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Bridging the two solitudes : translated French-Canadian children’s literature from 1900 to 2004 Cobban, Michelle 2006

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BRIDGING THE TWO SOLITUDES: TRANSLATED FRENCH-CANADIAN CHILDREN'S LITERATURE FROM 1900 TO 2004 by MICHELLE COBBAN B.A. Honors, The University of Western Ontario, 2001 THESIS SUBMITTED EN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Children's Literature) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2006 ©Michelle Cobban, 2006 11 ABSTRACT In Canada, where only 18% of the population is bilingual in English and French, translation should be an essential part of Canadian literature, and research on translation should be an essential part of research on Canadian literature. In the field of Canadian children's literature, however, research on translation has been minimal. There has not been a significant, in-depth overview of translated Canadian children's literature since 1987, and since then, much has changed. This study updates the current knowledge of Canadian children's books that have been translated from French into English and published in Canada from 1900 to 2004. It compiles a comprehensive list of the translated French-Canadian children's books held by Library and Archives Canada and analyses characteristics of the books in order to identify historical and contemporary trends in translated French-Canadian children's literature. The study identifies 678 translations, observing that the annual number of translations has increased fairly steadily since 1900, peaking in 2001 and decreasing dramatically since then. The majority of translations are picture books and illustrated nbnfiction, with other genres like novels, drama, and short stories figuring much less prominently, and poetry not being translated at all. Series have played a significant role in translation, particularly the Caillou series, which makes up over 12% of the translations in this study. Overall, Canadian publishers have tended to be cautious, publishing well-known French-Canadian authors, illustrators, and series almost exclusively, rather than taking risks on unfamiliar authors or challenging themes. Translations by English-Canadian publishers, who had historically published the majority of English translations, have decreased steadily since 1988, while translations by Quebec publishers increased from the 1970s to 2001, when they also began to decrease. The relatively low popularity of translated books in the English-language market, coupled with Canadian publishers' increasing reliance on the American market, as well as inconsistent government support for translations, has left French-Canadian children's literature in a state of crisis. As a result, the number and diversity of translated French-Canadian children's books are limited; this is a particular concern for anglophone Canadians, who have no other way to experience French-Canadian children's literature except in translation. i v T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents .... iv List of Tables vi List of Figures vii Acknowledgements viii CHAPTER I Introduction 1 CHAPTER JJ Literature Review 3 Translating Children's Literature: A Canadian Perspective 3 Existing Research on Translated Canadian Children's Literature 4 Translated Canadian Children's Literature 5 Translated French-Canadian Children's Literature 7 French-Canadian Children's Literature 8 Differences Between English and French-Canadian Children's Books 9 Publishing Translated Children's Books in Canada 12 Government Funding for Translation in Canada 14 Publishers of Translated French-Canadian Children's Books 17 Obstacles Facing Translation in Canada 19 Translating Children's Literature: An International and Theoretical Perspective 22 Illustrations in Translated Children's Literature 23 Reading Translated Children's Literature Aloud .25 Domestication or Foreignization in the Translation Process 26 Censorship and Adaptation in the Translation Process 29 Evaluating Quality in Translated Children's Literature 33 Advantages of Translating Children's Literature 34 Disadvantages of Translating Children's Literature 35 CHAPTER III Methodology 39 Sample 39 Data Collection 40 Bibliographic Information 41 Subject Matter 42 Genre 42 Toy/Kit Books 42 Original Title, Publisher, and Date of Publication 43 Series Information 43 Edition Information 43 Data Analysis 43 V CHAPTER IV RESULTS 45 Number of Translations 45 Genre 46 Caillou and Other Series 50 Multiple Editions 51 Toy/Kit Books 52 Publishers 52 Simultaneous Translation : 55 Self-Publishing 56 Authors 56 Translators.... 57 Subject Matter 57 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 59 Trends and Issues in Translated French-Canadian Children's Literature 59 The Future of Translated French-Canadian Children's Literature 75 Limitations of the Research 76 Suggestions for Further Research 78 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 81 Table 85 Figures 86 References 91 Appendix: Bibliography of Translated French-Canadian Children's Books 101 List of Tables Table 1: Publishers of French-Canadian Children's Books vii List of Figures Figure 1: Number ofTranslated French Canadian Children's Books: 1900to2004 86 Figure 2: Overall Distribution ofTranslated French-Canadian Children's Books 87 Figure 3: Translated French-Canadian Children's Books, Subdivided by Genre 88 Figure 4: Caillou Books as a Proportion of the Total Number of Translations 89 Figure 5: Province of Publication: 1900 to 2004 90 V U l Acknowledgements My sincerest appreciation goes to my thesis committee members, Ann Curry and Ronald Jobe, whose comments and efforts were integral to the success of this manuscript. I would also like to acknowledge the substantial contributions of Anne Scott, whose comments on the manuscript were very much appreciated. Finally, special thanks goes to my thesis supervisor, Judith Saltman, whose knowledge, patience, and encouragement helped me enormously throughout this project. 1 INTRODUCTION French- and English-Canadian literature are often called the "two solitudes" because they are almost entirely separate from one another. Only 18% of the Canadian population is bilingual in English and French, which means that only 18% of Canadians are able to read Canadian literature in both English and French (Statistics Canada, 2005). The remaining 82% of Canadians need to use translation as a bridge between the two solitudes. The translation bridge between French-Canadian and English-Canadian literature and culture is small but critically important. After all, translations are the only books from the other official language that most Canadians are able to read. As a result, understanding translated books and translation in Canada is an integral part of understanding Canadian literature as a whole. In the study of Canadian children's literature, research on translation is minimal. More research is needed in this area, particularly comprehensive historical research that can provide a foundation for future research. The present study has attempted to provide that foundation, focusing on the history and development of French-Canadian children's literature that has been translated from French into English and published in Canada from 1900 to 2004. The study outlines the history of translated French-Canadian children's literature in two ways. Firstly, it gathers information from research on translated French-Canadian children's literature research, in order to better understand the historical and contemporary context for translated children's literature in Canada. Since research on this topic was limited, it was necessary to draw from a variety of fields, including children's literature, Canadian publishing, translation of Canadian literature, and international translation of 2 children's literature, in order to create a cohesive understanding of translated French-Canadian children's literature. Secondly, and most importantly, the study compiles a comprehensive bibliography of translated French-Canadian children's literature from 1900 to 2004. The bibliography was then analysed in order to reveal trends in the annual number of translations; the genre of translated books; the names of the publishers (of both the translated and the original versions); the names of the authors, illustrators, and translators; the subject matter of nonfiction books; series and edition information; and physical descriptions of the translated books, including number of pages and inclusion of add-ons and accessories. As such, the study has identified many of the historical and current trends in translated French-Canadian children's literature, as well as made some predictions about the future development of translated French-Canadian children's literature. Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that the number of translated French-Canadian children's books would be low but increasing over the years, particularly after the 1970s, and that the proportion of translated picture books would be high, while the proportion of translated poetry and dramatic works would be almost nonexistent. It was also expected that publishers of translations would be cautious, emphasizing successful series and well-known authors and illustrators, rather than taking chances on new authors. It was hypothesized that the publishers of translations would be mostly mid-sized Canadian publishers, with a fairly equal balance between French-Canadian and English-Canadian publishers. It was also expected that few of the translations would emphasize the fact that they are translations, and few of them would have overt French-Canadian content. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW Translation is an important element of children's literature in many countries. In non-English-speaking European countries, for example, at least 50% of children's books are translations (Cotton, 2000). In Finland, as many as 80% of picture books are translations (Oittinen, 2003), and in Sweden, at least half of the new children's books published each year are translations (Tabbert, 2002). In English-speaking countries, however, the statistics are quite different. In the United Kingdom during the 1990s, fewer than 3% of books were translations (Cotton, 2000), and in the United States, there were even fewer translations (Tomlinson, 1998). This difference between translation in English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries is not surprising given that the majority of translations in non-English-speaking countries are of English-language books. For example, in Finland, up to 90% of translated picture books are from English (Oittinen, 2003). Translating Children's Literature: A Canadian Perspective In Canada, the trends are similar to those in other, similar-language countries. In English-Canada, translations make up a much smaller portion of children's books than they do in French-Canada (Gagnon, 1987; Reimer, 2004), where many of the best-selling books are American books translated in France (Stevenson, 2003). The number of English-Canadian books that have been translated into French has been estimated at three to four times higher than that of French-Canadian books that have been translated into English (Gagnon, 1987). As a result, the number of French-Canadian children's books available to English-Canadian readers in translation is low. This is a particular concern because the vast majority of Canadians (68%) do not 4 speak French at all, which means that if French-Canadian children's books are not translated into English, then 68% of Canadians cannot read them. For this reason, translation ought to be an essential part of Canadian children's literature and, by extension, an essential part of research on Canadian children's literature as well. Existing Research on Translated Canadian Children's Literature The translation of children's literature in Canada is an issue that has received relatively little scholarly attention. The only in-depth study of translated Canadian children's literature that has ever been published is Andre Gagnon's 1987 survey of translated Canadian children's books. Since then—after almost twenty years—no researcher has attempted such a comprehensive study of Canadian children's literature in translation, even though much has changed since 1987. Even studies of a less comprehensive nature are rare, and most of them have been written in French. Most recently, Andree Poulin (2002,2003) explored some of the current trends and issues related to translated Canadian children's literature. However, other than these three articles, there have been no scholarly publications that focus exclusively on this issue.1 Although translated children's literature tends to be discussed in most studies of Canadian children's literature as a whole, the discussion tends to be somewhat brief and peripheral, which is understandable given that the number of translated Canadian children's books is quite small (Egoff & Saltman, 1990; Reimer, 2004; Saltman, 1987). i My conclusion that there has been limited research published on translated children's literature was based on a search of the following databases: Academic Search Premier, Canadian Literary Periodicals Index (CLPI), Canadian Periodical Index (CPI), CBCA Complete, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA), Modern Language Association International Bibliography, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. 5 Because the published research on translated Canadian children's literature is so limited, it is difficult to gain a comprehensive understanding of the subject based on published research alone; in fact, the discrepancy between published research and reality may be significant. Information gained from professionals involved with Canadian publishing may differ significantly from that found in published research; however, it was beyond the scope of this study to gather such individual accounts. Because research on translated Canadian children's literature is in its early stages, there are many gaps and questions that remain unanswered in the published research. In later chapters, this paper will address some of those gaps and questions as well as speculate on possible explanations. Translated Canadian Children's Literature One of the main reasons why few scholars are studying this issue is that there are very few translated children's books in Canada, and the majority of them have only been published within the last thirty years or so. According to Gagnon's research (1987), as well as studies by Stratford (1977) and Smiley (1980), the number of children's books translated before 1972 was quite small—an average of one book per decade prior to 1960, then an average of one book per year in the 1960s. In 1972, the Canadian government developed a program that has had a significant impact on Canadian translation: the Canada Council Translation Grants Program (CCTGP) (Gagnon, 1987). The program, which continues to this day, provides government funding to Canadian publishers who wish to publish Canadian books in translation. The CCTGP has certainly increased the number of Canadian books in translation: in the first five years of the program alone, there were almost twice as many translations published as had been 6 published in the entire previous century (Martin, 1994). After twenty-five years of funding, there were approximately nine times as many translations as in the previous century (Benson & Toye, 1997). Despite the increase in translations, the number of translated children's books currently published in Canada continues to be low (Reimer, 2004). Even by 2003, of the approximately 400 children's books that are annually published in Quebec, barely ten or so are translated into English each year (Poulin, 2003). Among translated Canadian books for adults in both official languages, the trends are similar, with only 40 literary books per year, or barely 1% of all Canadian books published in the 1990s, being translations from the other official language (Conlogue, 1998; Grady 1995). Not only is the number of translations into English low, it is also disproportionate to the number of translations into French, in that English-to-French translations significantly outnumber French-to-English translations (Gagnon, 1987; Poulin, 2003). Prior to 1972, the number of translations into the two languages was almost equal. After 1972, however, the equality disappears. Gagnon (1987) reports that from 1972-1986, "English to French translation of children's books outnumber [sic] French to English translations of children's books by 4 to 1" (p. 17). This trend was also observed among adult books at this time (Stratford, 1983). Today, the number of translations into both official languages continues to be small in both children's and adult literature, although translations of adult literature have been rising since 2002 (Whitfield, 2003/2004). The imbalance between French and English is particularly true for non-literary translation in Canada: if all kinds of publications are considered (including monographs, pamphlets and brochures, but excluding government documents), the imbalance is shocking. In 1997, only 0.579% of all translations were into English, whereas 98.8% of all translations were into French (Koustas, 1997). That means that outside of literary publishing, there are over 170 times as many translations into French as into English. This observation supports Even-Zohar's observation (1979) that a "marginal, new, insecure or weakened culture tends to translate more texts than a culture in a state of relative centrality" (Bassnett, 1991, p. xii). With such a tremendous imbalance among non-literary translations, it is actually somewhat surprising that the imbalance among literary translations is so small in comparison. Doubtless, the CCGTP's funding for literary translations has helped to narrow the gap. Translated French-Canadian Children's Literature Among translations of French-Canadian children's literature, some genres are consistently better represented than others. From 1972 to 1986, according to Gagnon (1987), the majority of translated French-Canadian children's books (58%) were picture books, over half of which were from a few board book series published in 1984 and 1985. Twenty-two percent of translations were novels, and 20% were nonfiction; none of the translations were poetry or drama. The distribution of translations was not representative of French-Canadian children's publishing at this time. In the early 1980s, among French-Canadian children's books, 22% were picture books, 56% were novels, 4% were nonfiction, and 18% belonged to other categories, including activity books and short story collections (Madore, 1991). These statistics show that in the 1980s, French-Canadian picture books and nonfiction books were over-represented in translation, whereas novels were under-represented. In other ways, too, French-Canadian children's books in translation are not representative of the original literature. Most translations tend to be limited to easily-marketable books from well-known French-Canadian authors or series (Gagnon, 1987). 8 Even major award-winning books are not often translated into English unless they are from an established author or illustrator. Prior to 1987, fewer than 25% of the two major French-language children's literature awards in Canada—the Governor-general's award and the prix Alvine-Belisle (formerly the Canadian Library Association's medaille de bronze)—had been translated into English (Gagnon, 1987). Since 1987, that number has not changed significantly. Of the 18 winners of the prix Alvine-Belisle, only 4 (22%) have been translated into English. Of the 35 winners of the Governor-General's award for text or illustration, 11 (31%) have been translated; unfortunately, the vast majority of them (over 70%) won for illustration rather than text. Of the 18 winners for text, 3 (17%) were translated; of the 17 winners for illustration, 8 (47%) were translated. Al l but three of the translated versions (73%) were published before 1997 (Canada Council, 2005b). French-Canadian Children's Literature Overall, the trends in French-Canadian children's literature are not well represented in the translated books. In the early development of French-Canadian children's literature, as in English-Canadian children's literature, there were very few children's books published (Saltman, 1987). In the nineteenth century, there were essentially no French-Canadian children's books—in 1893, it was observed that French-Canadian children's literature "nous manque totalement ici" 2 (Michon, 1999a, p. 363). Prior to 1920, only 50 or so Canadian children's books had been published in French (Michon, 1999a). However, by the late 1960s, when English-Canadian children's literature was beginning to prosper (Egoff & Saltman, 1990; Saltman, 1987), there was a serious crisis in French-Canadian children's publishing: all but two Quebec publishers had stopped publishing children's books, and from 1968 to ^anslation: "is completely lacking here" 9 1970, only seven children's books were published in Quebec (Daveluy & Boulizon, 1973; Tetreault, 1991). In the 1970s, however, the numbers began to rise, and over 100 picture books were published in that decade (Tetreault, 1991). Although the quality of the books was initially inconsistent, they gradually began to incorporate more innovative themes, subjects, and illustrations, reflecting a dynamic and exciting Quebec publishing industry (Pouliot, 2004). In the 1990s, the production of picture books decreased while the production of novels increased, but the innovative and beautiful style of French-Canadian picture books continued to develop (Landreville & Marsolais, 2002). Over the last few decades, French-Canadian children's literature has been steadily gaining in popularity—since the 1980s, there has been a "spectacular growth in popularity of children's literature in Quebec" (Michon, 1994). Bookstores began devoting more display space to French-Canadian children's literature, to the extent that by the mid-nineties, it was estimated that French-Canadian children's literature accounted for 70% of the sales of children's books in Quebec (Landreville & Marsolais, 2002). Today, there are an estimated 350 to 400 French-Canadian children's books produced each year in Quebec (Landreville, 2003; Landreville & Marsolais, 2002; Poulin, 2003), and all types of children's books are doing well, with the exception of nonfiction (Landreville & Marsolais, 2002). Differences Between English- and French-Canadian Children's Literature French-Canadian children's literature is subtly different from that of English Canada, which may explain why so little of it is translated from French into English. Ironically, some would say that it is precisely because of these differences that French-Canadian children's literature should be translated into English. French-Canadian children's literature has a style 10 which is quite distinct from that of English-Canadian children's literature. Jean Fugere describes this distinctive style as "une quebecitude"3 (Landreville, 2003, p. 7), while Christiane Duchesne describes it as being "trap europeenne"4 (Landreville, 2003, p. 7). One reason for the distinctive style of French-Canadian children's literature is the tremendous diversity of literary and artistic influences in French Canada, including literature from French-speaking countries such as France and Belgium and translations from English-speaking countries such as Canada, England, and the United States. This difference is most easily observed in French-Canadian illustration, which is noticeably distinct from that of English Canada and elsewhere (Landreville, 2003). Marie-Louise Gay describes it as being more creative, with a more humourous and fantasy-based approach: "une facon de voir le monde beaucoup plus joyeuse"5 (Landreville, 2003, p. 7). French-Canadian illustrations have proven to be quite successful on the international marketplace, with many Quebec illustrators working in English Canada, Europe, and the United States (Landreville, 2003). In Canada, for example, French-Canadian illustrators often work with both French-Canadian and English-Canadian authors and publishers. In fact, French-Canadian illustrators often win the Governor General's Award for illustration for both French and English texts. In the last ten years, they have won 63% of the awards for illustration in both languages; in the last five years, they have won 80% of the awards (Canada Council, 2005b). The differences that are so apparent in French-Canadian illustrations are often translation: having a Qu^becois quality, essential "Quebec-ness" "translation: "too European" 5translation: "a much more joyous way of seeing the world" 11 similarly present in the texts of the books (Landreville, 2003). The format, style, subjects, and themes of French-Canadian children's books can often be different from those of English-Canadian children's books (Poulin, 2003). Michele Marineau, French-Canadian author and translator of English-Canadian children's literature, suggests that many English-Canadian children's books are more complex, more descriptive, longer, and slower-paced than French-Canadian children's books. They also tend to have more diversity of theme and genre, including such genres as historical fiction and science fiction (Poulin, 2002), although in general, English-Canadian children's books tend to stress realism more than their French-Canadian counterparts (Poulin, 2002). According to Robert Soulieres, English-Canadian children's books tend to focus more on family, community, and social relationships, rather than being "tourne vers soi-meme"6 like many French-Canadian children's books (Poulin, 2002, p. 9). French-Canadian children's books, on the other hand, tend to take more risks in subject matter and illustration, particularly when it comes to sexuality in young adult novels, nudity in picture books and difficult themes such as death or alcoholism in books for younger readers (Landreville, 2003). Some hypothesize that these risks are among the major obstacles to getting French-Canadian children's books translated into English. For example, although Michele Marineau has twice won the Governor General's Award for her young adult novels in French, and has had two of her six novels translated into English, one of which was nominated for the Governor General's Award in translation, her Governor General's Award-winning novel Cassiopee ou Vete polonais (1988), which openly addresses teenage sexuality, has not been translated (Poulin, 2002). Marineau believes that its frank presentation of sexuality, which is 6translation: "introspective" 12 nevertheless moderate and tasteful, has prevented it from being translated (Poulin, 2002). Because of the minimal translation of Canadian children's literature, there is limited mutual understanding between the French- and English-Canadian children's literature communities. For example, in a study of 40 successful French- and English-Canadian children's writers, Michele Marineau (2004) discovered that even the creators of children's literature knew very little about children's literature in the other language. Fewer than half of the authors could name more than five writers in the other language, and only 60% of them had read more than five children's books from the other language, almost all of them in translation. She also found evidence that many of the writers had a stereotyped, inaccurate view of the other literature. Marineau's study reveals that even Canadian children's writers have a limited familiarity with the other literature, and what little knowledge they do have has, for the most part, been gained through reading the literature in translation. Publishing Translated Children's Books in Canada The marketing of children's books in Canada is a challenging business. The huge geographical span of the country, coupled with its low population, has meant thai distribution costs are high, but book sales are low (Baker, 1998; Egoff & Saltman, 1990; MacSkimming, 2004; Poulin, 2003). Manufacturing costs of Canadian children's books are estimated to be "about twenty per cent higher in Canada than in the United States or Britain" (Saltman, 1987, p.2; Saltman, 2004). This leaves little room for profit, and even less room for books that do not sell. Unfortunately, according to many publishers and booksellers both within and outside Canada, books in translation do not sell (Elleman, 1998; Jobe, 2004; McElderry, 1987; Soderstrom, 2002). Translated books are "a notoriously tough sell in English Canada," where "translated 13 titles tend to sit on the shelf (Soderstrom, 2002, p. 5). But perhaps this is simply a self-fulfilling prophecy (Jobe, 2004). If publishers allocated more resources to promoting translated books, and if booksellers displayed them more prominently, then perhaps they would be more profitable (Elleman, 1998; Jobe, 2004). Also, if teachers and librarians were more familiar with translated books, then they would likely gain even more exposure among child readers. Unfortunately, increasing the budget for promoting translations is not a particularly viable option for already financially-stressed Canadian publishers. With translations selling so poorly in English Canada, many publishers go to great lengths to de-emphasize the fact that a book has been translated. Many translated children's books, for example, either do not include the translator's name at all or they list it only in tiny print in the bibliographic data. Among translations for adults, the issue of whether to put the translator's name on the front cover of the book has been contentious. In 2003, House of Anansi Press decided to remove the translators' names from their book jackets (Conlogue, 2003). According to Anansi editor Martha Sharpe, the idea was '"to give a book its best chance,' by enticing readers to at least have a look" (Bethune, 2003, p. 89). Anansi felt that having a book be immediately identifiable as a translation makes it "commercially unviable" and "slows sales" (Whitfield, 2003/2004, p. 94), but this opinion is "not backed by an objective study of translation reception in Canada" (Whitfield, 2003/2004, p. 94). Of course, by removing the translator's name from the cover, it "works . . . against the book's role as a medium for intercultural exchange by symbolically de-localizing the text" (Whitfield & Lane-Mercier, 2004/2005, p. 301), thereby eliminating one of the major advantages of translation. Fortunately, Anansi received such bad press about their decision to remove the translators' names from the cover that they quickly reversed their decision 14 (Hays, 2005). In children's literature, however, the practice of omitting the translator's name from the front cover is still very common, particularly with picture books and chapter books.7 Understandably, Canadian publishers are reluctant to publish books in translation if they believe they are unprofitable (Joels, 1999). Instead, they tend to focus on publishing well-known authors and series, which for the most part do not include works from the other official language (Joels, 1999). As a result, the selection of Canadian books in translation is quite limited. In effect, "French to English translation practice is not necessarily guided by the literary or historic importance attributed to the original in French Canada. Instead, it is driven, like all canon formation, by social, cultural and market factors" (Koustas, 1997, p. 52). Therefore, the resulting canon of translated Canadian children's literature is not necessarily representative of the original French-Canadian children's literature. Government Funding for Translation in Canada As discussed earlier, the harsh realities of Canadian publishing, coupled with the additional costs of producing a translated book and perceived low sales of translated books, make publishing translations in Canada prohibitive without the support of external funding. In fact, according to Pascal Assathiany, president of l'Association nationale des editeurs de livres, "No literary translations [of books for adults] are done without subsidy" in Canada (Conlogue, 1998), which is an interesting observation, even though it does not refer specifically to children's literature. Government subsidy has been so important for Canadian publishing in general that it has been credited as "the most important and notable aspect in 7 In the course of this study, hundreds of translated children's books were read and examined, and although it was not part of the formal methodology of this study, it was observed that the translator's name was frequently omitted from the front cover, particularly of picture books and illustrated nonfiction books. the development of publishing (and in the writing of literature)" (Egoff & Saltman, 1990, p. 313). This is especially true for translated books in Canada: as noted earlier, one of the most important developments in the history of Canadian translation was the Canada Council Translation Grants Program (CCTGP) Through this program, the government funds translations from one official language to the other, covering the cost of the translator's fee (based on word count, currently set at $0.20 for poetry, $0.16 for drama, and $0.14 for other kinds of writing), as well as transportation and promotional activities for the author, translator, and publisher (Canada Council, 2005a). The miriimum grant possible for a publisher to receive is $100, which means that children's books of less than 500 words (for poetry) and 714 words (for other kinds of writing) are technically ineligible to receive a translation grant through the CCTGP (Canada Council, 2005a). Other eligibility restrictions also inadvertently limit the number and types of children's books that can be funded under the program. For example, the title must have a minimum print run of 500 copies, and it cannot be a colouring book, activity book, trivia or quiz book, how-to book, cookbook, or an illustrated nonfiction or nature book of less than 10,000 words unless it makes a significant literary contribution (Canada Council, 2005a). This limits to a certain extent the nonfiction titles that can be funded under the CCTGP, and it may be the one of the reasons why so few nonfiction titles are being translated into English. Under this program, the only people who can be funded to translate Canadian literature are moderately successful target-language publishers. Translators cannot receive funding directly from the government, and authors cannot be funded to translate their own 16 work (Canada Council, 2005a). Therefore, all CCTGP-funded translations are selected by publishers rather than by authors, translators, reviewers, or scholars. This partially explains why the selection of books in translation seems unsystematic, emphasizing marketability over literary content. The CCTGP's mandate is to support Canadian publishers, and many of its eligibility requirements relate to Canadian citizenship: the translator must be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident; the book must be at least 50% Canadian-authored or illustrated; and the publisher must be at least 75% Canadian-owned, with editorial control and head office in Canada. This is problematic for larger multinational publishing houses with branches in Canada that are publishing Canadian materials: because these publishers do not meet the requirements for Canadian ownership, they are ineligible for funding under the CCTGP, and therefore have no budget for translation (Grady, 1995). As a result, translations of French-Canadian literature are done almost exclusively by smaller, independent, Canadian-owned publishing houses (Whitfield & Lane-Mercier, 2005/2006). This is unfortunate because it means that the publishers who have the greatest potential ability to effectively market translations—international publishers with larger budgets for promotion and distribution and a ready network of international contacts—are unable to support the translation of children's books in Canada. The budget for the CCTGP has fluctuated, from $815,000 in the late 1990s (Lorinc, 1998) to $500,000 in 2000 (Soderstrom, 2002) and most recently, doubling to $1,000,000 in 2005 (Arts council, 2005). The CCTGP curently receives more applications than it can support—in 2003, it could only support 92 out of 200 submissions. On the other hand, in that same year, La Societe de developpement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC), which 17 began in 1999 and funds the publishing of translations from French into English, did not have enough submissions to use up its $100,000 budget (Poulin, 2003). Although the number of translation grants given to French- and English-Canadian publishers by the CCTGP appears to be equal, the funding is not balanced. Overall, more money is given to English publishers for French-to-English translation, and the funding is distributed in different ways. Among translations into French, children's books (which are less expensive to translate due to their smaller word count) receive a disproportionately larger share of the grants—in the 1990s, from 20% to 25% of CCTGP-funded translations into French were children's books (Homel, 1993; Whitfield, 2002/2003), compared to a smaller, though unspecified, proportion of French-to-English translations. Is it possible that this uneven distribution of funds is systematic? Are there nationalistic or political motivations behind the number and types of translations available to Canadian readers? Although this is a valid concern given the extent to which Canadian translations are dependent on government subsidy, the concern can be mitigated by the fact that publishers, not the government, select the titles for translation. On the other hand, the government does have ultimate approval over the publishers' choices, in that it can ultimately refuse to fund books that do not meet set criteria (Martin, 1994). Publishers ofTranslated French-Canadian Children's Books Although the majority of French-to-English translations were historically done by Ontario publishers (Elder, 1994), many Quebec publishers (such as Les Editions Quebec-Amerique) have begun translating their own books into English (Homel, 1988; Setterington, 1996). This is proving successful because Quebec publishers are quite experienced at translation: after all, "in absolute terms unadjusted for demographics . . . Quebec currently 18 translates more titles per year than all Canadian anglophone presses combined" (Whitfield & Lane-Mercier, 2004/2005, p. 301). For example, Quebec publisher Les editions de la courte echelle formerly partnered with Annick Press to produce their books in translation, but because "Annick could not or would not take everything La courte echelle thought would work in English" (Homel, 1988, p. 29), they opted to translate the books themselves. As Bertrand Gauthier, founder of Les editions de la courte echelle, explains about the Zunik series (1984-1989), "If we didn't do those books in English, no one else was going to" (Homel, 1988, p. 29). The greatest problem facing Quebec publishers of English translations is distributing them in the other-language market. In fact, in order for a publisher to receive CCTGP funding to publish translations in the other language, it must first prove that it can effectively distribute the books. As a result, some publishers, such as Les Editions Quebec-Amerique prefer to translate their books into English themselves, then sell the translation to an English-Canadian or American publisher for distribution outside of Quebec (Homel, 1988). Some publishers publish their titles simultaneously in English and French. Canada's first simultaneous translation appeared in 1931 and 1956, but until the late 1960s there were no more simultaneous translations (Gagnon, 1987). Tundra Books, Scholastic Canada, and Annick Press were among the few English-Canadian publishers to produce simultaneous translations of French-Canadian children's books (Setterington, 1996; Saltman, 1987). Today, among English-Canadian arid bilingual national publishers, English-to-French simultaneous translation is more common than French-to-English simultaneous translation. According to the results of this study, Tundra Books is the only national publisher that continues to produce simultaneous translations from French into English, and they do so only occasionally.8 French-Canadian presses, on the other hand, are much more likely to produce simultaneous translations (Setterington, 1996). Dominique et compagnie is a Quebec publisher who simultaneously published almost their entire line of picture books in French and English in the late 1990s; however, they no longer do this, as it was not profitable (J. Payette, personal communication, July 10, 2006). Bilingual books are another option, the popularity of which has fluctuated over the years. The first bilingual Canadian children's book was published in 1967, but the format did not become popular until the 1970s (Gagnon, 1987), at which time Kids Can Press and Tundra Books were leaders in the area (Gagnon, 1987; Saltman, 1987). In the 1980s, however, the popularity of bilingual books began to wane (Gagnon, 1987), and today there are relatively few bilingual (French/English) books on the Canadian market (Saltman, 2004).9 Obstacles Facing Translation in Canada A major obstacle to translation in Canada is the lack of communication between English- and French-Canadian publishers (Gagnon, 1987; Poulin, 2003). Most English-Canadian editors do not spend their time reading French-Canadian children's literature, so they are unlikely to find books to translate unless they have the advice or corroboration of g According to this study, Annick Press has not produced a French-to-English translation since 2001, and their last simultaneous translation from French-to-English was published in 1998; Scholastic Canada produced only one simultaneous translation from French into English in 2002; Tundra Books produced one simultaneous French-to-English translation in 2004 and a few throughout the 1990s. 9 A search of the AMICUS database revealed fewer than a dozen French/English books published since 2000, almost half of which were trilingual books, with text in French, English, and either Spanish or an aboriginal language. 20 French-Canadian publishers. Unfortunately, the language barrier limits communication between English- and French-Canadian publishers (Landreville, 2003). Although there are some successful partnerships between English- and French-Canadian publishers—such as the Formac Publishing/Les editions de la courte echelle "first novel/premier roman" pairing—most Canadian publishers do not have such a relationship with a publisher from the other language (Poulin, 2003). The language barrier also limits promotional activities for translated books, which further reduces the potential for profit. A French-Canadian author may be well known in Quebec, but a relative unknown in English-Canada. Also, the language barrier can limit or even prevent public appearances in English: interviews, presentations, readings, and school visits are all affected (Poulin, 2003). For example, one English-language media program reportedly refused to do an interview with a French-Canadian author "because the host was 'uncomfortable interviewing someone with a French accent'" (Soderstrom, 2002, p. 5). Another valid concern is with the quality of translations and the skill of the translators. Indeed, "one of the reasons that publishers are reluctant to include books in translation on their lists is the complex nature of the translation process and the difficulty of finding highly qualified people to translate the literature successfully" (Jobe, 2004, p. 913). In Canada, that difficulty is compounded by the fact that literary translation in Canada—particularly of children's literature—is not a very financially viable employment option. Because literary translators in Canada are paid per word at rates that are very low for the industry, and because they seldom receive royalties for their translations (Homel & Simon, 1988), it is virtually impossible for them to make a living translating Canadian children's books. As a result, there are very few people in Canada who have a great deal of 21 experience translating children's books, and even fewer who have specialized knowledge about the unique issues involved in translating for children, some of which will be addressed later in this chapter. With so many barriers to translation of children's literature in Canada, what can be done to overcome them? Should the Canada Council allocate a larger portion of its budget to funding translations, or is the money needed by other literary and artistic programs, such as financial support for authors and illustrators? Some suggest that the government should automatically fund the translation of books that have won major prizes like the Governor General's Literary Award (Poulin, 2003). Others go so far as to suggest that the government should establish a publishing house exclusively to do this (Poulin, 2003). Another option would be for the government to facilitate more communication between English- and French-Canadian publishers (Poulin, 2003), perhaps by hiring a person who can do promotion and communication for multiple publishers and coordinate the selection of translations (Landreville, 2003). This solution is unorthodox, however, and may be quite difficult to implement. Another way to encourage translation in Canada is to raise the profile of translated Canadian children's books by creating more opportunities for external recognition, in the form of awards. As it is now, translated children's books have very little opportunity to win awards in Canada. Until 2003, when Library and Archives Canada (LAC) established their annual Children's Literature Translation Award for the best translated Canadian children's book in both English and French, there was no major award designated for translated children's literature in Canada. For a translated French-Canadian children's book to win a major award, it had to compete with English-Canadian children's books. The only translated 22 French-Canadian children's book that has ever succeeded in winning a major English-language award is Suzanne Martel's Jeanne, fille du roi (1974), translated in 1980 by David Homel and Magaret Rose as The King's Daughter, which won the Ruth Schwartz Children's Book Award in 1981 (Canadian Children's, 2005). Unfortunately, even with the inauguration of Library and Archives Canada's Children's Literature Translation Award, it has proven difficult to honour translated children's books, due to a lack of suitable candidates. In 2003, for example, no prize was awarded for French-to-English translation because there were no submissions (Marineau, 2004). The only other major Canadian award for translation is the Governor General's Literary Award for Translation, which considers all Canadian books, both for children and adults, including fiction and nonfiction. In the 19 years of the award's history, only two French-Canadian children's books in English translation have ever been nominated for the award (Claude Jasmin's The Dragon and Other Laurentian Tales, translated by Patricia Sillers, nominated in 1987, and Michele Marineau's The Road to Chlifa, translated by Susan Ouriou, nominated in 1995), and none has ever won. In many ways, research on translated Canadian children's literature is an emerging field of study. At an international level, however, there is a more established body of research on translated children's literature, from which we can draw in order to enrich our understanding of translated Canadian children's literature. Translating Children's Literature: An International and Theoretical Perspective Because there have been no published studies that specifically address the theory of translating Canadian children's literature for a Canadian audience, it is necessary to apply the 23 research from other countries to translating Canadian children's literature, with the understanding that it may or may not be entirely applicable to Canadian children's literature. Among international research on translated children's literature there was relatively little scholarship on the subject until the last few decades, when research on the translation of children's literature increased (Tabbert, 2002). In a review of critical studies of the translation of children's literature, Tabbert (2002) summarizes all of the research that has been done in this area, citing over 70 studies published in English since 1962, the vast majority of which were published in the 1990s. G6te Klingberg (1978,1986) and Riita Oittinen (2000, 2003,2004) have written books on the theoretical aspects of translating for children. Both researchers focus on adaptation and censorship in the translation process, although Oittinen also emphasizes the oral performance aspects of translated children's literature and the role of illustrations in a translated book. A number of researchers focus on the intercultural dynamics of translating children's literature (Jobe, 1983,2004; Joels, 1999; Whitehead, 1996,1997; Yamazaki, 2002). A few researchers have also addressed issues such as evaluating quality in translated children's literature (White, 1992, 2001,2002; White & Bluemel, 2001). Illustrations in Translated Children's Literature A unique consideration for the translation of children's literature is the role of illustrations. Rarely in adult literature do illustrations play as important a role as they do in children's picture books, in which there is an "interdependence of words and pictures, neither being complete without the other" (Egoff & Saltman, 1990, p. 132). Because most translation studies focus on adult literature, only a few translation scholars have examined the relationship between translation and illustration. 24 Translators of illustrated children's books must consider not only the text but also the "language of illustrations" (Oittinen, 2000, p. 114), which can be as culturally specific and stylistically distinctive as written language. Both the connotative and the denotative meaning of illustrations can change over time and from one culture to another (Oittinen, 2000; Whitehead, 1996). In Canada, for example, one can observe a difference between the illustration styles of French- and English-Canada, as well as a difference between contemporary illustrations and those from fifty years ago (Egoff & Saltman, 1990; Saltman, 1987). Even simple visual elements may be easily understood in one culture but not in another—for example, an image of a jack-o-lantera in a picture book illustration will immediately convey to a North American audience an connotation of Hallowe'en, but the connotation will not be as clear in a culture that does not celebrate Hallowe'en (Whitehead, 1996). Even the style of illustrations can signal different meanings in different cultures. For example, Chinese cultures tend to classify cartoon-style drawings as caricatures (Edwards & Walker, 1996), so a Canadian children's book illustrated in cartoon style would presumably not work very well in Chinese translation. Because illustrations are so important in children's literature, some researchers suggest that translators of children's literature should have some training in visual literacy, or "reading the pictures" as well as the text (Oittinen, 2003), in order to translate most effectively. The illustrations can be used as a point of reference for the translator, in order to achieve the simplest and most accurate translation possible. Also, culturally-specific or foreign elements in the illustrations, such as foreign-language street signs, may need to be explained in the text. Occasionally, though, translators of children's picture books are not 2 5 given the pictures at all, which can lead to translations that are at best redundant and at worst incorrect (Dollerup, 2003). Reading Translated Children's Literature Aloud One of the distinctive features of children's literature is that it has a dual audience, consisting, obviously, of children, but also of adults who read the stories aloud to children. This dual audience constitutes a unique challenge for the translator: how to make the story comprehensible to the young child, yet at the same time engaging for the adult and aurally compelling for the listener. Because well-written children's literature often contains multiple levels of meaning for its multiple audiences, translators must attempt to translate all levels effectively (Oittinen, 2000). At the same time, they must translate the music of the language in addition to the sense—when reading aloud, the sounds of the words are almost as important as their meaning. Riitta Oittinen draws a parallel between reading aloud and performance, stressing the importance of "intonation, tone, tempo, pauses, stress, rhythm, duration" (Oittinen, 2004, p. 905), as well as repetition, alliteration (Oittinen, 2003) and rhyme (Dollerup, 2003), all of which makes the translation of children's literature surprisingly complex (Dollerup, 2003; Whitehead, 1996). An example of the importance of sound in translated children's literature is the translation of verse, which is a common element of many children's books. It is impossible to translate both rhyme and meaning perfectly—the translator must privilege one above the other (Dollerup, 2003; Tabbert, 2002). This can even be an issue when there is no actual linguistic translation: for example, when translating a text from British to American English, the different pronunciation may affect rhyme (Whitehead, 1996). Similarly, when translating 26 alliteration and assonance, a literal translation will be technically correct but may not transmit the aural style of the original work. With word play and neologisms, on the other hand, a literal translation is seldom possible: instead, the translator must be "satisfied with a translation which is only an equivalent" (O'Sullivan, 1998, p. 195). In fact, humour, because it is often culturally-specific, can sometimes be impossible to translate (Sousa, 2002). This presents a particular problem with children's literature, as it frequently incorporates humour. In fact, Canadian author/illustrator Marie-Louise Gay, who translates her own books, has commented that her translations are often quite different from the original works because the humour in the original simply would not be funny in the other language (personal communication, October 13, 2005). Pronunciation is another important consideration in a book that is read aloud. Sometimes, in order to maintain a fluid translation and ease of pronunciation, basic textual elements like characters' names need to be changed (Dollerup, 2003; Nord, 2003; Oittinen, 2000). If a name is difficult to pronounce or if it is pronounced differently in the target language, it can interfere with the rhythm or rhyme of the story (Dollerup, 2003; Nord, 2003). Unfortunately, in changing a culturally-specific name or word, the translator is erasing an important cultural marker from the text, which is a controversial issue in itself. Domestication Or Foreignization in the Translation Process It is a popular debate in translation studies: should translators maintain the "otherness" of a text by reproducing the linguistic style and structure of the original language in translation, or should they try to eliminate the foreignness of a story by adhering to the linguistic style and structure of the target language, thereby duplicating as much as possible 27 the seamless experience of reading the story in its original language (Hervey, 1997; Klingberg, 1986; Lopez, 2000; Oittinen, 2000,2004; Sousa, 2002; Yamazaki, 2002)? Within children's literature, fluidity and readability seem to be most important, but the debate is complex. One of the areas in which we frequently observe this issue in children's literature is the translation of characters' names. In adult literature, names are often unchanged in translation, but in children's literature they are commonly translated into more culturally familiar ones (Hagfors, 2003; Nord, 2003; Oittinen, 2000; Whitehead, 1996; Yamazaki, 2002) . Sometimes there are good reasons for this. For example, as mentioned earlier, pronunciation of names is an issue for young readers. Alternatively, sometimes a character's name may be associated with a different gender in the target language (Nord, 2003), which can be confusing to a young reader. Also, if a character is intended to be a "typical" child, but she has a name that is quite unusual in the target culture, the effect will be jarring and will interfere with the meaning of the story (Hagfors, 2003). An interesting example of this was seen when Bertrand Gauthier's Zunik series was translated from French into English in the late 1980s. For the original Canadian version, the unusual name "Yuneek" was used, but for the American version, the more common name "Zachary" was used, implying that American readers may be less accepting of cultural diversity than Canadian readers. Moreover, names that have literal meaning, such as "Goodman" or "Spot" (Nord, 2003) , will need to be translated in order to adequately transmit the meaning of the story. For example, Remy Simard and Pierre Pratt's Monsieur Iletaitunefois (1998) becomes Mister Once-upon-a-time (1998) in translation. Sometimes, however, names are changed unnecessarily, as was the case for Louise Leblanc's "Sophie" series of chapter books (first 28 published in 1990, still ongoing), which in English translation became "Maddie." This seems to happen most commonly in books for younger readers, presumably in order to simplify the text for less fluent readers; however, it does so at the expense of any trace of cultural diversity (Yamazaki, 2002). Other cultural markers may prove equally confusing to young readers. For example, some objects or foods (such as pontine in Quebec) are particular to one culture and therefore have no translation in another language. In adult literature, it is common practice for the translator to transliterate, or keep the foreign word in the translation, but that practice might be difficult for young readers, both in terms of pronunciation and comprehension (Edwards & Walker, 1996). Should the translator change the untranslatable object into a similar object from the target culture, thereby eliminating some of the culturally-specific content of the original, or should the translator interrupt the flow of the narrative in order to describe the foreign object (Hagfors, 2003; Klingberg, 1986)? Even if an object does have a literal translation in the target language, it may not have the same connotation in the target culture—should the object be changed in the translation? For example, animals sometimes have connotations that are particular to a given culture, including gender and archetype (Rinne, 2001). For example, the coyote in First Nations mythology is a trickster figure, which would be understood by many First Nations readers but not necessarily by those from another culture. Likewise, if the story takes place in an identifiably foreign location, should the translator change that location into a familiar one in order to make the story more accessible to young readers? This happens occasionally in the translation of both children's and adult literature (Whitfield, 2002/2003), but it may be more common in children's literature. It 29 even happens occasionally without any linguistic translation at all: for example, when a British children's book is published in the United States, British place names are sometimes changed to American place names (Whitehead, 1996,1997). The extent to which a translation can either reinforce or erase the "Otherness" of a text depends on the purpose of the translation (Klingberg, 1986; Oittinen, 2000,2004). Are we trying to teach our readers about another culture, or are we simply trying to entertain them with a good story? If the purpose is to entertain and generate sales, then the translations will tend to de-emphasize cultural difference. The fact that it is a translation will be de-emphasized or even hidden, which is certainly true for many translated French-Canadian picture books.10 On the other hand, if the purpose is to share one culture with another, then translations will tend to emphasize the source culture in the illustrations and text, including settings and characters, and they will be clearly identified as translations. In Canada, this is more often the case with fiction for older children, and with translated "classics" of Quebec children's literature. Censorship and Adaptation in the Translation Process One of the most important issues in the translation of children's literature is censorship (Klingberg, 1978; Lopez, 2000; Oittinen, 2000). Often, children's literature is expected to be "good for" children, to teach them cultural values and practices (Shavit, 1981). When the values presented in the source text deviate from those of the target culture, how should the translator respond? Should the translation be left unaltered in order to reflect the values of the source text, author, and culture? Or should it be adapted to suit the values 10 The results of the present study support this observation. See Chapter IV for more information. 30 of the target culture, even if that means distorting the source text in the process (Hervey, 1997)? For the most part, mild censorship is common in translated children's literature, including modernization (of old-fashioned values or practices), explanation (of questionable or unfamiliar cultural practices), and purification (of taboos or ethnic stereotypes) (Klingberg, 1986; Lopez, 2000; Oittinen, 2000; Tabbert, 2002). According to Basmat (1992a), it is a "universal" of translation that "acceptability will always come before adequacy" in translated children's literature (p. 221). In other words, the moralistic norms that operate in children's literature itself are even more prevalent in translated children's literature. Thus, loyalty in translated children's literature, just as in most children's literature, is usually to the values of the target culture, rather than to the accurate reproduction of the source text. For this reason, examining translated children's literature is "a very good way of discovering prevalent norms within the target system" (Basmat 1992b, p. 232). Of course, the texts that deviate most from target culture values will simply not be translated at all (Basmat, 1992a). In Canada, for example, Thierry Lenain and Stephane Poulin published a picture book entitled Petit Zizi, about a little boy's penis, but no English North American publishers would consider publishing it (Hays, 2003). In general, works will tend to be translated if they are already in a form or style that is familiar to the target culture or if they can be easily adapted to fit a familiar form. According to Oittinen (2004), "editors tend to choose books that will 'travel' and be easily understood" (p. 905), which can create a distorted image of the source culture and literature in translation. Alterations to stylistically unusual source texts are common in the translation of children's literature, unlike in adult literature, which tends to value accuracy in translation (Shavit, 31 1981). At the operational level, this includes such things as punctuation, repetition, omission, and exaggeration (Basmat, 1992a). At a more complex level, this includes changes to a book's format, such as adding or removing illustrations from a novel or presenting a novella as a short story in an anthology. For example, when three novels by Michel Noel's Journal d'un bon a rien, Le coeur sur la braise, and Hiver indien were translated, they were combined into a single novel (Good for Nothing, 2004). Most commonly, a book with an unusual or unmarketable format will simply not be translated. For example, many French-Canadian novels are much shorter than their English-Canadian counterparts, and although the short-novel format sells well in Quebec, it is difficult to market in English Canada. As a result, few of these short novels are translated (Poulin, 2003). Translators of children's literature will also commonly change a story's vocabulary or reading level, which can shift its audience entirely. According to Hervey (1997), translators of European children's literature often lower the reading level, so that the translations tend to expect less of their audience than the original text. It is even possible to use the translation process to transform literature for adults into literature for children. For example, in the 1980s, French-Canadian author Gabrielle Roy published three of her French-language adult stories in picture book format—Cliptail (1980, McClelland & Stewart), My Cow Bossie (1988, McClelland & Stewart), and The Tortoiseshell and the Pekinese (1989, Doubleday Canada). She did so without making any modifications to the text, except for the addition of illustrations, resulting in picture books that had an unusually high, adult level of language. When the picture books were translated into English, however, the translators expected a child audience and used a simpler vocabulary and grammatical complexity in translation than in the original French, creating stories that were more suitable for children in translation than 32 in the original versions (Romney, 2003). According to Klingberg (1986), such manipulation or adaptation is not necessary—after all, the original author has already considered the reader's abilities, interests, and expectations (Oittinen, 2000). Perhaps it is underestimating our children to over-simplify translations, erasing "any feature of difficulty, foreignness, challenge and mystery" (Stolze, 2003, p. 209), which seems to largely defeat the purpose of translation. Even a change as seemingly insignificant as font size can have a major impact on the translation. For example, when Claude Jasmin's Les contes du Sommet-Bleu was translated into English, the font size was decreased, which gives the impression that the translation is intended for an older audience than the original (Godard, 1988). This is considered a covert, unacknowledged change, which alters the audience's expectations for the book. All too often, the changes made in translation are unacknowledged, "covert" modifications to fundamental aspects of the story, such as plot, characterization, language, or reading level; the goal of these changes is for the translation to better conform to social and literary standards, political correctness, and morality in the target culture (Klingberg, 1986; Lopez, 2000; Shavit, 1981). Such changes are very common in children's literature—in fact, House (1997) looked at 52 translated (German-English) children's books and found that all of them were covert translations, including unacknowledged modifications to cultural aspects of the source text, such as settings, names, and cultural practices; these changes occurred at a much higher rate in children's literature than in adult literature. Children's books are often abridged in translation, without any acknowledgment of the abridgement (Klingberg, 1986). Occasionally, a picture book text will even be completely rewritten rather than translated (McElderry, 1973). In Canada, for example, some picture book texts may be adapted rather 33 than literally translated: "certains albums doivent etre transposes, car les approches sont differentes"11 (Poulin, 2003, p. 100). Lopez (2000) blames this "formal instability of the text" on the "scant literary value assigned to this kind of writing" (p. 29). Shavit (1981) agrees that the "translator of children's literature can permit himself [sic] great liberties regarding the text because of the peripheral position children's literature occupies in the polysystem" (p. 171). In other words, children's literature may not be considered important enough to merit a rigorous translation; neither the translation nor the original merits a great deal of respect. This is not always to the detriment of the translation, however; sometimes a translator can improve on the original by eliminating wordiness in a picture book text (McElderry, 1973). In fact, sometimes an author is more popular in translation than in the original language—such is the case with French-Canadian author Roch Carrier, who is better known in translation in English Canada than he is in Quebec, although for different reasons (Hayward, 2002). Evaluating Quality in Translated Children's Literature With so many things to consider, how does one evaluate the quality of a translation for children? A few researchers have asked that question (Edwards & Walker, 1996; House, 2001; International, 1998; White, 1992), but their conclusions have been somewhat divergent. Maureen White (1992,2001,2002; White & Bluemel, 2001) determines success for a translation based on length of time in print, favourable reviews, and awards—in other words, external recognition. Juliane House (2001) proposes a detailed model for assessing the quality of a translation, which focuses on literary merit and fidelity to the original text. n translation: "certain picture books must be adapted, because their approach is so different." Similarly, the International Relations Committee of the Association for Library Service to Children (1998) suggests a number of criteria for evaluating the quality of a translation, including literary merit (good plot development, characterization, and style), effective book design (clear, well-organized, with illustrations and other visual elements that do not detract from the story), and fidelity to the original text, particularly its cultural elements. Overall, most researchers agree that a good translator of children's literature should reproduce the "meaning [rather] than the wording of the original text" (Norst, 1989, p. 749), while still creating a text that is readable and stylistically similar to the original (Edwards & Walker, 1996). Advantages of Translating Children's Literature With so many challenges facing the translation of children's literature, why should we bother to translate for children at all? Many researchers endorse translation as a way to foster international unity and counteract stereotypes by introducing child readers to other cultures (Clark, White & Bluemel, 2004; Jobe 1983, 2004; Joels, 1999; Lynch-Brown & Tomlinson, 1999; McElderry, 1987; White, 2002). Teachers can use translated fiction as a starting point for their students' research into other cultures (Cotton, 2000; White & Bluemel, 2001). By becoming emotionally involved with characters from another culture, young readers can learn more than just the facts about another culture—they can also experience it from within (Lynch-Brown & Tomlinson, 1999; White, 2002). In so doing, they can learn about the other culture, as well as their own lives and culture in comparison (Jobe, 1983; Joels, 1999; White, 2002). Translated children's books can act as "mirrors allowing readers to perceive the reality of their own lives through the reflected actions of the characters" (Jobe, 1983, p. 22). And perhaps most importantly, translations also expose 35 children to the creativity and beauty of great literature and art from other cultures (Jobe, 2004; Joels, 1999) In Canada, the translation of children's literature is incredibly important. As mentioned earlier, because so few Canadians (18%) are fluently bilingual in English and French (Statistics Canada, 2005), most Canadians must rely on translation in order to read literature from the other language (Hayward, 2002; Koustas, 2000/2001). As a result, for most of us, our understanding of literature from the other language is dependent on the translation process. Translated children's literature in Canada must be accurately representative of the original literature and culture; otherwise, the understanding gained by reading it will be limited at best or misleading at worst. Disadvantages of Translating Children's Literature Underlying much of the research on translated children's literature is the assumption that translation is beneficial to the source culture, but is it possible for it to be harmful instead? Is the translation of French-Canadian literature a gesture of respect or an act of appropriation? Does it celebrate or erase the cultural differences between Quebec and English Canada (Mezei, 1988)? On the one hand, translation can be seen as a way of sharing one culture with another, but on the other hand, "by translating, one subordinates, one interprets, one dominates, one assimilates the other" (Mezei, 1985, p. 221). The translating culture is dominant, in that it decides which books will be translated, how they will be translated, and by whom. The choices that it makes can create a "biased and modified impression" of the minority culture in translation (Mezei, 1995, p. 142). In Canada, for example, "Quebec becomes not what it is, but what we wish it to be" (Mezei, 1995, p. 142). 36 By studying what we have chosen to translate, and why we have chosen to translate it, we can discover our attitudes toward and understanding of the other culture (Koustas, 1997). Unfortunately, if translated French-Canadian literature is not representative of the original French-Canadian literature, it will create a "misleading canon of Quebec literature in translation" (Koustas, 2000/2001, p. 273), which will "distort the image of Quebec fiction and non-fiction" in English Canada (Koustas, 2000/2001, p. 286). In children's literature, for example, the selection of French-Canadian literature in translation has not been particularly representative of the true scope of the original literature: picture books have been over-represented, and longer fiction has been under-represented (Gagnon, 1987; Poulin, 2003). Also, because of the time gap between the publication of the original and that of the translation, translated literature is not necessarily contemporary literature, even though it will be perceived as such by the target culture (Koustas, 2000/2001). In Canadian literature for adults, however, "the time lapse is usually only two years" (Koustas, 1997/1998, p. 95), which suggests that translated Canadian literature is relatively contemporary. The content of the books that are chosen for translation may be misrepresentative of the original culture—for example, in 2001, two major Canadian publishers (McClelland & Stewart and Douglas & Mclntyre) both "showed a conspicuous lack of interest in translation . . . producing only one translation [of adult literature] each" (Whitfield, 2002/2003, p. 303), choosing to translate "a stultified, folkloric vision of Quebecois society, particularly out of step with the complex intercultural realities of contemporary Quebec" (Whitfield, 37 2002/2003, p. 303) by presenting a one-sided, even racist, view of Queb^cois society.12 This, of course, limits or distorts the reader's understanding of contemporary Quebecois society. Occasionally, translators will even change the fundamental cultural context of a book, thereby distorting the target culture's understanding of the source culture. For example, Gail Scott's translation of Lise Tremblay's Danse juive "erased most of the underlying social and cultural context" (Whitfield, 2003/2004, p. 88). In the translation of children's literature, this kind of change is common (House, 1997; Klingberg, 1986; Lopez, 2000; Oittinen, 2000, 2004; Yamazaki, 2002). When the canon of translated literature misrepresents the original literature and culture, English-Canadians may "receive limited, stereotyped views of Quebec and the Quebecois, views determined by the tastes of translators, the whims of Canada Council grants, and the marketing forecasts of publishers" (Mezei, 1985, p. 222), rather than those determined by French-Canadian authors themselves. In the end, English-Canadians often "view translation as a means of fostering national unity" (Ladouceur, 2002, p. 108) and as a method of finding out more about Quebec (Homel, 1998). Some French-Canadians, on the other hand, view translation of French-Canadian literature with more reserve (Ladouceur, 2000,2002). On the one hand, a literal translation will accurately reproduce the original content, but it may be awkward or unpleasant to read. On the other hand, a more adaptive translation may be as fluid and readable as an original work, but it may be less accurately representative of the original content, thereby minimizing the book's French-Canadian origins (Mezei, 1995). 12 McClelland & Stewart published Hubert Aquin's Next Episode, a translation by Sheila Fischman of Prochain episode. Douglas & Mclntyre published Daniel Poliquin's In the Name of the Father: An Essay on Quebec Nationalism, a translation by Don Winkler of Le roman colonial. In Canada, however, the low rate of bilingualism makes translation a necessity if literature is to be shared across the two language cultures. In many ways, translation in Canada is a precarious balancing act between the goals of publishers, authors, illustrators, and translators, and the tastes of readers, as well as the need for cross-cultural sharing and understanding. 39 METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to identify and describe all of the children's books that have been translated from French into English and published in Canada from 1900 to 2004, with the goal of recognizing trends over time and understanding some of the factors influencing translation in Canada. The study consists of a comprehensive list of translated French-Canadian children's books published in Canada from 1900 to 2004 and an analysis of several dimensions of the books. Essentially, it is a longtitudinal descriptive analysis of the history of translated French-Canadian children's books. Sample In order to create a comprehensive list of the translated French-Canadian children's books published in Canada from 1900 to 2004, the study accessed the holdings of Library and Archives Canada (LAC), using their online database as a compilation tool. Because Canadian publishers are required by law to deposit two copies of every book they publish at LAC (Library and Archives Canada, 2004), its holdings are the most complete public collection of Canadian-published books of any kind. In keeping with LAC's classification policy, a children's book is defined in this study as one that is intended for a reader aged 16 or younger. The sample is also limited to books that have been translated from French into English and published in Canada. No restrictions were placed on the sample regarding the nationality of the author, illustrator, translator, or original publisher. Bilingual books, with text in both English and French, were not included in the study. The first step in identifying the translated books was to consult a list of 444 books provided by LAC's Children's Literature Service. This list was expanded by additional searches of LAC's online AMICUS catalogue, limiting the searches to books in LAC's 40 collection. In the end, the total number of translated French-Canadian children's books identified in this study was 678 books. Although this sample is quite comprehensive, it is possible that a few titles were missed, either because they were not part of L A C s collection or because they were not classified as translations in the AMICUS database. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that the number of translated French-Canadian children's books from 1900 to 2004 is approximately 678 books. Data Collection Because of the large number of books in the study, many of which are accessible only at LAC, it was not feasible to physically examine all of the translated books. Instead, the data was gathered from the bibliographic entries in the AMICUS catalogue. Within the data contained in the AMICUS catalogue was the basic bibliographic information for each book, including the title; the names of the author, illustrator, translator and publisher; the date and place of publication; as well as the Library of Congress classification number. The catalogue entry also included a physical description of the book in most cases: the number of pages, the physical dimensions, whether the book was illustrated and whether the illustrations were in colour, whether it included any accessories such as toys or audio recordings, whether the book belonged to a series and if so, the name of the series. In many, but not all cases, subject headings were also given; however, because this information was not consistently available, it was not included in the analysis. The data was then recorded in a database created for this study using the Microsoft Excel computer program. As much information as possible was recorded for each book; missing data was noted when necessary. Occasionally, when information was missing from the catalogue entry (such as the name of the translator or the number of pages in a book), it 41 was retrieved from other sources, such as the book itself, when available, or from the author's or publisher's web site. From the information in the AMICUS catalogue, it was possible to make observations and inferences about the books. For example, when a book was classified as literature and described as having 32 pages and colour illustrations, it was assumed to be a picture book. It was also possible to assume that all of the books in a particular series would follow the same model in terms of format, genre, and general subject matter. In the case of ambiguous conclusions (such as an illustrated fiction book with 48 pages, which might be either a picture book or an illustrated novel), it was often possible to clarify by examining the book itself, if possible, or by researching the author's or publisher's web site. When it was not possible to find the information, either in the catalogue or by other means, a notation of missing data was made. Bibliographic Information Most of the bibliographic information was consistently available in the AMICUS catalogue. The title was always listed, as was the name of the publisher. The name of the author or the illustrator was absent in 1% of the cases. The name of the translator was absent from the catalogue more frequently, in 32% of the cases.13 Whenever possible, the translator's name was noted, either from the AMICUS catalogue entry, or by examining the book itself. 13 Examining the books themselves revealed that some, but not all, of the books also omitted the name of the translator from the bibliographic data; however, this was not part of the methodology of the study. 42 Subject Matter The catalogue entries always included a Library of Congress classification number; therefore, it was used to determine the basic subject matter of each book, as well as whether it could be classified as fiction or nonfiction. Books with Library of Congress classification numbers beginning with PN, PQ, PS or PZ were classified as fiction. All others were classified as nonfiction. Genre The AMICUS catalogue often (87% of the time) gave information about the number of pages in a book and the type of illustrations (colour, some colour, or unspecified). As a result, it was often possible to determine the general format or genre of a book from that information, such as whether it was a picture book or a novel. In ambiguous cases, physically examining the books would confirm the classification. A book was determined to be a picture book if it was fully illustrated and had a maximum of 48 pages. A book was determined to be a novel if it had more than 48 pages and was either unillustrated or partially illustrated. All other fiction books were classified as "Other," including collections of short stories, plays, and fully-illustrated narratives with more than 48 pages. Toy/Kit Books In the "Notes" section of the catalogue entries, there would often be observations about a book's accessories, such as audio recordings, toys, game pieces, or stickers. Such observations were noted in the database and the accessorized books were classified as Toy/Kit Books. 43 Original Title, Publisher, and Date of Publication Many of the bibliographic entries included the original French-language title. By searching for that title in the AMICUS database, it was possible to determine the original date of publication for 92% of the books and the original publisher for 94% of the books. Series Information If a book was part of a series, then the name of the series would often be given in the AMICUS database, under the "Series" heading in the full bibliographic record. When given, such information was noted; however, as many of the older entries in the catalogue did not include series information, it was also accessed through other sources such as publishers' web sites or the books themselves. A book was classified as belonging to a series if it was among three or more books by the same author and publisher, usually with the same characters and general format. Also, if three or more books were by different authors but had the same publisher, format, and general subject matter (as is sometimes the case for nonfiction series), and they were identified in the catalogue or on the book itself as belonging to a series, they were classified as Series Books. Edition Information For each title on the list, a second search of the AMICUS catalogue was performed, in order to determine whether there were multiple editions of the books in LAC's collection. Each edition was given a separate entry in the database, with the edition number noted in each case. Data Analysis Descriptive statistics were used to summarize and describe the data. Because the study analyzes the entire population of translated French-Canadian children's books 44 published from 1900 to 2004, rather than a representative sample, inferential statistics were not needed. Instead, the number and types of books in translation were classified and counted, then sorted into a variety of different subsets, such as by year or decade of publication, or by the book's format or genre, in order to observe the ways in which translated Canadian children's literature has developed or changed over the years. This made it possible to determine, for example, when the greatest and least number of children's books were translated. Simple calculations, such as percentage (e.g., what percentage of translated books published in the 1980s were picture books, as compared to those published in the 1990s) and mean (e.g., the average number of books published per year in the 1990s, as compared to those published in the 1960s), were used to identify and describe some of the trends in translated French-Canadian children's literature from 1900 to 2004. 45 RESULTS This study produced a variety of interesting results. The findings reflect many, but not all, of the original hypotheses. Detailed results are presented here; they will be discussed further in the following chapter. Number of Translations Since 1900, there have been 678 children's books translated from French into English and published in Canada. Of these books, 64 were reprints or multiple editions of the same book, which means that 614 different translations have been published in the last 105 years. The number of translations per year has fluctuated, but overall, it has increased fairly steadily, as shown in Figure 1; this result supports one of the study's hypotheses. The majority of translations were published in the last decade, and in fact, more than half of the books were published after 1996. Very few translations were published in the first half of the twentieth century: only six books were translated before 1950. Even by 1969, only 13 books had been translated into English, and because many of them were multiple editions of the same books, there were in fact only nine different translations published in the first seventy years of the century. In the 1970s, the number of translations began to rise slightly. From 1970 to 1974, there were seven translations; from 1975 to 1979, there were 12 translations. In the 1980s, the number of translations continued to increase. Throughout the 1980s, there were 127 translations—almost four times as many translations in one decade as in the eight previous decades. The number of translations rose steadily throughout the 1980s, peaking in 1988 at 44 books—more than twice as many translations in a single year as had been published in the first three quarters of the century. After 1988, the number of translations decreased, averaging 24 translations per year for the next ten years, until 1999, when the number of translations rose dramatically. From 1999 to 2001, there was a surprising surge in the annual number of translations: an average of 65 translations per year were published. Of these translations, 63 books, (32% of the translations in those three years), were by a single publishing company, Dominique & Friends (the English version of the Quebec publisher Dominique et compagnie), which, for those three years, translated all of its picture books into English and published the translations simultaneously with the original versions. After 2001, when Dominique & Friends was no longer publishing simultaneous translations of its picture books, the number of translations decreased again, to an average of 34 books per year from 2002 to 2004, which, although it is lower than the three previous years, is still approximately 40% higher than the yearly average from 1990 to 1998. Genre As hypothesized, the vast majority of translations were picture books, at 44% of the books. Nonfiction books, including nonfiction picture books for preschool children (15% of the total number of translations), were the second-most common type of translation, at 33% (225 books). As expected, novels were less commonly translated, at 18% of the total (122 books), of which 8% were novels for young readers (52 books), 9% were novels for middle readers (60 books), and 2% were novels for young adults (12 books). Other types of translations, including plays and short stories, made up 4% of the total (30 books, of which 4 were plays). There were no poetry collections translated from French into English, as shown in Figure 2. 47 The distribution of translations over time, however, varies considerably, as illustrated in Figure 3. In the early part of the century (prior to 1975), most of the translations belonged in the "Other" category, including one Belgian-authored play (Maurice Maeterlinck's The Blue Bird: a fairy play in six acts) that was published in three different editions (1910, 1911, 1920), and several collections of Canadian folk tales, many of which were published in multiple editions. In the 1970s, although collections of translated folk tales continued to be published, picture books began to make up a larger portion of the translation market. Prior to 1977, although there were some illustrated storybooks (Albert Bolduc's The Koax Family, 1944), there was only one translation that fit the criteria for a picture book (Claude Aubry's The Christmas Wolf, 1965). However, from 1977 onwards, picture books were the predominant genre, accounting for between 20% and 100% of translations per year, or 45% of all translations from 1977 to 2004. Also, shortly afterwards, in 1984, board books for preschoolers were introduced and began to make up an increasing share of the translation market (in 1984 and 1985, at least 25% of translations were board books). Although this study does not specifically distinguish board books from picture books, an unofficial observation shows that board books have continued to make up a substantial portion of translated books from 1984 to 2004. In the early 1990s (1992-1994), the production of picture books fell to just over 20% of the total number of translations. Then, in 1995, the distribution of genres in translation changed again, and the number of picture books began to rise, peaking for four years (1998 to 2001) at approximately 60% of translations each year. From 2002 to 2004, the number of 48 picture books decreased from one half of translations in 2002 to just over one third of all translations in 2004. Novels for older children have tended to play a minor, somewhat inconsistent role in translation. Prior to 1980, novels were only occasionally translated—only two novels were published in the 1960s and 1970s (Suzanne Martel's Surreal 3000, 1966; Monique Corriveau's The Wapiti, 1968). Throughout the early to mid-1980s, there would typically be one or two translated novels per year (beginning with Suzanne Martel's The King's Daughter in 1980). In 1987, the number of novels in translation began to rise, reaching a peak often novels in 1990. In 1991, the number of translated novels continued to increase when Formac Publishing initiated its First Novels series of novels for beginning readers. When this series began, it immediately created a significant new sub-genre of novels for beginning readers, which had previously been overlooked in translation. This series has proven to be quite successful, producing four books per year from 1991 until the present day, accounting for an approximate yearly average of 13% of translations since 1991. Because of this series, the overall number of novels in translation has seldom fallen below four novels per year, or an approximate average of eight books per year from 1991 to 1996 and five books per year from 1997 to 2004. Novels for older children and teenagers, however, have not fared as well in translation. Their numbers remained constant throughout the early 1990s, averaging around four books per year from 1991 to 1996. From 1997 to 2004, however, the number of translated novels for older readers has been quite small, averaging fewer than two translations per year over the last eight years of the study. 49 Novels for young adults have been especially poorly represented in translation. Although the methodology of this study made it difficult to conclusively distinguish novels for young adults from novels for other children, it was possible to confirm that approximately 12 books in the study (2% of the total) are novels for young adults. In the early 1990s, there were several novels for young adults published in Black Moss Press's short-lived (1990) Young readers' library series of fantasy/science fiction novels for older readers. Since that time, there has been a decidedly unsystematic sprinkling of translated novels for young adults, with Red Deer Press leading with three translated novels for young adults from 1995 to 2004 (Michele Marineau's The Road to Chlifa, 1995 and Lean Mean Machines, 2000; Carole Frechette's In the Key of Do, 2002). Nonfiction translations have tended to be better represented in translation than novels, but not as well represented as picture books. The first nonfiction translation was published in 1970 (Lionel Gendron's Birth: the story of how you came to be). Throughout the 1970s, nonfiction books were occasionally translated, averaging fewer than one book per year from 1970 to 1979. The number of nonfiction translations peaked in the 1990s at 14 books in 1992, over 50% of the translations that year, owing mostly to three nonfiction series that were published that year (a craft series from Les Editions Heritage and two nature series from Editions Michel Quintin). From 1993 to 1998, the number of nonfiction translations decreased slightly, averaging six per year for those six years. In 1999, the number of nonfiction translations increased dramatically to 20 books (largely due to the fact that in this study, many books in the popular Caillou series were classified as nonfiction). From 1999 to 2004, 50 nonfiction translations accounted for more than 30% of translations, peaking in 2003 and 2004 at over 40% of translations. Caillou and Other Series As expected, series have made up a significant portion of the books in this study. If a series is defined as 3 or more books by the same author and publisher, with the same characters, overall format, and/or general subject matter (in the case of nonfiction series), then series books make up approximately 60% of all translated books, a number that supports the original hypothesis, but is surprisingly high. The first series in translation in Canada was Ginette Anfousse's My Friend Pichou series, first published in 1978, the success of which may have inspired other series throughout the 1980s and beyond, including Sylvie Assathiany and Louise Pelletier's Little Bear series (1984,1985) and Bertrand Gauthier's Yuneek series (first published in 1988). In the 1990s, a significant portion of translations belonged to a particular series of picture books: the Caillou series. First appearing in 1990 as Lollypop, the Caillou series gained popularity in the late 1990s, with between 2 and 15 Caillou books translated annually from 1998 to 2004. The number of Caillou books account for a significant portion of translations in this study: in 2003, for example, 36% of all translations were books in the Caillou series. Since 1990, there have been 84 books published in the Caillou series, which is 12.4% of all translations from 1990 to 2004. If we look only at the last six years, since the series became quite popular, the Caillou series accounts for 24% of all translations. The proportion of Caillou books relative to the total number of translations is shown in Figure 4. Because of the large number of translations in the series, Caillou books have had a significant influence on the results of this study. For example, although all of the books are 51 in picture book format and use a storytelling structure, only 40% of them are classified as picture books in this study. According to their Library of Congress classification numbers, the remaining 60% are classified as nonfiction books.14 As a result, this has artificially inflated the number of nonfiction books published in the last seven years (particularly in the subject areas of family, child development, and psychology, of which 73% are from the Caillou series) while de-emphasizing the number of picture books published. If, for example, this study had classified all of the Caillou books as picture books (a classification that would better reflect their narrative structure and format), then picture books would have made up approximately 73% of all translations published since 1998 (compared to 55% as reported in this study), and the number of nonfiction books would have been only 13% (compared to 32% as reported in this study). Multiple Editions Of the 678 translations, 54 were subsequently published in a second, third, or fourth edition; these subsequent editions make up almost 10% of translated books. Only one book was published in four editions (Claude Aubry's The magic fiddler and other legends of French Canada, 1968,1974,1979,1983)15; eight were published in three editions; and 45 books were published in two editions. 14 Most of the Caillou books (45%) are classified under the subject areas of family, child development, and psychology, including ethics, manners, and home economics; 6% are classified as Science books; 6% Community; 5% Recreation, 5% Medicine and Dentistry, 2% Crafts; 2% English language. 15 Interestingly, this book is sometimes considered a book for adults rather than for children. However, Library and Archives Canada classifies it as a book for children. 52 Of these books, five were retitled in their later editions. Maurice Maeterlinck's The blue bird: a fairy play in six acts (1910,1911) was retitled in its third edition as The children's blue bird (1920), Christine L'Heureux's Caillou: good night (2000) was retitled as Caillou: sweet dreams (2004); Ginette Anfousse's The bath (1981) was retitled as Soap (1988) and Winter: the bogey-man-twice-seven (1981) was retitled as Winter: or the seven-o 'clock-bogey-man (1988); Stephane Poulin's Have you seen Josephine? (1986,1990) was retitled in its third edition as Where's that cat? (2003); and Stephane Poulin's Can you catch Josephine? (1987) was retitled in its second edition as Catch that cat! (2003). In all cases, the text was not changed in the retitled edition, although for some of the books, the cover illustrations were changed. Toy/Kit Books Another recent trend that the study did not anticipate is the increasing popularity of books with accessories, such as toys, games, or music. Since 1984, there were 74 translations that incorporated some kind of toy or accessory in addition to the book itself. During the last ten years in particular, this format has become more popular, with 62 translations (16% of all translations in the last 10 years) including an extra toy, game, kit, or audio recording. Since 1997, toy/kit books make up over 20% of translated children's books. Publishers As expected, the majority of publishers of translations are smaller publishers, often based in Quebec, and most of them produce very few translations. Only 12 Canadian publishers have published more than ten translations. Of these 12 publishers, six are Quebec-based publishers (Chouette Publishing, Dominique & Friends, Les Editions Heritage, Tormont Publications, Editions Michel Quintin, Les Editions Qu6bec-Am6rique), 53 one is a smaller Maritime publisher pairing with a Quebec-based publisher (Formac Publishing), four are larger national publishers (Tundra Books, Annick Press, James Lorimer, McClelland & Stewart), and one is an international publisher (Scholastic Canada). Other international publishers with branches in Canada have published very few translations. (See Table 1 for a more complete list of publishers, number of translations, and dates of publication.) Chouette Publishing, a Quebec-based publisher that produces the Caillou series, has published the largest number of translations, at 92 books from 1988 to 2004, or 13.5% of the total number of translations. Of these books, 84 (12.4% of all translations) are in the Caillou series. Dominique & Friends, another Quebec-based publisher, follows at 76 books in five years (1998 to 2002), or 11.2% of all translations. Formac Publishing, a Halifax-based publishing company that partners with Quebec publisher Les editions de la courte echelle, is the third leading publisher of translations, publishing 52 translations (11.2%) from 1991 to 2004. The most prolific national publisher of translations is Tundra Books, which published 43 translations (6.3%) in 21 years (1984 to 2004). Annick Press and James Lorimer have also translated 32 and 31 translations, respectively. Other established Canadian publishers have published comparatively few translations. Among international publishers with branches in Canada, Scholastic Canada has published 12 translations; other international publishers in Canada have rarely published translations, as shown in Table 1. For the first part of the century, almost all publishers of translations were Ontario-based publishers, as shown in Figure 5. That began to change in the late 1970s, when a few 54 Quebec publishers began to produce their own translations. Since then, the proportion of Quebec-based publishers increased steadily, from an average of approximately 4% per year from 1900 to 1977, to an average of 26% per year from 1978 to 1987, to an average of 65% per year from 1988 to 2004. The number of translations from Quebec publishers peaked for four years (1999 to 2002) at approximately 80% of the total and has declined to 50% in 2004, although it is difficult to determine whether this trend will continue. Overall, 59% of translations were by Quebec publishers, which is higher than this study had originally expected. At the same time, the proportion of Ontario-based publishers has decreased steadily, from approximately 91% of translations for the first three quarters of the century (1900 to 1977), to 69% from 1978 to 1987, to 31% from 1988 to 1997, to 13% from 1998 to 2004. Overall, 29% of translations are by Ontario-based publishers. The number of publishers from other provinces has increased over time but remained small, averaging five books per year since 1990, or 15% of translations during that time, as compared to only seven translations from 1900 to 1989 (4% of the total). Overall, 13% of translations are by publishers based in provinces other than Quebec or Ontario. Nova Scotia leads with 54 translations from 1989 to 2004, followed by British Columbia (20 translations from 1980 to 2002), Prince Edward Island (six translations from 1994 to 1996), Alberta (four translations from 1972 to 2002), Manitoba (one translation in 1990), and Saskatchewan (one translation in 2000). Although some publishers of translations acquire their translations from other publishers, the vast majority of publishers translate their own books into English. Of the 55 translations in this study, at least 72% (489 books) were published by the same publisher that produced the original. A few translations were the result of an established partnership between an English-Canadian and a French-Canadian publisher, but the majority of these partnerships were short-lived. The only significant, ongoing partnership was between Formac Publishing and Les editions de la courte echelle—it was the only pairing that has produced a substantial number of books (52 novels for beginning readers over 14 years). Other temporary partnerships included James Lorimer and Ovale (16 picture books for preschoolers in 1984 and 1985); Annick Press and Les editions de la courte echelle (11 picture books from 1984 to 1996); Black Moss Press and Editions Paulines (eight novels in 1990); Ragweed Press and Les editions de la courte echelle (six novels from 1994 to 1996); Second Story Feminist Press and Les editions de la courte echelle (six novels from 1990 to 1999); and Montreal Press and Les Editions Quebec-Amerique (five novels from 1987 to 1990). Simultaneous Translation Simultaneous translation is becoming more common, particularly since the mid 1990s. Prior to 1968, there were no children's books that were translated and published simultaneously with the original editions.16 In 1980, the number of simultaneous translations began to increase: from 1980 to 1996, simultaneous translations made up an average of 38% of translations per year. In 1997, the number of simultaneous translations increased significantly; from 1997 to 2004, approximately 64% of translations per year were 16 Albert Bolduc's The Koax Family was translated in the same year (1944) as the original French-language version, La Famille Grenouille, with little commercial success (Michon, 1999b). Because the translation was published later in the year than the original, this study does not consider it to be a simultaneous translation. 56 simultaneous translations. Overall, just over half of translations (51%) were simultaneous translations: 65% of picture books were simultaneous translations, 57% of nonfiction books were simultaneous translations, and only 8% of novels were simultaneous translations. Self-Publishing Another unanticipated trend is the gradual increase in the number of self-published translations.17 Prior to 1984, there were no self-published translations. From 1985 to 2004, there were 43 self-published translations, or 7% of the total number of translations. After 2000, the proportion of self-published books rose significantly to 18 books, or 11% of all translations in the last four years. Authors Many of the French-Canadian authors in this bibliography have had multiple books in translation. Twelve authors have had more than ten books translated into English; 34 have had five or more translated into English. All of the most frequently-translated authors have had series translated, sometimes in multiple editions. These include Gilles Tibo (26 books, many in the Simon and Little Wolf series); Ginette Anfousse (18 books, several in the My Friend Pichou series); Joceline Sanschagrin and Christine L'Heureux (both have written books in the Caillou series, 19 and 16 works respectively); Dominique John (who has authored 16 translations in the Washington and Deecee series); Louise Leblanc (who has written 16 titles in Formac Publishing's First Novels series). Other authors include Christiane Duchesne (14 books); Lucie Papineau (15 books); Dominique Chauveau (14 books); Doris Brasset (13 books); and Roger Pare (13 books). 17 A book was determined to be self-published if the name of the author was the same as that of the publisher, and/or if an investigation of the publisher revealed that it was a vanity press. 57 Translators In many cases (over 30% of translations), the translator's name is not given in the AMICUS database. For that matter, the translator's name is often not included on the book either,18 especially in mass-market picture books, which is consistent with the hypothesis that publishers would be reluctant to emphasize the fact that the books are translations. Of those translators who are acknowledged, there is a select group of translators who have done the majority of translations: the top five translators have translated 28% of all translations. The most prolific translator is Sarah Cummins, who has translated all of Formac Publishing's First Novels series of books, as well as a few books for other publishers (59 books from 1990 to 2004). She is followed closely by David Homel, who has translated 53 books for various publishers (1980 to 2001). The other most prolific translators include Carolyn Perkes (33 picture books from 1998 to 2002), Sheila Fischman (26 translations from 1984 to 2004), and Frances Morgan (25 translations from 1983 to 2001). Subject Matter The most common nonfiction subject, as determined by the books' Library of Congress classification numbers, was Science, at 52 books. Social Science was equally well-represented in translation, with books about psychology, family, child development, and Home Economics also at 52 books (75% of the books in this category were from the Caillou series). Reference books and books about the English language, including dictionaries and simple vocabulary-development books for young children, was the next most popular category, at 27 books. Other subjects that were fairly well-represented in translation 18 This observation was not part of the formal methodology of this study; rather, it is based on informal observations of over 100 translated French-Canadian children's books. 58 included Recreation (18 books), Christianity (15 books), and Handicrafts (13 books). Other nonfiction subjects in translation included Education (9 books), Fine Arts and Music (9 books), Community (8 books), History and Geography (7 books), Medicine and Dentistry (7 books), and Technology and Transportation (7 books).19 'In this study, folktales were typically classified as either history or literature. 59 DISCUSSION In compiling and analysing the bibliography of translated French-Canadian children's books, this study has achieved a preliminary overview of the history of translated French-Canadian children's literature from 1900 to 2004, uncovering many of the trends in the development of translated French-Canadian children's literature. The results of the study are consistent with many of the original hypotheses, but they have also provided a few surprises and raised a number of questions. To address these questions, the results will be considered in their historical and cultural context, in order to facilitate a greater understanding of the trends in translated French-Canadian children's literature. In so doing, it will also allow the prediction of future trends and suggest the direction of future research in translated Canadian children's literature. Trends and Issues in Translated French-Canadian Children's Literature One of the most significant events in the history of publishing translations in Canada was the initiation of the Canada Council Translation Grants Program (CCTGP) in 1972. This program allowed the government to bear some of the financial risks of publishing translations, thereby making translation a more attractive publishing option. Gagnon (1987) observed that the implementation of the CCTGP was one of the most significant factors increasing the number of children's books in translation, an observation that is supported by this study. Although it seemed to take a few years for publishers to take full advantage of the CCTGP, by the late 1970s, when the budget for the CCTGP was increased (Canadian unity, 1977), the number of translations was rising significantly. As publishers became more experienced at producing and marketing translations, as better translations were published, 60 and as French-Canadian authors became more popular in English-Canada, the translation market began to grow. Several publishers, such as James Lorimer and Annick Press, began to commit themselves to regularly publishing translations; many publishers, such as Chouette Publishing, Les Editions Heritage, and Formac Publishing, established whole series of books in translation. Bilingual publishers like Tundra Books and Annick Press also began experimenting with simultaneous translation of picture books, apparently recognizing that with simultaneous translation, they could decrease the per-item production costs and increase the potential for profit. Unfortunately, after the initial increase in the late 1970s and 1980s, translation never really gained much ground with English-Canadian publishers, never rising above the peak in 1988 at 17 books from non-Quebec publishers. However, at the same time, Quebec publishers began to recognize the enormous marketing potential in the North American English-language market, and began to work towards publishing English versions of their books (Tetreault, 1991). As a result, the number of translations continued to rise throughout the 1990s, even though the number of translations by English-Canadian publishers was decreasing. Since 2001, the number of translations by French-Canadian publishers has decreased, while the number of translations by English-Canadian publishers has remained unchanged, so that the overall number of translations has decreased. It is understandable that most translations are done by Quebec publishers, as they have much to gain from translating their own books. Besides giving their books, authors, and publishing companies a wider national and international profile, translation also increases the size of their market. On the other hand, the additional costs of translation, marketing and promotion diminish their potential profit considerably more than for the 61 original versions. However, publishing translations is not a simple prospect for Quebec publishers. Many of them encounter difficulties promoting and distributing their translations to an unfamiliar English-speaking market (Poulin, 2003). For this reason, the CCTGP places restrictions on publishers who wish to publish translations in the other language: they must have published at least three titles in the target language and they must demonstrate that they have an effective distribution network in place before they can receive a translation grant (Canada Council, 2005a). English-Canadian publishers, on the other hand, have different barriers to publishing translations. Firstly, they will almost certainly profit less on a translation than on an English-language original, which explains their reluctance to publish translations (Poulin, 2003). Although government subsidies can help to equalize some of the additional costs of producing a translation, they can do very little to increase sales, which tend to be low for translated books (Soderstrom, 2002). It is the rare consumer who will take a risk on an unknown French-Canadian author in translation when there are so many other titles to choose from, especially given the stigma surrounding translation, and the language barrier that limits or prevents the author tours and promotional events that are such an important part of book marketing (Poulin, 2003). Secondly, English-Canadian publishers have greater difficulty finding the books they would like to translate. Few English-Canadian editors are avid readers of French-Canadian children's books, so their exposure to French-Canadian children's literature is limited, and the process of acquiring books to translate can be very unsystematic. Also, the language barrier presents problems in all areas of producing translations, from drawing up contracts to editing and proofreading (Landreville, 2003). 62 The above are some of the reasons why a partnership between French- and English-Canadian publishers might be very effective. The English-Canadian publisher can rely on the French-Canadian publisher for the acquisitions process, and the French-Canadian publisher can rely on the English-Canadian publisher for the distribution process. There are a few French-English partnerships among the books in this study (e.g., Formac Publishing and Les editions de la courte echelle, and Montreal Press and Les Editions Qu^bec-Am^rique), but for the most part, they have been short-lived. Other French-Canadian publishers (such as Les Editions Quebec-Amerique) have taken a different approach to co-publishing their translations: translating their own books into English, then selling the translated package to an English-language publisher (Homel, 1988), although it is unclear whether those publishers continue to do so. Many publishers, however, simply sell the rights to their titles to other publishers, who will translate and publish them in translation. Dominique et compagnie is taking this approach: after unprofitably publishing their own translations for several years, they now sell the rights to most of their books to other publishing companies for distribution in English (J. Payette, personal communication, July 10,2006). When we look at the translations that have been produced by the larger Canadian publishers, we see that there are very few translations by major, international publishers like HarperCollins Canada and Doubleday Canada. These publishers, because they are not Canadian-owned, are ineligible for CCTGP funding. Among larger, Canadian-owned publishers like Tundra Books, Annick Press, James Lorimer, and Douglas & Mclntyre, we see that translations tend to be limited to well-known authors and illustrators like Roch Carrier, Stephane Poulin, or Gilles Tibo—in short, books that will almost certainly sell a 63 respectable number of copies. This is understandable given that larger publishers are accustomed to larger print runs and smaller profit margins, so they need to sell many copies of a book in order to make a profit. However, this means that "books with small print runs—the ones with the difficult subjects and with the provocative titles—are left to the small presses. And yet... these are the presses least able to afford such titles" (Millyard, 2001, p. 17). In addition, many translations are typically not done in advance, as the CCTGP requires that publishers apply for a grant before translating a book (Canada Council, 2005a), which means that the editor has sometimes not even read an English manuscript before the book is acquired. This demands a great deal of trust in the original story, author, and translator. Perhaps this partially explains why a shrinking minority of translated children's books are using the CCTGP as a source of funding (Canada Council, 2005a) and why publishers are so unwilling to take any risks on longer manuscripts by unknown authors or translators. Importantly, because the Canadian book market is so small, many Canadian publishers are more focused on an international (i.e., American) audience than a national audience (Aldana, 2001). This is a business decision which increases the sales and profit margin for a publisher; however, it does little to support Canadian literature or culture. Clearly, publishers are focused on the outcome when publishing translations: success is measured in terms of sales and profits. It is the publishers' perspective that translations do not sell well; this perception is probably accurate (Jobe, 2004; Soderstrom, 2002). Why would anyone publish something that they feel is almost guaranteed not to succeed? 64 It is, of course, a vicious cycle—English-Canadian publishers are unwilling to publish translations because French-Canadian authors are unknown and difficult to promote to anglophone (and especially American) readers. However, as fewer books and authors are translated into English, there are fewer opportunities for anglophone readers to become familiar with French-Canadian authors. The fewer translations that are published, the fewer readers who will get to know and love French-Canadian authors and translated French-Canadian children's books. As shown in this study, the number of French-Canadian publishers of translations is rising, while the number of English-Canadian publishers of translations is decreasing; the overall number of translations is also decreasing. These trends will likely continue unless there is a significant shift in public opinion about translation and an increase in familiarity with French-Canadian literature and authors, leading to an increase in sales of translations and a decrease in the risks associated with publishing translations. This is very unlikely to occur given the present situation in Canadian publishing, unless significant action is taken to effect change. Publishers are unlikely to be the agents of this change—after all, their main goal is to produce and sell books, not to subsidize cultural exchange in Canada. In fact, judging by the books that Canadian publishers are choosing to translate, it is apparent that publishers are aiming for commercial success over literary and cultural diversity in translation. Interestingly, when the CCTGP began and number of translations started to increase, the diversity of translated books also began to increase noticeably. Prior to the 1970s, there was little diversity of genre among translations. Most translations were longer works for older children, minimally illustrated, often collections of folk tales. By the 1970s, however, there was a major shift: picture books were dominating the translation market. Perhaps this was due to a more economic printing process at that time (Saltman, 1987), or perhaps the post-baby boom population surge (Egoff & Saltman, 1990), or perhaps the government's financial contribution helped to make it more feasible to produce this expensive type of book—more likely, it was a combination of all three factors. Throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, as documented in this study, more translations of all types and for all ages were published, including novels, nonfiction, and picture books for very young children. In recent years, however, the diversity of books in translation has been decreasing, with picture books dominating the translation market more strongly than ever. In any case, with a few exceptions, picture books have been the most commonly translated genre since 1977. A major reason for the popularity of picture books in translation has been the strength of picture books in the Canadian children's book market. Until recently, picture books have been very popular in Canada, and translation is simply another way of acquiring more Canadian picture books for the English-Canadian market. Also, French-Canadian illustrators tend to produce beautiful, distinctive artwork that is admired in English-Canada and internationally, which makes picture books less of a risk for publishers than longer works by less familiar authors. A sub-genre of picture books is the board book for very young children. Beginning in the 1980s, as these books became popular in English Canada and internationally, so too did they become popular in translation. These books with their simple texts are especially easy and inexpensive to translate, often translated by an editor or staff member at a publishing company, rather than a professional translator, and they rely heavily on the appeal of their illustrations rather than the literary quality of their texts. These translations (such as 66 Sylvie Assathiany's Little Bear series) are often sold in series or collections, thus inflating their numbers in this study. The fact that they have been translated is unlikely to concern the reader, as their minimal text (sometimes only one word per page) is stylistically unaffected by the translation process. Another factor that seems to contribute to the high number of picture books in translation is simultaneous translation: publishing both the translation and the original at the same time. Because picture books are very expensive to produce, they benefit more than other types of books from simultaneous translation. The higher the print run, the lower the per-unit cost of production; producing a translated version of a picture book simultaneously with the original can help to increase the print run, which lowers the per-unit cost, thus increasing the potential profit for each book sold. Unfortunately, if the translation does not sell, then the profitable effects of simultaneous translation are lost. Take for example, the Quebec publisher Dominique et compagnie, who elected to simultaneously translate all 63 of their picture books from 1999 to 2001 and publish them under the English name Dominique & Friends. Unfortunately, they faced obstacles due to limited sales and prohibitively high costs of marketing and promotion, so they stopped producing their own translations. They now approach translation much more cautiously, selling the rights to the majority of their titles to international publishers, who then publish the translations. The only series that they currently translate and publish themselves is the Toopy and Binoo (Toupie et Binou) series, which, like the Caillou series, is becoming quite popular due to the television program of the same name, which airs in both French and English in Canada (J. Payette, personal communication, July 10,2006). 67 Another genre that benefits from simultaneous translation is illustrated nonfiction. Like fictional picture books, illustrated nonfiction books, especially those with full-colour illustrations, are expensive to produce and also tend to be relatively easy to translate. Unfortunately, there are relatively few nonfiction titles in translation, which is likely related to the fact that nonfiction is currently struggling in French-Canadian publishing (Landreville & Marsolais, 2002), so there are limited nonfiction books available to translate. Interestingly, the majority of nonfiction translations in this study are of generic subjects that do not relate specifically to Quebec or French-Canadian culture at all. The vast majority of nonfiction books are science and social science books on subjects such as dinosaurs, animals, science experiments, relationships, and child development. In fact, there were almost no books about Quebec history and culture, other than books about Catholicism and Christianity, which were comparatively well-represented in translation (15 books from 1981 to 2000). Novels for older children have been translated much less frequently than fiction for younger readers, as shown in this study. Over the last eight years especially, fiction for this age group has been poorly represented in translation. This does not reflect the overall trend in Canadian children's publishing, in which novels are thriving in English (Saltman, 2004). Perhaps English-Canadian publishers are choosing to support English-Canadian authors rather than French-Canadian authors and translators in order to invest in the future of English-Canadian publishing. Certainly, the process of translating a novel is more time-consuming, challenging, expensive, and risky than that of a shorter, simpler picture book text. 68 In addition, because so many Canadian children's books are marketed in the United States, any evidence of foreignness in the form of overt Canadian content or translation from French, which is more difficult to disguise in a novel than in a picture book, may be unappealing to American readers (Aldana, 2001). Even Canadian readers may be more reluctant to read a novel in translation, since the stigma that translations are awkward to read will apply more to a longer novel than to a simpler picture book text. Most likely, publishers have simply determined that even with the cost-sharing effect of government subsidy, translation of longer fiction is a money-losing venture. The CCTGP covers the additional costs associated with producing a translation, and a portion of the costs of marketing that translation, but in the end, it cannot compensate for insufficient sales. Novels for young adults are especially under-represented in translation, which is disappointing considering the number of provocative, well-written French-Canadian novels for young adults. One type of novel, however, that appears to be doing well is the novel for beginning readers. The Formac Publishing "First Novels" series, along with Dominique & Friends' "Little Wolf series of readers, became popular not because they were translations but because they filled a market niche of high-interest stories for low-ability readers. If anything, the fact that the stories are translations may work against them, given the (sometimes accurate) public perception that translations are awkward to read. However, because there have been relatively few competitors in this market, and because the First Novels series has become an established brand, they have managed to be successful. On the other hand, a number of Canadian publishers, including Kids Can Press and Orca Book 69 Publishers, are now beginning to publish novels for this age group, which may provide some competition for this series. Other genres such as drama, short stories and poetry have been very poorly represented in translation. This is not surprising, given that these genres do not make up a very large portion of either the English- or French-language children's book market in Canada. In addition, poetry is notoriously difficult to translate effectively, and it is also more expensive, at $0.20 per word, compared to $0.14 per word for prose (Canada Council, 2005a). In any case, given the low number of English-Canadian poetry books on the market, it is understandable that publishers of poetry would choose to support English-Canadian poets rather than French-Canadian translators. Self-publishing is on the rise in translation, although self-published books still make up only a small minority (6%) of all translations. This is not particularly surprising, as advances in technology now facilitate the production of much higher quality, relatively inexpensive, self-published books. However, the majority of self-published titles tend not to be widely available on a national scale, instead being marketed to a particular region, event, industry, group, or institution (e.g., Montreal Museum of Fine Arts' collection of guidebooks for children to accompany various exhibitions, 1985-1989; or Quebec Secours' Babysitting course manual, 2004). Another developing trend which is increasingly significant is the inclusion of toys, craft kits or other accessories with translated books. This cross-marketing is becoming more common in both French- and English-language publishing in general: according to Patsy Aldana, "books-and-thingamajigs, series and TV offshots are so dominant" (Ellis, 1998). Thus, it is not surprising that such cross-marketing is becoming more common in translation 70 as well. These accessories may give the books greater, diversified appeal for buyers; however, in most cases, accessorized books seem to emphasize the accessories rather than the literary content of the books, and they seldom have any significant multicultural content. For example, in this study, fewer than 10% of the toy/kit books appear to have any multicultural content.20 A significant portion of the translations in this study are series books. A successful series removes a layer of risk from the publishing process: as a series becomes familiar to readers, subsequent books in the series will tend to sell better. From the early days of the boom in translated Canadian children's literature, series have played a significant role. Ginette Anfousse's "My Friend Pichou" series (first published in 1978) and Bertrand Gauthier's "Yuneek" series (first published in 1988) are two early examples. Another example is Gilles Tibo's "Simon" series (first published in 1988), and Stephane Poulin's "Josephine the cat" series (first published in 1986), which has been reprinted recently (2003). By far the most significant example, however, is the "Caillou" series, which now accounts for approximately one eighth (12.4%) of all translated French-Canadian children's books. The books in the Caillou series are not funded by the CCTGP (Canada Council, 2005a); they are instead fueled by the phenomenal multi-media success of the Caillou television show and associated products. The Caillou books have been translated in such 20 The majority of Toy/Kit books have titles like Telephone Fun (1995), which includes a battery-operated toy telephone, or The Complete Puppet Kit (2002), which includes materials and instructions for making puppets. The only Toy/Kit books with any kind of culturally-specific titles ate A guided tour of the world: an interactive atlas (1999); Explorer kit: travel all over the world to learn about animals (2004); and Explorer kit: Africa, South America, Asia, Oceania, Europe, North America (2003). 71 numbers because they are part of a brand that has been commercially successful and because there is a strong market demand for books and products in the series. The Caillou books are an interesting point of focus, because they are the only translated French-Canadian children's books that have managed to compete successfully in, and even dominate, the international children's book market: worldwide, Caillou books have sold over 2 million copies (Cookie Jar, 2005). Other translations have had modest success; some have received critical acclaim; but to date, only Caillou has been a major international commercial success. The series has been translated into several different languages and sold in many countries (Cookie Jar, 2005), a feat unheard of by other translated French-Canadian children's books. There are many unique and interesting characteristics of the Caillou series compared to other translations in this study. For the most part, the books are not marked as translations, so that most people buying the books are seldom aware that they have been translated from French—in fact, most Caillou fans do not even know that the series originated in Quebec and continues to be produced there.21 (Indeed, some of the Caillou books are not translations, having been originally written in English or adapted from episodes of the English-language television show.) Only a few titles in the series acknowledge that they are translations by naming the translator, and those that do name the translator do so only in tiny print, in the bibliographic data. All of the Caillou books are fully illustrated books for preschool children; many of them are board books for babies as young as six months. Some of them come with 21 Even the web site for the Caillou television show claims that the books "have been translated into French, Spanish and other languages" (Cookie Jar, 2005). 72 accessories such as stickers or a doll. A l l of the Caillou books have realistic themes; many of them stress realism so much that they are classified as nonfiction in this study, according to their location in the Library of Congress classification scheme. There is very little in terms of cultural diversity in the Caillou books, and only one specific reference to a Quebec setting or cultural context (Caillou discovers winter at the Biodome, published in collaboration with Biodome de Montreal in 2002). The Caillou series provides an important lesson about translated Canadian children's literature. If we want the number of translations to increase, then the translations must be commercially successful. On the other hand, judging by the success of the culturally-neutral Caillou series, it seems that commercially successful translations tend to minimize literary or cultural diversity. Perhaps it is not possible for culturally-specific or multi-cultural books to be successful in English translation. Although it has happened a few times with international translations such as Pippi Longstocking, English-speaking readers now seem to be less accepting of translation than they used to be (Jobe, 2004; Joels, 1999). As it stands now, however, there is relatively little diversity among translations. A small minority (9%) of translations are second, third or fourth editions of previously-published translations, as documented in this study. This slightly reduces the variety of books in the study, due to simple duplication. In a way, this is a hopeful sign. Publishers re-publish a book because it has been successful in its previous edition. On the other hand, this also means that potential resources have been diverted from a new translation. Another example of publishers' tendency to publish more familiar, low-risk titles is their reliance on familiar, well-known authors over new or unproven ones. A l l of the six most-translated authors in this study have written series that have been translated, which 73 contributes to the high number of translations for those authors but at the same time, it also contributes to the limited diversity and scope of translated books. Several of the authors have had multiple editions published, and some of them (Gilles Tibo, Ginette Anfousse) have had entire series reprinted (Simon, 1988-1999; My Friend Pichou, 1978-1988). As a result, the top five most-translated authors have written 14% of the total number of translations; the top ten authors have written 25% of the total number of translations. This has both benefits and drawbacks. On the one hand, this support for a few talented authors creates a handful of "superstar" authors who are popular in translation and can act as ambassadors for other translators. On the other hand, it also reduces the number of new French-Canadian authors in translation. Even the translators of French-Canadian children's books are a homogeneous group. The five most prolific translators have translated almost 30% of the books in this study. This homogeneity can also be observed among current Canadian translations for adults: for example, in 2004, Sheila Fischman translated more than one third of all literary translations for adults, and very few adult books were translated by first-time translators (Whitfield & Lane-Mercier, 2005/2006). In some ways, this minimizes the diversity of translated books—each translator has a certain, distinctive writing style that, arguably, will come across in the translation. In the case of Formac Publishing's First Novels series, for example, every book in the series has been translated by the same person, which contributes to a certain "sameness" within the translated series, which is not present in the original series. In other ways, though, the high number of books by each translator is a positive sign, showing that there are some Canadian translators who are gaining a significant amount of experience translating for children, which will presumably lead to higher quality translations. 74 Of course, the most prolific "translator" in this study is the anonymous or uncredited translator, which, for over 30% of the books in this study, negates the contribution of dozens of translators, none of whom have earned credit as being co-creators of the books. Granted, this unnamed translator may often be a staff member, such as an editor at the publishing company, who is often translating a very simple text, so it is understandable that they would not be recognized as a professional translator. The way that literary translators are treated in Canada would seem to imply that their work has little value. For example, they are paid so little that most literary translators could not subsist on their literary translation work alone, even if they worked full-time hours every week of the year (Grady, 1995). Also, they seldom receive royalties for their work unless they have managed to negotiate a small royalty payment after a book sells a certain number of copies (Homel & Simon, 1988). Not only that, but when the translation is published, many publishers, particularly of picture books, will omit the translator's name from the front cover of the book—sometimes even omitting it from the book altogether, not even including it in the bibliographic data. In addition, there are relatively few opportunities for translators to be recognized for their accomplishments. There is only one translation award for Canadian children's literature, and it has only been in existence since 2003. It has struggled to find suitable candidates for the award: in the first year of the prize, there were no submissions for the French-to-English translation award, and thus no prize was given (Marineau, 2004). Neither are literary awards a significant factor in selecting books for translation. A book may have won a prestigious prize for the original French-language edition, but that does not ensure that it will be translated. Even winners of Canada's most prestigious literary 75 awards are unlikely to be translated: fewer than one third of Governor General's Award winners up to 2004 have been translated (Canada Council, 2005b; Gagnon, 1987).22 Those that are translated tend to be picture books rather than longer fiction, for many of the reasons discussed earlier. Unfortunately, this means that many of the best French-Canadian children's books are not being translated, and English-Canadian readers have limited opportunities to experience excellent French-Canadian children's literature. Overall, this shift away from diversity in translation, away from fiction and nonfiction for older readers, towards picture books for very young children, means that the variety of books in translation is increasingly limited and the complexity and literary style of translations are increasingly simplified. Although the artistic quality of translated picture books remains high, literary quality is compromised when simple texts are chosen and when the translators have limited experience as professional literary translators, or when an experienced professional translator is paid so little for the translation that they have no choice but to rush through the job to get paid their stipend. The Future ofTranslated French-Canadian Children's Literature Unfortunately, the future of translated French-Canadian children's literature in Canada does not look good. In many countries, translation into English is declining (Jobe, 2004). Even in countries where translation is common, the majority of translations are of English-language books (Oittinen, 2003). There are already so many English-language children's books that translation simply adds more bulk to the already overwhelming mass of children's books in English. Unless readers are particularly interested in reading translated This is also discussed in Chapter II and supported by the author's research. 76 literature and deliberately seek it out, most translations will be overlooked in the international English-language market. There is no reason to believe that translation in Canada will perform differently than translation in other English-speaking countries. We have the same high number of English-language children's books in our bookstores (which makes it difficult even for untranslated English-Canadian children's books to get noticed), and English-Canadian readers do not appear to be tremendously interested in reading translated French-Canadian children's literature. Therefore, it is likely that the current trends in translated French-Canadian children's literature will continue and will remain consistent with international trends, being published in relatively small numbers, and emphasizing picture books for young children over longer fiction for older readers. Limitations of the Research This study has a number of limitations. Most significant is the fact that it was impossible to physically examine or read all of the books in the study; instead, most of the data was gathered from Library and Archives Canada's AMICUS database. As a result, the conclusions made in this research are necessarily indirect and limited to the descriptive information found in the catalogue entries. Because of this research design, any errors or omissions occurring in the database have been duplicated in this study. Also, inconsistencies over time in the AMICUS bibliographic records mean that the data for some books is more complete than for others. In a few cases, the missing data had to be obtained elsewhere,23 which means that a single, consistent source was not used for all of the data collection. 23 For example, when the translator's name did not appear in the AMICUS database, the the book itself or the publisher's catalogue could be a source for that information. 77 Another major limitation of the study is that it acts on the assumption that LAC's collection of translated Canadian children's literature is complete and that it is correctly catalogued in the electronic database, so that all of the translated Canadian children's books in the collection could be successfully located. If, for example, there are any Canadian-published translations that are not in LAC's collection, or if some of them were mistakenly classified as adult literature, then they will have been omitted in this study. Also, the process of Legal Deposit in Canada (whereby publishers are legally required to deposit two copies of each book published at LAC) did not begin until 1953 (Library and Archives of Canada Act, 2006), which suggests that LAC's collection of translations prior to 1953 may not be as complete for the earlier years of the study. Also, some of the categorization decisions made by the Library of Congress when assigning classification numbers to the books seems somewhat arbitrary and inconsistent over time (e.g, some of the books in the Caillou series were classified as literature, whereas others were classified differently). Another limitation of the study is that, due to time and budget constraints, it was not possible to gather interview data from professionals involved in Canadian publishing that might have shed light on the trends revealed in the data. Also, the study is limited to Canadian-published titles, which means that French-Canadian children's books that have been translated and published in another country without being published in Canada have been eliminated in this study. Finally, there may also be some reliability and validity concerns, as some of the conclusions were based on educated guesswork, rather than objective measurement, thus a portion of them may be incorrect. Also, the observations and conclusions made by this researcher may not be the same as those made by another researcher. 7 8 Suggestions for Further Research Because this was a preliminary, exploratory investigation, there are many ways in which the research could be extended. For example, the study could be repeated using the same time frame and set of books, but in greater detail. This would involve carefully examining and reading all of the translated books and performing a detailed content analysis of such characteristics as theme, subject matter, characters (race, species, gender, age), setting, and time period. This would give a more in-depth understanding of the "typical" translated French-Canadian children's book and its evolution over time. One could limit the study by examining only one genre at a time, or by examining only a selected time period. A similar content analysis could be done with both the translated and the original French-Canadian children's books, in order to make a comparison between them. Is the translated literature representative of the original literature? Or are there systematic, stereotypical biases or omissions in the translated literature? Are some genres, themes, characters, settings, or time periods better represented in translation than in the original literature? This could also be done with nonfiction books about French-Canadian history and culture. As noted earlier, there are very few translated children's books about French-Canadian history and culture. Does this mean that all of the English-language books about Quebec history and culture were written in English? If so, are there any problems with appropriation of voice, biases, or inaccuracies in the books? Or are there simply very few English-language books available on this subject? A researcher could compare the content of English- and French-language books about Quebec history and culture—is there enough 79 English-language information about Quebec history and culture, and is it accurate and comprehensive, compared to French-language books on the same subject? Another study could compare translated French-Canadian children's literature with translated English-Canadian children's literature, in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of translated children's literature in Canada, and also to observe the differences between the two translated literatures. It would be helpful to situate this research within the larger sociological, historical, and political context of translation in Canada. In order to gain a more complete understanding of translated Canadian children's literature, given that so little research on this subject has been published, it would be imperative to interview the relevant professionals involved with translation in Canada. Publishers, translators, authors, illustrators, booksellers, teachers, librarians, politicians—all of them would have unique perspectives on the history and development of translation in Canada; gathering and compiling their perspectives would help to achieve a deeper understanding of the history and development of translated children's literature in Canada. One could also take a more qualitative or critical approach, for example, by examining the aesthetic quality and readability of translated Canadian children's literature, comparing the literary quality of translated children's books to the original children's books, or designing the criteria by which to evaluate the quality of a translation. For example, action research with children could examine the child's experience of reading translated children's literature, as opposed to that of reading original English-language children's literature. Finally, one could take a translation studies approach and focus on the theoretical, applied practice of translating for children in Canada. This could examine the way that 80 Canadian translators approach some of the unique issues of translating Canadian children's literature, such as cultural context adaptation or the interaction between text and illustrations. 81 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study has attempted to identify all of the children's books that have been translated from French into English and published in Canada from 1900 to 2004. It has analysed several characteristics of those books in order to identify some of the trends in translation over time. For the most part, the results of this study have been consistent with the original hypotheses based on the findings of previous researchers. For example, the annual number and diversity of translations has increased steadily since the 1970s, suggesting that government funding has indeed had a positive impact on the publishing of Canadian translations. However, in recent years, fewer publishers seem to be using government funding to produce translations, suggesting that there are other strong influences on Canadian translation besides government funding. Among the most significant factors influencing Canadian translation are the market constraints and financial pressures facing Canadian publishers. Despite the expressed interest of English-Canadian publishers to publish translations (Poulin, 2003), many of them are simply unable to publish translations due to market constraints. For example, since 1987, the number of translations published by Ontario publishers has been decreasing. On the other hand, translations by Quebec publishers, who are highly motivated to produce translations for a variety of reasons, have been increasing since the 1970s; however, since 2001, they too have been decreasing. Unfortunately, translations do not sell well in English Canada, which is of little wonder. After all, the market is already saturated with English-language titles from Canada, the United States, England, and other countries. How could a book by a little-known Quebec 82 author in translation, often with "odd-looking" illustrations, compete with blockbuster titles by internationally famous authors? Furthermore, Canadian publishers are increasingly marketing their books in the United States, which means that Canadian books are being published with an American audience in mind. As a result, books with strong Canadian content, including translations, are being downplayed in favour of culturally bland, American-style stories (Aldana, 2001). This is a worrisome trend for translated French-Canadian children's literature because it suggests that French-Canadian children's books are being selected for translation only if they are culturally neutral enough to be accepted in the United States—in other words, if they do not reflect their French-Canadian origins. This selective representation of French-Canadian children's literature could be considered an inadvertent form of censorship: assimilating French-Canadian children's literature into American culture, rather than incorporating it into Canadian culture. Among the most successful translations are picture books and illustrated nonfiction books for young children. Established series, particularly the Caillou series, have had a very strong presence among translations. Cross-marketing also appears to be an important element of translation success. Books with an associated television show (such as Caillou or Toopy and Binou) tend to be translated more frequently; books with accessories or add-ons are also becoming more common in translation. One of the challenges facing translated French-Canadian children's literature is the decreasing diversity of genre and subject matter. Translations for older children, including novels and longer nonfiction, have been dimMshing. Also, quebecois subject matter appears to be limited in translated nonfiction. 83 Overall, translations of French-Canadian children's literature do not appear to be representative of the true diversity and scope of the original French-Canadian children's literature. For the most part, the emphasis in translation publishing is on commercial success: publishers are emphasizing illustrated books for young children, established series, and well-known authors because those are the books that are most likely to sell. In short, publishing translations has become an economic enterprise rather than a cultural one—but is that what it ought to be? Are market forces enough to drive the translation industry? Should we assume that if English-Canadians are unwilling to spend money on translated books that they are uninterested in French-Canadian literature and culture? And even if we do assume that, should we accept it? Or should we step in and try to effect change? If we argue that English-Canada is or should be interested in experiencing French-Canadian children's literature, then we need to publish more and better translations that are representative of the quality and scope of the original French-Canadian children's literature. After all, translation is the only way for anglophone readers to experience French-Canadian children's literature. If publishers translate the best French-Canadian children's books that are accurately representative of French-Canadian culture, written by the best Quebec authors and illustrators, and beautifully translated by Canada's best literary translators, then we will have a strong national heritage collection of translations that will be important both in Canada and internationally. Increasing the number of high-quality translations will increase anglophone readers' access to the best French-Canadian children's books and will reduce the stigma 84 surrounding translation in English-Canada, thereby helping to create a self-sustaining industry, rather than the struggling business that it is at present. Do we want to perpetuate the two solitudes? Because that is what will likely happen if we continue with our current approach to translation: the limited number and variety of translations available to English-Canadian readers will also limit the number and variety of opportunities for them to experience French-Canadian children's literature and culture. On the other hand, as more and better translated French-Canadian children's books become available to English-Canadian readers, then the bridge between the two solitudes will grow stronger, and English-Canadians will have more opportunities to connect with the richness of French-Canadian children's literature. 85 Table 1: Publishers of French-Canadian Children's Books in Translation Publisher Number of Proportion Years of Province of Translations of Total Publication Publication Chouette Publishing 92 13.6% 1988-2004 Quebec Dominique & Friends 76 11.2% 1998-2002 Quebec Formac Publishing 52 7.7% 1991-2004 Nova Scotia Tundra Books 43 6.3% 1984-2004 Quebec, Ontario Les Editions Heritage 37 5.5% 1978-2001 Quebec Tormont Publications 34 5.0% 1990-2004 Quebec Annick Press 32 4.7% 1980-2001 Ontario James Lorimer 31 4.6% 1977-2000 Ontario Editions Michel Quintin 24 3.5% 1991-1996 Quebec McClelland & Stewart 13 1.9% 1920-1989 Ontario Scholastic Canada 12 1.8% 1972-2002 Ontario Les Editions Quebec-Amerique 11 1.6% 1987-1999 Quebec Coffragants and Pocketaudio 11 0.9% 1998-2000 Quebec Total Publishing 10 1.5% 2002 Quebec Douglas & Mclntyre 9 1.3% 1980-2002 BC Black Moss Press 8 1.2% 1990 Ontario NC Press 8 1.2% 1978-1981 Ontario Novalis 7 1.0% 1987-2003 Ontario Firefly Books 6 0.9% 2002-2004 Ontario Les editions de la courte echelle 6 0.9% 2001 Quebec Ragweed Press 6 0.9% 1994-1996 PEI Second Story Feminist Press 6 0.9% 1990-1999 Ontario Doubleday Canada 5 0.7% 1972-1991 Ontario Montreal Press 5 0.7% 1987-1990 Quebec Phidal Publishing 5 0.7% 1997-2003 Quebec Raincoast Books 5 0.7% 1999-2000 BC Adventure Press 4 0.6% 2000 Quebec Groundwood Books 4 0.6% 1981-2004 Ontario Musson Book Co. 4 0.6% 1910-1929 Ontario Red Deer Press 3 0.4% 1995-2002 Alberta HarperCollins Canada 2 0.3% 1993-1994 Ontario Macmillan of Canada 2 0.3% 1966-1968 Ontario Orca Book Publishers . 2 0.3% 1995 BC Stoddart Publishing 2 0.3% 1988-1995 Ontario Kids Can Press 1 0.1% 1985 Ontario Tundra Books operated out of Montreal until 1995, after which it moved to Toronto. 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Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1910 1 The blue bird: a fairy play in six acts O Maurice Maeterlinck N/A Alexander Teixeira de M Musson 1911 1 The blue bird: a fairy play in six acts O Maurice Maeterlinck N/A Alexander Teixeira de M Musson 1920 1 The children's blue bird 0 Georgette Leblanc (Madame M Herbert Paus Alexander Teixeira de M McClelland & Stewart 1925 1 The chopping bee and other Laurentian storie 0 frere F .E .C. Marie-Victorin ? James Ferres Musson 1929 1 The chopping bee and other Laurentian storie 0 frere F .E .C. Marie-Victorin ? James Ferres Musson 1944 1 The Koax Family (Froggy Frolics) 0 Albert Bolduc Henri Beaulac R. J . Clark Fides 1958 1 The golden phoenix and other French-Canad 0 Marius Barbeau, retold by Mich Arthur Price Oxford UP 1963 1 The king of the thousand islands: a Canadian 0 Claude Aubry Edouard Perret Alice E. Kane McClelland & Stewart 1965 1 The Christmas wolf 0 Claude Aubry Edouard Perret Alice E. Kane McClelland & Stewart 1965 2 The golden phoenix, and other French-Canad 0 Marius Barbeau, retold by Mich Arthur Price Scholastic Canada 1966 1 Surreal 3000 N Suzanne Martel Lee Clifton Macmillan 1968 1 The magic fiddler and other legends of Frenct O Claude Aubry Saul Field Alice E. Kane P. Martin 1968 2 The Wapiti N Monique Corriveau Paul Liberovsky J.M. L'Heureux Macmillan 1970 1 Birth: the story of how you came to be NF Lionel Gendron ? Alice Cowan Harvest House 1972 1 Agouhanna O Claude Aubry Julie Brinckloe Harvey Swados Doubleday Canada 1972 2 Storm oak O Andree Maillet Kathryn Cole F.C.L. Muller Scholastic Canada 1972 3 Tales from the igloo NF Maurice Metayer Agnes Nanogak Maurice Metayer Hurtig 1973 1 Agouhanna O Claude Aubry Julie Brinckloe Harvey Swados Paperjacks 1974 1 The magic fiddler and other legends of Frencl O Claude Aubry Saul Field Alice E. Kane P. Martin 1974 2 Indian legends of Canada NF Claude Melancon ? David Ellis Gage 1975 1 All about sailing: a handbook for juniors NF Mario Brunet Rene de la Haye Andrea Rankin-Camero Greey de Pencier 1977 1 Lazarus laughs PB Christiane Duchesne ? Rosemary Allison (adap James Lorimer 1977 2 The lonely dragon PB Christiane Duchesne ? Rosemary Allison (adap James. Lorimer 1978 1 Chicken pox PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse NC Press 1978 2 The fight PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse N C Press 1978 3 Hide and seek PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse NC Press 1978 4 My friend Pichou PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse NC Press 1978 5 Tales of Little Dwarf O Florica Lorint ? Diana Trafford-Bisset Editions Claire Dumai; 1978 6 Poutoulik with the Inuit NF Nicole Rich-Plumet Patrick Plumet (photog Robert Guy Scully, Marc Heritage 1979 1 The magic fiddler and other legends of Frencl O Claude Aubry Saul Field Alice E. Kane PMA Books 1979 2 Child of the Canadian forest NF Rene Bonnardel ? Patricia Crampton (trans Burke Books 1979 3 Dimo, and other animal stories NF Sarah Larkin ? Sarah Larkin Editions du bien public 1980 1 The golden phoenix, and other fairy tales frorr O Marius Barbeau, retold by Mich Arthur Price Oxford UP 1980 2 The king's daughter N Suzanne Martel N/A David Toby Homel, Mar; Douglas & Mclntyre 1980 3 Santa's own toys PB Evelyne Passegand Marie-Jose Sacre Annick Press 1980 4 Cliptail PB Gabrielle Roy Francois Olivier Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1981 1 Make your own music NF Peter K. Alfaenger Peter K. Alfaenger Lucilla Watson Groundwood 1981 2 The bath PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner NC Press 1981 3 Chicken pox PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner NC Press 1981 4 Hide-and-seek PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse NC Press 1981 5 Winter: the bogey-man-twice-seven PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner NC Press > >0 CT S3 D -R" w of o" <s •8 4* o CO I CT Cu a 3 o I O Cu n f CT co CO o % Vi Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1981 6 A perfect day for kites N Monique Corriveau N/A David Homel Groundwood 1981 7 Snowfeather PB Cecile Gagnon ? James Lorimer 1981 8 Francis of Assisi NF Henriette Major Claude Lafortune Phil Kelly Fides 1981 9 I meet Jesus: He tells me "I love you", story ol NF Jean Vanier ? Editions Anne Sigier 1982 1 The city under ground N Suzanne Martel N/A Norah Smaridge Douglas & Mclntyre 1982 2 Peewee N Suzanne Martel N/A John Fleming Scholastic Canada 1983 1 The Christmas wolf PB Claude Aubry J.L. Shore Alice E. Kane Clarke Irwin 1983 2 The king of the thousand islands: a Canadian 0 Claude Aubry Vesna Krstanovick Alice E. Kane Clarke Irwin 1983 3 The Magic fiddler and other legends of Frencl 0 Claude Aubry Saul Field Alice E. Kane Clarke Irwin 1983 4 The cat in the cathedral N Bernadette Renaud Josette Michaud Frances Morgan Porcepic 1984 1 My house NF Stephane Anastasiu ? James Lorimer 1984 2 Don't cut my hair NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1984 3 1 love my babysitter NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1984 4 Little bear can't sleep NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1984 5 Peepee in the potty NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1984 6 The tree NF Philippe Beha Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1984 7 The hockey sweater PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1984 8 My street NF Marie-Josee C6te ? James Lorimer 1984 9 The super science discovery book: easy-to-dc NF Professor Kurius Jacques Goldstyn Susan Le Pan Grosvenor House 1984 10 The train NF Mireille Levert ? James Lorimer 1984 11 Christopher Cartier of Hazelnut, also known a N Antoinine Maillet N/A Wayne Grady Methuen 1984 12 A friend like you PB Roger Pare Roger Pare Annick Press 1984 13 Pomme recounts-the story of cancer, a big st NF Louise Pomminville, J . Jocelyn Louise Pomminville James Parry Leucan 1984 14 The computer revolts N Bernadette Renaud N/A Frances Morgan Porcepic 1984 15 The mystery of the key PB the Quebec Soft Drink Bottlers Serge Gaboury Malcom Reid The Association 1985 1 The farmyard NF Stephane Anastasiu? Stephane Anastasiu James Lorimer 1985 2 The bad day NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1985 3 Grandma's visit NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1985 4 My baby sister NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1985 5 Where is my dummy? NF Sylvie Assathiany, Louise Pelle Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1985 6 The sea NF Philippe Beha Philippe Beha James Lorimer 1985 7 The hockey sweater PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1985 8 The garden NF Marie-Louise Gay Marie-Louise Gay James Lorimer 1985 9 Morrice for children NF Helene Lamarche ? Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1985 10 Picasso for children NF Helene Lamarche ? Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1985 11 Robot alert N Suzanne Martel N/A Patricia Sillers Kids Can Press 1985 12 The Annick A B C Activity Set NF Roger Pare Roger Pare Annick Press 1985 13 The fridge NF Pierre Pratt Pierre Pratt James Lorimer 1986 1 Miro for Children NF Helene Lamarche Brian Merrett (photos) Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1986 2 Have you seen Josephine? PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Tundra Books 1987 1 The birthday party P B Michel Aubin Helene Desputeaux Shelley Tanaka James Lorimer Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1987 2 The secret code PB Michel Aubin Helene Desputeaux Shelley Tanaka James Lorimer 1987 3 My first trip to the land of Jesus NF Brother Bernard-Marie Olivier Nalet Charles S. Pottie Novalis 1987 4 Anna, Paul and Tommycat say hello PB Nicole Girard, Paul Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1987 5 Looking for Tommycat PB Nicole Girard, Paul Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1987 6 The dragon and other Laurentian tales 0 Claude Jasmin Claude Jasmin Priscilla Sillers Oxford U P 1987 7 The young magician N Viviane Julien Krsysztof Wellman (phc Frances Morgan Montreal Press 1987 8 Leonardo for children young and old NF Helene Lamarche Stephane Poulin Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1987 9 A friend like you PB Roger Pare Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1987 10 The Annick A B C NF Roger Pare Roger Pare Annick Press 1987 11 One, Two, Three NF Roger Pare Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1987 12 My impossible uncle N Raymond Plante Brian Boyd (cover art) Rochelle Lisa Ash Scholastic Canada 1987 13 Can you catch Josephine? PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Tundra Books 1987 14 Bach and broccoli N Bernadette Renaud Jean Demers Frances Morgan Quebec/Amerique 1987 15 I meet Jesus: He tells me "I love you" : story o NF Jean Vanier ? Paulines 1987 16 I walk with Jesus NF Jean Vanier ? Paulines 1988 1 A baby sister PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 2 Chicken pox PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner Heritage 1988 3 The fight PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 4 Hide and seek PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner Heritage 1988 5 I'm sulking PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 6 My friend Pichou PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 7 The party PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 8 School PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau Heritage 1988 9 Soap PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner Heritage 1988 10 Winter, or The seven-o'-clock-bogey-man PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Mayer Romaner Heritage 1988 11 My first Bible in pictures: Old Testament NF Francois Brassier, Danielle Moi Letizia Galli Stoddart 1988 12 Hello, tree PB Cecile Gagnon Darcia Labrosse Patricia Claxton McClelland & Stewart 1988 13 I'm hot PB Cecile Gagnon Darcia Labrosse Patricia Claxton McClelland & Stewart 1988 14 I'm hungry PB Cecile Gagnon Darcia Labrosse Patricia Claxton McClelland & Stewart 1988 15 A new house PB Cecile Gagnon Darcia Labrosse Patricia Claxton McClelland & Stewart 1988 16 Yuneek in I'm Yuneek PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1988 17 Yuneek in the championship PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1988 19 Yuneek in the winner PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1988 20 A letter from the moon PB Nicole Girard, Pol Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1988 21 Tommycat comes back at last PB Nicole Girard, Pol Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1988 22 Tommycat is gone again PB Nicole Girard, Pol Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1988 23 Where is Tommycat? PB Nicole Girard, Pol Danheux Michel Bisson Priscilla Galloway (adap James Lorimer 1988 24 Welcome to the world: a read 'n play learning NF Marie-Francine Hebert Darcia Labrosse Heritage 1988 25 The ballad of Mr. Tubs PB Pierre Houde Pierre Houde Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1988 26 Tadpole and the whale: a novel N Viviane Julien N/A Frances Hanna Montreal Press 1988 27 The great land of small N Viviane Julien Jean Demers (photos) Frances Hanna Montreal Press Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1988 28 Greeting Jesus: let's make the Christmas crib NF Claude Lafortune N/A Michael O'Hearn Novalis 1988 29 Borduas for children NF Helene Lamarche N/A (photos) Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1988 30 Chagall for children NF Helene Lamarche Philippe Migeat (photos Judith Terry Montreal Museum of F 1988 31 Neuro-88 NF Brigitte Lambert, Lise Guignard ? Association Epilepsie 1988 32 Happy birthday! PB Marie-France Laurent Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1988 34 Winter games [kit]: Felix and the Atties NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Chouette 1988 35 Passing time [kit] NF Christine L'Heureux Mireille Levert Chouette 1988 36 The Christmas elves PB Henriette Major Stephane Poulin Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1988 37 Paper magic NF Henriette Major Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1988 38 The end of the world PB Henriette Major Philippe Beha Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1988 39 Robot alert N Suzanne Martel N/A Patricia Sillers Ginn 1988 40 1,2,3-Play with me: a read 'n play learning se NF Roger Pare Roger Pare David Homel Heritage 1988 41 A , B , C - P l a y with me: a read 'n play learning s NF Roger Pare Roger Pare David Homel Heritage 1988 42 Circus days PB Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gau Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1988 43 Could you stop Josephine? PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Tundra Books 1988 44 My cow Bossie PB Gabrielle Roy Louise Pomminville Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1988 45 Simon and the snowflakes PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1988 46 Greenmantle: an Ojibway legend of the north O Jocelyne Villeneuve Luc Robert? Penumbra 1989 1 The magic rug of Grand-Pre PB Rejean Aucoin, Jean-Claude Ti Hermenegilde Chiasso Barbara LeBlanc, Sally I Nimbus 1989 2 Make-up magic PB Helene Boucher, Henriette Maji Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1989 4 Seasons of the sea N Monique Corriveau Debi Perna David Homel (abridged < Douglas & Mclntyre 1989 5 A drawing for Tara PB Christiane Duchesne Pierre Pratt Canadian Internationa 1989 6 Yuneek in camping out PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1989 7 Yuneek in wa wa bong bong PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1989 8 My body inside out: an introduction to human NF Marie-Francine Hebert Darcia Labrosse Heritage 1989 9 Maria Chapdelaine N Louis Hemon Gilles Tibo Alan Brown Tundra Books 1989 10 Summer of the colt N Viviane Julien N/A Frances Hanna Montreal Press 1989 11 The Japan of the shoguns presented to childr NF Helene Lamarche N/A Jill Corner Montreal Museum of F 1989 12 On my street NF Ginette Lambert, Jean-Luc Pics ? centre educatif et culti 1989 13 On my street: Activity book: Answers and eva NF Ginette Lambert, Jean-Luc Pica ? Barbara Rowley centre educatif et culti 1989 14 A world upside down N Vincent Lauzon Philippe Germain David Homel Heritage 1989 15 Summer Days PB Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gau Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1989 16 The big loser N Raymond Plante N/A Alan Brown McClelland & Stewart 1989 17 Benjamin & the pillow saga PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Annick Press 1989 18 The Tortoiseshell and the Pekinese N Gabrielle Roy Jean-Yves Ahern Patricia Claxton Doubleday Canada 1989 19 Simon and the wind PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1990 1 The magic rug of Grand-Pre PB Rejean Aucoin, Jean-Claude Ti Michele Hall Nimbus 1990 2 A visit for Lollypop NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 3 Bedtime for Lollypop NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 4 Lollypop at nursery school NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 5 Lollypop eats lunch NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1990 6 Lollypop in the bathtub NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 7 Lollypop is angry NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 8 Lollypop knows how NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 9 Lollypop's room NF Micheline Chartrand Helene Desputeaux Kathy Radford Chouette 1990 10 Shooting for the stars Y A Denis Cote N/A Jane Brierley Black Moss 1990 11 The invisible empire Y A Denis Cote N/A David Homel Black Moss 1990 12 Party time NF Suzanne Dubuc, Henriette Majc Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1990 13 Benjamin's travels PB Christiane Duchesne Pierre Pratt Karen Benoit Media-Sphere, Youth 1990 14 Uncle Henry's dinner guests PB Benedicte Froissart Pierre Pratt David Homel Annick Press 1990 15 The treasure chest of facts and fun: 1-Arounc NF Alain-Patrick Gill Nicole Lafond Jane Brierley Tormont 1990 16 A monster in my cereal N Marie-Francine Hebert Philippe Germain Sarah Cummins Second Story 1990 17 The amazing adventure of Littlefish PB Marie-Francine Hebert Darcia Labrosse Sarah Cummins Second Story 1990 18 Bye bye, Red riding hood N Viviane Julien N/A Frances Hanna Montreal Press 1990 19 Isabel, the sleeping beauty NF Christine L'Heureux Joanne Ouellet Penelope Cowie Chouette 1990 20 Beyond the future YA Johanne Masse N/A Frances Morgan Black Moss 1990 21 Lost time YA Charles Montpetit N/A Frances Morgan Black Moss 1990 22 Louis, son of the prairies O Noelie Palaud-Pelletier Philippe Dupas Elizabeth Maguet Pemmican 1990 23 Play time PB Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gau Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1990 24 Have you seen Josephine? PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Nelson Canada 1990 25 My mother's loves PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Annick Press 1990 26 Matthew, prince charming NF Joceline Sanschagrin Marie Lafrance Penelope Cowie Chouette 1990 27 Argus steps in N Daniel Sernine N/A Ray Chamberlain Black Moss 1990 28 Scorpion's treasure N Daniel Sernine N/A Frances Morgan Black Moss 1990 29 The sword of Arhapal N Daniel Sernine N/A Frances Morgan Black Moss 1990 30 Those who watch over the earth N Daniel Sernine N/A David Homel Black Moss 1990 31 Simon welcomes spring PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1991 1 Arthur's dad FN Ginette Anfousse Anne Villeneuve Sarah Cummins Formac 1991 2 Who is Santa Claus? PB Ronald Arsenault Jean-Francois Denis Diane Arcand, Simon C ; Services educatifs, Cc 1991 3 Animals in winter NF Louise Beaudin Stephane Poulin Michel Quintin 1991 4 Learning magic with Michel the magician NF Michel Cailloux Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1991 5 The boxing champion PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1991 6 A happy New Year's Day PB Roch Carrier Gilles Pelletier Tundra Books 1991 7 Discover aviation with Air Canada NF Marie-Claude Desorcy Pierre Brignaud Jacinta Ferrari Editions de la Chenelii 1991 8 Lollypop (8 volumes): 1-My house, 2-My cloth NF Helene Desputeaux Helene Desputeaux Chouette 1991 9 Make up funny masks NF Suzanne Dubuc Philippe Germain Karen Simon Heritage 1991 10 Paper costumes NF Suzanne Dubuc Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1991 11 Hand puppets made easy NF Suzanne Dubuc, Henriette Majc Michele Devlin David Homel Heritage 1991 12 Tara and Benjamin: Activity booklet NF Christiane Duchesne Pierre Pratt Karen Benoit Media-Sphere, Youth 1991 13 The louse NF Colette Dufresne May Rousseau Tim Wynne-Jones Michel Quintin 1991 14 Get well soon! PB Brigitte Gagne May Rousseau Traductions J P C Chouette 1991 15 Tom Tempest PB Cecile Gagnon Helene Desputeaux G.D.C. Heritage Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1991 16 The swank prank FN Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Dumont Sarah Cummins Formac 1991 17 Mooch and me FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1991 18 Maria Chapdelaine N Louis Hemon Gilles Tibo Alan Brown Tundra Books 1991 19 That's enough, Maddie! FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1991 20 The snowy owl NF Joseph Levesque Pierre Jarry Tim Wynne-Jones Michel Quintin 1991 21 What do the fairies do with all those teeth? PB Michel Luppens Philippe Beha Jane Brierley Scholastic Canada 1991 22 What do the fairies do with all those teeth? PB Michel Luppens Philippe Beha Jane Brierley North Winds 1991 23 The weirdest family portrait NF Carmen Marois Sylvie Bourbonniere Chouette 1991 24 Winter games PB Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gaul Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1991 25 Family album NF Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Michel Quintin 1991 26 Travels for two PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin David Homel Annick Press 1991 27 Little Kiwi at the beach P B May Rousseau May Rousseau Anne Fotheringham Chouette 1991 28 The king of sleep PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Doubleday Canada 1991 29 Mr. Clark's summer holiday PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Doubleday Canada 1991 30 Santa takes a tumble PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Doubleday Canada 1991 31 Simon in summer PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1991 32 The mountain gorilla NF Marline de La Vallee Philippe Dequesne Tim Wynne-Jones Michel Quintin 1991 33 Sandseed Collection, (Lollypop's): 1-Myhous NF ? Helene Desputeaux Chouette 1992 1 Discovering spiders, snails, and other creepy NF Gilles Brillon Doris Barrette, Rui Dia$ Christina Richards Michel Quintin 1992 2 Starfish Collection: 3 months and up: 1-Colors PB Helene Desputeaux Helene Desputeaux Annette Goldsmith? Chouette 1992 3 A path through Advent for children 1992 NF Francoise Doll [et al] ? James Sauer Novalis 1992 4 The Loonies arrive FN Christiane Duchesne Marc Mongeau Sarah Cummins Formac 1992 5 The ladybird NF Colette Dufresne Lise Monette Michel Quintin 1992 6 Paper nights PB Pierre Filion Gilles Tibo Annick Press 1992 7 Hang on, Mooch FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1992 8 Swank talk FN Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Dumont Sarah Cummins Formac 1992 9 Mr. Zamboni's dream machine N Francois Gravel N/A Sarah Cummins James Lorimer 1992 10 The magic powder PB Jean-Pierre Guillet Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Michel Quintin 1992 11 A ghost in my mirror N Marie-Francine Hebert Philippe Germain Sarah Cummins Second Story 1992 12 The Christmas crib book NF Frederique Lafortune, Claude L ? Jacqueline Gauthier Novalis 1992 13 Maddie in goal FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1992 14 Animal capers P B Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gaul Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1992 15 Discovering the white-throated sparrow: a birc NF Roselyne Philion Perron D. Forcier R. Phillion Perron, & P 1992 16 Sam Peabody and his song PB Roselyne Philion Perron Pierre M. Trudeau Joan Irving ("Story Adap R. Phillion Perron and 1992 17 Follow that hat! PB Pierre Pratt Pierre Pratt David Homel Annick Press 1992 18 Montreal: a history to treasure: facts and gam NF Francois Pratte Louise Martel Karen Simon Le Temps 1992 19 Dinosaurs NF Michel Quintin Stephane Poulin Alan Brown Michel Quintin 1992 20 Endangered animals NF Michel Quintin Stephane Poulin Alan Brown Michel Quintin 1992 21 The mosquito NF Michel Quintin Doris Barrette Michel Quintin 1992 22 The porcupine NF Michel Quintin Louise Martel Michel Quintin 1992 23 The raccoon NF Michel Quintin Evelyne Arcouette Michel Quintin Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1992 24 I live with Jesus NF Anne Sigier Eric Sigier Paulines 1992 25 Gospel prayers NF C. Singer C. Muller-van den Berg Z. Keywan Novalis 1992 26 The octopus NF Louise Sylvestre Pierre Jarry Tim Wynne-Jones Michel Quintin 1992 27 Simon and his boxes PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1992 28 Greenmantle: an Ojibway legend of the north 0 Jocelyne Villeneuve Luc Robert? Penumbra 1992 29 The Diabolicave N Marie-Andree Warnant-C6te N/A Sylvia McConnell Napoleon 1993 1 Arthur throws a tantrum FN Ginette Anfousse Anne Villeneuve Sarah Cummins Formac 1993 2 Come to the Lord's Supper: souvenir of my fir NF Jules Beaulac N/A (photos by many p Bernadette Gasslein Novalis 1993 3 The longest home run PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1993 4 Now you see them, now you don't PB Francois Caumartin Francois Caumartin David Homel Scholastic Canada 1993 5 Fantastic hats NF Francine Dube, Suzanne Dubu Michele Devlin Angela Ford-Rosenthal Heritage 1993 6 Make your own gifts NF Suzanne Dubuc Michele Devlin Angela Rosenthal Heritage 1993 7 Giant game board book NF Lucie Duchesne Mario Gailloux Tormont 1993 8 Mikey Mite goes to school FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1993 9 Mooch gets jealous FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1993 10 My life as a crow N Francois Gravel N/A Sheila Fischman James Lorimer 1993 11 Waiting for Jasmine Y A Francois Gravel N/A Sheila Fischman Douglas & Mclntyre 1993 12 Castle chaos P B Jean-Pierre Guillet Gilles Tibo Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1993 13 Witch's brew N Marie-Francine Hebert Philippe Germain Sarah Cummins Second Story 1993 14 Maddie wants music FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1993 15 Forest of suspicion N Josee Plourde Lise Monette Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1993 16 Penelope's eyes N Josee Plourde Lise Monette Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1993 17 Manon: alone in front of the net NF Manon Rheaume, Chantal Gilb N/A Mark Daley HarperCollins 1993 18 Compass Collection: age 2 and up. Lollypop's NF Joceline Sanschagrin Helene Desputeaux Judith Brown Chouette 1993 19 Simon in the moonlight PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1993 20 Mr. Patapoum's first trip PB Gilles Tibo, Francois Vail lancoi same Sarah Swartz Annick Press 1994 1 Arthur's problem puppy FN Ginette Anfousse Anne Villeneuve Sarah Cummins Formac 1994 2 Rosalie's catastrophes N Ginette Anfousse Marisol Sarrazin Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1994 3 The young inventors N Annie Beaugrand-Champagne, Philippe Germain Angela Ford-Rosenthal Heritage 1994 4 Discovering insects: ants, flies, crickets NF Gilles Brillon Doris Barrette, Rui Dias Christina Richards Michel Quintin 1994 5 All aboard! take a trip with us! Vol .1: Zoom th PB Dominique Chauveau Stephane Turgeon Ovale 1994 6 Grimms' storytime library: Vol1: Rapunzel, 2: 1 PB Dominique Chauveau Zapp Tormont 1994 7 A child's prayers to Saint Anne NF Gerard Desrochers ? s.n. (???seems to be s 1994 8 Crazy wrappings NF Francine Dube, Suzanne Dubu Joanne Ouellet Angela Ford-Rosenthal Heritage 1994 9 Loonie summer FN Christiane Duchesne Marc Mongeau Sarah Cummins Formac 1994 10 Pikolo's night voyage PB Pierre Filion Gilles Tibo Annick Press 1994 11 Mikey Mite's big problem FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1994 12 Around the world with music NF Liette Gauthier, Suzanne Dubu Suzane Langlois Angela Ford-Rosenthal Heritage 1994 13 The bubble machine PB Jean-Pierre Guillet Gilles Tibo Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1994 14 The cliff case N Jean-Pierre Guillet Huguette Marquis Patricia Claxton Michel Quintin 1994 15 The Magdalen Islands mystery N Jean-Pierre Guillet Huguette Marquis Patricia Claxton Michel Quintin Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1994 16 Maddie goes to Paris FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1994 17 The city under ground N Suzanne Martel N/A Norah Smaridge Douglas & Mclntyre 1994 18 The king's daughter N Suzanne Martel N/A Douglas & Mclntyre 1994 19 Oliver's great loves N Josee Plourde Doris Barrette Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1994 20 Alphonse Desjardins: the feat of a founder NF Prouche ? Desjardins 1994 21 Manon: alone in front of the net NF Manon Rheaume, Chantal Gilb N/A Mark Daley HarperCollins 1994 22 Theatre: play's compilation 0 Luiz Saraiva, Louise Bruchesi, N/A? Punch's Theatre L.S. 1994 23 My dog is an elephant PB Remy Simard Pierre Pratt David Homel Annick Press 1994 24 The Montreal of my childhood NF Antonio de Thomasis ? Tundra Books 1994 25 Little net fisher: a tale of the Gaspe N Jacques de Thorenc Carlo Italiano Jane Frydenlund Roussan 1994 26 Simon finds a feather PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1995 1 Rosalie's battles N Ginette Anfousse Marisol Sarrazin Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1995 2 Rosalie's big dream N Ginette Anfousse Marisol Sarrazin Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1995 3 Adrift YA Nicole M. Boisvert N/A Frances Morgan Michel Quintin 1995 4 Fred's dream cat FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 1995 5 Kotik, the baby seal NF Angele Delaunois Fred Bruemmer (photos Mary Shelton Orca 1995 6 Nanook and Naoya, the polar bear cubs NF Angele Delaunois Fred Bruemmer (photos Mary Shelton Orca 1995 7 Sticks and Stones PB Pierette Dube Dominique Jolin Scholastic Canada 1995 8 Mooch forever FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1995 9 The man who planted trees 0 Jean Giono Frederic Back Jean Roberts Stoddart 1995 10 Luvmemore: the pink planet PB Helene Godbout Katleen Massicotte Tina Verni L'Art de s'Apprivoiser 1995 11 Sho and the demons of the deep PB Annouchka Gravel Galouchko same Stephan Daigle Annick Press 1995 12 Maddie in danger FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1995 13 The road to Chlifa: a novel Y A Michele Marineau N/A Susan Ouriou Red Deer Press 1995 14 Home sweet home?: the wackiest house in tf NF Diane Mineau Andre Labrie Tormont 1995 15 Telephone fun PB Diane Mineau Johanne Paquette Michelle Gagnon Tormont 1995 16 Video rivals FN Sonia Sarfati Pierre Durand Sarah Cummins Formac 1995 17 Where shall we go? NF Diane Mineau Pierre Brignault Tormont 1995 18 The magic boot PB Remy Simard Pierre Pratt Annick Press 1995 19 Simon makes music PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1996 1 Discovering the heavens: activities for buddir NF Gilles Brillon Evelyne Arcouette Christina Richards Michel Quintin 1996 2 The Chinese puzzle N Chrystine Brouillet Nathalie Gagnon Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1996 3 The enchanted horses N Chrystine Brouillet Nathalie Gagnon Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1996 4 No orchids for Andrea! N Chrystine Brouillet Nathalie Gagnon Linda Gaboriau Ragweed Press 1996 5 The basket-ball player PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1996 6 Fred and the stinky cheese FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 1996 7 Pouzeli, the secret N D. Ann Donovan Pascale Crete Patricia Lowe Pouzeli Press 1996 8 Who's afraid of the dark? PB Christiane Duchesne Doris Barrette David Homel North Winds 1996 10 Good for you, Mikey Mite! FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1996 11 Maggie and her friends PB Diane Grenier Stephane Turgeon Tormont 1996 12 My very own magician's kit: amaze your frienc NF Diane Grenier Zapp, graphic design Tormont Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publ isher 1996 13 The merry Christmas treasury: 3 storybooks a PB Diane Grenier Ewa and Pawel Pawlak Tormont 1996 14 Poppy's whale N Marie-Francine Hebert Philippe Germain Sarah Cummins Second Story 1996 15 Maddie in hospital FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1996 16 On the go PB Roger Pare, with Bertrand Gau Roger Pare David Homel Annick Press 1996 17 Simon finds a treasure PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1996 18 Simon makes music PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1996 19 Max the superhero FN Sylvain Trudel Suzane Langlois Sarah Cummins Formac 1997 1 Ambulances NF Michel Bourque ? Phidal 1997 2 Big trucks NF Michel Bourque ? Phidal 1997 3 Fire trucks NF Michel Bourque ? Phidal 1997 4 Police cars NF Michel Bourque ? Phidal 1997 5 Marina's star N Linda Brousseau Leanne Franson David Homel James Lorimer 1997 6 A dragon in your heart PB Sophie Leblanc, with Natacha L same Peter Frost MNH 1997 7 Molly's bath NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1997 8 Molly's breakfast NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1997 9 Molly's clothes NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1997 10 Molly's toys NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1997 11 Etienne: tongue twisters & mumble jumble 0 Sylvie Mathieu Nick Boisvert Sylvie Mathieu Routoutou 1997 12 Giant game book: 5 exciting board games to f NF Diane Mineau Heidi Taillefer Tormont 1997 13 The pirate in the bottle PB Yves Paquette Eric Plouffe Robyn Bryant Tormont 1997 14 Once upon a time there was Jeanne LeBer NF Colette Paradis Nola Joyce Bureau Jeanne-LeBer 1997 15 Hippo Beach PB Pierre Pratt Pierre Pratt Annick Press 1997 16 Simon at the circus PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1997 17 Simon finds a feather PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1998 1 The little match girl [kit] PB Felicia Cavalieri Annabel Malak Liliane Bazerghi Coffragants and Pock< 1998 2 The three little pigs [kit] PB Felicia Cavalieri, Gaila Narusev Annabel Malak Coffragants and Pock< 1998 3 For kids only: activity book NF Micheline Couture, Isabelle Ser ? Natalie Cicci Guerin 1998 4 Fred and the flood FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 1998 5 Edmund the raccoon PB Christiane Duchesne Steve Beshwaty Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1998 6 Who's afraid of the dark? PB Christiane Duchesne Doris Barrette David Homel Scholastic Canada 1998 7 Mikey Mite's best present FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1998 8 Washington goes for a walk PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1998 9 Washington tells a story PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1998 10 Snow White and the seven dwarfs [kit] PB Isabelle Langlois Andre Pijet Liliane Bazerghi Coffragants and Pock< 1998 11 Maddie in trouble FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1998 12 Molly counts NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1998 13 Molly draws NF Mireille Levert Mireille Levert Annick Press 1998 14 Caillou hurts himself NF Nicole Nadeau CINAR Animation Judith Brown Chouette 1998 15 Caillou sleeps over NF Nicole Nadeau CINAR Animation Judith Brown Chouette 1998 16 The great treasure hunt: 6 electronic games NF Guylaine Ouellet BenoTt Laverdiere Catherine Solyom Tormont 1998 17 No bananas for this giraffe PB Lucie Papineau Marisol Sarrazin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1998 18 The enchanted dragon PB Yves Paquette Stephane Turgeon Catherin Solyom Tormont 1998 18 Yuneek in the present PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 1998 19 So many ways to reproduce: a new way to ex NF Martine Podesto (research and Francois Escalmel et a Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1998 20 Mister Once-upon-a-time PB Remy Simard Pierre Pratt David Homel Annick Press 1998 21 Cinderella [kit] PB Claudie Stanke, Gaila Narusev Annabel Malak Coffragants and Pocki 1998 22 Sleeping beauty [kit] PB Claudie Stanke, Gaila Narusev Annabel Malak Coffragants and Pocki 1998 23 Busy critters PB Gilles Tibo Sylvain Tremblay Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 1998 24 Simon in summer PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1998 25 Simon welcomes spring PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1998 26 Mary-Baba and the 40 sailors PB Carole Tremblay Dominique Jolin Catherine Solyom Dominique & Friends 1998 27 Will and his world FN Sylvain Trudel Suzane Langlois Sarah Cummins Formac 1999 1 The tale of Teeka O Marc Michel Bouchard N/A Linda Gaboriau Talonbooks 1999 2 I am happy / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michot Dominique & Friends 1999 3 Blueberry-fish soup PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michot same Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1999 4 I am cute / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michot same Dominique & Friends 1999 5 I am funny/Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michol same Dominique & Friends 1999 6 I love / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michot same Dominique & Friends 1999 7 The hockey sweater PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1999 8 Doug, the muddy pig PB Dominique Chauveau Karol Kaminski Isabel Fonte Tormont 1999 9 Santa's little red-nosed reindeer PB Dominique Chauveau Stephane Turgeon Tormont 1999 10 Trudy's travels PB Dominique Chauveau Eric Plouffe Michelle Gagnon Tormont 1999 11 The amazing story of the little black sheep PB Marie-Danielle Croteau Genevieve C6te Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 1999 12 The return of the little prince N Jean-Pierre Davidts Marie-Claude Favreau Sheila Fischman Raincoast Books 1999 13 Pearl Pennyworth PB Dominique Demers Marie-Claude Favreau David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 14 Edmund and Amanda PB Christiane Duchesne Steve Beshwaty Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1999 15 Marina Orsini presents Cyrus, the storytelling NF Christiane Duchesne, Carmen ? Howard Scott Coffragants and Pock< 1999 16 So many ways to build shelters: a new way to NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Francois Escalmel et a Gordon Martin (from boc Quebec/Amerique 1999 17 So many ways to communicate: a new way to NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Rielle Levesque et al Gwen Schulman, Natas Quebec/Amerique 1999 18 So many ways to defend themselves: a new v NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Francois Escalmel et a Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1999 19 So many ways to eat: a new way to explore th NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Rielle Levesque et al Quebec/Amerique 1999 20 So many ways to live in difficult conditions: a r NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Rielle Levesque et al Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1999 21 So many ways to live in society: A new way to NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Francois Escalmel et a Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1999 22 So many ways to move about ["get around" in NF Caroline Fortin (editorial directo Rielle Levesque et al Gordon Martin Quebec/Amerique 1999 23 Missing Mooch FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 1999 24 Charlotte the lucky charm O Macha Grenon Genevieve Despres Coffragants and Pock< 1999 25 Caillou goes to work NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 26 Caillou is sick NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 27 Bird brain N Marie-Francine Hebert Philippe Germain Sarah Cummins Second Story 1999 28 A friend for Washington PB Dominique John Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1999 29 Washington dresses up PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1999 30 Washington goes for a walk PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends, Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 1999 31 Washington plays hide-and-seek PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1999 32 Washington tells a story PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends, 1999 33 Washington wants to play PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 1999 34 Have you met Marguerite Bourgeoys? NF Denise Lamarche Caroline Merola Eleanor Monahan Carte Blanche 1999 35 Leo and Julio FN Louise Leblanc Philippe Brochard Sarah Cummins Formac 1999 36 Maddie tries to be good FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 1999 37 A guided tour of the world: an interactive atlas NF Francois Michel Philippe Mignon Kathe Roth Elan 1999 38 Bamboo at jungle school PB Lucie Papineau Dominique Jolin David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 39 Gontrand and the crescent moon PB Lucie Papineau Alain Reno David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 40 Gulp! baby vampire PB Lucie Papineau Pascale Constantin Charles Phillips Dominique & Friends 1999 41 No spots for this giraffe! PB Lucie Papineau Marisol Sarrazin Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 1999 42 Papaya the panda PB Lucie Papineau Marisol Sarrazin Charles Phillips Dominique & Friends 1999 43 Yuckl baby witch PB Lucie Papineau Steve Beshwaty Charles Phillips Dominique & Friends 1999 44 Marilou on stage FN Raymond Plante Marie-Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 1999 45 My first visual dictionary NF Martine Podesto Rielle Leveesque et al. Peter Maiden Quebec/Amerique 1999 46 Caillou and Gilbert NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 47 Caillou plans a surprise NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 48 Caillou sends a letter NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 49 Simon and the snowflakes PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1999 50 Caillou tidies his toys NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 1999 51 Peppy, Phlox and the postman PB Marisol Sarrazin Marisol Sarrazin David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 52 Peppy, Phlox and the socks PB Marisol Sarrazin Marisol Sarrazin David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 53 Hansel and Gretel [kit] PB Christine Simard Irina Georgeta Pusztai Catherine Solyom Tormont 1999 54 Daddy's a dinosaur PB Bruno St-Aubin Bruno St-Aubin Charles Philips Dominique & Friends 1999 55 Hansel and Gretel [kit] PB Claudie Stanke Andre Pijet Gaila Narusevicius Coffragants and Pocki 1999 56 Alex and the new equipment PB Gilles Tibo Philippe Germain David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 57 Alex and the team sweater PB Gilles Tibo Philippe Germain David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 58 Simon and his boxes PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1999 59 Simon and the wind PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1999 60 Simon in the moonlight PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Tundra Books 1999 61 Simon's disguise PB Gilles Tibo Gilles Tibo Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 1999 62 Romeo the romantic rat PB Carole Tremblay Dominique Jolin David Homel Dominique & Friends 1999 63 Little Kim's doll PB Kim Yaroshevskaya Luc Melanson Douglas & Mclntyre 1999 64 Friends NF ? Tipeo Chouette 1999 65 On the farm NF ? Tipeo Chouette 1999 66 Sounds NF ? Tipeo Chouette 1999 67 Toys PB ? Tipeo Chouette 2000 1 Circus fun NF Marc Alain Serge Rousseau Brenda O'Brien Adventure Press 2000 2 Four lovely seasons NF Marc Alain Serge Rousseau Brenda O'Brien Adventure Press 2000 3 I love baby animals NF Marc Alain Serge Rousseau Brenda O'Brien Adventure Press 2000 4 Seaside fun NF Marc Alain Serge Rousseau Brenda O'Brien Adventure Press Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2000 5 Caillou and Rosie's Doll NF Francine Allen (adapted from tv CINAR Animation Chouette 2000 6 A terrible secret Y A Ginette Anfousse N/A Jennifer Hutchison James Lorimer 2000 7 Caillou: ages 3-4 NF Jeannine Beaulieu Claude Lapierre Chouette 2000 8 Caillou: ages 4-5 NF Jeannine Beaulieu Claude Lapierre Chouette 2000 9 Sand castles PB Florence Bolte Mentalo Jean Bolte, Liliane Marc Pirouli 2000 10 My day / Zanimo NF Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michol same Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends, 2000 11 My seasons / Zanimo NF Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michol same Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 12 I love to kiss you / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michol same Dominique & Friends 2000 13 I love to play / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michof same Dominique & Friends 2000 14 I love to travel / Zanimo PB Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michot same Dominique & Friends 2000 15 I love to walk / Zanimo P B Doris Brasset, Fabienne Michol same Dominique & Friends 2000 16 Clementine of Grasslands Park PB Odette Carignan Vic Sotropa Joanne Bonneville editions de la nouvelle 2000 17 Corey, the cuckoo clock bird PB Dominique Chauveau, Annie C Fred Schrier Michelle Gagnon Tormont 2000 18 Howard hoots again! PB Dominique Chauveau Fred Schrier Isabel Fonte Tormont 2000 19 Moving day for Mittens PB Dominique Chauveau Fred Schrier Isabel Fonte Tormont 2000 20 Fred's midnight prowler FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 2000 21 Old Thomas and the little fairy PB Dominique Demers Stephane Poulin Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 2000 22 Edmund, the raccoon prince P B Christiane Duchesne Steve Beshwaty Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 23 A kiss for Peter P B Christiane Duchesne Mylene Pratt David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 24 The monster's feast, Nox and Archimusse PB Christiane Duchesne Stephane Jorisch Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 25 The big dipper PB Jacques Duquennoy ? Raincoast Books 2000 26 Floating island P B Jacques Duquennoy ? Raincoast Books 2000 27 North Pole, South Pole PB Jacques Duquennoy ? Raincoast Books 2000 28 Snowman PB Jacques Duquennoy ? Marc Fournier Raincoast Books 2000 29 Life without Mooch FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 2000 30 On my island PB Marie-Louise Gay Marie-Louise Gay Douglas & Mclntyre 2000 31 Caillou goes camping NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 2000 32 Caillou goes on an adventure NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 2000 33 Caillou makes a snowman NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Chouette 2000 34 Caillou rainy day NF Roger Harvey ? Frances Morgan Chouette 2000 35 Caillou rides on a plane NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Chouette 2000 36 Caillou walks his dog NF Roger Harvey CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 2000 37 Merry Christmas, Washington! PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 38 Washington and the shampoo job PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 39 Washington loves Washington PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 40 Washington takes a nap PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2000 41 Maddie wants new clothes FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 2000 42 365 prayers at bedtime: Collection of 365 pra} NF Roland Leclerc ? Diana Halfpenny Logical 2000 43 Caillou: day care NF Christine L'Heureux Gisele Legare Chouette 2000 44 Caillou: good night NF Christine L'Heureux, Gisele Lec Claude Lapierre Chouette 2000 45 Lean mean machines Y A Michele Marineau N/A Susan Ouriou Red Deer Press Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2000 46 Bamboo at the beach PB Lucie Papineau Dominique Jolin David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 47 Leonardo the lion cub PB Lucie Papineau Marisol Sarrazin Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 2000 48 The nutcracker [kit] PB Lucie Papineau Stephane Jorisch Marina Orsini Coffragants and Pocki 2000 49 Poof! baby ghost PB Lucie Papineau Celine Malepart David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 50 Waaa! baby werewolves PB Lucie Papineau Alain Reno David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 51 Marilou's long nose FN Raymond Plante Marie-Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 2000 52 Caillou, careful! NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2000 53 Caillou: the wolf NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2000 54 Peppy, Phlox and the bath PB Marisol Sarrazin Marisol Sarrazin David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 55 Jack and the beanstalk [kit] PB Claudie Stanke, Gaila Narusev Andre Pijet Claudie Stanke, Gaila N Coffragants and Pocki 2000 56 The little mermaid [kit] PB Claudie Stanke, Gaila Narusev Andre Pijet Claudie Stanke, Gaila N Coffragants and Pocki 2000 57 My favourite monster PB Bruno St-Aubin Bruno St-Aubin Gabriel Gay Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 58 Alex and Toolie PB Gilles Tibo Philippe Germain Dominique & Friends 2000 59 The cowboy kid PB Gilles Tibo Tom Kapas Tundra Books 2000 60 A monster in the house PB Carole Tremblay Dominique Jolin Gabriel Gay Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 61 Felicio's incredible invention PB Mireille Villeneuve Anne Villeneuve David Homel Dominique & Friends 2000 62 Topsy NF Sophie Westman-Vaillancourt Constance Lambert-Tre Stephanie Miersch Faye 2001 1 Caillou goes birdwatching NF Francine Allen (adapted from tv CINAR Animation Frances Morgan Chouette 2001 2 I'm sulking PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau la courte echelle 2001 3 School PB Ginette Anfousse Ginette Anfousse Linda Gaboriau la courte echelle 2001 4 Adventure Canada: a magical history tour NF Johanne Barrette Otto Wagner Editions Cethial 2001 5 Caillou and the big slide NF Jeannine Beaulieu CINAR Animation Chouette 2001 6 My animal friends/Zanimo NF Doris Brasset, Fabienne Micho same Dominique & Friends 2001 7 My favorite places/Zanimo NF Doris Brasset, Fabienne Micho same Dominique & Friends 2001 8 The basket-ball player PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 2001 9 The longest home run PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 2001 10 The three little pigs [kit] PB Felicia Cavalieri, Gaila Narusev Annabel Malak Stanke 2001 11 Hansel and Gretel; Puss 'n Boots P B Dominique Chauveau Pawel Pawlak Stephanie Werner, Isab Tormont 2001 12 Hello! Who's calling? PB Dominique Chauveau Berangere Girard Stephanie Werner Tormont 2001 13 Hop-O'-My-Thumb; Jack and the beanstalk PB Dominique Chauveau Pawel Pawlak Stephanie Werner Tormont 2001 .14 Fred on the ice floes FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 2001 15 Mai'na Y A Dominique Demers N/A Leonard W. Sugden Ekstasis 2001 16 The Gypsy Queen: a tale based on Bulgarian N Louise-Marie Frenette ? Violet Nevile Prosveta 2001 17 Yuneek in the championship PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 2001 18 Yuneek in the present PB Bertrand Gauthier Daniel Sylvestre David Homel Heritage 2001 19 A gift from Mooch FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 2001 20 Great North: Discover the Arctic world NF Quentin van Ginhoven, Stepha Francois Couture, Jane Phillip Moscovitch Total 2001 21 4 stories to help children become happy agair NF Madeleine Grenier Laperriere Helene Laperriere Education-coup-de-fil 2001 22 Daddy, can I have the moon? PB Marie-Francine Hebert Mylene Pratt Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 23 Maria Chapdelaine N Louis Hemon Gilles Tibo Alan Brown Tundra Books 2001 24 Deecee in color PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2001 25 Deecee loves sounds PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 26 Hey Deecee, how are you? PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 27 Little Red Washington PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 28 Peek-a-boo, Deecee PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 29 Super Washington PB Dominique Jolin Dominique Jolin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 30 Maddie needs her own life FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 2001 31 Caillou discovers NF Christine L'Heureux Helene Desputeaux Chouette 2001 32 Caillou: just like daddy NF Christine L'Heureux Claude Lapierre Chouette 2001 33 Caillou: my birth NF Christine L'Heureux Helene Desputeaux Chouette 2001 34 Caillou: my daddy NF Christine L'Heureux Helene Desputeaux Chouette 2001 35 Caillou: my mommy NF Christine L'Heureux Helene Desputeaux Chouette 2001 36 Caillou: play with me NF Christine L'Heureux Claude Lapierre Chouette 2001 37 Doupsi-Dou and the ice cream PB Marie-Jacinthe Marie-Jacinthe Edition M-J R 2001 38 Drak the cat PB Marie-Jacinthe Marie-Jacinthe Edition M-J R 2001 39 Mother earth PB Marie-Jacinthe Marie-Jacinthe Edition M-J R 2001 40 Zoufflu against pollution PB Marie-Jacinthe Marie-Jacinthe Edition M-J R 2001 41 Caillou: the babysitter PB Nicole Nadeau Claude Lapierre Chouette 2001 42 Caillou: the shopping trip PB Nicole Nadeau Claude Lapierre Chouette 2001 43 Bamboo in Bamboo Land PB Lucie Papineau Dominique Jolin Jane MacAulay Dominique & Friends 2001 44 Little Gil PB Lucie Papineau Steve Beshwaty David Homel Dominique & Friends 2001 45 Marvin the strange little marmoset PB Lucie Papineau Marisol Sarrazin Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 2001 46 Jacques Plante: behind the mask NF Raymond Plante N/A Darcy Dunton X Y Z Pub 2001 47 Marilou, iguana hunter FN Raymond Plante Marie-Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 2001 48 I see - books: 1-1 see-my mom, 1 see--my da NF Pierre Pratt Pierre Pratt Annick Press 2001 49 A visit to the doctor PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2001 50 Bath time PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2001 51 Hansel and Gretel PB Christine Simard Irina Georgeta Pusztai Catherine Solyom Tormont 2001 52 Hansel and Gretel [kit] PB Claudie Stanke ? Gaila Narusevicius Stanke 2001 53 Cinderella [kit] PB Claudie Stanke, Gaila Narusev Annabel Malak Stanke 2001 54 Daddy's a busy beaver PB Bruno St-Aubin Bruno St-Aubin Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 55 Caillou: the birthday party NF Claire St-Onge (adapted from tv CINAR Animation Chouette 2001 56 Alex and Sarah PB Gilles Tibo Philippe Germain Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 57 The Grand Journey of Mr. Man PB Gilles Tibo Luc Melanson Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 2001 58 Naomi and Mrs. Lumbago N Gilles Tibo Louise-Andree Laliberti Susan Ouriou Tundra Books 2001 59 Parents do the weirdest things! PB Louise Tondreau-Levert Roge Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2001 60 Theodore the millipede PB Carole Tremblay Celine Malepart Jane MacAulay Dominique & Friends 2001 61 My animals PB Elise Turcotte Daniel Sylvestre Audrey Byrns la courte echelle 2001 62 My cuddly toys PB Elise Turcotte Daniel Sylvestre Audrey Byrns la courte echelle 2001 63 My family PB Elise Turcotte Daniel Sylvestre Audrey Byrns la courte echelle 2001 64 My home PB Elise Turcotte Daniel Sylvestre Audrey Byrns la courte echelle 2001 65 Mysteries for Felicio PB Mireille Villeneuve Anne Villeneuve Jane MacAulay Dominique & Friends Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2001 66 The Christmas bear PB Nathaele Vogel Nathaele Vogel Scholastic Canada 2001 67 The gift PB ? Tipeo Chouette 2002 1 Caillou and Rosie's Doll NF Francine Allen CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 2 The magic rug of Grand-Pre PB Rejean Aucoin, Jean-Claude Ti Hermenegilde Chiasso Barbara Leblanc, Sally F Faye 2002 3 Caillou and the big slide NF Jeannine Beaulieu CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 4 The picnic PB Michel Belair CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 5 Ginger bread in the kingdom of the vowels PB Christiane Chevrette Guylaine Voyer Lou Nelson Editions Trois 2002 6 Takwakfn's summer journeys N Jacinthe Connolly Christine Sioui Wawanoloath First Nations Educatio 2002 7 Fred's Halloween adventure FN Marie-Danielle Croteau Bruno St-Aubin Sarah Cummins Formac 2002 8 Annabel and the beast PB Dominique Demers Stephane Poulin Sheila Fischman Dominique & Friends 2002 9 In the key of DO YA Carole Frechette N/A Susan Ouriou Red Deer Press 2002 10 Dear old dumpling FN Gilles Gauthier Pierre-Andre Derome Sarah Cummins Formac 2002 11 Halloween crafts NF Huguette Kirby Milan/Dominique Chau> Jane Brierley Scholastic Canada 2002 12 The complete puppet kit: create 11 puppets fr NF Pascale Laroche Nancy Morneau, Natha Helene Auclair Total 2002 13 Maddie's millionaire dreams FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 2002 14 Compass boxed set: Day care, Good night!, C NF Christine L'Heureux, Gisele Lec Claude Lapierre Chouette 2002 15 Goldilocks and the three bears 0 Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 16 Hansel and Gretel PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 17 Little red riding hood PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Katrin Sermat Total 2002 18 My favourite tales & activities book PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Katrin Sermat Total 2002 19 The princess and the frog PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 20 Puss in Boots PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 21 Snow White and the seven dwarfs PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 22 The three little pigs PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 23 The ugly duckling PB Kurt Martin Pascal Laroche Total 2002 24 Labyrinths 0 Philippe Mignon ? Firefly Books 2002 25 Alphonse, or, The adventures of Pierre-Paul-F 0 Wajdi Mouawad N/A Shelley Tepperman Playwrights Canada P 2002 26 Marilou cries wolf FN Raymond Plante Marie Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 2002 27 Caillou discovers winter at the Biodome PB Melanie Rudel-Tessier Tipeo Chouette 2002 28 Caillou: a day at the farm PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2002 29 Caillou: a special guest PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2002 30 Caillou: at Grandma and Grandpa's NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2002 31 Caillou: hurry up! NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2002 32 Caillou plans a surprise NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 33 Caillou puts away his toys NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 34 Caillou sends a letter NF Joceline Sanschagrin CINAR Animation Chouette 2002 35 It's mine! PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2002 36 Where is Teddy? PB Joceline Sanschagrin Tipeo Chouette 2002 37 Himalaya PB Lama Tenzing Norbu ? Douglas & Mclntyre 2002 39 Momo goes to Mars PB Carole Tremblay Lucie Crovatto Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2002 40 Too much is too much PB Danielle Vaillancourt Marie-Claude Favreau Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2002 41 Favorite T-shirt PB Jeanne Verhoye-Millet CINAR animation Chouette 2002 42 Felicid and the lovesick clown PB Mireille Villeneuve Anne Villeneuve Carolyn Perkes Dominique & Friends 2002 43 The book of animals NF Giuseppe Zanini, Anna Casalis Tony Wolf Isabel Fonte, Jane Brier Tormont 2002 44 The book of habitats NF Giuseppe Zanini, Anna Casalis Tony Wolf Isabel Fonte, Jane Brier Tormont 2002 45 The book of life NF Giuseppe Zanini, Anna Casalis Tony Wolf Isabel Fonte, Jane Brier Tormont 2003 1 Fun, fun on the farm! PB Dominique Chauveau Stephane Turgeon Robyn Bryant Tormont 2003 2 Ti Belo and the little orange tree: wonderful st PB Marie-Monique Jean-Gilles Ulrick Bande a MoMo 2003 3 The wonderful story of Christmas NF Claude Lafortune Claude Lafortune Claude Lacasse (photoc Novalis 2003 4 Young and wise: a safety guide for children NF Jean-Francois Beauchemin Jean-Francois Vachon My-Trang Nguyen Snowy Owl Pub 2003 5 Maddie on TV FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 2003 6 Leo's poster challenge FN Louise Leblanc Jules Prud'homme Sarah Cummins Formac 2003 7 Toby's best friend FN Jean Lemieux Sophie Casson Sarah Cummins Formac 2003 8 Explorer kit: 1-Africa, 2-South America, 3-Asis NF Andree Letendre (games & text ? Isabel Fonte Tormont 2003 9 Caillou: North Star Treasury Collection (Good PB Christine L'Heureux Claude Lapierre Chouette 2003 10 Happy Valentine's Day! PB Johanne Mercier Tipeo Chouette 2003 11 Merry Christmas! PB Johanne Mercier Tipeo Chouette 2003 12 Blade of wheat grass: alchemist-magician PB Monica Peloquin Louise Pomminville James D. Parry Editions Amour de la v 2003 13 Marilou forecasts the future FN Raymond Plante Marie-Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 2003 14 Catch that cat! PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Tundra Books 2003 15 Where's that cat? PB Stephane Poulin Stephane Poulin Tundra Books 2003 16 Happy Easter! PB Melanie Rudel-Tessier Tipeo Chouette 2003 17 Caillou: the broken castle NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2003 18 Caillou: the prince and the dragon NF Joceline Sanschagrin Claude Lapierre Chouette 2003 19 Caillou: who lives in the forest? NF Fabien Savary, Isabelle Vadebc Tipeo Chouette 2003 20 Caillou: what do you like to eat? NF Isabelle Vadeboncoeur, Fabien Tipeo Chouette 2003 21 Fighter jets NF ? ? Phidal 2003 22 Playtime workshop: 7 play-and-learn electroni NF ? Mario Gailloux Tormont 2004 1 Where does it come from? NF Anne-Sophie Baumann Emilie Chollat, Robert E Al Daigen Firefly Books 2004 2 The Flying Canoe PB Roch Carrier Sheldon Cohen Sheila Fischman Tundra Books 2004 3 Animals of the world: facts and fun NF Dominique Chauveau, Isabel F Andrej Troshkov, Olga Isabel Fonte Tormont 2004 4 Fun animals around the world NF Dominique Chauveau, Isabel F Andrej Troshkov, Olga Isabel Fonte Tormont 2004 5 The five senses NF Adele Ciboul Clementine Collinet, Be Anthea Bell Firefly Books 2004 6 The fabulous story of Bonhomme Carnaval PB Nadege Cochard Mathieu Plante Peter Frost Carnaval de Quebec 2004 7 Scholastic Canada visual dictionary NF Jean-Claude Corbeil, Ariane Ar ? Scholastic Canada 2004 8 As long as there are whales NF Evelyne Daigle Daniel Grenier Genevieve Wright Tundra Books 2004 9 Friends for life PB Marie-Josee Decoste, Nathalie Anne Langlois Drew J . Heavens Editions TriAn 2004 10 Where on Earth are we N Brigitte Fauchoux, Nathalie Mic Julien Meilleur, Marie-E Karl Brodersen GEOIDE 2004 11 Babysitting course manual NF Cynthia Fregeau ? Quebec Secours 2004 12 Maria Chapdelaine PB Louis Hemon (abridged by Hele Rajka Kupesic Tundra Books 2004 13 Exploring space NF Marie Kolaczek Olivier Latyk, Philippe f\ A l Daigen Firefly Books 2004 14 Leo's midnight rescue FN Louise Leblanc Jules Prud'homme Sarah Cummins Formac Year # Title Type Author Illustrator Translator Publisher 2004 15 Maddie surfs for cyber pals FN Louise Leblanc Marie-Louise Gay Sarah Cummins Formac 2004 16 Toby's very important question FN Jean Lemieux Sophie Casson Sarah Cummins Formac 2004 17 Explorer kit: travel all over the world to learn a NF Andree Letendre (games & text Andrej Troshkov, Olga Isabel Fonte Tormont 2004 18 Caillou: sweet dreams NF Christine L'Heureux, Gisele Lec Claude Lapierre Chouette 2004 19 A day at the park PB Christine L'Heureux Tipeo and Claude Lapierre Chouette 2004 20 Time for a bath PB Christine L'Heureux, consultant Carole Lambert Chouette 2004 21 Time for bed PB Christine L'Heureux, consultant Carole Lambert Chouette 2004 22 Caillou at the dentist NF Johanne Mercier Tipeo, coloration Marcel Depratto Chouette 2004 23 Good for nothing Y A Michel Noel N/A Shelley Tanaka Groundwood 2004 24 Marilou keeps a camel FN Raymond Plante Marie-Claude Favreau Sarah Cummins Formac 2004 25 Dress-up with daddy PB Marilyn Pleau-Murissi CINAR Animation Chouette 2004 26 Dinosaurs NF Claudine Roland Remi Saillard, Philippe Al Daigen Firefly Books 2004 27 I feel PB Melanie Rudel-Tessier Carole Lambert, coloration Marcel Depratto Chouette 2004 28 I love PB Melanie Rudel-Tessier Carole Lambert, coloration Marcel Depratto Chouette 2004 29 Caillou: farm animals NF Fabien Savary, Isabelle Vadebc Tipeo Chouette 2004 30 Secret of the snow leopard PB Lama Tenzing Norbu ? Groundwood 2004 31 Naomi and the Secret Message N Gilles Tibo Louise-Andree Laliberti Susan Ouriou Tundra Books 2004 32 Too Many Books! PB Gilles Tibo Bruno St-Aubin Petra Johannson Scholastic Canada 2004 33 Sweet dreams, Snuggles! PB Frederique Tugault France Brassard, grapf Isabel Fonte (english ad Tormont 2004 34 Caillou: people in my neighborhood NF Isabelle Vadeboncoeur, Fabien Tipeo Chouette 2004 35 Animals of the cold NF Valerie Videau Olivier Latyk, Anne Eye Al Daigen Firefly Books 2004 36 My brain needs glasses: living with hyperactiv NF Annick Vincent ? Editions Acadamie lrrt| 

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