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Dogfish Bay : structure and immersion Quadra Island wine Ogasawara, Jill Takane 2005-12-31

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D O G F I S H B A Y : STRUCTURE A N D I M M E R S I O N Q U A D R A ISLAND WINE by JILL T A K A N E O G A S A W A R A B.Sc. (Forestry), The University of British C o l u m b i a , 2000  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E O F MASTER O F L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE  IN THE FACULTY O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Landscape Architecture)  THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A A u g u s t 2005  © Jill T a k a n e O g a s a w a r a , 2005  Abstract This project is a design of a winery a n d vineyard on Q u a d r a Island, British C o l u m b i a . A p r e c e d e n t study of 2 vineyards a n d a site suitability study including soil, vegetation a n d s h a d o w studies were c o n d u c t e d to determine the feasibility of wine production on the site. These studies also informed the p l a c e m e n t of agricultural a n d built c o m p o n e n t s on the site. The c o n c e p t b a s e d u p o n tectonics (or structure) a n d the immersion into the working environment, g u i d e d the organization of site characteristics. The g o a l of this project was to design a l a n d s c a p e that c a n evolve through time while supporting the residents of the site. A winery a n d vineyard h a v e the c a p a c i t y to fill various niches. They c a n b e c o m e a n integral p l a c e within a community where private property c a n b e w e l c o m i n g a n d o c c u p i a b l e by the public.  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Tables  v  List of Figures  vi  Acknowlegments  viii  Introduction  1  Location  2  Regional Location  2  Site Location  2  A Brief History of Wine  4  A Brief History of Wine Tourism  6  Precedents  8  Large designed vineyard D o m a i n e Clos P e g a s e Winery  8  Small c o m m e r c i a l vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard Analysis  10 12  Social  12  History  12 Q u a d r a Island Settlement  12  Property timeline  13  Demographics  16  Vegetation  17  Soil  23  Island G e o l o g y  23  Q u a d r a Island Soil Categories  23  Site Soil  25  Hydrology  28  Q u a d r a Island Watershed Hydrology  28  Property Hydrology  29  Groundwater  29  Climate Indicators for wine cultivation suitability  30  iii  Hughlin Index  30  Heat Units(Degree Days)  31  Latitude Temperature Index  32  Environmental comparisons Shadow  36  Vine Life History  36  Results of Analysis  39  How this project fits into Q u a d r a Island  39  G r a p e varieties  41  Varietal notes  43  Concept  45  Structure a n d Immersion  45  Structure  45  Support a n d Training Support  45 ,  Training Design Strategy  46 48 52  The visual patterns of the viticultural l a n d s c a p e Immersion/Program Experience  52 54 54  Seasons of a winery a n d vineyard Festivals a n d Celebrations Wine Related Programs  54 58 59  Conclusion  69  Bibliography  70  Appendix A  74  Appendix B  75  iv  List of Tables Table 1. S e l e c t e d Q u a d r a Island Demographics from the 2001 census Table 2. Existing site vegetation  16 22  Table 3. Hughlin Index Indicator Varieties  31  Table 4. Heat Units (Degree Days) Indicator Varieties  31  Table 5. Latitude Temperature Index Indicator Varieties  32  Table 6. Rainfall in millimeters during growing season  34  Table 7. Sunshine in hours during the growing season Table 8. G r a p e Cultivar summary  35 42  List of Figures F i g u r e ! . Southern British C o l u m b i a  2  Figure 2. Q u a d r a Island  2  Figure 3. South End Neighbourhood  2  Figure 4. 319 Sutil R o a d  2  Figure 5. Egyptian Statue holding urns of wine  4  Figure 6. M a p of vine travel through Europe Figure 7. Old wine bottle  4 5  Figure 8. Refrigeration fermenting tanks in Australia Figure 9. Vineyard tastings  5 7  Figure 10. The Clos P e g a s e Design Competition book c o v e r  8  Figure 11. Cherry Point Vineyards, C o b b l e Hill,Vancouver Island, B.C.  10  Figure 12. Cherry Point Vineyards, aerial p h o t o g r a p h  10  Figure 13. Discovery's arrival off C a p e M u d g e , July 13 1792. Painted by artist G o r d o n Miller©, 1991  12  Figure 14. Quathiaski C a n n i n g C o m p a n y , c . 1912  13  Figure 15. 319 Sutil R o a d , Q u a d r a Island  15  Figure 16. V e g e t a t i o n m a p  18  Figure 17. Slope m a p  24  Figure 18. C a t e g o r y 2 soil; seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel Figure 19. Soil m a p  25 26  Figure 20. Disturbed material, gravel, sand a n d c l a y  27  List of Figures (continued) Figure 21. Drainage ditch character in cleared eastern half of site 29 Figure 22. Seasonal stream, through forested section of site Figure 23. Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season ' Figure 24. Sunshine hours during the growing season Figure 25. Shadow diagram Figure 26. Trellis systems Figure 27. Vertical canopy training systems. Figure 28. Vines and topography Figure 29. Springtime vineyard Figure 30. Summer Figure 30. Harvest Figure 31. Winter vines Figure 32. Site Design Plan Figure 33. East-west site sections Figure 34. North-south site sections Figure 35. Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-west Figure 36. Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-east Figure 37. Detail Drawings, site  29  imaging Figure 38. Detail Drawings of programmatic elements  67  34 35 37 47 49 53 54 55 56 57 62 63 64  65  66  68  Acknowlegements Thank you to everyone w h o h e l p e d with this project, it has b e e n a growth experience. Thank you to my parentsjakeshi a n d Mizuho O g a s a w a r a a n d my parents-in-law, Ken a n d Valerie Mcguffie, for supporting m e wholeheartedly a n d for keeping m e nourished. Thank you to my friends for b e i n g there w h e n I n e e d e d to talk. Thank you to my c o m m i t t e e members, Douglas Paterson, S h a n a Johnstone a n d especially my chair, Susan Herrington, for aiding m e during the entire thesis process. Thank you to my classmates for desk critiques a n d shoulders to cry u p o n . Finally, thank you to my husband, Benjamin McGuffie for all the support a n d love a person needs during these last 3 years. I couldn't h a v e d o n e it without you.  viii  Introduction Wine is not merely a c o n s u m a b l e , it is a b e v e r a g e s t e e p e d in tradition a n d c e l e b r a t e d in myth. Choosing to m a k e wine is far b e y o n d a simple job, it is a lifestyle with a n august history a n d a romantic lure. It is a difficult c h o i c e to grow a n d m a k e wine where the profit margins are thin a n d competition is heavy. Some p e o p l e are born into winemaking, others are fascinated with the g e n t l e m a n farmer i m a g e , a n d other p e o p l e are just passionate a b o u t wine a n d desire to share their passion. Dogfish Bay Winery is a project where the owners are fascinated by the simple process a n d the artistic c h a l l e n g e of making wine, from the growing of the grapes to sharing the experience. A winery a n d vineyard h a v e the c a p a c i t y to fill various niches. They c a n b e c o m e a n integral p l a c e within a communify where private property c a n b e w e l c o m i n g a n d o c c u p i a b l e by the public. The g o a l of this project is to design a l a n d s c a p e that will grow into a n e c o n o m i c a l l y self-sustaining family run winery a n d inn where the experience of wine is shared a n d c e l e b r a t e d . This is a l a n d s c a p e that would b e c a p a b l e of transforming a n d evolving through time, from a partially w o o d e d h o b b y farm to a full production facility a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n . It will b e a p l a c e where the l a n d s c a p e c h a n g e s with the owners a n d their family. 1  Location Regional Location  Figure 1. Southern British Columbia  Figure 2. Quadra Island  Approximately one and a half hours drive north of Nanaimo, B.C. (Figure 1), and a short 10 minute ferry ride, Quadra Island is one of the Northern Gulf Islands also known as the Discovery Islands. Set within a sheltered coastline, Quadra Island is rife with incredible outdoor recreational opportunities and a burgeoning eco-tourism industry. Due to this abundance of natural beauty which attracts vacation home owners and tourists, the population can double during the summer months. Quadra Island is serviced by two ferry routes from Campbell River and the other to Cortes Island. These connect to two primary commercial hubs on the Island: Quathiaski Cove and Heriot Bay, respectively (Figure 2). The majority of populated areas on Quadra Island occur in the lowlands of the southern portion of the Island.  Site Location The site is located near the southern tip of Quadra Island, on the eastern coast in the neighbourhood loosely known as the South End (Figure 3). The site is 4.882 ha (12.06 acres) in area and is home to two families (Figure 4).  Figure 3. South End Neighbourhood  A Brief History of Wine O l d e r t h a n r e c o r d e d history, w i n e o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e M i d d l e East. There has b e e n e v i d e n c e from Egyptian tombs, w a l l p a i n t i n g s a n d statues h o l d i n g urns filled w i t h w i n e (Figure 5), of its c u l t i v a t i o n . The r a n g e of Vitis vinifera  w a s originally  o n l y in E u r o p e a n d t h e M i d d l e East b u t s o o n s p r e a d (Figure 6). A n c i e n t G r e e c e has e v i d e n c e of c u l t i v a t i o n f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y  1000  B.C., t h e l e g a c y of v i n e y a r d s t h r o u g h o u t Italy t o S o u t h e r n G a u l . R o m a n s s p r e a d w i n e m a k i n g t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . The Figure 5. E g y p t i a n s t a t u e h o l d i n g urns of w i n e from Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004.  a p p r e c i a t i o n a n d c u l t i v a t i o n of w i n e m o v e d w e s t w a r d s a n d b y t h e t i m e of Christ t h e first v i n e y a r d s w e r e b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g t h e b a n k s of t h e M o s e l l e River in G e r m a n y . A f t e r t h e D a r k A g e s a n d t h r o u g h m e d i e v a l times t h e c r a f t of w i n e m a k i n g w a s a d o p t e d b y t h e c h u r c h . The m o n a s t e r i e s e x c e l l e d in a n d f u r t h e r e d t h e k n o w l e d g e of w i n e g r o w i n g a n d m a k i n g , a s w e l l as i n c r e a s i n g t h e n o t o r i e t y of their o w n religion. The B e n e d i c t i n e s w e r e k n o w n for i n c r e d i b l e w i n e a n d for "Rising f r o m t h e t a b l e w i t h their veins s w o l l e n w i t h w i n e a n d their  Figure 6. M a p of v i n e t r a v e l t h r o u g h t h e M i d d l e East a n d S o u t h Eastern E u r o p e  heads on  fire."  1  from Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004.  1  Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. L o n d o n , UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004.  4  Winemaking techniques from the church have not changed an extraordinary amount since that time; however, in the early 17th century, advances in glass making techniques created bottles that were stronger and less expensive to produce and it was found that wine stored much better in these vessels(Figure 7). Likewise the quality of wine did not degrade when stored in barrels for a long period of time, as well once opened it was an easily drinkable quantity and did not tend to "go off." Figure 7. O l d wine bottle from www.wineintro.com/history/glassware  Through modern advancements such as refrigeration (Figure 8), tenting, irrigation practices, better understanding about sanitary conditions and improved breeding techniques, we are able to push the geographical limits of viticulture. In the past many locations may have been too cold, too wet or too hot for wine. As well, the quality and consistency of wine has been considerably advanced. In the last twenty years, consumers have become much more informed about quality and variety of wine. They are more willing to experiment with different varieties and ages of wines making for an exciting and increasingly complex wine market environment. 2  Figure 8. Refrigeration fermenting tanks in Australia from Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine, 2004.  3  2  3  Schreiner, J . British Columbia Wine Country. North V a n c o u v e r , B C : W h i t e c a p Books, 2003. Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. L o n d o n , UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 5  A Brief History of Wine Tourism There has b e e n a historic relationship b e t w e e n wine a n d wine tourism. Recently, it has b e c o m e m u c h more prominent in the business dimension of a winery. It is a n important m e t h o d for building a relationship with the consumer, w h o c a n b e immersed in the not only in the r o m a n c e of the g r a p e but also the t e c h n i c a l knowlege. For smaller wineries substantial sales are m a d e at the cellar door a direct effect of wine tourism. Wine tourism c a n b e defined as "visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivals a n d wine shows for which g r a p e wine tasting a n d or experiencing the attributes of a grape's wine region are the prime motivating factors for visitors"  4  Wine tourism c a n b e the c o r e business for smaller wineries, particularly those w h o h a v e c h o s e n wine-making as a lifestyle. While it m a y b e s e c o n d a r y to the larger wineries it is still a n important c o m p o n e n t serving as a promotional c h a n n e l , sales c h a n n e l a n d a consumer education channel. For smaller wineries the majority of sales a n d marketing is d o n e through the cellar door, effectively, f a c e to f a c e c o n t a c t . Consumer loyalty, increased consumer exposure, increased sales margins, e d u c a t i o n a l opportunities 4  Hall, C M . , Johnson, G., Cambournes, B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. and L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around  the World. Ed. C.  M. Hall et al. Oxford, UK: ButterworthHeinemann, 2000.  .  a n d marketing intelligence on both consumers a n d popular products are all a d v a n t a g e s to wine tourism for wineries. Disadvantages include increased costs a n d m a n a g e m e n t time for the hosting facilities as well as the initial capital required for constructing suitable hosting facilities. There c a n also be a n inability to substantially increase sales necessitating that other avenues n e e d to b e sought in order to m a k e sales. Owners of wineries w h o d o not d e p e n d solely on i n c o m e from their winery sales often find that hosting visitors m a y provide a substantial personal reward. In these cases, this lifestyle c h o i c e dictates business strategies such as maintaining a n d striving for quality a n d e x c e l l e n c e of wine rather than increasing volumetric o u t p u t as well personal 5  c o n t a c t with the consumer. The business of wine tourism is a n emerging c o n c e p t that is increasingly e m b r a c e d by many wineries a n d is significant in the wine regions of the world. For m a n y o w n e r - o p e r a t e d wineries, it is a c h o i c e to b e m a d e as a business strategy. The enjoyable fact is that every time one opens a bottle of wine one is transported to the winery that it was m a d e at a n d w e all b e c o m e wine tourists at that point(Figure 9).  5  Figure 9. Vineyard tastings From Schreiner, J . British Columbia Country, 2003.  Wine  Hall, C M . , Johnson, G . , Cambournes, B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. a n d L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around the World. Ed. C . M . Hall et ai. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000. 7  Precedents Large designed vineyard Domaine C/os Pegase Winery This winery a n d vineyard was the product of a design competition that c a m e a b o u t d u e to the owner's o w n ideas of specific programmatic elements that he w a n t e d included in his plan to establish a h o m e a n d winemaking business in the N a p a Valley(Figure 10). A more unusual a s p e c t of the Clos Pegase Brief was that e a c h architect was required to work with a n artist with the theme of collaboration kept in mind. This was  meant to fuse art, architecture a n d  landscape. Further evaluation of e a c h design  art+  was  b a s e d on architecture in relation  to time a n d p l a c e , site planning a n d circulation, private vs. public s p a c e s ; integration of art a n d the treatment  landscape  of architecture as art; t e c h n i c a l requirements of the winery; the potential of phasing construction; the sense of p l a c e that resulted from the distribution of  if*  &  functions over the site; a n d the "business of making a n d selling wine." The  0?®?*  -  v  Closflegase ;«SS-Design  practical consideration of the design was important in the evaluation as this was to b e a working winery therefore it h a d to b e functional yet fulfill certain symbolistic  Figure 10. The Clos P e g a s e Design Competition book c o v e r From San Francisco M u s e u m of M o d e r n Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition, 1985.  a n d imagistic roles.  8  Considerations in the program involved the residence, the winery, a n d a sculpture g a r d e n all p l a c e d on a w o o d e d knoll. The owner envisioned the winery to b e a landmark, exhibit e x c e l l e n c e in architectural design, yet not overpower the art of wine making. It h a d to b e practical, yet r o m a n t i c .  6  Within e a c h of these areas were further programmatic requirements relating to square f o o t a g e of e a c h of the areas of a winery such as g r a p e receiving a n d crushing, fermenting a n d processing. The sculpture g a r d e n was c o n c i e v e d of as a l a n d s c a p e d park o p e n to the public, featuring water features, lawns, flower beds a n d a walking path in addition to sculpture. The residence is a large a n d sprawling g a r d e n residence, with very specific elements such as a J a p a n e s e bath, 10-15 foot high ceilings, 4 bedrooms, a n d a pottery workshop. The winning entry of the competition was a n entry that used the myth of Pegasus as the c o n c e p t a n d winery a n d l a n d s c a p e were designed around it. The i m p o r t a n c e of this p r e c e d e n t is not the c o n c e p t a n d h o w it was i m p l e m e n t e d but the p r o c e d u r e of h o w the site itself was p e r c e i v e d a n d  6  San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition. Sacramento, CA: GraphiCenter, 1985.  9  then d e s i g n e d for. There was a strong i d e a of program that was present that the design c o n c e p t that h a d to take into consideration as well as the owner's very rigorous ideas. While very different in s c a l e a n d b u d g e t , Dogfish Bay is in a similar situation as the basic program of vineyard a n d winery is present as well as the owners o w n strong ideas a n d values that are tied to this site. The c o n c e p t is o n e that must truly tie the values to the program a n d to the site itself.  Small commercial vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard Cherry Point Vineyard (Figure 11)was established in 1990 on 34 acres in C o b b l e Hill, south of C o w i c h a n Bay, on a glacial moraine. The soil of this vineyard is a gravelly, sandy mixture underlain with clay. There is a large detention p o n d that captures winter rain in order to store Figure 11. Cherry Point Vineyards, C o b b l e Hill, V a n c o u v e r Island, B.C.  it for irrigation during the summer. This vineyard was p l a n t e d w h e n winegrowing was still relatively n e w on V a n c o u v e r Island therefore prior to o p e n i n g the winery several g r a p e varieties were p l a n t e d at this vineyard as a n experiment to determine w h a t would b e most suitable to attempt to grow in this region. O r t e g a , a g e r m a n i c cross was chosen as the flagship wine. In 1994, after the g r a p e trials h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d Cherry Point Vineyards b e c a m e one of the first  Figure 12. Cherry Point Vineyards, aerial p h o t o g r a p h From  vvww.cheiTypointvineyards.com  licensed wineries on V a n c o u v e r Island. Today it is the  s e c o n d largest vineyard on V a n c o u v e r Island at 24 planted acres(Figure 12). The main varieties at this vineyard are Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Auxerrois, Pinot Noir, Agria, O r t e g a , Siegerrebe a n d Castel. The success of the winery has b e e n largely d u e to the majority of the winery's sales occurring at the cellar door. However, there is also a diversification of program with summertime Sunday picnics, music concerts on the lawn a n d a picturesque s c e n e of s h e e p in the meadow.  7  The winery has also always  hosted a wine tasting facility though the winery has recently c o m p l e t e d a renovation of the tasting room a n d a pavilion that is available for rent for various functions. In April 2004 the vineyard was p u r c h a s e d by the Quw'utsun' Vineyard Development Corporation, a subsidiary of the C o w i c h a n Tribes of D u n c a n , B.C. It will b e interesting to follow the progress of this winery in the future. This is a winery that c o m m e n c e d out of the same roots as Dogfish Bay is a n d is a successful p r e c e d e n t that has e v o l v e d into a more multifaceted site. Though the sole i n c o m e is d e p e n d e n t u p o n the winery sales this is a g o o d e x a m p l e of the capitalization on the allure of wineries a n d wine tourism.  7  Schreiner, J. British Columbia  Wine  Country.  North Vancouver, B C : Whitecap Books, 2003.  1 1  Analysis Social History  Quadra Island Settlement  Figure 13. Discovery's arrival off C a p e Mudge, July 13 1792. Painted by artist Gordon Miller®, 1991  Quadra Island had been used by First Nations for over 2000 years. Captain George Vancouver writes of visiting a Coast Salish village at C a p e Mudge in 1792 and finding a settlement of longhouses, boats and approximately 350 residents (Figure 13). The current Kwakwak'awakw First Nations invaded the settlement during the early 19th century and are now known as the We Wai Kai Band. 10  from w w w . c i v i l i z a t i o n . c a / a b o r i g / n w c a / nwcam21e.html  Anglo settlement dates back the 1880's. Early settlement throughout the Campbell River- Quadra Island region was based on forestry, farming, ranching, fishing and mining. Quadra Island quickly became the regional commercial hub where freighters and steamships on their way to the north often stopped. The first public school was built at C a p e Mudge by the We Wai Kai band in 1893 under the direction of the last hereditary chief, Billy Assu. He is also responsible for building up the fishing fleet which is still present today. By 1904, Quadra Island had 2 post offices,  10  Taylor, J . River City A History of Campbell River and the Discovery Islands. M a d e i r a Park, B C : Harbour Publishing, 1999.  12  a school, hotel, lumber camps and a mission. Residential development was concentrated in Heriot Bay and Quathiaski Cove before 1920. By the 1920's the area had been logged and logging operations failed and the population began to decline. Fishing remained active and Quathiaski Cove Figure 14. Quathiaski Canning Com- remained economically viable(Figure 14). pany, c.1912 During the early 1920's tourism from Taylor, J . River City A History of also flourished due to excellent fishing Campbell River and the Discovery and hunting opportunities. After World Islands, 1999. War II, tourism increased even more including the development of summer homes, which continues today. In the 1960's and 1970's there was an influx of settlers seeking an alternative lifestyle in a rural setting. The passenger ferry service started up in 1949 and the car ferry service in 1960. The economics of Quadra Island are however, closely tied to that of Campbell River with a large fraction of the population employed there. Property timeline The original property was more that 30 acres in size that also included waterfront. The history of the land within the family that owns it now began in the late 1940's with the private purchase by George and Estelle Rose. It was used as sheep pasture as well as hay fields. With  13  the poor health of G e o r g e Rose, the land was subdivided into smaller parcels a n d slowly sold off to help support the Roses in retirement. With the d e a t h of G e o r g e , Estelle o w n e d the remaining land a n d it was further subdivided. Estelle a n d G e o r g e having no children of their own left the land for the children of their brothers a n d sisters. E a c h of the children was asked if they would prefer land or m o n e y a n d most of the children took the land. Most sold off their l a n d ; however, the daughters of Elmer a n d June (nee Rose) Larson chose to k e e p the 4 acres that they h a d inherited. Ken a n d Valerie (nee Larson) McGuffie chose to settle on the 4 acres that Valerie h a d inherited a n d subsequently bought out e a c h of the 4 acres that Valerie's sisters, Marilyn (nee Larson) Collier a n d W e n d y Larson h a d inherited. " A g a i n through a purchase in 2004 b e t w e e n family members, the property was kept within the family. Returning the site to its agricultural roots, Ken a n d Valerie's son, Benjamin M c G u f f i e a n d his wife (Jill) Takane O g a s a w a r a , the author, h a v e d e c i d e d to establish themselves, as well as a business, here close to both Ben's family as well as Takane's family. It is p l a n n e d that Ben a n d Takane will c r e a t e a p l a c e that future family members will cherish a n d take pleasure in.  11  Personal Communication. With June  Larson,  2005.  14  Demographics Q u a d r a Island is a 9273.43 m land 2  a r e a that has a population density of 0.3 p e o p l e per km . The property sizes r a n g e 2  from a typical city lot size in the more p o p u l a t e d areas of Q u a d r a Island to a c r e a g e s over 40 acres. The population of Q u a d r a Island in 2001 was 2548 p e o p l e ' . Most of these p e o p l e were 2  over the a g e of 25. There has b e e n a n immigration of older p e o p l e to the Island looking for the rural island lifestyle as the perfect retirement h o m e as e v i d e n c e d by the increase in dwellings constructed in the last 15 years as well as the top heavy a g e class (ages 45-64) (Table 1). Table 1.  S e l e c t e d Q u a d r a Island Demographics from the 2001 census.  Population in 1996  2671  Population in 2001 A g e 0-19 A a e 20-44 A a e 45-64 A a e 65-84 Median age Mobility Status - P l a c e of residence 5 years a g o Lived at s a m e address 5 years a g o Lived different address S e l e c t e d O c c u p i e d Private Dwelling Characteristics Total N u m b e r of Dwellings N u m b e r of O w n e d Dwellings N u m b e r of R e n t e d Dwellinas N u m b e r of Dwellings constructed b e t w e e n 1991 a n d 2001 Work Statistics Indus ry To al - E x p e r i e n c e d Labour Force Agriculture a n d other resource-based industries M a n u f a c t u r i n a a n d construction industries Wholesale a n d re ai t r a d e F i n a n c e a n d real es a t e Health a n d E d u c a t i o n Business services Other services  2548 615 745 905 260 43.1  12  1660 785 1105 815 290 265 1385 215 215 105 35 240 180 375  Statistics C a n a d a . Comox-Strathcona J - Population Statistics. Online at w w w . s t a t c a n . c a . ( a c c e s s e d Feb. 2, 2005).  16  The majority of the population on the Island are still heavily d e p e n d e n t u p o n work in the resource industry however, there is a n increase in health a n d e d u c a t i o n employment as well as other industries which represent the increasing tourism sector on Q u a d r a Island (hotels, tour outfits etc.) The majority of p e o p l e on the Island still c o m m u t e to C a m p b e l l River in order to work a n d shop.  Vegetation This region is within the winter wet, summer dry, southern maritime region of British C o l u m b i a .  13  There are 6 major  vegetation types found on Q u a d r a Island: mixed forest, Douglas-fir forest, palustrine w e t l a n d , b e a c h a n d c o a s t a l prairie, u p l a n d forest a n d estuarine wetlands . 14  The site contains the first 3 v e g e t a t i o n types d e s c r i b e d (Figure 16). The front field original vegetation state is unknown as surrounding forest h a d b e e n c l e a r e d for several years a n d w h a t is present is all s e c o n d growth. It c a n b e extrapolated that it was transitional forest b e t w e e n  13  K l i n k a , K., V . J . K r a j i n a , A . C e s k a , A . M . S c a g e l .  Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. V a n c o u v e r , B C : University British C o l u m b i a Press, 1995. 14  L a n d s c a p e Architecture  of  Program.  Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra  Island, BC. V a n c o u v e r , B C :  University of British C o l u m b i a ,  2000.  17  inillllWJK&m. p e n field, disturbed  Douglas-fir forest zone  Mesic (mixed)! forest  Palustrine wetlands  m  vegetation Not to scale  Figure 16. V e g e t a t i o n m a p  CO  the mesic forest zone a n d the Douglas fir-forest zone that prevailed. It is also important to note that this site is situated on the extreme eastern side of the Island which enjoys a slightly drier microclimate to that e v e n 2 km west of the site. This is important to its success as a vineyard a n d winery. Mesic (mixed) forest is found in the wet perimeter zone, the understory is moderately c l o s e d a n d comprised of sword fern (Polystichum  munitum),  salmon berry (Rubus parviflorus), mosses, a n d saplings of red alder (Alnus rubra), bigleaf m a p l e (Acer Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga  macrophyllum), menziesii) a n d  western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).  In  relation to the site, the eastern e d g e s of the property prior to b e i n g c l e a r e d w o u l d most likely h a v e b e e n within this zone. Douglas-fir is the dominant species in the Douglas-fir forest zone, with the understory generally consisting of salal (Gaultheria  shallon) a n d huckleberry  [Vaccinium  parvifolium).  This zone often  coincides with the water r e c h a r g e zone, a n d slopes of 0-5%. It is buffered from significant coastal impacts a n d thus is more geotechnically stable than the coastal zones. A large portion of the site falls within this zone, this is the majority of the w o o d e d a r e a on this site that is in a semi l o g g e d state rather than in u n t o u c h e d forest.  19  Palustrine wetlands are the freshwater wetlands that m a y b e divided into different classifications including emergent/riparian, scrub/shrub a n d pockets of forest w e t l a n d in the Douglas fir forest zone as in the c a s e of the w e t l a n d to the south-west of the property. There is also a larger w e t l a n d to the southsoutheast of the site on the a d j a c e n t property that is more of a scrub/shrub w e t l a n d r e g e n e r a t e d b e c a u s e of a field that was present in the past rather than natural regeneration. This is a major discharge zone for the property itself. Dominant vegetation is generally salmonberry, red alder a n d red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa  ssp pubens).  Further investigation into the vegetation species present, tends towards the diagnosis of a nitrogen m e d i u m soil that is on well drained to fresh soils, d e p e n d i n g u p o n the portion of the property that is being studied. If e a c h of the vegetation zones discussed a b o v e is studied in further detail, the general soil a n d moisture regime c a n b e d e c i p h e r e d by looking at certain indicator plants a n d their associations with e a c h other. Table 2 details the plants a n d their soil as well as hydrological regime. The mixed (mesic) forest zone is generally water receiving as well as shedding m e a n i n g around stream environments as well as s e e p a g e s , making it a fresh-  20  moist environment that has nitrogen rich soil a n d m a n y nitrogen fixing plants such as red alder a n d salmon berry. The Douglas-fir zone generally has indicators of fresh to moderately dry soils which are nitrogen m e d i u m . There are aberrations such as the p r e s e n c e of huckleberry but this m a y b e d u e to the microclimate conditions surrounding the plants. The palustrine wetlands are obviously moist to wet areas that are generally in this a r e a nitrogen rich. The a c t u a l physiology of the soils is discussed b e l o w in the soil section.  21  Table 2. Existing site vegetation Botanical Name  Common Name  H y d o l o g i c regime  Soil Regime  G r o u n d Layer  C a r e x Species Digitalis purpurea Juncus sp.  sedge  Various  Fox G l o v e  Generally dry  Rush  Mahonia nervosa  Oregon Grape  Various moderately dry, fresh, cutover sites w a t e r receiving a n d colluvial sites water shedding a n d receiving  Polystichum munitum Pteridium aquilinum Shrub Laver  Sword Fern Bracken Fern  Rubus ursinus  Trailing blackberry  moderately dry, fresh water shedding/ dry  Gaultheria shallon  Salal  Rubus spectabilis  Salmonberry  very moist to wet  Vaccinium parvifolium  Huckleberry  Generally dry environment  various  Zone Mixed forest  X  Douglasfir forest  X  Palustrine wetlands  X  X X N medium N rich  X X  X  X  X  X  N medium  X  N poor  X  N rich, near stream  X  X  N poor  X  X  X  Tree Layer  Abies grandis  G r a n d Fir  water shedding a n d receiving, fresh to moist Primary succession: A l o n g streams, water collecting. Secondary succession: w a t e r shedding sites  Alnum rubra  Red Alder  Picea sitchensis  Sitka spruce  Fresh, moist  Pseudotsuga menziesii  Douglas fir  Generally dry environment  Tsuga heterophylla  Western hemlock  water shedding, w a t e r receiving  N rich  X  N rich, exposed mineral soil  X  N rich, very rare  X  N poor  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  22  Soil Island Geology Q u a d r a Island was glacier c o v e r e d 20,000 years a g o ; northern Q u a d r a Island was s c r a p e d c l e a n , d o w n to bare rock. In contrast southern Q u a d r a Island is m a d e up of deposition of materials from the northern portion of the island. The soils are m a d e up of horizontal layers of sand, gravely sand, c l a y e y sand, silty, sand, c o b b l e s a n d glacial till, a mixture of the previously mentioned soil types. The southern portion of the island is basically a p l a t e a u consisting of steep coastal walls, shoreline a n d relatively flat interior (where the property is sited). Drainage consists of small wetlands a n d creeks . Figure 17 15  illustrates the site slope.  Quadra Island Soil Categories Q u a d r a Island has a variety of land types with several soil categories including: 1 .Thin, irregular soil over b e d r o c k : -areas e x p o s e d b e d r o c k -limited near surface groundwater supply -wastewater disposal c a p a c i t y severely limited  15  Landscape Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver, BC:  University of British Columbia, 2000.  23  Not to scale  Figure 17. Slope map  4v  2. Seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel (Figure 18): -well drained a n d dry in summer -seasonally wet with saturated pockets -generally related to flatter topography -minimal overland water flow -low moisture retention c a p a c i t y -thin top soil layer, generally a c i d i c Figure 18. C a t e g o r y 2 soilseasonally, well-drained sandy gravel  3. Poorly drained, sandy l o a m -poorly drained most of year -related to sloping ground - m o d e r a t e overland flow -wastewater disposal c a p a c i t y limited in many areas 4. Saturated organic -muck a n d p e a t -saturated most of year with standing water -primarily emergent a n d w o o d e d wetlands -severely limiting to d e v e l o p m e n t 5  Coastal - b e a c h e s , bluffs -sands, pebbles, c o b b l e s of mixed sizes  Site Soil As discussed previousy,this site is situated within the a r e a that covers 2 forest zone types found on Q u a d r a Island, the soil profiles roughly follow the vegetation distribution (Figure 19). As mentioned the soils that correspond  25  • seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel with a large n u m b e r of g l a c i a l erratics  Figure 19. Soil m a p  to o  poorly d r a i n e d , sandy loam, organically rich 1 m-4m d e e p before reaching hardpan  Not to scale  to the Douglas fir forest zone are fresh to moderately dry which are generally nitrogen m e d i u m soils. The soil profile corresponds to the a b o v e c a t e g o r y 2; seasonally, well-drained sandy gravel with a large number of glacial erratics present. The soil d e p t h is generally 1-2.5 meters d e e p with underlying h a r d p a n . The top soil is thin, a n d rather inorganic. A n elevation break bisects the parcel in approximately the center a n d signifies the transition from the Douglasfir forest zone to the mixed forest further east. The soil in this a r e a consists of more c a t e g o r y 3 soils; more poorly drained, sandy l o a m . It is organically rich a n d is anywhere from 1 m-4m d e e p before reaching hardpan. Past the break in slope is the front field. As mentioned a b o v e , the original state of the vegetation is unknown though it was more likely to b e a transitional forest b e t w e e n the Douglas-fir zone a n d the mesic forest. Soils in the front field indicate a n a r e a of disturbance. It is t o p p e d by disturbed material, a mix of different soil types mainly gravel, sand a n d some clay c o n g l o m e r a t e (Figure 20). However, b e l o w 30-45 c m of the disturbed material c a t e g o r y 2 soils are present however it is slightly more silty sand, though still very well drained. Approximately 1-5 m further b e l o w the sandy material is h a r d p a n where the majority of the groundwater runs. Figure 20. Disturbed material, gravel, sand a n d c l a y  27  Hydrology Q u a d r a Island watershed h y d r o l o g y Infiltration occurs in most of the soil in the upland p l a t e a u therefore there is very little runoff. The major watersheds are found in Heriot Bay a n d Quathiaski C o v e . The hydrologic system is divided into 3 zones' : 6  1. Upland r e c h a r g e zone in the interior of the Island. The r e c h a r g e zone is flat with many wetlands linking to it. This zone is characterized by high groundwater a n d subsurface water in the winter moving both laterally a n d vertically. Laterally moving water discharges in s e e p a g e s along steep slopes, stream channels a n d wetlands. Vertically moving water recharges the d e e p e r aquifers. 2. Transition zone, the zone where groundwater is transferred from r e c h a r g e to discharge. The transition zone is generally found on gentle u p l a n d slopes leading to the steeper slopes of the coastal bluffs. It is generally d a m p throughout the year a n d s e e p a g e is obvious  ' Landscape Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. Vancouver, BC:  University of British Columbia, 2000.  28  3. Discharge zone, generally at the perimeter at the coastal bluffs. The discharge zone is where the groundwater is released, s e e p a g e a n d creeks are obvious. Property Hydrology The property has a m a n m a d e p o n d which drains offsite a n d is c o n n e c t e d to a seasonal d r a i n a g e (Figure 21). There is a small w e t l a n d to the south-west of the property on a d j a c e n t properties a n d the water from the property drains to it. The w e t l a n d eventually drains b a c k onto the property in the form of a seasonal stream (Figure 22). It is the primary d r a i n a g e system on the property. The majority Figure 21. Drainage ditch c h a r a c t e r in c l e a r e d eastern half of site  of the property is well drained a n d seasonally dry. Groundwater The population of Q u a d r a Island is d e p e n d e n t on groundwater for water supply. The main source of groundwater is a d e e p b o d y of glacial deposit; this gains its supply mainly from infiltration. The property has a drilled well that e x c e e d s 50 meters in d e p t h . It is t a p p e d into the Q u a d r a Sands, a d e e p glacial deposit that is a n excellent source of water' . 7  l 7  Figure 22. Seasonal stream, through forested section of site  L a n d s c a p e Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. V a n c o u v e r , B C : University of British C o l u m b i a , 2000.  29  Climate Indicators for Wine Cultivation Suitability There are 3 methods of determining minimum climate characteristics b a s e d on the heat a c c u m u l a t i o n from the growing season generally l o o k e d at from April 1 to O c t o b e r 31 of e a c h year. The Hughlin Index, Heat Units a n d the Latitude Temperature Index are all methods of determining heat a c c u m u l a t i o n ' . E a c h has a d v a n t a g e s 8  a n d disadvantages therefore the best m e t h o d for a n a v e r a g e is to use all three a n d extrapolate the results.  Hughlin Index The relationship b e t w e e n solar energy a n d latitude to corresponding list of indicator varieties (Table 3) that would h a v e the greatest c h a n c e of success in a certain climate region. H l=(MDT-10) + (MDMT-10) x k x d a y s / m o n t h 2 where: MDT= m e a n daily temperature MDMT=mean daily m a x i m u m temperature k= constant to correct for latitude difference Latitudes 48.1-50 k=l .06  HI for Dogfish Bay site = 1407 a v e r a g e d over 9 years, range 1 2 2 3 - 1656 18  British C o l u m b i a Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. K e l o w n a , B.C.: G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a , 2001.  Q  n  Table 3 Hughlin Index Indicator Varieties' Huahlin Index Indicator Varieties Muller Thurgau, Ortega, Blue Portuguese <1500 Pindt gris, Pinot b l a n c , M a r e c h a l Foch, G a m a y noir, 1600 Gewurztraminer C h a r d o n n a v , Riesling, Pinot noir 1700 C a b e r n e t Franc, Limburaer 1800 The Hughlin Index for Dogfish 9  Bay site a v e r a g e at 1407 therefore the best varieties are those for the < 1500 category. These are the varieties that would likely d o best in this climate.  Heat Units (Degree Days) The use of heat units also c a l l e d the Winkler system was d e v e l o p e d in California to characterize g r a p e growing a n d producing sites. The heat units are s u m m e d for all months in a year with a positive value. Table 4 illustrates varieties that h a v e b e e n shown to work in e a c h of the regions. HU= (MDT-10C) x # d a y in a month Where: MDT= mean daily temperature DD for Dogfish Bay site= 871 averaged over 9 years, range 748-1041  Table 4 Heat Units (Degree Days) Indicator Varieties Heat Units (Degree Days) Reaion D e a r e e Days Indicator Varieties 1390 or less Pinot noir, Pinot blanc, Chardonnay 1 C a b . Sauvignon, Merlot, Aliaote II 1390-1650 Sauvignon b l a n c , M a l b e c , Barbara III 1650-1930 IV Tinta m a d e i r a , Refosco, O r a n a e Muscat 1930-2200 Trousseau, Muscat b l a n c V over 2200 1  31  The DD for Dogfish Bay site a v e r a g e at 871 therefore the best varieties are those for Region 1. This was d e v l o p e d for California therefore the minimum heat boundaries are m u c h higher than the other two methods.  Latitude Temperature Index The latitude temperature index (LTI) was d e v e l o p e d in N e w Z e a l a n d . It uses the latitude a n d the m e a n temperature for the warmest month of e a c h year. This was d e v e l o p e d for c o o l climate systems where the heat during the warmest months falls well b e l o w that of California yet quality wine is a b l e to b e p r o d u c e d . LTI= m e a n t e m p , of warmest month x (60latitude of vineyard)  LTI for Dogfish Bay Site = 188.4 a v e r a g e over 9 years, r a n g e 179-197  Table 5 Latitude Temperature Index Indicator Varieties Indicator Varieties LTI Gewurztraminer, Siegerrebe, Pinot gris, Pinot Group A very cool noir, Pinot blanc, Chasselas, Chardonnay, LTI < 190 Bacchus c o o l to Group B Riesling, Pinot noir, C h a r d o n n a y LTI 190-270 warm Group C C a b e r n e t sauvignon, C a b e r n e t franc, Merlot, warm 1 Tl 270-380 M a l b e c . Sauvignon b l a n c . Semillon Group D C a r i g n a n e , G r e n a c h e , Shiraz warm LTI 380 21  British C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. K e l o w n a , B.C.: G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a , 2001.  32  This is probably the most a c c u r a t e m e t h o d as it was d e v e l o p e d in a c o o l climate. This m e t h o d also has the most variety in cultivars to b e c h o s e n from. Environmental c o m p a r i s o n s Though m a n y growers scoff at the i d e a of growing grapes in the V a n c o u v e r Island climate they d o not understand the mechanisms of the climate there. V a n c o u v e r Island does receive a high annual precipitation a m o u n t however most of this falls during the winter not during the critical growing season. The site is approximately 20-40 meters a b o v e sea level with a rise of a b o u t 20 meters a n d is sloped generally to the east-southeast. The eastern half of the site is o p e n a n d gently sloping a n d though only 500 m horizontally from the o c e a n , is well sheltered from prevailing winds which blow from the south-east. The western half is extremely well sheltered b e i n g u p l a n d a n d surrounded by the u p l a n d forests as well as a significant break in slope. The figures b e l o w c o m p a r e the precipitation (Figure 23, Table 6) a n d hours of sunshine (Figure 24, Table 7) of Q u a d r a Island with those of the world's premier g r a p e growing areas (data has b e e n taken from Gladstones, 1992).  Gladstones, J.S. Viticulture and  22  As o n e  Environment.  Adelaide South Australia: Winetitles, 1992.  33  Figure 23. Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season  18016014012010080604020-  Table 6 Rainfall in millimeters during the growing season Loire Chablis Bordeaux Burgundy Champagne Rheingau Quadra Island  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  47  53  50  42  41  41  74  51  59  71  63  58  53  69  67  65  60  52  47  55  81  61  54  78  50  55  69  62  47  54  53  67  58  42  67  36  41  53  53  53  46  51  87  67  68  41  48  53  155  Total 348 424 427 429 388 333 518  34  Figure 24. S u n s h i n e hours d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n  T a b l e 7 Sunshine in hours d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n April  May  June  July  August  September  October  Loire  176  215  228  240  223  180  127  Chablis Bordeaux Burgundy Champagne Rheingau  175  200  223  236  228  184  125  185  205  227  257  250  205  143  175  212  241  258  242  192  129  175  217  224  228  197  178  118  177  226  228  233  214  159  96  Quadra Island  128  184  232  231  307  275  225  Total 1389 1371 1472 1449 1337 1333 1582  35  can see the precipitation levels during the months of June-August are comparable with some of the other regions as are the hours of sunshine. Shadow  Figure 25 illustrates typical shadows cast upon the site during different times of the year at different times of the day. This is important in consideration of where to layout the vineyard and the corresponding facilities. It was important to also take into consideration how shadows affect the site in its present condition and how this could affect the matter in which the site is developed.  Vine Life History Wine is the literal transformation of rain into beverage, water from the ground is converted by the plant with the hekp of sunlight, into vine growth, grapes and fermentable sugars. In the wild, a young vine spends the first few years of life establishing a strong root system before sprawling and expending energy on vegetative growth. Reproduction through sexual means is often rare as the vines tend towards asexual reproduction growing roots where the vine is in contact with the ground for a period of time. This plant would naturally climb up any  36  :  Figure 25 Shadow diagram  CO  vertical surface in close proximity. It is said that the Romans p l a n t e d Elms just for this purpose, to harness the vertical growth to k e e p the grapes off the ground preventing rot a n d rodent d a m a g e . 2 3  M o d e r n vines are c o d d l e d a n d severely trained to p r o d u c e better quality grapes, mainly through the prevention of vegetative growth thus forcing the grapevine to c o n c e n t r a t e its energy into the grapes themselves. The younger the vine, the lighter a n d less subtle the wine. Wines 3-6 years after planting h a v e generally filled out the s p a c e allotted to them a b o v e a n d b e l o w the ground. The wines p r o d u c e d from this time tend to b e increasingly more c o m p l e x often attributed to the more intricate root systems which presumably regulate water supple a n d nutrient levels. Yields generally begin declining after 25-30 years after planting a n d vines are often pulled out d u e to poor health, d e c r e a s e d d e m a n d or purely d e p e n d e n t of e c o n o m i c reasons. However, the wines p r o d u c e d from these older vines of popular varieties often c o m m a n d premium prices a n d are l a b e l e d as old vine wines or as the French say "vielle vignes".  24  'Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. L o n d o n , UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004.  38  Results of Analysis How this project fits into Quadra Island Similar to many of the smaller inhabited islands on the BC coast, Q u a d r a Island is now in flux, it is in the midst of d e v e l o p i n g a n Official Community Plan in order to a i d in the g u i d a n c e of future land use a n d community d e v e l o p m e n t . It is difficult b e c a u s e of the n e e d for the Island to e m b r a c e d e v e l o p m e n t of existing as well as future uses if there is to b e e c o n o m i c sustainability, but also to try a n d maintain the rural c h a r a c t e r of the Island itself. The tentative O C P for Q u a d r a outlines several community values such a s : 25  •  The promotion of a strong rural community that reflects a diversity of lifestyles, e c o n o m i c s a n d recreational opportunities. • The promotion of land use patterns which d o not compromise the e c o l o g i c a l integrity a n d rural c h a r a c t e r of the Island.  •  25  The recognition of the unique natural characteristics of the Island, a n d to safeguard sensitive areas including the Islands groundwater r e c h a r g e areas from inappropriate forms of d e v e l o p m e n t a n d sources of pollution.  Regional District of C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a . Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, /996. C o m o x Valley, B C : Regional District of C o m o x Strathcona, 1996.  or  Some of the objectives stated in the O C P are : 26  •  The m a i n t e n a n c e of the rural nature of the Island a n d e n c o u r a g e a small close-knit community.  •  To provide forms of development, w h i c h are mindful of the c a p a c i t y of the land to support such d e v e l o p m e n t a n d d o not detract from the rural nature of the Island.  •  To e n c o u r a g e affordable a n d safe living a n d housing opportunities on the Island.  •  To recognize that h o m e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d h o m e industries are important to the lifestyle of Q u a d r a Island residents. The owners as longtime residents  of the region a n d of the Island as well as y o u n g p e o p l e , trying to m a k e a living in this a r e a where employment is limited, understand the n e e d for diversification. Nothing c a n remain static. The objectives of Dogfish Bay Winery are: •  To design a l a n d s c a p e that will with time b e c o m e a n e c o n o m i c a l l y selfsustaining family run winery a n d inn.  •  To design a vineyard a n d winery where the aspects of great wine a n d great wine-making are explored a n d shared.  ' R e g i o n a l District of C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a . Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, 1996. C o m o x Valley, B C : Regional District of C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a , 1996.  40  •  To design a p l a c e where one has the c h o i c e of immersion into the experience of the site from staying at a n inn to working a n d staying in the vineyard itself.  •  To design a p l a c e of certain characteristic where family, neighbours a n d visitors to the winery are w e l c o m e to experience a n d immerse themselves in all the stages of the art a n d craft of wine-making, celebrations of the p a s s a g e of time a n d joy.  Grape varieties The following table (Table 8) summarizes g r a p e cultivars that are suitable for this climate as divided by maturing time. Early maturing varietals ripen from mid-August to mid-September. M e d i u m maturing varietals mature from mid-September to m i d - O c t o b e r a n d late maturing varietals are r e a d y to b e harvested from m i d - O c t o b e r o n w a r d s  2728  .  These are generally not r e c o m m e n d e d as the growing season in this region generally ends in late September, not d u e to temperature but more d u e to precipitation. However, it is important to  27  28  Fisher, D.V., J . Vielvoye. Grape Growing in British Columbia. O t t a w a , Ontario: Q u e e n ' s Printer, 1968. British C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. K e l o w n a , B.C.: G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a , 2001. 41  note that this does vary from year to year. Varietals chosen for this project are: 1. 2. 3. 4.  Gewurztraminer Ortega Siegerrebe Pinot noir  5. Blackberry (not a grape) The one g r a p e that is still a n unknown is G a m a y noir. This classic red g r a p e of the Beaujolais region in France will b e a n experimental variety for Dogfish Bay. It buds early, flowers a n d supposedly ripens early a n d it c a n p r o d u c e h e a v y crops unless r e d u c e d . It exhibits relatively high acidity a n d ripens with lower sugars. It makes very dark wines. However, recent experiments in the Puget S o u n d  29  suggest  that it might not ripen reliably here, the big experiment. Table 8 G r a p e Cultivar summary M i d Ripening Early Ripening White White Dunkelfelder Auxerrois M a d e l e i n e sylvaner Gewurztraminer Ortega Bacchus Siegerrebe Ehrenfelser Kerner M a d e l e i n e angevine Pinot b l a n c Pinot gris Schonburger Red G a m a y noir? (big experiment)  Late Ripening White Dornfelder  Red Agria Leon Millot Pinot noir  Red M a r e c h a l Foch  tarty Ripening Mid-August To Mid-September Mid Ripening Mid-Spetember to Mid-October Late Ripening. Mid-October to Mid- November  Snyder, S. Growing  Wine Grapes in the  Puget  Sound. Online at http://pswg.org/ grapes.htm (accessed June 21, 2003).  42  Varietal notes What kind of wine a n d h o w they grow. 1. Gewurztraminer (white) Wine Notes When m a d e right this is a delicious, fruity, full-bodied wine with a spicy bouquet with typically a strong floral a n d lychee a r o m a a n d spicy taste. Viticulture This is a fairly light c r o p p e r with small c o m p a c t clusters that c a n b e excessively vigorous, producing large, shady c a n o p i e s that are c o n d u c i v e to d e l a y e d fruit ripening a n d harvest season cluster rot c o m p l e x . This cultivar likes d e e p , fertile loams with some clay in a c o o l climate. Yields are low to m o d e r a t e approximately 45-65 hl/ha. 2. O r t e g a (white) Wine Notes O r t e g a is a G e r m a n hybrid that was d e v e l o p e d specifically for cooler climates notable in G e r m a n y . At its best is fat a n d jammy w h e n ripe, ripe h o n e y e d , p e a c h fruit on nose with p e p p e r y crisp acidity with retained freshness of fruit. It b e c o m e s h e r b a c e o u s in cooler years with a white currant c h a r a c t e r w h e n unripe. Its flavor a n d a r o m a are consistent with the volatile terpenes of Riesling, Sylvaner a n d MullerThurgau. Wine quality has b e e n W i n e quality has b e e n ranked as consistently high with a g o o d r e s e m b l a n c e to Riesling. Viticulture This is a c o l d hardy vine. The grapes ripen very early, a n d attain high sugar levels with low acidity. However it does not h a v e g o o d disease resistance, therefore stringent c a n o p y m a n a g e m e n t must b e undertaken. It has a susceptibility to fungal diseases a n d coulure but in c o o l climates it is a g o o d , consistent producer. The major complaint has b e e n that it possesses thick tendrils that are difficult to remove during dormant pruning 43  3. Siegerrebe (white) Wine Notes The wine is very fruity with some similarity to that of Gewurztraminer, g o l d e n brown berry of g o o d flavour, trace of muscat a n d high sugar with pleasant light floral tones, highly aromatic. Viticulture The early ripening fruit tend to attract the attention of birds, bees a n d wasps. Very high sugar content but low acids h a v e b e e n reported at harvest in Washington State. It is susceptible to mildew a n d rot diseases as well as stem necrosis in w e t / h u m i d regions. It has variable productivity of around 2-5 tonnes per a c r e , with a t e n d e n c y to overcrop, therefore a g a i n stringent c a n o p y m a n a g e m e n t must b e undertaken. 4. Pinot noir (red) Wine Notes This is a light red wine that is one of the most popular wines sold. It typically has a n a r o m a of violets, red cherry, a n d raspberry, a n earthy taste. Viticulture This g r a p e is a d a p t e d to cooler areas; however it is one of the most elusive g r a p e to grow. It is relatively early ripening a n d it is extremely sensitive to terroir. The yields are low a n d the best results o c c u r w h e n vigour a n d yield are controlled.  44  Concept Structure and Immersion The c o n c e p t is to c e l e b r a t e the vine structure(the trellis) as a highly visible a n d captivating design element in one's experience of the vineyard. These vine structures are the main organizing d e v i c e that is used to structure the agricultural a n d touristic uses of this site. Likewise, the vine structure serves as a metaphor for the organization of the site circulation. A main circulation system bi-sects the site with a d j a c e n t program areas l o c a t e d along its course, m u c h like the vines hanging off the vine structure. The circulation system is extremely important to the workings of any farm. It is h o w product reaches the winery, h o w p e o p l e are a b l e to travel to a n d within the vineyard a n d h o w o n e c a n c h o o s e to experience the site itself. This is the basic u n c h a n g i n g portion of the site design, it is the constant. Structure Support a n d Training There are 2 c o m p o n e n t s to successfully growing a grapevine, o n e is the support structure a n d the other is the vine training system. O n e is typically a built structure (although in the past trees  45  formed a living trellis) the vines growing up them. The other is a manipulation of the plant material itself where the form c h a n g e s from region to region, country to country. This is the a c t u a l training a n d pruning methods to influence growth habit a n d production.  Support The majority of vineyards in the world use a trellis support system in growing their grapes; there are m a n y types of structures from no supporting wires to several wires, posts, e n d posts a n d crossarms . All are regionally 32  specific, specially suited to the local conditions. The underlying reason for these systems is to get the vines off the ground. In colder regions the vines are typically supported higher to k e e p the fruiting c o m p o n e n t s a w a y from the colder air that tends to lie along the ground surface. In hotter climates the vines are trellised lower. The trellis design c a n b e divided into 2 different systems, ones that support vertically growing vine c a n o p i e s a n d ones that support horizontally divided c a n o p i e s (Figure 26). Vertically growing c a n o p y trellises c a n b e a simple stake driven into the ground to support the vine for the first few years until the trunk c a n support the rest of the vine similar to a small tree. More c o m m o n l y on the North A m e r i c a n West Coast vertically growing 3 2  J a c k s o n , R.S. Wine Science Principles, Practice, Perception. San D i e g o , C A : A c a d e m i c Press, 2000. 46  c a n o p y trellises are similar to a typical f e n c e construction, with supporting wires running b e t w e e n the trellis posts. The wires are p l a c e d at different heights in a c c o r d a n c e to the type of training system that is e m p l o y e d . A single wire trellis is fine for table grapes a n d ornamental grapes however not r e c o m m e n d e d for fine wine grapes.This is d u e to possible b r e a k a g e of the vines under the increased weight from the fruit b e c a u s e of lack of support. The 2 wire system is more c o m m o n d u e to simplicity a n d efficacy. More recently multiple wire systems are used b e c a u s e growers are a b l e to tie the g r a p e vine to e a c h wire to increase support that gives the grower a greater control of the growth a n d the positioning of the fruit a n d leaves in terms of sunlight a n d air flow (thus moisture control).  Training There are several training methods available to viticulturalists, from h e a d training systems to various forms of vertically trained c a n o p y systems (Figure 27) a n d horizontally divided c a n o p y systems. The difference b e t w e e n e a c h training system d e p e n d s u p o n the variety trained a n d the e c o n o m i c cost installing a n d maintaining the support structure.  48  Modified Scott Henry  All training systems should : 33  •  • • •  •  S p r e a d the c a n e s on a trellis to allow m o v e m e n t of equipment through a vineyard. Arrange trunks a n d c a n e s to a v o i d competition b e t w e e n vines. Provide renewal zone for pruning that keeps the vine form a n d yield. Places fruit in a position to allow e a s e of harvest, a d e q u a t e spray penetration a n d exposure to sunlight. Weighs the e c o n o m i c s of a simple trellis used in large vineyards where mechanization is utilized against a more expensive trellis system a n d the possible benefits of increased yield a n d fruit quality. The d a n g e r of a vertical training  system is that if not thinned properly fruit shading a n d overcropping m a y o c c u r . A d v a n t a g e s are that the trellises used in this training system are relatively inexpensive to install, there is a n increased c a n o p y surface a n d r e d u c e d c a n o p y density with increased fruit exposure. The Scott Henry vertical training system (Figure 27) was d e v e l o p e d in O r e g o n a n d consists of 2 fruiting wires, o n e at 96 c m off the ground on o n e side of the trellis post a n d the s e c o n d at 126 c m off the ground on the other side of the post. Therefore 30 c m separates the 2 wires.  British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Kelowna, B.C.:  Government of British Columbia, 2001.  The shoots on the upper wire are trained upwards a n d the shoots on the lower wire are trained downwards. There is also a modification of this system where the fruiting c a n e s of o n e plant are p l a c e d on the lower wire a n d the c a n e s of another plant are p l a c e d on the upper wire. This d e c r e a s e s d o m i n a n c e of o n e level over the other a n d decreases competition b e t w e e n the wires w h e n only one vine is used. Other a d v a n t a g e s to this system are or increased sun exposure, d e c r e a s e d c r o p losses d u e to increased air m o v e m e n t within a n d around the vines, as well as slightly earlier fruit ripening . 34  Horizontally divided c a n o p i e s are m u c h more labour intensive. The a d v a n t a g e s of the horizontally divided c a n o p y are reduction of s h a d e in the renewal zone, the doubling of c a n o p y a r e a , g o o d leaf a n d fruit exposure a n d often increases yield. The quality of the fruit a n d w o o d m a y also increase. However, this is only if shoot positioning is d o n e during the growing season, o n c e in during the beginning of the growing season a n d secondly o n c e during middle of the growing season. These are use more in very high c a p a c i t y sites, areas with highly fertile soil a n d readily available water during the growing s e a s o n . 35  34  3 5  Henry, S. III. "Scott Henry Training System." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003.91-96. British C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. K e l o w n a , B.C.: G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a , 2001. 51  Design strategy The Visual Patterns of the viticultural landscape Different varieties of crops a n d the their c h a n g i n g qualities across the l a n d s c a p e are possibly the most distinct visual characteristics of a n agricultural l a n d s c a p e . These are patterns that are derived from t o p o g r a p h y a n d light exposure a m o n g other factors. Grapevines themselves also c r e a t e a l a n d s c a p e that reveals a n d a c c e n t u a t e s the t o p o g r a p h y (Figure 28). There m a y seem to only b e a finite number of patterns that c a n b e m a d e however the v a r i a n c e in local conditions must b e taken into a c c o u n t . Unlike the vast vineyard l a n d s c a p e s of California's N a p a Valley, m a n y V a n c o u v e r Island vineyards are t u c k e d into the forest sharing the l a n d s c a p e with native vegetation, vines amongst the Douglas-firs, sword ferns a n d big leaf maples. Human choices c o n c e r n i n g viticulture are also d e c i d i n g factors in the look of vineyard l a n d s c a p e s . The density of planted vines is a n e x a m p l e , where 1.5 m s p a c i n g forms a distinct usual pattern different from vines planted 3 m apart . 30  As well, the manner in which the vines are trellised, pruned a n d maintained h a v e very different visual characteristics. 3 0  Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes of America's Wine Country. Boulder, C o l o r a d o : Westview Press, 1997.  52  Further, there are inter-row cultivation differences where some vineyards use turf, others flowers or clover, some just till the rows in order to increase soil heat. Other viticultural practices that d e p e n d on region are most prominently row orientation, irrigation m e t h o d a n d frost control. Here in the north, rows tend to b e oriented North-South whereas in warmer climates, they m a y run in all directions . 31  Figure 28. Vines a n d t o p o g r a p h y from Schreiner, J . British Columbia Country, 2003.  Wine  31  Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes of America's Wine Country. Boulder, C o l o r a d o : Westview Press, 1997.  53  Immersion/Program The process of wine; growing, making a n d imbibing, is a n experience that often b e c o m e s obscured a n d exclusive to the public. The wine in various stages is not accessible by the public, a n d the celebration of winemaking b e c o m e s c o n c e n t r a t e d in the tasting room where the finished product is served. Therefore the very agrarian nature of this e n d e a v o r cries out for festivities a n d celebrations of seasonality both in the polished, finished form a n d the rough, unrefined form. It is always difficult to r e m e m b e r that the year of a vineyard a n d winery is a year that is full of activity, moving from inside to outside, from a leisurely p a c e to a frenetic 24 hour a d a y t e m p o . The seasons c h a n g e as does the experience of the vineyard a n d winery. This is also the immersion experience where the guest to the site c a n c h o o s e to experience the site superficially, looking at the vineyard or to fully immerse themselves in the working a n d the life of the vineyard.  Experience Seasons of a winery and vineyard Spring This is the renewal of the vineyard, the m a g i c 10°C is r e a c h e d a n d the buds begin to swell a n d burst. The vineyard c l e a n up continues, trellises 54  are e x a m i n e d a n d repaired if necessary. In M a r c h to April n e w o n e year old cuttings are taken from the green house a n d planted. M a y continues with monitoring of the vineyard for disease, w e e d s a n d frost, though on Q u a d r a Island this is rarely a problem. In late M a y into June e a c h new shoot is succulent a n d l a d e n with small clusters of flowers that will b e the future grapes. In the winery racking of the n e w wine into n e w barrels continues from during the winter. Bottling also continues a n d is finished before the start of the n e w growing season. In the cellar topping up of the barrels continues as 5% of wine is lost through evaporation a n d air in the barrels is undesirable . 36  Summer In June, shoots are thinned a n d the best ones are tied to the trellis wires. This is the time of h o p e a n d waiting, it is the time w h e n one hopes for the perfect amount of sunshine a n d water. Too little sun a n d the grapes d o not ripen, too m u c h a n d the sugar content rises  Figure 30. Summer at Victoria Estate Winery  36  Johnson, H. and J. Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine.  London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004.  55  too quickly a n d the delicate b a l a n c e b e t w e e n acidity a n d sugar is lost. Equipment is also inspected a n d m a d e ready in anticipation of the u p c o m i n g harvest. Inside, this is the beginning of the hosting season in the tasting room; this is the time w h e n customer c o n t a c t is m a d e a n d in smaller wineries w h e n most of the winery i n c o m e occurs. Bottling continues a n d the preparation a n d inspection of the casks begins for the u p c o m i n g crush. Fall Harvest time! Different varieties ripen at different times so the crush flurry m a y last for a few weeks. The activity around a vineyard a n d winery reaches a frenzy at this time b e c a u s e the ripened grapes wait for no o n e . Pickers fill baskets a n d tubs which w e n d their w a y to a winery where sorting occurs. In m a n y m o d e m vineyards, machinery is used sometimes during the night w h e n the temperature is low, a d d i n g a dull roar to the l a n d s c a p e .  36  Figure 30. Harvest from www.cherrypointvineyards.com  J o h n s o n , H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. L o n d o n , UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. 56  Floors in the wineries are sticky with g r a p e juice, hoses litter the ground a n d fermenters are either ready to b e used or are filled, contents fermenting away. Winter The flurry of the crush behind, there is time, a moment of respite, a pause. The vines now dormant are pruned, selecting the best c a n e s for next year's growth. Inside the n e w wine is fermenting, year old wine if present is given a final racking. Barrels are turned a n d m o v e d to m a k e room for the n e w wine. Tasting of the new wine begins a n d the winemaker makes key decisions on her wine process.  Figure 31. Winter vines from Harper, T. The Spirituality of Wine,  2004.  Festivals and Celebrations There are always the solstice festivals, marking out the p a s s a g e of time, the harvest festival, Christmas, but there are still other seasons, other reasons to b e c e l e b r a t e d . O n e e x a m p l e in the wine world is the annual release of Beaujolais N o u v e a u . Every third Thursday at o n e minute past midnight, the Beaujolais N o u v e a u of the year begin their journey from the Beaujolais region to sleeping Paris a n d onto other areas of the world. Banners arise a n d proclaim: Le Beaujolais N o u v e a u est arrive! 'The N e w Beaujolais has arrived!" O n e of the most frenetic a n d a n i m a t e d rituals in the wine world has begun . 37  At the e n d of the tumult, over 65 million bottles, nearly half of the region's total annual production, will h a v e b e e n distributed a n d drunk all over the world. It has b e c o m e a worldwide r a c e to b e the first to serve to this n e w wine of the harvest. In doing so, it has b e e n carried by motorcycle, balloon, truck, helicopter, C o n c o r d e jet, elephant, runners a n d rickshaws to get it to its final destination. It is a m a z i n g to realize that just weeks before this wine was a cluster of grapes in a growers vineyard. But by a n expeditious harvest, a rapid fermentation, a n d a s p e e d y bottling, all is ready at the midnight hour.  37  J o h n s o n , H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. L o n d o n , UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004.  58  Wine Related Programs In order to m a k e this a viable project there has to b e a diversification, a thickening, of the different elements, both business a n d residential. There is the physical structure of the program, the built elements including the vineyard, picnic areas, winery, tasting room/Inn a n d residence a n d the circulation element of the site including the multi-use courtyard (Figure 32-38). There is also the experiential portion of the program where the program begins to b e c o m e more multifaceted. This project concentrates mainly on the aspects of a vineyard a n d winery however, since the a r e a that is a b l e to b e p l a n t e d is limited, not only g r a p e wine but blackberry wine a n d port will b e p r o d u c e d as well. There is also the market g a r d e n w h i c h w o u l d supply p r o d u c e a n d flowers to the families present as well as the Inn. The excess will b e sold at the local farmer's market in a contribution to the l o c a l e c o n o m y as well as the farm i n c o m e . The tasting room/Inn will b e a further diversification of the experience at this site capitalizing not only on the vineyard a n d wine e x p e r i e n c e but the island experience, something that that is difficult to describe, rather it must b e e x p e r i e n c e d . There is always the opportunity for a b e a c h walk as the site is extremely close to the o c e a n , throughout the vineyard paths h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d 59  to pull the visitor through to what is at the far e n d . The owners c o u l d also offer to the visitors to the Inn prawning a n d fishing excursions. Partnerships with other l o c a l p r o d u c e farmers c o u l d c r e a t e events such as a n oyster a n d wine night a n d a local wine festival, featuring locally m a d e wines. The tasting room w o u l d b e o p e n to not only winery visitors to a n y o n e w h o was curious a b o u t the property. Tastings would include the current year's offerings but also the unsuccessful trials in order to e d u c a t e the visitor. Different levels of immersion c o u l d b e attained through merely staying at the Inn. O n e will b e a b l e to c h o o s e to h a v e a bird's eye view of the vineyard from a s e c o n d story guest room in the Inn which will also b e the tasting room/barrel cellar, or to h a v e a first floor room where the outside is readily accessible.  A full  immersion e x p e r i e n c e will entail staying in a c o t t a g e at the level of the vineyard a n d possibly working at the facility itself. A vineyard walk both g u i d e d a n d self-guided, through the various g r a p e varieties as well as experimental training systems c o u l d b e set up as a n e d u c a t i o n a l element of the vineyard. Further elements w o u l d b e winery a n d cellar tour; however this would b e quite short as they are physically small. In addition to the winery a n d vineyard a r e a w o u l d b e the forest a n d field elements w h i c h w o u l d b e a n important element in the integrated pest m a n a g e m e n t plan that w o u l d b e used for this vineyard. Further e d u c a t i o n in this as well as native.  vegetation would b e a n interesting layer of the program. Another f a c e t to the immersion experience of the site would b e the opportunity to work at the vineyard during the year. There is also the a c c e s s to the woodlot to the west of the property which is ideal for a forest walk or mountain bike ride, the g a r d e n that w o u l d b e o p e n to neighbours w h o would like d o a bit of gardening as m a n y of the properties on the South End are still heavily forested a n d not ideal for f o o d g a r d e n i n g . The site c o u l d also b e available for pictures for weddings a n d other special occasions through the variety of areas designed throughout the vineyard itself, from small g a r d e n shelters to the full use of the architectural courtyard. The tasting room would also b e o p e n for rental for use of small local affairs, seasonal festivals a n d the wineries o w n festivals such as the celebration of the crush, the release of the first wines of the year e t c . There are also the picnic areas of the vineyard varying in levels of immersion from the vineyard picnic a r e a , where one is surrounded by the vineyard, to the winery picnic a r e a to the more remote picnic a r e a in the western portion of the property.  61  Figure 32 Site Design Plan Not to scale 62  L L U J U _ l l LL! LL! I ! j j  ^  ( }  U-IJ-LLLU.  L L L L L J _ L L L I Ll ! I I I | (J I LI ! !  A  ,  Hnj '-J-J-LLU I II I I U L I J ( M i l l  ill  AA  Central Circulation Section  I  M  I  M  U  ,  l  ,  l  " ^ H U  I  U  l  |  )  J  |  LU-LLLlUj L  - X U l l l l l l i J J O J _ L L L L U J l O J J J l_LJ_LLL±±J , , M H Ll I I M i  B  Residence to Loghouse section  \ BB  " " " ^ I ' J - t l U M I l i , ,,  i. 111 U L l l i J M L H  C  Wetland Water feature section  Figure 33 East-west site sections Not to scale  || I |j | | | | , , , , , , , , , ,  , , ,  CC  Log house to green house  Figure 34 North-south site sections Not to scale 64  Figure 35 Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-west Not to scale 65  Figure 36 Crushyard axonometric drawing, orientation towards north-east Not to scale  ure 38 Detail Drawings of programmatic elements  Conclusion This is a d y n a m i c project that will constantly evolve throughout the c o m i n g years. There will b e something n e w every year a n d it is this dynamicity that will k e e p Dogfish Bay y o u n g a n d exciting b e c a u s e as the owners mature as wine makers so will the site a n d the vines. More importantly this is a residence for 2 families; the atmosphere will b e one that is w e l c o m i n g a n d o p e n . The structure of the site is b a s e d u p o n the c o n c e p t of a structure a n d h o w it c a n affect the levels of immersion into the site. This site structure will provide a n opportunity for programs to evolve a n d metamorphose. This is a n o n g o i n g project a n d is intended to b e a life's work. All viticulturists a n d winemakers will sagely give this a d v i c e , 'This is not a short term e n d e a v o u r , think of it not as a 5 year plan rather it is a 40 year plan."  69  Bibliography Aho, J.E. "If you Build it Will They C o m e ? " Vineyard and Winery Magazine. 28.4 (2002). A m i d o n , J . Radical Landscapes Thames a n d Hudson Inc., 2001.  Reinventing  Outdoor  Spaces.  Aspler, T. Vintage Canada: the complete guide to Canadian Ontario: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited, 1999.  Management  N e w York, NY:  Wines. Toronto,  Bailey, R., M . Parish a n d G . Baldwin. "Winery Design in the 21st Century." The Australian & N e w Zealand Wine Industry Journal. 17.6 (2002). Bannon, A.L. "The small business of winemaking." Wines and Vines. O c t o b e r 2002. Bentley, I., A l c o c k , A., Murrain, P., M c G l y n n , S. a n d Smith, G . Responsive Environments: A Manual for Designers. Oxford: Butterworth Architecture, 1985. British C o l u m b i a Department of Agriculture. Management Guide for grapes for commercial growers. Kelowna, B.C.: G o v e r n m e n t of British C o l u m b i a , 2001. Cox, J. From Vines to Wines: the complete guide to growing grapes and your own wine. North A d a m s , M A : Storey Books, 2000. Fisher, D.V., J . Vielvoye. Grape Growing in British Columbia. Q u e e n ' s Printer, 1968. Gladstones, J.S. Viticulture 1992.  and Environment.  making  O t t a w a , Ontario:  A d e l a i d e South Australia: Winetitles,  G o l d , R. a n d P. L o m b a r d . "Planting a n d M a n a g i n g a Young Vineyard." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003. 105-109. Hall, C M . , Johnson, G . , C a m b o u r n e s , B., Macionis, N., Mitchell, R. a n d L. Sharpies. Wine Tourism Around the World. Ed. C . M . Hall et al. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000. 1-23. Harper, T. The Spirituality of Wine. Kelowna, B.C.: Northstone  Publishing, 2004.  Henry, S. III. "Scott Henry Training System." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003. 91-96.  70  Hinkle, R.P. "The basics in winery PR - public relations." Wines and S e p t e m b e r 1989. Jackson, R.S. Wine Science Principles, Practice, A c a d e m i c Press, 2000.  Perception.  Vines.  San Diego, C A :  Johnson, H. a n d J . Robinson. The World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley, 2004. Klinka, K., V. J . Krajina, A . C e s k a , A . M . S c a g e l . Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia. V a n c o u v e r , BC: University of British C o l u m b i a Press, 1995. L a n d s c a p e Architecture Program. Environmental Inventory and Overview: a framework for land use planning South Quadra Island, BC. V a n c o u v e r , BC: University of British C o l u m b i a , 2000. Leahy, R. "Sustainable Viticulture in the East." Vineyard Management. 29.1 (2003).  and Winery  Lecuyer, A. "Steel, stone a n d sky - Herzog a n d d e Meuron's architectural design for a winery in the N a p a Valley, California." The Architectural Review. O c t o b e r 1998. Lett, David, R. a n d Edward W, Hellman. "Varieties a n d Clones." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003.70-71. M a c d o n a l d , Al a n d M . C a r m o V a s c o n c e l o s . "Sustainable Viticulture in Oregon." in Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003. 134-136. M c G o u r t y , G . " C o v e r cropping systems for organically farmed vineyards." Practical Winery and Vineyard Magazine. 30.5 (2004): 22-38. Ministry of agriculture, fishery a n d f o o d . Grapes for Wine. Reference London, England: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1960. Ministry of Agriculture a n d Fisheries. Grape and Wine Forum Victoria, B.C .:Province of British C o l u m b i a , 1990.  book 322.  Proceedings.  Morris, J . "Precision Viticulture-A M e c h a n i z e d Systems A p p r o a c h . " ASEV/ES Symp. St. Catherines, Ontario: C o o l Climate O e n o . Vitic. Inst. (2001): 103110. Nichol, A . Wine and Vines of British Columbia. 1983.  V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: Bottesini Press,  71  Patterson, T. "Wineries as green as the vineyards?" Vineyard Management Magazine. 29.5 (2003): 98-102.  and Winery  Personal C o m m u n i c a t i o n . With June Larson, 2005. Peters, G.L. American Winescapes The Cultural Landscapes Country. Boulder, C o l o r a d o : Westview Press, 1997.  of America's  Wine  Regional District of C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a . Bylaw No. 1840. Quadra Island Official Community Plan Bylaw, 1996. C o m o x Valley, B C : Regional District of C o m o x - S t r a t h c o n a , 1996. Reisch B.J., R.M Pool, D.V. Peterson, M.H. Martins, a n d T. Henick-Kling. Wine and Juice Grape Varieties for Cool Climates. Cornell C o o p e r a t i v e Extension Publication, Information Bulletin No. 233. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, 1993. Rieger, T. "Winery Wastewater Issues-Overview a n d Regulatory Update." Vineyard and Winery Management Magazine. 29. 3 (2003). San Francisco Museum of M o d e r n Art. art + architecture + landscape: The Clos Pegase Design Competition. Sacramento, CA: GraphiCenter, 1985. Schreiner, J . British Columbia Books, 2003.  Wine Country.  North V a n c o u v e r , B C : W h i t e c a p  Snyder, S. Growing Wine Grapes in the Puget Sound. grapes.htm ( a c c e s s e d June 21, 2003).  Online at http://pswg.org/  Statistics C a n a d a . Comox-Strathcona J - Population w w w . s t a t c a n . c a . ( a c c e s s e d Feb. 2, 2005).  Statistics. Online at  Taylor, J . The Wine Quotation  Book. London, UK: Robert Hale Limited, 1989.  Taylor, J . River City A History of Campbell River and the Discovery M a d e i r a Park, B C : Harbour Publishing, 1999.  Islands.  Tunnell, D. a n d E.W. Hellman. "The O r g a n i c A p p r o a c h . " Oregon Viticulture. Ed. E. W. Hellman. Corvallis, OR: O r e g o n State University Press, 2003. p p . 137142. Vierra, T. "Looking to the sun for r e n e w a b l e Energy." Practical Vineyard Magazine. January/February 2004.  Winery and  Walker, L. "Small winery m a n a g e m e n t is a big job - includes related article on winery consultant Bill Dyer." Wines a n d Vines. O c t o b e r 1997.  72  Walker, L. "Tasting room survey: selling at the cellar door." Wines and Vines. N o v e m b e r 2002.Wensloff, G . "Winery wastewater Update". Wines and Vines. S e p t e m b e r 2000. www.cherrypointvineyards.com  a c c e s s e d September 2004.  w w w . c i v i l i z a t i o n . c a / a b o r i g / n w c a / n w c a m 2 1 e . h t m l a c c e s s e d M a y 2004.  73  A p p e n d i x A Production Equations A. Assumptions 1. m a t u r e V i n i f e r a v i n e $ 8 lb g r o p e s 7. 11-1? lbs g r o p e s y i e l d 3.8 I f i n i s h e d w i n e  3. vines 1.5 m apart: rows, 2.5 m apart Acres  5.7  gropes 2666 1066 6076 48608  p l a n t s / h a 10000/(2.5*1.5) p l a n t s / a c r e (10000*.4)/(2.5*1.5) t o t a l p l a n t s 5.7*1066 t o t a l p o u n d s 6076 * 8 l b s / v i n e  0.34 16526 22034 1865 308485  liters/lb g r a p e 3.8 1 / 11 lbs liters t o t a l 0.34 * 48608 t o t a l lbs T o t a l 750 m l b o t t l e s C a s e s / y e a r # b o t t l e s / 12 $ gross/ y e a r at 14$/bottle  B. Assumptions 1 1 9 p o u n d s / blockherry bush 2. 7 lbs b l a c k b e r r i e s y i e l d 3.8 I f i n i s h e d w i n e 3. b u s h e s 1.5 m o p o r t : r o w s . 7.5 m o p o r t Acres 0.77  Blackberries 2666 1066 287 3444  p l o n t s / h o lQpnn/(95*1.5) p l a n t s / a c r e (l000rj*.4)/ (9.5*1 5) t o t o l p l o n t s 0 . 7 7 * 1066 t o t a l p o u n d s 287 * 12 l b s / blackberrv bush  0.54 1859 2478 206 39,648  liters/lb berries 3.8 1 / 7.0 lbs liters t o t o l 0.54 * 3444 t o t o l lbs T o t o l 750 m l b o t t l e s C a s e s / v e a r # b o t t l e s / 17 $ gross o t 1 6 $ / b o t t l e  potential gross winery 348133*  income  74  Appendix B Program Specifics Area Area Description  needed  Winery 9000 c a s e winery (94.000 bottles/veor) G r a p e receiving a n d crush p a d  6m x 17m 6m x 17m 6m 6m 6m 6m  x x x x  17m 10m 6 m 6m  Borrel storage Bottle a n d supplv storage C a s e d g o o d s storage M e c h roomfhot woter h e o t e r e t c . ) Bothrooms Tasting/cafe Laundry facilities  6rri 2m 6m 4m 9m 6m 2m  x x x x x x x  6m 3m 5m 3m 3m 5m 2m  Inn: 9 rooms to rent Kitchen/breokfast nook Guest c o t t o g e  4m x 5m 400 sq ft  Fermenting a n d processing (tank hall) Bottling Laboratory/tasting room Offices Log House: Cellar/Tasting room/Inn  Area Description B o r n / S h o p / m a i n t e n o n c e o n d tools  Parking Lot Tractor roods Drivewav Food gorden D r a i n a g e ditches Woodlot  3000 1 tanks*6 dimensions height 60". d i o m e t e r 36"  1 barrel=59 gal=224 1 neea  Area needed  16 borrels d i o m e t e r 94"  Notes  born...  Vineyord Picnic o r e o  Notes  O v e r the septic field, part 15' X 90'  of parking lot 8 visitor stalls: d e p t h 5.5 m, width 9.5 m  4 m wide 5 m wide 1 m wide 1 acre  Orchord  Part of parking lot, grchitecturo) court. Gewurztraminer, O r t e g a , Siegerrebe, M a r e c h a l F o c h ,  Grapes Blackberries  5.7 acres 0.3 acres  Residence Ken a n d Vol's Ben a n d Jill Takane's Woodshed/battery shack/goatpen-  1900 sq ft 1900 sq ft  chicken c o o p  10' X?0'  Pinot noir o n d G a m a v noir  75  

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