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Decision-making discourse processes of international students through e-commerce as exemplified by eBay Munn, Susan Elizabeth 2006

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DECISION-MAKING DISCOURSE PROCESSES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS THROUGH E-COMMERCE AS EXEMPLIFIED BY EBAY by Susan Elizabeth Munn B.A.A., Ryerson University, 1992 TESL CERT., Concordia University, 1999 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREEE OF MASTER OF ARTS in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Teaching English as a Second Language) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2006 © Susan Elizabeth Munn, 2006 Abstract Choice (decision-making) discourse processes are central to education and to collaborative critical thinking, and can be analyzed using a Systemic Functional Linguistics and a Knowledge Structures perspective. While their analysis has been relatively neglected, they are an important aspect of discourse development and second language learning. EBay is one of many recent developments in computer-mediated, multimodal (mulitiliteracies) software. Like many, it uses English as a medium of international communication. As software for online bidding and shopping, it would seem likely to require choice discourse processes when used collaboratively by two or more users. This thesis examined discourse by pairs of international students using eBay collaboratively. It asked: "When students use eBay, do they engage in episodes of choice more than they do during casual conversation?" and "Did their eBay interactions show expected linguistic features of choice discourse more frequently than their casual conversations?" Results of this exploratory study throws light on the nature and analysis of choice discourse processes, language features and the value of computer software like eBay for developing the discourse of choice. The findings of the study demonstrated that eBay had a relatively high use of choice discourse. Interactive simulated shopping online allowed the students to use their multiliteracies and critical thinking skills which in turn would assist them in integrating into their chosen professional or academic community more independently. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iiList of Tables v List of Figures vGlossary of Acronyms viiAcknowledgements ix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Scope of the study1.2 Significance and Rationale of the Study 4 1.3 Purpose of the Study 5 1.4 Goals and Outcomes of the Study 7 1.5 Research Questions1.6 Overview of the Thesis 8 2 Relevant Theoretical and Research Background 9 2.1 Theoretical Framework 9 2.2 Theoretical Foundations 14 2.3 Relevant Research Background 7 2.4 Definition of Terms 42 3 Method 43.1 Design3.2 The Setting and the Participants 46 3.3 Approaches to Data Collection 8 3.3.1 Observation 43.3.2 Recordings3.3.3 Negotiated Discussions 49 3.4 Procedure 50 3.4.1 Recruitment of Participants 53.4.2 Data Collection 53.4.3 Confidentiality and Consent 4 3.5 The Pilot Study 5 3.5.1 Additional Differences between the Pilot and the Present Study 57 3.6 Data Analysis3.7 Limitations of the Study 63.8 Summary 64 Findings Part 1 8 4.1 Introduction4.1.1 Qualitative Data Presentation and Analysis 1 72 4.1.2 Dyad D-Phase 1 -Practice 75 4.1.3 Dyad D- Phase 2- Pre 9 4.1.4 Dyad D- Phase 3- Task 84.1.5 Dyad D- Phase 4- Post 102 4.1.6 Decision-Making Process Flow Chart 105 4.1.7 Dyad D- Summary of Findings 114.1.8 Choices Made (Research Question 2) 113 4.1.9 Summary of Findings Part 1 126 5 Findings Part 2 131 iii 5.1 Introduction 131 5.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Data Presentation and Analysis II 132 5.3 Language Features Associated with ESL Choice (Research Question 1) 133 5.4 Findings for Dyads A-E- Summary Table 135 5.5 Frequency of Language Features Contrasted with Conversational Discourse 140 5.6 Summary of Findings Part 2 149 6 Conclusion 152 6.1 How the Findings Answer the Research Questions 156.2 Implications for Teaching 155 6.3 Limitations 156 6.4 Implications for Future Research 157 6.5 Concluding remarks 158 6.6 Summary of FindingsReference List 160 Appendices 4 Appendix A: BREB Certificate 16Appendix B: Student Consent Form 5 Appendix C: Recruitment Flyer... 8 List of Tables Table 3.1 Summary of Observation 54 Table 3.2 The Knowledge Framework: the Social Practice of Shopping on eBay 60 Table 3.3 The Social Practice of Simulated Shopping on eBay 64 Table 4.1 Findings Part I and II 7Table 4.2 Keys to codes used in: (Transcription Analysis Symbols Chart) 71 Table 4.3 Practice of Teacher Centered Decisions (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) 75 Table 4.4 Pre Learner Centered Free Conversation (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) 79 Table 4.5 Task of Learner Centered Decisions (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) 85 Table 4.6 Post Learner Centered Free Conversation (DYAD D: Harry and Justin) 102 Table 4.7 Different Kinds of Choices Made in the Dyad Tasks ( Participant 1) 114 Table 4.8 Different Kinds of Choices Made in the Dyad Tasks ( Participant 2) 115 Table 4.9 Final Choice by Participant 1 and 2 and Specific Purchasing Choices 118 Table 4.10 Final Decision- To Shop or Not to Shop on eBay 119 Table 4.11 Number of Major Choices Made (Participant 1 and 2) 124 Table 5.10 Language Features of Choice and Examples 13Table 5.10a Analysis of Language of Choice for Dyads A-E ...135 Table 5.11 Frequency of Language Feature 1: Desire and Cognition 142 Table 5.12 Frequency of Language Feature 2: Emotion and Perception 143 Table 5.13 Frequency of Language Feature 3: Modals 144 Table 5.14 Frequency of Language Feature 4: Affirmation and Negation 145 Table 5.15 Frequency of Language Feature 5: If... then statements 146 Table 5.16 Frequency of Language Feature 6: Comparatives 147 Table 5.17 Frequency of Language Feature 7: Interrogative Questions 148 v List of Figures Figure 2.1 Schematic Map; Relevant Research Background 20 Figure 3.1 The Knowledge Framework; the Knowledge Structure Choice 62 Figure 4.1 Flowchart-Shopping on eBay 105 vi Glossary of Acronyms BICS: Basic Interpersonal Skills BREB: Behavioral Review and Ethics Board, UBC CAI: Computer Assisted Instruction CALL- Computer-Assisted Language Learning CALLA Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency CBE : Computer based education CMC- Computer Mediated Communication EAP- English for Academic Purposes ELI, UBC: The English Language Institute is located at the University of British Columbia Canada. It is a language school that instructs primarily international students in intensive academic preparation programs for an English based University setting or post university work environments. EFL: English as a Foreign Language ESL: English as a Second Language GDSS : Group Decision Support System ICT: Internet Communication Technology IEP: Intensive English Program IRC: Internet Relay Chat NNS: Non-native speakers'/speaking. In this study the non-native speakers are those who do not speak English as a first language. NS: Native speakers/speaking SFL: Systemic Functional Linguistic analysis In SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics) social context is modeled as systems of register (field, mode and tenor) and of genre. These social systems are seen as realized through language. (Martin, 2000, P. 279) SLT or L2: Second Language teaching SLA- Second Language Acquisition vii SSC: Student Study Centre is the computer laboratory located within the E.L.I., Continuing Studies Building (C.S.B.) at U.B.C. TESL :Teaching English as a Second Language TOEFL: Test of English as a Foreign Language Vocab Profile software (VPS; 2006 version): A software program created by Paul Nation that examines vocabulary in texts and compares it to frequency lists. The program also provides teachers with a fast and easy way to judge the reading difficulty of texts. (Chapter 5) http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/staff/paul-nation/nation.aspx www: World Wide Web Acknowledgements Firstly, I would like to thank Dr. Kenneth Reeder and Dr. Bernard Mohan for their guidance, encouragement, and feedback throughout my graduate studies program. Secondly, I would like to thank the Academic Director of the English Language Institute at the University of British Columbia, Andrew Scales, for supporting me in conducting my research at the ELI. Also, I would like to thank the technical support staff and notably Rosalyn McGregor at the Student Service Centre at the Institute for their assistance. In addition, I would like to thank the students and the instructors Ayah Ouziel and Trish Fodor who agreed to participate in the study. Thirdly, I would like to express my deep gratitude to my editors Margaret Vincent and Kerri Quinlan and to Paul Milelli and Alex Hamer for their technical support, and to my graduate classmates Katherine Golder and Reginald D'Silva for their advice and support. I am very appreciative to this support group for their assistance during the final weeks of my thesis submission. Finally, I would like to dedicate this thesis to my mother, Elizabeth Munn, and to my partner, Paul Milelli. I am grateful for their help and support throughout the two and a half years of my graduate work. 1 Introduction 1.1 Scope of the study Over the past 30 years or so, globalization has brought international students to Canada, the United States, Britain and Australia to study English as a Second Language (ESL). The non-native speakers (NNS) primarily want to study at established University language schools like the English Language Institute at the University of British Columbia to gain admission into a recognized University in North America or abroad, to improve their English to enough enhance career prospects, or continue their family business at home. The academic intensive language program at the ELI, UBC, where I am an instructor, hosts a well equipped lab where students use the facilities on a daily basis in their research classes or for research purposes on the internet. More and more international students are using online technologies with a sophisticated understanding. Their required computer skills for their academic pursuits also are needed when researching online. Shopping online is becoming more popular and convenient for these students who cannot always find goods and services in local retail stores or live in remote communities of the globe where retail shopping is not accessible. EBay, the fastest growing online auction web site, is known for its diverse product selection and high quality of goods and services. Students are drawn to the concept of shopping online at eBay even if they have not tried it previously. EBay does a good job of attracting people especially young adult students to its site because it offers millions of high end retail products at lower prices determined by the eBay community. In an expensive peer pressured society where being fashionable pays off, lower priced current commodities are something that this niche market craves. From brand name fashionable clothes to small fully loaded laptop computers to 1 portable high-end digital (MP3) music players, eBay has almost anything the young adult international student could desire. Traditional retail shopping is a daily activity for most international students and online shopping is fast becoming a bi-weekly if not daily activity. When a novice eBay international student goes online to window shop they frequently do so with a friend for the first few times. They join forces to get feedback and ideas from one another about how to go through the simulated shopping steps of buying an object. They then progress through the procedures until they can ultimately attain their goal whether it be locating, investigating or purchasing a unique item for sale. Throughout this process they are using their critical thinking skills to research products or plan to purchase an item. Thus simulating shopping on eBay does have an educational significance; while making decisions online international students use their Language of Choice. In other words, the Language of Choice is the decision-making or critical thinking that the ESL students do during their eBay experience. They then are using this opportunity of tapping into an online auction web site community to exercise this Language of Choice. As the students in pairs become more rehearsed in the practice of shopping online, their language muscle becomes more developed as their decision-making skills, knowledge and strategies grow. Their literacy of the internet continues to grow and they develop their own multiliteracy skills. Multiliteracy skills are fourfold: a) functional literacy, the ability to use language to function effectively as a member of one's community; b) academic literacy, the ability to use cognitive strategies to understand and analyze interdisciplinary content; c) critical literacy, the ability to locate, evaluate and use information, and d) electronic literacy, the ability to use electronic technologies to acquire information and build knowledge (Kasper, 1999, p.2). Online multiliteracy refers to the latter of the four multiliteracies which specifically focuses on the ability to use the online technology in this case eBay to acquire and build information. As Warschauer (1997, 1998, 2 2000) and Kasper (1999) have indicated, multiliteracies include critical thinking, academic, electronic literacies. The four multiliteracies (functional, academic, critical and electronic (i.e., online multiliteracy) are key skills for international students to have in this competitive business marketplace and job market. They must have well planed organizational strategies and critical thinking skills to compete with their peers who have equally talented multiliteracies. This thesis takes a broad view of language development as discourse development, that is, the ability of a learner to understand and produce discourse in a given language. By contrast, most studies in second language acquisition concentrate on acquisition of elements of language either at or below the sentence level. Since discourse development is a very broad area, studies of discourse development typically focus on a particular aspect of discourse, such as causal explanations, as in Tammy Slater's study of the development of causal explanations in native speakers of English and ESL learners (Slater, 2004). This thesis focuses on the area of choice (decision-making) discourse processes and how they are used by second language learners in situations of actual use. Choice discourse processes are an important part of the social world. It is difficult to imagine politics without debates about political choices, such as who to vote for, or to imagine economics without debates about economic choices, such as what to buy. We examine episodes of choice discourse in discussion surrounding online shopping, so the choices in our data fall broadly within the sphere of economic choices. Choice discourse processes are important in education, both as an aim of education and as a means of education. As Leung and Mohan (2005) point out: tests and exercises ask students to make choices and teachers for a variety of reasons encourage students to discuss these choices with their peers, both for sharing knowledge and strategies, and for practicing and critiquing critical thinking. It is not 3 surprising therefore that choice, under the label of 'decision-making', is considered to be an important category of critical thinking. Communication during collaborative decision-making requires choice discourse processes. (B.Mohan, personal communication). This thesis focuses on choice discourse processes per se, rather than the development of choice discourse processes. The analysis of choice discourse processes has been relatively neglected in the research literature by comparison with such areas as causal explanations, and this means that it may be premature to study development before the analysis of choice has been more firmly established. In our analysis, we look at episodes of choice discourse and we look at language features that might be expected to correlate with choice. 1.2 Significance and Rationale of the Study The rationale of this study was to give ESL students an inexpensive, unique, and applied skill in action; decision-making on eBay simulates a real world activity. The study has educational significance because it provides a useful language opportunity. The specific significance of the study is to examine an interactive communicative approach through on line media in a teaching and language-learning environment. To ensure adequate use of information technology, it is important for instructors to focus on the language that students need for their on-line interactions. In turn, this interactive communicative approach assists students to think critically during decision-making. Consequently, joint decision-making on eBay is relevant to enhancing language learning. This is a new area of exploratory research; 4 the knowledge structure Choice has not been analyzed with second language student decision making on an e-commerce auction website. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to explore and analyze the knowledge structure Choice through the students' decision-making while simulating shopping on eBay. I answer the research questions and produce a detailed description and analysis of ESL learners' (or non-native speakers'; NNS) decision-making process while engaged in an on-line activity. Doing e-Bay on-line involves a process of choice, where the shape of the dyad pair work is a discourse of decision-making that constructs episodes of choice in a Social Practice. I focus on the ways that the use of new media technology can affect content learning in the second language classroom. I focus on the means by which a particular group of ELI students enrolled in the ESL program- can use multimedia to improve their meta-linguistic knowledge, and their critical thinking skills. Therefore, one of the questions I ask in my study is: "What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with pre/post conversational tasks?" Developing critical thinking1 capabilities is essential to second language learning as students are said to thereby engage in more actively with materials in the target language, gain a deeper processing of that language, and become independent thinkers (Richards & Schmidt, 2002). One key component of critical thinking is decision-making (Krothe and Pappas, 1998). As such, my research includes a focus on the ways online technology can affect decision-making and Choice Knowledge Structure 1 I will be adapting the theories of the following scholars who discussed the definition of critical thinking skills "Although there is no universally accepted definition of critical thinking, parameters described in the literature include analytic reasoning, decision making, problem solving, self regulation, and considering opposing viewpoints (Bartels, 1995; Jones and Brown, 1993; Rane-Szostak & Robertson, 1996). Bartels further submits that knowing and thinking critically require learners to carry their knowledge into acts of application" (Krothe and Pappas, 1998, p.38). 5 processes. The Knowledge Framework embodies six Knowledge Structures, one of which is Choice or the Language of Choice. I also examine a question at a more "macro" level of analysis: What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data, for example, what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice during the task pre-bidding purchasing prerequisites? Further, young adult international students use critical thinking and multiliteracy2 skills when window shopping on eBay; they are utilizing e-commerce as a form of on-line teaching and learning technologies. My understanding of the decision-making process is a multimodal or multiliterate one. When I analyzed the decisions made in the dyad tasks, the participants are not only using their expressive language such as a) their verbal language to make the decisions with visual cues (pointing to the images of the objects they desire to "buy") and b) make physical actions (by clicking with the mouse on information about the object) but they are also utilizing their receptive side of their literacy skills. The ESL students are reading the material about their object on the computer screen which requires multiliterate understanding. Simultaneously, the participants' language use is computer-mediated. Thus the non-native speaking (NNS) student participants are using multiliterate social performances, expressive and receptive literacy skills, ESL literacies, and computer literacies. 2 The Multiliteracies argument suggests a functional grammar which assists language learners to describe language differences (cultural, subcultural, regional/national, technical, context specific, etc.) and the multimodal channels of meaning now so important to communication, especially important with the rise of multimedia, desktop publishing, Email, the Internet, and so on (The New London Group, 1996). 6 1.4 Goals and Outcomes of the Study The goals of study were: a) capturing the holistic nature of choice episodes of online interaction; b) recognizing variation between dyads; c) examining whether decision-making discourse is more frequent in the eBay task than in free conversation, which would suggest that eBay is a place where decision-making discourse could be developed. The outcomes of the study are: a) a "macro level" description of the choice discourse processes for ESL learners in the task by contrast with the Pre-Post phases (i.e., research question 2); and b) a "micro level" description of the language items and features at the lexical level associated with choice discourse processes (i.e., research question 1). 1.5 Research Questions The research questions 1 and 2 can be expressed sequentially as: "What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with pre/post conversational tasks?"(i.e., the micro research question);, and, "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data, i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice?" (i.e., the macro research question). My theoretical foundation, Systemic Functional Linguistics, suggests a working hypothesis concerning the first of these two research questions. It is that the non-native speakers' (NNS) decision making language and Choice language features will be different in their Task and Pre/Post phases i.e., the Task represents eBay work and the Pre/Post represents free conversation work that the participants encounter in the Observation. 7 1.6 Overview of the Thesis The structure of the thesis chapter by chapter is as follows: In the introduction, I explained the scope of the study, the significance and rationale of the study, the purpose of the study, gave goals outcomes of the study, and stated the research questions. In Chapter 2,1 explain the relevant theoretical and research background of the study; the theoretical framework and foundations;, and the definition of terms. In Chapter 3,1 explain the method of the study; the design; the setting and the participants; the approaches to data collection; the procedure; the pilot study; data analysis; the limitations of the study;, and a summary. In Chapter 4,1 present the introduction to the findings part 1; a qualitative data presentation and analysis procedure I; qualitative data presentation of an exemplary dyad; Dyad D in Phase 1 -4 of the Practice, Pre, Task and Post; the decision-making process- flow chart; the Dyad D- summary of findings; the choices made for the macro research question 2;, and the summary of findings part 1. Chapter 4 also includes numerous qualitative tables and a figure. In Chapter 5,1 discuss the introduction to findings part 2; a qualitative and quantitative data presentation and analysis procedure II; the language features associated with ESL choice (micro research question 1); Dyads A-E- summary table of choice language features; the frequency of language features associated with the ESL choice (research question 1);, and the summary of findings Part 2. Finally in Chapter 6,1 state my conclusions; how the findings answer the research questions; the implications for teaching; the limitations; the implications for future research; and the concluding remarks. 8 2 Relevant Theoretical and Research Background 2.1 Theoretical Framework As computer technology has become an integral part of the UBC English Language Institute (ELI) curriculum, students are now required to be proficient in the use of multimedia resources. Research has shown that academic, problem solving, decision-making, and critical thinking skills can be honed by the integration of technologies with language learning (Warschauer, 2000; Kasper, 2000; Yildirm, 2000; Anker, 2002). As a result, electronic literacy reading and writing practices in online environments (Longman, p. 176) ~ have become a key area of interest for language educators because of the unique ways people read and write using the internet. This study embodies Content Based Instruction whereby NNS participants chose an object they are interested in on eBay. The students learn about their object while window shopping on eBay; they are using the language of choice or decision-making language as a tool for developing knowledge and so they develop their linguistic ability in the target language. Content-based instruction emphasizes a connection to real life and real world skills (Curtain, 1995); in content-based classes, students have more opportunities to use the content knowledge and expertise they bring to class; they activate their prior knowledge, which leads to increased learning of language and content material. I am keenly interested in the extent to which computer technology can be incorporated in English as a second language (ESL) education. In the classroom, I have seen that students appear more motivated to learn when using computer technologies. There seems to be a relationship between how students relate to learning outcomes and integrative motivation (that is, the learners' positive attitude toward both the target language community and the language 9 classroom and a commitment to learn the language (Richards & Schmidt, 2002, p. 343) and how students relate to learning outcomes. The rationale for using this theoretical framework is the language of choice within the Knowledge Structures. The definition of the Knowledge Framework is "a heuristic guide to the general structure of meanings in a social practice, containing a representative group of knowledge structures to the semantic relations" (Mohan, 1986). Additionally, one of the major components of the Knowledge Framework is the Knowledge Structure, Choice. This framework closely tied in with my MA thesis proposal rationale that involved critical thinking online. The analytical framework of the thesis is the Knowledge Framework. As a result the pilot study functioned as the Conceptual Background to my research. This thesis takes a Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL) approach to its topic of choice discourse in eBay, and must be understood in terms of that approach rather than a traditional approach to language. There are very large differences between a functional view of language and the traditional view of language that underlies the vast majority of research that we are about to review and these differences have major consequences which are not widely understood. We first discuss the significance of an SFL perspective for our study and then proceed with a review of the studies that form the major part of the literature that is relevant to review but typically assume a traditional view of language. These studies cover a range from SLA studies to what could be called 'computer and language learning' studies. We note how an important consequence of their traditional view of language is fragmentation. Language learning and computer use are categories that are quite distant from each other: learning the elements of the language system vs. using the computer. By contrast, in the systemic view, which highlights discourse and meaning, these two categories are much more 10 closely related: increasing resources to make meaning in multimodal discourse vs. engaging in multimodal discourse in multimedia computer interaction. A broad sense of the difference between a Systemic Functional view of language and a traditional view of language is provided by the following extended quotation from Mohan & Slater (in press: pgs. 5-6), contrasting traditional and functional views of the relation between language and content (i.e., meaning). "How we perceive the teaching and learning of language and content is strongly influenced by our view of what language teaching involves. A traditional view, as described by Derewianka (2001), is primarily concerned with sentence-level form and structure with little significance given to the context. This traditional view sees language as a set of rules that allow us to make judgments about correctness, and it sees language learning as the acquisition of these rules. Consistent with this view, a focus-on-form perspective looks at a content classroom and asks whether the students are engaged in tasks and topics that highlight specific features of grammar which are considered problematic for the students being taught (Long & Robinson, 1998). Pica (2002) proposed that content-based language teaching should include more opportunities to focus on intervention strategies which would assist in the noticing and correction of grammatical errors. In sum, the traditional view of language does not offer a way to theorize content or meaning in text or to engage with the relationship between language and content. In contrast to this traditional view of language, Derewianka noted that a functional view is based on the purposes that language serves within our lives. This view emphasizes the text or discourse as a whole in relation to the context and recognizes that lexis and grammar vary with text and context. It sees language as a resource for making meaning and provides tools to investigate and critique how language is involved in the construction of meaning. Language 11 learning from this perspective involves extending one's potential to make meaning in an ever-broadening range of contexts. A summary of the special features of SFL is provided by Halliday and Martin (1993: 22-3): Rule/resource. To begin with, SFL is oriented to the description of language as a resource for meaning rather than as a system of rules.... Sentence/text. Second, SFL is concerned with texts, rather than sentences, as the basic unit through which meaning is negotiated. It treats grammar, in other words, as the realization of discourse.... Text/context. Third, SFL focuses on solidary relations between texts and social contexts rather than on texts as decontextualised structural entities in their own right. It looks, in other words for solidary (i.e., mutually predictive) relationships between texts and the social practices they realize.... Expressing/construing meaning. Fourth, SFL is concerned with language as a system for constructing meaning, rather than as a conduit through which thoughts and feelings are poured. In other words, it views language as a meaning-making system rather than a meaning-expressing one... Parsimony/extravagance. Finally, SFL is oriented to extravagance, rather than parsimony. It is oriented, in other words, to developing an elaborate model in which language, life, the universe and everything can be view in communicative (i.e., semiotic) terms... These points apply to this thesis in the following way: Rule/resource. This thesis is ultimately oriented to learners expanding their meaning potential to participate in choice discourse processes, not simply learning items of grammar and lexis. The emphasis is on discourse development rather than just language development. 12 Sentence/text. This thesis is oriented to computer use as discourse interaction and meaning construction centered upon choice rather than solely as input and output of linguistic items. Text/context. This thesis does not see text in isolation from context but rather in relation to the social practices of computer use. EBay and e-commerce more generally is a novel development of commercial social practices centering upon choice. As they engage with eBay, learners are entering a process of language socialization into these novel social practices. A learner who is used to interacting with a dealer face-to-face may experience great discomfort when faced with making a bid to buy on the Internet. The context of her or his choice is different. Numerous writers have commented on the novelty of computer use, but few have seen this novelty in terms of novel social practices. Expressing/construing meaning. This thesis sees decision-making and other critical thinking skills as constructed in discourse, and not simply as thoughts that are created internally and then expressed in discourse. The discourse processes of choice are important evidence of the construction of decision-making. Parsimony/ extravagance. This thesis takes a holistic view of choice discourse processes and their context on eBay, seeing them semiotically and multimodally. These discourses, processes and their context create a semiotic gestalt of understanding and communicating about the participants, the processes and the circumstances of the event. We view the knowledge structure of choice as a semantic construct which operates multimodally. Thus the 'things available to be chosen' can appear in spoken or written discourse, or can be viewed on the computer screen. Similarly, 'the choice made' can be made by pressing a key to send an electronic message, but it can be made verbally as well. Again, the human participants, the buyers (i.e., 'choosers') and sellers (those whose goods are available to be 'chosen') can be physically present to each other, as with the international students who are in 13 a dyad, or they can be electronically presented to each other. In other words, the potential action of choosing is like a magnet, setting up a semiotic field which draws together people, things, events and the surroundings into a holistic gestalt of processes and relationships. A central aim of the knowledge structure analysis of choice discourse and its context is the map these processes and relationships. 2.2 Theoretical Foundations Student-centered learning is the focus of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research. Second language researchers have based their current research on diverse fields, including second language acquisition (SLA), cognitive psychology, communication theory, psycholinguistics, sociology, anthropology, and neurolinguistics (Freeman and Freeman, 2001). The following section reviews theoretical views in the CALL field. It summarizes SLA theory and its connections to computer-mediated communication (CMC). It reviews those elements essential for language learning and discusses how CALL multi-media applications must respond if they are to be effective tools for learning. By looking at the key scholars of SLA research, we can understand why CALL/ CMC accesses the language learning process. Krashen's "comprehensible input" hypothesis is recognized by many SLA scholars. The hypothesis states that "learners acquire language by 'intaking' and understanding language that is a 'little beyond' their current level of competence" (Krashen, 1981, p. 103). Krashen's hypothesis, however, excludes "comprehensible output." To fill the gap in the research, Swain has included "comprehensible output" in her research. Swain suggests that in order to provide learners with opportunities to use the language and skills they have acquired, at a level in which they are competent, comprehensible output is almost as important as giving students the 14 appropriate level of input (Swain and Lapkin, 1995). To increase students' opportunities to use language skills and negotiate meaning, comprehensible output can be effective in peer to peer project based learning. Another widely accepted hypothesis is Krashen's Affective Filter (Krashen, 1981; Krashen and Terrell, 1983). His hypothesis proposes that when learning a language, a student may be affected negatively or positively. Learning a new language is unlike learning other subjects because it requires public demonstration of knowledge. Speaking in a public situation or presenting a written piece can produce negative emotions, and this detriment creates a filter that blocks the learner's language ability. Krashen states that "learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-esteem, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for SLA success because they have a low affective filter" (Krashen, 1984). Student centered classrooms or laboratories where students do not feel threatened, and are engaged in online technologies or discussions are examples of learning situations that have an effect on student's ability to learn when their motivation is increased. For example, students are more successful in writing tasks with high motivation and self-esteem and low anxiety because their affective filter is low. To increase advanced ESL students' comprehensibility, hands-on online technologies and cooperative learning have been suggested to provide learning opportunities as a medium to build on language which the learner possesses. Vygotsky (1978) maintained that socialization is crucial to the internalization of knowledge. Without opportunities to use language in social context, language knowledge cannot be internalized. This view has received considerable attention in SLA theory. In particular, the importance of peer interaction is considered an essential opportunity for language learning. As an inherently social activity, computer-mediated conversation, therefore, meets this first essential criterion—it allows for internalization of language knowledge through socialization. 15 In his theory on cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) Cummins demonstrates that the development of academic language can take four to seven years whereas an average student's basic interpersonal skills (BICS), i.e., conversational fluency can take two to five years (depending on the individual's variables) (Cummins, 1981, 1996). Cummins also classified cognitive demands that communication can place on the learner. When a learner can rapidly analyze and synthesize information that has abstract concepts, the learner is engaging in "cognitively demanding communication". In contrast, a learner engaged in little critical or abstract thinking has "cognitively undemanding communication" (Cummins, 1996). For example, if an ESL student is engaged in an online learning activity such as making buying decisions on eBay for the first time, they would be in a somewhat "context-embedded communication" situation with visual cues, but the learner could be in a "cognitively demanding communication" situation as they would have to synthesize specialized concepts quickly. Depending on the context in which learning occurs, "context-embedded communication" or "context-reduced communication" and the cognitive demands placed on the learner "cognitively demanding communication" or "cognitively undemanding communication", the learner could be challenged by "comprehensible input" and given the opportunity to produce "comprehensible output". To fill the gap between Cummin's theories and classroom strategies, Chamot and O'Malley (1994) developed the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA) which includes strategies to develop higher thinking skills, that is, asking higher order thinking questions and modeling "thinking language". Gibbons (2002) describes the term "scaffolding" to describe the process of gradually building students' confidence and skills to complete tasks independently. Academic language scaffolding links Cummin's and Gibbons concepts. 16 In addition, Chapelle (1998) has proposed "seven hypotheses relevant for developing multimedia CALL" (p. 23): 1) the linguistic characteristics of target language input need to be made salient for "input enhancement"; 2) learners should receive help in comprehending semantic and syntactic aspects of linguistic input; 3) learners need to have opportunities to produce target language output; 4) learners need to notice errors in their own input, and they need to correct these errors; 5) learners need to correct their linguistic output; 6) learners need to engage in target language interaction whose structure can be modified for negotiation of meaning;, 7) and learners should engage in L2 tasks designed to maximize opportunities for good interaction. Much of the research in that literature review incorporates Chapelle's pedagogically important suggestions (p. 8-11). Internet Communication Technology (ICT) research has concluded that web-based communication is beneficial for learners and for SLA. ESL students participate more and use a variety of complex linguistic features (Kern and Warschauer, 2000). 2.3 Relevant Research Background Introduction In the 21st century, with the proliferation of new technologies, we have forgotten the social phenomena of Luddism. Society has come a long way since the thinking of the Luddites who were opposed to new technology and destroyed the machinery which they thought made work that humans do redundant. In the early 1800's, machines forced people into regimented labor, and the Luddites understood the transformation of social conditions; if you went to work for someone else, it was a form of slavery. Their literacy skills were limited and their value system collided with capitalism. In contrast, in today's global 17 economy, working for someone else is commonly respected, new technology is welcomed, and the definition of what it means to be literate is constantly changing. Educators and students alike now need multiliteracy and critical thinking skills to use online technologies, navigate the internet and succeed academically and professionally. Kasper (1999) defines four facets of multiliteracy skills that are referred to in the relevant research background: a) functional literacy, the ability to use language to function effectively as a member of one's community; b) academic literacy, the ability to use cognitive strategies to understand and analyze interdisciplinary content; c) critical literacy, the ability to locate, evaluate and use information, and d) electronic literacy, the ability to use electronic technologies to acquire information and build knowledge (p.2). To find solutions to real world situations, English as a Second Language (ESL) students need to utilize their functional, electronic, critical and academic literacy skills. They need to discuss ideas and strategies, ask questions, think and reason about different approaches, and make decisions about practical issues that they encounter in the real world. To see if that kind of teaching has enhanced results, I have proposed a study in which teachers need to experience learning in new ways in order to help students effectively solve problems, think, synthesize and learn. With the advent of online technologies and the technical sophistication of our students', educators are continually changing their pedagogies. Since the internet content-based learning medium is flexible, ESL educators use more student-centered learning approaches and inquiry strategies. In the present literature review, I attempt to link the themes of current perspectives to my research questions and critique the validity of the technology and ESL education literature. In Warschauer's professional career as an educator, researcher, editor and administrator, he has contributed a significant amount of dedicated research to the technology and language learning fields. His papers engage the reader and relay tangible evidence, beliefs, research, methodologies, theory analysis that has been carefully thought out and critiqued. Because 18 Warschauer is committed to Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) research and development which have placed him at the forefront of ESL education, I have chosen several of his studies in this literature review. Thematic Organization of the Literature The schematic map (see Figure 2.1) illustrates the thematic organization of the literature to support my research. The common thread through the relevant research background is the findings of conceptual and empirical research; my research question 1: "What are the language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks?" (i.e., the micro research question). And my research question 2 "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data, i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice?" (i.e., the macro research question). The articles are also linked thematically by 1) conceptual research (perspectives) on CALL; 2) empirical research (perspectives) on CALL; 3) empirical methodology; 4) pedagogical implications; and 5) limitations. First I discuss the conceptual research publications of historical, current and future perspectives on CALL. Second, I discuss the empirical research publications of teachers', students', and current perspectives on CALL and their design. 19 Figure 2.1 Schematic Map; Relevant Research Background Decision-making discourse processes of international students through e-commerce as exemplified by eBay Conceptual Realm Current Research on CALL (Perspectives) Kasper, (1999); incorporating the internet into content-based instruction, TESOL conference presentation Research on: Teachers Perspectives of CALL (online technology in the ESL Classroom) Egbert, (2002); the impact of CALL instruction on classroom computer use; a foundation for rethinking technology in teacher education Yildirim, (2000); effects of an educational computing course on teachers V Research on: Historical and Future Perspectives on CALL Anker, (2002); the challenge and opportunity of technology: An interview with Mark Warschauer Warschauer, M. (2001); Millennialism and media: Language, literacy, and technology in the 21st century Empirical Realm Current Research on CALL Warschauer & Meskill, (2000); technology and second language learning Kasper, (2000); new technologies; new literacies: Focus discipline research and ESL communities Pally, (2001); Skills development in sustained content-based curricula case studies in analytical/critical thinking and academic writing Biesenbach-Lucas et al, (2000); realizing constructivist objectives through collaborative technologies: threaded discussions Pappas and Krothe, (1998); using collaborative work to support active learning Research on: Students Perspectives of CALL (online technology in the ESL Classroom) Greenfield, (2003); collaborative e-mail exchange for teaching secondary ESL: A case study in Hong Kong McKinnon et al, (2000); a longitudinal study of students attitudes toward computers: Resolving an attitude decay paradox 20 Conceptual Research Kasper (1999), in her TOEFL conference presentation, asserts that the Internet is a content-based tool that builds literacy, linguistic, and academic skills through online projects. As a result of technological innovations such as online technologies, an ESL learning environment has emerged that represents a shift from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy. Pappas & Krothe (1998), refer to that later in the empirical publications, and it is a key component to my research methodology since the Pre and Post conversations and e-Bay pair work conversations are student-centered; I scaffold questions to the students as they work on their online decision making process. Kasper cites various benefits of using the Internet in a content-based ESL course: 1) student-centered collaborative learning is promoted; 2) critical reading is promoted and critical thinking skills are honed; 3) different forms for writing contexts are provided; 4) enhanced metacognition of the learning process is fostered, and 5) essential multiliteracy skills for academic and professional success are built. In Anker's interview (2002) Warshauer also refers to Kasper's definitions of multiliteracies (see Introduction, Kasper, 1999, p.2), but he breaks down the definitions under the umbrella of electronic literacies and does not expand on functional or academic literacies. In my research I attempt to build multiliteracies in the computer lab with clearly defined goals, engage students in meaningful collaborative discussions and encourage students to voice their critical reflection. The research of Kasper (1999) and Warschauer (2000) has laid this foundation for me to build on. In the conceptual research publication "The challenge and opportunity of technology: An interview with Mark Warschauer" (2002) Anker gives an overview of Warschauer's immense body of work on Technology and Language Learning that specifically relates to my research questions and theoretical framework. Computer Technology is a life skill, he asserts, that educators and students need to be on the cutting edge of in order to strengthen our roles in 21 society. Warschauer defines several ICT literacy terms with more of a focus on technology than Kasper (1999). Terms such as electronic, information, computer mediated and multimedia literacies are distinct from each other, and are defined in specific relation to online technology skills. Kasper's (1999) and Warschauer's (2002) definitions helped me to focus and narrow down my research questions to include critical thinking in a direct way and multiliteracies in an indirect way. Students do not have challenges, but rather, Warschauer says, "opportunities" in learning new literacies. Students need and want to learn more about new literacies; they are a part of their future. All ESL students who have academic and professional objectives, such as the students that I teach in intensive academic programs, must have these multiliteracy skills to know how to use computers and the Internet. Written communication is now done essentially in English online though computers. Critical literacy is also an important literacy to teach students because they need to filter unsubstantiated information that they read on the Internet; they need to assess information by using their critical thinking skills. In direct relation to my methodology and research questions, Warschauer (Anker, 2002) suggests stimulating critical thinking skills and rhetorical conventions online to hone learners' academic literacy. In the 2001 publication, Millennialism and media: language, literacy, and technology in the 21st century, Warshauer examines the relationship of language literacy and technology. He looks at current technology, particularly the Internet, and how it has transformed language and literacy. The computer according to him has become the "essential medium of literacy and language use" (p. 49). He lists three major issues that are of importance due to the proliferation of the Internet: literacy, international language use, and second language learning and teaching. For Warshauer, what is more important than the role of technology in language education is "the role of language teaching in the information technology society" (p.56). 22 The Internet has been called the fourth most important technological invention (a Mc Luhanist's perspective) after language, writing and printing (Warschauer et al, 2000). Computer-mediated communications (CMC) and globally-linked hypertext are two technological developments important to the ESL classroom. Students using networked computers can use CMC asynchronous and synchronous tools such as e-mail and Internet Relay Chat (IRC) or globally-linked hypertext and hypermedia represented in the World Wide Web (www). Because authentic materials can be accessed online it seemed appropriate for me to focus my research study on the www and to investigate the pedagogical value of online language learning in the related literature (Kern & Warschauer, 2000). A common assumption that Kasper (1999), Warschauer (2001), and Pally (2001) share is that information and communication technology is changing the notions of literacy, giving rise to multiliteracies and it is important that as a researchers and second language educators we understand how these relationships are evolving (Warschauer 2001). Warschauer touches upon several important aspects for second language educators: namely, technology, the Internet, multiliteracies-and how language education is deeply connected to these issues. These aspects of integrating online technology and language learning in order to facilitate multiliteracy development are omnipresent in my research. Empirical Research on Teachers' Perspectives on CALL Egbert, Paulus, & Nakamichi's (2002) qualitative and quantitative study focuses on the impact of CALL instruction on classroom computer use. The ESL and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers who completed the CALL course were equally represented from elementary, secondary and post-secondary contexts and thus this sample could be generalized; the population as a whole could have the same attitudes represented in the study. 23 The findings from the surveys and follow up interviews of the study of teachers, who had recently done graduate work in CALL, were that: 1) if teachers had used CALL before, they were more inclined to continue using CALL than new users; 2) if implementing new CALL lessons, they first sought peer advice; 3) instead of using new technologies in the classroom, teachers used technologies that suited their basic needs and lessons; 4) teachers chose not to use CALL because they don't have sufficient time to implement CALL into their heavy curricula load; 5) lack of implementation support and sufficient resources prevented teachers from carrying out the activity. Egbert et al's (2002) study relates to my research study in terms of methodology and relation to the general subject matter of integrating online technology into ESL education, but the findings do not relate to my research questions. Critical thinking and academic skills is not the subject of Egbert et al's (2002) study, but rather how teachers use CALL. Therefore, teacher education in CALL needs to be more practically suited to the teachers' curriculum and context, so the goals of CALL course work could be achieved. One obvious limitation of that study is that although it does not state that the goals of CALL should be strengthening students' multiliteracy skills, I thought it was an important article to include as a precursor to research findings. To undertake research with practical and tangible end results, it is important for the researcher to know the teachers' views of technology and what the possible hindrances be involved before conducting research with other teachers in CALL. If CALL courses are not designed where teachers can learn in situated contexts, then the results of teacher education research will have limitations. Warschauer (2000) refers to the disadvantages of technology in the L2 setting as having unpredictable expenditures. Egbert et al (2002), also make claims that for the growth of CALL implementation in the L2 classroom, it is imperative that teachers be supported with consistent "field coaching" post graduate work, and financial resources to carry out their 24 classroom tasks and goals. If teachers are hindered by a lack of access to equipment, a lack of professional support and financial backing, their electronic literacy confidence and motivation could be negatively affected. Yildirim's (2000) quantitative and qualitative study analyzes 114 pre-service and in-service teachers' attitude changes following computer training, the reasons why teachers use computers, and the effectiveness of educational computing courses on teachers. Computer literacy was given a positive outlook when teachers pursued professional development; the attainment of further credentials helped them realize the significance of technology in education, and the satisfaction of being advanced in their field. Those findings are essential because without positive computer learning experiences teachers would not likely have success in teaching with technology. The findings indicate teachers' anxiety, enjoyment and confidence are ameliorated if they were new to computers after electronic literacy training. Although these findings do not directly relate to my research questions, they helped me to facilitate positive experiences in the lab, to have awareness of different teacher perspectives when working in the field, and when collaborating with teachers who have a range of computer literacy abilities. Instead of using structural methods, teachers need to keep abreast of current student centered methodologies and technology in order to keep their students on top of current methods and enhance their critical thinking skills; students need problem solving skills and rhetorical strategies (i.e., choice language, decision-making, compare/contrast and persuasive rhetoric); critical thinking skills are essential life skills for contemporary students, and teachers need to support the people who continue to build our future communities. Those findings (Yildirim, 2000) closely relate to my primary research question. In contrast to the research of Egbert et. al, Yildirim's (2000) study on teachers' perspectives which includes 25 findings to indicate that critical thinking skills are key tools for students to learn in the ESL classroom. However, Yildrim's work does not give attention to those teachers who wanted more advanced training from the education program because their computer literacy stayed at the same level and their motivation in the study decreased. Perhaps if his study helped those who were new to computer literacy and those who wanted to advance their skills further, the study could have reached a wider audience, have been more generalizable, and more realistic. In addition, teacher education administration and faculty need to support technically rich teaching programs, encourage computer courses that help teacher's have high competency and a low affective filter, and sufficiently resourced classrooms, so in return we can have competent students who can compete in the global market. Empirical Research on Students' Perspectives on CALL Greenfield's (2003) study of secondary ESL students involved in an integrated computer approach of cooperative, communicative, project based language learning. The qualitative case study included formal interviews, teacher questionnaires, naturalistic observation, and the quantitative instruments used were Pre and Post model surveys that assessed language ability, interest, and confidence in computer domains. The students engaged in collaborative email exchange for 12 weeks using process writing, discussion and negotiation skills. A particularly unusual finding was that students with limited computer skills were more satisfied with their work in the continuation of the study than those with more developed skills. This phenomenon can be linked to the limitations of the study, whereby students engaged in self assessment. Other limitations include the short duration of the study which focused on Cantonese 15-16 year-olds. If the study had been longer and focused on a wider population, the findings could be more generalizable. 26 The students appreciated non-hierarchical methodology, while doubt was raised about their success in elements usually subjected to testing in such areas as grammar and vocabulary usage. That is, students felt that doing well on grammar and vocabulary tests was more important than improving their thinking skills. Greenfield (2003) used Warschauer's suggestion that CMC projects should be integrated into the larger curricular program rather than function as stand-alone activities (Warschauer, 1995). The study also offers possible CMC implications for ESL education. The acknowledgement of the student perspective and recognition of student centered success in activities are keys to understanding more effective methodologies. This CMC bottom up case study, although time consuming to produce, gives ESL teachers a potential framework to start from when integrating their technology into ESL pedagogy. Contrary to Yildirim's (2000) study, where critical thinking skills were an essential life skill for students to learn, Greenfield's study does not implicitly state what types of thinking skills were developed or strengthened. She does however state that improvement was made in writing, thinking and speaking skills. In addition, Greenfield's findings refer to multiliteracy skills, when she states that assurance was gained in computer literacy. Yildirm (2000), on the other hand, did not make reference to multiliteracy skills in his study. Thus, both Yildirim (2000) and Greenfield's (2003) studies relate to my micro and macro research questions with regard to: a) What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks?; and b) What actual choices are made in the ESL Choice task discourses in the data that is what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice? While Yildirim's (2000) findings on critical thinking relate to my macro research question directly, Greenfield's (2003) findings on multiliteracies relate to my research questions indirectly. 27 Although McKinnon, Nolan & Sinclair's (2000) quantitative and qualitative integrated curriculum study population focused on LI speakers, I felt it was important to include because it focused on student attitudes towards computers as the students worked on computer literacy skills and applications to create cohesiveness with their curriculum. However, the findings of the study explore whether students' literacy skills were improved as Yildirm's (2000) study had. It would have been beneficial to my research to find out if students did use computers as tools for critical thinking processes. Instead, the study focused on the students' attitudes. McKinnon et al. (2000) findings could imply that the improvement of either the students' computer literacy or thinking skills had helped them do better on the test. Nonetheless, the evidence was that the students involved in the project had contrary views to what contemporary researchers had found; student attitudes toward computers were not positive. The study explains some of the reasons for the inexplicable results regarding technology the students needed, but "habitation had set in" (p. 333); using computers had become routine and the students began to take the regular access to computers for granted; "computer use.. .lost its fascination after the halo effect had worn off (p. 334). The 415 students in grades 8-10 viewed the computers as useful devices and constantly used the computers to finish homework. The computer came to be seen as a tool for them as some students said computers were "like a pen" but "easier to use than pens" (p. 334). Despite the students' beliefs, they did much better than the non-integrated schools after the three year study. The researchers: McKinnon et al. (2000); Warschauer & Meskill (2000); Kasper (2000), and Pally (2001) have mounted evidence supporting the notion that students like, benefit from, and are challenged by using computers. That last point backs up my motivation for conducting my research; I have seen students' critical thinking skills progress through both online technology tasks and online discussions. In addition, keeping learners excited about learning is possible if the focus is on the curriculum and teaching rather than the 28 technology; "attitude decay" in that case is seen as positive because learners were attentive to their school work and they had positive attitudes about their learning process. I believe that authentic and practical pedagogy is important as does McKinnon et al. (2000); Warschauer & Meskill (2000); Kasper (2000), and Pally (2001). Surprises occur frequently within the teaching-research setting and thus it is important to keep an open mind when data outcomes are not what were anticipated. Yildirim (2000) saw that there was no opportunity for students to learn more advanced technology in the training program; the beginners of the study were the beneficiaries. Studies have flaws, some perceived and some unperceived, but in Yildirim's study the contradictory evidence is intriguing; skepticism about the integration of technology and language learning does exist and McKinnon et al's (2000) study has helped me to see the paradoxes of research work. Current Research on CALL Warschauer & Meskill's (2000) cognitive and sociocultural framework, communicative language teaching, instructional design and implementation consider the learner's interests in using authentic tasks. Their qualitative case studies include task based activities using cooperative learning, online discussions, class discussions and presentations, published hypertext work and technology projects. The Intensive English Program (IEP) was being used by pre-univesity students seeking to gain skills for academic and professional purposes, and Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEFL preparation. One half of students did not think that course contributed to their English skill improvement. Their opinions could have been based on beliefs of language learning preferences; i.e., the student centered structural approach. Whereas Warschauer & Meskill (2000) found online technology use was advantageous for helping students' language 29 abilities, electronic literacies and research skills necessary for academic and professional success; his evaluation found that "appropriate use of new technologies allows for more thorough integration of language, content, and culture than ever before and provides students with unprecedented opportunities for autonomous learning"(p. 12). Thus, Warschauer & Meskill's (2000) findings are useful to the present study because in creating productive Second Language or L2 teaching, instructors can help construct competent acquisition lessons and environments with technology that merge with bona fide language for students to hone their life skills, i.e., academic skills for future business and education goals. However, the sample lacks representation and therefore makes it difficult to generalize the findings to a wider population. Kasper (2000) uses focus discipline research to integrate the cognitive learning theory approach, SLA research and The New London Group's (1996) multiliteracy pedagogy for this study of ESL students. The primary question of her qualitative and quantitative study was if ESL students used the Internet as a research tool, could their multiliteracies develop. In focus discipline groups, 50, high intermediate ESL students in integrated reading/writing courses used organization, synthesizing and evaluating skills to produce a series of written reports, and research projects. Again as noted in Yildirim (2000), the importance of multiliteracy growth for ESL students is confirmed in the research findings. In addition Warschauer & Meskill (2000) and Kasper (2000) also concur that ESL students need to hone their multilitercy skills in order to be apart of the digital 21st century. Students used their technology literacies by networking with peers and instructional resources to know more about strategies of rhetoric, patterns of discourse and elemental concepts in their specialization area. Kasper's (2000) research study found that students can develop and improve their multiliteracy skills through content based pedagogy and focus discipline research using Information Technology. Although my study 30 does not focus on the same content-based pedagogy as Kasper (i.e., my students do not focus on their discipline or academic writing, but rather on conversations) I felt that her research closely emulates my study, i.e., my subjects used forms of rhetoric and knowledge structures of choice and comparison in their discourse. Both The New London Group (1996) and Warschauer (2000) believe that "technology supports a level of task authenticity and complexity that fits well with the interdisciplinary work inherent in content-based instruction and that promotes the acquisition of multiliteracies" (p. 3). Warschauer & Meskill (2000); Kasper (2000); and Pally (2001) all agree that an array of thinking skills is required for ESL students to be actively engaged in academic contemporary life and to be successful in a professional career. Unlike Warschauer & Meskill's work, Kasper (2000) suggests that focus discipline research promotes multiliteracies, and similarly Pally (2001), supports content based instruction (CBI) in the efficacy of critical thinking skills. Pally (2001) puts importance not only on critical thinking skills but also on analytical and academic skills. In addition, Kasper and Pally's research work that promotes multiliteracies, critical thinking and academic skills is related to the objectives of my study. In the year 2006, students live in a digital age where they need to be literate in critical thinking literacies, academic literacies, electronic literacies, information literacies, computer mediated and multimedia literacies in order to attain their goals (Warschauer & Meskill, 2002). Learning and implementing those multiliteracies or fluencies into their life is by no means an easy task for ESL learners; they need to learn the technical vocabulary and have the "cognitive and sociocultural skills necessary to gain access to the social, academic and workforce environments of the 21st century" (p. 2). After deeper analysis of these researchers' work, I understood how closely their definitions of multiliteracy and critical thinking skills were to each other (Kasper, 2000), (Pally, 2001) and (Warschauer & Meskill, 31 2001). I believe that all three scholars are referring to similar definitions of multiliteracies. As Warschauer (1997,1998, 2000) and Kasper (1999) have indicated, multiliteracies include critical thinking, academic, electronic literacies. Pally (2001) questions whether ESL students learn analytical and critical thinking skills in sustained content-based learning environments. In Pally's (2001) qualitative case study, 13 international students studied one discipline for one semester and their assignments included summaries, essays, research charts, and question tasks stimulating thinking skills. In summary, the students' writing (i.e., essays) shows the effects of CBI through the high the quality and large amount of critical and analytical thinking skills used. The essays of the intermediate students who had CBI that is the control group and the advanced students who didn't have CBI were compared. With regard to the notion that students need Anglo-American analytic and critical thinking skills to pursue their academic and professional goals, Warschauer & Meskill (2000), and Kasper (2000) agree with Pally (2001). Crucial academic reading and writing skills are frequently not taught in LI or L2 schools. Those scholars also agree that there is a gap of what students are taught and what essential skills they need to in the real world of academic or professional work. Kasper (1996; 1997; 1998), Vygotsky (1962), and Krashen (1985) also have stated that when students are engaged in real-world tasks, their language learning is enhanced. I demonstrate in my study that using decision- making skills on eBay is a real world task. Critical thinking and analytical skills are transferable; synthesizing, evaluating, using rhetorical conventions and arguing one's own points are needed across disciplines. Sustained content-based instruction (CBI) (i.e., studying a subject over time) suggests that when academic tasks are modeled and scaffolded (Vygotsky, 1962) while the students practise academic skills the demands of the real world will be simulated, explained, analyzed and practiced. Thus, ESL students learn analytical and critical thinking while they practice 32 academic skills. Pally's use of argumentation in the academic writing task required students' critical and analytical skills. Warschauer & Meskill, (2000); Kasper, (2000) and Pally (2001) have all found that students' multiliteracy skills were enhanced through online technologies. Even though my study did not involve a writing task, the conversation task and pair work expanded their thinking skills. To be proficiently literate in English academic and professional contexts, analytic and critical thinking is required (Pally, 2000, p.3) Analytic thinking includes synthesizing claims and understanding methods used to support claims. Critical thinking includes 1) noting the contexts of claims (New London Group, 1996); 2) challenging claims ; 3) evaluating claims (Mohan, 1986, 1990; Vygotsky, 1962) ; 4) using one's synthesis and questions to formulate one's own ideas, and 5) presenting one's own ideas using rhetorical conventions (Pally, 2000). The findings showed the benefits of CBI; written assignments by higher level students who did not have CBI had weaker rhetorical conventions; that is, lower integration of argumentation than lower level students who had sustained CBI. The lower level students had learned more analytical and critical thinking strategies which in turn helped strengthen their writing. Thus, language learning curricula need to be further developed to include CBI, so students can acquire those essential skills before their professional careers start. Kasper (1997, 1998) also found that CBI students had higher grades and graduation rates. Obvious typos were limitations in the Pally (2001) study, and she seems convinced that CBI (i.e., focusing on a discipline over time) is the only way for students to learn thinking skills. To strengthen her argument she could argue against previous researchers' findings and state why CBI is more effective than other ways that students could learn thinking skills. To integrate technology into ESL classes, threaded discussions were used in Biesenbach-Lucas, Meloni, and Weasenforth's (2002) study along with a constructivist framework to meet curriculum objectives. Fifty-two, international ESL graduate students in 33 advanced level university classes, who were mostly Asians, in their mid-twenties to early thirties, used online technology, asynchronous threaded discussions on a web board for three semesters. Written critical reflections were judged on an analytical scale, and then reflective thought was judged with a holistic evaluation scale; quantitative surveys assessed the benefits of assignments; lack of connections between class discussions and threaded discussions. Biesenbach et al.'s (2002) research showed that communication technologies like asynchronous threaded discussions have positive results when learners 1) reflect on content and progress; 2) are empowered; and 3) take responsibility for their own learning. Biesenbach et al.'s (2002) findings showed that learners communicated individual thought in web discussions, wrote more thoughtfully, and had greater critical thinking skills. Surveys revealed that students liked sharing ideas in assignments and providing construction of meaning and knowledge online and in the classroom. Pally (2001) agrees with Biesenbach-Lucas et al (2002) that critical thinking is developed by using and creating a repertoire of thinking, reasoning strategies to achieve learning goals, and facilitating higher order strategies. Biesenbach-Lucas et al.'s (2002) study population group (young international ESL students) relates closely to my own study; however, I did not use the same instruments and procedures involving threaded discussions. Nevertheless, the study brought about cognitive skills, which links to the purpose of ESL students using the language of choice and decision-making of my study. The achievement of academic, curricular and critical thinking goals in a student-centered environment are themes that have repeated themselves throughout this literature review (Yildirim, 2000; Warschauer, 2000; Kasper, 2000, Pally, 2001; Biesenbach et al, 2002) as researchers and teachers continue to incorporate online technology into the curriculum. Biesenbach-Lucas et al (2002) further suggest that because the ESL classroom collaborative exchange is student-centered, learners participate equally and actively, are able 34 to engage in discussion and foster intercultural relationships; "the use of threaded discussions in ESL classes can prepare pre-academic ESL students for discourse [that will be used] in non-ESL classes in a unique and authentic way" (p. 21). Another theme linking (Yildirim, 2000; Warschauer & Meskill, 2000; Kasper, 2000; Pally, 2001; Biesenbach-Lucas et al, 2002) current perspectives studies is due to the fact that the technology was tightly woven into the curriculum, the studies were able to glean several findings. In particular, Biesenbach-Lucas et al found that as teachers facilitated the interactive and reflective threaded discussion technology, social and cognitive skills were addressed and students became more fluent in academic and critical thinking skills. Pappas & Krothe (1998) used an alternative instructional model in their study because they had noted a paradigm shift from teacher centered to student centered in computer assisted instruction (CAI). Kasper (1999) also refers to this paradigm shift. This collaborative approach recognized learning as the students' responsibility, fostered critical thinking, and collaborative decision-making. The university nursing students in the study used group decision support system (GDSS) in the lab to work on the cooperative project by discussing perceptions, editing items, inputting analysis, reporting data, submitting results and working on peer writing assignments, to determine whether critical thinking through GDSS was possible. The findings expressed students' sense of accomplishment and satisfaction with the quality of their final product. One key limitation of this study was that it did not explicitly state whether the university nursing students were native or ESL speakers; more details on the sample and population are needed. However, I chose to include this study as it contributes to the efficacy of collaborative critical thinking and decision-making skills and relates to my macro research question where subjects make choices in the ESL choice discourse data. Another limitation of the study was that it did not expand on the findings of critical thinking skills. If Pappas & Krothe (1998) had included more details about their definition of critical thinking skills, the findings could have been linked to the related studies I have previously mentioned i.e., there is no mention of broader skill development such as multiliteracies. The advantages of GDSS in Pappas & Krothe (1998) study are 1) projects were completed more efficiently; 2) all students have equal participation; 3) groups are easily kept on task and memory is retained with evolving computer screen displayed product. Whereas, the limitations of GDSS were its 1) time consuming instructional experience; 2) lack of availability of skilled facilitators; 3) cost prohibitive nature. However, these limitations are also viewed by Warschauer (2000); Egbert (2002), and King (2001). Critical thinking and problem solving skills through GDSS collaborative skills is an emerging technology that could suit institutional needs for integrating technology and language learning. In my research, I also hope to link the critical thinking and problem solving skills through online technology. However, I used a more practical and inexpensive tool, which is e-Bay, an online auction web site. Student-centered instruction integrated with online technologies is a consistent theme that the latest research focuses upon. (Egbert et al, 2002; Yildirim, 2000; Greenfield, 2003; McKinnon et al, 2000; Kasper, 2000; Biesenbach-Lucas et al, 2002; Pappas & Krothe, 1998; King, 2001). King's (2001) bottom up pedagogy is beneficial for the student and teacher when merging web conferencing and language learning. From an adult learning perspective, King's (2001) study focused on how traditional classrooms are affected by online dialogues. Specifically, she questions whether web based bulletin boards increase discourse and acquisition in face-to face-classes. The qualitative case study includes reflective essays, journal entries, and web based discussions from 109 adult learner graduate education students over 6 months. Although King's study was not an L2 study, I found it important to include because its findings linked with other studies cited as 36 well as my research study. Specifically, the findings of the King's (2001) study showed that 1) web based bulletin board egalitarian environment was suitable for adult learners and in turn fostered academic and professional development; 2) participants took part in progressively demanding academic discussions and equal participation became common. These results show a close connection in the findings of Pappas & Krothe's (1998) study (also presumably an LI study) where students took initiative in their own learning within the student centered group decision support system to develop their critical thinking, problem solving and collaborative skills. Using Electronic Bulletin Boards requires consistent technical and financial support, time allotment to develop web conferencing elements, assessment of students' needs, integrated teaching learning method, use of constructivist approach, and ongoing feedback. These limitations are a salient theme in many technology studies. (Warschauer, 2000; Egbert, 2002; Pappas & Krothe, 1998; King, 2001). King's (2001) study was not an experimentally controlled study and thus there are limitations to her study as not all variables were the same in each class. The research design needs to be altered and variables refined to make clearer observations. Summary Literacy is a social practice. Within this social practice, skills of reflection, analysis, problem solving and critical thinking or decision-making are involved. To promote literacy skills of ESL students, educators need to work with sound computer based methodology (Warschauer, 1997). Computer based education (CBE) no longer accesses the computer as a tutor, but as a tool. Through CBE, learners achieve not only linguistic knowledge, but also sociocultural competence (Kern & Warschauer, 2000). 37 Success at university is attributed to multiliteracy skills that include academic literacy. Academic literacy is challenging for ESL students who attempt to improve their language and critical thinking skills. Internet activities can help students develop academic skills such as paraphrasing, summarizing, organizing, synthesizing, analyzing, decision-making and problem solving. By using authentic material to perform real world tasks, ESL students may become aware of the audience they are communicating to and may realize the practicality of their learning processes. Both Pally (2001) and Kasper (2000) agree that teaching ESL students to extract questions and evaluate the central points of a range of material, as well as construct responses using the conventions of academic writing (Kasper, 1998; Pally, 1997, 2001), are steps to building their academic success. When considering CALL language learning materials, I considered the well grounded SLA principles of the literature reviewed and in my study. For the present study to be effective, I implemented the SLA principles into the design of my language learning study just as other researchers in this literature review have (i.e., design that promotes learner autonomy and cooperative learning). Computer-based second language projects have the potential to empower both learners and teachers in a collaborative, student centered and meaningful learning environment in the ESL learning process. One factor that affects Second Language (L2) teachers is whether their students have an opportunity for authentic use in target language and are sufficiently challenged by the linguistic materials (Lam, 2000). Online technologies can both facilitate authentic tasks and linguistically challenging content (Kasper, 2000; Warschauer, 2000, and Pally, 2001). The findings of the current perspectives of the conceptual and empirical research directly relate to my study's theoretical framework, methodology and research questions. Salient themes that emerged are: 1) there are benefits of using the Internet in a content-based ESL course (Kasper, 1999, 2000; Pally, 2001); 2) stimulating critical thinking skills and rhetorical conventions online hone learners' academic literacy (Anker, 2002; Warschauer & Meskill, 2001; Kasper, 2000, Pally, 2001); 3) information and communication technology is changing the notions of literacy, giving rise to multiliteracies (Kasper, 1999; Warschauer 2001, and Pally 2001); 4) critical thinking skills are key tools for students to learn in the ESL classroom (Yildirim, 2000; Pappas & Krothe, 1998; Kasper, 1999; Warschauer 2001, and Pally 2001); 5) an array of thinking skills is required for ESL students to be actively engaged in academic contemporary life and to be successful in a professional career (Warschauer & Meskill, 2001; Kasper 2000, and Pally 2001); 6) focus discipline research and CBI promotes multiliteracies in the efficacy of critical thinking skills (Kasper, 2000; Pally, 2001); 7) using and creating a repertoire of thinking, reasoning strategies to achieve learning goals, and facilitating higher order strategies develops critical thinking (Pally, 2001; Biesenbach-Lucas, 2002); 8) by incorporating online technology into the curriculum academic, curricular and critical thinking goals can be accomplished in a student-centered environment (Yildirim, 2000; Warschauer, 2000; Kasper, 2000, Pally, 2001; Biesenbach-Lucas et al, 2002). The relevant research background findings primarily focus on multiliteracy and critical thinking skills needed for academic and professional work. There is however, a gap in the literature to fill, because not one of the empirical studies meets my research study questions directly, i.e., there is little or no research on the language of choice or what language features are associated with ESL choice task discourses (or scaffolding) while students make decisions while shopping on e-Bay or on a related website; and what choices are made in ESL task discourses. My research study topic, with its foundations from Warschauer & Meskill (2001), Kasper (2000), and Pally (2001) has the potential to promote literacy development and impact ESL learners positively as they work with online technologies. Thus, based on Pally's (2001) findings that CBI strengthens analytical and critical thinking skills, I attempted to replicate parts of her study. In addition, replicating parts of Warschauer & Meskill's (2001) and 39 Kasper's (2000) studies, which showed multiliteracies were enhanced through online technologies, would also strengthen my study's methodology. In the present study, I attempted to build multiliteracies in the classroom with clearly defined curricular goals, adopt a student-centered learning approach, engage students in meaningful collaborative projects, and encourage students to voice their critical reflection. The research of Kasper (1999, 2000) and Warschauer (2000, 2001) has laid this foundation for me to build upon. Kasper's (1999) methodology in her study most closely links to my research methodologies and questions since the students in my study: 1) had Pre and Post conversations and engaged in pair work decision-making based on their internet tasks after searching for, sorting through, and organizing related pieces of information; 2) practiced rhetorical conventions commonly practised in similar genres (i.e., the language features of choice), although Kasper's students had a writing (business) focus and my students had a speaking (academic) focus; 3) used critical thinking and multiliteracy skills to achieve their results. I believe that effective electronic learning tasks are those which are student-centered, based on rhetorically authentic communication, and allow students a voice (Warschauer, 2000). It is essential for ESL learners to become well rehearsed in electronic literacy to participate better in the English-dominated Internet (Warschauer, 2000). Warschauer (2000) studies state that if the teaching materials are pitched too high above their knowledge level, their comprehensible input will be low and as a result they will also be de-motivated. Authentic materials in the real world are most likely only be accessible to advanced ESL learners; to have successful computer based lessons educators must ensure they match well constructed materials with learner levels. As CALL becomes more dominant in ESL teachers' and students' lives, it continues to exert a constant pressure on education. Under this pressure, all parties need to examine the 40 opportunities and the challenges that students are faced with. Whether student learning is affected positively through CALL, it will continue to be debated. However the majority of the research in this literature review indicates that critical thinking and multiliteracy skills are honed through online technology. These skills are academic necessities for real life and international communications. If this research study indicates that critical thinking and multiliteracy lead to a student's greater comprehension and language acquisition, then this claim can have important implications for language teaching. To conclude this relevant research background, we return to the critical points made at the very beginning of this chapter that the vast majority of the studies we have reviewed typically assume a traditional view of language and a view of SLA focusing on form, and this results in a very fragmented view of the field as a set of disparate elements. Thus SLA traditionalists cannot adequately relate central themes raised in this relevant research background such as the development of discourse, computer use as discourse interaction, how the new social practices of computer use connect with discourse and language, the connection of critical thinking skills and discourse, and multimodality and multiliteracy. 41 2.4 Definition of Terms a) (eBay, Inc., San Jose, CA, www.ebay.com) EBay is the major auction service on the Web. EBay popularized the concept of buying and selling online, and both individuals and commercial enterprises list items for sale. There is no charge to browse the site or make bids and purchases, but there is a fee to list items. If an item is purchased, the seller pays eBay an additional fee. Millions of items are offered, and in 2002, nearly $15 billion worth of merchandise was sold through this service (Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, 2005). b) The Language of Choice is the decision-making or critical thinking that the ESL students do during their eBay experience. There are six Knowledge Structures within the Knowledge Framework and the Language of Choice is one of these Knowledge Structures. c) Multiliteracy skills and multiliteracies: Kasper (1999) defines four facets of multiliteracy skills that are referred to in the relevant research background: a) functional literacy, the ability to use language to function effectively as a member of one's community; b) academic literacy, the ability to use cognitive strategies to understand and analyze interdisciplinary content; c) critical literacy, the ability to locate, evaluate and use information, and d) electronic literacy, the ability to use electronic technologies to acquire information and build knowledge ( p.2). As Warschauer (1997, 1998, 2000) and Kasper (1999) have indicated, multiliteracies include critical thinking, academic, electronic literacies. The Multiliteracies argument suggests a functional grammar which assists language learners to describe language differences (cultural, subcultural, regional/national, technical, context specific, etc.) and the multimodal channels of meaning now so important to communication, especially important with the rise of multimedia, desktop publishing, Email, the Internet, and so on (The New London Group, 1996). 42 d) The Knowledge Framework is "a heuristic guide to the general structure of meanings in a social practice, containing a representative group of knowledge structures to the semantic relations". (Mohan, 1986) The Knowledge Framework embodies six Knowledge Structures, one of which is Choice or the Language of Choice. e) Content Based Learning "In recent years, content based instruction has become increasingly popular as a means of developing linguistic ability. It has strong connections to project work, task based learning and a holistic approach to language instruction. The focus of a CBI lesson is on the topic or subject matter. During the lesson students are focused on learning about anything that interests them. They learn about this subject using the language they are trying to master, rather than their native language, as a tool for developing knowledge and so they improve their linguistic ability in the target language. This is thought to be a more natural way of developing language ability and one that corresponds more to the way we originally learn our first language" (Peachey, 2006). f) Systemic Functional Linguistics; In SFL social context is modeled as systems of register (field, mode and tenor) and of genre. These social systems are seen as realized through language. (Martin, 2000, P. 279) In addition, social context or systemic functional linguistics is the environment in which meanings are exchanged. According to the linguist Halliday, the social context of language can be analyzed in terms of three factors: field, tenor and mode of discourse. The theory behind this (systemic linguistic) approach is functional rather than formal, that is, it considers language as a resource used for communication and not as a set of rules. In this way, the scope of linguistics is wider than that of many other linguistic theories. An essential concept of this theory is that each time language is used, no matter in what situation, the user is making constant choices. These choices are essential choices in meaning but are expressed, for instance, by intonation, words and grammatical structures (Richards & Schmidt, p. 491). 43 3 Method 3.1 Design The Relevant Research Background primarily focused on multiliteracy and critical thinking skills needed for academic and professional work. There is however, a gap in the literature to fill, because not one of the empirical studies meets my research study questions directly. For example, there is little or no research on the language of choice or what language features are associated with ESL choice task discourses while students make decisions while shopping on e-Bay or on a related website; and what choices are made in ESL task discourses. My research study topic, with its foundations from Warschauer & Meskill (2001), Kasper (2000), and Pally (2001) has the potential to promote literacy development and impact ESL learners positively as they work with online technologies. Thus, based on Pally's (2001) findings that CBI strengthens analytical and critical thinking skills, I attempted to replicate parts of her study. In addition, replicating parts of Warschauer & Meskill's (2001) and Kasper's (2000) studies, which showed multiliteracies were enhanced/honed through online technologies, would also strengthen my study's methodology. The present qualitative and quantitative case study examined the research problems by investigating student critical thinking (decision-making) and multiliteracy skills in an online auction web site, eBay. This study is a broad type of study that is both exploratory, observational, and includes descriptive analytic discourse. Even though this study is exploratory it does replicate some aspects of Yildirim, Warschauer and Kasper's studies (Yildirim, 2000; Warschauer, 2000; Kasper 2000; Anker, 2002, Lam and Lawrence 2002). This study should indicate whether Warschauer's and other similar findings from qualitative case studies, i.e., Yildirim, 2000; Warschauer, 2000; Kasper 2000; Anker, 2002, Lam and 44 Lawrence 2002, can be generalized to a wider population or whether these findings were just relevant to their particular group of students. The case study approach is suitable for this particular study because it is an intensive study of decision-making over a 24 week period; it provides an opportunity to collect detailed information that may not be observable using other research techniques; it uses multiple techniques and data gathering processes; it can be based on the assumption that the information gathered on this particular group (case studies) can also be true of other individuals or groups ; and, the research questions focus on the characteristics of the young adult international student population at the E.L.I, and was conducted among a representative sample of the student body in the language lab. 45 3.2 The Setting and the Participants Research for this study was conducted in the multimedia language labs and classrooms in the Intensive English Program at the University of British Columbia's English Language Institute, where students have scheduled weekly classes in the Student Services Centre. During and after class, students can use the English-only labs with full internet access and technical support from trained personnel. The subgroup that I studied is representative of the population characteristics of the ELI's enrollment. Participants were not randomly chosen for this study. Participants selected for the study were: 10 English as a Second Language learners/international students studying at the English Language Institute, UBC, enrolled in upper intermediate or advanced speaking and listening, reading or writing classes (levels 4, 5, or 6 based on the ELI band descriptors), over the age of 19 years old, novice eBay users, and male or female willing participants. Those students who were willing to participate in the case study were asked to sign a volunteer consent form. The participants in the study met with the researcher for two different observation sessions of two hours each over two twelve-week period semesters. Prolonged engagement in the study involved 20 hours (5 dyads x 4 hours) of observation and data collection. The potential participants in the study were contacted through their ELI Instructors when they were in class at the ELI, UBC. The ELI Instructors read out the study information from the recruitment flyer and handed out copies of the recruitment flyer to students. In addition, the recruitment flyer was posted in all intermediate and advanced level classrooms. The ELI Instructors asked the students who wished to participate in the study to contact the researcher via email. Interested people contacted the researcher directly at her email address: sue.parkermunn@ubc.ca The researcher then contacted the interested students participants 46 via email. The participants had one week to decide whether they would or would not participate in the study. Consent forms were distributed by the researcher to the participants who had expressed interest in volunteering in the study at the first meeting. Potential participants' interested in participating in the study were apparent when they contacted the researcher via email and gave their contact information to the researcher. All participants will be sent a two-page summary of the study findings via email. Those excluded from participation were: students who had a lower ESL proficiency than the upper- intermediate level, students who were younger than 19 years of age, and expert users of eBay. All participants involved in the study had novice eBay experience; only beginner eBay users were accepted. The population of young adult international students is of particular interest to me for the following reasons: (1) I am familiar with their cultural backgrounds, since the majority of ELI classes are made up of international culture groups, and (2) they have common sets of linguistic issues (i.e., unfamiliarity with rhetorical structures, i.e., persuasive, cause and effect, compare and contrast and knowledge structures that is the Language of Choice. 47 3.3 Approaches to Data Collection I addressed the research questions with qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection including observation and field notes, video and audio recording. The following is an overview of the instruments that were employed, gathered and analyzed: 3.3.1 Observation a) Observation/Field notes: I observed the participants in pairs while they were engaged in language tasks in the language lab and I made field notes of the processes. While observing the participants, I focused on key criteria to ascertain the presence or absence of the language of choice, critical thinking patterns and multiliteracy skills; b) Data collection: The observer's field notes of the lab classes were documented. Field notes included hunches, feelings, questions posed and work documented in progress that gave an early sign that a pattern was emerging. I paid particular attention to the critical thinking patterns, decision making, and multiliteracy skills; c) Data analysis: The field notes were transcribed, coded and sorted, a search was conducted for observations and comments that pertained to the research questions, and they were compiled and evaluated for relevance and validity. 3.3.2 Recordings a) Recordings: The participants were videotaped and audio-recorded during the lab observations; b) Data collection: Video and audio-recordings were documented; c) Data analysis: Recordings were transcribed, discourse and systemic functional linguistic analysis was carried out, a search was conducted for observations or comments that pertained to the research questions, and they were compiled and evaluated for relevance and validity ,i.e., my research question 1: "What are the language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks?" (i.e., the micro research 48 question). And my research question 2 "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data, i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice?" (i.e., the macro research question). 3.3.3 Negotiated Discussions a) Negotiated discussions: Pair discussions were conducted about the subjects' life experience in the Pre and Post phases. The pair discussions provided a forum to interact about their interests and not about decision-making online. This was done in order to contrast their social practices online with their free conversations, and enable the facilitation of sharing of ideas and observations; b) Data collection: Discussions were transcribed and coded; c) Data analysis: A search was conducted for observations or comments that pertained to the research questions. These were compiled and evaluated for relevance and validity, i.e., what language features were associated with ESL choice task discourse in the data by contrast with conversational tasks? 49 3.4 Procedure 3.4.1 Recruitment of Participants The study took take place from November 2004-December 2005. Participants were asked to meet the researcher for two visits or stages at the ELI (2121 West Mall, Vancouver, BC), in "Computer Lab A/B" of the Student Study Centre (SSC) at a computer terminal. Each visit took approximately 2 hours and participants were put into groups of two to create a dyad. The study did not take place during class time, but rather outside of class time at a time negotiated by myself and the participants. English was the only language spoken during the study to meet the requirements of the E.L.I.'s English-only policy. Student participants were compensated for volunteer time with 2 hours of private ESL tutoring lessons each. I provided the tutoring services. Tutoring began after the research was completed. All participants were compensated equally. 3.4.2 Data Collection The ESL learners in this study made specific decision-making processes on line at www.eBay.com, and their simulated decision-making processes and bidding and buying perspectives were be compared. EBay, an auction web site, was chosen as an ideal environment in which to assess the social practice of shopping and decision-making because it is designed with a multitude of categories that are easy to find, and has online audio tutorials and rules that are easy to follow. EBay is also user friendly, quick to upload, convenient, clearly classified, and very popular with buyers. An eBay auction generally works as follows: once a bid is placed on an object regardless of when it is placed it is regarded by eBay as a binding contract between the buyer and the seller. However, the researcher was able to simulate bidding on eBay and the eBay bidding process worked as follows: Participants viewed articles on eBay and initially were 50 able to submit a bid, but were not be able to confirm it with the system because they were not registered members of eBay. This guaranteed that eBay was not able to confirm their bid. In the event that any participant is a previously-registered member of eBay, they would be asked not to enter their membership number. This truncated bidding process was sufficient for me to collect the required language sample while protecting participants from financial risk. The following describes how the task proceeded in general: In stage I, participants were a) assisted by the researcher as they went through a "Practice" of a simulated decision making experience on eBay and b) were engaged in a "Pre" (task) conversation regarding a topic to be negotiated with the groups. In stage II, participants were involved in c) the "Task" simulating shopping and decision-making on eBay in pairs without the assistance of the researcher. After the participants had finished making their simulated bids on eBay, the students would exit the task; and d) were engaged in the "Post" (task) a topic to be negotiated with the groups. During the visits, the researcher collected field notes and collected audio tapes and backup video tapes. The digital video camera focused on the participants who had volunteered in the study, and would not view other students in the computer lab. More specifically, the task proceeded as follows: The research was done in two separate stages for each dyad. The participants came in for the "Practice" and the "Pre" (task). And then another session was scheduled when the participants came in for the "Task" and the "Post" (task). The design of the research operated as follows: There were five dyads and each dyad (groups A-E) engaged in four phases of the "Observation of a language task"- the Practice, the Pre (task), the Task, and the Post (task). The first phase, the Practice, took approximately 1.5 hours and involved the researcher and the participants going through a simulated shopping experience of making decisions on eBay. The phase prepared the students for stage 3-the Task when the dyads made joint decisions on their own on eBay. In the Practice, the 51 participants had the opportunity to get to know how the e-commerce site worked and asked questions about eBay by working through the decision-making stages of eBay with the researcher and their partners. The purpose of this pair work was to find out what the participants knew about making decisions and what discourses they used prior to simulated shopping on eBay. Additionally, during the Practice phase, ESL subjects were instructed on how to use eBay through modeling and scaffolding3. When searching on eBay, students used decision-making skills about the choice of their item, and the strategies they would employ as they attempted simulation bidding and buying of their item. I assisted the participants by scaffolding questions about their decision-making process while they were searching for information on line. The students worked in groups of two (dyads), and were asked to choose an item that they were interested in buying on eBay. Their purpose was to make significant decisions online while browsing for an item that had significance to them, i.e., their "item of significance". Once a desired item had been identified, the students window shopped, and made a simulated bid online. I observed the participants using a student-centered scaffolding process and assisting each other to make decisions while they were simulating shopping, and bidding on eBay. In the second phase, the Pre (task), that took approximately 30 minutes, the participants and the researcher were engaged in a conversation regarding "a topic to be negotiated with the groups". The third phase, the Task, that took approximately 1.5 hours, involved the participants simulating shopping and making-decisions on eBay in pairs without the assistance of the researcher. After the students had finished making their simulated bids on eBay, the students exited the task. The fourth and final phase, the Post (task), which took up approximately half an hour, involved the participants engaged in an open-ended 3 Instructional scaffolding refers to a teacher/learner strategy where the teacher and learners engage in a collaborative problem-solving activity with the teacher providing demonstrations, support, guidance, and input and gradually withdrawing these as the learner becomes increasingly independent; it is viewed as a process involving gradual internalization of routines and procedures available to the learner from the social and cultural context in which learning occurs (Richards et al, 2002, p. 466) 52 conversation regarding "a topic to be negotiated with the groups." The purpose of the "free" conversations in the Pre (task) and Post (task) was to create broad discourse contrast: "free" conversations vs. decision-making discourse in the Practice and Task. Table 1 illustrates the summary of the observations below. 53 The Summary of Observation Table 3.1 shows Dyad A through E, the NNS (Non Native Speakers/English as a Second Language Speakers) participants and the consecutive phases of the Observation. Table 3.1 Summary of Observation 5 dyads and NNS participants Phase Dyad A Rie and Chie Dyad B Kate and Wen Dyad C Kay and Google Dyad D Harry and Justin Dyad E Ray and Parajad Practice (-1.5 hrs.) eBay Practice eBay Practice eBay Practice eBay Practice eBay Practice Pre (task) (-30 min.) Pre-conversation free talk Pre-conversation free talk Pre-conversation free talk Pre-conversation free talk Pre-conversati on free talk Task (-1.5 hrs.) eBay pair work decision talk eBay pair work decision talk eBay pair work decision talk eBay pair work decision talk eBay pair work decision talk Post (task) (-30 min.) Post-conversation free talk Post-conversation talk Post-conversation talk Post-conversation talk Post-Conversati on talk 3.4.3 Confidentiality and Consent The subject's identity was kept strictly confidential. All documents were identified only by code number and kept in a locked filing cabinet. Subjects would not be able to be identified by name in any reports of the completed study. The data records kept on a computer hard disk could only be accessed by passwords and the security of the computer record was maintained. 54 Participation in this study was entirely voluntary and subjects could refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time without jeopardy to their class standing. The participant signature on the consent form (see Appendix B) indicated that they had given consent to participate in this study and had received a copy of this consent form for their own records. 3.5 The Pilot Study I conducted a pilot study where data analysis was quite simple. In the pilot study the language features of the ESL text, the NNS (non-native speaker's) decisions/choices made were transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted to the NS (native speaker's) text. I did the analysis of the pilot study by coding and highlighting the raw data of the decisions made, i.e., flowchart of decisions made. The outcomes of pilot study were that the ESL learner used more negative words, more general participants (nouns), few if statements, more sensing verbs, every day and concrete nouns in contrast to a native speaker's language. The ESL learner made simple decision-making and used more simplistic strategies while the native speaker made more complex decision-making. The NS and NNS had different motivations and resources to make their decisions based on their eBay experience and background knowledge. Linguistically, in the pilot study, I was looking at the language of choice in general terms (i.e., If statements) and I was looking at how the complexity of the language differed from the NNS and NS (i.e,. differentiating simple from elaborate decision-making), but I hadn't specifically defined which language features were related to choice or what actual choices were made. 55 My analysis in the present study changed from the pilot study because I needed to focus on NNS, not NS. Thus, I used the pilot study to expand my analysis. In the pilot study, the research question asked how the NS and NNS language differed in terms of complexity. The hypothesis for the pilot study was that the non-native speakers' (NNS) decision-making language would be different from their conversation and the native speakers (NS) would use more elaborate decision-making language than the non-native speakers. However, the present study concentrates on what language features were associated with ESL choice Task discourses by contrast with conversational tasks and what actual choices were made in the ESL choice Task discourses. When the research questions were redesigned, so was the analysis. The analysis in the present study sought to answer the redesigned research questions from a macro (choices made) to micro (language features) analysis perspective. Once the research questions were redesigned, I developed my analysis by defining which seven language features were related to choice (see Chapter 5, Table 5.10), what was the frequency of the language features in the task compared to the conversational tasks (see Chapter 5, Table 5.11-5.17) and what actual choices were made in the Task data (see Chapter 4, Figure 1, Table 5.7, 5.8, 5.9 and 5.10). If I hadn't done my Pilot study I would not have known that a) I needed to contrast the NNS Task (eBay work) discourses before and after the NNS Pre and Post free conversations to show how their discourse changed in order to make a claim the eBay work is correlated with choice language; b) and to pair subjects in dyads for a more natural real life task and to suit CBI goals for both the students (i.e., having students focus on content that they find interesting, maximizing student talk) and the instructor/researcher (i. e., accommodating class size and dynamics, limiting teacher talk, having learners make decisions independently and negotiate meaning). 56 3.5.1 Additional Differences between the Pilot and the Present Study In addition the pilot study differed from the present study since it a) incorporated and compared a smaller data set individuals as opposed to 5 dyads; b) the subjects were a combination of NS and a NNS not just NNS; c) the research question contrasted NNS and NS language as opposed to contrasting the choice language in the Task and Pre Post phases; d) the findings differentiated simple from elaborate decision-making, but not the specific language features associated with choice, nor the frequency of choice language features or the actual choices made. However, I am including some of the tables used in the pilot study into the method and analysis of the present study because they are consistent in procedures. 3.6 Data Analysis In the present study, I monitored students' progress as the students engaged in online decision-making. With the exception of the observation process in the Pre and Post, I kept my conversations with the subjects to a minimum, so as to not overly influence their decision making process in the Task. In the Practice session, I asked students if they had any questions or difficulties. Subsequent observations were recorded and transcribed. All of the data was chronologically archived, reviewed and analyzed. The data was collected from the Student Study Centre (S.S.C.) computer in the English Language Institute (E.L.I.) and saved onto my laptop computer, a) The field notes were transcribed to computer files, coded and sorted; b) the audio recordings were transcribed to computer files, coded and sorted. A discourse analysis using a systemic functional linguistics was conducted; c) and the video recordings were used to resolve any undecipherable audio records as needed. 57 In order to answer the research questions, I initially transcribed the dyad phases from the raw data. Then, I coded and sorted the raw data (Chapter 4, Table 4.2). The data analysis procedures, i.e., coding and sorting were two fold: data reduction and data reconstruction (Heath, 1997). Data, reduction included field note write ups and transcription procedures. Data reconstruction included the development of categories (i.e., language of choice features used and their frequency, choices made etc.), findings, conclusions, and connections in literature. During the analysis process, patterns that emerged were grouped into different categories that addressed the issues raised in the research questions and from this evidence a figure and tables were created. Through the figure and tables in Chapters 4 and 5,1 demonstrate what actual choices are made in the ESL choice Task discourses in the data to respond to the macro question and what language features are associated with ESL choice Task discourses to answer the micro question. To respond to research question 2: "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data, i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice?" (i.e., the macro research question), I chose to use a) one exemplary dyad and Task table (i.e., Dyad D) to demonstrate the decisions present in the data; b) one exemplary flow chart of the decision-making process (i.e., Dyad D) to demonstrate the flow of choice made in the task; c) all dyads and tables (Practice, Pre, Task, and Post) (i.e,. Dyads A-E) to show the purchasing prerequisites made; using choice in Tasks, making final positive or negative assertions regarding their item of significance; making final decisions about whether to shop or not to shop online and the number of choices made in the Task vs. Pre/Post phases of all dyads. Then in order to address research question 1: "What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks?" (i.e., the micro research question), I chose to use a) one exemplary dyad and tables (Practice, Pre, 58 Task, and Post) (i.e., Dyad D) to demonstrate the language features of choice; b) one final summary table for all 5 dyads (Dyads A-E) to show the language features of choice; c) all dyads and tables (Practice, Pre, Task, and Post) (i.e.. Dyads A-E) to show the frequency of the language features of choice. To handle the tabulation at the lexical level (i.e., frequency of words), I used the Vocab Profile software (Nation, 2006). Both the pilot study and the present study focus on a) the discourse analysis of the Knowledge Framework (see Figure 3.1), and specifically analyze the linguistic features of the Knowledge Structure, Choice (see Table 3.2 , Figure 3.1, Table 4.3, Table 4.5, Table 4.10, Table 5.10, Table 5.10a, and Tables 5.11-5.17); b) discourse analysis of decision-making (see Table 4.5, Figure 4.1, Tables 4.7-4.11 ); and c) shopping on eBay as a social practice (see Table 3.2, Table 3.3 Figure 4.1, Table 4.7, Table 4.8, and Tables 4.9-4.11). 59 Table 3.2 The Social Practice of Shopping on eBay Classification Grouping the categories on e-Bay -thousands of kinds of classifications, but the main categories are... Principles Bidding at the last minute often results in a winning transaction. If the participant decides that he wants to see the item personally (that he has chosen to bid on) then he probably will not be able to buy this item. Evaluation The participant judges/criticizes the experience of shopping on eBay as negative because he cannot see the item face-to-face before purchasing the item. The participant would give it a 5/10 for a shopping website. The participant appreciates shopping on eBay because it is able to assess the fair market value of an item, the participant saves 50% on their purchase, the participant can find an item they desire even if it is hard to find, and the participant loves the challenge of winning a bid. The participant would give it a 9.5/10 for an auction website. What? How? Why? Description Describing eBay, Identifying what eBay is, Labeling the parts of eBay, Observing purchasing transactions on eBay Sequences Chronological events of purchasing an item on eBay; first, next, second, finally or the chronological events of bidding on eBay. Choice Decision-making on eBay happens almost at any juncture, but especially when shopping and bidding and buying on line. The participant would rather shop on eBay than shop in a retail store. In the participant's opinion, the shopping experience and the thrill of bidding and winning the auction (of something they want) is much more exciting than buying something from a clerk.. 60 Figure 3.1 (adapted from Mohan, 2004) shows examples of the Knowledge Framework and the six Knowledge Structures. This figure was used as reference for analyzing the linguistic features of Choice (i.e., one of the six Knowledge Structures). We can see that there are language features of Choice during the participants' decision-making on eBay in Chapter 4 and 5. There are form-meaning relations in social practice of shopping on eBay. 61 CLASSIFICATION PRINCIPLES (e.g. norms, EVALUATION (Judgment= +/-* Generic Reference means-end, cause/reason; behavior, preferences) *Being/Relational effect/result...) * Generic Reference (cats,) Process •Generic Reference *Sensing Process (desire, wanting ,needing), cog (Is, have) *Doing/Material Process nition (thinking, * Additive (GO, action verbs) knowing, understanding), emotion Conjunction (and, •Consequential Conjunction (liking, fearing )and perception (seeing, hearing) nor) •Cause/reason coordinator *Comparative Conjunction (and/both, not only/ "Taxonomy Lexis (for), Subordinator but also, neither/nor) Subordinator (as, just as) (because, since, as); *Compare Sentence Connectors (also, likewise, si result from, because of milarly, too; like, similar to, as/as) *Effect/result coordinator *Contrast (but, yet); Subordinator (so; connectors=as a result, (although, even though, though ,while, whereas) hence, thus, therefore; ( *Contrast Sentence Connectors (however, in c resulting, affect) ontrast, instead, nevertheless, •Consequence Lexis nonetheless, on the other hand, still; despite, compa red to, be different from)* Evaluation Lexis * Specific Reference •Specific Reference * Specific Reference (the cat,) * Being/Relational *Doing/Material Process *Sensing Process desire (wanting, needing), cogn Process (Is, have) (Go, action verbs) ition (thinking, knowing, *Additive *Temporal/ChronoIogical understanding), emotion(Iiking, fearing) Conjunction Conjunction (when, after, and perception (seeing, hearing) (and, nor) as soon as, before, since, * Alternative Conjunction (either/or-* Additional sentence until, while; first, second, Subordinator- if/ unless) connectors third, now, then, soon, *Alternative Sentence Connector (otherwise) (also, besides, further gradually) * Alternative/Choice Lexis more, in addition, •Sequence Lexis •Choice is particularly related to desire and moreover, too, cognition: desire includes planning, intending,*,and another) •Attribution deciding, and both desire and cognition (unlike Lexis emotion and perception) can creatively 'project ideas into existence' (Mohan, 2004,p.5) DESCRIPTION SEQUENCE (time CHOICE: Decision-making (1) talking about expressions) choice- to do or not to do (possibility) OR 2) enacting ehoice(action)-yes/no Figure 3.1 The Knowledge Framework; the Knowledge Structure Choice (Based on Figure 1. Form-Meaning Relations in the Field of a Social Practice (Mohan, 2005, p. 13) 62 The ESL Learners make specific decision-making processes on line at eBay.com. Their purpose was to make decisions online when shopping for an item that has substantial significance for them. In this case, the items of significance for the ESL learners were diverse clothing, antique, literature and electronic products. The user/learner needs to find certain products easily when shopping online and eBay was chosen for this project to study the social practice and decision making because it is designed with a multitude of categories that are easy to find, online audio tutorials and rules that are easy to follow. In the social practice theory, the decision making process links the doing, action background knowledge together with what the learners are "doing" at the computer; learners make decisions and support their process. Shopping on eBay is a social practice. The table below illustrates the social practice of simulated shopping on eBay. The following are examples of reflection general and reflection specific from the ESL perspective; a) General Reflection: The user/buyer reflects on the rules and procedures of eBay; shopping, simulated bidding and buying on the internet; b) Specific reflection: The ESL learner is doing a simulated shopping experience on eBay for communication practice and decision making. 63 Table 3.3 The Social Practice of Simulated Shopping on eBay Social Practice Field Example Theory Reflection general Reflecting on the simulated buying and bidding on a car on the internet; reflecting on rules, procedures, actions and decisions If you want to bid on a car but there is reserve price, you must bid above the reserve price to stay in the bidding process; the reserve price is $15,800. You come to a choice point/a decision-making point. Reflection specific Instance of general reflection; advice for buyer; instructor gives specific advice about the bid price appropriateness or the learner gives himself this advice; buyer reflecting on the simulated bid he placed on the PDA. Simulated Bid above $16,000 for the car. Practice Action Buyer decides that he likes the car on eBay; making decisions in order to buy the car. Lost or Won the simulated bid; wants to buy the car In analyzing the discourse in SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics), the speech action and the decision-making process is the process of how to buy and shop online for an item the participant wants to buy. The item of significance in the above example is a car. In SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics) the social context is modeled as systems of register (field, mode and tenor, mood and tone) and of genre. These social systems are seen as realized through language (Martin, 2000, p. 279). The Tenor refers to aspects of the relationship of people involved (NNS; NS UBC students). The Field or human activity 64 involved is e-commerce or shopping online. The NNS are speaking to their partner in pairs and to the researcher. The participants are using speech discourse and decision-making processes in order to take part in the simulated shopping experience of eBay; searching, making decisions about price, sellers reputation, deciding if they have the confidence to buy, time left to bid; simulated buying; at the ELI, UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada. The Mode or the role played by language is the discourse that was spoken, and the speech discourse was Oral. The Tone or attitudes and feelings in language are both positive and negative. The NNS participants are novices to eBay and some are skeptical/distrustful, critical, questioning, and reluctant about buying online. While other participants are trusting, uncritical and unquestioning and enthusiastic about buying online; they are willing to attain simulated purchasing goals. The Mood selections or Interpersonal meaning linked to English Clause Grammar was declarative, imperative and interrogative. The mood switched from declarative (giving information); for example: "The categories are on this page are..." to imperative (demanding goods and services); for example: "Show me the picture!" to interrogative (seeking information); for example: "Where did you find the other bids?" 3.7 Limitations of the Study I concede that this study has its limitations. Several factors could be potential limitations to the effectiveness of this study: 1) Getting institutional approval of the study was a relatively small issue. The director of the ELI was going away on a lengthy business trip, so I had to ensure that his secretary had the finalized letter form well in advance of the BREB deadline; 2) there were recruitment and manageability concerns; Upper Intermediate (level 4) and Advanced level (level 5 and 6) Instructors were asked if they could read the recruitment flyer in class; however some students either didn't read the posted flyers in the classrooms, 65 know about the flyers or were not read the recruitment flyer by their teacher. Thus students didn't know what they would learn by participating in the study and thus student motivation was low in terms of their actual participation in the study. Most teachers didn't have or make the time due to their demanding academic schedule to read out the recruitment flyer and as a result few volunteers came forward and some students were hesitant to participate in the study because they didn't have time due to their academic demands); 3) The first research study announcement went out to teachers in week 9 of a 12 week program in December of 2004 (just following the BREB research study approval), so I only received a few (4 individuals/2 dyads) volunteers. The second time I announced the research study to teachers, it was in week 2 of a 12 week program in January of 2005, and I had significantly more (8 individuals/4 pairs) volunteers come forward. However, many of those volunteers did not fit the volunteer criteria set forth in the BREB documentation and unfortunately had to be turned away. Nonetheless, the students that met the criteria and volunteered for the study were for the most part motivated, interested and eager to learn about e-Bay and participate with their peers in the study. 66 3.8 Summary I recorded my subjects engaging in a short conversation before and after the eBay work so that I could show that their discourse changed when they move from the "Pre" free conversation to eBay "Task" work and back to a "Post" conversation again. By comparing each subject with her/himself I can claim that the eBay work is correlated with choice language and decision-making. Because it is natural for people to make joint decisions when shopping for example, each dyad or pair of subjects is making decisions together. In addition, a pairing set up (in this case pair-work decision-making) is preferred and common in most Speaking/Listening ESL classes especially in a computer laboratory situation where the number of computers is limited. In Content Based Instruction, teachers also prefer pairing to get a maximum amount of student talking time about a subject they are interested in. The nature of the social practice of shopping on eBay leads the paired students to making-decisions both independently and negotiating meaning. In order to attempt to purchase an item there are a number of essential steps that buyer goes through and the language of choice and decision-making are associated with these procedures. 67 4 Findings Part 1 4.1 Introduction Table 1 below outlines the analysis level and contents of Chapter 4 and 5 for reference and following Table 1; I have described how the analysis unfolds. In Chapter 4 Part 1 of Findings, I first illustrate one exemplary dyad (i.e., Dyad D) and discourse tables of the Practice, Pre, Task, and Post stages. The tables are coded with the Table 4.2 codes i.e., Decision-Making Analysis-DMA code of the participant in the task and the language features of choice used in the Evidence code also in the task). All other dyads (i.e., A-C and E), tables and summary tables are shown in Appendix D. Then, I use one exemplary flow chart of the decision-making process (i.e., Dyad D) to show the decisions the participant makes in graphic figure form and then I describe the same process in expository form. I start by answering the macro question first (i.e., research question 2): "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice Task discourses in the data, i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice?", and focus on the choices made by the participants in qualitative table form and then in part 2 of my findings (Chapter 5) I look at answering my micro question (my first research question) regarding which language features were used by the participants in both qualitative and quantitative form. Throughout Chapter 4 and 5 (in both part 1 and part 2 of findings) the observation and description of findings follows each table. To answer my macro question (i.e., research question 2), I present and observe six qualitative tables (Table 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10 and 4.11 that show the choices made by the participants. I go on to show the actual choices that are made by ESL participants in the Task discourse in the data of each dyad. First Table 4.7 looks at the different kinds of choices 68 made in the dyad Tasks by participant 1 of each dyad and table 4. 8 follows with the choices made in the dyad Tasks by participant 2 of each dyad. The table tallies how many prerequisite purchasing choices were made by each participant. Table 4.9 shows the specific purchasing choice; Final Choices by both participant 1 and 2 in each dyad purchasing their Item of Significance and whether their assertions had positive or negative end results. Next, Table 4.10 shows the general purchasing choice; final decision of each subject, their shopping preferences, and the limitations to their shopping experience and whether they chose to shop or not to shop on eBay. And finally, Table 4.11 shows the number of choices made in the Pre, Task and Post phases in all NNS Dyads from the raw data and totals from Table 7. The choices made in the task phases are contrasted with those made in the Pre and the Post. 69 Table 4.1 Findings Part I and II Chapter, analysis level Analyses: Examples of choice evidence Figure/ and research question Qualitative/ Table/Dyad Quantitative reference Chapter 4:Part 1 of Qualitative - * Demonstrated flow of choice Table 4.5 (DMA) Findings flow chart made in the Task; decision ;Figure 4.1 and tables making discourse (Dyad D ; Task) Macro-analysis overall shape of of study/bigger * Decided upon which Figure 4.1; picture purchasing prerequisites to Table 4.7, 4.8 choose; "I think price is important Research question 2: because..." What actual choices are made in the ESL choice *Used Choice in Tasks Table 4.7,4.8 task discourses in the (i.e., chose either "yes"or "no"to (Dyads A-E) data? trust or not trust the seller); *Made final + or - assertions Table 4.9 re: item of significance (Dyads A-E) (general purchasing choice); *Made final decision to shop Table 4.10 on eBay or not (Dyads A-E) (specific purchasing choices); Table 4.11 *Number of major choices (Dyads A-E; made (Task vs. Pre/Post) Task, Pre/Post) Chapter 5:Part 2 of Qualitative * Linguistic evidence of 7 Table 4.3,4.5 Findings language features of choice; (Dyad D); (4.10) Language features of choice (Dyad A-E) Micro-analysis of examples; Table 5.10 language; looking at Individual features * Summary table (language Table 5.10a features of choice present) (Dyad A-E; all Research question 1: phases) What language features are Quantitative associated with the ESL tables * Frequency of language Table 5.11-5.17 Choice task discourses in features 1-7; #5 and #6 show (Dyads A-E; the data by contrast with statistical significance Task, Pre/Post) conversational tasks? 70 Table 4.2 is a reference for the keys to codes in the dyad tables for the Practice, Pre, Task and Post phases. In this chapter, I focus on the Dyad D tables to begin with and the various codes can be referred to as the tables are examined. To refer to the tables and codes for Dyads A-C and E see Appendix D. Table 4.2 Keys to codes used in: (Transcription Analysis Symbols Chart) Code Refers to Typo-graphic markers S(Sue) Researcher (first initial of first name) R (Rie) NNS Participant (Non-native speaker) C (Chie) NNS Participant (first initial of first name) DMA Researcher's decision-making assessment and ii analysis in the Task Evidence Evidence of Knowledge Structure Analysis/ Specific features of KS to be discussed Language of Choice: Language Features (modals), 5 (if conj.),6 (if/then),7 (comp. adj./adv.),8 (Interrogatives); eBay terms High* lighted Sensing Processes (verbs),responses (Language Features 1,2 and 4) Bold Choices made, Implications Bold, highlighted 71 4.1.1 Qualitative Data Presentation and Analysis I The analysis procedure that I have used for Chapter four is as follows: first, my focus was to concentrate on the macro or second research question and demonstrate what actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data. The macro analysis of language in this context is looking at the overall shape of the study; illustrating the decision making and critical thinking taking place. In order to answer the research question, I initially transcribed the Practice, Pre, Task and Post phases from the raw data. Then, I coded and sorted the raw data from the codes in Table 1. The data analysis procedures, i.e., coding and sorting were two fold: data reduction and data reconstruction (Heath, 1997). Data reduction included transcription procedures and data reconstruction included the development of categories, findings, conclusions, and connections in literature. During the analysis process, patterns that emerged were grouped into different categories, qualitative figures and tables that addressed the issues raised in the macro research question. Next, I created Tables (i.e., Table 4.3- 4.6 in Dyad D) and I analyzed the raw data in terms of SFL, commented on in the Tasks for the decisions made (DMA) and language features used (linguistic evidence). Then due to the extensive length of the raw data, I chose exemplary sections of pre-bidding purchasing prerequisite decision-making in the Tasks to present in the Task tables (i.e., Table 4.5 of Dyad D) and chose one exemplary Dyad, Dyad D, to present in Chapter 4. Following the SFL analysis of the Dyad tables, I created Figure 1 and Tables 4.7, 4.8, 4.9,4.10 and 4.11 to further answer my macro second research question and continue to show what actual choices were made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data and what the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice, i.e., what were the purchasing prerequisites. Figure 4.1 shows the flow of choice made in the Task for Dyad D's participant 1. Here, the pre-bidding purchasing prerequisites titles were created based on the stages the participant went through 72 and decisions he made in the process. In Figure 4.1,1 created twelve total steps to balance the eight prerequisite due diligence areas the subject encountered. To follow up Figure 4.1,1 created a discussion of the actual verbal decisions and seven language features of choice that the subject used. Following the discussion of Figure 4.1,1 created Table 4.7 and 4.8. I created these tables to illustrate the different kinds of purchasing prerequisite choices made by all the participants in the 5 dyads and to show how many prerequisite choices were made in the Task. Next, Table 4.9 was designed to show the participants specific purchasing choices made of their item of significance in the Dyad Tasks and whether their assertions were positive and negative. Table 4.9 continues to show evidence of the second research question and answers what kinds and what were the actual choices made in the ESL task discourses. While Table 4.9 answers specific purchasing choices, Table 4.10 answers general purchasing choices. Table 4.10 also answers the macro research question by showing the final decision of each subject, their positive or negative shopping preferences, and the limitations to their shopping experience and ultimately whether they chose to shop or not to shop on eBay. Finally, Table 4.11 responds to the macro research question by showing the number of choices made in the Pre, Task and Post phases in all NNS Dyads. Then the choices made in the Task phases were contrasted with those made in the Pre and the Post to determine whether there was more choice discourse in the Task. My comments, results and findings are discussed following each table and in the summary. In order to make the discourse tables for Dyad D (Tables 4.3 - 4.6) user friendly, I have created 2 different kinds of Tables for a) the Practice and Task Choice discourse and b) the Pre and the Post conversations. The tables for the Practice and the Post discourse contain 4 columns: Turn, Offer Choice, Reasons For or Against Choice and Response to Choice. Each Turn contains either the researcher's or the participant's discourse; the Turn changes once the question has been asked or the response has been given. The Offer Choice column contains 73 the researcher's discourse; the researcher is asking the participant questions and is offering the learner a choice. The Reasons For or Against column contains the learner's responses to the questions and is responding to the choice offered by the researcher. The final column is the Response to Choice where the participant is responding to the choice offered with either a positive or negative affirmation. The tables for the Pre and Post conversations contain 2 columns: Turn, and the next column contains the researcher's questions for the participant and the participant's response to the researcher's question(s). Similar to the Practice and Task tables, each Turn contains either the researcher's or the participant's discourse. The next column, describes the discourse content of the researcher's questions for the participant and "the participant's response to researcher's Question (s). Additionally, the tables have been sub-divided to break down the discourse either when several episodes of choice have taken place in the Practice or Task phases or when the conversation changes topics in the Pre or Post phases. Specifically in the Task Table 4.5, a discussion of the linguistic evidence of Choice follows the table. The DMA (i.e., choice episodes) summaries answer the macro research question (i.e., language features of Choice) and the Evidence answers the micro research question in the Task. 74 4.1.2 Dyad D-Phase 1-Practice The Practice Table shows a guided example of Choice language. The researcher is scaffolding the participants in a training scenario of simulated shopping on the auction online web site, eBay. Table 4.3 Practice of Teacher Centered Decisions (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 1 005 0000 sec S: We're on. Okay so today we have Harry and Justin here and we are looking at visit one eBay and I'm just explaining to them how to use eBay. They're both novice eBay users. So basically what we've gone through on eBay so far is - I've shown you one example product - I've shown you how to find an item on eBay by going to the buy site and choosing an item. And Harry was interested in an iPod shuffle sport's case. So we've been looking at those and I've walked through what the bids are. What the time limit is. What the history is and I've also gone through where the ship to; the shipping costs; and also the seller information; For example, powm sellers and stars and feedback rating and scores. So there's about 10 different decision-making steps that you have to go through in order to get to the basics and then - let's say you're really interested in this item - although it says shipping to the Americas we assume it means Canada, but we don't know for sure. So let's assume that Harry is really interested in this item. So then we would scroll down to where it says description of the iPod shuffle and he HffllJS read about it. Now you really want a new one don't you Harry? 2 H: Yep brand new one. H: Yep 3 2:21 sec S: Right. So it says it's brand new, iPod shuffle sports case. And it explains it a little bit and then below it gives shipping and payment details. And basically the shipping prices have been broken down. They are a member of pay pal. So they would like to be paid through this service, which I can explain briefly to you what pay pal is. It's like a bank that holds the money until you get the item. And if you ever want to e-mail the seller about the shipping costs or something like that you can always do that as well. S: Okay. So are there any items you'll like to look at Justin since we looked at one for Harry. 75 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 4 J: Sports shoes; (I'd like to look at sports shoes implied) 5 S: You'd like to look for sports shoes. Okay so then look under sporting goods maybe. Yep. And what kind of shoes do you want? Do you know a specific brand name? 6 J: Nike. (Yes, I'd like to look at Nike implied) J: Yes, implied 7 S: Nike. Okay. So then let's click on Nike shoes. Okay now what kind do want this time? Do you want golf, running, do you want running shoes? 8 J: Basketball. (I want basketball shoes implied) 9 006 0000 sec S: Basketball all right. Do you see anything you like? Is there a specific style you'd like? S: And Justin has found a pair of Nike Air Jordan's that he really likes, although its size 12. How big are your feet Justin? 10 J: Oh, it's too big. 11 S: But you like this kind right? 12 • J: Yeah. (I like Nike Air Jordan's implied) J: Yeah 13 S: So maybe you could know it'sXX20 in a white leather, but you know this. And it's a good price at $53. So maybe keep on looking and see if you can find a size that is similar to yours. 14 J: How can I check the size? 15 S: Go back... 16 J: And type it. 17 S: You'd have to look again. I think XX20 and then what's your size% 18 J: Oh, I don't know. 19 S: Eight? 20 H: Maybe eight! (Maybe your shoe size is eight implied) 21 J: 10. (Myshoesize is size 10 implied) 22 S: Oh there's only a size 12. So you're not interested in any other kind of shoe% You play a lot of basket ball Justin? 76 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 23 J: Yeah I like. (I like and play basketball implied) J: Yeah 24 S: You like playing basket ball. 25 H: Maybe you should put your size in. 26 007 0000 sec S: Would you like to put your size down or no? They only have a few models. (After Justin types in his show size) Yeah I think the size is good. S: Okay Justin tell me if you've found what you want. Now you have found a pair of size 10 shoes that you really like. These Air Jordan white retro shoes, right?; So tell me what you know about this item. 27 J: Uh it has 2 hours and 41 minutes so it will be closed soon. 28 S: And do you like this price?* 29 J: Yeah I like the price. J: Yeah 30 S: What are they usually?,! How much are they usually. 31 J: Around $150 or more. 32 S: Okay. This is American though. Do you mean American?* 33 J: In Canada, jflimeah CDN dollars implied) 34 S: Oh, okay. So just so you know. The other thing is it only ships to the United States right? 35 J: Yeah. (Yes, the seller only ships to the US implied) J: Yeah. 36 S: What do you think about the seller? Can you trust the seller do you thirik% Click on his e-mail address. Okay so he has 100 per cent feedback, so that means absolutely no neutral or negative response. That's pretty good. 37 J: That's pretty good. (I like the feedback or I think the feedback is good implied) 38 S: Right so that's good to know. Okay. And so what's the problem about shipping this item? Let's go back. 39 J: The problem is the shipping. It's only US. 40 S: Right it only ships to US. That is a problem. So did you find any other size 10s? 77 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 41 J: Let me see. 42 2:00 sec S: What size is ii§. Those look cool though. 10 and a half. United States. Okay do you want to try the eBay.ca then? Let's go to eBay.ca and then click on buy and you can actually just go basketball shoes size 10. Sporting goods. 43 J: And size 10. (Types in size 10 implied) 44 S: Size 10 basketball shoes right? So only one pair. See the Canadian site will have less choice. And look oh, but they do ship world wide. So that's perfect. But there's only one pair. So you might want to go back to the US. US has more options. Good. The thing is, if you're really interested in an item then you can e-mail the seller and ask then if they'd be willing to ship it to Canada. It might be more shipping. You can also negotiate with the seller. Summary of Practice Discussion Findings The researcher talks to the participants using the language of choice and reinforces the choice discourse using sensing processes of emotion "like", cognition "know", desire "want", "if statements, and specific references "you", "I", "it" (the product) which are related to Choice. However the participant's responses to the researcher's questions are frequently incomplete and thus the sensing processes of emotion "like", cognition "think" are used but also are implied; the participant does use specific references "I", "it" (the product) thus showing the use of the KS Choice. Primarily, the participants are using the language of choice practicing the decision-making steps to find an item of significance. 78 4.1.3 Dyad D- Phase 2- Pre In the Pre table the participants are having a free conversation. The discourse includes a variety of topics that they wish to discuss. The Summary of the Pre Discussion Findings follows the Table. Table 4.4 Pre Learner Centered Free Conversation (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) TURN 1 10:28 sec S: Okay so basically what we're going to do now is we're going to have a short discussion on whatever you'd like. We can talk about school, we can talk about your countries we can talk about basket ball. S: Do you miss Seoul? 2 J: Actually no I don't miss Seoul. Cause it's my experience away from home. Cause I live in the dormitory for high school. 3 S: You went like to a school where you lived at school. Boarding school in Seoul? 4 008 J: It's kind of a private school, but with dormitory. 5 S: Oh so you didn't live at home. 6 J: I used to live at home. 7 5: And here you live at home stay? 8 J: Uh the first time I lived with my uncle. He lives in Coquitlam 9 S: Oh, okay. That's far though. 10 J: Yeah. Now I live downtown. J: Yeah. (Yes, Coquitlam is far from UBC implied) 11 S: Okay. With your friends or? 12 11:22 sec J: Yeah with my friends. J: Yeah (Yes, I live with my friends) Summary of Pre Discussion Findings Justin is describing the sequence of events of the past and present. He is describing his living experience at home in Korea and away from home using all of the knowledge structures except Choice. 79 Table 4.4 continued TURN 13 J: I appreciate Vancouver cause Seoul is to busy. 14 S: 10 million people is it? 10 million people live in Seoul? 15 J: Yeah. (There are 10 million people in Seoul implied) 16 S: And your university was it right downtown Seoul? 17 J: Near downtown. ( My university is near downtown implied) 18 S: What is it called^ S: Your university. 19 J: The name? J: Korea. Korea University. (The name of my university is Korea University-implied) 20 S: Oh. There are many universities in Seoul right? 21 J: It's the second one. The first one is Seoul Missionary. The second one is my university. 22 S: Yeah. You mean rating? 23 J: Yeah. (I go to the second best university ih^Seoul implied) 24 S: K. Interesting. It's a big city and what city are you from? 25 H: Tomja. 26 S: Where is that? 27 H: Um Hunan Province. That's the middle of China. 28 S: So far from Beijing? 29 H: Yeah, it's far from Beijing. Summary of Pre Discussion Findings In this PRE excerpt, Justin is describing his university and Harry is describing his hometown. 80 Table 4.4 continued TURN 30 S: Yeah. Is your father a doctorZ 31 J: No, but I had an operation. 32 5: You had an operation? 33 J: Yeah I have some kind of disease for heart. So when I was six I went to heart operation and when I got there I had an operation on my heart... 34 J: Yeah ....(I had a difficult childhood implied) 35 S: Oh that's when you got the idea to go into sciences* 36 J: Yeah. (Yes, I got the idea to go into sciences when I was sick implied) 37 S: You were very young. And are you okay now? S: Your heart's okay? 38 J: Yep. (1 am healthy now implied) 39 S: That's a good story. Summary of Pre Discussion Findings Justin is classifying, describing, and sequencing the basics of his illness and operation. Table 4.4 continued TURN 40 S: Good so what are you going to do for the rest of the weekend^ 41 H: This weekend^ 42 S: Yes. What are you going to do? Did you go to international night last night. 43 H: Yeah. (Yes, I went to International, night implied) 44 S: Yeah was it fun? 45 H: Yeah (It was fun implied) 46 S: Did you try the Thai food?. 47 H: Thai food? 48 S: Yeah. We have students from Thailand here. 49 H: It's too spicy. (Thai food is too spicy implied) TURN 50 S: Kim Chi is very spicy 51 H: I didn't try (Korean food) so much. Just one bite. 52 S: So did you make some Korean food or Chinese food last night? 53 J: I just made Korean booth. 54 S: What did you put on the booth? 55 J: Pictures and put out news and sports. (I put pictures on the booth and gave out information on News and Sports in Korea implied) 56 S: Was it fun to do?-. 57 J: Yeah. (It was fun making the booth implied) 58 S: There's lots of Korean students here, right. 59 J: Yeah. (There are lots of Koreans at.the ELI implied) 60 S: And what are you going to do for the rest of the weekend?; 61 H: I will prepare for TOFEL. 62 S: I guess you don't have to take TOFEL. Justin doyoug 63 J: Yeah (NO I don't have to take TOEFL but... implied). I have a party with my friends. It's one of my friend's birthday. 64 S: Birthday today. How old is he% 65 J: 21. 66 S: 21. What are you going to do to celebrate? 67 J: We are going to make a surprise party. 68 S: Oh good so they'll be many people hiding. Good. Do you do that in Korea do you have surprise parties? 69 J: Sometimes but it's unusual. 70 5: It's very common here and sometimes people get heart attacks because they're so surprised. And then do you have lots of homework to do? 71 J: Yeah. (I have lots of homework to do implied) 72 S: What homework do you have? S: Oh what do you have to do? 73 20:26 H: Me. I have speaking and listening homework. H: I have to prepare for next discussion. 74 S: What is the topic? 75 H: What are dress in high school and up? (is the dressing style in high school and college implied) H: So now they sell uniform. 82 TURN 76 S: Oh uniforms... Oh okay. 77 H: So so many high school students dress so strange. 78 S: Yeah students dress too casually. You mean in Canada or in your country? 79 H: World wide. 80 S: Worldwide okay. So your topic is - whether to have uniforms in school or not to have uniforms in school? Yes? 81 H: Or let the student dress whatever they like. 82 S: Yeah. Did you have uniforms at your school? 83 H: Yeah. School uniform. (We had to wear uniforms at school implied) 84 S: What did it look like"? 85 J: Pants, grey. (Grey pants-implied) And dark blue shirt. 86 S: And did you have to wear a tie?. 87 J: Yeah. White. (I had to wear, a white tie implied) 88 S: And'CoulUyou wear your earring? 89 J: No. And my hair should be shorter. 90 S: Okay. And are they (the teachers) very strict at your school? 91 J: Yes.. (Yes, teachers are very strict implied) 92 S: For example What would happen if you wore your earring at school? 93 J: No good. My teacher would hit or give physical punishment 94 .S: Really. What do you mean with their hand or with a stick or? 95 J: With a stick. 96 S: On your hand like this? 97 J: Yeah. (They would hit me with a stick on my hand implied) 98 S: Oh but you were there three or four years ago right? So three or four years ago they've changed a lot? But now they can not hit? Really. Did you go to the army in Korea? S: You didn't have to? 99 J: No. (I didn't have to go to the army-implied) 100 S: Because of your hearty 101 23:15 sec J: Yeah. (I didn't have to go to thearmy because of my weak heart implied) I'm lucky, yeah. I saved two years. Everyone doesn't want. (No one wants to go to the army implied) 83 TURN 102 5: Are your friends in the army now, some of them? 103 J: Yeah. (Some of my friends are in the army now implied) 104 S: How are they finding it? Are you able to talk to them about it? Can you write them or no? 105 J: Yes, I can write letters for them and they take breaks many times. There's two breaks for three days for four months. 106 S: What do they tell you about the army in Korea? 107 J: It has no fun. (It is no fun implied; They don't have any fun implied) 108 S: No. Lots of hard work. They have to run every day, hey. 109 J: Yeah. (They work and run hard everyday implied) 110 S: Well you're lucky aren't you. You get vacation and you don't have to go to the army. 111 H: It can make you stronger. 112 S: But maybe with his heart it's probably not a good idea right? Summary of Pre Discussion Findings The participants are describing a past social event and their culinary likes and dislikes; they are discussing in general terms their weekend plans, their ESL speaking and Listening class homework, the education culture of their countries and military inscription in Korea. 84 4.1.4 Dyad D- Phase 3- Task In Table 4.5 we can see the coding from Table 4.2 where the DMA stands for Decision making analysis (DMA) (i.e., the decisions made in the task) and the Evidence where the Language of Choiceor the language features of choice are identified from the discourse in the eBay task. The Summary of Task Discussion Findings (i.e., the DMA and Evidence discussion) follows the Table. Table 4.5 Task of Learner Centered Decisions (DYAD D: Justin and Harry) TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 1 002 S: Okay so we 're with Justin and Harry today and it's the TASK-visit two. We 're doing the eBay research today. We 're doing window shopping. Our simulated bidding on line. So they won't actually be buying online today, but they '11 be independently looking for something significant that they would like to buy today on eBay. So what Justin has done, he's found a pair of cargo pants that he is interested in buying by Abercrombie and Finch, American outfitter. And Justin why don 'tyou tell us about the bid you found. 2 J: Yep. I'm just looking for the styles cause I like the styles, the kind of pants has the strings, and it looks good. (I like and want these cargo pants because they look good-implied) J: Yep. 3 S: They 're army pants/cargo right? 4 J: Yep. (They are army pants-implied) J: Yep. 5 S: Okay so tell us about the bid. What do you like about it? Take us to the top again and tell us what you've found. 6 J: First of all I was looking for the shipping area. It ships to world wide, so I can get it. (I like this shipping option-implied) 7 S: Right that's important. What else did you find? 8 J: And I checked the prices, oh. 85 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 9 S: Do you know what that price (GBP) means Justin? 10 J: Approximately US $47. (It is -implied) (He understands the GBP term and the approximation to US dollars-implied) 11 2:48 sec S: GBP; $47 US. So it's GBP meaning Great Britain Pound and that's in England. So the pound is about twice the amount of Canadian dollars, so it's about $47 US. So are you happy with that price for a pair of pants? Designer pants. 12 J: Yep. Because in Korea it costs over $100. (I like the price-implied) J: Yep 13 S: Really, so it's more expensive in Korea. Tell us some more about the bid you've found. 14 J: I should check the seller. Mmmm. The seller has one negative comment. 15 S: And what else did you find?^ 16 J: Lots of positive feedback is 98 per cent. 17 S: 98.8 right. 18 J: That's pretty good. (I like the seller's feedback-implied) J: Yep. Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: First, Justin decides that he wants to buy the Abercrombie and Finch cargo pants because he likes the style and the way they look. Once he has found a specific pair that he likes on eBay, he then decides to find out about the shipping option. He then decides that he likes the worldwide shipping option because he can receive the package. Then, he decides to check the price point of the cargo pants and conies to the term GBP. He shows that he understands the term and then decides that the approximation in US dollars is a good price compared to the price in Korea. He likes the price and decides that he would consider buying the pants at this price point. Next, he decides to check the seller and he decides that likes the seller's credibility /feedback. 86 Justin uses the sensing processes of emotion "like", and also the sensing processes of cognition "understand" and desire "want" are implied because his sentence discourse is not complete. Justin uses the specific reference "I", and his positive enactments of choice "yes" show us that he likes the price and seller's feedback. Justin shows us how he shops online using the Choice KS. 87 Table 4.5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 19 J: And there are many good comments: Excellent, A++++ 20 S: Okay and what do you think about this'%. When someone has an A+ what does that mean to you? 21 J: It means he has good credit. (I think the seller has good credibility-implied) 22 S: Right, like credibility. 23 J: This kind of sale, so he had give him good comments. (I think when someone gives you good service you should give them good feedback-implied) 24 S: So this seller does he have lots of experience or little experience? The person who's buying from this particular seller. For example, this person here, do they have lots of experience or not very much experience?;! 25 J: Uh, it's a lot of experience. (I think he has-implied) 26 S: Right because they have sold more than 3,000 items on eBay and they're buying from the seller and they've giving him high recommendations: 27 J: What's this? 28 S: Oh a shooting star too! (They have-implied) S: A shooting star is when... what do you think that means when you have a shooting star? 29 J: Shooting star? J: Um. Maybe he make money from this site. (I think it means that... implied) 30 S: He makes money from the things that he sells. So to be a shooting star you have to sell a lot of high quality items each month with a high level ofpositive feedback right? 31 5:04 sec J: Yep. (Understands the term-implied) J: Yep 88 Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: Justin reads the buyer's comments about the seller and decides that he has good feedback/credibility. He then decides that the seller has a lot of experience because he has a shooting star rating. Justin continues to use the Choice discourse. He uses the sensing process of cognition "think" and it is frequently implied (4x), and he shows that he understands the term by the implied sensing process of cognition "understand" and "know". Justin uses the specific references of "I", "he", and "it" to show choice discourse. Table 4 .5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 32 S: Okay. Tell us some more about your item/cargo pants. 33 J: It's size small. 34 S: Size small and are you a size small? 35 J: 31 inch waist. 36 S: Right will those Jit you, those pants? 37 J: Yep. (I like the, size and I know they will fit-implied) J: Yep. 38 S: Okay. Why do you think these pants are so popular these Abercrombie and Finch cargo pants. Why are they so popular do you think? 38 J: Cause the design is cool. (I think they are popular because... implied) 40 S: The design is cool. Why is it cool? Can you describe it to me? 41 J: The pants should be flexible. It's heavy, but it can be made good shape. (1 think they are cool because-im plied) 42 S: Like the materials heavy. It's a really strong material? 43 J: Yes.. 44 S: And what else? And has a good shape. 45 J: Yep. 89 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/ AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 46 S: Is it very tight fitting or is it very loose? 47 J: Loose. (I like the heavy strong material and the loose fit of the pants-implied) 48 S: Loose fitting. 49 J: Yeah, but if it's not heavy and it's loose than the shape is not good. When I wear the pants it can be good. J: Yeah Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: Justin decides that the size of the pants will fit him, so he is more interested in getting this item; he wants to wear them. He decides that many people desire these pants because they have a cool design. He decides that he likes the material and the fit. The sensing processes of cognition "think", "know" and emotion "like" are implied in this part of the Choice discourse. His does use specific references "it", "I" related to Choice, and an "if statement; a choice decision point. Table A .5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 50 S: Okay and why do you think this is popular item to buy on eBay do you think? It tells you some information here. 51 J: Because they are sold out in stores. (I think this item is popular because...implied) 90 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 52 7: 17 sec S: They 're sold out. Amazing right. And so this is a perfect example of the kind of item lots of people want to buy, but they can't in the stores. They 're sold out in the stores. So what people do - these power sellers, because the person who is selling this item, he's a power seller - do you know what that is? Power seller? Go up to the top and you can see the person who's selling these pants that you like is a power seller. Do you see that? What does that mean? 53 J: Power seller. Power seller, eBay's top sellers and he has feedback with 98 positive or better, (he understands term-implied) 54 S: Right and they have to sell a certain quantity every month, so he's a power seller so he has a good idea of what's popular in the market place. So he '11 buy a lot of these Abercrombie and Finch pants. He knows they 're sold out. He '11 buy them and then he '11 sell them on eBay for a profit. Okay so what makes you want to buy this item? If you were actually buying this item today, why would you like to do this? Okay it's cool, what else? 55 J: Uh, I've tried to find this one every day. But I could not find it. (I wanted to find this item many times but I couldn't-implied) J: Yeah many people say, "oh where did they get them?" So I was wondering.. .(People wanted to buy pants like the one's 1 was wearing; I wanted to find more-implied) J: Yeah 56 S: You were wondering why. Did you know what the brand name Abercrombie and Finch was? 57 J: Yep. (Yes, I know the name brand Abercrombie and Fitch -implied) J: But I found they were sold out in stores and I could only find on line. (I wanted to find these Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants online-implied') J: Yep. 58 S: Right. Cause they 're so hot. They say they 're very hot items because every body wants them. Good. And they also say they 're vintage. They 're like designed around the vintage quality of military pants. That's why they 're so popular, they 're designed around the old from Vietnam style. 91 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 59 J: Yeah. (I think the design is from a Vietnam vintage military pant-implied) J: Yeah. Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: Justin decides that the specific kinds of cargo pants that he likes and wants are so popular on eBay because they are sold out in stores. He decides that because the item is very desirable it makes him want the item more and he decides that he wants to find more of this highly demanded desirable item online. Again Justin's sensing process of cognition "think" and desire "want" are implied and he implies the sensing process of cognition "understand" because he understands the technical term "power seller" and the brand name Abercrombie and Fitch. He continues using specific references "I" and, "it" and enacts choice by using "yes" to confirm that the stores were sold out and that the product has a vintage design. 92 Table 4.5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 60 S: Great. And if you take us back up to the top. So basically you 're happy with the price right? 61 J: Yep. (I am happy with the price; 1 like the price-implied) J: Yep. 62 S: And if you were actually buyingyou would, do you still have enough time left to buy it, if you were buying it? 63 9:35 sec J: Yes. I have 2 hours and 44 minutes, (left to buy the pants-implied) J: Yes 64 S: Do you trust the seller? 65 J: Yeah, I trust. (I think I trust the seller-implied) J: Yeah, 66 S: And so do you have any problem about buying things online?^ Would you feel comfortable about buying these pants on line? 67 J: Yeah. (I want to buy these pants-implied) J: Yeah, 68 S: If you had a credit card right now, you 'd go ahead and buy it. If you were registered, of course. 69 J: Yeah. (I want and I would buy these pants-implied) J: Yeah, 70 S: Okay and what would you tell your friends about eBay do you think? Do you think you would recommend eBay to your friends andfamily? 71 J: Yeah. I can get good price and I can find these kind of materials, I mean they're not in store. It interests me. J: Yeah. 72 S: Okay. So you're interested in this cause it's hard to find. The kind of hot items that you can not find otherwise. So that's why eBay's such a great service, right? 73 J: Yep. (I think eBay is great service; I recommend eBay-implied) J: Yep. 74 S: Harry what do you think about this? What do you think of eBay after seeing this item that is hard to find? Would you recommend eBay? 75 H: Um I would recommend eBay after I've used it once. (I think implied) 76 S: Okay so first you'd like to use it. Before you actually recommend anything. 77 H: Cause sometimes I can find a product with a good price. 93 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 78 S: But I'm saying specifically in Justin's instance, he found a pair ofpants that he really likes. So for Justin, he would recommend, but you're not ready yet. 79 004 000 sec H: This (item, the pants) is not what I'm interested in. Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: To recap, Justin states his previous decision that he likes the price and the seller's feedback. He then decides that he would have enough time to buy the pants and that he decides that he potentially wants to buy the pants on eBay because he feels comfortable about the information he has researched regarding the product. He decides that he likes the product and seller so much he would buy them now if he could. Overall, he decides that he recommends eBay and likes to find items that are no longer available in the marketplace; it is an interesting and worthwhile search and possible purchase for him. Harry decides that he is not recommending eBay yet. Justin's implied sensing process of emotion- "like", of cognition "think", and of desire "want" show his continuing use of Choice language along with his enactions of choice to confirm that he trusts the seller, wants the pants, would buy the pants, would recommend eBay, and is interested in finding items online which are sold out in retail stores. Harry uses the implied sensing process of cognition "think" to show his lack of desire to shop at eBay at this point. 94 Table 4.5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 80 S: So Harry can you explain what you 're looking for please% 81 H: Um the PSP stands for the play station portable, it's a kind of video game. And now I got a product, it's a spy product for the PSP, it a speaker case. So that can make the PSP much beautifuler. (I think it will be much more beautiful/practical-implied) 82 S: Much more beautiful. (Choicest) 83 H: Much more beautiful and much nicer. 84 S: Okay. So this will keep your portable game station safe right. 85 H: Yes. (I think this case will protect my power station game and I think it will be more beautiful-implied) 86 S: And so it's play station portable case. And okay tell us about the. item Harry. Tell us what it looks like; 87 (Choicera) H: It's a kind of speaker that sticks on the PSP, jean protect the PSP and make it nice and ... red. H: The red one. 88 S: It's red. It's really quite bright red righ% Tell us about everything that you see here and what you like and what you don't like about it. 89 (Choice=b) H: Okay. First of all it ships to world wide. (I like the shipping option-, implied) 90 S: That's what's most important to you? 91 H: Yeah. (I think shipping is the most important part of window shopping; making sure I can receive the good-implied) H: Yeah. 92 S: Why is that most important to you when shopping on eBay?i 95 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 93 2:24 sec H: So I can get it. And if it only ships to the United States or the other countries I |ln't get it, so it doesn't mean anything. It doesn't make sense. So this is the most important thing that I first look. (I like this option because I can receive it-implied) 94 S: Okay. What's the second?. 95 (Choice=c) H: The second is the price. So it only costs US $8.99 so 1 think it's okay. (I think the second most important feature of the case is price and I think the price of this item is reasonable) 96 S: You like that price?! 97 H: Yeah I like that price. And the third thing is the "shipping cost. Because the shipping cost is a part of the price. So I need to care. Shipping cost. Um okay. (I think I like the total price-implied) H: Yeah 98 S: Good eye Justin. Justin found the cost. How much does it cost Harry? 99 H: It costs $3 US. 100 S: Okay and so what do you think about that price? 101 H: It's good. So maybe the total price is $11.99 US so 1 can accept that. (I think the price is good; I like the total price-implied) Summary of Discussion Findings DMA: Harry decides that he wants to buy a PSP speaker case because it will be nicer to look at and it will be protected. He then decides the most important part about window shopping on eBay is that he must like the shipping option because he must be able to receive 96 the product in order to use it. He decides that the second most important part of window shopping is price and he decides that he likes the price of the case. Thirdly, he decides that the shipping cost is the next important aspect for him because it falls within the category of price. Then, he decides that the total price including the shipping fee is acceptable for him. Even though Harry's use of the sensing processes of cognition "think", and emotion "like" are implied, he is still using the language of choice. His "yes" enacts choice because he shows us that he thinks the practicality and the design suit his needs, and he likes the total price; his use of an "if statement shows his decision point. Harry then uses the sensing processes of cognition "think"; he shows us that he can use the KS and it implies that he likes the total price. He continues to use "I" and, "it" specific references related to choice. 97 Table 4.5 continued TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 102 S: How much time is left? 103 H: Only 2 hours and 2 minutes. 104 S: So you would still be able to buy it if you wanted to? 105 H: If I wanted to buy it I would bid until last minute. 106 S: Okay for your strategy. That's the strategy you would use. Why do you think that strategy would work Harry? 107 H: Because if I bid a price on it that was pretty low no one can bid again. (I think my strategy would work...bidding at the last minute implied) 108 S: Okay. And uh what about the seller?. 109 4:36 sec H: The seller is a power seller. A power seller is eBay's top seller. ( He understands the term-implied)They have sustained constant volume of monthly sales and a high level of total feedback with 98 per cent positive or better. And I trust this seller. 110 S: Okay are you sure? 111 H: Yep. Check the information. H: Yep. 112 S: Have you checked him/the seller yet? 113 H: No. 114 S: So wait a second, this is important. Before you even looked at his ratings you thought that you would trust him right? Because you saw... 115 H: Power seller.1 116 S: So do you trust him automatically?. Or do you want to look at him in more detail?! 98 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 117 H: I will look at him in moredetail. (I want to look at the seller in more detail-implied) So. Yep he's a positive feedback is 98.6 percent. So I think it's good, but there's still lots of negative feedback. (I think I like the seller's feedback but what about the negative responses-implied) 118 S: How many? 119 H: In the past 12 months there's been 57 negative feedback so. 120 S: Do you think that's too many?. 121 H: That's too many. (I think that is too many-implied) Maybe I'm not going to trust him 122 S: Okay. Even if he has 98.6? You still wouldn't trust him?\ 123 (Choice=- d) H: Cause I think that 57 is too many. And all the data is essential, things I would buy brand new. 124 S: Right of course, but if it's a product that's not for personal use, not for personal hygiene you would buy it online. Okay and what wpuldyou give the eBay website out of 10 for a rating? Out of 10 so would you give it 50 per cent; would you give it 100 per cent; what would you give the website overall and why?* 125 H: Overall I would give eBay 99 per cent. H: 9.9 out of 10. (I think eBay is a good auction web site-implied) H: I think everything's perfect except for negative feedback. (He is not sure about buying from someone with lots of negative feedback even if they are a power seller-implied) 126 S: Misunderstandings are going to happen, right. Because humans are dealing with humans so we 're all going to make mistakes. What do you think about the service? 99 TURN OFFER CHOICE REASONS FOR/AGAINST CHOICE RESPONSE TO CHOICE 127 (Choice=g) (Choice- -/+ h) H: I'm happy with the service. (I think the service is good; like the service-implied) 128 S: Okay, Justin what do you think? 129 J: Yep I like to give 8.5.(because I cannot always find what I want to buy-implied) J: Yep 130 S: 8.5 okay and why did you chose 8.5 out of 10? 131 J: Because sometimes it's hard to find some specific products. I tried to find the shoes, but I can't find those so Harry checked something, but... 132 S: You can't always find exactly what you want righ% Cause not everything will be online, but most things are on eBay. 134 J: Most things, (most things I want can be found on eBay,' so my rating is high-implied) Yes. Summary of Task Discussion Findings DMA: Harry decides that if he were buying the item he would still have time to purchase the item; it is still potentially possible to buy. He also decides that if he were buying it he would implement a strategy of bidding at the last minute because there would be little time for others to outbid him with only seconds left in the transaction. He then decides that he knows the meaning of the term power seller and he naively decides that he trusts the seller based on this positive rating. However, Harry has discovered that he made his previous decision too quickly; he had decided to automatically trust the seller based on the rating without investigating the seller's feedback first. Then he decides that he must look at the seller's feedback. He initially decides again that the seller has a good rating, but then decides 100 that the seller has too many negatives and rethinks his decision. He decides that he doesn't like the negative feedback and is unsure about buying from someone with negative feedback; he stops his window shopping process. In the end, he decides that he would give eBay a high rating, in fact an almost perfect rating (of 9.9/10), and would recommend the auction web site. Ironically, Harry who was originally hesitant about eBay has changed his mind and Justin, who at first had a good experience with eBay, decides to give eBay a lower rating (of 8.5/10) than Harry's. They have both decided to change their perspectives about eBay because of their learning experience and due diligence during their research. Harry's only complaint about shopping on eBay was the negative feedback, so he decided to give it a high rating. But Justin on the other hand decided that eBay didn't always suit his needs because he could not always find the product he desired. Finally, both their ratings of eBay were sufficient that they would probably continue to use it in the future. Harry's "if statements indicate to us his decision point of implementing a strategy. His sensing process of cognition "think" and understanding of the term is implied. His use of specific references narrows to a particular vendor, "this seller". Harry's "no", a negative enact ion of choice, tell us that he has made a mistake and did not check the seller's feedback; now he must go back and check the seller's feedback before he can enact choice positively. His sensing process of cognition "think" shows us that he likes the online auction website with the exception of negative feedback. Although the implications continue, his sensing processes of cognition "think", desire "want" and emotion "like" are reinforced. 101 4.1.5 Dyad D- Phase 4- Post In the Post Table the participants discourse is similar to the Pre in that they are free to discuss any topic they wish. The Summary of the Post Discussion Findings follows the Table. Table 4.6 Post Learner Centered Free Conversation (DYAD D: Harry and Justin) TURN 1 6:38 sec S: [Introduction to lesson focus] Okay now it's the Post. We're going to have a general discussion about really anything you'd like to talk about so it could be anything, so Justin was saying earlier that you're going to a different school right. So tell us about this school (class) your going to (take). 2 J: It's uh a kind of preparation course for Cambridge course. I noticed that it's pretty, hard, (The Cambridge course to prepare students for Cambridge university entrance exams is difficult-implied) 3 S: It's pretty hard isn't it?; 4 J: Yes, so. I will study more about it. (I will study more about the Cambridge exams in the next few weeks-implied) 5 S: You're more interested in it now. After being introduced to it at the ELI because we don't have those (Cambridge) courses at the ELI. (The ELI used to give Cambridge exit exams, but the institute doesn't offer Cambridge courses -implied) 6 J: So the only reason is my student visa expires before next June. 7 S: Oh so you can't do the next session (at the ELI). And you can't extend your visa? 8 J: Already extended, but it costs pretty much. (I already extended my visa once and it is expensive-implied) 9 S: How much is it to extend your visa? 10 J: $130. J: Yep. (I can only pay once-implied) 11 S: So you're going back to Korea in June. Then what will you do in Koreag 12 J: Oh, I go to my university, I should finish it. I have one year left. (When I get back to Korea, I will go to my university and finish my Science degree-implied) 13 S: In genetics. One more year in genetics, for sciences? 14 J: Yep. (Jam majpringJnLgenetics-implied) 15 S: And then what? 16 8:41 sec J: Then I haven't decided. 102 TURN 16 S: Harry what about you, what are you doing next session? 18 H: I'm coming back. (Next session, I am coming back to the ELI-implied) 19 S: So what will you take? What courses will you take? 20 21 H: I take only 2 courses next session because I think that level goes up it's really tired, I'll be. (The 500 level is difficult and I'll be tired-implied) Summary of Post Discussion Findings Justin is discussing and describing his immediate future plans; studying for Cambridge exams, his inability to stay longer in Canada and finishing his science degree in Korea. And Harry implies that in the near future he will attend the ELI; the 500 and 600 level is challenging and tiring. Table 4.6 continued TURN 22 33:33 sec S: Is there anything different in Canada from China or Korea? 23 H: The structure of the road, and of the building and of the whole city. And the highway. What would you call that bus road? 24 S: The roads, what do you mean? (Lanes-implied) 25 H: Okay just the road. In China the roads are like circle. The line is like a circle. (The.roads are forniied in a circular shape-implied) But in Canada it's like square. 26 S: Right that's different. And what about in Korea is it circular or square? 27 J: It's just square 28 S: Like a grid pattern. It's very organized. 29 J: Yeah. 30 S: And in China it's more circular. 31 H: Uh huh, ya 103 TURN 32 S: And that's like London. London is more circular. 33 H: There's so many lines for the roads 34 S: What do you mean lines? 35 H: In Canada there's a bus stop or bus loop it can only go three or four ways in each direction. In China you can go 11 or 12 or more ways. There's so many ways, (lanes-implied) 36 S: Oh lanes? Maybe it's the population. Cause we only have 35 million in Canada, but in China how many million people do you have - billion? 37 H: 1.3 billion. 38 S: Right maybe that's why. Cause the cities are much bigger and therefore the buses have to take many, many more people, right? In many, many more directions. But in Vancouver the population is so much smaller we haven't had to deal with that population problem yet. Summary of Post Discussion Findings Harry is describing the differences between the road and taxi systems in Canada and China. 104 4.1.6 Decision-Making Process Flow Chart The Figure 4.1 (below) answers my macro second research question "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data (i.e., what are the examples of the Knowledge Structures of Choice)?" Figure 4.1 shows the actual choices that are made by the ESL participant, Justin, in the Task discourse in the data of Dyad D. In detail, Figure 4.1 shows Justin's step-by-step simulated purchasing choices made as he attempts to buy the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants on eBay. Figure 4.1 Flowchart-Shopping on eBay NNS participant's decisions/choices made (Dyad D, Task, Justin) A. Background Knowledge Diamaai^hbice point: Does the NNS participant (ESL learner) have pre-established background knowledge of: eBay culture, technical terminology, discourse between common eBayers^ew^Bayisms (slang) NO B. eBay Pre^Bidding Decision-Making/ Choice biamjakd choleenoint-Does the ESL learner go through a process of pre-bidding pricing strategies in onJeV to make decisions/ choices on eBay?, Le., comparison shopping, price assessn^en^snopping criteria, advantages of eBay NO C. Quality Check) Step 1: Na-rows search for item under the category of Men's clothing, i.e., kinds of cargo pants (classification) Step 2: Further narrows search for item, i.e., specific Abercrombie and Fitch Cargo pant 105 D. Purchasing Prerequisites a) style preference Step 3H^licfe-on the picture of the cargo pants. Does he like the style of the pant? Diafnond choice^point- Does he like the way they look on? YES b) Shipping method Step 4: Clicks on the shipping option for Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants. loes hVljke the area that the seller ships to? Can he receive the package? Diamond choice-point- Does the seller ship worldwide? YES c) Price point Step 5: Clicks on the seller's feedback price point of the pants, and understands the Great Bi^OnnPound (GBP) term. Are the pants a reasonable price? Does he like the point- Would he consider buying the pants at this price*! pri Diamo YES d) Seller's credibility Step 6: Clicks on the seller's feedback of the cargo pants. Does the seller have good credibility? Do the buyer's give the seller a good rating? Does the seller have a shooting star rating? He understands the shooting star term, i.e., selling a certain quantity and quahjy^ofgootlsevery month with high feedback ratings. Diamond clibice^oint- Does the seller have a lot of experience selling on eBay? YES e) Size requirement Step 7^eiicks^n the size of the pants? Are the pants the right size? Dianiond choice>oint- Will they fit? f) Product desirability Step 8: Clicks on the picture of the cargo pants. Is this item popular on eBay because it is sold out in stores? Does he want to find more of this item online? Is he now more 106 interested in getting the item because he wants to wear them? Does he want to get this item? Is'fneitem high in demand because the pants have a cool design in lightweight durable materia^? Does he like the material? Does he want to wear these pants? Diamond clmkepbinfr- Because the pants are in demand, is this item more desirable for him? jrl YES g) Reassessment of Purchasing Prerequisites Step 9: Item assessment: His Mood has changed; he is now really pleased and interested in potentially purchasing the cargo pants when he realizes the desirability of the item. 5 a| he was asked if he liked the style preference of the pants and he responded "YES"; || he was asked if he liked the shipping method of the product and he responded "YES"; jcj he was asked if he liked the price point of the pants; does the price fit the quality and he responded "YES"; If he was asked if he liked the seller's credibility; is the seller reliable and recommended?, Does he trust the seller? and he responded "YES"; 1| he was asked if he liked the size requirement and he responded "YES"; f) he was asked if he liked the product desirability and he responded "YES". Thus far, on his simulated shopping experience on eBay, Jusjarr^t&made multiple decisions and has gone though nine broad decision-making Dian^^d dec^^^point- g) he assessed his research and was asked if he felt comfortable buying tn&J*£m based on the information he received and he responded "YES". YES YES to all h) Purchasing potential Step 10: Decides he has time left to bid on the item if he weren't window shopping today, a) Is he willing to pay the price? YES; b) If he weren't window shopping today would he buy the^tenilfvhe could? ; Diamond choice-point- c) does he recommend eBay? YES Step 11 diamond choiceypbint- Will he potentially bid on the pants? YES 107 jt- Will he bid and buy on eBay? YES. He decides that he ivailable on the market place? YES Choices and decisions made for DYAD D, Task; Main study Data analysis of an NNS participant/ ESL student Transcript; an NNS participant /ESL Student's Perspective of the steps to buying online: (Note bold= decisions Justin makes) (Note: The description below corresponds to the A-D signposting from Figure. 1) The steps of shopping online (or more specifically window/simulated shopping in the study) are numerous for a NNS /ESL student participant whom is a novice eBayer. First, the NNS participant does not have a pre-established Background Knowledge (A.) of eBay. He must combat the new corpora that consist of a lot of new vocabulary (eBay culture, discourse between common eBayers, new eBayisms/slang) and technical eBay terms (most of which I covered/modeled in my teacher centered Practice Phase and introduction to eBay). Next, the novice eBayer often does not go through a process of Pre-Bidding pricing strategies in order to make Decision's/Choices on eBay (B.) like Native eBayer Speakers would go through before and when choosing an item of significance or the item that they want to buy, i.e., comparison shopping, price assessment, shopping criteria, advantages of eBay etc. The shoppers also needs to have multiliteracy skills that is intermediate English language and literacy skills, computer literacy skills, and critical thinking skills in order to operate the shopping experience. Once they have tacked these hurdles, then they can begin shopping. EBay is set up in terms of a classification structure. There is a plethora of categories and every item is organized into distinct categories. As the participants' window shop through the eBay categories and chose their item of significance, they need to make specific decisions. They use their English literacy skills and critical thinking skills along with the language Step 12 likes to fi 108 features of choice (Choice Knowledge Structures; see Table 10) in order to follow through the window shopping steps of simulated purchasing an item online. Once, Justin found the eBay web site followed by the category page to start shopping, he begins a multitude of decisions at this point. He starts his Quality Check (C.) by choosing his item of significance. From the millions of categories he decided to narrow his search to a specific category of shopping; Justin decided to further narrow his shopping within the main category of men's clothing. Again he decides to further narrows his shopping category to a specific item within the sub category of designer men's clothes, and he decides that he is specifically looking for Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants; his item of significance. Then he decides to start his Purchasing Prerequisites (D.); in other words what requirements are important before he would consider buying the pants. His final decisions of each prerequisite are called Diamond choice points. He clicks on the picture of the cargo pants and asks himself if he likes the style of the pant. He decides that the style preference (D. a) of the cargo pants is important to him. Justin decides that he wants to buy the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants because he likes the style and the way the pants look when modeled. Once he has found a specific pair that he likes on eBay, he then decides to find out about the shipping method*(5. bj. He clicks on the shipping option for the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants and decides that he likes the worldwide shipping option because he can receive the package. Then Justin decides to check the price point (5. c) of the cargo pants and comes to the term GBP. He shows that he understands the term and decides that the approximation in US dollars is a reasonable price compared to the price in Korea. He likes the price and decides that he would consider buying the pants at this price point. Next, he decides to click on the seller's feedback and checks the seller's rating; he decides that he likes the seller's credibility (5. d). Justin reads the buyer's comments about the seller and decides that he has good feedback. He then decides that the seller has a lot of experience 109 because he has a shooting star rating. He understands the shooting star term, i.e., selling a certain quantity and quality of goods every month with high feedback ratings. He would potentially buy the item from the seller because of his overall rating. Next Justin considers the size requirement (5. e) of the pants. He clicks on the size of the pants and asks himself if they are his size. Justin decides that the size of the pants will fit him, so he is more interested in getting this item; he wants to wear them. The NNS participant then thinks about the product desirability (5. f). He clicks on the picture of the cargo pants. He wonders why this item is popular on eBay and then decides that the desirability of the product is high because it is sold out in retail stores. He decides that because the item is very desirable it makes him want the item more and he decides that he wants to find more of this highly demanded desirable item online; he wants to find more of this "hot" item online because he wants to be fashion conscious and wear what his peers think is "cool". He is now more interested in getting the item because he wants to wear the pants. He asks himself what other reasons there could be for the item to be high in demand. He decides that many people also desire these pants because they have a cool design. He also asks himself whether he likes the material and he decides that he likes the lightweight durable material and the overall fit. Next the NNS participant considers to Reassess his Purchasing Prerequisites (5. g). Firstly, his Mood has changed; he is now really pleased and interested in potentially purchasing the cargo pants when he realizes the desirability of the item. Looking back on his decisions, Justin recaps his previous steps and reassesses the details of the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants. His affirmations confirm his Diamond decision point or his final decision for each prerequisite check. He reassessed the items qualities as follows: 5 a); he was asked if he liked the style preference of the pants and he responded "YES"; j§| he was asked if he liked the shipping method of the product and he responded "YES"; c) he was asked if he liked the price point of the pants; does the price fit the quality and he responded "YES"; d| he was asked if he 110 liked the seller's credibility; is the seller reliable and recommended?, Does he trust the seller? and he responded "YES"; e) he was asked if he liked the size requirement and he responded "YES"; §| he was asked if he liked the product desirability and he responded "YES" ; g| he assessed his research and was asked if he felt comfortable buying the item based on the information he received and he responded "YES". Thus far, on his simulated shopping experience on eBay, Justin has made multiple decisions and has gone though nine broad decision-making steps. For his tenth step, Justin considers his Purchasing Potential (5.h). He decides he has time left to bid on the item if he weren't window shopping today. He is asked if he is willing to pay the price and he responds "YES"; he is asked if he weren't window shopping today would he buy the item if he could and he responds "YES"; and finally he is asked for the Diamond choice point (or his final decision of this prerequisite) if he recommends eBay and he affirms "YES". He again decides that he likes the product and seller so much he would buy them now if he could. Overall, he decides that he recommends eBay and likes to find items that are no longer available in the marketplace; it is an interesting and worthwhile search and possible purchase for him. For his eleventh step and Diamond choice point, he is asked if he will potentially bid on the pants and he confirms "YES". Finally, for his twelfth step and Diamond choice point, he is asked if he will bid and buy on eBay and he responds "YES". He decides that "YES" he likes to find items no longer available on the market place. Ill 4.1.7 Dyad D- Summary of Findings Justin has made eight choices in the Task (Figure 1). He chose "YES" to "buy' his item of significance; the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants because all of his purchasing prerequisites were met. We can see that Justin really enjoyed his eBay shopping experience, and when he found that the item he wanted was in high demand he was intrigued and wanted to continue to find similar items. He was engaged in choice and used the choice language features throughout his critical thinking process. Although Justin initially preferred traditional shopping, once he tried window shopping online, he found it was more fun and challenged him to think more before he made decisions. He changed his mind about traditional shopping and now prefers shopping on eBay. However, he found that eBay had some limitations because he couldn't always find the exact product he desired. 112 4.1.8 Choices Made (Research Question 2) Table 4.7 answers my second research question. It shows the actual choices that are made by ESL participants in the Task discourse in the data of each dyad. First Table 4.7 looks at the different kinds of choices made in the dyad Tasks by participant 1 of each dyad and table 4.8 follows with the choices made in the dyad Tasks by participant 2 of each dyad. The simulated purchasing choices that each ESL participant has made are indicated by a "+" if present and by a "-" if not present in each dyad. The different kinds of choices made began once the participants chose their item of significance or in other words the item that they specifically wanted to purchase. Once they had chosen their item they went through a quality check to chose which purchasing areas were important for them before they would "buy" the item. Note that the "eight purchasing prerequisites" were not given to the participants. After analyzing the data, I concluded that these prerequisites were the only prerequisites that all dyads chose. (See Figure 1 and the discussion that follows for the breakdown of the simulated purchasing choices made by Justin in Task of Dyad D). 113 Table 4.7 Different Kinds of Choices Made in the Dyad Tasks ( Participant 1) (Chapter 4 and Appendix D) Dyad# Dyad A DyadB DyadC DyadD DyadE Participant 1 name, Sex, Nationality Rie (F), Japanese Kate (F), Taiwanese Google (M), Thai Justin (M), Korean Para j ad (M), Persian Item of Significance (product chosen to "buy") Handmade Quilt Volume Mascara Triban Cell Phone Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants Apple G4 computer Quality Check /Purchasing prerequisite choices made a) style preference + + + + + b) shipping method + + + + • + c) price point + + + + + d) seller's credibility + + + + + e) size /specific requirement - N/A (didn't choose specifics) - N/A (didn't choose specifics) - (doesn't care about the look of the cell phone) + - (no picture or software) f) product desirability + + + + + (computer capacity, speed, components and warranty all ideal) g) reassessment of purchasing prerequisites + + - (needs to do more research) + + h) purchasing potential + + + + + Total Choices made in Task 7 7 8 8 8 114 Table 4.8 Different Kinds of Choices Made in the Dyad Tasks ( Participant 2 ) Dyad# Dyad A DyadB DyadC DyadD DyadE Participant 2 name, Sex, Nationality Chie (F), Japanese Wen (F), Chinese Kay (F), Thai Harry (M), Chinese Ray(M), Chinese Item of Significance (product chosen to "buy") Antique map Harry Potter DVD Box set of books Play Station Portable Case Compact laptop PC Quality Check /Purchasing prerequisite choices made a) style preference + + + + + b) shipping method + + + + + c) price point + + + + + d) seller's credibility + + + + + e) size /specific requirement - N/A (didn't choose specifics) - N/A (didn't choose specifics) - N/A (didn't choose specifics) - not pleased with negative feedback - (no picture or software) f) product desirability + + + + + (computer capacity, speed, components and warranty all ideal) g) reassessment of purchasing prerequisites + + + + + h) purchasing potential + + + - + Total Choices made in Task 7 7 7 8 8 We can see in Table 4.7 and 4.8 that the ESL participants in each dyad are using and enacting choice. The participants are using choice by exercising their individual requirements of their quality check. In other words, each ESL participant has a series of purchasing prerequisites that they must meet in order to potentially buy the product they desire. They are 115 enacting choice when they give positive or negative assertions. Each positive assertion moves them onto the next decision step which ultimately leads them to choose to make their simulated purchase/bid or not to purchase/bid on the product. The series of decisions that ultimately bring the NNS participants to a simulated bidding point is outlined in Table 4.7 and 4.8. The participants make similar purchasing prerequisite choices; choice pattern. They all decided that the prerequisites a-d, f and h were essential to their final simulated choice of "to buy or not to buy" the product. The actual choices made in the ESL Task data of each dyad are: a) style preference, b) shipping method, c) price point, d) seller's credibility, e) specific requirement, f) product desirability, g) reassessment of purchasing prerequisites and h) purchasing potential. Out of the eight prerequisites, the ESL participants all chose six of the same prerequisite choices made within an overall twelve step process. Table 4.7 and 4.8 Summary of Findings Firstly, all of the participants shown in Table 4.7 and 4.8 are from diverse cultural backgrounds and all chose unique items of significance to "buy". Secondly, although the NNS made very similar kinds of prerequisite choices, they all made their choices in a different sequence; in other words each participant had his own pattern of shopping and determining the importance of choice and which prerequisite would come first, second and third etc. It is important to note that I did not suggest to the NNS which purchasing prerequisites they "should" consider but rather the participants chose their prerequisites independently. They would interactively discuss in their Dyads which items were important to them but again they all had different sequential choices. The NNS participants each took a unique approach to simulated shopping on eBay and decided to make different kinds of choices at various points in their discourse. Both Dyad A and B did not choose any more 116 specific requirements than the prerequisite choices and therefore the prerequisite e) specific requirement are N/A or not applicable for these two dyads. Surprisingly, the ten participants in the Dyads all came up with the 8 purchasing prerequisites independently and they all felt that the eight (with the exception of e) purchasing prerequisites were sufficient and that no more prerequisites were needed in the quality check of approving the potential purchase of their item of significance. 117 Table 4.9 shows the Final Choices by both participant 1 and 2 in each dyad purchasing their Item of Significance and whether their assertions had Positive or Negative end results. Table 4.9 Final Choice by Participant 1 and 2 and Specific Purchasing Choices Dyad# Dyad A DyadB DyadC DyadD DyadE Participant 1 name, Sex, Nationality Rie (F), Japanese Kate (F), Taiwanese Google (M), Thai Justin (M), Korean Parajad (M), Persian Item of Significance (product chosen to "buy") Handmade Quilt Volume Mascara Triban Cell Phone Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants Apple G4 computer Yes, No or Maybe YES YES YES YES YES Dyad# Dyad A DyadB DyadC DyadD DyadE Participant 2 name, Sex, Nationality Chie (F), Japanese Wen (F), Chinese Kay(F), Thai Harry (M), Chinese Ray(M), Chinese Item of Significance (product chosen to "buy") Quilt, Antique map Harry Potter DVD Box set of books Play Station Portable Case Compact laptop PC Yes, No or Maybe YES YES YES NO- doesn't like negative feedback YES Table 4.9 Summary of Findings The majority of the participants gave positive affirmations of Choice during the final step of their decision-making process. Ultimately, the majority of the ESL participants decided to make a simulated bid online. Nine out of ten of the participants who chose an item of significance decided that "yes" they would "buy" their item on eBay. They all felt 118 confident in their simulated shopping experience on eBay except for Harry (participant 2 of Dyad D). Table 4.10 shows the final decision of each subject, their shopping preferences, the limitations to their shopping experience and whether they chose to shop or not to shop on eBay Table 4.10 Final Decision- To Shop or Not to Shop on eBay Dyad Participants A Rie (1) A Chie (2) B Kate (1) B Wen (2) C Google (1) C Kay (2) D Justin (1) D Harry (2) E Para jad (1) E Ray (2) Likes shopping on eBay + + + + + + + + + + Prefers traditional retail shopping + + + Prefers online shopping + + + + + + + Limitations to shopping online + + + + + + +. Final Choice-to shop or not to shop on eBay YES MAY BE YES YES YES MA YBE YES MAYB E MAYB E YES Table 4.10 Summary of Findings In Table 4.10, we can see that all of the participants liked their experience shopping online in general; they had a fun interactive experience. In fact both Justin and Harry from Dyad D came into the eBay shopping experience with a negative perspective of online shopping and changed their perspectives completely; they decided that shopping on eBay was perhaps even better than traditional shopping. However, only six out of the ten NNS participants said "yes" and decided that they wanted to shop on eBay. Four participants (Chie, Kay, Harry and Parajad) said "maybe" to shopping on eBay in general. Chie, Kay and Parajad were willing to try shopping online but at the same time were more traditional 119 shoppers and were on the fence about their decision and shopping online. They are hesitant to shopping online because they weren't ready to give up all of their sensory skills when purchasing on eBay. Harry was not sure about buying from someone with lots of negative feedback even if they are a power seller, so he may or may not buy online. No participants said "no" to shopping online and are all ready to shop on eBay to some degree. Additionally, in Dyad A, Rie, is confident in the evidence she has found regarding the seller, the buyer's feedback, the consumer service provided and the price. Rie prefers to buy online. Rie's partner Chie also decides that overall she likes eBay as a shopping tool. On the other hand, however more importantly for Chie she decides that she prefers traditional shopping. Chie decides that she needs more than visual cues to purchase an item; she must be in the actual presence of the product to use all of her Choice sensory skills (desire, cognition, emotion and perception) the make her final purchasing decision. But when Rie shows her the possibilities of shopping on eBay, she changes her mind. She decides that she is possibly willing to take a risk or trust sellers in order to shop online if she finds a unique item or antique. Choice language Evidence from the raw data: In Dyad A, Both Chie and Rie are enacting choice with their actions of "yes"; they are decision-making. However, they have both decided to make different decisions. Chie uses her emotion sensing process "like" to say that she is interested in eBay generally. Her use of the conjunction "but" indicates the contrast she is looking for in the shopping experience. Her sensing process "want" indicates her desire and choice of perception to see (sensing verb) the noun "an authentic quilt". The factual adjectival "real" indicates that she is not satisfied with the noun "the quilt". Chie wants to see an original not unauthentic item. The coordinator-so indicates that her resulting decision is that the image of the quilt is not satisfactory for her to purchase/window shop for the noun. The noun "picture", the relational process "is", and the negative "not" states that she desires a traditional retail shopping experience. 120 In Dyad B, Kate likes shopping on eBay and thinks it is a fun experience. She has decided that she can trust the seller due to the positive feedback rating and she will potentially buy it due to the low price point; she is determined to buy at a cheaper price. Kate wants to save money purchasing online and is confident in purchasing prerequisites. In contrast, Wen thinks that she would trust a "power seller" but probably would not buy from a seller who does not have a lot of experience and credibility; eBay has limitations for her. She wants to be able to trust someone who has a fast delivery time, sells good quality products at a reasonable price. After comparison shopping, she discovered that eBay had a more reasonable price on the Harry Potter DVD. Wen needed to comparison shop and discovered that eBay had a more reasonable price Choice language Evidence from the raw data: Kate starts to use the sensing processes of desire "need", cognition "know" and she uses specific references "the seller", "she", "her" and she enacts choice with her response "yes" to show her decision that she has come to trusting the seller based on her feedback rating and "yes" to show that she had decided to buy because of the price point. Kate uses technical words like "power seller" to show that she understands the meaning of the term; understanding is a cognitive sensing process. In Dyad C, Kay decides that she would buy a product on eBay but would not want to buy an electronic product because the product may not function properly; eBay has limitations for her. She decides that she is unsure about purchasing without first seeing and trying out the electronic product to see if it works. She is more of a traditional shopper than Google. Google decides that he is more willing to take a risk on buying electronics, if he can save 30 percent on the item. His friends have bought electronics on eBay and they have not had any problems, so he has some personal first hand experience unlike Kay. Google does however decide that it is important to tell his friends to do their research before making a purchase on 121 eBay. He decides that in general eBay is a good place to buy and decides that it is a reliable web site. In Google's decision-making process he uses specific references "the price", "the brand", "the seller", "the model", "the product" related to Choice because he has found the item he desires; again he uses sensing processes of cognition "think", desire "want", emotion "like", and uses "yes" to enact his choices he has made about the price, seller etc.. He also uses "if statements to state an alternative of choice. He is using the KS of Choice. Kay also uses specific references "the market price", "I"; sensing processes of cognition "think", and an "if statement to talk about choice while shopping on eBay. Kay and Google both use modals that frequent with choice. Both Kay and Google are using Choice KS structures enacting choice with "yes", and using sensing processes of cognition "think". In addition, Kay uses a sensing process of perception "see", and Google uses another sensing process of desire "want", specific references "my friends" and "family", and an "if statement. They continued to use the language of choice while talking about window shopping online. In Dyad D, both Justin and Harry have decided to change their perspectives about eBay because of their learning experience and due diligence during their research; they now prefer shopping online to traditional shopping. Harry's only complaint about shopping on eBay was the negative feedback, so he decided to give it a high rating. But Justin on the other hand decided that eBay did not always suit his needs because he could not always find the product he desired; so eBay has some limitations for them both. Overall, Justin decides that he recommends eBay and likes to find items that are no longer available in the marketplace; it is an interesting and worthwhile search and possible purchase for him. Finally, their ratings of eBay were sufficient that they would probably continue to use eBay in the future. 122 Justin's implied sensing process of emotion "like", of cognition "think", and of desire "want" show his continuing use of Choice language along with his enactions of choice to confirm that he trusts the seller, wants the pants, would buy the pants, would recommend eBay, and is interested in finding items online which are sold out in retail stores. Harry uses the implied sensing process of cognition "think" to show his lack of desire for eBay at this point. Harry's "if statements indicate to us his decision point of implementing a strategy. His sensing process of cognition "think" and understanding of the term is implied. His use of specific references narrows to this particular vendor "this seller". Harry's "no" (a negative enact ion of choice), tell us that has made a mistake and did not check the seller's feedback; now he must go back and check the seller's feedback before he can enact choice positively. His sensing process of cognition "think" shows us that he likes the site with the exception of negative feedback. Although the implications continue, his sensing processes of cognition "think", desire "want" and emotion "like" are reinforced. In Dyad E, Parajad finally decides that he would like to buy the computer online and Ray would buy online if he trusts the seller. Parajad admits that he is more of a traditional shopper and would "maybe" buy online. He is willing to take a risk shopping on line but prefers traditional shopping. Choice language Evidence from the raw data: He implies the use of the modal "would" to show that it frequents with choice. His positive affirmation also associated with choice indicates that he is interested in buying the computer. Ray's use of comparative adverbs, sensing process of cognition "think" and his positive affirmation "yes", show the associations with choice. 123 Table 4.11 shows the number of choices made in the Pre, Task and Post phases in all NNS Dyads from the raw data and totals from Table 4.7. The choices made in the task phases are contrasted with those made in the Pre and the Post. Table 4.11 Number of Major Choices Made (Participant land 2) Phase/Dyad Dyad A Dyad B DyadC (Google) Dyad D (Justin) DyadE (Parajad) Participant names, Sex, Nationality Rie(F), Japanese; Chie (F) Kate (F), Taiwanese; Wen (F), Google (M), Thai; Justin (M), Korean; Parajad (M), Persian; Japanese Chinese Kay(F), Thai Harry (M), Chinese Ray(M), Chinese Pre (raw R=3 K=0 G=4 J=3 P=4 data) C=3 W=2 K=l H=3 R=7 Post (raw R=3 K=3 G=3 J=3 P=3 data) C=2 W=3 K=2 11=1 R=2 Total major Pre and 11 8 10 10 16 55 Post choices Task (Total choices made from 7 7 8 8 8 38 Table 8) Task (raw 7 7 7 8 8 39 data) Sub Total 14 14 15 16 16 75 major Task choices Total major Task 75 choices Total 20 differences more in Task and choices Pre and made Post choices in Task 124 Table 4.11 Summary Findings We can see that there are more choices made in the Task phases than in the Pre and Post phases. In the Pre and the Post there were 55 major choices made by the five dyad pairs. In the task, the five pairs of dyads made 75 major choices. Thus, there were 20 more choices made in the Pre /Post than in the Task. We can deduce that the language of Choice is used more in the Task simulated shopping on eBay than in the free conversations of the Pre/Post. 125 4.1.9 Summary of Findings Part 1 In Chapter 4,1 have demonstrated the following: choice discourses (Table 4.5); language features that are associated with choice (Table 4.5, 4.10); participants using choice language to make decisions (Table 4.5, Figure 1, Table 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10); participants creating due diligence when they made prerequisite choices (Figure l;Table 4.7, 4.8); subjects exercising actions and making choices (Table 4.5, Figure 1, Table 4.7, 4.8, 4.9 and 4.10); subjects making general purchasing choices and positive or negative choices regarding their item of significance (Table 4.9); subjects making specific purchasing choices regarding their desires to shop or not to shop on eBay (Table 4.10); subjects showing positive or negative assertions to eBay and whether they prefer retail or e-commerce shopping (Table 4.10); the ways eBay Task discourse differs from general chat or free conversations (Table 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.11); and more choices were made in the Task data (Table 4.11). In Figure 1, we can see that Justin has made eight major choices in the Task. He chose "YES" to "buy" his item of significance, the Abercrombie and Fitch cargo pants, because all of his purchasing prerequisites were met. He carefully selected his pre-bidding steps and created due diligence for every prerequisite choice he enacted. He found eBay to be an intriguing business opportunity and as a result he was engaged in choice and used the choice language features throughout his critical thinking process. Although Justin initially preferred traditional shopping, once he tried window shopping online, he found it was more fun and challenged him to think more before he made decisions. He changed his mind about traditional shopping and now prefers shopping on eBay. However, he found that eBay had some limitations because he could not always find the exact product he desired. All of the participants shown in Table 4.7 and 4.8 chose unique items of significance to "buy". Secondly, although the NNS made very similar kinds of prerequisite choices, they all 126 made their choices in a different sequence; in other words each participant had his own pattern of shopping and determining the importance of choice and which prerequisite would come first, second and third etc. They also all decided on their own purchasing prerequisite "titles" (i.e., price point) independently but when the data were analyzed these prerequisites happened to be the same; in other words they made similar due diligence choices to arrive at which prerequisites were important to their purchasing process. The majority of the participants gave positive affirmations of Choice during the final step of their decision-making process in Table 4.9. Ultimately, the majority of the ESL participants decided to make a simulated bid online. Nine out of ten of the participants who chose their item of significance decided that "yes" they would "buy" their item on eBay. They all felt confident in their simulated shopping experience on eBay except for Harry (Participant 2 of Dyad D). In Table 4.10, we can see that all of the participants liked their experience shopping online in general and gave positive assertions of choice regarding eBay as a service. In fact both Justin and Harry from Dyad D came into the eBay shopping experience with a negative perspective of online shopping and changed their perspectives completely; they decided that shopping on eBay was perhaps even better than traditional shopping. However, only six (Rie, Kate, Wen, Google, Justin and Ray) out of the ten NNS participants said "yes" and decided that they wanted to shop on eBay. Four participants (Chie, Kay, Harry and Parajad) said "maybe" to shopping on eBay in general. Chie, Kay and Parajad were willing to try shopping online but at the same time were more traditional shoppers and were on the fence about their decision and shopping online. They are hesitant about shopping online because they were not ready to give up all of their sensory skills when purchasing on eBay. Harry was not sure about buying from someone with lots of negative feedback even if that vendor was a power 127 seller, so he may or may not buy online. No participants said "no" to shopping online and are all ready to shop on eBay to some degree. In Dyad A, we can see an example of how one subject's decisions and choices affect another's in the Decision-Making Analysis (DMA) of the Task. Rie shows us that her positive assertion "yes" and decision to choose eBay over traditional shopping affects her partner's choice. Through their interactive discourse in the Task, Rie's confidence helps convince a very hesitant customer, her partner Chie, of the benefits on eBay. Rie is confident in the evidence she has found regarding the seller, the buyer's feedback, the consumer service provided, the price and decides that she prefers to buy online. Chie decides however that she prefers traditional shopping. Chie decides that she needs more than visual cues to purchase an item; she must be in the actual presence of the product to use all of her Choice sensory skills (desire, cognition, emotion and perception) to make her final purchasing decision. But when Rie shows her the positive possibilities of shopping on eBay, Chie changes her mind. Chie has a strong desire to collect antiques and finds retail antique shopping cumbersome and so when Rie introduces her to the category of antiques on eBay Chie's focus shifts and a new perspective of e-commerce shopping for her emerges; the category of antique maps becomes her item of significance. Finally, Chie decides that she is possibly willing to take a risk or trust sellers in order to shop online if she finds a unique antique. In the choice language evidence from the raw data both Chie and Rie are enacting choice with their positive assertions of "yes"; they are decision-making. However, initially in their decision-making process they have both decided to make different decisions. Chie uses her emotion sensing process "like" to say that she is interested in eBay generally. Her use of the conjunction "but" indicates the contrast she is looking for in the shopping experience. Her sensing process "want" indicates her desire and choice of perception to see (sensing process) the noun "an authentic quilt". The factual adjectival -real indicates that she is not satisfied with 128 the noun "the quilt". Chie wants to see an original not unauthentic item. The coordinator-so indicates that her resulting decision is that the image of the quilt is not satisfactory for her to purchase/window shop for the noun. The noun "picture", the relational process "is", and the negative "not" states that she desires a traditional retail shopping experience. Conversely, Rie decides that she would both like to window shop and actually purchase on eBay. Rie tells us that talking about the pros of eBay is easy for her. Rie decides that shopping online is convenient for her; she can stay at home and shop. Additionally, Rie decides that shopping in a traditional retail store is more stressful than buying on eBay. To show Rie's decisions with the language of choice evidence we can see that Rie is enacting choice with her action of "yes"; she is decision-making. Rie's negative desire sensing process "need" is actually positive towards eBay; she likes the convenience of shopping at home and not in the rain. Rie's "if statement decision/choice point and the negative desire sensing process "want"; a Choice KS state that in a traditional shopping scenario she is often pressured to purchase something that she does not desire. However, her comparing adjective "more" indicates that she does not have pressure from sellers on eBay; the opinion adjectival-free indicates that she can be a more independent shopper online. As a result, she prefers shopping online and is talking about choice. We can see that there are more choices made in the Task phases than in the Pre and Post phases in Table 4.11. In the Pre and the Post there were 55 major choices made by the five dyad pairs. In the task, the five pairs of dyads made 75 major choices. Thus, there were 20 more choices made in the Pre /Post than in the Task. We can deduce that the language of Choice is used more in the Task simulated shopping on eBay than in the free conversations of the Pre/Post. Because eBay is an exciting auction website, the possibilities are endless for international students. They are searching for their item of significance independently and are 129 engaged in the Task and target choice language. Content Based Instruction merged with international students shopping on eBay yield practical and real world critical thinking skills and multiliterate skills that can be used in their future academic or professional careers. 130 5 Findings Part 2 5.1 Introduction To begin the second phase of my findings I answer my micro or first research question using both qualitative and quantitative analyses. To answer my micro research question (i.e., research question 1) :"What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks?, I present my analysis by means of two qualitative tables (Table 5.10 and 5.10a) and seven quantitative tables (Table 5.11-17) referring to the seven language features of Choice that are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational Pre and Post phases (i.e., Table 5.10). I then show Table 5.10a which is one final summary table for all 5 dyads (Dyads A-E) illustrating the examples of the language features of choice in the Task. Table 5.10 links the qualitative language features of choice to Table 5.10a. And the qualitative Table 5.10a then links the quantitative tables 5.11- 5.17 also analyzing the language features at the micro level. The quantitative Tables 5.11-5.17 measure the frequency for the language features of choice present in the Task in contrast to the Pre/Post phases. Differences between frequencies across the two phases of the task are analyzed to determine their statistical significance. Following the observation and description of findings after each table, 5.6 summarizes the major findings of the chapter. 131 5.2 Qualitative and Quantitative Data Presentation and Analysis II The analysis procedure that I have used for Chapter four is as follows: first, my focus was to concentrate on the micro or first research question and show what language features are associated with ESL choice task discourses in the data. The micro analysis of language in this context is looking at individual language features of choice. In order to answer the research question, I initially took the linguistic evidence from Table 4.5 (i.e., Dyad D) and created the language features of the choice knowledge structure examples and summarized the choice language features and their rationale in the qualitative Table 5.10. Qualitative Table 5.10a also links to the micro question since it is a summary table of the language features of choice present in Dyad A-E across all phases. To complete this table I took the linguistic evidence from the raw data of all the Dyad Tasks and manually counted each language feature across phases. The seven language features of choice from Table 5.10 are additionally referred to in Table 5.10a and continue to be focused on in the quantitative Tables 5.11-5.17. These quantitative tables also look to answer the micro research question: which language features are associated with ESL task choice discourse in the data by contrast with the Pre and Post conversational tasks. However, this time the frequency of the seven language features are analyzed for statistical significance. To tabulate the frequency of the seven choice language features in all Dyad discourse, I used the Vocab Profile software (Nation, 2006). I fed the raw data of each language feature of choice and of each Dyad into the software for either the Task or the Pre/Post phase one at a time. Then I tallied the frequency numbers for each specific language feature associated words (i.e., could for language feature 3: modals) and divided it by the word count (of each raw data phase) to get a proportional numerical in decimal form. I then inputted the numerical forms into Tables 5.11- 5.17 to contrast the frequency of the language feature of choice in the Task vs. the Pre/Post phases. If all five 132 Dyads had a greater frequency in the Task than in the Pre/Post, then we had a strong statistically significant result. Since our number of texts was small and we did not wish to assume normality of distribution, we used the Sign Test, a nonparametic test used to measure whether two related or matched samples have been drawn from the same population, to see whether in each dyad of the choice text was significantly different (p<.05, one-tailed) from the conversation 1 and 2 texts, with respect to one of a set of expected language features. My comments, results and findings are discussed following each table and in the summary. 5.3 Language Features Associated with ESL Choice (Research Question 1) Table 5.10 responds to question #1 :my first micro research question ("What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational phases/stages?") and refers to the seven language features of Choice that are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational Pre and Post phases. The seven language features of Choice that are present in the Task data are analyzed in the quantitative Tables 5.11- 5.17 for statistical significance. These language features have been numerically tagged from one through seven; the Choice Knowledge Structure examples are identified and the rationale for the presentation of the features is shown in Table 5.10. The language features in Table 5.10 and 5.10 a, the summary table, back up the rationale for language feature use in Tables 5.11-5.17. 133 Table 5.10 Language Features of Choice and Examples Language features of Choice Choice Knowledge Structure examples Rationale for features Language Feature 1 (see Table 5.11) Sensing processes of desire (want, need) and cognition(know, think, understand) (Choice KS is particularly related to: Desire (want, need) Cognition (know, think, understand) Language Feature 2 (see Table 5.12) Sensing Processes of Emotion (like, fear) and Perception (see, feel, hear) (Choice KS is related to: Emotion (like, fear) and Perception (see, feel, hear) Language Feature 3 (see Table 5.13) Modals (can, could, would, may, might, must, should, will, should) Modals-are frequent with Choice KS Language Feature 4 (see Table 5.14) Affirmation and Negation (Yes, No responses) (Yeah, Ya, Yep) Positive and negative assertions < associated with Choice Language Feature 5 (see Table 5.15) If.. .then statements Associate with Choice; Choice decision point Language Feature 6 (see Table 5.16) Comparative adj ecti ves/ad verbs (More, most, better, cheaper Associated with choice/value Language Feature 7 (see Table 5.17) Interrogative Questions (?) Associate with Choice 134 5.4 Findings for Dyads A-E- Summary Table Table 5.10a focuses on the language features used by each dyad. The examples of language features are framed by the language features and knowledge structures of choice in the far left column and the phases of the Practice, Pre, Task and Post on the top column. This table gives the reader an idea of the detail of language used in each phase of each dyad. The qualitative examples of the language features of the choice knowledge structure are also seen in the quantitative Tables 5.11-5.17 that follow. Table 5.10a Analysis of Language of Choice for Dyads A-E Note: Practice is the only phase that included teacher/researcher discourse • A= Dyad A, B= Dyad B, C= Dyad C, D= Dyad D, E= Dyad E Language feature) and Knowledge Structure Sensing Processes (Choice KS is particularly related to: Desire (want, need) Cognition (know, think, understand) Phase: Practice (Teacher-centered) E=P: understand (3), want(l) understand implied (7), want(l), know(l) R: want(l), understands(2)-think(2) implied D= S: want, know J: know; think, know-implied C=S: want, know, think, G: want, know, think (know, understand, think, want implied) Kay: 0cnow, understand, think, want implied) B=S: Want, know, think K: want, need, think K and W: know, (see) understand A= Want, know A=R: know Pre Task Post (learner- (learner- (learner-centered) centered) centered) E=NA E=P: want (6), E=P: need(l) D=N/A need(4) know(5), R: want(l) C=G: want? think(8); D=NA K: Know? implied -want(2), C=NA B=NA need(6), think(2) B=W: think A=C: think R: want(l), need(2), think (8), know(2); implied-want(2), need(2) D=J: think; understand, think-implied H: think; think, understand implied C=G: want, know, think Kay: think B=K: want, think, understand-implied; need, know (shows under standing by comprehending new term) A=R: want, think (understanding), know, need 135 Language feature Phase: Practice Pre Task Post and (Teacher- (learner- (learner- (learner-Knowledge centered) centered) centered) centered) Structure C: want, think (Recommend?) Sensing Processes E=R: like(l) NA E=P: like(4), see(l) E=P: like(2) b) Emotion D=S: like ;implied(8); D= (like, fear) J: like;like-implied R: like(l), see(l); C=NA and Perception C=S: like, see implied like(12) (see, feel, hear) K and G: like implied D=J: like-implied (Choice KS) B=S: Like, see (look?) H: like implied K: see K and W: like A=see, like C=G: like B=K: NA A=R: like, feel C: like Tenses (?): E= P: should, c) not, don't, E=P: should, will E=P: could, can(3) E=P: can(7); a) Tenses NO-1 c) didn't would, should (4), don't; b) Modals-are R: can(2), c) doesn't, NO-1 (implied) NO-6, maybe(8); implied- R:maybe(2), frequent with D=S: present; b) could, R: will (2); would(2),might(l) c) will; Choice KS would, implied(2), can't, don't (8), don't, c) can not, c) Negation can c)NO-l NO-(4) could J: present b) can; H: b) D=J: present, R: can(9),must, maybe not, don't, maybe past, b) should, will, would,; c)No(l) not; C= S: present, past, future would ,c) don't, D=J: present, past NO(2) b) would, maybe, could not, no-5 b) can, could, should, D=J: c) don't, no, not H: present, past H: present, past, futur< present, past, G: c) No-1 C= G: a) present, b) can, would, c) no z B= S: future, present past, C=G: a) present, -future-b) can, would future; c) No-1 b) can, would, implied ,b) c) don't K: a) present, c) no-2, don't should; K: a) future, present; past, Kay: a) present, b) car H: present, b) can, maybe, could ; future; c) no - 111 c) not future c) don't, Won't, doesn't; B=K: a) past, B=K: a) future, C=G: No (11) present, present present, W: a) present, future; future ;c)No-l ;b) can, should, past, future b) should ; c) won't, No W: a) past, would, maybe K:a) A=a) present, perfect, present A=R: a) present, present, past, b) can ;c)No-l future future; c) no-A: Would, could, A=C: a) future, b) can, could 1 Can, might present, past c) don't, not, B=W: a) A=R: a) present, future c) no don't (need/want) present, c) don't know, No R: a) present, past C: a) present past; c) no, not b) can, (modal adverb-maybe) c) doesn't, not c) don't, No A=R: a) future c) didn't d) Affirmative E= P (3) E= P:(10) E= P (28) E=P: (6) (Yes/yeah) R: (2) R: (8) R: (16) R: (3) (Enacting Choice) D= D=J: 15x D=J:15x,H: 4x D=J:5x; H: 1 associated with C=G:6x H: 6x C=G: 13 C=G: 2x; K: choice B=K: 8x C=K: yes-1 Ox; B=K: yes-4x 5 W: 11 G: 1 A=R: Yes 6x B=K: 2x A=R:Yes 3x B=K: yes -4x C: Yes 3x W: 6x Many times (positive (positive (+10-frequency acknowledgement acknowledge ment importance?) vs. enacting choice) 136 Language feature Phase: Practice Pre Task Post and (Teacher- (learner- (learner- (learner-Knowledge centered) centered) centered) centered) Structure W: 1 vs. A=C: Yes 6x enacting (do confirmations choice) differ from choice?) b) Technical word E= P: buy it now, second E= E= p: second hand, E= hand, D= shipping D=NA buyer, seller C=G: marketing D=J: shooting star, C=NA R: seller, shipping cost, official GBP, power seller B=NA strategy, buy it now, pay B=NA H: negative A=NA pal A=NA feedback, power D=S: paypal seller C=S: power seller C=G: product Kay: feedback, seller, buyer description, G: one bidder, ship seller reputation, B=S: bid, time left to bid, minimum seller information, discount for market positive feedback, price neutral result and rating, B=K: power seller, "Buy Now" item, listing compare the price K and W: set price, new (price comparison) member, newcomer, sort (shows under by price, feedback, register standing by A= Power seller, comprehending new Bidders, List, retails for, term) feedback A=R: reserve not Met, guarantee, eBayers Adjectival E= E= E= E= a) Factual classifiec D=S: Nike basketball shoes, D=NA D=NA D=NA noun Air Jordan white retro shoes C=G: a Japanese C=G: Triban mobile C=NA C= S: a turquoise star, star Company, a markei cell phone B=NA rating system official Kay: electronic CD A=NA B=S: buy now item B=NA player W: dark brown (bag) A=NA B=K: volume A= R: real Gucci, (mascara) authentic watch A=R: Beautiful antique linens hangings/quilts, C: real one (quilt) Adjective E= E= E= E= b) opinion D=S: good price D=J: too busy D=J: many good D=pretty J: pretty good (feedback) H: too spicy comments, good hard, C= rich reds, a nice rug, C=G: really credit, cool design pretty much 1920's antique rug, convenient; C=G: good price C=K: really good qualify, pretty good really difficult B=K: very positive, good, feedback rating K: really cheap really Kay: good feedback competitive, A=R: fancy (on the beautiful G: positive feedback, different wall), (keeps B=NA favorite brand name, behaviour me)warm, (not) A=NA quite/really cheap B=NA good (enough), B=S: pretty good A=C: still cold Easy, (more)free Rating original ? (product) C: (not) enough K: very cheap/expensive 137 Language feature Phase: Practice Pre Task Post and (Teacher- (learner- (learner- (learner-Knowledge centered) centered) centered) centered) Structure K and W: real, fake, original A= Great price, so low, lower end, fake diamonds A=R: Pretty Nice watch, reliable, pretty good (vacation package), big scam c) Comparison E= p: cheap E= P: better than E= P: less than half E= R: adjective/adverb R: less than one, the (2) R: very expensive, greatest, associated with cheapest R: much more too old, more much better choice/value D=S: more shipping, different, seldom expensive than, than, more, less choice speak, huge, cheaper, better much more C=little competition, biggest, lower, .larger serious different higher D=J: costs over D=J: more G: more, 4x cheaper D=NA $100 C=K: B=S: much better rating C=Kay and G: C=G: different, biggest, than that fewer, cheaper, more than much K: lowest bid smaller B=K: more than, cheaper A= more professional Kay: more strict, lower living more price, cheaper, G: four/five discipline makes more times B=NA A=R: more than, cheaper, less A=NA more free expensive B=W: much easier, safer A=NA If statements E=P: 1 E= NA E=P: (5) E= NA (Choice decision D=S:2 D=NA R:(4) D=NA point) C=S: 2x;G: 3x C=K: 1 D=H: 3x C= alternative B=S: lOx B=NA C=G: 3x B=NA conjunction K: 3x; W: 1 A few (+5) (Frequency importance?) A= 111 A=NA K: 1 B=K: 2x A=R: 3x C: if lx A=NA Table 5.10a Summary This summary table corresponds to the linguistic features of choice previously viewed in Table 4.3-4.6. The seven language features of choice in Table 5.10 also link to the Task Table 4.5; the language features of choice appear in the Table 4.5 "Evidence" summaries. The "Evidence" demonstrates that the micro research question 1 is addressed; the language features are associated with ESL Choice task discourses in the data. The summary table 138 accounts for the language features used in dyads A-E. Tables 5.11-5.17 also address the micro research question 1 in qualitative and quantitative form. 139 5.5 Frequency of Language Features Contrasted with Conversational Discourse Tables 5.11-5.17 also answer my micro or research question 1 "What language features are associated with the Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational phases?" The seven tables below show the language features that are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data in contrast to the Pre and Post conversational phases. Each table corresponds to the identification of the language features in Table 5.10. I expect to find that the language features of choice are more frequent in the Task than in the Pre or Post phases. The seven language features of choice (see table 5.10) are the features that I am expecting to find because they are associated with choice/decision-making. My specific hypotheses for each linguistic feature are as follows: The frequency of Language Feature 1 (the Sensing processes of desire and cognition) will be higher in the Task phase of the activity than in the Pre and Post phases of the activity. The frequency of Language Feature 2 (the Sensing Processes of Emotion and Perception) will be higher in the Task phase of the activity than in the Pre and Post phases of the activity. The frequency of Language Feature 3: modals, which are frequent with Choice KS. will be higher in the Task than in the Pre/Post. The frequency of Language Feature 4: where positive and negative assertions are associated with Choice KS Affirmation and Negation (Yes, No responses) will be higher in the Task than in the Pre/Post. The frequency of Language Feature 5 : If.. .then statements ;the Choice KS decision point are higher in the Task than in the Pre/Post. 140 The frequency of Language Feature 6: Comparative adjectives/adverbs which are associated with Choice/Value (Evaluation) KS are higher in the Task than in the Pre/Post. The frequency of Language Feature 7: Interrogative Questions which are associated with Choice(Evaluation) KS are higher in the Task than in the Pre/Post. Using the Vocab Profile software (Nation, 2006) I was able to determine the frequency of the language features of Choice from the raw data. In tables 5.11-5.17, we can see the Dyads are framed on the left and the phases to be contrasted (Task vs. Pre/Post) are on the top and the frequency is in the centre of each table. If we have statistical significance the frequency will meet the standard of 1/20; p<.05 (p= probability) or less by means of the Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988, pp. 80-90.). For both language feature 5 (If statements; Table 5.15) and language feature 6 (comparative adjectives and adverbs; Table 5.16) the differences between discourse phases were statistically significant. The language features that do not have statistical significance/statistical difference are highlighted i.e., N.S. 141 Table 5.11 Frequency of Language Feature 1: Desire and Cognition Choice Task Pre and Post (Conversation 1 and 2) Dyad A 146 705 = 72 3603 = .20709 > .01998 DyadB 116 592 = 48 553 = .19594 > .86799 DyadC 76 469 = 62 681 = .16204 > .09104 DyadD 35 469 = 174 917 = .07462 < .1897 DyadE 139 760 = 83 898 = .18289 > .09242 TOTAL 4 Choice texts > P& P n.s. Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.11: shows that the differences across contexts for language feature 1 were not statistically significant (N.S.); even when desire and cognition processes were tallied separately for Dyad D. However, the differences are in the expected direction. For four of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the conversation phase. 142 Table 5.12 Frequency of Language Feature 2: Emotion and Perception Choice Task Pre and Post (Conversation 1 and 2) Dyad A 80 705= 37 573 = .11347 > .06457 Dyad B 82 592 = 49 553 = .13851 > .08860 DyadC 27 469 = 46 681= .057569 < .06020 DyadD 24 476= 88 917 = .05042 < .09596 DyadE 69 760 = 53 898 = .09078 > .05902 TOTAL 3 Choice texts > P& P n.s. Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.12: demonstrates that the differences across contexts for language feature 2 were not statistically significant (N.S.); even after the emotion and perception processes were tallied separately for Dyad D. However, the differences are in the expected direction. . For three of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the conversation phase. There were limitations in the frequency analysis because a) the Vocabulary Profile software could only isolate the processes and not the context of processes. We can assume that because the processes were isolated out of context in some instances, the Pre/Post had a greater frequency than in the Dyad D task. 143 Table 5.13 Frequency of Language Feature 3: Modals Choice Task Pre and Post (Conversation 1 and 2) Dyad A 136 705 = 68 3603= .19290 > .01887 Dyad B 126 592 = 44 553= .21283 > .07956 DyadC 42 469 = 62 681= .08955 < .09104 DyadD 52 472= 110 917 = .11016 < .11195 DyadE 108 760 = 92 898= .14210 > .01244 TOTAL 3 Choice texts > P& P n.s. Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.13: shows that the differences across contexts for language feature 3 were not statistically significant (N.S.); even after "maybe" was extracted from Dyad D. However, the differences are in the expected direction. For three of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the Conversation phase. Again there were limitations in the Vocab Profile software because modals could be isolated but the context could not be identified unless either manually counted or using concordancing software. Ultimately, we do not know which isolated modals came from a choice context and which did not. 144 Table 5.14 Frequency of Language Feature 4: Affirmation and Negation Choice Task Pre and Post Dyad A 76 705 = . 10780 > 92 3603 .02553 DyadB 27 592= .04560 < 66 553= .11934 DyadC 48 469= .10234 < 94 681= .13803 DyadD 34 472= .07203 < 193 917= .21046 DyadE 87 760= .11447 < 125 898= .13919 TOTAL 1 Choice text > P& P n.s. Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.14 Demonstrates that differences between discourse contexts for language feature 4 were not statistically significant (N.S.). However, the differences are in the expected direction. For four of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Conversation phase than in the Choice task. The differences between the discourse contexts for language feature 4 were not statistically significant possibly because its scope was too broad and there were limitations in the software. The Vocab Profile software isolated words that were not in context, so many of the responses either positive or negative are likely not in a choice context. Dyad B, C, D, and E were not in the predicted direction. 145 Table 5.15 Frequency of Language Feature 5: If...then statements Choice Task Pre and Post (Conversation 1 and 2) Dyad A 30 705= 15 3603= .04255 > .00416 DyadB 23 592= 10 553= .03885 > .01808 DyadC 17 469= 14 681= .03624 > .02055 DyadD 14 472= 25 917= .02966 > .02726 DyadE 34 760= 16 898= .04473 > .01781 TOTAL 5 Choice texts > P&P p = .031* Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.15: demonstrates that differences between discourse contexts for language feature 5 were statistically significant. Language Feature 5 was significantly different at the p < .05 level. For five of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the Conversation phase. We can summarize that if statements commonly occur in a choice context of decision-making because all five dyads had a greater frequency of if statements in the Task than in the Pre/Post phases. 146 Table 5.16 Frequency of Language Feature 6: Comparatives Choice Task Pre and Post (Conversation 1 and 2) Dyad A 20 705 = .0238368 > 26 3603= .00721 DyadB 46 592= .077702 > 21 553= .03797 DyadC 52 469= .11087 > 43 681= .05234 DyadD 21 472= .04661 > 41 917= .04471 DyadE 23 760 = .03026 > 26 898= .02895 TOTAL 5 Choice texts > P & P p = .031* Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.16: demonstrates that differences between discourse contexts for language feature 6 were statistically significant. Language Feature 6 was significantly different at the p < .05 level. For five of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the Conversation phase. We can assume that comparative adjectives commonly occur in a choice decision-making context because all five dyads had a greater frequency of comparatives in the Task than in the Pre/Post phases. 147 Choice Task Pre and Post Dyad A 219 705= .31063 > 124 3603= .03441 DyadB 172 592= .29054 > 98 553= .17721 DyadC 73 469 = .15565 > 94 681= .13803 DyadD 82 472= .17372 < 237 917= .25845 DyadE 169 760= .22236 > 134 898= .14922 TOTAL 4 Choice texts > P& P n.s. Questions Sign Test (Siegel & Castellan, 1988:80-90) * = p < .05 one-tailed. Table 5.17: shows that the differences across contexts for language feature 7 were not statistically significant. However, the differences are in the expected direction. For four of the five dyads, the frequencies of this feature were higher in the Choice task than in the Conversation phase. There was not significance probably due to software limitations. The software isolated the question mark punctuation in the raw data but the software could not account for the context of the question. For example the questions asked could be procedural, comprehension based etc., but not referring specifically to a decision being made. Thus, the scope of the interrogative questions was too broad. We assume, due the insignificance, that the questions were not in a choice context of decision-making when the question was asked. For future research, I would recommend that the "wh" questions be counted manually in the raw data within a specific choice context or concordancing software be used. 148 5.6 Summary of Findings Part 2 In Chapter 5,1 demonstrated the following: language features that are associated with Choice (Table 5.10, 5.10a); the language features of choice present in Dyads across all phases (Table 5.10a); and the frequency of language features of choice compared by Dyad in Task vs. Pre/Post phases. To summarize, the result of statistical significance of the main SFL study is: the language of Choice occurs more frequently in the Task phase than in the conversational phase for feature 5 (If statements) and feature 6 (comparative adjectives and adverbs). The 5 dyads did not have a clear result when tested against chance by means of the Sign Test.; and the differences found were in the theoretically-predicted direction in 4 of the 5 dyads in Tables 5.1 l(Language feature 1_: Desire and cognition processes); Table 5.12 (Language feature 2: Emotion and perception processes); Table 5.13 (Language feature 3: Modals); Table 5.17 (Language feature 7: Interrogative questions). On the other hand, and the differences found were not in the theoretically-predicted direction in Dyad B, C, D, and E and in Table 5.14 (Language feature: Affirmation and negation responses). The summary of findings from Chapter 5 in the present study demonstrates that differences between discourse contexts for two language feature that is 5 and 6 were statistically significant.; Language feature five ("if statements) and six (Comparative adjectives and adverbs) are the most frequent in the Task while language features one (Desire and cognition processes), two (Emotion and perception processes), three (Modals), and seven (Interrogative questions) were in the expected direction, and language feature four (Affirmation and negation responses) is least frequent in the Task. My hypothesis predicted that the non-native speakers' (NNS) decision-making language and Choice language features 149 will be different in their Task and Pre/Post phases and it didn't make the criterion level when we set the test/bar at p<.05 (i.e., probability of this result is attributable to chance). The difference across contexts for the language features in Dyad D were not statistically significant in five cases; Dyad D is the exception to rule and the differences were not in the expected direction; that is for language feature 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7. Both Dyad C and D are the exception to significance in two cases for language feature 2 and 3. And finally, Dyads B, C, D and E showed results in the unexpected direction for language feature 4. To investigate the N.S. status of Dyad D in particular, I looked at Table 4.11. I expected to find that there were more choices made in Pre/Post in Table 9 than the Task; however my assumptions were not correct. Why did Dyad D differ from the other Dyads? Language features 1 and 7 did not differ significantly across the two discourse types, but the differences were in the expected direction. I looked at the figures in Tables 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14 and 5.17 again and focussed on Dyad D. I separated desire from cognition in language feature 1 (Table 5.11); emotion from perception in language feature 2 (Table 5.12); and eliminated "maybe" from Modals in language feature 3 (Table 5.13) to determine if there were significant differences when the analysis was conducted on a finer-grained basis; however the significance remained similar and not significant. I expect that the reason for the different results for Dyad D and lack of choice language features in the Task) is because language feature 4 (Affirmation and negation responses) and 7 (Interrogative Questions) were too broadly defined for specific choice language. When a subject enacts a choice in a decision-making task, i.e., if he decides that he would like to purchase an item he would respond "yes" thus enacting choice. However, in the case of language feature 4 the language features are associated with choice and are not enacting choice. There is a limitation with the Vocab Profile software, i.e., when the software counted "yes' responses in the raw data the responses could have been "not enacting choice" but rather 150 understanding a comment, positively responding, answering a procedural question, agreeing etc.. .but may not have been acting on a decision and thus the results from this language feature are skewed and not representative of the actual numbers of positive assertions of choice. 15 6 Conclusion Discussion and Implications for Research and Teaching 6.1 How the Findings Answer the Research Questions The findings answer the research questions for the following reasons: for research question 2 that is the macro research question: "What actual choices are made in the ESL choice task discourses in the data?" The actual choices the participants made in the Choice Task discourses in the data were that they: 1) Demonstrated the flow of choice made in the Task (i.e., specific choices were made using the 7 language features of choice thus enabling decision-making discourse in Table 4.5, Dyad D; Figure 4.1, Dyad D; Task). In Table 4.5 we can see the decisions that the participant has made in the Choice discourse and the DMA or Decision Making Analysis in the summary of Table 4.5. The summary shows the sequential choices made while simulated shopping on eBay in other words the participants made decisions while using the 7 language features of choice; and Figure 4.1 also shows the specific choices that the NNS made while using the linguistic features of choice thus enabling the decision-making discourse; 2) Decided upon which purchasing prerequisite to choose (i.e., different prerequisite choices were decided upon by each participant; "I think price is important to me because I have a limited budget"; Figure 4.1, Dyad D; Table 4.7 and 4.8, Dyads A-E, Task); Figure 4.1 shows the participant going through the pre-bidding process and choosing purchasing prerequisites in order to buy an item on eBay; Table 4.7 shows the results of the different kinds of choices made in the dyad Tasks by participant 1 of each dyad and table 4.8 shows the choices made in the dyad Tasks by participant 2 of each dyad. The purchasing prerequisites were the decisions that they had to make in order to "buy" the item (i.e., if they decided that they liked the price point then they would be one step closer to "buying" the item). The tables tally the amount of 152 purchasing prerequisite choices that were made by each participant. All participants made a minimum of 7 out of 8 purchasing prerequisites choices; 3) Used choice in tasks for each prerequisite (i.e., chose either "yes" or "no" to trust or not to trust the seller in Table 4.7 and 4.8, Dyads A-E, Task) in other words when they got to a decision point in the purchasing prerequisite process, they had to decide to either go ahead with the decision to trust the seller and say "yes" to trust the seller or "no" to not trust the seller; 4) Made final positive or negative assertions regarding their item of significance a general purchasing choice (i.e., "Yes, I will buy the item of significance based on my due diligence" in Table 4.9, Dyad A-E, Task) in other words after they had made their purchasing prerequisites, they needed to decide if they would "buy" the item of significance based on their due diligence and quality check. All the participants except for 2 (80% of the participants) chose to buy an item on eBay based on their positive assertions of choice; 5) Made final decisions either to shop or not to shop on eBay, and specific purchasing choices (i.e., whether they liked shopping on eBay; their preference for traditional or retail shopping; the limitations of eBay in Table 4.10, Dyads A-E, Task) where 6 out of 10 of the participants chose ultimately to shop on eBay; the participants also chose whether they liked the eBay shopping experience and they all (10 out of 10) positively responded and decided that they liked shopping on eBay; the participants also stated whether they preferred traditional or online shopping and 7 out of 10 said that they preferred online to traditional shopping;, and 9 out 10 participants decided that eBay had limitations for them , i.e., they didn't like the eBay system for a variety of reasons; 6) Made a number of major choices in the data (Table 4.11, Dyads A-E, Task vs. Pre/Post);, and 7) the number of major choices that the participants made in the Choice Task eBay work were greater than in the Pre/Post conversation. For research question 1 that is the micro research question: "What language features are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational 153 tasks?" The language features that are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data are: the seven language features of Choice a) Language Feature 1, Sensing processes of desire (want, need) and cognition (know, think, understand); b) Language Feature 2, Sensing Processes of Emotion (like, fear) and Perception (see, feel, hear); c) Language Feature 3, Modals (can, could, would, may, might, must, should, will, should); d) Language Feature 4, Affirmation and Negation (Yes, No responses) (Yeah, Ya, Yep); e) Language Feature 5, If...then statements; f) Language Feature 6, Comparative adjectives/adverbs (More, most, better, cheaper);, and g) Language Feature 7, Interrogative Questions (?). This linguistic evidence of the 7 language features of choice is shown in: the discourse of Table 4.5 of Dyad D, the positive or negative assertions of choice when participants decide whether to shop on eBay in Table 4.10; the Summary Table, Table 5.10a, the examples of Table 5.10, Dyads A-E, and the Quantitative Frequency Tables 5.11-5.17, Dyads A-E. The examples of all seven of the language features of choice are also present in the evidence summary after Table 4.5. Table 4.10 illustrates positive or negative assertions of choice when participants decide whether to shop on eBay; the Summary Table displays the examples of the language features of choices used across all dyads; and Tables 5.11-5.17 display the frequency of the seven language features of choice and their statistical significance. The language features that are associated with the ESL Choice task discourses in the data by contrast with conversational tasks are: illustrated in the frequency of language features in Tables 5.11-5.17 showing statistical significance. The summary of findings from the quantitative tables 5.11-5.17 demonstrate that differences between discourse contexts for two language features that is 5 and 6 were statistically significant.; that is the language of Choice occurs more frequently in the Task phase than in the conversational phase for feature 5 (If statements) and feature 6 (comparative adjectives and adverbs). 154 The participants, while interacting with eBay, are using Knowledge Structures of choice or language features of choice to make decisions. They are increasing their meaning through discourse; their output is not just form-focused; it is meaning-focused. Their use of the lexical features of choice enables them to create choice discourse; in other words they are using the micro to do the macro blending theory and practice. In order to make a choice they first need the language features and then they use the language features of choice to create a discourse about decision-making. Through their discourse development in the dyad phases they create choice discourse. 6.2 Implications for Teaching The implications for teaching in accordance with the present research study are as follows: 1) the research study links with CBI; students are authentically engaged "purchasing" a desired item; 2) CBI promotes multiliteracies in the efficacy of critical thinking skills; 3) using and creating a repertoire of thinking, reasoning strategies to achieve learning goals, and facilitating higher order strategies develops critical thinking; 4) the study helps promote critical thinking language of choice and is thus beneficial for student's future career; an array of thinking skills is required for ESL students to be actively engaged in academic contemporary life and to be successful in a professional career; 5) the research study is a useful, real world activity; 6) the study is student centred and beneficial to maximize student talk; 7) scaffolding in pairs helps students to facilitate thinking skills and negotiate meaning; 8) pair work accommodates classroom size and creates thinking skills, decision making and maximum student talk; 9) the eBay task activity is equally engaging and interesting for students and teachers alike; each person's path through the activity can be individualized while using choice language; 10) by incorporating online/ecommerce technology into the curriculum academic, curricular and critical thinking goals can be accomplished in a student-155 centered environment; and 11) this realistic social practice of shopping on eBay creates choice discourse. When considering CALL language learning materials, I considered the well grounded SLA principles of the literature reviewed and in my study. For the present study to be effective, I implemented the SLA principles into the design of my language learning study just as other researchers in this literature review have (i.e., design that promotes learner autonomy and cooperative learning). Computer-based second language projects have the potential to empower both learners and teachers in a collaborative, student centred and meaningful learning environment in the ESL learning process. One factor that affects L2 teachers is whether their students have an opportunity for authentic use in target language and are sufficiently challenged by the linguistic materials (Lam, 2000). Online technologies can facilitate both authentic tasks and linguistically challenging content (Kasper, 2000; Warschauer, 2000, and Pally, 2001). 6.3 Limitations The limitations of this study are as follows: 1) The limitation with the Vocab Profile software is that it isolates words but cannot distinguish their context, i.e., assertions, prefixes, suffixes, wh question words, comparative adjectives "er" and "est" suffixes etc.; for example I wanted to create two separate language feature categories for "if the alternative conjunction and "If...then" statements; however, I could not separate the "if conjunction from the statement in the software. Therefore, I was not able to determine which part of speech the software found the frequency for so these "ifs" share a language feature. I was however able to isolate the "?" for the frequency of Interrogative questions in the find and replace function for language feature 7. To avoid these limitations in the software in the future, I would 156 recommend manually counting "wh" question words for example in the raw data instead of counting the frequencies of question marks and punctuation marks in the data. Then, the researcher can be certain that the frequency of all language features is statistically significant and that there is a strong, clear result of probability; 2) I found it difficult to determine what "a choice" consists of for Table 5.11. In Table 5.8, the choices made were clear because the NNS had chosen their items of significance in the eBay simulated shopping Task and they all proceeded to go through a pattern of decision-making in order to reach their goal: "to buy or not to buy" their item online. However, in Table 5.11, the choices made by the participants spanned pages of raw data for the Task sometimes without a specific item in mind and thus coming to a decision about an item took them some time. The choices made in the Pre/Post phases were not as clear cut as in Table 5.8; because the participants are not using "the language of choice" specifically and are not window shopping. The NNS would use modals, answer affirmations, or sensing verbs in the Pre/Post but they were not using the Knowledge Structure of Choice or Evaluation; they were having conversations using other knowledge structures of Description, Classification, Principles or Sequence; 3). 6.4 Implications for Future Research To avoid specific software limitations, a possibility for future research studies would be to manually count language features of choice in the raw data or use a concordancing software. I would also recommend that the researcher further look at choice background and pin down assertions tied to choice in a decision-making context and look at assertions not only using choice language because the assertions net was too broad for specific choice language. 157 6.5 Concluding remarks The findings of this research project are unique because of its new exploratory nature. The tools and contexts under which the research study was conducted cannot be compared to previous studies. Interactive online auction web site purchasing has the potential for helping second language international students' focus on their choice discourse (decision-making), language features, and multiliteracies. The simulated shopping online Task assisted the students in seeing alternative ways of negotiating meaning and gave them a broader and more in depth look at shopping online to see the advantages and disadvantages of this new media. Warschauer & Meskill (2000) found online technology use was advantageous for helping students language abilities, electronic literacies, critical thinking and research skills necessary for academic and professional success; his evaluation found that "appropriate use of new technologies allows for more thorough integration of language, content, and culture than ever before and provides students with unprecedented opportunities for autonomous learning"(p. 12). Thus, Warschauer & Meskill's (2000) findings are useful to the present study because in creating productive L2 teaching, instructors can help construct competent acquisition lessons and environments with technology that merge with bona fide language for students to hone their life skills, i.e., academic skills for future business and education goals. 6.6 Summary of Findings This thesis has adopted an SFL perspective and a knowledge structure analysis which allows us to draw together these disparate elements of the field into a more holistic and coherent picture. Our emphasis looks towards discourse development rather than just SLA language development as we study how international students participate in choice discourse processes; we examine computer use as discourse interaction and meaning construction 158 centered upon choice; we are sensitive to how learners, as they engage with eBay, are entering a process of language socialization into novel social practices; we see the critical thinking process of decision-making as constructed in discourse, and not simply as thoughts that are expressed in discourse; and we take a holistic view of eBay choice discourse processes and their context, seeing them semiotically and multimodally. EBay is a novel social practice that raises issues around discourse of choice. 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Retrieved from Google on January 25, 2004, from http://edoz.com.au/cwcc/docs/Proiects/late2/desc53.html Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Warschauer, M. (1997). A sociocultural approach to literacy and its significance for CALL. In K. Murphy-Judy & R. Sanders (Eds.), Nexuus: the convergence of research & teaching through new information technologies (pp.88-97). Durham: University of North Carolina. Warschauer, M. (2000). The changing global economy and the future of English teaching. TESOL Quarterly J< 511-535. Warschauer, M., & Meskill, C. (2000). Technology and second language learning. In J. Rosenthal (Ed.), Handbook of undergraduate second language education (pp. 303-318). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Retrieved on November13, 2003 from http://www.gse.uci.edu/markw/papers.html Warschauer, M, Shetzer, H & Meloni, C. (2000). Internet for English teaching. Alexandria, Virginia: TESOL Inc. Warschauer, M. (2001). Millennialism and media: language, literacy, and technology in the 21st century. AILA Review 14, 49-59. Retrieved November 10, 2003, from http://www.aila.soton.ac.uk/pdfs/Ailal4.pdf 162 Yildirim, S. (2000). Effects of an educational computing course on the preservice and inservice teachers: A discussion and analysis of attitudes and use. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32 (4), 461-479. Retrieved on November 11, 2003, from http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=3168168&db=aph 163 Your signature below indicates that you have received a copy of this consent form for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study. Subject Signature Date Printed Name of the Participant signing above. 167 Appendix C Recruitment Flyer THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Language and Literacy Education 2125 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 Tel: (604)822-5788 Fax:(604)822-3154 Recruitment Flyer Title of Study: Decision-making discourse processes of international students through e-commerce as exemplified by eBay Who is the researcher that will conduct the study? The researcher is Sue Parker Munn, and she is a Master of Art (MA) Graduate student in the Faculty of Education, Department of Language and Literacy Education, UBC. This research study is for a graduate degree and is a part of her MA thesis. She is specializing in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) where her focus is on the integration of young adult second language learning and the use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), Technology and Multimedia in the second language classroom. She is also an Instructor at the English Language Institute (ELI). She has been an Instructor for 8 years and has taught at the ELI, UBC for the past two years as an Intensive English Program (IEP) Instructor. What is the purpose of the study? The purpose of the study is to analyze the language of choice- through participants' decision making. Participants will be using their decision-making skills while simulating shopping on eBay. What is the Procedure? Where will the study take place? How long will each visit be? And how will the participants be grouped? Participants will be asked to meet the researcher for two visits at the ELI (2121 West Mall, Vancouver, BC), in the open area of the Student Study Centre (SSC) at a computer terminal. Each visit will take approximately 2 hours and participants will be put into groups of two. How will participants be compensated for their volunteer time? Student participants will be compensated for volunteer time with 2 hours of private ESL tutoring lessons each and the control group- the native speakers/E.L.I. Instructors will be compensated with 2 hours of classroom preparation assistance. The researcher, Sue Parker Munn will be providing the tutoring services and classroom preparation. Tutoring begins after the research is completed. All participants will be compensated equally. What activities will you participate in? In Visit I, participants will be a) assisted by the researcher as they go through a practice of a simulated decision-making experience on eBay and b) will be engaged in a (Pre-task) conversation regarding a topic to be negotiated with the groups. In Visit II, participants will be involved in c) (the Task) simulating shopping and decision-making on eBay in pairs 168 without the assistance of the researcher. After the participants have finished making their simulated bids on eBay, the students will exit the task; and d) will be engaged in (the Post-task) a topic to be negotiated with the groups. During the visits, the researcher will collect field notes and collect audio tapes and backup video tapes. The digital video camera used for videotaping will focus on the participants who have volunteered in the study. The video camera will not view other students in the computer lab. How do you qualify for the study? Participants selected for the study will be: a) 6-8 English as a Second Language learners (ESL) studying at the English Language Institute, UBC, enrolled in upper intermediate or advanced speaking and listening, reading or writing classes (levels 4, 5, or 6 based on the ELI band descriptors), over the age of 19 years old, novice eBay users, and male or female willing participants; and b) 2 native speaker ELI Instructors who are novice eBay users and are willing to participate in the study. How do you get involved in the study? The potential participants in the study will be contacted through their ELI Instructors when they are in class at the ELI, UBC. The ELI Instructors will read out the study information from the recruitment flyer and hand out copies of the recruitment flyer to students. In addition, the recruitment flyer will be posted in all intermediate and advanced level classrooms. The ELI Instructors will ask the students who wish to participate in the study to contact the researcher via email. Interested people should contact the researcher directly at her email address: sue.parkermunn(5)ubc.ca The potential instructor participants will receive the recruitment flyer in their post boxes. Interested instructor participants will also email the researcher at the above address. The researcher will then contact the interested students and instructor participants via email. How long do you have to decide whether or not you would like to participate in the study? The participants will have one week to decide whether they will or will not participate in the study. How will you give your consent to participate in the study? Consent forms will be distributed by the researcher to the participants who have expressed interest in volunteering in the study. The interested participants will ask the researcher for the consent form when they indicate that they would like to learn more about the study, and the potential instructor participants will have consent forms (in their post boxes) if they wish to participate in the study. Potential participants' interest to participate in the study will be apparent when they contact the researcher via email and give their contact information to the researcher. How will you find out about the findings from the study? All participants will be sent a two-page summary of the study findings via email. 169 

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