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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Dogfish Bay : structure and immersion Quadra Island wine 2005

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DOGFISH BAY: STRUCTURE A N D IMMERSION Q U A D R A ISLAND WINE by JILL TAKANE O G A S A W A R A B.Sc. (Forestry), The University of British C o l u m b i a , 2000 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E O F MASTER OF L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE IN THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES ( L a n d s c a p e Arch i tec tu re ) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A Augus t 2005 © Jill T a k a n e O g a s a w a r a , 2005 Abstract This project is a design of a winery a n d vineyard on Quad ra Island, British Co lumbia . A precedent study of 2 vineyards and a site suitability study including soil, vegetat ion and shadow studies were c o n d u c t e d to determine the feasibility of wine production on the site. These studies also informed the p lacement of agricultural and built components on the site. The concep t based upon tectonics (or structure) a n d the immersion into the working environment, gu ided the organization of site characteristics. The goal of this project was to design a landscape that c a n evolve through time while supporting the residents of the site. A winery and vineyard have the capac i t y to fill various niches. They c a n b e c o m e an integral p lace within a community where private property c a n be welcoming and occup iab le by the public. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vi Acknowlegments viii Introduction 1 Location 2 Regional Locat ion 2 Site Location 2 A Brief History of Wine 4 A Brief History of Wine Tourism 6 Precedents 8 Large designed vineyard Domaine Clos Pegase Winery 8 Small commerc ia l vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard 10 Analysis 12 Social 12 History 12 Quadra Island Settlement 12 Property timeline 13 Demographics 16 Vegetat ion 17 Soil 23 Island Geo logy 23 Quadra Island Soil Categor ies 23 Site Soil 25 Hydrology 28 Quadra Island Watershed Hydrology 28 Property Hydrology 29 Groundwater 29 Cl imate Indicators for wine cultivation suitability 30 iii Hughlin Index 30 Heat Units(Degree Days) 31 Latitude Temperature Index 32 Environmental comparisons Shadow 36 Vine Life History 36 Results of Analysis 39 How this project fits into Quadra Island 39 G r a p e varieties 41 Varietal notes 43 C o n c e p t 45 Structure and Immersion 45 Structure 45 Support and Training 45 Support , 46 Training 48 Design Strategy 52 The visual patterns of the viticultural landscape 52 Immersion/Program 54 Experience 54 Seasons of a winery and vineyard 54 Festivals and Celebrations 58 Wine Related Programs 59 Conclusion 69 Bibliography 70 Appendix A 74 Appendix B 75 iv List of Tables Table 1. Selected Quadra Island Demographics from the 2001 census 16 Table 2. Existing site vegetat ion 22 Table 3. Hughlin Index Indicator Varieties 31 Table 4. Heat Units (Degree Days) Indicator Varieties 31 Table 5. Latitude Temperature Index Indicator Varieties 32 Table 6. Rainfall in millimeters during growing season 34 Table 7. Sunshine in hours during the growing season 35 Table 8. G rape Cultivar summary 42 List of Figures Figure ! . Southern British Co lumbia 2 Figure 2. Quadra Island 2 Figure 3. South End Neighbourhood 2 Figure 4. 319 Sutil Road 2 Figure 5. Egyptian Statue holding urns of wine 4 Figure 6. M a p of vine travel through Europe 4 Figure 7. Old wine bottle 5 Figure 8. Refrigeration fermenting tanks in Australia 5 Figure 9. Vineyard tastings 7 Figure 10. The Clos Pegase Design Compet i t ion book cover 8 Figure 11. Cherry Point Vineyards, C o b b l e Hill,Vancouver Island, B.C. 10 Figure 12. Cherry Point Vineyards, aerial photograph 10 Figure 13. Discovery's arrival off C a p e Mudge , July 13 1792. Painted by artist Gordon Miller©, 1991 12 Figure 14. Quathiaski Cann ing C o m p a n y , c . 1912 13 Figure 15. 319 Sutil Road, Quadra Island 15 Figure 16. Vegetat ion m a p 18 Figure 17. Slope m a p 24 Figure 18. Category 2 soil; seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel 25 Figure 19. Soil m a p 26 Figure 20. Disturbed material, gravel, sand and c lay 27 List of Figures (continued) Figure 21. Drainage ditch character in cleared eastern half of site 29 Figure 22. Seasonal stream, through forested section of site 29 Figure 23. Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season ' 34 Figure 24. Sunshine hours during the growing season 35 Figure 25. Shadow diagram 37 Figure 26. Trellis systems 47 Figure 27. Vertical canopy training systems. 49 Figure 28. Vines and topography 53 Figure 29. Springtime vineyard 54 Figure 30. Summer 55 Figure 30. Harvest 56 Figure 31. Winter vines 57 Figure 32. Site Design Plan 62 Figure 33. East-west site sections 63 Figure 34. North-south site sections 64 Figure 35. Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-west 65 Figure 36. Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-east 66 Figure 37. Detail Drawings, site imaging 67 Figure 38. Detail Drawings of programmatic elements 68 Acknowlegements Thank you to everyone who helped with this project, it has been a growth exper ience. Thank you to my parentsjakeshi and Mizuho Ogasawara and my parents-in-law, Ken and Valerie Mcguff ie, for supporting me wholeheartedly a n d for keeping me nourished. Thank you to my friends for being there when I n e e d e d to talk. Thank you to my commit tee members, Douglas Paterson, Shana Johnstone and especial ly my chair, Susan Herrington, for aiding me during the entire thesis process. Thank you to my classmates for desk critiques and shoulders to cry upon. Finally, thank you to my husband, Benjamin McGuff ie for all the support and love a person needs during these last 3 years. I couldn't have done it without you. viii Introduction Wine is not merely a consumable, it is a beverage s teeped in tradition and ce lebrated in myth. Choosing to make wine is far beyond a simple job, it is a lifestyle with an august history and a romantic lure. It is a difficult cho i ce to grow and make wine where the profit margins are thin and competi t ion is heavy. Some peop le are born into winemaking, others are fascinated with the gent leman farmer image, and other people are just passionate about wine and desire to share their passion. Dogfish Bay Winery is a project where the owners are fascinated by the simple process and the artistic chal lenge of making wine, from the growing of the grapes to sharing the exper ience. A winery and vineyard have the capac i t y to fill various niches. They c a n b e c o m e an integral p lace within a communify where private property c a n be welcoming and occup iab le by the public. The goal of this project is to design a landscape that will grow into an economical ly self-sustaining family run winery and inn where the exper ience of wine is shared and ce lebra ted. This is a landscape that would be c a p a b l e of transforming and evolving through time, from a partially w o o d e d hobby farm to a full production facility and accommoda t i on . It will be a p lace where the landscape changes with the owners and their family. 1 Figure 1. Southern British Columbia Figure 2. Quadra Island Figure 3. South End Neighbourhood Location Regional Location Approximately one and a half hours drive north of Nanaimo, B.C. (Figure 1), and a short 10 minute ferry ride, Quadra Island is one of the Northern Gulf Islands also known as the Discovery Islands. Set within a sheltered coastline, Quadra Island is rife with incredible outdoor recreational opportunities and a burgeoning eco-tourism industry. Due to this abundance of natural beauty which attracts vacation home owners and tourists, the population can double during the summer months. Quadra Island is serviced by two ferry routes from Campbell River and the other to Cortes Island. These connect to two primary commercial hubs on the Island: Quathiaski Cove and Heriot Bay, respectively (Figure 2). The majority of populated areas on Quadra Island occur in the lowlands of the southern portion of the Island. Site Location The site is located near the southern tip of Quadra Island, on the eastern coast in the neighbourhood loosely known as the South End (Figure 3). The site is 4.882 ha (12.06 acres) in area and is home to two families (Figure 4).  A Brief History of Wine Figure 5. Egyp t ian s ta tue ho ld ing urns of w i n e from Johnson, H. and J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004. Figure 6. M a p of v ine t ravel th rough the M i d d l e East a n d South - Eastern Europe from Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004. O l d e r t h a n r e c o r d e d history, w i n e o r i g ina ted f rom the M i d d l e East. There has b e e n e v i d e n c e f rom Egyp t ian tombs , wa l l pa int ings a n d statues ho ld ing urns fil led wi th w i n e (Figure 5), of its cu l t iva t ion. The r a n g e of Vitis vinifera w a s originally only in Eu rope a n d the M i d d l e East but s o o n s p r e a d (Figure 6). A n c i e n t G r e e c e has e v i d e n c e of cu l t iva t ion f rom a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 B.C., the l e g a c y of v ineyards th roughout Italy to Southern G a u l . R o m a n s s p r e a d w i n e m a k i n g th roughout Europe . The a p p r e c i a t i o n a n d cu l t ivat ion of w ine m o v e d wes twa rds a n d by the t ime of Christ the first v ineyards w e r e b e i n g es tab l i shed a l o n g the banks of the Mose l l e River in G e r m a n y . Af ter the Dark A g e s a n d th rough m e d i e v a l t imes the craf t of w i n e m a k i n g w a s a d o p t e d by the c h u r c h . The monaster ies e x c e l l e d in a n d fur thered the k n o w l e d g e of w i n e g row ing a n d m a k i n g , as wel l as inc reas ing the notor iety of their o w n rel ig ion. The Bened ic t i nes w e r e k n o w n for i nc red ib le w i n e a n d for "Rising f rom the t a b l e with their veins swol len with w i n e a n d their h e a d s o n fire."1 1 Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 4 Figure 7. O l d wine bottle from www.wineintro.com/history/glassware Figure 8. Refrigeration fermenting tanks in Australia from Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004. Winemaking techniques from the church have not changed an extraordinary amount since that time; however, in the early 17th century, advances in glass making techniques created bottles that were stronger and less expensive to produce and it was found that wine stored much better in these vessels(Figure 7). Likewise the quality of wine did not degrade when stored in barrels for a long period of time, as well once opened it was an easily drinkable quantity and did not tend to "go off." Through modern advancements such as refrigeration (Figure 8), tenting, irrigation practices, better understanding about sanitary conditions and improved breeding techniques, we are able to push the geographical limits of viticulture. In the past many locations may have been too cold, too wet or too hot2 for wine. As well, the quality and consistency of wine has been considerably advanced. In the last twenty years, consumers have become much more informed about quality and variety of wine. They are more willing to experiment with different varieties and ages of wines making for an exciting and increasingly complex wine market environment.3 2 Schreiner, J . British Columbia Wine Country. North Vancouver , B C : Whi tecap Books, 2003. 3 Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 5 A Brief History of Wine Tourism There has been a historic relationship between wine a n d wine tourism. Recently, it has b e c o m e much more prominent in the business dimension of a winery. It is an important method for building a relationship with the consumer, who c a n be immersed in the not only in the romance of the grape but also the technical knowlege. For smaller wineries substantial sales are m a d e at the cellar door a direct effect of wine tourism. Wine tourism c a n be def ined as "visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals and wine shows for which grape wine tasting and or experiencing the attributes of a grape's wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors"4 Wine tourism c a n be the core business for smaller wineries, particularly those who have chosen wine-making as a lifestyle. While it may be secondary to the larger wineries it is still an important component serving as a promotional channel , sales channel and a consumer educat ion channel . For smaller wineries the majority of sales and marketing is done through the cellar door, effectively, f a c e to f ace contact . Consumer loyalty, increased consumer exposure, increased sales margins, educat ional opportunities 4 Hall, C M . , Johnson, G., Cambournes, B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. and L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around the World. Ed. C. M. Hall et al. Oxford, UK: Butterworth- Heinemann, 2000. . Figure 9. Vineyard tastings From Schreiner, J . British Columbia Wine Country, 2003. and marketing intelligence on both consumers and popular products are all advantages to wine tourism for wineries. Disadvantages include increased costs and management time for the hosting facilities as well as the initial capi tal required for constructing suitable hosting facilities. There c a n also be an inability to substantially increase sales necessitating that other avenues need to be sought in order to make sales. Owners of wineries who do not d e p e n d solely on income from their winery sales often find that hosting visitors may provide a substantial personal reward. In these cases, this lifestyle cho ice dictates business strategies such as maintaining and striving for quality and excel lence of wine rather than increasing volumetric ou tpu t 5 as well personal contact with the consumer. The business of wine tourism is an emerging concep t that is increasingly e m b r a c e d by many wineries and is significant in the wine regions of the world. For many owner-operated wineries, it is a cho ice to be m a d e as a business strategy. The enjoyable fact is that every time one opens a bottle of wine one is transported to the winery that it was m a d e at and we all b e c o m e wine tourists at that point(Figure 9). 5 Hall, C M . , Johnson, G. , Cambournes, B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. and L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around the World. Ed. C. M. Hall et ai. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000. 7 Precedents Large designed vineyard Domaine C/os Pegase Winery art+ landscape i f * & 0?®?* C l o s f l e g a s e - v ; « S S - D e s i g n Figure 10. The Clos Pegase Design Competi t ion book cover From San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition, 1985. This winery and vineyard was the product of a design competit ion that c a m e about due to the owner's own ideas of specific programmatic elements that he wanted included in his plan to establish a home and wine- making business in the N a p a Valley(Figure 10). A more unusual aspect of the Clos Pegase Brief was that e a c h architect was required to work with an artist with the theme of col laboration kept in mind. This was meant to fuse art, architecture a n d landscape. Further evaluation of e a c h design was based on architecture in relation to time a n d p lace , site planning a n d circulation, private vs. public spaces; integration of art and the treatment of architecture as art; technical requirements of the winery; the potential of phasing construction; the sense of p lace that resulted from the distribution of functions over the site; and the "business of making and selling wine." The pract ical consideration of the design was important in the evaluation as this was to be a working winery therefore it had to be functional yet fulfill certain symbolistic a n d imagistic roles. 8 Considerations in the program involved the residence, the winery, and a sculpture garden all p l a c e d on a w o o d e d knoll. The owner envisioned the winery to be a landmark, exhibit excel lence in architectural design, yet not overpower the art of wine making. It had to be pract ical , yet romant ic . 6 Within e a c h of these areas were further programmatic requirements relating to square footage of e a c h of the areas of a winery such as grape receiving and crushing, fermenting a n d processing. The sculpture garden was conc ieved of as a l andscaped park open to the public, featuring water features, lawns, flower beds and a walking path in addit ion to sculpture. The residence is a large and sprawling garden residence, with very specific elements such as a Japanese bath, 10-15 foot high ceilings, 4 bedrooms, and a pottery workshop. The winning entry of the competi t ion was an entry that used the myth of Pegasus as the concep t and winery and landscape were designed around it. The importance of this precedent is not the concep t and how it was implemented but the procedure of how the site itself was perce ived and 6 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition. Sacramento, CA: GraphiCenter, 1985. 9 Figure 11. Cherry Point Vineyards, Cobb le Hill, Vancouver Island, B.C. Figure 12. Cherry Point Vineyards, aerial photograph From v v w w . c h e i T y p o i n t v i n e y a r d s . c o m then designed for. There was a strong idea of program that was present that the design c o n c e p t that had to take into consideration as well as the owner's very rigorous ideas. While very different in scale and budget, Dogfish Bay is in a similar situation as the basic program of vineyard and winery is present as well as the owners own strong ideas and values that are tied to this site. The concep t is one that must truly tie the values to the program and to the site itself. Small commercial vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard (Figure 11)was established in 1990 on 34 acres in C o b b l e Hill, south of Cow ichan Bay, on a glacial moraine. The soil of this vineyard is a gravelly, sandy mixture underlain with clay. There is a large detention pond that captures winter rain in order to store it for irrigation during the summer. This vineyard was planted when winegrowing was still relatively new on Vancouver Island therefore prior to opening the winery several grape varieties were planted at this vineyard as an experiment to determine what would be most suitable to attempt to grow in this region. Or tega, a germanic cross was chosen as the flagship wine. In 1994, after the grape trials had been comple ted Cherry Point Vineyards b e c a m e one of the first l icensed wineries on Vancouver Island. Today it is the second largest vineyard on Vancouver Island at 24 planted acres(Figure 12). The main varieties at this vineyard are Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Pinot Noir, Agria, Or tega, Siegerrebe and Castel . The success of the winery has been largely due to the majority of the winery's sales occurring at the cellar door. However, there is also a diversification of program with summertime Sunday picnics, music concerts on the lawn and a picturesque scene of sheep in the meadow. 7 The winery has also always hosted a wine tasting facility though the winery has recently comp le ted a renovation of the tasting room a n d a pavilion that is avai lable for rent for various functions. In April 2004 the vineyard was purchased by the Quw'utsun' Vineyard Development Corporat ion, a subsidiary of the Cow ichan Tribes of Duncan, B.C. It will be interesting to follow the progress of this winery in the future. This is a winery that c o m m e n c e d out of the same roots as Dogfish Bay is and is a successful precedent that has evolved into a more mult i faceted site. Though the sole income is dependent upon the winery sales this is a g o o d example of the capitalization on the allure of wineries and wine tourism. 7 Schreiner, J. British Columbia Wine Country. North Vancouver, B C : Whitecap Books, 2003. 1 1 Analysis Social Figure 13. Discovery's arrival off Cape Mudge, July 13 1792. Painted by artist Gordon Mill- er®, 1991 from www.c iv i l i za t ion.ca/abor ig /nwca/ nwcam21e.html History Quadra Island Settlement Quadra Island had been used by First Nations for over 2000 years. Captain George Vancouver writes of visiting a Coast Salish village at Cape Mudge in 1792 and finding a settlement of longhouses, boats and approximately 350 residents (Figure 13). The current Kwakwak'awakw First Nations invaded the settlement during the early 19th century and are now known as the We Wai Kai Band. 1 0 Anglo settlement dates back the 1880's. Early settlement throughout the Campbell River- Quadra Island region was based on forestry, farming, ranching, fishing and mining. Quadra Island quickly became the regional commercial hub where freighters and steamships on their way to the north often stopped. The first public school was built at Cape Mudge by the We Wai Kai band in 1893 under the direction of the last hereditary chief, Billy Assu. He is also responsible for building up the fishing fleet which is still present today. By 1904, Quadra Island had 2 post offices, 1 0 Taylor, J . River City A History of Campbell River and the Discovery Islands. Made i ra Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 1999. 12 Figure 14. Quathiaski Canning Com- pany, c.1912 from Taylor, J . River City A History of Campbell River and the Discovery Islands, 1999. a school, hotel, lumber camps and a mission. Residential development was concentrated in Heriot Bay and Quathiaski Cove before 1920. By the 1920's the area had been logged and logging operations failed and the population began to decline. Fishing remained active and Quathiaski Cove remained economically viable(Figure 14). During the early 1920's tourism also flourished due to excellent fishing and hunting opportunities. After World War II, tourism increased even more including the development of summer homes, which continues today. In the 1960's and 1970's there was an influx of settlers seeking an alternative lifestyle in a rural setting. The passenger ferry service started up in 1949 and the car ferry service in 1960. The economics of Quadra Island are however, closely tied to that of Campbell River with a large fraction of the population employed there. Property timeline The original property was more that 30 acres in size that also included waterfront. The history of the land within the family that owns it now began in the late 1940's with the private purchase by George and Estelle Rose. It was used as sheep pasture as well as hay fields. With 13 the poor health of George Rose, the land was subdivided into smaller parcels and slowly sold off to help support the Roses in retirement. With the death of George , Estelle owned the remaining land and it was further subdivided. Estelle and George having no children of their own left the land for the children of their brothers and sisters. Each of the children was asked if they would prefer land or money and most of the children took the land. Most sold off their land; however, the daughters of Elmer and June (nee Rose) Larson chose to keep the 4 acres that they had inherited. Ken a n d Valerie (nee Larson) McGuff ie chose to settle on the 4 acres that Valerie had inherited and subsequently bought out e a c h of the 4 acres that Valerie's sisters, Marilyn (nee Larson) Collier and Wendy Larson had inherited. " Again through a purchase in 2004 between family members, the property was kept within the family. Returning the site to its agricultural roots, Ken and Valerie's son, Benjamin McGuff ie and his wife (Jill) Takane Ogasawara , the author, have d e c i d e d to establish themselves, as well as a business, here close to both Ben's family as well as Takane's family. It is p lanned that Ben and Takane will create a p lace that future family members will cherish and take pleasure in. 1 1 Personal Communication. With June Larson, 2005. 14  Demographics Quadra Island is a 9273.43 m 2 land area that has a populat ion density of 0.3 people per km 2. The property sizes range from a typical city lot size in the more popu la ted areas of Quad ra Island to acreages over 40 acres. The populat ion of Quadra Island in 2001 was 2548 peop le ' 2 . Most of these peop le were over the a g e of 25. There has been an immigration of older peop le to the Island looking for the rural island lifestyle as the perfect retirement home as ev idenced by the increase in dwellings constructed in the last 15 years as well as the top heavy a g e class (ages 45-64) (Table 1). Table 1. Selected Quadra Island Demographics from the 2001 census. Populat ion in 1996 2671 Populat ion in 2001 2548 A g e 0-19 615 A a e 20-44 745 A a e 45-64 905 A a e 65-84 260 Med ian a g e 43.1 Mobility Status - P lace of residence 5 years a g o Lived at same address 5 years a g o 1660 Lived different address 785 Se lec ted O c c u p i e d Private Dwelling Characteristics Total Number of Dwellings 1105 Number of O w n e d Dwellings 815 Number of Rented Dwellinas 290 Number of Dwellings constructed be tween 1991 a n d 2001 265 Work Statistics Indus ry To al - Exper ienced Labour Force 1385 Agriculture a n d other resource-based industries 215 Manufactur ina and construction industries 215 Wholesale a n d re ai t rade 105 Finance a n d real es a te 35 Health a n d Educat ion 240 Business services 180 Other services 375 1 2 Statistics C a n a d a . Comox-Strathcona J - Population Statistics. Online at www.s ta tcan .ca . (accessed Feb. 2, 2005). 16 The majority of the populat ion on the Island are still heavily dependent upon work in the resource industry however, there is an increase in health a n d educat ion employment as well as other industries which represent the increasing tourism sector on Quadra Island (hotels, tour outfits etc.) The majority of peop le on the Island still commute to Campbe l l River in order to work and shop. Vegetation This region is within the winter wet, summer dry, southern maritime region of British Co lumb ia . 1 3 There are 6 major vegetat ion types found on Quadra Island: mixed forest, Douglas-fir forest, palustrine wet land, b e a c h and coastal prairie, up land forest and estuarine wet lands 1 4 . The site contains the first 3 vegetat ion types descr ibed (Figure 16). The front field original vegetat ion state is unknown as surrounding forest had been c leared for several years a n d what is present is all second growth. It c a n be extrapolated that it was transitional forest be tween 1 3 K l i n k a , K., V . J . K r a j i n a , A . C e s k a , A . M . S c a g e l . Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. V a n c o u v e r , B C : University o f British C o l u m b i a Press, 1995. 1 4 L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e P r o g r a m . Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. V a n c o u v e r , B C : University of British C o l u m b i a , 2 0 0 0 . 17 pen field, disturbed Douglas-fir forest zone vegetat ion Figure 16. Vegetat ion map CO i n i l l l l W J K & m . Mesic (mixed)! forest Palustrine wetlands m Not to scale the mesic forest zone a n d the Douglas fir-forest zone that prevai led. It is also important to note that this site is situated on the extreme eastern side of the Island which enjoys a slightly drier microcl imate to that even 2 km west of the site. This is important to its success as a vineyard and winery. Mesic (mixed) forest is found in the wet perimeter zone, the understory is moderately c losed and comprised of sword fern (Polystichum munitum), salmon berry (Rubus parviflorus), mosses, and saplings of red alder (Alnus rubra), bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) a n d western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). In relation to the site, the eastern edges of the property prior to being c leared would most likely have been within this zone. Douglas-fir is the dominant species in the Douglas-fir forest zone, with the understory generally consisting of salal (Gaultheria shallon) and huckleberry [Vaccinium parvifolium). This zone often coincides with the water recharge zone, and slopes of 0-5%. It is buffered from significant coastal impacts and thus is more geotechnical ly stable than the coastal zones. A large portion of the site falls within this zone, this is the majority of the w o o d e d area on this site that is in a semi logged state rather than in untouched forest. 19 Palustrine wetlands are the freshwater wetlands that may be div ided into different classifications including emergent/r iparian, scrub/shrub a n d pockets of forest wet land in the Douglas fir forest zone as in the case of the wet land to the south-west of the property. There is also a larger wet land to the south- southeast of the site on the ad jacent property that is more of a scrub/shrub wet land regenerated because of a field that was present in the past rather than natural regeneration. This is a major discharge zone for the property itself. Dominant vegetat ion is generally salmonberry, red alder and red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa ssp pubens). Further investigation into the vegetat ion species present, tends towards the diagnosis of a nitrogen medium soil that is on well drained to fresh soils, depend ing upon the portion of the property that is being studied. If e a c h of the vegetat ion zones discussed above is studied in further detail, the general soil and moisture regime c a n be dec iphered by looking at certain indicator plants and their associations with e a c h other. Table 2 details the plants and their soil as well as hydrological regime. The mixed (mesic) forest zone is generally water receiving as well as shedding meaning around stream environments as well as seepages, making it a fresh- 20 moist environment that has nitrogen rich soil and many nitrogen fixing plants such as red alder and salmon berry. The Douglas-fir zone generally has indicators of fresh to moderately dry soils which are nitrogen medium. There are aberrations such as the presence of huckleberry but this may be due to the microcl imate conditions surrounding the plants. The palustrine wetlands are obviously moist to wet areas that are generally in this area nitrogen rich. The actua l physiology of the soils is discussed below in the soil section. 21 Table 2. Existing site vegetat ion Botanical Name C o m m o n Name Hydologic regime Soil Regime Zone Ground Layer Mixed forest Douglas- fir forest Palustrine wetlands Carex Species sedge Various various X X X Digitalis purpurea Fox G love General ly dry X Juncus sp. Rush Various X X X Mahon ia nervosa Oregon G r a p e moderately dry, fresh, cutover sites N medium X Polystichum munitum Sword Fern water receiving a n d colluvial sites N rich X X Pteridium aquil inum Bracken Fern water shedding a n d receiving X X Shrub Laver Rubus ursinus Trailing blackberry moderately dry, fresh N medium X Gaulther ia shallon Salal water shedd ing / dry N poor X Rubus spectabilis Salmon- berry very moist to wet N rich, near stream X X X Vacc in ium parvifolium Huckle- berry General ly dry environment N poor X Tree Layer Abies grandis Grand Fir water shedding a n d receiving, fresh to moist N rich X X Alnum rubra Red Alder Primary succession: A long streams, water col lect ing. Secondary succession: water shedding sites N rich, exposed mineral soil X X X P i cea sitchensis Sitka spruce Fresh, moist N rich, very rare X X Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas fir General ly dry environment X X Tsuga heterophylla Western hemlock water shedding, water receiving N poor X X 22 Soil Island Geology Quadra Island was glacier covered 20,000 years ago ; northern Quadra Island was scraped c lean , down to bare rock. In contrast southern Quadra Island is m a d e up of deposition of materials from the northern portion of the island. The soils are m a d e up of horizontal layers of sand, gravely sand, c layey sand, silty, sand, cobbles and glacial till, a mixture of the previously ment ioned soil types. The southern portion of the island is basically a plateau consisting of steep coastal walls, shoreline and relatively flat interior (where the property is sited). Drainage consists of small wetlands and creeks 1 5 . Figure 17 illustrates the site slope. Quadra Island Soil Categories Quadra Island has a variety of land types with several soil categories including: 1 .Thin, irregular soil over bedrock: -areas exposed bedrock -limited near surface groundwater supply -wastewater disposal capac i t y severely limited 1 5Landscape Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, 2000. 23 Figure 17. Slope map 4v Not to scale Figure 18. Category 2 soil- seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel 2. Seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel (Figure 18): -well drained a n d dry in summer -seasonally wet with saturated pockets -generally related to flatter topography -minimal overland water flow -low moisture retention capac i t y -thin top soil layer, generally ac id ic 3. Poorly drained, sandy loam -poorly drained most of year -related to sloping ground -moderate overland flow -wastewater disposal capac i ty limited in many areas 4. Saturated organic -muck a n d peat -saturated most of year with standing water -primarily emergent and w o o d e d wetlands -severely limiting to development 5 Coasta l -beaches, bluffs -sands, pebbles, cobbles of mixed sizes Site Soil As discussed previousy,this site is situated within the area that covers 2 forest zone types found on Quadra Island, the soil profiles roughly follow the vegetat ion distribution (Figure 19). As ment ioned the soils that correspond 25 • seasonally, wel l -drained sandy gravel with a large number of g lac ia l erratics poorly dra ined, sandy loam, organical ly rich 1 m-4m d e e p before reaching ha rdpan Figure 19. Soil m a p to o Not to scale to the Douglas fir forest zone are fresh to moderately dry which are generally nitrogen medium soils. The soil profile corresponds to the above category 2; seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel with a large number of glacial erratics present. The soil depth is generally 1-2.5 meters d e e p with underlying hardpan. The top soil is thin, and rather inorganic. An elevation break bisects the parcel in approximately the center and signifies the transition from the Douglas- fir forest zone to the mixed forest further east. The soil in this area consists of more category 3 soils; more poorly drained, sandy loam. It is organically rich and is anywhere from 1 m-4m d e e p before reaching hardpan. Past the break in slope is the front field. As ment ioned above , the original state of the vegetat ion is unknown though it was more likely to be a transitional forest between the Douglas-fir zone and the mesic forest. Soils in the front field indicate an area of disturbance. It is topped by disturbed material, a mix of different soil types mainly gravel, sand and some clay conglomerate (Figure 20). However, below 30-45 c m of the disturbed material category 2 soils are present however it is slightly more silty sand, though still very well drained. Approximately 1-5 m further be low the sandy material is hardpan where the majority of the groundwater runs. Figure 20. Disturbed material, gravel, sand and c lay 27 Hydrology Quadra Island watershed hydrology Infiltration occurs in most of the soil in the upland plateau therefore there is very little runoff. The major watersheds are found in Heriot Bay and Quathiaski C o v e . The hydrologic system is div ided into 3 zones' 6 : 1. Upland recharge zone in the interior of the Island. The recharge zone is flat with many wetlands linking to it. This zone is character ized by high groundwater and subsurface water in the winter moving both laterally and vertically. Laterally moving water discharges in seepages along steep slopes, stream channels a n d wetlands. Vertically moving water recharges the deeper aquifers. 2. Transition zone, the zone where groundwater is transferred from recharge to discharge. The transition zone is generally found on gentle upland slopes leading to the steeper slopes of the coastal bluffs. It is generally d a m p throughout the year and seepage is obvious ' Landscape Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia, 2000. 28 3. Discharge zone, generally at the perimeter at the coastal bluffs. The discharge zone is where the groundwater is released, s e e p a g e a n d creeks are obvious. Property Hydrology Figure 21. Drainage ditch character in c leared eastern half of site Figure 22. Seasonal stream, through forested section of site The property has a m a n m a d e pond which drains offsite and is connec ted to a seasonal drainage (Figure 21). There is a small wet land to the south-west of the property on ad jacent properties and the water from the property drains to it. The wet land eventually drains back onto the property in the form of a seasonal stream (Figure 22). It is the primary drainage system on the property. The majority of the property is well drained and seasonally dry. Groundwater The populat ion of Quadra Island is dependent on groundwater for water supply. The main source of groundwater is a d e e p body of glacial deposit; this gains its supply mainly from infiltration. The property has a drilled well that exceeds 50 meters in depth. It is t apped into the Quadra Sands, a d e e p glacial deposit that is an excellent source of water ' 7 . l 7 L a n d s c a p e Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver , BC: University of British Co lumbia , 2000. 29 Climate Indicators for Wine Cultivation Suitability There are 3 methods of determining minimum cl imate characteristics based on the heat accumulat ion from the growing season generally looked at from April 1 to Oc tober 31 of e a c h year. The Hughlin Index, Heat Units and the Latitude Temperature Index are all methods of determining heat accumula t ion ' 8 . Each has advantages and disadvantages therefore the best method for an average is to use all three and extrapolate the results. Hughlin Index The relationship between solar energy and latitude to corresponding list of indicator varieties (Table 3) that would have the greatest c h a n c e of success in a certain cl imate region. H l=(MDT-10) + (MDMT-10) x k x days/month 2 where: MDT= m e a n daily temperature MDMT=mean daily maximum temperature k= constant to correct for latitude difference Latitudes 48.1-50 k=l .06 HI for Dogfish Bay site = 1407 ave raged over 9 years, range 1223- 1656 1 8 British Co lumb ia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Ke lowna, B.C.: Government of British Co lumb ia , 2001. Q n Table 3 Hughlin Index Indicator Varieties' 9 Huahlin Index Indicator Varieties <1500 Muller Thurgau, Ortega, Blue Portuguese 1600 Pindt gris, Pinot b lanc, Marecha l Foch, G a m a y noir, Gewurztraminer 1700 Chardonnav, Riesling, Pinot noir 1800 Cabernet Franc, Limburaer The Hughlin Index for Dogfish Bay site average at 1407 therefore the best varieties are those for the < 1500 category. These are the varieties that would likely do best in this cl imate. Heat Units (Degree Days) The use of heat units also ca l led the Winkler system was deve loped in California to characterize grape growing and producing sites. The heat units are summed for all months in a year with a positive value. Table 4 illustrates varieties that have been shown to work in e a c h of the regions. HU= (MDT-10C) x # day in a month Where: MDT= mean daily temperature DD for Dogfish Bay site= 871 averaged over 9 years, range 748-1041 Table 4 Heat Units (Degree Days) Indicator Varieties1 Heat Units (Degree Days) Reaion Dearee Days Indicator Varieties 1 1390 or less Pinot noir, Pinot blanc, Chardonnay II 1390-1650 C a b . Sauvignon, Merlot, Aliaote III 1650-1930 Sauvignon b lanc, Ma lbec , Barbara IV 1930-2200 Tinta madeira, Refosco, Oranae Muscat V over 2200 Trousseau, Muscat b lanc 31 The DD for Dogfish Bay site average at 871 therefore the best varieties are those for Region 1. This was dev loped for California therefore the minimum heat boundaries are much higher than the other two methods. Latitude Temperature Index The latitude temperature index (LTI) was deve loped in New Zealand. It uses the latitude and the mean temperature for the warmest month of e a c h year. This was deve loped for coo l cl imate systems where the heat during the warmest months falls well below that of California yet quality wine is ab le to be p roduced . LTI= m e a n temp, of warmest month x (60- latitude of vineyard) LTI for Dogfish Bay Site = 188.4 ave rage over 9 years, range 179-197 Table 5 Latitude Temperature Index Indicator Varieties 2 1 LTI Indicator Varieties Group A LTI < 190 very cool Gewurztraminer, Siegerrebe, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Pinot blanc, Chasselas, Chardonnay, Bacchus Group B LTI 190-270 coo l to warm Riesling, Pinot noir, Chardonnay Group C 1 Tl 270-380 warm Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Ma lbec . Sauvignon b lanc. Semillon Group D LTI 380 warm Car ignane, G renache , Shiraz British Co lumb ia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Kelowna, B.C.: Government of British Co lumb ia , 2001. 32 This is probably the most accura te method as it was deve loped in a coo l cl imate. This method also has the most variety in cultivars to be chosen from. Environmental comparisons Though many growers scoff at the idea of growing grapes in the Vancouver Island cl imate they do not understand the mechanisms of the cl imate there. Vancouver Island does receive a high annual precipitation amount however most of this falls during the winter not during the critical growing season. The site is approximately 20-40 meters above sea level with a rise of about 20 meters and is s loped generally to the east-south- east. The eastern half of the site is open and gently sloping a n d though only 500 m horizontally from the o c e a n , is well sheltered from prevailing winds which blow from the south-east. The western half is extremely well sheltered being upland and surrounded by the upland forests as well as a significant break in slope. The figures below compare the precipitation (Figure 23, Table 6) and hours of sunshine (Figure 24, Table 7) of Quad ra Island with those of the world's premier grape growing areas (data has been taken from Gladstones, 1992).22 As one Gladstones, J.S. Viticulture and Environment. Adelaide South Australia: Winetitles, 1992. 33 Figure 23. Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season 180- 160- 140- 120- 100- 80- 60- 40- 20- Table 6 Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season April May June July August September October Total Loire 47 53 50 42 41 41 74 348 Chablis 51 59 71 63 58 53 69 424 Bordeaux 67 65 60 52 47 55 81 427 Burgundy 50 55 69 62 61 54 78 429 Champagne 47 54 53 67 58 42 67 388 Rheingau 36 41 53 53 53 46 51 333 Quadra Island 87 67 68 41 48 53 155 518 34 Figure 24. Sunshine hours dur ing the g row ing s e a s o n Tab le 7 Sunshine in hours dur ing the g row ing s e a s o n April May June July August September October Total Loire 176 215 228 240 223 180 127 1389 Chablis 175 200 223 236 228 184 125 1371 Bordeaux 185 205 227 257 250 205 143 1472 Burgundy 175 212 241 258 242 192 129 1449 Champagne 175 217 224 228 197 178 118 1337 Rheingau 177 226 228 233 214 159 96 1333 Quadra Island 128 184 232 231 307 275 225 1582 35 can see the precipitation levels during the months of June-August are comparable with some of the other regions as are the hours of sunshine. Shadow Figure 25 illustrates typical shadows cast upon the site during different times of the year at different times of the day. This is important in consideration of where to layout the vineyard and the corresponding facilities. It was important to also take into consideration how shadows affect the site in its present condition and how this could affect the matter in which the site is developed. Vine Life History Wine is the literal transformation of rain into beverage, water from the ground is converted by the plant with the hekp of sunlight, into vine growth, grapes and fermentable sugars. In the wild, a young vine spends the first few years of life establishing a strong root system before sprawling and expending energy on vegetative growth. Reproduction through sexual means is often rare as the vines tend towards asexual reproduction growing roots where the vine is in contact with the ground for a period of time. This plant would naturally climb up any 36 : Figure 25 Shadow diagram CO vertical surface in close proximity. It is said that the Romans planted Elms just for this purpose, to harness the vertical growth to keep the grapes off the ground preventing rot and rodent d a m a g e 2 3 . Modern vines are c o d d l e d a n d severely trained to produce better quality grapes, mainly through the prevention of vegetat ive growth thus forcing the grapevine to concentrate its energy into the grapes themselves. The younger the vine, the lighter a n d less subtle the wine. Wines 3-6 years after planting have generally filled out the space allotted to them above and below the ground. The wines p roduced from this time tend to be increasingly more complex often attributed to the more intricate root systems which presumably regulate water supple and nutrient levels. Yields generally begin decl ining after 25-30 years after planting and vines are often pulled out due to poor health, decreased d e m a n d or purely dependent of economic reasons. However, the wines p roduced from these older vines of popular varieties often c o m m a n d premium prices and are labe led as old vine wines or as the French say "vielle vignes". 2 4 'Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 38 Results of Analysis How this project fits into Quadra Island Similar to many of the smaller inhabited islands on the BC coast, Quadra Island is now in flux, it is in the midst of developing an Official Community Plan in order to a id in the gu idance of future land use a n d community development. It is difficult because of the need for the Island to embrace development of existing as well as future uses if there is to be economic sustainability, but also to try and maintain the rural character of the Island itself. The tentative O C P for Quadra outlines several community values such as 2 5 : • The promotion of a strong rural community that reflects a diversity of lifestyles, economics and recreational opportunities. • The promotion of land use patterns which do not compromise the eco log ica l integrity and rural character of the Island. • The recognition of the unique natural characteristics of the Island, and to safeguard sensitive areas including the Islands groundwater recharge areas from inappropriate forms of development a n d sources of pollution. 2 5 Regional District of Comox-St ra thcona. Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, /996. C o m o x Valley, BC: Regional District of Comox - Strathcona, 1996. or Some of the objectives stated in the O C P are 2 6 : • The main tenance of the rural nature of the Island and encourage a small close-knit community. • To provide forms of development, which are mindful of the capac i t y of the land to support such development and do not detract from the rural nature of the Island. • To encourage affordable and safe living a n d housing opportunities on the Island. • To recognize that home occupat ions and home industries are important to the lifestyle of Quadra Island residents. The owners as longtime residents of the region and of the Island as well as young people , trying to make a living in this a rea where employment is limited, understand the need for diversification. Nothing c a n remain static. The objectives of Dogfish Bay Winery are: • To design a landscape that will with time b e c o m e an economical ly self- sustaining family run winery and inn. • To design a vineyard and winery where the aspects of great wine and great wine-making are explored and shared. 'Reg iona l District of Comox-St ra thcona. Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, 1996. C o m o x Valley, BC: Regional District of Comox-Stra thcona, 1996. 40 • To design a p l ace where one has the cho ice of immersion into the exper ience of the site from staying at an inn to working and staying in the vineyard itself. • To design a p lace of certain characteristic where family, neighbours and visitors to the winery are we lcome to exper ience and immerse themselves in all the stages of the art and craft of wine-making, celebrations of the passage of time and joy. Grape varieties The following table (Table 8) summarizes grape cultivars that are suitable for this cl imate as div ided by maturing time. Early maturing varietals ripen from mid-August to mid-September. Medium maturing varietals mature from mid-September to mid-October and late maturing varietals are ready to be harvested from mid-October onwards 2 7 2 8 . These are generally not r ecommended as the growing season in this region generally ends in late September, not due to temperature but more due to precipitation. However, it is important to 2 7 Fisher, D.V., J . Vielvoye. Grape Growing in British Columbia. O t tawa, Ontario: Queen 's Printer, 1968. 2 8 British Co lumb ia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Ke lowna, B.C.: Government of British Co lumb ia , 2001. 41 note that this does vary from year to year. Varietals chosen for this project are: 1. Gewurztraminer 2. Or tega 3. Siegerrebe 4. Pinot noir 5. Blackberry (not a grape) The one grape that is still an unknown is G a m a y noir. This classic red grape of the Beaujolais region in France will be an experimental variety for Dogfish Bay. It buds early, flowers and supposedly ripens early and it c a n produce heavy crops unless reduced . It exhibits relatively high acidity and ripens with lower sugars. It makes very dark wines. However, recent experiments in the Puget Sound 2 9 suggest that it might not ripen reliably here, the big experiment. Table 8 Grape Cultivar summary Early Ripening Mid Ripening Late Ripening White Dunkelfelder Madele ine sylvaner Ortega Siegerrebe White Auxerrois Gewurztraminer Bacchus Ehrenfelser Kerner Madele ine angevine Pinot b lanc Pinot gris Schonburger White Dornfelder Red G a m a y noir? (big experiment) Red Agria Leon Millot Pinot noir Red Marecha l Foch tarty Ripening Mid-August To Mid-September Mid Ripening Mid-Spetember to Mid-October Late Ripening. Mid-October to Mid- November Snyder, S. Growing Wine Grapes in the Puget Sound. Online at http://pswg.org/ grapes.htm (accessed June 21, 2003). 42 Varietal notes What kind of wine a n d how they grow. 1. Gewurztraminer (white) Wine Notes When m a d e right this is a delicious, fruity, full-bodied wine with a spicy bouquet with typically a strong floral and lychee aroma and spicy taste. Viticulture This is a fairly light cropper with small c o m p a c t clusters that c a n be excessively vigorous, producing large, shady canopies that are conduc ive to de layed fruit ripening and harvest season cluster rot complex. This cultivar likes deep , fertile loams with some clay in a coo l cl imate. Yields are low to moderate approximately 45-65 hl /ha. 2. Or tega (white) Wine Notes Ortega is a German hybrid that was deve loped specifically for cooler climates notable in Germany. At its best is fat a n d jammy when ripe, ripe honeyed, p e a c h fruit on nose with peppery crisp acidity with retained freshness of fruit. It becomes herbaceous in cooler years with a white currant character when unripe. Its flavor and aroma are consistent with the volatile terpenes of Riesling, Sylvaner and Muller- Thurgau. Wine quality has beenWine quality has been ranked as consistently high with a g o o d resemblance to Riesling. Viticulture This is a co ld hardy vine. The grapes ripen very early, and attain high sugar levels with low acidity. However it does not have g o o d disease resistance, therefore stringent c a n o p y management must be undertaken. It has a susceptibility to fungal diseases and coulure but in coo l climates it is a good , consistent producer. The major complaint has been that it possesses thick tendrils that are difficult to remove during dormant pruning 43 3. Siegerrebe (white) Wine Notes The wine is very fruity with some similarity to that of Gewurztraminer, golden brown berry of g o o d flavour, t race of muscat and high sugar with pleasant light floral tones, highly aromatic. Viticulture The early ripening fruit tend to attract the attention of birds, bees a n d wasps. Very high sugar content but low acids have been reported at harvest in Washington State. It is susceptible to mildew and rot diseases as well as stem necrosis in wet /humid regions. It has variable productivity of around 2-5 tonnes per acre, with a tendency to overcrop, therefore again stringent c a n o p y management must be undertaken. 4. Pinot noir (red) Wine Notes This is a light red wine that is one of the most popular wines sold. It typically has an aroma of violets, red cherry, and raspberry, an earthy taste. Viticulture This grape is a d a p t e d to cooler areas; however it is one of the most elusive grape to grow. It is relatively early ripening and it is extremely sensitive to terroir. The yields are low and the best results occur when vigour and yield are controlled. 44 Concept Structure and Immersion The concep t is to celebrate the vine structure(the trellis) as a highly visible and capt ivat ing design element in one's experience of the vineyard. These vine structures are the main organizing dev ice that is used to structure the agricultural and touristic uses of this site. Likewise, the vine structure serves as a metaphor for the organization of the site circulation. A main circulation system bi-sects the site with adjacent program areas loca ted along its course, much like the vines hanging off the vine structure. The circulation system is extremely important to the workings of any farm. It is how product reaches the winery, how people are able to travel to and within the vineyard and how one c a n choose to experience the site itself. This is the basic unchanging portion of the site design, it is the constant. Structure Support and Training There are 2 components to successfully growing a grapevine, one is the support structure and the other is the vine training system. One is typically a built structure (although in the past trees 45 formed a living trellis) the vines growing up them. The other is a manipulation of the plant material itself where the form changes from region to region, country to country. This is the actual training and pruning methods to influence growth habit and product ion. Support The majority of vineyards in the world use a trellis support system in growing their grapes; there are many types of structures from no supporting wires to several wires, posts, end posts and crossarms 3 2. All are regionally specif ic, specially suited to the local conditions. The underlying reason for these systems is to get the vines off the ground. In colder regions the vines are typically supported higher to keep the fruiting components away from the colder air that tends to lie along the ground surface. In hotter climates the vines are trellised lower. The trellis design c a n be divided into 2 different systems, ones that support vertically growing vine canopies and ones that support horizontally divided canopies (Figure 26). Vertically growing c a n o p y trellises c a n be a simple stake driven into the ground to support the vine for the first few years until the trunk c a n support the rest of the vine similar to a small tree. More commonly on the North Amer ican West Coast vertically growing 3 2 Jackson, R.S. Wine Science Principles, Practice, Perception. San Diego, C A : A c a d e m i c Press, 2000. 46  c a n o p y trellises are similar to a typical fence construction, with supporting wires running be tween the trellis posts. The wires are p l a c e d at different heights in a c c o r d a n c e to the type of training system that is employed. A single wire trellis is fine for table grapes and ornamental grapes however not r ecommended for fine wine grapes.This is due to possible b reakage of the vines under the increased weight from the fruit because of lack of support. The 2 wire system is more c o m m o n due to simplicity and eff icacy. More recently multiple wire systems are used because growers are able to tie the grape vine to e a c h wire to increase support that gives the grower a greater control of the growth a n d the positioning of the fruit and leaves in terms of sunlight and air flow (thus moisture control). Training There are several training methods avai lable to viticulturalists, from h e a d training systems to various forms of vertically trained c a n o p y systems (Figure 27) and horizontally div ided c a n o p y systems. The difference be tween e a c h training system depends upon the variety trained and the economic cost installing and maintaining the support structure. 48 Modified Scott Henry All training systems should 3 3: • Spread the canes on a trellis to allow movement of equipment through a vineyard. • Arrange trunks and canes to avoid competi t ion be tween vines. • Provide renewal zone for pruning that keeps the vine form a n d yield. • Places fruit in a position to allow ease of harvest, adequa te spray penetration and exposure to sunlight. • Weighs the economics of a simple trellis used in large vineyards where mechanizat ion is utilized against a more expensive trellis system and the possible benefits of increased yield a n d fruit quality. The danger of a vertical training system is that if not thinned properly fruit shading and overcropping may occur . Advantages are that the trellises used in this training system are relatively inexpensive to install, there is an increased c a n o p y surface and reduced c a n o p y density with increased fruit exposure. The Scott Henry vertical training system (Figure 27) was deve loped in Oregon a n d consists of 2 fruiting wires, one at 96 c m off the ground on one side of the trellis post and the second at 126 c m off the ground on the other side of the post. Therefore 30 c m separates the 2 wires. British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Kelowna, B.C.: Government of British Columbia, 2001 . The shoots on the upper wire are trained upwards and the shoots on the lower wire are trained downwards. There is also a modif ication of this system where the fruiting canes of one plant are p l a c e d on the lower wire and the canes of another plant are p l a c e d on the upper wire. This decreases dominance of one level over the other a n d decreases competi t ion be tween the wires when only one vine is used. Other advantages to this system are or increased sun exposure, dec reased crop losses due to increased air movement within and around the vines, as well as slightly earlier fruit r ipening 3 4 . Horizontally div ided canopies are much more labour intensive. The advantages of the horizontally divided c a n o p y are reduction of shade in the renewal zone, the doubl ing of c a n o p y area, g o o d leaf and fruit exposure and often increases yield. The quality of the fruit and w o o d may also increase. However, this is only if shoot positioning is done during the growing season, once in during the beginning of the growing season and secondly once during middle of the growing season. These are use more in very high capac i t y sites, areas with highly fertile soil and readily avai lable water during the growing season 3 5 . 3 4Henry, S. III. "Scott Henry Training System." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hel lman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003.91-96. 3 5 British Co lumb ia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Ke lowna, B.C.: Government of British Co lumb ia , 2001. 51 Design strategy The Visual Patterns of the viticultural landscape Different varieties of crops a n d the their chang ing qualities across the landscape are possibly the most distinct visual characteristics of an agricultural landscape. These are patterns that are derived from topography and light exposure a m o n g other factors. Grapevines themselves also create a landscape that reveals and accentuates the topography (Figure 28). There may seem to only be a finite number of patterns that c a n be m a d e however the var iance in local conditions must be taken into accoun t . Unlike the vast vineyard landscapes of California's N a p a Valley, many Vancouver Island vineyards are tucked into the forest sharing the landscape with native vegetat ion, vines amongst the Douglas-firs, sword ferns and big leaf maples. Human choices concern ing viticulture are also dec id ing factors in the look of vineyard landscapes. The density of planted vines is an example, where 1.5 m spacing forms a distinct usual pattern different from vines planted 3 m apart 3 0 . As well, the manner in which the vines are trellised, pruned and maintained have very different visual characteristics. 3 0 Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes of America's Wine Country. Boulder, Co lo rado : Westview Press, 1997. 52 Further, there are inter-row cultivation differences where some vineyards use turf, others flowers or clover, some just till the rows in order to increase soil heat. Other viticultural practices that d e p e n d on region are most prominently row orientation, irrigation method and frost control. Here in the north, rows tend to be oriented North-South whereas in warmer climates, they may run in all directions 3 1. Figure 28. Vines and topography from Schreiner, J . British Columbia Wine Country, 2003. 3 1 Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes of America's Wine Country. Boulder, Co lo rado : Westview Press, 1997. 53 Immersion/Program The process of wine; growing, making a n d imbibing, is an experience that often becomes obscured and exclusive to the public. The wine in various stages is not accessible by the public, and the celebrat ion of wine- making becomes concent ra ted in the tasting room where the finished product is served. Therefore the very agrarian nature of this endeavor cries out for festivities and celebrations of seasonality both in the polished, finished form and the rough, unrefined form. It is always difficult to remember that the year of a vineyard and winery is a year that is full of activity, moving from inside to outside, from a leisurely p a c e to a frenetic 24 hour a day tempo. The seasons change as does the experience of the vineyard and winery. This is also the immersion experience where the guest to the site c a n choose to experience the site superficially, looking at the vineyard or to fully immerse themselves in the working and the life of the vineyard. Experience Seasons of a winery and vineyard Spring This is the renewal of the vineyard, the mag ic 10°C is reached and the buds begin to swell and burst. The vineyard c lean up continues, trellises 54 are examined and repaired if necessary. In March to April new one year old cuttings are taken from the green house and planted. May continues with monitoring of the vineyard for disease, weeds and frost, though on Quadra Island this is rarely a problem. In late May into June e a c h new shoot is succulent and laden with small clusters of flowers that will be the future grapes. In the winery racking of the new wine into new barrels continues from during the winter. Bottling also continues and is finished before the start of the new growing season. In the cellar topping up of the barrels continues as 5% of wine is lost through evaporat ion and air in the barrels is undesirable 3 6 . Figure 30. Summer at Victoria Estate Winery Summer In June, shoots are thinned and the best ones are tied to the trellis wires. This is the time of hope and waiting, it is the time when one hopes for the perfect amount of sunshine and water. Too little sun and the grapes do not ripen, too much and the sugar content rises 3 6Johnson, H. and J. Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 55 too quickly and the del icate ba lance between acidity and sugar is lost. Equipment is also inspected and m a d e ready in anticipation of the upcoming harvest. Inside, this is the beginning of the hosting season in the tasting room; this is the time when customer contact is m a d e and in smaller wineries when most of the winery income occurs. Bottling continues and the preparation and inspection of the casks begins for the upcoming crush. Fall Harvest time! Different varieties ripen at different times so the crush flurry may last for a few weeks. The activity around a vineyard and winery reaches a frenzy at this time because the r ipened grapes wait for no one. Pickers fill baskets and tubs which wend their way to a winery where sorting occurs. In many modem vineyards, machinery is used sometimes during the night when the temperature is low, add ing a dull roar to the landscape. Figure 30. Harvest from www.cherrypointvineyards.com 3 6 Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 56 Floors in the wineries are sticky with grape juice, hoses litter the ground and fermenters are either ready to be used or are filled, contents fermenting away. Winter The flurry of the crush behind, there is time, a moment of respite, a pause. The vines now dormant are pruned, selecting the best canes for next year's growth. Inside the new wine is fermenting, year old wine if present is given a final racking. Barrels are turned and moved to make room for the new wine. Tasting of the new wine begins and the winemaker makes key decisions on her wine process. Figure 31. Winter vines from Harper, T. The Spirituality of Wine, 2004. Festivals and Celebrations There are always the solstice festivals, marking out the passage of time, the harvest festival, Christmas, but there are still other seasons, other reasons to be ce lebra ted. One example in the wine world is the annual release of Beaujolais Nouveau. Every third Thursday at one minute past midnight, the Beaujolais Nouveau of the year begin their journey from the Beaujolais region to sleeping Paris and onto other areas of the world. Banners arise and proclaim: Le Beaujolais Nouveau est arrive! 'The New Beaujolais has arrived!" One of the most frenetic and an imated rituals in the wine world has begun 3 7 . At the end of the tumult, over 65 million bottles, nearly half of the region's total annual production, will have been distributed and drunk all over the world. It has b e c o m e a worldwide race to be the first to serve to this new wine of the harvest. In doing so, it has been carried by motorcycle, bal loon, truck, helicopter, Conco rde jet, elephant, runners and rickshaws to get it to its final destination. It is amazing to realize that just weeks before this wine was a cluster of grapes in a growers vineyard. But by an expeditious harvest, a rapid fermentation, and a speedy bottling, all is ready at the midnight hour. 3 7 Johnson, H. and J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 58 Wine Related Programs In order to make this a viable project there has to be a diversification, a thickening, of the different elements, both business a n d residential. There is the physical structure of the program, the built elements including the vineyard, picnic areas, winery, tasting room/Inn a n d residence a n d the circulation element of the site including the multi-use courtyard (Figure 32-38). There is also the experiential portion of the program where the program begins to b e c o m e more mult i faceted. This project concentrates mainly on the aspects of a vineyard and winery however, since the area that is able to be planted is limited, not only grape wine but blackberry wine and port will be p roduced as well. There is also the market garden which would supply produce and flowers to the families present as well as the Inn. The excess will be sold at the local farmer's market in a contribution to the local economy as well as the farm income. The tasting room/Inn will be a further diversification of the exper ience at this site capitalizing not only on the vineyard and wine exper ience but the island exper ience, something that that is difficult to describe, rather it must be exper ienced. There is always the opportunity for a b e a c h walk as the site is extremely close to the o c e a n , throughout the vineyard paths have been designed 59 to pull the visitor through to what is at the far end . The owners cou ld also offer to the visitors to the Inn prawning a n d fishing excursions. Partnerships with other local p roduce farmers cou ld create events such as an oyster a n d wine night a n d a local wine festival, featuring locally m a d e wines. The tasting room would be open to not only winery visitors to anyone who was curious about the property. Tastings would include the current year's offerings but also the unsuccessful trials in order to educa te the visitor. Different levels of immersion cou ld be attained through merely staying at the Inn. One will be able to choose to have a bird's eye view of the vineyard from a second story guest room in the Inn which will also be the tasting room/barrel cellar, or to have a first floor room where the outside is readily accessible. A full immersion exper ience will entail staying in a co t tage at the level of the vineyard and possibly working at the facility itself. A vineyard walk both gu ided and self-guided, through the various grape varieties as well as experimental training systems cou ld be set up as an educat iona l element of the vineyard. Further elements would be winery a n d cellar tour; however this would be quite short as they are physically small. In addit ion to the winery and vineyard a rea would be the forest a n d field elements which would be an important element in the integrated pest management plan that would be used for this vineyard. Further educat ion in this as well as nat ive. vegetat ion would be an interesting layer of the program. Another facet to the immersion experience of the site would be the opportunity to work at the vineyard during the year. There is also the access to the woodlot to the west of the property which is ideal for a forest walk or mountain bike ride, the garden that would be open to neighbours who would like do a bit of gardening as many of the properties on the South End are still heavily forested and not ideal for food gardening. The site could also be avai lable for pictures for weddings and other special occasions through the variety of areas designed throughout the vineyard itself, from small garden shelters to the full use of the architectural courtyard. The tasting room would also be open for rental for use of small local affairs, seasonal festivals and the wineries own festivals such as the celebrat ion of the crush, the release of the first wines of the year etc. There are also the picnic areas of the vineyard varying in levels of immersion from the vineyard picnic area, where one is surrounded by the vineyard, to the winery picnic area to the more remote picnic area in the western portion of the property. 61 Figure 32 Site Design Plan Not to scale 62 LLUJ U_ll LL! LL! I ! j j ( } ^ U-IJ-LLLU. A Central Circulation Section , I M I M U , l , l " ^ H U I U l | ) J | L U - L L L l U j L B Residence to Loghouse section " " " ^ I ' J - t l U M I l i , , , C Wetland Water feature section Figure 33 East-west site sections Not to scale LLLLLJ_LLL I Ll ! I I I | (J I LI ! ! H n j '-J-J-LLU I II I I U L I J ( M i l l i l l AA - X U l l l l l l i J J O J _ L L L L U J lOJJJ l_LJ_LLL±±J , , M H Ll I I M i \ BB i. 111 U L l l i J M L H | | I | j | | | | , , , , , , , , , , , , , C C Log house to green house Figure 34 North-south site sections Not to scale 64 Figure 35 Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-west Not to scale 65 Figure 36 Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-east Not to scale  ure 38 Detail Drawings of programmatic elements Conclusion This is a dynamic project that will constantly evolve throughout the coming years. There will be something new every year a n d it is this dynamicity that will keep Dogfish Bay young and exciting because as the owners mature as wine makers so will the site and the vines. More importantly this is a residence for 2 families; the atmosphere will be one that is we lcoming a n d open . The structure of the site is based upon the concep t of a structure and how it c a n affect the levels of immersion into the site. This site structure will provide an opportunity for programs to evolve and metamorphose. This is an ongoing project and is intended to be a life's work. All viticulturists and winemakers will sagely give this adv ice , 'This is not a short term endeavour, think of it not as a 5 year plan rather it is a 40 year plan." 69 Bibliography Aho, J.E. "If you Build it Will They C o m e ? " Vineyard and Winery Management Magazine. 28.4 (2002). Amidon, J . Radical Landscapes Reinventing Outdoor Spaces. New York, NY: Thames and Hudson Inc., 2001. Aspler, T. Vintage Canada: the complete guide to Canadian Wines. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hil l Ryerson Limited, 1999. Bailey, R., M. Parish and G . Baldwin. "Winery Design in the 21st Century." The Australian & New Zealand Wine Industry Journal. 17.6 (2002). Bannon, A.L. "The small business of winemaking." Wines and Vines. Oc tober 2002. Bentley, I., A lcock , A., Murrain, P., McGlynn , S. a n d Smith, G . Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers. Oxford: Butterworth Architecture, 1985. British Co lumbia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Kelowna, B.C.: Government of British Co lumbia , 2001. Cox, J. From Vines to Wines: the complete guide to growing grapes and making your own wine. North Adams, MA: Storey Books, 2000. Fisher, D.V., J . Vielvoye. Grape Growing in British Columbia. O t tawa, Ontario: Queen 's Printer, 1968. Gladstones, J.S. Viticulture and Environment. Ade la ide South Australia: Winetitles, 1992. Go ld , R. and P. Lombard. "Planting and Manag ing a Young Vineyard." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003. 105-109. Hall, C M . , Johnson, G . , Cambournes, B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. a n d L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around the World. Ed. C . M. Hall et al. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000. 1-23. Harper, T. The Spirituality of Wine. Kelowna, B.C.: Northstone Publishing, 2004. Henry, S. III. "Scott Henry Training System." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003. 91-96. 70 Hinkle, R.P. "The basics in winery PR - public relations." Wines and Vines. September 1989. Jackson, R.S. Wine Science Principles, Practice, Perception. San Diego, C A : A c a d e m i c Press, 2000. Johnson, H. and J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. Klinka, K., V. J . Krajina, A. Ceska , A . M . Scage l . Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. Vancouver , BC: University of British Co lumbia Press, 1995. Landscape Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver , BC: University of British Co lumbia , 2000. Leahy, R. "Sustainable Viticulture in the East." Vineyard and Winery Management. 29.1 (2003). Lecuyer, A. "Steel, stone and sky - Herzog and de Meuron's architectural design for a winery in the N a p a Valley, California." The Architectural Review. October 1998. Lett, David, R. and Edward W, Hellman. "Varieties a n d Clones." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003.70-71. M a c d o n a l d , Al a n d M. Carmo Vasconcelos. "Sustainable Viticulture in Oregon." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003. 134-136. McGourty, G . "Cover cropping systems for organically farmed vineyards." Practical Winery and Vineyard Magazine. 30.5 (2004): 22-38. Ministry of agriculture, fishery and food. Grapes for Wine. Reference book 322. London, England: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1960. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Grape and Wine Forum Proceedings. Victoria, B.C .:Province of British Co lumbia , 1990. Morris, J . "Precision Viticulture-A Mechan ized Systems Approach . " ASEV/ES Symp. St. Catherines, Ontario: Coo l Cl imate Oeno . Vitic. Inst. (2001): 103- 110. Nichol, A. Wine and Vines of British Columbia. Vancouver , B.C.: Bottesini Press, 1983. 71 Patterson, T. "Wineries as green as the vineyards?" Vineyard and Winery Management Magazine. 29.5 (2003): 98-102. Personal Communicat ion. With June Larson, 2005. Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes of America's Wine Country. Boulder, Co lo rado: Westview Press, 1997. Regional District of Comox-Strathcona. Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, 1996. Comox Valley, BC: Regional District of Comox-Strathcona, 1996. Reisch B.J., R.M Pool, D.V. Peterson, M.H. Martins, and T. Henick-Kling. Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climates. Cornell Cooperat ive Extension Publication, Information Bulletin No. 233. I thaca, NY: Cornell University, 1993. Rieger, T. "Winery Wastewater Issues-Overview and Regulatory Update." Vineyard and Winery Management Magazine. 29. 3 (2003). San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition. Sacramento, CA: GraphiCenter, 1985. Schreiner, J . British Columbia Wine Country. North Vancouver , B C : Whi tecap Books, 2003. Snyder, S. Growing Wine Grapes in the Puget Sound. Online at ht tp: / /pswg.org/ grapes.htm (accessed June 21, 2003). Statistics C a n a d a . Comox-Strathcona J - Population Statistics. Online at www.sta tcan.ca. (accessed Feb. 2, 2005). Taylor, J . The Wine Quotation Book. London, UK: Robert Hale Limited, 1989. Taylor, J . River City A History of Campbell River and the Discovery Islands. Madei ra Park, BC: Harbour Publishing, 1999. Tunnell, D. and E.W. Hellman. "The Organic Approach . " Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press, 2003. pp . 137- 142. Vierra, T. "Looking to the sun for renewable Energy." Practical Winery and Vineyard Magazine. January/February 2004. Walker, L. "Small winery management is a big job - includes related article on winery consultant Bill Dyer." Wines and Vines. Oc tober 1997. 72 Walker, L. "Tasting room survey: selling at the cellar door." Wines and Vines. November 2002.Wensloff, G . "Winery wastewater Update". Wines and Vines. September 2000. www.cherrypointvineyards.com accessed September 2004. www.civ i l izat ion.ca/abor ig/nwca/nwcam21e.html accessed May 2004. 73 Appendix A Production Equations A. Assumptions 1. m a t u r e V in i fe ra v i n e $ 8 lb g r o p e s 7. 11-1? lbs g r o p e s y i e l d 3.8 I f in ished w i n e 3. vines 1.5 m apart: rows, 2.5 m apart A c r e s g r o p e s 5.7 2666 p l a n t s / h a 10000/(2.5*1.5) 1066 p l a n t s / a c r e (10000*.4)/(2.5*1.5) 6076 to ta l p lan ts 5.7*1066 48608 to ta l p o u n d s 6076 * 8 l b s / v i n e 0.34 l i ters/ lb g r a p e 3.8 1 / 11 lbs 16526 liters t o ta l 0.34 * 48608 t o ta l lbs 22034 Tota l 750 ml bot t les 1865 C a s e s / y e a r # bo t t l es / 12 308485 $ g ross / y e a r a t 14$/bot t le B. Assumptions 1 1 9 p o u n d s / b l o c k h e r r y bush 2. 7 lbs b l a c k b e r r i e s y i e l d 3.8 I f in ished w i n e 3. bushes 1.5 m o p o r t : rows. 7.5 m o p o r t A c r e s B lackber r i es 0.77 2666 p l o n t s / h o lQpnn/(95*1.5) 1066 p l a n t s / a c r e (l000rj*.4)/ (9.5*1 5) 287 to to l p lonts 0.77* 1066 3444 to ta l p o u n d s 287 * 12 lbs/ b l a c k b e r r v b u s h 0.54 l i ters/ lb berr ies 3.8 1 / 7.0 lbs 1859 liters to to l 0.54 * 3444 to to l lbs 2478 Toto l 750 ml bot t les 206 C a s e s / v e a r # b o t t l e s / 17 39,648 $ gross o t 16$/bot t le potential gross winery 3 4 8 1 3 3 * income 74 Appendix B Program Specifics Area Description Area n e e d e d Notes Winery 9000 c a s e winery (94.000 bottles/veor) 6m x 17m G r a p e receiving a n d crush p a d 6m x 17m Fermenting a n d processing (tank hall) 6m x 17m 3000 1 tanks*6 dimensions height 60". d iometer 36" Bottling 6m x 10m Laboratory/tasting room 6m x 6 m Offices 6m x 6m Log House: Cellar/Tasting room/Inn Borrel storage 6rri x 6m 1 barrel=59 gal=224 1 neea 16 borrels d iometer 94" Bottle a n d supplv storage 2m x 3m C a s e d goods storage 6m x 5m M e c h roomfhot woter heoteretc . ) 4m x 3m Bothrooms 9m x 3m Tast ing/cafe 6m x 5m Laundry facilities 2m x 2m Inn: 9 rooms to rent Kitchen/breokfast nook 4m x 5m Guest co t toge 400 sq ft Area Description Area n e e d e d Notes Born/Shop/main tenonce ond tools born.. . Vineyord Picnic oreo 15' X 90' Over the septic field, part of parking lot Parking Lot 8 visitor stalls: dep th 5.5 m, width 9.5 m Tractor roods 4 m wide Drivewav 5 m wide Food gorden Drainage ditches 1 m wide Woodlot 1 ac re Orchord Part of parking lot, grchitecturo) court. Grapes 5.7 acres Gewurztraminer, Or tega , Siegerrebe, M a r e c h a l Foch, Pinot noir o n d G a m a v noir Blackberries 0.3 acres Residence Ken a n d Vol 's 1900 sq ft Ben a n d Jill Takane's 1900 sq ft Woodshed/bat tery shack /goa tpen - chicken c o o p 10' X?0' 7 5


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