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K2K near detector laserball calibration : manipulator motivation, design and results Berghaus, Frank Olaf 2006

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K 2 K Near Detector Laserball C a l i b r a t i o n : Manipulator Motivation, Design and Results by Frank Olaf Berghaus  B . S c , Saint M a r y ' s University, 2003  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H EDEGREE OF Master of Science in T h e Faculty of Graduate Studies (Physics)  T h e University O f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l 18, 2006 © Frank Olaf Berghaus 2006  11  Abstract T h e K 2 K experiment uses a muon neutrino (v^) beam generated at the K E K accelerator facility, aimed at Super-Kamiokande (Super-K) detector 250 k m away, to measure oscillations first seen from atmospheric u's at Super-K. T h e measurement is done using two detectors. T h e near detector measures the flux 300 m from the origin of the neutrino beam. T h e far detector (Super-K) measures the neutrino flux 250 k m downstream. One m a i n source of error i n the oscillation measurement is the understanding of the near detector. After some optical calibrations along the vertical axis of the One K i l o T o n ( 1 K T ) detector found problems w i t h the position reconstruction a manipulation system was built. T h e goal of this manipulation system was to allow exploration of the entire 1 K T volume w i t h a calibration source. T h e design required the manipulation system to place the calibration source to ~ 1 c m accuracy i n the 1 K T , and to avoid all contact w i t h the photomultiplier tubes monitoring the tank volume. T h i s manipulation system was built and tested at T R I U M F (Tri-University Meson Facility) and deployed i n the 1 K T detector at K E K . T h e results of the optical position reconstruction indicate a reconstruction bias of unknown origin at high occupancy.  iii  Contents Abstract  ii  Contents  iii  List of Tables . . .  vi viii  List of Figures  xi  Acknowledgements  I  Thesis  1  Introduction 1.1 Neutrinos 1.1.1 Problems 1.1.2 Theory 1.1.3 Extension to Three Neutrinos 1.1.4 Previous Experiments 1.2 T h e K 2 K Experiment 1.3 T h e K E K P r o t o n Synchrotron A n d B e a m L i n e 1.3.1 T h e Neutrino B e a m 1.4 Near Detector 1.4.1 One K i l o t o n Water Cerenkov Detector 1.4.2 T h e F i n e Grained Detector 1.5 T h e Super-Kamiokande Detector 1.6 T h e G l o b a l Positioning System . . .  2  1 K T E x p l o r a t i o n W i t h A Diffuser B a l l O n A S t r i n g 2.1 Detector Setup for O p t i c a l C a l i b r a t i o n 2.1.1 Laserball D a t a  xii 1 1 2 5 8 9 9 12 13 16 17 25 27 28 . . . .  30 31 33  Contents 2.2 2.3  2.4  O p t i c a l fit for Laserball Position Position Bias and the T i m e Charge Correction 2.3.1 W i d t h of the Integration Gate 2.3.2 T i m e Charge Correction Problem 2.3.3 Reconstruction Bias Conclusion on Laserball Study  iv 33 38 38 38 40 42  3  Manipulator Construction 3.1 M o t i v a t i o n 3.2 Hardware 3.3 Electronics 3.3.1 L i m i t and Safety Systems 3.3.2 T h e Manipulator Coordinate Systems 3.3.3 Manipulator Position 3.3.4 T h e Manipulator G U I 3.4 Construction and Assembly 3.5 C a l i b r a t i o n 3.5.1 Wobble 3.5.2 T o t a l Station 3.6 M a n i p u l a t o r Setup A t The 1 K T  44 44 44 48 51 54 54 59 62 62 65 65 69  4  M a n i p u l a t o r D a t a and Analysis 4.1 D a t a Taken In Japan 4.1.1 Reconstruction Bias and F i d u c i a l Volume Study . . . . 4.1.2 U p / D o w n A s y m m e t r y and Energy Scale 4.1.3 Scattering and Particle Identification 4.2 Reconstruction 4.2.1 Saturation C u t 4.2.2 Geometrical Shadow C u t 4.2.3 T i m i n g and Outlier C u t 4.2.4 N o m i n a l Laserball Position 4.2.5 Results of the Reconstruction 4.3 Discussion  74 74 75 75 76 76 78 78 78 81 81 87  5  Conclusion  92  Bibliography  93  .v  Contents A  D a t a W i t h Laserball O n A String  .  96  B  Manipulator Data  100  C  Analysis Code C . l Ntuple Generator C.2 Position Reconstruction  119 119 121  vi  List of Tables 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  K E K B e a m Accelerator Components [1] v B e a m Composition A t Origin [2] G P S Survey of K 2 K Target and Far Detector Properties of the 20-inch Hamamatsu Photomultiplier Tubes ( P M T s ) used i n the 1 K T [1] and [3] '. Basic Information on the Super-Kamiokande Detector  19 28  3.1 3.2  M a n i p u l a t o r drive motor specifications Boundaries for the Manipulator L i m i t A n d Safety Systems [4]  49 58  4.1  Solid angle subtended by more and less responsive areas of the photodiode as seen by the laserball as it moves close to the P M T . The photodiode is modeled as a hemisphere. T h e central part is 0° to 2° from the top of the of the hemisphere. T h e middle part is defined as 2° to 10° from the top of the hemisphere. The rest is qualified as the Outer part  91  A . l D a t a Taken W i t h Laserball on String A . 2 D a t a Taken W i t h Laserball on String Part 2 A . 3 D a t a Taken W i t h Laserball on String Part 3 B. l B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8 B.9 B.10  Summary of Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator  manipulator runs taken at K E K runs table 2 runs table 3 runs table 4 runs table 5 runs table 6 runs table 7 runs table 8 runs table 9 runs table 10  13 14 15  97 98 99 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110  List of Tables B.ll B.12 B.13 B.14 B.15 B.16 B.17 B.18  Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator Manipulator  runs runs runs runs runs runs runs runs  table table table table table table table table  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  vii Ill 112 113 114 115 116 117 118  Vlll  List of Figures 1.1 1.2  1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17  Generations of M a t t e r 2 Energy spectra of neutrinos emitted by the sun and labeled by the reactions that produce those neutrinos [5] 3 Results of the S u p e r - K neutrino oscillation measurement. T h i s zenith result comes from investigating the muon neutrino anisotropy [6] v Propagation and Oscillation 8 Solar Neutrino Results 10 Atmospheric Neutrino Results 11 K 2 K Layout 12 v B e a m Schematic 13 B e a m M C without Oscillation . 15 Near Detector 16 1 K T Schematic 18 Schematic of 20in P M T 20 1 K T Water Purification System 21 1 K T D a t a Acquisition System . . 23 1 K T Coordinate Systems 24 1 K T F i d u c i a l Volume 26 T h e Super-Kamiokande Detector 29  2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7  Laser C a l i b r a t i o n Setup F i n d i n g the t i m i n g peak O p t i c a l F i t t i n g for the Laserball Position E r r o r on F i t t e d Laserball Position Laserball Reconstruction w i t h 10ns Gate Laserball Position w i t h new T Q - M a p Laserball Monte Carlo Results  32 35 36 37 39 41 43  3.1 3.2  Manipulator in 1 K T Support of the manipulator  46 47  1.3  List of Figures 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19  M a n i p u l a t o r Joints Schematic of the Manipulator Control System [4] Inclinometer B o a r d Side view of manipulator coordinate system Top view of the manipulator coordinate system M a n i p u l a t o r Coordinate System Manipulator G U I Manual Control G U I M a n i p u l a t o r Support Test Setup Test setup of the Manipulator M a n i p u l a t o r Vertical Section Wobble A - A r m L i m i t Inclinometer Correction B - A r m L i m i t Inclinometer Correction M a n i p u l a t o r Insertion step one Manipulator insertion step two Manipulator insertion last step C a n a d i a n G r o u p at K E K w i t h the Manipulator  T i m e distribution from a run using the ball on a string. Note that all P M T s gave mean times w i t h i n a window less than 3ns wide 4.2 A D C Saturation 4.3 M a n i p u l a t o r shadow as determined by geometrical ray tracing. T h e crooked line i n the middle represents the location of the arms 4.4 Uncorrected Position Offsets 4.5 G o o d agreement between nominal and fit positions for the low occupancy d a t a w i t h all cuts and corrections 4.6 The nominal and fit positions for the high occupancy d a t a disagree even after all cuts and corrections are applied 4.7 Uncorrected Position Bias 4.8 M a n i p u l a t o r Reconstruction Bias 4.9 M a n i p u l a t o r O p t i c a l F i t Accuracy 4.10 Position reconstruction bias between high and low occupancy data 4.11 Average P M T t i m i n g differences between high and low occupancy as a function of distance between P M T and laserball. .  ix 48 50 53 55 56 57 60 61 63 64 66 67 68 70 71 72 73  4.1  77 79  80 82 83 84 85 86 88 89 90  List of Figures C.l  F l o w chart of analysis code used for the manipulator  x 120  xi  Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor D r . Scott Oser, who motivated this work and greatly supported the work on the manipulator project. I would also like to thank D r . R i c h a r d Helmer, the supervisor of the manipulator project at T R I U M F . T h e project of course would not have been possible without the hard work of the designers D a v i d Morris ( T R I U M F ) , and M a r k Lenkowski (University of V i c t o r i a ) . I would also like to thank D r . Peter K i t c h i n g , D r . Shaomin Chen, D r . A k i r a K o n a k a and D r . Issei K a t o for their assistance and knowledge about the details of the 1KT and the K2K experiment. F i n a l l y I would like to thank K e i t h Hoyle ( T R I U M F ) who was of great help i n the final assembly of the manipulator. I would like to acknowledge R i c h Helmer for upgrading my flight from Tokyo to Vancouver to first class, allowing me to beat Zelda i n flight as well as C a d b u r y Schweppes for their Japanese distribution of D r . Pepper.  Part I Thesis  i  Chapter 1 Introduction F i r s t I w i l l talk about the history of neutrinos from the first predictions to their current place i n the Standard M o d e l of particle physics. I w i l l also give a short introduction to the experiments that uncovered the rich field that neutrino physics is today. Next I w i l l discuss the K 2 K ( K E K to K a m i o k a ) experiment and the results of its data run. F i n a l l y the near detector system, which the rest of this work will be on, is discussed.  1.1  Neutrinos  In 1931 G e r m a n physicist Wolfgang P a u l i postulated a uncharged particle to save conservation of energy i n nuclear beta decay [7]. Enrico Fermi took Pauli's idea and used it i n his theory of nuclear decays and dubbed the particle "neutrino" (Italian for "little neutral one"). U n t i l 1953 neutrinos were only needed as a tool to explain missing energy and momentum i n beta decays (n^ decays for example). Clyde L . Cowan, J r and Frederick Reines first observed neutrinos by this reaction [8]: P+ p  +  ^P  +  + n°  (1.1)  Figure 1.1 shows where neutrinos fit into the current picture of the constituents of matter. T h e first piece of information to take from Figure 1.1 is that we have two different types of matter, quarks, which make up hadrons, and leptons. T h e quarks and leptons are further separated i n two rows: quarks w i t h charge q = + | are i n the top row, those w i t h q = — | are placed in the second row. T h e chargeless leptons (neutrinos) are i n the t h i r d row, and charged leptons i n the last row. Furthermore the particles are organized in three columns by their "flavor". For example the first pair of leptons, the e and u , are of electron flavor. Interactions of leptons conserve the total number of leptons as well as lepton flavor. Thus the two quarks (or leptons) of each flavor are associated, meaning that if you see one i n a reaction, you e  Leptons Quarks  Chapter  up  H  1.  charm  V  electron  photon  2  j  b  \ggluon  bottom  Ve H  electron neutrino  I T  top  s  2  Introduction  II  |Z  muon tau neutrino! 1 neutrino  Z Boson  Vaal  O w  |^ 1 1 \XL ,  t  Figure 1.1: M a t t e r consists of either hadrons (quarks) or leptons. E a c h comes in three flavor generations. T h e first generation holds the lightest and thus stable fundamental particles while the second and t h i r d generations hold the heavier counterparts which decay. w i l l likely see the other. Quarks do not conserve flavor, as described by the C K M m a t r i x described i n the next section. A n t i m a t t e r is organized i n the same way, just that the internal quantum numbers (like charge, or lepton number) are reversed. For example i n beta decay an electron is produced and to balance the total number of leptons and the total number of electronlike particles an electron anti-neutrino is produced as an up quark changes into a down quark (eg. E q u a t i o n 1.2). d —* uei>  e  (1.2)  Cowan and Reines observed the anti-neutrino associated w i t h the electron. In 1962 the Brookhaven National Laboratory ( B N L ) and C E R N reported that neutrinos created i n muon decays behave differently from neutrinos produced in beta decays [9] establishing the existence of a second k i n d of neutrino, called v^. T o finish off our current picture the D O N U T experiment found the r neutrino [10], thus giving an uncharged partner to every charged lepton.  1.1.1  Problems  Solar Neutrinos The Sun is a natural source of neutrinos, which are produced i n the fusion reactions fueling the Sun. Figure 1.2 shows the energy spectra of neutrinos emitted by the Sun. These spectra are calculated using measurements from  Chapter 1.  Introduction  3  Figure 1.2: Energy spectra of neutrinos emitted by the sun and labeled by the reactions that produce those neutrinos [5].  Chapter  1.  Introduction  4  helio-seismology as constraints on the standard solar model. T h i s allows the calculation of the rates for the reactions producing neutrinos i n the Sun. R a y Davis d i d the first experiment looking at solar neutrinos at Homestake i n 1964 [11]. T h e number of neutrinos observed by Davis d i d not agree w i t h the flux predicted using helio-seismology and the standard solar model [12]. In fact Davis observed about a t h i r d of the neutrinos that were expected using the solar model. Later the Kamiokande, Sage and G A L L E X experiments also saw fewer solar neutrinos than predicted. T h e inspiration to explain this problem came from quark flavor mixing. In the decay shown i n E q u a t i o n 1.3 a strange quark turns into a down quark: A° -> pir~  (1.3)  T h i s means that the flavor i n quarks is not conserved as it is i n leptons. T h e Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa ( C K M ) m a t r i x describes this "mixing" of quark flavors: f d'\ V v s' s V (1.4) b v v Vtta J V ) ud  ub  cd  td  tb  where the V - m a t r i x is the C K M matrix. T h e u, c and t are coupled i n C C interactions to d', s' and b' respectively, rather than the original d, s and b quarks. T h i s allows reactions i n which quark flavor changes. T h e inconsistency between neutrino observations and the solar model prediction can be explained by neutrino oscillations which follow from a similar m i x i n g to the quark mixing described i n E q u a t i o n 1.4 [13]. Neutrino oscillation w i l l be discussed i n Section 1.1.2.  Atmospheric Neutrinos Neutrino oscillations were first observed w i t h the Super-Kamiokande experiment. T h e Super-Kamiokande experiment now is the far detector for the K 2 K experiment. Atmospheric neutrinos are produced i n hadronic showers caused by cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. M o s t cosmic rays are protons or light nuclei. W h e n these hit the upper atmosphere a hadronic shower composed of pions and a few other light hadrons is caused. Since over 95% of a l l neutrinos below lOOGeV come from the (charged) pion decay chain and Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande are sensitive to neutrinos w i t h less  Chapter  1.  Introduction  5  energy t h a n 8 G e V , we can ignore the other hadron decay chains [14]. E q u a t i o n l . 5 shows the relevant decays: p  ±  -y e  ±  + u (u ) + vJyVy) e  e  T h e final state electron quickly dissipates i n the atmosphere only leaving some photons. So we expect to see two muon-(anti)neutrinos for every elect r o n (anti)neutrino. T h e Kamiokande and S K detector cannot tell the matter and antimatter states apart, thus we sum over the two. T h i s ratio holds even when considering a large range of other particles i n the hadronic showers and a larger window of neutrino energies [14, 15]. Furthermore the cosmic radiation incident upon the atmosphere is isotropic, and neutrino interactions w i t h matter are negligible. Thus we expect to see an isotropic distribution of neutrinos from the Super-Kamiokande experiment. Super-K found that neutrinos oscillate by observing an anisotropic muon neutrino flux and by comparing theoretical and experimental ratios of muon to electron neutrinos. Figure 1.3 shows the results of the Super-K experiment.  1.1.2  Theory  Since neutrinos are chargeless leptons they only feel the weak force (neglecting gravity). A s such neutrino interactions are lumped into two categories: Charged Current ( C C ) when the weak force mediator is a W and N e u t r a l Current ( N C ) when the weak force is mediated by the Z ° . T o observe the neutrino oscillations I talked about i n the last section we have to assume that the flavor (interaction) and mass (propagation) eigenstates of neutrinos are not the same. ±  Two Neutrino Oscillation To simplify this explanation let us consider a model where only two v exist and oscillate. E q u a t i o n 1.6 shows a just after it is created. Here is the interaction eigenstate that couples to the muon and z/ and v are the two mass eigenstates. Since b o t h interaction and mass eigenstates form a complete basis for a l l neutrinos we can write one as a linear combination of the other. = cos flu | vi) + s i n c 9 | ^ ) \v ) = - s i n 0i21 i^i) + c o s 0 i | f ) 2  12  T  2  2  2  3  Chapter 1. Introduction  0  Figure 1.3: Results of the Super-K neutrino oscillation measurement. T h i s zenith result comes from investigating the muon neutrino anisotropy [6]  Chapter  1.  E q u a t i o n 1.7 adds time dependence to the chanics:  \u (x,t))  = -e-  r  l ( £ l f  -  as predicted by quantum me-  sin ^ l ^ i ) + e ^  p l 5 )  7  Introduction  2  (1.7)  ' - ^ cosr?^)  Note from E q u a t i o n 1.7 that neutrino oscillation only occur if the propagation eigenstates of the neutrinos have different masses. If we express the mass eigenstates i n terms of flavor states by solving E q u a t i o n 1.6 for the mass states we have: Q  -t{Eit-pi-x)  e  0  -t(.E t-p2-x)  e  2  (1.8) Where X(6) is the rotation matrix: cos 6 sin 6 — sin 0 cos 9 Now assuming we start of w i t h a muon neutrino, as we do at K 2 K we obtain the probability of observing a tauon neutrino by E q u a t i o n 1.9: <i/> (x,t)) = P ^ v  r  = sin (2g 2  Vr  )sin ( 2  1 2  L 2 7  E  ^  m i 2 L  (1.9)  )  Here A m = i 2 ^ e mass squared difference i n e V , L is the distance traveled (in k m ) , and E is the total energy of the neutrino (in G e V ) . N o w you can see that we should only observe neutrino oscillations i f neutrinos have mass and those masses differ between the different neutrino mass eigenstates. F r o m the results of the Super-K experiment [6] we take an estimate of A m and tune E such that knowing L we measure A m f precisely. Note that if: 2  m  —  m  1 S  n  2  2  2  2  1.27Am L 2  2nE  »  1  (1.10)  the probability of finding either flavor averages to 5, i f s i n 2#i2 = 1. Figure 1.4 shows the probability to observe the neutrino of the original flavor (P -* = 0) or the neutrino of the oscillated flavor (P ->u = 1) depending on when you observe the neutrino. 2  Vii  Ut  Vli  T  Chapter  1.  Introduction  8  Figure 1.4: T h e probability for a neutrino of flavor p to oscillate into neutrino of flavor r after traveling a distance L (km) at energy E ( G e V ) . T h e mass squared difference was taken to be A m = 3 • 1 0 eV for s i n 29 = 1 as taken from the latest K 2 K results [16]. 2  1.1.3  - 3  2  2  Extension to Three Neutrinos  Since we have three generations of neutrinos we must do this for each of the three possible combinations. D o i n g this we obtain E q u a t i o n 1.11. (1.11) Here I is the lepton (e, r ) associated w i t h v\ and the Vi are the neutrino mass eigenstates. U is the Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata ( M N S ) m a t r i x [17] describing neutrino mixing and is analogous to the C K M m a t r i x describing quark mixing. It is more convenient to look at the M N S m a t r i x broken into three matrices each describing oscillations involving two of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. -iS Sl3 1 0 0 0 0 Cl3 Cl2 Sl2 U = 0 0 1 0 -Sl2 Cl2 0 023 0 -S23 C 3 -e s 1 0 0 0 c Here sij — sin 9ij and = cos 6ij and 8 is a phase factor that introduces lS  2  13  1 3  C P violation for the neutrino sector. T h e first m a t r i x (23-mixing) is maxim a l (ie 0 3 ~ | ) and can be investigated by atmospheric and long baseline 2  Chapter  1.  Introduction  9  neutrino experiments. In the second m a t r i x (13-mixing) the m i x i n g angle is small (similar to quark mixing) w i t h #13 < ^ . Solar neutrino experiments found the last m a t r i x (12-mixing) to show large but non-maximal m i x i n g w i t h 0i2 « § [18].  1.1.4  Previous Experiments  Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation i n 1998 the mixing angles of the M N S m a t r i x have been investigated thoroughly. T h e Super-K group measured the disappearance interpreted as u^ *-* u oscillation by observing atmospheric neutrinos. T h i s observation gives the m i x i n g angle 023 as s i n 20 > 0.92 and 1.5 • 10~ < A m ^ < 3.4 • 1 0 " eV (at 90% confidence) for the associated mass eigenstates [6]. Together the S N O and K a m L A N D experiment have measured u <-> i / / mixing, which allows the measurement T  2  3  3  2  3  e  M  T  of flu = 33.911:2 i 2 = (S-O-cL) • g neutrinos produced i n the Sun [19] or i n reactors. T h e allowed mass squared differences and mixing angles for the neutrino mass eigenstates are summarized i n Figure 1.5 for the results from solar neutrinos and Figure 1.6 for long baseline neutrino experiments. a  1.2  n  d  A m  1  0  -  5  e  V  2  u s i n  The K 2 K Experiment  T h e K E K to K a m i o k a ( K 2 K ) is the first accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, and measures the same oscillation as atmospheric neutrino experiments such as Super-K. T h e K 2 K experiment confirmed Up <-> u oscillation seen by experiments like Super-K [6] at greater t h a n 4fj significance [16]. T h e K 2 K measurement uses an accelerator-made neutrino beam and measures the energy-dependent difference between the u^ flux measured at near (300 m from the beam origin) and far (250 km) detectors. T h e neutrino oscillation parameters are fitted by predicting the neutrino flux and spectrum for the far detector based upon the measurement from the near detector. To measure u^ <-> u oscillation K 2 K uses a muon neutrino (u^) beam made at the K E K accelerator site that is aimed at the Super-K detector i n K a m i o k a . T h e neutrino beam is made by scattering 12 G e V protons off an a l u m i n u m target and focusing the produced n into a decay pipe using two horn magnets. T h e pions decay to give a 98% pure muon neutrino T  T  +  Chapter 1. Introduction  10  Figure 1.5: T h e allowed region for mass squared difference and m i x i n g angle for the solar neutrino sector. D a t a from S N O , K a m L A N D , Gallex, and S A G E [19].  Chapter 1. Introduction  11  Figure 1.6: T h e allowed region i n mass squared difference a n d mixing angle for the atmospheric neutrino sector according to the K 2 K long baseline experiment.  Chapter  1.  Introduction  12  Figure 1.7: T h e K 2 K experiment fires a beam made at the K E K accelerator at the Super-Kamiokande detector through 250 k m of earth. T h e near (or front) and Super-Kamiokande (or far) detector measure the muon neutrino flux. Neutrino oscillation is measured through disappearance [20]. beam. T h e neutrinos travel a distance of L = 250 k m w i t h mean beam energy E = 1.3 G e V through the island of Honshu i n Japan as displayed i n Figure 1.7.  1.3  The K E K Proton Synchrotron A n d B e a m Line  The v beam is produced at K E K by a synchrotron that accelerates protons to 12 G e V ( K E K - P S ) . T h e protons are accelerated step by step as summarized i n Table 1.1. Protons are inserted into the accelerator i n spills which occur every 2.2 s. E a c h spill carries 7 • 1 0 protons i n nine "bunches" separated by 120 ns. In total then a spill of protons (from first to ninth bunch) lasts 1.1 ps. To accelerate the protons i n a spill to 12GeV they must go through the M a i n R i n g . After one cycle i n the m a i n ring the protons are extracted though a beam pipe leading to the target. O n the way to the target the beam profile 12  Chapter 1. Introduction  13  Table 1.1: K E K B e a m Accelerator Components [1] Accelerator Component Pre-injector LINAC BOOSTER Main Ring  «•! 250km  -+ 300m  F i n a l Proton Energy 750 k e V 40 M e V 500 M e V 12 G e V  200m  Figure 1.8: Schematic of the K 2 K neutrino beam generation and travel. and intensity are carefully monitored. T h e position of the proton beam needs to be known accurately such that the final neutrino beam is properly directed at the far detector. F i n a l l y the spill of protons hits the target. A t this point about (5 — 6) • 1 0 protons are left i n the nine bunches. 1 2  1.3.1  The Neutrino Beam  Figure 1.8 shows a schematic of the K 2 K experiment. T h e proton beam hits the aluminum target creating a pion beam. T h e target is a 66cm long cylinder w i t h a 3cm diameter. It is made of 6061-t aluminum alloy [1].  The Horn Magnets T w o so-called "horn magnets" are cylindrically symmetric magnets that create a toroidal magnetic field. T h e y function on a 250 k A current pulse lasting for 2 msec on a 2.2 s cycle. T h i s pulse current is synchronized w i t h the beam spills. T h e horn magnets operate on this pulsed current to prevent overheating. T h e target is inside the first horn magnet forming the conductor core for the magnet. T h e second magnet is placed 10.5 meters downstream. T h e  Chapter  1.  Introduction  14  Table 1.2: v B e a m Composition A t O r i g i n [2] Particle  Fraction of B e a m  Source Low Energy: ix H i g h Energy: K  97.3%  +  +  v»  7T~  —•  or  decay  1.3% 1.5% 0.018%  toroidal magnetic field created by the horn magnets focuses positive particles (mostly 7 r + ) created at the target down the decay pipe. T h e horn magnets effectively reduce the transverse momentum of positive particles by 100 M e V per meter of longitudinal travel though the magnet [2]. Negative particles produced at the target are dispersed by the magnetic field.  Decay Volume T h e decay volume starts 19 m downstream of the target. T h e decay volume is a 200 m long cylindrical tunnel. T h e diameter of the tunnel is 1.5 m , 2 m and 3 m for the following 10 m , 90 m and 100 m sections respectively. 7 r entering the tunnel have a momentum of 2-3 G e V / c . W h i l e traveling through the decay volume the 7 r ' s decay as displayed i n E q u a t i o n 1.12: +  +  7T + - + U+V^  (1.12)  T h e transverse momentum of the p and the after the decay are small compared to the momentum of the pion. Thus the neutrino is emitted w i t h i n a few 10 m r a d from the forward direction (toward Super-K). Table 1.2 summarizes the beam composition just after the decay volume according to the beam M o n t e Carlo. T h e muons produced i n the pion decay are detected by the M U M O N detector at the beam dump. T h i s muon monitor measures whether the beam is on target.  Beam A i m Figure 1.9 shows the neutrino flux and neutrino energies off the beam axis. A s you can see from Figure 1.9 it is imperative that the beam is aimed at  Chapter 1. Introduction  15  R[km|  E,"(G»V)  Figure 1.9: M o n t e C a r l o simulation of the K 2 K neutrino beam without neutrino oscillation. T h e left gives the neutrino flux 250km downstream of the target at some transverse distance R from the Super-K detector. T h e right display gives the neutrino energy distribution on the beam axis a n d 4mrad, 8mrad and 12mrad off the axis [1]. Table 1.3: G P S Survey of K 2 K Target and F a r Detector K 2 K Component Target Super-K Center  Latitude 36°09'14.9531"iV 36°25'32.5867"iV  Longitude 140°04'16.3303"£ 137°18'37.1214"£  Altitude 70.218 m 371.839 m  Super-K to w i t h i n a milliradian to properly understand the flux and energy spectrum of the beam neutrinos. T h i s has been accomplished through a G P S survey. Table 1.3 gives the locations of the target and the center of the far detector according to a G P S survey. Using this survey the required beampipe direction is determined to an accuracy of O.Olmrad [21]. T h e components of the K 2 K beam were aligned such that the beam is pointing at the center of the Super-K detector w i t h a n accuracy of O.lmrad. T h e M U M O N confirms the beam is lined up.  Chapter 1. Introduction  16  SciFi Detector  Figure 1.10: T h e Near Detector consists of four detector systems: T h e 1 K T water Cerenkov detector, the S c i F i , SciBar and M R D detectors [20]. T h e S c i F i , SciBar and M R D together constitute the F G D system.  1.4  Near Detector  The near detector measures the i / flux 300m from the production target along a line between the target and Super-K. Figure 1.10 shows the near detector components. T h e first part of the near detector heading along the particle beam is the 1 K T water Cerenkov detector. Next is the S c i F i detector, which is a water-based scintillating fiber detector. After the S c i F i detector the neutrino beam moves through SciBar, a fine segmented, fully active scintillation tracker. Originally K 2 K was using a lead-glass calorimeter instead of SciBar. Last the neutrinos pass the M u o n Range Detector ( M R D ) . T h e S c i F i , SciBar (previously Lead Glass Calorimeter) a n d M R D together are referred to as the Fine-Grained Detector system ( F G D ) . T h i s thesis concerns the calibration of the 1 K T detector, thus I w i l l focus on the 1 K T here. M  Chapter  1.4.1  1.  Introduction  17  One Kiloton Water Cerenkov Detector  T h e 1 K T detector is a smaller replica of the Super-Kamiokande (far) detector. T h e 1 K T and the Super-K detectors measure the flux and energy spectrum at b o t h ends of the beam which are used to infer the oscillation parameters. Using the 1 K T for the flux normalization is advantageous since the greatest uncertainties i n the absolute flux measurement arise from the interaction cross-section for neutrinos w i t h the detector material. Since the 1 K T and the Super-K detector b o t h use H 0 for the detector bulk this uncertainty cancels. T h e 1 K T detector also gives a good high statistics measurement of neutrino-water interactions. 2  Physical Design Figure 1.11 shows a schematic of the 1 K T tank. T h e 1 K T is a cylinder 10.8 m high and 10.8 m i n diameter. Black and Tyvec sheets covering the metal support frame for the photomultiplier tubes separate the 1 K T detector into two optically isolated parts: • T h e Inner Detector (ID) is the volume inside the support frame. T h e I D forms a cylinder of 8.6 m i n height and diameter. T h e I D is monitored by 680 20-inch R3600 H a m a m a t s u Photomultiplier Tubes. Table 1.4 summarizes the properties of the 20-inch P M T s used i n the I D . F i g ure 1.12 gives a schematic view of a P M T . T h e 680 P M T s are arranged along the top, b o t t o m and wall of the support frame on a grid spacing the centers of the P M T s 70 cm apart. T h e wall of the 1 K T carries 456 P M T s organized i n 38 columns of 12 P M T s each. T h e top and b o t t o m are covered i n 112 P M T s each. • T h e Outer Detector ( O D ) is the water region between the support frame and the outer wall of the 1 K T detector. T h i s region is 1 m thick along the barrel and 0.6 m thick at the b o t t o m of the tank. T h e O D is monitored by 68 8-inch P M T s that provide a veto against cosmic muons. Downgoing muons are rejected by the signal i n the P M T s at the b o t t o m of the 1 K T . T h e P M T arrangement i n the inner detector is the same as i n the Super-K detector giving a 40% optical coverage along the walls.  Chapter  1.  Introduction  18  Figure 1.11: T h e 1 K T is a water Cerenkov detector containing approximately 1000 tons of H 0 . Its inner volume is monitored by 680 20-inch P h o t o m u l tiplier Tubes ( P M T s ) . T h e outer detector volume is monitored by 68 smaller (8-inch) outward looking P M T s . T h e outward looking P M T s are mounted on the front t h i r d of the barrel (facing into the beam) and on the b o t t o m of the support frame facing downward. 2  Chapter  1.  Introduction  19  Table 1.4: Properties of the 20-inch Hamamatsu ( P M T s ) used i n the 1 K T [1] and [3]  P M T Property Photo-cathode A r e a Shape Window Material Photo-cathode M a t e r i a l Dynodes Q u a n t u m efficiency Sensitive Wavelength Typical Gain D a r k Current D a r k Pulse Rate Cathode non-uniformity A n o d e non-uniformity Manufacturer T i m e Resolution for Single P . E . T i m e Resolution for M a n y P . E .  Photomultiplier Tubes  Value 50cm Diameter Hemispherical P y r e x Glass 4-5mm Bialkali ( S b - K - C s ) 11 stages, Venetian b l i n d style 22% at A = 390nm 300 to 600nm, peak at 390nm 10 at ca. 2 k V 200 n A at 10 gain 3kHz at 10 gain < 10% <40% Hamamatsu Photonics Corporation ~3ns ~0.5ns 7  7  7  Chapter  1.  Introduction  20  < <> 520 photosensitive area > § 460 l  B 3  -70000  Figure 1.12: Schematic of the 20in P M T used i n the 1 K T detector  Chapter 1. Introduction  21  fast recirculation  Figure 1.13: Schematic of the 1 K T water purification system. Water is pumped through these filters at a rate of 20 tons per hour. D o t t e d lines are optional water pipes [1]. The E a r t h ' s magnetic field affects the P M T response. T o cancel the geomagnetic field nine horizontal and seven vertical Helmholtz coils have been set up around the 1 K T detector. Figure 1.11 shows the room above the inner detector. T h i s cavity permits access to the detector through a small ~ 1 m by 1 m hatch on the side of the upper deck.  The Water System Particles dissolved i n the detector's water volume w i l l scatter the light traveling i n the tank. Since scattering w i l l change the t i m i n g signal from the P M T s i n the 1 K T the water must be as pure as possible. T o ensure water quality the water i n the 1 K T is pumped through a series of filters at a rate of 20 tons per hour. Figure 1.13 is a schematic of the 1 K T water purification system. A p u m p next to the 1 K T i n the near detector pit pumps the water out of the 1 K T into the filter system. First the p r e - U V and ultraviolet ( U V ) filters k i l l any bacteria i n the water. Next metallic ions i n the water are removed by a deionizer. T h e n a filter removes a l l particles larger than about 1 / i m i n diameter. F i n a l l y the ultra-filter removes particles larger then 10 n m i n diameter. After the filtering process the chiller cools the water to 1 0 ° C . The water purity is monitored by measuring the water's electrical resistivity. For regular operation the resistivity of the water is kept to 10 MQ/cm.  Chapter  1.  Introduction  22  T h e attenuation length of the water under these conditions was determined to be A = 50 m using Cerenkov light (wavelength ~390 nm) from cosmic rays [1].  The l K T ' s Data Acquisition System Figure 1.14 displays the general data flow for the data acquisition system of the 1 K T detector. T h e raw signal from each P M T is transferred though a coaxial cable from the 1 K T detector to an electronics hut. Sine the operation of the electronics is dependent on their temperature the electronics hut is always air-conditioned to keep the temperature below 2 5 ° C . P M T s are put into groups of 12. Next the signal from each P M T is split into four. T h e four signals lead into: • T w o independent analog-to-digital converters ( A D C s ) . T h e conversion for the A D C s is 0.15 p C / c o u n t . • A discriminator which sends its output to two time-to-digital converters. T h i s discriminator also provides the timeout signal for the analog to digital conversion i n the A D C s and T D C s . T h e discriminator threshold is set to a voltage corresponding to 0.3 photoelectrons, and the T D C conversion factor is 0.4 ns/count. • T h e P M T S U M , which determines the analog sum of each P M T i n a group of 12. A l l P M T S U M signals are added and sent to one F l a s h A n a log to D i g i t a l Converter ( F A D C ) w i t h a 500 M H z sampling frequency and 8 bit resolution. T h e number of events i n a spill are recorded by counting the number of peaks i n the signal shape read out by the FADC. T h e two A D C s and T D C s for each P M T channel are organized on A n a l o g T i m i n g Modules ( A T M s ) originally developed for Super-K. E a c h A T M holds the A D C s as well as T D C s for twelve P M T s and F i r s t In F i r s t O u t ( F I F O ) data storage for each. T h e A T M s are organized into T K O modules as displayed i n Figure 1.14. T h e T K O modules also hold a Super-Control-Head ( S C H ) data storage for the A D C and T D C signals from each A T M . Furthermore the T K O module has a G o / N o t G o ( G O N G ) module which tells the A T M s to store their data to the S C H if it receives a trigger 1.1 ps after the A T M gets hit w i t h data from P M T s . F i n a l l y each A T M module has a discriminator that generates a rectangular voltage pulse 200 ns long and 10 m V  Chapter  1.  Introduction  23  Figure 1.14: A flow chart displaying the data flow from the P M T s to the readout electronics [1].  Chapter  1.  24  Introduction  y  y  X  z  Beam Coordinates  neutrino beam  x  Tank Coordinates  Figure 1.15: T h e beam and tank coordinate systems are important when working w i t h the 1 K T detector. In the figure the x-axis on the left and the y axis on the right point into the page. high for each P M T that records a hit. T h i s pulse is called the H I T S U M and the combined H I T S U M from a l l A T M s gives the number of hit P M T s (also called the occupancy) of the event. For usual operation beam timing provides an enable signal synchronized w i t h the beam spills letting the T K O modules (four crates containing the A T M modules for a l l the P M T s i n the 1 K T ) receive data for 1.3 LIS. T h e data taken for this thesis is all calibration data, and the beam t i m i n g signal is replaced by a trigger created by a photo diode pulsed by the calibration laser. Four V M E crates (one for each T K O module) are used to record the data from the S C H i n the T K O modules. Finally, if more then 40 P M T s were hit the trigger crate enables the data read out and the computers read i n the events. Since we may want to read out events w i t h less than 40 hit P M T s for the optical calibration this trigger is not used here either, and instead a l l triggered events are read out.  1 K T Coordinate Systems Figure 1.15 shows the two coordinate systems that are important i n the 1 K T detector, the:  Chapter  1.  Introduction  25  • B e a m Coordinate System, and • Tank Coordinate System The tank coordinate system is used for our calibration analysis. T h e beam coordinate system is used for the regular data analysis i n the 1 K T tank and the official M o n t e Carlo.  Fiducial Volume Figure 1.16 shows the three fiducial volumes that are used i n the 1 K T neutrino analysis: • Volume A is a large cylinder aligned w i t h the 1 K T , 6m i n height and 6m i n diameter. Volume A is centered on the center of the 1 K T . • Volume B also is a cylinder centered on the center of the 1 K T , but the axis of the cylinder is aligned w i t h the neutrino beam. Volume B is 4 m in length and 4 m i n diameter. • Volume C is the upsteam half of volume B . For neutrino data i n the 1 K T we consider events that have a vertex originating i n fiducial volume C . Volume A is used to measure the neutrino beam profile and volume B is used to ensure the stability of the neutrino event rate.  1.4.2  The Fine Grained Detector  The fine grained detector ( F G D ) gives a neutrino flux and spectrum measurement independent of the 1 K T water Cerenkov detector. T h e basic concepts of the F G D w i l l be outlined here for completeness, but since the calibration of the 1 K T only marginally depends upon the F G D this description w i l l not be so detailed. The fine grained detector measures a l l of the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions, which the 1 K T cannot do very accurately, since some of the heavier particles are below Cerenkov threshold i n the 1 K T . T h e 1 K T measures the neutrino flux to compare to the flux at Super-K. T h i s the 1 K T can do better than the F G D because the target material is the same as for Super-K thus cancelling the significant uncertainty i n the neutrino interaction cross-section for the detector materials.  Chapter  1.  Introduction  26  Figure 1.16: O n l y neutrino events that reconstruct i n fiducial volume C are considered for the neutrino flux and energy measurement used i n the K 2 K analysis [1].  Chapter  1.  Introduction  27  Scintillating Fiber Tracker T h e S c i F i detector is composed of twenty 2.6 m by 2.6 m tracking modules containing two layers of horizontal and vertical scintillating sheets made of 0.692 m m fibers. T h e tracking layers are placed 9 c m apart. In between the 20 tracking layers 19 aluminum tanks contain a total of 6 tons of water. Charged particles produced i n neutrino interactions are tracked using the scintillation light they cause i n the fibers i n the tracking layers. T h e scintillating fibers are read out by C C D cameras w i t h image intensifiers.  Scintillating Bar T h e Scintillating B a r (SciBar) detector was an upgrade to K 2 K replacing the lead glass calorimeter. A total of 14,848 scintillating bars, each 1.3 c m thick, 2.5 c m wide and 300 c m long, were produced at Fermilab [22] for use i n the SciBar detector. Now they are arranged i n 64 alternating layers of horizontal and vertical bars. T h i s gives a 3 x 3 x 1.7 m fully active detector volume. Wavelength shifting fibers guide the scintillation light produced by charged particles traveling i n the SciBar detector to multi-anode photomultiplier tubes ( M A P M T s ) that read out the signal.  Muon Range Detector T h e M R D is a range calorimeter composed of 864 tons of iron intended to stop muons products of neutrino interactions i n the previous detector systems, i n order to get the muon energy by its range. T h e metal is arranged i n twelve 7.6 m by 7.6 m by 10 c m thick sheets. A r o u n d the iron sheets are 13 sets of horizontally and vertically arranged drift tubes. T h e 6632 drift tubes are filled w i t h a gas mixture containing 90% A r g o n ( A r ) and 10% Methane (CH4). T h e drift chambers are read out by T D C s .  1.5  The Super-Kamiokande Detector  Figure 1.17 shows the Super-K detector which is located 1 k m underground in the M o z u m i mine of the K a m i o k a M i n i n g and Smelting C o [23]. Table 1.5 summarizes the information on the Super-K detector.Like the 1 K T the SuperK detector is a cylinder. T h e entire Super-K detector is 41.4 m high and 39.3 m i n diameter. A cylindrical frame i n the detector (36.2 m high and  Chapter  1.  Introduction  28  Table 1.5: Basic Information on the Super-Kamiokande Detector Detector Part  Outer Inner P M T Readout P M T Readout  Outer Dimensions Inner Dimensions Outer Water Mass Inner Water Mass Monitoring P M T s Monitoring P M T s T i m i n g Resolution Charge Resolution Energy Range Energy Resolution  Statistic 41.4m H i g h , 39.3m Diameter Cylinder 36.2m H i g h , 33.8m Diameter Cylinder 18,000 tons 32,000 tons 1,885 11,146 0.40 ns (1.2 ps Range) 0.2 p C (550 p C Range) 5.7 M e V - 8 G e V 2.5% (at 1 G e V )  33.8 m i n diameter) hold 11,147 P M T s looking inward into the inner detector volume. A similar but larger frame surrounding the first frame holds 1885 P M T s looking outward at the outer detector volume. E a c h of the two frames are covered i n opaque sheets, optically isolating the inner and outer detector, but also creating a 55 c m dead region between the two. S u p e r - K is sensitive to e~(vi,e~)vi and X(ui,l)X' interactions.  1.6  The Global Positioning System  T o distinguish K 2 K beam neutrino events from atmospheric neutrinos at the far (Super-K) detector the G P S system is used to provide an accurate time stamp between S u p e r - K and K E K . A 1 H z t i m i n g signal from the G P S system is sent to calibrate a local clock at b o t h K E K and S u p e r - K . T h e local clocks operate at 5 0 M H z giving a 32-bit time signal that is used as a time stamp on the recorded events. T h i s time stamp is used i n the analysis to tell beam events from atmospheric events, relying on the spill times at K E K to predict the neutrino arrival time at Super-K.  Figure 1.17: The Super-Kamiokande Detector  30  Chapter 2 1KT Exploration With A Diffuser Ball On A String T h e 1 K T detector has previously been calibrated using a • Laser diffuser ball to get the T Q - M a p , • X e n o n lamp diffuser ball to equalize the P M T G a i n , • C o m i c ray muons to determine the energy scale, • Nickel source to measure quantum efficiencies, and • Laser beam to calibrate for scattering and reflection. T h e T Q - m a p is a time correction for each P M T that is supposed to correct differences i n the time signal arising from signal travel time i n the P M T s and wires as well as any effects the charge deposited i n the P M T may have on the measured time. T h e setup to generate the T Q - m a p is the same as for this laserball study (and will be described i n Section 2.1). For the T Q - m a p the laserball is kept at the center of the 1 K T . In the 2003 T Q - m a p it was noticed that the laserball seemed to be shifted by a few centimeters i n the z-coordinate (tank system). One motivation for this laserball study is to find out whether this is a problem w i t h the reconstruction or w i t h the laserball placement. T h e xenon lamp study uses a setup similar to the laserball, just that instead of the laser a xenon lamp is mounted on the optical table and a different diffuser ball is used. To be able to calibrate the P M T gain throughout the 1 K T , first 103 of the 680 P M T s i n the inner detector had their voltage supply calibrated to give the same gain before they were installed. A ratio of the charge signals from the uncalibrated P M T s over the calibrated P M T s is used to adjust the P M T voltage to set all P M T s to the same gain. M u o n s from cosmic rays are put i n two categories for the cosmic ray calibration. Vertically travelling muons are tagged by the coincidence of  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  31  two scintillator pads set up above the 1 K T (over the C R P described i n Section 3.2). Horizontally travelling muons are identified by a coincidence between a signal i n the upsteam part of the outer detector and a veto trigger plane set up downstream of the 1 K T . T h e laser described i n the next section was used to shine a laser beam down the Cosmic R a y P i p e parallel to the central axis of the 1 K T . F r o m comparing the data to the 1 K T M o n t e Carlo simulation of a light beam, Rayleigh scattering and the reflection of the P M T s and the black sheets isolating the inner and outer detectors are inferred. Further investigation of the t i m i n g of M C events as compared to real data reveals a t i m i n g difference between the top and b o t t o m P M T s [24]. T h e observed t i m i n g difference motivated this laserball study to determine what the impact on the optical position reconstruction was.  2.1  Detector Setup for Optical Calibration  To take calibration data using the diffuser ball (or laser ball) an optical table is set up i n the 1 K T control room at K E K . Figure 2.1 shows a schematic of the laser setup for optical calibration using the laserball. A V S L - 3 3 7 air cooled nitrogen laser is set up on the optical table. T h e laser receives a 10Hz external trigger signal and fires a 4 ns pulse of light at A = 337 n m [25]. A laser dye is used to tune the wavelength of the laser-light to 390 n m . T h e laser light is sent though a beam splitter that sends half the laser light through a fiber-optic cable into a photo diode w i t h a fast response to the laser light. T h e signal from the photo diode is sent to trigger electronics of the 1 K T to supply a t i m i n g reference and start the data collection. T h e other half of the laser light goes through a series of filters and though a 200 m long fiber optic umbilical cord into the diffuser ball. T h e diffuser ball or laserball scatters the light isotropically through the tank. T h e diffuser ball is a glass sphere of approximately 3 c m diameter that contains M g O impurities and silica gel to scatter the light from the laser isotropically. T h e fibre optic umbilical enters the laserball through a 2.5 c m deep and 4 m m wide hole, and is held there by transparent, waterproof glue.  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  32  Aluminium Box Half Mirror  Variable ND Filter  * Fiber  20inch PMTs  Trigger  Diffuser Ball  Detector Figure 2.1: T h e setup for the optical calibration using a laserball. Laser light passes through a beam splitter, letting half the laser light go into the 1 K T tank and reflecting the other half into the photodiode, which provides the t i m i n g trigger. T h e photo diode is labelled P . D . i n the figure.  Chapter  2.1.1  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  33  Laserball Data  W h i l e the beam was shut down for the K 2 K experiment i n October 2003, J u l y 2004 and June 2005, the Canadian K 2 K group took some d a t a using the above setup. In October 2003 only two runs were taken, one at the center and one close to the top of the 1 K T . T h e data i n J u l y 2004 was taken at a l l locations the ball on a string could reach. Various runs were taken along the entire vertical axis of the 1 K T . T h e position of the laserball was also measured more carefully since the uncertainty i n the nominal position of the previous data made further conclusions about the optical reconstruction impossible. T h e final set of laserball runs were taken after the manipulator data r u n to provide an absolute positioning reference for the manipulator b a l l positions. For the 2004 and 2005 laserball data we took multiple runs at each position i n the 1 K T using different filters for the laser light. Using these filters the laser light intensity was varied between: • L o w occupancy: Most P M T s are not hit, and those P M T s that are hit usually see a single photoelectron. For this analysis any r u n w i t h P M T S U M signaling less than 110 P M T s is considered low occupancy. T h a t corresponds to less than 120 photoelectrons (pe's) i n the 1 K T . • M e d i u m occupancy: Most P M T s i n the 1 K T are hit by at least one photon (110 < PMTSUM < 390 that is 120 to 580 pe's) . • H i g h occupancy: A l l P M T s i n the 1 K T are hit w i t h many photons (PMTSUM > 390 that means 580 or more pe's). A l l data taken is summarized i n A p p e n d i x A . Note that the high occupancy runs w i t h the given cut on P M T S U M have an average number of hits of 500 to 680 P M T s i n an event.  2.2  Optical fit for Laserball Position  The position of the laserball is determined run by run. A t i m i n g histogram integrating over the entire r u n is formed for each P M T . Since the P M T s vary i n their distance from the ball we subtract an estimated time of flight for light to go from the nominal position of the ball to the P M T . T h i s localizes a l l  Chapter  2. 1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  34  the t i m i n g peaks around 1000ns. T h e assumed speed of light i n water is 21.66 c m / n s at A = 390 n m . T h e histograms record the t i m i n g information i n 0.1 ns bins from 900 ns to 1100 ns. A n integration gate 4 ns wide is slid across the histogram t o find the t i m i n g window w i t h the largest number of hits inside the integration gate. T h e peak is then determined by taking the mean of the channels i n the integration gate. A n uncertainty on this mean is estimated by t a k i n g the w i d t h of the peak inside the window as measured by the standard deviation over the square root of the number of events i n the time window. Figure 2.2 shows an example using a 10 ns wide integration gate. Integration gates of different widths were tested. In Section 2.3.1 the effect of the w i d t h of the integration gate w i l l be discussed further. Once the t i m i n g peaks for each of the histograms are determined we add the estimated time of flight back to the result. Now a x minimization is r u n to fit the ball position to the set of 680 P M T times for the run. Figure 2.3 shows that the time of flight from the ball to each P M T is given by: 2  -*•// = - =  L  i  - ^  [  (2- ) 1  where Xb u is the fit position of the ball, XPMT is the position of the P M T under consideration and v — 21.66 c m / n s is the group velocity of light w i t h wavelength 390 n m traveling through water, tf is the time expected for P M T number i to be hit and t ff is the time offset between the photodiode trigger and the point at which the laser light leaves the laserball. Hence we minimize: Npmt /.pmt _ .th \ a  1  0  2  x  2  =  (h—k.)  E  i=l  \  °%  (2.2)  )  by varying x^ and t ff. Here Npmt is the number of P M T s used i n the fit, tf is the time measured by the P M T and o f is the sum of the variance i n the mean of the t i m i n g peak of the P M T plus a systematic error i n the time charge correction: ali  a  m t  a  1  •  2 _ pmt,i u  9  Where a = 0.4 ns is estimated by looking at the variance of the P M T times during one run. T o find the error i n the reconstructed position, we divide the 680 tubes into N non-overlapping subgroups selected isotropically thoughout the 1 K T tank, where N = 2, 3, 4 ... 40. W e fit the ball position sys  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A DiSuser Ball On A String  35  Figure 2.2: A 10ns wide integration gate slides across the histogram containing a l l the time-of-flight-adjusted P M T times i n the run for a single P M T . In the time range w i t h the largest number of events inside the gate we calculate the mean and of y/N to be the time and uncertainty on that time estimate. T h e picture shows normalized high and low occupancy t i m i n g histograms.  Example Of Integration Gate Function I  I  I—I  I  T I  I  I  I  I  I  I  l*T  I I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  CiJOOO C  O •§800  (5 s  High OccupancyJ  H600  400  200  Q  Low O c c u p a n c y J  J—I  980  I  I  I  l_i  985  I  I  1  -•  990  1  995  1000  1005  1010  1  1  1  1015  i i  1020  PMT-Time - Time-Of-Flight (ns)  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  36  Figure 2.3: O p t i c a l F i t t i n g for the Laserball Position  Laserball 'osition = (t,x,y,z)  tp-t =  d / v  PMT P o s i t i o n = ( t „ x „ y , Zp) p  using the N subgroups, then calculate the variance of the N fitted positions. Next we fit the plot of the fitted position variance versus N to the function: -  o(N)  OOVN  (2.3)  where N is the number of groups, and o is the uncertainty for a single group of 680 P M T s (the result used for the ball position). T h e uncertainty on the variance at the value of N is given by: 0  Ao{N)  =  o(N) - 1)  Figure 2.4 shows cr(N) for one sample run. T h e results from using every 12th, 24th, or 36th P M T are anomalous because this selects exactly one ring of P M T s along the 1 K T wall, and so do not give isotropic subgroups. Thus we ignore the results from using 12, 24, and 36 subgroups (by assigning them a very large error). Once we understand this anomalous behavior E q u a t i o n 2.3 fits the data exceptionally well.  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  37  Figure 2.4: T h e error on the laserball position is calculated by fitting to the variance of position fits using subgroups of P M T s . T h e error is given by the fit parameter cr — -PI, which is the extrapolated uncertainty for a single subgroup of 680 P M T s . 0  Chapter  2.3 2.3.1  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  38  Position Bias and the Time Charge Correction Width of the Integration Gate  To choose the proper size for the integration gate we must look at the time histograms used to determine the P M T t i m i n g peak. Figure 2.2 shows the t i m i n g histograms for a low and a high occupancy run. T h e figure also shows a 10 ns integration gate. T h e high occupancy peak does not show a scattering t a i l while the low occupancy peak does. T h i s is expected since i n a high occupancy run each P M T gets hit by many photons and the electronics w i l l register the first hit as the time on the P M T . Thus it is likely that i n a high occupancy r u n the P M T s get hit by light that has not been scattered. In a low occupancy run each P M T is hit by about one photon, thus for some fraction of the P M T hits we should see scattered light only. T h e scattered light w i l l not travel a straight path to the P M T but w i l l hit the P M T a few nanoseconds after direct light. Thus the large integration gate w i l l be pulled to a higher time by the scattering tail i n low occupancy runs. A small integration gate w i l l be influenced by statistical fluctuation, especially i n the low occupancy regime. The integration gate used initially was taken to be 20 ns wide. T h i s resulted i n a strong scattering effect for low occupancy data. Using the 10 ns gate displayed i n Figure 2.3 reduced this effect. After closer examination of the P M T histograms a 4 ns gate was used which eliminated the scattering t a i l completely, but is unaffected by statistical fluctuations which are of the order of a few 0.1 ns.  2.3.2  Time Charge Correction Problem  E a r l y analysis of the t i m i n g calibration data encountered many problems. Figure 2.5 shows the results of the first reconstruction using the 10 ns gate. The most obvious result is that the ball reconstructs 10 c m higher t h a n we measured. T h e next is that the medium and high occupancy data show a significant (ca. 2%) slope. T h e offset could be explained by a simple mismeasurement of the reference mark on the wire suspending the ball ( A p p e n d i x A explains how the nominal position is determined). T h e slope i n the line fitted to the reconstructed positions shows that the fitted ball position is i n fact closer to the center than it should be. Since this slope only depends on how  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  39  Figure 2.5: W h e n comparing the position fitted using the 10ns gate to the nominal position we find that all measurements are displaced by approximately 10cm. M e d i u m and high occupancy data also shows a slope. T h e data plotted here is from the 2004 data set w i t h the old T Q - m a p .  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  40  the nominal position measurements are done relative to each other there is no simple explanation for the slope. Since the charge deposited i n P M T s closer to the laserball is greater than i n those far away the slope suggests a problem w i t h the time-charge correction for the 1 K T detector. T h i s prompted D r . Shaomin Chen, who is i n charge of the time charge correction for b o t h the Super-K and the 1 K T detector, to redo the T Q map i n 2004. T h e T Q - m a p is a correction to the P M T t i m i n g signals that incorporates P M T to P M T differences i n signal travel time (due to cable length differences) and effects on the measured time from the amount of charge deposited i n the P M T . T h e P M T times are measured i n a similar way to the method used for this analysis. T h e T Q - m a p uses a 100 ns integration gate to find the mean and R M S of the timing peak. T h e final P M T time is measured by taking the mean of a l l events w i t h i n a ^%cr window around the previous mean. T h e new T Q - m a p uses a 50 ns window for this calculation. Furthermore the new T Q - m a p restricts the charge b i n measured i n different runs to be similar to the average charge deposited i n the 1 K T . Using this cut avoids using P M T s that have a high fluctuation of the secondary electrons produced i n the low occupancy runs i n the high charge correction from the T Q - m a p . It is important to do this since, as explained before, the high occupancy data is not as affected by scattering as the low occupancy data. F i n a l l y a new pedestal correction was used i n the T Q - m a p generation to eliminate some low charge anomalies i n some P M T s . A l o n g w i t h the revision of the T Q - m a p the constant characterizing the buffer amplification for the P M T s was corrected as well. Figure 2.6 shows the result of the position reconstruction w i t h the new T Q - M a p and the corrected buffer amp constant. T h e low and high occupancy runs now agree relatively well w i t h the nominal position. T h e medium occupancy runs however show a significant slope.  2.3.3  Reconstruction Bias  E v e n w i t h the reworked T Q - m a p and the corrected buffer amp constant, Figure 2.6 shows some anomalies. T h e medium occupancy data has a strong (1%) slope indicating that the data reconstucted closer to the center t h a n it should have. T h e low and high occupancy data agree and show an insignificant (0.2%) slope i n the opposite direction of the medium occupancy data (ie. the fitted positions are closer to the wall then they should be). To see if the bias i n the results from the laserball study can be explained,  Chapter  ^25 s  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  41  Laserball Reconstruction with Fixed TO-Map  ~i I I i i i I i i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I 1 i—i—r«T—r  o  ^20 I I 15  • Low Occupancy ° Med Occupancy * High Occupancy  o £ 10 N 0 -5  •10 •15 h -20 P -25  -300  J—i—i—i—i—i  -200  -100  i i i i i i i i i i_  0  100  200  300  Nominal_z (cm)  Figure 2.6: T h e reconstruction as i n Figure 2.5 but using the new T Q - m a p and new buffer amp constant, for the data from Spring 2004. T h e slope seen i n the medium occupancy data here is different from what we see i n the manipulator d a t a later; this may be because we changed what we call low, medium and high occupancy.  42 the full 1 K T M o n t e Carlo was run at the positions we placed the laserball. Figure 2.7 shows the results of running the position reconstruction on data generated w i t h the 1 K T M o n t e Carlo. Here the nominal ball positions are exact, so any deviation is due to problems i n the reconstruction. In the first laserball simulation we suppressed scattering and absorption, thus the mean times for each of the P M T s should not be pulled by scattering. Later we turned on scattering and eventually a slope similar to the one seen i n the medium occupancy data can be observed. A l l the M C data was r u n simulating low occupancy which should be more sensitive to scattering. T h a t is, i n medium and high occupancy runs the P M T s are struck by many photons, thus chances are that the P M T w i l l be hit by at least one unscattered photon i n each light pulse. Since the T D C w i l l record the arrival time of the first signal, our analysis should effectively eliminate scattering for high occupancy and reduce it for medium occupancy. However the slope i n the medium occupancy data is opposite to what can be explained by scattering. Furthermore if scattering was the problem it should be most prominent i n the low occupancy data not medium occupancy. R u n n i n g the M C on positions throughout the entire tank volume showed that ball positions along the x and y axis of the tank coordinate system reconstruct well (ie. there is no slope or offset i n plots similar to Figure 2.7 for the x and y axis).  2.4  Conclusion on Laserball Study  Since the M o n t e Carlo position reconstruction does not match the data from the laserball either the analysis is flawed or we cannot trust the M o n t e C a r l o results. T h i s means it would be of interest to study the entire detector volume (x, y and z axis) for the bias effect seen i n Figure 2.6 to see how the F i d u c i a l Volume of the 1 K T is affected. Furthermore the uncertainty i n the position reconstruction is around 1cm in the x, y and z directions, so to make any further conclusion we need to locate the laserball w i t h a precision of 1cm i n each direction.  Chapter  2.  1KT Exploration  With A Diffuser Ball On A String  43  Figure 2.7: Results of the laserball position reconstruction using the 1 K T M o n t e Carlo. A m o u n t of scattering is varied. T h e ball positions are known precisely.  44  Chapter 3 Manipulator Construction T h e manipulator is a robotically controlled arm that maneuvers the laserball throughout the 1 K T tank, including off axis positions.  3.1  Motivation  T h e study of the 1 K T tank using the laserball deployed along the central axis showed unexpected reconstruction biases as evidenced by the slope i n the position reconstruction. We need to understand the effect on the fiducial volume of the 1 K T since the fiducial volume error is one of the major errors on the far-near extrapolation. Section 2.4 described the basic goals for the construction of the manipulator arm, which are: • Reach the entire 1 K T tank volume, • Locate the laserball to w i t h i n l - 2 c m i n each dimension, and • D o not touch the any P M T s i n the 1 K T . W h i l e making all this possible we cannot change anything i n the l K T ' s current setup.  3.2  Hardware  A s displayed i n Figure 1.11 the only access to the 1 K T tank is from above the detector volume. T h e 1 K T detector volume itself has two possible access points from the access room above the detector: • T h e central laserball access hole (center of the tank), and • T h e cosmic ray pipe access port ( C R P ) (x = -70 c m ,y = 70 c m i n tank coordinates).  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  45  Due to the lack of access points along the side of the 1 K T a setup using three wires controlling the ball from three points around the top of the tank is impossible. T h e remaining option is an arm w i t h mobile sections inserted i n one of the access points. T h i s means the central laserball access hole cannot be used since it leads though a curved pipe. Hence we must lower our assembly into the tank through the C R P access port. Figure 3.1 shows a schematic of the manipulator when deployed i n the 1 K T tank. T h e manipulator is lowered into the 1 K T tank from the cavity above the detector volume through the C R P access hole. T h e first problem is that the 1 K T tank is 8.6 m deep and has a diameter of 8.6 m , thus the manipulator needs to be long so that it can explore the detector volume. T h e manipulator also needs to be rigid so we can achieve the desired 1cm position resolution i n each direction. B u t the room above the 1 K T is 1.35 m high along the outside of the cavity and 2.7 m high at the center of the room. Furthermore the C R P port lies beneath a support structure holding up the roof of the 1 K T tank, where a pipe i n the center of the cavity supports the roof through a number of small pipes. T h e C R P access port itself is 1.5 m long and 0.30 m i n diameter. T h a t means the longest section of the manipulator can only be about 2 m long to fit into the 1 K T . To meet the above challenges we use this design for the manipulator arm: • A 5 m long x 15 c m wide vertical section ( V S ) . T o be able to insert the vertical section into the 1 K T though the C R P port under the roof and roof support the 5 m V S needs to be divided into three parts, that are connected through hinges, such that the V S may bend. To allow the V S to be rigid during the operation of the manipulator the three sections are clamped together once i n place • Three moving sections: — A - A r m : 2.00 m long x 8 cm wide rigid section, attached to V S , that may rotate through 360° i n a vertical plane — B - A r m : 1.50 m long x 5 c m wide rigid section, attached to A - a r m , that may rotate through 360° i n a vertical plane — C - A r m : 0.20 m long x 5 m m wide rigid section, attached to B - a r m , that may rotate through 360° and holds the laserball T h e entire manipulator arm is held by a turntable, which may rotate through 360° i n azimuth. T h e manipulator and turntable are held by a structure  Chapter  ' * * *  3.  Manipulator  Construction  46  circles denote travel of individual arms and the total combined reach preliminary length of inner arm » 1500mm preliminary length of centre arm = 1370mm preliminary distance from outer arm hinge centre to outside of laser boll = 130mm  Figure 3.1: A schematic of the manipulator arm deployed i n the 1 K T tank.  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  47  Figure 3.2: Concept drawing of the manipulator support structure while the manipulator is being inserted. clamped onto the support beam for the roof of the 1 K T and a cage that has already been set up to hold equipment for the C R P . Figure 3.2 shows how this support is set up i n the cavity above the 1 K T detector. T h e fact that the vertical section is cut into three pieces that have to be attached rigidly to each other causes some issues that w i l l be addressed further i n Section 3.5. Since the manipulator w i l l operate i n ultra pure water the arms are made of stainless steel. T o make it possible to drive the arms they are designed w i t h waterproof cavities such that the arms are neutrally buoyant. A G a l i l motor controller drives two large and one small P i t t m a n brushed D C motors w i t h optical encoders, and output shaft gearboxes supply the driving force for the A , B , and C arms. T h e motors are mounted on the turntable above the water. The small motor drives the C - a r m . The driving force from the motors is transmitted down the manipulator using a polyurethane chain. T o minimize backlash the polyurethane chain is used only around the sprockets that pass  Chapter  3. Manipulator  C-Arm  \  Construction  48  \  * -- 1  J  L:  ;  Figure 3.3: T h e joints between the moving sections of the manipulator arm are shown w i t h the sprockets that are used to drive the a r m w i t h polyurethane chain supplying the drive force from the motors. on the force from the chain. These sections of chain are linked by stainless steel wires. L i n k e d sprockets are used to move the driving force down the manipulator. Figure 3.3 shows the sprockets used at the manipulator joints to transmit the driving force to the arms. F i n a l l y the turntable is driven by a large P i t t m a n motor mounted on the turntable support. To reduce reflection off of the arms the A , B , and vertical section of the manipulator are wrapped in black plastic. Strips of the plastic are wrapped around the A and B arms under the drive chains and secured w i t h t h i n nylon rope. Each of the three pieces of the vertical section are also wrapped i n black plastic sheets secured using white plastic tie wraps.  3.3  Electronics  Figure 3.4 displays the organization of the control system for the manipulator. W e interact w i t h the manipulator through a G r a p h i c a l User Interface  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  49  Table 3.1: Specifications for the P i t t m a n motors used to drive the manipulator. Encoder A c c u r a c y is given i n counts per turn. Property M o d e l number D r i v i n g voltage Gear ratio Encoder accuracy  Large M o t o r GM9234S033-R1 24V, D C 218.4:1 500  Small M o t o r GM8724S029-R1 24V, D C 187.7:1 500  ( G U I ) designed w i t h M a t l a b . T h e G U I communicates w i t h a M a x i m u m Integrated D a t a Acquisition System ( M I D A S ) online database ( O D B ) [26]. T h e database can also be accessed directly through a database editor. T w o front end programs continually scan the O D B for updates. T h e motor controller front end (feMotor) looks for updates to the manipulator destination i n the database and communicates these to the G a l i l motor controller. T h e motor positions are determined though the internal motor encoders. For the motors driving the A , B , and C arms an auxiliary encoder is installed on the sprocket attached to the motors. T h e auxiliary encoder for the turntable motor is attached at the top of the t r i p o d , above the ball bearing holding the manipulator. T h e auxiliary encoders provide a second measurement of the a r m positions that does not suffer from backlash w i t h i n the motors, but is affected by backlash i n the polyurethane chains. B o t h sets of encoder measurement are read into the M I D A S O D B through the motor controller and then the motor front end. In total four systems are used to track the manipulator position, to be absolutely sure of the manipulator position: • M o t o r encoders, • A u x i l i a r y encoders, and • T w o inclinometer systems. T h e inclinometer systems denoted L i m i t and Safety are described i n the next section. T h e motor encoders are quadrature encoders that record the motor position w i t h four disks having 500 counts per t u r n giving a total of 2000 steps every 360°. T h e motor encoders suffer from motor and chain backlash. T h e auxiliary encoders are attached to the sprockets on the motor drive shaft. T h a t means they only suffer from chain backlash. T h e auxiliary encoders  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  - Monto i r ODB for move reqs -Updae t moo tr k^j limits and posto i ns  Contn>U.rfDri,er  T^™*—j  1  rlLimits Computer  r^  -  •RS232 Consoel -  Safety Computer  T Figure 3.4: Schematic of the Manipulator C o n t r o l System [4]  50  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  51  have an index mark recorded i n the database, thus they provide an absolute measurement w i t h 2,500 counts per t u r n per disk or 10,000 steps for 360°. T h e index mark is measured during the calibration and was to be used to set the angle on the motor encoders after the setup at K E K . However the record of the index mark was lost during the travel to Japan. To use the encoders we set the encoder angle using the limit inclinometer readout. Ten accelerometers are used as inclinometers i n two positioning systems described i n the next section, independent of the motors. Pairs of inclinometers are placed on electronics chips that are attached to the manipulator. Three pairs read out the angles of the A , B and C arms. T w o boards are placed on the vertical section to determine its orientation. One of these boards reads the angle i n the plane of swing of the arms, the other records the angle perpendicular to it.  3.3.1  Limit and Safety Systems  T h e inclinometers are M E M S I C M X S 2 0 2 0 E L accelerometers. T h e y provide an absolute orientation w i t h respect to the direction of gravity. T h e i n clinometers are read out by 8051-based microprocessors that compute the position of the arm. If at any point the a r m leaves a set of boundary conditions set i n the O D B the limit computer w i l l send a stop signal to the motor controller. T h e boundaries for the safety system are less stringent than those for the limit system, however if the safety system triggers on a boundary violation it shuts down power to the motors. T h e accelerometers use an electric heat source and four thermocouples arranged i n a plane around the heat source inside an air cavity. Under no acceleration the temperature of the air i n the cavity decreases radially outward from the heat source and a l l the thermocouples read the same. If accelerated the heat gradient i n the air cavity changes, and thus do the readings of the different thermocouples. T h e thermocouples modulate the peak w i d t h of a 100 H z square wave. T h e w i d t h of the pulse on the square wave encodes the acceleration between two thermocouples. W e have such a set of thermocouples monitoring the heat source along two perpendicular axis (x and y ) . First we need to determine the acceleration i n each direction from the square wave: n = Ax. L (3-1) x  v ~  p  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  52  Here a and a are the acceleration i n the x and y direction measured i n relative units. A and Ay are the widths of the two output square wave peaks, and P is the period of the square wave (all measured i n fj,s). T h u s a vertical inclinometer can measure its absolute orientation by measuring the x and y component of the gravitational acceleration it feels. T h e inclinometer readout is a function of the ambient temperature. T h i s can be corrected w i t h a calibration [27]. Since the temperature for running in the 1 K T is very stable the temperature calibration is not necessary. T h e calibration is done using Equation 3.2: x  y  x  a? An _ _Ti•A T a c — dx _ i b t _ T • AT y — p po J-y ^ Here A° and P° are an offset intrinsic to each inclinometer and the period at 25°C. T h e second term accounts for slight differences i n inclinometer chips. T? are correction constants that must be measured for each inclinometer and A T is represents a temperature difference that manifests itself as a change i n the pulse period. A T is given by E q u a t i o n 3.3: C  x  =  x  c  n u  A T = 0.13 • (P — P°)  (3.3)  T h e details of this procedure and the code for the inclinometer readout are available from M E M S I C [27]. F i n a l l y the angle of the inclinometer makes w i t h respect to gravity is given by E q u a t i o n 3.4: a  c  9 = arctan  (3.4)  To get a measurement of the arm position then we mount an inclinometer on the A , B , and C arms i n the plane of swing of the arm. Figure 3.5 shows the M E M S I C accelerometers mounted on the arm. E q u a t i o n 3.4 only works if the inclinometer x and y axes are perpendicular and parallel to the arms central axis and i n the plane of the arms swing respectively. T o do this the mounts for the inclinometers are designed to be parallel to the central axis of the a r m and parallel to the plane of swing for the arm. Section 3.5 explains how to correct for any error i n the inclinometer chip alignment. T h e boards are waterproofed using polyurethane coating. Y o u can see four sets of wires leading the A and A signals from the two chips to the limit and safety computers. T h e resolution of the inclinometers is less than one milli-gravity, which works out to be 0.09° i n a r m inclination [4]. T h e angle of the turntable for the L i m i t and Safety systems is read out by a double potentiometer. x  y  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  53  Figure 3.5: T h e inclinometer board holding the L i m i t and Safety inclinometers for the B - A r m . T h e board is mounted on a holder welded to the arm. T h e board is coated w i t h polyurethane to make it water resistant. Some extra epoxy coating was added for additional safety.  Chapter  3.3.2  3. Manipulator  Construction  54  The Manipulator Coordinate Systems  W e use three coordinate systems to keep track of the manipulator i n the 1 K T tank. F i r s t we use a two-dimensional coordinate system i n the plane of swing of the A , B , and C arm. T h e line i n this plane parallel to the 1 K T A x i s is the vertical height axis. T h e origin of this axis is at the height of the b o t t o m of the vertical section. T h e horizontal i n the a r m plane is measured from the projection of the 1 K T axis onto the plane containing the manipulator arms. T h e height i n this coordinate system is the z coordinate i n the tank coordinate system. Figure 3.6 and 3.7 show the top and side view of this coordinate system i n the 1 K T . To transform the ball position (ie. the tip of the C - A r m ) into a point i n the primed coordinate system (x',y') we use E q u a t i o n 3.5.  T h i s primed coordinate system is a calculation tool to ease the transformation from (r, h, 9) coordinate to tank coordinates. F i n a l l y we transform into the M a n i p u l a t o r Coordinate system displayed i n Figure 3.8. T h e h axis for the manipulator and z axis of the detector coordinates are the same, and the x and y axis of the manipulator coordinate system are i n equal but opposite direction as those i n the detector coordinate system.  3.3.3  Manipulator Position  T h e following algorithm to calculate the position of the joints of the manipulator arms is used by b o t h the encoder and the inclinometer systems. T h e computers find the angles 0j from the encoder or inclinometer output and use the lengths (L{) of the manipulator sections ( V S and A r m s A , B and C ) supplied by the O D B to calculate the arm position using equations 3.6: Tj =r  + T,i  (L cos 9i)  hj  + YH=I  (Li  0  =1  = h  0  {  sin  6>j)  (3.6)  Here r is distance of the vertical section from the center of the 1 K T along the line i n which the moving arms of the manipulator are pointing (see Figure 3.7 Q  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  55  h  \  r (r„. o ) V 0 h  /  i  ft, h,)  Safety  Figure 3.6: Side view of manipulator coordinate system. T h e origin is defined by the finding the projection of the 1 K T axis onto the manipulator's plane of swing, and finding the height on the projected axis at the same hight as z = 0 m i n t h e l K T . T h e positive r direction defines 0$ = 0.  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  56  KT Wall  Figure 3.7: T o p view of the manipulator coordinate system. T h e primed coordinate system is a temporary x and y axis used only to ease the calculations. R ff = 1.03 m is the distance between the center of the 1 K T and the insertion hole. T h e coordinates of the insertion hole in the tank coordinate system are x = 0.75 m and y = 0.705 cm. 0  Chapter  3. Manipulator  57  Construction  manip  k  Figure 3.8: T o p view of the M a n i p u l a t o r coordinate system. T h e z-axis is the same as the z-axis i n tank coordinates (out of the page i n this figure). Here 6 is the azimuthal angle i n the manipulator coordinate system used for i n the G U I which is described i n Section 3.3.4  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  58  Table 3.2: Boundaries for the M a n i p u l a t o r L i m i t A n d Safety Systems [4] Rule Roof Floor Center Radial VA AB BC Turntable  Boundary B or C t i p Approaching Top B or C tip Approaching B o t t o m B or C tip Approaching V S B or C t i p Approaching W a l l M i n i m u m Angle Between V S and A M i n i m u m Angle between A and B arms M i n i m u m Angle between B and C a r m Over-rotation of the Turntable  Limit  Safety  \h\ <3.3 m \h\ <3.3 m 0.20 m \r\ <3.3 m 40° 15° 15° 5°  \h\ <3.5 m \h\ <3.5 m 0.18 m |r| <3.4 m 38° 12° 12° 10°  for clarification) and h is the height of the b o t t o m of the vertical column along the central axis of the 1 K T (the same as the z-coordinate i n the tank coordinate system). r depends on the orientation of the manipulator as described i n E q u a t i o n 3.7. 7 j and hj are the radial distance from the central axis and height along the central axis of the 1 K T of the t i p of the j arm respectively (Figure 3.6 gives an illustration): Q  0  th  r = R cos(j) Q  (3.7)  off  A s shown by Figure 3.7 R ff is the distance from the axis of the 1 K T to the insertion hole. 4> is t h angle between the manipulator arms and the line from the top center of the 1 K T through the insertion hole. T h e manipulator is designed to make h = 0 cm, and this is what the encoder system uses. T h e inclinometer systems use the angle read out by the V S inclinometer i n the plane of swing of the manipulator arms to determine r and h as described i n E q u a t i o n 3.8: Q  e  Q  Q  o L cos 0 /i = L ( l - s i n 0 ) r  =  0  o  o  O  Q  o\  o  Here 0 is the angle of the vertical section i n the plane of the arms (ideally 6 = 0°). T h e coordinate systems used to locate the manipulator are explained further Section 3.3.2. After this computation the limit computers check whether any of the manipulator's parts violate the boundary conditions summarized i n Table 3.2. Determining the wall limit is nontrivial since the manipulator is offset from the center of the 1 K T tank. T h e allowed radii i n the coordinates calculated by the limit and safety computers are given by O  0  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  59  E q u a t i o n 3.9. Tsafe = Roff  COs(?T  - <f>) ± \J' R  2  ~ R Sm (7T 2  afe  2  off  - (j))  Figure 3.7 explains the meaning of the values needed i n for this calculation. These were measured on site due to lack of structural drawings and then entered into the O D B .  3.3.4  The Manipulator GUI  T h e m a i n tool used to control the manipulator is the M a t l a b G U I created to communicate w i t h the O D B . Figure 3.9 shows how this G U I displays the current position of the manipulator according to a l l three positioning systems. T h e graph i n the left shows the height-radius coordinate system of the a r m position i n the plane of swing of the arms. O n the right you can see the position of the laserball from the top (the view is similar to the one outlined i n Figure 3.7). T h e display is color-coded to show the position according to the inclinometer or encoder systems. T h e b o t t o m left shows the angles read out from the four position systems. T h e G U I w i l l also indicate if a l i m i t is triggered and which further motion is prohibited. In the low center you can read the position of the ball i n the manipulator coordinate system. A n o t h e r display shows the current status of the front end programs running on the control computer. In the b o t t o m right you may enter the desired position of the manipulator. T h e control code computed the arm positions necessary to reach the given coordinate w i t h the ball given the desired concavity. T h e movement of the A , B and C arms is divided into a number of continuous steps. Before the a r m moves, each of the positions the ball should arrive at is checked for limit violations. If any are found the move is not allowed and the position has to be reached using the manual control G U I . Sometimes it may be advantageous to order one a r m of the manipulator to move to a specific angle (especially for the turntable). To do this the manual control G U I was developed. T h e manual menu i n the m a i n G U I opens the window displayed i n Figure 3.10. T h e primary and secondary fields show the reading from the motor and auxiliary encoders. T h e Destination field lets you enter a target angle for the motors. T h e last stop indicates why that particular a r m stopped moving last. If the arm hit a limit the checked boxes w i l l indicate which way the a r m may not move.  (3.9)  Figure 3.9: Screen-shot of the M a i n G r a p h i c a l User Interface for the manipulator arm.  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  61  'Student V e r s i o n ' : LBNO LaserBall Manual Control Pile  Arm A  Arm B  Degrees  Degrees Prirroiy  -30.07 3»c?firt»ry  Last Stop  -39 34  -30.40  Destination  Move  Unknown  -31.01  Stop  Destination Last Stop  -91.  Move  Unknown  Stop  \ Punitive Lifnit | Negative Limit  j Negative Limit  I Index  i Index  Turntable  Arm C  Degrees  Degrees Prtnary  -8736  -87.05 Destination  Last Stop  j Positive Umit  -87.4|  Move  Unknown  Stop  Primary  18C.49  S e e m da i y  179 4S  Destination  Last Stop  Move Unknown  Stop  itive Limit ;ative Limit  i Index  Figure 3.10: T h e M a n u a l Control G U I for the Manipulator. T h i s G U I allows the user to move one arm to a specific angle.  Chapter  3.4  3.  Manipulator  Construction  62  Construction and Assembly  T h e design drawings for the manipulator were done professionally by M a r k Lenckowski of the University of V i c t o r i a design workshop and Corrie H o l m berg from the T R I U M F design workshop. T h e parts of the a r m were machined at the machine shops at T R I U M F , the University of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Physics department, and the University of V i c t o r i a . M o s t of the machining required very precise work and was done by professionals, while a few parts requiring less accuracy were machined by me. A l l the parts from the different machine shops were assembled at T R I U M F by R i c h Helmer, K e i t h Hoyle and myself for calibration. Some problems, such as the stability of the t r i p o d supporting the turntable, were recognized and fixed during the test assembly at T R I U M F . T h e final assembly was carried out by the entire K 2 K C a n a d a group, w i t h help from K e i t h Hoyle, M a r k Lenkowski and D a v i d Morris.  3.5  Calibration  Before the manipulator was deployed i n the 1 K T it was tested and calibrated at T R I U M F . T h e robot a r m was suspended from the roof of the proton hall. Figure 3.11 shows the imitation of the 1 K T access that was set up at T R I U M F on the roof of the proton hall. Figure 3.12 shows the manipulator setup i n the proton hall at T R I U M F . Since the manipulator is not i n water the A and B arms are not neutrally buoyant. So to allow the A and B arms full range of motion, pipe counterweights were used. T h e counterweight on the A - a r m d i d not properly balance and it was only possible to move the A - a r m though small angles at a time for the calibration of the manipulator. T h e angle between the vertical section and the turntable was tested to be perpendicular w i t h a carpenters edge around its circumference of the vertical section. A l u m i n u m spacers were placed between the vertical section mounts and the turntable until the angle between the turntable and the vertical section was perpendicular. Using the carpenters level this measurement is probably accurate to 0.4°. Next the turntable supporting the manipulator was adjusted until a machinist's level set on the turntable supporting the vertical section read level.  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  63  Figure 3.11: M o c k u p of the 1 K T access at T R I U M F . T h e support structure for the manipulator is set up on imitations of the roof support beam and the C R P cage. T h e weight of the M a n i p u l a t o r is on the joint at the top of the t r i p o d . T h e t r i p o d holds the turntable and manipulator i n place.  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  64  Figure 3.12: V i e w of the manipulator suspended from the ceiling of the proton hall at T R I U M F  Chapter  3.5.1  3. Manipulator  Construction  65  Wobble  Due to the length of the vertical section and the fact that it is composed of three sections the b o t t o m of the vertical section moves i n a small circle as the turntable rotates. T h i s motion is reproducible, thus we measured the rotation of the b o t t o m of the vertical section. T h i s was accomplished by mounting two plumb bobs on opposing sides at the b o t t o m of the vertical section and recording their positions throughout one rotation. T h e center point between the two plumb bob locations was taken to be the center of the manipulator. A reading from the auxiliary encoder for the turntable was taken w i t h each position, however we needed to change the index position when we set the manipulator up at K E K . T h i s means that we need to rotate the position of the circle. Figure 3.13 shows the result from these measurements. T h e wobble of the b o t t o m of the main section is caused by two problems w i t h the manipulator set up. First the vertical section of the manipulator may not be perpendicular to the turntable. T h i s would cause the b o t t o m of the vertical section to describe a circle centered on the center of the turntable. T h e second problem is that the turntable may not be perfectly level. T h i s means that the center of the b o t t o m of the vertical section may not coincide w i t h the center of the turntable, thus causing the vertical section to wobble about a point not below the center of the turnable.  3.5.2  Total Station  T h e A and B arms were taken though their entire range of motion while monitored w i t h a Leica 5005 Total Station. T h e total station uses two small targets that were attached to the A and B arms and measures the positions of these targets relative to the total station by lining up its sights w i t h marks on the targets. Using the position information of the two targets on each a r m the orientation of the arms i n space can be measured w i t h an accuracy of 0.33 arc-seconds. T h e readout of a l l the manipulator position systems was taken as each a r m was rotated through 360°. It was expected that the i n clinometer chips were not perfectly aligned w i t h the plane of motion of the arms. T h i s would result i n a sinusoidally varying offset of the inclinometer angle from the real angle. Figure 3.14 shows the result for the A - a r m correction and Figure 3.15 shows the result for the B - a r m correction. T h e best approximation to the real offset was taken sine fit for the A - a r m and a to be a linear interpolation between data points for the B - a r m .  Chapter  3. Manipulator  Construction  66  Manipulator VS Wobble Manipulator Coordinate System, Centered on Insertion Hole  6  ~i  r-  .  5  • • .x ^  -X —  -  ~i  r-  ~ x ~  • • X X  4  3  y /  \  /  \ \  ' 'X' "  /  ^  Eo  2  \  /  X  I  I X I X •..  +  Ix  \  1  \  *  \ /  0 -1  .. .... x  \  /  \  /  s.  y  -2 -3  :  -3  -2  -1  X  •  -  Xu • -u.'X-~ • •  0 x (cm)  1  Figure 3.13: T h e circle traced out by the b o t t o m of the vertical section of the manipulator i n the manipulator coordinate system. T h e origin of this plot lies below the turntable center.  Chapter  3. Manipulator  07  Construction  A - A r m Limit Inclinometer Correction 8r  -250  -200  -150  -100 9  limit  -50  0  50  (0)  Figure 3.14: T h e correction for the limit inclinometer on the A - a r m .  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  B-Arm Limit Inclinometer Correction  /  /  0.5 /  /  /  \  / /  i  i  /  >  -0.5 \  -1  /  -J  -250  -200 -150 -100 -50  I  0  1-  50  limit  Figure 3.15: T h e correction for the B - a r m limit inclinometer.  Chapter  3.6  3. Manipulator  Construction  69  Manipulator Setup At The 1KT  After testing at T R I U M F the manipulator was taken apart and shipped to Japan. It arrived on A p r i l 21, 2005. T h e first data was taken A p r i l 30, 2005 and the 1 K T was collecting calibration data only interrupted by a few problems w i t h the 1 K T D A Q until it was taken down on June 14, 2006. T h e manipulator was taken apart and shipped back to C a n a d a two weeks later. T h e manipulator was assembled inside the free room above the 1 K T since it could not fit inside the front door of the 1 K T fully assembled. W e could fit the moving sections and the first vertical section into the 1 K T at the same time as long as the chains were not hindering the full range of motion of the arms. So once this first part of the manipulator was inside the 1 K T the chain drives and the black plastic coat were installed. Since the entire manipulator is too large to fit into the room above the detector volume and too large to easily fit through the C R P we need to lower the manipulator section by section starting w i t h the B and C arm and moving on toward the vertical sections. Once the A , B and C arms were i n the detector volume there was enough room to fit the last two parts of the vertical section. T h e joints and chain drive along the vertical section were assembled i n the tank. F i n a l l y the vertical section was lowered i n the 1 K T piece by piece. W h e n the second and t h i r d parts of the V S were lowered into the 1 K T the brackets fastening the V S parts together i n a solid section needed to be tightened before the section was lowered into the detector. Figures 3.16 to 3.18 display this step-by-step procedure showing the insertion of the second part of the vertical section. After the manipulator on its turntable was put into the 1 K T the support structure was finished and its position aligned to match the calibration setup at T R I U M F . T h e machinist's level we used to ensure that the turntable was horizontal turned out to be broken when we used it at K E K , which made it impossible to exactly recreate the setup at T R I U M F . Thus another level was used and we recorded the setup at K E K which we later reproduced to perform a back calibration of the manipulator at T R I U M F . Another problem we encountered was that we lost the booklet which had the recorded index marks on the auxiliary encoders used at T R I U M F to set the motor encoder angles. Since the 0° reading of the limit inclinometers was known to be good, we set the motor and auxiliary encoders using the limit inclinometer reading. Because of this we use the limit inclinometer to give us the nominal position of the laserball for the manipulator analysis. W i t h the corrections from the total station the inclinometer readings are precise  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  70  Figure 3.16: E x a m p l e of the step-by-step insertion procedure used to fit the manipulator into the 1 K T . Here the second part of the vertical section is lifted off the makeshift assembly table, before it can be lowered into the detector.  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  71  Figure 3.17: T h e stage of the manipulator insertion that is most critical, fitting the V S pieces into the C R P under the roof support.  Chapter  3.  Manipulator  Construction  72  Figure 3.18: Before lowering part 2 of the V S into the 1 K T the clamp holding parts one and two straight must be fastened.  73  Figure 3.19: T h e manipulator group just after the manipulator assembly and insertion had been completed. F r o m left to right: M a r k Lenckowski, R i c h Helmer, Scott Oser, Frank Berghaus, A k i r a K o n a k a , and D a v i d Morris to 0.3° which translates into an 1cm uncertainty i n the ball position, thus matching our design goals. T h e manipulator was covered i n black tarp to minimize reflection except for the joints attaching the polyurethane chains to the stainless steel sections. Figure 3.6 shows the C a n a d i a n group around the manipulator fully assembled and inserted into the 1 K T tank.  74  Chapter 4 Manipulator Data and Analysis 4.1  Data Taken In Japan  D a t a was collected by the manipulator i n order to study: • Position reconstruction throughout the 1 K T , • Effect of the manipulator shadow on the reconstruction, • Position reproducibility, • F i d u c i a l volume error, • O p t i c a l parameters: — Attenuation length, and — A n g u l a r response of the P M T s , • Detector asymmetry from: — Vertical position, and — Magnetic fields i n 1 K T , and • Effects of laserball orientation. To achieve a l l this we took data using the manipulator w i t h these motions: • B a l l rotation and flips to study: — Laserball asymmetry, and — Shadow effects • Swings of a single moving a r m to study: — M a n i p u l a t o r position accuracy, and  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  75  — Position reconstruction • Scans along the different axes i n the 1 K T to study: — Position reconstruction, and — P M T Acceptance and optical properties • Tracing out hexagons at different heights to study: — Detector asymmetry, and — Position reconstruction • A G r i d through the F V to study: — Position reconstruction, and — P M T acceptance, and • Off center T Q - m a p data. A p p e n d i x B summarizes a l l the data that was taken w i t h the manipulator.  4.1.1  Reconstruction Bias and Fiducial Volume Study  T h e error i n the fiducial volume is the dominant uncertainty i n the 1 K T measurement for the far/near ratio. To know the flux measurement of the 1 K T we need to be able to correctly identify the volume of the 1 K T we are considering for fully contained ( F C ) events. A F C event has a neutrino interaction vertex i n the 1 K T and a l l light detected during the event must be i n the inner detector volume.  4.1.2  Up/Down Asymmetry and Energy Scale  Some of the manipulator data is specifically designed to study the up-down asymmetry i n the 1 K T . A 1.7% horizontal-vertical asymmetry i n the energy of muons stopping i n the detector can be observed using cosmic rays [28]. T h e axis scans done w i t h the manipulator may be able to characterize this asymmetry more.  Chapter  4.1.3  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  76  Scattering and Particle Identification  Scattering and reflections inside the 1 K T have a strong effect on particle identification ( P I D ) and R i n g counting i n the 1 K T . T h i s effect is particularlystrong on multi-ring electron-like events. T h e data throughout the 1 K T taken w i t h the manipulator w i l l aid the understanding of scattering of light i n the 1 K T tank.  4.2  Reconstruction  In this thesis we w i l l only be studying the effects revealed by the position reconstruction. T h e basic algorithm for the laserball reconstruction is the same as described i n Section 2.2. W h e n making the P M T s t i m i n g histograms we started by excluding P M T events on which the A D C saturates, since the time and charge reading on these events are inaccurate. The presence of the manipulator requires that the shadow it casts on the P M T s must be taken into account. We also need to find P M T s that are hit by light from grazing reflection of the manipulator. Three methods are used to identify shadowed P M T s and exclude them from the fit. We cut P M T s using: • Geometrical location of the manipulator shadow, • A t i m i n g cut: \tpmt ~ tof - t^ \ > 20 ns t  (4.1)  where t is the time measured by the P M T , tof is the time of flight, and t is the average tof-corrected time over a l l P M T s , and pmt  pmt  • A n outlier cut: P M T s w i t h 5a and larger fit residuals. The t i m i n g cut identifies P M T s that have times very far away from the mean time-of-flight corrected time: most likely a bad P M T , or one measuring a lot of reflected/scattered light. Figure 4.1 shows the distribution of P M T times for a r u n w i t h the laserball on a string. So a l l P M T s w i t h a time of more then 20ns from the mean can be regarded as broken or seeing a lot of light from reflection off of the manipulator. T h i s cut allows a lot of r o o m for outlying P M T s . These w i l l show up w i t h largefitresiduals since their time w i l l be very different from the mean times of surrounding P M T s . These o u t l y i n g P M T s w i l l get tagged by the outlier cut.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  77  Analysis  tof Corrected PMT Time Distribution 1 ib  T—i—i—i—|-1—i—i—r-|—i  i  i—i—|—i  i  1  i—r-|—1~  1  1  Entries Mean RMS  1 1  680; 1001. 0.2925 -  Hi  •  •  •  i  i •  i  • • n P., r /J  1—1 '  '  '  I  I  I  I L  HMMl/l nr,  '  i  i  i i_  999 999.5 1000 1000.5 1001 1001.5 1002 1002.5 1003  t-tof (ns) Figure 4.1: T i m e distribution from a r u n using the ball on a string. that all P M T s gave mean times w i t h i n a window less t h a n 3 ns wide.  Note  Chapter  4.2.1  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  78  Saturation Cut  Since no documentation on the A D C saturation signal for the 1 K T P M T s exists we scanned the two A D C channels of the P M T s for a l l P M T s i n a high occupancy run looking for a cutoff. T h e A D C saturation spike is clearly visible at the right hand of Figure 4.2. T h e A D C output channel for a saturated P M T is 1166012416. Considering the P M T s are read out by 12-bit A D C s this value makes little sense, and no clarification has been forthcoming. T h e meaning of the spike on the plot is clear enough though. Thus any P M T events w i t h a raw A D C output equal to 1166012416 i n either channel from the P M T are cut.  4.2.2  Geometrical Shadow Cut  To explain how the location of the shadow of the manipulator is determined first consider any point on the wall, top or b o t t o m of the 1 K T . K n o w i n g the ball position we calculate the vector from the laserball to that point on the wall. T h i s gives us the line from the laserball to the point on the wall, let's call it the light ray. K n o w i n g the position of the beginning and end of each a r m we can draw a line along the central axis of the arm. Next we determine the point on the light ray and the point on the a r m that are the closest to each other. If the distance between those points is less than the radius of the a r m being considered we call the point on the 1 K T shadowed. Figure 4.3 shows the shadowed region of the 1 K T as calculated by this routine for one run. W e flag any P M T as shaded if the shadow reaches anywhere w i t h i n 10 c m of the edge of the P M T . T h e loose requirement for the shadow is motivated the limitations on the knowledge of the absolute position of the manipulator i n the 1 K T . T h i s cut is responsible for almost a l l excluded P M T s .  4.2.3  Timing and Outlier Cut  To identify P M T s w i t h unreasonable times we determine the mean of the time-of-flight corrected P M T times. T h e n a l l P M T s are scanned, and P M T s that are 20 ns from the mean are flagged. T h i s removes P M T s that see mostly light reflected off of the manipulator. To determine any left-over outliers the fit is run once. A n y P M T w i t h a fit residual greater than five times the error on the P M T mean time (5cr) is flagged. A l m o s t no P M T s are flagged by this last cut. T h i s cut removes  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  79  ADC Saturation Spike 1  -r—  tL  Figure 4.2: T h e A D C cutoff is clearly visible w i t h the spike at channel 1166012416. T h e multiple peaks represent the two channels of raw A D C output from the P M T . A l l A D C s seem to saturate at the same raw A D C output value.  Chapter 4.  Manipulator Data and Analysis  80  Area Shaded by Manipulator  X(cm)  Figure 4.3: M a n i p u l a t o r shadow as determined by geometrical ray tracing. T h e crooked line i n the middle represents the location of the arms.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  81  P M T s that are passed by the P M T t i m i n g cut, but have very different times from their neighbors. T h i s would be caused reflection effects of the manipulator.  4.2.4  Nominal Laserball Position  T h e nominal position of the laserball is determined using the information from the limit inclinometer system. W e use the fits displayed i n Figures 3.14 and 3.15. These corrected angles are used to determine the nominal position of the laserball using the algorithm outlined i n Section 3.3.3. T h e correction for the vertical section wobble is not properly understood, since it was difficult to properly relate the orientation of the wobble as measured at T R I U M F to the manipulator position i n the 1 K T detector. Therefore the wobble correction was not applied.  4.2.5  Results of the Reconstruction  Before applying the inclinometer position correction and the cuts for shadow and reflections our reconstructed positions agree w i t h the nominal positions to about 6 cm. Figure 4.4 shows this agreement between uncorrected nominal and fit positions. Figure 4.5 shows that the fitted position agrees w i t h the nominal position better than 3 c m for low occupancy data after accounting for shadows, scattering, inclinometer offsets, and saturation. Figure 4.6 shows that the high occupancy data has a large spread between the nominal and fitted positions even after all the corrections. T h e offsets i n the x, y and z positions are due to our uncertainty i n placing the manipulator relative to the 1 K T tank. Since no design drawings of the 1 K T were available it is expected that the positions are off by a few centimeters. T h e variance of the difference between fitted and nominal ball positions represents how well we understand the positions of the manipulator relative to each other, thus it is the interesting number to look at. Since the problems w i t h the position reconstruction of the high occupancy runs were not resolved by the saturation cut, the error i n the reconstruction of the high occupancy d a t a may be the result of another systematic effect. Figures 4.7 and 4.8 show the laserball position reconstruction throughout the tank volume without and w i t h all corrections respectively. T h e most curious feature of Figure 4.8 is the consistent agreement between low and medium occupancy, while the high occupancy d a t a always seems different.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  82  Sum of High, Medium and Low Offsets  0  5 10 15 20 fit - nominal x (cm)  0  5 10 15 20 fit - nominal y (cm)  CD  a  -20  -15  20 P 15 10 I-C <u JO 5 e 0 20  -15  -10  -5  1*3  c  _l  I  I  -10  I  I  I  I  -5  I  1—1  I  I  0  I  I  I  I  I  I  l_L  5 10 15 20 fit - nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.4: Offset between uncorrected nominal and fitted positions for all manipulator runs. E a c h 'event' i n one of these histograms is one run. Y o u can see that nominal and fitted positions do not agree very well without any corrections or cuts.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Low Occupancy Fit Offset -i  -20  -10  i  I I  0  1  1  10  — c  20  fit - nominal x (cm) IIEM Entries  1  1  I  1  1  S  -20  ii.*  1  -10  0  10  j  12  i  1 1  -20  1111  -10  83  Analysis  111  IIDI ' ' Entries Mean RMS  0  '  1  1  1  fl-  -3.991. 2.744-  10  20  fit - nominal y (cm)  M 163 •0.1755J 3.711J 1  20  fit - nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.5: G o o d agreement between nominal and fit positions for the low occupancy data w i t h a l l cuts and corrections.  Chapter  4.  Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  84  High Occupancy Fit Offset § 9 j* 8  -20  -10  -10  0  fit - nominal x (cm) 12  i  i  i  I  i  10  i  i  i  w ' Enlries Mean RMS  1  1  1  1  1  0  10  fit - nominal y (c  hr  -2.30ll 6.944-  8 6 4 2 0  20  -10  0  10  20  fit - nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.6: T h e nominal and fit positions for the high occupancy data disagree even after all cuts and corrections are applied.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  85  Position Fit Bias Profile Histograms i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I—i—i—i—i—I—i—i  100  -300  -200  -100  0  100  S-  1  i—I—i—r  200  300  200  300  nominal x (cm)  nominal y (cm)  e  «1  «3  -300  -200  -100  0  100  200  300  nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.7: W i t h o u t corrections to the nominal positions and cuts to the d a t a used i n the fits the optical reconstruction shows significant deviations throughout the tank. T h e results along the vertical axis show a very strong slope.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Reconstruction Bias Profile  -300  i  100  -200 -100  4-1  ?  86  Data and Analysis  ram  200 300 nominal x (cm)  0 -5 t10 'r -300 -200 -100  c f  10  3 5 " 0 -5  1  pr—I—|—I—I—I—I—|—I—i—i—I—|—I—I  1-10 -300  _i i i i  I  i i  -200 -100  0 I  100 200 300 nominal y (cm)  i—|-1—I—i—i—r—I—I  I  0  i  i  i  I  I—|—I  i 1i i i i  100  I  I  I  | ..J..-4J  L  200 300 nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.8: Offset between fitted and nominal (real) laserball position for the manipulator data. Black and solid represents low, blue and dashed medium and red or dotted high occupancy. T h e lines are a log likelihood fit to the points, which are the average of all the manipulator positions i n their vicinity. T h e error bars represent the variance of the laserball positions used to determine the point.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  87  Since the low and medium occupancy data agree well w i t h the nominal ball positions and the high occupancy data does not we can conclude that there is a problem i n the high charge and occupancy regime. Figure 4.9 displays the fit agreement w i t h the nominal position for a l l the manipulator data. Considering this consistent difference between low and high occupancy data we would like to investigate whether there is a relation between the positions the high and the low occupancy data fit. Figure 4.10 shows that the high occupancy data consistently constructs ~ 3% further outward than the low occupancy data. To figure out why the high occupancy fit so disagrees w i t h medium and low occupancy we investigate the t i m i n g over all the P M T s i n the 1 K T tank. Figure 4.11 shows the P M T times for high and low occupancy runs as a function of the distance from P M T to the laserball. T h i s effect seems to be consistent w i t h a higher effective speed of light for the high occupancy data.  4.3  Discussion  Further investigation into the construction process of the T Q - m a p revealed that it uses a larger integration gate than the ± 2 n s gate i n our analysis (see Figure 2.2). T h i s means that the low occupancy data for the T Q - m a p should be affected by the scattering. In fact the scattering t a i l would have the T Q - m a p believe that a l l the P M T s are slow i n low occupancy runs, thus subtracting from the time signal of low charge P M T s . T h i s would effectively p u l l the optical fit toward the low charge P M T s since their time is wrongly corrected to an earlier value than it should be. T h i s means that i n high occupancy data the ball should reconstruct closer to the center of the 1 K T since the P M T s on the side far from the laserball have a lower time than they should. T h i s is precisely opposite to the effect displayed i n Figure 4.8. Another possible explanation is that the P M T s respond faster to photons that hit the central area of the photocathode. T h i s is known to happen w i t h the 20-inch Hamamatsu P M T s used i n the 1 K T . P M T s that are hit i n a high occupancy r u n would alway respond to the first signal they see, which comes from that central region. For low occupancy runs only a fraction of a l l events hit the photocathode close to the center. T h e T Q - m a p should take out this effect, but since T Q - m a p only uses data from runs w i t h the laserball i n the center of the 1 K T it may not correctly identify this effect for off-center low  Chapter  1  c  14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0  4. Manipulator  1  Data and  Position Fit Offset I  1  1  1  1  '-I «3  i  §  12  E  10  i  i  i  I  Analysis  i  I,, i  i  T—i  i  88  i  i  i—i  r  o j < 58 if 6 -fc 4 f2 r • • I HIM:,:::: , 0 20 -10 0 10 20 -20 -10 0 10 20 fit - nominal x (cm) fit - nominal y (cm)  12  i  i  1111  i  i  1  1  1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1  1  10 8  a  6 4 2 0  20  -10 0 10 20 fit - nominal z (cm)  Figure 4.9: Agreement between fit and nominal positions for a l l manipulator data. Black and solid is low, blue and dashed is medium and red and dotted is high occupancy. Note that the high occupancy histogram is much wider t h a n the black or blue histograms.  Chapter  4. Manipulator  Data and  Analysis  89  Figure 4.10: Position reconstruction bias between high and low occupancy data  Chapter  100  200  4. Manipulator  300  400  Data and  500  600  Analysis  700  800  90  900  Distance to Ball, R (cm)  Figure 4.11: Average P M T t i m i n g differences between high and low occupancy as a function of distance between P M T and laserball.  91  Table 4.1: Solid angle subtended by more and less responsive areas of the photodiode as seen by the laserball moving closer to the P M T . T h e photodiode is modeled as a hemisphere. T h e central part is 0° to 2° from the top of the of the hemisphere. T h e middle part is defined as 2° to 10° from the top of the hemisphere. T h e rest is qualified as the Outer part. Distance to ball  Fraction of Solid Angle Central M i d d l e Outer  430 c m 330 c m 230 cm 130 cm 30 c m  0.0031 0.0031 0.0032 0.0035 0.0086  0.0731 0.0742 0.0762 0.0824 0.1811  0.9238 0.9227 0.9205 0.9141 0.8103  occupancy runs. It is more likely for photons from the laserball to strike the P M T s i n the central area of the photocathode if the laserball is closer to the P M T s . Table 4.1 shows the solid angle subtended by the sensitive areas of the P M T as the ball approaches the P M T . T h e quickly responding central area only becomes significant i n size as the laserball gets much closer to the P M T s than we allowed the manipulator to get. Thus this effect cannot be responsible for the difference between high and low occupancy we see here. The laserball fluoresces when excited by the large number of photons traveling though it during a high occupancy run. Thus we could have light of different wavelength i n the 1 K T . T h i s could cause a different effective speed of light. B u t for this to be true the P M T s should respond at a different time for a high occupancy run than low occupancy run since for the ball i n the center the light from the fluorescence line w i l l travel at a different speed then the laser light. However if the light from the fluorescence were faster then the laser light we would get a slope opposite to what we see i n figures 4.8 and 4.10. If the fluorescence light is slower than the laser light the P M T w i l l record the time it was hit by the laser light, thus negating the effect.  92  Chapter 5 Conclusion A diffracting ball suspended by a string i n the 1 K T tank of the K 2 K experiment was used to demonstrate a problem w i t h the understanding of the t i m i n g reconstruction of the 1 K T . A n optical position reconstruction revealed that the positions of the laserball were reconstructed about 3 c m too low, and for medium occupancy w i t h a significant bias, pulling the position fit outward. These problems motivated the construction of the manipulator a r m which allowed the exploration of the entire 1 K T volume w i t h the laserball. T h e positioning accuracy reached i n this study is ~ 3 cm, but there are still some unresolved issues i n the calibration of the manipulator. T h e optical reconstruction of the laserball on the manipulator was possible after shadowing, scattering and reflections caused by the manipulator were identified. W e find the high occupancy data reconstructs further away from the center t h a n expected. T h i s reconstruction bias is consistent w i t h a lower effective speed of light i n high occupancy data but the cause for this effect has not been identified.  93  Bibliography [1] Issei K a t o . Indications of Neutrino Oscillation in K2K Experiment. thesis, K y o t o University, J u l y 2005.  PhD  [2] T h e K 2 K Collaboration. A measurement of neutrino oscillations by the k2k experiment (tenative title). Phys. Rev. Letters, 2006. [3] T h e K2K Collaboration. k2k04a/skam/const/tdcres.dat, 2004.  tdcres.dat.  Code  in  [4] D a v i d M o r r i s et al. A n optical calibration manipulator system. Technical report, T R I U M F , 2006. Accepted for publication. [5] J o h n N . Bahcall, A l d o M . Serenelli, and Sarbani Basu. N e w solar opacities, abundances, helioseismology, and neutrino fluxes. Astrophys. J., 621:L85-L88, 2005. [6] Y . Ashie et al. A measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters by super-kamiokande i . Phys. Rev., D71:112005, 2005. [7] Laurie M B r o w n . T h e idea of the neutrino. Physics 1978.  Today, September  [8] C . L . Cowan, F . Reines, F . B . Harrison, H . W . Kruse, and A . D . M c G u i r e . Detection of the free neutrino: A confirmation. Cambridge Monogr. Part. Phys. Nucl. Phys. Cosmol, 14:38-42, 2000. [9] G . Danby et al. Observation- of high-energy neutrino reactions and the existence of two kinds of neutrinos. Phys. Rev. Lett, 9:36-44, 1962. [10] K . K o d a m a et al. Observation of tau-neutrino interactions. Phys. B504:218-224, 2001.  Lett,  [11] R . Davis. Solar neutrinos, i i : Experimental. Phys. Rev. Lett, 12:303305, 1964.  Bibliography  94  [12] Masao Takata and Hirorhoto Shibahshi. Solar models based on helioseismology and the solar neutrino problem. The Astrophysical Journal, 504:1035-1050, September 10 1998. Pontecarvo. Sov. J. Noel. Phys., 42. V i v e k Agrawal, T . K . Gaisser, Paolo L i p a r i , and Todor Stanev. A t m o spheric neutrino flux above 1 gev. Phys. Rev., D53:1314-1323, 1996. G . B a r r , T . K . Gaisser, and T . Stanev. F l u x of atmospheric neutrinos. Phys. Rev., D39:3532-3534, 1989. E . A l i u et al. Evidence for muon neutrino oscillation i n an acceleratorbased experiment. Phys. Rev. Lett, 94:081802, 2005. Z. M a k i , M . Nakagawa, and S. Sakata. Remarks on the unified model of elementary particles. Prog. Theor. Phys., 28:870, 1962. Scott Oser. A walk through the neutrino mixing matrix. Talk, 2004. A talk held at T R I U M F and U B C . B . A h a r m i m et al. Electron energy spectra, fluxes, and day-night asymmetries of b-8 solar neutrinos from the 391-day salt phase sno d a t a set. Phys. Rev., C72:055502, 2005. T h e K 2 K Collaboration. K 2 k website, http://neutrino.kek.jp/, 2005. H . N o u m i et al. Precision positioning of superkamiokande w i t h gps for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. Nucl. Instrum. Meth., A398:399-408, 1997. A n n a P l a - D a l m a u . E x t r u d e d plastic scintillator for the minos calorimeters. Conference Proceedtings, 2006. To be published i n the proceedings of 9th Conference on Calorimetry i n H i g h Energy Physics ( C A L O R 2000), Annecy, France, 9-14 Oct 2000. Super Kamiokande Collaboration. Official super kamiokande website. http://www-sk.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/sk/, 2006. Joanna Zalipska. Detector tuning laser calibration and cr muons. Talk reviewing laser scattering study done for the 1 K T , 2004.  Bibliography [25] Newport Corporation. http://www.newport.com.  Vsl-337 nitrogen  95 laser  product  [26] M I D A S G r o u p . M i d a s triumf homepage, http://midas.triumf.ca,  detail.  2006.  [27] Ricardo Dao. Temperature compensated 360° inclinometer w i t h asynchronour serial output. Reference Design # R D - 0 0 M X - 0 0 1 , M E M S I C Inc., 2004. [28] Shunichi M i n e . Energy scale. K 2 K Collaboration Meeting, 2005.  96  Appendix A Data With Laserball On A String T h e setup for collecting the optical calibration data using the laserball is described i n Section 2.1. T h e laserball data taken is summarized i n tables A . l , A . 2 and A . 3 . T h e laserball could be positioned accurate to 10 c m for the data taken i n October 2003, 5 c m for the data taken i n Spring 2004 and about 3 c m for data taken i n the Summer of 2005. T h e nominal position of the laserball is determined by measuring the desired height from a piece of tape on the wire holding the ball i n the tank that indicating where to put the ball to suspend it i n the center of the tank. T h e n the wire is fixed at the measured position. Note that for runs 613342 to 98 the voltage supply to the photo-diode was turned off. T h i s means the timing signal supplied by the photo-diode is unstable making the position reconstruction for these runs very inaccurate.  Appendix  A.  Data With Laserball On A  String  97  Table A . l : Summary of d a t a taken w i t h laserball on a string. Height i n tank is the z position of the ball i n the tank coordinate system (see Figure 1.15) R u n Number  Height (cm) October 2003 D a t a :  603039 603041 Spring 2004 D a t a : 602960 602963 602964 602965 602966 602969 602972 602973 602974 602975 602976 602978 602980 602981 602983 602984 602985 602986 602987 602988 602989 602993 602994 602995 602996 602997 602998 603000 603002 603004 603039 603041 603045 603047  Occupancy  Events  0 300  45 45  13,000 25,000  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -200 -200 -200 0 300 0 0  57 79.5 140 200 300 400 500 580 600 605 619 650 675 675 675 675 675 675 675 675 675 680 680 680 680 680 680 678 60 160 45 45 150 150  20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 5,000 40,000 29,000 12,000 20,000 10,000  Notes  Problems w i t h t i m i n g  Appendix  A.  Data With Laserball On A  String  98  Table A . 2 : D a t a taken w i t h laserball on string P a r t 2 Height (cm) J u l y 2004 D a t a :  Occupancy  Events 7,000 10,000 20,000 3,000 4,500 30,000 40,000  603050 603051 613342 613346 613348 613350 613351 613352 613353 613354 613356 613364 613374 613389 613391 613393  -200 200 -300 -300 -300 -300 -300 -300 -300 -300 300 300 300 300 300 300  250 250 45 375 300 25 50 100 190 230 150 low 30 400 180 25  613396  200  420  613398 613399 613401 613402 613405 613408 613410 613412 613414 613417 613419 613421 613423 613425  200 200 200 200 100 100 100 100 0 0 0 -100 -100 -100  200 200 --> 70 30 30 200 -• 150 600 .25 25 580 25 25 520 200 25  16,000 2,000 6,000  25,000 30,000 67,000  Notes  Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo  diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off diode Voltage is off Rotate ball by 180° P h o t o diode Voltage is off Rotate ball back P h o t o diode Voltage is off Photo diode Voltage is off  Rotate ball by 180° Rotate ball back  Rotate b a l l by 180° Rotate ball back Rotate ball by 180° Rotate b a l l back  Appendix  A.  Data With Laserball On A  String  99  Table A . 3 : D a t a taken w i t h laserball on string Paxt 3 R u n Number Height June 2005 D a t a : 615632 615633 615634 615636 615637 615638 615641 615642 615643 615645 615646 615647 615649 615650 615651  (cm)  Occupancy  Events  0 0 0 -298 -298 -298 -170 -170 -170 127 127 127 273 273 273  20 500 679 680 500 20 20 500 680 680 500 20 680 500 20  5,000 5,000 20,000 5,000 5,000 20,000 20,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 20,000 5,000 5,000 20,000  Notes  N  100  Appendix B Manipulator Data T h e laser setup for the these runs using the manipulator is the the same as the setup for the laserball on a string described i n Section 2.1. T h e M a n i p u l a t o r and its operation is described i n Chapter 3. T h e runs here were taken between A p r i l 25, 2005 and June 14, 2005. T h e ball position is given i n the tank coordinate system. In low occupancy runs 20, medium occupancy runs 480 and high occupancy runs 680 P M T s are hit on average. T h e nitrogen laser broke during r u n 615550 and was replaced. T h e missing runs between 615550 and 615597 were used find the problem and test the replacement laser. T h e data from the online database summarizing the complete manipulator status during each r u n is available at: http://trshare.triumf.ca/~berghaus/work/manipulator/online/odb/ Sketches of the manipulator orientations i n each of the run plan sections are available at: http://phys01.comp. u v i c . c a : 8 0 8 0 / t 2 k / M e m b e r s / f r a n k / R u n p l a n / v i e w /  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  101  Table B . l : Summary of manipulator runs taken at K E K Run Plan  R u n Number  X (cm)  Y (cm)  A3 A3 A3 A4 A4 A4 A5 A5 A5 A6 A6 A6 Bl Bl Bl Bl B2 B2 B2 B3 B3 B3 B4 B4 B4 B5 B5 B5 B6 B6  615026 615027 615028 615029 615030 615031 615032 615033 615034 615035 615036 615037 615038 615039 615040 615041 615043 615044 615045 615046 615047 615048 615049 615050 615051 615052 615053 615054 615055 615056  -77.50 -77.50 -77.50 -76.27 -76.27 -76.27 -72.64 -72.64 -72.64 -71.70 -71.70 -71.74 172.90 172.90 172.90 172.90 -76.32 -76.32 -76.32 47.26 47.26 47.26 173.43 173.43 173.43 65.88 65.88 65.88 41.50 41.95  73.28 73.28 73.28 71.90 71.90 71.90 67.95 67.95 67.95 66.98 66.98 66.96 -199.58 -199.58 -199.58 -199.58 71.94 71.94 71.94 -60.05 -60.05 -60.05 -200.11 -200.11 -200.11 -81.42 -81.42 -81.42 -54.31 -54.37  Z (cm) -301.34 -301.34 -301.34 -296.18 -296.18 -296.18 -296.75 -296.75 -296.75 -304.18 -304.18 -304.01 -127.81 -127.81 -127.81 -127.81 -132.60 -132.60 -132.60 -311.38 -311.38 -311.38 -128.46 -128.46 -128.46 -201.64 -201.64 -201.64 -93.42 -93.48  Occupancy low medium high high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low low high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low low medium  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  102  Table B . 2 : Manipulator runs table 2 Run Plan  R u n Number  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  B6 B7 B7 B7 CI CI CI C2 C2 C2 C3 C3 C3 C4 C4 C4 C5 C5 C5 C6 C6 C6 C7 C7 C7 C8 C8 C8 C9 C9  615057 615058 615059 615060 615061 615062 615063 615064 615065 615066 615067 615068 615069 615070 615071 615072 615073 615074 615075 615076 615077 615078 615079 615080 615081 615082 615083 615084 615085 615086  40.78 45.87 46.63 46.53 99.34 99.34 99.34 -133.41 -134.27 -133.41 -243.27 -242.96 -243.03 -120.17 -120.01 -119.82 110.79 110.79 110.91 220.54 220.74 220.66 219.66 219.78 220.04 109.71 109.71 109.71 -118.68 -118.60  -55.19 -60.72 -60.25 -60.13 -204.60 -204.60 -204.60 -195.40 -195.41 -195.42 10.47 10.38 10.56 204.17 204.09 203.87 198.14 198.01 197.63 -7.37 -7.35 -8.33 -7.14 -7.18 -7.24 198.95 198.95 198.95 199.84 199.92  -93.57 -311.89 -311.61 -311.85 -198.20 -198.20 -198.20 -197.01 -197.01 -197.13 -198.27 -198.22 -198.05 -199.87 -200.05 -199.75 -196.13 -196.12 -195.77 -196.81 -196.95 -196.85 207.20 207.25 207.03 206.31 206.31 206.31 206.71 207.07  Occupancy high high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low high medium  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  103  Table B . 3 : Manipulator runs table 3 Run Plan C9 CIO CIO CIO Cll Cll Cll C12 C12 C12 Dl Dl Dl D2 D2 D2 Jl Jl Jl J2 J2 J2 J3 J3 J3 J4 J4 J4 El El  R u n Number 615087 615088 615089 615090 615091 615092 615093 615094 615095 615096 615097 615098 615099 615100 615101 615102 615103 615104 615105 615106 615107 615108 615109 615110 615111 615112 615113 615114 615115 615116  X (cm) -118.71 -236.48 -236.43 -236.50 -132.32 -132.31 -131.18 94.46 94.52 94.09 190.81 191.77 191.28 183.62 185.03 183.59 66.70 66.70 65.88 65.83 64.88 65.17 170.18 169.26 173.56 -116.39 -116.18 -116.45 -75.07 -75.09  Y (cm) 199.91 13.31 13.33 13.61 -186.29 -186.59 -186.63 -196.03 -196.06 -196.32 -218.11 -217.18 -217.67 -214.11 -212.79 -214.08 -83.91 -83.91 -84.54 -82.94 -83.44 -83.23 -195.77 -196.51 -192.36 115.76 115.67 115.81 68.37 68.00  Z (cm) 206.85 204.82 204.64 204.61 207.34 207.35 207.29 210.89 210.84 211.04 13.19 13.38 12.99 14.61 14.63 14.46 220.43 220.43 220.31 -202.03 -202.17 -202.22 -144.71 -144.66 -144.43 -150.52 -150.19 -150.50 -296.46 -296.32  Occupancy low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low medium high low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium  Appendix  B. Manipulator  104  Data  Table B . 4 : Manipulator runs table 4 Run Plan El E2 E2 E2 E3 E3 E3 E4 E4 E4 Fl Fl Fl Fl Fl Fl Fl F2 F2 F2 F3 F3 F3 F4 F4 F4 F5 F5 F5 Gl  R u n Number 615117 615118 615119 615120 615121 615122 615123 615124 615125 615126 615127 615128 615129 615130 615131 615132 615133 615134 615135 615136 615137 615138 615139 615140 615141 615142 615143 615144 615145 615146  X (cm) -75.07 -76.42 -76.24 -76.32 -74.91 -74.91 -74.92 -72.21 -71.93 -72.24 -283.86 -283.92 -284.06 -295.62 -295.62 -295.59 -188.94 -189.14 -188.79 -189.17 28.32 28.32 28.32 28.21 28.33 28.31 122.87 122.44 122.65 129.21  Y (cm) 68.27 70.56 70.55 70.54 72.39 72.32 72.33 70.39 70.36 70.36 81.40 81.98 81.99 82.86 82.86 81.87 76.45 76.58 76.49 76.31 67.01 67.01 67.01 66.46 66.48 66.31 63.48 62.43 62.48 62.79  Z (cm) -296.38 -296.54 -296.63 -296.61 -296.59 -296.30 -296.52 -296.75 -296.83 -296.75 -316.49 -316.56 -316.49 -295.67 -295.67 -295.71 -296.31 -296.37 -296.27 -296.27 -296.96 -296.96 -296.96 -296.73 -296.50 -296.76 -294.68 -294.95 -295.13 -297.51  Occupancy low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  105  Table B . 5 : Manipulator runs table 5 Run Plan  R u n Number  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  Gl Gl G2 G2 G2 G3 G3 G3 G4 G4 G4 G5 G5 G5 G6 G6 G6 G7 G7 G7 G8 G8 G8 G9 G9 G9 G10 G10 G10 Gil  615147 615148 615149 615150 615152 615153 615154 615155 615156 615157 615158 615159 615160 615161 615165 615166 615167 615168 615169 615170 615171 615172 615173 615174 615175 615176 615177 615178 615179 615180  129.15 56.44 -277.64 -277.63 -277.37 -278.71 -278.71 -278.46 130.01 129.51 122.35 121.95 122.37 121.99 -271.51 -271.33 -271.60 -279.79 -280.11 -279.87 129.70 129.98 129.85 129.33 129.26 129.16 -279.69 -279.74 -279.47 -275.84  63.95 226.41 80.01 81.29 81.15 81.22 81.70 81.68 62.24 62.20 63.10 62.95 62.55 63.29 81.30 81.37 80.43 79.88 81.42 80.71 62.54 61.77 61.90 61.69 62.15 62.27 81.53 81.62 81.17 81.32  -297.76 -297.99 -298.58 -298.55 -298.67 -196.80 -196.84 -196.38 -195.55 -195.72 -88.87 -88.86 -89.11 -88.74 -90.22 -90.17 -90.22 0.34 0.33 0.14 1.37 1.68 1.44 102.57 102.06 102.18 101.16 101.11 100.79 206.95  Occupancy medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  106  Table B . 6 : M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 6 Run Plan  R u n Number  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Gil Gil G12 G12 G12 G13 G13 G13 G14 G14 G14 HI HI HI H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 H4 H4 H4 H5 H5 H5 H6 H6 H6 H7  615181 615182 615184 615185 615186 615187 615188 615189 615190 615191 615192 615193 615194 615195 615196 615197 615198 615199 615200 615201 615202 615203 615204 615205 615206 615207 615208 615209 615210 615211  -275.55 -276.03 124.73 124.75 124.53 115.78 115.61 115.60 -267.10 -267.09 -267.01 -13.08 -13.85 -12.96 -7.76 -7.66 -7.07 -5.25 -5.43 -5.50 -6.95 -6.95 -7.25 -0.82 -0.11 -0.65 2.03 1.97 1.89 1.73  81.39 81.55 62.39 60.58 61.78 62.11 62.44 62.71 80.53 80.20 81.25 4.16 3.65 4.50 -2.75 -2.61 -2.29 -5.23 -5.54 -5.46 -2.90 -2.90 -3.31 -9.23 -8.44 -9.67 -12.86 -12.77 -12.70 -12.53  Z (cm) 206.82 206.54 208.06 208.27 208.19 310.88 311.11 311.05 310.06 309.94 310.06 312.22 312.59 312.76 211.29 211.13 211.25 105.33 105.61 105.38 4.31 4.31 4.24 -96.53 -96.53 -96.83 -197.24 -196.94 -196.95 -295.82  Occupancy medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  107  Table B . 7 : Manipulator runs table 7 Run Plan H7 H7 LI LI LI L2 L2 L2 L3 L3 L3 L4 L4 L4 L5 L5 L5 L6 L6 L6 L7 L7 L7 Kl Kl Kl K2 K2 K2 K3  R u n Number 615212 615213 615214 615215 615216 615217 615218 615219 615220 615221 615222 615223 615224 615225 615226 615227 615228 615229 615230 615231 615232 615233 615234 615235 615236 615237 615238 615239 615240 615241  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  1.48 1.83 3.77 4.26 3.18 1.71 1.62 1.66 -1.05 -0.87 -0.56 -6.91 -7.09 -6.81 -13.50 -13.52 -13.45 -19.92 -16.38 -16.27 -16.57 -21.24 -20.06 260.15 260.74 260.39 189.56 190.04 116.49 90.68  -12.53 -12.35 268.28 268.09 268.67 199.09 199.10 198.68 98.38 98.62 98.81 -3.19 -3.23 -3.29 -98.19 -98.04 -98.32 -195.88 -195.04 -195.31 -272.90 -273.60 -273.50 -13.49 -11.74 -12.95 -9.27 -8.96 -18.15 -6.93  -295.83 -295.84 -191.21 -191.06 -191.33 -192.75 -192.85 -192.73 -196.34 -196.00 -193.71 -189.01 -188.98 -188.78 -183.57 -184.89 -184.97 -187.14 -187.67 -187.86 -190.01 -189.96 -189.66 -191.75 -191.51 -191.44 -187.05 -186.68 -200.45 -186.66  Occupancy medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  108  Table B . 8 : M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 8 Run Plan K3 K3 K4 K4 K4 K5 K5 K5 K6 K6 K6 K7 K7 K7 Ml Ml Ml M2 M2 M2 M3 M3 M3 M4 M4 M4 M5 M5 M5 M6  R u n Number 615242 615243 615244 615245 615246 615247 615248 615249 615250 615251 615252 615253 615254 615255 615256 615257 615258 615259 615260 615261 615262 615263 615264 615265 615266 615267 615268 615269 615270 615271  X (cm) 91.13 90.88 -7.63 -7.76 -7.91 -108.56 -107.78 -108.02 -204.67 -205.43 -204.51 -270.36 -269.80 -269.99 268.49 268.61 268.72 195.82 195.45 195.86 96.02 95.66 96.27 -3.88 -4.31 -4.02 -110.75 -110.88 -111.03 -210.95  Y (cm) -6.42 -6.30 -2.39 -2.50 -2.34 2.16 1.81 1.49 7.79 9.86 8.22 12.05 12.11 11.20 -13.81 -13.84 -13.78 -10.20 -10.15 -10.57 -7.85 -7.77 -7.89 -5.99 -6.78 -6.56 -4.22 -3.51 -4.14 3.61  Z (cm) -187.44 -187.14 -185.20 -186.33 -186.24 -190.26 -190.34 -190.49 -189.12 -189.52 -190.35 -186.25 -185.79 -185.85 6.02 6.10 6.13 5.95 5.77 5.91 2.41 2.25 2.37 2.24 2.18 2.19 2.22 2.26 2.18 2.33  Occupancy medium low high low medium high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  109  Table B . 9 : M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 9 Run Plan  R u n Number  M6 M6 M7 M7 M7 Nl Nl Nl N2 N2 N2 N3 N3 N3 N4 N4 N4 N5 N5 N5 N6 N6 N6 N7 N7 N7 01 01 01 02  615272 615273 615274 615275 615276 615277 615278 615279 615280 615281 615282 615283 615284 615285 615286 615287 615288 615289 615290 615291 615292 615293 615294 615295 615296 615297 615298 615299 615300 615301  X (cm) -211.34 -211.38 -279.02 -279.36 -279.13 3.61 2.00 3.51 3.87 3.44 4.04 4.02 3.60 3.56 -3.79 -3.63 -4.65 -11.21 -12.45 -11.83 -13.99 -16.70 -15.92 -18.24 -18.67 -17.60 99.29 99.53 99.39 -10.59  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  4.37 4.06 6.82 7.85 6.78 269.05 269.71 268.81 203.40 203.69 203.33 100.63 100.44 100.58 -7.06 -7.00 -5.66 -103.64 -103.81 -103.60 -203.19 -203.89 -203.49 -274.53 -274.68 -274.38 -9.51 -9.23 -9.60 -109.89  2.40 2.46 5.44 5.17 5.49 5.75 6.02 5.73 2.82 2.88 2.74 1.63 1.74 1.61 1.95 1.83 1.55 3.77 3.72 3.97 7.23 7.30 7.27 9.48 9.78 9.95 -201.04 -200.97 -201.48 -201.72  Occupancy medium high high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low high  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  110  Table B.10: M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 10 Run Plan 02 02 03 03 03 04 04 04 05 05 05 05 06 06 07 07 07 08 08 08 09 09 09 010 010 010 Oil Oil Oil 012  R u n Number 615302 615303 615304 615305 615306 615307 615308 615309 615310 615311 615312 615313 615314 615316 615317 615318 615319 615320 615321 615322 615323 615324 615325 615326 615327 615328 615329 615330 615331 615332  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  -8.56 -10.93 -112.54 -112.63 -112.90 6.86 7.07 7.00 1.09 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 1.16 94.17 94.46 94.63 93.52 93.16 93.20 -13.11 -13.08 -13.77 -109.25 -109.82 -109.24 0.92  -109.33 -109.89 -8.50 -8.34 -8.30 102.00 101.87 102.09 100.02 100.21 100.21 100.21 100.21 100.21 100.21 100.21 100.21 -6.82 -7.10 -6.30 -6.41 -6.36 -6.34 -103.83 -103.84 -103.84 -3.17 -3.17 -3.28 99.86  -201.58 -201.67 -208.69 -208.56 -208.64 -208.96 -209.09 -208.89 -109.47 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -109.65 -100.76 -100.89 -100.86 1.32 1.27 1.33 0.95 1.11 1.02 -1.74 -1.57 -1.59 -1.24  Occupancy medium low high medium low high medium low high medium medium low high low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high  Appendix  B. Manipulator  111  Data  Table B . l l : M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 11 Run Plan 012 012 013 013 013 014 014 014 015 015 015 016 016 016 PI PI PI P2 P2 P2 P3 P3 P3 P4 P4 P4 P5 P5 P5 P6  R u n Number  X (cm)  Y (cm)  Z (cm)  615333 615334 615335 615336 615337 615338 615339 615340 615341 615342 615343 615344 615345 615347 615348 615349 615350 615351 615352 615353 615354 615355 615356 615357 615358 615359 615360 615361 615362 615363  0.88 0.66 -3.84 -3.87 -3.89 -108.53 -109.01 -108.73 -15.37 -14.84 -14.29 88.82 88.83 88.61 197.04 197.89 58.80 -17.35 -16.91 -16.98 -214.06 -214.63 -214.64 4.05 4.41 4.00 1.72 1.97 2.18 -212.86  99.70 99.53 97.95 98.18 98.27 1.65 1.83 1.69 -99.20 -98.88 -98.77 -3.33 -4.27 -3.90 -17.13 -14.42 243.34 -206.21 -206.23 -205.66 0.88 1.51 1.68 205.24 204.82 205.16 202.26 201.54 201.89 6.20  -1.30 -1.48 106.34 106.14 106.32 106.00 106.35 106.23 101.02 100.85 100.86 100.86 101.32 100.68 -196.81 -196.99 -211.00 -198.29 -197.98 -198.19 -202.20 -201.98 -202.16 -201.87 -202.00 -202.28 -102.73 -102.36 -102.68 -103.31  t  Occupancy medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  112  Data  Table B.12: M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 12 Run Plan P6 P6 P7 P7 P7 P8 P8 P8 P9 P9 P9 P10 P10 P10 Pll Pll Pll P12 P12 P12 P13 P13 P13 P13 P14 P14 P14 P15 P15 P15  R u n Number 615364 615365 615366 615367 615368 615369 615370 615371 615372 615373 615374 615375 615376 615377 615378 615379 615380 615381 615382 615383 615384 615385 615386 615387 615388 615389 615390 615391 615392 615393  X (cm) -213.09 -213.02 -18.96 -19.42 -18.52 191.94 191.74 191.83 187.00 186.65 186.15 -12.26 -10.70 -13.15 -208.27 -208.16 -207.98 1.24 0.73 1.35 1.34 1.27 1.21 1.26 -208.91 -208.72 -209.15 -20.80 -19.94 -19.45  Y (cm) 6.47 6.61 -202.58 -202.67 -202.64 -10.45 -10.46 -10.49 -8.96 -9.46 -9.25 -198.50 -198.56 -198.84 4.74 4.32 5.07 197.97 198.43 197.99 198.96 199.00 198.91 199.00 3.37 3.27 3.45 -198.25 -198.10 -198.13  Z (cm) -103.33 -103.30 -99.01 -98.85 -99.01 -99.13 -98.79 -98.76 1.52 1.40 1.17 2.46 2.45 2.42 -1.75 -1.93 -1.88 -1.43 -1.47 -1.44 100.77 100.60 100.82 100.69 100.14 100.08 100.42 103.95 103.84 103.82  Occupancy medium high high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low low medium high high medium low high medium low  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  113  Table B.13: Manipulator runs table 13 Run Plan P16 P16 P16 Ql Ql Ql Q2 Q2 Q2 Q3 Q3 Q3 Q4 Q4 Q4 Q5 Q5 Q5 Q6 Q6 Q6 Q7 Q7 Q7 Q8 Q8 Q8 Q9 Q9 Q9  R u n Number 615394 615395 615396 615397 615398 615399 615400 615401 615402 615403 615404 615405 615406 615407 615408 615409 615410 615411 615412 615413 615414 615416 615417 615418 615419 615420 615421 615422 615423 615424  X (cm) 188.09 188.48 188.44 172.77 171.97 173.27 -76.37 -76.40 -76.36 46.22 46.36 46.37 174.29 173.83 174.80 50.92 50.53 50.30 49.57 49.40 49.07 -0.79 -1.13 -1.30 -54.00 -53.91 -54.12 -86.81 -86.78 -86.99  Y (cm) -5.41 -5.10 -5.16 -200.39 -201.29 -199.98 72.01 72.03 72.00 -60.66 -60.81 -60.81 -199.22 -199.64 -198.88 -63.51 -63.96 -64.17 -62.94 -64.09 -63.29 -7.47 -8.10 -8.19 48.01 48.07 47.98 83.27 83.33 83.34  Z (cm) 105.03 105.07 104.80 -121.59 -121.21 -121.52 -132.64 -132.53 -132.45 -311.68 -311.26 -311.72 -128.73 -128.57 -128.41 110.42 110.41 110.35 -311.90 -310.56 -311.80 -298.56 -298.63 -298.33 -248.10 -247.49 -247.98 -170.06 -170.13 -170.08  Occupancy high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  114  Data  Table B.14: Manipulator runs table 14 Run Plan QIO QIO QIO Qll Qll Qll Q12 Q12 Q12 Q13 Q13 Q13 Q14 Q14 Q14 Q3R Q3R Q3R Q15 Q15 Q15 Q16 Q16 Q16 Q17 Q17 Q17 Q18 Q18 Q18  R u n Number 615425 615427 615428 615429 615430 615431 615432 615433 615434 615435 615436 615437 615438 615439 615440 615441 615442 615443 615444 615445 615446 615447 615448 615449 615450 615451 615452 615453 615454 615455  X (cm) -94.87 -94.81 -94.90 192.45 191.92 199.04 182.70 184.16 184.09 149.97 153.24 154.40 99.07 99.70 99.44 45.44 47.15 46.66 64.69 64.78 65.41 40.17 40.53 42.48 -9.11 -7.68 -8.03 -52.50 -52.52 -52.24  Y (cm) 91.85 91.94 91.74 -217.88 -218.32 -211.62 -209.22 -207.99 -208.03 -173.73 -170.72 -169.63 -116.57 -115.99 -116.34 -60.69 -59.48 -59.35 -78.60 -78.74 -77.90 -54.96 -54.92 -52.85 -1.03 -0.20 -0.54 46.23 46.10 46.04  Z (cm) -97.76 -97.75 -97.33 -99.14 -99.32 -99.11 -28.72 -28.12 -28.52 47.88 47.76 48.22 97.43 97.25 97.33 -312.24 -312.02 -312.01 -201.83 -202.00 -201.88 -92.25 -92.28 -92.08 -79.09 -79.28 -79.29 -41.18 -41.23 -41.54  Occupancy high medium low low medium high high medium low low medium high low medium high low medium high high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  115  Table B.15: Manipulator runs table 15 Run Plan  R u n Number  Q19 Q19  615456 615457 615458 615459 615460 615461 615462 615463 615464 615465 615466 615467 615468 615469 615470 615471 615472 615473 615474 615475 615476 615477 615478 615479 615480 615481 615482 615483 615484 615485  Q19 Q20 Q20 Q20 Q21 Q21 Q21 Q22 Q22 Q22 Q23 Q23 Q23 Wl Wl Wl Wl W2 W2 W2 W3 W3 W3 W4 W4 W4 W5 W5  X (cm) 188.49 184.98 186.30 177.31 178.97 176.44 136.64 135.45 134.29 91.83 91.34 89.64 42.23 42.12 41.53 -13.60 -11.48 -11.35 -10.87 192.48 192.66 192.67 192.09 191.96 191.88 -13.16 -14.95 -12.72 -14.64 -13.00  Y (cm) -205.34 -208.88 -207.54 -200.67 -198.89 -201.54 -151.77 -152.65 -153.67 -108.19 -108.24 -110.06 -55.50 -55.79 -56.08 -205.17 -203.75 -204.04 -204.02 -8.28 -8.33 -7.85 -8.10 -6.95 -7.97 -200.41 -201.02 -200.23 -196.02 -195.78  Z (cm) 120.31 119.98 120.01 182.17 182.44 182.15 280.18 280.34 280.40 316.69 316.96 316.69 330.21 330.06 330.18 -266.51 -267.14 -266.91 -266.85 -268.34 -268.08 -268.19 -215.51 -215.85 -215.70 -216.11 -216.15 -216.28 -111.81 -112.01  Occupancy low medium high high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium low high high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high medium  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  116  Table B.16: Manipulator runs table 16 Run Plan W5 W6 W6 W6 W7 W7 W7 W8 W8 W8 W9 W9 W9 W10 W10 W10 WIO Wll Wll Wll W12 W12 W12 W12 W13 W13 W13 W14 W14 W14  R u n Number 615486 615487 615488 615489 615490 615491 615492 615493 615494 615495 615496 615497 615498 615499 615500 615501 615503 615504 615505 615506 615507 615508 615509 615510 615511 615512 615513 615514 615515 615516  X (cm) -13.65 184.63 184.94 184.56 193.02 192.99 192.83 -14.17 -16.85 -14.54 -13.49 -14.73 -13.93 191.32 190.73 190.76 190.72 187.24 187.45 186.58 -14.86 -15.10 -14.88 -13.24 -16.44 -17.16 -16.77 176.02 176.26 176.27  Y (cm) -196.17 -6.38 -6.54 -5.69 -11.41 -11.27 -11.35 -200.71 -201.18 -200.71 -199.20 -199.86 -199.38 -5.92 -8.19 -6.53 -7.70 -6.74 -6.34 -7.93 -195.50 -196.07 -195.42 -195.21 -186.70 -186.92 -186.59 -6.68 -5.51 -5.76  Z (cm) -111.81 -112.36 -112.41 -112.31 -17.37 -17.51 -17.50 -16.46 -16.39 -16.52 81.80 82.19 81.79 82.13 82.32 82.28 82.33 189.07 188.79 189.14 188.42 188.14 188.41 187.96 292.58 292.52 292.70 293.20 293.46 293.23  Occupancy low high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high high low medium high low low medium high high medium low high medium low  Appendix  B. Manipulator  Data  117  Table B.17: M a n i p u l a t o r runs table 17 Run Plan XI XI XI X2 X2 X2 X3 X3 X3 X4 X4 X4 X5 X5 X5 X6 X6 X6 Wl' Wl' Wl' W2' W2' W2' W2'  R u n Number 615517 615518 615519 615520 615521 615522 615523 615524 615525 615526 615527 615528 615536 615537 615538 615539 615540 615541 615545 615546 615547 615548 615601 615602 615603  X (cm) 240.65 240.92 240.46 124.74 125.08 125.72 -126.91 -125.15 -125.41 -255.29 -255.23 -255.16 -145.51 -145.08 -146.12 105.50 105.60 106.02 -16.92 -15.90 187.22 187.86 186.62 185.92 185.98  Y (cm) -12.10 -11.03 -13.61 207.87 207.59 207.63 218.47 218.89 218.93 6.42 6.67 6.46 -209.81 -209.75 -209.53 -222.01 -222.17 -221.75 -196.61 -196.27 -7.86 -6.71 -3.12 -6.03 -5.28  Z (cm) 5.98 6.10 6.09 1.22 1.28 1.66 -1.14 -1.26 -1.19 1.48 1.30 1.37 3.09 3.18 2.73 4.80 5.08 4.90 -283.38 -283.50 -283.19 -283.03 -285.56 -285.45 -285.61  Occupancy high medium low high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high low medium high high medium low high high medium low  Appendix  B.  Manipulator  Data  118  Table B.18: Manipulator runs table 18 Run Plan W6' W6' W6' W5' W5' W5' W9' W9' W9' W10' W10' W10' W14' W14' W14' W13' W13' W13' W9" WIO" W6" W5"  R u n Number 615604 615605 615606 615607 615608 615609 615610 615611 615612 615613 615614 615615 615616 615617 615618 615619 615620 615621 615622 615623 615624 615625  X (cm) 202.13 201.51 202.47 -11.38 -12.13 -11.79 -13.08 -14.49 -15.51 189.46 189.40 189.26 208.18 208.17 207.87 -10.74 -10.08 -9.67 -14.10 185.20 201.58 -12.38  Y (cm) -10.27 -11.62 -8.18 -210.58 -210.75 -210.60 -198.11 -198.32 -198.71 -7.07 -6.50 -7.29 -11.73 -10.71 -12.25 -217.24 -217.22 -217.16 -193.78 -4.69 -10.62 -210.57  Z (cm) -141.71 -141.76 -141.79 -142.18 -142.20 -141.93 101.39 101.37 101.15 101.67 101.57 101.56 254.80 255.13 255.07 254.58 254.68 254.68 100.59 101.10 -144.52 -144.76  Occupancy high medium low high medium low high medium low low medium high high medium low high high low low low low low  119  Appendix C Analysis Code Figure C displays the basic data flow for the position reconstruction analysis. W e have two sources of data: • M a n i p u l a t o r Systems, and • 1 K T Detector. T h e d a t a from the manipulator positioning systems is held i n the M I D A S O D B . W i t h each run we dump the O D B contents to a file. T h i s file is scanned for the a r m lengths and angles by read_odb, which also performs the construction of the nominal position described i n Section 3.3.3. In addition the location and number of the odb files and r u n occupancy is fed to read.odb. read_odb.py generates four text files containing the location, number, and names of ofl files, run occupancy, as well as ball positions according to one of the four positioning systems ( m a n J i m i t s . t x t , man_safety.txt, man_prima.txt and man_secon.txt for limit and safety inclinometer and primary and secondary encoder systems respectively). One of the four text files (usually the limit positions) is read i n by a P e r l script called writeJb_script.pl. W i t h the data file to be read i n the P e r l script also takes a binary argument (0 or 1): • 0 means the scripts it generates are for scott_occ, and • 1 means the scripts are for the ofl to ntuple converter. E a c h script sets the necessary environmental variables for the K 2 K analysis and feeds the code the data it needs.  C.l  Ntuple Generator  T h e ntuples generated from the laserball d a t a contain only one event per spill due to size limitations of the ntuple file format. These ntuples are used in the position reconstruction analysis performed by Shaomin Chen.  Sun Machine with k2k04a Framework  KT  offline . processing  Oq  C  RFM Data  a  uses  scott occ  computes  run######.txt  shdowflags Calculates shadow by ray tracing  o  -t ntuples  S  creates [ |  b 2 n t u p  |  e  1 executes  lb######.sh  run######.sh  used for  CO  o  O D_  fit_pos Shaomin's Analysis  Fits Position Cut Outliers  CO  l-i CO  •5' K o  1-1  run######.dat  MIDAS ODB  I  Manipulator  4read_odb.p^*-  shex.res man_limit man_safety man_prima man scon  PAW write_lb_script  offset bias plots  Appendix  C.2  C. Analysis  Code  121  Position Reconstruction  If the binary argument to writeJb_script.pl was 0 the scripts writeJb_script.pl generates r u n scott_occ. T h i s w i l l perform the peak finder and saturation cuts explained i n sections 2.2 and 4.2.1 respectively. scott_occ generates a file for each r u n containing the t i m i n g peaks for each P M T , standard deviation of those peaks, time of flight to the P M T , P M T position and normals. T h i s d a t a is read i n by the shadowflags code, which tags P M T s which are shaded according to the ray tracing algorithm. T h e files returned by shadowflags have the information from scott.occ, plus a flag of 0 for non-shaded and 1 for P M T s whose border is shaded and 2 for P M T s whose center is i n the manipulator shadow. These files are read i n by fit_pos, which scans for outlier P M T s i n the time histogram and tags those w i t h outliers by adding 4 to their shadow flag. T h e n the fit is run once, P M T s w i t h large residuals are tagged by incrementing their flag by 8. T h e fit is r u n a final time ignoring a l l P M T s w i t h flags greater then zero. T h e result positions for all runs are put into a text file, together w i t h run numbers, position uncertainties (algorithm described i n Section 2.2), and the fits x 2  

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