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The nature and function of the Buddhist and Ru teachings in Li Daochun’s (fl. ca. 1288) Wondrous Way… Crowe, Paul Benjamin Michael 2004

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THE N A T U R E AND FUNCTION OF THE BUDDHIST A N D R U TEACHINGS IN LI DAOCHUN'S (fl. ca. 1288) WONDROUS W A Y OF PEERLESS ORTHODOX TRUTH • By Paul Benjamin Michael Crowe B.A., University of Calgary, 1988 M. A., University of Calgary, 1992 M.A. University of British Columbia, 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming To the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 2004 © Paul B.M. Crowe, 2004 A b s t r a c t This study examines of the way of cultivation taught by Li Daochun (fl. ca. 1288) and preserved by him and several of his disciples in two lengthy works: Qingan yingchan ziyulu (Dialogic Treatise of Master Qingan yingchan) and the Zhonghe ji (Anthology on the Centre and Harmony). Li describes his teaching as the "Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth" and claims that great teachers have transmitted it wordlessly down through the ages. Further, it lies at the heart of the Three Teachings: Buddhist, Ru literati, and Daoist. This "Wondrous Way," being fundamentally beyond words, simultaneously exists outside the confines of the "Three Teachings." It is well known among scholars studying the many varied facets of what is referred to generally as "Taoism" that teachers such as Li Daochun, who described themselves as Golden Elixir (jindan) adepts, also represented themselves as unifiers of the Three Teachings. It has often been noted that Golden Elixir texts show evidence of influence from Buddhism, (Chan Buddhism in particular) and from ideas associated with the way of personal cultivation taught by Confucius and Mencius, and later reinvented by Ru literati of the Song and Yuan dynasties and, at the close of the thirteenth century, unified by Zhu Xi (1130-1200) under the designation "Daoxue" (Teaching of the Way). Employing translated material from the two texts mentioned above, this study enriches these observations with greater detail concerning the precise nature of the influences, both in terms of their provenance and the way in which Li has reinterpreted and incorporated these "Teachings" into his way of cultivation. This added detail sheds light on what L i thought the labels "Buddhist Teaching" and "Ru Teaching" represented. By examining exactly how these teachings were adapted to Li Daochun's "Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth" insight is i i also gained into Li's formation of his own identity. He demonstrates a high degree of facility with a variety of Buddhist doctrines and the Daoxue approach to cultivation as uses his impressive understanding to mould the "Teachings" to his own purposes. Ultimately, Li's project of "unification" rests on his efforts at recreation. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents .iv List of Figures .vii Acknowledgements • viii Chapter 1 An Introduction to Li Daochun and His Historical Circumstances 1 1.1 The Subject and Purpose of this Study 1 1.2 An Overview of Translated Sections 3 1.3 Li Daochun 7 1.4 General Historical Circumstances in which Li Taught 12 Chapter 2 Translations from the Zhonghe Ji and Qingan yingchan zi yulu 22 2.1 Anthology on the Centre and Harmony 22 2.2 Forward to the Dialogic Treatise of Qingan yingchan zi. 45 2.3 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 1) 48 2.4 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 2) 75 2.4. a Mind-essentials of the Way and Virtue. 75 2.5 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 6) 105 2.5. a Elucidating Doubt Concerning the Yellow Center 105 2.5.b The Pattern of the Ru Scholars 126 2.5.c The Buddhist Teaching ...132 iv Chapter 3 The Place of "Buddhism" in Li Daochun's Way of Cultivation 143 3.1 Introduction : 143 3.2 Pedagogy 144 3.3 Buddhist Doctrine in Li's Teachings 160 3.3.a The Buddhist Verses 162 3.3.b Letting Go, Seeing the Light, and Stillness 175 3.4 Conclusion 205 Chapter 4 Ru Thought in Li Daochun's Way of Cultivation. 209 4.1. Introduction '.. 209 4.2 Li's Daochun's Conception of "Ru"... 210 4.2 The Ru Verses 218 4.3 Adaptation of Daoxue Terms to Li's Way of Cultivation 256 4.5 Conclusion 275 Chapter 5 Concluding Remarks 281 5.1 Introduction 281 5.2 The "Buddhist Teaching" 281 5.3 The "Ru Teaching" 284 5.4 Li Dao Chun's View of His Own Teaching 287 5.5 Future Research 292 Appendix I: Twelve Hexagrams Representing the Phasing of the Fire 295 Appendix I I : The Diagram of Letting Go and According With 296 Version 1 296 v Version 2. 297 Appendix III: Diagram o f Illuminating and Misleading 298 Appendix IV: Dongshan's Five Ranks 299 Bibliography o f Texts Cited 301 vi Lis t o f F igures Figure 1: Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate 22 Figure 2: Diagram of the Centre and Harmony 24 Figure 3: Diagram of Letting Go and According With 26 Figure 4: Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading 28 Figure 5: Two Truths.... '. 168 Figure 6: Diagram of Letting Go and According With (Chinese) 176 Figure 7: Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading (Chinese) 178 Figure 8: Fu Hexagram 238 Figure 9: Correlation of Hexagrams with Twelve Earthly Branches 240 Figure 10: Zhou Dunyi's Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate .....252 Figure 11: Diagram of the Centre and Harmony 257 Figure 12: The Supreme Ultimate 264 Figure 13: The Three Fives of "Households" ..........271 Figure 14: Twelve Hexagrams and Fire Phasing 295 vii A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s Even in its present decidedly imperfect state, this project has required considerable time and energy, which has at times taken its toll on family and friends. By virtue of a name on the front cover, the author receives recognition, for better or worse, for the fruits of his labour. As Confucius reminds us we are part of an extended web of social support and it is here that I take the opportunity to extend thanks to all those who have provided me with the emotional, material, and intellectual support to see this task through to completion. First, thanks must be extended to my wife Judy who has now endured three graduate degrees during which time my financial contributions to our household have been scant at best. At a time when one's individual worth is frequently based on material success, she has remained supportive of my arcane preoccupations that ensured anything but worldly wealth. Thanks are due also for her immense patience when I had to forgo family holidays, parties, and outings to remain home ensconced with a volume of the Daozang and a pile of dictionaries. Without her patience, I would certainly not be writing these acknowledgements. Secondly, I thank my son Aidan with whom I spent virtually every day from the age of twelve weeks to five years. Taking care of a baby and then a young boy extended this project by a couple of years but also kept at least one of my feet grounded in the "real world." Those years were precious beyond words. Clearly many members of the university community also contributed guidance, support, and thoughtful criticisms. Foremost is the work of my supervisor Professor Daniel L. Overmyer the embodiment of a scholar and a gentleman if ever there was one. I owe Professor Overmyer many thanks for having seen some potential in my work despite my lack of ability in Classical Chinese when I arrived at UBC in 1993. When I think back to some of the mangled translations I prepared and discussed in his graduate reading seminar on "Precious Volumes" (Baojuan Jf^) it is a wonder that his encouragement continued unabated. Many scholars would have thrown in the proverbial towel and moved on. Thanks to the time and space he so judiciously made available this task was eventually undertaken and is now complete. During my comprehensive exam preparations Professor Overmyer and his wife, Estella, graciously made their home available for extended and lively discussions of religion and philosophy over tea and vegetarian baozi. Opportunities for such conversation and the genuine exchange of ideas are all too rare and something for which I am grateful. Professors Harjot Oberoi and Nam-lin Hur are also owed thanks for their willingness to participate as committee members and for their challenging questions prepared for my comprehensive examinations. Both are actively engaged in research and have had heavy teaching commitments throughout the preparation of this dissertation and so their willingness to commit additional time is appreciated. Professor Daphna Arbel from the Department of Classical Near Eastern and Religious Studies and Professor Emeritus Alexander Woodside from the History Department sat as University Examiners and brought their own expertise, insights, and perspectives to bear on this dissertation with very carefully considered and enlightening questions. Should this project move on to publication their advice and opinions will be carefully considered. Few scholars have spent substantial time on the subject of Taoist inner alchemy and so it was very fortunate that Professor Fabrizio Pregadio was willing to act as external examiner. I have long respected his work and admired his tireless efforts to share research findings in this rather obscure field of study with colleagues around the world through his substantial contributions to the World Wide Web over and above his academic publications. As always, his comments combined a broad familiarity with the field and careful attention to detail. His fair and balanced response to this dissertation was both encouraging and helpful. Thanks are owed for the obvious care taken in preparing his report and for the purposes of publication due and careful consideration will be given to every point made. During my graduate work in Religious Studies at the University of Calgary, I had the good fortune to study with Professor Leslie Kawamura whose engaging introduction to traditions of Mahayana Buddhist philosophy encouraged me to keep my horizon of study broad. As a former Jodo Shinshu priest, I recall he frequently taught Buddhist philosophy not so much by explaining it as by speaking it. A word of thanks must also be offered to the office staff who have the gift of maintaining order with warmth and humour in the Asian Studies Department at UBC: Maija Scott, Mina Wong, Roger Chow, and Jasmina Miodragovic. Al l of them have provided frequent assistance and answered many procedural questions. Finally, I would be remiss i f I did not acknowledge the influence of Master Moy Lin-Shin and Taoist priest Mui Ming-to whose combined instruction in meditation and Taiji quart over the better part of twenty years kindled my interest in the history and thought behind both. x Chap te r 1 : A n In t roduc t ion t o Li D a o c h u n a n d His H is to r i ca l C i r cums tances 1.1 The Subject and Purpose of this Study The subject of this study is the way of cultivation taught by Li Daochun S^jltM (fl. ca. 1288) and described by him and several of his disciples in a collection of nine texts. They comprise more than twenty juan and cover a variety of subjects. Included are three lengthy works: The Zhonghe ji 4^ 01(1 [Anthology on the Centre and Harmony] (TY 248, DZ 118-119)' in six juan, the Qingan Yingchan zi yulu 2[Dialogic Treatise of Master Qingan yingchan] (TY 1050; DZ 729), also six juan in length, and the Daode huiyuan jM.W^7t [Corpus on the Way and Virtue] (TY 694; DZ 387), which is divided into two parts (shang _L and xia ~f) according to the division of the Daode jing into forty-four sections on the Way (dao JM) and thirty-seven on virtue (de ^H). The remaining six texts are much shorter: The Quanzhen jixuan biyao ^MM&JJ&7§: [Collected Secret Essentials of Complete Reality] (TY 250; DZ 119), Taishang laojun shuo chong qingjing zhu ^ J l ^ f t l & r ^ / f f rafl^li [Commentary on the Most High Lord Lao's Explanation of the Scripture on Constant Clarity and Stillness] (TY 749; DZ 532), the Taishang 1 TY refers to the text number in the Daozang tiyao index to the Taoist Canon. Ren Jiyu {{£$1^ and Zhong Zhaopeng fltlUffli, eds. Daozang tiyao (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1991). DZ refers to the volume (ce fflf) number of the of the 1976 reprint of the Zhengtong daozang. Chinese characters and translations will be provided for titles only on their first occurrence. Titles with Daozang reference numbers, characters, and translations can be found in the bibliography. 2 Hereafter, Yingchan zi yulu. 1 shengshuo xiaozai huming miaojing zhu ^_h^-^/fti^c.^r^$il>|Mii [Commentary on the Explanation of the Peerless Ascendant Mystery of the Wondrous Scripture of Extinguishing Calamity and Preserving.Life] (TY100; DZ 50), the Taishang datong jingzhu ^cJl^cMIMli [Commentary on the Scripture of the Most Elevated Understanding] (TY 105; DZ 54), the Wushang chiwen tonggu zhenjingzhu te r-ff^T\a\ i&jt!Mf£ [Commentary on the Ancient True Scripture on Penetrating the Ancient of the Peerless Crimson Civil]3 (TY 107; DZ 54), and Santian yisui jEi^JafJl [Marrow of the Changes in the Three Realms] (TY 249; DZ 119). Altogether these last six texts comprise a total of fifty-nine pages. No attempt is made here to describe and analyse all of these works. Instead the focus is on six translated sections from two of the above texts. Most of the material translated in Chapter Two is from the Yingchan ziyulu and represents roughly half of that text. The first and second juan are translated in their entirety and two lengthy sections are translated from the sixth and final juan: The first opening nine-page section ofjuan six, is titled "Elucidating Doubts Concerning the Yellow Centre" (^^fjQWd- The second, seven-page section is comprised of three sets of heptasylabic verses devoted to descriptions of the Three Teachings. The opening pages of the Zhonghe ji, which contain four diagrams with commentary, were also translated, as well as one section titled 3 The significance of this title is far from transparent. L i Daochun's commentary on the title of this text sheds light on its meaning: Chi ^  refers to the vacuous qi of empty nothing (^^^.M^.Mi^l)- Wen ~$C refers to lustrous universal brilliance (jt^^^WSattJ)- Dong ?|5] and gu "j*f are defined as "observing" (guan H) and beginning (shi #p) respectively. The characters ww fipj and shang _h (combined to mean "peerless") are said to exhaust the meaning of the entire scripture. A lengthy description explains that these two characters refer to absolute emptiness without sound or form and to the true understanding that comes forth from it. This level of understanding is the perfect and highest vehicle reflected in the legacy of all former teachers of the Three Teachings. Wushang chiwen tonggu zhenjing zhu, la-2b. Based on this commentary the title means something like " A Commentary on the True Scripture of Peering [into] the Beginning [that is] the Lustrous Universal Brilliance of the Vacuous Qi of Empty Nothing." 2 "Names and Words Beyond the [Three] Teachings" (W$\-%i s ) from the sixth and final juan of that text. These sections were chosen as the primary focus because they are helpful in answering two questions that this study is intended to address: Firstly, what does Li Daochun mean by the "Three Teachings?" There are no objectively determinate "Three Teachings" out there in the world rather they are categories that require construction. How has L i constructed them? What is "Buddhism" for Li? What is the Ru {f§ teaching? Secondly, how do they relate to the Way as he is teaching it? How does he incorporate these "teachings" into his own soteriological enterprise? By trying to answer these simple questions it is hoped that some light can be shed on how Li understands his own place relative to those categories. The above mentioned six sections of text were chosen as the primary focus because they provide useful insights from which tentative answers might be put forward for consideration. 1.2 An Overview of Translated Sections This brief summary, of the translated sections comprising Chapter Two is intended to orient the reader rather than providing a detailed discussion of the material. More detailed analysis of the text is found in the annotation accompanying the translation and in chapters three and four where the place of Buddhist and Ru teachings in Li's work is considered. The first section from the first juan of the Zhonghe ji, titled "The Principle Teaching of the School of Mystery" (Xuanmen zongzhi g ) , opens with an empty 3 circle representing the "Supreme Ultimate" (Taiji yfrHi). L i points out that each of the Three Teachings regard tranquil stability (jingding WTSL) as paramount. He claims that what each refers to in their respective teachings is the Supreme Ultimate. This theme of tranquility is elaborated on through three subsequent diagrams with their respective commentaries. The second section from the sixth juan of the Zhonghe ji, "Names and Words Beyond the [Three] Teachings" (Jiaowai mingyan fx^f-^nHD reflects on each of the "Teachings" in turn to consider how they view the world as ultimately without form. By awakening to the fundamentally formless nature of existence insight can be gained into the nature of transformations embodied in the world. Such awakening permits one to step outside the flow of transformation and so not to "go along with things." In this way one can become a perfected individual existing beyond the cycle of birth and death. Next, the first juan of the Yingchan ziyulu is comprised of a series of conversations between Li and some of his disciples. The first few pages focus on Buddhist ideas and begin with comments on the Heart Sutra for which L i has great praise, comparing it to the Daode jing and noting that the truth it contains is beyond words. The tone of some of the later conversations is very lively and includes several exchanges concerning various koans. The conversation then turns to questions pertaining to the Daode jing and the answers involve some discussion of inner alchemy theory and the hexagrams of the Zhouyi (Changes of the Zhou). The subsequent discussion, which is focussed on inner alchemy theory, blends references to Classics such as the Zhongyong t+Jjjjf (Doctrine of the Mean), Mengzi ^ff- (Mencius) and the Zhouyi with those from the Daode jing with minimal use of Buddhist terminology. The first juan concludes with a 4 series of exchanges between Li and his disciples on inner alchemy procedure with a brief question and answer exchange on the Daode jing being the point of departure for the ensuing discussion. The title of the second juan is "Mind-essentials of the Way and Virtue" [Daode xinyao JMW,I\J^) and it includes discussion between Li and some of his disciples on each of the eighty-one sections of the Daode jing. The discussions appear to have taken place on the occasion of Dingan Chao Daoke's ^ ^ ® J § R T receiving of Li's commentary on the Daode jing entitled Daode huiyuan. The opening of the juan states: When Qingan gave his Corpus on the Tao and Virtue to Daoke all the disciples together were saturated with the Dharma-milk and gathered together points on the scripture that is beyond words. Presently [our teacher] commanded all of [us] gentlemen to gather together an anthology on [these] transmitted sayings [so that they would be] complete in a single chapter and to distribute [it in our] associations with like-minded scholars so that [their] minds may be guided towards innermost comprehension.4 Therefore [the title of this single chapter summary] is "mind-essentials."5 The style of repartee is often strikingly similar in tone to that found in the Linji lu Wa^i (Recorded Sayngs of Linji)6 with strange turns of phrase,-gestures, shouting, and silence all employed as answers to the master's questions and cajoling. The second juan closes with Li challenging his disciples to compose couplets; the first round on the Way and Virtue and the second on the substance (ti f f ) and function (yong of a candle. The 4 "Innermost comprehension" is a translation of yihui MUf. Ciyuan, 618, s.v. See the fourth definition. 5 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.1 a. 6 Linji lu, T47/1985. References are to the Taisho Tripitaka and include first the volume number and second the text number. Additional numbers when included refer to specific pages. 5 challenge closes with Li's request that they each compose a "speechless" (wushuo couplet on the substance and function of the candle. No one had a response to this request. The sixth juan opens with "Elucidating Doubt Concerning the Yellow Centre" (Huangzhong jiegan M^MWt), a conversation between L i and his disciple Dingan. Dingan poses a number of questions but the bulk of the section is comprised of Li's lengthy responses to the disciple's questions. Li's explanations concern the Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth (wushang zhengzhen zhi miaodao M-tJEM/ZM^yM.), which he explains from the standpoint of the Golden Elixir (Jindan ^ T ^ T ) though he states that it is also explained by the other two teachings with reference to the Supreme Ultimate and Complete Enlightenment (yuanjue BIS). L i gives an account of the Golden Elixir that discounts the validity of various physical exercises and the preparation of substances using herbs or metals. As an inner alchemist he explains that the ingredients for individual liberation are to be found within the body. L i provides numerous explanatory passages concerning the Golden Elixir and in doing so draws on one of the foundational texts of inner alchemy, the Wuzhen plan '[frjif f|§ [Chapters on Awakening to the Real] (TY 262, DZ 122-131 juan 26-30), attributed to Zhang Boduan 3ftfF3$iit (d. 1082?).7 He also refers to the Jindan sibai zi sfef^Ella^ (Four Hundred Characters on 7 The reference numbers included here are to the Xiuzhen shishu flfsjt+llr [Ten Compilations on Cultivating Perfection] edition of the Wuzhen pian. All subsequent references to this work are to this edition unless otherwise stated. Two published translations of this text are Thomas Cleary, Undertsanding Reality: A Taoist Alchemical Classic (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987) and Isabelle Robinet, Introduction a I'alchimie interieure taoiste De I'unite et de la multiplicity (Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1995). An annotated translation of this text drawing on commentaries of all the Daozang editions is Paul Crowe, An Annotated Translation and Study of Chapters on Awakening to the Real (ca. 1061) Attrinuted to Zhang Boduan (ca. 983-1081) (M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1997). Zhang Boduan has been held up by tradition as one of the patriarchs and founders of the Southern Lineage (Nanzong J^ITH) of inner alchemy. The most recent and comprehensive work on this lineage is Lowell Skar, Golden Elixir Alchemy: The Formation of the Southern Lineage and the Transformation of Medieval China (Ph.D. diss., 6 the Golden Elixir) (TY 1070; DZ 741), the Zhouyi, and the Daode jing. During the discussion Li reminds his student that the theory being explained is a complex of metaphors and that the process occurs naturally without the artifice of the mind. In the end "Golden Elixir" is merely an expedient name, as it has no form. The sixth juan closes with three sets of verses; one on each of the Three Teachings. These verses provide insight into Li's understanding of what each of the three labels: Ru fff, Shi fp, and Dao xS[ refer to. The verses demonstrate perhaps more obviously than any other section in either the Yingchan ziyulu or the Zhonghe ji the degree of familiarity Li has with the language of the texts associated with each of the Three Teachings. 1.3.a Li Daochun Very little is known concerning the details of Li's life. His style name (zi ^ ) was Yuansu jtM. (Original Purity) and his sobriquets (hao gjf ) were Qingan ^MM (Pure Retreat) and Yingchan zi HiflhP (Master Bright Moon/Toad). His dates are unknown but he appears to have been active during the 1280's and 90's. In his preface to the Qingan yingchan ziyulu Li's disciple Heian Guangchan zi ^MM^'?, comments on the occasion of his meeting with Li on Mt. Mao (3FU-J): "The time when I bowed and encountered the master's discussion of important points was the year 1288 (wuzi jX^f-) University of Pennsylvania, 2003). See also Judith M . Boltz, A Survey of Taoist Literature. Tenth to Seventeenth Centuries (Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, China Research Monographs, 1987), 173-179. 7 during the season of the great rains of summer's end."8 There seems to be a measure of uncertainty concerning the location of his home region. The opening o f each juan in the Zhonghe ji identifies Li as a native of Duliang Ifft^ fc while some have identified him as an Yizhen ffjjlL (Jiangsu) native.9 By the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) there was a Duliang mountain I f f t^ \1\ 'located at the southern end of lake Hongze ^ ^ ^ 9 (roughly 120km north of Nanjing).10 Yizhen, also known as Zhenchuan J{ j I [ during the Yuan,11 was located on the north shore of the Yangzi river only 100km South East of Duliang mountain and roughly 30km upriver from Nanjing. During the Yuan, Duliang would have been within the boundaries of Huaian circuit (Huaian lu Vf^^5§) while Yizhen would have fallen within the jurisdiction of Yangzhou circuit (Yangzhou lu |f§j1i g§). Details concerning Li's life are very sparse. Entries in local gazetteers are almost entirely restricted to providing lists of works associated with him. One exception is a brief account in the Huizhou district gazetteer, which provides a very concise story listed under the name of one of Li's disciples named Zhao Dingan MZEM also know by the name (ming if5) Daoke j i t nj. As the passage is relatively brief it is translated in full Yingchan ziyulu, lb. 9 Boltz, Taoist Literature, 179, and Fabrizio Pregadio and Lowell Skar, "Inner Alchemy ONeidan)" in Daoism Handbook, ed. Li via Kohn (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 480. Both seem to imply that Li was an Yizhen {S3C- (Jiangsu) native. According to the Yizhen xianzhi (Yizhen District Gazetteer) L i was a Duliang native. Gujin tushu jicheng, 395.44437. Note: In all references unless otherwise stated, numbers before the period refer to the juan number and those after refer to the page number. Li is also listed in the Fengyang Prefectural Gazetteer (Fengyang fuzhi MPi/tt/ej) though no mention is made of his home. Gujin tushu jicheng, 286.62677. Further gazetteer references are provided in Qing Xitai jfiP l^jl, Zhongguo daojiao shi, vol. 3 (Sichuan: Sichuan renmin chubanshe, 1988), 367. 1 0 During the Yuan this mountain was known as Tortoise Mountain (Guishan | |[l4). Zhongguo lishi ditu ji, vol. 7, Yuanming shiqi, ed. Tan Qixiang l i y i f l (Hong Kong: Sanlian shudian, 1992), map 15-16. " Dinting dacidian, s.v. WiMWfr, 1146. below: 8 Zhao Dingan of the Yuan dynasty: His name was Daoke i f i RJ and he was formerly a native of Liaozhou 3S'jf[ (East central Shanxi). He held successive positions as Valorous General-in-chief (Dajiangjun W)12 and Brigade Commander of regular troops (Guanjun zongguan ^ Jpifll Hf).13 He caught a disease of the lungs. "Old soldier" (laozu ^^f) Qingan ~/ff ^ 1 [whom he] called Dedao f#xH, one evening [came to] ask about Zhao's health.14 He requested that the female attendants be sent away. [They then] loosened their robes and sat down cross-legged and back-to-back until dawn and the disease was healed. Daoke was moved to reverence and Qingan became his teacher. [Zhao] handed over his seal of office to his subordinate, Darning He cast aside his home and went cloud-wandering.15 People did not recognize that he had been a prominent official. One day an actor in the marketplace saw him, respectfully greeted him and said, "For what reason is the young gentleman here?" Daoke departed without turning his head [to acknowledge the question]. Suddenly he addressed a disciple saying, " I must leave!" He sat down cross-legged and, chanting verses, departed.16 This story indicates that both Li and his disciple had found employment in the military. This was not uncommon during the Yuan dynasty when educated Chinese were often denied higher-level bureaucratic positions. The examination system, abolished by the Mongol rulers, was not available as a rout to career advancement until its token and temporary reinstatement in 1313. The Mongols preferred theyin j | | system of advancement perhaps because it favoured a closed, and therefore more easily controlled avenue into government, an avenue only occasionally open to Han Chinese.17 Many literate northern Chinese had to settle for humble positions as clerks or as military 1 2 Charles O. Hucker, A Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985; reprint, Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc., 1995), s.v. 5897. Note: Dictionary references will provide both the characters and page numbers. 1 3 Hucker, Dictionary of Official Titles, s.v. f ^ S S f ' , 7110. 1 4 Thanks are owed to Roberto Ong for his suggestion concerning the translations offou § in this sentence. 15 Yunyou MM means to wander freely as the clouds move across the sky. ZHDJ (hereafter ZHDJ), s.v. 5 #,495. 16 Huizhou fuzhi, vol. 7 (Taipei: Chengwen chubanshe youxian gongsi, 1975), 8.2393-2394. 1 7 F.W. Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800 (Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999), 490-91. 9 personnel.18 As Qing Xitai indicates the familiar reference to Li Daochun as "Old Soldier" suggests that he was probably quite advanced in years for the post he had assumed.19 According this brief anecdote Li made a powerful impression on his Brigade Commander and future disciple through his demonstration of a powerful qigong M$3 healing method. The closing of the story is somewhat ambiguous as the term shi T§\ can mean either "to depart" or "to die." The ability to sit down cross-legged prior to death would indicate great composure and would imply a high level of cultivation. The announcement by Zhao that he was about to "depart" would also testify to his level of spiritual attainment. Zhao became one of Li's most advanced disciples and compiled a set of conversations on the eighty-one sections of the Daode jing included in the translated material comprising Chapter Two. In the second year of Dade (1298), L i Daochun is said to have relocated to Wuyuan $£W-, near the southern border of the Huizhou circuit in present day Jiangxi, where he built a retreat named Zhonghe jingshe ^ftlffiflif" (Pure Hut of the Centre and Harmony) in or near the hamlet village of Huan If; 2 0 the same retreat is also mentioned in the opening of the Zhonghe ji.21 In the forward to the Xuanjiao da gongan 'S.^k/j^'^ (Great Koan of the Mysterious Teaching) (TY 1054; DZ 734),22 L i Daochun is described as a second-1 8 Sun Ke-kuan J J 6 5 T L S L , "Yu Chi and Southern Taoism During the Yuan Period" in China Under Mongol Rule, edited by John Langlois Jr. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), 220-221. As northerners Li and Zhao would likely have fallen under the classification of Hanren J J I A which normally would designate only Han Chinese but which during the Yuan designated a group that included Chinese and other ethnic groups living in the former Jin state, and included Xi Xia, Ruzhen, and Khitan peoples and even Koreans all of which had the option of serving in the military. Motte, Imperial China, 489-490. 1 9 Qing Xitai JiP^f^, Zhongguo daojiao shi, vol. 3 (Chengdu: Sichuan renmin chubanshe, 1988), 367. 2 0 Qing Xitai, Daojiao shi, vol. 3, 367. 21 Zhonghe ji, 1.2a. 2 2 This reference was located in Chen Jinguo l^jf lH, "Li Daochun de 'sanjiao ronghe' sixiang ji qi yi 'zhonghe' wei ben de neidan xinxing xue," Zhongguo daojiao 5, 2001, 8. 10 generation disciple of the thunder ritualist and inner alchemist Bai Yuchan EzlBEiHf (1194-1229). In this account Li is supposed to have received Bai's teachings through one Wang Jinchan EE^zlJif. Examination of all nine texts associated with Li has not yielded a single reference to Wang Jinchan. One reference to Bai is found in juan four of the Zhonghe jp and a second in the Quanzhen jixuan biyao ^MM^W&W (TY 250; DZ 119).24 It is therefore impossible to determine clear lines of continuity between the teachings of Bai Yuchan and Li Daochun simply on the basis of L i Daochun's references to Bai's corpus of texts. Judith Berling has described Bai's teaching in terms of four broad themes: 1. The highest form of truth exists at the level of the formless and transcendent Way. 2. Linked manifestations of the Way on many levels of reality and conveyed them through poetic symbolism and discourse. 3. Had a sustained interest in local religion. 4. A deep sense of wholeness and unity of apparently diverse religious tradition.25 Li Daochun certainly embraces the notion of a truth that is formless and so beyond the bounds of description through language. As will be seen in the chapters below he uses this assumption to support his contention that the Three Teachings refer to the same ultimate reality. Li's thorough knowledge of important doctrines and texts associated with the various sects and schools comprising the'Three Teachings provides him with grounds for his argument. This high degree of familiarity with the "Three Teachings" is Zhonghe ji, 5.8a. 24 Quanzhen jixuan biyao, 13a. 2 5 Judith A. Berling, "Channels of Connection" in Religion and Society in Tang and Sung China, eds. Patricial Buckley-Ebrey and Peter N. Gregory (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993), 312. 11 something L i shares with Bai Yuchan who is described by the influential Ming (1368-1644) proponent of the "Three in One Teaching" (Sanyijiao H — i £ ) , Lin Zhaoen ® (1517-1598), as having a broad knowledge of Confucian texts and Chan teachings.26 Li also makes liberal use of both symbolic poetic imagery and discourse to convey his message. His frequent critiques of language are founded, in part, on his assumption that the world is whole and that the underlying value of specific teachings is only fully appreciated when the historical and cultural contingency of those particular expressions of universal truth is recognized. It is obvious that L i accords with the first, second, and fourth of the above general themes though this alone is not sufficient to say anything substantial about the derivative nature of Li's teachings vis-a-vis those of Bai Yuchan. To establish such a link would require a careful examination of Bai's textual legacy so that specific lines of continuity might be determined. It would also require that one establish the textual lineages, schools, and specific teachers Bai employed to support his arguments for unity among the Three Teachings. Such a study is necessary i f the intellectual and historical connections between Li and Bai are to be firmly and clearly established but such an undertaking lies beyond the purview of the present study. 1.3.b General Historical Circumstances in which Li Taught After three generations of unrelenting military campaigns Khubilai Khan's (1215-1294) forces finally moved across the Yangzi River and into the heart of Southern Song 2 6 Berling, "Channels of Connection," 313. Lin composed important works on the unification of the Three Teachings one of which is titled Linzi sanjiao zhengzong tonglun. A detailed discussion of Lin's work and teachings is in Judith A. Berling, The Syncretic Religion of Lin Chao-en. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980. 12 territory. Khubilai took what by Mongol standards was an unusual course of action as he moved to establish and then consolidate his rule in the newly captured domain. He elected to capture the territory south of the Yangzi without causing widespread destruction or inflicting enormous casualties and he made efforts to appear open to Chinese cultural values.27 In an edict composed by one of Khubilai's advisors, Tudan Gonglu f^H^A"M, an individual of Jurchen descent, the reasons for choosing "Da Yuan" ^CTC as the dynastic name were given.28 By choosing "Da Yuan" the new leaders avoided association with a place name located in a particular historical moment. In this way the Yuan could lay claim to existing as a truly universal dynasty that hearkened back to Chinese antiquity when dynastic titles were tied to ideas and ideals rather than places. The name was taken from the Zhouyi commentary on the hexagram Qian which at one point reads, "How great is the fundamental nature of Qian\ The myriad things are provided their beginnings by it, and, as such, it controls Heaven."29 (^v^^sjC, MiffiMttn, T^lJt^)-30 Reference is also made to the "embodying of humanity" (tiren UK—) also included in the comments on Qian.31 By accounting for his choice of dynastic title in this way Khubilai made a symbolic gesture to the conquered Chinese that he was a bringer of unity who emulated the great sage rulers of the past with his humanity. By linking this John D. Langlois, Jr. "Political thought in Chin-hua under Mongol Rule" in China Under Mongol Rule, ed. John D. Langlois Jr., 1-4. The following discussion of the imperial edict and its broader cultural implications relies on Langlois' observations in the above article. 2 8 The edict is recorded in the official history of the Yuan dynasty. Yuanshi 7Gj£i, ed. Song Lian 7J5S£ et. al., vol.1 [1370] (Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1976), 7.138-139. 2 9 Richard John Lynn, trans., The Classic of Changes: A New Translation of the I Chirig as Interpreted by WangBi (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), 129. 3 0 Ho Che Wah ed., Zhouyi suizi suoyin ffl BM^M31 (A Concordance to the Zhouyi). The ICS Ancient Chinese Texts Concordance Series, classical works No. 8. Hong Kong: The Commercial Press, 1995), 1/1/23. The three numbers in references to this concordance indicate the section number, page, and line respectively. 31 Zhouyi suoyin, 1/2/1. 13 image to a revered classic and by adopting a Chinese dynastic title he could appear to represent continuity rather than a radical new turn in the tide of Chinese history. Given the fact that the Mongols were vastly outnumbered in the south and were, given their deep cultural differences, a highly visible minority, Khubilai's self-presentation appears to have been an astute strategic move.32 This considered choice is indicative of the general view taken by Khubilai toward Chinese culture. Knowledge of and displayed respect for Han culture could be a useful tool in the management of the massive Chinese population. Early on in his life Khubilai was not much interested in administrative matters as was evidenced by his lackluster performance during his late teens in the management of his appanage. After his father Tolui had died in 1232 Khubilai's mother, Sorghaghtani Beki, refused to marry her husband's brother, the Khan Ogodei (1185-1241), and had the temerity to suggest that the raising of her sons was of greater importance, and further, that she would need an appanage to ensure the livelihood herself and her sons.33 She was granted territory in Zhending (modern southwestern Hebei) and set an example for Khubilai by choosing not to exploit the Chinese or plunder the region. She also took her administrative duties very seriously and remained open to advice on how best to manage affairs.34 Sorghaghtani had raised her four sons to be candidates for leadership and so had ensured that they could ride, hunt, and were literate.35 She was a Nestorian Christian but supported Buddhist monasteries and Taoist temples in addition to Muslim religious 3 2 A discussion of an edict delivered in 1260 concerning the choice of Khubilai's reign name and its links to the Spring and Autumn Annals can be found in Langlois, "Mongol Rule," 5. 3 3 Frederick W. Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999), 446. 3 4 Morris Rossabi, "The Reign of Khubilai Khan" in The Cambridge History of China, vol. 6: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368, eds. Herbert Franke and Denis Twitchett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 414. 3 5 Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800,446. 14 academies. This support for local religion went hand in hand with the belief that such a demonstration of interest in religious affairs would assist in effective governance. The young Khubilai would have witnessed this attitude of relative openness and cooperation and would also have been introduced to Chinese advisors employed by his mother. At the urging of his mother, Ogodei granted Khubilai an appanage in 1236, Xingzhou JUJt[, roughly three hundred kilometers west of Zhending.36 Initially things did not go well for the eighteen-year old leader. He neglected administration preferring to leave such affairs to non-Chinese managers who mercilessly exploited the locals. Due to his neglect the population of Xingzhou began to diminish as people fled looking for more favourable circumstances. By 1239 Khubilai appears to have recognized the shortcomings of his approach and began to take a more active interest in administration and, following his mother's example, sought out competent Chinese advisors. These included a Buddhist monk named Haiyun $ i i t (1205-1257), a very practically minded fellow who took a great interest in politics and the revival of Buddhist monasteries, and by whom Khubilai was introduced to Chan Buddhism.37 Haiyun recommended his disciple Liu Bingzhong MfitirS (1216-1274) to Khubilai who later became very influential at court. In addition to being an astute politician Liu was also interested in combining ideas from Taoist and Confucian thought with those of Buddhism but was committed to the application of Motte describes Xingzhou as located just south of Zhending but Yuan maps of the region do not seem to corroborate this. Tan Qixiang f l |S l§ , chief editor, Zhongguo lishi ditu ji ^MM$lMkMM (The Historical Atlas of China), vol. 7, 7C;0^B^^ (The Yuan Dynasty Period, The Ming Dynasty Period) (Hong Kong: Sanguan shudian youxian congci, 1992), maps 3-4 and 7-8. 3 7 Jan Yun-hua, "Chinese Buddhism in Ta-tu: The New. Situation and New Problems" in Yuan Thought: Chinese thought and Religion Under the Mongols, eds. Hok-lam Chan and Wm. Theodore de Bary (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982), 384-390. Among the achievements attributed to Haiyun was the preservation of tax free status for Buddhist monks and their protection from an examination system ostensibly proposed to ensure that monks were genuine practitioners but motivated by a desire to increase revenues through taxation. Due to Haiyun's efforts the exams were brought in but under the peculiar assurance that none would fail. Jan, "Chinese Buddhism in Ta-tu," 387-388. 15 Confucian methods in government.38 It was through Liu's recommendation that other Chinese advisors entered the service of Khubilai.39 Another important early advisor was Zhao Bi $tH (1220-1276) who lectured him on Confucian ideals. Yao Shu gfcfg (1203-1280) and Xu Heng f^ f f j (1209-1281) were also significant advisory figures. Yao Shu is credited with saving many lives during an expedition undertaken by Khubilai at the orders of Mongke in 1253. On Yao Shu's advice the kingdom of Da L i ^ 5 1 in modern Yunnan province was given the option of surrender with a guarantee that the inhabitants would be spared. Khubilai accepted Yao Shu's advice and kept his word.' The result was a successful campaign with few casualties that bolstered Khubilai's prestige among the Mongol leaders.40 Xu Heng was apparently not only a great and widely recognized scholar in his own day but was focused on practical matters preferring not to engage in speculative metaphysical discussions.41 The Mongol leadership prized such practicality.42 Beyond recruiting advisors associated with Daoxue TM.^ (Learning of the Way) circles Khubilai also made efforts to actively promote their values. Examples are his order to have the Xiaojing (Classic of Filial Piety), Shijing HIM (Classic of Documents), and the Daoxue work, Daxueyanyi ^ I j l f t j l i (Extended Meaning of the Great Learning)43 translated into Mongolian. In this way Khubilai made these texts available to 3 8 Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800,449. 3 9 Jan, "Chinese Buddhism in Ta-tu," 390. 4 0 Rossabi, "The Reign of Khubilai Khan," 417-418. 4 1 Rossabi, "The Reign of Khubilai Khan," 459. 4 2 Wing Tsit-chan goes so far as to characterize Yuan [Confucian] thinkers in general as having "an almost exclusive concern with practical matters, Yuan thinkers did not go into speculative, metaphysical matters or 'things on a higher level."' Wing Tsit-chan, "Chu Hsi and Yuan Neo-Confucianism" in Chan and de Bary, Yuan Thought, 209. 4 3 Zhen Dexiu MW-^f (1178-1235) composed this work, which was printed in 1229. With the attention paid to it by Khubilai it gained a lasting prominence with the Mongols. Emperor Renzong {HTK 0". 1312-1320), presented the text as a gift to his ministers. A new translation was presented to the throne during the reign of Yingzong (r. 1321-1323) and under Taiding's reign (1324-1328) lectures on the classics 16 members of the Mongol elite. He also gave permission for records to be collected for traditional dynastic histories ofthe Liao M. (907-1125) and Jin # (1115-1234) and to that end established a History Office under the control ofthe Hanlin Academy.44 Despite this open attitude towards representatives of Han tradition Khubilai placed greater trust in Mongols for military advice and the administering of campaigns. He also preferred to leave positions of more immediate importance to non-Chinese ethnic groups. Uighurs and Turks were employed as governors and secretaries, and translation and financial management was entrusted to Muslims. Certainly by the early 1260's, as campaigns were continuing against the Southern Song, Khubilai had cause to maintain a cautious attitude towards higher level Chinese functionaries. Li Tan ^ J J (d. 1262), ruler of the Yidu circuit in Shandong, managed to align himself with Song forces to mount a rebellion against Khubilai. This would likely have left a lasting impression on Khubilai as Li had been trusted by Mongke to assist in campaigns against the Song and had even raided a number of coastal towns. Khubilai had trusted Li's father in-law enough to grant him a powerful position in the Central Secretariat (Zhongshu sheng i^iH 1=3) and the link between these two would have bolstered Khubilai's confidence in Li. Li was eventually captured, the rebellion quelled, and Li came to the ignominious end of being tied up in a sack and trampled to death by horses.45 While Khubilai's suspicions toward the Chinese would have increased46 it would were considered of great importance and the Daxueycmyi was one of the basic instructional texts. Wm. Theodore de Bary and Irene Bloom, Sources of Chinese Tradition: From earliest Times to 1600, vol. 1, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 762-764. 4 4 This office was created within the Hanlin Academy and was known as the Hanlin guoshiyuan %&ffiWi$l u. 4 5 Rossabi, "The Reign of Khubilai Khan," 424-426. 4 6 Rossabi goes so far as saying this was a turning point in Khubilai's reign. Rossabi, "The Reign of Khubilai Khan," 426. " 17 perhaps be going too far to say that he was disillusioned with Daoxue views of statecraft. Such ideas had probably never been close to his heart and a pragmatic attitude of cultivating an advantage through his perceived proximity to Chinese culture would have meant only heightened caution. In commenting upon his relationship with his Chinese advisers Frederick Motte provides helpful insight into Khubilai's likely perspective on his Daoxue advisors and their teachings: I do not mean to suggest that Khubilai had become a benevolent Confucian ruler, or that he was intellectually or emotionally won over to the humanistic foundations of Chinese civilization. Rather, he had come to recognize the rationality of governing the Chinese population by Chinese methods in order to maximize the long-range benefits to himself as ruler. He never learned Chinese (beyond a possible smattering of spoken Chinese), never read a book in Chinese, much less composed a Chinese poem, never identified with the values of the Chinese cultural legacy other than to recognize the utility of systematic and reasoned exploitation in the Chinese pattern.47 Khubilai's attitude toward spiritual teachings in China appears to have been shaped by motivations not dissimilar to those that informed his relationship to elements of Chinese culture more generally. Religion was another useful tool for gaining the cooperation of those under his dominion. It is well known that the Mongols looked favorably on the politically astute Quanzhen (Complete Reality) master Qiu Chuji ffiMWc. (1148-1227). Chinggis Khan believed Qiu had knowledge of how to extend life and summoned the Quanzhen teacher to an audience in the Hindu Kush. Qiu was in his seventies and undertook a journey that lasted three years in order to comply with the Khan's request. Qiu had shrewdly declined similar summons from the emperor of the 47'Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800,451. 18 failing Jin and from the Song court. He appears to have realized that the Mongols were in a position of strength and would no doubt have been aware that the widespread popular support for the Quanzhen movement in the north made his sect a powerful tool for preserving stability.48 Chinggis was obviously impressed with Qiu as he elected to give him oversight over all religious groups in Mongol controlled territories in the north.49 In addition members of Qiu's sect and those of other recognized teachings Taoist, Buddhist, Nestorian, and Muslim were granted favoured status and exemption from taxes. The Mongol endorsement of the Quanzhen sect caused them to gain in popular support and power. Later abuses of power by Qiu and his followers had eventually to be reigned in as the powerful reformer and official Yelu Chucai lfPflfl^fyf(l 189-1241) commenced his defense of Buddhist interests.50 Friction between Buddhists and Quanzhen adherents was ongoing through the period of Mongol conquest in the south" and although the Quanzhen position vis-a-vis the Buddhists was less strong, Taoist sects continued to enjoy imperial support and prestige. The Mongols also took an interest in the Tianshi dao 5^ f^fJjW (Way of the Celestial Masters) sect, which had a significant presence in the south. In 1276 the thirty-sixth Celestial Master Zhang Zongyan 35^1 ! (1244-1291) was summoned to Shangdu _hfP; an important member of the entourage was Zhang's disciple Zhang Liusun (1248-1322) who made a great impression on Khubilai and his son Zhenjin J t ^ . When his master returned south Zhang Liusun remained at the capital. 4 8 A detailed account of the remarkable growth of the Quanzhen sect in the north based primarily on extensive epigraphic evidence can be found in Vincent Goossaert, "The Invention of an Order: Collective Identity in Thirteenth-Century Quanzhen Taoism," Journal of Chinese Religions 29 (2001): 111-138. 4 9 Lowell Skar describes the Quanzhen adoption of deity worship and classical Taoist ritual programs as a further means for winning Mongolian patronage. Lowell Skar, "Ritual Movements, Deity Cults and the Transformation of Daoism in Song and Yuan Times" in Daoism Handbook edited by Livia Kohn (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 427. 5 0 Motte, Imperial China: 900-1800,500. 5 1 The final debate between representatives of Buddhism and Quanzhen took place as late as 1281. 19 Khubilai wanted to confer the title of Celestial Master on him but Zhang could not accept such a title and so was given the title Xuanjiao zongshi 'Si^fc^ffi (Patriarch of Sublime Teaching). Thus, the institutional form of southern Taoism associated with the Celestial Masters took on a dual form as Zhengyi JJE— (Orthodox Unity) and Xuanjiao (Sublime Teaching) and a uniquely Yuan Taoist sect came into being. It is difficult to say precisely what impact the Zhengyi position of leadership would have had on an individual such as Li Daochun. His institutional affiliations if any are unclear, though he is often identified as a Quanzhen adherent. Certainly Quanzhen fortunes faltered rather badly in 1281, just seven years prior to Li Daochun's meeting with his disciple Heian on Mt. Mao, marking the date of the Yingchan ziyulu's composition. At that time Khubilai Khan's planned invasion of Japan met a catastrophic end, as his armies were overwhelmed in a typhoon. Enraged at this turn of events Khubilai vented his anger on several Quanzhen leaders executing some of them and burning the 1244 edition ofthe Taoist Canon that they had compiled. As Vincent Goosaert has observed, while the effects of this proscription were devastating, they were mollified to some extent as the focus of the Khan's displeasure did not move much beyond the district of the capital city, Dadu ;A;|$.52 Thus, even if it were possible to link Li to the institutions of Quanzhen it is unlikely that he and his disciples would have been greatly affected by this turn of events. Given Li's lack of ties to officialdom and to the Taoist institutional structures that wielded some measure of influence, the effects of his historical circumstances would perhaps have stemmed more from the milieu in which he taught. His was a time in which 5 2 Goossaert, "The Invention of an Order," 112. 20 the court patronized Taoists, Buddhists, Christians, and Muslims. The emperor readily demonstrated an interest in Taoist and Ru thought and, for a time, Chan Buddhist ideas. He also maintained his own shamanic Mongol spiritual tradition. Given Kublai's pragmatic approach to religion as a means for fostering good relations with the Chinese population he was motivated to maintain broad religious interests. To some extent Li's work was situated within an official environment of ecumenism and in a period of great religious diversity. The notion that the "Three Teachings" were complementary methods for achieving deeper insight and the highest levels of personal cultivation was popular with many during the Yuan dynasty and Li was no exception. With the advent of the disenfranchisement of many in the literati class, particularly after the warlord Li Tan's insurrection in the early 1260's, those who had not chosen passive resistance by refusing to serve the invaders were now forced out of positions of influence. In this context animosity directed toward the heterodox that is, those who did not accord with Orthodox Teaching of the Way (Daoxue J U l ^ ) , would have been softened due to a sense of solidarity as conquered Han people who were, in there own ways, seeking to preserve the Han cultural legacy. For many, ethnic unity would have supplanted doctrinal and ideological discord. Given his political and social circumstances Li's particular approach to cultivation is not surprising. In what follows, the specific features of Li's Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth will be considered in detail to shed light on how exactly he understood the Ru and Buddhist "teachings" and how he used them to define and enrich his own path to awakening. 21 Chap te r 2: T rans la t ions f r o m the Z h o n g h e J i and Q i n g a n y i n g c h a n z i y u l u 2.1 Anthology on the Centre and Harmony (Chapter 1) [la] Authored by Qingan Yingchan zi L i Daochun Yuansu of Duliang. Compiled by his disciple Sunan Baochan zi Cai Zhiyi. The Principal Teaching of the School of Mystery Diagram ofthe Supreme Ultimate Yin and yang without beginning. Figure 1: Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate [lb]Buddhists speak of Complete Enlightenment; Taoists speak of the Golden Elixir; the Ru speak of Supreme Ultimate. As for what is called the limitless Supreme Ultimate it is referred to as the limit that cannot be limited. Buddhists say: "The absolute O Movement and stillness without limit. 22 does not move."53 Complete understanding is constant (unconditioned) knowledge. The Appendix to the Changes says: "Silently so, not moving. [When] influenced they (the Changes) follow and penetrate (the causes of all under the sky)."54 The elixir book/s say, "[When] the body and mind do not move, then one again has the limitless true moving power."55 [These all] describe the wondrous origin ofthe Supreme Ultimate. This being known what the Three Teachings esteem is tranquil stability [within]. This is what Master Zhou [Dunyi] j^SxJSf called dwelling in tranquility. Now, when a person's mind is tranquil and stable, not yet [having been] influenced by things and is imbued with the Pattern) ofthe Natural Order, this is the wonder of the Supreme Ultimate. Once influenced by things then there is partiality, accordingly this is the transformation of the Supreme Ultimate. Indeed, when one is tranquil and stable i f one is careful in what is attended to then the Pattern ofthe Natural Order will be constantly bright and the empty numenon (spirit) will not be obscured. When moving, naturally one will have governance over the coming of all affairs and things; all are responded to. [When] the labour of tranquil stability is entirely complete (literally "cooked"), [2a] without delay one spontaneously arrives at the true return of the Limitless! [One arrives also at] the wondrous responsive illumination of the Supreme Ultimate. The Pattern of the myriad things in the heavens and oh earth is entirely complete in oneself!56 5 3 This four-character phrase ($P$n^F8!j) occurs near the end of the Diamond Sutra. T8/235/752b. 5 4 The first four-character phrase within this sentence (3aM^Kj, iSiWiiilH]) is found only once in the Yijing but is a constant refrain in the works associated with Li Daochun and his disciples. The concluding four characters of the above sentence included in brackets above are ^ T i r f t . Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 5 51 have, thus far, been unable to locate the source of this quotation. 5 6 Mengzi Itcf appears to express a similar idea in the fourth passage of Chapter 7 where he states: •IrT'S;^. D.C. Lau, Mencius (New York: Penguin Books, 1970), 182. Discussion of a possible alternate translation of this passage, which reflects a fundamental disagreement with the treatment of this sentence by, for example, D.C. Lau, James Legge, and Fung Yulan see P.J. Ivanhoe, David S. Nivison and Bryan W. 23 Diagram of the Centre and Harmony Issuing forth without failing to be centred Four sides centred on the straight Figure 2: Diagram of the Centre and Harmony The Book of Rites says, "when joy, anger, sadness, and happiness have not yet come forth [this is] called centred; having come forth, i f they are all proportioned this is called harmony."57 Not yet having come forth is called being attentive to what is preserved within tranquil stability. Therefore it is called centred. Preserved yet without form; therefore it is called "the great root of everything under the sky."S8 Coming forth and yet proportioned is called, "when in motion attend to what comes forth." Therefore, it is called harmony: coming forth but not failing to be centred. Therefore it is called "the penetrating way of everything under the sky."59 Certainly i f one is able to bring about centredness and harmony in one's whole person then the substance of the "originally so" is empty, yet intelligent; clear, yet aware; in motion, yet rectified. Therefore, one is able to respond to the inexhaustible transformations of the world. Lord Lao said, "[If] people are able to be constantly clear and tranquil, heaven and earth will return in their entirety Van Norden, Comments and Corrections to D.C. Lau's Mencius at <http://vassun.vassar.edu/~brvannor/lau.html>. 5 7 Legge, Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 384. 5 8 Legge, Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 384. 5 9 Legge, Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 385. 24 [to form a unity with them]."60 Accordingly, [this is] what Zisi -jr&61 referred to as: "Bring about the centre and harmony and sky and earth will be (established therein) and the myriad things flourish (therein);"62 [they] share one meaning: [it] is the centre; [it] is harmony. [They] are the wondrous function of influencing and penetrating. They are the pivotal moving power of response to transformation. They are the complete substance of the alternate movement and stillness of the flowing movement of birth and flourishing [described in] the Changes of the Zhou. I take for the retreat where I dwell the two characters "Centre" and "Harmony" as the name [on its] signboard. Is this not fitting? 6 0 The addition in square brackets is based on Li's commentary on this phrase. Taishang Iaojun shuo qingjing jingzhu, TY615, DZ341, 2b. 6 1 Zisi - p S was Confucius' grandson. 6 2 Legge, Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 385. 'Therein' has been added here in brackets as Li dropped yan M from the original phrase. 25 Diagram of Letting Go and According With6 3 Let go (and) I 1 ^— — I : I affairs society (the) mind (the) body will be natural together penetrating still being so affairs . society (the)mind. (the)body L_ I ^ _J_ I will accord with the natural order and (its / their) r — : — r ' r i pattern seasons way mandate will respond to I 1 ^ ~1 : I . universal transformations things people moving power Figure 3: Diagram of Letting Go and According With This diagram has been rendered into verse form and is included as Appendix 3. The body, mind, society, and affairs: we can call them the four causes. To all the people of the world these are coiled fetters. [3a] Only those who let go [of them] and accord [with the Natural Order] can respond to them—constantly responding and constantly tranquil. What causes could there be? What is called "letting go?" Let go of the body and it is still. Let go of the mind and it understands. Let go of society and it is mixed together. Let go of affairs and [they] will be [taken care of] naturally. What is called "according with?" It is according with the Mandate of the Natural Order, according with the Way of the Natural Order, according with the seasons of the Natural Order, and according with the Pattern of the Natural Order. The body accords with the Mandate of the Natural Order and therefore is able to respond to people. The mind accords with the Mandate of the Natural Order and therefore is able to respond to things. Society accords with the seasons of the Natural Order and therefore is able to respond to transformations. Affairs accord with the Pattern of the Natural Order and therefore are able to respond to the moving power. When one can "let go" and furthermore can "accord with" equally, i f one is able to respond [to things] then the four causes are released and scattered. Those who actualize this vision [of things can] constantly respond, be constantly tranquil— constantly clear and tranquil! 27 Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading' The mislieading The illvmimating ^ , — 1 mind is constantly , : j _ : . moving stat If it is still moving then it , J , I I stirs up a mvnad thoughts responds to a myriad transformations [ : r — J Although • ! — 1 1 1 still moving I , I : I its fundamental substance is i J : 1 constant movement constant stillness Figure 4: Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading [3b] In ancient times it was said, "Constantly extinguish the moving mind; do not extinguish the illuminating mind." The entirely unmoving mind is the completely illuminating mind. The mind that is not entirely at rest is the completely misleading mind. The illuminating mind then is the mind ofthe Way. The misleading mind then is the human mind. The mind of the Way is subtle. Called subtle it is profoundly difficult to 6 4 This diagram has been rendered into verse form and is included as Appendix 4. 28 see. The human mind is dangerous. Called dangerous it is perilously unsettled. Though it is the human mind it also has the mind of the Way. Though it is the mind of the Way it also has the human mind. Being in the midst of activity and tranquility [if] you only allow cleaving to the centre [this causes] the illumined mind to be constantly preserved and the misleading mind not to move. What was in danger is [made] peaceful. What was obscure is brightly set forth. Having arrived at this the mind that was mislead is restored. The Way without disorder is complete. The Changes says, "Returning he sees the mind of sky and earth."65 Ode to the Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate66 As for the O 6 7 ofthe centre, it is the Limitless Supreme Ultimate. "The Supreme Ultimate moves giving birth to Yang. Movement [reaches] its limit and there is stillness. Stillness gives birth to 7/«."68 One Yin and one Yang and thus, the "two emblems"69 are established within it. As for O, it is the "two emblems:" O is the movement of yang. O is the stillness of yin. Yin and yang mutually interact giving birth to the four signs. As for O, when the four signs are in motion and again move it is called mature yang. When this movement [reaches] its limit, becoming still, it is called immature yin. When stillness reaches its limit and returns to movement it is called immature yang. When stillness again " Zhouyi suoyin, 23/29/24. 6 6 This section is based on Zhou Dunyi's Taiji tushuo (Explanation of the Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate) in vol. 44 of Guoxuejiben congshu, ed. Wang Yunwu IEII31 (Taibei: Taiwan shangwuyin shuguan gufenyouxian gongsi, 1968), 2-17. 6 7 The symbol "O" will not be translated, as Li includes this symbol to refer to a reality at once underlying the three teachings and yet standing outside the categories comprising each teaching's doctrinal discourse. See foonnote 259. 68 Taiji tushuo, 6. 6 9 The two emblems (liangyi HHH) are yin and yang. 29 becomes still it is called mature yin. The movement and stillness of the four signs gives birth to the eight trigrams. Qian fz; is one, dui j £ is two. They are the movement and stillness of mature yang. Li $j| is three and Zhen f { is four. They are the movement and stillness of immature yin. Gen J | is five and kan i% is six. They are the movement and stillness of immature yang. Dui j& (probably should be xun H ) is seven and kun is eight. They are the movement and stillness of mature yin. Yin opposes; yang goes along. The moving power of "now ascending," "now descending" ceaselessly gives birth to the sixty-four hexagrams. The way of the myriad things reaches this completion. The higher O is the beginning of the qfs transformation. The lower O is the mother of the formal transformation. I f one understands the transformation of qi but does not understand formal transformation then one will be unable to reach the limit of the expansive. I f one understands formal transformation but does not understand qi transformation then one cannot exhaust the essential and profound. Therefore I penned this ode as proof. 30 An Anthology on Centeredness and Harmony (Chapter 6) Names and Words Beyond the [Three] Teachings [21b] Buddhist texts say, " I f people want to fully comprehend all Buddhas of the three ages70 then they ought to view the D/jarma-realm-nature.71 Everything proceeds from the creativity of mind."7 2 I f it is said to have creativity then there is [also] transformation. Creativity and transformation both proceed from the mind. People all claim that the creation and transformation of the myriad things is the work of creativity and transformation. I alone [say] it is not so. Creation and transformation are fundamentally effortless. The myriad things are self-creating and transforming. By what means are the myriad things caused? Al l have "this mind."73 Having "this mind" it follows that all are created and transformed. Could it fail to be self-creation and transformation? Thus everything in the world has form but form fundamentally lacks [form]. That it lacks [form], and yet something is produced—this is called "creation." Something is produced and then that something is destroyed. Something destroyed then returns to lacking [form] and this is called "transformation." Creation upon creation, transformation upon transformation is the constant [Pattern] of things [in the world]. 70 Sanshi indicates past, present and future. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 57, s;v. H1t£. 71 Fajiexing fcfefr-tt, is interchangeable with faxing (£)/;arma-nature). Foxue dacidian, 1398 zhong, s.v. Silf-ti. Dharma-nature refers to the nature underlying everything. See Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 269, s.v. for a long list of alternate forms for this term. 7 2 According to the Foxue dacidian, 1398, s.v. H^f-fi., this is an almost exact quotation from section 19 of the Huayenjing The quotation listed reads as follows: ^A$7&H1i±-H2J#&. BWkRtk. —tJjV$.'bi!k. I have not been able to locate this exact quotation in the Huayan jing, which matches almost exactly that found in the Zhonghe ji, 6.21b. The Huayan jing T35/1735/659a does however contain the phrase ^^7ft#lSI! l£k#ri '£ , which clearly makes the same assertion. 73 Cixin jlfrfj is a synonym for the "mind of True Suchness" (zhenruxin js[-£fl'lj). Muller, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, s.v. 3C-£fl;L>-31 The Nature of unified reality74 exists fundamentally. It exists and yet has no characteristics. Therefore it is without creation and is without transformation. It is the constant of the Way. People only understand being without creation and [22a] being without transformation as no creation or transformation. They do not realize that there is great creation and transformation preserved within it. As for those who are not enlightened how are they able to know it? Enlightened scholars understand that i f wisdom penetrates universally then [in the] myriad [worldly] affairs they will see emptiness. The unified mind will return to stillness. Transcendentally so, it alone is preserved and so is without creation and transformation. I f you do not understand the beyond, present in body, mind, world, and affairs [then] inwardly dwelling in enduring thoughts and making distinctions will be that by which you will go along with worldly transformations and follow along with the body's birth and destruction.75 As for what the eye sees, we call them "forms." As for their entry into the mind, we call it "reception." Having been received into the mind we call them "discernments." As for discernments that have not yet reached the point of taking action, we call them "deliberations." Following upon deliberations [in ways] good or evil all have their karmic 7 4 "Nature of unified reality" is a translation of — 3C-3l14. Yi zhen — % is a Buddhist term referring to reality in its entirety (Skt. Bhutatathata). This term is interchangeable with zhenru 3t#n, usually translated as "true suchness." This refers to a core doctrine of Huayan Buddhism. It is the "one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless just as it is It! jfc self-existing." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 9, s.v. 7 5 The phrase WL^^ML^L has been translated here with a more Taoist interpretation but could well be rendered: "Follow along with the birth and destruction of forms," which would bring to the fore the Buddhist concern with not taking conventional, transitory reality as ultimately real. 32 response and we call this "karmic-consciousness."76 Karmic-consciousness is the root and basis of the multitudinous turnings of the wheel [of samsara] and thus, you are unable to depart from creation and transformation. I f you are not subject to the bonds of illusion and cooperating causes,77 not subject to the contamination [induced by] mental objects, not subject to the hindrance of deluding emotions, not subject to the misery and trouble of affection and desire then you wil l be able to illuminate and behold [the fact that] the [22b] five aggregates are all empty. Since the five aggregates are empty, how could there be creation and transformation? This is the wondrous mind of nirvana. I say that creation and transformation issue from the rnind. What further doubt [could there be]? Taoist texts say "[what] has [form] and [what] lacks [form] produce each other."78 This means that [what] lacks [form] producing [what] has [form] is creation and [what] has [form] producing [what] lacks [form] is transformation. Again it is said, "Applying emptiness to the utmost I preserve stillness and integrity79 and [although] the myriad 7 6 This paragraph describes the wuyun E H (five aggregates or skandhas), a core doctrinal element of Buddhism used to demonstrate the aggregate and therefore impermanent nature of individual personalities. See Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 126, s.v. i i S . The final aggregate mentioned by Li is modified from shi M toyeshi UsSI, translated here as "karmic-consciousness." This term is listed in Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 404, s.v. as "activity-consciousness" and is said to refer to the first stirrings to enlightenment by way . of ignorance. Given Li's placement of this term with the other four aggregates such a reading would be unhelpful. 77 Yuan denotes circumstances which provide the ground for the primary cause to take place. This can be likened to the soil, rain and sunshine that allow for the growth of a seed. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 440, s.V: m. 7 8 This quotation (Wlffiffi^ ) is found in section two of the Daode jing. 7 9 This translation of the phrase ^ tyU found in section 16 of the Daode jing follows the Heshang Gong M_h^ commentary, which reads jing ff and du H as two things to be preserved by the meditator rather than seeing du as having an adverbial function relative to jing if. Details concerning textual precedents for 33 things together arise I can thereby observe their return."80 This mention of "observing [their] return" [can be viewed as] understanding transformation. I f you understand transformation there will be no transforming. I f there is no transforming then how can there be creation? Those who do not [possess] penetrating insight that is unimpeded, how would they be able to reach this [level of understanding]? Scholars of penetrating intelligence [being] clear and still are brilliantly enlightened and therefore are able to bring to light [the fact that] body, mind, world, and affairs depend on [what] has [form] amid illusion. Having [form] so it becomes substantial. Substantiality [having reached] its limit reverts. Reverting, it thus goes back to the illusory. I f you employ this insight then you will know that the image less image is the genuine image. Nourish this imageless image and thus [you are] constantly preserved. Guard this substanceless substance and thus complete the real. Arriving at the uniting of purity and completeness in the infinite, [23a] and the uniting of the boundless and expansive in the incomparable, leap out beyond empty nothingness. This is called being without creation and transformation. Those who cling to this [idea], their body and mind will not be settled; the anxious assault of their thoughts is that by which [they] destroy the imageless and scatter the substanceless. Thus they float along with birth and death constantly sinking in the sea of suffering. this reading can be found in Laozi heshang gong zhushuzheng, comp. Zheng Chenghai Mfclfc'M (Taibei: 1978), 111-112. 8 0This is a nearly exact quotation from section 16 of the Wangbi edition of the Laozi. Li quotes as follows: ifcdlli, ^ f f M, HtlMfK ^y .HK^ . Zhonghe ji, 6.22b. I have translated this brief passage so that the causal connection implied by yi \>X is maintained. This accords with Robert Henrick's view that the opening two phrases be taken as admonishments to those practicing meditation. Robert G. Henricks, Lao-tzu Te-tao ching (New York: Balantine Books, 1989), 218. D.C. Lao elected not to translate yi and so the final three characters are rendered as "And I watch their return." D.C. Lau, Chinese Classics: Tao Te Ching (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 1963), 23. 34 I f f , on the other hand,] they have set in order their body and mind and have done away with the anxiety of thoughts and do not cause the internal to go out and do not cause the external to enter and, [if] inside and out they are pure and tranquil [then this is] named "illuminating understanding arriving at internally forgetting their mind and externally forgetting their form." The comprehending [power] of the unified truth is like the unimpeded expansiveness of great emptiness. Creation and transformation—again, how could they exist? Ru texts say, "not aggressive, not seeking;"81 "there is no blame, there is no praise."82 Concerning this it is said, i f you are not aggressive and not seeking then you will not be subject to creation. I f you lack blame and lack praise you will not be subject to transformation. The "Appendix to the Changes" says, "At a distance [Fuxi] took it from things. Near to he took it from himself."831 say, i f at a distance one takes it from things then one will know the myriad [23b] secondary causes are empty. I f near to one takes it from oneself then one knows the five aggregates are all empty. Outwardly put aside the myriad secondary causes; inwardly disperse the five aggregates. Therefore you will be able to accord with the Natural Order and do away with the [endless] cycles of grief and happiness. With reference to the Natural Order, you will understand the beginning and end of things; you will understand the cause of darkness and light; you will understand 81 Analects, Book 9. See Legge, Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 225, XXVI. The source of the quotation is the Book of Poetry. See Legge, Chinese Classics, vol. 4, 52. 82 Zhouyi suoyin, 28/35/1. 83 Zhouyi suoyin, 66/81/20. Li's quotation reverses the order of the original. 35 the explanation for death and life. To exhaust Pattern and [employ your] Nature to the fullest is to arrive at Destiny. The cause of rejoicing in the Natural Order is not being aggrieved; the cause of [depending on one's] Nature to the fullest is not to doubt. [Among] those who do not extend their knowledge who can reach this [level of understanding]? Those who do extend their knowledge (zhizhi ^ ft^P) are integrated, enlightened, peaceful, and settled. Therefore they know that the unceasing [round of] birth and annihilation is [due to] the illusion-body.84 Distinctions not being leveled out is [due to] a confused mind. Shifting and transformation not being settled is [due to] the seasons and generations. That overcoming decay is not permanent is [due to] worldly affairs. Observing and practicing the ripening of purity is called the unity of sagely merit. By prizing this therefore, there is no creation or transformation. I f you do not extend your knowledge then you will be unable to investigate things (gewu ffiffi}). I f you are unable to investigate things then you will go along with the transforming and shifting of things. How could Nature and Life be established i f indeed it is the case that "transformative motions do not stand still but flow through the six voids?"85 Sky and earth are united in me; "the myriad things [24a] are complete within 84 Huanxing %3J& (skt. mava) is translated as "illusion-body" to accord with its usual Buddhist form huanshen which refers to the insubstantiality of the body. See Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 149, s.v. £j and Foxue dacidian, 742, s.v. The above Buddhist dictionaries and the major encyclopedic dictionaries of Taoism: ZHDJ, Daojiao dacidian (hereafter DJDCD), Zhongguo zhengtong daojia dacidian (hereafter ZTDJ), Daojiao wenhua cidian (hereafter DJWH) do not list huanxing as a term. 85 Zhouyi suoyin, 66/84/12. The term 'six voids' (liuxurefers to the six lines of the hexagrams through which the nature of change is evident to those who know how to read them. 36 me."86 Arriving at [the hexagram] fu (return),87 one sees the mind of the Natural Order (tianxin ^ / f r ) . The myriad [things] that there are, return to unified lack of [form] and then creation and transformation cease! It is as though qian and kun™ do not [undergo] the motions of transformation, the sun and moon do not move through their cycles. How could there be the six masters? The "six zi ^ p " 8 9 do not communicate weighty [matters]. Yin and yang do not ascend or descend. How could there be the myriad things? The substance of Qian and Kun is pure, unified, and unmixed. Inverted and upright do not change. Therefore, there is no creation or transformation. Creation that lacks the creativity of creation is great creation. Transformation that lacks the transforming of transformation is great transformation. Those who take this view consequently know that the myriad things in the world are all unreal. Together with functioning of the cycles of yin and yang they do not fail to be illusory. " I f it were not the perfect transformation of everything under the sky, who would be able to participate in 8 6 This is a quotation from the Mengzi. Legge, Chinese Classics, vol. 2, 450-451. 87 Fu IS is a hexagram of foundational importance to the practitioner of inner alchemy. It represents a moment at which the depths of stillness having been reached in meditation, movement commences with the return of a single yang line at the bottom of the hexagram. The significance of this transitional hexagram is not limited to events within the body of the practitioner at the level of qi M> but entails the cosmogonic emergence of multiplicity out of the stillness of "chaos" (hundun VS}^ ), the Way or "the limitless" (wuji M H&) and so reaffirms the continuity of the universe of one's body with that of the universe writ-large. 88 Qian f£ and kun i$ are primary hexagrams here representing pure yang (six solid yang lines) and pure yin (six broken yin lines). 89 Liuzi TN"? is, in this context, is most likely to be a reference to the sixain and six yang lines of the tai ^ hexagram. DJDCD, 310, s.v. 7s"f. It is possible, though unlikely that it may be a reference to the six great philosophers to whom works comprising a congshu HH? entitled Liuzi quanshu/\-?i£lg are attributed: Laozi ^£T, Zhuangzi S T , Liezi ^iJT, Xunzi ^ST, Yangzi jf§T, and Wenzhongzi j t+T. Daojiao dacidian, 314, s.v. T N T ^ U . 37 this?"90 Seeing this, the Three Teachings are only mind. Creation and transformation proceed from the mind. Departing from creation and transformation also proceeds from the mind. The essentials of studying the Buddhist teaching are located in observing one's Nature. I f you desire to observe your Nature then first you must use a determined will to do away with the force of habitual vulgarity.91 [You must also] use the force of strict restraint to preserve penetrating understanding. Following this [24b] illumination will break through to the emptiness of all kinds [of worldly phenomena]. The false mind will no longer dwell on things. Thoughts will no longer follow the emotions. Thoughts are the root of passions. The mind is the seed of mental perceptions.92 I f thoughts arise then all the passions that disturb the mind will arise. But, i f thoughts cease then all the passions that disturb the mind will cease. I f the mind produces then the various sorts of dharmas 93 are produced [but] i f the mind destroys then the various sorts of dharmas are destroyed. Thoughts arising then stopping; each is caused by your own mind. [When it] comes to production and destruction, destruction is merely silence; destruction is joy. This is seeing your Nature. 90 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/19. Li has just made the point that true creation and true transformation are beyond creation and transformation, as they are conventionally understood. It is at the level of perfect, changeless change that his message of ultimate identity between the three teachings can be comprehended. 91 Xisuzhiqi This is an amplification of the Buddhist term i § ^ , (skt. vasana), which refers to the force of habit—"the uprising or recurrence of thoughts, passions, or delusions after the passion or delusion has itself been overcome, the remainder or remaining influence of delusion." Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 362, s.v. 92 Fachen faM. are direct mental perceptions that are independent of the sense organs. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 269, s.v. v£jl . 93 Fa Jife (skt. dharma) is a term with many meanings but in this context refers to things which have entity and bear their own attributes. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 267, s.v. 38-As for the inability of today's students to see their own Nature it is the two hindrances: [hindrance to] truth, and [hindrance of] the passions that obstruct [their vision].94 I f it were not for Great Contemplation, they would be unable to get free of the noumenal hindrance. I f it were not for Great Cessation, they would be unable to do away with the phenomenal hindrance.95 Great Contemplation is called cutting-off through understanding.96 Great Cessation is called forceful restraint. I f your cutting-off through understanding is pure and complete then all the various kinds [of phenomena] are empty. I f your forceful restraint is pure and complete then all passions are empty. I f you understand the Great Emptiness of the three voids97 and know the perfect truth of the truth of unity, this is the pinnacle of Great Contemplation. Forthwith, body, mind, the world, and affairs, thoughts, anxiety, emotions, and discerning together all cease. [25a] 94 Erzhang H.W refers to the two hindrances a) to the truth (lizhang 31|i|f) and b) hindrances of the passions (shizhang These terms are part of the central doctrinal formulation of the Yogacara school of Mahayana Buddhism. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 31, s.v. ~P$. Shi fli and /;' ffi also occur as a pah-constituting a foundational element of Huayan doctrine. 95 Zhi \b (skt. samatha), cessation, refers to silencing or putting to rest the active mind. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 158, s.v. Guan IU (skt. vipasyana), contemplation, is to consider and discern illusion, or to discern what seems to be real from what is real. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 489, s.v. til. As a pair these terms figure prominently in the doctrinal formulations of Zhiyi tfsM (538-597) and even serve as a name (zhiguan zong ILISTK) for the Tiantai A n school of Buddhism which grew out of Zhiyi's teachings. These terms also refer to two forms of meditation: Zhi J.l;;, usually translated as stabilizing meditation and calm abiding, refers to meditative practices aimed at stilling thoughts and developing concentration (ding Ji?). The latter is translated as analysis or clear observation and refers to the application of one's power of concentration to the embodiment of a Buddhist description of reality, such as dependent origination (yuanqi U S ) . Charles Muller, ed. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism <http://www.acmuller.net/ddb>. Edition of 4/26/2004. s.v. lL m. 9 6 Zhiduan ^Hr "Mystic wisdom which attains absolute truth, and cuts off misery." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 375. This term is used frequently in Zhiyi's Maha zhiguan ^fnJ.Lhtl (The Great Cessation and Contemplation). T1911.46. 97 Sangong is defined in the Jingang sanmeijing zkWl^fcftS. (skt. Vajrasamadhi-sutra) as "emptiness of marks (wuxiang $$ffi), emptiness of emptiness (kongkong $ $ ) , emptiness of that which is empty (suokong. ffi^S.)." T273.9369b. 16. The text reads: ift&o E $ f . S S ^ S o #f$2f; 2 . ' . 39 This is the pinnacle of Great Cessation. I f this were not the most elevated of elevated understanding "who would be able to participate in this?"98 Studying the Way rests in preserving your Nature. I f you desire to preserve your Nature then first use the sword of wisdom to smite the host of demons, and the fire and tally99 to disperse the six desires.100 Next, use the power of meditative concentration101 to forget emotions, cut off anxieties, release burdens, and clarify the mind. [Having] arrived at the clarification of the mind, the release of burdens, the cutting off of anxieties and the forgetting of emotions this is called preserving your Nature. The true Nature having been preserved there will be no creation or transformation. Today's students make of "emotions" and "distinguishing," something that is to be taken away. [However, i f you] desire to remove "emotions" and "distinguishing" [you must] first eliminate the mind that "produces" and "destroys." The mind without "producing" and "destroying" and the body without "producing" and "destroying" simply are meditative concentration. To remove the mind of "producing" and "destroying" [you] must naturally be without the storing up of thoughts. [When your] practice of purity has ripened sufficiently, [you] can apply [yourself] to. the peaceful meditative concentration [in which] there are no dreams and no 9 8 In this sentence: # ± ± H ? . ~M%Xnz$%1&tifc° {Zhonghe ji, 6.25a) Li retains the structure of .the statement previously quoted from the Xici Hi© {Appended Statements) of the Yijing (see footnote 90): #-9 9 Fire (huo 'X) and tally (fu ffi) refer to the cycling of the qi in the body. The former represents the raising the qi up the spine while the latter refers to the decent of the qi down the front of the body. This takes place during meditation. Hence, meditation and the attendant circulation of qi is understood by Li to be a way of warding off sexual desires (see footnote 101). ZHDJ, 1193, s.v. 'Xffi; 1197, s.v. PiAPtlf. 1 0 0 The six desires (liuyu r \ M ) refer to forms of sexual attraction arising from the senses: colour, form, carriage, voice, softness, and features. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 136, s.v. ASft. 101 Dingli fiijj (skt. samadhibala), the power of meditative concentration, is the ability to overcome all thoughts that generate disturbance. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 255, s.v. S^J. This is one of five powers: xinli is^J, the power of faith; jingjinli the power of effort; nianli l&jj, the power of mindfulness; huili W.JJ, the power of wisdom. Muller, Digital Dictionary, s.v. S^J . See also Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 114, s.v. 5^3. 40 thoughts. [When] purity has ripened sufficiently [and you] can apply [yOurself] to [being] without dreams and without production [you will] see that in this, is the great affair.102 Being without thought, that is the great affair at the very end. I f [you] are without production then there will be no creation. I f [you] are without dreams there will be no transformation. Not creating and not transforming simply is [25b] not producing and not destroying. [Among] scholars who are not of the highest [abilities], "who would be able to participate in this?"103 The essentials of studying the Ru tradition are located in [employing one's] Nature to the utmost. I f you desire to [employ your] Nature to the utmost it "consists in manifesting bright virtue . . . consists in resting in the highest excellence. When you know where to rest, you are settled. When you are settled, you can" forget things and yourself.104 The comment on the hexagram gen H states: "Stilling his back, but not getting his body: Walking into his courtyard, but not seeing his person; there is no trouble."105 "Stilling his back," is forgetting his mind. "Not getting his body," is forgetting himself. "Walking into his courtyard, but not seeing his person," is forgetting things. As for [these] three [statements], having forgotten [the mind, oneself, and things] 102 Dashi j^M- (skt. maha-vastu), is an abbreviation for Yidashi yinyuan —jK-f-fSlfflfc "the single great matter of causes and conditions." The Miaofa lianhua jing (Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law) T9/262, interprets it as enlightenment (see 7a.22-7b.02); the Daban niepan jing (Great Nirvana Sutra) T12/375, as the Buddha Nature (see 658c.22). According to Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 85, s.v. the Wuliangshou jing (Sutra of Immeasurable Life) T12/360, interprets this term to be the joy of Paradise however I can find no reference to or — ^ J fHSil in this text. This notion of natural ripening can be understood in contrast to the foolish man of Song who tried to force his rice plants to grow by tugging at the stalks. According to Li, one cannot forcefully achieve purity; it must ripen naturally over time. This contrasts non-coercive action (wuwei M^i) with coercive effort-filled (li f}) action (wei %$). 1 0 3 Once again this sentence (^iSJ ± 2 . ± . KSlHt^jK'llk), retains the structure of the statement previously quoted from theAfcz 5S§ff (Appended Statements) of the Yijing. Zhonghe ji, 6.25.b. 1 0 4 This is a partial quotation from the Daxue (Great Learning). Legge, Classics, vol. 1.356. 105 Zhouyi suoyin, 52/61/20. The translation is taken from Shaughnessy, / Ching, 55. 41 what trouble could there be? This is the perfection of knowing when to stop. Knowing when to stop therefore, one is able to forget things and self, and to complete the Pattern of the Natural Order. This is called [employing] Nature to the utmost. Presently the fact that people are unable to [employ] their Nature to the utmost is due to the fetters of body and mind. Since they have [these] fetters they also have obstructions. They must use unwavering "cutting-ofF' to determinedly burst through. Unwavering "cutting-off" will cause [them] to be able to forget things. Determinedly bursting through will cause [them] to be able to forget themselves. Things and self both forgotten and Nature [employed] to the utmost, one arrives at the establishing of one's fate! [26a] I f it were not for spiritual virtue and sagely merit then "who would be able to participate in this?"1 0 6 When I look at worldly persons, many take this body to mean that they have a self. They really are not thinking. Assume that this body is caused to be through creation. Formerly, when there was not yet any creation, [did they] have appearance? Did [they] have a name? Did [they] have a self? After transforming, did [they] have appearance? Did [they] have a name? Did [they] have a self? [As for] the pair: "formerly" and "after" since both are nothing, how can one attain the middle or incline to one side and cling to having a self? [They] really do not understand that the body, mind, world, and affairs originally are empty delusions. The three periods107 [may be] investigated but cannot be attained. The past is obscured; where is it? [It is] merely the changing and shifting thoughts of the present [moment]. The future is definitely like this. The passing of a 1 0 6 Once again this sentence (4tWi!&M#l. Ktft Hbl&jiftltfc), retains the structure of the statement previously quoted from iheXici H i f (Appended Statements) of the Yijing. Zhonghe ji, 6.26a. 1 0 7 Sanshi JEtH; (Skt. traiya-dhvika) are the three periods of past, present and future. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 57. 42 kalpam up to now is a great dream amid delusion. Stubbornly clinging to false [ideas] causes 1 0 9 the seeds of the eternal round of life and death"0 to form. By this means they are born and die without there being any end to it. I f again there are others within this realm of dream and illusion [who can] have the clear witness within," 1 and fully understanding are good at eradicating [this delusion], could they fail to become perfected individuals? I one day presented [26b] this koan to some disciples and commanded them to consider it. Two or three of them accorded somewhat with the crux o f it and so I wrote this text in order to present it and thereby transmit [this teaching] from mind to mind. I f [you] are able to directly receive [this teaching] you ought to secretly penetrate and profoundly comprehend. At that time [you] will know [when] to stop. [You] will not scheme [regarding] your past; [you] will not be anxious about your future; [you] will not cleave merely to your present. As for these three, when they have merged you will attain the Great Self-existence;"2 [moving] to and fro upon the ocean of great nirvana;113 rambling at leisure in the wilds of absolutely nothing;"4 darting back and forth in the 108 Lijie WJ$) is an immense period of time which subsumes within it the past, present and future. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 232, s.v. Jfj describes it as "a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world." 109 Wangyuan "The unreality of one's environment; also, the causes of erroneous ideas." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 210, s.v. ^M. "°' Lunhui $mii£l (skt. samsard) ** is the wheel of transmigration, the cycle of existence. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 445, s.v. '11 Zhengming ISB^. "To prove clearly, have the clear witness within." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 473, s.v. 112 Dazizai A S -ffi (Isvara) is a term ascribed to Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. This term refers to the state of independence accompanying realization. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 94, s.v. A S -fll. The Lotus Sutra of the Wonderful Law states that: (gj| tf^j<.&~&WM.'£-33) all the Buddhas possess the power of spiritual penetration of great self-existence." T 262.9.27b/20. 113 Daqimie XMM* is total extinction or final nirvana. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 87, s.v. X.3BL$&. 1 1 4 This phrase is taken from the closing section of the ZhuangzVs -p first chapter, "Free and Easy Wandering." This passage relates a discussion between Zhuangzi and his friend Huizi ( H 7 ) regarding the virtue of uselessness as it relates to a tree. Watson translates the passage as follows: "Now you have this 43 place of self-fulfillment. Arriving at this [you] understand creation and transformation. At this [stage] what foresight is needed on your part? Even so there is a matter yet higher in this teaching. What is it that [I] call the higher matter? Ah! Turn [everything] upside-down without words; smash to pieces the emptiness of great vacuity and then [you] will comprehend the matter. Mister, keep it hidden! Keep it hidden!"5 big tree and you're distressed because it's useless. Why don't you plant it in Not-Even-Anything Village, or the field of Broad-and-Boundless, relax and do nothing by its side, or lie down for a free and easy sleep under it." Watson, Ch'ucmg Tzu, 35. The original text reads^TWifrfS ' MMMWt ' M ^ £ T M R P P I 1 1 5 This is a tentative translation ofthe phrase MfykZ-fykZ.- This paragraph concerns the transmission of the teaching from mind to mind. The notion that once great insight and ability are attained they should be kept hidden is a recurring theme in inner alchemy texts (for example: Wuzhenpian, 26.1 lb; 28.20a) and goes all the way back to the Daode jing. See sections 20 and 56. Also see footnote 122. 44 2.2 Forward to the Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi [la]As the master"6 discussed important points I touched my head [to the ground] upon meeting him. Then, from the conversation within his household I selected and set out [these teachings recorded] here. How could this master fail to be one who discourses on the centre? From my youth" 71 devoted myself to the Ru [school] and had a great fondness for discussing emptiness. Although stupid I could discourse [on this subject] in the Buddhist manner of speech.118 Indeed, not employing Ru arrogance (lit. self exaltation), I had to humble myself to enquire of those below (me in status) [but] did not employ Ru [terms to discuss this subject]."9 Myself, having a higher [understanding I] had to yield to circumstances and enquire of [those] below [me]. I simply had not yet been able to meet the master. One day I returned to the hidden places of Mt. Mao. Qingan Yingchan zi, gentleman Li, came to visit. Before his seat had warmed up he began to expound. [Employing] words without smoke and fog he proceeded to expound [his teaching]. Before the august [teacher] had written [a single character] the meaning was easy to penetrate. The patriarchal teacher did not draw near to lower concerns; taking the explanations of the Three Teachings recorded on paper [he] swept them away completely 116 Zuojia Wf-W- is a Chan Buddhist term denoting a leader or the founder of a sect. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 224, s.v. ff'M-' 1 7 There appears to be an error in the text at this point. You %)} (youth) was written incorrectly, with the dao Ji radical replacing the li y*J radical, generating what seems to be a non-existent character. ' 1 8 Literally "qi of sour stuffing" (suanxian qi Wli&M.)—this phrase is used to refer to Buddhist turns of phrase and expressions. It is also used to satirize such forms of discourse. Here, this phrase does not appear to be used in this way. Ciyuan, 1705.4, s.v.l^ tlaJR. 1 1 91 take the point here to be that the disciple had been unfamiliar with the way in which Buddhist and Ru terms were blended together with those of Taoism in the teachings of Li Daochun. 45 [so that we could] attain [an understanding of] the emptiness of forms.120 When leading our type of ignorant fellow there would issue from his pupils a round relic!121 [As for] the clear qi of this relic, when among people [he] softened its glare.122 The whole company [of men] being mad he did not know how to transmit [his teaching to them]. Is the toad grotto within my body [ lb] or do I secret my body away by entering into the toad grotto?123 This night I was surprised and gladdened ten thousand fold. Putting in order the anxieties of my mind I, with earnest heart and incense, made obeisance at the foot of his seat saying, 'Truly you are my teacher, the true master. May my teacher not cast me aside as I desire further instruction." After [this meeting I became a] follower of the teacher. Our dialogues became rather numerous. Once [this] anthology [of dialogues] had been compiled [I] opened it and with reverent composure waited facing the foot of Qingan's seat. Kick over the stockade of the abstruse and marvelous and smash to pieces the emptiness of great vacuity. Then, at this time, you will become a man who 1 2 0 This translation of jftSJvH, draws on Li's own definition of this term found in his commentary on the Wushang chiwen donggu zhenjing (The True Scripture Concerning the Peerless "Crimson "and "Civil" and Seeing Through to the Ancient). See Wushangchiwen donggu zhenjing zhu MJz03CM~£ilX;Mf3i, TY 107;DZ54,2.a. 1 2 1 This is an awkward translation but the term tuo has no ready English correlate. Tuo refers to a pellet of medicinal substance produced after a process of inner alchemical heating and cooling. At this point the text seems to be taking this "substance" as an almost immaterial round form issuing from the eyes of the master that he conceals when at large among ordinary people. ZHDJ, 1356, s.v.K. 1 2 2 This translation draws on the fourth section of the Daode jing which, in describing various effects of the Way, states that it "softens the glare;" See Henricks, Te-tao ching, 194-195. This is a reference to hiding one's high level of attainment. 1 2 3 The term chanku felS, "toad grotto," is a reference to the moon or moon palace, yueguan R 'B'. Ciyuan, 1515.4, s.v. ifetS. Curiously, this term is not listed in the Taoist dictionaries. A variant on this term is employed in the Wuzhen pian, and its use is commented on by Ye Shibiao and Yuan Gongfu. ( Wuzhen plan, 27.10b). The toad palace (changuan) is kan ¥k or yang within yin. This is opposed to "the place of //" Wt (liwei PH fit) which is yin within yang. Two key points are made by the commentators: firstly, this passage from the Wuzhen pian is emphasizing the cehtrality of inversion to the alchemical process and secondly, failure to grasp this point will lead to failure. So perhaps the point being made here, in the introduction to Li Daochun's discussions, is simply that his contusions regarding the most important facets of practice are, to his great joy, to be dispelled by the master at their meeting on Mt. Mao. This term can also be found as the title and subject of a short verse in the Zhonghe ji, 5.4a. In that verse chanku seems to have a metaphorical function symbolic of the whole process of cultivation. One can be said to dwell within the practice or the way of cultivation which is gronded, according to the verse in turning things upsidedown. 46 understands this undertaking. I f you have questions that arise elder Qingan says go to the essentials in here; to the core meaning here [that will] lead [you] in the correct way. I f [you wish] to practice what is most essential then [my teacher] says this is just [what is required]. The time when I bowed and encountered the master's discussion of important points was the year 1288 during the season of the great rains of summer's end. Working daily the Taoist Priest of Mount Mao, Heian Guangchan zi, kowtows and studies attentively. 47 2.3 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 1) Compiled by disciple Heian Chai Yuangao124 [la] Dadian's125 commentary on the Heart Sutra126 says: There was once a monk who asked the Buddhist priest Chen, " I f two rats127 are encroaching on .the rattan how does one weed them out?" Chen said: "People of present times must do this: hide themselves away." [May I] presume to ask what is meant by "hide oneself?" Teacher said: Why must one wait [until one is] standing alone and, being so, [only] afterwards begin to understand emptiness? [What you] must [do] is simply immediately become uninvolved with everything and be unstained by affairs. I f I do not see all the world's creatures then all the world's creatures do not see me. This is [what] I call hiding oneself. [Heian] asked: [One may] desire words [but] words do not reach to Shandong and Hebei. [I would] like to consult [with you] on what this means. Teacher said: I f I use words to expound on this matter I will be unable to exhaust [its meaning]. In the end a single sentence [can be] extremely broad and extremely great l24Heian Chai Yuangao %M^kyt^ was a Taoist priest based for a time at Maoshan IP ill located in southern Jiangsu province. 1 2 5 Dadian %W. is the appellation of the Chan monk Baotohg Jjfil (d. 824). He was a Dharma-heir of Shitou Xiqian Shanping Yizhong was his Dharma-heir. His Lineage died out after a few generations. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 97, s.v. jzM. 126 Banruo boluomiduo xinjing, TS/25S. 1 2 7 Two rats can refer to one black rat representing night and one white rat representing day. Bukkyo daijiten (Oda) 1329-2. These rats are also described as the sun and moon gnawing away at the rope of life. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 419, s.v. ZI i t Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 90, s.v. ZL H. 48 [in meaning]. Al l is encompassed in exhaustive understanding. What more is to be said? Only that these words do not extend to a full understanding of one's original self.'28 [Heian] asked: [ lb] I must familiarize [myself with] this (Heart) sutra, why does it say "GodanTya" and "Uttarakuru?"129 What reason is there for indicating these particular two phrases?130 Teacher said: My [response] would not be equal to this teaching. I f someone were to ask me what is this sutra? I would simply face them and say east, west, one hundred thousand; south, north, eight thousand. [Heian] asked: 'This great mantra. This great enlightening mantra. This peerless mantra. This incomparable mantra."131 What can these four phrases be compared to in the texts of the Three Teachings? Teacher said: Comparing it to Taoist texts: "Wonder upon wonder,"132 profundity upon profundity, [there is] nothing higher [that] can [be taken as] superior, not so and yet so. Further, comparing it to Ru texts: The truth ofthe centre, the truth o f contemplation, the truth of enlightened [understanding], sustaining unity. Although there is [in all this] the highest unity, it is yet beyond words and phrases. 1 2 8 Muller, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, s.v. d 3. This is a reversal of the characters comprising this term as they are found in the Yingchan zi yulu, 1.1a. 1 2 9 Xijuyeni HllHPiEi is one of the four great continents and is located to the west of Mt. Sumeru, Apara-GodanTya. Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 949, s.v. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 223, s.v. ffi^5R'?£rftfli fiF. Beiyushanyue ihWW-^ is one of the four great continents and is located to the north of Mt. Sumeru. Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 924, s.v. itWW-M. 1 3 0 This statement is puzzling as none of the canonical versions of the Heart Sutra include these terms and the edition of the text appearing with Baotong's (Dadian's) commentary also does not include these terms. 1 3 1 This is a direct quotation from the Heart Sutra, Banruo boluomiduo xinjing, T8/258/848c. 1 3 2 This phrase (" l i^X ' i r ) is found in the opening section of the Daode jing. 49 [Heian] asked: The Bodhisattva Wangming fE)H^ was [merely] a first level devotee. Why was he able to rouse [Liyi WM] out of the woman's Samadhil Wenshu 3t ^ (Manjusri) was the teacher of seven Buddhas, why could he not rouse her?133 Teacher said: [2a] Chouan said: The dog welcomes the sojourning guest; A raven shelters in the nest of unconventionality. Speak of loving clear understanding. Gease further doubts! Teacher asked me saying: Because he could not rouse her from woman's Samddhi, Wenshu summoned Wang Ming [to receive] instruction on the Dharma-gate of non-duality. Wenshu said: "[I] must not move. I f [I] move apply thirty [blows of] the cudgel." What do you make of this? I was just then in the midst of deliberating when, because Dingan moved, [we] accidentally bumped. His movement roused [me] as i f teacher had done so. Teacher said: "At the bottom of a well a mud-snake danced. The branch of a Zhe tree was suddenly interposed between [the snake and] the bright moon [which] illuminated plums and pears."135 Why did this generate understanding? I pondered this for a good while and said: The brilliance of a song blown out of the opening broke through the sky-flowers in his eyes. Teacher said: Not right! 1 3 3 Heian is asking about a koan included as case 42 in the Wumen guan M?1 M (Gateless Pass) T48/2005.298a, compiled by Huikai (1183-1260) and printed in 1229. It is also included in the first juan of the Wudeng huiyuan, a 20 juan Song dynasty collection of koans compiled by the monk Pu Ji i!r$| (1179-1253). Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 576, s.v. H'M^Tt-1 3 4 It is not clear who Chouan was. 1 3 5 This quotation is part of a twenty-eight character verse found in a work of Weng Daoguang entitled Huandan fuming pian, TY1077, DZ742. See the section titled "Dansui ge" (Songs on the Marrow of the Elixir). 50 I again said: The top of my skull is bashed open and [now there are] only my eyes bugging out and no other. Teacher said: A little more. [Heian] [2b] asked: In the koan of the former monks rolling up the hanging screen one gained and one lost. What [do you] say [about this]?136 Teacher said: [When] benevolence is seen it is called benevolence. [When] understanding is seen it is called understanding. [Heian] asked: A monk asked Jiashan ^ | ± | , 1 3 7 "What is the Dharma-body like?" Shan said, 'The Dharma-body is without external appearance." The monk said, "What is the Dharma-eye like?" Shan said, "It is without defect." Daowu IS a", hearing this, did not assent. Afterwards he sought instruction [when] Chuanzi jtp-p 1 3 8 returned. This matter was raised again and [this time Daowu] agreed with the former answer. Daowu said, "This present barbarian is a lion (a Buddha)." May I ask my teacher: The question was the same; the answer was the same. Why did [Daowu] not assent to it previously but assented to it afterwards? Teacher said: The clouds and the moon are the same. The streams and mountains are all different. 1 3 6 This koan is included as case number twenty-six in the Wumen guan, T 48/2005.296b. 1 3 7 Jiashan 5*5 ill is the name of a Chan master who lived during the Tang dynasty. He died at the age of seventy-seven and was active from the Xiantong iUffi to the Zhonghe ^fTJ period of the Tang (860-885). This passage about the Dharma-body and Dharma-eye along with some details of Jiashan's life are recorded in the Jingde zhuandeng lu T5 l/2076/323c. The story commences at line 21. See 317a of the same text for a listing of Daowu MM and his three Dharma successors. 1 3 8 Jiashan 3*5 lil was the Dharma heir of Chuanzi UST. Jingde zhuandeng lu T51/2076/317a. 51 Teacher said [I] ask [you] concerning Dong Shan's139 Manifest Secrets of the Five Ranks of the Jewel-mirror Samddhi140 that states: The bent within the straight; the straight within the bent; the coming from within the straight; the arrival at the middle of the bent; unity attained.141 What do you think these five things [mean]? [Heian] answered: I f [what is] within the straight is not attained one will not see its bent. I f [what is] within the bent is not attained it will not [3a] manifest its straight. The straight comes returning [from] within. The bent also arrives within. I f the bent and the straight are unified entirely within then both arrive! [Having] arrived these bent and straight are both forgotten. Within reflection, only preserve this. Teacher said: Not quite. I f [you] gather your mind1 4 2 within movement and stillness [you] will begin to attain [understanding]. One day Teacher was sitting for a time with four students. Teacher said: Chuan Lao jl(^§ 1 4 3 said: "This mind and not mind [both are] not this mind." 1 4 4 What do [you have to] say? Everyone answered and all were incorrect. [They] answered saying: This mind is not this, and not mind is not this. 1 3 9 Dongshan Liangjie ffl lh fefft (807-869) is, along with his student Caoshan Benji W l l l ^ , the co-founder of the Caodong W?P5 school of Chan Buddhism (known in Japan as S6t5). 1 4 0 This text can be found in a collection of Chan texts titled Chanzong baodian (Beijing: Quanguo tushuguan wenxian weifu, 1993), 141. The specific section of five twenty-one-character stanzas can be found on pages 156-158. The verses are also found in Dongshan dashiyulu T47/1986b/525c and are included with a translation in Appendix 5. 1 4 1 The translations of the five ranks, for consistency, employ those given by Dumoulin (see Appendix 5 for the reference) however Kazuaki Tanahashi offers a more helpful translation of two o f the key terms: zheng IE he says should be understood as real, general, complete, universal, noumenal, absolute, or oneness while bian "BE means apparent, partial, particular, phenomenal, relative, or differentiation. Kazuaki Tanahashi, ed. Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (Berkeley: North Point Press, 1985), 284. This is in - -agreement with the entry in Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 524, s.v. I f ^ 3 1 ft. 1 4 2 Given the heavily Buddhist laden contexts of this passage I am translating yi M as "mind" rather than "intention" or "meaning." Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 400, s.v. M-1 4 3 Chuan Lao j 11 % was a Chan Teacher who wrote a commentary to the Diamond Sutra. 1 4 4 This phrase is found in a Ming dynasty commentary on the Diamond Sutra. Jingangjing buzhu. Xuzang jing, 92/506. 52 Teacher said: Why refer to "this?" I gave a shout. Teacher said: The prison145 receives and selects. Teacher said: What is the Way? I struck the bottom of the [lecture] platform. Again [Teacher] said: What is a person within the Way? I struck once more. Teacher said: Not quite. I then gave a shout. Teacher said: Still not quite it.1 4 6 [Heian] asked saying: "Thirty spokes share one hub."1 4 7 What do [you] say [concerning this]? Teacher said: The spokes and the hub are simply the [3b] substance of a tool. The spokes come together [at the] hub and the function of the cart is complete. It can be compared to thirty days together [comprising] a month thereby completing the function of [the sun and moon's] brightness. It can also be compared to the myriad dharmas returning to emptiness and thereby completing the function of Nature. All are the same. [Heian] asked saying: "The comrades of life are thirteen. The comrades of death are thirteen."148 As for the accounts and illustrations of this they are many. Will Teacher please set it straight for me? 145 Lao $ "prison" can refer to one of the forms of deluded mind. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 242, s.v. 1 4 6 This is a tentative translation. Lierally the phrase reads "Early and late eight quarter hours." #-iSA^!|. 147 Daode jing, section 11. 53 Teacher said: The comrades of life are fire and water being mutually supportive. The comrades of death are fire and water being in mutual conflict. Water's number of completion is six. Fire's number of completion is seven. Six and seven together [make] the number thirteen. The ancients said seven and six are thirteen. As for the joyful countenance of the moon palace it is this. As for some who speak ofthe seven emotions and the six desires together being thirteen, [in this] there is little understanding. As for some taking the eight trigrams and the five phases to explain it, [this] is wrong. Have they not heard that the scripture below says: "The hard and unyielding are followers of death. The soft and yielding are followers of life?'" 4 9 The hard and unyielding [4a] cause anger and desire while the soft and yielding are said to correct anger and block desires. I f anger and desires arise then flames are made to rise and the moisture to sink. [This] is fire and water in opposition. I f anger and desire are cut off then Yang descends and Yin ascends, which is fire and water supporting [each other]. Why have further doubts? [Heian] asked: "Between sky and earth it is like a bellows; hollow and yet not exhausted. When moved more comes forth." 1 5 0 This bellows can thereby establish the wonders of sky and earth's transformations. I beseech Teacher by means of [your] understanding to explain this. Teacher said: This pipe is not a lowly bag-pipe it is chief of the three-holed flutes. It is called "Wind-rousing Bellows." It is symbolic of the wondrous meaning ofthe supreme emptiness of sky and earth that comprehends everything within it. It also 1 4 81 have chosen to follow Henricks reading of this quotation from section 50 of the Daode jing in which he translates + W H as "thirteen" rather than "three out of ten." See his comments and notes for a well-reasoned argument for making such a choice. Henricks, Te Tao Ching, 122. It is clear that Li Daochun also agrees with this reading. 149 Daode jing, section 76. 150 Daode jing, section 5. 54 symbolizes the empty intelligence of human beings that is non-obscuring. Not [needing to] exhaust words it lays out the meaning with ease. In motion more and more comes forth, responding to transformations without limit. [Heian] asked: What do you say regarding dawn tun 4 i , and dusk mengHtV51 Teacher said: [ I f the hexagrams] qian f£, kun itfi, kan i-X, and li {H are regulated [4b] and expansive then the sixty hexagrams will cyclically transform in their midst. [The cycle] begins at tun and meng and ends at ji and wei 7 ^ and [these are] taken to be the pattern of the fire tally. As for the elixir books taking qian and kun to be the reaction vessel, kan and //' to be the medical substance and all the hexagrams as the workings of transformation—this is so. The sixty hexagrams together [comprise] three hundred and sixty lines in imitation of the number of days—three hundred and sixty in one year. From the [time] following the winter solstice tun and meng arise. The day when the great snows are exhausted is ji and wei 7 ^ . I f one uses a single month to explain this then the first day tun and meng arise and the last day of the month is ji wei. I f one uses a single day to explain it then at the hour of zi (11-1 am), tun and meng arise. The hour of huai ^ (9-11pm) is ji wei. I f one uses the [period of] work (cultivation) to explain it then [among] the [various] increments [when] work [is carried out], seize upon the time period of a single year. [The period] from the commencement of the work then, would be tun and meng. The [period of] gathering in such a case would be ji wei. That which is called dawning tun, and dusk meng is simply a general name for [all of] this. As for those who understand this Pattern [they will] benefit. Therein the calculations of the cycles are 151 Zhao W> (dawn) and mu If (dusk) are allusions to the moments of transition represented by the changeover from pure yin to the waxing of yang and from pure yang to the waxing of yin. 55 complete. [5a] The patriarchal teachers who speak of internally establishing qian and kun without lines or hexagrams [are speaking about] this. [Heian] asked: What do you say concerning "Within the precious bottle nourish the golden goose?" Teacher said: I f we use "without form" (wu &E) to explain it there is a pair of koans. I f we use "having form" (you ^) to explain it, it is a period of work.1 5 2 Now let us first use "without form" to give this question just consideration: A monk asked Zhaozhou: Does a dog have Buddha Nature or not? Zhou said: It has. The monk said: Why does it have [Buddha Nature]? Zhou said: It lacks [Buddha Nature]. The monk said: Why does it lack [Buddha Nature]? Zhou said: In order to understand "lacking."153 Also, an ancient worthy said: " [ I f there is] a goose egg inside a bottle, once it becomes a goose how is it to escape from the bottle?" Concerning this pair of koans many of our contemporaries are unable to get to the bottom [of their meaning]. I f someone attains a transmitted phrase [such as this he should] consider and study the matter [to its] end. Further [now], i f we use "having" to explain it then the dog is "having form" within "lacking form;" Yang within yin. Moreover, the dog is Minister of Crime within his tent. The dog is a guardian against inner bandits.154 Nourishing the golden Li is referring here to the period of time during which the sacred foetus is formed in the adept. This becomes clear later on in this passage. 1 5 3 This well-known koan by Chan master Zhaozhou congshen St'jtlfttil;, (778-897), is the first koan in the collection entitled Chanzong wunmen guan, T48/2005/292. Li Daochun has altered this text or is quoting it from a different source. The original koan reads: iSW^ftlSfif^,, ^ffitWfl&tt. JM^M. 1 5 4 Li provides no clarification concerning this allusion. However, he refers to "five thieves" (wuze HW.) in his commentary on the Yinfu jing in the third and final section of his Santian yisui, TY249, DZ 119. There he explains the "five thieves" as they occur in the Natural Order (tian %) as five forms of qi that both give rise to the myriad things of the world and plunder (dao 1&) them. He also explains that this plundering 56 goose within the precious bottle is [5b] metal within water. It is the elixir within the stove. Nourishing the golden goose then, is nourishing the sacred foetus. Completion of sacred foetus is like the goose egg within the bottle. The departure of the goose [after] the bottle breaks is the constant pattern of the ordinary course of things. I f the goose departs and yet the bottle does not break, this is the wonder of shedding the womb.155 Therefore the patriarchal teachers say: "Within the brocade tent is hidden the jade dog. Within the precious bottle is nourished the golden goose." Ah! This is the wonder of the Golden Elixir. [Heian] asked: "Divorcing [your] wife and rudely banishing [her, merely causes] yin and yang to separate."156 Teacher said: Ziyang157 said, " I f you have not yet attained the true lead then do not go and hide in the mountains."158 The meaning of this sentence is somewhat similar. Those who study the Way in present times are deceived [through the] influence of [their] teachers [who merely] transmit methods of work and then tell them they have attained an understanding of the Way. Separated from their wives and children renunciates enter the mountains to hide away. When they practice [but achieve] no fulfillment then regrets arise and some return to lay life and to their families while some take a wife again. [6a] force (daoji IS HI) exists within the individual. Santian yisui, 10a. The Wuzhen pian, 27.15b, contains a single reference to "five thieves" (yvuze T\.W), employing a different character for 'thief from that used by Li (dao JS). One of the commentaries suggests that the five thieves are the five phases. Wuzhen pian, 27.15b; another suggests that the five organs (wuzang jEffii) are the five thieves Wuzhen pian zhushi, TY145, DZ65, zhong, 16a. The fact that the five phases and the five internal organs are correlated may nullify any apparent discrepancy here. A third explanation offered is that thieves are: desire, lust, covetousness, anger, and foolishness. Wuzhen pian sanzhu, 3.18b. 1 5 5 See note 304 for an explanation of tuotai Dftjjp translated here as "shedding the womb."" 1 5 6 This quotation is taken from a section of the Wuzhen pian in which false methods of cultivation are being criticized. In addition to leaving one's wife, cutting off grains, ingesting various medicinal substances, and breathing exercises are also included. Wuzhen pian, 26.30b. 1 5 7 Ziyang Js£l*§ is the style of Zhang Boduan. 1 5 8 This is actually a misquotation of the original phrase which reads, "If you have not yet refined the restorative elixir then do not go and hide in the mountains." Wuzhen pian, 27.5a. 57 There are many people like this. Further, there are low, stupid uneducated people who do not understand the Pattern of the sages and yet claim that separation from one's wife is not the Way. Gn the contrary, they point to the wife, as being the reaction vessel. Some say that the medicine is within the body of one's wife. Some point to the gate of production (vagina) as the place of the body's birth. This is the Way o f great recklessness. They really do not know that the patriarchal teachers have undertaken to come and instruct humanity. I f people are unable to cut off desires, separating from their wives will be in vain. [Furthermore, one can] see that students are confused concerning its meaning. Thus they repeatedly say, spontaneously the reaction vessel cooks the dragon and tiger. So why must one assume the burden of a household and dote on one's children and wife? Now without study they merely fix on the former phrase above [while] failing completely to reflect on the latter. Truly they are sinful people. [Heian] asked: My teacher has said that those who cultivate the elixir must not fix upon years, months, days, and hours. Why do you yet also say that in gathering the medicine [one] must know about dusk and dawn? Teacher said: It shares the same meaning as dun and meng though the situation of their functioning is slightly different. The establishing of spring and the establishing of autumn are dusk and dawn within a year. [6b] The rising and falling crescent [moons] are dusk and dawn with a month. The two [double] hours yin JiF (3-5am) and shen ^3 (3-5pm) are dusk and dawn with a day. The time ofyw and yang's meeting is dusk and dawn within the body. I f [you] can comprehend the way of night and day then [you] will understand the Pattern of yin and yang's interaction. I f [you] investigate the causes of 58 light and dark then you will know the explanation for death and life. The great essentials of the Buddhas, Immortals, and Sages all rest in this! [Heian] asked: [concerning], Look at it and you will not see it; It is named "rarefied." Listen for it and you will not hear it; It is named "smooth." Touch it and you will not attain it; It is named "subtle."159 and Looking you do not see yourself; Listening you do not hear. Departing from the various biases; [This] is named the wondrous Way.1 Is the [meaning of these two] the same or different? Teacher said: Generally they [share] a mutual similarity but their principles are really not the same. The former is the substance while the latter is the function. The Doctrine of the Mean says: 159 Daode jing, section 14. The above translation represents an attempt to employ the meaning of xi ^ ("rarefied") and yi % ("level" or "smooth") rather than simply summarizing the definition given in each preceding line. This is how Wing-tsit Chan translates the above lines. Wing-tsit Chan, A Sourcebook in Chinese Philosophy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963), 146. Chan's approach has the merit of making the text easily understandable but it ignores the fact that the order of characters in this section of the received edition has probably been changed. The Mawangdui text uses wei fflt ("minute" or "subtle") rather than yi % to describe what cannot be seen and uses yi % ("level" or "smooth") to describe what can be touched but not attained (held). This order makes more sense of the terms as they are defined in the translation above. Thus I have chosen to translate the terms rather than adjusting them to fit the changed word order found in the received version of the text. 1 6 0 The source of this quotation has proved impossible to determine. The phrase JLS;. H^F^Iifl, W. Stffjii» 4a ^ t$M can be found verbatim in a commentary on the Heart Sutra. The commentary is found at <http://www.chinapage.com/zen/xinjin99.html> and accompanies the text of the Maha banruo boluo miduo xinjing, T8/251. This version is attributed to the Buddhist monk and prolific translator of texts, Xuan Zang tilfe, (600-664). The commentary, which does not accompany any of the canonical versions of the Heart Sutra, is attributed to one Songxu daoren WMM.K. The phrase above is identified as a quotation from a Taoist source though that source is not given. 59 Therefore the Superior Man is cautious in the place where he is not seen, and apprehensive in the place where he is not heard. Nothing is more visible than the hidden, and nothing is more apparent than the subtle. Therefore the Superior Man is [constantly] cautious when he is alone.'61 Accordingly, the situation of looking but not seeing oneself, the situation of listening but not being able to hear, [7a] and abandoning various biases is then called the wondrous Way. 1 6 2 Suppose one says that looking at it but not being able to see; listening to it but not being able to hear; touching it but not being able to attain it are called "rarefied," "smooth" and "subtle" then are there also various biases that can be parted from? Yin Yule fflMM. asked: The twelve months of the year have a zi ^ month. The twelve (double) hours of a day have zi hour (1 lpm-lam). [I] do not know where the zi hour resides in the human body. Teacher said: Bring about the pinnacle of stillness. Guard the sincerity of stillness. The myriad things arise together and Thereby observe their return.163 Is it this you speak of? [Yin] answered: When gui ^  is produced [with the] movement of time it will certainly overflow. What do you say concerning this?164 1 6 11 defer here to Charles Muller's translation of this passage, which is generally in agreement with those offered by Legge, Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 384 and Chan, Chinese Philosophy, 98. See Charles Mullef, <http://www.human.toyogakuen-u.ac.jp/~acmuller/contao/docofrnean.htm>. 1 6 2 It is obvious that Li Daochun reads this quotation from the Doctrine of the Mean more literally as: [The accomplished man] guards against and is cautious concerning what he does not see. [He is] apprehensive and fearful concerning what he does not hear. Concerning what is not seen it is hidden. Concerning what is not manifest it is subtle. Therefore the accomplished man is constantly cautious when alone. 163 Daode jing, section 16. This verse has been translated in a way that retains the relationship between the first and second pair of lines. It is by achieving the the meditative state described in the first two lines that "thereby" (yi Hi) one can witness the "return" of the myriad things to unity. 60 Teacher said: Just so. Yin again asked saying: In the primordial beginning a precious pearl is suspended fifty feet from the earth? Teacher said: What does the young gentleman have to say? Yin said: Five is a yang number. Teacher said: No. If you are fifty feet from the earth then this [means] to be parted from the defilement of the five turbidities.165 If one resides in empty darkness then this is the hidden spirit entering [7b] the wondrous. [Yin] replied: Is being above the five turbidities the Mysterious Female? Teacher said: Although it is so, if genuine effort is not applied then [you] will not personally see it. It is [then just] vain talk about attainment having this form. Furthermore, what affair could you complete? [A disciple] asked: Sky and earth are not benevolent; They take the myriad things to be straw dogs. The sage is not benevolent; He takes the hundred names (the people) to be straw dogs.166 Why such a lowly comparison? 1 6 4 Yin Yule is speaking here about the production of later realm (houtian ISA) water in the kidneys referred to as gui §1, the tenth celestial stem (tiangan AT") that corresponds to water in the five phases (wuxing JUAf). This is synonymous with the form of jing fit that supports reproduction. Within this later realm form of the "water" is the earlier realm form (xiantian 5fc A) known as ren i . The adept attempts to "gather" the ren water from within the gui water. This can only happen if stillness is maintained in the body so that the gui water will not overflow and be lost outside the body. This amounts to keeping sexual and other depleting desires in check. Ren and gui are refered to in the Wuzhen pian, 26.17a. 1 6 5 The wuzhuo 3LM are a set of defilements associated with the mortal realm. 1. The kalpa in decay when it suffers deterioration that gives rise to form; 2. Deterioration of view, egoism, etc.; 3. The passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt; 4. As a consequence human misery increases and happiness decreases; 5. The human lifespan decreases to ten years. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 122, s.v. 166 Daode jing, section 5. 61 Teacher said: The sky and earth and the sages do not take benevolence to be benevolence. Therefore viewing the myriad things and the one hundred names as extremely insignificant, they suppose them to be naturally produced and naturally extinguished. Though naturally produced and naturally extinguished really they are [alternately] returning to the root and [then] being restored to life. The Appendix to the Changes says: "Manifesting in benevolence; concealed in function. Rousing the myriad things and not sharing the sage's sorrow."167 This is the meaning of "sky and earth are not humane; they take the myriad things to be straw dogs." "Qian through its admirable beneficence benefits all under the sky. [One cannot] say what it benefits. It is great!"168 This is [the meaning of] 'The sage is not benevolent; he takes the one hundred family names to be straw dogs." [A disciple] asked: "The baby is not yet a child."1 6 9 Mengzi said: "As for the Great Person, they have not lost the child's mind." Do these [two quotations] share [the same meaning] or not? Teacher said: [They] share [the same meaning]. These say that their great simplicity is not yet scattered and thus, their return is not far away. [A disciple] asked: Laozi said: The Way as a thing is indistinct, is unclear; Indistinct and unclear. Within it there are things; Unclear and indistinct. Within it there are forms; Deep and dark. Within it there is an essence; This essence is very real; -~ Within it there is proof.'70 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/77/20. Zhouyi suoyin, 1/3/4-5. L i does not include shi neng # p t& in his quoting of this passage. Daode jing, section 20. 62 Why is it that among the three (things, forms, and essence) is it only said that essence is very real and that within it is proof? Teacher said: The sage (Laozi) is speaking about the formation of things prior to the birth of sky and earth. Accordingly this [state] prior to the birth of sky and earth simply is the Way's manifesting of forms. The forms [then] cause the manifesting of sky and earth. Sky and earth [then] cause there to be things formed. Things [then] cause [8b] "the essence of the two [forms] (yin and yang) and five [phases in their] wondrous uniting to congeal."171 That which is the essence ofthe two [forms] and five [phases] is the substance of the Way. Forms and things are the function of the Way. [A disciple] asked: [Concerning] the verse "[The Superior Man is] cautious in the place where he is not seen . . ."1 7 2 and the four phrases [associated with] "Looking you do not see yourself;"173 how are these illustrations related? I f [you would] simply use the language of the Ru school to draw out [these] illustrations and obtain the [nature of their] relationship that would be best. I desire that Teacher provide an account. Teacher said: The former couple of phrases [from the Doctrine of the Mean imply that] i f you are in a place where there are no people around, constantly preserve [yourself] in integrity. The latter couplet [from the commentary on the Heart Sutra implies that] i f you are with people [in your dealings] towards them 170 Daode jing, section 21. The order of the lines has been rearranged somewhat. 1 7 1 Here L i is quoting from Zhou Dunyi's MtfiM. (1017-73) Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate Explained. Zhou Dunyi, Taiji tu shuo, in Zhouzi quanshu, vol. 44 of Guoxue jiben congshu, ed. Wang Yunwu (Taibei: Taiwan shangwuyin shuguan gufenyouxian gongsi, 1968), 3. 1 7 2 This phrase from the Doctrine of the Mean was quoted earlier. Yingchan ziyulu, 6b. See footnote 161 above. 1 7 3 See footnote 160 for the reference to this phrase. The complete four-line verse is translated on page 59 above. 63 constantly defend your unfathomable mind.174 Moreover this is like 'The workings of the exalted Natural Order are without sound and without smell,"175 and "The impossibility of concealing integrity."176 [Can we] not perceive the secrets of the hidden, manifest, and the minute? Though the workings of the exalted Natural Order are without sound and without smell they can be heard and understood. Being so the Pattern of the Natural Order is luminous. Integrity is impossible to conceal. [9a] [A disciple] asked: What do you say about "As for grief and anxieties, preserve [yourself] in the resolute"177 Teacher said: "resolute" refers to my mind, which is not like a stone; it cannot be turned over. Whenever [you are in the] situation of the mind being roused and the thoughts being restless, foremost is preservation of your self in resoluteness. I f [you are] resolutely in Great Meditative Concentration then the movement of [even] the tiniest hair [becomes] an omen. How could there be grief? [You] must simply put realization first as the highest [end]. [A disciple] asked: Are "Preceding the jia ^ day by three days and following the jia day by three days,"178 the same as "Preceding the geng JH day by Given the context yi M is translated here as "mind" to accommodate its broader Buddhist implications. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 400, s.v. M-1 7 5 This is a quotation from the Book of Odes. It constitutes the second last line in the final stanza of ode 235 titled "King Wen" (Wenwang 3C'£.). Legge, The She Ching in Chinese Classics, vol 4,431. The same passage is also quoted in the Zhongyong which, given Li's familiarity with this text, may have been the source from which he is quoting. Legge, The Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 433. .,,1 7 6 Legge, The Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 398. 177 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/77/9. This quotation has been translated to accord with Li's reading of the phrase. As such it departs significantly from the standard reading provided by Wang Bi. Lynn, / Ching, 51, for example, renders this sentence as "The means to make one anxious about regret and remorse depend on the subtle, intermediate stages." Lynn's reading is in agreement with that of Shaughnessy, / Ching, 191. The different readings turn on the key character, jie ft, which Li is reading as "resolute" but which Wang Bi glosses as "small matters." three days and following the geng day by three days," or not?1 64 Teacher said: [They] are not the same. The [internal] worms are [inner] turmoil. I f you become aware of them before they exist you will not arrive at [inner] turmoil. I f you become aware of them [when they] already exist and yet afterwards control them [you] can still be saved from [inner] turmoil. [ I f you are] fail to become aware [of them] there will be extreme [inner] turmoil. Jia is [the] first [celestial stem]. I f one [achieves] realization before three days [are up] this is called prior to jia. I f one [achieves] realization after three days [are up] this is called after jia. A duration later than three days is not realization. 'Trior to geng; after geng,,mo is at nine in the fifth of [the hexagram] xun H . Xun is [9b] wind and the command of the Natural Order. I f the command is [subject to] alteration then the people will not trust it. Daily to trust: Suppose earlier [when there has been] no change, [if] prior to three days [the people] are warned of [impending] benefit or harm, and i f being so, afterwards they have the means to be rid of [the uncertainty of] change and then the people will follow along and trust it (the command). Further, having already changed, after three days to again give warning will cause them to be joyful which is good. Jia arriving at wuji JJcB is the centre.181 Geng is going beyond equilibrium. I f [one] goes beyond equilibrium then there is transformation. Therefore it is called geng. What is referred to as geng, [has] the meaning of "getting rid of." 178 Zhouyi suoyin, 18/23/3. 179 Zhouyi suoyin, 57/68/9. Jia ¥ and geng j£i are the first and seventh of the celestial stems (tiangan ^C~F). They correspond with wood and metal respectively. The translation used here is based on that of Shaughnessy, / Ching, 151. 180 Zhouyi suoyin, 57/68/9. Li is simply indicating here where in the Yijing the quoted line appears. 181 Wu !% and ji 5 are the fifth and sixth of the ten celestial stems and together correspond with the earth phase of the five phases. When the five phases are correlated with the directions earth corresponds to the centre. 65 Teacher said: "Not the Way" and "[What] cannot be spoken of is the Way." What do you have to say [about this]? Speak quickly! Speak quickly! I would put forward the same [notion of] how it is as my Teacher. Teacher said: "Cannot be spoken of," and "[What] cannot be named." Sir, what statement can you make [about this]? [The disciple] answered: I f [I] speak [it will merely be] speech. [I] fear that [my] perception is shallow [and so] beseech my teacher to speak about this. Teacher said: That which spontaneously emerges is the Way that cannot be spoken of. [It is] fundamentally nameless. It is the unnamable name. That which emerges from within the Way is the way that can be spoken of, the way that can be named; it is the name that can be named. [What] cannot be spoken of and cannot be named is the beginning of sky and earth. [What] can be spoken of and can be named is the mother of the myriad things. [I f you] want to see [this] beginning "be constantly without desires and thereby [you] will observe its wonders."182 [ I f you] want to see [the] mother "constantly have desires and thereby [you] will observe its boundaries."183 The wonder of profound mystery begins in the beginningless. The outer edges of boundaries are seen in what is visible. "This pair together emerges and yet they have different names. [What they] share in is called profound."184 Teacher said: Formerly, one day I sat before my teacher Shian M ^ l 8 5 and he commanded me to consider a phrase. He said, "essence pass, spirit pass, qi pass. 182 Daode jing, section 1. 183 Daode jing, section 1. 1 8 4 This section is a commentary on the opening verse of the Daode jing. This quotation and the previous two are all taken from that verse. 1 8 5 Attempts to determine the identity of this teacher have thus far yielded nothing. All of the secondary sources consulted list only Wang Jinchan HEife l^ as Li Daochun's primary teacher. Wang was a disciple of 66 Three passes one hub." I replied saying, "The pipe of the sky, the pipe of earth, arid the pipe of humanity. The myriad pipes together sing." My teacher corrected the character 'sing' by writing the character 'clear'. Sir, what do you, make of this? [The disciple] answered: To the civil fire and martial fire1 8 6 add the fire of wisdom Together [these] fires complete the work. Teacher again said: I have a pair: By means of earlier realization awaken to later realization. What do you make of this? [The disciple] answered: Proceed from outer observation to contemplate inner observation. Teacher said: It would be better to change the character 'proceed from' to the character 'go back from'. On the evening ofthe winter solstice Teacher said: A single yang returns. "Former kings, on account of the solstice, closed the passes."187 What [do you say] concerning this? [The disciple] responded saying: Six lines complete [the hexagram] kun irfi and thus the superior man conducts affairs according to the seasons.188 Teacher assented to this. the famous thunder ritualist and inner alchemy master Bai Yuchan S3E#B (1194-1229?). [See Boltz, Taoist Literature, 318, n.456 for information on Bai's dates.] Shian MM is not listed among the names of Bai's disciples and there is no evidence that Shian is an alternate name of Wang Jinchan. 1 8 6 Li Daochun does not define these terms in any of his texts and they do not appear in the texts compiled by his disciples. Bai Yuchan defines them in Haichan quandao ji, 7a. There the martial fire is described as the "driving out the various thoughts while expending effort in the [cultivation of] jing zn&shen." The civil fire is defined as "In concentrating qi apply softness and contain the brightness [in] silence. [When] slowly heating up do not cease [applying] softness [in] preserving [it]." 187 Zhouyi suoyin, 24/29/27. This passage is found in the commentary on the fu hexagram. 1 8 8 This line paraphrases part of the commentary on the hexagram qian f£. Zhouyi suoyin, 1/2/18. 67 One day Teacher said to a gathering [of disciples]: The former sages changed their minds. Now [you] heirs [to the sages] mind the changes (of the Yijing). Everyone was invited to respond. [A disciple responded] saying: The spirit and qi of my body originally were the qi of the primordial beginning. Shen Zhanzai ffiM^- said: The true nature of the beginning, could it fail to be the Nature [we possess] today? Teacher said: I naturally have a response. Everyone listened attentively. Teacher said: The origin of the corpus of lesser scriptures produced by later generations189 is the same as Laozi's scriptural corpus. None of the people [present] were able to reach [the meaning o f this statement]. Teacher said: The lungs correspond to metal. Metal originally sinks. On account of [11a] what is it yet able to float? The liver corresponds with wood. Wood originally floats. On account of what is it yet able to sink? No one had an answer. Teacher said: The lungs being caused to receive qi have yi Zi wood located within and so it floats. The liver being caused to receive qi has geng Ji? metal located within and so it sinks.190 I f we use the hexagrams to explain it then the hexagram dui jifc is metal. The nature of metal is originally to sink. I f metal is 189 Xiaosheng <h*E is translated according to the definition in the Ciyuan: IS^iS, i$MM,7&L. 1 9 0 Here Li is including the Celestial Stems in his description. Five of the stems are associated with the five phases. The correlations can also be to pairs of stems. 68 caused to produce the water of northern one this is the hexagram kan i^K.. The true fire within kan flares upward and so it floats. The hexagram zhen f t is wood and the nature of wood is originally to float. I f zhen's lower solid [line] causes wood to produce the fire of southern two this is the hexagram li f | . The true water within li descends and so it sinks. I f we use the medicinal substance to explain it, lead is associated with metal and originally sinks; manifesting fire it ascends and so it floats. Mercury is associated with wood and fundamentally floats; manifesting water it then falls downward and so it sinks. I f we use the imitation of images to explain it the moon is associated with kan iX and originally sinks; [by] advancing the fire it is caused to float. The sun is associated with //' {H and originally floats; [by means ofthe] retreating tally it is caused to sink. The elder (Zhang Boduan) said: "The sun glows red at the bottom of the pool and yin mysteriously disappears."191 Because of water it (the sun) sinks. "The moon over the mountain top is white and the medicine [ l i b ] flourishes anew."192 Because of qi it (the moon) floats. To give a general explanation of it, i f metal is empty then it wil l float and i f wood is solid then it will sink. This explains it. Teacher said: Host within the host; guest within the guest; host within the guest; guest within the host. What do you all understand [of this]? [Can] none of you explain this process? 191 Wuzhenpian, 26.21a. 192 Wuzhen pian, 26.21a. Weng Baoguang explains that the imagery in these two lines describes the two principal ingredients of the inner alchemist: lead and mercury. The commentary explains that the redness of the sun at the bottom ofthe pool is yang within yin and the whiteness of the moon over the mountaintop is yin within yang. Ziyang zhenren wuzhe pian zhushu, TY141, DZ 61-62, 3.5b. 69 Chanzai said: The body outside the body is the host within the host. The dream within a dream is the guest within the guest. Nature within the emotions is the host within the guest. Emotions within the nature are the guest within the host. Teacher said: A little more. He answered: Self only has I. [As for] the other, do away with speaking of the other. [It is the corning of] the other that causes the [notion of] self. The " I " furthermore serves [to reify] the other. This is what it means. Teacher said: [You] have not yet penetrated [the meaning]. He answered: Further, the mind beyond no mind is host within the host. Thoughts arising within thoughts are the guest within the guest. Former realization prior to movement is the host within the guest. Later realization after movement is the guest within the host. Teacher said: No. I f you use motion and stillness to explain it you will come very close to it. The apex of stillness within stillness [12a] is the host within the host. Movement and further movement is guest within the guest. Within movement to preserve [internal] stability is the host within the guest. Within stillness to banish [internal] disorder is the guest within the host. Teacher said: Qian has four virtues. How many virtues does kun i$ have? Someone answered: Kun also has four virtues. Teacher said: [You] have not yet exhausted [the matter] entirely. Now [in the case of] kun, "primordial," "pervading," and "benefiting," are the same [virtues] 70 as qian but the single character 'upright' is not the same.193 "Following along" and "receptive," then "upright."194 Therefore it is said to be the uprightness of the mare. It is called the constant motion of the mare's "receptivity" and "following along." Teacher said: How many virtues does dun t £ have? Someone answered: "Primordial," "pervading," "benefiting," and "upright" which are the same as [the virtues of] qian.m I f it shirks its virtue then they are not the same. Teacher said: Why [do you] say they are not the same? I reflected on it but could not respond. Teacher said: I f they are not the same virtues then it is not the difficulty of dun. As for what is termed "primordial" and "pervading" they have the meanings of "primordial" being great and "pervading" being penetrating. As for "benefiting" and "upright," benefiting rests in the strength of uprightness. I f one lacks the strength of uprightness then [the benefits will be] insufficient for escaping the tribulations of dun\ [12b] How could there be "upright?" I f one is able to secure and preserve primordially existing uprightness then in the end one will be able to relieve the tribulations of dun. Teacher said: The southwest obtains a partner. The northeast loses a partner. What do you say [concerning this]? I reflected upon it [but] could not answer. 193 Zhouyi suoyin, 1/1/4. Li is referring to the opening line of the Yijing that describes the hexagram qian the description of kun the same four "virtues" are listed though the final one, "upright," is qualified as th< uprightness of the mare. Zhouyi suoyin, 2/3/21. 1 9 4 Li appears to be following the commentary attached to the hexagram kun. The qualities of "receptiveness" and "according with" or "following along" are there associated with the female horse. Zhouyi suoyin, 2/3/21-27. 195 Zhouyi suoyin, 3/5/15. Teacher laughed and said: Sir [you] do not understand it. Now i f the yin kind again attains a yin partner the yin gi will be excessive. I f it flourishes then there will be excessive delusion and disorder. Therefore we say, "lost constancy." Arriving at the seat of yang [in] the northeast, i f again it loses its yin partner then by way of this the good fortune of uprightness is established. [With] yin then following yang there will be the production of the principle of completion. Therefore we say, "constancy attained." [For] the scholar who cultivates the real, the initial movement of thoughts and emotions is yin. I f the intention is allowed to follow it (the movement) then this is yin attaining a partner. This also is called losing constancy. I f by hardening the will they are cut off, from where will thoughts arise? I f emotions are cut off then [this] is [yin] losing its partner. This is also called attaining constancy. " I f it were not the perfect understanding of all under the sky who would be capable of participating in [13a] this?"196 Teacher said: The six lines of [the hexagram] gian Ht (modest) are all auspicious. Why is that so? [Someone] answered: It proceeds from the application of this modesty. Teacher said: [Yes] it is so. [The commentary on] each of [this hexagram's] lines speaks of modesty (gian |ft) except for the fifth line. Why is that? Now [line] five makes [the claim] that i f the lord is not excessive in his modesty he will not lose his authority. Therefore there is the statement: "It is beneficial to quell Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/19. This quotation from the "Appended Statements" section of the Yijing includes a single change: The word 'understanding' (ming HJ) has replaced the word 'essence' (jing ^H) found in the original. The translation of this sentence draws on that of Shaughnessy, / Ching, 197. 72 rebellion and attack; [thus] there will not fail to be benefit."197 Hence, the scholar who cultivates the real must ensure that hard and soft are equally complete and must not be excessive in softness. Teacher said: "[In the] earlier realm the Natural Order is not opposed. [In the] later realm the seasons of the Natural Order are respectfully accepted."198 Why is [this]? [Someone] replied: [The state] prior to things being produced is the earlier realm. Therefore there is nothing that can oppose. [The state] after things have been produced is the later realm. Therefore there is something [that one can] respectfully accept. Teacher said: Simply regarding earlier realization as an illustration, the earlier realm emerges out of spontaneity. [With] later realization as an illustration, the later realm emerges out of obligation.199 Emerging out of spontaneity the Pattern of the Natural Order is not opposed. Emerging out of [13b] obligation I do not dare be in opposition to the Natural Order. Therefore it is said, 'The seasons ofthe Natural Order are respectfully accepted." 197 Zhouyi suoyin, 16/21/13. 198 Zhouyi suoyin, 1/3/15. This quotation is taken from a passage included under the qian f£ hexagram that describes the actions of the "great man." Lynn renders this sentence very differently as "When he precedes Heaven, Heaven is not contrary to him, and when he follows Heaven, he obeys the timing of its moments." Lynn, / Ching, 138. It is apparent though that in Li's discussion he is reading xiantian and houtian 3K as binomes according to the conventions of inner alchemy terminology. I have elected to follow his reading to maintain the flow of the translation. The quotation in question is: ^ T l f D ^ ^ i S . IsJiM^-^i 1 9 9 This translation is somewhat tentative and the reason for these illustrations is unclear. Generally in inner alchemy the earlier realm (xiantian is associated with a state of existence prior to division and the creation of individuated forms. In such a state of realization one would naturally accord with the flow of the Natural Order (Tian JK). In the later realm (houtian division has occurred and the individual forms, including people, have no choice or are "obliged" to follow along with the course of all things with the inevitable consequence of gradual decay and finally, death. 73 Teacher said: "[When] joy, anger, sorrow, and pleasure have not yet come forth it is called centered. [When] they come forth and yet are all balanced then it is called harmony."200 1 will test you sir [by] asking [you to] compare: "Desires having come forth" and "not yet having come forth." How do these arise? It took some time [for the disciple] to respond to this. Teacher said: [Desires] have already come forth. I was silent. Teacher said: [Desires] have not yet come forth. Responding once again teacher spoke like this saying: In transmitting this practice that I myself received, I fear the blindness of my successors' eyes. As for those who are self-awakened they have begun to be able to practice [what I have taught]. Legge, The Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol. 1, 384. 74 2.4 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 2) [la] Compiled by disciple Dingan Zhao Daoke.201 2.4.a Mind-essentials of the Way and Virtue When Qingan gave his Corpus on the Tao and Virtue102 to Daoke all the disciples together were saturated with the Dharma-miik and gathered together points on the scripture that is beyond words. Presently [our teacher] commanded all of [us] gentlemen to gather together an anthology on [these] transmitted sayings [so that they would be] complete in a single chapter and to distribute [it in our] associations with like-minded scholars so that [their] minds may be guided towards innermost comprehension.203 Therefore [the title of this single chapter summary] is "mind-essentials." Teacher said: The character 'Way' (Dao jilt) is not associated with having phrases and is not associated with lacking phrases. It is not associated with having appearance and it is not associated with lacking appearance. What do you all make of this? Dingan said: Shout! 2 0 1 Zhao Daoke /E-^ESilt "I (fl. 1288) was one of Li Daochun's senior disciples. He wrote the preface to the present work, which is dated 1288. 2 0 2 The text mentioned here is Li Daochun's commentary on the Daode jing entitled Daode huiyuan, TY694, DZ387. The present chapter of the Qingan Yingchan ziyulu appears to be a summary of the discussion that followed the presentation of the text to Zhao Daoke and includes brief comments on all eighty-one chapters of the Daode jing. 2 0 3 Innermost comprehension is a translation of yihui MH>. Ciyuan, 618, s.v. See the fourth definition. 75 Heian shouted. Teacher said: This character 'virtue' (de tH) is not associated with cultivation and is not associated with not cultivating. Why is this so? Heian said: It is non-acting. Dingan agreed. Teacher said: All teachings are fond of separating from words. Perfect absorption (samddhi) emerges from oneself. Heian wrote the character 'empty'. Chengan M<M [wrote] 'fist'. [lb] Teacher said: The last phrase in the first section says, "Mystery upon mystery; gateway of all wonders." [I] must state that the thirty-six classes of esteemed scripture all issue forth from this scripture. Now [I] say where did this scripture come from? [Since] departing from my father and mother [all the] talk [I] have produced concerns the single expression, "Way." Heian opened the scripture prompting Dingan to shout. Teacher said: The second section says having form and lacking form engender each other. Moreover the Way does not cause the single expression "having form and lacking form." Again, how is it produced? It is as if the Way gained entry to hell like an arrow and the Way did not gain entry into hell like an arrow.204 I f the multitude proceeds like [this] none will be correct. Chengan asked: Why [do you] suppose [it is] thus? Teacher said: It is thus! It is thus! Teacher said: The third section's concluding phrase says, " I f one acts according to not-doing then nothing will fail to be put in order." Since this is "not-doing" why does it state the character 'do' prior to [not-doing]? I f there is "doing" then why say [2a] "not-doing" after ["doing"]?205 Dingan said: Substance and function are equally dependent. Weian tfliM said: It is just that this function, is separate from this function.2 Teacher said: The fourth section [includes the expression] "It prefigures the ancestral gods."207 Use the speech ofthe mouth [to describe it and] the rotten 2 0 4 This phrase (Ai&iWHlu) is found in the 30 juan work Dahui pujue chanshiyulu JzB^W$MQ.UM I d l S i J i T 47/1998a/7.839a, a collection of sayings attributed to the Song Linji (Rinzai) Chan master Dahui Zonggao ^ S T R I I (1089-1163). He is famed for his defence of koan training as essential to the cultivation of an enlightenment experience and his critique of Caodong HfVPH (Soto) Chan master Hongzhi Zhengjue !%z®iEjft (1091-1157) whom he claimed placed too much emphasis on seated meditation. A well-known statement of this critique is found in Dahui pujue chanshi yulu T47/1998a/21.901c. It is worth noting that Dahui was especially interested in the koan titled "Zhaozhou's Dog" in which Buddha Nature is considered. Li Daochun also makes use of this koan. Qingan Yingchan zi yulu, 1.5a. Also see footnote 153 above. This same phrase describing entry into hell like an arrow is also found in case forty-four of the Wumenguan, T 48/2005.298b though it should be noted that Li quotes another line from the same passage mentioned above (T 47/1998a/7.839a). See footnote 219. 2 0 5 Ordinarily wuwei could be translated as "non-purposive action" but to do so in this context would make it difficult to appreciate, in English, the.apparently contradictory assertions being pointed out by Li Daochun. The point turns on doing and not doing and why the text would say "do not-doing." At least with the hyphen between 'not' and 'doing' the adverbial sense of 'not' is retained. The point being that 'not' actually tells us what kind of "doing" is being referred to. 2 0 6 1 take the point to be that the character wei ^ is used twice in the phrase wei wuwei but the second M without its qualifier iffi is different in meaning from the first Indeed the first $j is best understood here as identical with rather than simply 77 [flavour] is rejected [to the very] root of the tongue. Use the vision of the eyes [to examine it] and suddenly it [bursts] out of (is rejected by) the eyes. Contain the brightness in the mouth. Abstruse! Abstruse! It is truly good to eat a handful! What do you all make of this? Li examined his vegetarian food and lifted it up as i f [it were the brightness he spoke of]. Shian Hf^ fE made a circle. Teacher said: The fifth section [says] "Is not the space between the sky and the earth like a bellows?" Teacher praised this, saying bottomless, we call it a tube; three-holed, we call it a flute. In between there is a single cavity [but] no one can find it. [Should] a gentleman be caused to blow [through it] the music [would be] soundless. Now why is the Way a single hole? Heian said: Pay attention to the nostrils.208 Shian said: Om. Now why is the Way soundless music? Teacher repeated the Song of the Blue Sky's Emptiness.109 [2b] Teacher said: The sixth section, 'The gateway of the mysterious female." This translation is taken from Roger Ames and David L. Hall, Daodejing: "Making This Life Significant" A Philosophical Translation (New York: Balantine Books, 2003), 83. Ames and Hall have avoided translating di ^ as "the Lord" or "God." The question raised in the concluding two lines of section four concerns the origin of the Way. Employing the metaphor of ancestors the Way seems to have come before the highest ancestor and so is prior to birth and, by metaphorical extension, to creation. 2 0 8 It is very likely that this is a reference to a meditative practice. In deep states of meditation a piece of goose-down placed under the nostrils should not move. 2 0 9 This is a song connected to Lingbao ritual. The ZHDJ, 656, s.v. ^^QWvZJM, notes that this song is linked to the Lingbao wuliang duren shangpin miaojing alfr IfiMlSAJliw^M (Marvelous Scripture of Supreme Rank on the Infinate Salvation of the Numinous Treasure Tradition) TY1, DZ1-13, though searches of that text have yielded only two mentions of the song rather than the song itself. Mention of this song can also be found in Taishang daojun ji AJtiElf lE, which is included in the Yunji qiqian TY1023, DZ677-702, 101.4b. 78 Teacher said: Going out, the breath does not pass through a myriad causes. Entering, the breath does not dwell in the aggregates and realms.210 Not going out and not entering, what do you make of this? Heian said: "Solitary, unmoving."2" Teacher naturally said: A myriad tunes are all hushed. Teacher said: The seventh section, "Is it not because he is without [concern for] personal benefit that he is able to [bring his] personal affairs to completion?" This is called [truly] cultivating conduct; yet people only act for themselves and depend on personal benefits while universal liberation212 depends entirely on the emotions [but] not personal emotions. [Concerning this] single expression what do you have to say? Dingan said: Put others first and yourself last. Teacher said: The eighth section, "The highest excellence is like water." Teacher said let go of this point.213 To what degree is the Yellow River clear?214 Now I say where is this dot to be placed? 2 1 0 The "aggregates and realms" (yinjie I^ Hf-) is a Buddhist term denoting the "five aggregates" (skt. skandhas) and the "eighteen realms" (skt. dhatu). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 330. 211 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 2 1 2 This is a translation of pudu ErlS. S which literally refers "crossing over" and, in a Buddhist context, "crossing over the sea of life and death" denotes salvation. Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 1574, s.v. 2 1 3 There is no entry under dianzi in the Taoist dictionaries consulted but the ZHDJ does list a circle with a black dot in the centre under quandian Bli£, 1189. It is a kind talisman (fu W). The circle represents the phasing of the fire and gathering of the medicine while the dot in the centre refers to the retreating tally and warming and nourishing. These are the active and passive phases of cultivation. Thus Li's point may be that his disciples ought to let go of such notions of active cultivation. 2 1 4 The Yellow River can refer to the regular flow of life in which the jingqi that supports reproduction is permitted to flow out of the body during copulation. Inner alchemy requires the adept to go 79 Dingan and Heian were exactly alike [in their] responses. Teacher said: The ninth section, "[When] the work is done and reputation complete, to retire is the Way of the Natural Order."215 Now [I] say in retiring [3a] one departs towards what place? Dingan said: Emptiness. [He then gave] a shout—Without trace! Heian said: There is no place one departs to. Teacher said: Both are not right. Someone said: Why is that so? Teacher said: Two legged camels conceal the Northern Bushel.216 Teacher said: The tenth section, "Contain the po fi!i soul. . ." 2 1 7 The po souls like to gallop quickly, like to be in motion and like to be valiant. By what laws and statutes are they to be regulated? I f you have a mind [by which] to regulate [them] then [it is] associated with the emotions. With no mind, regulation cannot be achieved. How are [the po souls to be] regulated? Heian snapped his lingers. against this current (huanghe niliu WlW&Ml). ZHDJ, 1313, s.v. The previous two footnotes unfortunately do not shed sufficient light on this rather obscure passage. 2 1 5 This sentence is at variance with the standard Wangbi text which reads, Jftjt-d&ifi^^Lifi. The sentence quoted here matches that of the version commented upon by Heshang gong. 2 1 6 The Northern Bushel (beitou b^$k) refers to seven stars in the Ursa Major constellation and connotes the cyclical movement of qi through the body. Hence even these awkward students whose knowledge is yet incomplete have great potential within. 2 1 7 This opening phrase of section ten has been translated in accordance with Li Daochun's apparent understanding of its meaning though Henrick's observes .that zai Wt belongs at the end of section nine as an exclamation marker. Henricks, Te Tao Ching, 206. Alternately the phrase has been translated so that it refers to carrying the po (bodily) souls on top of the head. See for example Lau, Tao Te Ching, 13. Zai WL is here translated as "contain" as the hun and po souls must remain within the body. Once they have departed, the body dies. It is apparent from Li's treatment of the phrase that he does not agree with Heshang gong's assessment of this term. Heshang gong reads ying % as a synonym for the hun T$L (spiritual) souls. Heshang gong zhushuzheng, 68. 80 Teacher said: The eleventh section, "Thirty spokes share one hub; it is precisely in its lacking that we find the utility of the wheel." Now I say when the spokes do not come together2'8 around the hub where is the wheel? Heian said: [In the] turning and rumbling. Dingan suggested: in the power ofthe wheel. Teacher said: The twelfth section, "The five colours cause mens' eyes to be blind." Teacher said: The blindness of being divorced from colour and form [3b] despite having eyes; what do you all understand by this? Heian said: Look as though [you] do not see. Teacher said: The thirteenth section, "Honour great distress as i f it were [your] body." Teacher said: [We] have a body and so we have distress [yet i f we] lacked a body how would [we] see the Way? To conclude, what do [you think] regarding this? Dingan said: Let go. Heian said: Nourish its formlessness. Teacher said: The fourteenth section, "Look for it and you do not see [it]." Teacher said: No seams or cracks. What do you all understand [by this]? Shian said: [It is] whole like a chicken's egg. Teacher said: Not right. Someone said: What does Teacher say it is like? 2 1 8 There appears to be an error in the text here. Cou (hub) is being read as cou M (come together). Teacher said: Face to face [yet you] do not recognize each other. Teacher said: The fifteenth section, "Subtly wondrous, profoundly penetrating; [their] depth was impossible to fathom" Teacher said: Water: take a 'staff to find [its depth]; a person: take language to find out [about him]; The Way: take what to find out [about it] ? Dingan and Heian each raised a fist. Teacher said: "A single form leads you on." 2 1 9 [4a] Teacher said: The sixteenth section, "Bring about the apex of emptiness; preserve the extreme of stillness. [Thus] the myriad things together arise and I thereby observe their return." Now [what] is called "return" is manifesting the mind of the Natural Order. Moreover [I] say where is the mind of the Natural Order? Again [I] say do hot move. [ I f you] move, thirty blows of the cudgel! Dingan grabbed the cudgel. Teacher said: The seventeenth section, "[As for the] most high [ruler], those below know [only] that [he] exists."220 Teacher said: Not relying on [what] has form; not relying on the formless. [You] must look to your own most high [ruler]. No one had a response. Teacher said: See [it] now in [this] discourse on the dharma. 2 1 9 This phrase (—HXSMii) is found in Dahuipujue chanshiyulu T 47/1998a/7.839a, a collection of sayings attributed to the Song Linji B&i^  (Rinzai) Chan master Dahui Zonggao XMTX^: (1089-1163). Also see footnotes 204 and 153 above. 2 2 0 The order of characters this quotation is incorrect. The original sentence reads A_LT£nW Z. not A_h 82 Teacher said: The eighteenth section, "[When] understanding and cleverness emerge there is great pretense."221 Teacher said: Cleverness and understanding are the great root of delusion. Understanding and cleverness destroy the reality of the Natural Order. What do you all understand [by this]? Zhian said: Not-doing. Sunan said: Understanding is not like stupidity. Teacher said: The nineteenth section, "Cut off sageliness and reject wisdom." What do you all understand [by this]? Dingan [4b] said: Forget where they come from. Teacher said: The twentieth section, "Cut off learning [and you will] be without anxiety." Teacher said: Everyone is invited to [state what you] make of "cutting off learning." Heian said: [To pursue learning is to] bind the wind and catch shadows. Teacher said: To study not learning is what everyone must repeatedly go through. Teacher said: The twenty-first section [in describing the Way says] there are things, there are images, there are emotions.222 Is it actually so? I f we say something 2 2 1 Once again the order of this phrase has been slightly altered: The text should read M^m iij-^Xik rather than | ? S iii 2 2 2 The twenty-first section of the Daode jing does not mention emotions (qing '\m) but rather essence (jing ft). 83 comes forth then there is moreover the eye of contemplative study.223 I f we say nothing comes forth then the eye of contemplative study is done away with. In the end what do you say? Heian said: Having [form] and lacking [form], neither are relevant. There is only one true and genuine form. Sunan drew the form of a circle. Teacher said: The twenty-second section, "Twisted then perfect; crooked then straight." Teacher said: A useless tree is long-lived.224 As for the useless goose, it is cooked. What about this? No one responded. [5a] Teacher said: useful and useless, each accords with [their respective] times. Teacher said: The twenty-third section, "To speak rarely is natural." Teacher said: Abstruse! Abstruse! Wordless the second mystery is set down. What is the first mystery? Everyone answered [but] none hit the crucial point. Teacher said: Open the mouth [yet] it is not on the tongue.225 2 2 3 The eye of contemplative study (canxueyan is found in case number eleven of Wumen guan, T48/2005/294b. 2 2 4 This point is made in a discussion between Huizi and Zhuangzi in the chapter entitled "Free and Easy Wandering." Watson, Chuang Tzu, 35. 2 2 5 It is tempting to render this response as directed at the disciples however this is precisely the gloss that Li gives the same phrase in the Daode huiyuan, shang 13a. Of course the relevance of Li's comment to their own conundrum was probably not lost on the disciples in attendance. 84 Teacher said: The twenty-fourth section, "One who stands on tiptoes is unstable; one who straddles does not walk." What do you all make of this? Dingan said: [When one] takes a step it is not on the heel. Teacher said: The twenty-fifth section, 'There is a thing formed out of the undifferentiated."226 Teacher said: What thing was there? Dingan responded thus: "Within the frontiers there are four greats;"227 at the same time is there also a great foundation? Heian gave a shout. Teacher said: The twenty-sixth section, " I f [the ruler] takes things lightly [he will] lose [his] ministers. I f he is rash he will lose his [position as] lord." 2 2 8 Teacher said: [5b] How are not taking things lightly and not being rash produced? Dingan said: When the Way is exalted there is clarity. Heian said: Perfect nature—preserve it, preserve it. 2 2 6 The phrase in question is W^/'M^K. Hun M can be translated as "chaos" or "chaotically" though in this context that masks the cosmogonic notion of the emergence of differentiated forms or in this case a thing (wu out of what is undifferentiated. Hun is regarded as chaos because it is prior to differentiation, which serves as the ground for conventional divisions and, by extension, conventional systems of order. The term 'hun' appears to have an adverbial function in the original but that would require some awkward maneuvering in English yielding perhaps "undifferentiatedly formed." Lau attempts this: "There is a thing chaotically formed." Lau, Tao Te Ching, 37. The point though is not that things are formed in a chaotic way but that they emerge out of something undifferentiated as they become things. A fuller discussion of this subject and its relationship to inner alchemy is found in Paul Crowe, "Chaos: A Thematic Continuity between Early Taoism and the Way of the Golden Elixir" in Purity of Heart and Contemplation: A Monastic Dialogue Between Christian and Asian Traditions, ed. Bruno Barhart and Joseph Wong (New York: Continuum, 2001), 197-209. 2 2 7 This quotation from section twenty-five introduces a list of four greats, which are the Way, the sky, the earth, and the king. In Buddhism the four greats (sida EJ;fc), skt. mahabhuta are the fundamental constituents of all things: fire, water, wind and earth. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 131, s.v. W^K. 2 2 8 This passage follows the wording of the edition used by Heshang gong rather than the Mawangdui of Wangbi e d i t i o n s : W & ' k W i . 8 5 Teacher said: The twenty-seventh section, "The excellent travel[er]229 [leaves] no tracks." What do [you] all understand [by this]? Heian said: A person with a measure of great strength lifts their foot without (consciously) raising it. Teacher said: The twenty-eighth section, [includes the expressions] "guard the black," "guard the female" and "guard disgrace." These are the function. The limitless (wuji supreme simplicity, and the baby are the substance. [When] uncarved wood is split it becomes vessels." What do you all understand [by this]? Dingan said: Production, production; transformation, transformation. Teacher said: The twenty-ninth section, ""Someone who desires to take hold of the empire and do things to it, I see they will not succeed." Teacher said: I say wherein are the errors and excesses? Dingan said: In doing. [6a] Teacher said: The thirtieth section, 'Those who employ the Way to assist the ruler of men do not use their weapons to force the empire [into compliance]." Teacher said: I f [one] has no [weapons, when] bandits arrive how [is one to] oppose [them]? 2 2 9 The text is missing the character zhe # that would make possible the nominalizing of xing (travel). 8 6 Heian said: Use virtue to transform them. Teacher said: Not so. Use compassion to guard against them Teacher said: The thirty-first section, "Fine weapons are instruments of ill omen." Teacher said: I f weapons are not used there is no means to guard against enemies. [Yet] i f weapons are used then it is not the Way. What about this? Dingan said: Go backwards and accord with transformation Teacher said: The thirty-second section, 'The Way is constant non-purposive action.230 Being uncarved although [it seems] insignificant, i n the kingdom [there is no one who would] dare [treat it as] a subject." Teacher said: What do [you] make of the single expression, "Being uncarved although [it seems] insignificant?" Dingan said: [Though] small, Mt. Sumeru could be inserted [into it]. Heian said: Lowly, yet it cannot be exceeded. Teacher said: The thirty-third section, "Those who die and yet do not perish231 are long-lived." Teacher said: [6b] What is this "not perishing?" Heian said: [One continues] to exist within formlessness. Dingan said: [One's] empty spirit cannot be hidden. 2 3 0 In this opening phrase wuwei M^i is substituted for wuming This error is not found in the Daode huiyuan, shang 18a. 2 3 1 The Mawangdui and Wangbi editions contain wang (forget) rather than wang TJL' (perish). While it is possible to translate "t as forget it is evident from the commentary in the Daode huiyuan and the responses from Dingan and Heian that reference is to meditation practice. It appears that the point being made is that during the "death" of self experienced in the depths of meditation the adept continues in emptiness. 87 Teacher said: The thirty-fourth section, "The sage does not [make] himself great and therefore is able to complete his greatness." Teacher said: What is "not make himself great?" Heian said: [I will] happily accord with [what] enters your pearl-mouth. Teacher said: "The highest excellence is like water." Teacher said: The thirty-fifth section, "Cleave to the great image."2 3 2 Teacher said: I f [one] says there is an image then it is not great, [yet] i f one says there is no image how can one cleave to it? Heian said: The world within a millet-pearl. Teacher said: It seems not scattering it therefore is great. Teacher said: The thirty-sixth section, " [ I f you] want to contract [it you] certainly must extend [it]." Teacher said: The eyebrows are above the eyelashes; earlier mistakes are passed by. Now I say, where do mistakes go? Dingan said: To the right place. Heian said: The hawk passes over the new net. Shian said: One must not run [away] in disorder. Teacher said: [7a] "Their crimes are listed on one indictment." single 2 3 3 2 3 2 The Great Image (daxiang da is described in section forty-one as formless. The Heshang gong commentary on sections thirty-five and forty states that the Great Image is the Way. Heshang gong zhushuzheng, 240, 287. 2 3 3 See footnote 219 for information on the source of this quotation. 88 Teacher said: The thirty-seventh section, "The Way is constantly without action and yet nothing is left undone."234 Teacher said: I eulogize: I f action is taken this is deception but [practicing] non-action also is to fall into emptiness. Neither of these two paths ford [the stream]. Please [give] a eulogizing phrase [on the above quotation from the thirty-seventh section ofthe Daode jing]. Heian said: Face to face and not meeting each other. Zhian [said]: [One] must guard the centre. Mian said: Naturally there is great spiritual understanding. Teacher said: In the right place the winds of the teaching open up. Teacher said: The thirty-eighth section. 'The highly virtuous are not virtuous and thus they have [genuine] virtue." Teacher said: [I] call on [you all], what do [you] make of [this] virtue? Heian said: [He] himself does not possess [what] he has. Teacher said: [He] is not boastful [about] himself. Teacher said: The thirty-ninth section, "[Concerning] those who in the past attained the One: The sky attained the One and thereby became clear." [7b] Teacher said: Now the Way attained the One in what place? Heian said: At the place of non-purposive action. Teacher said: It would be better not to use [the word] 'place'. Here the text accords with the Wangbi edition and that used by Heshang gong in its use of wuwei rather than wuming M% found in the Mawangdui texts. 89 Teacher said: The last phrase of the fortieth section states, "The myriad things of the world are produced as forms. Form is produced from the formless." Teacher said: What else is there beyond formless and form? Heian said: There is this illustration.235 Teacher said: The forty-first section: "Lesser scholars hear of the Way and loudly laugh at it." Teacher said: laugh at what? Heian made the statement—[he] laughs at this. Mian said: [He] laughs at non-purposive action. Teacher said: The forty-second section, "Some things are diminished by being added to. Some things increased by being diminished." Teacher said: What is it like when there is no diminishing and no increasing? Heian said: There is no deficiency and there is no excess. Teacher said: Cut away the confusion.236 [8a] The forty-third section, "The world's softest [things] gallop [over] the world's hardest [things]." Teacher said: when insults come [your way] do not allow 2 3 5 Here jusi IPMlJi. is being translated according to the definition given in the Foxue dacidian, 2794, s.v. ! | l 'fel Obviously this does not eliminate the ambiguity in Heian's response, which the teacher appears to approve of given his lack of a counter statement. 2 3 6 The term hunlun W;lm is used in the opening section of the Liezi in a description of how the world came to have form: *Jt3Kfe; J&Zft&t M WRMm^ttte, ifeSSvira. WM&ffl#$l&W*ffl l f tte. Angus C. Graham translates this passage as follows: The Primal Simplicity preceded the appearance of the breath. Primal Commencement was the beginning of the breath. The Primal Beginnings were the breath beginning to assume shape. The Primal Material was the breath when it began to assume substance. Breath, shape and substance were complete, but things were not yet separated from each other; hence the name "Confusion." Angus C. Graham, The Book of Lieh-tzu: A Classic ofTao (1960; reprint, New York: Columbia University Press, 1990), 18-19. 90 [yourself] to contend. In the passing of affairs the mind [should be] clear and cool. What is this situation of clarity and coolness? Heian said: [It is] to be without burning anger. Teacher said: [It is to be] without a lack of understanding. Teacher said: The forty-fourth section, "Reputation or your body, which [is more] dear [to you]? [Your] body237 or possessions, which [is of] more [value to you]?" Chuanlao j I |5g said: " I f you are able to export the jewel from within your family the twittering birds and mountain flowers will be renewed in the same way."2 3 8 What is this jewel within one's family? Heian said: Li, li, luo.239 Dingan shouted. Teacher said: "Unity" and said "compassion." Teacher said: The forty-fifth section. Teacher said: The above section [forty-four says] " I f [you] know [what is] sufficient [you will] not be disgraced. I f [you] know [when to] stop [you will] not be in danger." This is called constant sufficiency. [Now] this section says, "Great completion is like deficiency . . . Great fullness is 2 3 7 There is an error in this phrase. Cai W (wealth) has been substituted for shen M (body). This mistake is not found in the Daode huiyuanjuan xia, 4b. 2 3 8 The identity of Chuanlao is unclear. Li quotes him one additional time in the Wushangjiwen donggu zhenjing zhu, TY107, DZ54, lb. 2 3 9 The significance and meaning of these three characters is unclear. It may be a Chan-like response to the question posed by the teacher. 91 like emptying out." [These] are not sufficiency. [So] is "sufficiency" right or is "not sufficiency" right? Sunan and Zhian said: Haughtiness beckons [8b] injury. Humbleness receives benefit. Teacher said: Virtue can have a surplus yet those who treat it as insufficient are long-lived. Wealth can have a surplus yet those who treat it as insufficient are base. Thus it is said. Teacher said: The forty-sixth section, "[As for] crimes, none is greater than desiring." Teacher said: Not looking at the desirable will cause the mind not to be in turmoil. Urgently travel back to rescue one half. Now I say, what is that one half? Dingan said: Not parting from the right place. Teacher said: The forty-seventh section; the last phrase says, "Not seen and yet named. Not acting and yet completed." Teacher said: Name what? Complete what? Dingan and Heian both said: Complete virtue and name the Way. Teacher said: The forty-eighth section, "Engaged in learning, daily there is an increase. Engaged in the Way, daily there is a decrease." Teacher said: Increase a person how? Decrease a person how? Dingan said: Decrease the self; increase others. Heian said: Decreasing the [9a] emotions increases (benefits) [one's] Nature. 92 Teacher said: The forty-ninth section. [The remainder of this section of commentary is missing from the text.] Teacher said: The fiftieth section, 'The followers of life are thirteen. The followers of death are thirteen."240 Teacher said: The mind of Nirvana easily illumines. Discriminative understanding has difficulty enlightening. What is discriminative understanding? No one answered. Teacher said: Benevolence is called benevolence; understanding [is called] understanding. Teacher said: What is Nirvana mind? No one answered. Teacher said: [what has gone] before has no past and [what is to come] after has no present. Teacher said: The fifty-first section, "The Way gives birth to them; virtue nourishes them." Teacher said: Gives birth to what; feeds what? Shian said: Gives birth to them and feeds them; there is only this. Teacher said: A little more [than that]. Teacher said: The fifty-second section, "The world has a beginning; it is taken to be the mother of the world." The first [9b] section [of the Daode jing] says, "The named is the mother of the myriad things." What is "the named" called? 2 4 0 See footnote 148. Everyone's answers failed to hit the mark. Chengan asked: What name is called out? Teacher called out: Chengan! Chengan assented [to this]. Teacher said: To settle on a name is to understand. Teacher said: The fifty-third section, " [ I f I were] caused in the least part to have something that I knew, [then while] traveling the Great Way only relaxing [my pace] would I fear." Teacher said: Fear what? Heian said: Fear the mandate of the Natural Order. Teacher said: The fifty-fourth section, "Use the state to observe the state." Teacher said: Observing the state is not easy.[yet] a person's will is an even deeper ocean. Withered at the end [of their lives] there are people who look [but they] die not knowing their mind. Are there those who do know their mind? No one's answer responded to the main point. Chengan asked Teacher: Are there those who know their mind? Teacher responded to him and said: Who is asking? Teacher said: The fifty-fifth section, "One who contains an abundance of virtue is comparable to a newborn baby." Teacher said: [10a] Now Mengzi says, 94 "The Great Man has not lost the mind of a new-bora baby." The meaning moreover can be stated: The mind of a newborn baby is already manifest [in him]. Heian said: Pure unity. Dingan said: Silently so; unmoving.241 Teacher said: [You] are not exhaustive in your defining [of this]. You do not understand that reversion is the function of the Way. Teacher said: The fifty-sixth section, "Those who know do not speak. Those who speak do not know." Teacher said: Speaking is right; not speaking is right. Everyone's answer was incorrect. Teacher said: In the end the mouth produced by [your] father and mother will not bring about the understanding of the gentleman. Teacher said: The fifty-seventh section: "Employ uprightness to regulate the state. Employ the profound242 in using weapons." Employ non-interference243 to take control of the kingdom" Teacher said: In taking control of the kingdom how can [one] be non-interfering? Being non-interfering how can [one] take control of the kingdom? No one responded. Teacher said: Guide it with virtue. 241 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 2 4 2 The translation of ji of as "profound" follows Li's defining of that term as acting without planning or scheming. Daode huiyuan, xia 10b. D.C. Lau translates this term as "crafty." Lau, Tao Te Ching, 83. This is the usual way of translating this term. See also Henricks, Te Tao Ching, 136 and Ames, Dao De Jing, 165. 2 4 3 Here Li understands wushi (lit. without affairs) as wuwei (non-action). Daode huiyuan, xia 11a. 95 Teacher said: The fifty-eighth section. Teacher said: The last phrase "Shines but does not dazzle."244 What do [you] understand [by this]? The group was speechless. Teacher said: Wearing rough clothes on your back and carrying jade in your bosom. Teacher said: The fifty-ninth section, "In governing the people and serving the Natural Order nothing is better than to be sparing." What do [you] understand [by this]? Zhian said: Frugality. Teacher said: Accord with frugality. Teacher said: The sixtieth section, " [ I f one] employs the Way to manage the kingdom the ghosts will not [have] spiritual [power]." Why say [this]? Heian said: [They] are not able to display [their] abilities. Dingan said: Their harmful emanations do not oppose the upright. Teacher said: The sixty-first section, "A large state is [like] the descending flow [of a river]." Teacher said: [This] compares the defense [of a state with the downward flow of a river] to bring out the meaning of the hands of non-action that do not rouse weapons of war to establish great peace. I call on [you to state] what you make of "hands of non-action"? Heian said: Overturn the Three Teachings. 2 4 4 This is Lau's translation. Lau, Tao Te Ching, 85. 96 Chengan said: Break through to emptiness. Teacher said: The sixty-second section, "Having committed a crime [does one not] thereby escape [punishment]?" Teacher said: In what way has [he] transgressed? Dingan said: I have sought [the nature of] the transgression [but] am unable to find it? Teacher threw the scripture and said stop overturning and doubting! [11a] Teacher said: The sixty-third section, "Plan the difficult while it is [still] easy." Teacher said: Discoursing on the easy is not easy. Speaking about the difficult is not difficult. In between there is a remarkable place. Please add one more phrase [to this]. Heian said: The Original (yuan jc) is only located between them. Shian said: The Original is not separate from the Mysterious Pass. Teacher said: The Northern Dipper looks southward. Teacher said: The sixty-fourth section, "[When] it is settled [a situation] is easy to manage." Teacher said: What do you all understand by this? Heian said: Guard against the subtle to prevent encroaching [difficulties]. Teacher said: The sixty-fifth section, 'Those in ancient times who excelled in applying the Way did not employ it to enlighten the people. [They] used it to make them stupid." Teacher said: Altogether the teachings that have been formed 97 [come to] three-thousand six-hundred schools. From the beginning they all [try to] elucidate and always thus rouse the spirits. I alone embrace nameless simplicity. I am not bound by the multitude of malignant spirits and knock down their red pennants. Do you all understand? Dingan said: I recognize one thing; [ l i b ] they are not the centre. Heian threw the scripture. Teacher said: The sixty-sixth section, "As for what enables the rivers and seas to rule the one hundred valleys it is because they excel at being lower." Teacher said: Now I say are the rivers and seas lower than the one hundred valleys or are the one hundred valleys lower than the rivers and seas? Heian said: They all disperse and each returns to the One. Dinan said: [If] above [they] are humble. [If] below [they] follow along. Teacher said: Below, below, below. Teacher said: The sixty-seventh section, 'To abandon this compassion and yet be courageous, to abandon this frugality and yet be magnanimous, to abandon this being behind and yet [place oneself] in front [will end in] death." Teacher said: [One] cannot drink without clear water. Now I say you are invited to [explain] why "clearwater?" Dingan said: Dry land gradually sinks. Heian said: Without wind the waves stir. 98 Teacher said: The sixty-eighth section, "Those who excel at being knights are not martial." Teacher said: Not civil, [12a] not martial. Without gain, without loss. Feeling for [my] nostrils [my] whole body sweats. Now [I] say, before the birth of [my] father and mother where were [my] nostrils? Dingan said: [In] the place where the breath goes out and the breath goes in. Heian said: The place of covering up and bursting forth. Shian said: Simply below the eyebrows. Teacher said: The sixty-ninth section, "Those who employ weapons have a saying, " I do not dare play the host but play the guest." Now I say, how are host and guest distinguished? No one had an answer. Teacher said: What person are you? Who am I? Again I say, a pair of eyes faces a pair of eyes. Teacher said: The seventieth section, "My words are very easy to understand and very easy [to put into] practice." Why does it go on to say, "[but] none [can] understand [them] and none [can put them] into practice?" I f we look to this transmitted saying that has been handed down within [this section o f the Daode jing], [as for] studying [this] matter completely, i f some [of you] have not [done] so [then give it some] consideration. Dingan said: The one hundred names (everyone) daily employ it but do not understand. 99 Heian said: It is simply in front of the eyes [but] people do not recognize it. Teacher said: It is simply the understanding [that relies on] great distinctions. [12b] Teacher said: The seventy-first section, 'To know [and yet to think one does] not know is best. Not to know [and yet to think one] knows [is to suffer an] illness." How is this illness to be cured? Heian said: Preserve the mind unobscured. Al l of the [gathered] gentlemen were incorrect. Teacher said: I ward it off with nameless simplicity. Further [ I ] say, i f it is not so then, in confusion, [one is] swallowing a hot iron pill. Further [ I ] say, lesser scholars must swallow medicine. Having leaked out how will [they] understand?245 Teacher said: The seventy-second section, " I f the people have no sense of awe then what they greatly dread is about to arrive." What is this great dread? Heian said: The matter of life and death is great. Teacher said: Be without constant hurrying. Teacher said: The seventy-third section, " I f [one is] bold in being daring then [one will be] killed. I f [one is] bold in not being fearless then [he will] live." What is the secret of being killed or [staying] alive? No one in the gathering had an answer. 2 4 5 This notion of leakage is referred to in the Wuzhen pian, 26.9a, 26.35a, and is associated with being deluded. This avoidance of leakage is a constant concern throughout inner alchemy texts. The adept must retain the cultivated qi within the body rather than permitting desires and emotions to diminish it. This idea is also evident in Buddhist teachings. The term wulou M'M refers to a passionless state that leads "away from the downward flow into lower forms of rebirth." Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 328, s.v. MM. 100 Teacher said: It is like the king wielding [his] [13a] sword. Teacher said: The seventy-fourth section, "[Of those who] stand in for the great carpenter there are few who do not injure their hands." Teacher said: What [do you] understand [by this]? Dingan said: They are not properly skilled. Teacher said: The last phrase of the seventy-fifth section says, "Now only those who do not act for the sake of living are superior to those who value life." Teacher said: What do all of you understand [by this]? Dingan said: It is on account of their having no place of death. Teacher said: The seventy-sixth section, "When people are born they are soft and supple. When they are dead they are hard and rigid." What does this mean? Dingan said: "Softness and suppleness are followers of life." Teacher said: The seventy-seventh section, "The Way ofthe Natural Order is to diminish excess [in order] to supplement the deficient. The Way o f human-kind is to diminish the deficient [in order] to offer [more to those who] have an excess." Teacher said: Now [I] say, what is it like when there is no diminishing [13b] and no increasing? None of the gathering had a response. 101 Teacher said: [When] there is still no surplus and still no shortage, i f a true hand takes hold then [it will be] just right. Teacher said: The seventy-eighth section, "[One who] endures the misfortunes of the kingdom is able to act as ruler ofthe world." 2 4 6 Teacher said: What [do you] understand [by this]? No one had an answer. Teacher said: [He] avoids nothing. Teacher said: The seventy-ninth section, "[When] great enemies are reconciled [there is] certain to be residual enmity. How can [this be] taken as excellence?" What [have you to] say? Weian fH5£c said: Subduing themselves would be excellence. Dingan said: "Subduing themselves [they] return to propriety."247 Heian said: Compassion and forbearance would be excellence. Teacher said: "A single form leads beyond."248 Someone said: What is teacher saying? Teacher said: Kindness and hatred; forget both. Teacher said: The last phrase ofthe eightieth section says, "The people arrive at old age and death [never having gone] back and forth [to visit] each other." What [do you have to] say? 2 4 6 The quotation adds neng It (able to). This is not included in the Mawangdui, Wangbi or Heshang gong versions of the Daode jing. 2 4 7 This quotation is found in the opening passage of the twelfth section of the Lunyu. 2 4 8 See footnote 219 for details concerning this quotation. 102 Heian said: Their households are settled. Dingan said: [They] are without contention. Teacher said: [14a] [From] within nothing gets out. [From] outside nothing enters. Teacher said: The eighty-first section, 'The way of the sage is to act and yet not contend." Teacher said: what is non-contention? The answers of the gathering did not respond to the main point. Teacher said: Let fall the abode249 of the teachings. Teacher again said: Each person must [compose] a couplet embodying the two characters 'Way' and 'Virtue'. Heian said: The Way conceals all functions. Virtue manifests it [self] in humanity. Dingan said: The Way is not in cultivating. Virtue is not in seeking. Weian said: The Way is not the formless within the formless. Virtue is not form within form. Shian said: The Way that can be spoken is not the Way. Virtue and superior virtue are not virtue. Teacher said: The Way is solitary and unmoving. Virtue influences and penetrates. [He] also said: The Way is clear and peaceful, illuminating and bright. Virtue is humble and flexible, mild and accommodating. 249 Chagan %0^ (skt. Ksema) refers to a residence, abode, land or property. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 250, s.v. M-103 Teacher said: Each person must [compose] a couplet giving proof of the two characters 'Way' and 'Virtue' of non-acting. [Those in] the gathering had no answer. Teacher said: The Way is respectfully clasping the hands. Virtue is bowing to the ground. Teacher pointed to a candle and said: Each of you make a couplet. [You] must look at the substance and function of this candle. Heian said: The boundary of its substance breaks through emptiness. The brilliance of its function breaks through darkness. Shian said: The completeness of its substance burns.250 The brightness of its function illumines. Teacher said: The True Suchness of its substance does not move. The brilliance of its function universally enlightens. [He] also said: Its substance supports the sky and props up the earth. Its function illumines the sky and brightens the earth. Teacher said: Each person must compose a speechless couplet. You must observe the substance and function of the candle. None of them had an answer. Teacher gave an illustration. The gathering was attentive. 2 5 0 This is a tentative translation of tuotuo Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 284, s.v. K, lists tuoa as "burning." Given the candle as the subject of these couplets this may be possible. 104 2.5 Dialogic Treatise of Qingan Yingchan zi (Chapter 6) 2.5.a Elucidating Doubt Concerning the Yellow Center [la] The Teacher said: Patriarchal teachers of former generations, lofty sages of the Exalted Reality,252 had the Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth. Did they not preserve and transmit this way in the world to rescue human beings? Do you understand or not? Dingan said: Having just entered the Gate of Profundity253 1 am extremely stupid and dull-witted. That my teacher retains me as a student is [equal to] a thousand years of good fortune.254 1 certainly do not yet know this Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth and hope that my teacher will enlighten me. The Teacher said: as for the Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth, it is above the peerless; a mystery upon mystery; able to appear with no appearance; spontaneously so, it is known as the extreme limit; the most profound. The sages, compelled to give it a name, call it the Way. The ancient ascended immortals255 all proceeded from this position to completely comprehend (the Way). There have never been any who, failing to proceed 2 5 1 This lengthy dialogue between Li Daochun and his disciple, Zhao Dingan IS/E^g, occurs in juan 6 of the Qingan Yingchan ziyulu, la-9a. This section can also be found in Chapter Three of the Zhonghe ji, 14b-22b, under the alternate title, Zhao Dingan wenda f@5E$IF41i=F. Huangzhong Mtf3, yellow center, can refer to the middle elixir field dantian fl-ffl. DJDCD, 853, s.v. St^r1- Further detailed information on the various names and referents associated with this term see DJDCD, 71, s.v. H f f l . 2 5 2 This is a reference to a realm of the immortals. DJWH, 112, s.v. iHf Jt. 253 Xuanmen "If Fl, Gate of Profundity, can refer to Taoism, to Buddhism or specifically to the Huayan -3jSf JI school. DJDCD, 841, s.v. £ F^ ; Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 408, s.v. "£ F l 2 5 4 This sentence is slightly different in Zhonghe ji, 3. 14b. 255 Shangxian ± i l | are the highest form of immortals. DJWH, 277, s.v. ±fll|. 105 from this, yet still achieved the fulfillment of [this Way], [lb] Sages and teachers repeatedly explained it over successive generations; it is what they transmit to every mind256 and what is received is the meaning of the Golden Elixir. That is, the Wondrous Way of the Peerless Orthodox Truth. Dingan said: This Wondrous [Way] of Peerless Orthodox Truth is explained [in terms of] the Golden Elixir; what is said to be the principle [behind this]? The Teacher said: Gold is durable. The elixir [pill] is round. Buddhists explain it as Complete Enlightenment (yuanjue B i l l ) . The schools ofthe Ru ff§ (literati) explain it as the Supreme Ultimate (taiji ;fcfsl). From the beginning the Supreme Ultimate is not separate from creatures; it is simply unified noumenon257 that comes from the fundamental and that is all. The true Nature that comes from the fundamental (benlai zhenxing ^rJfcJ=L'[4) through endless kalpas does not decay [which is] just like the resilience of gold and the roundness of the elixir. The more it is refined the brighter it becomes. Buddhists say concerning O: as for this, it is true suchness.258 The school of literati scholars says concerning O: as for this, it is the Supreme Ultimate. My Way says 2 5 6 Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 150, s.v. >b'b. Foxue dacedian, 701, s.v. 2 5 7 Theyiling — f i , unified noumenon, is an inner alchemy technical term referring to the Original Spirit (yuanshen 7&$). This in turn can also be referred to as the Original Nature (benxing ^'14) that is not born and is never destroyed. This observation fits well with Li Daochun's next statement that equates the unified noumenon with the original nature. An extracanonical Ming dynasty text that came to be associated with the so called Southern School of inner alchemy entitled Xingming guizhi 14^p i^ H says that "the Unified Noumenon cannot be destroyed; the essence and qi for ever preserve it." DJWH, 742, s.v. — M . 258 Zhenru MtG, (skt. bhutatathata), true suchness, resembles the waves in contrast to the ocean. The waves are mutable while the ocean is eternal. True Suchness is the unchanging reality behind all phenomena. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 331, s.v. M-ttt. 106 concerning O: it is the Golden Elixir.259 While they share the same substance they differ in name. The [Book of] Changes says, the changes are the Supreme Ultimate and this gives birth to the two signs.260 As for Supreme Ultimate, it is called the spontaneity o f empty no-thing.261 The two signs are a single yin and a single yang. They are sky and earth. Human beings are bora between the sky and earth and [2a] this is known as the Way of the Three Powers.262 Through this process] the whole person is brought to completion. The Supreme Ultimate is the Original Spirit (yuanshen fcffl). The Two Signs are the body and mind. I f I explain this in terms of the Way of the Elixir then the Supreme Ultimate is the mother of the elixir and the two signs are true lead and true mercury. What I call lead and mercury are not of the same category as liquid silver,263 vermilion sand,2 6 4 sulphur,265 and herbs. Furthermore they are not semen and saliva, mucus and tears, heart-mind and 2 5 9 There is no way to render the symbol "O" as a word without doing violence to the claim being made here. The ZHDJ, 1132, s.v. O, defines this symbol as standing for the Golden Elixir and refers to this very passage to support its definition. Of course such a definition fails in a very important way to account for Li's argument which at this point seems to be that "O" refers to a reality which is, on some level, prior to that of Universal Realization, the Supreme Ultimate and even the Golden Elixir. 260 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/80/9. This quotation from the "Appended Statements" (Xici St&f) of the Zhouyi is taken from a statement describing the settling of fortune and misfortune through the bagua A# which is generated sequentially from the Supreme Ultimate: JIWAii, «c3lpyf§, MW.$LVM'£.EM.%.A%-A> 2 6 1 Here, and whenever possible, the use of "nonbeing" and "being" will be avoided. Such terms bring with them far too much metaphysical baggage rooted in much European, American, and Indian philosophy and religion. Supreme Ultimate (Taiji is a state prior to differentiation and so discrete "things" are simply not yet formed. Later, after the eight trigrams (bagua have been generated, discrete things take form. Adding the suffix "ness" to no-thing would of course reify "no-thing" thus, having rid ourselves of "non-being" we would be adding "nothingness." 2 6 2 The sancai H T J " refers to the sky, earth and humanity. 2 6 3 Shuiyin TK$B can refer to mercury or cinnabar (Zhusha ^My). Here, it appears to refer to the former. Daozang danyaoyiming suoyin, 2362/277. 2 6 4 Zhusha ifcjf(y is one of many synonyms for cinnabar. Danyao suoyin, 0437/50. 265 Liuhuang Danyao suoyin, 1514/174. 107 reins,266 nor qi and blood. Rather, they are the Original Essence {yuanjing jcffl) in the body and the Original Spirit (yuanshen ftW) in the heart-mind. I f the body and mind do not move the essence and qi will congeal. In describing it I call it the elixir. What is called the elixir is the elixir body. O is the True Nature. Drawing O out of the elixir is called completion of the elixir.267 As for what is called the elixir, it does not come from the fashioning of some false external substance; the origin of what is produced is the complete Orthodox Truth; the world rarely understands this. Contemporary scholars who make pretense at cultivating the elixir many do not obtain the orthodox transmission. Al l are looking to the external in their search and following the heterodox while turning their backs on the orthodox. Therefore, those who study are many and yet those who achieve completion are few. [2b] Some refine the five metals268 and the eight minerals;269 some refine the three avoidances and the five attractions;270 some refine the external qi of rosy clouds;271 some 2 6 6 Here I follow Needham's understanding of shen 'fir as a region rather than designating a specific organ. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 5.5, 22, d. Western medicine tends to delimit the kidney very specifically as a single organ containing the basic functional unit, the nephron which produces nephric filtrate. By comparison the function of the shen 'fir includes installing essence (jing 3rW) associated with reproduction. The shen also directly impacts on the health of the bone and marrow, brain, hearing and the respiratory system. Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, s.v. shen r f i f . 2 6 7 In this sentence Li understands qi to be synonymous with the Original Spirit (yuanshen jcffi)• Once again "O" is being used as something prior to the elixir. Li clearly does not equate it with the elixir. Of course he has just made the point that "O" represents the True Nature. 2 6 8 The five metals are iron (tie US), copper (tong Sf), lead (qian §S), tin (xi %), and silver (yin IS). DJDCD, 216, s.v. Ti±. 2 6 9 The eight minerals are cinnabar (zhusha 7fc0)> realgar (xionghuang ifctjNf), mica (yunmu l t#) , azurite malachite (kongqing and sulphur (liuhuang Untfi). DJDCD, 39, s.v. AS. 2 7 0 1 have been unable to locate the terms sanbi or wujia E f t in any Taoist or Buddhist dictionary. The former may well be a reference to practices of abstinence from grains and perhaps sex among others. 2 7 1 This is probably a reference to the practice of ingesting the dawn mists. This practice is also criticized by Zhang Boduan as not being part of the true inner alchemical way. Wuzhen pian, 26.21b. 108 refine the essences of the sun and moon; some gather the brightness o f the stars' luminescence; some contemplate the pill within emptiness to complete the elixir; some think the elixir field has a substance that is the elixir, some, on the back of their forearms, fly the essence of metal;272 some concentrate on the (point) between the eyebrows; some return the semen to restore the brain; some circulate the qi and return it to the navel; furthermore they even come to swallowing impurities, swallowing saliva, and the Elegant Exercises in Eight Sections [method] of taking in the new and spitting out the old. 2 7 3 [Also, there are the] methods [designated with] three characters: Swaying the spine, twisting the windlass,274 closing the weilu MJ?S, 275 guarding the umbilical chord,276 gathering the sex-stimulating essence of the kidneys,277 and forging autumn stones.278 2 1 2 The precise meaning of this phrase has proved impossible to locate. "Essence of metal" (jinjing skffl) can refer to cassiterite, a native tin dioxide (SnC>2) which is the major ore of tin occurring in tetragonal form as yellow, brown or reddish prisms. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed. s.v. cassiterite; Danyao suoyin, 2874/345. Unfortunately this sheds no light of the meaning of this phrase. 273 ZHDJ, 1031, s.v. A%tM, specifically mentions "spitting out the old and drawing in the new" (UirtfcSft Iff) as one of the forms of exercise included in the "Elegant Exercises in Eight Sections" (baduanjin). This is a reference to a form of daoyin. Also see Needham, Science and Civilisation, 5.5, 154-179 and Kunio Miura, "The Revival of Qi: Qigong in Contemporary China" in Livia Kohn ed. Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques (Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan, 1989), 148-150. 2 7 4 The precise meaning of this term has proved impossible to determine though a reference to the "windlass opening" (luluxie tttfiTt) can be found in the Dadan zhizhi, TY 243, DZ 115, zhuan shang, 9b. This term is included in a discussion of the movement of the qi up from the weilu through the gates of the spine to the top of the head and then descending through the front of the body. In the present context however it is more likely that a more physical exercise more akin to daoyin 2^ *31 or Taji quan A#l.^£ is being referred to here. 2 7 5 The weilu MIM] is associated with the coccyx (Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 31, s.v. MIM]) but is also known as the "gate of the sea of qF (qihaimen MM?']) the "river chariot bone" (hechegu #) and the "river chariot road" (hechelu M^Sft) as well as the "dragon tiger opening" (longhuxue f life These are some of the names listed in the Baoyizi sanfeng Idoren danjue ffi—Ir^ M-'&Xf^ tk (Master Baoyi sanfeng's Essentials on the Elixir) TY 280; DZ 134, 15b. Closing this opening, comprising part of the course along which the qi flows, is probably a reference to the practice of preventing leakage of the qi from the body... 2 7 6 This practice is not listed in any of the major Taoist dictionaries. The navel is certainly a key point in the body referred to by many other names including "elixir field" (dantian #EH), "central palace" (zhongguan • T 1 Tl'), and "yellow hall" (huangting ]*f jg). A more complete list of synonyms can be found in Dadan zhizhi, zhuan shang, 2a, composed by a contemporary of Li Daochun. 2 7 7 1 have chosen to translate tiangui A l l as "sex-stimulating essence of the kidneys" rather than as menstruation as it seems to be more in accord with practices aimed at strengthening the body and it makes 109 [Other methods include] the gymnastics of bending and stretching, massage, mhaling and exhaling,279 secretly paying court to Shangdi,280 the tongue supporting the roof of the mouth,281 returning to the three [elixir] fields,282 [alternately] stopping and circulating the breath,283 gathering the great fire in the bladder,284 and gathering the five phases in the bitter sea.285 By following such lesser methods how is one different from the thousand schools that, although they expend great efforts in adopting such methods, in the end are unable to complete the great affair. The scripture says: "The orthodox method is difficult to encounter. Many stray from the true road;" thus it says, "many enter heterodox good sense when paired with the verb cai S "to gather." It is also a practice that applies equally to men and women and the passage here appears not to distinguish sex-specific exercises. Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 329, s.v. 2 7 8 Forging autumn stones (duan qiushi M) was a reference to an outer alchemical practice though its referent appears to have changed to include a form of bodily cultivation after the Tang dynasty. ZHDJ, 1407, s.v. Wa. 2 7 9 This practice may be more complicated and subtle than the translation suggests. These terms are a common binome in outer alchemy referring to the careful regulation of the fire, known as fire phasing (huohou ik.{$), during the process of refining the elixir. ZHDJ, 1201, s.v. The translation here reflects the more obviously physical practice in keeping with what appears to be the focus of Li's critique. 2 8 0 This is a meditative exercise that involves shifting the concentration to various regions of the body such as the lower elixir field and the uppermost gate known as the niwan dingmen jEs&JMFI. ZHDJ, 1030, s.v. 2 8 1 This is another meditation technique in which the tongue touches the palate just behind the teeth during meditation. ZHDJ, 1250, s.v. frJ£±Bf. 2 8 2 This is an inner alchemy method for cultivating the great returned elixir (da huandan ZHDJ, 1240, s.v. = III 2 8 3 Here qi is best translated as "breath" as the reference is to breathing exercises in which the breath is held for extended periods in order to enhance the health of the body. ZHDJ, 971, s.v. PrlM. 2 8 4 The term "great fire" (dahuo ~fc'X) is a synonym for a constellation known also as the Heart Constellation (xinxiu 'h t^?) or simply heart (xin See Needham, Science and Civilisation 3, 250 concerning dahuo %'X. Also see ZHDJ, 791, s.v. and 796, s.v. Xji.. There appears to be some symbolic play at work here. Inner alchemical symbolism matches the five phases to five organs in the body. The heart happens to be correlated with fire. Fire is seen as potentially destructive if permitted to act according to its nature. The adept is supposed to make the fire of the heart sink rather than rise just as water," correlated with the kidney region, and connoting the essence (jing |jf), is supposed to be made to rise rather than sink. The criticism here seems to be leveled at confounding this inner alchemy understanding of the fire with a more literal practice of trying to force the great fire into the bladder. 2 8 5 It is unclear what practice this phrase is referring to as the Taoist dictionaries provide accounts of the "bitter sea" (kuhai WM) that refer back to the Buddhist doctrine regarding human kind's situation of birth into a boundless sea of suffering. Clearly something else is intended here. 110 sects."286 [3a] Now as for the essentials of the most true [method], they are extremely simple and extremely easy. It is difficult to encounter but easy to complete. I f you should encounter the transformative teachings of an accomplished person you wi l l not fail to [achieve] completion at once! Dingan said: [Your] disciple has been preordained to have the good fortune to meet a teacher. [Your disciple] rejoices at receiving the essentials of the method for triturating the Golden Elixir. I hope you will favor me with your transformative teachings. The Teacher said: As you are now attentively listening I will give a broad explanation. Well, as for the Golden Elixir, it is completed in grasping the creative transformations of heaven and earth. Take qian and kun to be the reaction vessel;287 take the sun and moon to be the water and fire; take yin and. yang to be the workings of transformation; take the raven and the hare to be medicinal substance.288 Rely on the revolving of the Dipper's bowl. Depend upon the extending and shifting of the Dipper's 2 8 6 1 do not know what scripture is being referred to here though it is definitely not the Wuzhen pian. 2 8 7 This line, L U ' K ^ ^ ^ l f l , is almost certainly taken from the first of sixty-four stanzas comprising the core of the Wuzhen pian, which reads: ^ f e t t l ^ ^ ^ ^ - i ^ l {Wuzhen pian, 27.1a). Within inner alchemical language the hexagrams qian ijtfc and kun iH1 resonate with multiple layers of meaning however the general point being made here is that the reaction vessel (dingqi associated with outer alchemical experiments must here be understood as the broad context of macro and microcosmic transformations within which the process of inner alchemical transformation takes place. In his commentary on this line in the Wuzhen pian, Zhenyi zi Jfc—-p explains that after unified qi has coalesced and the Supreme Ultimate (Taiji XML) has split into its component parts (liangyi PPHU) qian and kun follow along with all of the subsequent cosmogonic phases of differentiation engendered within them. Wuzhen pian, 27.1a. This is all a prelude to a return to the stage of non-differentiation that began the creative cycle. 2 8 8 According to the "Questions and Answers" section of the Jindan dachengji found in the Xiuzhen shishu TY 262, DZ 122-131, the "golden raven in the sun" and the "jade hare in the moon" are associated with the fluid in the heart ('O^i.'/S) and the qi in the reins (SF r^1 Z.M.). Jindan dachengji, 10.10a. Li states later in this text that the raven and hare are the inner nature and emotions: .H^iittffitil. Yingchan ziyulu, 6.3b. I l l handle.289 The gathering ofthe qi has its times and the revolving ofthe tally has its pattern: First the advancing fire, then the retreating tally;290 the harmonious union of the four signs;291 escorting the two forms of qi (yin and yang) back to the yellow road;292 bringing together the three natures in the primordial palace;293 reverting to the foundation; returning to the primordial, going back to the root; restoring life. [When all of this] work has been completed and the spirit prepared, the mundane is cast off and you will become an immortal. This is what is called the completion ofthe elixir. [3b] Dingan said: Truly I fear the creation and transformation of heaven and earth are impossible to grasp. The teacher said: [As long as you] do not go out of the body [to search] why should it be impossible to have the form and substance of heaven and earth [within]? [Simply put, they are] fire and water, essence and qi, yin and yang, and body and rriind. The raven and hare are the Nature and emotions. What are taken to be form and substance are the reaction vessel and the stove. Essence and qi are water and fire 289 Tiangang is the bowl of the Dipper while doubing ^ffi is the handle. The Dipper is an asterism of the Ursa Major constellation, known also as the Great Bear. The rotation of the dipper is a recurring motif in neidan texts. It is symbolic of cycles in general including the seasons and also represents the continual circulation of the qi up the spine and down the front of the body. Needham, Science and Civilisation, vol. 5, 250. Below Li describes this metaphor in terms of the mind of the Natural Order. 2 9 0 The tally (fu ffi) refers to the two complementary phases of qi circultation which first advances up the spine and is referred to as "advancing the fire" (jinhuo jfeik.) and then the "retreating tally" (tuifu Mffl). 2 9 1 The four signs (sixiang MM.) are water, fire, metal and wood, four of the five phases to be reunited in the centre, which is earth, often represented by the pairing of the two celestial stems (tiangan -2cT), ww rJt and ji 3. In the forward to the Jindan sibaizi of Zhang Boduan, it is explained that the four signs are the eyes, ears, nose and tongue that must be closed off to external distraction. In this way the hun ^.,po spirit and essence can return and be stored in their proper organs allowing the intention to rest in the spleen (the centre). Once this occurs these four forms of qi can pay court to the centre where the intention resides. 2 9 2 Huangdao ftifi refers to the direct route of circulation from the huiyin point on the perineum up to the niwan M% region in the head. ZHDJ, 1180, s.v. HiK. See also Wuzhen pian, 27.2a. 2 9 3 This is a quotation from the forward to the Wuzhen pian, 26.3a. 112 [respectively]. The emotions and Nature are the workings of transformation. The body and mind are the medicinal materials. The sages, fearing that those who study will not grasp this and follow it, use [the analogy of) heaven and earth to explain it. A person's body and the creative transformations of heaven and earth do not fail to share the same condition. The two characters 'mind' and 'body' are the medicine and the fire. [The creative transformations of heaven and earth are] that by which the celestial hun soul and the terrestrial po soul, the qian horse and the kun ox, the yang lead and the yin mercury, the kan man and the //' woman, the raven of the sun and the hare of the moon294 do not depart from the two characters, 'body' and 'mind'. As for the revolving of the Dipper's bowl, it is the mind of the Natural Order. An elixir book295 says: " I f the human mind is in agreement with the mind of the Natural Order the inverting of yin and yang ceases in an instant." It also says "Consider the mind; [when] contemplating the Way; the Way is precisely the mind. Consider the Way; [when] contemplating the heart-mind; the mind is precisely the Way. [4a] The extending and shifting of the Dipper's handle is the Mysterious Pass. And, as for the Mysterious Pass, it is the pass of the workings of the utmost mystery and profundity. Of those who presently study, many of them muddy the form and the substance. Some say [the Mysterious Pass] is between the eyebrows; some say it is the circle of the navel; some say it is in between the two kidneys. Some say it is behind the navel and in 2 9 4 All of these symbolic pairs are ways of referring to the dynamic relationship between yin andjawg. 2 9 5 1 have been unable to locate the source of this quotation. 113 front of the kidneys; some say it is the bladder; some say it is the elixir field; some say the head has nine palaces and that these are the Mysterious Pass; some point to the gate of production, the place from which the body is born (the vagina); some point to the mouth and nose as the Mysterious Female. None of these are [the Mysterious Pass]. Yet looking above forms and substance is also not right. Further, one must not depart from this body and turn toward the external. [You may] seek for it in the elixir scriptures but none of them explain the exact location. Thus it is impossible to make [the Mysterious Pass] manifest. The pen and the tongue cannot explain it. Therefore it is said that the two characters 'Mysterious' and 'Pass' are what cause the sages to write only the single character 'centre' (zhong cpO to make [the meaning of the Mysterious Pass] manifest to people. It is this character, 'centre' that explains Mysterious Pass. What is called "centre" is not the "centre" of inside and outside. Also it is not the "centre" of the above and below of the four cardinal points. [4b] It is not the "centre" of being at the centre [of something]. Buddhists say: "Do not think of goodness; do not think of evil. When you are thus centered296 that is your original face and eyes." This is the "centre" of the Chan School. The Ru [scholars] say that pleasure, anger, sorrow and joy having not yet stirred is the substance of being centered.297 The Taoist teaching says when thoughts abide motionless it is called centered. This is the centeredness of the Taoist teaching. These [examples] namely, are the Three Teachings employing only the 2 9 6 Here zheng IE, which can mean the centre of a target, is translated as "centred" in order to preserve Li Daochun's perceived resonance with his notion of zhong ^ • 2 9 7 This is a paraphrase of one of the most famous statements found in the Zhongyong. James Legge, The Chinese Classics, vols. 1 and 2 (1935; reprint, Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc., 1992), 384. 114 single character 'centre'. The Changes [of the Zhou] says: "Quietly unmoving."298 This is the substance of the centre. "Affected it follows and penetrates."299 This is the function of the centre. Laozi said: "Bring about emptiness to the limit; preserve stillness earnestly. The myriad creatures together arise; thus I watch their return."300 The Changes [of the Zhou] says: "[In the hexagram] Fu (return) [one] sees the mind of Sky and Earth."301 Moreover, in the hexagram Fu a single yang [line] is produced beneath five yin lines. Yin is stillness. Yang is movement. [When] stillness reaches its limit it produces movement. Only this place of movement really is the Mysterious Pass. During the two [sets of] six hours (all day) you 3 0 2 begin the moving of the mind and the abiding of the thoughts, attending to carrying out the work. [After] an extended period the Mysterious Pass will spontaneously appear. [5a] I f you are able to see the Mysterious Pass then the medicinal substance, the phasing of the fire, "drawing out" and "supplementing" 3 0 3 and the functioning of circulation will all be arrived at. The transforming spirit shedding the womb definitely does not go out through this single 2 9 8 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 2 9 9 Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/'22. 3 0 0 Daode jing, 16. 301 Zhouyi suoyin, 24/24/29. 3 0 2 Here I am reading gong according to the account given in the Jindan wenda section of the Jindan dachengji skj^XfftMi, 4b. This text is found in the second of the ten books found in the Xiuzhen shishu, TY 262; DZ 122-131. 3 0 3 Within neidan texts choutian translated here as "drawing out" and "supplementing," is often glossed as drawing out the lead to supplement the mercury (ttlB^SJK). Li also does this but he adds, "When the body does not stir the qi is settled. [I] call this drawing out. When the mind does not stir the spirit is settled. [I] call this supplementing." (k^WifaftM'ZM, <L^W)WftMZM) Zhonghe ji, 3.2a. Elsewehere Li describes "drawing out," by employing the Buddhist-sounding language of cutting off worldly ties. Here he also describes "supplementing" as the realm of Original Nature (^ '14 A). Yingchan zi yulu, 6.26b (translated below). 115 opening.304 Gathering the medicine refers to gathering the true lead and true mercury inside the body. The production ofthe medicine has its time. As for that time it is not the extreme of winter nor is it the birth of the moon or the hour of zi (1 lpm-lam). 3 0 5 The teacher says: "In refining the elixir it is no use seeking winter's extreme. Within the body there is a naturally occurring production of a single yang."i06 Again it is said: "[When] lead is produced upon meeting gui, quickly you must gather. When metal meets the full moon send it away and do not taste it." 3 0 7 Taking this [into consideration] and searching in the body, the time of gui's production is a single yang. You can then set to work gathering the two qi. After they have been brought together and harmonized it is essential to be aware of employing restraint to avoid overflowing. You must not go too far. [Thus Zhang Boduan says:] "When the moon is full send it away as it is not fit for tasting."308 I f you lack a means to grasp the [idea of] advancing the fire and the retreating tally then follow the fluctuations of heat and cold during the period of a year taking them as [the means for] the regulation of the fire and tally. Further you can use the waxing and waning 3 0 4 The term tuotai flftUn occurs frequently in neidan texts and refers to escaping the pregnant womb, which in this context is a metaphor for the departure of the yang spirit from the mundane world. Li defines tuotai as Has yang spirit going out from the shell. Zhonghe ji, 3.21b. Generally Li's point is that the Mysterious Pass is not a location providing an opening through which the yang spirit may exit. It may be better to view it as the entire process in some sense. 3 0 5 The peak of winter (dongzhi 4 -^M), the new moon (yuesheng £j ^ E.) and the double midnight hour (zi T ) are references to moments when yin has peaked and yang makes its return. Li has gone to some lengths in the previous statements to explain that, as with the hexagram fu, a single yang must make its appearance so that within the tranquility of absolute >w the first stirring of yang movement makes itself known. He reiterates this point in his quotation of an unidentified teacher in the very next line. Now he is urging his student, and the reader, not to cling to exact moments as they journey on the path to realization. This is in keeping with his refusal to explain the Mysterious Pass as a fixed location. As usual he suggests looking inward for the right moments. See the next passage. 3 0 6 The teacher is Zhang Boduan. The quotation given here is found in 'Wuzhen pian, 26.11 a. 3 0 7 The following explanation draws on a commentary by Ye Shibiao in the Wuzhen pian, 26.17a-b which explains that gui $k is the trigram kun (Gui is one of the ten celestial branches that corresponds with water as does the trigram kun.) Both symbolize pure yin at the moment when yang emerges. This building or waxing of yang is a time for gathering qi. Conversely, when the moon is full yang begins to wane and this is not the time to be gathering. This is a time when the qi will potentially disperse. Hence, the next sentence in the original (quoted here by Li Daochun) advises storing away the qi by sealing it up to avoid leakage. 308 Wuzhen pian, 26.17a. 116 of a single moon (month) in order to understand the directing of "drawing out" and "supplementing." Moreover, it is like [the twelve hexagrams representing the waxing and waning of yin and yang:]309 the extreme moment of winter when a single yang [line] is produced in the hexagram fu; the double yang hexagram lin of the twelfth month; [5b] the triple yang hexagram tai of the first month; the four^awg hexagram dazhuang of the second month; the five yang hexagram guai of the third month; the six yang, pure yang, hexagram qian of the fourth month. [Then, with] the extreme of yang [having been reached, a] yin [line] is produced: the single yin hexagram gou of the fifth month; the double yin hexagram dun of the sixth month; the triple yin hexagram fou of the seventh month; the four yin hexagram guan of the eighth month; the five yin hexagram bo of the ninth month and the pure yin hexagram kun of the tenth month. [With] the extreme of yin [having been reached] the cycle begins again with fu. This is the workings of the advancement and retreat of the fire and the tally. What remedy is there for students who cling to words and muddy the images (the hexagrams) taking the winter's extreme and calling it "setting to work advancing the fire" and calling summer's extreme "retreating of the tally?" They do not understand the essentials of the cause of bathing310 during the second and eighth months.3" The sages see students [of the Way] mistakenly employing their minds and wills; again, taking the period of a [whole] year and squeezing it into a single month; using the symbols of the full moon and the new moon, and the winter and 3 0 9 See Appendix 1 for an illustration of the twelve hexagrams. 3 1 0 Li defines muyu very succinctly as "cleansing the mind and washing away anxiety" (fk.'b'MM-)-This represents a departure from standard neidan explanations and uses of this term in which it is linked to and explained in terms of the phasing of the fire. Li is well aware of other approaches to defining this term but ranks them as inferior. Zhonghe ji, 3.16a-17a. See Daojiao dacidian, s.v. fofe for several explanations one of which refers to the phrase ifc'bMM found somewhere in the vast corpus of material associated with Baiyu chan. 3 1 1 The second and eighth months are designated by the terms rising crescent moon (shangxian _hK) and falling crescent moon (xiaxian T32) See Appendix 1. 117 summer solstices; taking the two crescent [moons] and pairing them with the second and eighth months; taking two days and dividing and adjusting them to [the period of] a single month; taking thirty days and equating it to a year. Students also concentrating [6a] on the moon apply their efforts and take the waning and waxing ofthe moon and fit these into a single day. [Thus] they consider the hours of zi (1 lam-lam) and xia (11pm-lpm) to embody new and full moon and consider the hours oimao (5am-7am) and vow (5pm-7pm) to embody the two crescent moons. Students also focus on a single day in applying their efforts.312 A true teacher of recent times (Zhang Boduan) said: "Half an hour's work naturally has the time period of one year."313 Further, he said: "Formerly [when] the mother and father have not yet been born, therein are years, months, days and hours."314 These are [but] instructional metaphors [used by] the sages. Students must not confusedly employ their minds. What remedy is there for muddying them [when] students do not exhaustively look into the [underlying] principles [but] cling to words and muddy the images? [Doing this] disciples only weary their minds. I will now give you straightforward directions. When gui is produced in the body this then is a single yang. Yang ascends and yin descends; this then is triple yang. The division of yin and yang simply is the four yang lines embodying the second month. I f we match the rising crescent [moon] to the hour of mao (5am-7am) it is the [time for] bathing. Thus, afterwards the fire may be advanced. 3 1 2 A very similar critique of this approach is found in Jindan sibaizi, TY1070, DZ 741, 9a. 313 Jindan sibaizi, 3 b. 3 1 4 The second reference here is not found in the Jindan sibaizi nor in the Wuzhen pian. 118 The interaction of yin and yang and the combining of spirit and qi are the six yang. After yin and yang have interacted and the spirit and qi have melded you must understand how to regulate surplus. I f you do not know how to stop [6b] at sufficiency then all your former work will be entirely wasted. Therefore it is said that when the metal of the elixir meets the full moon send it away and do not taste it.3 1 5 The retreating tally is symbolized by the arrival of a single yin [line].3 1 6 The division of yin andyang is symbolized by the three yin [lines of the hexagram fou].311 When jw? and yang have been secretly established you ought to bathe. [Bathing,] symbolized by the eighth month, is compared to the falling crescent moon, and is likened to the hour of you (5pm-7pm). Thus, later the cycle arrives at six yang lines [of the hexagram kun]. With the extreme of yin, yang is [again] produced. [Thus] an instant is one whole day.318 You simply need to depend on [this process] acting on it and working for an extended period and, gradually congealing, gradually coagulating, the substance produced from [what is] without substance unifies and completes the sacred foetus. We call this the completion of the elixir. Dingan said: I have already received [your explanation concerning] setting to work employing the fire phasing throughout the day however, my teacher has introduced many different terms and I do not completely understand them. I hope my teacher wil l elaborate. 3 1 5 See footnote 307 above for information on this phrase. 3 1 6 This refers to the hexagram gou at the hour of xia. See Appendix 1. 3 1 7 This is a continuation of the movement through the hours of the day and through the waxing of yin in the twelve key hexagrams. Fou occurs at the hour of shen (3pm-5pm). 3 1 8 Compare this to the point made earlier in the quotation of a true teacher's words: "Half an hour's work naturally has the time period of one year." 119 The teacher said: These different names are merely metaphors. Do not depart from the two characters: 'body' and 'mind' when you set to work. Congeal the harmony of the ears; contain the brightness of the eyes; seal up the qi of the tongue; harmonize the breath of the nose. [When these] "Four Greats" [7a] do not move then essence, spirit, the hun souls and po souls and the intention all rest in their places. This is called the five qi paying court to the origin.319 Circulating [this qi so that it] enters the Central Palace is called gathering together the five phases.320 When the mind does not move this is the dragon's moan. When the body does not move, this is the tiger's roar. The body and mind not moving is called the descending dragon and the hidden tiger. The essence and qi are described as the tortoise and the snake. The body and mind are described as the dragon and tiger. The instant unifying of the dragon, tiger, tortoise and snake is called the harmonizing and unifying of the four signs. Using the Nature to take hold ofthe emotions is called equalizing metal and wood. Using essence to manage the qi is called the interaction of fire and water.321 Wood and fire share the same origin. The two natures share one household. [That is,] three of the east and two of the south together make five.322 [Likewise] water and metal share the same origin. One of the north and four of the 3 1 9 This appears to be a quotation, though in slightly different order, from the forward to the Jindan sibai zi traditionally attributed to Zhang Boduan. The text of the Jindan sibai zi goes on to explain the results of this state of meditative stillness. It provides a useful elucidation of the quotation found in Li Daochun's text: "The eyes not seeing locates the hun souls in the liver; the ears not hearing locates the essence in the kidneys; the tongue making no sound locates the spirit in the heart-mind; the nose sensing no fragrance locates the po souls in the lungs; the lack of movement in the four limbs locates intention in the spleen." All of this is described as "the five qi paying court to the origin" which is repeated in Li's text. So this meditative exercise, in which all of the senses are muted or stopped, is a method for retaining various forms of qi in their proper bodily locations. The result is the establishment of the necessary foundation for transforming essence into qi, qi into spirit and spirit back to emptiness or the Way. Jindan sibai zi, la. ' 3 2 0 This phrase is found in Zhuzhen neidan jiyao, TY1246, DZ 999, quanzhong, 13a, attributed to Xuanquan zi a Quanzhen master and contemporary of Li Daochun. According to the ZHDJ, 1229, sv. guji this text is given as the primary reference for another phrase used by Li below (see footnote 328). This assumes that Li is quoting Xuanquan zi and not the reverse. 3 2 1 This section of text is almost verbatim from the Zhuzhen neidan jiyao, quan zhong, 13b. 3 2 2 East corresponds with wood while south corresponds with fire. 120 west make it complete. 3 2 3 Earth, located in the Central Palace, is associated with the naturally completed number five. Wuji JJcS at the same time [also] accords with the originally produced number [five]. 3 2 4 When the niind, body, and wi l l are made complete in a single instant the three households behold each other and form the c h i l d . 3 2 S This is called the fusing o f the three fives. Refining essence and transforrriing it into qi; refining qi and transforming it into spirit and [7b] refining spirit so that it returns to emptiness is called the three herbs gathered in the reaction vessel. It is also called the three gates. A s for the many contemporary students who point to the weilu WuW^Jiaji 3J$ f^, andyuzhen 3£fet as being the three gates 3 2 6 they are only referring to a method o f w o r k that is not the most essential concern. The place where the mind stirs and the thoughts are set in motion is the Mysterious Female. A s for my contemporaries pointing to the mouth and nose, these are not it. The body, mind, and wil l are the three essentials. Nature within the mind is called mercury within cinnabar. 3 2 7 Qi within the body is called metal within water. [Normally,] 3 2 3 Complete insofar as the sum of the two is five. 324 Wu 1% and ji 5 refer independently to the fifth and sixth of the ten celestial stems (tiangcm AT") and, in combination, correspond to the earth phase which occupies the central position. This entire section describing the correlation of numbers with directions as comprising three sets of five follows very closely the schema laid out by Zhang Boduan in the fourteenth of sixteen heptasyllabic verses in the opening section of the Wuzhen pian, 26.19a-b. Wuming zi's commentary on this section is helpful. 3 2 5 This sentence and a clear explanation is found in Ming dynasty extracanonical neidan text entitled Xingming guizhi, 25b. The explanation points out that the three fives or houses are the mind, body, and will all of which, if they are kept still, will allow the joining of spirit in the south and nature in the east, jing in the north and emotions in the west, and with the will settled in the centre all three join together. All of this is explained further as the requisite foundation for transformingyiwg into qi, qi into spirit and spirit into emptiness. 3 2 6 These gates are located at the coccyx, mid spine and back of the head. 3 2 7 The Chinese character translated here as "cinnabar" is sha ft!?. Although it might be otherwise translated as sand or gravel this would be at odds with the present context. Cinnabar (mercury sulphide) is the principal ore of mercury and this term, used here in connection with mercury is almost certainly shorthand for dansha -ft®, red cinnabar. 121 metal is the originating producer of water and so is known as the mother of water. [However, in this case,] metal reverts to dwelling within water. Therefore it is said the mother is concealed within the child's womb. Do not let what is external enter and do not allow what is internal to get out. This is called sealing up [the reaction vessel].328 Stillness without motion is called nourishing the fire. The spontaneity of emptiness without [form] is called the functioning of circulation. Preserving integrity and making the will earnest is called "guarding the city." Subduing what is within is called "the baby boy doing battle in the wilds."3 2 9 True mercury is called the "baby girl." 3 3 0 True lead is called the "baby boy."331 Prenatal intention332 is called the "yellow old woman."333 The Nature and emotions are called "husband and wife." Clear up the mind and [8a] settle the intention; the Nature will be stilled and the spirit efficacious. The two things wil l merge completely and the three primes will be conjoined as spokes at the hub of a wheel. This is called completion of the fetus. Caring for and protecting the numinous root is called warming 328 Guji Hl?^ is an outer alchemical term referring to sealing up the reaction vessel once the medicinal ingredients have been collected and placed inside. ZHDJ, 1357, s.v. Here Li is obviously employing the term to describe a stage in his method of inner alchemy. Baiyu Chan provides an inner alchemical definition of this term in Bai Yuchan 'sXuanguan xianmilun l£MW$&lm (included in a neidan anthology entitled Qunxianyaolu zuanji $MI1||£B§|?|I, TY1245, DZ998-99. "If you are able to be peaceful in the centre of samadhi; cherish the qi of [inner] calm; and guard the essence of true unity then this is the sealing up of the sealed furnace, which initiates the phasing of the fire." Qunxian yaolu zuanji, juanxia, 12a. See also Zhuzhen neidan jiyao, juanzhong, 13b. Most of the preceding section and much of what follows immediately is either from or quoted in the same text. 3 2 9 "Guarding the city" and "doing battle in the wilds" are phrases found in the Wuzhen pian. A commentary by Ye Shibiao i H i H provides some insight into the significance of these terms: He explains that the former, shoucheng $JrW<, refers to the retreating yin fire descending down the front of the body and to the storing of the medicine. The latter phrase, yezhan If Pi, refers to the advancing yang fire that rises up the spine to the head. Wuzhen pian, 28.3b-4a. 3 3 0 In representing mercury, the baby girl (chanu ife^C) is symbolic of yin within yang. 3 3 1 The baby.boy iyinger *Sk%), representing true lead is a symbol of yang within yin. 3 3 2 Literally, "womb-intention" (taiyi ftnM). This is the kind of intention possessed by the foetus in the womb. This is a state of mind to be achieved through deep meditation facilitating the joining of yin and yang within the body. 3 3 3 Yellow is symbolic of the centre and thus, of reunion. The yellow old woman (huangpo ^ ^ ) , who is acting as a go-between or matchmaker for the baby boy and girl, is actually the intention arising during meditation which brings about the joining (betrothal) of yin and yang. 122 and nourishing and these two are like the dragon nourishing the pearl and like the chicken sitting on its egg. This is called protecting and assisting. Do not cause even the slightest error. Making such a mistake [would cause] all of your previous work to be completely wasted. The appearing of the yang spirit is called shedding the womb; returning to the root, restoring life and returning to the original beginning is called leaping beyond and escaping; breaking through emptiness. This is called completion. Dingan said: When the Golden Elixir is completed can it be seen or not? [The teacher] answered saying: It can be seen. Again [Dingan] asked: Does it have form or not? [The teacher] answered saying: It is formless. Again [Dingan] asked: Since it is formless how can it be seen? [The teacher] answered saying: "Golden elixir" is merely an expedient name. How could it have form? As for that which [I said] can be seen, it cannot be seen with the eyes. Buddhists say: In not seeing, one sees intimately. In seeing intimately, one does not see. The scriptures ofthe Way say "Look for it and it cannot be seen. Listen for it and it cannot be heard."334 We have to call it "Way." 3 3 5 [8b] Looking for it and not seeing—it has never not been seen. Listening for it and not hearing—it has never not been heard. What I say can be seen and heard is not what the eyes and ears can reach. The mind sees and the will hears and that is all. This is analogous to a great wind arising and entering the mountains and moving the trees or entering the water and raising the waves. Can you 3 3 4 Here a portion of section 24 of the Daode jing is being paraphrased. 3 3 5 This is an allusion to section 25 of the Daode jing. 123 really say there is no such thing? Looking, [you] do not see [it]. Grasping, you do not attain [it]. Can you really say there is such a thing? The substance of the Golden Elixir is just like this. What is used to begin the [process of] refining is the mutual functioning of something and nothing; the mutual sequence of motion and stillness. Then, [when] the completion of the work is arrived at all of this is caused to be discarded and stopped and the myriad methods336 are all empty. Movement and stillness are completely forgotten. Existing and non-existing are entirely banished. Only then can you attain the completed form ofthe mysterious pearl and the return of the great unity to the real. [With the] twin completion of Nature (xing '[4) and Life (ming fjp) the form and spirit are utterly wondrous. One departs from "form" and enters the "formless." Wandering at the edge of the clouds the fruit of [your efforts] attests to your [becoming a] Golden Immortal. All of the various different terms in the elixir books of what we take to be the scriptural canon [are there simply to] lead students from the coarse to penetrate the profound. Gradually entering the wondrous realm you arrive at seeing Nature and awakening to emptiness. The real matter is not to be found on paper. This is analogous to a boat crossing over a river. Crossing over, and thus people having stepped onto the other shore, the boat is useless. A former worthy [Zhuangzi] said: Once you have got the rabbit forget the snare. Once you have got the fish forget the trap.337 This is how it is described. Moreover, [although] I have now [recounted]338 this assemblage of words yet you must not cling to [what is] on paper. Instead, you may simply chew carefully on the [ideas presented] and 3 3 6 Given Li 's propensity for the use of Buddhist technical terms it would also be possible to render wanfa M<& as "myriad dharmas" (physical constituents). The choice in this context is difficult to make conclusively but Li 's comments immediately below provide some justification for the choice made here. 3 3 7 L i is paraphrasing the closing lines of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Zhuangzi. 3 3 8 In order to make sense of this sentence I have referred to a section in the Zhonghe ji, 6.22a, which provides a very nearly identical version of this same dialogic exchange. 124 experience and taste their flavor. Carefully and deeply investigate its root-origin. Perhaps with the application of a single word the ground of niind3 3 9 may open up and penetrate directly to the realm of non-purposive action. This is not difficult. Still, there are higher workings and they are not easily explained. You must search for it outside the application of words. Your attitude towards this work [must be one of] loving to face it. How else could there be a transmission from mind [to mind] or oral communication. In addition, with sincere efforts practice these abstruse lessons and precepts. Further, I have composed the following ode: I transmit to you a single-chapter book on the Golden Elixir; You should [employ] sincere intention to repeatedly search its entirety. I f you are able to directly liberate the meaning within this book, then its marvelous function will penetrate completely, embodying great emptiness. 339 Xindi 'Ci^ itfe is a Buddhist term referring to the mind from which all dharmas arise. This term can be used for "intention" (yi M). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 150. Foxue dacedian, 703, sv. 'hitk. 125 2.5.b The Pattern of the Ru Scholars [21a] Extend Knowledge and Investigate Things340 All things in the world embrace and contain the mystery of the Supreme Ultimate. Preserve integrity, extend reverence and then you will know its inner workings. It is without sound, without odour, and without any trace. Embodying things, in its brightness Pattern is never far away. Rectify the Mind and Integrate the Intention Integrity, clarity, quiet, and being settled are the foundation of the Way. Movement and stillness [21b] cause each other and in no case are they not the same. I f you daily employ, without wavering, the preservation of uniform uprightness, Spontaneously the influence of the Pattern of the Natural Order will penetrate everywhere. The Human Mind is Dangerous341 Alas, worldly men fervently cling to delusion. 3 4 0 The Daxue A^P is the locus classicus for the pair of terms zhizhi l?S[£n "extending knowledge" and gewu Bfr'ty) "investigating things." These terms became cornerstones of the Daoxue movement that reached its full maturity in the work of Zhuxi T^U (1130-1200). These terms also constituted the principal line of division between those who sought the extension of knowledge through inward investigation and those who sought by looking outward often to texts perceived as being filled with moral precedence out of which a thread of moral insight could be abstracted and comprehended by the reader of the works. These were differences of emphasis more than rigid absolutes. 3 4 1 The title of this and the following verse are quotations from the Shu Jing (Book of History). Legge, The Shoo King in Classics, vol. 3, 61. The human mind (renxin A'h) is opposed to the mind of the Way (daoxin or mind of the Natural Order (tianxin A'll')- Zhu X i fcHk took up these terms and correlated the former with the qi comprising the body and the Pattern (/z' M) which, ideally, one becomes able to accord with in daily life. 126 According with sounds and following sights is the danger of being turned upside down. I f you are able to return to Pattern and thoroughly investigate it within yourself; Then the Nature will be stable, the body at peace, and the spirit wil l be naturally harmonious. The Mind ofthe Way is Subtle The Way is in ordinary people's daily employment ofthe centre. Illustrious benevolence secretly employed brings forth spiritual merit. Without excess and without deficiency, always present. How can it be that the eyes of ordinary people [remain] blind? Be Pure Be Unified The substance and function ofthe mind ofthe Natural Order [are] the inner workings of subtle profundity. Reject recklessness and accord with the true then you will be beginning from the subtle. "Minute [investigation into the subtle] meaning of things enters the [realm of the] spiritual" 3 4 2 [means] simply settling [22a] on unity. This is a quotation from the Appendix to the Changes of the Zhou. Zhouyi suoyin, 66/82/20. The meaning of this phrase is unclear and problematic in this context. Shaughnessy translates this phrase (Mil Aft) as, "The seminal essence and propriety enter into the spiritual." Shaughnessy, / Ching, 207. Lynn renders it as, "Perfect concepts come about by entrance into the spiritual." Lynn, I Ching, 81-82.1 have tried to maintain a literal rendering of the phrase while endeavoring to accommodate what I take to be the thrust of Li's intentions. The translation given above draws on an entry in the Ciyuan, 1297, s.v. If ItAft. 127 Extreme meritorious efforts will [cause you] to arrive at the inexpressibly profound. Sincerely Hold to the Centre To attain profound and subtle [powers] of creation sincerely work on your conduct. The venerable great Way is boldly impartial. The subtlety of [dealing with] opposing views [lies in] employing the centre and in the settling ofthe mind. As for being unsettled-[employ] peacefulness; as for the subtle—[employ] understanding. Thoroughly Investigate Pattern [and Employ] Nature to the Utmost Most essential in preserving integrity is first to thoroughly investigate Pattern. The spiritual merit of thoroughly investigating Pattern rests in utmost integrity. The pinnacle of integrity and the thorough investigation of Pattern are the great root of the Natural Order.343 [In] the sky of Nature great brightness is uncovered.344 Thereby Arrive at Destiny The True Gentleman who rejoices in the Natural Order and realizes345 its dictates; 3 4 3 The point being made is that the pinnacle of achievement in investigating Principle is a realization of the identity of Principle within, with the Principle of the cosmos also referred to as the Supreme Ultimate (Taiji %j&) by Zhuxi, 4 4 See Ciyuan, 1168, s.v. WiM for this meaning based on usage in the Documents of the later Han. 128 The Great Sage who exhausts Pattern and thoroughly researches the subtle. They need only take the centre as the Great Foundation. Completely understanding the Great Origin they penetrate the spiritual. [22b] Doing One's Utmost and Empathy: That is Al l The mind that reproves others reproves itself. The mind that has empathy for itself is empathetic to others. When doing the utmost and deference are both complete then one comprehends Way. In taking charge at the end or the beginning [of an affair] do not depart from humanity. Return to Seeing the Mind of the Natural Order When the whole yin is pared down to depletion, a single yang is produced.346 Securely close up the Mysterious Pass and do not recklessly open it. When stillness is at its pinnacle, within that pinnacle one sees the start of movement. The lustrous discerning of the mind of the Natural Order awakens to what originally came. 3 4 5 Here Lam following the reading of zhi £[1 argued for by David L. Hall and Roger T. Ames in Thinking Through Confucius (New York: State University of New York Press, 1987), 50. "Realizes" has the advantage of including an epistemological and cognitive dimension while not excluding the existential assertion that the true gentleman (junzi 31-f) aligns himself with the greater flow of the cosmos and therefore makes it real and thus coextensive with himself. 3 4 6 This is a reference to the hexagram fu IS. with its single yang line at the bottom symbolizing the commencement of motion. 129 Knowing the Myriad Things in their Entirety All of the things in the world make up the Pattern ofthe Natural Order. From this, contemporary people are rarely able to [acquire] understanding. Originating at the beginning and reversion to the end completes the Supreme Ultimate. Exhausting the spirit in comprehending transformations one enters non-purposive action. Take Refuge in [what is] Hidden The Pattern of the Great Changes ofthe prior realm is mysterious and deep. The essence of the expansively great is [23a] subtle and profound-it cannot be commented upon. To get the flavour of it seek for the mystery upon mystery within your self. Cleansing the mind and hiding in withdrawal reach their peak [through] integrity. Be Constantly Cautious when Alone347 Gaze upon it but it cannot be seen; listen for it but it is soundless. Whether the dark and obscure is hidden or manifest preserve utmost integrity. [Those who] respond to and apply the moving power ofthe spirit cannot be fathomed. Illustrious intention of the Natural Order naturally shines forth. Legge, Doctrine of the Mean in Chinese Classics, vol.' 1, 384. 130 Penetrated by a Single Thread Each thing naturally has a single Supreme Ultimate. Its moving power binds [all things] to the creative transformations embodied by Kun and Qian. By exhaustively penetrating the single pervading Pattern of Nature, Thus, embrace the fundamental, return to the primordial, and join with the spontaneous. Revert Back to the Limitless Within the limit of the Limitless the Supreme Ultimate is complete. The form of the Supreme Ultimate divides into the pair of emblems (yin and yang). The myriad things and the three worldly constituents (heaven, earth, and humanity) are all complete [within] [23b] myself. [This is] the foundation of the Sage's reversion to the primordial Limitless. 131 2.5.c The Buddhist Teaching Two Bodies but One Substance The Dharma Body,348 being pure and clear, is fundamentally formless. Having form, how could it be called the wholly complete body? Only apparently is that body caused to transform a myriad times. I f you are unable to unify [all those transformations] then you will not achieve complete truth. Three Minds Then, Are One The three minds349 are fundamentally one and that one is, originally, without [form]. Fabricating "gathering" and "dividing" is merely wheel tracks. Manifesting amid transformations it is able to be without defilement. The future and the past will, in their entirety, return to emptiness. Dissolve Obstructions and Awaken to Emptiness Do not boast with your mouth-drum (tongue) discoursing on meditation. Simply clear your mind and cut off the myriad karmic causes. 348 Fashen 'UM (skt. Dharmakaya) is the first of three bodies of the Buddha and as such represents the embodiment of Truth and Law. The Dharma body is the "spiritual or true body." Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 273,~s.v. Jfcft. 3 4 9 This tripartite division of mind occurs in a number of forms. See for example Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 64, s.v. H'd\ Judging from the present context though it seems likely that the reference is to the three minds of observation: first is the mind that realizes the emptiness of self; second is the mind that realizes the emptiness of dharmas (things); third is the mind that realizes the emptiness of both simultaneously. This is a doctrine found in the Yogdcdrabhumi-sastra, T30/15797605c. Muller, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, s.v. H'llv 1 3 2 Study liberation and let go completely of what you know. [24a] The clouds of delusion will disperse and the moon's radiance will be complete. Uninterrupted Revelation of the Abstruse Complete understanding is like never having seen the seasons. I f you are unable to nurture and cherish it you will return to complete delusion. The hidden self is secluded in darkness and leaves no trace. It is this that is the "son of the golden-haired lion." 3 5 0 Do Not Establish Something and Nothing Having put in place "existent" and "nonexistent" it is certainly difficult to understand. Lay both of them down and let them go completely and even let go of emptiness. "Existent" and "nonexistent" are just like wealth: in the end they are deceptions. Hold on to the middle and then you can be united with spiritual merit. Discipline, Meditative Concentration, and Wisdom Not moving in the midst of movement is true discipline. [Through] true meditative concentration you will be united with the patriarchal ancestors. 3 5 0 The referent for the Jinmao shizi er jfe^ sffip?1 % (son of the golden-haired lion) is difficult to determine. The golden-haired lion can refer to the lion on which Manjusr! (Wenshu JCW) rides. It can also refer to a previous incarnation of the Buddha Sakyamuni in which case "son of the golden-haired lion" may designate Sakyamuni. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 284, s.v. jfe^i-SSH1. In the present verse the point would then be that the Buddha is the true or hidden self. 133 With wisdom you ascend the entire Dharma-Tea\m.35i The emotions that cause recklessness and deception will be completely dissolved. [24b] No Fixed Dharmo352 Engage in meditation to seek the Dharma [and your] Nature w i l l be completely deluded. Distancing [yourself] from the Dharma to seek mysterious practices is turning away. I f you comprehend Dharma as arising out of the mind Dharma will be empty, the mind still, and [you will] behold the sage. Empty Penetration and Noumenal Understanding [With] empty mind and peaceful meditative concentration understand the Mysterious Female. Piercing to the bone, pure and impoverished one enters the foundation of the Way. The numinous realm353 is lustrous and the mind-moon appears. This is the great brightness of the solitary openness of the Meditation Heaven.354 351 Fajie fil^- (skt. Dharmadatu) can refer to the physical universe as a whole or to its underlying ground from which all phenomena appear. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 272, s.v. ^jrf. 3 5 2 The four-character phrase, ("no fixed Dharma") is found in the Diamond Sutra, T8/235/749b. This phrase occurs in a dialogue between Sakyamuni and his disciple Subhiiti (£11? J | ) in which Sakyamuni makes the point that the Dharma or teaching, cannot be grasped or talked about. 353 Lingdi Sitk appears not to be an established Buddhist or Taoist term. 354 Chantian WX. refers to Dhyana heavens, of which there are four. It is to these heavens that those who practice meditation may be reborn. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 459, s.v. W- A-134 The Enlightened Nature of True Suchness355 The True Nature, which originally comes, is fundamentally naturally complete. The absolute,356 unmoving, illuminates the Middle Heaven.3" The splendor of its radiance penetrates without hindrance or obscuration. Its brightness breaks through the mist prior to its dividing. Eternity, Bliss, Personality, and Purity358 Accord with the spirit, nourish the intention, and admire clarity and emptiness. The whole day wander afar, [25a] allowing things to roll up and unravel. It is best to dwell in true bliss within meditative concentration. The solitariness of Meditation Heaven discloses radiant True Suchness. Facing the Sun to Patch Up the Torn Robe359 Facing the sun to patch the robe feign tenderness. Having patched up the shoulder [of your robe] again patch up the waist. 3 5 5 See footnote 258. 356 Rum jlUt-U (skt. tathata) designates the absolute and is synonymous with True Suchness (zhenru JsL-#tl). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 211, s.v. $n£ll. The four-character phrase tQtS^W] (the absolute, unmoving) is found in the Diamond Sutra, T8/n235/752b/27. 357 Zhongtian ^ 3K. refers to North-Central India. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 111, s.v. 4^  ji. Perhaps its alternate form Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo 41 W) is intended here. 358 Chang le wo jing %^k^M is a technical term used 134 times in the 36 juan version of the Nirvana Sutra, T12/375/605-852 which teaches that these four states of realization or four paramitas (perfections) of knowledge are developed in the state of nirvana. Foxue dacidian, 1926 shang, s.v. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 350, s.v. Note: In the Yingchan ziyulu, 6.25a, jing is replaced with jing I f . 3 5 9 The opening title of this verse sounds very reminiscent of a Zen koan. The phrase is not listed in any of the major Buddhist dictionaries and thus far, I have not located it in any collections of koans. The titles of this and the following verse are found as a pair in chapter eighty-one of Xiyou ji (The Journey to the West) though I cannot determine whether they occur as a quotation from this text or another, perhaps Buddhist source. None of the major encyclopedic dictionaries of Taoism list this phrase. The precise meaning of the entire verse is difficult to establish and consequently the translation offered here is tentative. 135 When you have finished patching and [again] it tears, it is important to patch it up again. In the end why appear to be naked? Facing the Moon Completely Destroy the Scriptures Beyond the sky, the silver toad (moon) has just become a half [moon]. Foolish people want to comprehend but in the end [fall into] falsehood. Suddenly a few black clouds come; The two eyes follow along like a blind fellow. The Diamond Sutra Pagoda Distinguished clearly, a seamless pagoda. It forces the obstinacy of the bystander to burst open. The eight points of the compass and the four directions all are [your] eyes. [25b] In their midst appears the living Tathagata. 136 2.5.d The Taoist Teaching Clear and Pure Non-purposive Action Clear, clear, pure, pure—fundamentally without words. As for taking [conscious] action, that is not spontaneity. Abstruse understanding penetrates the cavity of the Mysterious Pass360 completely. The Nature is numinous, the spirit transforms, and the jewel congeals and hardens. Peerless Perfect Truth Non-purposive action loves to employ the imitation of Qian and Kun? Between high, low, and the middle recognize the fundamental root. Through" true cessation, one begins to be able to penetrate such biases. True Reality comes out through the bright Celestial Gate.362 3 6 0 A lengthy discussion of this term is provided earlier in this section of the text. L i makes the point that the Mysterious Pass (xuanguan "£Pi) is not to be found on or inside the body. He defines the term more as an abstract state to which he assigns the designation "centre" (zhong Yingchan ziyulu, 6.4a-b. 3 6 1 In this context the trigrams Qian and Kun are best understood simply as yin and yang. Non-purposive action (wuwei in the individual makes that individual coextensive with the cosmic rhythms of the Way manifested through fluctuations of yin and yang. See footnote 287 for an explanation concerning Qian and Kun. 362 Tianmen A P I translated here as "Celestial Gate" can be defined in numerous ways. In the fourteenth chapter of the Zhuangzi the Celestial Gate is said to open only if one accords with the great transformations of the world and is free from all blockages generated by attachments. Harvard-Yenching Concordance to the Chuang Tzu, 39/14/56. In the twenty-third chapter, it is implied that the Celestial Gate is the Way. Harvard-Yenching Concordance to the Chuang Tzu, 63/23/57. The Heshang gong commentary on section 10 of the Daode jing glosses the term "Celestial Gate" as the nostrils. Heshang gong zhushuzheng (Taibei: Hua zhengshu ju gufen youxian gongsi, 1978), 75. The commentary on a passage in the Shangqing huangting neijingjing stating that one should "ascend, joining with the Celestial Gate to enter the hall of radiance," explains that the Celestial Gate refers to the point between the eyebrows. Yunji qiqian, 12, 22a. It is very unlikely that Li Daochun would accept the last two definitions preferring to associate it with Way or perhaps with the mind. The ideas expressed in the Zhuangzi are more likely to provide insight into Li's understanding of this term than to those of more obviously physiologically oriented teachers. 137 The Wondrous Functioning of the True Prime363 Do not be attached to "no mind" and "having mind." Without mind how is one to attain awakening to the Mind of the Natural Order? Having mind must, in the end, cause the mind to be [26a] bound. Having and not having, both damage [the possibility of] awakening to the purity of one's Nature. The Redoubling of Injury When gen interacts with duiiM the heavy mountain is destroyed by the marsh. The disciplined person restrains anger and cuts short scolding and doting. With a lack of restraint and stopping-up comes a redoubling of injury. Cutting off study, and non-purposive doing are the foundations for entering the sacred. The Three Reversions365 Day and Night The Pattern ofthe Great Way ofthe prior realm is difficult to seek. The whole day, every day, embrace the truth of unity. The work of the three reversions is an everyday matter. The Mysterious Pass366 having been penetrated the Yang Spirit comes forth. 3 6 3 Normally Zhenuan would refer to the original qi. See for example Daojiao dacidian, 794, s.v. M -ji,. In this case, though, such a definition may not be helpful. 364 Gen H. and dui & are two of the eight trigrams comprising the various arrangements of the Bagua The former represents unyielding hardness and the latter permeability and openness. 365 Sanfan ELM (Three Reversions) refers to the transformation of essence (jing I f ) into qi M., qi into spirit (shen ft), and spirit into emptiness (xu lH). This definition is provided by one of Li Daochun's contemporaries, Wang Daoyuan L i M ^ in his commentary on the Yinfu jing. Huangdiyinfu jirigjiasong jiezhu, TY126, DZ58. . 138 Once Attained—Eternally Attained The study of liberation and displaying knowledge, both are defilements. Listening to discourses on Complete Enlightenment is all dust. Cleansing the mind and sweeping away anxiety is the purity of Meditation Heaven. All of the sages equally revere the brightness of the wisdom sun. [26b] Drawing Out and Supplementing Lead and Mercury Drawing out the lead is simply cutting worldly ties.367 The work of supplementing mercury is the realm of Original Nature.368 Emotions and Nature having blended and fused, the Way of the Immortals is done. Mercury and lead having coalesced the great elixir is complete. The Gate of the Mysterious Female The Mysterious Pass and the Doorway of the Female are the gate of the Way. I f opening then accord with Qian; i f closing then accord with Kun. Those who are deluded hastily promote the mouth and nose (breathing exercises). How [can they] restore original life and return to the root? 3 6 6 See footnote 360. 3 6 7 "Worldly ties" is used here to translate the Buddhist term zhenyuan MM.: "The circumstances or conditions environing the mind created by the six gunas." The six gunas (liuchen A M ) are qualities of experience generated by the senses: sight, sound, smell, taste, touch and ideas. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 134, s.v. A S . 3 6 8 Original Nature (Benxing ^ '14) is synonymous with the Buddha Nature (Foxing i%fi). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 189, s.v. 3f.fi.. "Heaven" is used tentatively here. 139 Depart from all Deluded Paths Reject fame, cast aside profit, and rejoice in clear emptiness. The myriad delusions and all cooperating causes369 [will be] entirely exterminated. The waves on the sea of Nature settle and the boat arrives at the shore. The single disc of the glistening white moon emerges out of the cloudy way. Entering the Gate of Subtle Profundity Having gone through the Three Passes370 you will understand the true mystery. Truly you begin from the fundamental spontaneity of [27a] non-purposive doing. Raise your feet then leap [into] the formless realm. Raise your head and you are in the Heaven of the Great Net.371 Many Words are Frequently Exhausting The thousand scriptures and myriad discourses [merely] expound sectarian windiness. Alas! The views of the paths of delusion are not the same. Great debates and lofty discourses demonstrate refined wit. In the end, this is to fall into the emptiness of obstinacy. 369 Yuan &| refers to secondary or environmental causes. Thus while the seed can be considered the primary cause (yin @) the rain, soil and sunlight are the secondary supporting causes. Soothill and Hodous, ~* Buddhist Terms, 440, s.v. ,ic. 3 7 0 The Three Passes (sqnguan =LM) are synonymous with the Three Reversions (Sanfan HJS) described in footnote 365. Li Daochun provides an explanation of the Three Passes where he states that they are the process of transforming the three forms of qi in the body. He explicitly rejects other accounts that view them as points in or on the body. Zhonghe ji, 3.23.b. 371 Daluotian A H A is a region where spirit immortals dwell. Daojiao dacidian, 115, s.v. A S A . 140 It is Best to Guard the Centre Discoursing on the profound and discussing the abstruse, you wil l not understand. It is not equal to secretly guarding your centre. Being impartial and independent, the Mysterious Pass will be understood. Do not take it lightly then you will be able to unite with sagely merit. The Nine Times Circulated Spirit Elixir Set up the reaction vessel to heat until dry the Four Great Oceans. Establish the stove to break apart the Five Sumeru.372 The completed form of the Golden Elixir enwraps the three [27b] realms.373 This is when the son achieves his intention.374 What Can be Spoken of is not the Eternal Way375 The Way that is truly constant cannot be discoursed upon. To understand [by means of] explanations and distinctions is to turn one's back on the teaching. 3 7 2 Sumeru (xumi ZM"M) is the central mountain of every world. Mt. Sumeru forms the central part of a divine Buddhist landscape including eight circles of mountains, and eight seas. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 395, s.v. . Although this term with the number "five" added (wuxumi H.'M'M) does not appear in Buddhist dictionaries consulted, an example of its use in combination with the above term (sidahai MXM) can be found in the foundational Pureland text, Foshuo guan wuliangshoufo jing $kmM M. (Sutra on Infinite Life), T12/365/340c. Note: wuxumi can also be found on page 343 of the same text. Also Wuliangshoufo M JtSPft is another name for Amitaba Buddha. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 383, s.v. MM. 373 Sanjie JElf (skt. Trilokya) refers to the three realms of sensuous desire, forms;and the world of pure formless spirit. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 70, s.v. H ^ - . 3 7 4 "The son" (naner JU 52.) refers to the elixir. This is another way of stating that the elixir has been brought to completion. This term is used once in the Wuzhen pian to describe the completion of the elixir after the Nature and emotions have been unified. Wuzhen pian, 29.7b. See also Daojiao dacidian, 554, s.v. 3 7 5 This title is, of course, taken from the opening section of the Daode jing. 141 I f you can face the midst of wordless understanding, Without wearying yourself with excessive effort you will establish complete merit. 142 C h a p t e r 3: The Place o f " B u d d h i s m " in Li D a o c h u n ' s W a y o f C u l t i v a t i o n 3 . 1 Introduction The title of this chapter could well include a simple but profoundly misleading assumption—one that the syntactically economical device of quotation marks is intended to assuage. The assumption is of course, that there is something to which the word 'Buddhism' refers. Responding to such an assumption does not require venturing into the heady discourse of postmodern critiques leveled at the pitfalls of essentializing assumptions buried in an Anglo-American and European language-game grounded in preoccupations with ontology. All one need do is read with a measure of care and attention the explanations provided in the records compiled by the disciples of L i Daochun. It is apparent that they provide no simple referent for the reader. The situation is rather more complicated or perhaps organic. The reader of these texts is not witness to a scholastic treatment of fixed schools and a preoccupation with determining and preserving their identities. Rather one sees in these texts the efforts of a group of friends and their teacher to piece together an understanding and a description of a method of cultivation directed at contextualizing the human predicament and providing a path to liberation. Any teaching that might contribute to the creation and description of that path is fair game. Their outlook is pragmatic. 143 Therefore, the aim of this chapter will be to examine portions of the Yingchan zi yulu and the Zhonghe ji in order to determine, not how Li and his disciples employ "Buddhism," but rather to arrive at an understanding of how they construct Buddhism and how they believe their vision of this "teaching" can help them articulate their own soteriological recommendations. The process of bringing the nature of this construction project and its product into focus cannot help but shed light on how Buddhism so conceived gives shape to Li's teaching. The evidence offered cannot be restricted to considering the place of various teachers and doctrinal elements but must also account for the form of expression or "performance" employed to convey the teaching. To that end, a description and review of the pedagogical approach taken by Li and the general view of language entailed in that approach is undertaken. As with the remaining chapters the discussion will be grounded solidly in and revolve around translated sections of the texts in question. 3.2. Pedagogy One finds the greatest amount of detail concerning the nature of Li's interaction with his disciples in the Yingchan zi yulu. Within this text, and particularly in the.first and second juan lively discussions ensue in which the wit and insight of various disciples is put to the test. The title of this work designates it as a yulu ! n t ^ variously translated as "discourse record," "recorded sayings," and here "dialogic treatise."376 The inclusion of This translation follows Judith Boltz's translation of this title. Boltz, A Survey of Taoist Literature: tenth to Seventeenth Century (Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California - Berkeley, 1987), 180. 144 yulu in the title makes a significant statement377 positioning this compilation of dialogues within a well-established pedagogical framework closely associated with Chan Buddhism.378 This association of yulu with Chan discourses was already evident by 988, which marks the first recorded use of the term by Zanning (919-1001), compiler ofthe Song gaoseng zhuan?19 This label, which appears to have been applied from outside Chan circles and to have originated as a Song literati term of genre classification, reflects the fact that this style of recorded sayings warranted its own literary space. Zongmi (780-841), reflecting on Chan approaches to conveying the Dharma, had already acknowledged a divergence from the universally directed vehicle of the teachings represented by the sutras (jing ,fS) and gathas (jie flffl)-380 One can understand the yulu as a literary form that existed to underscore the Chan slogan "a special transmission outside the teachings" (jiaowai biechuan WJASlKHX a teaching that it was claimed relied on oral transmission from teacher to disciple and was, unlike the Lotus or Flower Ornament sutras, tailored to the needs of specific students rather than oriented to the entire universe of living beings. 3 It is worth noting that of the 1,473 texts listed in the index to the Taoist Canon only nine other texts include the designation, yulu in their titles. Ren Jiyu fflSklfa. and Zhong Zhaopeng fflHH, eds.. Daozang tiyao. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 1991. 3 7 8 A discussion of the yulu genre in Chan can be found in Judith Berling, "Bringing the Buddha down to Earth: Notes on the Emergence of Yu-lu as a Buddhist Genre," History of Religions 27 (1987), 1: 56-88. Also see Daniel K. Gardner, "Modes of Thinking and Modes of Discourse in the Sung: Some Thoughts on the Yii-lu ('Recorded Conversations') Texts." Journal of Asian Studies 50 (1991), 3: 574-603 and Yanagida Seizan, "The "Recorded Sayings" Texts of Chinese Ch'an Buddhism" (trans, by John R. McRae of "Zenshu goroku no keisei" Indogaku bukkyogaku kenkyu 18:1, Dec. 1969) in Whalen Lai and Lewis Lancaster, eds., Early Ch'an in China and Tibet (Berkeley: Regents ofthe University of California, 1983), pp. 188-189. 3 7 9 This observation is made by Albert Welter in "The Textual History of the Linji lu (Record of Linji): The Earliest Recorded Fragments," 2002. The paper presented in a Zen seminar at the 2002 AAR meeting in Toronto and is available at <http://www.acmuller.net/zen-sem/welter-2002.html> [Note: pagination is not available] See T48/2061.842c for the specific reference. 380 T48/2015.399b. See Welter, History ofthe Linji lu. 145 Certainly, the attendant implications of the designation "yulu" would not have escaped L i Daochun and his disciples. L i himself took pains to point out the unique nature of his own teaching, which diverged from those found "on paper"381 as well as the "three thousand six-hundred schools" that spend their efforts trying to "elucidate."382 As will be discussed later in Chapter Five, Li Daochun's teaching is presented as outside the general categories embodied in the "Three Teachings" in a manner remarkably consonant with the general claims of Chan teachers to be outside the "diminished mainstream" of Buddhist Dharma teaching. Throughout the Yingchan ziyulu, Li's position is that of an enlightened teacher using a variety approaches, including some surprising and perplexing responses, to awaken his disciples. In many cases his methods are reminiscent of those typically associated with Linji Yixuan ]M:fMWt~& (d. 866) who is portrayed in the Linji lu employing shouts, shocking responses, and frequently hitting his students. Often the disciples respond in a similar vein with shouts or gestures to the questions posed by the teacher. The following example taken from the second juan of the Yingchan ziyulu is a case in point. Here Li Daochun is questioning some of his disciples on the meaning of the sixteenth section of the Daode jing: Teacher said: The sixteenth section, "Bring about the apex of emptiness; preserve the extreme of stillness. [Thus] the myriad things together arise and I thereby observe their return." Now [what] is called "return" is manifesting the mind of the Natural Order (tianxin ;AvL». Moreover, [I] say where is the mind of the Natural 3 8 1 This observation is made by Li's disciple Heian Guangchan zi '^MMUS? in the forward to the Yingchan zi yulu, 1.1a. 382 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.11a. 146 Order? Again [I] say do not move. [If you] move, thirty blows of the cudgel! Dingan grabbed the cudgel.383 This passage demonstrates Li's willingness to strike his student in order to bring about heightened insight. The passage quoted here appears incomplete due to its abrupt conclusion but is included in its entirety. L i seems to be making a point about meditation wherein the adept reaches the extreme or pinnacle of stillness, thereby facilitating return. In the present context, return is a movement from fragmentation back to unity. Thus, Li firmly makes his point regarding the need to preserve stillness. As often happens the reader is left to ponder the inconclusive responses; L i does not respond to Dingan's grabbing of the cudgel though, as is mentioned below this may not imply disagreement with his disciple's response. It is worth noting that Li's specific mention of thirty blows of the cudgel corresponds with the number of blows mentioned in two accounts provided in the Linji lu on two separate occasions to individuals engaged in interviews.384 In the following passage, later on in the same section of the text, L i Daochun questions his disciples on the meaning of a line from the sixty-second section of the Daode jing: Teacher said: The sixty-second section, "Having committed a crime [does one not] thereby escape [punishment]?" Teacher said: In what way has [he] transgressed? Dingan said: I have sought [the nature of] the transgression [butj am unable to find it? Yingchan ziyulu, 2.4a. 384 Linji lu, T47/1985.503c; 505a. A translation of these passages is provided in Burton Watson, trans. The Zen Teachings of Master Lin-chi (Boston: Shambhala, 1993), 92; 107-108. 147 Teacher threw the scripture385 and said stop corning back to doubt!386 This radical gesture of throwing the scripture is not restricted to the teacher as the following passage indicates: Teacher said: The sixty-fifth section, "Those in ancient times who excelled in applying the Way did not employ it to enlighten the people. [They] used it to make them stupid." Teacher said: Altogether, the teachings that have been formed [come to] three thousand six hundred schools. From the beginning they all [try to] elucidate arid always thus rouse the spirits. I alone embrace nameless simplicity. I am not bound by the multitude of malignant spirits and knock down their red pennants. Do you all understand? Dingan said: I recognize one thing; they are not the centre. Heian threw the scripture.387 This throwing or perhaps throwing away of the scripture represents a powerful statement concerning the place of texts vis-a-vis the teachings of Li Daochun and resonates in a very obvious way with the rhetoric of the non-textual transmission so pervasive in Ghan circles by the Song dynasty. L i is demonstrating with a physically expressed metaphor that, unlike the "three thousand six hundred schools," he is not striving to elucidate anything and instead chooses to embrace, not just simplicity, but nameless simplicity (wu mingpu |ffi;g;f^). Thus with a simple gesture the reader is presented with a powerful image that at once unites a principle central to the Daode jing (the nameless) in a form The text mentioned here might be Li Daochun's commentary on the Daode jing entitled Daode huiyuan. The chapter of the Yingchan ziyulu that includes this passage is a summary ofthe discussion that followed the presentation of the text to [Dingan] Zhao Daoke ^^EMitnJ and includes brief comments on all eighty-one sections of the Daode jing. Another possibility is that the gathering is reviewing a copy of the Daode jing. 386 Yingchan ziyulu, 2.10b. 387 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.11 a-b. 148 that invokes an obviously Chan attitude and mode of expression. This level of integration is a hallmark of Li's approach to presenting his way of cultivation and it sets the works associated with him and his disciples apart from that of Zhang Boduan SRffiSrfii (ca. 983-1081) to which he so often refers. Another tool deployed in the dialogues is shouting. Various disciples employ this form of response in answer to their teacher's inquiries concerning the meaning of various phrases in the Daode jing. Once again, this mirrors a practice found many times throughout the Linji lu: Teacher said: The character 'Way' (Dao j i t) is not associated with having phrases and is not associated with lacking phrases. It is not associated with having appearance and it is not associated with lacking appearance. What do you all make of this? Dingan said: Shout! Heian shouted.388 A second example states: Teacher said: The last phrase in the first section says, "Mystery upon mystery; gateway of all wonders." [I] must state that the thirty-six classes of esteemed scripture all issue forth from this scripture. Now [I] say where did this scripture come from? [Since] departing from my father and mother [all the] talk [I] have produced concerns the single expression, "Way." Heian opened the scripture prompting Dingan to shout.389 Qingan Yingchan ziyulu, 2.1a. Qingan Yingchan zi yulu, 2.1b. 149 In both of these examples, L i is pondering the nature of the Way. In the first example, the Way occupies a place outside the duality represented by words or phrases on one hand and their absence on the other. In the second instance, he first explains that the Daode jing is the source of all esteemed scripture but then pushes the text of the Daode jing back beyond its own form as a text and implies that its origin is the Way, which is of course nameless. In both cases, the point is that one must transcend language. Accordingly, in this context it is significant that the passages close with the shouts of Heian and Dingan. Furthermore, it is important to note that that is all they do. They do not shout a particular word or apparently anything intelligible. The text merely states that they shouted. Their responses, in good Chan form, express both the limits of language and the ineffability of the Way. Once again, a Chan mode of expression is closely integrated with a message drawn from the Daode jing. A final feature of these responses is that the shouts appear to satisfy the teacher as being correct or at least appropriate responses to his question. While shouting is a practice found repeatedly throughout the Linji lu it is rare that the shout of a student proves satisfactory to the teacher who often responds by striking the student.390 In the Yingchan ziyulu it appears that the shouts are much more successful as responses to the teacher. Certainly, when the disciples give unsatisfactory answers, L i is always ready with a response that either concludes the discussion of the point in question or presses the students to provide a better response. Compare for example the following exchanges: Teacher said: The twenty-fifth section, "There is a thing formed out of the undifferentiated."391 Teacher said: What thing was there? 3 9 0 See for example Linji lu, T47/1985.496c. Watson, Lin-chi, 14. 3 9 1 See footnote 226 for details on "chaos" as the "undifferentiated." 150 Dingan responded thus: "Within the frontiers there are four greats;"392 at'the same time is there also a great foundation? Heian gave a shout.393 Here a shout closes the discussion and the teacher and disciples move on to the next section ofthe Daode jing. In the following case, the teacher cannot accept the answer provided by Heian: Teacher said: The thirtieth section, 'Those who employ the Way to assist the ruler of men do not use their weapons to force the empire [into compliance]." Teacher said: I f [one] has no [weapons, when] bandits arrive how [is one to] oppose [them]? Heian said: Use virtue to transform them. Teacher said: Not so. Use compassion to guard against them.394 Out of the eighty-one sections commenting on the Daode jing and comprising the core of this dialogue the teacher responds with the closing line slightly more than half of the time. In those cases, it is not always clear that the disciples have provided erroneous responses that the teacher feels compelled to correct. There are times when Li appears to simply augment the points made by his disciples: 3 9 2 This quotation from section twenty-five introduces a list of four greats, which are the Way, the sky, the earth and the king. In Buddhism the four greats (sida MX), Skt. mahabhuta are the fundamental constituents of all things: fire, water, wind and earth. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 131, s.v. MX-393 Yingchan ziyulu, 2.5a. 394 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.6a. 151 Teacher said: The sixth section, "The gateway of the mysterious female." Teacher said: Going out, the breath does not pass through a myriad causes. Entering, the breath does not dwell in the aggregates and realms.395 Not going out and not entering, what do you make of this? Heian said: "Solitary, unmoving."396 Teacher naturally said: A myriad tunes are all hushed.397 Here Li refrains from any obvious dismissal of Heian's response and suggests an additional image to that quoted by his disciple from the "Appendix to the Changes." The same tone of response is evident below: Teacher said: The thirty-sixth section, " [ I f you] want to contract [it you] certainly must extend [it]." Teacher said: The eyebrows are above the eyelashes; earlier mistakes are passed by. Now I say, from the mistake, to what place does one go? Dingan said: To the right place. Heian said: The hawk passes over the new net. Shian said: One must not run [away] in disorder. Teacher said: "Their crimes are listed on one indictment."398 Li's open ended concluding phrase is an allusion to the twenty-ninth case in the Wumenguan (The Gateless Gate). The case concerns an argument between two monks over whether a flag is moving or the wind is moving. The sixth patriarch informs them that it is their minds that move. Wumen's comment on this scenario points out that all 3 9 5 The aggregates and realms (yinjie ^^-) is a Buddhist term denoting the "five aggregates" (skt. skandhas) and the "eighteen realms" (skt. dhatu). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 330. m-Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 397 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.2b. 398 Yingchan ziyulu, 2.7a. The phrase —"MA^Si^ t is found in Dahuipujue chanshiyulu, T47/1998a.839a, a collection of sayings attributed to the Song Linji Eii$t (Rinzai) Chan master Dahui Zonggao Afi?i5?Jil (1089-1163). Li appears to quote from the same section of this text in his comment on section two of the Daode jing. Yingchan ziyulu, 2.1a. It is also possible that Li is quoting from case twenty-nine of the Wumenguan, T48/2005.296c. The translation of this phrase is taken from Thomas Cleary, Unlocking the Zen Koan: A New Translation of the Zen Classic Wumenguan (Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1993), 141. 152 three statements concerning the flag, the wind, and even the patriarch's reference to their minds are mistaken. His explanation is that the patriarch was trapped. His compulsion to help the monks forced him to express an answer in words. Thus Li Daochun seems once again to be commenting on the limits of language rather than directing his critique to the specific responses of Dingan, Heian, and Shian. Other responses that appear to indicate a correct understanding of points under discussion include drawing circles. This form of response occurs on at least two occasions. On the first occasion the Way is considered and L i points out the impossibility of stating anything about it and notes that its origins are beyond perception: Teacher said: The fourth section [includes the expression] "It prefigures the ancestral gods."399 Use the speech of the mouth [to describe it and] the rotten [flavour] is rejected [to the very] root of the tongue. Use the vision of the eyes [to examine it] and suddenly it [bursts] out of (is rejected by) the eyes. Contain the brightness in the mouth. Abstruse! Abstruse! It is truly good to eat a handful! What do you all make of this? Li examined his vegetarian food and lifted it up as i f [it were the brightness he spoke of]. Shian made a circle.400 After referring to the limits of the mouth (speech) and the eyes (vision) Li , perhaps playfully, picks up some of his vegetables to critique speech and vision by inviting them to stuff the brightness of the Way (a vision-related image) into their mouths (just related to the shortcomings of speech). After this two pronged, metaphorically charged invitation This translation is taken from Roger Ames and David L. Hall, Daodejing: "Making This Life Significant" A Philosophical Translation (New York: Balantine Books, 2003), 83. Ames and Hall have avoided translating di ^  as "the Lord" or "God." The question raised in the concluding two lines of section four concerns the origin of the Way. Employing the metaphor of ancestors the Way seems to have come before the highest ancestor and so is prior to birth and, by metaphorical extension, to creation. 400 Yingchan zi yulu, 2.2a. 153 to eat, Shian's only response is to draw a circle. L i Daochun uses the circle to designate his own teaching on a number of occasions.401 The circle permits him to refer to his way of cultivation without having to employ the more conventional form of expression embodied in Chinese characters. It is not clear that Shian's drawing of a circle has the same function here but it does reflect agreement that this shape has an accepted significance in the group and is sufficient to end the discussion. In the following passage Sunan employs the same approach when he draws a circle in response to the potential mistake of generating a dichotomizing representation of reality as either a realm of "form" or "no-form" and in support of his fellow disciple, Heian's way of adopting neither position: Teacher said: The twenty-first section [in describing the Way says] there are things, there are images, there are emotions.402 Is it actually so? I f we say having [form] comes forth then there is moreover the eye of contemplative study.403 I f we say lacking [form] comes forth then the eye of contemplative study is done away with. In the end what do you say? Heian said: Having [form] and lacking [form], neither are relevant. There is only one true and genuine form. Sunan drew the form of a circle. The result of Sunan's and Heian's conclusion is a rejection of both "form" (you ^ f ) and "no form" (wu aided by the use of the one true form which stands for unity beyond 4 0 1 See for example the discussion in the Yingchan ziyulu, 6.1b-2a and Zhonghe ji, 3.15a-b; Zhonghe ji, 1.4a. 4 0 2 The twenty-first section of the Daode jing does not mention emotions (qing fi?) but rather essence (jing my 4 0 3 The eye of contemplative study (canxueyan is found in case number eleven of Wumen guan, T48/2005/294b. 154 dichotomy and a mode of expression lying outside conventional language. This is very reminiscent of the basic Madhyamaka position or non-position that can. be found for example in the writings of Jizang pf lie (549-623) who saw the highest level of realization represented by absolute truth (shengyi di HrHf$) (Skt. Paramdrihasatyd) as neither negation nor affirmation of either extreme.404 One final device found in the first juan of the Yingchan ziyulu is that of banging on the lecture platform. In this case, the teacher is engaged in discussion with several disciples and asks, "What is the Way?" One of the disciples responds by striking the lecture platform. The teacher presses the disciple further by asking, "What is a person within the Way?" The disciple responds by striking the lecture platform once again. L i is not entirely satisfied which prompts the student to reply with a shout4 0 5 This energetic form of repartee between the teacher and his disciples so reminiscent of the Linji lu is most obvious in the discussion of the eighty-one sections of the Daode jing. Even at its most lively moments though the dialogue never takes on the level of harshness associated with Linji. The encounters are much less confrontational and the language is much less forceful, lacking repeated hitting and insults. Also missing is the sense of verbal jousting. What one finds in the Yingchan ziyulu is always the humble student offering suggestions in response to questions. There is never any hint of a student actually challenging the master. In chapter six we see a typical example of the underlying attitude brought by Li's disciples to their search for deeper insight into his way of cultivation: 4 0 4 The best-known description of this position in found in Jizang's Ertiyi (The Meaning of the Two Truths), T45/1854. The drawing of a mark on the ground as part of a dialogue is found once in the Linji lu, T47/1985.503c. Watson, Lin-chi, 89. 405 Yingchan zi yulu, 1.3a. 155 Dingan said: Having just entered the Gate of Profundity406 1 am extremely stupid and dull-witted. That my teacher retains me as a student is [equal to] a thousand years of good fortune.4071 certainly do not yet know this Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth and hope that my teacher will enlighten me.408 Following this very deferential request Li simply proceeds to outline his teaching and when Dingan requests further clarification L i is content to oblige. This pattern continues with repeated requests for more information followed by the teacher's obliging and lengthy explanations. This same pattern is repeated throughout much o f the Zhonghe ji and the Yingchan ziyulu. Beyond the Chan-style repartee described above and the sections where requests for explanation are met with extended descriptions, one also finds Li and his students referring to several koans as a method for broadening their understanding. In these contexts, there is a more conversational tone to the proceedings. In the first example, Heian is curious about the significance of a koan included as case number forty-two in the Wumen guan: [Heian] asked: The Bodhisattva Wangming |cJEi£| was [merely] a first level devotee. Why was he able to rouse [Liyi H i f t ] out of the woman's samddhil Wenshu ~SC5%- (MafijusrT) was the teacher of seven Buddhas, why could he not rouse her?409 Teacher said: Chouan j|Ji; 4 l 0said: 406 Xuanmen If Fl, Gate of Profundity, can refer to Taoism, to Buddhism or specifically to the Huayan $ II school. Daojiao dacidian, 841, s.v. "STI; Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 408, s.v. "£FL 4 0 7 This sentence is slightly different in Zhonghe ji, 3. 14b. 408 Yingchan ziyulu, 6. la. This section is also found in Zhonghe ji, 3.14b. 409 Wumen guan, T48/2005.298a-b. This koan is also included in the first juan of the Wudeng huiyuan, a twenty-ywaw Song dynasty collection of koans compiled by the monk Pu Ji ef$| (1179-1253). See Xuzangjing, 138/1. 4 1 0 It is not clear who Chou an MM was nor what text contains the quoted passage. 156 The dog welcomes the sojourning guest; A raven shelters in the nest of unconventionality. Speak of loving clear understanding. Cease further doubts! Teacher asked me saying: Because he could not rouse her from woman's samadhi Wenshu summoned Wang Ming [to receive] instruction on the Dharma-gate of non-duality. Wenshu said: " [ I ] must not move. I f [I] move apply thirty [blows of] the cudgel." What do you make of this? I was just then in the midst of deliberating when, because Dingan moved, [we] accidentally bumped. His movement roused [me] as if teacher had done so.4" Heian is asking specifically about Wumen's comment on this case which states that i f one is able to understand why it was that a low level adept could achieve what the great Manjusri could not then one can experience samadhi even when one's consciousness is in a busy state. This ideal of preserving inner stillness amid activity is something Li also values and describes in his "Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading" (Zhaowang tu ff§ ^ H ) where the illuminating mind (zhao xin Ws'\J) is said to be at rest even when it is motion.412 The meaning of Li's response is not very clear due in part to the lack of context for the brief quoted passage concerning the dog and the raven. The subject ofthe subsequent question posed by Li concerning Wenshu's (Manjusri's) request for Wang Ming's instruction on entering the "Dharma-gate of non-duality" is not included in the original case. Heian is compelled to respond to Li's question with silence after being bumped and thus "roused" by his fellow disciple Dingan.413 411 Yingchan zi yulu, lb-2a. 4 1 2 Zhonghe ji, 1.3a. See page 28 for a discussion of "Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading." 4 1 3 In the ninth chapter of the Vimalakirti Sutra Manjusri's understanding is put to the test in describing how one enters the "Dharma-gate of non-duality." In that text it is Vimalakirti who bests him by remaining silent in response to the question. Vimalakirti Sutra (Weimojie suoshuo jing), T14/475.551c. 157 A second koan (case twenty-six) from the Wumen guan is referred to in the same chapter when Heian asks his teacher: "In the koan of the former monks rolling up the hanging screen, one gained and one lost. What [do you] say [about this]?" 4 1 4 Li's response is, "[When] benevolence is seen it is called benevolence. [When] understanding is seen it is called understanding." This response appears to have nothing to do with the original koan and because the exchange abruptly ends at that point no further light is shed on Li's intended meaning. In Both cases above, neither Li nor his students feel a need to provide responses that accord with the comments associated with the original koans. This exemplifies a feature that is common throughout: L i and his disciples have appropriated the pedagogical style of Chan discourse and taken up references to specific koans but feel free to read and so recreate the koans according to their own needs. L i is no passive recipient of Chan tradition but rather an active interpreter. This reshaping of tradition is evident in two more examples: "Zhaozhou's If'Jtl Dog" 4 1 5 and "the goose in the bottle." In the first koan a monk inquires of Zhaozhou whether a dog also has Buddha-nature. The response in the original koan is simply, "no" (wu #E)416 and that is where the very brief koan ends. Li takes this koan and turns it on its head by altering the answer and then adding several lines. His version reads as follows: A monk asked Zhaozhou: Does a dog have Buddha Nature or not? Zhou said: It has. 414 Yingcnanziyulu, 1.2b. The original koan is found in Wumen guan T48/2005.296b. 4 1 5 This well-known koan by Chan master Zhaozhou congshen ISJ1if*£it (778-897) is the first case in the Wumen guan, T48/2005.292c-293a. 4 1 6 The original koan reads: j@#lftftB{gF>3. ftJ^itWfl&tt. IfeiU i K I . Thus the response taken more literally states that the dog "lacks" (wu $tt) Buddha-nature. 158 The monk said: Why does it have [Buddha Nature]? Zhou said: It lacks [Buddha Nature]. The monk said: Why does it lack [Buddha Nature]? Zhou said: In order to understand "lacking."4 1 7 Wumen's concluding verse and commentary offered in the Wumen guan both express the urgent need to abandon the categories of "having" (you ^) and "lacking" (wu L i has structured his own version in such a way that the interlocutor's quest for a definitive answer is frustrated by a refusal to accord with the essentially dualistic assumption underlying the phrasing of the question. Despite Li's radical rephrasing the result can be read as according quite well with the sentiments expressed in the Wumen guan version. In the second example, Li Daochun refers to the koan in which a goose has hatched inside a bottle and the problem posed is how the goose can affect its escape. Li takes an even more dramatic interpretive turn at this point. He begins by recounting the koan: " . . . an ancient worthy said: ' [ I f there is] a goose egg inside a bottle, once it becomes a goose how is it to escape from the bottle?'"418 Referring to the two koans concerning the dog and the goose Li says, "Concerning this pair of koans many of our contemporaries are unable to get to the bottom [of their meaning]. I f someone attains a transmitted phrase [such as this he should] consider and study the matter [to its] end."4 1 9 The "end" Li has in mind is now given full expression as he shares with his disciples what he takes to be the message contained within these koans, 417 Yingchan zi yulu, 1.5a. 418 Yingchan zi yulu, 1.5a. 419 Yingchan zi yulu, 1.5a. 159 Further [now], i f we use "having" (you ^f) to explain it then the dog is "having" within "lacking" (wu Yang within yin. Moreover, the dog is Minister of Crime within his tent. The dog is a guardian against inner bandits.420 Nourishing the golden goose within the precious bottle is metal within water. It is the elixir within the stove. Nourishing the golden goose then, is nourishing the sacred foetus. Completion of the sacred foetus is like the goose egg within the bottle. The departure of the goose [after] the bottle breaks is the constant Pattern ofthe ordinary course of things. I f the goose departs and yet the bottle does not break, this is the wonder of shedding the womb.421 Therefore the patriarchal teachers say: "Within the brocade tent is hidden the jade dog. Within the precious bottle is nourished the golden goose." Ah! This is the wonder ofthe Golden Elixir. Unlike the previous example in which Li adjusts the wording of the koan about the dog having Buddha nature, Li presents a completely different vision of the message embodied in these two koans. To this point the style of Chan, and specifically Linji, repartee employed in the Yingcnanzi yulu serves to illustrate a choice of pedagogical style. Furthermore, the reference to koans has served to convey ideas that retain a substantially Chan content. In this case, Li is portrayed as having moved beyond both of these adaptations of Chan styled discourse so that now Chan form is employed for its pedagogical effectiveness but the lessons taught concern the Golden Elixir teachings. 3.3 Buddhist Doctrine in Li's Teachings Li Daochun frames his teaching within the context of offering salvation to humanity and that message of salvation is conceived both as non-sectarian and as having a lengthy history, 4 2 0 See footnote 154. 4 2 1 See footnote 304 for details on tuotai. 160 The Teacher said: Patriarchal teachers of former generations, lofty sages ofthe Exalted Reality,422 had the Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth. Did they not preserve and transmit this way in the world to rescue human beings?423 This rescuing of human beings is a compassionate act undertaken by sages of the "Three Teachings" and beneath their respective sectarian garb, what these teachings are conveying is the "Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth." The Three Teachings can be described as the function (yong ^J) while the "Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth" is the substance (// fj§) underlying the particular manifestations.424 Finding a way to locate and describe the role of Buddhist doctrine within this relationship of substance and function is no easy task because Li Daochun's position vis-a-vis the Three Teachings is never categorically stated. He is portrayed simultaneously as a practitioner and teacher of Golden Elixir alchemy while also laying claim to a teaching that goes beyond the Three Teachings of which the way ofthe Golden Elixir is but one. In what follows sections of text taken from the Zhonghe ji and Yingchan ziyulu will be presented and commented upon so that the specific uses of Buddhist ideas can be highlighted and explored. After considering specific examples it should then be possible to draw some broad conclusions concerning the types of doctrine Li focuses on and the function they appear to be performing within his teaching. This is a reference to a realm of the immortals. DJWH, 112, s.v. iK Yingchan zi yulu, 6.1a. Yingchan zi yulu, 6.1b. 161 3.3.a The Buddhist Verses The sixth and final chapter of the Yingchan ziyulu concludes with three sets of verses dedicated to each of the Three Teachings. The first set, comprised of fifteen verses, is titled 'The Pattern of the Ru" (Ru li iMM), the third, fourteen-verse set, is titled 'The Teaching of the Way" (Daojiao iMMQ, and the second set in thirteen verses, which will be considered below, is titled "The Buddhist Teaching" (Shijiao M-WC). Al l three are comprised of twenty-eight-character verses consisting of four lines of seven characters each. All of the verses begin with a heading that more or less describes the focal point for each of the verses. The fact that the verses below are presented so explicitly as describing the "Buddhist Teaching," as understood by Li Daochun and his disciples, makes them a useful point of departure for a discussion of the nature and place of Buddhist teachings in his work. The Buddhist Teaching [ l ] 4 2 5 Two Bodies but One Substance The Dharma Body,426 being pure and clear, is fundamentally formless. Having form, how could it be called the wholly complete body? 4 2 5 The numbers attached to these verses do not appear in the original but have been added and set off in square brackets for the convenience of the reader and for the sake of referring to the various verses throughout this section. Footnotes describing many of the technical terms in the Buddhist verses have been repeated here to avoid constantly referring the reader back to notes in the translated material. 426 Fashen (skt. Dharmakaya) is the first of three bodies of the Buddha and as such represents the embodiment of Truth and Law. The Dharma body is the "spiritual or true body." Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 273, s.v. feft. 162 Only apparently is that body caused to transform a myriad times. I f you are unable to unify [all those transformations] then you will not achieve complete truth. There are numerous possible meanings for the "two bodies" (ershen mentioned here427 but the subsequent reference to the Dharma-body (fashen Scjih Skt. Dharmakaya) means that Li probably has in mind the "earthly body" (shengshen ^LMr skt. nirmanakaya) and the "Dharma-body''' (fashen $kMr Skt. sambhogakdya) of the. Buddha. The former is subject to transformation but exists only provisionally while the formless Dharma-body lies outside the realm of distinctions. As Li points out in the last line, all apparent diversity of forms can and must be resolved into a unity in order for true insight to be realized. This opening verse sets the tone for what follows and places the verses squarely within prajnaparamita (perfection of wisdom) discourse. [2] Three Minds Then, Are One The three minds are fundamentally one and that one is, originally, without [form]. Fabricating "gathering" and "dividing" is merely wheel tracks. Manifesting amid transformations it is able to be without defilement. The future and the past will, in their entirety, return to emptiness. See for example the list provided in Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 65, s.v. —dU; 1,161, s.v. 163 This tripartite division of mind occurs in a number of forms.428 Judging from the present context it seems likely that the reference is to the three minds of observation: first is the mind that realizes the emptiness of self; second is the mind that realizes the emptiness of dharmas; third is the mind that realizes the emptiness of both simultaneously. This is a doctrine found in the Yogacarabhumi-sastra*29 The last line refers to the dissolution of temporal categories. Li's observation that the notions of past and present cannot be sustained objectively is put to explicit use in his critique of those who would assert the reality of self. In juan six of the Zhonghe ji he states: When I look at worldly persons, many take this body to mean that they have a self. They really are not thinking. Assume that this body is caused to be through creation. Formerly, when there was not yet any creation, [did they] have appearance? Did [they] have a name? Did [they] have a self? After fransforming, did [they] have appearance? Did [they] have a name? Did [they] have a self? [As for] the pair: "formerly" and "after" since both are nothing, how can one attain the middle or incline to one side and cling to having a self? [They] really do not understand that the body, mind, world, and affairs (shen xin /[>, shi fj£, shi ^jl) originally are empty delusions. The three periods430 [may be] investigated but cannot be attained. The past is obscured; where is it? [It is] merely the changing and shifting thoughts of the present [moment]. The future is definitely like this. The passing of a kalpaw up to now is a great dream amid delusion. Stubbornly clinging to the causes of false ideas432 the seeds 4 2 8 See for example Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 64, s.v. 429 Yuqie shidi lun (Yogacarabhumi-sastra), T30/1579/605c. Muller, Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, s.v. Elsewhere Li makes reference to the two hindrances (erzhang that refer a) to the truth (lizhang SiP|r) and b) to hindrances of the passions (shizhang ifW). These terms are also part of the central doctrinal formulation of the Yogacara school of Mahayana Buddhism. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 31, s.v. — W. Zhonghe ji, 6.24b. 430 Sanshi Hfti (skt. traiya-dhvika) are the three periods of past, present and future. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 57. 431 Lijie l?f.it) is an immense period of time which subsumes within it the past, present and future. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 232, s.v. ifj describes it as "a period of four hundred and thirty-two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of the world." 432 Wangyuan "The unreality of one's environment; also, the causes of erroneous ideas." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 210, s.v. 164 of the eternal round of life and death433 are formed. By this means they are born and die without there being any end to it.4 3 4 Here Li draws out his observation, found previously in verse 2, that the mind, supporting the notion of self through its conceptualizing, ("gathering" / zhong ^ and "dividing" / fen ft) is ultimately empty. By attacking the notion of time he seeks to demonstrate that self, as something that necessarily must endure through time in order to exist, cannot be admitted as real in any final sense precisely because there is no temporal medium to support the concept. This line of argument, relating the impossibility of a self continuing through time to the unsustainability of a consistent and defensible belief in time itself, comes very close to the Madhyamaka line of argument employed by Sengzhao ffHI (384-414) in part one of his Zhaolun. There he argues that time is not real in any objective way and that things do not go into the past nor do they come from the future to the present. These observations and arguments against the validity of time as it is conventionally understood are directly linked to Sengzhao's critique of the belief in an enduring self.435 The next verse employs in its title the prajnaparamitd language of getting rid of obstructions (ai JH) and realizing emptiness (kong skt. sunyata). Both of these notions are central to the brief Xinjing (Heart Sutra), perhaps the single most famous distillation 433 Lunhui f l i i l (skt. sarhsara) is the wheel of transmigration, the cycle of existence. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 445, s.v. 434 Zhonghe ji, 6.26a. 435 Zhaolun, T45/1858,151b lines 24-28 concern a story about a young ascetic who leaves his household (chujia tfciifi.) to seek enlightenment and upon returning many years later insists, contrary to the opinions of those who knew him in his youth, that he is not the same person who left to seek enlightenment. The section preceding this story includes the argument against time as a medium for continuity. 165 I of prajhapdramita ideas, in which the mind is freed from obstructions, form is identified with emptiness, and emptiness with form.4 3 6 [3] Dissolve Obstructions and Awaken to Emptiness Do not boast with your mouth-drum (tongue) discoursing on meditation. Simply clear your mind and cut off the myriad karmic causes. Study liberation and let go completely of what you know. The clouds of delusion will disperse and the moon's radiance will be complete. Li Daochun also suggests the need to abandon conventional knowledge and clever discourses, in this case, on meditation, as they will only lead one down the road of further delusion. The radiance of the mind-moon is only able to shine in the absence of discursive thought.437 In one of the following verses L i implies that following the scriptures and attempts to comprehend the process of awakening only obscures the radiance of the moon (or mind).438 [4] Uninterrupted Revelation of the Abstruse Complete understanding is like never having seen the seasons. I f you are unable to nurture and cherish it you will return to complete delusion. The hidden self is secluded in darkness and leaves no trace. It is this that is the "son of the golden-haired lion." 4 3 9 Once again, reference is made to time. Here shi B# is translated as "seasons" but can of course refer to time in general.440 Here complete understanding is compared to a Xinjing, Ti/251,848c. Li explicitly links the moon metaphor to the enlightened mind in a later verse. Yingchan ziyulu, 6.24b. Yingchan zi yulu, 6.25a. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 284, s.v. 166 state of mind in which temporal categories have never been applied. Once again delusion is avoided only i f one transcends such conventional categories. The referent for "the son of the golden-haired lion" (Jinmao shizi er ^^3®5r?"|E) is difficult to determine. The golden-haired lion can refer to the lion on which Manjusri (Wenshu ~SCj^f) rides. It can also refer to a previous incarnation of the Buddha Sakyamuni in which case "son of the golden-haired lion" could designate Sakyamuni. In the present verse, the point would then be that the Buddha is the true or hidden Self. [5] Do Not Establish Existence and Nonexistence Having put in place "existent" and "nonexistent" it is certainly difficult to understand. Lay both of them down and let them go completely and even . let go of emptiness. "Existent" and "nonexistent" are just like wealth: in the end they are deceptions. Hold on to the middle and then you can be united with spiritual merit. The above verse is significant for its unequivocal statement ofthe classic Madhyamaka position. This "laying down" of existence and nonexistence can be found in Nagarjuna's formulation of eightfold negation in which a progressive dialectical spiral yields a final view or position that is no position. This dialectical approach of progressive stages of negation was taken up by Jizang (549-623) and presented in his description of 4 4 0 The phrase "never having see the seasons (time)" (weijian shi JLB#) is found in Dacheng zhongguan shilun (Treatise on the Middle View of the Great Vehicle), T30/1567, 142c, a Yogacara text by An Hui M (skt. Sthiramati), a 7lh century Yogacara master whose interpretation of Yogacara doctrine was at odds with that of Dharmapala whose position is so prominent in Xuanzang's commentarial work on Vasubandhu's Vijnaptimatratasiddhi included in his Cheng weishi lun (Discourse on Completion of Nothing but Cogw'r/on), T31/1585. 167 the two levels of truth441 in which he describes three phases of ascent towards non-conceptuality. At the first stage, people assume that things exist in opposition to the claim that they are empty (do not exist). At this stage, the assertion that things do exist constitutes the conventional level of truth while nonexistence is the ultimate truth. At the second stage it is noted that a duality has now been established and so constitutes a fixed and dual view of reality ("existence vs. nonexistence"). This view entailing "existence and nonexistence" is then rejected. This establishes "existence and nonexistence" as a new level of conventional truth while nondualism ("neither existence nor nonexistence") becomes the new ultimate truth. At the third and final level, the first two levels are rejected. Thus "either existence or nonexistence" or "neither existence nor nonexistence" constitutes the highest level of conventional truth while a refusal to either assert or deny either of those positions becomes the highest level of truth. The conclusion amounts to a refusal to play the game of position taking. This rather confusing set o f statements can be schematized as follows:442 Conventional Truth Absolute Truth Affirmation of existence Denial of existence Affirmation of either existence or nonexistence Denial of both existence and nonexistence Affirmation or denial of both existence and nonexistence Neither affirmation or nor denial of both existence and nonexistence Figure 5: Two Truths 441 Erdi zhang, T45/1854, 90c. 4 4 2 It is worth noting here that this exact argument is also put forward in the Maha qixin lun (Mahayana Awakening of Faith), which will be discussed in the next section of this chapter. T32/1666.576a.29-576b.3. 168 When Li Daochun says, "Lay both of them down (existence and nonexistence) and let them go completely and even let go of emptiness," he is engaging in the same type of dialectic strategy. He gives up the opposing positions of asserting existence and denying existence and then goes a step further by rejecting the middle position of emptiness. This need not imply an outright rejection ofsiinyata (kong 2g) but can be seen as an unwillingness to adopt it as a position that will then trap the mind. Such a trap makes it impossible to "Hold on to the middle . . . " In this final line of the verse "the centre" could be taken as synonymous with a state of inner stillness corresponding to the emotional equilibrium described in the Zhongyong, a state of mind prior to the emergence of the various emotions. This is a connection that L i explicitly makes elsewhere.443 It would appear though that Li is focusing here on the need to maintain the middle position usually associated with Madhyamaka that can be maintained only i f all positions, including the middle position of emptiness, are let go. [6] Discipline, Meditative Concentration, and Wisdom Not moving in the midst of movement is true discipline. [Through] true meditative concentration you will be united with the patriarchal ancestors. With wisdom you ascend the entire Dharma-Tealm.444 The emotions that cause recklessness and deception will be completely dissolved. This verse provides Li's understanding of the term jie jfc (skt. sild), ordinarily translated "discipline," as the ability to maintain stillness in the midst of movement. The 4 4 3 James Legge, The Chinese Classics, vols. 1 and 2 (1935; reprint, Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc., 1992), 384. Li's reference to the Zhongyong is found in Yingchan ziyulu, 6.4b. 444 Fajie (skt. Dharmadatu) can refer to the physical universe as a whole or to its underlying ground from which all phenomena appear. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 272, s.v. ?4#r. 169 true discipline that manifests as stillness in samadhi, makes it possible to dissolve the emotions that can cause instability. This reading of jie jfa is closely linked to Li's understanding of what he calls the "illuminating mind" (zhaoxin M'\J~), which he describes as being still even when it is in motion.445 In the next line, the "patriarchal ancestors" are mentioned. Li seems not to assume these patriarchs are Buddhist, Taoist, or Ru. He refers to them for example in chapter six ofthe Yingchan ziyulu as those who transmitted a teaching that underlies each ofthe Three Teachings: The Teacher said: Patriarchal teachers of former generations, lofty sages of the Exalted Reality,446 had the Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth. Did they not preserve and transmit this way in the world to rescue human beings?447 What the patriarchs taught was something found in each of the Three Teachings and restricted to none. Thus, the patriarchs would include Confucius, Sakyamuni Buddha, and Laozi. [7] No Fixed Dharma Engage in meditation to seek the Dharma [and your] Nature will be completely deluded. Distancing [yourself] from the Dharma to seek mysterious practices is turning away. I f you comprehend Dharma as arising out of the mind Dharma will be empty, the mind still, and [you will] behold the sage.448 445 Zhonghe ji, 1.3a. This description is provided in the form of a chart entitled "The Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading" (zhaowang tu M^ll l) . See page 28. 4 4 6 This is a reference to a realm of the immortals. DJWH, 112, s.v. (SJ^. 447 Ying chanzi yulu, 6.1a. 448 Mouni %-f& is an abbreviated form of Shijia mouni ffj&^-jl (Sakyamuni). 170 The four-character title of this verse, "no fixed DharmcC (wuyou dingfa MWlllSc) is found in the Diamond Sutra.449 This phrase occurs in a dialogue between Sakyamuni and his disciple Subhuti (jpCHrJil) in which Sakyamuni makes the point that the Dharma or teaching, cannot be grasped or talked about. Thus, the statement in the second line discounts the possibility of seeking something, which defies expression and conventional understanding. To do so would simply demonstrate one's ignorance or in this case "delusion." [8] Empty Penetration and Noumenal Understanding450 [With] empty mind and peaceful meditative concentration understand the Mysterious Female. Piercing to the bone, pure and impoverished one enters the foundation of the Way. The numinous realm451 is lustrous and the mind-moon appears. This is the great brightness of the solitary openness of the Meditation Heaven.452 Jingang banruo boluomiduo jing, T8/235/749b. 4 5 0 The phrase xu che ling long MMMM. can be found in a Song dynasty Pure Land text entitled Longshu sengguangjingtu wen, T47/1970.258a. This text is attributed to a lay Buddhist and holder of the Jinshi M ± degree named Wang Rixiu £E B (?-l 173) who became a devout follower of Amida Buddha H^PE^t and Guanyin SSia. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 163, s.v. ZI:.. A discussion of how Wang Rixiu contributed to the development of Pure Land morality see Charles B. Jones, "Foundations of Ethics and Practice in Chinese Pure Land Buddhism," Journal of Buddhist Ethics 10, (2003). This is an online academic journal at <http://jbe.gold.ac.uk/index.html>. The context in which the phrase is used is a defense against the majority of people who make the claim that the Pure Land way of cultivation is inferior to that of the Dharma-gate of Chan Buddhism. The same phrase occurs in a Yuan dynasty Pure Land text titled Lushan lianzong baojian nianfo zheng lun, T47/1973.345a. In this text the four-character phrase is used in a description of the true mind (zhenxin M-'b) as opposed to the false mind (wangxin ;§:'t>). 451 Lingdi Silk appears not to be an established Buddhist or Taoist term. « 452 Chantian WX. refers to Dhydna heavens, of which there are four. It is to these heavens that those who practice meditation may be reborn. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 459, s.v. WA. Tiantai Buddhism also includes four levels of meditation. These are described in the second chapter of Zhiyi's Mohe zhiguan, T 46/1911, 1 la ff. In the set of verses titled "The Taoist Teaching," "the purity of Meditation Heaven" is described as "Cleansing the mind and sweeping away anxiety." Yingchan ziyulu, 6.16a. Based on the context of its use Chantian WX. appears to be a clear reference to a state of samadhi. 171 The title of verse eight is found as a phrase in two Pure Land texts (see note 450) though this fact sheds little or no light on the verse as a whole. What is most significant here is the reference to peaceful meditative concentration (jingding WM, skt. samadhi) as a means for comprehending the "Mysterious Female" {xuanpin 3Cf b) Thus, we have a Buddhist form of praxis employed to achieve insight into a quintessentially Taoist concept. Li associates the Myterious Female with the place where the mind stirs and the thoughts are set in motion {^>\JW]^MM>~&.%b)-453 Elsewhere it is described in terms of emptiness and as the opening through which one may return to the root.454 Thus, the Mysterious Female seems to correspond both to a point of dark origin out of which thought arises and the place of return. In this way it stands in for the Tao itself, which on a cosmogonic level, represents the origin of multiplicity while simultaneously existing as unadulterated unity. The point then is that engaging in the practice of samadhi one becomes aware within stillness ofthe origin of arising thoughts and so witnesses the figurative opening through which a return to unity can be achieved. [9] The Enlightened Nature of True Suchness455 The True Nature, which originally comes, is fundamentally naturally complete. The absolute,456 unmoving, illuminates the Middle Heaven.4 453 Yingchan ziyulu, 6.7b. 454 Yingchan zi yulu, 6.16b. 455 Zhenru (skt. bhutatathata), True Suchness, resembles the waves in contrast to the ocean. The waves are mutable while the ocean is eternal. True Suchness is the unchanging reality behindall phenomena. Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 331, s.v. Jt&l. 456 Ruru &n$H (skt. tathata) designates the absolute and is synonymous with True Suchness (zhenru IkW). Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 211, s.v. The four-character phrase ruru budong tykW^W) (the absolute, unmoving) is found in the Jingang banruo poluomijing, T 8/235.752b.27. 457 Zhongtian 4^  ^  refers to North-Central India. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 111, s.v. 4^  ^ . Perhaps its alternate form Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo 4*|S) is intended here. 172 The splendour of its radiance penetrates without hindrance or obscuration. Its brightness breaks through the mist prior to its having divided. Verse nine continues the themes of stillness, associated in verse eight with samadhi, and the brightness or lustre symbolized by the mind-moon (xinyue >L>£3)- In the present verse "the absolute" (ruru $P$P), which underlies phenomenal existence and is eternal and so unmoving appears to be used as a Buddhist parallel to the Mysterious Female that also precedes or acts as the ground and origin of diversity in the form of arising thoughts. [10] Eternity, Bliss, Personality, and Purity458 Accord with the spirit, nourish the intention, and admire clarity and emptiness. The whole day wander afar, allowing things to roll up and unravel. It is best to dwell in true bliss within meditative concentration. The solitariness of Meditation Heaven discloses radiant True Suchness. In this verse the four perfections taught in the Nirvana sutra constitute the title and the perfections are linked to samadhi and spontaneity expressed in terms of "wandering afar" and "allowing things to roll up and unravel." "Wandering afar" 458 Chang le wo jing %9k^M is a technical term used 134 times in the 36 juan version of the Nirvana Sutra, T12/375/605-852 which teaches that these four states of realization or four perfections (skt. paramitas) of knowledge are developed in the state of nirvana. Foxue dacidian, 1926 shang, s.v. Vf. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 350, s.v. 1$. Note: In the Yingchan ziyulu, 6.25a, jing is replaced with jing if. 173 (xiaoyao xrtxtD is used in the title of the first chapter of the Zhuangzi and the freedom associated with wandering is a way of referring to the ideal of spontaneity (ziran |=I$£) associated there with the sage who has achieved freedom from the constraints of a conventionally based outlook. This ideal found in the Zhuangzi is linked here to the four perfections and both result from deep meditation. [11] Facing the Sun to Patch Up the Torn Robe459 Facing the sun to patch the robe feign tenderness. Having patched up the shoulder [of your robe] again patch up the waist. When you have finished patching and [again] it tears, it is important to patch it up again. In the end why appear to be naked? [12] Facing the Moon Completely Destroy the Scriptures460 Beyond the sky the silver toad (moon) has just become a half [moon]. Foolish people want to comprehend but in the end [fall into] falsehood. Suddenly a few black clouds come; the two eyes follow along like a blind fellow. Verses eleven and twelve are somewhat problematic; their titles are found as a pair in chapter eighty of Wu Chengen's (1500? - 1582) famous novel "Journey to the West" (Xiyou ji). Evidently, these phrases are associated and if their origin could be determined, 5 9 See footnote 359 for details concerning the title of this verse. 4 6 0 The title of this verse (duiyue liaocan jing T ^ M ) has so far proved impossible to locate. The phrase is found in a text titled Zhang sanfeng danshi quanji (A Complete Anthology of Zhang Sanfeng's Verses on the Elixir) in the Taoist extra-canonical collection Daozang jiyao. The slightly different phrase duiyue canjingMB^ML is found in a section of verses titled "The Rootless Tree" (wugen shu The Zhang sanfeng danshi jiquan could not have been the source of the phrase as it was compiled in the Ming dynasty well after the composition of the Qingan Yingchan zi yulu. 174 it would shed light on the two verses above, the first of which is particularly problematic. The second ofthe verses repeats the symbolism of light, which potentially "breaks through the mist" but here is obscured by clouds of delusion. [13] The Diamond Sutra Pagoda Distinguished clearly, a seamless pagoda. It forces the obstinacy of the bystander to burst open. The eight points ofthe compass and the four directions all are [your] eyes. In their midst appears the living Tathdgata. Here the Buddhist verses conclude significantly with an ode to the Diamond Sutra, which appears to have set the tone and general orientation of the above set of Buddhist verses. Having considered the content ofthe specific verses what follows is a wider ranging discussion of how the various points of doctrine brought to light in the verses cohere within a process of realization or spiritual training envisioned by Li Daochun and his disciples as the "Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth." 3.3.b Letting Go, Seeing the Light, and Stillness In the opening chapter of the Zhonghe ji there is a series of four illustrations that provide an outline of ideas representing the core of Li's teaching. One of these is entitled "The Diagram of Letting Go and According With" (Weishun tu g l i H ) 4 6 1 This diagram describes letting go as a necessary prerequisite for one who desires to exist in perfect 1 Zhonghe ji, 1.2b. See page 26. 175 harmony with the Natural Order (tian A)- Below is a summary of the diagram in verse form: 6 & Let go and the body will be still. Being so the body will accord with the Natural Order and its mandate will respond to people. Let go and the mind will be penetrating. Being so the mind will accord with the Natural Order and its Way will respond to things. Let go and Society will be together. Being so society wil l accord with the Natural Order and its seasons will respond to transformations. Let go and affairs will be natural. Being so affairs will accord with the Natural Order and its Pattern will respond to universal moving power.462 Figure 6: Diagram of Letting Go and According With (Chinese) These verses describe how "letting go" affects every aspect of an individual's life from their body through to their societal context. The ability to let go makes it possible to then accord with the Natural Order and if both can be achieved the result wi l l be constant Zhonghe ji, 1.2b. 176 clarity and tranquility (chang qingjing Soffit? ). 4 6 3 This association of clarity or brightness with stillness is an important and oft-repeated theme in the teaching of L i Daochun. In a second illustration titled "The Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading" (Zhaowang tu he describes the "illuminating mind" (zhaoxin as being constantly still while the "misleading mind" (wangxin described in the same diagram in opposition to the "illuminating mind," is always moving: Zhonghe ji, 1.3a. 177 The illuminating mind is constantly still. . I f it moves then it responds to the myriad transformations. Although it moves its fundamental substance is constant stillness. The misleading mind is constantly moving. [Even] i f it is still then there arise myriad thoughts. Although it is still its fundamental substance is constant movement.464 Figure 7: Diagram of Illuminating and Misleading (Chinese) Without the illumination provided by stillness, one's way will be lost. In the thirteen "Buddhist" verses described above Li associates images of brightness and illumination with the highest form of understanding described in terms of the most fundamental level of reality (zhenru MiU or ruru $P$P skt. bhutatathatd).465 Thus "letting go," "illumination/understanding," and "stillness" are all interrelated. Stillness depends on letting go, and letting go depends on illumination. The role of Buddhism within Li's teaching is shaped by this tripartite relationship. In the "The Diagram of Letting Go and 464 Zhonghe ji, 1.3a. 28. 4 6 5 See for example verses nine and ten above. 178 According With" no mention is made of what it is that must be let go nor is the reader told how this letting go can be affected. The answers to these questions are scattered throughout the Yingchan zi yulu and the Zhonghe ji and often draw upon Buddhist praxis and epistemological critique. Letting go begins at the level of language and arises out of a basic distrust of text/s and language in general. Indeed Li predicates his basic assertion that the Three Teachings are unified partially on the belief that, "Al l teachings are fond of separating from words."466 While Li frequently conveys this unifying attitude to the reader, the matter is rather more complex as his position on the place of language is characteristically ambiguous.467 This ambiguity is brought into stark focus when Li states that having presented a "koan" to his students and having insisted that they ponder its import, 'Two or three of them accorded somewhat with the crux of it and so I wrote this text in order to present it and thereby transmit [this teaching from] mind to mind."468 Thus, somewhat paradoxically, a text has been composed to assist with the direct transmission of this wordless teaching from mind to mind. Although they are necessary tools, texts and other expressions of language, must hot hinder true realization, which lies beyond words: The real matter is not found on paper. This is analogous to a boat crossing over a river. Crossing over, and thus people having stepped onto the other shore, the boat is useless. A former worthy [Zhuangzi] said: Once you have got the rabbit forget the snare. Once you have got the fish forget the trap.469 This is how it is described. Moreover, Yingchan zi yulu, 2.1a. 4 6 7 Characteristic insofar as Chan yulu encounters such as those already referred to in connection with the Linji school and much inner alchemy literature repeatedly confront the age-old problem of expressing what they claim is fundamentally inexpressible. The attitude of distrust toward written texts is linked also to the need for encountering an enlightened teacher. Yingchan zi yulu, 6.1 a. 468 Zhonghe ji, 6.26b. 4 6 9 Li is paraphrasing the closing lines of the twenty-sixth chapter of the Zhuangzi. An interesting example of intercultural continuity is worth noting: In one of the closing sections to his Tractatus, Ludwig Wittgenstein made a very similar observation to that made by Zhuangzi, "My propositions serve as 179 [although] I have now [recounted]470 this assemblage of words yet you must not cling to [what is] on paper.471 The last phrase makes it clear that Li is aware of the conundrum: That he is speaking and writing about the inexpressible "real matter." Li defines his answer to this predicament in metaphorical terms that underscore the continuity between the "Buddhist" attitude toward the Dharma, and the observation in the Zhuangzi that one must somehow get to the meaning that lies beneath words whereupon words may be forgotten. In the Diamond Sutra the Buddha explains to his disciple Subhuti that the Buddha Dharma is like a raft with only provisional use. 4 7 2 The Buddha describes even his own teaching as one that disciples must abandon. By employing this strategy of linking a classical period 'Taoist" text with a prajnaparamita observation on the need to transcend even the Buddha's teaching Li is self-consciously embracing the "wordless teaching" as a trans-sectarian mode of transmitting the "Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth." One could view Li and his disciples as passive employers or perhaps imitators of a popular Chan mode of discourse (the koan), which they are using merely on a formal level as a functional vehicle to communicate a substantially 'Taoist" message but there is more to it than that. As has already been described when it suited their purposes Li and his followers rewrote koans or interpreted them in ways that supported their own approach to personal cultivation. The koan mentioned above that Li presented to two or elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical, when he has used them—as steps—to climb up beyond them. (He must, so to speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it.)" Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico Philosophicus, trans. D.F. Pears and B.F. McGuinness (Humanities Press, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1961), 78. 4 7 0 1 have referred to a section in the Zhonghe ji, 3.22a, which provides a very nearly identical version of this same dialogic exchange in order to make sense of this sentence. 471 Yingchan zi yulu, 6.8b-9a. 472 Jingang banruo poluomi jing, T8/235.749b. 11. 180 three of his disciples bears no resemblance to what one would ordinarily consider a koan. What Li refers to is a prose passage in which he describes how "worldly people" (shiren fti; A ) , due to a basic misunderstanding, take their body as an indication that they have a self. Apart from the challenging nature of the insights conveyed there is no sense that the writer is intentionally confounding the reader with the type of mangled logic expected in koans. Instead, Li employs a mix of Yogacara terms and the pan-Buddhist language of delusion to demonstrate why the belief in a self is ill founded.473 Beyond active reformulation and interpretation, the texts of L i and his disciples repeatedly demonstrate that they also understand and see value in the epistemological ground out of which the formal elements of yulu and koan pedagogy emerge. That ground is the "middle position" (zhong rdn, skt. madhya) expressed in two prajnaparamita texts that Li holds in high esteem: the Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra. By exploring and drawing out the implications of the "middle position" Li recognizes and takes full advantage of a bridge between understanding the provisional status of language and realizing the provisional status of everything that occupies one's daily life and fills the universe. Put another way, Li appreciates that the reasoning employed in shedding light on the limits of language, is necessarily founded on realizing that all those apparently concrete "signifieds," simultaneously constituting the apparent stability of language and the existence of the "real" world, are projected by the mind rather than simply perceived by a subject. Thus, Li focuses his presentation of these ideas on a critique of language and a deconstruction of mentally constructed reality. This critique takes advantage of doctrinal positions associated generally with prajnaparamita 473 Zhonghe ji, 6.26a-b. 181 literature and more specifically with Madhamaka philosophy mentioned earlier and is bolstered by ideas associated with Yogacara philosophy. The link between the provisional nature of language and reality in general is made very directly in the following section from the Diamond Sutra, which describes the impossibility of rendering the highest teaching in words because words necessarily imply the mistaken assumption of fixed, self-present (zixing l=!y£F., skt. svabhava) forms. Section seven states: "Subhuti, what do you think? Does the Tathagata attain peerless perfect enlightenment? And does he have a teaching that he explains?" Subhuti said: "As I understand the implications of what the Buddha has explained, there is no deteraiinable phenomenon called peerless perfect enlightenment. And there is also no set teaching [wuyou dingfa ^ W > © £ ] that can be delivered by the Tathagata. Why? The teachings explained by the Tathagata can neither be appropriated nor explained. There is neither a teaching nor a non-teaching. How can this be? All the enlightened sages are distinguished [from worldly teachers] by mdeterrninate phenomena."474 This verse, which contains the four-character title of one of Li's Buddhist verses (verse seven), "No Fixed Dharma" (wuyou dingfa M^'Mlik), points out the emptiness of the Dharma (Buddha's teaching). The focus in this verse is not only on the ultimate inexpressibility of the Buddha's teaching in any final and fixed form but also includes the middle position of emptiness expressed as "no Dharma and not no Dharma''' (feifa fei feifa ^r^^F-^F-Sc)-475 That is, the teaching (like all other dharmas—teachings and fundamental constituents of reality) is empty but not non-existent. This type of analysis is 4 7 4 Charles Muller, trans. The Diamond Sutra, 2003. This work has thus far been published only on the World Wide Web and can be found at <http://www.hm.tyg.jp/~acmuller/bud-canon/diamond_sutra.html#div-7>. 415Jingang banruo poluomijing, T8/235.249.b. 182 a constant refrain in the Diamond Sutra. In Li Daochun's verse though, the focus shifts, as is often the case, from theory to praxis, [7] No Fixed Dharma Engage in meditation to seek the Dharma [and your] Nature will be completely deluded. Distancing [yourself] from the Dharma to seek mysterious practices is turning away. I f you comprehend Dharma as arising out ofthe mind Dharma will be empty, the mind still, and [you will] behold the sage. The point made in verse seven of Li's Buddhist verses is that realizing the emptiness of the Dharma (Buddha's teaching) and all other dharmas makes it possible to let go or set down all views so that the mind is made still. By directly linking this verse to the above conversation between Subhuti and the Tathagata, L i effectively creates a bridge between a prajnaparamita epistemological critique and his own ideal of stillness. By placing the phrases, "Dharma will be empty" and "the mind still," side by side in the same line he is making a connection between achieving a state of inner stillness and the ideals of letting go of language and awakening to the middle position of no self-present existence, the comprehension of which requires and demonstrates illumination. Here the close relationship of stillness, tranquility, and illumination or understanding is assumed. The ability to witness the sage within (Sakyamuni), is contingent upon "not meditating," that is, on avoiding any fixed intention and letting go completely by relinquishing language and comprehending the teaching of emptiness. In this way, emptiness of mind can simply happen (ziran dj#£). The same point is made in verse eight where emptiness of mind and deep meditation (ding skt. samadhi) make it possible to 183 comprehend the "Mysterious Female" and enter the Way. Hence, for L i the Diamond Siitra provides, in its statement of the middle way, a medicine to cure the active seeking and grasping that he takes to be so counterproductive to the cultivation of the Golden Elixir. It is important to note that this specific use ofthe Diamond Sutra does not correspond with any statement found in that text. The primary focus o f the siitra from the perspective of praxis is not meditation as such but rather the Bodhisattva ideal and its attendant orientation toward universal salvation through the application of a non-referential or non-attached form of compassion. Li's requirements of this text mute that dimension of its message. Li's concern with meditation generates the same interpretive approach in the first chapter of the Zhonghe ji where his focus is on a single phrase (ruru budong IfifflPfWS) found in the concluding verse of the Diamond siitra that reads, Subhiiti, i f there were a person who took the amount of the seven jewels in numberless, countless worlds and gave them away charitably, and there were also a good son or good daughter who gave rise to the bodhisattva's aspiration, taking just a four line verse of this scripture, memorizing it, reciting it, and teaching it to others, this person's merit would exceed that ofthe former. How should one teach it to others? Without grasping to signs, staying with things as they are, immovable (ruru budong m\PfW])- Why? All conditioned phenomena Are like a dream, an illusion, a bubble, a shadow Like the dew, or like lightning You should discern them like this.476 4 7 6 Muller, Diamond Sutra. 184 This verse emphasizes the salyific power of the sutra and ponders the problem of how it is to be taught. The solution lies in acknowledging the illusory and temporary nature of existence. Edward Conze, in the commentary to his translation of the Diamond Sutra, observes that in this version translated by KumarajTva (344-413), the sentence, "Without grasping to signs, staying with things as they are, immovable (tt-UiU-^f-Wj)" is added to clarify the point of the four-line stanza that follows and it is this appended qualifying sentence that Li seizes upon.477 Once again the principal subject: spreading the Buddha Dharma through the vehicle of the Diamond Sutra is subordinated by L i to his own message that the Three Teachings are ultimately based in the same universal insight regarding the need for stillness. In order to support this contention L i places side by side three phrases taken from the Three Teachings (including the one just mentioned from the Diamond Sutra): Buddhists say: "The absolute does not move (^P^D^ffij)." Complete understanding is constant (unconditioned) knowledge. The Appendix to the Changes [of the Confucians] says: "Silently so, not moving. [When] influenced they (the Changes) follow and penetrate (the causes of all under the sky)."478 The elixir book/s [of the Taoists] say, "[When] the body and mind do not move, then one again has the limitless true moving power."4 7 9 Edward Conze, trans., Buddhist Wisdom Books: The Diamond Sutra; The Heart Sutra (New York, San Francisco: Harper Torchbooks, Harper and Row, Publishers, 1958), 67-68. For the sake of consistency the translation of the sentence in question remains that of Muller. The original sentence reads: ?^S(j!&ffl#n$B ^SJ. T 8/235.752.b. 4 7 8 The first four-character phrase within this sentence (&^^fW], OBWM'fii) is found only once in the Yijing but is a constant refrain in the works associated with Li Daochun and his disciples. The concluding four characters of the above sentence included in brackets above are A T ^ L t f t . Zhouyi suoyin, 65/79/21. 4 7 9 1 have, thus far, been unable to locate the source of this quotation. 185 While it is obvious that Li knows the content of the Diamond Sutra verse from which he quotes, he is not interested in conveying the Mahayana message of that verse. His primary focus is on generating lines of continuity between the Three Teachings. Immediately after listing these three phrases he states, "[These all] describe the marvelous origin of the Supreme Ultimate (Taiji ;fc@). This being known, what the Three Teachings esteem is tranquil stability [within]."4 8 0 Following the Taiji tu shuo of Zhou Dunyi MW(M (1017-1073)481 L i understands the wondrous origin of the "Supreme Ultimate" to be the "Limitless" (Wuji MWi), a concept that can be traced to the Daode jing.4*2 Hence, Li takes a statement from the Diamond Sutra and, in accordance with a Daoxue xHljl (Neo-Confucian) text, reduces its meaning to a term originating in a text that became central to the many movements denoted by the term 'Taoism'. "Letting go" is an end supported by Buddhist language and doctrine, both of which are applied skilfully by Li and his disciples with a convincing level of insight, demonstrating that they are not mere imitators of form. It is significant then that the focus on stillness in relation to the "Buddhist teaching," is one that relies on a rather forced 480 Zhonghe ji, 1.1b. 4 8 1 Zhou Dunyi. Taiji tushuo (Explanation of the Diagram of the Supreme Ultimate) in Zhouzi quanshu in vol. 44 of Guoxue jiben congshu, ed. Wang Yunwu IE It 5 (Taibei: Taiwan shangwuyin shuguan gufenyouxian gongsi, 1968), 2-32. 4 8 2 See section 28 of the Daode jing. Wuji also appears in chapter 49 of the Guanzi entitled Neiye. Harold Roth, Original Tao: Inward Training (Nei-yeh) and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1999), 53. Roth has argued that the Neiye represents a way of cultivation that predates the Daode jing and the Zhuangzi. If so it would represent the earliest known record of cultivation practices that link settling of the emotions and lessening of desires to meditative exercises involving gathering and circulating the qi within the body. 186 vision of Buddhism. Over and above employing Buddhist epistemological insights as tools to gain freedom, this second function of Buddhism within the Wondrous Way of Peerless Orthodox Truth appears to be a projection by L i and his disciples onto the various texts and teachings that they have employed. They clearly consider stillness as central to the very identity of Buddhism and yet neither the Heart Sutra nor the Diamond Siitra, the only two Buddhist texts mentioned by name in the Yingchan ziyulu and Zhonghe ji, provide any description of inner stillness or tranquility. The only example is that already cited above (ruru budong fyUlttPFW]), which requires a rather elastic exegetical posture to say the least. This phrase from the Diamond Siitra is one of only two points at which an argument for the centrality of inner stillness to Buddhism is put forward.483 "Argument" perhaps overstates the case, as what are offered in both cases are mere assertions. Having just considered the first example, a second that relies upon a particular reading of jie (discipline or precepts), will now be considered. The sixth ofthe Buddhist verses provides descriptions of "discipline" (jie skt. sila), meditative concentration (ding ;|[, skt. samadhi), and wisdom (hui H , skt. prajnd): [6] Discipline, Meditative Concentration, and Wisdom Not moving in the midst of movement is true discipline. [Through] true meditative concentration you will be united with the patriarchal ancestors. With wisdom you ascend the entire D/Wma-realm.484 The emotions that cause recklessness and deception will be completely dissolved. 4 8 3 This statement is based primarily upon the translated material comprising Chapter Two of this dissertation though reading through the untranslated sections of the Yingchan ziyulu and the Zhonghe ji have so far yielded no additional arguments supporting this particular understanding of Buddhism. 484 Fajie (skt. Dharmadatu) can refer to the physical universe as a whole or to its underlying ground from which all phenomena appear. Soothill and Hodous, Buddhist Terms, 272, s.v. 187 This verse does not define "discipline" with reference to morality, as one would expect in a Buddhist context. Instead the text defines it by saying, "Not moving in the midst of movement is true discipline."485 Further, the verse ends by stating that through the cultivation and application of discipline, meditative concentration, and wisdom, 'The emotions that cause recklessness and deception will be completely dissolved." Such a representation of these important Buddhist concepts extends their function in ways that do not conform to how they usually function in a Buddhist context. Li Daochun and his disciples have adopted a Chan mode of discourse and have referred to two texts that are foundational to Chan soteriology and praxis. With this in mind, it may be useful to consider for comparison the description and application of "discipline," "meditative concentration," and "wisdom" within a Chan context. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch is a good choice as it provides just such a description and makes use of language favoured by Li and his disciples as was described in the first half of the this chapter. In Chapter Six entitled "Repentance," Huineng sits down with some of his disciples and speaks on what he describes as the "five incenses" the first three of which pertain to "discipline," "meditative concentration," and "wisdom," The first is the Sila Incense, which means that our mind is free from taints of misdeeds, evil jealousy, avarice, anger, spoliation, and hatred. The second is the Samadhi Incense, which means that our mind is unperturbed in all circumstances, favorable or unfavorable. The third is the Prajna Incense, which means that our mind is free from all impediments, that we constantly introspect our Essence of Mind with wisdom, that we refrain from doing all kinds of evil deeds, that although we do all kinds of good acts, yet we do not let our mind become attached to (the fruits) of such actions, and that we are respectful towards our superiors, considerate to our inferiors, and sympathetic to the destitute and the poor.486 Yingchan zi yulu, 6.24a. 486 Liuzu ta/7/'/Hg,T48/2008.353c., A.F. Price and Wong Mou-Lam, trans., The Diamond Sutra & the Sutra ofHui Neng (Boston: Shambhala Publications Inc., 1969), 49. 188 This entire passage has a strong moral focus. The definition of jie jfc (discipline) refers directly to matters of morality, as one would expect. No explicit mention of stillness is evident. A similar definition ofjie is provided later on in chapter eight ofthe same siitra where it is stated: "To free the mind from all impurity is the Sila ofthe Essence of Mind." 4 8 7 Samadhi is related to mamtaining a state of internal equilibrium under all circumstances and so might be associated with restraining the emotions though the translation emphasizes a possible link to emotions through the choice o f "unperturbed" in the translation of zixin buluan i^^FiSL- Luan j|L is a more neutral term conveying a sense of disorder rather than specifically emotional discord. Prajna is linked to removing impediments (wuai MM) and again the matter of morality is raised in connection with prajna. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment, composed in Chan and Huayan circles at the beginning of the eighth century, was also an immensely popular text in China. In the introduction to his translation of the text Charles Muller describes it as having a distinctly East Asian metaphysical dimension to its soteriology evident in its discussions of the important theoretical issues concerning the nature of enlightenment. He describes these issues as being at the fore of the East Asian Buddhist consciousness at its period of maturation.488 In addition to describing ritual performances, confession, and the means for selecting a proper teacher, this text gives direct descriptions concerning meditation. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment contains a single reference to discipline, meditation, and 487 Liuzu ta«/wg,T48/2008.358c. Price and Wong, Sutra ofHui Neng, 86. 4 8 8 Charles Muller, trans., The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment: Korean Buddhism's Guide to Meditation (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999), 3. 189 wisdom. It occurs at a point where enlightenment itself is described as a hindrance (zhang |§ft) and an obstruction (a/HI):489 Good sons, all hindrances are none other than ultimate enlightenment. Whether you attain mindfulness or lose mindfulness, there is no non-liberation. Establishing the Dharma and refuting the Dharma are both called nirvana; wisdom and folly are equally prajna; the method that is perfected by bodhisattvas and false teachers is the same bodhi; ignorance and suchness are not different realms; morality, concentration and wisdom, as well as desire, hatred and ignorance are all divine practices; sentient beings and lands share the same dharma nature; hell and heaven are both the Pure Land; those having Buddha-nature and those not having it equally accomplish the Buddha's enlightenment.490 By setting up the description in terms of sets of opposites, this passage is instructive concerning the definition of "discipline" (translated significantly as "morality" by Muller). By implication "discipline" (jie Skt. slid) or "morality" is a state that implies the suppression or regulation of desires. Once again, "stillness" is not at the forefront. Finally, the Linji lu also speaks of "discipline" in terms of conventional morality. This term (jie occurs only once in the text and is described in conjunction with fasting as an unhelpful practice. Such practices are mere adornments and are not the Buddha-dharma.*91 Once again, it is assumed that "discipline" refers only to moral constraints. It is important for Li's position regarding the "Buddhist teaching" that it be closely identified with stillness, a notion that is at the very heart of his own teaching and which goes a long way to substantiating his claims of unity between the Three Teachings. 4 8 9 This echoes Li's observation in the seventh Buddhist verse, that intentionally directed meditation practice is also a source of delusion. See page 134. 4 9 0 Muller, Perfect Enlightenment, 162. Yuanjue jing, T17/842.917b. 4 9 1 Lzn/z/«,T47/1985.502a. 190 While these explicit attempts by Li and his disciples to identify Buddhism with stillness are unconvincing, there are passages that do refer to Buddhist ideas associated with internal stillness or tranquility. Near the end of the Zhonghe ji there is a section titled "Names and Words Beyond the [Three] Teachings" (Jiaowai mingyan WL^Y^SWY 92 in which Buddhist doctrine is interwoven with ideas from Neo-Confacian thought, the Daode jing, and the Zhuangzi. Three subsections describe each of the Three Teachings from the perspective of transcending "transformation" (hua and "creation" (zaojja) by cultivating an understanding of "great creation" and "great transformation." The Buddhist subsection focuses on how the mind first creates reality and then becomes ensnared in its own creation. Liberation is achieved by employing wisdom so that reality is re-cognized as having no characteristics. As such, reality is understood in terms of emptiness: The Nature of unified reality493 exists fundamentally. It exists and yet has no characteristics. Therefore, it is without creation and is without transformation. It is the constant of the Way. People only understand being without creation and being without transformation as no creation or transformation. They do not realize that there is great creation and transformation preserved within it. As for those who are not enlightened how are they able to know it? Enlightened scholars understand that i f wisdom penetrates universally then [in the] myriad [worldly] affairs they will see emptiness. The One Mind will return to stillness. Transcendentally so, it alone is preserved and so is without creation and transformation.494 492 Zhonghe ji, 6.21b-26b. 4 9 3 "Nature of unified reality" is a translation of — Y i zhen — % is a Buddhist term referring to reality in its entirety (Skt. Bhutatathata). This term is interchangeable with zhenru MtG, usually translated as "true suchness." This refers to a core doctrine of Huayan Buddhism. It is the "one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless just as it is § #S self-existing." Soothill, Buddhist Terms, 9,s.v.—%. 494 Zhongheji,2lb-22a. 191 The link made here between the unified mind (yixin -"->jjs skt. eka-agrd) and stillness is one that rests on Li's own identification of True Suchness (zhenru jlt$n, skt. tathatd) with stillness. The One Mind is synonymous with True Suchness495 and as such represents a reduction of mind to reality, and reality to the mind. This means that subject and object no longer stand in relation to one another because the ground for the distinction is no more than provisional. Li's reliance on the concept of the "unified mind" indicates another likely source of his understanding of Buddhism. "Unified mind" is a core idea in the Mahayana Awakening of Faith*96 traditionally attributed to Asvaghosa (ca. l s t-2 n d c. C.E.). This text played a pivotal role in the debates between Huayan and Tiantai adherents, as it was a doctrinal resource-text for both.497 Concerning the unified mind the Mahayana Awakening of Faith states: The Mind in terms of the Absolute is the one World of Reality (dharmadhatu) and the essence of all phases of existence in their totality. That which is called "the essential nature of the Mind" is unborn and is imperishable. It is only through illusions that all things come to be differentiated. I f one is freed from illusions, then to him there will be no appearances (lakshana) of objects regarded as absolutely independent existences; therefore all things from the beginning transcend all forms of verbalization, description, and conceptualization and are, in the final analysis, undifferentiated, free from alteration, and indestructible. They are only of the One Mind; hence the name Suchness. All explanations by words are provisional 4 9 5 Ding Fubao, Foxue dacidian, 11, s.v. 496 Dasheng qixin lun, T32/1666. 4 9 7 A discussion of Zhanjan's JS^ S (711-782) attempts to reinvigorate Tiantai in the face of Huayan's rise to ascendancy by the mid eighth century and the subsequent struggle to establish orthodoxy can be found in Chi-wah Chan, "Chih-li (960-1028) and the Crisis of T'ien-t'ai Buddhism in the Early Sung," in Buddhism in the Sung, eds. Gregory, Peter N. and Daniel A. Getz (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999), 409-441. For a brief discussion of the significance to these events of the ontology of mind described in the Mahayana A wakenening of Faith see pages 411-412. 192 and without validity, for they are merely used in accordance with illusions and are incapable of denoting Suchness.498 This section of the Mahayana Awakening of Faith refers to the same themes raised in the quotation from the Zhonghe ji. All the objects comprising reality resolve themselves into the "One Mind" and as such are beyond altera