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Renewing the hospital precinct at UBC : a restorative approach England, Karin Maria 2006

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Renewing the Hospital Precinct at U B C : A Restorative A p p r o a c h  by  Karin Maria E n g l a n d  B a c h e l o r of M u s i c , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 9 3 G r a d u a t e D i p l o m a in F i n e A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1 9 9 4 M a s t e r of T e a c h i n g , After D e g r e e in E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 2 0 0 0  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FORTHE DEGREE OF  M a s t e r of L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A August 2006 © Karin M a r i a E n g l a n d , 2 0 0 6  Abstract H u m a n s a r e intimately c o n n e c t e d to the natural e n v i r o n m e n t , the p l a c e w h e r e w e e v o l v e d a n d that p r o v i d e s u s with the f o d d e r for o u r v e r y e x i s t e n c e (Kellert & W i l s o n , 1993). R e s e a r c h c o n f i r m s w h a t w e intuit - that p e o p l e a r e r e s t o r e d t h r o u g h c o n t a c t with natural l a n d s c a p e s (Ulrich & P a r s o n s , 1992). R e s t o r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s l e a v e o n e feeling r e n e w e d ; it h a s b e e n s h o w n that a c c e s s to restorative l a n d s c a p e s r e d u c e s s t r e s s l e v e l s , a c c e l e r a t e s h e a l i n g , a n d e a s e s m e n t a l fatigue. K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n h a v e d e s c r i b e d the l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s that c r e a t e restorative e x p e r i e n c e s , p r o v i d i n g g u i d a n c e to d e s i g n e r s w h o w i s h to c o n f e r restorative e x p e r i e n c e s to site u s e r s , i m p r o v i n g their w e l l - b e i n g ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  H o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t s a r e u n i q u e l y f o c u s e d o n the p r o m o t i o n of w e l l - b e i n g , w h e r e m a n y of the u s e r s a r e experiencing  illness  and  restorative l a n d s c a p e s .  negative  stress  and  therefore  would  greatly  benefit  from  implementing  In particular the U B C h o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t c o u l d b e i m p r o v e d to t a k e a d v a n t a g e  of  the restorative a s p e c t s of nature, c r e a t i n g a better e n v i r o n m e n t for all site u s e r s ; s t u d e n t s , h o s p i t a l staff, r e s i d e n t s a n d visitors.  Table of Contents  Abstract  ii  Table of C o n t e n t s  iii  List of T a b l e s  v  List of Figures  vi  Preface  viii  Acknowledgements  1  2  3  4  ix  Restorative L a n d s c a p e s  1  1.1  Literature Review  1  1.2  A History of Hospital G a r d e n s  7  1.3  Precedent Studies  11  Context..  ,  15  2.1  National T r e n d s  15  2.2  Context within the Region  16  2.3  Context within the University  16  2.4  T h e Hospital Precinct  18  2.5  A n Introduction to the Hospital Pavilions  22  2.6  A n Introduction to the New G a r d e n S p a c e  24  2.7  A n Introduction to the Existing G a r d e n S p a c e  25  2.8  Analysis  26  D e s i g n Principles and G u i d e l i n e s  29  3.1  D e s i g n Principles  29  3.2  Design Guidelines  3.3  Principles and G u i d e l i n e s for the Precinct  31  3.4  Principles and G u i d e l i n e s for the R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n  32  3.5  Principles and G u i d e l i n e s for the Therapeutic G a r d e n  34  ;  30  Design Proposal  37  4.1  A D e s i g n for the Precinct  37  4.2  A D e s i g n for the R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n  42  4.3  A D e s i g n for the Therapeutic G a r d e n  62  iii  4.4  D e s i g n Matrix  70  4.5  Discussion  75  Bibliography  Appendices  76  80  A p p e n d i x A : W e l l n e s s Walkways R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  80  A p p e n d i x B: Purdy Questionnaire  85  iv  List of Tables Table 3.1 Design Guidelines  30  Table 3.2 Guidelines That Address Purdy Resident's Needs  32  Table 3.3 Horticulture Therapy Projects  35  Table 4.1 Design Matrix  70  v  List of Figures 4  Figure 1.1 Benefits of Horticultural Activity Figure 1.2 Hortus Sanitatis  8  Figure 1.3 Cloister Garden  8  Figure 1.4 Royal Navy Hospital  9  Figure 1.5 Friends Asylum  70 12  Figure 1.6 Ban field Rooftop Garden Figure 1.7 Cedarview Plan  13  Figure 1.8 Wellness Walkway  14  Figure 2.1 Canada's Aging Population  15 16  Figure 2.2 UBC's Position in the GVRD 18  Figure 2.3 Local Area Destination  18  Figure 2.4 Map of Hospital Precinct Figure 2.5 Patient Park  79  Figure 2.6 Pedestrian Mall  20  Figure 2.7 Koerner Cafeteria and Tunnel  20  Figure 2.8 Precinct Poor Street Crossings  21  Figure 2.9 Entrance to Koerner Pavilion  22  Figure 2.10 Benches on Site  22  Figure 2.11 Entry to Detwiller Pavilion  23  Figure 2.12 Purdy Pavilion Entrance  24  Figure 2.13 New Garden Space  25  Figure 2.14 Existing Garden Space  25  Figure 3.1 Design Principles  29  Figure 4.1 Proposed New Building Footprints  38  Figure 4.2 Proposed Walking Route  39 41  Figure 4.3 Proposed Breezeway Modifications  43  Figure 4.4 Proposed Residents' Garden Plan  44  Figure 4.5 Birdbath Fountain Details  45  Figure 4.6 Nestbox Details Figure 4.7 Bench and Chair Details  46  Figure 4.8 Gate and Fence Details  47  Figure 4.9 Songbird Garden Section  48  Figure 4.10 Winter Retreat  50  Figure 4.11 Rose A rbor Detail  57  Figure 4.12 Babbling Fountain Details  52  Figure 4.13 Garden Wall Details  53  Figure 4.14 Accessible Picnic Table Details  53 vi  Figure 4.15 Summer Gazebo Details  54  Figure 4.16 Patio Garden Section  55  Figure 4.17 Patio Garden Section  55  Figure 4.18 Patio Garden Section  56  Figure 4.19 Residents' Garden Planting Plan Part 1  5  Figure 4.20 Residents' Garden Planting Plan Part 2  5  Figure 4.21 Residents' Garden Planting Plan Part 3  6 61  Figure 4.22 Residents' Garden Plant List  63  Figure 4.23 Proposed Therapeutic Garden Plan 64  Figure 4.24 Retaining Wall Details  64  Figure 4.25 Watering Station Details 65  Figure 4.26 Modified Planters  65  Figure 4.27 Pergola with Canopy  66  Figure 4.28 Therapeutic Garden Section Figure 4.29 Therapeutic Garden Planting Plan Part 1 Figure 4.30 Therapeutic Garden Planting Plan Part 2  69  Figure 4.31 Therapeutic Garden Plant List  vii  Preface T h i s project e x p l o r e s s e v e r a l t o p i c s relevant in l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e t o d a y - t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n d e s i g n , restorative  l a n d s c a p e s , a n d d e s i g n for elderly p o p u l a t i o n s . G a r d e n s h a v e b e e n a s s o c i a t e d with h e a l i n g  p l a c e s f o r t h o u s a n d s of y e a r s , a n d exploration of this a s s o c i a t i o n h a s b e e n interesting a n d fruitful for m e . This  project  had  its start in the  summer  of 2 0 0 5 w h e n  C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g at the University of British C o l u m b i a .  I was  working  o n c a m p u s at C a m p u s  and  I r e c e i v e d a call f r o m the P u r d y P a v i l i o n , a 2 0 5  b e d e x t e n d e d c a r e facility in the h o s p i t a l precinct o n c a m p u s . T h e y w a n t e d d e s i g n i d e a s for a n e w g a r d e n s p a c e m a d e p o s s i b l e by the r e m o v a l of a n M R I that h a d b e e n h o u s e d o u t d o o r s at their facility.  They also  w a n t e d i d e a s for the r e n o v a t i o n of their existing t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e ; c o n c e r n s i n c l u d e d a retaining I that n e e d e d to b e r e p l a c e d s o o n , a n d b u r d e n s o m e m a i n t e n a n c e plant material.  requirements  arising f r o m  overgrown  H o s p i t a l administration w a s a w a r e for a g r o w i n g b o d y of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s h o w i n g that  significant b e n e f i t s to p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l health a r e g a i n e d with a c c e s s to natural  environments.  H o s p i t a l staff w a n t e d g a r d e n s p a c e that w o u l d s e r v e to link p e o p l e to the natural w o r l d .  T h e precinct a n d its l a n d s c a p e a r e u s e d by s t u d e n t s , hospital staff a n d patients, residential a n d transitional c a r e patients that live at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n .  i n c l u d i n g a g r o u p of  It s e e m e d to m e that P u r d y ' s  r e s i d e n t s d e s e r v e d s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s they m a k e this p l a c e their h o m e .  T h e resident  population  h a s a n a v e r a g e a g e of 85, 9 0 % a r e in w h e e l c h a i r s , 8 0 % suffer f r o m s o m e f o r m of d e m e n t i a , a n d  20%  have Parkinson's disease.  M y d e s i g n solution for the P u r d y P a v i l i o n i n c l u d e s a p r o p o s a l for the entire p r e c i n c t a s I felt the n e e d to c r e a t e a larger context w h e r e a hospital g a r d e n m a y a p p r o p r i a t e l y b e s i t e d . T h e project therefore interventions  at both the p r e c i n c t a n d site s c a l e .  allowed  M y s o l u t i o n i n c l u d e s p l a n s for the p r e c i n c t a n d  s e p a r a t e g a r d e n s p a c e s , both for the e x c l u s i v e u s e of P u r d y r e s i d e n t s , f a m i l i e s a n d h o s p i t a l staff.  two  O n e of  t h e s e is to b e a r e s i d e n t ' s g a r d e n , a n d the o t h e r a r e d e s i g n to the existing t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e to a d d horticultural t h e r a p y o p p o r t u n i t i e s to t h o s e that a l r e a d y exist at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n .  viii  Acknowledgements I w o u l d like to e x p r e s s m y a p p r e c i a t i o n for the s u p p o r t I h a v e r e c e i v e d f r o m the following p e o p l e in the c o m p l e t i o n of this project:  P r o f e s s o r Patrick M o o n e y for s e r v i n g a s m y a d v i s o r a n d m e n t o r . H i s u n i q u e e x p e r t i s e in the a r e a of restorative d e s i g n h a s m a d e this project richer.  P r o f e s s o r M o o n e y ' s i n s i s t e n c e o n quality w o r k firmly  rooted in r e s e a r c h a n d d e d i c a t i o n to his s t u d e n t s h a v e b e e n greatly a p p r e c i a t e d .  P r o f e s s o r D o u g l a s P a t e r s o n for his g u i d a n c e .  C a m p u s a n d C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g staff Patrick M c l s a a c a n d D a v i d G r i g g for their s u p p o r t a n d interest i this project.  P u r d y P a v i l i o n staff E l l e n C o u r t n e y a n d R o b e r t T o r e n for their g e n e r o u s d o n a t i o n of time a n d a d v i c e .  P u r d y P a v i l i o n r e s i d e n t R i c k C h a n d l e r for h e l p i n g m e u n d e r s t a n d the n e e d s of patients at the facility.  M i c h a e l E n g l a n d , J u d y O s b o r n e , a n d A n n J a c k s o n for their e n c o u r a g e m e n t .  J e r r y Kaita for u n e n d i n g p a t i e n c e a n d s u p p o r t .  1  Restorative Landscapes  1.1  Literature Review  E v o l v e d r e s p o n s e to natural l a n d s c a p e s Humans  are  intimately c o n n e c t e d with the  natural  p r o v i d e s u s with the f o d d e r for o u r v e r y e x i s t e n c e . we  n e e d to s u r v i v e .  environment.  We  have  evolved  in n a t u r e  and  B u t nature p r o v i d e s u s with m o r e t h a n just the things  E v e n after b a s i c n e e d s a r e  met  e l e m e n t s ; flora a n d f a u n a attract a n d hold o u r attention.  h u m a n s c o n t i n u e to b e c a p t i v a t e d  by  natural  H a r v a r d p r o f e s s o r of b i o l o g y E d w a r d O . W i l s o n  h a s c a l l e d this p h e n o m e n o n "biophilia" w h i c h h e d e f i n e s a s "the innately e m o t i o n a l affiliation of b e i n g s to o t h e r living o r g a n i s m s " ( W i l s o n ,  it  1993,  p31).  H e b e l i e v e s that this attraction  human  s t e m s from  an  e v o l u t i o n a r y n e e d to b e a w a r e of our s u r r o u n d i n g s a n d to s e l e c t e n v i r o n m e n t s b e s t s u i t e d to the s u r v i v a l of o u r s p e c i e s .  P s y c h o l o g i s t a n d a u t h o r S t e p h e n P i n k e r a g r e e s , p o s i n g that "the brain strives to put its  o w n e r in c i r c u m s t a n c e s like t h o s e that c a u s e d its a n c e s t o r s to r e p r o d u c e " (Pinker, 1 9 9 7 , p 3 7 3 ) . T h e r e is e v i d e n c e that a l t h o u g h t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s h a v e m a d e it p o s s i b l e for m a n to live a daily  existence  r e m o v e d f r o m the natural e n v i r o n m e n t o u r b r a i n s a r e still a d a p t e d to prefer i m m e r s i o n in the t y p e s of l a n d s c a p e s w h e r e o u r s p e c i e s h a d its b e g i n n i n g s .  L a n d s c a p e preference S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e d o n e w o r k o n l a n d s c a p e p r e f e r e n c e , a n d their f i n d i n g s a r e similar. Orians' research supports Wilson's hypothesis.  Gordon  H e f i n d s a c r o s s cultural f a v o u r i n g of l a n d s c a p e s with  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s similar to t h o s e of the A f r i c a n s a v a n n a h , the e n v i r o n m e n t  w h i c h e v i d e n c e points to a s  H o m o s a p i e n s ' h o m e for the first two million y e a r s of t h e s p e c i e s ' e v o l u t i o n .  T h e main elements  of  p r e f e r e n c e , O r i a n s tells u s , a r e c l e a r v i e w s in all d i r e c t i o n s , c l u s t e r e d t r e e s with s p r e a d i n g c a n o p i e s for protection,  open  grasslands  for  easy  movement  and  long  views,  varied  topography  s u r v e i l l a n c e , diversity of plant a n d a n i m a l life, a n d a c c e s s to w a t e r ( O r i a n s & H e e r w a g e n , G e o g r a p h e r J a y A p p l e t o n d e s c r i b e s a similar kind of l a n d s c a p e a s that m o s t p r e f e r r e d  for  strategic  1992,  p.558).  by h u m a n s ,  a  setting w h i c h offers c l e a r v i e w s into the d i s t a n c e yet p r o v i d e s e n o u g h v e g e t a t i o n a n d t o p o g r a p h i c relief to p r o v i d e c o v e r ( A p p l e t o n , 1975). savannah,  T h i s d i a l e c t i c l a n d s c a p e of p r o s p e c t a n d r e f u g e not only r e s e m b l e s the  but a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s a n e n v i r o n m e n t  where man  h a s tactical a d v a n t a g e  o v e r his prey  and  predators.  Environmental  psychologists Steven  and  Rachel  K a p l a n find that p e o p l e  prefer  environments  which  p r o v i d e t h e m with the information they require to e v a l u a t e their s u r r o u n d i n g s ( K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n , 1998). A b a l a n c e b e t w e e n c o h e r e n c e a n d c o m p l e x i t y is n e c e s s a r y ; a setting that is orderly a n d unified yet h a s a rich  array  of  environment  elements.  A  combination  of  legibility  and  mystery  must  also  exist.  The  is e a s i l y r e a d , yet g i v e s the p r o m i s e that m o r e c a n b e d i s c o v e r e d if o n e w e r e to  preferred venture  further into the s p a c e .  1  Effects on well-being R o g e r U l r i c h ' s r e s e a r c h s h o w s the effect that s i m p l y v i e w i n g p h o t o s of natural e l e m e n t s h a s o n h o s p i t a l patients; r e d u c e d heart rates, r e d u c e d respiratory rates a n d l o w e r e d b l o o d p r e s s u r e (Ulrich & P a r s o n s , 1992).  V i s u a l a c c e s s to natural s c e n e s f r o m patient w i n d o w s r e d u c e s s t r e s s , s h o r t e n s the d u r a t i o n  post-operative feelings.  hospital  stays,  reduces  minor  post-operative  complications,  and  increases  of  positive  T h e K a p l a n s h a v e r e p o r t e d that w i n d o w v i e w s p r o v i d e office w o r k e r s with relief of the effects of  m e n t a l fatigue, a c o n d i t i o n that a r i s e s f r o m o v e r e x e r c i s i n g o n e ' s c a p a c i t y for d i r e c t e d attention ( K a p l a n & Kaplan,  1998).  Russ  Parsons suggests immune  e x p o s e d to nature ( P a r s o n s , 1991). elements.  s y s t e m s are  positively  affected  when  people  are  In all of t h e s e s t u d i e s , s u b j e c t s benefit f r o m e x p o s u r e to  natural  T h e y h a v e restorative e x p e r i e n c e s that i m p r o v e health p r o b l e m s - illness, s t r e s s , or  mental  fatigue - a n d a r e left feeling  renewed.  Restorative elements T h e K a p l a n s h a v e i s o l a t e d the l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s that they feel c r e a t e restorative e x p e r i e n c e s .  These  n e e d not all b e p r e s e n t to g a i n restorative e f f e c t s f r o m l a n d s c a p e s , but the m o r e that a r e p r e s e n t a n d the s t r o n g e r their p r e s e n c e , the g r e a t e r  the effect will b e .  T h e y a r e a s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y ,  fascination,  extent, n e a r nature a n d compatibility ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  A s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y is a c h i e v e d w h e n  o n e f e e l s that they  h a v e b e e n to a w h o l e  other world,  e x p e r i e n c e that c a n b e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h e s c a p e f r o m a s p e c t s of life that a r e "ordinarily p r e s e n t p r e s u m a b l y not a l w a y s p r e f e r r e d " ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998,  p. 183).  an and  C o m m o n o u t d o o r s e t t i n g s that g i v e a  s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y a r e p a r k s , b a c k y a r d s or rooftop g a r d e n s ; p l a c e s w h e r e o n e is a w a y f r o m  daily  stressors and distractions.  F a s c i n a t i o n is i n v o k e d w h e n o n e ' s attention is fixed without the n e e d for d i r e c t e d attention, allowing m i n d to f o c u s without effort, allowing for r e c o v e r y f r o m  mental  fatigue.  Fascinating elements  directly exciting quality w h i c h attracts p e o p l e a n d k e e p s t h e m f r o m b e c o m i n g b o r e d . is a difficult p r o c e s s to d e f i n e .  well a s  under  a  H u m a n fascination  "central a s s u c h f a s c i n a t i n g o b j e c t s m a y b e to r e c o v e r i n g o n e ' s c a p a c i t y for d i r e c t e d  activities  have  K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n state:  they c a n only b e a part of a larger picture. process as  the  content.  Humans  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of s o m e  attention,  M u c h of h u m a n f a s c i n a t i o n r e v o l v e s a r o u n d i s s u e s of are  fascinated  uncertainty.  by carrying They  are  out  various  fascinated  by  informational attempting  to  r e c o g n i z e in i n s t a n c e s w h e r e r e c o g n i t i o n is difficult but not i m p o s s i b l e . T h e y a r e a l s o attracted to p r e d i c t i o n s of u n c e r t a i n e v e n t s : g a m b l i n g p r o v i d e s a c l a s s i c e x a m p l e .  A n d they a r e f a s c i n a t e d by  l e a r n i n g , by following the t h r e a d of s o m e t h i n g of interest in o r d e r g r a d u a l l y to a c q u i r e a b i g g e r picture, rather than by s i m p l y b e i n g t a u g h t n e w t h i n g s .  T h e s t r o n g p r e f e r e n c e for s c e n e s high in  m y s t e r y p r e s u m a b l y e x p r e s s e s a related c o n c e r n . T h e s e p r o c e s s f a s c i n a t i o n s a r e not, e n g a g e d m e r e l y b y r a n d o m s e q u e n c e s o f interesting o b j e c t s .  A n o c c a s i o n a l fascinating  m a y c h a l l e n g e o n e ' s c a p a c i t y for r e c o g n i t i o n , but if u n c o n n e c t e d to a larger f r a m e w o r k only a m o m e n t a r y d i v e r s i o n or distraction.  however, element it will b e  E v e n a n e x t e n d e d s e q u e n c e of f a s c i n a t i n g e l e m e n t s ,  if u n r e l a t e d to e a c h other, will not e n g a g e o u r p r o c e s s f a s c i n a t i o n s . T h u s f a s c i n a t i o n a n d e x t e n t a r e mutually s u p p o r t i v e .  C o n n e c t e d n e s s , or r e l a t e d n e s s , or the e x i s t e n c e of s o m e larger pattern  2  is r e q u i r e d in o r d e r to e n g a g e this h i g h - l e v e l h u m a n motivation" ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1 9 9 8 , p. 185).  E x t e n t is the s e n s e of b e i n g in a s p a c e that is part of a larger setting or is p h y s i c a l l y o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y large itself, allowing for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a m e n t a l m a p of a s p a c e that i n c l u d e s the i m a g i n e d a s well a s the visible ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  A s p a c e n e e d not b e p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e to h a v e extent, a s long a s a  site u s e r is a b l e to m a k e a c o n n e c t i o n to the w o r l d b e y o n d w h a t is i m m e d i a t e l y p e r c e i v e d .  The Kaplans  point out that this is often the c a s e in t h e a t r e s t a g e s w h e r e a u d i e n c e s c o n c e p t u a l l y u n d e r s t a n d s e t s to b e part of a l a r g e r i m a g i n a r y w o r l d . In d e s i g n e d l a n d s c a p e s this c a n b e a c h i e v e d m a n y w a y s i n c l u d i n g providing  views  to  features  off  site,  or  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y e x p a n d i n g its b o u n d a r i e s .  planting  trees  off  site  that  will  be  visible  from  the  site,  S m a l l s p a c e s c a n b e s u b d i v i d e d into s e p a r a t e s u b - s p a c e s  u s i n g s c r e e n s s u c h a s v e g e t a t i o n , trellis, w a l l s or f e n c e s b l o c k i n g v i e w s that m a k e it p o s s i b l e to t a k e in the entire site at o n c e .  P e o p l e a r e t h e n c a u s e d to i m a g i n e w h a t is b e y o n d their field of view, i n c r e a s i n g  extent of a s m a l l s p a c e . C i r c u i t o u s p a t h s c a n b e u s e d to g u i d e p e o p l e t h r o u g h a site a l o n g a route with s e l e c t e d v i e w i n g points to a c h i e v e the s a m e a i m .  A s o u n d a s s o c i a t e d with r e c r e a t i o n a l o u t d o o r s p a c e ,  s u c h a s b a b b l i n g w a t e r , o r b a n n e r s b l o w i n g in t h e w i n d c a n a l s o b e u s e d to i n c r e a s e e x t e n t in a g a r d e n setting.  If the s o u r c e of the s o u n d is not visible, a p e r s o n is left to i m a g i n e the o b j e c t that is m a k i n g the  n o i s e , i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t by e n g a g i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n .  N e a r nature is the p r o v i s i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t s with a high a m o u n t of natural c o n t e n t w h e r e  it is e a s i l y  a c c e s s i b l e to p e o p l e . A n e i g h b o u r h o o d park, e v e n o n e s m a l l in s c a l e , c a n b e visited e a s i l y a n d often a n d offers a n opportunity for f r e q u e n t restorative e x p e r i e n c e s .  N e a r nature is d o u b l y important in c r e a t i n g  restorative e n v i r o n m e n t s a s natural e l e m e n t s s u c h a s water, plant a n d a n i m a l s a r e powerful a g e n t s in e n g a g i n g soft f a s c i n a t i o n .  T h e final restorative e l e m e n t  d e s c r i b e d by the  K a p l a n s is compatibility.  L a n d s c a p e s d e s i g n e d to  be  c o m p a t i b l e with u s e r n e e d s s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s for the s p a c e a n d c o n s i d e r site c o n d i t i o n s , then p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e a m e n i t y to u s e r s .  A c o m p a t i b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o w s the u s e r to d o w h a t t h e y w a n t to in a  s p a c e c o m f o r t a b l y a n d s a f e l y ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  Elderly populations "preferences include outdoor  s p a c e s that s u p p o r t informal a n d p a s s i v e activities s u c h a s w a l k i n g a n d talking with f r i e n d s , g a r d e n i n g , nature o b s e r v a t i o n of water, v e g e t a t i o n , a n d f a u n a ; a n d p a n o r a m i c v i e w s of a naturalistic s o f t s c a p e " ( B r o w n e , 1992).  B r o w n e a l s o f o u n d that natural e l e m e n t s s u c h a s plants a r e c o m m o n l y u n d e r u t i l i z e d in  o u t d o o r s e t t i n g s for the e l d e r l y o r not p l a c e d for m a x i m u m benefit.  T o accurately determine  preferred  u s e s for a n e w o u t d o o r s p a c e at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e for r e s i d e n t s , f a m i l i e s a n d staff h a s b e e n u s e d a n d the f i n d i n g s a r e r e p o r t e d later in this d o c u m e n t .  Plants as restorative element C o n t a c t with plant material c a n b e powerfully restorative of its o w n a c c o r d . t a k e s o n a nurturing role ( L e w i s , 1993). a s e n s e of a c c o m p l i s h m e n t a n d pride.  W h e n o n e g r o w s plants, o n e  T h e g a r d e n r e w a r d s the g a r d e n e r ' s efforts with fruit, f l o w e r s a n d P l a n t s e n g a g e the g a r d e n e r in a p r o c e s s i o n t h r o u g h the s e a s o n s .  N e w s h o o t s a n d b u d s c r e a t e anticipation for the future, a f e e l i n g that is s o m e t i m e s lost in t h e infirm a n d 3  elderly.  A s p l a n t s g r o w , t h e g a r d e n e r r e c e i v e s p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k c r e a t i n g a n e m o t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n to t h e  plants.  E s p e c i a l l y for p a t i e n t s in e x t e n d e d c a r e w h e r e  m u c h p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r o n e ' s life h a s  been  lost, a g a r d e n plot c a n b e e m p o w e r i n g a s t h e g a r d e n e r t e n d s their s p a c e , a n d f e e l s n e e d e d .  Horticulture therapy H o r t i c u l t u r e t h e r a p y t a k e s a d v a n t a g e of the r e s t o r a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of p l a n t s by i n c o r p o r a t i n g g a r d e n i n g a s part of  a  patient's  therapy  program  to  improve  their  well-being.  Health  a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e , relief f r o m s t r e s s , a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . and  benefits  for  patients  M a n y additional behavioural  s o c i a l b e n e f i t s c a n b e a c c r u e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a horticulture t h e r a p y  program (Mattson,  G a r d e n a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e p a t i e n t s with o p p o r t u n i t i e s for d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , a s e n s e of c o n t r o l that is often lost w h e n o n e e n t e r s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d c a r e .  include  1992).  reinstating  T o g e t a n i d e a of t h e  benefits  horticultural t h e r a p y a c t i v i t i e s typically t r a n s f e r to p a t i e n t s , w e c a n l o o k at t h o s e listed by V e r m o n t  State  Hospital.  Figure 1.1 Benefits of Horticultural Activity 1 5 w a y s t h a t h o r t i c u l t u r e w a s u s e d b y t h e A c t i v i t y T h e r a p y D e p a r t m e n t at V e r m o n t S t a t e H o s p i t a l t o p r o v i d e b e n e f i t s t o clients: 1.  A c t i v i t i e s o f Daily L i v i n g : B y e s t a b l i s h i n g daily r o u t i n e s in the g a r d e n , clients better u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e of c l e a n l i n e s s a n d health in their o w n lives.  2.  Ability to f o c u s o n a task: T h r o u g h s e n s o r y  stimulation, t h e client is m o t i v a t e d to b e c o m e  i n v o l v e d in t h e  g a r d e n i n g activity. 3.  Enjoyment:  B y correct s e l e c t i o n a n d adaptation of activities, the horticultural therapy i n s u r e s that the client h a s  an enjoyable experience. 4.  W o r k a n d frustration t o l e r a n c e : B e g i n with s i m p l e r g a r d e n i n g t a s k s a n d g r a d u a l l y build to h i g h e r l e v e l s o f j o b skills. T a s k a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s m a y b e helpful with c h a l l e n g i n g work.  5. 6.  Socialization, cooperation: S h a r i n g gardening e x p e r i e n c e s a n d plants provides meaningful interaction. B e h a v i o u r a l control: A g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r s c a n be constructively c h a n n e l l e d through p h y s i c a l work. W o r k with n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g plant m a t e r i a l in a c o m f o r t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t e n c o u r a g e s r e l a x a t i o n .  7. 8.  L e i s u r e time skills: Plant c a r e a n d related activities c a n effectively o c c u p y time. Reality orientation: U n d e r s t a n d i n g the relationships of s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s a n d plant growth a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a r e fundamental human  perceptions.  9.  Self-esteem:  10.  S e l f - e x p r e s s i o n : F l o r a l or l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n h e l p s p e o p l e m a k e d e c i s i o n s a n d u s e plants in a c r e a t i v e w a y .  11.  S h o r t t a s k s with i m m e d i a t e , o b v i o u s results help p e o p l e with low s e l f - e s t e e m .  F i n e / g r o s s m o t o r skills: M a n y e x a m p l e s c o u l d b e g i v e n o f h o w w e c a n u s e horticulture to d e v e l o p t h e s e skills. E y e - h a n d coordination, p h y s i c a l conditioning a n d w o r k e n d u r a n c e c a n b e e v a l u a t e d with v a r i o u s horticultural activities.  12.  Independence:  Clients should be encouraged  to m a k e i n d e p e n d e n t  d e c i s i o n s a n d to a c c e p t the o u t c o m e of  their actions. 13.  Assertiveness:  T h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e with a variety o f horticultural activities, clients g a i n e x p e r i e n c e  and an  ability to b e c o m e m o r e i n v o l v e d with d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d e v e n t u a l o u t c o m e . 14.  Intellectual stimulation:  Curiosity m a y be aroused  by sensory  stimulation during the horticultural activity.  Investigation of the natural world o c c u r s during the p r o c e s s of g a r d e n i n g . 15.  V a l u e s clarification: B y d e v e l o p i n g a trusting r e l a t i o n s h i p with a client, t h e therapist is a b l e to p r o v i d e a setting in which problems and issues c a n be addressed."  S o u r c e : Mattson, 1992,  p.  164  4  Positive image In addition to t h e r a p e u t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s , g r e e n o u t d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t s p r o v i d e site u s e r s with a positive i m a g e of their e n v i r o n m e n t s .  A beautiful setting c o m m u n i c a t e s that the p e o p l e living a n d w o r k i n g in that  p l a c e a r e v a l u e d , a n d d e s e r v i n g of extra c a r e a n d attention.  O n e c o u l d a r g u e that this m e s s a g e is  e s p e c i a l l y important to the ill a n d a g i n g a s it m a y h a v e a positive effect o n their health. worth h a s a rehabilitative effect.  A s e n s e of self  Dr. E d w a r d S t a i n b r o o k of the D e p a r t m e n t of H u m a n B e h a v i o u r at the  U n i v e r s i t y of S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a S c h o o l of M e d i c i n e tells u s that "an  environment  of  u g l i n e s s , dilapidation,  dirtiness,  over-built  space,  and  a  lack  of  natural  s u r r o u n d i n g s c o n f i r m s the n e g a t i v e s e l f - a p p r a i s a l a p e r s o n m a y h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h o t h e r c o n t a c t s with s o c i e t y . S e l f - e s t e e m is the k e y s t o n e to e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g " ( S t a i n b r o o k ,  1973,  p.22).  Purdy Pavilion resident population P u r d y P a v i l i o n is e x t e n d e d c a r e facility s e r v i n g a primarily elderly p o p u l a t i o n with a n a v e r a g e a g e of 85 years.  R e s i d e n t s m a i n l y r e q u i r e c o m p l e x c a r e ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 p e r c e n t of r e s i d e n t s s u f f e r f r o m s o m e  f o r m of d e m e n t i a , a n d a n additional 2 0 p e r c e n t h a v e P a r k i n s o n ' s d i s e a s e .  T h e environment-behaviour  m o d e l for a n y s p a c e to b e u s e d by P u r d y ' s p o p u l a t i o n m u s t t a k e t h e s e m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n s into a c c o u n t .  O l d a g e b r i n g s s p e c i a l d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( J o n e s , 1996). r e d u c e d v i s u a l acuity.  T h i s p o p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h r e e t i m e s m o r e light to s e e well t h a n y o u n g e r p e o p l e ,  a n d g l a r e c a u s e s difficulty. elements  they  P e o p l e o v e r 6 5 y e a r s of a g e typically h a v e  h a v e to look  P e o p l e at this a g e t e n d to g a z e d o w n w a r d , a n d will not fully e n j o y d e s i g n up to s e e .  A g e affects  p e r c e p t u a l ability.  The  elderly  have  difficulty ,  identifying o b j e c t s or l o c a t i o n s a n d t a k e c o m f o r t in familiar o b j e c t s a n d p l a c e s e n j o y i n g m o s t t h o s e e n v i r o n m e n t s with a h o m e l i k e quality. and stamina.  A g r a d u a l l o s s of m o t o r function results in a l a c k of s t r e n g t h , agility  A g i n g l e a d s to s e n s o r y d e f i c i e n c i e s s u c h a s p o o r h e a r i n g a n d a r e d u c e d s e n s e of s m e l l .  T h i s i m p l i e s a n e e d for rich s e n s o r y e n v i r o n m e n t s with s o u n d s , s c e n t s a n d textures in c l o s e proximity to seating.  E l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e a r e d u c e d r a n g e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s in w h i c h  t h e y a r e c o m f o r t a b l e a n d p r e f e r resting a r e a s without bright light, g l a r e , drafts a n d e x c e s s i v e h e a t w h i l e preferring lightly s h a d e d a r e a s .  P a r k i n s o n ' s d i s e a s e is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e of m u s c u l a r rigidity a n d w e a k n e s s . r e s p o n s e in v o l u n t a r y m o v e m e n t s results in a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shuffling gait.  Slowing  A g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n of r a n g e of  m o t i o n a n d t r e m o r s r e d u c e fine m o t o r skills ( W l c h r o w s k i , C h a m b e r s & C i c c a n t e l l i , 1998). for this p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d b e o b s t a c l e - f r e e , a n d e m p l o y m i n i m u m p o s s i b l e s l o p e s .  Environments  Decorative elements  s h o u l d b e p l a c e d w h e n they c a n b e e a s i l y t o u c h e d a s r e a c h e s a r e n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by P a r k i n s o n ' s disease.  T o a c c o m m o d a t e difficulties in w a l k i n g , d o o r s s h o u l d not h a v e sills a n d the transition  between  indoors and outdoors should be a s s e a m l e s s a s possible.  5  D e m e n t i a , s p e c i f i c a l l y A l z h e i m e r ' s d i s e a s e , h a s a d r a m a t i c effect o n p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t u a l abilities. M o y r a Jones  research  describes  typical  difficulties  experienced  by  Alzheimer's  patients  A l z h e i m e r ' s s u f f e r e r s s e e patterns of light a n d d a r k in flooring a s c h a n g e s in l e v e l .  (Jones,  1996).  F o r e x a m p l e , a floor  with a b l a c k a n d white c h e c k e r pattern c o u l d a p p e a r a s r e c t a n g u l a r p a v i n g s t o n e s s e t a m i d a grid of r e c t a n g u l a r h o l e s m a k i n g it difficult for patients to u s e . T o a n A l z h e i m e r ' s patient, the s h a d o w c a s t o n the g r o u n d by a n o v e r h e a d trellis m a y s e e m like a pit in the s i d e w a l k .  S u c h patterns of light a n d d a r k o n the  g r o u n d m a y p r e v e n t patients f r o m u s i n g a s p a c e , or c a u s e p e o p l e to f r e e z e or fall. between  brightly a n d dimly light s p a c e s a l s o c a u s e difficulty.  For example,  S h a r p contrasts  s t a n d i n g in a brightly  lit  hallway a patient m a y p e r c e i v e a n a d j a c e n t dimly lit r o o m a s a d a n g e r o u s c a v e , a n d not w a n t to e n t e r in. E v e n lighting or transition z o n e s b e t w e e n brightly a n d dimly lit a r e a s a r e n e e d e d .  G l a r e , light reflected o n  s u r f a c e s s u c h a s n e w l y p o l i s h e d f l o o r s o r g l a s s t a b l e t o p s , r a i s e s p e r c e p t u a l i s s u e s for this p o p u l a t i o n .  A  g l e a m i n g hallway m a y a p p e a r a s a large p u d d l e to s o m e o n e with A l z h e i m e r ' s , a n d for this r e a s o n , n o highly p o l i s h e d or g l a z e d s u r f a c e s s h o u l d b e u s e d .  A l s o of difficulty is figure g r o u n d definition, the ability  to p e r c e p t u a l l y s e p a r a t e a v i s u a l s c e n e into a f o r e g r o u n d a n d a b a c k g r o u n d . definition m o n o c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s c h e m e s s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d .  T o a s s i s t figure g r o u n d  T h e point w h e r e w a l l s m e e t floors c a n b e  visually indistinct to A l z h e i m e r ' s patients, c a u s i n g a sort of v i s u a l white-out that m a k e s n a v i g a t i n g s p a c e difficult.  F o r this r e a s o n it is important that w a l l s a n d f l o o r s be different c o l o u r s or m a d e of visually distinct  materials.  A l z h e i m e r ' s patients  have  difficulty  navigating  s p a c e s and  s p a c e s a n d m e m o r a b l e l a n d m a r k s to a s s i s t in t h e m in w a y - f i n d i n g .  benefit  they a r e a n d w h y they a r e there,  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f r o m their p r e v i o u s lives. potentially d a n g e r o u s w a n d e r i n g .  simple,  geometric  T h e t e r m w a y - f i n d i n g refers to the  ability of site u s e r s to travel t h r o u g h a s p a c e a n d r e a c h a d e s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n . forget w h e r e  from  A l z h e i m e r ' s patients often  a n d will s o m e t i m e s try to return to their h o m e s  T h i s c r e a t e s a n e e d for s e c u r e s p a c e s to protect t h e m  and from  C i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e s s h o u l d b e l o o p e d to return site u s e r s to their starting  points. N o n - t o x i c m a t e r i a l s s h o u l d b e u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y a s A l z h e i m e r ' s patients a r e k n o w n to put i n e d i b l e o b j e c t s in their m o u t h s .  In  recent y e a r s , there  has been  i n c r e a s e d interest  in d e s i g n i n g g a r d e n s s p e c i f i c a l l y for A l z h e i m e r ' s  patients, u s i n g d e s i g n criteria that a d d r e s s the n e e d s of this s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n . than p r o v i d e a m e n i t y for patients.  Such gardens do more  M o o n e y a n d Nicell f o u n d a d r a m a t i c positive effect o n A l z h e i m e r ' s  patients in their s t u d y at the C e d a r v i e w L o d g e in V a n c o u v e r ( M o o n e y & N i c e l l , 1992).  Patients who u s e d  the g a r d e n s h o w e d a m a r k e d r e d u c t i o n in i n c i d e n t s of a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r , a benefit to patient  well-  b e i n g a n d to staff.  Questionnaire R e s u l t s As  part of the  information  gathering  residents, a n d residents' families. trends e m e r g e d .  for this  project,  a  questionnaire  was  delivered  to  Purdy  D e t a i l e d results a r e i n c l u d e d in A p p e n d i x 2 of this p a p e r .  staff,  General  A s t r o n g interest in p l a c e s to visit with family a n d f r i e n d s o u t d o o r s , a p l a c e for s m a l l  g r o u p g a t h e r i n g s , light g a r d e n i n g a n d bird a n d a n i m a l w a t c h i n g w a s i n d i c a t e d ( 8 0 %  of r e s p o n d e n t s or  6  more).  Interest in the following d e s i g n e l e m e n t s w a s s h o w n ; a patio, s e a t i n g a r e a s in s h a d e , s h a d e t r e e s ,  fruit t r e e s , f l o w e r s a n d a fountain or p o n d .  G a r d e n as a place for dying A s m a n y of the r e s i d e n t s at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n s p e n d their last d a y s in this p l a c e , it s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e to m e n t i o n g a r d e n s ' roles a s p l a c e s that c o n n e c t p e o p l e with the c y c l e s of life a n d d e a t h . C a t h e r i n e H o w e t t tells u s that "the art of the g a r d e n o u g h t not to c o n c e a l f r o m u s the truth that o u r o w n lives participate in t h e s e p r o c e s s e s ; rather, the g a r d e n that g i v e s e x p r e s s i v e f o r m to the m y s t e r i e s of time, c h a n g e , a n d mortality m a y itself effect a potent t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , r e c o n c i l i n g u s to nature, offering u s a g a i n the possibility of loving s u r r e n d e r a n d a n a s c e n t to w h a t is b e y o n d o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (Howett, 1 9 9 3 , p.255). P e r h a p s settings that d e m o n s t r a t e the p a s s a g e of living m a t e r i a l into s e n e s c e n c e w o u l d offer c o m f o r t to t h o s e at the e n d of their lives.  If o n e w e r e to c h o o s e a p l a c e to s p e n d the e n d of their d a y s , it is e a s y to i m a g i n e that a g a r d e n w o u l d provide a m o r e r e a s s u r i n g setting t h a n a h o s p i t a l w a r d . w h i c h g a v e u s life. melt into the w i n d ? "  1.2  D e a t h is often a s s o c i a t e d with a return to nature  P o e t Kahlil G i b r a n a s k s t h e q u e s t i o n "for w h a t is it to d i e , but to s t a n d in the s u n a n d R e a d y a c c e s s to the natural w o r l d s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e to this p r o c e s s .  A History of Hospital G a r d e n s  M i r c e a E l i a d e v i e w s g a r d e n s a s p l a c e s apart f r o m ordinary life, p l a c e s w h e r e o n e f e e l s in t o u c h with p o w e r s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e m s e l v e s , a quality h e refers to a s a c r e d s p a c e ( E l i a d e , 1 9 6 0 ) . T h r o u g h t i m e a c o n n e c t i o n h a s b e e n m a d e b e t w e e n g a r d e n s a n d the s a c r e d function of h e a l i n g . " L o n g after h u m a n s h a d b e g u n to e r e c t d w e l l i n g s , local h e a l i n g p l a c e s w e r e nearly a l w a y s f o u n d in nature - a h e a l i n g s p r i n g , a s a c r e d g r o v e , a s p e c i a l rock or c a v e " ( C o o p e r M a r c u s & B a r n e s , 1 9 9 9 , p.1).  S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g of  history, f r o m historic labyrinths, meditation g a r d e n s a n d s c h o l a r s ' retreats to r e c e n t S c h r e b e r g a r d e n s a n d city p a r k s , p e o p l e h a v e u s e d g a r d e n s a s p l a c e s for retreat, meditation a n d h e a l i n g .  In E u r o p e during the M i d d l e A g e s g a r d e n s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d with p l a c e s of h e a l i n g ( G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s , K a u f m a n n & W a r n e r , 1998).  C h a r i t a b l e religious o r d e r s c a r e d for the s i c k a n d p o o r w h o r e p a i d their  h o s t s with p r a y e r s for their s o u l s . P a t i e n t s w e r e often pilgrims, o r p h a n s or v a g r a n t s . T h e c o v e r of H o r t u s S a n i t a t i s , a b o o k of plant a n d herb lore p u b l i s h e d in M a i n z in 1 4 9 1 , s h o w s a c o n s u l t a t i o n p h y s i c i a n s in a s i c k r o o m of s u c h a n institution.  between  A t this time m o n a s t e r i e s a n d c o n v e n t s s e r v e d a s  h o s p i t a l s , a n d their facilities i n c l u d e d c l o i s t e r g a r d e n s a n d m e d i c i n a l g a r d e n s w h e r e plants u s e f u l in treating d i s e a s e s w e r e c u l t i v a t e d .  M o s t s u c h h o s p i t a l s w e r e s m a l l , h o u s i n g b e t w e e n five a n d  ten  r e s i d e n t s , a l t h o u g h s o m e s u c h a s S a i n t G a l l in S w i t z e r l a n d a n d H o t e L D i e u in P a r i s g r e w to b e c o m e large institutions.  7  Figure 1.2  Hortus Sanitatis  S o u r c e : C o u n t w a y Library, 2 0 0 6 T h e cloister w a s the c e n t r e s p a c e of the m o n a s t e r y , e n c l o s e d by t h e c h u r c h to the north a n d o t h e r by b u i l d i n g s s u c h a s the kitchen, c e l l a r a n d dining hall o n the r e m a i n i n g s i d e s .  This open green space was  typically e d g e d by a n a r c a d e d w a l k w a y , its interior s p a c e d i v i d e d into four e q u a l q u a r t e r s p l a n t e d with g r a s s or flowers.  A t the c e n t r e of the g a r d e n a w a t e r s o u r c e a n d often a n e v e r g r e e n t r e e that s e r v e d a s a  religious s y m b o l .  T h e cloister g a r d e n p r e s e n t e d the v i e w e r with a n orderly v i e w of nature.  Its s i m p l e  g e o m e t r y a n d d i r e c t e d v i e w i n d u c e d a reflective m o o d , s u i t e d to a restorative e x p e r i e n c e .  Figure 1.3  Cloister G a r d e n  Source: Author's Photo A t the  e n d of the  Middle A g e s  monasticism faded  away.  Healing  p l a c e s of the  R e n a i s s a n c e and  R e f o r m a t i o n did not p l a c e a s m u c h i m p o r t a n c e o n o u t d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t s for the ill. C r o p failures, political a n d religious conflict a n d the p l a g u e s of t h e 14th a n d 15th c e n t u r i e s left l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s u n a b l e to d e v e l o p effective health p r o g r a m s . It is not until the 18th c e n t u r y that w e s e e a r e s u r g e n c e in interest in 8  the h e a l i n g potential of l a n d s c a p e s . H o w e v e r , e v e n a s the c h a r i t a b l e h o s p i t a l s of the M i d d l e A g e s fell into d i s r e p a i r , work w a s b e i n g d o n e that p a v e d the w a y for future i n n o v a t i o n s in restorative  gardens.  p e r i o d b e t w e e n the 15th a n d 18th c e n t u r i e s s a w the rise of a scientific a p p r o a c h to m e d i c i n e . o n c e attributed to poverty, w a s n o w s e e n a s the result of i n f e c t i o n s s p r e a d t h r o u g h the air.  The  Disease,  Statisticians  s p e c u l a t e d that a healthy p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d result in g r e a t e r p r o s p e r i t y for all, i n c r e a s i n g interest in p u b l i c health.  Nursing orders were established  a n d t r e a t m e n t of m e n t a l  patients  improved.  New  military  new  medical  h o s p i t a l s led the w a y for innovation in h o s p i t a l d e s i g n ( G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s et a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) .  Pavilion  h o s p i t a l s of the  knowledge.  17th  to  S p e c i a l attention w a s  18th  centuries  were designed  to t a k e a d v a n t a g e  of  p a i d to h y g i e n e , a n d patients w e r e g i v e n a c c e s s to f r e s h air  and  s u n s h i n e , a n d l a r g e g a r d e n s w e r e c o m m o n l y part of t h e p l a n . T h e R o y a l N a v a l H o s p i t a l at S t o n e h o u s e in England  is a  notable  example  of a  pavilion  hospital  from  this  period.  It  c o n s i s t e d of  a  u-shaped  a r r a n g e m e n t of five b u i l d i n g s a r o u n d a central r e c t a n g u l a r l a w n . T h e b u i l d i n g s w e r e j o i n e d by a c o v e r e d colonnade.  E a c h w a r d in the hospital w a s situated to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of ventilating b r e e z e s .  Pavilion  d e s i g n s a l s o c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d a t o o t h - c o m b e d d e s i g n w h e r e s i n g l e w a r d s w e r e p l a c e d at right a n g l e s to a central c o r r i d o r m a x i m i z i n g opportunities for s o l a r a c c e s s . for  use  by patients.  E v e n those  who  could  Hospital g r o u n d s had g e n e r o u s g a r d e n s  not w a l k w e r e g i v e n  views  to the  outdoors.  Florence  N i g h t i n g a l e the f a m o u s n u r s e a n d health c a r e r e f o r m e r of this e r a s a i d that: " s e c o n d only to f r e s h air...I s h o u l d be inclined to rank light in i m p o r t a n c e for the s i c k . Direct sunlight, not only daylight, is n e c e s s a r y for s p e e d y r e c o v e r y . . . I  m e n t i o n f r o m e x p e r i e n c e , a s quite  p e r c e p t i b l e in p r o m o t i n g r e c o v e r y , b e i n g a b l e to s e e out of a w i n d o w , i n s t e a d of l o o k i n g a g a i n s t a d e a d wall; the bright c o l o u r s of flowers; b e i n g a b l e to r e a d in b e d by the light of the w i n d o w c l o s e to the b e d - h e a d . It is g e n e r a l l y s a i d the effect is u p o n the m i n d .  P e r h a p s s o , but it is not l e s s s o  u p o n the b o d y o n that a c c o u n t " (in G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s et a l , 1998, p. 16).  T h e i d e a that l a n d s c a p e s o f f e r e d restorative e x p e r i e n c e s to patients c o n t i n u e d to g a i n s u p p o r t t h r o u g h the R o m a n t i c e r a .  Figure 1.4  G e r m a n theorist C h r i s t i a n H i r s c h f e l d wrote that all h o s p i t a l s s h o u l d b e in rural s e t t i n g s ,  R o y a l Navy Hospital  Source: Postcard World, 2006 9  o n s u n n y hilltops a m i d g a r d e n s w h e r e patients c a n stroll a n d g a z e u p o n c h e e r f u l p l a n t i n g s (in G e r l a c h S p r i g g s et a l . , 1 9 9 8 , p. 18). this  s c h o l a r s h i p led  P h i l a d e l p h i a in 1817.  to  H e felt that the e n j o y m e n t of nature w o u l d l e a d to a h e a l t h y life.  the  development  of  mental  hospitals such  as  the  In A m e r i c a ,  Friends Asylum,  built  in  T h i s type of a s y l u m a i m e d to c r e a t e a restful, h o m e l i k e setting for patients, a l l o w i n g  t h e m to r e c o v e r f r o m the s t r e s s e s that w e r e t h o u g h t to be the c a u s e of their i l l n e s s . S u c h h o s p i t a l s w e r e s e t o u t s i d e the  city with v e r y  large,  protected,  p l e a s a n t v i s t a s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for f a r m i n g  well-maintained  g r o u n d s that p r o v i d e d  o r g a r d e n i n g that w o u l d  patients  with  b e p r e s c r i b e d a s part of their  treatment.  T h i s kind of t r e a t m e n t met with g r e a t immigration  overwhelmed  the  success.  s y s t e m just a s  However,  political  burgeoning  p o p u l a t i o n s led by w a v e s  l e a d e r s cut f u n d i n g  for health  care.  of  Pavilion  h o s p i t a l s f a c e d the s a m e p r e s s u r e s , a n d in addition s u f f e r e d a n i n c r e a s e d s p r e a d of d i s e a s e f r o m o n e patient to the next. H o s p i t a l s w e r e in crisis, a n d by t h e m i d 1 8 0 0 ' s it w a s " q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r h o s p i t a l s o u g h t to be c l o s e d altogether" ( G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s et a l . , 1 9 9 8 , p.22).  G e r m theory a n d a n t i s e p t i c p r a c t i c e s f u e l l e d t h e next w a v e of m e d i c a l a d v a n c e m e n t s . development  of  vaccinations  and  Robert  Koch's  work  on  infectious  diseases  Louis Pasteur's  brought  new  hope.  D e m a n d s g r e w for i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i a l i z e d facilities in h o s p i t a l s .  A t the e n d of W W I I t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s c a u s e d r a p i d c h a n g e s to h o s p i t a l d e s i g n .  E f f i c i e n c y w a s the  n e w i d e a l , resulting in multi-storey c o m p a c t h o s p i t a l s w h i c h u s e d l e s s land a n d e n e r g y . g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g to their  c o n d i t i o n s with c o n t a g i o u s patients  separated  from the  Patients w e r e  main  population.  G a r d e n s w e r e n o l o n g e r a part of hospital d e s i g n s , a n d the l a n d they h a d o n c e b e e n allotted w a s  now  u s e d for p a r k i n g lots. T h e r e w e r e e x c e p t i o n s to this rule, but t r e n d s t o w a r d s e f f i c i e n c y in the 2 0 t h c e n t u r y led to h i g h - r i s e h o s p i t a l s that l o o k e d m u c h like office t o w e r s . 10  T o d a y , m a n y health c a r e facilities a r e m o d e l l e d after a n o t h e r c o m m o n u r b a n structure, the s h o p p i n g mall, c o m p l e t e with a r c a d e s of s h o p s a n d atria.  Author a n d l a n d s c a p e designer N a n c y G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s feels  that this is not a positive d e v e l o p m e n t . " T o b e s u r e , s u c h s p a c e s a r e familiar e n o u g h to patients, staff, a n d visitors, a n d in that s e n s e the replicas  of  commercial  d e s i g n s will  make  them  comfortable.  But  e m o t i o n a l n e e d s of a health c a r e facility" ( G e r l a c h - S p r i g g s et a l . , 1998,  they  ignore  the  special  p.33).  S h e r e c o m m e n d s the integration of o u t d o o r s p a c e s that p r o v i d e restorative e x p e r i e n c e s for staff, visitors a n d patients.  T h i s i d e a s e e m s to b e taking h o l d a s w e e n t e r the 2 1 s t c e n t u r y .  Healing gardens are o n c e  a g a i n b e c o m i n g a n a c c e p t e d part of the h o s p i t a l l a n d s c a p e .  1.3  Precedent S t u d i e s  A n e x a m i n a t i o n of p l a c e s a n d projects in V a n c o u v e r that d e a l with restorative e x p e r i e n c e s in h o s p i t a l settings w a s u n d e r t a k e n to p r o v i d e c o n t e x t for this project a n d to g e n e r a t e p o s s i b l e d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s . the c a s e of B a n f i e l d P a v i l i o n , the  garden  supports therapeutic  programs and  In  is well s u p p o r t e d with  h u m a n r e s o u r c e s . C e d a r v i e w ' s A l z h e i m e r ' s g a r d e n w a s c o m p l e t e d a s part of a n investigation into the effect that o u t d o o r s p a c e s c o u l d play in d e a l i n g with s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s  project  is integrated into t h e fabric o f t h e l a r g e r c o m m u n i t y , a n d is part of a m e n i t y p r o v i d e d to p e d e s t r i a n s in t h e c o m m u n i t y , but with e x p a n d e d intentions.  A c o m m o n t h r e a d in all of the p r o j e c t s listed h e r e is d e s i g n  r e s p o n s e that a d d r e s s e s the n e e d s a n d abilities of the u s e r s .  Banfield Pavilion, V a n c o u v e r General Hospital, V a n c o u v e r , B C T h e B a n f i e l d P a v i l i o n is part of the V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l C a m p u s . It is a 198  bed extended care  facility d e a l i n g mainly with geriatric patients. In s i z e a n d p o p u l a t i o n it is v e r y similar to the P u r d y P a v i l i o n at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a .  L i k e the P u r d y P a v i l i o n , this h o s p i t a l h a s e m b r a c e d the i d e a that  l a n d s c a p e c a n support healing functions.  E v i d e n c e of the role that natural e l e m e n t s play at the B a n f i e l d  P a v i l i o n is p r e s e n t t h r o u g h o u t the facility.  R e s i d e n t s participate in g a r d e n i n g p r o g r a m s that v a r y in s c a l e  f r o m the l a n d s c a p e a r e a they m a i n t a i n at the m a i n e n t r a n c e , to b a l c o n y a n d roof top g a r d e n s .  Shelagh  S m i t h , a horticultural therapist, is e m p l o y e d to facilitate p r o g r a m s with the r e s i d e n t s a n d to h e l p maintain the p l a n t i n g s o n site.  Several  strategies  environments.  are  in  place  to  ensure  that  residents  have  ready  access  to  sensually  rich  A t s m a l l s c a l e , r e s i d e n t s m a k e u s e of existing b a l c o n y s p a c e a s e a c h floor puts forth a n  entry in the a n n u a l b a l c o n y g a r d e n c o m p e t i t i o n .  T h e plant p o t s u s e d in this p r o g r a m a r e of s i z e s a n d  h e i g h t s that m a k e t h e m a c c e s s i b l e to t h o s e w h o t e n d t h e m .  A t a larger s c a l e , the P a v i l i o n h a s t a k e n  a d v a n t a g e of a n existing rooftop to c r e a t e a 3 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e foot g a r d e n .  T h e rooftop g a r d e n is the m o s t  intensively u s e d a n d d e s i g n e d restorative s p a c e at the P a v i l i o n a n d is the setting for the majority of the horticulture t h e r a p y p r o g r a m s o n site. u s e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d by r e s i d e n t s .  S e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s a r e e m p l o y e d to e n s u r e the g a r d e n is e a s i l y  A n a u t o m a t i c d o o r o p e n s o n to the rooftop g a r d e n .  Walkways  are  w i d e , s m o o t h a n d free of o b s t r u c t i o n s .  11  Figure 1.6  Banfield R o o f t o p G a r d e n  Source: Author's Photos Accessible planters suited for use by those in wheelchairs hold plants with interesting textures and pleasant aromas. Automatic irrigation means hoses do not obstruct pathways.  Hanging baskets are on  pulley systems so that they can easily be lowered for maintenance by residents. Design elements allow horticulture therapy programs to take place even in inclement weather.  A covered walkway allows  residents to use outdoor space despite rain or heat and moveable planters come indoors for programs when the residents prefer not to venture outdoors.  Shelagh Smith has amassed a collection of gardening tools adapted to residents' mobility and function. These tools serve to enable and encourage residents to participate in garden programs.  Cedarview L o d g e , North V a n c o u v e r , B C  Cedarview Lodge is a 150 bed seniors' residential care facility located in North Vancouver. Professor of Landscape Architecture, Patrick Mooney, and Cedarview administrator, P. Lenore Nicell, undertook this project with funding from Health and Welfare Canada. Meeting the special needs of Alzheimer's patients and responding to best practices in the development of special care facilities, this garden was opened in May, 1990. A study was undertaken in conjunction with the opening of the garden to a s s e s s the effect that the new garden would have on residents.  12  T h e s t a t e d d e s i g n intent of the g a r d e n w a s to: • •  reduce glare on pathways a n d entryways p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u o u s l o o p s o that r e s i d e n t s w e r e naturally led b a c k to the building entry, t h e r e b y a v o i d i n g disorientation  •  c o n t a i n a central trellis a n d tree g r o v e , w h i c h w e r e to a c t a s l a n d m a r k s a n d a l l o w r e s i d e n t s to orient t h e m s e l v e s  •  b e e n c l o s e d , but with the s u r r o u n d i n g f e n c e s c r e e n e d in a w a y that r e s i d e n t s w e r e not attracted to the site e d g e  •  c o n t a i n p l a n t s that a r e n o n - t o x i c s o that there is no d a n g e r of p o i s o n i n g f r o m i n g e s t i n g plant  •  c o n t a i n footpath lights a n d h a n d r a i l s i n t e n d e d to m i n i m i z e d a n g e r of r e s i d e n t s falling in the  material g a r d e n by providing c o n t i n u o u s e v e n lighting a n d s u p p o r t •  c o n t a i n s o m e s e a s o n a l c o l o u r but be low key, rich in familiar f r a g r a n c e s , a n d i n t e n d e d to s o o t h e rather than visually stimulate r e s i d e n t s  •  i n c r e a s e the a p p a r e n t s i z e of plantings, a s t h e r e w a s a relatively high ratio of w a l k w a y to p l a n t e d area.  T h e r e w e r e four s e a t i n g a r e a s , all partially s h a d e d a n d p l a n t e d to g i v e a n illusion of p r i v a c y  ( M o o n e y & N i c e l l , 1992).  Figure 1.7  Cedarview Plan  S o u r c e : M o o n e y & Nicell,  1992  R e s e a r c h e r s t r a c k e d c h a n g e s in incident reports at C e d a r v i e w L o d g e a n d o t h e r facilities that h a d g a r d e n s a n d c o m p a r e d t h e m with facilities without g a r d e n s . T h e c o m p a r i s o n r e v e a l e d a d r a m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e in the n u m b e r s of violent  incidents a n d  falls with t h o s e facilities  with g a r d e n s e n j o y i n g  significantly  fewer 13  negative incidents.  T h e s e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the v i e w that s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d o u t d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t s  h a v e a positive effect o n d e m e n t i a  can  patients.  Mount Pleasant W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s , V a n c o u v e r , B C T h i s project w a s c o m p l e t e d in 1 9 9 9 for the City of V a n c o u v e r by U B C l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e p r o f e s s o r s Patrick M o o n e y a n d D o n L u y m e s . neighbourhood which  It l o o k e d at the role a w a l k i n g circuit c o u l d play in this V a n c o u v e r  h a s three healthcare  Hospital ( M o o n e y & L u y m e s , 2000).  facilities  in its b o u n d a r i e s i n c l u d i n g M o u n t  Saint  Joseph's  T h e intent w a s to g e n e r a t e d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s that w o u l d e n g a g e  the  full r a n g e of potential site u s e r s .  Recommendations  included  a  series  of  circuits d e s i g n e d  c o n s t r a i n t s ; the elderly or t h o s e with disabilities.  to  be  a c c e s s i b l e to  people  S i d e w a l k s w e r e to b e at least 1.8  a c c o m m o d a t e w h e e l c h a i r traffic a n d u s e s a w - c u t control joints for m a x i m u m  with  meters wide  paving s m o o t h n e s s .  a r e a s with a c c e s s i b l e b e n c h e s a n d d e c o r a t i v e p l a n t i n g s w e r e to b e p l a c e d e v e r y 100 m e t e r s , short trips b e t w e e n c o m f o r t a b l e s e a t i n g opportunities. within the s t u d y a r e a .  to  Rest  ensuring  C o r n e r b u l g e s a n d traffic c i r c l e s w o u l d c a l m traffic  Street c r o s s i n g s w e r e to b e well m a r k e d  directly a l i g n e d with s i d e w a l k s a n d c r o s s w a l k s .  mobility  and have  perpendicular curb  ramps  T e a S w a m p P a r k , a n existing park within the s t u d y a r e a ,  w o u l d b e retrofitted with a c c e s s i b l e furniture a n d a u n i v e r s a l w a t e r fountain.  W a y - f i n d i n g w o u l d b e s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h o u t the a r e a . a n d rest a r e a s . the  C l e a r s i g n a g e w o u l d b e installed at i n t e r s e c t i o n s  Different circuits w o u l d b e c o l o u r c o d e d ; p a v i n g a n d p l a n t i n g s w o u l d m a t c h the c o l o u r of  circuit travelled.  Special landscape areas  landmarks, assisting way-finding.  and  heritage  interpretation  markers  would  serve  as  F o r c o m p l e t e project g u i d e l i n e s , s e e A p p e n d i x A .  Figure 1.8 W e l l n e s s Walkway  Source: Author's Photos  14  2 2.1  Context National T r e n d s  Canada's population is aging.  An increase in the elderly population will translate to greater demands on  the U B C Hospital Precinct over time.  Statistics Canada predicts that by 2030, 20 percent of the  population will be 65 years of age or older. This trend is reflected in British Columbia where it is predicted that by 2021, 18.3 per cent of residents will be seniors, translating to approximately 552,660 seniors living in Vancouver (British Columbia Statistics, 2006). growth in Vancouver's overall population.  In addition, demographic forecasts predict dramatic  Between 1991 and 2021 the population of the G V R D will  increase from 1.78 million to 3.02 million, a 70 percent increase, including a 247 percent increase in the segment of the population 65 years old and older ( G V R D Strategic Planning Department, 1994). Considering that approximately 10 percent of seniors require formalized care such as that offered at the Purdy Pavilion at U B C located in the study site. It follows that by 2021 we can increased demand for extended care as roughly 55,266 people will be housed in such facilities in the Vancouver area.  The implication of this trend for the study site is an anticipated increase in demand on U B C ' s hospital precinct, perhaps even its expansion, and an increased opportunity for positive influence as visitor numbers increase.  Figure 2.1  C a n a d a ' s A g i n g Population  Canada's Aging Population  m m  HUH  2030 20%  1950 1990 1900 8% 5% 12% Portion of Canadian Population 65 and over  Source: Statistics C anada  Caring for Older Canadians  Community Care, Family and Friends 90%  Institutional Care 10% Source: Statistics C anada Source: Mount Allison University, 2002  15  2.2  Context within the R e g i o n  The Greater Vancouver Regional District creates the larger setting for the study site. Biophysically, the region enjoys one of the most amenable climates in Canada. A mountain range on Vancouver Island to the west and proximity to the ocean give Vancouver its mild climate. Vancouver has a mean temperature of 2.8 degrees Celsius in January, its coldest month, and 17.3 degrees Celsius in July, its warmest month allowing for comfortable year-round outdoor activity.  The city is located in the mid-latitudes of North  America where warm, humid air masses from the south meet cooler northern air resulting in precipitation. The study site receives 1200 to 1300 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of it falling in the winter months, making covered outdoor areas especially attractive from November to March (Wynn & Oke, 1992).  The site falls in the Fraser Wetter Maritime Coastal Douglas Fir Biogeoclimatic Zone receives an average of 1,919 hours of sunlight each year (Wynn & Oke, 1992) and is situated in U S D A plant hardiness zone 8. A wide selection of plant material can be grown here, and gardening is a popular recreational activity.  The campus' physical layout has been planned to celebrate its position and to make a visual connection to the larger region. The street grid on campus is aligned to provide a view down Main Mall to the north shore mountains.  This view serves as a visual terminus to main mall, and is a powerful connection  between U B C and the larger region.  Figure 2.2  U B C ' s Position in the G V R D  Source: Remax Realty, 2005 2.3  Context within the University  The approximately 495 hectares that make up the University of British Columbia are located on the western-most edge of Vancouver. The campus enjoys an idyllic location bordered by Burrard Inlet to the north, the Straight of Georgia to the west and parkland to the southeast.  Its situation amid ocean and  16  p a r k l a n d l e a v e s it d i s c o n n e c t e d f r o m the g r e a t e r fabric o f the city, a n d a s a result, the U n i v e r s i t y f u n c t i o n s largely a s a s e p a r a t e entity.  The  University's vision statement,  Trek 2010,  lists five pillars a r o u n d w h i c h g o a l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s  d e t e r m i n e d ; r e s e a r c h , l e a r n i n g , c o m m u n i t y , p e o p l e a n d internationalization. m o s t directly  related  to this project  as  m e m b e r s of the c a m p u s c o m m u n i t y .  it s t a t e s  that the  university  are  T h e pillar c a l l e d ' p e o p l e ' is  values  rich e n v i r o n m e n t s  for  all  G o a l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s relating to p e o p l e i n c l u d e " e n s u r i n g that all  m e m b e r s of the U B C c o m m u n i t y h a v e the b e s t p o s s i b l e s u r r o u n d i n g s in w h i c h to live, s t u d y , w o r k a n d play" ( U B C , 2 0 0 4 ) s u g g e s t i n g s t r o n g s u p p o r t for initiatives to i m p r o v e l a n d s c a p e s o n c a m p u s .  F r o m the i n c e p t i o n of the university, land u s a g e p l a n s d e s i g n a t e d the s t u d y a r e a a s part of a s e c t i o n of c a m p u s s e t a s i d e for m e d i c a l b u i l d i n g s .  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l b u i l d i n g s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to the s t u d y  site with a m e n i t i e s of interest to p e o p l e living a n d w o r k i n g in the s t u d y a r e a . to  the  north  drycleaner, College,  an  east.  The  newsstand,  village's  dollar  food  outlets,  store, gifts a n d  interdenominational  graduate  c o n v e n i e n c e stores,  house-wares  school  p l e a s a n t park with s e a t i n g a s part of its g r o u n d s .  make  of t h e o l o g y ,  U n i v e r s i t y V i l l a g e is l o c a t e d  financial  it a  services,  hairdresser,  popular destination.  is directly  east  and  Regent  o n c e included  a  T h e c o l l e g e is currently u n d e r g o i n g r e n o v a t i o n s , a n d  a l t h o u g h the g a r d e n h a s b e e n d e m o l i s h e d while a n u n d e r g r o u n d library is installed, t h e r e a r e p l a n s to r e c o n s t r u c t the Technology  p r e v i o u s l y existing  Enterprise  Facility  l a n d s c a p e o n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n is c o m p l e t e . T o the s o u t h w e s t ,  (TEF)  with  its c o n v e n i e n c e s t o r e  c u s t o m e r s f r o m a c r o s s this q u a d r a n t of c a m p u s .  and  Starbucks coffee  shop  the  draws  T o the w e s t of the site is the H e a l t h S c i e n c e s P a r k a d e ,  w h i c h p r o v i d e s p a r k i n g in c l o s e proximity to the s t u d y a r e a .  T o the north a r e the W o o d w a r d B i o m e d i c a l  Library a n d t h e Instructional R e s o u r c e C e n t r e ( I R C ) , c o - l o c a t e d in a c o m p l e x that i n c l u d e s a f o o d outlet a n d a n i n d o o r mall.  17  Figure 2.3  L o c a l A r e a Destination UNIVERSITY  2.4  The Hospital Precinct  The hospital precinct is on the eastern edge of campus and houses of three hospital buildings; Koerner Pavilion, Detwiller Pavilion and Purdy Pavilion. The precinct is bounded by the Instructional Resource Centre (IRC) to the north, Wesbrook Mall to the east, the Life Sciences Centre (LSC) to the south and Health Sciences Mall to the west.  Amenities  The site has several amenities that are shared and enjoyed by people living and working in the precinct.  Figure 2.4  Map of Hospital Precinct  ©  Patient Park  18  T h e A c u t e C a r e Unit Patient P a r k is l o c a t e d in the north w e s t e r n part o f the p r e c i n c t .  It w a s d e s i g n e d by  V a g e l a t o s a n d A s s o c i a t e s , a V a n c o u v e r l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e firm, a n d o p e n e d in 1 9 8 7 .  T h e park is  currently c l o s e d a s is it s e r v e s a s the s t a g i n g g r o u n d for a r e n o v a t i o n to the B i o m e d i c a l R e s e a r c h C e n t r e i m m e d i a t e l y to the north.  Figure 2.5 Patient Park  Source: Author's Photo  Patient P a r k will b e a l t e r e d b e f o r e it is r e - o p e n e d to the public.  In a s c h e m a t i c d e s i g n report p r e p a r e d in  M a r c h 2 0 0 3 , V a g e l a t o s A s s o c i a t e s lists p l a n n e d c h a n g e s i n c l u d i n g i m p r o v e d a c c e s s to the park t h r o u g h the addition of a n e n t r a n c e to the park f r o m H e a l t h S c i e n c e s M a l l .  T h i s e n t r a n c e will p r o v i d e direct  a c c e s s to the park for p e o p l e w o r k i n g in the n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s e a r c h facility a n d invite p a s s i n g p e d e s t r i a n s to cut t h r o u g h o n their w a y to d e s t i n a t i o n s in the h o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t .  It is h o p e d that this c h a n g e will m a k e  Patient P a r k a v a i l a b l e to a w i d e r variety of u s e r s .  Pedestrian Breezeway A n o u t d o o r p e d e s t r i a n mall is c r e a t e d in the s p a c e b e t w e e n currently offers the g r e a t e s t p e d e s t r i a n a m e n i t y o n site. edges.  A covered walkway  K o e r n e r a n d P u r d y P a v i l i o n s . T h i s mall  In w a r m w e a t h e r p e o p l e sit in the s h a d e a l o n g its  p l a n t e d with wisteria l e a d s f r o m H e a l t h S c i e n c e s M a l l to the e n t r a n c e to  K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n . T h e mall a l s o l e a d s to the m a i n a c c e s s point for Patient P a r k .  19  Figure 2.6  Pedestrian Mall  Source: Author's Photos K o e r n e r Cafeteria and T u n n e l  A cafeteria is located on the ground floor of the Koerner Pavilion, and is one of the few places on campus where a healthy meal can be purchased at a reasonable cost.  It is a popular dining choice for staff,  students and hospital residents. The Koerner Pavilion is connected on the cafeteria level to the Purdy Pavilion by underground tunnel. This circulation route is commonly used as it protects site users from inclement weather as they travel between buildings.  Figure 2.7  K o e r n e r Cafeteria and T u n n e l  Source: Author's Photos Circulation Issues  Circulation issues are cited by Purdy residents as one of their main concerns. Grades cause problems for Purdy residents in wheelchairs who report difficulty using the sidewalk that connects Koerner and Purdy Pavilions to the sidewalk running parallel to Wesbrook Mall.  This poor connection prevents Purdy's  residents from venturing from the hospital to the village. Instead, they wait until for visitors to come so that they can be taken out to shop. Hospital Lane is too steep for wheelchair users and is risky for less-able pedestrians as autos cross the sidewalk to access parking. Another hazard exists on site; pavers in the sidewalk leading to the Koerner Pavilion are heaving, creating an uneven surface.  20  Street crossings in the hospital precinct are generally well marked and have curb cuts making travel safe for wheelchair users.  There are notable exceptions, however.  The crossing at the intersection of  Hospital Lane and Health Sciences Mall is missing curb cuts on the north side of the intersection and markings are not consistent. The crossing immediately west from the Purdy Pavilion is missing a curb cut on the south east corner of the intersection. To the south of the Acute Care Hospital parking lot, the main pedestrian walk is crossed by a road. This intersection has no signage at all, making crossing risky. Perhaps the least safe crossing on site is the crosswalk over Wesbrook Mall. This pedestrian crossing has curb cuts, is well marked, and has an overhead flashing signal.  Despite these precautions, the  crossing is still hazardous. The flashing signal lasts only 15 seconds. This is not adequate time for an able-bodied person to cross the street, let alone someone in a wheelchair.  A second push-button is  located mid-intersection, but cannot be reached before the signal stops flashing, and does not ease residents' fears about this crosswalk.  Figure 2.8 Precinct P o o r Street C r o s s i n g s  Plant Material  Plant material on site is mature and consists mainly of large beds of shrubs and trees. Trees line autoroutes and are distributed throughout open spaces. Recently renovated foundation plantings of azaleas and rhododendrons in the pedestrian mall create a pleasant atmosphere, although the view to Purdy Pavilion is obscured by large shrubs in places.  Planters are distributed throughout the site and are  various states of repair.  21  Figure 2.9 E n t r a n c e to Koerner Pavilion  Source: Author's Photo  Site F u r n i s h i n g s M a n y p e o p l e live, w o r k a n d s t u d y in the h o s p i t a l precinct, a n d m a n y m o r e p a s s t h r o u g h the site o n their c o m m u t e to w o r k a n d c l a s s e s . users.  B e n c h e s a n d g a r b a g e r e c e p t a c l e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a s a m e n i t i e s for site  B e n c h e s a r e w o o d e n a n d b e c o m e u n p l e a s a n t l y wet a n d m o s s y in w e t w e a t h e r . T h e  benches  l o c a t e d in front of K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n a r e p r o t e c t e d f r o m w e a t h e r , but a r e l o c a t e d in a s m o k i n g a r e a m a k i n g t h e m unattractive to m a n y potential u s e r s .  Figure 2.10  B e n c h e s o n Site  Source: Author's Photos  Wildlife Wildlife o n site i n c l u d e s birds, s q u i r r e l s a n d r a c c o o n s .  C o n s i d e r i n g the s i t e ' s proximity to P a c i f i c Spirit  P a r k , it is likely that m a n y s p e c i e s of birds c o u l d b e attracted h e r e by a d d i n g wildlife-supporting  2.5  plantings.  A n Introduction to the Hospital Pavilions  Detwiller Pavilion Detwiller P a v i l i o n is a p s y c h i a t r i c hospital offering e x t e n d e d c a r e a n d outpatient s e r v i c e s . 1968, a n d h a s s e e n a s t e a d y e r o s i o n of its u s a b l e g r e e n s p a c e .  It w a s built in  A o n c e a c t i v e rooftop r o s e g a r d e n  was  the victim of b u d g e t c u t s , a n d large g r e e n s p a c e to the i m m e d i a t e s o u t h w h i c h w a s u s e d for s p o r t s a n d  22  passive recreation was recently paved. It seems that when campus greenspace is lost to development, there is no requirement to make up the loss on another part of the site.  A partially-covered courtyard garden exists on the ground level of the hospital, but is falling into disrepair due to inadequate maintenance. This courtyard could be refurbished and serve as the smoking area for the hospital, a necessary function as a disproportionate percentage of psychiatric patients smoke. The shaded part of the site would be especially useful to patients on medication that make them sensitive to light (interview with hospital staff, Feb 3, 2006).  Other issues of concern on site include circulation and poor entry experience. A path connecting the pedestrian mall to the east entrance of Life Science Building passes through Detwiller site.  This  connection needs to be addressed a s it is currently hard to find, and lacking experientially. Recent concerns about safety led to the "limbing-up" of Detwiller Pavilion's hedge, resulting in an unsightly street image. Space immediately in front of the building's main entry has been set aside for an entry courtyard, but is not meeting its potential.  Figure 2.11  Entry to Detwiller Pavilion  Source: Author's Photo Purdy Pavilion  The Purdy Pavilion is home to an extended care residence and houses pathology, laboratory medicine, positron emission tomography (PET), radiology, and school of nursing departments.  The building was  designed by Paul Smith Architects and was erected in 1977. It is named after Dr. Harry Purdy in honour of his service as first chairman of the G V R H D and professor at U B C . This 205 bed facility offers extended residential and transitional care and serves as a training facility for health care students.  There is new interest in the development of useable outdoor spaces on site.  There are two garden  spaces under consideration at the Purdy Pavilion; one is the existing garden on the south side of the building and the other is a recently available space on the east side of the building. The building is a walk-out, with steep grades on sides of building and uneven grades on the eastern side of the building.  23  The  population  therapy  of the  P u r d y P a v i l i o n is mainly  elderly  a n d frail.  Interviews with P u r d y  staff s u g g e s t that 90 p e r c e n t or m o r e of r e s i d e n t s a r e in w h e e l c h a i r s ,  dementia, and 20 percent have Parkinson's d i s e a s e .  80  occupational  p e r c e n t suffer  from  C l e a r l y a n y d e s i g n for g a r d e n s p a c e at the P u r d y  P a v i l i o n will n e e d to a d d r e s s the s p e c i a l n e e d s of the r e s i d e n t s .  Figure 2.12  Purdy Pavilion Entrance  Source: Author's Photo  Koerner Pavilion T h e K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n is h o m e to a n a c u t e a n d s u b - a c u t e c a r e h o s p i t a l with a n a e s t h e s i a , u r g e n t a m b u l a n c e , p a t h o l o g y a n d laboratory m e d i c i n e , P E T , r a d i o l o g y , rehabilitation  care,  s c i e n c e , s c h o o l of n u r s i n g ,  s t u d e n t health s e r v i c e , a n d s u r g e r y d e p a r t m e n t s .  T h e hospital o p e n e d in 1 9 8 0 a n d is n a m e d after W a l t e r C . K o e r n e r w h o d o n a t e d to t h e project a l o n g with the G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r H o s p i t a l District.  A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , this building is h o m e to a  popular  c a f e t e r i a w h i c h s e r v i c e s all t h r e e p a v i l i o n s a n d d r a w s c u s t o m e r s f r o m a c r o s s c a m p u s . A n u n d e r g r o u n d tunnel c o n n e c t s K o e r n e r a n d P u r d y P a v i l i o n s , a n d exits o n this level to c o n n e c t to a s i d e w a l k l e a d i n g to t h e i n d o o r mall at the Instructional better.  T h e o u t d o o r path b e t w e e n  d o o r s a n d is w e a k  R e s o u r c e s C e n t r e (IRC). Koerner and IRC  T h i s c o n n e c t i o n is f u n c t i o n a l , but c o u l d b e  h a s difficult g r a d e s , p o o r s i g n a g e for a c c e s s i b l e  experientially.  T h e e a s t s i d e of the K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n f r o m d o o r to street is t a k e n u p a l m o s t entirely with p a r k i n g circulation infrastructure, experientially w e a k .  including a m b u l a n c e e m e r g e n c y a c c e s s .  and  T h e result m a y b e f u n c t i o n a l , but is  T h e h o s p i t a l l a c k s a s t r o n g street p r e s e n c e , a n d f e e l s a s t h o u g h it h a s its b a c k to the  street.  2.6  A n Introduction to the New G a r d e n S p a c e  A site o n the e a s t e r n s i d e of the P u r d y P a v i l i o n h a s recently b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e for r e - d e v e l o p m e n t . a n MRI  When  w a s r e m o v e d f r o m this location in 2 0 0 5 the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the h o s p i t a l a p p r o a c h e d C a m p u s  a n d C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g for a s s i s t a n c e in c r e a t i n g a patient g a r d e n o n this 1 2 0 0 s q u a r e m e t e r site.  24  M a t u r e trees, r e a d y a c c e s s to the building a n d a c o n n e c t i o n to t h e existing p e d e s t r i a n mall a r e a s s e t s . g r o u p of three m a t u r e p i n e t r e e s f o r m a g r o v e in the s o u t h e a s t e r n include the existing  12.5  foot b y 6 0 foot r e i n f o r c e d c o n c r e t e M R I  c o r n e r of the g a r d e n .  p a d , s t e e p g r a d e s o n the  A  Liabilities garden's  s o u t h e r n e d g e , a n d the l o o m i n g p r e s e n c e of a n d u n c e a s i n g n o i s e f r o m the Life S c i e n c e s C e n t r e to the south.  A s this site will n e e d to b e w h e e l c h a i r  a c c e s s i b l e , g r a d e s will b e c r u c i a l .  A  Purdy  Pavilion  o c c u p a t i o n a l therapist h a s m e n t i o n e d that g r a d e s a b o v e 1 p e r c e n t a r e v e r y difficult for r e s i d e n t s , a figure well b e l o w the 5 p e r c e n t g r a d e typically c o n s i d e r e d the m a x i m u m a c c e s s i b l e g r a d e .  Figure 2.13  New G a r d e n S p a c e  Source: Author's Photos  2.7  A n Introduction to the Existing G a r d e n S p a c e  T h e existing g a r d e n s p a c e is l o c a t e d o n the s o u t h e r n f a c e of the P u r d y P a v i l i o n .  It is o n the lowest level  of the hospital, o n e level b e l o w the n e w g a r d e n s p a c e .  Figure 2.14  Existing G a r d e n S p a c e  Source: Author's Photo  H o s p i t a l staff, visitors a n d r e s i d e n t s e n j o y resting o u t s i d e , tinkering in the g a r d e n a n d s o c i a l i z i n g in this space.  G r o u p e v e n t s , s u c h a s i c e c r e a m s o c i a l s , a r e h e l d h e r e in the s u m m e r . 25  Maintenance falls mainly upon two volunteers, and is a thorny issue. A large retaining wall defines the southern border of the garden, and is up for renovation (cyclical maintenance) by U B C Plant Operations. The Life Science Building to the south looms over the site. Trees are currently being added by Plant Operations along the top of this slope to screen views of this building from the Purdy Pavilion. 2.8  Analysis  Taking site conditions into consideration, site suitability and constraints can be identified. Several factors combine to make this site suitable for use as a restorative landscape; the need for such a landscape in the hospital precinct, the interest among stakeholders to create a restorative landscape, and the suitability of the site for such a purpose. Constraints arising from the site's physical attributes can be more easily overcome than issues of funding and long-term maintenance.  While maintenance and funding may  ideally be out of the purview of the designer, they are very real obstacles to projects' successful implementation. Proposals to mitigate these constraints are also given.  The need for a restorative landscape in the hospital precinct is manifested in several ways. Hospitals are places uniquely focused on health and well-being, making a restorative landscape a natural fit. The land surrounding the hospital is used by staff, students, visitors and patients. Visitors and patients are typically suffering from reduced physical ability and negative stress, more so than in the general population, and would greatly benefit from the improved cognitive and physical function provided to users of restorative landscapes. When one considers that this type of landscape experience is currently unavailable within the precinct, the need for this genre of space is further highlighted.  Residents living in the Purdy Pavilion make up a significant portion of potential site users. This population has specific requirements for their physical environments. As discussed in chapter one, failure to meet these requirements can result in spaces that are neither safe nor comfortable for this population. The existing outdoor environment is not designed to meet these needs, resulting in spaces that are inappropriate for resident use. Although Patient Park is intended for use by residents, it is not designed to meet their unique needs. Current plans to renovate Patient Park will leave it even less suitable. By increasing the number of entrances to the park and increasing traffic through the site it will be rendered unusable by dementia patients who require boundaries to prevent potentially dangerous wandering. Perhaps worse than providing poor outdoor spaces is missing the opportunity provide this important user group with restorative outdoor environments which would benefit their health.  Adding to the suitability of this site is the interest among stakeholders to implement a restorative landscape.  Purdy administration, staff, patients and family council members have demonstrated a  commitment to improving the existing greenspace adjacent to the Pavilion, and adding to it to create spaces that support residents' needs.  Administrators are aware of the benefits that restorative  landscapes provide and are eager to include restorative spaces as part of the hospital's outdoor environment. Purdy's occupational therapists incorporate horticultural therapy as part of their practice, a program that could be expanded with additional suitable gardening space. Both U B C ' s Campus and v  26  C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d Plant O p e r a t i o n s staff h a v e e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t for alteration of the existing h o s p i t a l l a n d s c a p e to p r o v i d e a restorative l a n d s c a p e for the h o s p i t a l precinct.  U n i v e r s i t y policy  u n d e r s c o r e s the i m p o r t a n c e of providing rich e n v i r o n m e n t s to the c a m p u s c o m m u n i t y .  T h e will e x i s t s for  s u c h a project.  M a n y of the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the site m a k e  it s u i t a b l e for s u c h a u s e .  T h e Vancouver area  e n j o y s mild t e m p e r a t u r e s m a k i n g c o v e r e d o u t d o o r s p a c e s h o s p i t a b l e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r .  T h e hospital  p r e c i n c t is not yet c o m p l e t e l y built out, a n d h a s r e t a i n e d o p e n a r e a s that c o u l d b e a d a p t e d to d e l i v e r restorative p r o g r a m s .  G r e e n s p a c e is a v a i l a b l e i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to the h o s p i t a l p a v i l i o n s , a n d in the  c a s e o f the P u r d y P a v i l i o n in a n a m o u n t that c r e a t e s t h e possibility for a s i g n i f i c a n t g a r d e n s p a c e . currently u n - u s e d site at the  P u r d y P a v i l i o n is in a s e c l u d e d s p o t b e t w e e n  This  buildings providing s o m e  protection f r o m w i n d a n d s u n , a n important a s s e t w h e n d e s i g n i n g for o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n s .  Mature trees on  site c o u l d b e i n c o r p o r a t e d in s h a d e d s e a t i n g a r e a s , a n d to a s s i s t in attracting s o n g b i r d s to the s p a c e . T h e g a r d e n s p a c e a l s o benefits f r o m direct a n d e a s y g r o u n d level a c c e s s to the h o s p i t a l , m a k i n g it m o r e likely that a n y n e w g a r d e n w o u l d b e well u s e d by staff, r e s i d e n t s a n d family m e m b e r s .  S o m e the site's p h y s i c a l attributes m u s t b e mitigated.  A l t h o u g h not c o m m o n , s t e e p g r a d e s c a n b e f o u n d  within the hospital p r e c i n c t , s p e c i f i c a l l y o n the e a s t e r n e n d of the existing p e d e s t r i a n b r e e z e w a y a n d at the s o u t h e r n e d g e of the n e w g a r d e n s p a c e .  R e - g r a d i n g , installation of retaining w a l l s a n d taking  g r a d e s in p l a n t e d l a n d s c a p e a r e a s c o u l d bring t h e s e g r a d e s within A D A s t a n d a r d s .  up  Generally, sidewalks  a n d street c r o s s i n g s a r e in g o o d c o n d i t i o n , but in n o t e d c a s e s repair a n d r e p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e . A u t o a n d p e d e s t r i a n circulation a r e often at o d d s within the precinct.  M u c h of the p r e c i n c t h a s b e e n g i v e n  o v e r to g r o u n d level p a r k i n g r e d u c i n g s p a c e a v a i l a b l e for g r e e n s p a c e , or n e w b u i l d i n g s .  Delineation  b e t w e e n c a r a n d p e d e s t r i a n s p a c e is s o m e t i m e s h a z y , m o s t notably at the w e s t e r n e n d of the p e d e s t r i a n breezeway. Purdy  Distinct a n d s e p a r a t e a u t o a n d p e d e s t r i a n routes s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d .  Pavilion,  the  existing  garden  c o m f o r t a b l e u s e in t h e s u m m e r . h e l p r e m e d y this situation.  s p a c e ' s southern  exposure  makes  it  too  hot  F o c u s i n g o n the and  sunny  for  T h e introduction of p e r m a n e n t s h a d e s t r u c t u r e s a n d s h a d e t r e e s w o u l d  B o t h the n e w a n d existing g a r d e n s p a c e s f e e l the l o o m i n g p r e s e n c e of the  a d j a c e n t Life S c i e n c e B u i l d i n g .  T h e n o i s e f r o m this building c o u l d b e m a s k e d by i n t r o d u c i n g a b a b b l i n g  w a t e r feature, o r fabric e l e m e n t s that rustle in t h e b r e e z e .  V i s u a l s c r e e n i n g o f the b u i l d i n g s is a l s o  n e c e s s a r y a n d c o u l d t a k e m a n y f o r m s including planting both o n a n d off site, or i n t r o d u c i n g f e n c e s or trellises.  Alternatively, the g a r d e n s p a c e c o u l d b e d e s i g n e d with a n inward f o c u s to d r a w the e y e a w a y  f r o m the a d j a c e n t b u i l d i n g .  T h i s c o u l d b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p l a c i n g f o c a l e l e m e n t s in the c e n t r e of t h e  g a r d e n rather than at the e d g e s .  Plant o p e r a t i o n s currently p e r f o r m s s o m e m a i n t e n a n c e of the existing g a r d e n s p a c e w h i l e the  remainder  of m a i n t e n a n c e is d o n e by a h o s p i t a l v o l u n t e e r w h o reports h a v i n g difficulty k e e p i n g u p with t h e w o r k load.  Planning  for  any  additional  garden  space  at  the  Purdy  Pavilion  must  address  long-term  m a i n t e n a n c e f r o m the o u t s e t to a v o i d u n d u l y s t r e t c h i n g the r e s o u r c e s of P l a n t O p e r a t i o n s or v o l u n t e e r s .  27  T h e d e s i g n m u s t i n c l u d e e l e m e n t s that r e d u c e the m a i n t e n a n c e b u r d e n .  Irrigation s h o u l d b e u s e d in all  p l a n t e d a r e a s until plant m a t e r i a l is e s t a b l i s h e d a n d c o n t i n u e d in a r e a s that r e q u i r e h i g h w a t e r u s e s u c h a s planters, a n d perennial b e d s . groundcovers.  T h e plant palette s h o u l d c o n s i s t m a i n l y of t r e e s , s h r u b s a n d e v e r g r e e n  P e r e n n i a l s that r e q u i r e  h i g h e r l e v e l s of m a i n t e n a n c e  should be  u s e d sparingly  and  strategically l o c a t e d at p l a c e s w h e r e p e o p l e will c o m e in c l o s e c o n t a c t with t h e m to m a x i m i z e their effect. While  it w o u l d  b e ideal to h a v e  r e s o u r c e s in p l a c e for p r o f e s s i o n a l m a i n t e n a n c e , either f r o m  O p e r a t i o n s or t h r o u g h a position f u n d e d by the h o s p i t a l , this s e e m s unlikely. w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e recruiting m o r e v o l u n t e e r s to h e l p with m a i n t e n a n c e .  Plant  Any new garden s p a c e In addition to c a n v a s s i n g  family m e m b e r s , the hospital c o u l d c o n s i d e r s e c u r i n g s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s f r o m f a c u l t i e s with a n interest in restorative or t h e r a p e u t i c s p a c e s s u c h a s n u r s i n g , horticulture or l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e .  A partnership  with existing v o l u n t e e r g r o u p s o n c a m p u s , s u c h a s U B C B o t a n i c a l G a r d e n ' s F r i e n d s of the  Garden  ( F O G s ) , or S t u d e n t F r i e n d s of the G a r d e n ( S O G s ) c o u l d a l s o b e d i s c u s s e d .  F u n d s a r e a p e r e n n i a l p r o b l e m w h e n it c o m e s to i m p l e m e n t i n g a project. a d e s i g n e r to h e l p with this difficult t a s k . essential.  S e v e r a l things c a n b e d o n e by  T h e distillation of s t a k e h o l d e r s ' i d e a s into a c l e a r p l a n is  A c l e a r g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the projects' g o a l s lets f u n d e r s u n d e r s t a n d w h a t their m o n e y  will b e u s e d for.  F u n d i n g - r a i s i n g c a n a l s o b e a s s i s t e d by i n c l u d i n g e l e m e n t s a n d m a t e r i a l s that a l l o w  f u n d e r s to e a s i l y s e e w h e r e their m o n e y is g o i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , b r i c k s that m a k e up a wall c a n b e ' b o u g h t ' by individual d o n o r s while c o n c r e t e w a l l s d o not offer this opportunity.  G a r d e n structures c a n b e n a m e d  after b e n e f a c t o r s , a n d t r e e s c a n b e t a g g e d with i n d i v i d u a l s ' n a m e s letting f u n d e r s s e e the results of their donation.  In b a l a n c i n g this site is s u i t a b l e for u s e a s a restorative l a n d s c a p e .  Physical constraints c a n be easily  o v e r c o m e , the p r o p o s e d u s e is a p p r o p r i a t e a n d there is interest in s e e i n g s u c h a project p r o g r e s s .  The  real i s s u e is not that t h e site is s u i t a b l e for u s e a s a restorative l a n d s c a p e , but w h e t h e r s u c h a site c a n b e afforded and maintained.  28  3 3.1  Design Principles and Guidelines D e s i g n Principles  A s site u s e r s m o v e t h r o u g h the h o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t they e n c o u n t e r a s e r i e s of distinct s p a c e s e a c h with its o w n set of f u n c t i o n s a n d u s e r g r o u p s . I m a g i n e a trip f r o m the m a i n p a r k i n g lot t h r o u g h the  pedestrian  b r e e z e w a y t o w a r d the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n ; it is a j o u r n e y that s e e s a n i n c r e a s i n g l y s p e c i f i c s e t of u s e r s a n d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s p e c i f i c s e t of i n t e n d e d u s e s requiring i n c r e a s i n g l y stringent design requirements.  S p e c i f i c d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d at three s c a l e s ; t h o s e that a p p l y to  the entire precinct, t h o s e that a p p l y to the therapeutic  garden.  These  design  new  principles  residents' garden, are  meant  to  be  a n d finally understood  t h o s e for the as  being  existing  nested  and  cumulative.  Figure 3.1  D e s i g n Principles  precinct  residents' garden  therapeutic garden  • restorative e x p e r i e n c e  • meet residents' unique n e e d s  • support therapeutic  programs  A s illustrated in the a b o v e d i a g r a m , all of the s p a c e s that m a k e up the h o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t a r e i n t e n d e d to h a v e a restorative quality.  A s p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , restorative e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d e relief of the  effects  of m e n t a l fatigue, a c o n d i t i o n that a r i s e s f r o m o v e r e x e r c i s i n g o n e ' s c a p a c i t y for d i r e c t e d attention ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  A s this is a n e s t e d m o d e l all of the s p a c e s that fall within t h e precinct, i n c l u d i n g the  r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s , s h o u l d m e e t the p r i n c i p l e s relating to the p r e c i n c t .  A s d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a r e m e a n t to b e c u m u l a t i v e , the p r i n c i p l e s that a p p l y to the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n a r e a n e w layer of criteria a d d e d to the p r i n c i p l e s a p p l y i n g to the precinct.  T h i s is a p p r o p r i a t e a s the r e s i d e n t s ' 29  g a r d e n ' s u s e r g r o u p h a s u n i q u e n e e d s a r i s i n g f r o m their a g e a n d m e d i c a l c o n d i t i o n , n e e d s that e x c e e d t h o s e of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . R e f e r to C h a p t e r o n e for a t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e u n i q u e n e e d s .  T h e t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n with p r o v i d e a p l a c e for horticulture t h e r a p y to t a k e p l a c e .  Horticultural t h e r a p y  t a k e s a d v a n t a g e of the restorative qualities of p l a n t s by i n c o r p o r a t i n g g a r d e n i n g a s part of a therapy program.  A s the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n falls within the c i r c l e r e p r e s e n t i n g the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n in  the a b o v e d i a g r a m , the p r i n c i p l e s that a p p l y to the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n will a l s o a p p l y to the garden.  patient's  therapeutic  T h i s m o v e a c k n o w l e d g e s that the s a m e p o p u l a t i o n will b e u s i n g the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n a s the  residents' garden.  T h e d i f f e r e n c e is that the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n h a s a n a d d i t i o n a l s e t of d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s  that e n a b l e this s p a c e to m e e t t h e r a p y p r o g r a m n e e d s , m a k i n g it the m o s t stringently d e s i g n e d s p a c e c o n s i d e r e d in this project.  T h e n e w g a r d e n will b e d e s i g n e d a s a restorative s p a c e , to offer a n i n t e n s e l y restorative e x p e r i e n c e to P u r d y r e s i d e n t s , staff a n d visitors.  Strategies implemented  in this g a r d e n will m a x i m i z e the K a p l a n s '  criteria ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998).  T h e n e w r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n will a l s o a d d r e s s the  u n i q u e n e e d s of  Purdy's residents. T h e therapeutic  garden must meet  precinct and  residents' garden.  the criteria that a p p l y to the  the  A s this g a r d e n will b e u s e d to d e l i v e r t h e r a p y to patients it h a s s p e c i f i c n e e d s b e y o n d  w h a t is n e c e s s a r y in the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n a n d m u s t m e e t a m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d s p e c i f i c s e t of criteria that a p p l y o n l y to this s p a c e .  D e s i g n details m u s t c o n s i d e r site u s e r s ' p h y s i c a l abilities a n d m e e t  therapy  program needs.  3.2  Design Guidelines  G u i d e l i n e s relating to t h e p r i n c i p l e s a b o v e h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d to e n s u r e that t h e p r e c i n c t m e e t s its goals.  T h e s e relate to the p r i n c i p l e s a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e a l s o u n d e r s t o o d to b e c u m u l a t i v e .  Table 3.1  Design Guidelines Guideline  Scale  Principle  Precinct  P r o v i d e a r e s t o r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e to a l l s i t e  F o l l o w K a p l a n s ' g u i d e l i n e s by providing fascination, extent, a  users  s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y , n e a r n a t u r e a n d c o m p a t i b i l i t y E n s u r e new buildings create positive outdoor s p a c e Meet A D A guidelines Support way-finding D e s i g n for s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n  Residents' Garden  M e e t Purdy residents' specific needs  A d d r e s s l o s s of s e n s o r y acuity, r e d u c e d p h y s i c a l ability a n d n e e d s of patients with d e m e n t i a M a x i m i z e on restorative  effect  C r e a t e p l a c e s for g a t h e r i n g M a k e a strong indoor-outdoor connection I n c l u d e e l e m e n t s r e q u e s t e d b y r e s i d e n t s , f a m i l i e s a n d staff Consider maintenance requirements Therapeutic Garden  Support therapeutic programs  A l l o w for a f l e x i b l e u s e o f s p a c e S u p p o r t horticultural activity M a x i m i z e a c c e s s i b l e planting s p a c e P l a n for e x t e n s i v e u s e o f s p a c e  30  3.3  Principles and G u i d e l i n e s for the Precinct  T h e p r e c i n c t is to p r o v i d e a restorative e x p e r i e n c e to all site u s e r s . T h i s principle is singularly a p p r o p r i a t e to a hospital precinct, d e l i v e r i n g to site u s e r s restorative e x p e r i e n c e s that benefit their health a n d  leave  t h e m feeling r e n e w e d .  Follow Kaplans' Guidelines A s d i s c u s s e d in the literature review s e c t i o n of this p a p e r ,  restorative  introducing  sense  elements  that  provide  fascination,  compatibility ( K a p l a n & K a p l a n , 1998). for  engaging  non-directed  C o n n e c t i o n s should be  attention  made  to the  extent,  of  being  away,  near  nature  by and  D e s i g n for the p r e c i n c t s h o u l d t a k e a d v a n t a g e s of o p p o r t u n i t i e s by  introducing  extensive  natural  elements  landscape employing  m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o v i d i n g v i e w s to off-site l a n d m a r k s . environment  a  l a n d s c a p e s c a n be created  that  stimulate  strategies  the  senses.  s u c h a s u s e of local  T h e p r e c i n c t s h o u l d b e distinct f r o m its s u r r o u n d i n g  in e n o u g h m e a s u r e to p r o v i d e t h e visitor with a s e n s e o f b e i n g a w a y .  Compatibility  is  e s p e c i a l l y important in the precinct, a n d c a r e m u s t b e t a k e n to e n s u r e that the l a n d s c a p e e n a b l e s p e o p l e to d o w h a t they w a n t to d o there effortlessly.  All of the g u i d e l i n e s for the p r e c i n c t t o u c h o n compatibility to  s o m e d e g r e e , u n d e r s c o r i n g its i m p o r t a n c e .  E n s u r e New B u i l d i n g s Create Positive O u t d o o r S p a c e T h e d e m a n d for h e a l t h c a r e  facilities c o n t i n u e s to g r o w , a n d it s e e m s likely that n e w b u i l d i n g s will b e  a d d e d to t h e p r e c i n c t o v e r time. the precinct.  It is p r u d e n t to think n o w a b o u t the effect t h e s e b u i l d i n g s m a y h a v e o n  T h e i r p l a c e m e n t a n d f o r m will g o a long w a y to c r e a t i n g compatibility a n d e x t e n t o n site.  W i t h o u t c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o n f u s i n g c i r c u l a t i o n , b l o c k e d v i e w s , e r o s i o n of p u b l i c o u t d o o r s p a c e a n d uncomfortable environments consequences circulation  on  can the  be west  next to l o o m i n g b u i l d i n g s c a n b e the result. I n d e e d ,  s a i d to s i d e of  have  been  the  Detwiller w a s  result w h e n impeded,  new  green  all of t h e s e  Life S c i e n c e s C e n t r e  s p a c e to the  south w a s  was  negative erected;  lost  without  c o m p e n s a t i o n , v i e w s f r o m P u r d y w e r e b l o c k e d , a n d the large s c a l e of the Life S c i e n c e s C e n t r e c o n t i n u e s to o p p r e s s the existing t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n .  N e w b u i l d i n g s a d d e d to the p r e c i n c t s h o u l d h a v e footprints that c r e a t e w h a t C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r refers to a s positive o u t d o o r s p a c e . H e e x p l a i n s that "outdoor s p a c e s which are  m e r e l y "left over" b e t w e e n  b u i l d i n g s will, in g e n e r a l ,  not b e  used.  T h e r e a r e two f u n d a m e n t a l l y different k i n d s of o u t d o o r s p a c e : n e g a t i v e s p a c e a n d positive s p a c e . O u t d o o r s p a c e is n e g a t i v e w h e n it is s h a p e l e s s , the r e s i d u e left b e h i n d w h e n b u i l d i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y v i e w e d a s positive - a r e p l a c e d o n the l a n d .  which  A n o u t d o o r s p a c e is positive w h e n its  s h a p e is a s important a s the s h a p e s of the b u i l d i n g s w h i c h s u r r o u n d it" ( A l e x a n d e r , 1977,  p.518).  P o s i t i v e o u t d o o r s p a c e s c a n b e c r e a t e d , A l e x a n d e r tells u s , by e n s u r i n g that they offer a d e g r e e  of  enclosure.  Meet A D A G u i d e l i n e s T h e hospital p r e c i n c t is u s e d by m a n y p e o p l e w h o a r e ill or h a v e r e d u c e d p h y s i c a l ability. T a k i n g this into c o n s i d e r a t i o n , it is e v e n m o r e critical h e r e than in o t h e r settings that l a n d s c a p e b e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e . 31  U n i v e r s a l d e s i g n i n v o l v e s the c r e a t i o n of e n v i r o n m e n t s that c a n b e u s e d by all p e o p l e , r e g a r d l e s s of disability, without t h e n e e d for s e g r e g a t i o n o r s t i g m a t i z a t i o n .  T h e A m e r i c a n s with Disabilities A c t ( A D A )  s e t s forth g u i d e l i n e s that a r e c o m m o n l y u s e d a s the s t a n d a r d w h i c h m u s t b e m e t to e n s u r e u n i v e r s a l accessibility.  S u p p o r t Way-finding M a n y p e o p l e u s i n g the l a n d s c a p e a r e visitors or patients o n s h o r t s t a y s a n d n e e d a s s i s t a n c e finding their w a y a r o u n d the precinct.  S i m p l e circulation r o u t e s s h o u l d b e e m p l o y e d a n d t h e s e c o u l d b e r e i n f o r c e d  with s p e c i a l p a v i n g t r e a t m e n t s that m a r k circulation r o u t e s to d e s t i n a t i o n s within precinct.  Destinations  s h o u l d b e v i s i b l e f r o m a d i s t a n c e a n d s i g n a g e d i r e c t i n g p e o p l e to t h e s e d e s t i n a t i o n s s h o u l d b e at e y e l e v e l a n d e a s y to r e a d .  T h e ability to g i v e a n d r e c e i v e intelligible d i r e c t i o n s s h o u l d b e s u p p o r t e d t h r o u g h the  u s e of m e m o r a b l e p l a c e - m a r k e r s at d e c i s i o n points.  D e s i g n for S o c i a l Interaction All site u s e r s benefit f r o m l a n d s c a p e s that s u p p o r t s o c i a l interaction.  Although designing outdoor s p a c e s  for s o c i a l activity d o e s not e n s u r e that p e o p l e will interact, failure to d e s i g n for s o c i a l activity e n s u r e s that interaction will not t a k e p l a c e ( G e h l , 1996). T o e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l interaction, the d e s i g n s h o u l d p r o v i d e s o c i a l s p a c e s i n s i d e b u i l d i n g s with c o m p l e m e n t a r y o u t d o o r s o c i a l s p a c e s . addition of a n o u t d o o r patio c o n n e c t e d to the existing i n d o o r c a f e t e r i a  A n example would be  at the  outdoor s p a c e s should support many u s e s and focus on pedestrian use.  Koerner Pavilion.  s t o p s with c o m f o r t a b l e s t r e e t furniture a n d fine detailing s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d .  physical comfort.  3.4  F r e q u e n t rest  Seating s h o u l d b e sited  p e o p l e like to sit; with their b a c k s p r o t e c t e d a n d v i e w s to p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n .  should be considered when  All  T h e p r e c i n c t s h o u l d offer a  variety of p l a c e s to sit a n d t h e s e s h o u l d allow for v a r i o u s s i z e s of g r o u p s to c o n g r e g a t e .  where  the  Microclimates  locating rest s t o p s to e n s u r e protection f r o m the e l e m e n t s a n d  maximize  E v e n p a v i n g a n d a d e q u a t e lighting will h e l p m a k e the p r e c i n c t s a f e for site u s e r s .  Principles and G u i d e l i n e s for the R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n  T h e new  r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n at the  P u r d y P a v i l i o n m u s t m e e t the d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s for the  addition to t h o s e s p e c i f i c to this n e w s p a c e , visitors a n d staff. addressed.  p r e c i n c t in  T h e g a r d e n will b e u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y by P u r d y r e s i d e n t s ,  A s d i s c u s s e d in c h a p t e r o n e , P u r d y ' s r e s i d e n t s h a v e s p e c i a l n e e d s that m u s t  be  T a b l e 3.2 details d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s that a d d r e s s t h e s e n e e d s .  Table 3.2 G u i d e l i n e s That A d d r e s s Purdy R e s i d e n t ' s N e e d s Condition  D e s i g n Guideline  L o s s of S e n s o r y A c u i t y Hearing  •  P l a c e e l e m e n t s that reveal the s o u n d of the w i n d s u c h a s w i n d c h i m e s or fabric banners along circulation routes  Sight  •  Include w a t e r features that b a b b l e  •  P l a c e s bird b a t h s a n d f e e d e r s n e a r s e a t i n g  conspicuously  •  P r o v i d e a d e q u a t e lighting a l o n g p a t h w a y s a n d inside structures  •  E n s u r e circulation routes are o b s t a c l e free  •  P l a c e design elements where they c a n be easily s e e n - below eye level  •  P r o v i d e t r a n s i t i o n z o n e s b e t w e e n light a n d d a r k s p a c e s  •  E l i m i n a t e materials that c r e a t e glare, e s p e c i a l l y on the g r o u n d p l a n e  32  Design Guideline  Condition Scent  •  P r o v i d e p l a n t s w i t h p l e a s a n t s c e n t s in p r o x i m i t y t o r e s t s t o p s  Touch  •  P l a c e materials with interesting textures within e a s y reach  •  Ensure water features are  •  S l o p e s n o t to e x c e e d  •  M a x i m i z e physical comfort by providing shelter from the e l e m e n t s a n d h e a t e d  interactive  Reduced Physical Ability L o s s of S t r e n g t h  seating  5%  areas  L o s s of S t a m i n a  •  P r o v i d e f r e q u e n t r e s t s t o p s , at l e a s t e v e r y 2 0 0 m  L o s s of Agility  •  C r e a t e a s e a m l e s s transition from i n d o o r s to outdoors; no d o o r s i l l s  •  P l a c e interactive e l e m e n t s within . 6 m of circulation of rest a r e a s  Dementia Population P e r c e p t u a l Ability Effected  Homelike Atmosphere  Preferred  Safe Environment  •  S u p p o r t way-finding with geometric s p a c e s a n d simple circulation  •  A v o i d s t a r k c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n light a n d d a r k , e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e g r o u n d  •  Employ warm mid-range colours and avoid monochromatic colour s c h e m e s  •  Introduce familiar objects a n d plant material  •  D e s i g n s p a c e s to h a v e a r e s i d e n t i a l s c a l e  •  E n s u r e s p a c e s a r e s e c u r e but n o t j a i l - l i k e  •  U s e only non-toxic plant material  plane  Maximize o n Restorative Effect P r o g r a m s for this g a r d e n relate to the s p a c e ' s restorative qualities a n d restorative e l e m e n t s will b e u s e d to m a x i m u m effect h e r e .  T h e g a r d e n will p r o v i d e n e a r nature a n d feature natural e l e m e n t s , i n c r e a s i n g its  restorative v a l u e . R e s i d e n t s will b e a b l e to u s e this g a r d e n a s a p l a c e of respite; for taking w a l k s , for s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d for bird w a t c h i n g .  N e s t b o x e s , b i r d b a t h s a n d p l a n t s that s u p p l y f o o d to birds s h o u l d b e  i n c l u d e d in this s p a c e to s u p p o r t this u s e . T h e s e p a r a t e s p a c e s that m a k e up the g a r d e n s h o u l d e a c h b e f u r n i s h e d with a f o c a l e l e m e n t that p r o v i d e s a n opportunity for f a s c i n a t i o n .  T h e s e could include water  f e a t u r e s , bird b a t h s or o u t d o o r f i r e p l a c e s .  Create P l a c e s for Gathering Patient r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m s c o u l d b e h e l d in the g a r d e n a n d a g a t h e r i n g s p a c e for ten to fifteen p e o p l e s h o u l d b e i n c l u d e d . C o n c e r t s a n d o t h e r s p e c i a l e v e n t s c o u l d a l s o b e h o s t e d in t h e g a r d e n .  T h e garden  s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d s o that part of the s p a c e c a n b e e a s i l y c l o s e d off to a l l o w s p e c i a l e v e n t s to h a p p e n without c l o s i n g the g a r d e n c o m p l e t e l y .  The  n e w g a r d e n s h o u l d p r o v i d e p l a c e s for P u r d y r e s i d e n t s to visit with family a n d f r i e n d s .  a r e a s with f a c i n g b e n c h e s s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d for this p u r p o s e . pertaining to s e a t i n g s p a c e s .  T h e s e should meet precinct principles  In a d d i t i o n , c o v e r e d s e a t i n g s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d for i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r a n d  this s h o u l d b e e q u i p p e d with h e a t e r s to e n s u r e y e a r - r o u n d u s e . and  Small seating  Seating structures should be s e c u r e d  the s e a t i n g s u r f a c e itself s h o u l d b e level a n d p l a c e d at a height of 19 i n c h e s .  Armrests should be  d e s i g n e d to b e e a s i l y g r a s p e d . C o n c r e t e p a d s m e a s u r i n g 1 m e t e r by 1 m e t e r s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e b e s i d e p e r m a n e n t s e a t i n g s t r u c t u r e s to allow t h o s e in w h e e l c h a i r s to join t h o s e in c h a i r s or b e n c h e s .  Make a Strong Indoor-Outdoor C o n n e c t i o n T h e interior o f the building s h o u l d h o l d c u e s that e n c o u r a g e r e s i d e n t s to u s e t h e a d j a c e n t o u t d o o r s p a c e . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y important for d e m e n t i a patients w h o m a y o t h e r w i s e forget that t h e s p a c e is a v a i l a b l e to  33  them.  C i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e s f r o m hospital w a r d s to the g a r d e n c o u l d b e m a r k e d with c o l o u r e d tile flooring, or  a c o n t i n u o u s s t e n c i l l e d v i n e o n the wall that l e a d s to the g a r d e n . c o u l d b e p l a c e d o n r e s i d e n t s ' dining t a b l e s or n u r s i n g stations.  F l o w e r a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m the g a r d e n  S a c h e t s or b o w l s of potpourri m a d e f r o m  g a r d e n flowers c o u l d b e p l a c e d in r e s i d e n t s ' r o o m s to r e m i n d t h e m that the g a r d e n is n e a r . d e p i c t i n g a g a r d e n s c e n e c o u l d a l s o b e e m p l o y e d a s a c u e to v e n t u r e o u t d o o r s .  A wall m u r a l  S i g n a g e i n s i d e building  c o u l d b e u s e d to direct f a m i l i e s a n d visitors to the g a r d e n , a n d list e v e n t s b e i n g h o s t e d in the g a r d e n .  Include Elements R e q u e s t e d by R e s i d e n t s , Families and Staff Q u e s t i o n n a i r e results ( s e e A p p e n d i x B) s h o w s t r o n g interest in i n c r e a s e d o u t d o o r s o c i a l s p a c e with a variety of s e a t i n g o p t i o n s . preference.  Natural e l e m e n t s s u c h a s s h a d e t r e e s , f l o w e r s a n d w a t e r a l s o w e r e high in  It is fortuitous that t h e s e e l e m e n t s a l s o h e l p c r e a t e the restorative quality d e s i r e d for this  g a r d e n , m a k i n g it d o u b l y important that they b e i n c l u d e d .  Maintenance Requirements M a i n t e n a n c e staff m u s t be a b l e to a c c e s s the g a r d e n , but the a c c e s s point s h o u l d not detract f r o m g a r d e n ' s restorative quality. system.  T o reduce maintenance,  the g a r d e n s h o u l d b e o n a n a u t o m a t i c  P l a n t i n g s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to b e l o w - m a i n t e n a n c e .  to e l i m i n a t e the n e e d for e d g i n g . open-formed  the  irrigation  L a w n a r e a s s h o u l d b e e d g e d with p a v e r s  T r e e s s e l e c t e d s h o u l d h a v e light l e a f litter a n d b e u n d e r - p l a n t e d with  g r o u n d c o v e r s that allow  l e a v e s to fall t h r o u g h  r e d u c i n g the  n e e d for raking.  Labour-  i n t e n s i v e o r n a m e n t a l planting b e d s s h o u l d b e limited to a f e w s e l e c t a r e a s .  3.5  P r i n c i p l e s a n d G u i d e l i n e s for the Therapeutic G a r d e n  A l l o w for a Flexible u s e of S p a c e T h e therapeutic  garden  s p a c e will b e d e s i g n e d to m e e t the  g a r d e n , a n d in addition s u p p o r t t h e r a p y p r o g r a m s .  d e m a n d s of the  precinct, the  residents'  T h e g a r d e n s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to b e flexible  and  s u p p o r t v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s a s interests of r e s i d e n t s a n d staff will vary o v e r t i m e a n d p r o g r a m s will c o m e and  go as  interests  change.  A functional  and  established and c h a n g e a b l e elements introduced.  aesthetically  delightful  design framework  should  be  T h e s e could include m o v e a b l e planters, raised b e d s ,  h a n g i n g b a s k e t s or planted pots. W h e n introducing s t r u c t u r e s to the g a r d e n , r e s i d e n t ' s r a n g e s of mobility s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d to m a x i m i z e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for tactile c o n t a c t with plant material.  S u p p o r t Horticultural Activity T h i s s p a c e will s u p p o r t r e s i d e n t s ' horticultural activities. hand.  All a s s o c i a t e d g a r d e n a m e n i t i e s s h o u l d b e o n  C o m p o s t bins, trash r e c e p t a c l e s a n d s t o r a g e for g a r d e n i n g e q u i p m e n t s h o u l d b e n e a r b y , but not  obvious.  T h e g a r d e n s h o u l d b e e q u i p p e d with a n a u t o m a t i c irrigation s y s t e m that i n c l u d e s drip irrigation  for h a n g i n g b a s k e t s .  A h o s e for r e s i d e n t u s e s h o u l d a l s o b e a v a i l a b l e in a location in proximity to the  a r e a that will b e w a t e r e d .  T h e h o s e bib m u s t b e d e s i g n e d s o that it c a n b e e a s i l y u s e d by r e s i d e n t s .  H a n g i n g b a s k e t s s h o u l d b e o n p u l l e y s s o that they c a n b e l o w e r e d for m a i n t e n a n c e .  Adaptive  tools  s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e to allow t h o s e with p h y s i c a l disabilities to participate horticultural p r o g r a m s .  34  Maximize A c c e s s i b l e Planting S p a c e T h e existing retaining wall s h o u l d b e fitted with a n e w w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s i b l e front. centimetres  in height to allow a w h e e l c h a i r to fit u n d e r n e a t h  planter s h o u l d b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e for u s e by the r e s i d e n t s . o p p o r t u n i t i e s for a l l - s e a s o n horticultural activity.  its lip.  This should be  60  T h e front 6 0 c e n t i m e t r e s of this  T h e existing g r e e n h o u s e c r e a t e s m a r v e l l o u s  T h e b e n c h e s c o u l d b e a d j u s t e d to h e i g h t s  appropriate  for w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s , a n d a d a p t i v e tools c o u l d b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e a n d p r o g r a m s that t a k e a d v a n t a g e of this structure c o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d .  Plan for Extensive U s e of S p a c e S e v e r a l p o p u l a r activities currently t a k e p l a c e in the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n ; ice c r e a m s o c i a l s , family visits a n d horticultural t h e r a p y p r o g r a m s a r e c o m m o n .  It is h o p e d that a s the s p a c e is i m p r o v e d , p r o g r a m m i n g  will b e i n c r e a s e d , c r e a t i n g a n e x t e n s i v e u s e of the g a r d e n .  T a b l e 3.3 lists horticultural projects that c o u l d  b e a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n c l u d e d a s part o f a h o s p i t a l ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y p r o g r a m .  T h i s listing o f p r o j e c t s is  i n c l u d e d for c o n s i d e r a t i o n for a d o p t i o n at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n .  Table 3.3 Horticulture T h e r a p y Projects Indoor Activities •  Growing orchids  •  M a k i n g f r e s h holiday a r r a n g e m e n t s  •  R e p o t t i n g o l d e r plants  •  G r o w i n g A f r i c a n violets  •  Terrariums  •  P l a n t i n g b u l b s for i n d o o r b l o o m  •  Windowsill herbs  •  O r d e r i n g s e e d s for the s u m m e r g a r d e n  •  Kitchen gardening  •  P l a n t i n g s e e d for the s u m m e r g a r d e n  •  Desert dish gardens  •  C o o k i n g with h e r b s  •  L e a r n i n g to t a k e cuttings  O u t d o o r Activities •  P r e p a r e a g a r d e n site  •  Butterfly g a r d e n i n g  •  T a k e the g a r d e n d o w n  •  W e e d i n g , watering, pruning  •  Plant a p i z z a g a r d e n  •  Herbs  •  Vegetable gardening  •  B i r d s e e d plants  •  P l a n t a tree  •  Composting  •  G r o w fruit  •  A n n u a l cuttings  •  Flower arranging  •  Craft a n d Nature-related  •  Edible flowers  •  Sachets  •  Flower gardening  •  Flower pressing  •  Make a garden salad  •  D r i e d flower a r r a n g e m e n t s  •  F l o w e r drying  •  Decorating pumpkins  •  Bookmarks  •  Nature walks  •  Build b i r d h o u s e s  •  C o l l e c t butterflies  •  M a k e pine c o n e f e e d e r s  •  Mix a s p i c e bowl  Potpourri  •  Wreaths  •  programs  S o u r c e : S i m o n s & S t r a u s s , .1999, p. 3 5 8  35  A s the d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a r e u n d e r s t o o d to b e c u m u l a t i v e a n d n e s t e d the g u i d e l i n e s that a p p l y to the p r e c i n c t a n d r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n a l s o a p p l y to this s p a c e i n c l u d i n g g u i d e l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g the c r e a t i o n o f a s t r o n g link b e t w e e n  i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r s p a c e s a n d sensitivity to m a i n t e n a n c e n e e d s .  T h e r e are  items  worth a d d i n g in t h e s e a r e a s that a r e u n i q u e to the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n .  T h e existing t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e h a s a n opportunity for a s t r o n g l i n k a g e with the a d j a c e n t h o s p i t a l garden room.  C u r r e n t l y , the existing d o o r sill c r e a t e s a barrier that k e e p s s o m e r e s i d e n t s f r o m travelling  f r o m the i n d o o r g a r d e n r o o m to the o u t d o o r t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n , a situation that c o u l d b e e a s i l y r e m e d i e d . P o r t a b l e g a r d e n e l e m e n t s s h o u l d b e i n c l u d e d o u t d o o r s to allow g a r d e n i n g activities to b e b r o u g h t i n d o o r s w h e n w e a t h e r is p o o r . garden space.  R e c r e a t i o n a l activities that o c c u r i n d o o r s s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d to spill out into the  T h i s c o u l d b e facilitated by i n c l u d i n g p e r m a n e n t o v e r h e a d structure o u t d o o r s to p r o v i d e  protection f r o m s u n a n d rain. O u t d o o r lighting a n d h e a t i n g in the g a r d e n w o u l d e n c o u r a g e night u s e .  Existing  plantings  on  the  slope  behind  the  retaining  wall  are  hard  to  access  and  currently  pose  m a i n t e n a n c e p r o b l e m s . W h e n the existing retaining wall is r e p a i r e d or r e p l a c e d , a n opportunity will exist to r e n o v a t e  the  planting  in the a r e a d i s t u r b e d d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n .  T h i s part of the s l o p e s h o u l d b e  r e p l a n t e d with a n a s s o r t m e n t o f s h r u b s a n d t r e e s w h i c h p r o v i d e wildlife habitat, a l l - s e a s o n interest a n d require little m a i n t e n a n c e .  36  4  Design Proposal  4.1  A D e s i g n for the Precinct  D e s i g n w o r k at the p r e c i n c t s c a l e t a k e s s e v e r a l f o r m s ; a s u g g e s t e d p l a n for n e w building footprints, a p e d e s t r i a n w a l k i n g route m o d e l e d after the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s project a n d a r e d e s i g n of the p e d e s t r i a n b r e e z e w a y that r u n s b e t w e e n the hospital p a v i l i o n s .  E a c h will b e d i s c u s s e d in turn. A matrix is p r o v i d e d  at the e n d of this s e c t i o n that links d e s i g n m o v e s to the p r i n c i p l e s a n d g u i d e l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d for the project.  P r o p o s e d New Building Footprints A s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , n e w b u i l d i n g s will h a v e a l a r g e effect o n t h e s u c c e s s of the p r e c i n c t in t h e future.  T h e i r addition s h o u l d b e c a l c u l a t e d to c r e a t e positive o u t d o o r s p a c e u s i n g A l e x a n d e r ' s t e c h n i q u e  of c r e a t i n g a s e r i e s of o u t d o o r s p a c e s that h a v e a s e n s e of e n c l o s u r e or b o u n d e d - n e s s ( A l e x a n d e r , 1977).  F i g u r e 4.1 s h o w s h o w this m a y b e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h r e e b u i l d i n g s to t h e p r e c i n c t .  T h e two n o r t h e r n m o s t b u i l d i n g s w o u l d b e l o c a t e d o n existing p a r k i n g lots, a n d it is s u g g e s t e d that p a r k i n g be relocated underground.  A u t o - c i r c u l a t i o n routes h a v e b e e n r e - r o u t e d to a l l o w this to h a p p e n without  interrupting a m b u l a n c e a c c e s s to the h o s p i t a l .  A third building is s h o w n a s a n e x t e n s i o n to Detwiller  P a v i l i o n c r e a t i n g a n e n c l o s e d entry s p a c e that the building currently l a c k s .  In this p l a n , c a r e h a s b e e n  t a k e n to p r e s e r v e v i e w s to W e s b r o o k Mall a n d its m a j o r c r o s s w a l k , h e l p i n g with w a y - f i n d i n g o n site. Direct p e d e s t r i a n r o u t e s t h r o u g h the site w o u l d not b e n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d by the a d d i t i o n of t h e s e b u i l d i n g s , a n d u s e a b l e g r e e n s p a c e w o u l d not be lost.  P r o p o s e d Walking Route R e s i d e n t s report frustration at b e i n g u n a b l e to get the p l a c e s they w a n t to g o .  T o r e m e d y this, p o p u l a r  local d e s t i n a t i o n s s h o u l d b e c o n n e c t e d by a w a l k i n g route m o d e l e d after the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s .  Such a  route w o u l d i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for r e s i d e n t s to e x e r c i s e o u t d o o r s , a n d m a k e c o n n e c t i o n s with the larger c o m m u n i t y . figure 4.2,  A p p e n d i x 1 lists W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s for r e f e r e n c e .  a universally a c c e s s i b l e walking  route that c o n n e c t s U n i v e r s i t y V i l l a g e in the  A s s h o w n in northeast  to  S t a r b u c k s in the T E F building in the s o u t h w e s t by w a y of R e g e n t P a r k a n d the hospital p a v i l i o n s o n the w a y is s u g g e s t e d . S t r e e t c r o s s i n g s in the p r e c i n c t i n c l u d i n g t h o s e a l o n g the w a l k i n g route s h o u l d b e fitted with p e r p e n d i c u l a r c u r b r a m p s a s t h e s e a r e s a f e s t for w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s . rest s t o p s p l a c e d a l o n g it at  100  meter  intervals.  T h e w a l k i n g route s h o u l d h a v e  T h e s e s h o u l d b e sited in a r e a s with  m i c r o c l i m a t e s a n d i n c l u d e b e n c h e s a n d litter r e c e p t a c l e s .  comfortable  Decorative paving a n d plantings are p r o p o s e d  in rest a r e a s to i n c r e a s e a m e n i t y a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for n e a r nature.  37  Purpendicular Curb Cuts  Typical Rest Stop  ft F i g u r e 4.2 P r o p o s e d W a l k i n g R o u t e  S c a l e 1: 5 0 0 0  39  P r o p o s e d Pedestrian Breezeway Modifications F i g u r e 4.3 s h o w s s u g g e s t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the b r e e z e w a y c o n n e c t i n g the h o s p i t a l p a v i l i o n s .  L o o k i n g at  the b r e e z e w a y f r o m w e s t to e a s t , s e v e r a l i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e p r o p o s e d .  •  It is s u g g e s t e d that p e d e s t r i a n a n d a u t o circulation b e s e p a r a t e d by a row of t r e e s at the w e s t e r n e n d of the  •  breezeway.  C a r - o r i e n t e d infrastructure w o u l d i m p r o v e d by a d d i n g a n g l e p a r k i n g a n d a n a u t o - t u r n a r o u n d with d r o p off z o n e for the H a n d i - D a r t b u s .  •  A n entry a r c h to m a t c h the e x i s t i n g a r b o u r u s p l a n n e d just i n s i d e the w e s t e r n  e d g e of  the  b r e e z e w a y , c r e a t i n g a s e n s e of e n c l o s u r e for the site a n d a s s i s t i n g w a y - f i n d i n g . •  A l s o to a s s i s t w a y - f i n d i n g , l a r g e s i g n s or e y e - c a t c h e r s a r e p r o p o s e d for the e n t r i e s to both P u r d y a n d K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n s a n d at the e a s t e r n e d g e of the b r e e z e w a y c r e a t i n g l a n d m a r k s at d e c i s i o n points.  •  A s u n k e n staff g a r d e n is p r o p o s e d for the northern f a c e of the P u r d y P a v i l i o n to offer a p l a c e for s o c i a l activity a n d respite for hospital w o r k e r s .  T h i s currently u n - u s e a b l e portion of the l a n d s c a p e  c o u l d b e a c c e s s e d t h r o u g h a n e w hallway a n d d o o r to b e installed in a n existing m e c h a n i c a l r o o m o n the b o t t o m floor of the P u r d y P a v i l i o n . •  T r a v e l l i n g e a s t , the existing path s h o u l d r e - g r a d e d to m e e t A D A s t a n d a r d s a s r e s i d e n t s report that existing g r a d e s m a k e this s l o p e d a n g e r o u s for w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s .  •  T h e plan s h o w s a rest s t o p n e a r the e a s t e r n e d g e of the b r e e z e w a y , the first of s e v e r a l that w o u l d line the n e w w a l k i n g route.  •  T h e existing ineffective p e d e s t r i a n c r o s s i n g at W e s b r o o k M a l l s h o u l d b e r e m e d i e d t h r o u g h introduction of a n e w c r o s s i n g s i g n a l fitted with a n infra-red  s e n s o r that k e e p s the light  the from  turning g r e e n until all p e d e s t r i a n traffic h a s c l e a r e d the i n t e r s e c t i o n .  Not directly o n the b r e e z e w a y  but i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t , a rooftop g a r d e n for r e s i d e n t s a n d staff at the  Detwiller P a v i l i o n is a l s o p r o p o s e d .  W h e n the n e w Life S c i e n c e s C e n t r e w a s built Detwiller staff a n d  r e s i d e n t s lost frequently u s e d r e c r e a t i o n a l g r e e n s p a c e to the n e w building's p a r k i n g lot.  W h e n speaking  with staff at Detwiller, t h e r e w a s interest in g a i n i n g b a c k s o m e of this lost s p a c e t h r o u g h the c r e a t i o n of a roof-top g a r d e n .  40  N F i g u r e 4.3  P r o p o s e d Pedestrian B r e e z e w a y Modifications  Scale  1:1000 41  4.2 A D e s i g n for the R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n A s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , this s p a c e m u s t m e e t the p r e c i n c t g u i d e l i n e s , that is offer a restorative e x p e r i e n c e , but m u s t a l s o m e e t the r e s i d e n t s ' u n i q u e n e e d s relating to their a g e a n d infirmity. E x p a n d e d g u i d e l i n e s w e r e outlined in s e c t i o n 3.4  of this p a p e r a n d i n c l u d e d s t r a t e g i e s to a d d r e s s l o s s of s e n s o r y acuity,  r e d u c e d p h y s i c a l ability, a n d e f f e c t s o f d e m e n t i a .  F i g u r e 4.4 s h o w s a p l a n for the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n to b e c r e a t e d in the n e w g a r d e n s p a c e .  T h e p l a n for  the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n is m a d e up of t h r e e z o n e s ; the s o n g b i r d g a r d e n , the winter retreat a n d the garden.  Wildlife v i e w i n g  is a n e x t r e m e l y  powerful d e v i c e in e n g a g i n g f a s c i n a t i o n , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  restorative e x p e r i e n c e , a n d is s o m e t h i n g that the r e s i d e n t s r e q u e s t e d .  F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s it h a s b e e n  g i v e n p r o m i n e n c e in this plan t h r o u g h the i n c l u s i o n of a s o n g b i r d g a r d e n . the  main entrance  weather.  to the  patio  building a n d f e a t u r e s  a heated  T h e winter retreat is n e a r e s t  s h e l t e r for u s e in winter a n d in  inclement  T h e patio g a r d e n is the a c t i v e heart of the d e s i g n offering s p a c e for e v e n t s a n d c e l e b r a t i o n s .  E a c h s p a c e follows a simple, geometric form a n d contains a m e m o r a b l e landmark.  T h e s e landmarks are  m e a n t to a c t a s local f o c a l points a n d to a s s i s t w a y - f i n d i n g , but a l s o s e r v e a s a s e r i e s of e y e - c a t c h e r s that d r a w y o u t h r o u g h the g a r d e n .  All of the z o n e s a r e c o n n e c t e d by a c l e a r , s i m p l e l o o p e d circulation  s c h e m e that m e e t s A D A s t a n d a r d s for a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  The Songbird Garden T h i s s e c t i o n of the g a r d e n m a x i m i z e s wildlife v i e w i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y bird w a t c h i n g .  The  main  structural e l e m e n t in this part of the g a r d e n is a d e c o r a t i v e fountain with s h e l v e s s e t at d e p t h s that m a k e t h e m p e r f e c t for bird b a t h i n g .  Detail d r a w i n g s for the fountain a r e f o u n d in F i g u r e 4 . 5 .  T h e fountain's  b o u n d a r y wall is s e t b e l o w e y e - l e v e l for e a s y v i e w i n g e n s u r i n g that the fountain will s e r v e a s a not o n l y a birdbath, but a l s o a s a a n d wildlife.  f o c a l a n d restorative e l e m e n t e n g a g i n g soft f a s c i n a t i o n by offering v i e w s to w a t e r  N e s t b o x e s for s p e c i e s o b s e r v e d o n site a r e i n c l u d e d a s a d e c o r a t i v e e l e m e n t a n d to p r o v i d e  h o m e s for t h e s e a v i a n s p e c i e s .  S e e F i g u r e 4.6 for detail d r a w i n g s .  P l a n t material  in this part of the  g a r d e n h a s b e e n s e l e c t e d for its a e s t h e t i c v a l u e a n d for its ability to p r o v i d e vertical stratification foliage l a y e r s at v a r y i n g h e i g h t s f r o m c a n o p y to s h r u b l a y e r to g r o u n d c o v e r .  or  P l a n t s u s e d in this part of  t h e g a r d e n p r o v i d e n e e d e d s h e l t e r a n d f o o d . S p e c i e s with fruit that p e r s i s t s t h r o u g h the winter h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d to p r o v i d e n o u r i s h m e n t t h r o u g h o u t the y e a r .  T r e e s h a v e b e e n i n t r o d u c e d a l o n g the w e s t e r n f a c e  of Detwiller P a v i l i o n to bring d o w n the s c a l e of this n e i g h b o u r i n g b u i l d i n g , a n d c r e a t e a v i s u a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n a n d its s u r r o u n d i n g s .  B e n c h e s p l a c e d in n i c h e s a r e p r o v i d e d for s e a t i n g a n d h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d with d i m e n s i o n s that m a k e t h e m c o m f o r t a b l e for s e n i o r s to u s e .  S e a t s a r e to b e s e t at n i n e t e e n i n c h e s a b o v e the g r o u n d , a height  that m a k e s t h e m e a s y to g e t b a c k up out of.  A r m r e s t s are p l a c e d twelve i n c h e s a b o v e the seat, a height  that m a k e s t h e m u s e f u l for l e v e r a g e w h e n s t a n d i n g u p . support.  B e n c h b a c k s a r e tall a n d straight to p r o v i d e  S e a t i n g is l o c a t e d in m i c r o c l i m a t e s that offer d a p p l e d s h a d e , v i e w s to n e a r b y b l o o m s , a n d  proximity to s c e n t e d p l a n t s .  F i g u r e 4 . 7 s h o w s b e n c h a n d c h a i r details. 42  N Figure 4.4 P r o p o s e d Residents' G a r d e n Plan  Scale  1:250  43  0.925m/3'  3 bubbler jets solished c o n c r e t e fountain iase houses pump 1" d e e p s h e l v e s f o r birds t o b a t h e c e n t r e b a t h i n g t o m a x . viewing coloured brick c a p a n d facing c o n c r e t e wall k e y e d into base lights r e c e s s e d , ' r e b a r r e i n f o r c e d  '  CP*  E  figgrpgnte  CN  hns*  J l A Jt-J ' J l > , 1 . ^ VA' - ' .4 tr-\n .T—Wi—c=iti—edad — — 1  —T-y ,1122m,;  Q.55m  ,,  ,t  ' — •  &55m , 0.3m 0.2rr. 0.36m D.?nr.  4,925m/16'  F i g u r e 4.5 B i r d b a t h F o u n t a i n Details  44  0.2 pivot  0.4 1cm  m  (8")  0.13m  (5")  nail  (0.5°)  thick metal  plate, with  holes to  receive screws  connecting nest  box to  m  (16'  hole 3/4  "  wood 6  cm  could  (2.5") also  diameter  leave the  metal  pole, welded to  pole out  and  mount  plate,  with  discourage  screws  to  pine  to  plate screws,  galvanized nail,  wood  galvanized nail,  door  29mm  (1.1/8"  accommodate  exclude  house  0.1m  (4")  )  wrens  and  chickadees  sparrows  and  starlings  glue  raccoons doubleheaded  fence  lock  N e s t B o x for W r e n s a n d C h i c k a d e e s  0.1m  (4")  0.23  1cm  (0.5")  thick  metal  plate,  with  holes  to  receive  m  (9") shelf  screws  0.2  m  (8") to  6  cm  (2.5")  could  also  diameter  leave the  metal  pole,  pole out  and  welded mount  to  plate,  with  discourage  screws  to  raccoons  o 15  m  3/4  (6")  pine  wood  fence  screws,  a c c o m m o d a t e barn  exclude g a l v a n i z e d nail,  wood  swallows  robins  glue  N e s t i n g S h e l f for S w a l l o w s  0.2m  (8") 0.23  0.2  m  m  (9")  (8") shelf 3/4  1cm  6  cm  ( 0 . 5 " ) thick  (2.5")  m e t a l plate,  diameter  with holes  m e t a l pole, welded  to  to  receive s c r e w s  plate,  discourage  0.15  m  (6")  wood  0.2m  (8")  pine s c r e w s , galvanized  nail, wood  glue  to  accommodate  robins  raccoons  N e s t i n g S h e l f for R o b i n s  F i g u r e 4.6 N e s t b o x Details 45  E CN  \  £  ro  46  2X4  cedar  (89  mm)  2X6  cedar  (89  mm)  y  N  \N K  vAA VA V  Gate V i e w e d from O u t s i d e  ^4  t this  4X6 rough 2X2 rough 14'  2X4  6X6  ?.Om/fi*fi" on hinges,  ,i  tvpical  j  gate  cedor cedar  rough  cedar  panel  cedar  (89  mm)  Gate V i e w e d from Inside  2X2 4X6  rough rough  cedar  cedar  c o m p a cted "i  inside "late  out  pea gravel  Figure 4.8 G a t e a n d F e n c e Details  f -  1  0.45m/1'6"  47  Section D Scale  birdhouses  Figure 4.9 Songbird G a r d e n Section  birdbath fountain  bench  birdhouses  1:150  fence  48  T h e entire g a r d e n s p a c e is s u r r o u n d e d by a f e n c e that v a r i e s in height a s r e q u i r e d to s c r e e n u n d e s i r a b l e off-site v i e w s .  T h e f e n c e height r a n g e s f r o m six feet at the s o n g b i r d g a r d e n to six feet with a n a d d i t i o n a l  two a n d a half feet of trellis o n top at the s o u t h e r n e d g e of the g a r d e n w h e r e g r a d e s d r o p off.  A g a t e in  the f e n c e is r e q u i r e d to m e e t fire c o d e a n d to p r o v i d e a c c e s s to m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k e r s , a n d is l o c a t e d at the n o r t h e r n m o s t e d g e of the g a r d e n .  T h e g a t e h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d to b e visually s e a m l e s s f r o m  i n s i d e to d i s c o u r a g e A l z h e i m e r ' s patients f r o m exhibiting e s c a p e b e h a v i o u r . f e n c e details.  F i g u r e 4.8  the  s h o w s gate a n d  A m o v e a b l e s e a t h a s b e e n p l a c e d directly in front of the g a t e to further the illusion.  illustrative s e c t i o n , s h o w n a s s e c t i o n D o n the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n p l a n , is i n c l u d e d in figure 4.9  An  to g i v e a  s e n s e of the c h a r a c t e r of the s o n g b i r d g a r d e n .  T h e Winter Retreat T h i s part of the g a r d e n f e a t u r e s  a covered, heated  s p a c e p r o t e c t e d f r o m the e l e m e n t s . rainy winter s e a s o n . ( H o m e P l a n n e r s , 2001)  structure w h i c h p r o v i d e s a n o u t d o o r  T h e winter retreat is i n t e n d e d to b e u s a b l e t h r o u g h o u t V a n c o u v e r ' s  T h e structure s h o w n is m o d e l l e d after a d e s i g n by the H o m e a n d h a s b e e n a d a p t e d to suit this site.  the g a r d e n to the b u i l d i n g ' s interior.  recreational  Planners Group,  It is l o c a t e d n e a r t h e d o o r s w h i c h c o n n e c t  T h e path l e a d i n g f r o m the building to the structure is c o v e r e d by a n  existing c a n o p y w h i c h w o u l d r e m a i n , m a k i n g the structure e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e in i n c l e m e n t w e a t h e r .  The  m a i n circulation p a s s e s t h r o u g h the front of the structure p r o v i d i n g a p l a c e for site u s e r s to p a u s e a n d d e c i d e w h i c h part of the g a r d e n to visit. people c o m e and go.  S e a t i n g is l o c a t e d in the structure s o visitors c a n rest a n d w a t c h  A n existing v e n t is a l s o h o u s e d in the structure; it is s u g g e s t e d that it b e g i v e n a  decorative housing.  T h i s part of the g a r d e n e m p l o y s a palette of plant material with winter interest.  Planting c o m b i n a t i o n s  h a v e b e e n carefully c o n s i d e r e d to i n c l u d e fragrant winter b l o o m i n g plants with c o m p l e m e n t a r y  textures  and forms.  49  Figure 4.10 Winter Retreat  T h e Patio G a r d e n T h e patio g a r d e n is l o c a t e d in the s o u t h e r n half of t h e site a n d e n j o y s a s u n n y a s p e c t .  It h a s b e e n  p l a n n e d a s the a c t i v e c e n t r e of the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n , providing s p a c e for larger g r o u p s to c o n g r e g a t e . T h i s s e c t i o n of the g a r d e n c a n e a s i l y b e p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m the rest of the g a r d e n by p l a c i n g a barrier at the r o s e a r b o u r d i v i d i n g t h e g a r d e n into t w o s p a c e s for s p e c i a l e v e n t s .  A c c e s s would  be  through the s e c o n d a r y building entry b e h i n d the s u m m e r g a z e b o .  A n a r c h e d r o s e a r b o r c r e a t e s the t h r e s h o l d b e t w e e n  the winter g a r d e n a n d t h e patio g a r d e n .  i n t e n d e d that y e l l o w c l i m b i n g r o s e s , a p o p u l a r r e s i d e n t plant r e q u e s t , b e trained up the a r b o r . opportunities are provided beneath  It is Seating  its s h a d e providing respite from the s u n a n d a delightful s e n s o r y  e x p e r i e n c e w h e n the r o s e s a r e in b l o o m .  D e s i g n d e t a i l s a r e i n c l u d e d in figure 4 . 1 1 .  F r o m the r o s e a r b o u r t h e s o u n d of b a b b l i n g w a t e r w o u l d be h e a r d d r a w i n g site u s e r s d e e p e r into the patio g a r d e n . the s p a c e .  T h e s o u n d c o m e s f r o m a f o r m a l fountain w h i c h is c o n t i n u o u s with a g a r d e n w a l l b o u n d i n g  T h e fountain b a s i n is set at a height a n d d e p t h that a l l o w s w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s to interact with  the water, i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s for s e n s o r y delight.  T h e s o u n d of w a t e r p r o v i d e d by t h e f o u n t a i n is  m e a n t to both i n c r e a s e the restorative q u a l i t i e s of t h e s p a c e a n d to s c r e e n the n o i s e c o m i n g f r o m n e a r b y Life S c i e n c e s C e n t r e .  the  S e e figure 4.12 for details.  50  3,??m/l?'rT  1 am/fi'  2.36m/7'10"  I.Sm/6'  I.5m/1T  6 X 6 lominoted orch 2X2 laminate rail attoched  6 X 6 rough cedar beam notched to receive 6 X 6 posts  6X6 rough cedar post lattice, powder cooted 1" square metal tubing  to bi "v E a>  0Di9h_g|fTVftl compa  pea gravel  iff  1  I M til  :4«  3  in o_ E' d  Figure 4.11 R o s e A r b o r Detail  F i g u r e 4.12 B a b b l i n g F o u n t a i n Details  coloured  bench  brick c o p  stone  seot, 4"-thick w o o d  coloured  brick wall, s u p p o r t s  coloured  brick plgnter  slots bench  coloured  brick cop  coloured  b r i c k wall  bench  s e a t . 4" w o o d  coloured  Figure 4.13  F i g u r e 4.14  G a r d e n Wall Details  A c c e s s i b l e P i c n i c T a b l e Details  stone  b r i c k wall  slots  section  F i g u r e 4 . 1 5 S u m m e r G a z e b o Details 54  Section A S c a l e 1:150  summer gazebo  + 92.0  Figure 4.16 Patio G a r d e n Section  Section B S c a l e 1:150 n e w star m a g n o l i a  existing terrace  planter +93.0  bench  existing m a t u r e tree  +94.5  picnic table  h u m m i n g b i r d vine trellis  +95.17  Figure 4.17 Patio G a r d e n Section 55  Section C Scale  bench  1:150  + 93.5  F i g u r e 4 . 1 8 Patio G a r d e n S e c t i o n 56  h e g a r d e n wall p e r f o r m s s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s ; it c r e a t e s v i s u a l a n d p h y s i c a l e n c l o s u r e to the s p a c e w h i c h is important for A l z h e i m e r ' s patients, a n d s e r v e s a s a retaining wall levelling g r a d e s to m a k e the site wheelchair accessible.  I n c l u d e d in the g a r d e n wall a r e p l a n t e r s set at sitting h e i g h t p r o v i d i n g site u s e r s  with e a s y p h y s i c a l a c c e s s to plant material. m o s t e a s i l y s e e n by the elderly.  T h e wall is c o n s t r u c t e d of brick in w a r m , m i d - r a n g e c o l o u r s  T h e f a c e of the wall is b r o k e n at intervals by b e n c h e s s e t into the wall  w h i c h m e e t the s t a n d a r d s for s e a t i n g p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d .  T h e s e a r e p a i r e d with p a d s for w h e e l c h a i r  u s e r s a n d h a v e b e e n sited to allow the o p t i o n of sitting in either s u n or s h a d e . F i g u r e 4 . 1 3 illustrates the g a r d e n wall in detail.  A c c e s s i b l e p i c n i c t a b l e s a r e i n c l u d e d in this plan for their h o m e - l i k e quality, to c r e a t e a n opportunity for taking m e a l s o u t d o o r s , a n d for visiting with family m e m b e r s .  F i g u r e 4 . 1 4 details the t a b l e s .  b e e n a d a p t e d f r o m a d e s i g n by J o a n n e W o y ( W o y ,  a n d a r e s u i t e d for g r o u p s of three o r four  people.  1997)  T h e s e have  A g r o v e of m i m o s a t r e e s , a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t plant r e q u e s t , p r o v i d e s light s h a d e o v e r t h e s e t a b l e s  a n d a s h o w y d i s p l a y of b l o o m s in s u m m e r .  T h e p i c n i c a r e a is set a m i d s c e n t e d lilies a n d r o s e s w h i c h put  o n a beautiful s h o w in s u m m e r m o n t h s .  A trellis f r a m e s t h e a r e a a n d is m e a n t to b e p l a n t e d with  h u m m i n g b i r d v i n e ( C a m p s i s X t a g l i a b u a n a ) , c r e a t i n g a n o t h e r wildlife v i e w i n g opportunity a s birds c o m e to f e e d o n the n e c t a r p r o v i d e d by the v i n e ' s b l o o m s .  A s e c t i o n of lawn fills the c e n t r e of the patio g a r d e n s p a c e a n d is i n c l u d e d for its s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n with residential b a c k y a r d s . A s p e c i m e n tree, a h o n e y l o c u s t ( R o b i n i a p s e u d o a c a c i a 'Frisia') is s e t in the l a w n , p r o v i d i n g s h a d e a n d a f o c a l point.  A g a z e b o is i n c l u d e d to p r o v i d e respite f r o m the s u m m e r s u n a n d to s u p p o r t o u t d o o r g r o u p activities. D e t a i l s for the g a z e b o c a n b e f o u n d in F i g u r e 4 . 1 5 . the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n .  T h e g a z e b o a l s o s e r v e s to i m p r o v e w a y - f i n d i n g within  S e c t i o n s t a k e n t h r o u g h the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n a r e i n c l u d e d in F i g u r e s 4 . 1 6 -  4.18  ( s e c t i o n s A , B a n d C o n the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n plan), to g i v e a s e n s e of e x p e r i e n c e this d e s i g n offers to site u s e r s .  Planting Plan T h e planting p l a n s in this project i n c l u d e both plants in the g a r d e n s p a c e s a n d t h o s e p l a n n e d in a d j a c e n t spaces.  T h i s is n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e n e a r b y t r e e s a r e n e e d e d to p r o v i d e s c r e e n i n g a n d c r e a t e v i e w s off-  site, i n c r e a s i n g the g a r d e n ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l extent.  In the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n planting p l a n (figures 4 . 1 9 - 4 . 2 2 ) , m a i n t e n a n c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e reflected in a palette that c o n s i s t s mainly of s m a l l t r e e s , s h r u b s a n d e v e r g r e e n g r o u n d c o v e r s .  Perennials and vines  w h i c h require m o r e c a r e h a v e b e e n strategically p l a c e d w h e r e they will c r e a t e the m o s t i m p a c t , a l o n g circulation r o u t e s a n d f r a m i n g  seating areas.  All plants s p e c i f i e d a r e  non-toxic and  b l o o m in  warm,  m i d r a n g e c o l o u r s . T h i s plan retains existing m a t u r e pine t r e e s to h e l p g i v e the g a r d e n instant effect.  57  F i g u r e 4 . 1 9 R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n Planting P l a n P a r t 1  58  F i g u r e 4.20 R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n Planting P l a n P a r t 2  59  RESIDENTS' GARDEN PLANT LIST TYPE QTY CODE BOTANIC NAME Tree 1 AC Acer circmatum 5 AJ Albizia julibrissin i CA Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca' 3 LS Liquidambar styraciflua 2 MS Magnolia stellata 3 PN Pinus nigra 3 PO Picea omorika 3 PS Pinus sylvestris sv 2 Sorbus vilmorinii 1 RP Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia ' 1 TC Tilia cordata  COMMON NAME  COMMENTS  TYPE QTY CODE BOTANIC NAME  vine maple silk tree blue Atlas cedar liquidambar star magnolia Austrian pine Serbian spruce Scots pine mountain ash black locust littleleaf linden  multi-stem  Perennial 70 65 32 3 56 41 25 32 37 14 22 28 14 22 40 86 2 70 36 8  existing to be located east and south of garden site to be located east of garden site e xisting existing tree form specimen existing  Shrub 3 15 36 90 12 3 6 2 128 4 21 12 19 3 19  8 9 15 15 23  Ac Au Auu Bs Cc Cs Ct Ge Gs Hi Ma Md Oh Pm Rf Rg Rgl Rh Rs Vp  Ameianchier canadensis serviceberry Arbutus unedo 'Elfin King' strawberry tree Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick Buxus sempervirens boxwood Cistus X corbariensis rock rose Corylopsis spicata winter hazel Choiysa ternata Mexican orange blossom Garrya elliptica 'Evie' garrya Gaultheria shallon salal Hamamelis X intermedia witch hazel Mahonia aquifolium Oregon grape Microbiota decussata microbiota Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Kembu' osmanthus Philadelphus 'Lemonei' mock orange Rhododendron 'Fragrantissimum' rhododendron Rosa 'Golden Showers' climbing rose Rhododendron 'Glory of Littleworth'rhododendron Rhododendron 'Hino-crimson' rhododendron Rosa 'Snow Carpet' groundcover rose Vaccinium parvifolium red huckleberry  F i g u r e 4.22 R e s i d e n t s ' G a r d e n Plant  List  hedge  male 75cm oc  aa ae af av bs cl cs fg ha hb hn lp It ms oo pm ps sg tg za  turf  COMMON NAME  Alstromeria aurea Peruvian lily Asarum europaeum European wild ginger Aquilegia formosa columbine Adiantum venustum Himalyan maidenhair fern Blechnum spicant deer fern Crocosmia 'Lucifer' crocosmia Carex siderosticha 'Variegata' sedge Fuchsia 'Gartenmeister Bonstedt' fuchsia Helianthemum apenninum 'Fire Dragon' rock rose Heuchera X brizoides 'Firefly' evergreen coral bells Helleborus niger lenten rose Lilium pumilum lily Lilium testaceum lily Matteuccia struthiopteris ostrich fern Oxalis oregana alba wood sorrel Polystichum munitum Western sword fern Phormium 'Sundowner' phormuim Saxifraga X geum evergreen saxifrage Trillium grandiflorum great white trillium Zantedeschia aethiopica calla lily  COMMENTS 30cm oc  56.25 sq meters  Vine 1 13 2 2 2 3 3 10  ca cc ch ct lj lm Pt sm  Clematis armandii evergreen clematis Clematis chiisanensis 'Lemon Bells' clematis Clematis henryi clematis Campsis X tagliabuana 'Mme. Galen'hummingbird vine Lonicera japonica evergreen honeysuckle Lonicera 'Mandarin' honeysuckle Parthenocissus tricuspidata Boston ivy Symphoricarpos mollis trailing snowberry  on fence on fence on trellis on trellis on fence on fence 1 existing  Bulb  100  c  Crocus vermis  5cm oc  O +  existing, to remain new  on arbor  crocus white  61  4.3 A D e s i g n for the Therapeutic G a r d e n T h e t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e m u s t m e e t the criteria, for the p r e c i n c t , the r e s i d e n t ' s g a r d e n a n d in a d d i t i o n it m u s t s u p p o r t t h e r a p y  programs.  D i s c u s s i o n with o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y staff at the  Purdy Pavilion  r e v e a l e d a n e e d for the t h e r a p y g a r d e n to b e a flexible s p a c e , allowing for a variety of activities. A s r e s i d e n t s c o m e a n d g o a n d staff a r e p o s t e d in a n d out of the facility interests c h a n g e a n d p r o g r a m s a r e m o d i f i e d to reflect n e w interests.  T h e p l a n p r e s e n t e d h e r e a i m s to c r e a t e a f r a m e w o r k  different activities a n d p r o g r a m s c a n t a k e p l a c e .  where  many  T h i s is a c h i e v e d by m a x i m i z i n g a c c e s s i b l e p l a n t i n g  s p a c e a n d p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s i b l e infrastructure to s u p p o r t g a r d e n i n g activities. T h e d e s i g n s e p a r a t e s the g a r d e n into 3 z o n e s a s n o t e d in figure 4 . 2 3 .  Functional Space T h i s part of the g a r d e n h o u s e s a c o m p o s t c e n t r e a n d the r e 4 o c a t e d existing g r e e n h o u s e . space  has  been  made  available  by  relocating  planters.  C h a i r s , tables  and  new  planted  New pots  patio are  r e c o m m e n d e d for this e n d of the g a r d e n .  Therapy Space T h e majority of the n e w a c c e s s i b l e g a r d e n i n g s p a c e is p r o v i d e d by a n e w retaining wall to r e p l a c e the c u r r e n t wall w h i c h is in n e e d of repair.  T h e n e w wall f e a t u r e s a n a c c e s s i b l e planting s h e l f o n its front  e d g e , a n d a f o c a l w a t e r i n g station at its c e n t r e .  T h e p l a n t i n g s h e l f is s e t at a h e i g h t that a l l o w s w h e e l c h a i r  u s e r s to pull up u n d e r n e a t h its front lip, a n d to a d e p t h e a s i l y r e a c h e d f r o m a s e a t e d p o s i t i o n .  Its c u r v e d  s h a p e d e f i n e s the t h e r a p y a r e a of the g a r d e n while a v o i d i n g u n u s a b l e r i g h t - a n g l e d c o r n e r s . C u r v e d e n d s a l s o m e a n that the wall h a s n o s h a r p c o r n e r s to b u m p in to. W a t e r i n g is currently difficult for r e s i d e n t s a s the h o s e bib is p o o r l y l o c a t e d a n d difficult for m a n y to m a n i p u l a t e .  T h e n e w w a t e r i n g station h a s a l a r g e  s p i g o t m a k i n g it e a s y for t h o s e with r e d u c e d r a n g e o f motion to u s e .  Is h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d to h a v e a  h o m e l i k e quality t a k e a f o r m r e m i n i s c e n t of a w a t e r p u m p , yet b e d e c o r a t i v e e n o u g h to c a p t u r e o n e ' s attention.  D e t a i l s of the retaining wall a n d w a t e r i n g station a r e p r o v i d e d in figure 4 . 2 4 -  4.25.  A d d i t i o n a l a c c e s s i b l e planting s p a c e is p r o v i d e d by m o d i f y i n g existing p l a n t e r s . B a s e s a r e fitted with n e w top l e d g e s s e t at h e i g h t s that allow w h e e l c h a i r s to fit u n d e r n e a t h .  62  existing retaining wall  ith c l e m a t i s  recreational space therapy s p a c e  functional  n e w street tree  N Scale  Figure 4.23 P r o p o s e d Therapeutic G a r d e n P l a n  1:200  63  0.3m/12"  Figure 4.24 Retating Wall Details  water  foucet,  focal  wntBr  fniifpt  hondle  element  Cfllctuiftd polished c o n c r e t e , s a g e huIlflfiSSi in, concrete,, lip t f t . s t o D woter SBSsSsa gloss tiles in ^multi-colouredi patte bullnose in c o n c r e t e liin__porceiain tiie  Figure 4.25 Watering Station Details  Figure 4.26  Modified Planters  existing planter  m o d i f i e d planter Source: Author's Photos  Finally, planting s p a c e c o u l d b e g a i n e d t h r o u g h the addition of h a n g i n g b a s k e t s .  It is s u g g e s t e d that  t h e s e b e o n p u l l e y s s u c h a s t h o s e u s e d in n u r s e r i e s , a n d b e c o n n e c t e d to a drip irrigation s y s t e m to minimize maintenance  requirements.  Recreational S p a c e T h e t h e r a p y g a r d e n is currently u s e d for s o c i a l e v e n t s , a u s e that i n c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y w h e n two s h a d e tents w e r e i n t r o d u c e d it the s u m m e r of 2 0 0 5 . a l r e a d y fallen into d i s r e p a i r .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the tents a r e not of high quality, a n d o n e h a s  It is s u g g e s t e d that heftier s h a d e s t r u c t u r e s b e i n t r o d u c e d , both a  p e r g o l a with c a n o p y a n d a n a r b o u r .  S e e figure 4.23  for l o c a t i o n s of t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s .  The  permanent permanent  p e r g o l a is sited at the d o o r s that join the g a r d e n a n d the building h e l p i n g to blur the b o u n d a r y indoor a n d outdoor s p a c e .  between  Its s h a d e will offer r e s i d e n t s a transition z o n e b e t w e e n i n d o o r light levels a n d  the bright s u n s h i n e o u t d o o r s .  It is s u g g e s t e d that the p e r g o l a b e fitted with a c a n v a s c a n o p y to m a t c h the  existing w i n d o w c a n o p i e s o n site.  Figure 4.27  Pergola with C a n o p y  S o u r c e : by C o l i n O ' B y r n e - A u t h o r ' s P h o t o  65  The easternmost edge of the therapeutic garden is commonly used for intimate gatherings, a use that would be complemented by the addition of an overhead structure that provides shade in the summer. An arbour is planned here, to be planted with summer blooming clematis vines increasing near nature. An illustrative section (labelled section A on the therapeutic garden plan) is found in figure 4.27.  Figure 4.28  Therapeutic G a r d e n Section  Planting Plan  In addition to being non-toxic and low maintenance, plants used in the therapeutic garden have been selected to provide year-round interest. A palette of red and white has been used to match the building's exterior.  Off-site street trees are proposed along to the northern face of the Life Sciences Centre to  screen its mass. A planting plan and plant list for this garden can be found in figures 4.29-4.30.  66  F i g u r e 4.29 T h e r a p e u t i c G a r d e n P l a n t i n g P l a n Part 1  67  F i g u r e 4.30 T h e r a p e u t i c G a r d e n P l a n t i n g P l a n Part 2  68  THERAPEUTIC GARDEN PLANT LIST TYPE QTY Tree 2 1 1 1 6 5 2 1 2  CODE BOTANIC NAME  COMMON NAME  COMMENTS  AC AK AJ AU CE LS MS MV TP  Acer circinatum Abies koreana Acer japonicum var. Arbutus unedo strawberry tree Cornus 'Eddie's White Wonder' Liquidambar styraciflua Magnolia stellata Malus variety Thuja plicata  vine maple Korean fir full-moon maple multi-stem form dogwood liquidambar star magnolia apple Western red cedar  in planters  Az Bs Ct Cta Ei Fj Gp Hp Hi Oh Rt Rv  Azalea 'Persil' deciduous azalea Buxus sempervirens boxwood Choisya ternata Mexican mock orange Choisya ternate 'Aztec Pearl' Mexican mock orange Escallonia 'Red Elf red elf escallonia Fatsiajaponica Japanese aralia Gaultheria procumbens wintergreen Hebe pinguifolia hebe Hamamelis X intermedia witch hazel Osmanthus heterophyllus 'Kembu' osmanthus Rhododendron 'Titian Beauty' rhododendron Rosa 'Veteran's Honor' rose  cf pb gm vm  Cyrtomium falcatum Polystichum polyblepharum Geranium macrorrhizum 'Album' Vinca minor 'Miss Jekyll'  Japanese holly fern Japanese tassel fern bigroot geranium periwinkle  cr  Clematis 'Rouge Cardinal' Wisteria sinensis 'Alba'proper annual vines on trellis  clematis white wisteria  existing 1 tree form, to 5 match existing to line south side of street south of garden relocated existing existing existing  Shrub 7 13 2 5 i 3 3 8 8 8 5 5 Perennial 12 13 20 25 Vine 3 i  O j~J +  WS  existing, to remain existing, to be moved to this location new  F i g u r e 4.31 T h e r a p e u t i c G a r d e n Plant List  not clipped  spaced 50cm o.c. spaced 60cm o.c. between shrubs blooms on current season's growth existing as requested by residents  4.4 D e s i g n Matrix D e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a n d g u i d e l i n e s w e r e g i v e n in s e c t i o n 3.2 of this p a p e r .  T h e matrix b e l o w s h o w s h o w the  d e s i g n p r e s e n t e d m e e t s g u i d e l i n e s by listing d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s a n d e l e m e n t s e m p l o y e d that a d d r e s s e a c h guideline.  Table 4.1  D e s i g n Matrix  GUIDELINES F O R T H E PRECINCT 1. Follow K a p l a n s ' guidelines by providing f a s c i n a t i o n , extent, a s e n s e of being away, near nature and compatibility (Kaplan and K a p l a n , 1998). Strategies and E l e m e n t s E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline  a. I n c r e a s e g r e e n s p a c e within the p r e c i n c t to i n c r e a s e n e a r n a t u r e a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s for f a s c i n a t i o n . T h i s is a c h i e v e d by a d d i n g to existing g r e e n s p a c e by a d d i n g a s u n k e n staff g a r d e n a n d r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n , a n d a rooftop g a r d e n at the Detwiller P a v i l i o n . b.  Introduce natural e l e m e n t s a n d s u p p o r t wildlife o n site to allow for f a s c i n a t i o n . F a s c i n a t i o n is a c t i v a t e d by e l e m e n t s that attract o u r attention a n d hold it without requiring o u r f o c u s e d attention ( K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n , 1998).  D e c i d u o u s t r e e s with colourful b l o o m s a n d  l e a v e s that rustle in the w i n d h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d for their ability to e n g a g e the s e n s e s . C o l o u r f u l a n d a r o m a t i c p e r e n n i a l p l a n t i n g s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d for the s a m e r e a s o n . W a t e r is a p o w e r f u l tool in e n g a g i n g f a s c i n a t i o n ; for this r e a s o n the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n i n c l u d e s two w a t e r f e a t u r e s p l a c e d w h e r e t h e y c a n b e e a s i l y v i e w e d by g a r d e n visitors. W a t e r a l s o attracts wildlife, a n o t h e r p o w e r f u l tool in i n d u c i n g f a s c i n a t i o n .  T h e wildlife g a r d e n in the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n  m a x i m i z e s o n plant s p e c i e s that p r o v i d e y e a r r o u n d f o o d a n d s h e l t e r for birds. B i r d h o u s e s for s p e c i e s o b s e r v e d o n site h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d to e n c o u r a g e birds to n e s t h e r e . A w a t e r feature with s h e l v e s s e t at d e p t h s b e s t for bird b a t h i n g h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d to p r o v i d e site u s e r s with o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s e e birds s p l a s h i n g in the water. T h e patio g a r d e n i n c l u d e s trellis p a n e l p l a n t e d with h u m m i n g b i r d v i n e to attract this g r e g a r i o u s bird s p e c i e s .  c.  Include p l a n t i n g s at s e a t i n g a r e a s to i n c r e a s e n e a r nature a n d f a s c i n a t i o n . A t the p r e c i n c t s c a l e this is a c h i e v e d by p l a c i n g p e d e s t r i a n rest s t o p s a l o n g the p r o p o s e d w a l k i n g circuit that p a s s e s t h r o u g h the p r e c i n c t . R e s t s t o p s a r e to f e a t u r e p l a n t i n g s a s part of their d e s i g n . A t the g a r d e n s c a l e , e v e r y c h a i r a n d b e n c h is s e t a m i d plants with c o l o u r f u l , fragrant b l o o m s . T h e r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n t a k e s a d d s to this i d e a by p r o v i d i n g s e a t i n g u n d e r n e a t h a n o v e r h e a d trellis to b e p l a n t e d with c l i m b i n g r o s e s .  In this c a s e the s e a t i n g a r e a is  c o m p l e t e l y s u r r o u n d e d by b l o o m s , p r o v i d i n g a n e x c e l l e n t opportunity for f a s c i n a t i o n . d.  M a i n t a i n v i e w s off-site a n d p r o v i d e n e w v i e w s to i n c r e a s e extent. W h e n c o n s i d e r i n g the p r e c i n c t s c a l e , site lines cutting t h r o u g h the p r e c i n c t w e r e m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h c a r e f u l location of n e w p r o p o s e d building footprints. V i e w s to the n e i g h b o u r h o o d b e y o n d h e l p site u s e r s m a k e m e n t a l c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the p r e c i n c t a n d its s u r r o u n d i n g s , i n c r e a s i n g the a r e a ' s extent.  S t r e e t t r e e s p l a c e d northern e d g e of the Life S c i e n c e B u i l d i n g  s u g g e s t a c o n n e c t i o n to H e a l t h S c i e n c e s Mall to the w e s t , s u g g e s t i n g a l a r g e r c o n t e x t for the site.  70  e.  M a k e p h y s i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s to d e s t i n a t i o n s off-site. T h e p r o p o s e d w a l k i n g route ( m o d e l l e d after M o o n e y a n d L u y m e s , 2 0 0 0 ) p h y s i c a l l y c o n n e c t s the p r e c i n c t with p o p u l a r d e s t i n a t i o n s n e a r b y .  A s p e o p l e u s e the route they will e x p e r i e n c e a  real c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e p l a c e s , a n d f o r m a n a s s o c i a t e d m e n t a l m a p of the w a y in w h i c h these locations are c o n n e c t e d . f.  D e s i g n s p a c e s with e n c l o s u r e to c r e a t e a s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y . T h e n e w building footprints p r o p o s e d for the p r e c i n c t c r e a t e positive s p a c e by b o u n d i n g the s p a c e between them.  T h e e n c l o s u r e o n e e x p e r i e n c e s b e t w e e n the b u i l d i n g s offers the  e x p e r i e n c e of b e i n g in a distinct s p a c e c r e a t i n g a s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y . e m p l o y e d in the r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s .  A s i m i l a r strategy is  B o t h s p a c e s h a v e s t r o n g e d g e s that  c r e a t e both p h y s i c a l a n d v i s u a l b o u n d a r i e s . T h e s e e d g e s h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e e n c l o s u r e without b e i n g jail-like.  T h e e n v i r o n m e n t within t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s is different e n o u g h  f r o m w h a t lies o u t s i d e t h e m to offer site u s e r s a s e n s e of h a v i n g b e e n a w a y f r o m their u s u a l s u r r o u n d i n g s ( K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n , 1998). g.  U s e r e g i o n a l m a t e r i a l s to allow m e n t a l c o n n e c t i o n s with the r e g i o n , i n c r e a s i n g extent. N a t i v e plant material links u s with the p l a c e w e live a l l o w i n g a m e n t a l c o n n e c t i o n to b e m a d e b e t w e e n the plant a n d its natural e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c r e a s i n g extent.  N a t i v e p l a n t s a r e i n c l u d e d in  planting p l a n s for both the r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e . h.  C r e a t e s p a c e s that s u p p o r t d e s i r e d u s e s to i n c r e a s e compatibility. A s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d restorative l a n d s c a p e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e to h o s p i t a l p r e c i n c t s a n d there is interest in their i n c l u s i o n h e r e .  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s u s e d to a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s d e s i r e d u s e s  for the n e w a n d existing g a r d e n s p a c e s at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n . T h e w i s h e s of staff, f a m i l i e s a n d r e s i d e n t s h a v e b e e n i n c o r p o r a t e d in the d e s i g n s p r e s e n t e d h e r e . q u e s t i o n n a i r e results.  A p p e n d i x B details  In a d d i t i o n , the u n i q u e n e e d s of r e s i d e n t s h a v e a l s o b e e n c o n s i d e r e d .  S e e table 3.2 for a c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e s e n e e d s .  2. E n s u r e new buildings create positive o u t d o o r s p a c e (Alexander, 1977). Strategies and E l e m e n t s E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline a.  D e s i g n building footprints to f r a m e o u t d o o r s p a c e s .  b.  A v o i d a w k w a r d s p a c e s left o v e r after b u i l d i n g s h a v e b e e n p l a c e d .  T h e t h o u g h t l e s s p l a c e m e n t of a building c a n l e a v e u n c o m f o r t a b l e s p a c e s b e h i n d .  For example,  the n e w Life S c i e n c e B u i l d i n g w a s a l l o w e d to e x t e n d to the e a s t in a w a y that b l o c k s v i e w s a n d interrupts circulation flows. A f e w m e t e r s w o u l d h a v e m a d e the o u t d o o r s p a c e s a r o u n d the building m u c h m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e .  T h e p r o p o s e d n e w building footprints for the p r e c i n c t  p r e s e r v e v i e w s a n d allow for s i m p l e c i r c u l a t i o n . B u i l d i n g e d g e s s e r v e to f r a m e o u t d o o r s p a c e s allowing for c o m f o r t a b l e o u t d o o r e n v i r o n m e n t s ( A l e x a n d e r , 1977).  3. IV eet A D A guidelines ( A D A , 1994). Strategies and Elements E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline a.  E n s u r e all d e s i g n e l e m e n t s c o m p l y with t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s .  All p a t h s in the p r e c i n c t h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d to h a v e a m a x i m u m 5 p e r c e n t s l o p e in a c c o r d a n c e with A D A g u i d e l i n e s . W i t h the r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s path w i d t h s m e e t s t a n d a r d s for two p a s s i n g w h e e l c h a i r s .  S l o p e s a r e kept b e l o w 5 % to e n s u r e e a s e of u s e by this  population. W h e e l c h a i r p a d s are included a s a seating option a n d t h e s e match A D A guidelines. P l a n t material i n t e n d e d for r e s i d e n t s to t o u c h h a s b e e n p l a c e d at h e i g h t s a n d r e a c h e s that m a k e is e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e ( A D A , 1994).  71  4. S u p p o r t way-finding ( L y n c h , 1960). Strategies and E l e m e n t s E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline a.  P l a c e l a n d m a r k s at d e c i s i o n points.  E y e - c a t c h e r s a n d s i g n s a r e p l a n n e d at d e c i s i o n points in the precinct. A n entry a r c h is p r o p o s e d for the w e s t e r n e n t r a n c e to the p e d e s t r i a n b r e e z e w a y a n d s i g n s a r e p r o p o s e d at building e n t r a n c e s . T h e s e will help w a y - f i n d i n g by p r o v i d i n g m e m o r a b l e points of r e f e r e n c e . T h e garden s p a c e s also employ landmarks.  E a c h s u b s p a c e within the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n h a s a  f o c a l e l e m e n t ; a w a t e r feature in the s o n g b i r d g a r d e n , a c o v e r e d s e a t i n g structure in the winter retreat a n d a g a z e b o in the patio g a r d e n . T h e t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e a l s o f e a t u r e s f o c a l e l e m e n t s that a i d w a y - f i n d i n g ; a g r e e n h o u s e , a w a t e r i n g station a n d a c o v e r e d s e a t i n g structure. b.  E m p l o y s i m p l e circulation s c h e m e s .  W a y - f i n d i n g is m a d e e a s i e r by s i m p l e circulation s c h e m e s . T h i s d e s i g n p r o p o s e s two direct e a s t - w e s t c o n n e c t i o n s t h r o u g h the p r e c i n c t a n d s i m p l e a n o r t h - s o u t h c o n n e c t i o n m i d w a y t h r o u g h the site. G a r d e n s p a c e s a l s o f e a t u r e s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c circulation r o u t e s . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y important for d e m e n t i a p o p u l a t i o n s w h o c a n h a v e difficulty u n d e r s t a n d i n g h o w to n a v i g a t e s p a c e ( J o n e s , 1996). c.  A v o i d d e a d - e n d s in circulation r o u t e s .  T h e d e s i g n for the p r e c i n c t a v o i d s d e a d - e n d s in c i r c u l a t i o n . C o n f u s i n g or a n n o y i n g to the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , d e a d - e n d s a r e e s p e c i a l l y difficult for t h o s e with d e m e n t i a w h o m a y g e t s t u c k at the e n d of a path a n d not turn a r o u n d to g o b a c k the w a y they c a m e ( J o n e s , 1996).  5. D e s i g n for s o c i a l interaction (Gehl, 1996). Strategies and E l e m e n t s E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline a.  Include o u t d o o r s p a c e s a d j a c e n t to i n d o o r s o c i a l s p a c e s .  T h e addition of a n o u t d o o r patio to the existing c a f e t e r i a at the K o e r n e r P a v i l i o n w o u l d allow d i n e r s to spill o u t d o o r s , c r e a t i n g a m o r e s o c i a l a t m o s p h e r e t h a n currently e x i s t s in this s p a c e .  In  the s a m e w a y , a m o r e s e a m l e s s c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the existing t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n a n d the g a r d e n r o o m a d j a c e n t to it w o u l d allow m o r e r e s i d e n t s to t a k e their activities out of d o o r s . b.  E n s u r e o u t d o o r a r e a s a r e c o m f o r t a b l e a n d high in a m e n i t y s o that they will b e u s e d .  J a n G e h l ' s ( 1 9 9 6 ) w o r k o n c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s for s o c i a l interaction in o u t d o o r s p a c e s u n d e r l i n e s the i m p o r t a n c e of c r e a t i n g c o m f o r t a b l e o u t d o o r s p a c e s that a r e high in a m e n i t y to f o s t e r u s e . T h e w a l k i n g route p l a n n e d for the p r e c i n c t w o u l d f e a t u r e rest s t o p s high in p e d e s t r i a n a m e n i t y . In a d d i t i o n , g a r d e n s p a c e s in the p r e c i n c t w o u l d offer c o m f o r t a b l e p l a c e s to sit in both s u n a n d s h a d e a n d b e a b l e to a c c o m m o d a t e g r o u p s of v a r i o u s s i z e s .  GUIDELINES F O R T H E RESIDENTS' G A R D E N 1. A d d r e s s l o s s of s e n s o r y acuity, r e d u c e d p h y s i c a l ability and n e e d s of patients with dementia ( J o n e s , 1996). Strategies and E l e m e n t s E m p l o y e d to Meet this Guideline a.  M a x i m i z e o n e l e m e n t s that e n g a g e the s e n s e s i n c l u d i n g plant material a n d w a t e r .  A g e often results in r e d u c e d s e n s o r y acuity ( J o n e s , 1996). T h i s i m p l i e s that d e s i g n e l e m e n t s n e e d to h a v e bright c o l o u r s , s t r o n g s c e n t s interesting textures to b e fully a p p r e c i a t e d by this population.  F o r this r e a s o n , a plant palette with c o l o u r f u l b l o o m s a n d h e a d y a r o m a s h a s b e e n  s e l e c t e d for both the r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s .  P l a n t s with interesting textures h a v e  b e e n p l a c e d within e a s y r e a c h of t h o s e s e a t e d in w h e e l c h a i r s .  T w o w a t e r f e a t u r e s that allow  site u s e r s to e n g a g e with the w a t e r a r e p l a n n e d , o n e in the r e s i d e n t s ' g a r d e n , a n d o n e in the therapeutic garden.  72  b.  E n s u r e lighting at a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s , a v o i d g l a r e .  T r a n s i t i o n s b e t w e e n m o d e r a t e l y a n d brightly lit s p a c e s a n d c a n b e u n c o m f o r t a b l e for the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n but c a n c a u s e m o r e s e r i o u s difficulty for t h o s e with d e m e n t i a ( J o n e s , 1996).  F o r this  r e a s o n transition a r e a s b e t w e e n i n d o o r a n d o u t d o o r s p a c e s h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d , a l l o w i n g e y e s time to a d j u s t to n e w light l e v e l s w h e n travelling b e t w e e n i n d o o r s a n d o u t d o o r s .  Paving  m a t e r i a l s without g l a r e h a v e b e e n s p e c i f i e d - c o l o u r e d c o n c r e t e with a d e c o r a t i v e b a n d of p a v e r s - to e n s u r e e a s y u s e by r e s i d e n t s . c.  D e s i g n s p a c e s to b e a c c e s s i b l e ; s l o p e s not to e x c e e d 5%, p a t h s w i d e e n o u g h for two  w h e e l c h a i r s to p a s s . W h e e l c h a i r u s e r s c a n h a v e difficultly travelling o n circulation r o u t e s with s l o p e s g r e a t e r t h a n 5 percent. d.  ( A D A , 1994) F o r this r e a s o n g r a d e s a r e kept to a m i n i m u m within the p r e c i n c t .  P r o v i d e f r e q u e n t rest s t o p s .  S i t e u s e r s i n c l u d e a g e d a n d inform p o p u l a t i o n s m a k i n g f r e q u e n t rest s t o p s important ( M o o n e y and L u y m e s , 2000).  H i g h a m e n i t y p e d e s t r i a n rest s t o p s a r e p l a n n e d a l o n g the w a l k i n g route  p r o p o s e d for the p r e c i n c t a n d a r e a l s o f e a t u r e d in both the r e s i d e n t s ' a n d t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n spaces.  e,  F o l l o w d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s for d e m e n t i a patients; e m p l o y s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c s c h e m e s , a v o i d  stark c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n light a n d d a r k , e m p l o y w a r m , m i d - r a n g e c o l o u r s , u s e familiar f o r m s a n d m a t e r i a l s , d e s i g n for a residential s c a l e , e n s u r e s p a c e s a r e s e c u r e but not jail-like, a n d u s e n o n - t o x i c m a t e r i a l s ( J o n e s , 1996). A s this s p a c e will b e u s e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y by r e s i d e n t s it is critical that it m e e t their n e e d s a s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y in this p a p e r .  F o r this r e a s o n , g u i d e l i n e s for d e m e n t i a p a t i e n t s h a v e b e e n  a d h e r e d to w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g all e l e m e n t s of the g a r d e n i n c l u d i n g f o r m s ( s i m p l e a n d g e o m e t r i c ) , s t r u c t u r e s ( h o m e l i k e with residential s c a l e ) , plant material (familiar a n d n o n - t o x i c ) , p a v i n g material (level a n d o f a w a r m m i d - r a n g e c o l o u r ) , s e a t i n g ( h o m e l i k e a n d of a p p r o p r i a t e d i m e n s i o n s ) , a n d f e n c i n g ( s e c u r e but not jail-like).  2. Maximize o n restorative effect (Kaplan and K a p l a n , 1998). a.  T a k e e v e r y opportunity to e m p l o y the K a p l a n s ' criteria ( K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n , 1998).  T h e r e s i d e n t s u s i n g this g a r d e n s p a c e w o u l d greatly benefit for e x p o s u r e to a restorative environment.  T h e d e s i g n for this s p a c e offers f a s c i n a t i o n , extent, a s e n s e of b e i n g a w a y ,  compatibility a n d n e a r nature a s d i s c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 1 of this table.  3. Create p l a c e s for gathering. a.  P r o v i d e a r a n g e of s e a t i n g o p t i o n s .  T o s u p p o r t a variety of u s e s a n d to p r o v i d e c o m f o r t a b l e s e a t i n g in m a n y w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a r a n g e of s e a t i n g o p t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e w h e e l c h a i r rest p a d s , b e n c h e s , planter l e d g e s a n d p i c n i c t a b l e s p l a c e d in s u n , s h a d e a n d u n d e r c o v e r .  4. Make a s t r o n g i n d o o r - o u t d o o r c o n n e c t i o n . a.  M a k e a s e a m l e s s transition b e t w e e n i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e results highlight the difficulty that c a n a r i s e f r o m s o m e t h i n g a s s i m p l e a s a d o o r sill.  It is important that r e s i d e n t s h a v e e a s y a c c e s s to the g a r d e n to e n s u r e its u s e .  73  b.  P r o v i d e o v e r h e a d protection f r o m rain to e n c o u r a g e u s e of o u t d o o r s p a c e s in i n c l e m e n t  weather. Living in V a n c o u v e r m e a n s wet w e a t h e r d u r i n g winter m o n t h s . T o e n s u r e o u t d o o r s p a c e s c a n b e u s e d y e a r r o u n d , o v e r h e a d protection f r o m rain m u s t b e p r o v i d e d .  5. C o n s i d e r maintenance requirements. a.  U s e p r e d o m i n a t e l y l o w - m a i n t e n a n c e plants, u s e p e r e n n i a l s j u d i c i o u s l y .  M a i n t e n a n c e m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d f r o m the o u t s e t to e n s u r e that a n y n e w g a r d e n s p a c e will b e successful.  L o w m a i n t e n a n c e p l a n t i n g s a n d irrigation will h e l p r e d u c e m a i n t e n a n c e l o a d s f r o m  the outset.  6. Include elements requested by residents, families and staff. a.  E m p l o y d e s i g n e l e m e n t s a n d plant m a t e r i a l s r e q u e s t e d .  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e results s h o w e d a n interest in p l a c e s to sit a n d visit with family m e m b e r s a n d r o o m for s m a l l g r o u p g a t h e r i n g s . Activities p o p u l a r with r e s i d e n t s w e r e light g a r d e n i n g a n d wildlife v i e w i n g .  GUIDELINES F O R T H E T H E R A P E U T I C G A R D E N 1. A l l o w for a flexible u s e of s p a c e . a.  P r o v i d e a g r e e n f r a m e w o r k a n d infrastructure that c a n s u p p o r t m a n y activities.  A s interests c h a n g e o v e r t i m e , p r o g r a m s c h a n g e to reflect n e w interests. W h a t is n e e d e d h e r e is a s p a c e with a s t r o n g f r a m e w o r k that a l l o w s for a variety of u s e s .  This design places  n e c e s s a r y infrastructure - c o m p o s t , g r e e n h o u s e a n d w a t e r i n g station - in a setting that p r o v i d e s a low m a i n t e n a n c e b a c k d r o p for a variety of horticultural t h e r a p y activities.  2. S u p p o r t horticultural activity a.  I n c r e a s e planting a r e a s .  T h e p r o p o s e d n e w retaining wall with planting trough w o u l d greatly i n c r e a s e the a m o u n t of a c c e s s i b l e planting s p a c e o n site.  E x i s t i n g p l a n t e r s c o u l d b e m o d i f i e d to b e a c c e s s i b l e to  w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s , p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l planting s p a c e . b.  P r o v i d e a c c e s s i b l e g a r d e n infrastructure.  In o r d e r for r e s i d e n t s to participate in c o m p o s t i n g a n d w a t e r i n g , infrastructure for t h e s e u s e s m u s t b e d e s i g n e d to b e a c c e s s i b l e . T h e w a t e r i n g wall f e a t u r e d in this d e s i g n for the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s p a c e is not only a c c e s s i b l e , but a l s o attractive a n d s e r v e s a s a f o c a l e l e m e n t a s well a s a practical o n e .  3. Plan for extensive u s e of s p a c e . a.  S u g g e s t horticultural t h e r a p y projects for i n c l u s i o n in existing horticultural t h e r a p y p r o g r a m .  A d d i t i o n a l planting s p a c e c r e a t e s the opportunity for e x p a n d e d p r o g r a m m i n g in the t h e r a p e u t i c garden.  b.  S u g g e s t e d activities a r e listed in table 3.3 ( S i m o n s a n d S t r a u s s , 1994).  D e s i g n g a r d e n s p a c e to b e a g r e a t p l a c e to b e .  In addition to b e i n g f u n c t i o n a l , the t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d to b e a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y delightful p l a c e to b e . R i c h plantings a n d c o m f o r t a b l e s e a t i n g a r e i n c l u d e d to d r a w r e s i d e n t s out o f d o o r s e v e n if they a r e not participating in a horticultural t h e r a p y p r o g r a m .  74  4.5  Discussion  T h e d e s i g n p r e s e n t e d in this project s h o w s h o w a g i v e n site c a n b e a d a p t e d to p r o v i d e a restorative e x p e r i e n c e to site u s e r s . T h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d in the c o u r s e of this s t u d y d o not only a p p l y to this project, but c a n b e a p p l i e d to m a n y o t h e r situations. participate in s u c h projects.  I n d e e d , l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y c a l l e d u p o n to  L a n d s c a p e Architecture m a g a z i n e , a professional journal, c o m m o n l y  f e a t u r e s projects at h o s p i c e s , h o s p i t a l s a n d c a r e h o m e s , a n d the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s h a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e network for p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g in t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n d e s i g n .  A s the C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n a g e s , the n u m b e r of p e o p l e that c o u l d benefit f r o m a c c e s s to a n o u t d o o r s p a c e s u c h a s the o n e p r o p o s e d a l s o i n c r e a s e s .  L a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t s h a v e a n important role to play in  providing a p p r o p r i a t e d e s i g n s for s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s a m o n g the elderly s u c h a s t h e r a p e u t i c g a r d e n s for hospital patients a n d o u t d o o r s p a c e s for A l z h e i m e r ' s patients.  In addition to s p a c e s i n t e n d e d for s p e c i a l  u s e r g r o u p s , it is a p p r o p r i a t e g i v e n the rising proportion of elderly in the p o p u l a t i o n that all d e s i g n s for the p u b l i c r e a l m c o n s i d e r their n e e d s .  R e s e a r c h s h o w s that health benefits a c c r u e to u s e r s of restorative  e n v i r o n m e n t s ; o n e h o p e s that in the future this kind of s p a c e is m a d e m o r e widely a v a i l a b l e to all c i t i z e n s a s a w a y of i m p r o v i n g g e n e r a l health.  W h a t is n e e d e d to p u s h this a g e n d a forward is m o r e r e s e a r c h s h o w i n g the m e a s u r a b l e effect that i m m e r s i o n in a restorative e n v i r o n m e n t h a s o n site u s e r s . K a p l a n a n d K a p l a n h a v e started this w o r k by e x p a n d i n g o n R o g e r U l r i c h ' s r e s e a r c h with h o s p i t a l patients.  T h e y h a v e s h o w n that o u t d o o r  e n v i r o n m e n t s c a n offer restorative e x p e r i e n c e s a n d h a v e i s o l a t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of restorative landscapes.  E x p e r i m e n t s m e a s u r i n g e x a c t p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s e x p e r i e n c e d in o u t d o o r restorative  e n v i r o n m e n t s a r e p e r s u a s i v e to hospital a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a n d g o v e r n m e n t officials, a n d m o r e n e e d to b e done.  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A2  O v e r l a p the t h e m e s of circuits to c r e a t e a h i e r a r c h y o r circuits.  Differentiate B e t w e e n C i r c u i t s U s e d i f f e r e n c e in p a v i n g widths, textures a n d c o l o u r , a n d in p l a n t i n g s to d e f i n e the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s circuits, d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n primary a n d s e c o n d a r y r o u t e s a n d d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m f r o m e a c h o t h e r a n d the s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s .  A3  E n c o u r a g e Mobility O n circuits that a r e prioritized for p e o p l e with mobility c o n s t r a i n t s , follow the g e n t l e s t g r a d e s a n d p a s s t h r o u g h t h o s e i n t e r s e c t i o n s that p r o v i d e the e a s i e s t c r o s s i n g s for w h e e l c h a i r s a n d m a k e all new sidewalks accessible.  B.  Sidewalks  B1  W i d e r (1.8m) S i d e w a l k s N e w s i d e w a l k s s h o u l d b e at l e a s t 1.8 m e t r e s w i d e to p r o v i d e a m p l e r o o m for m o v e m e n t , r e c o g n i z i n g that u s e r s i n c l u d e t h o s e in w h e e l c h a i r s a n d w a l k e r s .  B2  S a w c u t Control Joints C o n t r o l joints in n e w s i d e w a l k s s h o u l d b e s a w c u t rather than trowelled in o r d e r to i m p r o v e e v e n n e s s a n d s m o o t h n e s s for u s e by w h e e l c h a i r s a n d w a l k e r s .  B3  Cracked/Heaved/Settled Sections T o p r o v i d e a s m o o t h s i d e w a l k s u r f a c e , a n y c r a c k e d , h e a v e d , or settled s i d e w a l k p a v i n g s h o u l d b e r e p l a c e s w h e r e p o s s i b l e with n e w s i d e w a l k s .  B4  Street T r e e P l a n t i n g E n s u r e a d e q u a t e root z o n e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d carefully s e l e c t tree s p e c i e s to r e d u c e s i d e w a l k h e a v i n g by tree roots.  B5  Special Sidewalk  Treatments  U n i q u e s i d e w a l k d e s i g n s s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d for beautification  areas.  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be  g i v e n to c r e a t i n g a s m o o t h s u r f a c e o n the s i d e w a l k a l o n g M a i n S t r e e t with a thin c o a t i n g of c o l o u r e d a s p h a l t p a v i n g o v e r the existing c o n c r e t e .  (10mm)  A s m o o t h travel path in the c e n t r e of the  s i d e w a l k s h o u l d b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m textured p a v i n g a r o u n d street t r e e s (to allow w a t e r penetration into the soil a r o u n d the t r e e s ) a n d a l o n g the building f a c e (to c r e a t e a z o n e for s i d e w a l k stalls, o u t d o o r s e a t i n g , etc.). B6  Tactile Strips A l o n g S i d e w a l k s W h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e , install tactile strips wither o n both e d g e of the s i d e w a l k or o n the inner e d g e to aid p e o p l e u s i n g c a n e s to stay o n the path.  B7  R e c e s s e d Tactile S u r f a c e s M a k e s u r e that the texture of the tactile strips or o t h e r p a v e m e n t m a r k i n g s result f r o m r e c e s s e s rather than a r a i s e d s u r f a c e s o they a r e not disruptive to t h o s e in w h e e l c h a i r s .  C.  '  Streets and  Intersections 80  C1  U s e C u r v e d Street A l i g n m e n t s U s e c u r v e d street a l i g n m e n t s a n d n a r r o w e d traffic l a n e s o n b u s y local streets.  C2  Traffic C i r c l e s Install traffic c i r c l e s w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e to d i s c o u r a g e n o n - l o c a l traffic cutting t h r o u g h the neighbourhood.  C3  6 Meter C o r n e r Bulges P r o v i d e c o r n e r b u l g e s to c r e a t e a n a r r o w e r r o a d w a y at i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  C4  Seating A r e a s P l a c e rest a r e a s a l o n g the b u s i e s t p e d e s t r i a n s r o u t e s , w h e r e v e r at i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  p e o p l e t e n d to c o n g r e g a t e a n d  U s e the w i d e r b o u l e v a r d strip b e t w e e n the s i d e w a l k a n d the c u r b f a c e , c r e a t e d  by the c o r n e r b u l g e s , for the c r e a t i o n of s e a t i n g p l a c e s , t h u s e n h a n c i n g the c o m f o r t of the p u b l i c streetscape. C5  Aligned Sidewalks/Crosswalks R e p l a c e all d i a g o n a l c u r b r a m p s with p e r p e n d i c u l a r c u r b r a m p s a n d align t h e m directly with the sidewalks and crosswalks.  C6  Smooth Ramps M a k e c u r b r a m p s flush with the street at the b a s e .  M a k e the b a s e of t h e s e r a m p s w e l l - d r a i n e d to  a v o i d p u d d l i n g . In a n y future i m p r o v e m e n t s in the s t u d y a r e a , strive to m a k e c r o s s s l o p e s  1.5%  on sidewalks a n d 0% o n curb ramps. C7  T a c t i l e S t r i p s at C u r b R a m p s T o s i g n a l the u s e r ' s arrival at i n t e r s e c t i o n s , c o n s i d e r p r o v i d i n g m a r k i n g s , c o n t r a s t i n g p a v i n g or tactile strips a c r o s s t h e t o p a n d / o r b o t t o m o f c u r b r a m p s .  C8  T e x t u r e d Intersection  Paving  C o n t i n u e the tactile strip a l o n g s i d e w a l k e d g e s or o t h e r m a r k i n g s o r c o n t r a s t i n g p a v i n g a c r o s s i n t e r s e c t i o n s to h e l p the visually i m p a i r e d n a v i g a t e .  A t v e r y least, m a k e s u r e that p a i n t e d  c r o s s w a l k line m a r k i n g s a r e r e p a i n t e d frequently a n d not a l l o w e d to b e c o m e d i m t h r o u g h w e a r . C9  P e d e s t r i a n / C y c l i s t - A c t u a t e d Traffic S i g n a l s M a k e s u r e that there a r e p e d e s t r i a n / c y c l i s t - a c t u a t e d traffic s i g n a l s to c o n n e c t the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s a c r o s s b u s y streets.  C o n s i d e r the u s e of n e w t e c h n o l o g i e s to e n s u r e that the elderly  a n d t h o s e in w h e e l c h a i r s h a v e sufficient time to c r o s s the r o a d . D. D1  Street Furnishings C o n s i s t e n c y in S t r e e t  Furniture  T o a s s i s t all, but e s p e c i a l l y the visually i m p a i r e d , the d e s i g n of all street furniture a n d its p l a c e m e n t m u s t b e c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s . D2  Short W a l k s R e d u c e w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e s b y p r o v i d i n g m i d - b l o c k rest a r e a .  Ideally, p r o v i d e either a p l a c e of  interest or a p l a c e of rest e v e r y 4 0 - 50 m e t r e s . D3  Universally A c c e s s i b l e Street  Furniture  D e s i g n or a d a p t all street furniture to b e u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e .  I n c r e a s e a c c e s s to existing  street furniture, s u c h a s by a d d i n g c o n c r e t e p a d s b e s i d e b e n c h e s to allow w h e e l c h a i r u s e r s to sit next to p e o p l e o n the b e n c h e s . D4  Wheelchair Pads Beside Benches  81  A t e a c h b e n c h , i n c l u d e a 1-metre s q u a r e p a v i n g p a d o n at least o n e e n d , s o that p e o p l e in w h e e l c h a i r s c a n sit a l o n g s i d e the b e n c h e s a n d join m o r e e a s i l y in c o n v e r s a t i o n , or transfer o n t o the b e n c h . D5  Rest Areas C r e a t e rest a r e a s w h i c h c o m b i n e s i m p l e b e n c h e s with other a m e n i t i e s to c r e a t e c o m f o r t a b l e , u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d attractive p l a c e s . V a r y s e a t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s to p r o v i d e c h o i c e s a n d s o c i a l opportunity.  D6  Street Furniture  Placement  P l a c e all street furniture a n d rest a r e a s s u c h a s b e n c h e s , d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n s a n d t a b l e s off the major circulation a n d s i g n a l its position by a tactile strip o r c o n t r a s t i n g or t e x t u r e d p a v i n g . D7  H e r i t a g e S t y l e Furniture In h e r i t a g e - t h e m e d  D8  rest a r e a s , u s e h e r i t a g e lighting a n d street furniture.  S h a d e Structures a n d Shelters R e s t a r e a s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e m i c r o c l i m a t i c  protection in the f o r m of s h a d e  s t r u c t u r e s , w h i c h m a y s u p p o r t v i n e s a n d c l i m b i n g p l a n t s a s well, or s h e l t e r s f r o m the a i n . D9  U n i v e r s a l Drinking F o u n t a i n s  D10  Accessible Tables  D11  Universally A c c e s s i b l e B u s Shelters P r o v i d e universally a c c e s s i b l e b u s s h e l t e r s with c l e a r s i g n a g e at b u s s t o p s s e r v i n g the W e l l n e s s Walkways.  P o s t s s h o u l d h a v e a distinct c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s h a p e a n d reflective c o l o u r e d b a n d s .  S i g n a g e s h o u l d b e s a f e l y at e y e level a n d Braille p a n e l s s h o u l d b e u s e d to e x t e n d s i g n a g e m e s s a g e s to v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d p e o p l e . D12  Fountains and Pools A t s p e c i a l location n e a r to h o s p i t a l .  E  T r e e s , P l a n t s a n d Wildlife  E1  Increase Plantings Retrofit the n e i g h b o u r h o o d streets with a d d i t i o n a l p l a n t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g voluntary p l a n t i n g s o n private l a n d s , n e w street t r e e s w h e r e l a c k i n g a n d a d d i t i o n a l p l a n t i n g s o a t s p e c i a l l a n d s c a p e a r e a s , i n t e r s e c t i o n s , m i d - b l o c k a n d c o r n e r rest a r e a s .  D e c i d e o n l o c a t i o n , nature a n d t y p e of  plantings o n public a n d private l a n d s t h r o u g h public c o n s u l t a t i o n s a n d u s e v o l u n t e e r s in planting them. E2  Reduce Glare Plant street t r e e s , particularly o n circuits prioritized for the elderly a n d v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d , to r e d u c e g l a r e f r o m the s i d e w a l k s u r f a c e a n d to p r o v i d e s h a d e .  E3  Planted Boulevards U s e the w i d e r b o u l e v a r d strip b e t w e e n t h e s i d e w a l k a n d the c u r b f a c e c r e a t e d b y t h e c o r n e r b u l g e s for additional p l a n t i n g s to e n h a n c e the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the p u b l i c s t r e e t s c a p e .  E4  Maintain O p e n Sight L i n e s W h e n retrofitting the n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t r e e t s with a d d i t i o n a l p l a n t i n g s , e n s u r e that o p e n sight lines a r e m a i n t a i n e d to p r o v i d e v i e w s of traffic for public safety.  K e e p p l a n t i n g s in traffic c i r c l e s low for  m a x i m u m visibility. E5  Distinctive L a n d s c a p e C h a r a c t e r D e s i g n additional p l a n t i n g s s o that distinctive l a n d s c a p e c h a r a c t e r z o n e s a r e c r e a t e d within the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s circuits.  82  E6  Special Landscape Areas M a k e the o r i g i n s a n d d e s t i n a t i o n s of e a c h circuit's s p e c i a l l a n d s c a p e a r e a s .  T h e s e i n c l u d e the  e n t r a n c e s to c a r e facilities a n d local p a r k s , a s well a s d e s t i n a t i o n b u s i n e s s or travel c o r r i d o r s . D e s i g n s h o u l d i n c r e a s e a c c e s s a n d p r o v i d e a variety of s e a t i n g that p r o m o t e s s o c i a l i z a t i o n a n d viewing opportunities. E7  Aromatic Plantings R e s t a r e a s w a l k w a y s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e p e r e n n i a l s ,  flowering s h r u b s a n d t r e e s  p l a n t e d for a r o m a . E8  Colour/Wildlife Plantings R e s t a r e a s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e p e r e n n i a l s , flowering s h r u b s a n d t r e e s p l a n t e d for c o l o u r or to e n h a n c e the v i e w i n g of birds a n d butterflies.  Provide new vines, shrubs and  p e r e n n i a l p l a n t i n g s w h i c h attract h u m m i n g b i r d s a n d butterflies c l o s e to w h e r e p e o p l e sit. E9  Bird F e e d e r s , N e s t i n g B o x e s a n d B a t B o x e s R e s t a r e a s s h o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e bat b o x e s a n d f e e d e r s a n d n e s t i n g b o x e s .  E10  A c c e s s i b l e Planting A r e a s a n d G a r d e n Plots S e a t i n g a r e a s s h o u l d h a v e w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s i b l e , r a i s e d planting b e d s .  F  Lighting  F1  I n c r e a s e d P e d e s t r i a n - S c a l e d Lighting I n c r e a s e s e n s e of s a f e t y by u p g r a d i n g all street lighting w h e r e r e q u i r e d .  F2  U p g r a d e Lighting U s e the m o s t natural light s p e c t r u m , i.e. the 'whitest light", in all n e w lighting.  F3  H e r i t a g e Light S t a n d a r d s R e i n f o r c e the h e r i t a g e a s p e c t of the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s circuits by p r o v i d i n g a n y a d d i t i o n a l lighting with h e r i t a g e light s t a n d a r d s or h e r i t a g e h e a d s o n existing light s t a n d a r d s .  F4  R e s t A r e a P e d e s t r i a n Lighting E n s u r e that rest a r e a s a r e well lit with h e r i t a g e style p e d e s t r i a n s c a l e d light s t a n d a r d s .  F5  Intersection  Lighting  P r o v i d e a m p l e w e l l - d i r e c t e d lighting at i n t e r s e c t i o n s . F6  Street T r e e s P r u n e street t r e e s , a s n e c e s s a r y , s o that street lighting is a b l e to r e a c h the g r o u n d .  G G1  Way-finding P e d e s t r i a n Directional S i g n s S u p p o r t w a y - f i n d i n g by installing s i g n p o s t s at k e y points in the l a n d s c a p e , s u c h a s at i n t e r s e c t i o n s a n d rest a r e a s .  G i v e s i g n s b o l d , c l e a r lettering a n d a r r o w s that point the direction to  key destinations a n d landmarks.  M a k e the lettering b l a c k o n a white b a c k g r o u n d a n d p l a c e it  s a f e l y at e y e level. G2  Colour Coding M a k e different r o u t e s a n d d e s t i n a t i o n s v i s u a l l y distinct by m e a n s of c o l o u r c o d i n g .  G3  C o l o u r C o d e d Tactile Strips C o n s i d e r reinforcing c o l o u r t h e m e s with c o l o u r e d tactile strips a l o n g s i d e w a l k s .  G4  Colour C o d e d Plantings 83  M a k e different r o u t e s a n d d e s t i n a t i o n s v i s u a l l y distinct by m e a n s of c o l o u r c o d e d p l a n t i n g s . F u r t h e r differentiate the circuits by u s i n g c o o l c o l o u r s o n n o r t h - s o u t h s t r e e t s a n d w a r m c o l o u r s o n e a s t - w e s t streets. G5  Reflective Banding on P o l e s D i s t i n g u i s h different r o u t e s a n d r e i n f o r c e c o l o u r t h e m e s , particularly at i n t e r s e c t i o n s with reflective b a n d s o n light s t a n d a r d s a n d o t h e r p o l e s .  G6  Distinctive L a n d m a r k s U s e distinctively d e s i g n e d s p e c i a l l a n d s c a p e a r e a s , i n t e r s e c t i o n s , rest a r e a s a n d heritage interpretation m a r k e r s to s e r v e a s l a n d m a r k s .  H  Safety and Security  H1  L o w C r i m e Circuits L o c a t e the W e l l n e s s W a l k w a y s circuits in a r e a s of l o w e s t c r i m e .  H2  Defensible S p a c e E n c o u r a g e natural s u r v e i l l a n c e o n the street by d e s i g n i n g the s p a c e s a l o n g the street a n d in f r o m of a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s that g i v e s h a d e , shelter, a m e n i t y a n d c o n v e n i e n c e . P h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e t h e s e s p a c e s f r o m the street b y u s i n g low w a l l s , h e d g e s o r p l a n t i n g s . S u b d i v i d e t h e s e a p a r t m e n t "front y a r d s " into two a r e a s ; a s e m i - p u b l i c a r e a n e a r e r the street a n d a s e m i - p r i v a t e a r e a of a m e n i t y a n d u s e n e a r e r the building.  H3  P u b l i c - P r i v a t e "Blurring" M a k e the entries of c a r e facilities a m e r g e d p u b l i c / p r i v a t e z o n e .  H4  Maintain O p e n V i e w s I m p l e m e n t C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n T h r o u g h E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y a r e a a n d m a i n t a i n o p e n v i e w s to e n s u r e the s a f e t y o f the u s e r .  I II  H e r i t a g e a n d Interpretation Heritage T h e m e s G i v e rest a r e a different a n d a p p r o p r i a t e t h e m e s s u c h a s heritage.  Link significant h e r i t a g e  l o c a t i o n s t o g e t h e r to c r e a t e circuits with h e r i t a g e t h e m e s . 12  H e r i t a g e S t y l e S t r e e t Furniture a n d H e r i t a g e Interpretation U s e h e r i t a g e style street furniture a n d unified h e r i t a g e interpretive m a r k e r s to r e i n f o r c e h e r i t a g e rest a r e a s , s t r e n g t h e n w a y - f i n d i n g a n d e s t a b l i s h distinctly different circuits a n d districts in the neighbourhood.  84  A p p e n d i x B: Purdy Questionnaire Purdy Pavilion G a r d e n Questionnaire T h a n k y o u for y o u r time a n d effort in c o m p l e t i n g this q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  T h e information will b e u s e d by  C a m p u s a n d C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g to d e v e l o p a d e s i g n for a future o u t d o o r s p a c e b e t w e e n the  Detwiller  a n d P u r d y P a v i l i o n s , a n d to plan r e n o v a t i o n s to existing g a r d e n s at the P u r d y P a v i l i o n .  Please complete and return to Ellen Courtney's office on Purdy 1 before July 25, 2005. 1.  W o u l d y o u like to participate in the following a c t i v i t i e s ?  YES  NO  Blank  V i s i t i n g with family a n d f r i e n d s o u t s i d e  17  0  0  Small group gathering outside  17  0  0  Bird/animal watching  13  3  1  Light g a r d e n i n g t a s k s  14  5  0  O t h e r activities: 2.  W h i c h f e a t u r e s w o u l d y o u like to s e e in a future o u t d o o r s p a c e ?  YES  NO  Blank  P a t i o for g r o u p g a t h e r i n g  16  1  0  O p e n lawn a r e a for g a m e s  9  6  2  Looped  12  3  2  S c r e e n e d porch  11  5  1  S e a t i n g a r e a s in s u n s h i n e  12  2  3  S e a t i n g a r e a s in s h a d e  16  0  1  S h a d e trees  16  0  1  Fruit t r e e s  13  1  3  Pathway  Flowers  16  0  1  Container gardens  13  2  2  Fountain/pond  16  0  1  Other features: Written c o m m e n t s : 1. (family m e m b e r ) No smoking 2. (resident) T h e y get birds n o w . H a v e bird f e e d e r s n o w . E n j o y s just b e i n g in g a r d e n . R e s i d e n t s o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s in s m a l l g r o u p s to visit g a r d e n n o w . Enjoys walking. S c r e e n e d p o r c h w o u l d b e u s e f u l to k e e p the b u g s a w a y . P r e f e r s sitting in s u n . P r e f e r s strongly s c e n t e d f l o w e r s . Finds container g a r d e n s very useful. F e e l s they h a v e to h a v e fountain or a p o n d . W o u l d like to s e e c h a i r s i n c l u d e d .  85  W o u l d like a M i m o s a tree a n d violets. W o u l d like to s e e t r e e s m e n t i o n e d in G e r m a n poetry, plants f r o m C r o a t i a , S o u t h e r n F r a n c e . W o u l d like t r e e s with f r a g r a n t b l o o m s . W o u l d like a M a g n o l i a like the o n e at the S h a u g h n e s s y H o s p i t a l . 3. (resident) E x i s t i n g g a r d e n r o o m not u s e d m u c h , there is a b u m p at the t h r e s h o l d that y o u c a n ' t get o v e r in a wheelchair. B i r d s c o m e to existing f e e d e r . W o u l d like to attract h u m m i n g b i r d s a n d butterflies. W o u l d e n j o y filling bird f e e d e r s . T h e r e is a r e s i d e n t g r o u p (1st a n d 2 n d floors) that d o p o t s a n d v e g e t a b l e s in existing g a r d e n . C r o q u e t is i m p o s s i b l e , all of the r e s i d e n t s a r e in w h e e l c h a i r s . N o - o n e u s e s the existing c h e c k e r b o a r d p a i n t e d o n the  pavement.  T h e r e a r e not e n o u g h staff m e m b e r s for p l a n n e d activity p r o g r a m s . E n j o y s l o w - k e y s p o r t s that u s e balls a n d r a c k e t s . C o u l d u s e a h o r s e s h o e pit if there w e r e s t a f f / v o l u n t e e r s to help. O p e n lawn g a m e s a r e not g o o d for w h e e l c h a i r s . Include b e n c h e s . S c r e e n e d p o r c h not n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e a r e n o b u g s h e r e . W o u l d like a n u m b r e l l a tree. W o u l d like f o x g l o v e s , d e l p h i n i u m s , phlox, r o s e s , p e o n i e s , h y d r a n g e a s , f u c h s i a s . F o u n t a i n w o u l d b e alright if it c o u l d b e m a i n t a i n e d . Include s c u l p t u r e , p e r h a p s b u s t s o f d o c t o r s that h a v e w o r k e d at the h o s p i t a l . Include v e g e t a b l e s , fruit. Include a p l a c e to eat fruit in the g a r d e n , or h a v e a n ice c r e a m s o c i a l . Include s p a c e s for f a m i l i e s to visit. Include w h i t e - b a r k e d t r e e s in c l u m p s . L i k e s w e e p i n g willows. F o y e r o n the m a i n floor is not inviting, it's too dark. R e - u p h o l s t e r c h a i r s to b e brighter, r e p l a c e r u g s with h a r d w o o d flooring o r lino. T h e r e a r e lots of birds a r o u n d , w o u l d b e n i c e to h a v e a f e e d e r . R e s i d e n t s w o u l d e n j o y filling the f e e d e r if they c o u l d r e a c h it. Existing walkway h a s w e e d s  everywhere:  E n j o y s sitting o u t s i d e in s p a c e b e t w e e n P u r d y a n d A c u t e C a r e H o s p i t a l . Big pots in front of A c u t e C a r e H o s p i t a l a r e e m p t y . B a c k d o o r to the hospital c o u l d be v e r y n i c e if s o m e o n e took a n interest. G a r d e n s c u l p t u r e s , s t o n e b e n c h e s , s t a t u e of S a i n t that w a s a g a r d e n e r (St. F i a c r e ) that n e e d not be large, p e r h a p s a s m a l l statue sitting o n a p e d e s t a l . Trellis with g r a p e s . N e w a w n i n g s for lower g a r d e n . Old fashioned garden. M o r e plastic chairs. T a b l e s s h o u l d b e lower or h a v e a variety of h e i g h t s to suit different s i z e s of w h e e l c h a i r s , could be more  furniture  permanent.  A u t o m a t i c w a t e r i n g s y s t e m , w a t e r s p o u t s that r e s i d e n t s c o u l d u s e . E x i s t i n g retaining wall is deteriorating, r e p l a c e with c o n c r e t e or s t o n e .  (  4. (left with staff) W a t e r f e a t u r e to i n c l u d e fish. 5. (family  member)  " L o o k i n g at f l o w e r s , f r e s h air, strolling, flower f r a g r a n c e s a n d c o l o u r s s e e m to a l m o s t  rejuvenate  my Mom". F o u n t a i n or p o n d at the e n t r a n c e to the P u r d y , reflective p o o l a n d s m a l l f o u n t a i n . W a t e r f e a t u r e s p r o m o t e a feeling of tranquility a n d h a r m o n y with nature a n d self.  86  P r o v i d i n g s o m e r a i s e d b e d s or c o n t a i n e r s e n a b l e s p e o p l e in c h a i r s to g e t c l o s e r to p l a n t i n g s . 6. (resident) W e h a v e a patio for g r o u p g a t h e r i n g . O p e n a r e a for g a m e s not n e e d e d - w e a r e all in w h e e l c h a i r s . A l o o p e d p a t h w a y w o u l d b e fine if y o u a r e a b l e to walk. S c r e e n e d p o r c h not n e c e s s a r y a s t h e y h a v e two c a n o p i e s . W o u l d like a n o t h e r g r e e n s p a c e . W o u l d like a g a r d e n that g o e s o v e r y o u r h e a d - up w a l l s a n d a c r o s s c e i l i n g . 7. (left with staff) W o u l d like to s e e p l a c e for g a m e s i n c l u d e d . 8. (resident) A l r e a d y u s e s existing s p a c e for visiting with family a n d f r i e n d s . W o u l d like to g r o w r o s e s . W o u l d like a w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s i b l e lawn. W o u l d strongly s u p p o r t m o r e fruit t r e e s . C o n c e r n e d that addition of p o n d or fountain w o u l d c a u s e e r o s i o n o n site. L i k e s p a l m t r e e s , r o s e s ( e s p e c i a l l y y e l l o w o n e s a s his father g r e w y e l l o w r o s e s ) H i s wife c o m e s to visit e v e r y night a n d likes to g o o u t s i d e for f r e s h air, t h e y g o to the village t o g e t h e r a n d find getting t h e r e difficult b e c a u s e of s l o p e , m a k e s it h a r d to n a v i g a t e the street c r o s s i n g . C r o s s i n g light is too short, a n d c a r s don't s t o p at the c r o s s w a l k . D o e s n ' t like the i d e a of a n o v e r h e a d g a r d e n 'not r e a d y to g o u n d e r g r o u n d yet!" T e r r a c e s are a g o o d idea. L i k e s to s e e f l o w e r s a n d s m e l l t h e m . H e ' s o n the g a r d e n c o m m i t t e e , s a y s t h e y h a v e s o m e f u n d i n g . It all c o m e s d o w n to m o n e y C h e c k out the entry to the existing g a r d e n - the t h r e s h o l d is h a r d to c r o s s in a w h e e l c h a i r , y o u c a n get out, nut not b a c k in. 9. (resident) F a m i l y c o m e s for B B Q . Patient P a r k h a s b e e n c l o s e d a long time. W o u l d like to h a v e c l a s s e s that t e a c h patients h o w to plant. N e e d to get rid of s m o k i n g o n site, this is a n i s s u e that n e e d s r e s o l u t i o n . E n j o y s m a k i n g b l a n k e t s a n d knitting, w o u l d like to d o light w o r k in the g a r d e n , r a k e l e a v e s . L i k e s the n e w c a n o p i e s , w o u l d like to h a v e 2 m o r e at least. P a t i o for g r o u p g a t h e r i n g s a l r e a d y e x i s t s in lower g a r d e n . W o u l d like a little s e c t i o n of lawn. S c r e e n e d p o r c h not n e c e s s a r y a s t h e r e a r e n o b u g s h e r e . C u r r e n t l y u s e s s p a c e b e t w e e n P u r d y a n d A c u t e C a r e H o s p i t a l for sitting in s h a d e . A l r e a d y h a v e 3 a p p l e t r e e s o n site. W o u l d especially enjoy roses. M o r e flower pots. W o u l d like to h a v e a fountain to attract birds. L i k e s to sit in the b r e e z e . G a r d e n c o m m i t t e e will b e getting n e w t a b l e s in the fall, the o n e s t h e y h a v e a r e falling apart. P l a s t i c lasts better than w o o d . W a n t s to h e l p out in the g a r d e n , v e r y a p p r e c i a t i v e . W o u l d like to s e e a g a r d e n at e v e r y n u r s i n g h o m e , i m p r o v e s the m i n d , n e e d to h a v e s o m e t h i n g to work o n . L i k e s to g o to the V i l l a g e , but is s c a r e d to c r o s s the street, c a r s don't s l o w d o w n e v e n t h o u g h the c r o s s i n g light is o n . H e ' s got a p o w e r c h a i r , s o the s l o p e isn't a n i s s u e . H e a l s o likes to travel a r o u n d c a m p u s , a n d g o e s to o l d b u s l o o p . T h i n k s that w h e e l c h a i r u s e s s h o u l d h a v e s p e c i a l l e e w a y 'I didn't a s k to b e in this chair'. H e w o u l d travel the entire c a m p u s , but is p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g s o by p o o r r o a d c r o s s i n g s .  87  T h e b u s s h e l t e r in front of the h o s p i t a l is not g o o d for w h e e l c h a i r s , p o o r h e a r i n g , not e n c l o s e d (no o v e r h e a d protection). Patient P a r k h a d a p o o l that r e s i d e n t s c o u l d w a d e in, l o v e d it. W h a t h a p p e n e d to it? H e is willing to t a k e m e o n a w h e e l c h a i r tour a r o u n d the b u i l d i n g s . 10. (left with staff) S p a c e for B B Q ' s a n d activities. 11. (left with staff) No smoking. 12. (left with staff) P o s s i b l e a c c e s s to w a t e r m a k e t e a or w a t e r to drink. 13. (left with staff) N e w t a b l e s to g o with n e w c h a i r s a n d c a n o p i e s 14. (left with staff) H o w c a n w h e e l c h a i r s b e rolled o v e r g r a s s ? T h e 2 g a z e b o s / t e n t s are a great addition. W a n t all s m o k i n g to c e a s e in the o u t d o o r a r e a . 15. (left with staff) Not a b l e to participate in light g a r d e n i n g t a s k s , but w o u l d like to w a t c h o t h e r s . W o u l d like to w a t c h o t h e r s play lawn g a m e s . W o u l d like a c h o i c e b e t w e e n sitting in s u n or s h a d e . L o t s of f l o w e r s , p l e a s e . A butterfly g a r d e n ( s p e c i a l plants). N o traffic, n o n o i s e c a r s or t r u c k s . Q u i e t , n o b o o m - b o x e s or c a n n e d m u s i c , but c o n c e r t s w o u l d b e n i c e . Tables. 16. ( m a i n t e n a n c e  volunteer)  T a k e into a c c o u n t that f o o d s c a t t e r e d attracts rats - a h o s p i t a l n o - n o . E v e r y r e s i d e n t or visitor c a p a b l e of d o i n g s o s h o u l d r e m o v e d e a d flower h e a d s . T h e r e is r o o m o n the S W s i d e of the g r e e n h o u s e for o u t d o o r s p o r t s s u c h a s ball c a t c h , w h e e l c h a i r o b s t a c l e r a c e s , etc. P a t i o for g r o u p g a t h e r i n g of r e s i d e n t s a g o o d i d e a . G r a s s is h a r d to m a i n t a i n , U B C g a r d e n e r s will p r o b a b l y i g n o r e . Proper whole window s c r e e n s would be nice. S u n n y s e a t i n g a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t existing g a r d e n . S e a t i n g in s h a d e a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t , i n c l u d i n g w i n d o w a r e a s . S h a d e trees, already growing Star magnolia, A p p l e trees. T o p b a n k to b e p l a n t e d by U B C . Flowers, a s many a s c a n be maintained. E x i s t i n g r a i s e d b o x e s b a d l y p l a n n e d for w h e e l c h a i r s . F o u n t a i n - r e s i d e n t s c o u l d t u m b l e a n d d r o w n , o n e trickling J a p a n e s e style fountain w o u l d s o u n d nice. " M a n y i d e a s s o u n d g o o d until the time a n d h u m a n m a n a g e m e n t is c o n s i d e r e d . F o r 4 y e a r s I h a v e b e e n r e q u e s t i n g v o l u n t e e r h e l p , a n d s o far o n l y 3 s t u d e n t s h a v e kindly o f f e r e d o n e h o u r p e r w e e k e a c h . I a m truly grateful until I r e a d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u c h a s this, practicality is n o w h e r e to be found." T h e central a r e a f r o m hospital c o v e r e d patio to wall w h e r e flag flies s h o u l d , at all t i m e s , b e for the u s e of r e s i d e n t s , a s s h o u l d s h a d e tents. 17. (resident)  88  O n e of the m a i n u s e s of a n y n e w s p a c e w o u l d b e to i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s for visiting with family a n d friends outside. T h e r e a r e not m a n y p l a c e s to m e e t o u t s i d e , the P a t i e n t P a r k is u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n d e v e n w h e n it w a s o p e n , t h e r e w e r e s m o k e r s in there m a k i n g it u n p l e a s a n t . W o u l d e n j o y participating in light g a r d e n i n g t a s k s if h e c o u l d find tools that let him d o it.  H e is  q u a d r i p l e g i c , but it a b l e to f e e d himself, a n d s e e m s quite a b l e . W o u l d like a p l a c e for p i c n i c s , to s p e n d time with visitors o u t d o o r s .  U s e d to d o that at Patient  P a r k , but c a n ' t g e t in t h e r e n o w . W o u l d like a p l a c e to eat o u t d o o r s , like a c a f e o r r e s t a u r a n t patio. S c r e e n e d p o r c h not n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e a r e n o b u g s h e r e . P r e f e r s to sit in the s h a d e , drink a K o k a n e e . L i k e s the i d e a of fruit t r e e s , thinks that there w a s a p l u m at Patient P a r k . P e o p l e like to b e e n g a g e d in a n activity, to b e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g . L o v e s flowers, ( k e e p s a C h r i s t m a s c a c t u s in his r o o m ) . L a n d s c a p e a r o u n d building s h o u l d b e n i c e for r e s i d e n t s a n d visitors.  89  

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