Avenue from downtown, traffic is confronted with the C P Rail Line. Unlike the other two connections examined, the 2 n d Avenue connection requires pedestrians to wait for trains to pass. At this entry there is nothing to signify that one is making a transition from the city into the park. A n opportunity presents itself to create a connection here as a clear view into Riverside Park exists because it is situated at a higher elevation than the park. After an analysis of this connection it became clear that three interventions would greatly improve the existing transition from city to park. First, the intersection of Lansdowne Street and 2 n d Avenue could be strengthened by creating a landscape that is park-like and aesthetically and physically pleasant to occupy. Secondly, the pedestrian experience of waiting for the train to pass should be treated as an event. The creation of a designated area to wait for trains to pass could be a safe and exciting place when entering into or leaving the park. Finally, because of the central location and great visual access acquired, the main entry into Riverside Park should be located at the end of 2 n d Avenue where it meets L o m e Street. 33 34 Figure 22: Looking north towards 2 m Avenue towards connection from Lansdowne Street Photo by author Figure 23: Looking north on 2 Avenue to Riverside Park on the north side of CP Rail Line Photo by author Consistent with the connection between 1 and 2 Avenues and Lome Street, vehicular traffic on 3 r d Avenue must cross the C P Rail Line. Contrary to the other connections, 3 r d Avenue allows for pedestrian traffic to pass over train traffic via a large bridge structure. Again visual indicators are necessary at the intersection of Lansdowne Street and 3 r d Avenue to bring attention to the park beyond. 35 Photo by author 3.5.8 Connections Within Riverside Park Throughout history, Riverside Park has evolved from a sports and leisure park into a park that has a stronger focus on culture and leisure. A s one of the premiere parks in Kamloops combined with its location close to the downtown core, this designation seems appropriate one. Currently, Riverside Park is a modest oasis in the semi-arid city. It is a wonderful place to visit throughout the year, whether it is during one of the major festivals where every part of the park is occupied or individually after a snowfall where it is only your footprints in the snow that accompany you. It would seem that Riverside Park is quite acceptable in its current state. However, it is looking into the future where concern is raised. The current programming of the park is suffering from stress during larger events. Much of the existing infrastructure is outdated and unpractical for current applications. Through site analysis an in-depth exploration has been done on the park to determine the necessity of each of its park elements. O n e major element in the park, the Rivers Trail, runs along the entire northern edge of Riverside Park and connects the eastern part of the park with the west. It is typically a 3-metre wide asphalt path that accommodates both pedestrian and cyclist traffic. T h e quality of hard surface material used for the portion of trail running through Riverside Park does not reflect the importance of this park in the City of Kamloops and the fact that it is located at a very important junction of two major river systems. A more appropriate use of trail surfacing materials should be implemented in the future. Currently, for the majority of the park, the Rivers Trail is situated very close to the edge of the river. A s a result conflict is occurring at two specific areas in the park: at the public beach and the riparian area west of the pier. Along the southern edge of the public beach the Rivers Trail acts as an edge. Heavy use of the trail during summer months combined with beach users results in trail congestion. Alleviating this problem 37 r e q u i r e s r e l o c a t i n g t he R i v e r s T ra i l fu r ther into t he pa rk to a l l o w for a c o n t i n u o u s f l ow of p e d e s t r i a n a n d cyc l i s t traff ic. T h i s w o u l d a l s o a l l ow for a m u c h n e e d e d e x p a n s i o n of the pub l i c b e a c h a r e a . T h e s e c o n d a r e a of c o n c e r n , t he r ipa r ian a r e a , is a s e c t i o n of the trai l w h i c h r u n s t oo c l o s e to t he v e g e t a t e d r i ve rbank . A s a resu l t , b r a n c h e s o f ten c r o w d t he trai l a n d roo ts c a u s e s d a m a g e to the a s p h a l t s u r f a c e . S i m i l a r to t he s u g g e s t i o n for t he pub l i c b e a c h a r e a , t he R i v e r s T ra i l a l s o n e e d s to b e m o v e d fu r ther s o u t h into the pa rk to a d d r e s s th is p r o b l e m . Figure 26: Looking north-east from the Rivers Trail towards the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers with Mt. Peter and Mt. Paul in the background Photo by author Figure 27: visual experience of walking along Rivers Trail Photo by author 38 C H A P T E R 4 - T H E SITE DESIGN 4.1 M A S T E R P L A N T h e overall design is driven by three key ideas. T h e s e ideas reflect the necessity of connections as a key driver behind the proposed design solution. T h e three main connections addressed in this project include: 1) a connection between Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers 2) connections within Riverside Park itself and 3) connections between Riverside Park and downtown Kamloops. Figure 28: Situated between the Thompson Rivers and downtown Kamloops the proposed masterplan for Riverside Park requires attention to not only the park itself, but connections to the river system and urban fabric. 39 Connections between Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers are intended to maintain riparian integrity along the river shoreline and increase opportunities for river interaction and experience. This would be achieved by maintaining existing riparian habitat along the river shoreline and creating places that promote river encounters. Figure 29: Concept diagram showing connections from Riverside Park to the Thompson Rivers. Connections within Riverside Park will create more coherence, thus optimizing park use as a cultural gathering point in the City. The proposed relocation or replacement of existing facilities would contribute to a more functional park as a whole. Introduction of new facilities and entries to Riverside Park will also contribute to the overall goal of a masterplan for the Park. Figure 30: Concept diagram showing connections within Riverside Park. 40 C o n n e c t i o n s to d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s a d d r e s s a r e a s d i rec t l y a d j a c e n t to t he C P R a i l L i n e . T h e d e s i g n re f lec ts a n a t tempt to i m p r o v e c o n n e c t i v i t y c o n s t r a i n t s c a u s e d b y t h e ra i lway . P a r t o f th i s f o c u s is to c o n t i n u e a ' g r e e n ne twork ' into the ex i s t i ng ci ty gr id w h e r e the p e d e s t r i a n e x p e r i e n c e is e n h a n c e d wi th s t ree t t r ee p l a n t i n g s a n d o u t d o o r f u r n i s h i n g s . Figure 31: Concept diagram showing connections with downtown Kamloops. 41 4.2 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN RIVERSIDE PARK AND THE THOMPSON RIVERS 4.2.1 RIPARIAN AREAS C o n t i n u e d m a i n t e n a n c e a n d e n h a n c e m e n t of ex i s t i ng r ipa r ian hab i ta t a l o n g t he no r the rn e d g e of R i v e r s i d e P a r k w o u l d fu r ther ex i s t i ng p r a c t i c e s by the C i t y of K a m l o o p s P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n Staf f . A s a resul t , a v i a n a n d r ipa r ian hab i ta t w o u l d i m p r o v e . E x i s t i n g i n fo rma l t ra i ls l e a d i n g d o w n to the R i v e r s h o u l d b e m a i n t a i n e d to p r o v i d e t he oppor tun i t y to c o n n e c t p a r k - u s e r s w i th t he wa te r . E x p o s u r e to the R i v e r wi l l f os te r e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , u l t imate ly s t r e n g t h e n i n g t he c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e r e p l a c e . 4.2.2 BEACH AREA T o a c h i e v e a m o r e s ign i f i can t en t ry into t he e a s t e r n por t ion of the pa rk v i a t he R i v e r s T ra i l a t rel l is s y s t e m h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d a r o u n d H i g h W a t e r P l a z a . T h i s s t ruc tu re s e r v e s a d u a l f unc t i on , f i rst a s p ro tec t i on f r o m the s u n a s we l l a s s e r v i n g a s a g a t e w a y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k a n d t he p u b l i c b e a c h a r e a . T o p r o v i d e a c o n n e c t i o n w i th the R i v e r b e l o w , a b o a r d w a l k l e a d s f r o m H i g h W a t e r P l a z a d o w n to a l o w e r d o c k . T h e f loa t ing b o a r d w a l k a n d d o c k w o u l d d e f i n e a s a f e a r e a for s w i m m i n g . In a d d i t i o n , t he d e c k wil l p r o v i d e the oppor tun i t y for b o a t s to a c c e s s R i v e r s i d e P a r k . Figure 33: Perspective sketch showing floating boardwalk leading up to Highwater deck. 42 Figure 34: Perspective sketch showing dock at the end of the floating boardwalk. Lying adjacent to the south of Highwate ig area is proposed and would serve as a public space in the event that a convention centre was built beside the park. Although the development of such a facility is only speculative at this point it is necessary to create a relationship between the convention centre and Riverside Park that benefits the park and park-users. T o address the problem of the Rivers Trail being located to close to the public beach area the trail would be situated further south into the park. Relocating the trail to this area would achieve a more efficient flow for users of the Rivers Trail and allow for expansion of the existing public beach. Figure 35: Perspective sketch of relocated Rivers Trail. 43 T o highlight the fact that the Rivers Trail is running through a significant portion of Kamloops, next to the confluence of the North and South Thompson Rivers, a boardwalk is proposed instead of the existing application of asphalt for the Rivers Trail. The difference of texture and aesthetics of the boardwalk will highlight the section of trail that passes next to the river confluence. In place of the old Rivers Trail that currently runs adjacent to the public beach area a stepped boardwalk would act as the new transition between the existing 'sand' beach area and the proposed 'grass' beach area. This new boardwalk will be used for passive movement, sunbathing and beach play. The new grass area increases the amount of room available for park-users wishing to enjoy the proximity to water. From the grass beach area connections are made through the trees to the relocated Rivers Trail. T o highlight the passage from the park out to the public beach area, a designated entry is situated at the mid-point where the park opens up to the beach and river vista. Linking the Rivers Trail to the beach boardwalk, the beach entry has pathways on either side of a raised grass area. Three large shade structures would be located on this grass area to provide respite from the hot summer sun and act as a focal point leading into the beach. Building on the main public beach entry an important link is proposed between the park and the river at Confluence Plaza. This plaza acts as an anchor to the western edge of the beach area in addition to joining Festival Field #1, the beach area, the Rivers Trail and the covered pier. New buildings for a cafe and washroom facility are proposed to accommodate existing programming needs relative to the park. This plaza area encourages movement out to the river, either via the covered pier or along the beach boardwalk. Excellent views out to the river confluence and beyond are afforded from this plaza. 44 Fig. 36: Axonometric showing beach area 4.2.3. UJI LOOKOUT DECK A d d i n g to p r o p o s e d c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n R i v e r s i d e P a r k a n d the T h o m p s o n R i v e r s , Uj i L o o k o u t D e c k is a n e w d e c k p r o p o s e d for t he w e s t e r n por t ion of the park . Ju t t ing t h r o u g h t he r i pa r ian v e g e t a t i o n a n d ou t o v e r t he T h o m p s o n R i v e r it wi l l b e a n e w v a n t a g e po in t f r o m w h i c h o p t i m a l v i e w s o f the r iver c o n f l u e n c e a n d ro l l ing hi l ls b e y o n d c a n b e v i e w e d . C o n n e c t i n g up to the n e w Uji C u l t u r a l P a v i l i o n th is d e c k wil l s e r v e a s a n e x c e l l e n t s p o t for pav i l i on u s e r s to e n j o y t he v i e w a n d t a k e p h o t o s of m e m o r a b l e m o m e n t s s u c h a s w e d d i n g s , a n n i v e r s a r i e s , g r a d u a t i o n , b i r t h d a y s , e t c . 4.3 CONNECTIONS WITHIN RIVERSIDE PARK 4.3.1 FESTIVAL FIELD #1 & #2 T o a c c o m m o d a t e fu ture d e m a n d s of i n c r e a s e d n u m b e r s u s i n g the ex i s t i ng b a n d s h e l l a r e a it is p r o p o s e d that t he s t ruc tu re b e r e l o c a t e d to t he a r e a s o u t h - w e s t o f its cu r ren t l o c a t i o n . S i t u a t i n g t he b a n d s h e l l h e r e w o u l d a l l o w fo r a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e the n u m b e r of s p e c t a t o r s t ak i ng in a n e v e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the b a n d s h e l l w o u l d b e r e n o v a t e d wi th the intent to be t te r r e p r e s e n t the l oca l a r e a t h r o u g h t he u s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d co lou r . 45 P r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l fes t i va l s p a c e , F e s t i v a l F i e l d #2, l o c a t e d to the e a s t o f F e s t i v a l F i e l d #1, w o u l d b e a l a rge o p e n g r a s s a r e a a b l e to a c c o m m o d a t e v a r i o u s fes t iv i t ies a n d e v e n t s . T h i s p r o p o s e d fes t i va l f ie ld w o u l d r e p l a c e t he ex i s t i ng w a t e r p a r k r e c o m m e n d e d for r e m o v a l f r o m the pa rk . T h e two fes t i va l f i e lds a r e s e p a r a t e en t i t i es wi th c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s to L o m e S t r e e t a n d the b e a c h a r e a . T h i s d i s t i nc t i on a l l o w s for two s e p a r a t e e v e n t s to t a k e p l a c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r o n e l a rge e v e n t to f low f r o m o n e f ie ld into the next . 4.3.2 R I V E R S T R A I L E N T R I E S INTO R I V E R S I D E P A R K T h e R i v e r s T ra i l cu r ren t l y b r i ngs p e o p l e into t he pa rk at t he e a s t a n d w e s t e n d . N e w s i g n a g e wi th o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t i n g s , a s p r o p o s e d in t he d e s i g n , w o u l d w e l c o m e v is i to rs into t he P a r k a n d h igh l igh t th is a s a s i gn i f i can t pa rk in d o w n t o w n K a m l o o p s . 46 Figure 38: Section/elevation drawings showing entry signage portion of cross section A-A1 4.3.3 L A W N B O W L I N G P r o v i d i n g a m a i n en t ry po in t cen t r a l to the pa rk r e q u i r e d that the d e s i g n a t e d l a w n b o w l i n g fac i l i t ies b e m o v e d f r o m the i r ex i s t i ng l oca t i on (next to H e r i t a g e H o u s e ) to the a r e a w e s t of the p r o p o s e d Uj i C u l t u r a l P a v i l i o n . W i t h a d e c o r a t i v e s t e e l f e n c e a r o u n d t he g r e e n s a n d the p r o v i s i o n of s p e c t a t o r s e a t i n g th is pa rk act iv i ty b e c o m e s o n e that is i n c l u s i v e of al l p a r k - u s e r s w h e t h e r t h e y a r e pa r t i c ipa t ing in a g a m e or on l y w a t c h i n g it. 47 Figure 39: Plan view of lawn bowling area located at the west end of the park ma « • - • nftfe " | HA *i Figure 40: Portion of section/elevation of B-B1 showing lawn bowling area with Uji Cultural Pavilion in the background 48 4.3.4 E A S T E N T R Y F R O M 3rd A V E . The East Entry entry at the intersection of 3 r d Ave . and L o m e Street has been expanded in size to create a more open, inviting approach to the park. Raised seating wall plantings create corridors for pedestrians to pass by ornamental plantings as they make their way into the park. T h e s e planters also double as great places to sit, relax and watch street activity. 4.3.5 UJI PAVIL ION T o address the need for additional social gathering space , the Uji Cultural Pavilion has been proposed to accommodate larger indoor events and festivities. Included in the building would be public washrooms (accessible from outside and inside the building), a kitchen area, banquet/dining hall, and storage area. Facing out onto the proposed garden area this pavilion would allow for events to take place both indoors and out at the same time. In addition, this pavilion would provide an opportunity for winter activities to take place in the park. y 49 Figure 41: „ _z—~| Figure 42: Portion of section/elevation C-C1 showing parking area relative to CP Rail Line 50 4.3.6 RIVERSIDE PARK MAIN ENTRANCE T h e p r o p o s e d m a i n en t ry into R i v e r s i d e P a r k , R i v e r s P l a z a , w o u l d s e r v e a s o n e of t he m a i n f e a t u r e s ac t i ng a s a g a t e w a y into R i v e r s i d e P a r k . V i s i t o r s p a s s b e n e a t h a v i n e c o v e r e d trel l is a s t h e y e n t e r into R i v e r s P l a z a w h i c h h a s b e n c h e s a n d r a i s e d p l an te r s f i l led wi th o r n a m e n t a l p l an t s . T h i s a r e a w o u l d s e r v e a s a p a s s a g e w a y into the pa rk a s we l l a s p r o v i d e p l a c e s for s i t t ing a n d ea t i ng l u n c h u n d e r the s h a d e of l a rge p i n e a n d a s p e n t r e e s . D u r i n g t he w in te r m o n t h s th is p l a z a w o u l d b e t r a n s f o r m e d into a f es t i ve w in te r s c e n e . L i gh t i ng a n d s e a s o n a l i ns ta l l a t i ons w o u l d c r e a t e a t rans i t i on into the pa rk that c r e a t e s e x c i t e m e n t t h r o u g h v a r i o u s s e a s o n s in the y e a r . Figure 44: Portion of section/elevation H-H1 showing front entry into Rivers Plaza 51 4.3.7 H E R I T A G E H O U S E P L A Z A S t e p p i n g d o w n f r o m the R i v e r s P l a z a ( m a i n entry) p a r k - u s e r s w o u l d p a s s t h r o u g h H e r i t a g e H o u s e P l a z a . E x t e n d i n g ou t f r o m the ex i s t i ng H e r i t a g e H o u s e th is a r e a w o u l d b e a n o t h e r s o c i a l s p a c e a m o n g s t o r n a m e n t a l p l a n t i n g s a n d o u t d o o r s e a t i n g . It w o u l d a l s o c r e a t e a n oppo r tun i t y fo r u s e r g r o u p s of the H e r i t a g e H o u s e to m a x i m i z e i n te rac t i ons wi th p a r k - u s e r s . Figure 45: Portion of section/elevation 1-11 looking at the Heritage House Plaza with outdoor seating and ornamental plantings 4.3.8 R I V E R S L O O K O U T T o c r e a t e a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n wi th t h e en t i re pa rk f r o m its p e r i m e t e r , t he R i v e r s L o o k o u t is p r o p o s e d at t he e x i s t i n g s i te of Cun l i f f e H o u s e w h e r e it w o u l d r e p l a c e Cun l i f f e H o u s e . L o c a t e d b e l o w the l ookou t is c e n t r a l i z e d pa rk m a i n t e n a n c e s h e d . T h e m a i n t e n a n c e s h e d roof w o u l d b e a g r e e n - r o o f that a l l o w s a c c e s s to v i e w the pa rk f r o m the s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r . Figure 46: Portion of section/elevation H-H1 showing Rivers Lookout 52 4.3.9 R I V E R S P L A Y T o p r o m o t e t he p l ay a n d e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n in R i v e r s i d e P a r k , t he R i v e r s P l a y a r e a w o u l d e n c o u r a g e a c h i l d ' s i n te rac t i on wi th l a n d s c a p e b y s i t ua t i ng e l e m e n t s into the p lay a r e a that e n c o u r a g e e x p l o r a t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g . E x a m p l e s o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s i n c l u d e l a rge b o u l d e r s tha t c a n b e c l i m b e d a n d p o l e s e x t e n d i n g s k y w a r d wi th l a rge s c u l p t u r a l n e s t s at the top . B r i d g e s jo in d i f ferent pa r t s of the p l ay a r e a that is s u r r o u n d e d wi th o r n a m e n t a l g r a s s a n d p e r e n n i a l p l an t i ngs that h a v e s e a s o n a l c h a n g e a n d r e p r e s e n t the g r a s s l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g K a m l o o p s . Figure 47: Plan view of Rivers Play area 53 Figure 48: Portion of section/elevation J-J1 showing Confluence Cafe in relation to the Rivers Play area Figure 49: Portion of section/elevation J-J1 showing climbing boulders, nested poles and ornamental plantings in Rivers Play area 4.4 C O N N E C T I O N S T O D O W N T O W N K A M L O O P S 4.4.1 1 s t A v e . T o c r e a t e a pa rk - l i ke ent ry at t he i n te r sec t i on of 1 s t A v e n u e a n d L a n s d o w n e S t r e e t the p lan t ing of t r e e s , s h r u b s a n d p e r e n n i a l s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d o n bo th s i d e s of t he o v e r p a s s . C o l o u r f u l b a n n e r s w o u l d b e s i t u a t e d a m o n g s t t he n e w p lan t i ng to g i v e v i s u a l i nd i ca t i on that t he o v e r p a s s is a g a t e w a y to s o m e t h i n g s ign i f i can t o n t h e o the r s i d e . 54 4.4.2 2 N A AVE. T o c r e a t e a f o c u s o n 2 A v e . a s the m a i n en t ry into R i v e r s i d e P a r k t h r e e d e s i g n a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d . F i rs t , t he ra i lway c r o s s i n g w o u l d f ea tu re a ' s ta t ion p la t fo rm ' . T h e s e w o o d e n p la t f o rms w o u l d p r o v i d e a s a f e p l a c e for p e d e s t r i a n to sit or s t a n d a s t h e y w a t c h e d t ra ins p a s s by. S e c o n d l y , the c o r n e r s at th is i n te rsec t i on w o u l d h a v e c o r n e r c o n f l u e n c e l a n d s c a p e s . T h e s e l a n d s c a p e s w o u l d requ i re t he a c q u i s i t i o n of l and at i n t e r s e c t i o n s w h e r e oppo r tun i t i es ex i s t fo r s t ree t beau t i f i ca t i on . T h e s e l a n d s c a p e d p o c k e t s p r o v i d e p e d e s t r i a n resp i te a n d e n j o y m e n t . A r e a s of s e a t i n g in a m o n g s t l a n d s c a p e p lan t i ngs p r o v i d e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m traff ic a l l o w i n g p e o p l e to s t o p a n d re lax . In add i t i on , the c o r n e r c o n f l u e n c e c o n t r i b u t e s to a pa rk - l i ke f e e l i n g , c r e a t i n g a n e c e s s a r y l ink a c r o s s the C P R a i l L i n e to R i v e r s i d e P a r k . F ina l l y , 2 n d A v e . w o u l d b e t ree l ined d i rec t ing a t ten t ion to t he m a i n ent ry t o w a r d s t he m a i n en t ry into R i v e r s i d e P a r k at L o m e S t r e e t . 55 I;,. •• z ^ n ^ ^ i — i k - , _ — , Figure 53: Portion of section/elevation E-E1 showing station platforms at CP Rail Line Crossing Figure 54: Portion of section/elevation F-F1 showing street tree plantings along 2 Avenue with commercial/residential development behind 56 4.4.3 3 r d A V E . T h e 3 r d Ave . entry across the rail line would be addressed by implementing street tree plantings, outdoor seating, colourful entry banners, and confluence corners. This landscape application would continue across the C P Rail Line to 3 r d Ave. and Lome Street. Combined with the existing pedestrian overpass this entry into the park will be more inviting and celebrate the entry into Riverside Park. Figure 56: Portion of section/elevation G-G1 showing outdoor cafe seating and confluence corner with ornamental plantings and colourful banners 57 4.4.4 Old Courthouse Viewpoint T o a d d r e s s the i s s u e of c o n n e c t i o n s b e i n g m a d e f r o m wi th in R i v e r s i d e P a r k to t he C i t y a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n is b e i n g p r o p o s e d f r om C o n f l u e n c e P l a z a (next to C o n f l u e n c e C a f e ) . F r o m th is po in t in the P a r k a v i e w to o n e of K a m l o o p s m o s t v a l u e d he r i t age b u i l d i n g s , t he O l d C o u r t h o u s e , is c a p i t a l i z e d o n wi th s e a t i n g b e n e a t h s h a d e t r e e s that p r o v i d e c l e a r s i t e l i nes to the o ld br ick h e r i t a g e bu i l d i ng . T h i s c a u s a l p o s i t i o n i n g of s e a t i n g in t he pa rk w o u l d b r ing a n e l e m e n t of s u r p r i s e to p a r k - u s e r s s i t t ing in b e n c h e s f a c i n g s o u t h - w e s t f r o m C o n f l u e n c e P l a z a . 58 C H A P T E R 5 - C O N C L U S I O N S The following conclusions are an evaluation of the proposed design criteria listed in section 1.3.3. 1. Design for Park Users Park design elements have been approached with the park-user in mind. Overall circulation of Riverside Park has been considered by restructuring pathways inside the park and identifying main entries. More specifically, the Rivers Trail has been relocated along the northern edge of the park to address issues of constraint and enhance the experience of the pedestrian relative to the river. New pathways link all programmed areas to optimize the functional, aesthetic and experiential quality of the park-user. Programmed areas have also been approached with the intent to create positive outdoor places. This is evident in the Rivers Play area where children are exposed to education through interaction. Large nested poles captivate the child's imagination as they tower high above the play area, conjuring up images of avian life that may exist within the nests. Down at ground level children would be able to run down narrow pathways that lead through long flowing grasses intersected by large climbing boulders. This play area immerses children into a clearly defined area that permits them to explore and learn through imagination and play. 2. Design everything with a purpose. Have good relations of the park to its surroundings, use areas and structures. Visual and physical links were created in the design to ensure that good relations would exist between Riverside Park and its surroundings. Relative to Riverside Park, links to the downtown were addressed at 1 s t, 59 2 , and 3 Avenues to create a connection over the existing C P Rail Line. This was accomplished by improving pedestrian and cyclist access and by drawing attention to the fact that these should act as park entrances. Similarly, relationships would be created between Riverside Park and the Thompson Rivers with design intervention proposed at High Water Plaza, the public beach, the pier and Uji Lookout Deck. T h e s e design applications would promote interactions with the river systems both physically and visually. 3. Provide adequate opportunities for growth in leisure. Opportunity for growth has been addressed in several different areas in the park. Mainly this has been achieved by re-structuring existing places in the park to accommodate larger numbers of people, ie. the public beach and festival fields #1 and #2. T h e s e two areas have been expanded to accommodate approximately double their existing capacity. Also with the intent to provide for leisure activity, places such as hte Rivers Plaza, Confluence Cafe, and the Uji Cultural Pavilion would encourage social and cultural interactions among park-users. 4. Protect preserve and enhance the environment. Incorporating the riparian edge along the northern edge of the park as a design element would result in education and preservation of the environment. This would occur as a result of exposure to the riparian area and the resulting awareness that people would have. In addition, water tolerant plantings would be recommended as part of the planting scheme for the park. 60 5. Develop an aesthetically appealing and functionally suitable environment. Ornamental grasses grouped with other perennial plantings reminiscent of the surrounding grasslands will create an aesthetically appealing and regionally suitable look to the park. Designated areas in the park have been specifically designed to accommodate the anticipated user-groups, for example, the Rivers Play area has focused on creating a place that is functionally suitable to children. 6. Establish a substantial experience, including effects of lines, forms, textures and colours, dominance and enclosure. Building on the idea of regional representation in landscape, many of the proposed design materials and compositions have been inspired by the community of Kamloops and the surrounding Thompson-Nicola Region. This would be evident in new structures proposed for the park which would follow the same design specifications of heritage buildings in Kamloops. 7. Establish an appropriate experience, suited to the personality of the place, user, function and scale. Literature specific to the City of Kamloops and to park design have influenced and informed much of the design for Riverside Park. This research has been combined with my own repeated exposure and personal interpretation of the park over the past ten years. 61 8. Design with sensitivity to the costs of maintaining and enhancing parks and recreation infrastructure. Sensitivity to the cost of revitalizing Riverside Park has been acknowledged through the design process. Since this is the core urban park for Kamloops, consideration was given to the fact that a higher level of implementation, often associated with higher costs, would be appropriate for Riverside Park, Existing infrastructure has been incorporated into the park masterplan where appropriate. 9. Where possible make use of existing facilities. Where opportunities presented themselves in the park an effort was made to incorporate existing facilities into the design. Unfortunately, only a few of the existing buildings were appropriate for future use in the park. A n example of one structure that has been incorporated into the design, although relocated, is the Rotary Bandshell , which has been moved further east to allow for larger events and festivals. 10. Provide linear recreation that is passive and encourages alternative means of transportation between community destinations. Modification of the existing Rivers Trail route improves the opportunity for passive recreation and better accommodates alternative means of transportation. This was accomplished by relocating the trail in designated areas to alleviate conflict with other uses on the trail 62 11. Provide appropriate park design for aging cohort of baby boomers. The proposed open layout for this park in addition to attention given to accessibility issues creates a place that will be appropriate for an aging cohort of baby boomers. In addition, places for social interaction have been created throughout the park. The best evaluation of the design's capacity would, understandably, come with the implementation of the design applications. The realization of this masterplan combined with the passage of time would reveal the true success of the design. 63 B I B L I O G R A P H Y Balf, Ruth. 1975. Kamloops: 1914-1945. C a n a d a . Peerless Printers Ltd. Baljon, Lodewijk. 1992. Designing Parks: Examination of Contemporary Approaches to Design. The Netherlands. Architecture and Natura Press. Bostock, H.S. 1948. Physiography of the Canadian Cordillera With Special Reference to the Area North of the Fifty-Fifth Paralell: Geol. Surv., C a n a d a , Mem. 247, 106p. Burgess, J . , Harrison and C M . , Limb, M. 1988. 'People, Parks and the Urban Green: A Study of Popular Meanings and Values for Open S p a c e s in the City', Urban Studies, Vol . 25, pp. 455-473. Cannings, Sydney & Cannings, Richard. 1999. Geology of British Columbia - A Journey Through Time. Vancouver, B C . Greystone Books. City of Kamloops, Parks and Recreation Services. Parks and Recreation Master Plan. Ekistics, Kamloops, B C , 2004. City of Kamloops, Official Community Plan, Kamloops, B C , 2005. A c c e s s e d : September 12, 2005 http://www.city.kamloops.bc.ca/downloads/index.html City of kamloops. Cultural Strategic Plan. Kamloops, B C , 2005. A c c e s s e d : September 12, 2005. http://www.city.kamloops.bc.ca/downloads/index.html Fulton, R.J . 1963. Deglaciation of the Kamloops Region British Columbia. Evanston, Illinois. Northwestern University Press. Fulton, R.J . 1967. Deglaciation Studies in the Kamloops Region, An Area of Moderate Relief. British Columbia. Ottawa, C a n a d a . Canadian Government Printing Bureau. Francis, Mark. 2003. Urban Open Space - Designing for User Needs. Washington, D C . Island Press. Hough, Michael, 1995, Cities and Natural Process. New York. Routledge. Jacobs , Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York. Random House. 64 BIBLIOGRAPHY Jackson, J . B . 1975. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. London. Yale University Press. Jones , Karen R. & Wills, John. 2005. The Invention of the Park- From the Garden of Eden to Disney's Magic Kingdom. U S A . Polity Press. Lynch, Kevin. 1972. What Time is This Place? U S A . T h e MIT Press. McHarg, Ian L. 1992. Design With Nature. U S A . John Wiley & Sons Press. Norton, Wayne & Schmidt, Wilf (eds.).1992. Kamloops - One Hundred Years of Community 1893-1993. Merrit, B C . Sonotek Publishing Ltd. V y s e , Alan & V y s e , Frances. 1994. Kamloops - The Thompson River Landscape Around Kamloops (in) Reflections - Thompson Valley Histories, (eds.) Norton, Wayne & Schmidt, Wilf. Kamloops, B C . Plateau Press. Whyte, William. 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D . C , The Conservation Foundation. 2005. Projects for Public S p a c e s - Building Community, Creating Places, Using C o m m o n S e n s e [online]. Available from http://www.pps.org/ [Cited 6 December 2005]. Environment C a n a d a . 2003. Archived Hydrometric Data [online]. Available from http:/ /www.wsc.ec.gc.ca/hydat/H20/index_e.cfm?cname=main_e.cfm [Cited 10 August 2006]. 65

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