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Javanese gamelan in the Paku Alaman Palace : the repertoire of uyon-uyon muryararas Hartana, Sutrisno Setya 2006

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JAVANESE GAMELAN IN THE PAKU ALAMAN PALACE: THE REPERTOIRE OF UYON-UYON MURYARARAS B y Sutrisno Setya Hartana Bachelor of Karawitan (Javanese Traditional Performing Arts), Indonesian Institute o f Arts, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Music) T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2006 © Sutrisno Setya Hartana, 2006 ABSTRACT JAVANESE G A M E L A N IN THE PAKU A L A M A N PALACE: THE REPERTOIRE OF UYON- UYON MUR YARARAS In this thesis I would like to present information gathered over the past two decades concerning the repertoires of court Javanese gamelan in the Paku Alaman Palace. My main interest is the time period of the early 20th century to the present; however, some relevant historical background from earlier times is included. The gamelan at the Paku Alaman performs for a variety of palace events, accompanying dance or puppet shows and sometimes playing compositions from ancient times, all of which are outside the scope of this thesis. This thesis will limit discussion to the gamelan performance called uyon-uyon muryararas (UUMR), which refers to a certain gamelan performance held every 35 days in Pura Paku Alaman Palace. This cyclic performance is the only occasion when only the gamelan orchestra, including singers, is featured without theatre, dance, puppetry, or any other art form. Originally, the idea of uyon-uyon muryararas was a ceremonial gamelan performance held by the royal family of Pura Paku Alaman to celebrate the birthday of the king based on the Javanese lunar calendar. In modern times, because of local government support as part of a program sustaining the traditional culture, uyon-uyon muryararas have been broadcast by local radio stations. The group uses the same repertoire of 100-200 traditional compositions as used in other palaces, with some exceptions. Some are instrumental and some have singing. Lyrics are from traditional poetry, stories, historical and mythical events. Before 1945, attendance at the performance was restricted to the Paku Alaman's royal family members, special guests, and the palace servants (abdi dalem), but since the reign of Sri Pakualam VIII i i (1938-1990), performances are open to the general public. In particular, this thesis will expl some basic relationships that exist between a particular social institution, that is the palace gamelan, the musical activities, the musicians who perform, and some selected repertoires o the gendhing (Javanese musical compositions) they play. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT T A B L E OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES A N D DIAGRAM LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1. HISTORY AND SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF T H E PAKU A L A M A N P A L A C E . 1.1 The Paku Alaman Palace in Contemporary Yogyakarta Society iv vi vii viii ix 2. T H E HISTORY A N D SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE UYON-UYONMURYARARAS IN PAKU A L A M A N P A L A C E 13 2.1 Introduction to Gamelan 18 2.2 Gamelan Styles Used in Paku Alaman Palace 20 2.3 Explanation of the Musicians Rank of Abdi Dalem 26 2.4 Paku Alaman Palace Gamelan Musicians . . 29 2.5 Group Dynamics 31 3. PERFORMANCE CONTEXTS 34 3.1 Location . 34 3.2 Times of Performance 39 3.3 Gamelan as Part of The King's Birthday 41 4. GENDHING IN UYON-UYON MURYARARAS: HOW REPERTOIRE IS SELECTED AND MANIPULATED TO M E E T T H E NEEDS OF THE PERFORMANCE EVENT . 47 4.1 Factors for Selecting Repertoire 48 4.1.1 Repertoire of Gendhing According to Appropriate Pathet . . . 48 4.1.2 Meaning of a Gendhing 50 4.1.3 Repertoire of Gendhing According to the Appropriate Feeling . . 52 4.2 Factors for Ordering Repertoire • • • • • • 52 4.3 Other Important Elements to Consider in Repertoire Gendhing. . . 54 4.4 Examples of Gendhing Chosen for Uyon-uyon Muryararas Performances .56 4.5 Pathet Analysis in Relation to Repertoire 60 5. S U M M A R Y AND CONCLUSION 65 iv APPENDICES .71 Appendix A List of gamelan musicians in Paku Alaman Palace 2006 71 Appendix B List of repertoire used in the birthday performances for Paku Alam VIII 73 Appendix C Sekar Ageng Retnahasmara 75 Appendix D List of interviews 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY 77 GLOSSARY 81 v LIST OF TABLES Table la & lb : Instruments of gamelan in Yogyakarta and Surakarta . . . . 22-24 Table 2 : Abdi dalem ranks. 29 Table 3 : Names of the days of the week in the Javanese lunar calendar 39 Table 4a : The nine stanzas of Puspawarna 43-44 Table 4b : Balungan and gerong part for ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura 44 Table 5 : Balungan bubaran Udan Mas laras pelog pathet barang . . 45 Table 6 : Matrix of Javanese mode (pathet) . 49 Table 7 : Comparison of repertoire on two separate occasions . . . . 57 Table 8 : Javanese mode (pathet) wheel of life 62 vi LIST OF FIGURES AND DIAGRAM Figure 1: Map of Central Java 3 Figure 2: Map of the central city of Yogyakarta 35 Diagram: Macrocosmos 64 vii LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 1. Main gate of Paku Alaman Palace . . 36 2. Buildings along the palace wall 37 3. Lawn inside the main gate 37 4. Bangsal Sewatama 37 viii PREFACE A long time before a formal traditional arts school began in Indonesia in 1950, the most common traditional arts education systems that were used in rural areas in Java included nyantrik' (study with a private guru in the guru's house), nyecep with a community elder2 (to study directly with an older relative), and self-study. The Guru was the most honoured person in the village. Even the Sanskrit word "guru" symbolized larger ideas, as the Javanese applied meaning to the syllables "gu" and "ru". They interpreted the "gu" to symbolize "digugu", a word that in the Javanese language means "to obey someone who should be obeyed" and "ru" became associated with the word "ditiru" which means "to follow someone who should be followed". This type of symbolic language, where one syllable of a word is used to give multiple layers of meaning, due to association with other words that contain the same syllable is commonly practiced in Javanese. Another example is the word dhalang (puppeteer), which is divided into "dhal" and "lang". "Dhal" is symbolically tied to the word "ngudhal", which means "one who researches important moral issues and presents options to the public". "Lang" is related to the word "wulang" which means "lesson". Both of the words, symbolically linked to the word dhalang, relate to the dhalang's role in society as a teacher, performer, and social commentator. 1 The word nyantrik in the Javanese tradition usually describes a person called cantrik. Cantrik can be a student, servant or assistant of priest who works, studies, and learns about social,1 cultural, and daily life in a special place called Padhepokan. 2 A n interview with pak Suhardi on June 20 t h, 2000, in his house and permitted to be cited. Nyecep in the Javanese means "to suck." It suggests a mother who is nursing her baby. ix A Javanese proverb goes: Desa mawa cava, Negara mawa tata. This literally means that "the village has its ways, and the city has its rules." In other words, customs vary from place to place, and how you behave depends on where you are. As a child, I saw a dhalang performance in the village at night. The dhalang brought the wayang (shadow puppets) with a complete set of the accompanying equipment, including the gamelan. He also brought musicians, singers and his students, sons and daughters. During the day of the performance, the children of the dhalang and the other gamelan musicians would play simple pieces on the instruments for the community and welcome everyone to listen. During the night time performance, the dhalang's children did not play with the group, but they watched and listened carefully. This was part of their traditional education as hereditary musicians, but the children of the village were not allowed to touch the instruments. The musician's children play from a very young age, so that when they are older they can join the professional players. Usually, the dhalang draws musicians from a network of families that have a long association with his particular gamelan. Children remain close to their family and culture when they attend these performances, gaining a broad overview of traditional practices and etiquette, as well as learning the performing arts. They enjoy the festival atmosphere of the community celebrations with special food and treats, as well as the music and theatrical entertainment. The first time I saw a puppet performance, I was a six years old boy living in Ngentakrejo village of Kulon Progo district, an area which is quite far from Yogyakarta central city. That was a very good memory and experience for me. Nowadays, I want to review and share my experience by telling others who might be interested. My own early experience in learning and associating with Javanese traditional arts reflects a traditional x cultural process. When I was small, I would sneak out and watch the shadow play far past my bedtime, until my parents would yell at me that I would fall asleep at school the next day if I did not come home. Usually at the wayang performance, I was transfixed and stayed too late, even until I started to nod off, as I could not get enough. My love of gamelan started early, and from a young age. I began to develop as a singer of the Javanese poetry known as tembang (an unaccompanied genre of vocal music). Eventually, in later years, I went on to win two times in the singing competitions in Yogyakarta province, sponsored by both the Yogyakarta Palace and the Paku Alaman Palace (PA). Subsequently, I decided to live a life close to the land and very close to wayang and the Javanese performing arts. It was difficult living the life of a traditional artist in Java. I was no exception. I survived doing what I could, while developing my talents as a musician and dancer; meaning that I have lived a life of community service. I played my siter (Javanese zither) in the street, and from this experience I developed my own perspective on the human condition. In 1982,1 went on to study karawitan (Javanese traditional performing arts) in KONRI (Conservatory of Javanese Traditional Dance), which was later expanded into two levels, SMKI (Indonesian-High School of the Performing Arts), and the more advanced ASTI (Indonesian Dance Academy). I graduated from SMKI in 1986, and then deepened my knowledge by attending the Indonesian Institute of the Arts (ISI) in Yogyakarta, acquiring a Bachelor degree in Javanese traditional performing arts in 1992. I performed and trained outside of ISI with some of Java's most famous artists, most notably: Pak Cokro, also known as K.R.T. Tjokrowasito; K.R.T. Wasitadiningrat; K.P.H. Notoprojo, who had already retired from teaching Javanese gamelan at Cal-Arts xi University in Valencia, California; Pak Suhardi, also known as Mas Penewu Wignyo Bremoro, (who died in August 8, 2000), a most respected musician in Paku Alaman Palace who was the leader of the Radio Republic of Indonesia (RRI) gamelan group in Yogyakarta; Pak Djoko Walujo, one of the directors of gamelan at IS I Yogyakarta and currently teaching the Javanese gamelan at Cal-Arts. I danced and played music with Bagong Kussudiardja, (who died in June 15, 2004), the foremost exponent of the dance and theater form called sendt-atari (Javanese dance drama). I continued to perform with many groups and toured internationally through Asia, Europe, and North America for both playing and creating new works for gamelan and dance. From 1995 to 1998,1 taught gamelan at the Indonesian Consulate in Vancouver, Canada. Late 1998 was the worst economic crisis in South East Asian countries, including Indonesia, which caused the stepping down of Suharto, the second president of Indonesia. During 1998-1999 there were view cultural activities in Indonesia due to economic hardship and political tension. Indonesian embassies abroad were also affected by the national situation. As a result, the ministry of Indonesian foreign affairs decided to merge some of their departments and dismissed thousands of their employees, including myself. I went back to Java inl998, but only for several months, because I was lucky to be appointed as a visiting artist at the Simon Fraser University School for the Contemporary Arts for several years. In 2004,1 was honoured by the King of Paku Alaman with the title Mas Lurah Lebda Swara, as I was instated as an official court musician and member of the royal palace. As an official member of the gamelan, I was able to access more documents and even interview members of the royal family. In addition to the information I have already xii gathered as a cultural insider, now, as a Master's Degree student at the University of British Columbia, I also have access to the wealth of academic publications available. It is my objective to bring together these resources and write a thesis that will be a contribution to the exploration of the role of the Javanese gamelan. I chose this topic because during the course of my research, I found only a few sources of information regarding this important repertoire and its origins. Moreover, the many kinds of traditional preparations required for a successful performance of uyon-uyon muryararas include the rehearsal of the musical repertoire, but extend into many other areas that are not done properly these days. As a native performer of this music, it seems to me that this situation should be improved. Factors such as the order of performance, time of day or night, and the mood of the occasion are obviously important, but in Javanese gamelan performance, even the accessories of the costumes worn by the gamelan members has . significance. In addition, the few existing scholarly sources (Dewantara 1930, Lindsay 1980, Vetter 1986, Walujo 1990, Wenten 1996), limit their scope to explanations of music theory without touching on the role that the royal gamelan plays in Javanese society or the practical matters involved in operating such an orchestra. One of the reasons for the lack of documentation about uyon-uyon muryararas may be that Javanese palace performance practices were considered confidential cultural information that should not be released to the general public. Now, due to political changes and the recognition of the need to preserve the repertoire and related traditions, many of my associates at the Paku Alaman Palace encouraged me to research, write, and publish about uyon-uyon muryararas. Another reason for the lack of previous publications may be that, even in Java, few gamelan players would have access to the xiii inner workings of the palace gamelan. It was with these resources and remembering the encouragement of my palace colleagues that I have dared to choose this field of study. A brief outline of the arrangement of chapters and summary of the argument will now be given. Chapter I is a description of the history and social structure of the Paku Alaman palace since its first establishment by Pangeran Noto Kusumo, known as Paku Alam I through the early 20 th century of Paku Alam VIII in Yogyakarta. Current events in contemporary society in Yogyakarta, especially political changes, have affected the position of the palace within society. Only the main events are analyzed here to provide a historical background that will make it easier to follow the discussion in the following chapters. Chapter II examines the history and social organization of the uyon-uyon muryararas in Paku Alaman Palace. This chapter focuses on the gamelan, performing musicians and their activities during rehearsal and performance. It examines the gamelan and musician as part of a group organization, including decisions made within the group, their musical activities, their social interaction, and how they relate to the palace organization and society outside the palace walls. Chapter III discusses the context of gamelan performance in the Paku Alaman palace tradition. This chapter explores the factors that create the context of gamelan performance in uyon-uyon muryararas, such as location, time, and how the ordering and content of performances are constrained by the contextual setting, and also how repertoire is selected and manipulated to meet the needs of the performance event. The significance of the 35 day cycle will be explained with reference to the Javanese lunar calendar and the customs surrounding birthdays of the king. xiv Chapter IV looks at the repertoire and style of performance, the most important factor in this thesis. This chapter will discuss the main theme of this thesis, namely, the analysis and performance practices of gendhing used in uyon-uyon muryararas. It explores how the ordering and content of performances are constrained by the occasion of performance, and how repertoire is selected and manipulated to meet the needs of the performance event. Chapter V is a summary and conclusion. It explores the cultural, social, and political impact of gamelan performance in the Paku Alaman Palace. It also mentions the concerns of a gradual loss of the subtleties and intricacies of full-scale performance and arrangement, in contrast to individual gendhing being played or recorded on their own. Many readers may be unfamiliar with the proper pronunciation of the many Javanese and Indonesian terms used in the following pages. A clear pronunciation guide is available in Sorrell (1990: xi-xii), Brinner (1995: xv), or Sumarsafn (1995: xvii), and numerous other places. xv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am greatly indebted to my mentors at University of British Columbia for their guidance, support, encouragement, patience, and example. From the start of my writing to the completion of this thesis, Professor Michael Tenzer patiently guided me in developing my ideas and strengthening my argument, and he checked and rechecked my English. Professor Alan R. Thrasher and Professor Nathan Hesselink always made certain that I progressed in my work. Through their gentle advice, they directed me to the awareness of a broader view of music. I would like to thank the UBC School of Music for the granting of an assistantship during the entirety of my study. I would like to thank my mentors and colleagues in the School for the Contemporary Arts at Simon Fraser University, in Particular Martin Gotfrit, Owen Underhill, David Mclntire, and Kenneth Newby for their support, useful comments, and constructive criticism. I am grateful to Paku Alaman Palace, especially K.P.H. Notoprojo (Pak Cokro) and K.R.M.T. Projowinoto, Mas Wedana Gitowinoto, and Mas Wedana Muryowinoto for their continuing advice. I thank my teachers and colleagues at SMKI (1982-1986) and at ISI (1986-1992) for their guidance and support. I would like to extend my thanks to my teachers, friends, and colleagues at Cal-Arts Univeristy and elsewhere, in particular I Nyoman Wenten, Djoko Walujo, Sumarsam, Hardja Susilo, I wayan Sudirana, Mark Parlett, Ben Rogalsky, Andrew Timar, Jarrad Powel, and Garry McFarlane, plus Gary Towne and Victoria Gibson (to both of whom I am also grateful for help in proof-reading this manuscript). Lastly, I express my gratitude to my parents, my wife Anis, and my children Ayun and Lulu for their moral support. xvi CHAPTER 1: History and Social Structure of the Paku Alaman Palace Similar to other Southeast Asian cultures that share common roots in a Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic heritage, Java has long maintained a belief in "the parallelism between macrocosmos and microcosmos, between the universe and the world of men"3. This belief has manifested itself in a number of ways over the centuries: in the construction of palaces, the organization of political offices, the development of astrological prediction, and the structure of gamelan.4 It can be interpreted as an inevitable cycle of change, where one empire falls from power as another ascends. Ancient empires that created periods of order (jaman mas) were followed by colonial periods (Jaman penjajahari), and eventually the period of modern independence (jaman merdeka). These periods correspond to the concentration and diffusion of power respectively. Before the colonial period, most of the kingdoms based in Java had a strong position and became political centres, so that the palaces were able to support and develop the arts, including the gamelan, through royal patronage. The gamelan influenced not only the "social, political, and religious life," but also the literary and artistic world, which includes music, dances, and Hindu epics, which were adapted for Javanese society.5 Gamelan rose to importance during the Hindu-Javanese kingdoms which ruled from the 5 t h through the 14th centuries, including the Majapahit (12-14th centuries), which 3 Heine-Geldern. "Conception of State and Kingship in Southeast Asia," Data Paper no. 18. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1956. p. 1. 4 R. Anderson Sutton, "Variation in Central Javanese Gamelan Music: Dynamics of a Steady State." Monograph Series on Southeast Asia Special Report No. 28, 1993. p. 9-10. 5 Sumarsam, Gamelan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995). p 13. 1 was the last Hindu-Javanese Empire. In fact, before Majapahit, many temples were built, including the temples that have become some of the most famous international heritage sites: Borobudur temple (during the years A.D. 750 to 850); Dieng (A.D. 750); Candi Sari (A.D. 750); Prambanan (A.D. 850); and Penataran, a 14th-century East Java temple (Kunst, 1968: 5-6). The influence of Islam increased, especially in Java, after the fall of the Majapahit Empire in the late 14th Century. The Demak kingdom that followed soon after the fall of the Majapahit Empire was the first to have Islamic rulers in Central Java. It encouraged many changes, including the fragmentation into smaller kingdoms divided by religious affiliation. The Demak kingdom continued to maintain a gamelan orchestra as an important part of its cultural heritage. Competition between palaces improved the quality and quantity of arts for their respective societies. Patronage also improved the arts within a kingdom, as artists competed for royal recognition and favours. Uyon-uyon muryararas developed out of the Javanese music tradition that resulted from the adaptation of Hindu traditions to Islamic religious practice. However, it was not established until the early 20 century by Prince Paku Alam VIII in Yogyakarta. In order to appreciate the cultural and historical context'of his initiative, it will be helpful to review the history of his kingdom up to that time. From a historical point of view, Paku Alaman Palace maintained traditional music styles and sponsored adaptations in the style of music and other art forms which differ from those of the other courts in Java. In fact, the influence of the Mataram kingdom, which followed the Demak kingdom, and the effects of Dutch and British colonialism are important aspects to mention here, because the music tradition that has developed and is performed in Paku Alaman Palace began and continued to flourish from there. 2 Figure 1: Map of Central Java A v A s e * — . m C E N T R A L J A V A \ +2^^^ o p ............ : f 4 r ^ ^ " " : : . * * - v — * plJgMJUNMM V*~ c* A c*r WttWOOMi' M M Y A K A O T A M N ^ Y O G Y A K A R T A ° c p (source: http://maps.com/indonesia.htm) During colonialism, the Javanese people lost control of their resources, and thus endured economic hardship. Most kingdoms maintained their cultural traditions only with great difficulty. The pressure from Dutch colonial powers succeeded in breaking up the Mataram kingdom so that it no longer existed as a unified political or social organizing force. Thus, due to a family disagreement over whether to cooperate with the Dutch imperialists or not, in 1755 the Mataram kingdom divided to become two palaces, Yogyakarta and Surakarta with the official signing of the Giyanti treaty (Ricklefs, 1974:61). These divisions were due to the Dutch policy of Divide and Rule (Mudjanto 1986:35), which reduced the power of royal families by creating dissention. With rising political tensions between palaces as part of the pressure of colonialism, two of the most important kingdoms divided to become smaller kingdoms. The Yogyakarta Palace then further split in two: the Yogyakarta Palace under the Sultan, and the Paku Alaman Palace 3 under Pakualam.6 Similarly, the palace of Surakarta also divided into two palaces, which are the Mangkunegaran under Mangkunegara I and Kasunanan under Sunan. Thus, in the 18th century, the one kingdom of Mataram had divided into four independent palaces, each with its own ruler, which subsequently developed separate cultures, including artistic and musical traditions. This division into separate palaces, each with its own cultural identity, but with a history of cultural unity, helps to explain the preponderance of regional, yet similar, vocabulary terms regarding Javanese gamelan. The Javanese gamelan music from the four royal courts of Central Java continues to be performed today in the palaces. The existence of gamelan music from the palaces represents one of the great classical music traditions of Indonesia. All the gamelan groups within the Javanese cultural group use similar musical forms, and composition refers to multisectional pieces, performed by a singer (s) or instrumentalist in accordance with modal frameworks, idiomatic processes, and special characteristics of the piece. The uyon-uyon muryararas is considered by many experts to be one of the finest representations of Javanese classical gamelan. This form is unique to Paku Alaman Palace, and part of the identifying features of the style can be seen from examining the flexibility of the selections made from their repertoire pieces. Paku Alaman Palace is known to be more flexible than other palaces, possibly because of its geographical position and the influence of the neighboring culture as well as the seriousness of the palace to sustain the gamelan. 6 Jennifer Lindsay. "The Pakualaman," The Foundation and Functions of a Javanese Minor Court in the Nineteenth Century. Unpublished thesis, Cornell University (1980:12) 4 The exact date of origin of the Paku Alaman Palace is still often debated because there are two possibilities that could be considered the official date of establishment. In 1812, the British were trying to increase their power in Java and interfere with Dutch domination of the area. Thomas Raffles, Governor General representing the British Crown, gave Bendoro Panger an Hario (B.P.H. Notokusumo7, the son of the king of Yogyakarta Hamengkubuwono I), the kingdom of Paku Alaman. This change in palace authority was announced by Raffles on June 29, 1812 when B.P.H.Notokusumo assumed control of Paku Alaman Palace. The other possibility is based on the date that B.P.H. Notokusumo made a political contract with the residents of Yogyakarta, represented by John Crawfrud, March 17, 1813 (Walujo 1990: 30-31). However, the late Sri Pakualam VIII (1938-1990) preferred to use the second date as the day of anniversary celebration (Poerwokoesoemo 1985: 146-156). Since then, most royal family members in Pura Paku Alaman (the so-called "minor" court of the sultanate of Yogyakarta) have agreed that the palace was established as an independent minor court on March 17, 1813, during the British rule in Java, with no history of struggle for recognition. For the brand new crown prince, Sri Paku Alam I became the first ruler of Paku Alaman, with the title Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Aria (K.G.P.A.A). Family ties between Yogyakarta and Paku Alaman remained strong, as the first king of the new kingdom was the son of the king at Yogyakarta. The nucleus of the court that became established under the kingship of Paku Alam I had begun to form earlier in 7 B.P.H. Notokusumo was the younger son of Hamengkubuwono I (the king of the Yogyakarta Palace). A prominent figure in Yogyakarta history, he was also an interesting and important person to Dutch writers of history. See K i Hadjar Dewantara: "The Practice of Literature and the Arts in the Pakualam Family" In THE KRATON: Selected Essays on Javanese Courts, ed. with introduction by Stuart Robson, Leiden: K I T L V Press, 2003. p. 335. 8 See Wenten (1996:90) and Walujo (1990: 30-31) 5 the main courts at Yogyakarta, where the king's artistic ideas had begun to be developed. "The tendency to literary aspirations and the practice of the arts is a fine tradition that, though unknown to many, has always been characteristic of the Pura Paku Alaman. Paku Alam I attracted attention through his zeal for study of Javanese letters, politics and state institutions" until he died in 1929.9 Kangjeng Pangeran Hario (K.P.H) Suryaningrat, the oldest son of Paku Alam I and the queen of Paku Alaman remained to replace his father to be Paku Alam II with title K.G.P.A.A. Paku Alam II was in a fortunate situation because the Java war (Perang Diponegoro 1925-1930) was over when he became the second king of Pura Paku Alaman. According to K i Hadjar Dewantara10, one of the royal family members in Pura Paku Alaman, when the prince was young he always followed his father everywhere, and was initiated into all the affairs of state by his father.11 While he was still young, he occupied the role of personal adjutant to the industrious statesman Notokusumo, so that the youthful prince, Raden Mas Suryaningrat, had abundant opportunity for further development. The disruption of the Java War was followed by a period of prosperity and peace, which manifested itself in the development and flowering of the arts in the Paku Alaman. It was in the time of Paku Alaman II that new paths were opened up in the fields of Javanese arts including dance, gamelan and puppetry. Sri Pakualam II was also 9 Dewantara, K i Hadjar. 1931. "The Practice of Literature and the Arts in the Pakualam Family" In THE KRATON: Selected Essays on Javanese Courts, ed. with introduction by Stuart Robson. (Leiden: K I T L V Press, 2003), p. 355. 1 0 K i Hadjar Dewantara was one of the most radical nationalists in the first generation. Later, he gave birth to a still more influential syncretism in his Taman Siswa school system, founded in Yogyakarta in 1922. (See Antony Reid, in The Winning of Independence of Indonesia ed. by Robin Jeffrey. London: Macmillan, 1981), p. 126. " See Dewantara (1931: 331) 1 2 See Dewantara ( 1931: 333) 6 considered as a great artist in Yogyakarta because he was expert in ancient Javanese song (Kawi) and drama.13 Some famous dances, such as Bandabaya (previously called Penthung), Lawung Ageng, tari Inum, bedhaya Gadhungmlathi, Bedaya Sanga and srimpi Puspawarna, were commissioned by Paku Alam II during his reign. This was before the time of uyon-uyon muryararas, but all of these dances, song and drama were accompanied by gamelan music. On July 23, 1858, Pakualam II died and was succeeded by his son Paku Alam III, who continued his father's tradition in the arts, but did not commission new works. When Paku Alam III died in 1864, his sons were very young, and the oldest son was blind. According to K.P.H. Soedarisman Poerwokoesumo in his book Kadipaten Paku Alaman, Paku Alam IV was not chosen by the usual method of crowning the oldest son of the previous king. Instead, an older brother of the previous king, who had been passed over when Paku Alam III was crowned because he was not the son of the official queen, was chosen to become Pakualam IV 1 4 . During the reign of Pakualam IV, the relationship between Mangkunegaran kingdom in Solo and Paku Alaman Palace became closer because of an earthquake which destroyed much of the main building of Paku Alaman palace in June 1867.15 Since the original split of Mataram kingdom to become Yogyakarta and Solo, there had not been much cultural exchange between the divided kingdoms. However, after the earthquake, the sympathy and aid that came from the neighboring palace, helped to re-establish a closer cultural relationship. The development 1 3 See, Selayang Pandang Penguasa Praja Pakualaman, Yogyakarta: Bebadan Museum Pura Pakualaman, no year, p. 5. 1 4 K .P .H . Soedarisman Poerwokoesoemo, Kadipaten Pakualaman. (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1985), p. 146-156. 1 5 A n interview with K.P .H. Notoprojo on July 20, 2003. 7 of dance and karawitan (gamelan music) was especially dramatic during the reign of Paku Alam IV. Many dances and new gamelan composition were developed during that time, — for example Floret dance, a well known dance in Paku Alaman Palace, was inspired by the art of fencing practiced by the Dutch army, the KNIL, and performed by two or four male dancers.16 Unfortunately, Paku Alam IV died in 1878 at the age of 36, after only 14 years as king, without leaving an heir.17 Pakualam V, previously known as K.P.H. Suryadilaga, was the youngest son of Pakualam II, and a brother to the two previous kings. He became king in 1878 to 1900, in a difficult time caused by the previous king's large debt. The debt had been enlarged because of the poor management skills of the previous king and following the earthquake, due to reconstruction. The economic condition of the palace prevented much development of the arts; although the tradition was still supported, no new works were possible. Pakualam V was a good manager and worked hard to reduce the debt and to modernize the kingdom. The palace-supported education system for young children grew under his kingship, giving them the opportunity to study many topics, including the arts, and to encourage young artists. Also, many palace events included young children in the performance. Ki Hadjar Dewantara said that this time was an intellectual period and many members of the royal family traveled to Holland to study at university, including himself.18 The palace was also able to manage the area of agriculture by developing a system to improve depleted crop land. After he had improved the economic situation of the palace, he began to commission the 1 6 A n interview with K .P .H Notoprojo on July 20, 2003 in his house Yogyakarta. 1 7 S. Ilmi Albadiah and Alex Sudewa, Pura Pakualaman Istana Paling Muda. (Yogyakarta: Lembaga Studi Asia, 1995), p. 18. 1 8 See Dewantara (1931: 133). 8 development of new choreography for traditional dance works, such as integrating Yogyakarta traditions with dance styles from Mangkunegaran (Solo)19. The gamelan accompaniment was also rearranged to reflect the cultural influence from the kingdom of Mangkunegaran that had been started after the earthquake. Paku Alam VI only reigned for 14 months during the years 1901-02, so his contribution to cultural development was not significant. The improvement of relationship between Pura Paku Alaman (Yogyakarta) and Mangkunegaran (Surakarta) continued through the reign of Paku Alam VII. Relations became much closer after the king of Pura Paku Alam VII, K.G.P.A.A. Prabu Suryadilaga, married the princess of Kasunanan Surakarta, B.R.A. Retna Puasa, daughter of Sunan Paku Buwana X in January 15th, 1909.20 Politically, this union enabled the palaces to work together to support the nationalist movement that was working to create an independent Indonesian country. Outside the palace walls, many activists from the Muslim religious group, and some young nationalists began to develop support for independence from colonialism. Repeated attempts to create an independent country happened during this time, with the result that gamelan activity inside and outside of the palace decreased. Social unrest and political upheaval created disruption in the usual palace festivals and outside events that offered opportunities for the gamelan to perform. However, there were some important performances that led to cultural exchange between the two neighboring kingdoms of Paku Alaman and Surakarta. These 1 9 Surakarta (Solo or Mangkunegaran) and Yogyakarta (Yogya), although only 30 miles apart, inherited subtle difference in performing arts including the gamelan music, dance, puppetry, and traditional costumes style. The major distinction existing between the "Yogyakarta style" and the "Surakarta style" began to develop during the time when the kingdom of Mataram was divided. 2 0 See K.P .H . Soedarisman Poerwokoesoemo (1985: 297). 9 performances were presented when Sunan Paku Buwana X, ruler of Surakarta, came to Paku Alaman Palace regularly to visit his daughter. When he stayed at the palace, he brought important gamelan musicians and dancers from Surakarta to collaborate with the Paku Alaman court musicians under direction of abdi dalem Langen Praja, the king's servants, which led to intensive cultural interaction. One visit of particular significance was to attend the celebration called sepekenan, which is held five days after the birth of a prince. This prince, who became Sri Pakualam VIII (1938-1990), was the grandson of the ruler of Kasunanan Surakarta and the son of the ruler of Paku Alaman. He also brought to the Paku Alaman Palace two sets of gamelan instruments from Surakarta, namely Kyai Rarasingrum, a slendro set (five-toned tuning system), and Kyai Rumingraras, apelog set (seven-toned tuning system), and he presented them to his grandson, R.M. Soelarso. In addition, the King of Surakarta gave a complete set of leather puppets called Kyai Puspanegara (which in the Javanese means "Flower of the Country"). This was an indirect expression of his grandfather's wish that in the future he would become a nationalist king who supported a traditional culture. The grandfather's wish came true, because when Gusti Raden Mas (G.R.M.) Aryo Suryo Soelarso became Sri Paku Alam VIII, he joined with the nationalist elite to try to drive the colonial powers away from Java. Later, he was able to restore the relationship between Paku Alaman Palace and contemporary Yogyakarta society as a centre of culture and political influence. Sri Paku Alam VIII was aware of his responsibility to maintain and develop the arts. He supported a gamelan style that unified the best elements of the performance styles of Yogyakarta and Surakarta kingdoms with the existing local style, including the uyon-uyon muryararas. 10 1.1 The Paku Alaman Palace in Contemporary Yogyakarta Society During the Japanese occupation (1940-42), most people in Indonesia found it even more difficult to survive than under the previous colonial administration. This severe suppression created a social situation that was ripe for change. The situation challenged elite nationalists to struggle for independence and to get support for their plan to build a nation. The King of Paku Alaman and Sultan Hamengkubuwono (hereafter HB IX) of Yogyakarta were among the elite who were trying to gain independence; for the first time since the original separation of the two kingdoms, they worked as a team. They became important leaders in cooperation with other nationalists and Indonesian society in general. After the war, Indonesian independence became a reality under the leadership of President Soekarno, on August 17, 1945. Soon after official independence, the king of Yogyakarta, Hamengkubuwono IX, and the king of Paku Alaman, Sri Paku Alam VIII, declared their support for the new government and put their kingdoms under the rule of the Republic of Indonesia.21 President Soekarno was given real power by this declaration because it was essential to have the support of the major rulers in order to form a new country. In recognition of the importance of their declaration and the decisive role both kingdoms played during the movement toward independence, the Indonesian government established a special region (Daerah Istimewa) for Yogyakarta. It became a self-governing province with the governorship (i.e., the Sultanate) as the local representative of the Republic as a lifetime position. Each king was given a new title: Sri Sultan HB IX was dubbed Gubernur of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, and Sri Paku Alam VIII was similarly dubbed Wakil Gubernur while they also still retained their kingdoms. The 2 1 G. Moedjanto, Kasulianan Yogyakarta & Kadipaten Paku Alaman (Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. 1994), 38-40. 11 cooperation between the two rulers effectively re-united the two palaces, which increased the political power and influence of the region. Although the country was now officially independent, there was conflict between many groups who had different opinions. The stability of the Yogyakarta region created by the two rulers who supported President Soekarno caused him to temporarily relocate the capital of Indonesia in Yogyakarta (1950-55). The relocation of the capital to Yogyakarta made the city more important in Indonesia, both politically and culturally. At this time, there was more freedom for the Paku Alaman Palace to create its own culture, and the resources that formerly were controlled by the Colonial government were returned to enable local development. The regular schedule of gamelan performances that had been interrupted during the revolution and WWII was able to resume, both within and outside the palace. Sri Pakualam VIII wanted to develop the arts within the palace in a style that unified the best elements of the performance styles of the Yogyakarta and Surakarta kingdoms with the existing local style. He started to sponsor regular gamelan rehearsals and special performances in his palace every thirty-five days as part of his birthday celebrations based on the Javanese lunar calendar. It was for these special performances that the uyon-uyon muryararas was commissioned. The name uyon-uyon muryararas, means "to re-establish [the gamelan orchestra] to create beauty with good feelings." Now, with the support of local government and radio station broadcasts, gamelan rehearsals are more frequent, and a higher standard of musicianship is attempted. 12 CHAPTER 2: The History and Social Organization of The Uyon-uyon Muryararas in Paku Alaman Palace Even though Indonesia has joined the modern era since its independence on August 17th, 1945, attitudes in rural areas have progressed more slowly than in the urban areas. The adaptation of Western ideas of social and political structure as well as the use of technology has been rapidly accepted in the cities. However the charisma of old traditionalism and feudalism of the kraton22 (palace) remain a strong influence in Javanese life. Throughout Java there are many cultural activities and ritual ceremonies which are held by the kings at their palaces, for example; grebeg (the important Islamic religious festival), labuhan (annual sacrificial ceremony), and siraman pusaka kereta kencana (a cleansing of the golden chariot). These ceremonial events are always crowded with thousands of people from surrounding areas, which represents their continuing interest and desire for involvement in Javanese tradition. This attitude is a reflection of historical consciousness because many people believe that by attending the ritual ceremony they become part of a cultural continuity that links the past, present, and future. Even though the ceremonies are very popular, there has been a decrease in social and political importance of the palace in everyday Javanese life because of political tension, economic hardship, and competition from foreign cultures. Many Javanese individuals 2 2 ". . .The kraton in the Javanese linguistic is derivative from ratu, a king, and meaning the royal residence. The actual kraton or palace occupies the centre of the complex, while the rest of the complex consists of open Javanese pavilions known as pendhopo. Usually a kraton is surrounded by the dwellings of the princess, and those of attendants and retainers. Spaces out side of the kraton unoccupied by houses often contain the gardens and water reservoir of the sovereign. The principal approach to the palace is from the main gate, which usually has a big square main yard called alun-alun. In the centre of the yard there are pairs of fig trees (ficus benjamina) called beringin kurung. It is here that the prince shows himself to his subjects with much ceremony and public processions..." Smith 1986 (13-18). See also Vetter (70-77). 13 perceive the activities related to palace traditions (including the classical gamelan) as out of touch with modern life, and participation in these activities is thus considered static, as compared to the modern movement towards the magic of entrepreneurship. It seems to me most of the younger generation in Indonesia are having some problems playing and sustaining the traditional gamelan music in their homeland. The causes for the lack of regeneration and development of gamelan programs in Indonesia, especially for the younger generation, may be linked to social problems. The social climate in Indonesia favours modernity and Westernization. As a result, the traditional arts, especially traditional gamelan, are neglected and underfunded, and this has led to less interest in gamelan among most of the population. Gamelan has been performed from ancient times to the present, so now Indonesians may take the gamelan for granted and undervalue the culture it represents. As a result of this social attitude, there are few young people in Indonesia interested in learning gamelan and few parents who encourage their children to learn gamelan. Indeed, this conflicts with the great growth in international interest in the music. In the west, it is a fact that the gamelan music has been known worldwide and has attracted people to large Western exhibition halls such as the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, the 1893 Chicago Columbian Exhibition, and the 1986 World Exposition in Vancouver. In addition, since Mantle Hood, then the director of the Institute for Ethnomusicology at U C L A , successfully introduced the gamelan course in America in 1958, some universities in the United States of America, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Australia have begun offering gamelan classes as part of their academic programs. Hood's motivation was to teach graduate students in ethnomusicology to become "bi-14 musical" in the same way that people are "bi-lingual." The Paku Alaman is aware of the growth of gamelan in the Western world, and has opened its gates to the involvement of foreign scholars. This has also motivated them to strengthen their own traditions. The time of the Second Dutch Aggression (1947-1949) saw a cessation of the activity of uyon-uyon muryararas at the Paku Alaman Palace, which had been broadcast by the Yogyakarta station of the national Radio (called RRI, meaning Radio Republic Indonesia) every Minggu Pon (a day on the traditional Javanese calendar) in the morning from 10:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. To preserve and continue the gamelan activity at Paku Alaman, Sri Paku Alam VIII then surrendered his duties to R. Ng. Tjokrowasito (Ki Tjokrowasito, also known as "Pak Cokro"). As a strategic step, he founded a gamelan group called Mardiwirama, which drew its members from other reputable gamelan groups that were well established at the time, such as Murbararas, led by Raden Lurah Hasthakuswala, and Dayapradangga, led by Raden Wedana Larassumbaga.24 Due to the expertise of Pak Cokro in developing the gamelan activity and in obtaining compositions, eventually the art of gamelan composition returned to life, not only in Paku Alaman, but also in the homepatih Danurejo, and R.R.I. Yogyakarta. Traditional music heard on radio broadcast such as had been popularly programmed by two radio stations run by the Dutch in Yogyakarta, namely N.I.R.O.M (Nederland Indich Radio Omroeper Maatschappy) and M.A.V.R.O. (Mataram Verinigign Radio Omroeper) also began to be greatly enjoyed in the community.25 Since 1960 the activity of uyon-uyon muryararas under the 2 3 Sumarsam, "Opportunity and Interaction: The Gamelan from Java to Wesleyan," in Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensemble, ed. Ted Solis (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2004), 70. 2 4 Personal communication with K.P .H. Notoprojo in Yogyakarta June 6'\ 2004. 2 5 See Wenten 1996: 110 15 leadership of Pak Cokro actively operated once every five weeks. In 1969, R. Ng. Tjokrowasito (who by that time had been given the post of king's adviser of Paku Alaman with the title of Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung (K.R.T.) Wasitodipuro) received an invitation to teach gamelan at the California Institute of Arts in America. The details of the story of Pak Cokro can be found in the doctoral thesis of Wenten (1996). After Pak Cokro left Yogyakarta for America the responsibility for all activities and connections with gamelan composition was passed on to two of the Paku Alam's officials, Mas Lurah Sutabremara and Mas Lurah Lebdabremara, including the radio broadcast program from the Paku Alaman Palace. The popularity of listening to gamelan on the radio also encouraged a few other good gamelan groups both within the palace and outside the palace. These groups, in 1960, coincidentally included many recent graduates from the Conservatory of Arts. Approximately 500 gamelan groups had been formed, spread around the area of the Special Administrative District of Yogyakarta. The existence of uyon-uyon muryararas became something fascinating for gamelan enthusiasts partly because of the aforementioned radio broadcasts; meanwhile, the local community could listen to live gamelan music of the palace, something they could not previously do. Paku Alaman understood that the activity of uyon-uyon muryararas was very important not only for the continuation of traditional gamelan, but also as a manifestation of a symbol of the unity between the king and subjects. The enthusiasm of continuing Javanese gamelan in Pakualaman Palace also attracted attention from two formal governmental educational institutions in Yogyakarta: SMKI (a high school for performing arts) and ASTI (Akademi Seni Tari Indonesia, meaning Academy of Art and 16 Dance of Indonesia), which since 1986 had changed its status to become ISI (Indonesian Institute of the Arts). A similar result can be seen from the joint cooperation connection between two educational art institutions in Yogyakarta and Central Java. The formation of this cooperative program includes, among other things, the opening of respective institutions for sharing each artistic attraction, whether it was along the lines of a palace ceremony or simply something connected to the process of art education. Many students became involved in performance activities in the palace. Meanwhile, several palace officials were sent out to teach at several art education institutions. The educational activity and exchange of experience among gamelan musicians in Paku Alaman Yogyakarta and Kasunanan Surakarta have been developed since the era of Sri Paku Alam VII (1906-1937).26 With the situation of these regular exchanges, these musicians impacted the structure of the compositions. Many compositions in the style of Surakarta were studied and performed in Yogyakarta. Similarly, many compositions of the Yogyakarta style were also studied and performed, and even rearranged by musicians in Surakarta. According to these changes and events, one can draw the conclusion that the openness, sharing, and cooperation among several art education institutions and musicians have encouraged significant further development of gamelan. A n interview with K.P .H. Notoprojo on July 20, 2003. 17 2.1 Introduction to Gamelan Gamelan is the traditional orchestra of Java and Bali, consisting mainly of percussion instruments which may be made of bronze, iron, bamboo, or wood, as well as bronze and iron gongs, gong chimes, cymbals, bells, and drums (kendhang), sometimes accompanied by singers (pesindhen) and a two-stringed bowed lute, called rebab21 The gamelan can range from a handful of portable instruments, played by three or four musicians, to a large array with as many as twenty-five instrumentalists and ten to fifteen singers. Michael Tenzer has outlined the concept of gamelan orchestra as follows: "In a general way, the Indonesian cultural concept of the word "gamelan" is that of an orchestra, or the music played by the orchestra, but it corresponds to the Western sense of that word only in that it conjures up an image of a group of people making music together. To be precise, gamelan refers to the instruments themselves, which exist as an inseparable set, and not to a group of individuals who gather to play them." (Tenzer 1998: 13) The traditional gamelan usually performs for a variety of events including accompanying dance or puppet shows and sometimes playing compositions from ancient times through to current modern life. In Javanese thought, a gamelan is one of the many manifestations of supernatural charismatic power. This power is invested in the music of gamelan -in its very sound. For example the large gong (gong ageng), producing the lowest, most resonant sound of the ensemble. Usually there is no Javanese musicians sits higher than the gong ageng and offering of incense and flower may be made. Hardja Susilo, "Toward An Appreciation of Javanese Gamelan," http://www.gamelan.org/library/susiloessay.html (accessed 23 March 2004). See also Brinner (1995: XVII -X X I V ) . 18 Javanese gamelan performances can also be called karawitan, which is a combination of three art forms: gamelan (instrumental music), tembang (vocal music), and beksan (dance). Martopangrawit, well known as one of Surakarta's best court gamelan musicians, teachers, and composers, gave a specific definition of karawitan as the art of ordering sounds that produce musical compositions, instrumental and/or vocal music, that use either laras slendro (five tone tuning system) or laras pelog (seven-tone tuning system). Furthermore, Martopangrawit categorizes the Javanese gamelan instruments into two groups: instruments related to irama, meaning time duration or pulse, and instruments related to \agu, meaning melody (see table la and lb, respectively). A detailed explanation and analysis of this distinction and the function of instruments may be found in Brinner (1995), including some thoughts of Javanese scholars and musicians i.e., Martopangrawit30, Sumarsam31, Wasitodiningrat32, and ' 8 See Walujo (1990: 19) and Wenten (1996: 13-14). 2 9 Martopangrawit, R. Ng. Trans. Martin F. Hatch. In Becker, Judith, and Alan Feinstain, eds., Karawitan, vol 1. Arbor: Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan. 1994. p. 12. Originally published in 2 vols. Surakarta: Akademi Seni Karawitan Indonesia, 1975. 3 0 "The supervisor of irama {pamurba irama) is the player with the authority to set the irama. Such is the case with the supervisor of lagu, also. The rebab— i.e., the rebab player— has the authority to make decision, and can also be called the leader. The rebab player determines the course of melody. A l l decisions relating to irama, such as speeding up, slowing down, and changing from one irama to another, are under the absolute leadership of the Kendhang player. As to choosing the gendhing, choosing whether to play in the slendro or pelog tunings, or deciding whether or not to move to the higher register (ngelik), the rebab player is in charge..." (Brinner 1995:213). See also Martopangrawit 1984: 15). 3 1 " . . . Sumarsam distinguishes between elaborating parts including singers that are distinct from the skeletal melody and those that mediate between these three groups. He also distinguishes between drums, which regulate progression through time, and gongs, which demarcate musical structure by marking off progression time..." (Brinner 1995:212). 3 2 Wasitodiningrat distinguishes Javanese gamelan instruments into three categories: front row, middle row, and back row. Front row instruments, also called refined instruments, include rebab, kendang, gender, and bonang. Middle row instruments include gong, kenong, slenthem, demung, gambang, clempung, and suling. Back row instruments include kempul, kethuk, kempyang, saron barung, bonang panerus, saron panerus (peking), and gender panerus. 19 Sindoesawarno. Brinner's work focuses on the distinctions between time-keeping instruments and melodic parts (including voice), levels of abstraction and elaboration of melodic lines or distinctions between two dynamic levels which are linked to performance practice, repertoire, and context.34 Furthermore, Perlman pointed out that many scholars agree about the theory of Central Javanese gamelan which can be divided into three categories: the form-defining ("punctuating") instruments; instruments that bear the melodic skeleton or frame work; and the elaborating parts.35 Perlman writes: "No matter how few instruments are available, each of the three categories must be represented: at least one punctuating instrument, one melodic-framework instrument, and a few elaborating parts." (Perlman 2004: 37) 2.2 Gamelan Styles Used in Paku Alaman Palace Traditionally, Javanese gamelan performance can be divided into two main categories, known as loud and soft styles. The main difference between loud style and soft style is the instruments that are featured during the performance. In Surakarta, the gamelan performance is called klenengan, sometimes also called nguyu-uyu, but in Yogyakarta it is called uyon-uyon. In klenengan there are three subcategories of gendhing (gamelan composition): gendhing bonang, gendhing rebab, and gendhing gender. Of these, gendhing bonang, featuring the bonang (a two-octave instrument consisting of two rows of suspended bronze kettles) is considered "loud style." Gendhing rebab and 33Sindoesawarno differentiates the gamelan into three groups: the simultaneous sound structure that includes the gong, kenong, kempul, kethuk, kempyang, and kendang; the contrasting "flowering" (i.e., elaborating) sound structure that includes the rebab, gender, gambang, celempung, suling, gender panerus, bonang barung and panerus, saron panerus (peking); and the skeletal melodic group that includes the slenthem, demung, saron barung. (see Brinner 1995:212). 3 4Benjamin Brinner. Knowing Music, Making Music. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1995) p. 213-221. 3 5 Mark Perlman, Unplayed Melodies: Javanese Gamelan and the Genesis of Music Theory (Berkely, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2004) p. 37-40. 20 gendhing gender, featuring rebab (a bowed spike fiddle with two strings) and gender (metalophone with twelve to fourteen thin keys suspended over cylindrical resonators and struck with two padded mallets), are considered "soft style." For uyon-uyon, loud style music is called gendhing soran. The word soran is derived from the Javanese word sora, meaning "loud." It features: • Saron (metalophone with six, seven, or nine keys resting on a resonating trough and struck with a hard mallet; it ranges in size from the large demung, the medium-sized saron barung, to the small peking or saron panerus); • Bonang (gong-chime, referring to the bonang barung; set of ten, twelve, or fourteen small gongs suspended horizontally in two rows and played melodically); • Kenong (horizontally suspended gong played colotomically); • Kempul (medium sized hanging gong played colotomically); • Gong (large size hanging gong); and • Kendhang (two headed barrel drum). The "soft style" of gamelan performance in uyon-uyon is not divided into smaller categories but is rather typically called gendhing alusan36. This style may include the female solo singer (pesindhen), a male chorus (gerong), and loud-sounding instruments played in such a way so that the soft-sounding instruments can take a leading role. The instruments described above are the standard and most versatile of a "complete" (jangkep) or "big" (gedhe) set of Central Javanese gamelan, and are often collectively called "seperangkat" or "sapangkon;" however, there are many specialized types of gamelan that include different instruments. In Paku Alaman there are eight different sets of gamelan instruments, including the standard one used for uyon-uyon muryararas. The two gamelan styles of Yogyakarta and Surakarta developed individual characteristics, although they originally came from the same source. These changes The word alus in Javanese language means refined; it refers to one of the character of Javanese traditional arts form, including dance, puppetry, batik, and language. The opposite of alus (refined, delicate) is sora (strong, rough). 21 occurred as part of cultural life over a long period of time until, in contemporary gamelan performance, it is easy for an informed person to identify the distinctive style of each area. Table la: Instruments of gamelan in Yogyakarta (YK) and Surakarta (SK) related to irama. Ciphers (numbers) indicate the tones of the pelog (pi) and slendro (si) system: 1,2,3,5,6 for slendro, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 for pelog. Name of instrument No. of Inst Pitch Yogyakarta Surakarta Y K SK Yogyakarta Surakarta Kendhang Kendhang 3 5 No necessary pitch No necessary pitch Gong ageng Gong ageng 2 1 5 or 6 or 3 5 or 6 or 3 Siyem si. Suwukan si. 2-3 2-3 2,1,6 2,1,6 Siyem pi. Suwukan pi. 2-4 2-4 2,1,7,6 2,1,7,6 Kempul si. Kempul si. 3-5 3-5 2,1,6,5,3 or 5,6,1 2,1,6,5,3 or 5,6,1 Kempul pi. Kempul pi. 4-6 4-6 2,1,7,6,5,3 or 2,1,7,6,5,3 or 5/6,7,1 5,6,7,1 Kenong si. Kenong si. 3-5 3-5 2,1,6,5,3 or 5,6,1 2,1,6,5,3 or 5,6,1 Kenong pi. Kenong pi. 4-6 4-6 2,1,7,6,5,3 or 2,1,7,6,5,3 or 5,6,7,1 5,6,7,1 Kethuk si. Kethuk si. 1 1 2 2 Kethuk pi. Kethuk pi. 1 1 2 6 Kempyang - 1 - 7,6 -Japan - ' 1 - 5 -- Engkuk/ kemong -. 1 - 1,6 - Kemanak - I - 1,6 or 2,1 Kecer/rojeh Kecrek 1 1 No necessary pitch No necessary pitch Keprak Keprak 1 1 No necessary pitch No necessary pitch 22 Table lb: Instruments of gamelan in Yogyakarta (YK) and Surakarta (SK) related to lagu. Name o f instrument N o . o f Inst Pitch Yogyakarta Surakarta Y K S K Yogyakarta ( Y K ) Surakarta (SK) Demung si. Demung si. 1 1 1,2,3,5,6,1 6,1,2,3,5,6,i or 1,2,3,5,6,1,2 Saron ricik si. Saron barung si. Saron wayang si. 2 1 2 1 1,2,3,5,6,i 6,1,2,3,5,6,i or 1,2,3,5,6,1,2 5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2 Saron ricik pi. Saron barung pi. 4 2 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Peking si. Saron panerus si. 1 1 1,2,3,5,6,1 6,1,2,3,5,6,1 or 1,2,3,5,6, i,2 Peking pi. Saron panerus pi. 1 1 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Slenthem si. Slenthem si. 1 1 1,2,3,5,6,1 6,1,2,3,5,6,1 Slenthem pi. Slenthem pi. 1 1 1,2,3,4,5,6,1 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Gender barung si. Gender barung si. 1 1 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3 Gender pan. si. Gender pan. si. 1 1 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3 Gender barung Gender barung 1 1 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,i,2,3 6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3 pi. nem pi. nem Gender barung Gender barung 1 1 6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3 6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3 pi. br. pi. br. Gambang si. Gambang si. 1 1 1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6, i,2,3,5 1,2,3,^,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6, 1,2,3,5 Gambang pi. nem Gambang pi. nem 1 1 1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6, i , 2,3,5 [,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6, 1,2,3,5 Gambang pi. br. Gambang pi. br. 1 1 7,2,?,5,6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3,S,6, 7,2,3,5 7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3,5,6,7,2,3,5,6, 7,2,3,5 Bonang barung. si. Bonang barung si. 1 1 Lanang: 6 5 3 2 1 Wadon: 1 2 3 5 6 Lanang: 6 5 3 2 12 Wadon: 12 3 5 6 1 Bonang pan si. Bonang pnr. si 1 1 Lanang: 6 5 3 2 1 Wadon: i 2 3 5 6 Lanang: 6 5 3 2 1 2 Wadon: i 2 3 5 6 1 Bonang pnb si. - 1 - Lanang: 6 5 3 2 1 Wadon: j 2 3 5 6 -Bonang barung pi. Bonang barung pi. 1 1 Lanang: 4 6 5 3 2 1 7 Wadon: 17 2 3 5 6 4 Lanang: 4 6 5 3 2 1 7 Wadon: 17 2 3 5 6 4 Bonang pan. pi. Bonang pnr. pan. pi. 1 1 Lanang: 4 6 5 3 2 1 7 Wadon: 1 7 2 3 5 6 4 Lanang: 4 6 5 3 2 17 Wadon: 1 72 3-5 6 4 Bonang pnb. pi. - 1 - Lanang: 4 6 5 3 2 17 Wadon: l' 7 2 3 5 6 4 Celempung si. Siter barung si. 1 1 3,5,6,11,22,33,55,66,11,22, 33 33,55,66,11,22,33,55,66,1 i , 22,33 23 Siter Peking Siter penerus 1 1 33,55,66,11,22,33,55,66,11, 33,55,66,11,22,33,55,66,11, 11,33 22,33 Suling si. Suling si. 2 1 3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,or 2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1 2,3,5,6,l,2,3,5,6,i,2,3,5,6,i Suling pi. Suling pi. 1 1 3,4,5,6,7,1,2,3,4,5,6,7, i,2,3,4 1,2,3,5,6,7,1,2,3,5,6,7,i,2,3,4 ,5,6,7, or ,5,6 1,2,3,5,6,7,1,2,3,5,6,7,i,2,3,4 ,5,6 Rebab si. Rebab si. 1 1 2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,i,2,3,5 2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5,6,1,2,3,5 Rebab pi. Rebab pi. 1 1 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,1,2,3,4,5,6,7, i , 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,1, 2,3,4,5 2,3,4,5 From a positive perspective, these differences can be interpreted as the identification of cultural and musical identity between the two main courts, Yogyakarta and Surakarta. From outside the palace wall, this diversity of stylistic development offers proof of the richness and complexity of Javanese cultural tradition. However, from another perspective, negative feeling continues to be created when fanatic followers of each palace tradition argue about their own identity. Much has been written about the significant differences between the two styles of gamelan. In my opinion, a good contribution is the (unpublished) PhD. thesis of I Nyoman Wenten (Los Angeles, 1996: 37-70). Wenten argues: ".. .the distinctive aspects of style which are striking and aesthetically significant: (1) Physical appearance of the instruments, (2) Musical terminology, (3) Names of some of the instruments, (4) Names of compositions, (5) Differences in repertory, (6) Garapan (the way in which musicians workout their parts for each piece), and (7) Melodic patterning (cengkok and wiletari) for vocal parts and instruments. The differences 24 between these two rival styles were most evident and most persistent in the past, especially before 1950s."37 I agree with the points that Wenten has made and would like to further discuss some of them later in this thesis. In addition, it is interesting to mention here that many other areas are also distinctive. For example, the costume design, such as the head cover and jacket, which are worn by the Yogyanese gamelan musicians appears ugly to many Solonese gamelan musicians. On the other hand, some Yogyanese musicians might say that the Solonese costume design always has short jackets that use less material, and so on. Sometimes, in the past, these became the source of controversy and sensational rumors, both in daily social life and some traditional theater performing arts.38 But due to the involvement and progression of the university level performing arts conservatories, as well as the resulting increased wide-spread familiarity with the two rival styles, the differences have gradually become less pronounced. Another possible reason for the reduction in rivalry between the two palaces is the decision during the reign of Paku Alam VII (1906-1937) that the gamelan at the Paku Alaman Palace would play both styles. This decision gave an opportunity to the palace musicians to develop respect for the other palace's traditions. This tradition of stylistic combination has been developed in uyon-uyon muryararas at Paku Alaman, especially in the selection of repertoire since as early as the 20th centuries. These reasons cause Paku Alaman music to seem more wide-ranging than other palaces, possibly because of the palace's historical background, 3 7 1 Nyoman Wenten. "The Creative World of K i Wasitodipuro: The Life and Work of a Javanese Composer (Los Angeles: University of California. 1996). 41. 3 8 See G. Moedjanto, M . A . (1994: 20) 25 geographical position, involvement of other institutions, and the influence of intermarriage. 2.3 Explanation of the Musicians Rank of Abdi Dalem (King's Servants) In Paku Alaman Palace, gamelan musicians are considered to be a part of the abdi dalem (king's servants) under the palace organization called Kawedanan Langenpraja. This organization is responsible for the cultural department of performing arts in the Paku Alaman Palace. Musicians, dancers, and puppeteers, as well as any other entertainers related to the performing arts, are all under the umbrella of Kawedanan Langenpraja?9 The social status of Paku Alaman gamelan musicians is based on a ranking system measuring closeness in family relationship to the king and length of time that an individual has been a member of the court musician group. In addition to the usual criteria, gamelan musicians may also be recognized because they are educated in gamelan music and have skill in performance. Special titles and an official court name can be granted by the king, depending On status, as a mark of cultural respect, for example K.R.T. Wignya Ambeksa {wignya in the Javanese language means "expert," and ambeksa means "to dance"). People given this name must have special expertise in Javanese dance. Many Javanese people believe that, in Java, a name can bring either good luck or bad luck. This type of name is special - it is only given because of expertise and not because of closeness of family relationship to the king. A gamelan musician in Paku Alaman may be given the rank of Bupati, Riya, Wedana, or any of the other titles listed in table 2, but they may also receive special recognition in the form of a name or title that reflects their status as gamelan musicians. 3 9 Interview with K .P .H . Notoprojo on July 20, 2003 in his house Yogyakarta, Java. 26 The highest ranking name that may be given is Bremara, which would be added at the end of their official court name and titles. This name may be given to someone who is not an expert in theory, but it recognizes expertise in performance and the idea that knowledge of technical playing and stylistic essence has been internalized. Why does the Paku Alaman Palace prefer to use bremara for the highest name instead of any other word? According to K.P.H. Notoprojo (July 20, 2003), bremara in the old Javanese language, kawi, means a bee who is always making honey. Whenever bees fly, they always make a sound of "ngeng," which to Javanese people symbolizes mastery and industriousness. According to tradition, great musicians should be able to internalize gendhing and be fluent on at least four elaborating instruments (including vocal parts) without notation, which corresponds to the power of "ngeng" when they play the gamelan. In this regard, the word bremara symbolizes the intensity of their ability to play the gamelan and their deep knowledge of repertoire and tradition. The second highest name that may be given by the king is Pangrawit, a name that recognizes a musician's ability to play, teach, compose and know the repertoire and traditions of palace gamelan. This name indicates that the individual may be more expert in music theory and notation, but may require more experience to internalize the gamelan music and technique in order to advance. The third highest name is Pradangga, which designates a player who has attained a high level of skill, but who is not yet an accomplished composer or teacher. At this level more knowledge of repertoire and tradition is required to advance. The two remaining names are Bekel and Rawita which are given to members of the royal gamelan who have been playing for a few years, but require more dedication and practice in order to advance. 27 According to K.R.M.T. Projowinoto, one of the royal family members of Paku Alaman Palace and the leader of Kawedanan Langenpraja, usually during the first month of a year (based on the Javanese calendar), Sri Paku Alam receives a list of employees {abdi dalem) who are scheduled to change status, or rank. This list is prepared by senior administration officials and royal family members, but the king has to approve each selection. There are seven levels of seniority that are identified by a special title such as, Kangjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung, (as shown in table 2). These seven categories are within larger divisions based on birth into the royal family or relationship by marriage: grade 1 is closest to the king, for example, his son or grandson; grade 2 is the next closest, such as the king's cousin. This system of classification continues into higher numbers, but for the employees the most significant numbers are grade 5 and above. The closeness of blood relations to the king is important, but the ability and dedication of the employee is also considered when deciding to confer rank and title. The highest level under the king is senior Bupati, known as Bupati Sepuh, or old Bupati. He, not usually she, may have the title Kangjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung (KRMT) if it is conferred by the king and accepted by the individual. The six lower ranks of abdi dalem, in descending order of importance are: Riya, Wedana, Panewu, Ngabei, Lurah, and Bekel, as seen in table 2. The same system of ranking is applied to confer lower ranks as is used for deciding who will receive the title of Bupati. 28 Table 2: Abdi Dalem ranks Abdi Dalem Rank Status Title Relationship Bupati Kangjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung (KRMT) Must be Royal family grade 1-4 Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung (KRT) Must be Royal family member grade 5 Kangjeng Mas Tumengung (KMT) Can be Royal family or senior employee Riya, Wedana, Panewu, Ngabehi, Lurah, Bekel Kangjeng Raden Mas Riya (K.R.M.T) Must be Royal family grade 1-4 Raden Riya ( R. Riya) Must be Royal family member grade 5 Mas Riya (M Riya) Can be Royal family or senior employee Raden Wedana (R.W) Can be Royal family or senior employee 2.4 Paku Alaman Palace Gamelan Musicians The growth of interest in gamelan at Paku Alaman Palace has led to changes in the method of teaching and an expansion of the number of people playing the gamelan. At the present time, many university professors who teach Javanese Arts also play as part of the palace gamelan group. Other members include many village people who travel long distances in order to play, local people who live nearby and, due to the involvement of radio in broadcasting palace gamelan performances, some of the radio employees have been invited to join the gamelan group. There are approximately fifty gamelan members listed on the official "List of Gamelan Musicians in Paku Alaman Palace" (see Appendix 29 A for a copy of the list), although not all of them are active players. As the players come from many backgrounds and economic levels in society, it is important to state that these factors do not influence their status within the group. The idea of equality among the players is important in that it reflects the philosophy of gamelan performance in which every part is required to realize the composition, with no one part being more important than another. Great guru (teachers) of gamelan sometimes do become famous and can be considered as the "star" of the gamelan because of the traditional respect and veneration given to teachers in Javanese society and because of the importance of leadership to many aspects of the ensemble. Many guru obtain access to gamelan instruments in different ways: some own their own gamelan, but most are either employees of a palace, of a wealthy person, or of a government organization that require players for their gamelan. Some guru are not employed in an official capacity, but have the opportunity to use a gamelan set belonging to someone else. K.P.H. Notoprojo, generally known as Pak Cokro, is the most famous and respected gamelan teacher and leader at Paku Alaman Palace, and he still maintains his position as spiritual leader of the gamelan at the advanced age of 102. Pak Cokro has attained the highest rank of abdi dalem possible, and on return from his career of teaching in United States, was recognised as a member of the royal family. The letters K.P.H. placed before his name stand for Kangjeng Pangeran Haryo, a title reserved for blood relations of the king. More information about Pak Cokro can be obtained from Wenten 1996 and Haryono et. al. 2004. Pak Suhardi was also one of the well known Javanese gamelan teachers and a Paku Alaman court musician, as well as the leader of the RRI Yogyakarta gamelan group 30 for several years. In order to learn the gamelan before becaming an abdi dalem and gamelan musician at the RRI Yogyakarta, sometimes he had to go far away and stand in the garden of someone else's house so he could listen to the radio that was playing inside. He had to put his ear on the wall so he could hear the gamelan music he loved. He reminisced that when he was young, only one or two people in the village might have a radio. Radio programs of traditional music were even more rare than they are today. He considered that his attitude and behavior were guru laku, meaning he had to follow his own heart to find good knowledge. Some gamelan players had better opportunities than Pak Suhardi. They could obtain musical training through becoming accepted by a guru of gamelan. 2.5 Group Dynamics In the Paku Alaman gamelan, there are several leaders. One leader, called Pangirit, handles administrative tasks and announcements, plus coordinates with the dancers and the royal family for scheduling purposes. There is also someone within the group responsible for arranging refreshments for the group to be provided by the palace and served by palace staff. Singers are considered part of the group of musicians, but dancers are separate. Costume maintenance and acquisition is considered part of administration. Other leaders, (usually three or four abdi dalem Pangrawit) are more expert in repertoire and decide which pieces (gendhing) will be rehearsed and performed for a certain event. As they are responsible for the repertoire gendhing, the Paku Alaman Palace call them a tim gendhing (lit: team leaders or supervisors for gendhing repertoire). 31 According to K.R.M.T. Projowinoto, an abdi dalem pangirit at the Paku Alaman Palace, the selection of gendhing repertoire to be performed for uyon-uyon muryararas was traditionally chosen by the highest rank of abdi dalem, while musicians were generally constrained to playing the instruments commensurate with their rank. Most Javanese palaces still follow this tradition, but Paku Alaman currently does not depend on abdi dalem with high rank status, but instead gives the opportunity to the team leaders.40 Now, lower ranked members of abdi dalem may be appointed as team leaders because of their expertise and educational background, and there is more flexibility and negotiation permissible on matters such as repertoire selection. The significance of this change from emphasis on status and rank to a more democratic group relationship demonstrates that Paku Alaman Palace is trying to develop modern ideas when organizing their gamelan activities. Most gamelan musicians in Paku Alaman Palace usually stay quiet and follow the decisions that are made by their leader in choosing the repertoire. This attitude may be influenced by the knowledge that the king and royal family members also influence the repertoire selection. The Javanese concept of kingship and charisma of the king is ideally similar to a Javanese philosopher or monk in that sabda pandhita ratu, ngendika sepisan tan kena wola-wali, which means "to think much before any word is spoken and when a statement is made, it should be consistent and not subject to change." In the case of uyon-uyon muryararas, the gamelan musicians know that a performance will occur every 35 days for the king's birthday celebration (according to special Javanese calendrical tradition, to be explained in chapter 3). During the first week following the previous performance, the repertoire for the next performance is chosen by the leaders, and then some discussion is held by the tim gendhing. Rehearsals are 4 0 In terview with K .R .M.T . Projowinoto on August 4, 2004 in Paku Alaman palace, Yogyakarta. 32 scheduled for the next week and the leaders bring the repertoire to the gamelan for the musicians to practice at the first meeting. The musicians then hold rehearsals twice a week until the event. Currently the gamelan rehearsal is held every Monday and Thursday afternoon from 4 pin to 6:30 pm, except for the day of the performance event, when musicians will come to the palace at 6:30 pm for sound check and a short rehearsal. On the day of the performance, musicians wear traditional Javanese costumes. At about 8 pm the musicians will have a tea break. At 8:45 pm the musicians are usually ready to play for the live radio broadcast that starts at 9 pm and continues until midnight. About 35 musicians, including a group of 5-10 female singers (sindhen) and 3-5 male singers (gerong), perform in Paku Alaman Palace using the same repertoire of about 100-200 traditional compositions as used in other palaces. Every uyon-uyon muryararas begins with the palace anthem ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura, followed by the repertoire selected for the performance, and continuing until the end of performance, which is always marked with an ending piece called bubaran Udan Mas. A detailed explanation of the process used to select pieces for the performance from the repertoire used in uyon-uyon muryararas will be discussed in chapter IV. 33 Chapter 3: Performance Context It is important to understand the context of gamelan performance in the Paku Alaman Palace tradition because each one has an individual purpose that influences repertoire, location, and even the time of day that the event is presented. This chapter explores the factors that create the context of gamelan performance in uyon-uyon muryararas. The significance of the 35 day cycle will be explained with reference to the Javanese lunar calendar and the customs surrounding birthdays of the king. To begin, I will illustrate briefly the geographic aspect of the Paku Alaman Palace where the performance of uyon-uyon muryararas is held. 3.1 Location The Paku Alaman Palace is located in the central city of Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia, about two and half kilometers east of Yogyakarta Palace. It can be seen from the following map that these palaces are actually quite close together, separated by a small river called sungai code. Paku Alaman Palace is located on the street called Jalan Sultan Agung, a street named after one of the famous Mataram kings (1613-1645 AD) that bridges the river. The Paku Alaman Palace is a large traditional Javanese house in the sub-district called Kecamatan Paku Alaman. 34 Figure 2: Map of the central city of Yogyakarta K E Y 1. Paku Alaman Palace 2. Yogyakarta Palace 3. Code river bridge The palace buildings are surrounded by a high wall with a large main gate in the front, called Danawara, and three smaller gates on the other sides. The large main gate was officially opened by Pakualam V after the rest of the palace on August 7, 1884, and it bears the inscription "wiwara kusuma winayang reka, " which is a special way of commemorating the date in old Javanese language, as well as bestowing a blessing to the 35 palace. Across from the palace there is a front yard called alun-alun Sewandanan, which is similar to a public park, although it is owned by the palace. Farther away from the main gate, after the park, is the Jalan Sultan Agung, where the traditional public market (pasar sentul) is located. The pasar sentul is always crowded, as thousands of people shop for their daily needs, and the sound of the palace gamelan can often be heard in the distance. Main Gate of Paku Alaman Palace After entering the main gate, there is another large flower garden and lawn surrounded by a row of buildings that are built as part of the wall . Historically, these buildings have been used for public education, medical clinics and other local public services as required. Currently, these buildings are used for the palace library, museum, administration offices and radio station. The main cluster of buildings is across the lawn and can be reached by a paved pathway that is large enough to accommodate a car. 4 1 See Albiladiah S. (1995: 23-25) 36 Buildings along the palace wall. Lawn inside the main gate The first building that is actually a part of the main palace is a special open area called Bangsal Sewatama that is used for gamelan performances and for special public meetings and ceremonies. Five of the eight Paku Alaman Palace gamelans, i.e.: G . K . (Gangsa Kyai) Pengawesari, G . K . Tlogo Muncar, G . K . Rarasingrum, G . K . Rumingraras, plus gamelan Carabalen (a small, incomplete set, and thus not given the title of G .K. ) are kept in this building, and most of their performances, including the uyon-uyon muryararas, are located there (the other three are mentioned on page 38). Bangsal Sewatama, building for gamelan rehearsal and performance 37 Paku Alaman Palace is different from other Javanese palaces because some areas are designed in a non-traditional way. The Bangsal Sewatama is a good example of the architectural innovations used in the palace. In Central Java, most palaces have a similar open walled space, called joglo, which has four main pillars and a pyramid shaped roof, but Paku Alaman has a flat roof and many more pillars placed around the edge of the open space, supporting the roof. There are two other buildings on the west side of the main house that are also clearly non-traditional, as one is built in a European style with different levels, and is called Gedhong Maerakaca. On the main level, the building has large windows and sliding glass doors on every side that enclose the family dining room, washroom and many bedrooms. The second floor is a large recreation room, where royal family members and their guests may relax. The second non-traditional building is called Gedhong Purwaretna, and it is used mainly during ceremonial occasions for meetings and preparation. There are seven buildings in the main palace complex, and the four remaining buildings follow traditional architectural patterns as smaller buildings cluster around the larger main palace. In the centre of the building are areas for meditation and sacred rites, but never public ceremonies or gamelan performances. This group of seven buildings is divided into twelve sections, with special meaning and purpose for each. For example, in the main palace building, called Dalem Ageng Prabasuyasa, is the most private place in the complex, housing the king's personal residence and historical objects of cultural significance, such as ancient weapons, as well as the king's robes and accessories. The other three of the eight sets of Paku Alaman gamelan are also kept in this building. The two of them called G.K. (Gangsa Kyai) Kombang Tawang and G.K. Madu Sedana, 38 which are considered as a type of gamelan sekaten alit, are taken out three times a year to be played at annual Moslem religious ceremonies called grebeg, namely Grebeg Mulud, Grebeg Sawal, and Grebeg Besar, held at the main gate. The last set of gamelan, G.K. Rinding, which is also called a gamelanpakurmatan, is only used at the coronation ceremony of a new king. 3.2 Times of Performance Time is organized differently in Java because the calendar reflects the multi-cultural layers that influence contemporary society. The original calendar used in Java was based on the rice growing cycle of 210 days and the phases of the moon calculated as 30 days. These two time measurements were used until the later adoption of the Hindu calendrical system, called Saka, which was based on the solar year.42 The Hindu calendar was integrated into the existing system so that each day had two different names called saptawara, or seven days a week, andpancawara or five market days (table: 3). Other systems were also adopted in the same way, including the Western calendar that is the most recent level of time calculation, resulting in layers of different time cycles proceeding simultaneously.43 Table 3: Names of the days of the week in the Javanese lunar calendar Saptawara (seven day week) Pancawara (five day week) Minggu (Javanese) = Akhat (Muslim) Pon Senin Wage Selasa Kliwon Rebo Legi Kemis Pahing Jemuah (Javanese) = Jum'at (Muslim) Setu 4 2 Kamajaya, 1 Suro Tahun Baru Jawa perpaduan Jawa-Islam, Yogyakarta: UP. Indonesia 1992) p. 1-7. 4 3 For more on the Javanese calendar, see Ricklefs 1978: 223-38, and Vetter 1986: 14-19. 39 The calendar that is used to calculate the occurrence of ceremonial events, such as the king's birthday, is the Javanese calendar that was adapted from the Muslim calendar. One area of cultural interest is the concept of celebrating an individual's birthday once during each Javanese month of 35 days on the anniversary of their birth. This custom is called selapan dina. A person's age is still calculated on a yearly basis, but each 35 days a cycle is completed and is usually celebrated in some way. The birthday cycle occurs every 35 days, and a set of six of these cycles equals a Pawukon (rice cultivation calendar) year of 210 days. The 8th Pawukon year in the cycle is called Windu and is considered a special time for every Javanese person. More information on the Javanese calendrical system can be obtained from Roger Vetter's doctoral thesis (1986:14-23), but for our purposes, it is sufficient to state that a celebration is held to mark each of these important times, with the most elaborate rituals, entertainments and ceremonies held to mark the Windu anniversary. The most important anniversary in a king's birthday cycle is the 8 t h Windu year, which is called tumbuk ageng (great meeting or convergence) in Javanese. The king hosts a celebration that reflects his social status and helps to continue local traditions within the community. The celebration of the king's birthday is usually held in the evening that begins the anniversary. In this particular Javanese time calculation, the new date begins at sunset, but in other cycles, such as the five day market calendar, the day begins at dawn. These date calculations may be based on the purely practical considerations that shoppers usually go to the market early in the morning, but Javanese birthday celebrations are usually occasions for prayer and reflection that may be best accomplished in the evening. As Java is so close to the equator, the days are approximately the same length throughout the year, so the lengthening and shortening of 40 days that is usual in other latitudes does not occur. Sunset and sunrise occur at regular intervals and so can be depended on to establish a definite time period. The king's birthday follows the traditional Javanese celebration pattern of prayer, reflection and ritual ceremonies, including gamelan performance as part of the ritual, as well as the entertainment. Uyon-uyon muryararas is a good example for gamelan performance that has multi-layered purposes. During the reign of Paku Alam VIII, the uyon-uyon muryararas was held on Sunday (i.e., Pon of the Javanese calendar) in the morning for two and half hours.44 According to K.P.H. Notoprojo (20.vii.2004) the gamelan performance on Sunday morning was considered good entertainment for a tourist who visited the Paku Alaman Palace. Coincidently, Paku Alam VIII was born on the day Minggu Pon of the Javanese calendar, so that uyon-uyon muryararas was performed for ritual and ceremonial entertainment, as well as for public entertainment. 3.3 Gamelan as Part of the King's Birthday Gamelan performance is considered important in the celebration of the king's birthday because of the dual secular and sacred role that it fulfills. The dual purpose of gamelan may be exemplified by the playing of the anthem, the theme music, of the Paku Alam Palace, called Puspawarna45, which means "a bouquet of flowers." This piece is a ketawang form, a shorter formal structure of Javanese gendhing consisting of sixteen 4 4 See Wenten 1996: 125, and Walujo 1990: 76. 4 5 Sumarsam wrote that this piece is one of the nine traditional poems entitled "Sendhon Langen Swara," attributed to Mangkunegara IV (1853-1881). The rest of the eight poems are Langen Gita, Wala Gita, Raja Swala, Sita Mardawa, Taru Pala, Puspa Giwang, Puspanjala, and Lebda Sari. The lyrics of Puspawarna have nine verses or stanzas, but in uyon-uyon muryararas, usually only three are sung. The nine flowers referred to in the text are: kencur (lesser galangal), blimbing (starfruit), duren (durian), aren (sugarpalm), gedhang (banana tree), jati (teak), jambe (betel palm), kapas (cotton plant), pandan (pandanus). 41 basic pulses per gongan (a cyclical unit of music marked by a gong stroke), played in a specific tuning system of gamelan (laras slendro) with a pathet classification of manyura. The significance of Central Javanese gendhing form will be discussed in chapter four. The ceremonial significance of Puspawarna started when this piece was written by Mangkunegara IV (1853-1851) of the court of Mangkunegaran, Surakarta, Central Java, and it was designated as the anthem for his reign. The tradition of using Puspawarna for the anthem of the Surakarta Palace continues until the present day. It is interesting to note that the same piece of music is also used as an anthem in Paku Alaman Palace. This is because the piece was given to Paku Alaman Palace as one of the wedding presents upon the occasion of the wedding of Sri Paku Alam VII to the princess of Surakarta, Bendara Raden Ayu (B.R.A) Retna Puwasa, the daughter of Sunan Paku Buwana X who was ruler of Surakarta as discussed in chapter one. Since that time, Puspawarna has been played every time the king of Paku Alam makes a formal appearance before the public, even if another piece is already being played at the time he makes his entrance. The gamelan will stop immediately and the rebab will begin the introduction to Puspawarna. The playing of the anthem serves a secular purpose in making a political statement, as the lyrics are highly complimentary to the king and remind his subjects to respect and honour him, but can also be interpreted as a sacred performance because of pre-Islamic views of kingly divinity that are still held to some degree in Java. The lyrics and notation of balungan46 Puspawarna is shown in table 4.a and 4.b respectively below. Balungan is the term applied to the multi-octave melodic outline featured in gendhing notation. 42 Table 4.a.: The nine stanzas of Puspawarna in Javanese and English translatioa Puspawarna Javanese version Puspawarna English translation Kembang kencur The flowers of the kencur plant kacaryan anggung cinatur are always spoken of in admiration. sedhet kang sarira Her body is well-shaped gandes ing wiraga and her movements graceful; kewes yes ngandika she is so charming in speech angenganyut jiwa that one feels carried away. Kembang blimbing The flowers of the starfruit tree pinethik ball ing tebing when picked, soon re-bloom, maya-maya sira she shines sweetly indeed wong pindha mustika like a precious jewel. ratuning kusuma She is the queen of flowers patining wanodya and the essence of womenhood. Kembang duren The flowers of the durian tree-sinawang sinambi leren stop everything to gaze at them! dalongop kang warna Amazing are her shape, sumeh semunira her sweet smile pantes pamicara and her elegant speech; angenganyut driya they embrace the senses. Kembang aren The flowers of the sugar palm tumungkul aneng pang duren bends over the durian branches, sadangune kula mulad ingpaduka whenever I look at you anganggit puspita or think of your blooms, temahan wiyoga I become wistful. Kembang gedhang The flowers of the banana tree Manglung maripit balumbang hang down over a pond, Patute wong ika tedhaking ngawirya it is appropriate for those of noble descent Semune jatmika solahe prasaja to have a demure expression and unaffected manners. Kembang jati The flowers of the teak tree sinebar ngubengi panti are scattered all around the house. anjanggleng kawula I am standing and looking out, ngentosi paduka , waiting for you sewu dhatan nyana endlessly, not knowing lamun nimbangana if our hearts will match. 43 Kembang jambe megar ngambar wayah sore kemayangan kula tamuwan paduka pangajabing karsa paringa nugraha Kembang kapas -pinepes anggung pinapas, kapidereng kula, kedah ngestupada Cumadhonging karsa badhe tan lenggana Kembang pandhan mawur sumebar neng jogan, tumedhakpaduka ingpanggenan kula, sampun wancak driya kawula srah jiwa. The flowers of the betel palm open fragrantly in the evening. I am overwhelmed, anticipating your visit, fervently hoping that you will grant your favour. The flowers of the cotton plant are continuously cropped. I strongly desire to worship you, to fulfil your wishes without hesitation. The flowers of the pandanus palm scatter on the floor. -When you come down to my home, do not be anxious; I will surrender.47 Table 4.b.: Balungan and gerong part for ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura. Buka: 6 1 2 3 . 2 1 3 . 2 . 1 . 6 G Ompak: . + 2 . 3 . 2 <"*-% . 1 + 3 . 2 • f ' ^ \ . 1 . 6 G Lik : . + 6 . + 2 3 2 T 3 + 2 6 5 t ^ 2 3 5 3 G 3 3 T3 2 2 "l 6 l 2 73 12 6 5 . 6 6T2 61653 Kembang ken-cur ka- car- yan ang- gung ci- na- tur Bal. - t -3 2 5 3 2 T 3 V - / . 2 . 1 . ^ G Gerong- . 612 2 1 2 31263 35321 . .3752 . .353 . 121 6 se- dhet kangsa- ri- ra gandes ing wi- ra- ga Bal. +• 2 . 3 •b 2 . I s • 3 . 2 . "l . ^ G Gerong: , ? H3 . . 56 3521 . 3 52 . .353 . T21 6 ke- wes yenngandi- ka a- nge- nganyut ji- wa 4 7 These nine stanzas of Puspawarna were translated by Clara Brakel and edited by Andrew Timar. http://www.gamelan.to/flawers/flawersBOOKLET.html (accessed 20 April 2006) 44 Another example of sacred/secular service is the special piece that is always played at the end of the performance, called Bubaran Udan Mas laras pelog pathet barang, which means "Golden Rain." The "Golden Rain" symbolizes hope for the future in a secular, material interpretation, but also confers a blessing from the king that may be interpreted as spiritual. The balungan notation of bubaran Udan Mas is shown in table 5 below. Table 5: Balungan bubaran Udan Mas laras pelog pathet barang r \ Buka : • 7 7 7 5 6 7 2 2 7 6 5 6 76 53 5 G •v- + •V \j t + ^ + w + /*-\ 6 5 3 2 6 5 3 2 3 2 3 6 5 3 2 S 6 5 3 2 6 5 3 2 . 3 2 3 6 5 3 2 S 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 2 . 7 6 5 6 7 6 5 S 7 5 6 7 5 6 7 2 . 7 6 5 6 7 6 5 G The involvement of gamelan in the king's birthday is significantly important, not only for musical purposes but also for traditional Javanese performing arts, especially in relationship with dance, shadow puppetry and many ceremonial events in the palace. The Paku Alaman gamelan performance on November 14th, 1987 is a good example because it was part of the ten windu birthday (80 years according to the Javanese lunar calendar) celebration of Sri Paku Alam VIII. The ten windu birthday celebration is very important in Javanese culture, so the celebration is much larger than usual and involves more performers over the span of several days. Before the dance performance began, the first gamelan performance was gendhing Sri Dirgayuswa, which means to hope for peaceful and long life; played in 45 laras pelog pathet barang, as a symbol of blessing and congratulation from all royal family members and abdi dalem. This piece was created in 1930 as part of the eight windus (64 years old according to Javanese calendar) birthday celebration of Sri Sunan Paku Buwana X in Surakarta, Central Java.48 After the gamelan performance, some traditional dances were performed, including bedhaya Pangkur, bedhaya Endhol-endhol (bedhaya is a type of sacred dance usually performed by seven or nine female dancers in the palace) and pethilan bambangan cakil (pethilan is a dance that was derived from a tale within the Hindu epic Mahabarata).49 The existence of gamelan as music accompaniment for those dances is proof that the gamelan is an essential part of the proper celebration of the king birthday, not only as musical entertainment but also dance accompaniment and ritual element. Furthermore, Jaap Kunst explained that in the past gamelan was also used to celebrate weddings, to honor the king's guests, conduct religious ceremonies including Grebeg Mulud (Prophet Muhammad 's birthday), as well as to celebrate the 21st day of Ramadan,50 which in Java is called malem selikuran. It also provided accompaniment to the sending of a formal letter from one king to another, announced the entrance of governor general in to the palace, and accompanied adu macan (animal fights for the purpose of entertainment).51 Some of these functions, such as celebrating grebeg and weddings, are still important. 4 8 See Djoko Walujo 1990: 81 4 9 A n interview with K.P .H. Notoprojo on July 20, 2003. 5 0 Ramadan is the name of a month in the Muslim religion during which most Muslim people observe a ritual fast. In Java, Ramadan is also called siam or pasa, which means fasting. There are twelve months during one year, i.e.: Muharram, Safar, Rabi (ng) ulawal, Rabi (ng) ulakhir, Jumadilawal, Jumadilakhir, Rajab, Sya'ban, Ramadan, Zulkaedah, Zulhijah. (See Vetter 1986: 17) 5 1 Kunst, Jaap. Music in Java: Its History, Its Theory, and Its Technique, ed. E.L. Heins. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973) p. 259-62. 46 Chapter 4: Gendhing in Uyon-uyon Muyararas: How Repertoire is Selected and Manipulated to Meet the Needs of the Performance Event In uyon-uyon muryararas, the selection of gendhing is important because the choice of material reflects not only the celebration of the king's birthday, but also other relevant factors. These factors can include events within the social and political context, but are also influenced by more subtle traditional motivation. Sometimes there can be an overall theme or program created for the celebration to which the repertoire must contribute. The late M W Lebda Bremara, also known as Pak Suhardi, told me about the formula of selecting gendhing as appropriate repertoire. Suhardi was one of the highest ranking musicians in Pakualaman Palace and a respected gamelan teacher who also led the RRI gamelan group in Yogyakarta. At that time, he was conducting regular Sunday gamelan rehearsal in his house. He said: ".. .ora gampang mranata gendhing supaya bisapas karo rasane. Sing , milih paling ora kudu wis ngerti marang wewatakaning gendhing, marga gendhing mono duwe watak lan rasa dhewe-dhewe, kayata: sereng, gumbira,gumyak, sedih, trenyuh, menekung, gagah, agung, Isp. Saliyane kuwipenabuh ya kudu nguwasani lan sugih garap gendhing, lan wasis utawa duwe pengalaman mranata gendhing.. ."5 5 2 Personal communication with Pak Suhardi in his house Gedhong Kuning, Yogyakarta January 3 r d , 1999. It was my fortunate experience to join weekly Sunday rehearsal in his gamelan group called Ngudya Wirama until the last day of his life. Usually before the start of rehearsal or while waiting for musicians, or during breaks, and after the rehearsal, Pak Suhardi always gave an explanation to the musicians about many things related to gendhing, garap gendhing, sindhenan (vocal part for solo female singer in gamelan), notation, etc. 47 Translation: ".. .it is not easy to select gendhing to meet with appropriate feeling. The selector should at least know about the character of gendhing, because certain gendhing have a character, such as being tense, happy, cheerful, sad, melancholy, meditative, strong, majestic, etc. Besides that, the musicians should be expert players and rich in knowledge of garap gendhing and should understand deeply, then they will have enough experience to select the repertoire..." In order to isolate different factors as influences on repertoire choice, this chapter will explore the factors for both selecting and ordering the repertoire. The factors for selecting the repertoire include: a) pathet, b) meaning of the piece, and c) appropriate feeling. In addition, this chapter will also examine two selected repertoires that were performed in the Pakualaman Palace for the late Paku Alam VIII and the current king, Paku Alam IX. 4.1 Factors for Selecting Repertoire 4.1.1 Repertoire of Gendhing According to Appropriate Pathet In Javanese gamelan tradition, pathet or mood is an important factor in repertoire selection because the correct mood must be matched to the time of the performance. Pathet is a musical principle governing melodic organization,53 which becomes a major component of a gendhing. The three-hour evening performance of uyon-uyon muryararas in Paku Alaman is usually divided into three different sections, each with a repertoire that reflects the proper mood or pathet. The three moods are represented by six different possible choices because there is one laras slendro and one laraspelog choice in each category as can be seen in table 6. After the Puspawarna, which is the anthem that 5 3Mendonca, Maria Emma. "Approaching the Analysis of Javanese Pathet: A Consideration of Current Research. A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Wesleyan University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Connecticut. 1990: p. 88. 48 always opens the palace events, the first section begins. The first section may contain one or two pieces that may be loud or soft, but must be chosen from the gendhing that have been composed using pelog pathet lima or slendro pathet nem. The second section of repertoire usually contains selections from gendhing in slendro pathet sanga and pelog pathet nem, and the final section contains repertoire played in slendro pathet manyura and pelog pathet barang. Table 6: Matrix of Javanese mode {pathet) Section Slendro mode Sea e Tones Pelog mode Seal e Tones Emphasize De-emphasize Emphasize De-emphasize I Nem 2, 5, & 6 1 Lima 5, 1,&2 6 & 7 II Sanga 5, 1,&2 3 Nem 2, 5, & 6 3 & 7 III Manyura 6, 2, & 3 5 Barang 6, 2, & 3 5 & 1 In uyon-uyon muryararas, usually a slendro selection is followed by a pelog composition, or if pelog is played first, then slendro will follow. In the second and third sections usually the repertoire selections are played as a medley without stopping. This means that a transition from one piece to the other piece in the same mode occurs within the performance. Sometimes, certain guides to the proper pathet are needed in the performance context, which are usually performed without vocal accompaniment by the rebab (a bowed spike fiddle with two strings), gender (metallophone with twelve to fourteen thin keys suspended over cylindrical resonators and struck with two padded mallets), gambang (multi-octave xylophone played with two padded mallets), and suling (bamboo flute). This type of soft un-rhythmic melody is called pathetan, which refers to 49 one type of chant (sulukan) sung by the puppeteer (dhalang) in the shadow play (wayang kulit)54 or human puppet theater (wayang wong).55 In uyon-uyon muryararas, pathetan usually is played before and after the gendhing as preludes or postludes, especially in the second and third section. 4.1.2 Meaning of a Gendhing The meaning of the title of a gendhing (composition) in the Javanese gamelan tradition is usually abstract, having no direct relationship to the emotional symbolism of the event in which it is performed. In more modern times, the title may indicate the general category of performance event, such as a wedding or other ceremony. However, once the general category is defined, there are many more subtle shades of significance and meaning that influence gamelan leaders and officials to choose one piece or another for a specific celebration. For example, the most common gendhing that are usually performed in the wedding ceremony when the first event is held in the bride's house are: gendhing Lala Penganten, ketawang gendhing ketuk 2 minggah Dhandhanggula Temanten Anyar (ladrang form) laras pelog pathet nem. The title Lala Penganten means bride and groom; minggah Dhandhanggula Temanten Anyar means traditional songs of new marriage. Later, when the bride is taken to her new home at the groom's house, the gamelan performs gendhing Boyong Penganten kethuk 2 minggah ladrang Sekarteja, which in Yogyakarta is called ladrang Boyong laras pelog pathet barang. The meaning of Boyong Penganten in Javanese is "to take the bride to the groom's house;" minggah ladrang Sekarteja signifies the wishes for a bright future for the couple, referencing the 5 4 Shadow play with puppets made of water buffalo hide. 55 Wayang wong is a theatrical genre similar in conventions to wayang kulit but using human actors. See Brinner 1995: 246-67. 50 beauty of flowers (Sekarteja). This type of symbolism is common in Javanese culture as poetic images are used to convey deeper meanings. Sometimes the interpretation of the symbolic meaning of a piece is different from one individual to another, even though both may be knowledgeable about historical context and tradition. There is an acceptable spectrum of diversity in interpretation of Javanese music because of the traditional value of teaching musical concepts using allegories or "cryptic, indirect or abstract clues" that encourage the music student to "take an active role in searching for knowledge .... the listener would have to 'figure it out for himself (Javanese: ngonceki dewe)."56 This difference of opinion can lead to discussions between group leaders and palace authorities regarding the suitability of a certain selection for performance. In regard to the meaning of gendhing, or dance or a poem or a statue, Becker wrote: ".. .meaning must be understood as referring to an overlay of individual interpretations. No performance can have exactly the same meaning for every listener or every performer..." (Becker: 1981: 3) One example of a multi-layered theme may occur in August, near the date of Indonesian Independence. The king may dedicate his celebration to that event, which gives the event a double significance. As discussed in Chapter 2, consultation between gamelan leaders and the royal family is common, and high ranking officials may also have input into the process of deciding upon repertoire selections to perform. The pieces, Ladrang Mugi Rahayu, meaning "may you be in good health and spirits," Gendhing Majemuk, meaning "to hold a ceremonial meal," and Gendhing Sridirgayuswa, meaning "congratulations for the birthday" may be selected. See Permian (2004: 117-120). 51 4.1.3 Repertoire of Gendhing According to the Appropriate Feeling Feeling is rasa, a Sanskrit word, which has an abstract meaning that is open to individual interpretation, but usually is related to describing input from the five senses, especially taste and hearing. The word can express an emotional state, such as happiness, sadness, anger, etc. Rasa can be used to describe the sensation of taste, such as spicy, bitter, salty or sweet, and also to describe the emotion felt by an individual, sometimes using the same terms, such as sweet or bitter.57 The concept of feeling or rasa, is related to all the other factors used to select the appropriate gendhing. If more than one piece in the repertoire meets the criteria required for a certain performance, then the concept of rasa may be used to help decide which one should be included. For example, once the pathet has been selected, and the overall mood is defined, then the subtle application of rasa further establishes the desired effect. It is very difficult to define the influence of rasa in precise terms because it is related to personal experience and open to both individual and group interpretation during rehearsals and performance. 4.2 Factors for Ordering Repertoire After the selection of repertoire is completed, usually the gamelan leader will bring the selected gendhing to musicians in the rehearsal. During the rehearsal, the gamelan leader will decide which ordering of the pieces is most appropriate by considering pathet, laras, rasa, and musical dynamic. The gamelan leader and musicians know that the performance will open with ketawang Puspawarna and close with bubaran Udan Mas, but the order of the other pieces selected for performance is usually decided 5 7 Judith Becker, "Gamelan Stories: Tantrism, Islam, and Aesthetics in Central Java." Monograph in Southeast Asian Studies, Arizona State University 1993. 85. 52 while the gamelan is rehearsing. One of the most important considerations is alternating laras (tuning system), if the second piece is in slendro, the following piece should be in pelog tuning, or the reverse may occur as shown in table 6. These restrictions create a structure for the overall performance that the individual compositions {gendhing) conform to, but there is some room for flexibility. Sometimes, one long composition has enough variety to be played on its own, but at other times, medleys of different gendhing combined in specific patterns are constructed to provide interest and excitement. The gendhing that has the longest duration, that is, that takes the most time to perform, is placed first after Puspawarna. An experienced gamelan leader will have already chosen the longest piece in the correct pathet according to table 6, because longer pieces take more concentration to perform and cannot be interrupted easily if the concert is becoming too long. Many factors, including audience attention span, are considered when choosing this piece. After the longest piece, the gamelan has the option to play another long piece or assemble a medley of shorter gendhing. Longer gendhing placed in this position are usually less complex compared with the shorter gendhing that are placed afterwards, but all must follow the rules, especially conforming to the pathet in table 6. Gendhing within a medley usually have the same pathet and laras, but sometimes a pathet and laras can change to another within the medley. This process of changing pathet and laras in the Javanese gamelan tradition is called malik, which means "to change." Only certain gendhing with the same pitches emphasized as shown in table 6 are chosen for this process because if the gendhing do not have the correct shared pitches, it is difficult to make a smooth transition. The longest gendhing will start the medley, followed by shorter compositions. The shorter gendhing must be more dramatic and more 53 elaborate than the longer section to build up excitement, and they often add more parts, such as male vocal choir (called gerong) and have more lively drum patterns using kendhang batangan or ciblon (a small-size kendhang used to accompany dance). It is also used in "concert" music, where it plays rhythmic patterns associated with the dance movements). All of the aspects of gendhing structure are considered to make each medley more complex and intense as it progresses. 4.3 Other Important Elements to Consider in Repertoire Gendhing In gamelan performance practice, much is learned by observation of more experienced players. Even when written balungan notation is used, the stylistic interpretation and proper pattern for each instrument must be worked out by the individual musician, within the abstract outline given by the balungan gendhing. The ability to realize the appropriate patterns (i.e.: cengkok [melodic or rhythmic formula] and wiletan [aspects of musical ornamentation]) to apply to each instrument, with the correct number of interconnected notes that relate to the parts played by other instruments including variations within the acceptable range of traditional style boundaries in the gamelan performance, is called garap gendhing. It is one of the two garaps (the other being garap pathet), in particular that need to be considered by an expert gamelan musician. The rich knowledge of garap gendhing and garap pathet was passed down from generation to generation and may be given by teachers, family, a gamelan leader in the gamelan group, self study, and lately the formal school. Another additional aspect to consider in choosing repertoire is gendhing form, or sometimes called bentuk gendhing. Bentuk refers to the formal composition of large 54 sections or a whole gamelan piece. It is the outline of the basic beat pattern within one cycle or gongan, i.e., the pattern played by the non-melodic punctuating instruments (colotomic instruments) such as gong, kempul, kenong, kempyang, engkuk kemong, and kethuk that define the length and accents within a gong cycle. Many bentuk gendhing have a certain number of beats ranging from 256 beats per gongan in a large form to 8 beats per gongan in the small form, which always ends with the sound of the large gong ageng, but the difference between one and the other is in the placement of the other punctuating instruments. The larger gendhing include: gendhing kethuk 8 kerep minggah kethuk 16; gendhing kethuk 4 kerep minggah kethuk 8; gendhing kethuk 4 kerep minggah kehuk 4; gendhing kethuk 2 kerep minggah kethuk 4; gendhing kethuk 4 awis minggah kethuk 8; gendhing kethuk 4 awis minggah kethuk 4; gendhing kethuk 2 awis minggah kethuk 8; and gendhing kethuk 2 awis minggah kethuk 4. The smaller gendhing usually perform in the second or third sections. The smaller gendhing include ladrang, ketawang, 58 lancaran, ayak-ayakan, srepegan, and sampak. Besides the bentuk gendhing, every musician in the gamelan must also be familiar with irama, which refers to the relationships between tempos in a composition and should be distinguished from tempo, called laya. It can be very confusing to a Western trained musician when the tempo speeds up or slows down; however, these changes enable a change of irama, which is the name for the pulse density and includes the subdivision of the beats within the pulse. The drummer in the gamelan group defines the irama by clearly playing the pulse and the subdivisions of the pulse currently in use. The other musicians take their cue to speed up or slow down at the right time and rate from the drummer; when the drummer changes the subdivision, the elaborating instruments 5 8 See Sorrell (1990: 66-73) for more information. 55 change at about the same time. The tempo can change without the irama changing as the subdivision remains consistent, however, at a certain point within a piece the irama can change. These transitions can occur after a gradual slowing of the tempo. There are four different irama levels as follows: irama lancar, irama tanggung, irama dados, irama wiled, and irama rangkep. 4.4 Examples of Gendhing Chosen for Uyon-uyon Muryararas Performances In order to isolate different factors, such as calendrical time, as influences on repertoire choice, I will compare the repertoire gendhing of uyon-uyon muryararas during the birthday of reign of Paku Alam VIII and the current king, Paku Alam IX. Each ruler was born on a different day in the lunar cycle, and the celebration Paku Alam VIII was held in the morning, instead of the present day evening events, so comparison of repertoire selection should reveal the influence of date and time. I was able to find records of repertoire used in the birthday performances for Paku Alam VIII, dating from November 26th, 1988; 11th December 1988; 31st January 1989; 26 th March 1989; and June 4 th, 1989 (see appendix 2). The repertoire for uyon-uyon muryararas which were held every Sunday Pon (according to Javanese calendar) and that coincided with the previous dates from the Western calendar in the morning can be seen in the following table 7. 56 Table 7: Comparison of repertoire on two separate occasions Paku Alam VIII Paku Alam IX Date November 26, 1988 June 3, 2004 Repertoire 1. Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura 2. Gendhing Gondrong kethuk sekawan awis minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet lima Gendhing Bonang Slebrak kethuk sekawan awis minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet lima 3. Gendhing Menyankobar kethuk sekawan kerep minggah kethuk wolu, kalajengaken ladrang Hutama laras slendro pathet sanga Gendhing Kanyut kethuk sekawan kerep minggah kethuk sekawan awis, kalajengaken ladrang Peksi Kuwung laras slendro pathet nem 4. Bawa sekar ageng Retnahasmara, katampen gendhing Sumedhang minggah ladrang Kapidhondhong, kalajengaken ketawang Pocung Nirbayan laras pelog pathet nem Bawa sekar ageng Dhadhapmantep katampen gendhing Mesem kethuk kalih kerep minggah ladrang Laras Driya, kalajengaken ketawang Kasatriyan laras slendro pathet sanga i 5. Gendhing Siratmadu kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan kalajengaken ladrang Sriyatna laras slendro pathet manyura Gendhing Montro kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan, kalajengaken ketawang Branta Mentul laras pelog pathet barang 6. Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang The table, showing two different performance dates, gives an opportunity to examine repertoire choice from two different decades using the perspective of a gamelan musician or a knowledgeable audience member. The information listed for each piece is similar to the information that would be listed on the program or given to the musicians as performance directions. This description is the main vehicle for understanding what is going to be performed, because for the knowledgeable individual this information is like 57 a map giving details of the musical journey that is to be undertaken in performance. In order to understand any map correctly, one must have the key to the symbols; similarly, in the program description certain terms must be understood to follow the designated route. The complexity of the map may be more easily understood if a few basic concepts are explained, such as the usual practice of combining separate compositions into medleys for different performances. The title of each selection includes the titles of the works that have been combined, and with the map of the progression of musical pieces, the listener can critique how well (or poorly) a gamelan performs each transition. There are many possible transitions that are indicated on the map, and some may be more complex than others; for example, there are many terms used in gamelan that mean to proceed to another connected piece in the medley. Katampen means "to go to the first piece in the medley," but kalajengaken means "to continue after the main section." There are many other terms with shades of meaning related to dynamics, tempo, and expression that may be substituted to indicate more precise direction. Other information that is given includes form, tuning system, pathet classification, structure, and sometimes dynamics, for example, the fourth selection in the left column of table 7: The following is an example of an introduction or desription of a repertoire, as could also be read by the announcer on the radio or previous to the performance: Bawa sekar ageng Retnahasmara, katampen gendhing Sumedhang minggah ladrang Kapidhondhong, kalajengaken ketawang Pocung Nirbayan laras pelog pathet nem. In this description, Bawa means that the introduction will use a vocal part; sekar ageng explains that the singing will consist of Sanskrit poetry, and in this case the title of the 58 poem is "Retnahasmara." In this tradition each stanza contains four lines, each of which contains an equal number of syllables, so this also gives information on the form of the vocal part (see appendix 2 Bawa Sekar Ageng Retnahasmara laras pelogpahet nem). Katampen indicates that after the introduction, the main gendhing Sumedhang will follow. It is important to note that the reason that this particular gendhing and all of the other shorter pieces in this medley were chosen to be played together may be because they all have the same laras (tuning sytem) and pathet, which in this case is written at the end of the selection description, laras pelog pathet nem. The next section is defined as more challenging and dramatic by the descriptive phrase, minggah ladrang. In this case, Kapidhondhong is the essence of the compilation when the musicians and singers are able to display their talents by following the complex arrangement while improvising ornaments and variations. Kalajengaken ketawang Pocung Nirbayan, means that Pocung Nirbayan is the continuation of ladrang Kapidhondong. Similarly, as can be seen in many commercial cassette recording or CDs which feature Javanese gamelan compositions, there are other terms used, such as terus, dipun lajengaken, kasambet, dipun sambet, all of these are different ways of saying "going on to." These terms are the creative ways of saying "to be continued to" that were adopted during 1950's gamelan performances for the Yogyakarta National Radio (RRI in Yogyakarta) when Pak Cokro, and later his successors, directed medleys of six or seven pieces. These terms are still used at the present time.59 Personal communication with Pak Hardja Susilo in Simon Fraser University, Burnaby April 5, 2005. At that time he was invited by the School for the Contemporary Arts at SFU as a gamelan guest artistic director to perform at an extravaganza gamelan concert held by the Consulate General of The Republic of Indonesia in Vancouver. The difference between dhawah, kaseling, kalajengaken, etc, have also been discussed in the gamelan list: gamelanlistserve@dartmouth.org provided by American Gamelan Institute. See http://www.gamelan.org. 59 4.5 Pathet Analysis in Relation to Repertoire The complexity of the concept of pathet in Javanese gamelan refers to rules that are commonly used in gamelan performance (lit: "paugeran"). Table 6 (see page 48) shows the pitches within certain modes of the gamelan; this table only shows examples of six pathet, divided into the two laras, slendro and pelog, with groups to divide the pitches that are emphasized from the ones that are de-emphasized. This information is an accurate theoretical outline of the pathet that are usually used in gamelan performance. However, in the performance context, the ability to interpret a piece correctly and to evoke the proper rasa, or feeling, is extremely important. In this regard, both theory and practice are useful for musical analysis, performance, and teaching purposes. In Java, many expert gamelan players may not be actually aware of theory, but depend on oral tradition and rote learning (pengalaman di lapangan). On the other hand, Western scholars may often study theory and become highly expert, without playing the gamelan. In my opinion, it is necessary to study theory and play at an expert level in order to understand the subtle complexities of pathet in the gamelan. Perlman wrote: "The apparently clear-cut, formal simplicity of the logic of the pathet system belies its actual complexity. .. .Pathet has stimulated and frustrated generations of Javanese theorists and has become one of the most heavily researched topics in gamelan scholarship." (2004: 43) My choice of pathet analysis method is made to complement Perlman's writings. Many scholars have written about pathet from a theoretical point of view [Kunst (1949), Hood (1954), Kartomi (1973), McDermott and Sumarsam (1975), Hatch (1980), Becker (1981), Martopangrawit (1994), Hastanto (1985), Walton (1987), Brinner (1995), Perlman (2004)]. They are all valid, representing aspects of the complex theory of pathet in the 60 Javanese gamelan using limited examples. However, I have chosen to relate the concept of pathet to the selection of repertoire that would be used in an entire performance of uyon-uyon muryararas at Paku Alaman Palace. By analyzing gendhing repertoire in gamelan performance within a larger context, I hope my work can add to our understanding of pathet. In Javanese cosmology, many philosophical concepts are related to the relationship between microcosmos and the macrocosmos, and so it seems natural to classify gamelan scholarship in a similar fashion. My analysis of pathet refers to the Javanese philosophy "ubenging cokro manggilingan," (literally, "the circle of the wheel is rotating"), which can be interpreted as expressing the concept of the "wheel of life." The wheel of life - representing cycles, such as the life cycle of birth, life, and death, or the daily cycle of waking, activity, and sleep - is familiar to anyone who has studied Eastern philosophy. The three pathets in slendro and pelog can be used as symbols for stages on the wheel of life; the morning or birth stage is energetic, inspiring thoughts of the beginning of activity; the second stage of activity or life is deeper, more settled, and meditative; and the evening or death stage is reflective, moving towards the ending. The two laras, pelog and slendro symbolize the natural balance of cyclical systems -- such as day and night, east and west, or north and south - where each compliments the other. 61 Table 8: Javanese mode (pathet) wheel of life Section Slendro mode Stage on Wheel Pelog mode Performance Order I Nem Birth, Beginning Lima Beginning II Sanga Activity, Maturity Nem Middle III Manyura Age, Reflection Barang End Oh the largest level of the macrocosmos of Javanese culture, each performance fits into a larger cycle as a small segment of the cosmic wheel, which turns without end or beginning. To move to a more manageable level of analysis, it is possible to examine the entire performance as one cycle because the performance travels through the series of pathets, as shown in Table 8. Within this larger cycle there are three divisions (Section I, II, III), which also may contain cycles. This micro-analysis can continue until the cyclical nature of each melodic section or drum pattern may be considered, but it is impractical to attempt this level of analysis on the entire potential repertoire of approximately 500 gendhing. In general, regardless of which particular gendhing, pathet, or repetoire is chosen for a performance, there are patterns and cycles that may be identified, especially observing the order of pathet as it influences the cycle. To illustrate the concept of spirals within the pathet divisions, please see the diagram below. It illustrates the overall layout of the macrocosmos of a full-scale traditional performance (in contrast to short performances for tourists), which would include a minimum of ten gendhing. Besides the beginning and ending, the performance is broken into the three sections as outlined in table 8. Each section would comprise cycles of certain gendhing that fit the appropriate mood and purpose of the respective section of the performance. It also creates the overall 62 dynamic required, based on the choice of the combinations and connections of specific gendhing, such as alternating between specific patterns of laras, pathet, and garap gendhing. Not only is there specific formulae for combinations and successions of gendhing according to these parameters, there would also be a cycle of repetoires for successive performances, which can also be set in cycles based on the 35 day Javanese calendar, and windu cycles of 8 Javanese years. Thus, with a minimum of 10 gendhing per Javanese month, a cycle of 10 Javanese months would require at least 100 different gendhing. This strategy of the regular performance of long-term cycles comprising short-term cycles, requires a strong interconnection between the performers and the music. (diagram on next page) 63 Diagram: Macrocosmos Medley: Gendhing played in either sledro pathet sanga or pelog pathet nem with more complexity of garap. Medley: Gendhing either played in \ slendro pathet nem or sanga/ pelog pathet lima or nem. II V Gendhing soran or alusan, both in pelog or slendro but the pathet should be lima or nem \ / / (fPuspawarnal Begin/ End Medley: Gendhing played in either pelog barang or slendro manyura III Medley: Extra (optional) gendhing that are played in either slendro manyura or pelog barang. Explanation: The parts I, II, and III refer to the three sections as explained in table 6 (page 49). The Arabic numbers 1 to 6 refer to the data in table 7 (page 57). 64 Chapter 5: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This thesis is the result of many years of collecting information about the Javanese gamelan both in Java, from cultural insiders, and in the West, from observations made by academic experts. This information has been organized and developed, then added to information gathered through my personal experience as a gamelan player, teacher and composer. The result is a written record that reflects the placement of the Paku Alaman Palace gamelan and the musicians who play it within the social structure of Javanese life. The importance of Paku Alaman Palace to the historical development of central Javanese gamelan music has been detailed in Chapter One. Observations regarding the influence of Javanese palace gamelans on each other have led to the conclusion that, in the modern era, the influence of Paku Alaman Palace on the continued development of Javanese gamelan is even more significant. The unique position that Paku Alaman Palace occupies geographically, historically, and socially, combined with the open-minded attitude that was the founding principle of Paku Alaman Palace, has enabled the collection and performance of Javanese gamelan repertoire from a variety of sources. The attitude of the founder Paku Alam I has been carried on as a tradition by his heirs who maintained his interest in intellectual and cultural matters. They encouraged modern ideas and the integration of traditions from other institutions, such as Kasunanan Palace, Yogyakarta Palace, and Mangkunegaran Palace. The traditional responsibility of the palace to support and promote gamelan music was limited to the local community in the past, but in the present there are many opportunities to transmit the culture internationally. The Indonesian Institute of Arts, and other arts education sources, and the national radio 65 are valuable for sustaining the gamelan tradition; however the involvement of Paku Alaman Palace is essential for the continuing development of Javanese culture. Global increase in expertise and specialization in the types of art and music that are connected with ethnomusicology programs have especially hastened and furthered the development of gamelan over increasingly wide areas, even worldwide. High technology in information, publication, and documentation, both in the sound recording industry and in videos or telecommunications media, have also increased the speed of development of the gamelan. Even though all of these factors have helped to promote and support gamelan music, there is still a danger that the subtlety and deeper meanings of traditional repertoire and performance practice may be lost to present and future generations. In spite of international interest and palace support, there are three reasons why the palace gamelan tradition requires additional effort to insure a secure future. The most important area that must receive immediate attention is the lack of documentation of gamelan performances. During my years of research I have only found one commercially released LP recording, released in 1971 by Nonesuch Records, that includes only a portion of one uyon-uyon muryararas performance. This lack of recorded performances is even more surprising because, since 1946, the monthly performances of uyon-uyon muryararas have been broadcast over the national radio station. However, even today, not a single performance is recorded and preserved on audio or video media for archival purposes or general release. Cultural attitudes towards the performing arts in Indonesia contribute to accepting the transience of each performance, so the importance of preservation does not occur to 66 individuals or cultural groups who expect that the gamelan will always be there to give another performance. Some gamelan experts understand that each performance of the repertoire is shaped by the individual players, as they are aware of the concepts of garap gendhing and garap pathet that were discussed in the previous chapter. These knowledgeable individuals understand that even though the repertoire may be similar, the unique character of every gamelan performance is dependent on the personality and training of the musicians in the ensemble. That is why it is a tragedy that many masters of the gamelan have passed away without leaving any record of their particular stylistic interpretation of the traditional repertoire that could be used to inspire and inform modem players. It is not too late to begin documenting performances to create a resource for scholars, performers, and the public, but I believe it is very important to begin the process of documentation before more of our experienced master performers age past the prime of their playing years. If action is not taken soon, many of our older players may die without recording examples of performances that display the wealth of experience that they have gathered through their lives. The second area of concern is the competition between traditional gamelan forms and international and local popular culture entertainment for the interest of the younger generation. Traditional gamelan performances contain elements of sacred and secular culture that help to establish the cultural identity of a community. The difference between the gamelan styles of neighboring palaces, such as Pakualaman and Yogakarta or Solo, emphasized the cultural contribution of each area and inspired local pride. Modern global popular culture blurs distinctions between communities and countries into one mass marketing effort that is designed to be very attractive to youth. The effect of this 67 marketing effort is that gamelan is generally perceived to be old fashioned and uninteresting when compared to popular entertainment events and activities that young people prefer to attend. This trend leaves gamelan performers without enough young students to instruct in traditional techniques, while the average age of the players in the group advances. The audience is also aging, and unless something happens to attract more young musicians and audience members, gamelan performances risk becoming irrelevant to the life of the community, existing only as a historical curiosity and entertainment for seniors. The third major area that may affect the future of gamelan is the willingness to exploit the commercial potential of some popular pieces by recording and releasing only those works that are easily marketed for profit. At the present time, the recording industry in Indonesia is driven by profit motives and there is no alternative available that would support recordings for documentary and educational purposes. The tourist industry also impacts performances, as the lure of entrepreneurial success becomes more important than factors such as cultural preservation or traditional significance. Commercial influences on performances outside the palace encourage a repertoire of shorter pieces without including longer pieces in a more classical form, as gamelan performers imitate popular styles. If support for traditional performances fails, then gamelan performances may become so commercialized that the cultural significance will be stripped away, leaving only a shadow of its former glory. The preservation of traditional repertoire and the continued performance of that repertoire as a living cultural expression of identity is a topic of great concern to me. This thesis was written in an effort to express my opinion of the significance of uyon-uyon 68 muryararas gamelan performances within the historical and cultural framework of Javanese life and to warn of the increasing danger that this cultural richness may be lost forever if immediate action is not taken. Much of the traditional repertoire that is usually performed during uyon-uyon muryararas performances has never been properly documented or analyzed, especially when factors related to performance style and interpretation are considered. Many scholars have concentrated on collecting, cataloguing, and analyzing balungan gendhing (melody notation) without considering factors such as interpretation, community performance practice, arrangement, or the melodic ornamentation that is commonly improvised by individual players. In my opinion, it is also important to consider the cultural, historical, and economic conditions that led to the development and continued performance of this repertoire, because this information may give insight into the artistic significance and symbolic meaning of the material that is being presented. This thesis has touched upon these areas in the hope that readers may be able to develop a greater understanding of these background conditions that have influenced the repertoire, both from a historical point of view and in the present. At the present time, it is still possible to act to strengthen the living tradition of gamelan performance exemplified in this thesis by uyon-uyon muryararas, because it still has relevance to modern life. The philosophy of the wheel of life as applied to the visualization of music theory can also be applied to the cyclical nature of cultural trends. As the wheel turns and time passes, there may come a time when traditional gamelan performances, and the cultural values that are represented by these performances, become popular once again. At that time, it would be tragic if most of the treasure had been lost 69 because steps were not taken to preserve the repertoire. Although masters of gamelan performance may become great gurus when past their best years of playing, great gurus will eventually die; and if complete documentation exists of their achievements, then they will live on to influence another generation of players and scholars. 70 APPENDICES Appendix A List of gamelan musicians in Paku Alaman Palace 2006 No. Name Title and Palace' name 1. Tjokrowasito Kangjeng Pangeran Haryo Notoprojo 2. R.M. Murhadi BA. Kangjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung Projowinoto 3. Murwanto Mas Wedana Muryowinoto 4. Sukardi Mas Wedana Gitowinoto 5. Drs. Djumadi Mas Wedana Harsowinoto 6. Drs. Trustho, M. Hum Mas Wedana Purwowinoto 7. Drs. Siswadi, MSn Mas Wedana Reksowinoto 8. Saidi Mas Penewu Dipopangrawit 9. Rajiah Nyi Mas Penewu Darmolukito 10. Niken Larasati Nyi Mas Penewu Nindyolukito 11. Suyamti Nyi Mas Penewu Nindyorini 12. Drs. Agus Suseno M. Hum Mas Ngabei Wiropangrawit 13. Waluyo Mas Ngabei Gunopangrawit 14. Wakidi Mas Ngabei Subopangrawit 15. Widodo Mas Ngabei Widopangrawit 16. Sudirafiarjo Mas Ngabei Citropangrawit 17. Sumo Suradal Mas Ngabei Reksopradonggo 18. Suyamto Mas Ngabei Widyopangrawit 19. Subagyo Raharjo Mas Ngabei Hariopangrawit 20. Rusmi Nyi Mas Ngabei Citroraras 21. Ny. Suhardi (Paikem) Nyi Mas Ngabei Mardiraras 22. Ny. Hadijotho (Watinem) Nyi Mas Ngabei Pusporaras 23. Drs. Sutrisno Mas Lurah Lebda Swara 24. Mulyosubagyo Mas Lurah Wignyopangrawit 25. Suparman Mas Lurah Gondopangrawit 26. Tuwuhono Mas Lurah Lebdopangrawit 27. Mulyoharjono Mas Lurah Mulyopradonggo 28. Supar Sudarsono Mas Lurah Tandyopangrawit 29. Slamet Darsono Mas Lurah Hatmopangrawit 30. Herumulyono Mas Lurah Setyopangrawit 31. Murjono Mas Lurah Ciptopangrawit 32. Samiyati Nyi Mas Lurah Radyorini 33. . Mugini Nyi Mas Lurah Cendhaniraras 34. Sumiyem Nyi Mas Lurah Purborini 35. Utorokondho Mas Bekel Kondhopradonggo 36. Gianto Mas Bekel Jayengsworo 37. Wito Diharjb Mas Bekel Harsopradonggo 38. Prawoto Mas Bekel Purwopanambang 39. Sumaryono Mas Bekel Pujopradonggo 40. Agus Sudigdo Mas Bekel Honggopradonggo 71 41. Tomo Mas Bekel Tomopradonggo 42. Sumarmi Nyi Mas Bekel Warsitorini 43. Sartono Jajar Mas Nitirawito 44. Sumartini Jajar Nyi Madyorini 72 Appendix B List of repertoire used in the birthday performances for Paku Alam VIII, dating from December 11th, 1988; January 31st, 1989; March 26th, 1989; and June 4th, 1989. Date Repertoires December 11, 1988 1. Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura 2. Gendhing Klenthung kethuk sekawan awis minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet lima 3. Bawa sekar Dhandhanggula Padhasih, katampen gendhing Gambirsawit Wangsaguna kethuk kalih kerep mingah Sembunggilang, kalajengaken Rajaswala laras slendro pathet sanga 4. Gendhing Irim-irim kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan, kalajengaken ladrang Manis laras pelog pathet barang 5. Ladrang Sri Kaloka laras slendro pathet manyura 6. Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang January 31, 1989 1. Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura 2. Gendhing Mundhuk kethuk sekawan kerep minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet nem, katindakaken soran 3. Bawa sekar ageng Dhadhapmantep katampen gendhing Roninggadhung kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan kalajengaken ladrang Giyak-giyak laras slendro pathet sanga 4. Gendhing Goyang kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan kalajengaken ladrang Kagok laras pelog pathet lima 5. Gendhing Caranggantung dhawah ladrang Mangsahpati laras slendro pathet manyura 6. Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang 73 March 26th, 1989 1. Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura 2. Gendhing Gendreh kethuk sekawan kerep minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet barang 3. Gendhing miling kethuk sekawan awis minggah kethuk wolu, laras slendro pathet manyura 4. Bawa sekar ageng Mahesabayangan katampen gendhing Andong-andong kethuk kalih kerep dhawah ladrang Jangglengireng laras pelog pathet nem kalajengaken ketawang Wisanggeni 5. Gendhing Larawudhu kethuk kalih kerep minggah minggah ladrang Dhandanggula Subasiti, kalajengaken ketawang Mijil Lagudhempel laras slendro pathet sanga 6. Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang June 4th, 1989 1. Ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura . 2. Gendhing Mundhuk kethuk sekawan kerep minggah kethuk wolu laras pelog pathet nem, katindakaken soran 3. Gendhing Sobrang nyawit kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan kalanjengaken ladrang Sobrang, laras slendro pathet nem 4. Bawa sekar ageng Swandana katampen gendhing Pengasih kethuk kalih kerep dhawah ladrang Sri Kretarta kalajengaken ketawang Langengita, laras pelog pathet nem 5. Iringan tari srimpi Jalmakudha gendhing Gambirsawit kethuk kalih kerep minggah kehuk sekawan, kalajengaken ladrang Gonjang-ganjing laras slendro pathet sanga 6. Gendhing Widasari kethuk kalih kerep minggah kethuk sekawan, kalajengaken ladrang Wirayuda laras pelog pathet barang 7. Bubaran Udanmas laras pelog pathet barang 74 Appendix C Sekar Ageng Retnahasmara, lampah 12 pedhotan 4-8, laras pelog pathet nem 3 2 1 2 3 , 1 2 1 6 5 3 5 6 1 . Dhuh ku - su - ma, 1 1 12.16 6123, 3 2 1 . 3 2 1 . 653 2 . 1 , 1 2 3 3; kang tan sah a - sung war - da - ya; 3 5 .6 6 1.23, 3 2 1.3 2 1.6 5 3 2 . 1 , sun te- te- dha, 5 6 6 6, 6^5 3 5 . 6 . 2123 1 . 2 1 6 ; den- i - ra sih ti - nu - lus - na; 3 2 1 2 3 . 1 2 1 6 5 3 5 6 1. ka- wu- la- nta, 1 1 12.16 6123 . 3 2 1 . 3 2 1 . 653 2 . 1 . 1 2 3 3; su- keng tyas ma- nges- tu- ^pa- da; 3 2 3 5 . 654 , 65 3 2.1 2 1, mring pa - du - ka, 1 1__2 2_J5 3 . . 2_1 2 . 3 1 2 1 (6) ma - nga - yun a - yun has - ma - ra. 75 Appendix D List of interviews Notoprojo, K.P.H. Interview by author, July 20,2003. Yogyakarta. Taped recording. . Interview by author, June 6,2004. Yogyakarta. Taped recording. _ . Interview by author, August 4, 2004. Yogyakarta. Taped recording. Projowinoto, K.R.M.T. Interview by author, July 10, 2004. Yogyakarta. Taped recording. . Interview by author, March 20, 2006. Telephone correspondence. Suhardi. Interview by author, January 3, 1999. Yogyakarta. Taped recording. . 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"Approaching the Analysis of Javanese Pathet: A Consideration of Current Research." A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Wesleyan University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Connecticut. 1990. Mudjanto G. The Concept of Power in Javanese Culture. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1986. . Kasultanan Yogyakarta & Kadipaten Pakualaman. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1994. Perlman, Marc. Unplayed Melodies: Javanese Gamelan and the Genesis of Music Theoiy. London: University of California Press, 2004. Peursen, C A . Strategi Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1976. Poerwokoesoemo, Soedarisman. Kadipaten Paku Alaman. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1985: 146-156. Raffles, Thomas Stamford. 1817. The History of Java, 2 vols. Reprinted Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1982. Reid, Antony. "In The Winning of Independence of Indonesia" ed. by Robin Jeffery. London: Macmillan, 1981. Ricklefs, M.C. Yogyakarta Under Sultan Mangkubumi (1749-1792). A History of the Division of Java. London: Oxford University Press, 1974. 78 . Modern Javanese Historical Tradition. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 1978. Robson, Stuart. The Kraton: Selected essay on Javanese courts. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2003. Sindusawarno, Ki . 1984. "Faktor Penting Dalam Gamelan" [The important factor in gamelan]. Trans. Stanley Hoffman, in Becker and Feinstein 1984: 311-87. Original work, 1956. . 1987. "Ilmu Karawitan" [Theory of karawitan]. Trans. Martin Hatch, in Becker and Feinstein 1987: 311-87. Original work, 1955. Selayang Pandang Penguasa Praja Pakualaman. Yogyakarta: Bebadan Museum Pura Paku Alaman, no year. Smithies, Michael. Yogyakarta Cultural Heart of Indonesia. Singapore: Oxford University Press, Oxford New York, 1986. Soedarsono, R M . Seni Pertunjukan: Dari Perspektif Politik, Sosial, dan Ekonomi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2003. Soemonagoro, K.R.M.T.H. Serat Karawitan. Sragen: Holah Karawitan, 1936. Sorrell, Neil. A Guide to the Gamelan. London: Faber and Faber, 1990. Sumarsam. Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1994. . "Opportunity and Interaction: The Gamelan from Java to Wesleyan," in Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensemble, ed. Ted Solis (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2004. Supanggah, Rahayu. "Balungan" Paper presented at the International Gamelan Festival-symposium,Vancouver, Canada. English translation by Marc Perlman, Balungan 3/2 (1988) pp. 2-10. Suparno, Slamet T. "Bawa Gawan Gending." Surakarta: Proyek Pengembangan IKI Sub Bagian Proyek ASKI Surakarta. 1980/1981. Susilo, Hardja. "Toward An Appreciation of Javanese Gamelan," http://www.gamelan.org/library/susiloessay.html (accessed 23 March 2004). Sutton, Anderson R. Tradition of Gamelan Music in Java. Chicago: Cambridge University Press. 1991. 79 . Variation in Javanese Gamelan Music: Dynamics of a Steady State (Monograph Series on Southeast Asia, Special Report No. 28). DeKalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 1993. Tenzer, Michael Balinese Music. Singapore: Periplus Edition. 1998. Tim Pengkajian "Maskarja". Elo, Elo! Lha Endi Buktine? Seabad Kelahiran Empu Karawitan Ki Tjokrowasito. Yogyakarta: Masyarakat Karawitan Jawa (Maskarja), 2004. Vetter, Roger. R. "Music Of The Lap Of The World': Gamelan Performance, Performers, and Repertoire In The Kraton Yogyakarta." Ph.D. dissertation, Madison: The University of Wisconsin. 1986. . "Review of Mode in Javanese Music," by Susan Pratt Walton in E M 32/2 (1989) pp. 152-154 Walton, susan Pratt. Mode in Javanese Music. Monash Papers in International Studies Southeast Asian Series No. 79, Athens: Ohio University Press. 1987. Walujo, WP. Djoko. R. Karawitan Surakarta di Yogyakarta. Tugas Akhir Program Boosting Karawitan Jurusan Seni Karawitan Fakultas Kesenian. Yogyakarta: Institut Seni Indonesia. 1990. Wenten, I Nyoman. "The Creative World of Ki Wasitodipuro: The Life and Work of a Javanese Composer." A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirement for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Ethnomusicology. Los Angeles: University of California. 1996. 80 abdi dalem abdi dalem Langen Praja abdi dalem pangirit adu macan alun-alun ambeksa balugan bangsal bekel beksan Bendoro Pangeran Haria bentuk (musical) Boyong Penganten Bremara Bubaran Udan Mas Bubaran Udan Mas laras pelog pathet barang Bupati GLOSSARY (proper nouns are capitalized) All persons in the service of the king, regardless of their rank Those who serve the king in the division of cultural affairs in the Paku Alaman Palace Those who act as a leader in the division of performing arts in the Paku Alaman Palace Animal fights for the purpose of entertainment Open square belonging to the Javanese palace 1. To do dancing; 2. People who are expert in dancing Melodic skeleton of gendhing Open-air pavilion Lower rank of court official A dance The higher-rank of noblemen Form The name of a Javanese composition {gendhing) often performed for wedding ceremony. 1. Bee; 2. The higher-ranking name given by a king to gamelan musicians in Paku Alaman Palace An ending piece called Udan Mas (Golden Rain). This piece played at the close of a function while the audience departs. An ending piece called Golden Rain played in the tuning of pelog, in pathet barang mode. 1. The rank of a high-level court official in Java; 81 Bupati sepuh Daerah Istimewa Dalem Ageng Danawara Dayapradangga desa mawa cara, negara mawa tata Dhalang Dhandhanggula Temanten Anyar digugu dipun lajengaken dipun sambet ditiru Gangsa Kyai Pengawesari garap garap gendhing garap pathet gedhe 2. Mayor The senior-rank of a high-level court official in Java The central government's authorization to the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and to Aceh (the Northwest region of Sumatera island) to govern their own regions. Large house in the palace The main gate in Paku Alaman Palace The name of a gamelan group, which means, "The power of musicians." The village has its ways, and the city has its rules. Puppeteer A poetic meter of traditional Javanese song often used to accompany a wedding ceremony To obey someone who should be obeyed Going on to (a synonym of kalajengaken) Going on to (a synonym of kasambei) To follow someone who should be followed "The Venerable Essence of Invitation," the name of a Javanese gamelan owned by the Paku Alaman palace. The way by which musicians work out their parts in a composition Realization of the essence of a piece by a singer or instrumentalist in accordance with traditional Javanese composition Realization of the essence of a piece by singer or instrumentalist in accordance with musical Javanese mode Large 82 gedhong gendhing gendhing alusan Gendhing Majemuk gendhing soran Gendhing Sridirgayuswa gerong gong ageng grebeg gubernur guru guru laku irama Large house in the palace (a synonym of dalem ageng) Javanese musical compositions A genre of composition in which the soft sounding instruments take a leading role The name of composition often performed for gathering celebration A genre of composition in which the loud sounding instruments take a leading role The name of composition often performed for a birthday celebration The male chorus in gamelan Large gong The important Islamic religious festivals held in the palace, of which there are three: 1) grebeg Mulud (celebration of Muhammad's birthday), 2) grebeg Pasa (feast celebration of the end of the fasting period in Ramadan month), 3) grebeg Besar (feast celebration of the sacrifice; the day that commemorates the sacrifice of Ismail by Ibrahim, a holy day associated with the pilgrimage to Mecca Governor Teacher Experiential learning Refers to the differences of tempo relationship within a gendhing or gongan. It is a musical concept pertaining to the organization of time in the ensemble which corresponds to stretching and compression of melodic units. 83 irama dados (dadi) Also known as irama II, in which the ratio between the basic beats of the gendhing and the highest density level of the instrument is 1/8. irama lancar irama rangkep irama tanggung irama wilet jalan jaman mas jaman merdeka jaman penjajahan jangkep Jemuahifum'at joglo kalajengaken Kangjeng Gusti Pangeran Adipati Aria Kangjeng Mas Tumenggung Kangjeng Pangeran Aria The Irama in which the degree of subdivision of number of strokes on the highest density level of the instrument is 2 strokes per balungan beat. Also known as irama IV, in which the degree of subdivision of number of strokes on the highest density level of the instrument is 16 strokes per balungan beat. Also known as irama I, in which the degree of subdivision of number of strokes on the highest density level of the instrument is 4 strokes per balungan beat. Also known as irama III, in which the degree of subdivision of number of strokes on the highest density level of the instrument is 8 strokes per balungan beat. To walk Golden period The post-colonialist era of Indonesia Colonial times Complete One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Selasa, Rebo, Kemis, Setu, and Minggu. Steep upper section of the roof of a traditional Javanese mansion Going on to (a synonym of kasambet) The highest-rank of noblemen The rank of a higher-level court official in Java The title of a prince 84 Kangjeng Pangeran Haryo Kangjeng Raden Mas Tumenggung Kapidhondhong karawitan kasambet Katampen Kawedanan langenpraja Kecamatan Kemis kendhang ketawang. ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura klenengan Kliwon kraton or keraton labuhan The title of a prince The higher-rank of noblemen The name of a gendhing The art of Javanese gamelan and vocal music Going on to (a synonym of dipun sambet) To go to the first piece in the medley The division of cultural affairs in the Paku Alaman Palace Subdistrict One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Selasa, Rebo, Jemuwah, Setu, and Minggu. Drums of the gamelan Form of gamelan piece with 16 beats to the gongan A well-known composition, the theme music of Paku Alaman Palace, beautified for the Paku Alam's presence by stylized cries from the male chorus or gerong. The text refers to "a bouquet of flowers." A concert of gamelan music, i.e., gamelan music not used as accompaniment One day in the five-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other four days are Pon, Wage, Legi, and Pahing. Palace Annual sacrificial ceremony usually held by Javanese court 85 Ladrang Mugi Rahayu lagu Lala Penganten Langen Praja laras pelog laras slendro Legi Lurah malem selikuran malik Mardiwirama Mas Lurah Lebda Swara minggah (minggah) Minggu\Akhat Murbararas A name of a well known Javanese gamelan composition in the ladrang form i.e., 32 beats cycle per gongan Melody A name of a well-known Javanese gendhing, usually performed in the wedding ceremony An association comprising a group of highly trained musicians, dancers, and singers, as part of performing arts in the Paku Alaman Palace One of the laras (tuning system), comprising seven notes One of the laras (tuning system), comprising five notes One day of the five-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other four days are Pon, Wage, Kliwon, and Poking. 1. The rank of a middle-level court official in Java; 2. Chieftain, such as the chief of the village A Muslim celebration of the 21 s l day of Ramadan To change The name of a gamelan group, which means, "To maintain the rhythm." The rank of a middle-level court official in the Paku Alaman Palace. The title and name indicate the expertise of traditional Javanese song (tembang). The second section of a composition of long formal structure One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Selasa, Rebu, Kemis, Jemuwah, and Setu. The name of a gamelan group, which means, "To arrange a pleasure." 86 Ngabei ngendiko sepisan tan keno wola-wali ngeng ngonceki dewe ngudhal nguyu-uyu nyantrik nyecep Pahing pakurmatan Pancawara Panewu pangeran Pangirit Pangrawit pasar pathetan The middle-rank title of noblemen To think much before any word is spoken, and when a statement is made, it should be consistent and not subject to change. 1. A Javanese word that symbolizes mastery and industriousness; 2. Inner melody To figure out for himself One who researches important moral issues and presents options to the public The first part of a gamelan concert, in which gendhing bonang is being played To study with a private guru in the guru's house To study directly with an older relative One day of the five-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other four days are Pon, Wage, Kliwon, and Legi. (Referring in this thesis i.e., gamelan pakurmatan), a type of gamelan to honor a special occasion The five day week in the Javanese lunar calendar The rank of a lower-middle-level court official in Java Javanese prince Leader Musician Market A type of song expressing calmness, sung by the dhalang in wayang, with reduced instrumental accompaniment, or played just by those instruments as preludes or postludes to gamelan pieces, of which the primary function is to establish or confirm the pathet. 87 patih paugeran pelog pengalaman di lapangan perang Diponegoro pesindhen pethilan bambangan cakil Pocung Nirbayan Pon pradangga Puspawarna rasa Rawita rebab Rebo Retnahasmara Riya Vice regent, chief minister to a king Unwritten rules One of the laras (tuning system), comprising seven notes. See also laras pelog. Rote learning A Javanese war led by the prince of Diponegoro Female singer in gamelan A dance that derives from a tale within the Hindu epic Mahabarata The name of gendhing featuring a poetic meter called Pocung One day of the five-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other four days are Wage, Kliwon, Legi, and Poking. Musicians A name of a piece meaning "A bouquet of flowers." See also ketawang Puspawarna laras slendro pathet manyura. Roughly synonymous with mood or feeling, originating in Indian aesthetic theory The name given by a king to indicate the willingness to play gamelan Two-stringed fiddle One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Selasa, Kemis, Jemuwah, Setu and Minggu. The name of poetic meter of traditional Javanese song The rank of a upper-middle-level court official in Java 88 sabdo pandhito ratu sapangkon saptawara Sekarteja sekaten selapan dina Selasa sendratari Senin sepekenan seperangkat Setu siraman pusaka kereta kencana slendro sora sulukan sungai tembang The utterance of priest and king. See also ngendiko sepisan tan kena wola-wali. The standard set of Central Javanese gamelan The seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar The name of a Javanese composition (gendhing) A religious festival to celebrate the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad Thirty five days according to the Javanese lunar calendar One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Rebo, Kemis, Jemuwah, Setu and Minggu. Dance drama One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Selasa, Rabo, Kemis, Jemuwah, Setu and Minggu Celebration of five days of birth or wedding ceremony The standard set of Central Javanese gamelan. See also sapangkon. One day of the seven-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other six days are Senin, Selasa, Kemis, Jemuwah, Setu and Minggu. A cleansing of the golden chariot One of the two laras, comprising five tones Loud Chants sung by the dhalang in a wayang River An unaccompanied genre of Javanese vocal music 89 terus tint gendhing tumbuk ageng ubenging cokro manggilingan To continue Team leaders or supervisors for gendhing repertoire An anniversary of great meeting or convergence of the 8 t h Windu year in Javanese lunar calendar The circle of the wheel is rotating, approximating the expression "The wheel of life." uyon-uyon uyon-uyon muryararas Wage Wakil Gubernur wayang wayang kulit wayang wong Wedana wignya wiletan windu wiwara kusuma winayang reka Gamelan concert for the pleasure of listening Gamelan performance for the pleasure of listening held every 35 days in Pakualaman palace One day of the five-day week in the Javanese lunar calendar. The other four days are Pon, Kliwon, Legi, and Pahing. See also kliwon. Deputy governor Refers to the shadow puppet play wayang kulit Javanese shadow-play with flat leather puppets Theatrical genre similar in conventions to wayang kulit but using human actors The rank of a high-level court official in Java Expert Aspect of musical ornamentation An eight-year cycle in the Javanese calendar Refers to the year 1884 of the opening of the large main gate in Paku Alaman Palace. This type of expression is called sengkalan, a special way of commemorating the date in old Javanese language by each word referring to a specific number, in this case, the four words refer to 1-8-8-4 respectively. wulang lesson 90 

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