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On the edge Moradinejad, Nastaran 2005

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On the Edge By Nastaran M o r a d i n e j a d M . A r c h University of Tehran, 2003  A thesis submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the d e g r e e of Master of L a n d s c a p e Architecture in The Faculty of G r a d u a t e Studies L a n d s c a p e Architecture  The University of British C o l u m b i a August, 2005  © Nastaran Moradinejad  O n the E d g e  Abstract  This project looks at Foot of Lonsdale a n d Waterfront Park in the Lower Lonsdale n e i g h b o u r h o o d of the Gity of North V a n c o u v e r . These are t w o sites with g r e a t potentials a n d unique waterfront locations but currently d u e to a series of c o m p l i c a t i o n s a n d d e s i g n , c o n n e c t i o n a n d c i r c u l a t i o n problems, a r e underutilized. The d e f i c i e n c i e s a n d the potentials of these t w o sites are e x p l o r e d in this project a n d a n e w design is p r o p o s e d . The g o a l of the d e s i g n is to revitalize these sites through c r e a t i n g multi f u n c t i o n a l a n d diverse r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d p u b l i c facilities that c a n readily b e e n r i c h e d with a variety of cultural a n d c o m m e r c i a l uses a n d a r e b e n e f i c i a l to the surrounding n e i g h b o u r h o o d s at the l o c a l level a n d a destination point at the regional level. The n e w design attempts to r e v e a l a n d c e l e b r a t e the natural a n d u r b a n settings in w h i c h the sites are f o u n d a n d to integrate t h e m with e a c h other a n d their surrounding in a c l e a r yet stimulating m a n n e r .  Abstract  O n the E d g e  Table of  Table of C o n t e n t s  Contents  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  Table of Images  vi  Acknowledgements  xii  Chapter 1: Introduction  1  1.1  Port Cities a n d their Transformation  1.2 1.3  1.1.1 Industry, Industry a n d Industry 1.1.2 2 0 Century Precedents Today's Waterfront th  Chapter 2: Project Proposal 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4  Introduction to the Project Hypothesis Project G o a l Design Principles  1 1 2 6 11  18 18 20 20 21  On  the E d g e  '  Table of C o n t e n t s  C h a p t e r 3: U r b a n C o n t e x t 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6  23  City of North V a n c o u v e r Lonsdale Q u a y D e v e l o p m e n t Lonsdale Corridor S t r e e t s c a p e Streetcar Feasibility Study Lower Lonsdale Parks a n d G r e e n w a y s Strategic Plan  23 29 ...-33 33 35 37  C h a p t e r 4: P r o j e c t S i t e s 4.1  4.2  4.3  Foot of Lonsdale 4.1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 4.1.2 Physical Characteristics 4.1.3 Opportunities a n d Constraints Waterfront Park 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Physical Characteristics 4.2.3 Opportunities a n d Constraints A Wider Look  C h a p t e r 5: D e s i g n 5.1 5.2 5.3  ••••  ,  39 39 39 42 45 46 46 47 54 56  59 Concept Connections Foot of Lonsdale 5.3.1 Introduction.... 5.3.2 Spatial O r d e r  59 60 63 64 64  On  the E d g e  5.4  Table of C o n t e n t s  5.3.3 The Fountain Plaza Waterfront Park 5.4.1 Introduction 5.4.2 Circulation 5.4.3 Spatial O r d e r 5.4.4 Northern S e c t i o n 5.4.5 Southern S e c t i o n 5.4.6 Waterfront  ,  65 67 67 67 71 72 73 73  C h a p t e r 6: C o n c l u s i o n  85  References  88  A p p e n d i x : R e c o m m e n d e d P l a n t List  91  O n the E d g e  Table of Imgges  Table of Images  C h a p t e r 1: Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image Image  -1: -2: -3: -4:  The Boston Fish Pier built in 1912. Wrenn 1983. P a g e : 15. Industrial waterfront in N e w York. Wrenn 1983. P a g e : 16. C a p e Fear River in Wilmington, North C a r o l i n a , 1980. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 10. N e w C a s t l e B e a c h Park, Lake Washington, Believue, W a s h i n g t o n . J o n e s & J o n e s . Linda Feltner. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 175. -5: Transformation of the waterfronts. Harney 1979. P a g e : 6. -6: G e n e L. C o u l o n M e m o r i a l B e a c h Park. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 230. -7: B e a c h Park's site m a p . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 231. -8: Christopher C o l u m b u s Park. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 178. -9: Christopher C o l u m b u s Park's site m a p . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 179. -10: Waterfront Streetcar. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 100. -11: Waterfront Streetcar's route a n d site m a p . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 101. -12: P r o g r a m m i n g Facilities. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 49. -13: P r o g r a m m i n g Facilities' site m a p . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 51. -14: A street in Granville Island. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 161. -15: Granville Island's site m a p . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 162. -16: A p u b l i c e v e n t in Baltimore's d e v e l o p i n g waterfront. Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 112. -17: Q u e e n ' s Q u a y Terminal, Q u e e n ' s Q u a y West, Harbourfront, Toronto, O n t a r i o . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 102. -18: Boston C o m m o n s , a mid-city g a t h e r i n g p l a c e . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 7. -19: Portside Park, V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 251. -20: Granville Island R e d e v e l o p m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 158.  vi  O n the E d g e  Table of Images  C h a p t e r 2: I m a g e 2-1: Lower Lonsdale from water. City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s official w e b s i t e / P h o t o Gallery. (www.cnv.org) I m a g e 2-2: Foot of Lonsdale a n d Waterfront Park. A P E G Professional Engineers a n d Geoscientists of B C . S e a to Sky Branch, (www.apeg.be/branches/seatosky/pastevents.html)  Chapter 3: I m a g e 3-1: City of North V a n c o u v e r a n d the b a c k d r o p of the North Shore M o u n t a i n s . Photo b y T o m m y Williams. (www.pbase.com/twwilliams/image/35065226) I m a g e 3-2: First settlements in North V a n c o u v e r . Lonsdale Q u a y Project (brochure) 1984. P a g e : 4. I m a g e 3-3: First settlements in North V a n c o u v e r . Lonsdale Q u a y Project (brochure) 1984. P a g e : 2. I m a g e 3-4: " O l d Faithful" - N o . 2 Ferry. Barr 1969. P a g e 11. I m a g e 3-5: Streetcar 153 in Upper Lonsdale. North V a n c o u v e r M u s e u m a n d Archives. L o n s d a l e Streetcar Feasibility Study. P a g e : 3. I m a g e 3-6: Foot of Lonsdale, the Ferry terminal. Lonsdale Q u a y Project (brochure) 1984. P a g e : 6. I m a g e 3-7: Foot of Lonsdale a n d the neighbouring site of the Pier D e v e l o p m e n t (Versatile Shipyards.) C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r ' s official w e b s i t e / P h o t o Gallery, (www.cnv.org) Images 3-8 a n d 3-9: Ethnic diversity of retails o n Lonsdale A v e n u e , ( w w w . l o n s d a l e a v e n u e . c a ) I m a g e 3-10: Lower Lonsdale b e f o r e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of Lonsdale Q u a y Project. Lonsdale Q u a y Project (brochure) 1984. P a g e : 8. I m a g e 3-11: Lonsdale A v e n u e , ( w w w . l o n s d a l e a v e n u e . c a ) I m a g e 3-12: Carrie C a t e s Court alternative for the Lonsdale streetcar service. Lonsdale Streetcar Feasibility Study. P a g e : 118. I m a g e 3-13: The Pier D e v e l o p m e n t m o d e l , (www.cherrybouton.com/l-lonsdale.html) I m a g e 3-14: The Pier after construction. (www.3.telus.net/LABC/Cpier.html) I m a g e 3-15: Lower Lonsdale from w a t e r . City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s official w e b s i t e / P h o t o Gallery. (www.cnv.org) I m a g e 3-16: City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s p r o p o s e d trail system. City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s O C P , 2002.  O n the E d g e  C h a p t e r  Table of Images  4:  I m a g e 4-1: Foot of Lonsdale a n d the major surrounding buildings. A e r i a l Photo from the GIS m a p s in The C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r ' s official w e b s i t e , (www.cnv.org) I m a g e 4-2: P a n o r a m a of the Foot of Lonsdale from the e n d of the Pier. P h o t o b y the author. I m a g e 4-3: The Pier D e v e l o p m e n t Site Plan. The Pier P i n n a c l e D e v e l o p m e n t w e b s i t e . (http://www.thepier.info/living.htm) I m a g e 4-4: P a n o r a m a of Foot of Lonsdale from the e n t r a n c e to the shipyards. P h o t o by the author. I m a g e 4-5: Foot of Lonsdale from the e n t r a n c e to the shipyards looking towards the ICBC building a n d the bus l o o p ; the PGE building is o n the left. Photo b y the author. I m a g e 4-6: The v i e w corridor towards Foot of Lonsdale from Lonsdale A v e n u e . P h o t o b y the author. I m a g e 4-7: The g r a d e c h a n g e b e t w e e n E s p l a n a d e a n d the site; looking at the parking lot in the western section of the site from E s p l a n a d e . Photo by the author. I m a g e 4-8: A c c e s s Lonsdale Q u a y Market from the site, ( w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m ) I m a g e 4-9: L o n s d a l e Q u a y Market Plaza, ( w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m ) I m a g e 4-10: C a r r i e G a t e s T u g b o a t O p e r a t i o n , ( w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m ) I m a g e 4-11: The S e v e n Seas S e a f o o d restaurant, ( w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m ) I m a g e 4-12: L o n s d a l e Q u a y Market Plaza from the water. (www.seethenorthshore.com/lonsdaleq/lonsdaleq.htm) I m a g e 4-13: Foot of Lonsdale. A c c e s s d i a g r a m a n d major surrounding sites I m a g e 4-14: Waterfront Park a n d the major buildings in the surrounding. A e r i a l P h o t o from the GIS m a p s in The City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s official w e b s i t e , (www.cnv.org) I m a g e 4-15: a n d 4-16: Looking across the park from north a n d south. Photos by the author. I m a g e 4-17: Visitors getting c l o s e to the w a t e r ' s e d g e in the Waterfront Park. P h o t o b y the author. I m a g e 4-18: C h i l d r e n a n d their parents enjoying the tidal p o o l . P h o t o b y the author. I m a g e 4-19: Little b o y trying to r e a c h the w a t e r despite no a p p a r e n t a c c e s s to the w a t e r ' s e d g e . P h o t o by the author. I m a g e 4-20: C a n a d a D a y fire works in Waterfront Park, (www.nsnews.com) Images 4-21 a n d 4-22: C a r i b b e a n Festival in Waterfront Park. Photos b y the author.  O n the E d g e  Table of Images  Imgges 4-23 g n d 4-24: C a n a d a D a y c e l e b r a t i o n s in Waterfront Park. (v^vw.rotarylionsgate.org/Canada%20Day.html) I m a g e 4-25: Waterfront w a l k w a y in Waterfront Park. (http://www.triumf.ca/vancouverjmages/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-26: L o o k i n g b a c k at the Waterfront Park's shoreline a n d w a l k w a y , (www.cnv.org) I m a g e 4-27: Public art p i e c e in Waterfront Park. (http://www.triumf.ca/vancouver_images/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-28: The train passing b y through the Waterfront Park. ( w w w 3 . t e l u s . n e t / L A B C / C q u a y . h t m l ) I m a g e 4-29: C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d is often u s e d at Waterfront Park. Official C o m m u n i t y Plan, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r , 2002. I m a g e 4-30: Cyclists o n the waterfront w a l k w a y in Waterfront Park. Official C o m m u n i t y Plan, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r , 2002. I m a g e 4-31: Current w a s h r o o m facility in waterfront park. Photo b y the author. I m a g e 4-32: Train tracks cutting the park in half. Photo b y the author. I m a g e s 4-33 a n d 4-34: The staircases of t h e Park's eastern c o n n e c t i n g b r i d g e . Photos b y t h e author. I m a g e 4-35: SeaBus l e a v i n g the station. (http://www.triumf.ca/vancouver_images/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-36: Looking north from the b o t t o m of Chesterfield Court. (http://www.triumf.ca/vancouverjmages/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-37: The retails at the e n t r a n c e of the SeaBus Station. (http://vv^w.triumf.ca/vancouver_images/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-38: The " Q " tower in Lonsdale Q u a y Market. (www.seethenorthshore.com/lonsdaleq/lonsdaleq.htm) I m a g e 4-39: Waterfront Park. A c c e s s d i a g r a m a n d major surrounding sites I m a g e 4-40: The m a g n i f i c e n t v i e w of D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r through the M e t a l C a t h e d r a l in Waterfront Park. (http://www.triumf.ca/vancouverjmages/north-van-waterfront-park.html) I m a g e 4-41: The sunset from Foot of Lonsdale, ( w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m ) I m a g e 4-42: D i a g r a m of opportunities a v a i l a b l e in the t o w project sites I m a g e 4-43: D i a g r a m of constraints in the two project sites  O n the E d g e  Table of Images  C h a p t e r 5: I m a g e 5-1 a n d 5-2: Existing (left) a n d p r o p o s e d (right) c o n n e c t i o n s I m a g e 5-3: Waterfront Streetcar, A l a s k a n W a y a n d M a i n Street, Seattle, W a s h i n g t o n . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 99. I m a g e 5-4: M a s t e r Plan s h o w i n g the t w o sites a n d the c o n n e c t i n g S e a s h o r e W a l k w a y I m a g e 5-5: Plan view. Foot of Lonsdale I m a g e 5-6: Installations in the w a t e r . Detail N o . 4, 2005. P a g e : 372. I m a g e 5-7: S e a t i n g o n the o c e a n ' s e d g e . Detail No.4, 2005. P a g e : 416. Images 5-8 a n d 5-9: C h i l d r e n a n d animals p l a y i n g a n d enjoying the w a t e r fountains a t Fountain P l a c e , Dallas, Texas. M o o r e 1994. P a g e s : 68 a n d 69. I m a g e 5-10: o n e of S a n t i a g o C a l a t r a v a ' s three bridges over H o o f d v a a r t C a n a l , Zurich. Detail N o . 4, 2005. P a g e : 352. I m a g e 5-11: The three major sections in the design process a n d the p r o p o s e d c i r c u l a t i o n network. I m a g e 5-13: Plan view. Waterfront Park I m a g e 5-14: S e c t i o n A - A North-South overall section I m a g e 5-15: S e c t i o n B-B East-West section a l o n g railroad I m a g e 5-16: Reflecting p o o l in P l a z a Tower, C o s t a M e s a , C a l i f o r n i a . M o o r e 1994. P a g e : 133. I m a g e 5-17: S o c c e r players in a park in the City of North V a n c o u v e r . Official C o m m u n i t y Plan, The C o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of North V a n c o u v e r , 2002. I m a g e 5-18: V a u g h a n ' s d e s i g n for a tidal p o o l in C o n c o r d P a c i f i c , V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a . (www.vaughanplanning.com/publicar.htm) I m a g e 5-19: S e c t i o n C - C S e c t i o n through the S a n d y B e a c h looking at t h e terraces I m a g e 5-20: Plan view. The Waterfront S e c t i o n I m a g e 5-21 a n d 5-22: Sections D-D a n d E-E. Sections through the terraces I m a g e 5-23: Plan view. Outlook Terraces, W h e e l c h a i r r a m p a n d S a n d y B e a c h Images 5-24 a n d 5-25: Sculptures a n d fountains installed in the w a t e r . Tokyo S e a Life Park, J a p a n . M o o r e 1994. P a g e s : 178 a n d 179. I m a g e 5-26: Plan view. Children's p l a y a r e a . Waterfront Playpark I m a g e 5-27: Breakwater at the Ferry Terminal in Tsawwassen, British C o l u m b i a . P h o t o b y the author.  O n the E d g e  I m g g e 5-28: SpiralJetty by Robert Smithson, Rozel Point, G r e a t Salt Lake. (wvvw.robertsmithson.com/earthworks/ew.htm) I m a g e 5-29: Street c a f e in M a d r i d . (www.stevefazzio.com/Northern_Spain%203.html) I m a g e 5-30: S w i m m i n g p o o l o n the o c e a n ' s e d g e , ( w w w . a c c l a i m i m a g e s . c o m ) I m a g e 5-31: P a l m tree sculpture, ( w w w . a n b g . g o v . a u / c h a b g ) I m a g e 5-32: Plan view. High Tide o u t d o o r s w i m m i n g p o o l a n d Waterpark I m a g e 5-33: P r e c e d e n t for p a v e m e n t patterns in the p o o l a r e a . Breen & Rigby 1994. P a g e : 207. I m a g e 5-34 a n d 5-35: Sections F-F a n d G - G Sections through the p o o l a n d gallery a r e a  Table of Images  O n the E d g e  Acknowledgements  S p e c i a l Thgnks to my thesis c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r , C y n t h i o Girling, J o o n n a Staniszkis a n d G a r y P e n w a y for their g u i d a n c e , support a n d constructive critics. Working with them w a s a v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e .  I also thank R i c h a r d White, Paul Penner, R o b b U t e n d a l e , D a v e Hutch a n d D a v i d Turner from The City of North V a n c o u v e r w h o g a v e m e their time a n d a n s w e r e d my questions patiently.  Finally I w o u l d like to thank m y b e l o v e d h u s b a n d Tieg a n d my w o n d e r f u l parents for their endless l o v e a n d support throughout my life.  xii  O n the E d g e  Introduction  Introduction  Port Cities and their Transformation Industry, Industry and Industry During the early s t a g e s of u r b a n g r o w t h in North A m e r i c a (18 century), t h e e m e r g e n c e a n d e x p a n s i o n of t h e cities w a s directly d e p e n d a n t o n their l o c a t i o n a n d t h e quality of their ports a n d waterfront industries (Wrenn 1983). For years, u r b a n waterfronts w e r e o c c u p i e d almost exclusively by ports, fishing industry, shipbuilding a n d repair yards, w a r e h o u s e s , w a s t e w a t e r t r e a t m e n t plants, m a n u f a c t u r i n g plants a n d stockpiles of c h e m i c a l a n d mineral materials (Breen & Rigby 1994). Before t h e e r a of the Industrial revolution, ships w e r e t h e m a i n m o d e of transport for bulky g o o d s across t h e world a n d in b e t w e e n t h e continents; a c c o r d i n g l y , waterfronts h a v e a l w a y s b e e n t h e primary locus of the cities t r a d e a n d transportation (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995). In a d d i t i o n to this m a n y industries l o c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e waterfront in order to benefit from h y d r o p o w e r a n d e a s y w a s t e disposal ( H u b b a r d ) . For the longest time, u r b a n waterfronts w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by industry, noise, pollution, a n d ugliness a n d w e r e p e o p l e d primarily b y industrial labourers a n d individuals w h o w e r e a c c u s t o m e d to the roughness of t h e sea. th  Image 1-1: The Boston Fish Pier built in 1912  On the Edge  20  th  Introduction  Century  Cities d o not have a static structure a n d are constantly evolving in response to economic, social, political a n d environmental exigency. Many waterfront cities have undergone considerable evolution a n d c h a n g e according to e c o n o m i c a n d technological development during the last quarter of the 20 century (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995). th  During the past century the Industrial Revolution was s u c c e e d e d by rapid development a n d expansion of airports, railroads a n d road systems. Over this time the maritime industry b e c a m e less vital to the prosperity of cities, as other transportation technologies emerged as viable alternatives. Many of the industrial activities that were traditionally clustered along waterfronts were gradually relocated to c h e a p e r real estate more readily accessible by road a n d rail, a n d in many cases industrial waterfronts b e c a m e derelict a n d semi-abandoned. Also changing the f a c e of many waterfronts was the p h e n o m e n a of container shipping, impelled by the need for greater speed a n d turn out time in the world of trade. The port cities that h a d the c a p a c i t y to a d a p t a n d a c c o m m o d a t e the new a n d massive ships flourished even more but some ports were not so able or so fortunate. Even in the most resilient ports, the waterfronts still went through physical changes as old port areas were a b a n d o n e d a n d lands were filled in to create more d o c k a n d storage space. (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995; Wrenn 1983).  Image 1-2: Industrial waterfront in New York  2  O n the E d g e  M e a n w h i l e in m a n y cities suburbanization e n t a i l e d t h e r e m o v a l of residential a r e a s t o p l a c e s a w a y from t h e traditionally industrial a r e a s a l o n g t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e . This e x a c e r b a t e d t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e city's c o m m e r c i a l c o r e n e a r t h e waterfront a n d t h e a r e a s p e o p l e u s e d for recreation. After a while t h e o l d e r waterfront lands in m a n y cities b e c a m e t h e s c e n e of rotting piles a n d a f e w fishing b o a t s (Harney 1979).  Introduction  O n the E d g e  Cities started to c h a n g e a g a i n . These c h a n g e s w e r e often f o l l o w e d b y a n extensive p r o g r a m for r e g e n e r a t i o n of u r b a n a r e a s in order to socially i m p r o v e t h e city (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995). This t i m e their attention w a s t u r n e d t o the u r b a n waterfronts as resources of r e c r e a t i o n , tourism, c o m m e r c i a l activities a n d over all a vibrant p a r t of their city t h a t is also c o n n e c t e d t o t h e rest of t h e city f a b r i c in m a n y c a s e s to t h e d o w n t o w n c o r e . H e r i t a g e started to p l a y a n important role as well. Cities started to revitalize a n d refurbish their waterfronts so t h a t a r e a s that w e r e d o m i n a t e d b y industry b e c a m e i n s t e a d a n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h a t b l e n d e d w a t e r s i d e living a n d working, c o m m e r c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d tourism facilities a n d p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e s . This u r b a n waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s b e g a n in "the 1960s, b l o o m e d in t h e 1970s, a c c e l e r a t e d in 1980s" a n d has c o n t i n u e d t o this very d a y (Breen & Rigby 1994).  Introduction  O n the E d g e  Introduction  Breen a n d Rigby h a v e s u m m a r i z e d t h e factors t h a t l e d to t h e s e c h a n g e s as: • " T e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s post-World W a r II, w h i c h l e d to a b a n d o n m e n t a n d / o r deterioration of t h o u s a n d s of a c r e s of industrial l a n d a l o n g t h e shorelines • The historic preservation m o v e m e n t • Heightened environmental awareness a n d water c l e a n u p • Consistent pressure to r e d e v e l o p c e n t r a l city a r e a s • Governmental urban-renewal a n d related assistance" There a r e also other f a c t o r s s u c h a s tourism a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l activities i n v o l v e d in this d r a m a t i c c h a n g e during the past quarter of a century. Breen a n d Rigby c o m p a r e this r e c e n t m o v e from p r e d o m i n a n t l y industrial waterfronts to m o r e u r b a n waterfronts to t h e initial m o v e in t h e e i g h t e e n t h a n d n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t b r o u g h t t h e industries to t h e waterfront in t h e first p l a c e a n d n o t e t h a t it is as p r o f o u n d .  Image 1 -5: Transformation of the waterfronts  On the Edge  Introduction  Precedents Gene L. Coulon Memorial Renton, Washington  Beach Park, Lake  Washington  This project has transformed a former industrial waterfront into a vibrant, well-designed recreational space. This development is a contemporary of the Lonsdale Quay development in the City of North Vancouver. The site of the project was 57 acres of land along the southern e n d of Lake Washington that were utilized for major industrial activity from the late 1800s up to the 1950s. After being a b a n d o n e d , the land presented an opportunity for the city to transform its waterfront, The process of acquiring the land took about 15 years a n d involved constant a n d close communication with the community in order to d e c i d e what kind of facilities to include, Planning work b e g a n in 1979 a n d the park was o p e n e d in 1982, Among the features in the park are a "waterwalk" with two picnic pavilions, built into the lake, forming a lagoon. Other amenities include a boat house, a restaurant pavilion a n d a large picnic shelter, Besides these active recreational areas, there are a great amount of natural landscapes: a cattails area near a swimming b e a c h a n d inclusion of native trees in landscaping,  I m a g e 1-6: G e n e L. C o u l o n M e m o r i a l B e a c h Park  Laq &00M  net-tut*?  This project is a "well-planned a n d well-executed transformation." It is a publicly o w n e d shoreline with serious recreational experiences from passive to active. The restaurant also contributes to its vibrancy a n d seems to b e a g o o d source of revenue (Breen &Rigby, 1994). I m a g e 1-7: B e a c h P a r k ' s s i t e m a p  6  O n the Edge  Introduction  Waterfront (Christopher Columbus) Boston, Massachusetts  Park, Atlantic  Avenue  The Waterfront Park, w h i c h o c c u p i e s 4,5 a c r e s , is t h e k e y point of p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e h a r b o u r in t h e heart of Boston's c e n t r a l waterfront, It is l o c a t e d a t t h e e n d of a p e d e s t r i a n p a t h t h a t is c a l l e d "walk t o t h e s e a . " The park w a s o p e n e d in Boston's b i c e n t e n n i a l year, 1976. The c o m b i n a t i o n of n i c e l y - d e s i g n e d p u b l i c waterfront park, a p o p u l a r market p l a c e a n d a b i g e v e n t like t h e visit of t h e Tall Ships resulted in this project h a v i n g a g r e a t i m p a c t o n t h e w h o l e city of Boston. The park houses a w i d e p r o m e n a d e a n d a c o b b l e s t o n e p l a z a with seating o n t h e shore, a p l a y a r e a , a n o p e n g r e e n l a w n a n d a f o u n t a i n with w h i c h p e o p l e play. O n e of t h e o u t s t a n d i n g a s p e c t s in t h e d e s i g n of t h e park is t h e a m o u n t of attention t h a t h a s b e e n p a i d t o t h e details. Elements s u c h a s b e n c h e s , railings, e t c . a r e carefully c h o s e n for h a r m o n y of style a n d a e s t h e t i c coherence. This site is a very well visited a n d e n j o y a b l e spot in t h e city b o t h for t h e n e a r b y residents a n d for office workers a n d other visitors,  I m a g e 1-9: Christopher C o l u m b u s Park's site m a p  I m a g e 1-8: Christopher C o l u m b u s Park  O n the E d g e  Introduction  Waterfront Streetcar, Alaskan Way and Main Street Seattle, Washington This project has p r o v i d e d d o w n t o w n Seattle's waterfront with a p r a c t i c a l a n d a t t h e s a m e time joyful a n d delightful transportation link. The streetcar runs a l o n g a 2.1 mile route t h r o u g h the heart of d o w n t o w n Seattle waterfront. It o p e n e d in 1982 with 1.6 miles of track a n d half a mile w a s a d d e d to it in 1990. A t the b e g i n n i n g it u s e d to run a l o n g tracks t h a t w e r e l e a s e d from t h e Burlington Northern Railroad but in 1988 a n a g r e e m e n t with t h e railway c o m p a n y resulted in t h e c a r g o traffic b e i n g rerouted so t h a t t h e streetcar has exclusive u s a g e of the tracks t h a t a r e closest to t h e w a t e r . T o d a y the streetcar is a n integral part of t h e d o w n t o w n waterfront e x p e r i e n c e . O n e of the major d e s i g n features a n d p r o b a b l y a n important contributor to t h e s u c c e s s of this p r o j e c t a r e the v i n t a g e streetcars themselves. The ride is a 20 minutes ride a n d is u s e d by t h e city p e o p l e as well as the visitors w h o w a n t to m o v e a l o n g Seattle's waterfront.  I m a g e 1-10: W a t e r f r o n t S t r e e t c a r I m a g e 1-11: W a t e r f r o n t S t r e e t c a r ' s r o u t a n d site  \  map  O n the E d g e  Programming Facilities, Toronto, Ontario  Introduction  Harbourfront  This project has reused t h r e e industrial structures in a c r e a t i v e w a y . result is a very successful waterfront p r o g r a m m i n g v e n u e .  The  The three m a i n facilities a r e : York Q u a y C e n t r e ; a p l a c e for arts, crafts a n d p e r f o r m a n c e s with a park o n its side The Arts C o m p l e x ; a n art gallery a n d t h e " d u Maurier Theatre C e n t r e " The Premier D a n c e Theatre; a m i x e d use c o m p l e x o n t h e third floor of Q u e e n ' s Q u a y terminal  Image 1-12: Programming Facilities  The project b e g a n in 1974 but w a s truly realized in the 1980s; a d d i t i o n a l galleries a n d theatres w e r e o p e n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e 80s. These v e n u e s h o u s e n u m e r o u s a n d various e v e n t s r a n g i n g from cultural events a n d children's activities to b o d y building a n d c o o k i n g tournaments.  Y l OAIH KP UK ArctNTMW 1=I; jj-Af 1 \ I [j II 1 fiQ FC R iK —)l z--= 5rout*A*T M ) r~lfV\ If— *TH*Ar*e f.en'Rt UMt _JJ lV^--^ 5C/^N 5QV«HS ' t 11 ^p^^frOj-i H & Aumcju. CBNTRl - . J L_ *s S fi \-i —'/ >t— ::  WAY  :  TMM!MAL  V  l  =  tfTH H l WT. -;-X5PA D IH . _'fc"^ M PU LA C EJ Arf.. U JeO HY N -i_"-:ri"-r YOKK qUAY PS T:—TA ^MAY QU A YA_T :AQ YU -= |A  Image 1-13: Programming Facilities' site m a p  O n the E d g e  Granville Island Redevelopment Vancouver, British Columbia  Introduction  1592 Johnston  Street, Granville  Island  Granville Island is a g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t a m o n g waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t projects. It mixes t h e n e w c o m m e r c i a l a n d cultural uses with the past a n d o n g o i n g industrial uses in a natural w a y . Granville Island is in f a c t a peninsula t h a t is c o n n e c t e d to t h e m a i n l a n d b y roads, d a t i n g b a c k to 1913. It w a s originally a m a n u f a c t u r i n g a r e a t h a t r e c e i v e d g o o d s by b a r g e s a n d t u r n e d t h e m into g o o d s t h a t w e r e t h e n c a r r i e d by trains. But eventually, like m a n y other industrial waterfront lands, it b e c a m e a b a n d o n e d until t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t took o v e r in 1972 a n d l a u n c h e d a r e d e v e l o p m e n t process. By 1976 t h e work b e g a n a n d b y t h e mid-1980s there w a s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of built s p a c e , b o t h o l d a n d n e w . Originally it w a s d e s i g n e d to serve t h e l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d but t h e very successful d e s i g n t u r n e d it into o n e of the major tourist destinations in Vancouver. There a r e various facilities of different natures a m o n g w h i c h the Farmers' M a r k e t is the m a i n a t t r a c t i o n . Granville Island also houses a n arts c l u b t h e a t r e a n d c a b a r e t , restaurants, various gift shops a n d studios. There a r e w a l k w a y s all a r o u n d the Island with various attractions lined u p a l o n g t h e m : a c h i l d r e n ' s market, a n "arts u m b r e l l a , " a n arts c e n t r e , a m i c r o brewery, a w a t e r park, a c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e , a n a m p h i t h e a t r e , restaurants a n d m a n y other attractions. The d e s i g n in t h e Island is simple, unifying a n d effective. The n e w structures h a v e a n industrial air to t h e m that binds t h e m well with t h e nature of t h e site a n d its o l d structures a n d the artifacts left from t h a t e r a . Granville Island is a h e a l t h y c o m b i n a t i o n of a stimulating n u m b e r of c o m m e r c i a l activities a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of e d u c a t i o n a l , cultural a n d p u b l i c facilities.  Image 1-14: A street in Granville Island  Image 1-15: Granville Island's site m a p  10  O n the E d g e  Introduction  Today's waterfront In m a n y c a s e s this p r o c e s s of de-industrialization has positive implications. V a c a n t lands o n t h e waterfront present cities with a n opportunity t o r e d e v e l o p their waterfronts into m i x e d use, vibrant a r e a s a n d t o p r o v i d e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e ( H u b b a r d 1994). Industry c a n still b e i n c l u d e d in t h e n e w i m a g e of t h e waterfront, a s "Working Waterfronts" a d d t o t h e diversity a n d authenticity of t h e n e w waterfront (Breen & Rigby 1994). In other words t h e principle o b j e c t i v e s of waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t a r e t o p r o v i d e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e water, i m p r o v e t h e i m a g e of t h e waterfront a n d t o revive t h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e city c e n t r e b y " b r e a t h i n g n e w life" in t h e s e a r e a s (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995). There a r e a lot of s o c i a l opportunities a s well. Parks, festivals a n d market p l a c e s a d d t o t h e popularity of t h e waterfront while p u b l i c art a n d restoration a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n of natural a n d historical h e r i t a g e of the site e n h a n c e t h e cultural l a n d s c a p e . All t h e s e a t the s a m e time c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e city's e c o n o m y ( H u b b a r d 1994 q u o t i n g M a n n 1988). In g e n e r a l w a t e r has a l w a y s f a s c i n a t e d p e o p l e .  Image 1-16: A public event in Baltimore's developing waterfront  11  O n the E d g e  Introduction  There a r e still s o m e a r g u m e n t s a n d controversies r e g a r d i n g t h e waterfront redevelopment. O n e c o m p l i c a t i o n is the c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n the different uses for w a t e r s i d e lands, s o m e with very different d e g r e e s of d e p e n d e n c y o n t h e w a t e r (Wrenn 1983). A l t h o u g h leisure, r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d tourism activities a r e not a l w a y s directly d e p e n d e n t o n w a t e r s i d e locations, they have become integral elements of waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t s (Craig-Smith & F a g e n c e 1995).  Image 1-17: Queen's Quay Terminal, Queen's Quay West, Harbourfront, Toronto, Ontario. Zeidler Roberts Partnership/ Architects and Panda Associates  A c c o r d i n g to s o m e , p e o p l e ' s visceral attraction to t h e w a t e r is itself a c o m p e l l i n g e n o u g h r e a s o n for a l l o c a t i n g waterfront lands primarily to r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d tourist use. In f a c t , h e r e is little e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t the d e g r e e of w a t e r d e p e n d e n c y has b e e n a significant f a c t o r a t all in establishing p r o g r a m m i n g priorities for waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t (Wrenn 1983).  12  O n the E d g e  Craig-Smith a n d F a g e n c e (1995) d e m o n s t r a t e t h r o u g h a series of c a s e studies t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d tourism r e l a t e d uses a n d rehabilitation of the i m a g e of the waterfront a r e t h e most c o m m o n t h e m e s inspiring waterfront revitalization a n d refurbishment. Restoration a n d c o n s e r v a t i o n of h e r i t a g e buildings a n d sites a r e also a m o n g t h e major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a successful waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t .  Introduction  O n the E d g e  In t h e " G l o b a l C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e Urban Future" under the title of U r b a n 21 t h a t w a s h e l d o n July 4-6 2000 in Berlin, 10 principles for Sustainable U r b a n Waterfront D e v e l o p m e n t w e r e d r a w n u p a n d a p p r o v e d . They w e r e also p r o m p t e d by Wasserstadt G m b H , Berlin with the c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e International C e n t r e Cities o n Water, V e n i c e . The ten principles are:  "Principle I - Secure the quality of water and the environment The quality of w a t e r in the system of streams, rivers, c a n a l s , lakes, b a y s a n d the s e a is a prerequisite for all waterfront d e v e l o p m e n t s . The municipalities a r e responsible for the sustainable r e c o v e r y of derelict b a n k s a n d c o n t a m i n a t e d water.  Principle 2 - Waterfronts are part of the existing urban fabric N e w waterfronts should b e c o n c e i v e d as a n integral part of t h e existing city a n d contribute to its vitality. W a t e r is a part of t h e u r b a n l a n d s c a p e a n d should b e utilized for s p e c i f i c functions s u c h as w a t e r b o r n e transport, entertainment a n d culture.  Principle 3 - The historic identity gives character C o l l e c t i v e heritage of w a t e r a n d city, of events, landmarks a n d nature should b e utilized to give the waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t c h a r a c t e r a n d m e a n i n g . The preservation of the industrial past is a n integral e l e m e n t of sustainable r e d e v e l o p m e n t .  Principle 4 - Mixed use is a priority Waterfronts should c e l e b r a t e the w a t e r b y offering a diversity of cultural, c o m m e r c i a l a n d housing uses. Those t h a t require a c c e s s to w a t e r should h a v e priority. Housing n e i g h b o u r h o o d s should b e m i x e d b o t h functionally a n d socially.  Introduction  O n the E d g e  Principle 5 - Public access is a prerequisite Waterfronts should b e b o t h physically a n d visually a c c e s s i b l e for locals a n d tourists of all a g e s a n d i n c o m e . Public s p a c e s should c o n s t r u c t e d in high quality t o allow intensive use. w h e r e it d o e s not disturb work in progress.  Principle 6 - Planning in public private partnerships speeds the process N e w waterfront d e v e l o p m e n t s should b e p l a n n e d in p u b l i c private partnerships. Public authorities must g u a r a n t e e t h e quality of t h e d e s i g n , supply infrastructure, g e n e r a t e b o t h a social equilibrium. Private d e v e l o p e r s should b e i n v o l v e d from t h e start t o insure k n o w l e d g e of t h e markets a n d t o s p e e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t . The c o o r d i n a t o r s of c o m p l e x waterfront d e v e l o p m e n t s must g u a r a n t e e their l o n g term e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d e c o l o g i c a l success.  Principle 7 - Public participation is an element of sustainability Cities should benefit from sustainable waterfront d e v e l o p m e n t n o t only in e c o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c a l terms b u t also socially. The c o m m u n i t y should b e informed a n d involved in discussions continuously from t h e start.  Principle 8 - Waterfronts are long term projects Waterfronts n e e d t o b e r e d e v e l o p e d step by step so the entire city c a n benefit from their potentials. They a r e a c h a l l e n g e for m o r e t h a n o n e g e n e r a t i o n a n d n e e d a variety of c h a r a c t e r s b o t h in architecture, public s p a c e a n d art. Public administration must g i v e impulses o n a political level t o  Introduction  O n the E d g e  ensure t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s a r e realized i n d e p e n d e n t l y of e c o n o m i c c y c l e s or short-term interests, Principle 9 - Re-vitalization is an ongoing process All m a s t e r p l a n i n g must b e b a s e d o n t h e d e t a i l e d analysis of t h e principle functions a n d m e a n i n g s t h e waterfront c o n c e r n e d . Plans should b e flexible, a d a p t to c h a n g e a n d i n c o r p o r a t e all relevant disciplines. To e n c o u r a g e a system of sustainable g r o w t h , t h e m a n a g e m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n of waterfronts during the d a y a n d a t night must h a v e e q u a l priority to building t h e m . Principle 10 - Waterfronts profit from international networking The r e - d e v e l o p m e n t of waterfronts is a highly c o m p l e x task t h a t involves professionals of m a n y disciplines. The e x c h a n g e of k n o w l e d g e in a n international network b e t w e e n c o n t a c t s i n v o l v e d in waterfronts o n different levels offers b o t h individual support a n d information a b o u t t h e most important projects  Introduction  O n the E d g e  As well as observing t h e s e g e n e r a l principles, designers should also b e sensitive to t h e site-specific issues, opportunities a n d constrains. There a r e also numerous m o r e d e t a i l e d factors t h a t should b e t a k e n into consideration. A n d y L e o n H a r n e y n a m e s s o m e of t h e s e factors in his b o o k , Reviving t h e Waterfront: • • • • • • •  " c r e a t i o n of a s a f e environment; multi-use of l a n d a n d building areas; r e c y c l i n g or r e n e w a l of d e t e r i o r a t e d a n d a b a n d o n e d a r e a s ; m e t h o d s of o v e r c o m i n g p h y s i c a l barriers s u c h as freeways, major thoroughfares, b a r b e d wire a n d c h a i n link f e n c e s ; visual a c c e s s ; c r e a t i o n of parks, o p e n s p a c e s a n d plazas; a n d the possibility of linear p a t h w a y s a l o n g the shoreline."  In c o n c l u s i o n , u r b a n waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t is of g r e a t - a n d g r o w i n g - interest for cities o n t h e water. It brings a w o r l d of opportunities to t h e cities as well a s a g r e a t n u m b e r of c o m p l i c a t i o n s a n d difficulties. But w h e n d o n e correctly a n d a p p r o p r i a t e l y , r e d e v e l o p e d waterfronts h a v e b e c o m e a m o n g t h e most p o p u l a r spots for s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c a l interactions in t h e city.  I m a g e 1-20: G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d R e d e v e l o p m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a . (Hotson Bakker Architects, Dennis France)  \  O n the E d g e  Project P r o p o s a l  Project Proposal Introduction  to the  project  This project w a s u n d e r t a k e n after I c o n d u c t e d interviews with planners a n d staff a t t h e D e v e l o p m e n t Services d e p a r t m e n t of t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r . The City of North V a n c o u v e r is a n original port city in G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , British C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a , t h a t has g o n e through m a n y p h a s e s of c h a n g e ; the history of its waterfront is t y p i c a l of t h e industrial to m i x e d use a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l transformation p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a s I will d e s c r i b e in g r e a t e r d e t a i l b e l o w . T o d a y a massive r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n is u n d e r w a y o n t h e City's v a c a n t waterfront lands, situated in t h e lower L o n s d a l e A r e a of V a n c o u v e r ' s North Shore. The City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to transform its waterfront into e x e m p l a r y , mixed-use p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e e x c i t e d my i m a g i n a t i o n a n d inspired the project t h a t I'm presenting here. The Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a is t h e southern half of t h e L o n s d a l e R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e a n d functions a s t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s d o w n t o w n . D r a w i n g n e w p e o p l e a n d vitality to the City's waterfront is, in effect, a n effort to restore a direct c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e City a n d the s e a a n d c r e a t e a r e g i o n a l tourist destination. I've c h o s e n to c o n c e n t r a t e o n t w o sub-projects of the Lower L o n s d a l e Planning A r e a , a n d to c o n s i d e r in particular t h e variety a n d quality of c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m a n d the u r b a n f a b r i c t h a t surrounds t h e m . The t w o sites a r e the Foot of Lonsdale, the a r e a w h e r e L o n s d a l e A v e n u e m e e t s the water, a n d t h e Waterfront Park, w h i c h is currently a park t h a t w o u l d benefit from b e i n g r e d e s i g n e d . B e t w e e n t h e s e sites a r e b o t h t h e L o n s d a l e Q u a y market a n d t h e SeaBus Station / Transit l o o p a s well a s other c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e s . With their a d v a n t a g e o u s locations a n d a m a z i n g D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r views, t h e s e  Image 2-1: Lower Lonsdale from water  18  O n the E d g e  Project P r o p o s a l  sites h a v e g r e a t p o t e n t i a l to b e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of a very successful u r b a n r e - d e v e l o p m e n t project. The t w o sites a r e e a c h of a different nature. The Foot of L o n s d a l e is a n i d e a l site for a n u r b a n waterfront p l a z a , while t h e m u c h b i g g e r a n d m o r e o p e n Waterfront Park is m o r e suited to soft l a n d s c a p i n g features. Waterfront park lies only t w o b l o c k s to t h e west of t h e Foot of L o n s d a l e , y e t the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n these t w o u r b a n n o d e s constitutes the most i m p o r t a n t a n d most c h a l l e n g i n g portion of a c o n t i n u o u s waterfront w a l k w a y t h a t t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r h o p e s to realize as a part of their waterfront rehabilitation a n d r e - d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m . These North open in the  t w o p r o j e c t sites represent e n o r m o u s opportunity for the C i t y of V a n c o u v e r to a c h i e v e its vision of a high quality waterfront p u b l i c s p a c e t h a t supports t h e m i x e d - u s e d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t is h a p p e n i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d surrounding t h e m .  By studying a series of p r e c e d e n t s of successful p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e s , b o t h o n t h e waterfront a n d in t h e u r b a n fabric, I f o u n d n u m e r o u s a n d diverse e x a m p l e s of parks a n d p l a z a s t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e r e c r e a t i o n , culture a n d s o c i a l interactions. This d e s i g n e m p h a s i s a p p e a r s to b e c o m m o n a m o n g successful u r b a n r e d e v e l o p m e n t projects, w h e r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s w e r e similar to those e n t e r t a i n e d t o d a y b y t h e City of North Vancouver.  Image 2-2: Foot of Lonsdale a n d Waterfront Park  19  O n the E d g e  Project P r o p o s a l  Hypothesis R e c r e a t i o n a l a n d tourist-oriented facilities a p p e a r to b e a m o n g t h e common e l e m e n t s of many r e c e n t a n d successful waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t s in major cities in North A m e r i c a a n d m a n y other parts of t h e world. I b e l i e v e h o w e v e r , that a successfully d e s i g n e d p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e , e s p e c i a l l y o n a g r o w i n g city's waterfront, must b e m o r e t h a n a vibrant a n d p l e a s a n t s p a c e in its o w n right. To b e truly worthwhile a n d to b e e n d u r i n g a n d sustainable, s u c h s p a c e s must c o m m u n i c a t e vitality to t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s surrounding t h e m a n d b e d e s i g n e d to b e a b l e to a c c o m m o d a t e t h e c h a n g i n g n e e d s a n d interests of residents a n d visitors.  Project Goal The f o c u s of this p r o j e c t will b e o n revitalization through designing multi f u n c t i o n a l a n d diverse r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d p u b l i c facilities that c a n readily b e e n r i c h e d with a variety of cultural a n d c o m m e r c i a l uses a n d a r e b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e surrounding n e i g h b o u r h o o d s a t t h e l o c a l level a n d a destination point a t the regional level.  20  On the Edge  Project Proposal  Design Principles After learning a b o u t the nature of urban waterfronts in g e n e r a l , a n d after studying a n u m b e r of successful waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t projects a n d w h a t t h e y h a v e a c h i e v e d , I c o m p i l e d these principles t o g u i d e the overall c o n c e p t a n d t h e design of this project: •  Waterfront lands should b e public a n d therefore physically a n d aesthetically a c c e s s i b l e for all a g e a n d c o m m u n i t y groups.  •  Waterfront Park a n d the Foot of Lonsdale a r e integral parts of t h e u r b a n f a b r i c of the City of North V a n c o u v e r , so therefore their r e d e v e l o p m e n t should strengthen these c o n n e c t i o n s a n d c o n t r i b u t e t o City's vitality.  •  R e f e r e n c e s t o the history of these sites should b e m a d e t o reinforce t h e r e l e v a n c e a n d c h a r a c t e r of the r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n .  •  There should b e a c o n t i n u o u s c o n n e c t o r o n the w a t e r ' s e d g e a l o n g w h i c h the visitor w o u l d enjoy various types of spatial a n d visual e x p e r i e n c e s .  •  The views a r e essential in t h e waterfront therefore preserving o p e n n e s s a n d respecting v i e w corridors w o u l d b e t h e factors t h a t w o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e elevations in t h e l a n d s c a p e a n d locations of t h e buildings.  •  The l a n d o n the waterfront is precious therefore t h e d e s i g n should a l l o w for a g r e a t d e a l of flexibility in use a n d p r o g r a m m i n g .  21  O n the Edge  •  The r e d e v e l o p m e n t should h a v e a healthy mixture of various cultural, recreational, e d u c a t i o n a l , environmental a n d c o m m e r c i a l activities a n d should r e s p e c t as well the i m p o r t a n c e of p u b l i c ownership of the waterfront.  Project Proposal  O n the E d g e  Urban  C o n t e x t  City of North Vancouver Sitting o n t h e slopes of t h e C o a s t a l m o u n t a i n r a n g e , t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r is l o c a t e d o n t h e north side of t h e Burrard Inlet, f a c i n g the City of V a n c o u v e r . The City of North V a n c o u v e r c o v e r s 11 s q u a r e kilometers a n d hosts a p o p u l a t i o n of 44,303 (year 2001). A s e n v i s i o n e d in the O C P , the p o p u l a t i o n is f o r e c a s t e d to a p e x a t 55,400 b y the y e a r 2017 (2004 C o m m u n i t y Profile).  Urban Context  O n the E d g e  Like its n e i g h b o u r i n g jurisdictions - t h e District of North V a n c o u v e r a n d the District of West V a n c o u v e r - t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r has a mild but relatively w e t c l i m a t e . The c l o u d s form a g a i n s t t h e North Shore Mountains, c a u s i n g t h e North Shore municipalities to b e a m o n g the rainiest in t h e G V R D . There is a n o l d s a y i n g t h a t " if y o u c a n s e e the North Shore from V a n c o u v e r , it is a b o u t to rain, a n d if y o u c a n ' t , it is raining!" As well a s natural b e a u t y , t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r has a rich history. North V a n c o u v e r ' s waterfront is t h e site of t h e first n o n - a b o r i g i n a l c o m m u n i t y o n the Burrard Inlet: a t o w n t h a t w a s f o r m e d a r o u n d a sawmill o v e r 130 y e a r s a g o . The t o w n w a s n a m e d M o o d y Ville after t h e o w n e r of t h e mill Sewell Prescott M o o d y . A l t h o u g h t h e mill c o n t i n u e d to work after its o w n e r ' s d e a t h in 1875, it w a s e v e n t u a l l y shut d o w n in 1901. M o o d y v i l l e as a c o m m u n i t y d i e d but w a s a b s o r b e d b y a n e w c o m m u n i t y : North V a n c o u v e r . This n e w c o m m u n i t y ' s heart w a s t o d a y ' s Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a , l o c a t e d several b l o c k s west of w h e r e M o o d y v i l l e u s e d to b e . A major a s p e c t in North V a n c o u v e r ' s early s u c c e s s w a s P e t e Larson's g r a n d hotel built in 1902. It w a s l o c a t e d o n West E s p l a n a d e , just west of Lonsdale A v e . o n a b e a c h f r o n t property. This h e l p e d the City to b e c o m e known a s a tourist spot a n d as a result t h e City started to g r o w a n d flourish.  Urban Context  O n the E d g e  Urban Context  It w a s c a l l e d t h e " A m b i t i o u s City". O n M a y 13, 1907 t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r b e c a m e i n d e p e n d e n t from t h e Municipality t h a t w a s f o r m e d in 1891 in t h e North shore a n d w a s officially i n c o r p o r a t e d with a p o p u l a t i o n of 2000. A t t h a t t i m e t h e City h o u s e d 53 businesses, 9 banks, 2 hotels, a s c h o o l a n d h a d a M u n i c i p a l Hall, running water, electricity, p h o n e services, Firefighting a n d r o a d m a k i n g e q u i p m e n t , streetcars a n d a ferry service t o V a n c o u v e r (Blair 2005).  I m a g e 3-3: First settlements in North V a n c o u v e r  In those d a y s Peter Larson's Hotel North V a n c o u v e r w a s t h e unofficial c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e . A s well a s usual s o c i a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t programs, its g r o u n d s w e r e t h e site for C a n a d a d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o n July 1 . M a n y p e o p l e , e v e n from t h e other side of t h e Inlet, w o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e event. The e v e n t usually i n c l u d e d "foot r a c e s , b r o n c o busting a n d c a n o e r a c e s a g a i n s t t h e l o c a l n a t i v e t e a m s . The highlight w a s w a t c h i n g a t r a p e z e artist p a r a c h u t e t o safety from a hot-air b a l l o o n . " (Blair 2005). st  25  O n the E d g e  Urban Context  A ferry service b e t w e e n t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r a n d V a n c o u v e r w a s formalized in 1900. This service w a s a n integral contributor to North V a n c o u v e r ' s growth.  Image 3-4: "Old Faithful" - No. 2 Ferry  Image 3-5: Streetcar 153 in Upper Lonsdale  By 1910 the p o p u l a t i o n of t h e City h a d r e a c h e d 5000 a n d m a n y m o r e social a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a m e n i t i e s a n d large businesses s u c h as W a l l a c e ' s Shipyard (later n a m e d Burrard Dry D o c k , t h e first floating dry d o c k o n t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t ) a n d M c D o u g a l l - J e n k i n s Engineers (later North Shore Iron Works). "There w e r e a t least 12 lumber a n d shingle c o m p a n i e s o p e r a t i n g in t h e city a n d district by 1911" (Blair 2005). The City also h a d m e d i c a l a n d postal services a n d a n e w s p a p e r .  26  O n the E d g e  The City's r a p i d g r o w t h w a s a c c e l e r a t e d by t h e First World War. The t w o major industries, W a l l a c e Shipyards a n d North Shore Iron Works, b e c a m e busy building w e a p o n s a n d w a r ships. During b o t h World Wars North V a n c o u v e r ' s waterfront w a s d o m i n a t e d b y thriving industrial activities t h a t w e r e giving s e r v i c e to W a r s ' n e e d s (Blair 2005). The industrial activity b r o u g h t a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of w e a l t h to the City. The years b e t w e e n t h e first W a r a n d t h e G r e a t Depression w e r e t h e years of c h a n g e for t h e City e s p e c i a l l y o n its waterfront. Almost all r e c r e a t i o n a l activities w e r e r e l o c a t e d f r o m t h e waterfront. In t h o s e years, with t h e construction of t h e P a n a m a C a n a l , m a n y businesses f o c u s e d o n exports. G r a i n elevators, shipbuilding a n d repair yards, a s well as s a w mills, l o g - b o o m i n g grounds, oil refineries a n d a fish c a n n e r y e m e r g e d o n t h e City's waterfront (Blair 2005).  Image 3-6: Foot of Lonsdale, the Ferry terminal  Urban Context  Urban Context  O n the E d g e  The r a p i d growth of the 1920s w a s e n s u e d by t h e G r e a t Depression, w h e n t h e City w e n t into receivership a n d only r e c o v e r e d a r o u n d t h e y e a r 1944. O n e of t h e major reasons w a s low export prices b e c a u s e of b a d w o r l d w i d e e c o n o m i c conditions. World W a r II a g a i n b r o u g h t a n o t h e r industrial b o o m to the City. U n e m p l o y m e n t w a s e l i m i n a t e d as all p o t e n t i a l workers w e r e hired by t h e shipbuilding industry. Burrard Dry D o c k o p e n e d a n o t h e r y a r d o n the south side of the Inlet a n d by itself e m p l o y e d 13000 workers including 8 p e r c e n t f e m a l e workers (Blair 2005). It w a s after the W a r a n d during the 1950s a n d 1960s t h a t t h e p h e n o m e n o n of s u b u r b a n g r o w t h started t o a f f e c t t h e North Shore. The City of North V a n c o u v e r b e g a n t h e p r o c e s s of reconstruction. This w a s partly d u e to t h e e a s y a n d fast a c c e s s a f f o r d e d b y t h e n e w S e c o n d Narrows Bridge, built in 1925 (Barr 1969). In 1951 the p o p u l a t i o n w a s m o r e t h a n 15000 a n d the housing industry w a s prospering. In 1957 t h e U p p e r Levels H i g h w a y w a s built a n d t o g e t h e r with P G E Railway they p r o v i d e d east-west c o n n e c t i o n s for t h e C N V . M e a n w h i l e , while the Port of V a n c o u v e r ' s o p e r a t i o n s in V a n c o u v e r b e c a m e the busiest a l o n g the P a c i f i c c o a s t , The C N V ' s working waterfront struggled, In 1992, just b e f o r e its 100 anniversary a n d after m a n y structural a n d n a m e c h a n g e s o v e r the years, Burrard Dry D o c k (then c a l l e d Versatile P a c i f i c ) e n d e d its activities a n d its site r e m a i n e d v a c a n t for m o r e t h a n a d e c a d e afterwards (Blair 2005). th  Image 3-7: Foot of Lonsdale and the neighbouring site of the Pier Development  \ 28  O n the Edge  Urban Context  The City of North V a n c o u v e r h a d started t h e reconstruction a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t process. The ferry s e r v i c e b e t w e e n t h e City a n d D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r t h a t h a d s t o p p e d in 1958 w a s restored in 1977 b y the n a m e of SeaBus (Barr 1969). Lower L o n s d a l e w a s refurbished a n d L o n s d a l e Q u a y a n d Waterfront Park w e r e p l a n n e d , d e s i g n e d a n d c o n s t r u c t e d in order t o b e r e a d y for t h e Expo '86.  Lonsdale Quay  Development  In early 1970's t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r b e g a n t o c r e a t e a n official C o m m u n i t y Plan w h i c h outlined t h e o b j e c t i v e s a n d guidelines for t h e City's future growth. It w a s a b o u t t h e s a m e time, in t h e early 1970's, t h a t a major transportation study for t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n region r e c o m m e n d e d a passenger-only ferry service b e t w e e n t h e North Shore a n d V a n c o u v e r . This a n n o u n c e m e n t a n d t h e G V R D report o n "The Livable R e g i o n 1976/86" with t h e e m p h a s i s o n d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r , l e d t o m o r e a t t e n t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a . The city c o u n c i l e n d o r s e d a study of t h e a r e a in 1974 a n d in t h e 1976 O O P t h e Lower L o n s d a l e Waterfront Study w a s i n c l u d e d . This study d e f i n e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s a n d set o u t d e s i g n guidelines for t h e a r e a . As it w a s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e t h e y o u n g city of North V a n c o u v e r n e e d e d its industrial activities a n d industry n e e d e d w a t e r a n d waterfront lands. As a result b y t h e 1950's nearly all p u b l i c uses for this c e n t r a l a r e a of North V a n c o u v e r ' s waterfront w e r e e l i m i n a t e d . But later o n t h e s e industries w e r e r e l o c a t e d a n d these lands w e r e r e c l a i m e d b y t h e City. The Ministry of M u n i c i p a l Affairs w a s t h e Provincial A g e n c y responsible for these e x p r o p r i a t e d lands in t h e Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a . In 1978 t h e Ministry in c o n j u n c t i o n with U r b a n P r o g r a m Planners (the C i t y ' s Planning consultant)  Images 3-8 and 3-9: Ethnic diversity of retails on Lonsdale Avenue  29  O n the E d g e  Urban Context  p r e p a r e d t h e "Analysis of D e v e l o p m e n t / P a r k Alternatives for the Lower L o n s d a l e waterfront Property". This report s u g g e s t e d a variety of d e v e l o p m e n t options. Later o n in the s a m e year, the B C D C (British C o l u m b i a D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n ) c a m e u p with a n overall c o n c e p t for t h e 24 a c r e project t h a t w a s p r e s e n t e d b y the Ministry of M u n i c i p a l Affairs a n d Housing to the m a y o r a n d City C o u n c i l . The B C D C w a s also to b e c o m e t h e project m a n a g e r for this site. In 1979 the D e v e l o p m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n submitted a following report with the title of "Report o n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t of t h e S e a b u s / L o w e r Lonsdale Site." The City through the T e c h n i c a l Planning C o m m i t t e e e n t e r e d t h e negotiations in order to r e a c h a n a g r e e m e n t that w a s b a s e d o n t h e c o n c e p t s s u b m i t t e d by t h e Provincial G o v e r n m e n t as well as the City c o u n c i l ' s visions for this a r e a . Finally in 1979 the C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d t h e B C D C ' s C o n c e p t ' l l . The Lonsdale Q u a y D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y that w a s a n o w n e d subsidiary of t h e British C o l u m b i a D e v e l o p m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n was formed. The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t a i n e d six major elements: • •  •  •  A 6.4 a c r e waterfront park in the western sector. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 residential units - high quality townhouses a n d a p a r t m e n t s distributed in t w o s e p a r a t e a r e a s a n d i n t e g r a t e d in s o m e p l a c e s with c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 90,000 s q u a r e feet of c o m m e r c i a l speciality retail/restaurant s p a c e , related to principal pedestrian s p a c e s a n d pathways. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 600,000 s q u a r e f e e t of office s p a c e in five buildings - n e w h e a d q u a r t e r s for the Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n of British C o l u m b i a , British C o l u m b i a Railway, t w o other office buildings o n  30  • •  E s p l a n a d e Street, a n d o n e office building a d j a c e n t to t h e SeaBus Terminal. The 70,000 s q u a r e - f o o t P a c i f i c M a r i n e Training Institute of British C o l u m b i a in t h e west of t h e site, a d j a c e n t to t h e park. A c o n s o l i d a t e d transportation i n t e r c h a n g e linking street bus a n d SeaBus o p e r a t i o n s in a n e w facility b e n e a t h t h e I C B C building.  This p l a n h a d e n v i s i o n e d a p r o m e n a d e or a s e a w a l k t h a t w o u l d a l l o w t h e pedestrians to stroll a l o n g t h e entire l e n g t h of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , from waterfront park to t h e " Q u a y s i d e V i l l a g e " ( t o d a y ' s L o n s d a l e Q u a y Market.)  Image 3-10: Lower Lonsdale before the implementation of Lonsdale Quay Project  Urban Context  O n the E d g e  T o d a y t h e City of young, e d u c a t e d (almost 55%) a r e household income  North V a n c o u v e r is a prospering c o m m u n i t y with a a n d diverse p o p u l a t i o n . O v e r half of the p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n the a g e s of 20 a n d 49 a n d the a v e r a g e in 2001 w a s $50,300 (2004 C o m m u n i t y Profile).  Culturally, it is a very diverse city. That p e o p l e of different e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s live a n d work t o g e t h e r is e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t throughout t h e L o n s d a l e corridor, w h e r e t h e variety of services a n d businesses reflects a c o n s u m e r b a s e of remarkably diverse preferences. In a d d i t i o n to t h e E u r o p e a n a n d East A s i a n p r e s e n c e that is c o m m o n throughout V a n c o u v e r , there has recently b e e n a strong influx of Persian immigrants to t h e a r e a , e v i d e n t by t h e large - a n d g r o w i n g - n u m b e r of businesses t r a d i n g in Persian g o o d s a n d offering service in Farsi. Still living in North V a n c o u v e r t o d a y is also t h e Squamish Indian B a n d , w h o a r e d e s c e n d e d from t h e First Nations P e o p l e w h o s p o k e t h e H a l k o m e l e n l a n g u a g e (British Columbia.com). Various e v e n t s throughout the y e a r e n c o u r a g e a sense of c o m m u n i t y . Most of t h e s e e v e n t s are h e l d in Waterfront Park, recalling the e r a of Peter Larson's hotel, that h o s t e d the s a m e sorts of events almost o n t h e s a m e spot (at E s p l a n a d e a n d C h e s t e r f i e l d ) . The City of North V a n c o u v e r has c o n t i n u e d its process of rejuvenation to this d a t e a n d b y r e d e v e l o p i n g its waterfront it will a d d e v e n m o r e to its attractions. T o d a y t h e r e a r e m a n y o n g o i n g projects in line with City's vision for the future. O n e of t h e major projects is the r e d e v e l o p m e n t of the Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a as per the City's Lonsdale Corridor Master Plan.  On the Edge  Urban Context  Lonsdale Corridor Streetscape L o n s d a l e A v e n u e runs north-south through t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r f r o m its northern b o u n d a r y ( 2 9 Street) all t h e w a y d o w n t o t h e waterfront. It is t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s R e g i o n a l Town C e n t r e . H a v i n g a mixture of Residential a n d c o m m e r c i a l uses, it is t h e c e n t r e of activity in t h e City a n d t h e surrounding District. L o n s d a l e Corridor i n c l u d e s v a l u a b l e h e r i t a g e buildings, cultural a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities a n d p u b l i c o p e n spaces. th  Sharp a n d D i a m o n d , a l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d p l a n n i n g firm, c o m p l e t e d a Master Plan for t h e L o n s d a l e Corridor in 2000. In this report, t h e y a n a l y z e d t h e current a n d existing c o n d i t i o n s of t h e corridor a n d identified t h e i m p o r t a n t issues c o n c e r n i n g t h e p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l a n d cultural a s p e c t s of t h e corridor. They h a v e t a k e n into c o n s i d e r a t i o n issues like circulation, a c c e s s , v i e w ports, density, h e r i t a g e enhancement, construction materials a n d i n c o r p o r a t i n g p u b l i c art a n d soft l a n d s c a p e , This analysis a n d a p r e c e d e n t study c o n c l u d e d in d e s i g n a n d i m p r o v e m e n t options for t h e corridor, t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e b e i n g unification of t h e diverse corridor. L o n s d a l e corridor c a n b e d i v i d e d into three major a r e a s : U p p e r L o n s d a l e , C e n t r a l L o n s d a l e a n d Lower L o n s d a l e . M y p r o j e c t sites a r e l o c a t e d in t h e latter.  Streetcar Feasibility study As well a s t h e master p l a n n o t e d a b o v e , t h e City c o n d u c t e d a S t r e e t c a r feasibility study in 2002. A streetcar route running u p a n d d o w n L o n s d a l e A v e n u e is part of t h e h e r i t a g e of t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r . H a v i n g  Image 3-11: Lonsdale Avenue  33  O n the E d g e  Urban Context  t h a t in m i n d , t h e study r e c o m m e n d s a c o m b i n a t i o n of o n e a n d t w o t r a c k lines for streetcars a l o n g L o n s d a l e A v e n u e . H o w e v e r , as t h e L o n s d a l e Corridor is very well s e r v e d by t h e p u b l i c bus system a l r e a d y , t h e study also r e c o m m e n d s t h a t t h e f o c u s of the n e w streetcar route should b e o n tourism rather t h a n daily c o m m u t e r services. D u e t o t h e c o s t of t h e project a n d other reasons, t h e establishment of a streetcar service a l o n g L o n s d a l e A v e n u e is not b e i n g p u r s u e d . Instead t h e s e c o n d o p t i o n of h a v i n g the s e r v i c e a l o n g C a r r i e C a t e s C o u r t is b e i n g l o o k e d at.  .v  x.  J  \;..<A ,/-v*;.. ,  •... v : .  •  SaiS^irx,''  ... fm  Bw  rmSQ  ^f* i£»Me  'V  ^ , r . i .  Legeod Sl I) • .n Stop ....... A l(f»r^-T>?*^r'  A  Fig. 16.1 Carrie Cates Option Lonsdale Streetcar Feasibility Study • «y > * « * v « w » » -  •N  Image 3-12: Carrie Cates Court alternative for the Lonsdale streetcar service  34  O n the E d g e  Urban Context  Lower Lonsdale Lower L o n s d a l e is t h e southern s e c t i o n of t h e L o n s d a l e Corridor, w h i c h is the L o n s d a l e R e g i o n a l Town c e n t r e of t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r . Vast parts of this a r e a , particularly t h e waterfront lands, h a v e b e e n v a c a n t for m a n y years. In 1997 City C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d a D e v e l o p m e n t Plan for a portion of this a r e a k n o w n a s t h e Lower L o n s d a l e Planning study A r e a (LLSPA). T o d a y the City's extensive r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n for this a r e a is u n d e r w a y . The r e d e v e l o p m e n t is h a p p e n i n g in s e g m e n t s a n d o v e r time, The City's vision for this a r e a is a m i x e d use, high-density d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s a g r e a t d e a l of p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e s a n d a n e m p h a s i s o n a p u b l i c waterfront,  Image 3-13: The Pier Development model  This massive r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n will bring as m a n y as 5000 n e w residents to this a r e a in t h e next 5 or 6 years. The p l a n consists of b o t h n e w high rises a n d restored h e r i t a g e buildings ( M o s c a t o 2004). O n e of t h e major projects t h a t a r e u n d e r construction is t h e $100 million rehabilitation a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e former site of t h e Versatile Shipyards. The Pier d e v e l o p m e n t is a mixture of residential, c o m m e r c i a l a n d c i v i c uses, p l a z a s a n d a p u b l i c waterfront a n d pier, Lower L o n s d a l e remains a working waterfront h o w e v e r , a n d this m a k e s the p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i g n e v e n m o r e c h a l l e n g i n g . In f a c t t h e Port of V a n c o u v e r still has a strong p r e s e n c e in t h e a r e a a n d so d o e s t h e C a t e s t u g b o a t s ( M o s c a t o 2004),  Image 3-14: The Pier after construction (Durante Kreuk Ltd Landscape Architects)  35  On the Edge  Urban Context  The multi cultural side of t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r is o b v i o u s in t h e Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a , Philippino g r o c e r y stores, Persian delis, J a p a n e s e , K o r e a n a n d Indian restaurants a r e g o o d e x a m p l e s of this i m a g e . Visitors t o this a r e a will find b r e a t h t a k i n g views, fine restaurants a n d a thriving m a r k e t in L o n s d a l e Q u a y . North V a n c o u v e r a n d in particular Lower L o n s d a l e is e x p e c t i n g a fast growth in p o p u l a t i o n a s a result of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e v a c a n t lands e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e waterfront. This r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n should a c c o m m o d a t e t h e i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r of residents a n d their s o c i a l a n d recreational needs. A m e n i t i e s like parks, u r b a n plazas, sports a n d p l a y g r o u n d s will b e c o m e a vital part of t h e future of this a r e a . Lower L o n s d a l e residents a r e t a k i n g their c h i l d r e n t o t h e w a t e r p a r k in C o a l h a r b o u r b u t they w a n t a park of their o w n . This a p p l i e s t o t h e p l a y g r o u n d s a s well. Plans like a publicly a c c e s s e d m a r i n a in t h e Foot of Lonsdale is a n o t h e r favorite p r o s p e c t for t h e o l d e r residents of Lower Lonsdale ( M o s c a t o 2004). The Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a should c o n t i n u e t o thrive in t h e future, e s p e c i a l l y with t h e S e a B u s c o n n e c t i o n a n d t h e possibility of a n e w w a t e r taxi service. A successful c o m b i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l attractions in t h e Lower L o n s d a l e a r e a will b e sure t o e a r n m o r e r e v e n u e s t o t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r .  Image 3-15: Lower Lonsdale from water  O n the E d g e  Parks and Green ways Strategic Plan As this p r o j e c t d e a l s with parks a n d p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e s it is worth noting t h e City's plans for e x p a n s i o n a n d i m p r o v e m e n t of its g r e e n systems. The City of North V a n c o u v e r in its Parks a n d G r e e n w a y s Strategic Plan has set out a vision t h a t will b e i m p l e m e n t e d incrementally over the c o u r s e of 20 years or m o r e . "The g o a l for the Parks a n d G r e e n w a y s Plan is 'to c r e a t e a linked system of parks a n d g r e e n w a y s that b a l a n c e s recreational use of parks a n d streets with sustainable e c o l o g i c a l a n d transportation objectives, a n d to contribute to c o m m u n i t y pride during the 2007 C e n t e n n i a l C e l e b r a t i o n , (www,cnv.org')" This linked g r e e n system will b e a c h i e v e d through a limited a m o u n t of l a n d acquisition a n d park d e v e l o p m e n t t o g e t h e r with investment to i m p r o v e the existing street network a n d park l a n d . In t h e first five years of t h e p l a n t h e f o c u s is o n the i m p r o v e m e n t a n d e n h a n c e m e n t of t h e " G r e e n N e c k l a c e " , The s e c o n d five years will f o c u s o n a d d i n g c o n n e c t i o n s to the waterfront trail system a n d to a n u m b e r of other parks a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The e n h a n c e m e n t a n d e x p a n s i o n of the waterfront w a l k w a y s in the limits of this project's sites will contribute to this long-term a n d l a r g e - s c a l e vision of t h e C i t y for a linked g r e e n system a n d will serve as a n e x e m p l a r for future trail a n d waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t s .  Urban Context  O n the Edge  Urban Context  TRAIL SYSTEM LEGEND EXISTING Parks Watercourse • • • I City Boundary PROPOSED Upper Levels Trail System •HHB^ft Primary Milium Secondary Ravine Trail System •aaaaSBV Primary •lllllllll Secondary Necklace Trail System Basaaas* Pnmary 111111  Secondary  Waterfront Trail System • • • I Primary •lllllllll  Secondary  Potential Rail Trail Connection llllllllll Potential Rail Trail Connection Trans Canada Trail • • •  Image 3-16: City of North Vancouver's proposed trail system  Trans Canada Trail  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  Project Sites Foot Of  Lonsdale  Introduction Immediately to t h e west of t h e Pier projects sits a n a r e a k n o w n a s t h e Foot of Lonsdale. This is w h e r e L o n s d a l e A v e n u e m e e t s t h e w a t e r . The foot of L o n s d a l e a r e a is t h e b l o c k a n d a half of L o n s d a l e south of West E s p l a n a d e , i n c l u d i n g t h e waterfront south of C a r r i e C a t e s C o u r t a n d t h e parking lots b e t w e e n L o n s d a l e a n d Rogers. A very important u r b a n l o c a t i o n , this s p a c e will b e a d e f i n i n g e l e m e n t of t h e Lower L o n s d a l e project, a n d will b e relied u p o n to c o n n e c t t h e other constituent e l e m e n t s of t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d .  Image 4-1: Foot of Lonsdale and the major surrounding buildings  Image 4-2: Panorama of the Foot of Lonsdale from the end of the Pier  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  The southwest c o r n e r of this site adjoins L o n s d a l e Q u a y , w h i c h is a major retail c e n t r e a n d t h e p u b l i c transportation h u b for North V a n c o u v e r City a n d The District of North V a n c o u v e r , with a d i r e c t SeaBus c o n n e c t i o n to V a n c o u v e r ' s c e n t r a l business district. L o n s d a l e Q u a y also houses a busy hotel a n d c o n f e r e n c e c e n t r e . To t h e southeast is t h e n e w Pier d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h p r o p o s e s a c o m b i n a t i o n of high-density residential a n d g r o u n d - o r i e n t e d retail units, plus significant p u b l i c o u t d o o r s p a c e a n d c o m m u n i t y r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities. The western side of L o n s d a l e b e t w e e n E s p l a n a d e a n d C a r r i e C a t e s C o u r t features a c o l l e c t i o n of restaurants a n d retail stores, while West E s p l a n a d e (to t h e north) is increasingly hosting c o m m e r c i a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l spill over from L o n s d a l e , m e e t i n g the d e m a n d of n e w , high-density residential d e v e l o p m e n t e x t e n d i n g several blocks north of West E s p l a n a d e . The lots o n t h e northeast c o r n e r of Lonsdale a n d East E s p l a n a d e a r e also s l a t e d for high-density residential d e v e l o p m e n t , with s o m e street-level c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e .  Image 4-3: The Pier Development Site Plan Q  Image 4-4: Panorama of Foot of Lonsdale from the entrance to the shipyards f j  jj|  O n the Edge  Project Sites  Image 4-6: The view corridor towards Foot of Lonsdale from Lonsdale Avenue. As Lonsdale slopes down one has this unobstructed view towards the water and Downtown Vancouver.  a  Q Image 4-5: Foot of Lonsdale from the entrance to the shipyards looking towards the ICBC building and the bus loop; the PGE building is on the left  a*  Image 4-8: Access Lonsdale Quay Market from the site.  a  Image 4-7: The grade change between Esplanade and the site; looking at the parking lot in the western section of the site from Esplanade  O n the Edge  Project Sites  The foot of L o n s d a l e offers t h e p r o s p e c t of g r e a t e r p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e w a t e r f r o n t a b l e n d of o p e n p u b l i c s p a c e a n d lucrative c o m m e r c i a l s p a c e , a n d should f u n c t i o n a s a vibrant, a t t r a c t i v e s p a c e t h a t is a t o n c e a f o c a l point, a destination, a n d a c o n n e c t i n g e l e m e n t b e t w e e n all t h e amenities surrounding it.  Physical Characteristics A big s e c t i o n of this site is a d e c k structure s u p p o r t e d b y c o n c r e t e piles. A very interesting a s p e c t of t h e shoreline a t t h e Foot of L o n s d a l e is the ability to s e e t h e tidal fluctuations t h r o u g h o u t t h e d a y . A t l o w t i d e o n e c a n s e e the g e e s e a n d seagulls a n d other small birds a n d a n i m a l s looking through the m u d a n d rocks for f o o d .  Image 4-9: Lonsdale Quay Market Plaza  The shoreline has important h a b i t a t values. The tidal zones a r e h o m e t o a variety of m a r i n e life, M a n y of t h e s e life forms a r e d e p e n d a n t o n s p e c i f i c d e g r e e s of w a t e r d e p t h a n d sunlight, In a n y alternations t o t h e shoreline, careful attention should b e p a i d t o t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h e c h a n g e s t o the wildlife habitat. The d e g r e e of h a r m t h a t c h a n g e s c a n inflict in a n a r e a d e p e n d s o n t h e t y p e of t h e existing h a b i t a t a n d differs from site t o site. But a s a g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , w h e r e t h e w a t e r is shallow it should not b e c o v e r e d in a n y w a y t h a t p e r m a n e n t l y d e p r i v e s t h e w a t e r of sunlight as it will c a u s e t h e destruction of t h e m a r i n e life habitat. A n o t h e r very u n i q u e a s p e c t of this site is t h e p r e s e n c e of o n g o i n g industry. Carrie C a t e s t u g b o a t s o p e r a t i o n is a n a c t i v e industrial entity serving t h e harbour. As l o n g a s this o p e r a t i o n s stays in its present l o c a t i o n it c a n function as a n asset t o the d e s i g n .  Image 4-10: Carrie Cates Tugboat Operation  42  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  Image 4-11: The Seven Seas Seafood restaurant. This restaurant boat used to operate at the Foot of Lonsdale, It has since been removed from the site. This is an example of the potentials for the various water uses, recreational or economical, in the site. The views towards Downtown Vancouver , the proximity to the water and the easy access from the high density residential surrounding are a few important factors that can be the basis of a successful public open space. These characteristics as well as being positive are sensitive and in dealing with them great care and attention should be given to the suggested design solutions.  a  D Image 4-12: Lonsdale Quay Market Plaza from the water. Lonsdale Quay Market is one of active and popular places in the City of North Vancouver especially on a beautiful day. This is a big opportunity for the future developments in the Foot of Lonsdale and the sites surrounding it such as the Waterfront Park. In the design solutions fro these sites a very important aspect will be trying to make these separate nodes work as a whole, complementing each other.  43  On the Edge  Opportunities and Constraints The Foot of L o n s d a l e is a site with numerous opportunities b u t as m a n y c o m p l i c a t i o n s . The site h a s a u n i q u e l o c a t i o n that c o u l d allow it t o b e c o m e t h e c e n t r a l point in North V a n c o u v e r ' s waterfront. It is s u r r o u n d e d b y relatively high-density residential d e v e l o p m e n t a n d it offers beautiful views over t h e Burrard Inlet t o D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . A t present t h e waterfront s e c t i o n of t h e site is of a s e c o n d a r y n a t u r e i n s t e a d of b e i n g t h e f o c a l point of the Lower Lonsdale a r e a . A l t h o u g h t h e site has a c l e a r outline, its borders are not d e f i n e d spatially. This has c a u s e d t h e site t o suffer from a d e g r e e of c h a o s . Currently it has turned into a n under u s e d a r e a that is very well s e r v e d b y p u b l i c transportation. The transportation h u b u n d e r n e a t h t h e I C B C building is b o t h a curse a n d a blessing for t h e site. The bus route cuts t h e site in halves. SeaBus a n d buses bring p e o p l e t o this l o c a t i o n but w h a t t h e visitors f a c e w h e n they s t e p into t h e site is a c o u p l e of d i s o r g a n i z e d parking lots a n d trucks p a r k e d in t h e l o a d i n g b a y s for Lonsdale Q u a y market.  Project Sites  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  Waterfront Park Introduction Two b l o c k s t o t h e west a l o n g E s p l a n a d e , sits t h e Waterfront Park t h a t e x t e n d s south from West E s p l a n a d e t o t h e shore of Burrard Inlet. The park is b o r d e r e d b y t h e former B C Rail building a n d a multi-storey c o n d o m i n i u m building t o t h e e a s t a n d b y BCIT's P a c i f i c M a r i n e Training Institute a n d a n office building t o the west. The a c c e s s t o the park is from West E s p l a n a d e , f o o t of Forbes A v e n u e a n d C h e s t e r f i e l d P l a c e . With a n a r e a of 2.578 h e c t a r e s , t h e Waterfront Park is a well-sized p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e t h a t c a n serve t h e c o m m u n i t y a r o u n d it. Right n o w t h e park is mainly a large g r a s s - c o v e r e d a r e a with e x p a n s i v e views of D o w n t o w n a n d V a n c o u v e r ' s busy inner harbour, b u t a t present there is n o d e f i n e d or inviting e n t r a n c e t o t h e p a r k from West E s p l a n a d e a n d c r i m e is r e p o r t e d by city officials t o b e a p r o b l e m in t h e park. The City of North V a n c o u v e r is p l a n n i n g a waterfront w a l k w a y a l o n g most of the shoreline t o c o n n e c t larger a r e a s of the waterfront a n d m a k e t h e m more accessible to the public. The Pier d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e Foot of Lonsdale a r e a , Waterfront Park a n d Harbourside a r e important fixtures a l o n g this w a l k w a y a n d s h o u l d f u n c t i o n as links a n d destination points.  Image 4-14: Waterfront Park a n d the major buildings in the surrounding  Images 4-15 a n d 4-16: Looking across the park from north (right) a n d south (left), it seems to b e a continuous grassy land. But these two sections are separated by the train tracks without any crossing provisions. Presently, the connection between these two sections are through two bridges on side lines of the park.  46  On the Edge  Project Sites  Physical Characteristic It is important t o n o t e t h a t in this project it has b e e n a s s u m e d t h a t t h e lands t h a t a r e currently b e i n g u s e d b y TransLink for a n office building a n d a parking lot a r e t o b e v a c a t e d a n d a d d e d t o t h e a r e a of Waterfront Park, These lands a r e i m m e d i a t e l y a t t h e b o t t o m of Chesterfield P l a c e a n d a d j a c e n t t o Waterfront Park in t h e south. A t t h e m o m e n t t h e shoreline in Waterfront park is d e f i n e d b y a vertical c o n c r e t e wall t h a t rises o v e r t w o meters a b o v e t h e high t i d e line. In s o m e p l a c e s there a r e e m b a n k m e n t s of b o u l d e r s a n d rock t h a t rise high e n o u g h t o b e c l a m b e r e d u p o n from t h e t o p of t h e wall, b u t a t t h e m o m e n t there is n o o b v i o u s m e a n s of r e a c h i n g t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e easily a n d safely. Despite t h e l a c k of a n y a p p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n with t h e w a t e r h o w e v e r , p e o p l e - a n d e s p e c i a l l y c h i l d r e n - c l i m b d o w n t h e rocks t o t o u c h t h e w a t e r o r simply t o sit next t o w h e r e t h e h a r b o u r ' s little w a v e s b r e a k o v e r t h e rocks. There is also a tidal p o o l o n t h e southeast c o r n e r of the park t h a t a p p e a r s t o b e a favourite spot for children a n d their parents, It too, h o w e v e r , is only a c c e s s i b l e b y c l a m b e r i n g d o w n t o it o v e r large, loose a n d slippery rocks.  Image 4-17: Visitors getting close to the water's edge in the Waterfront Park  Image 4-18: Children and Q their parents enjoying the tidal pool Image 4-19: Little boy trying to reach the water despite D no apparent access to the water's edge  47  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  Waterfront Park is t h e site of most of t h e festivals a n d c e l e b r a t i o n s that a r e h e l d in t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r . C a r i b b e a n Festival a n d C a n a d a D a y C e l e b r a t i o n s a r e a m o n g t h e n u m e r o u s events t h a t t a k e p l a c e in the park during t h e summer.  Images 4-23 and 4-24: Canada Day celebrations in Waterfront Park  O n the E d g e  Q Image 4-25: Waterfront walkway in Waterfront Park  Project Sites  Q Image 4-26: Looking back at the Waterfront Park's shoreline and walkway. Presently it consists of a curvilinear but monotone straight wall with no direct access to the water.  Q Image 4-27: Public art piece in Waterfront Park. Douglas Senft's Metal Cathedral Sculpture creates an interesting effect by somewhat framing the view to the Downtown Vancouver.  49  O n the E d g e  Q Image 4-28: The train passing by through the Waterfront Park  Project Sites  Image 4-29: Children's D playground is often used at Waterfront Park  Image 4-30: Cyclists on the waterfront walkway in Q Waterfront Park. It is important to design the walkways in a way that can be used by cyclist, rollerbladers, skateboarders and etc.  50  O n the Edge  Project Sites  a  Image 4-31: Current washroom facility in waterfront park. An underground facility with an entrance without any surveillance becomes a hot spot for crime and rowdiness.  —  a  Image 4-32: Train tracks cutting the park in half. This is a big problem in the park from the circulation point of view. D Images 4-33 and 4-34: The staircases of the Park's eastern connecting bridge, As it is clear in the images the staircases are claustrophobic (left) and with a lot of hidden turns which is unsuitable as they provide crime hot spots. In festival days (right) they become a bottleneck and create congestion in the flow of visitors. More access points and relatively direct ones will help to solve this problem,  51  O n the Edge  Project Sites  a  Image 4-35: SeaBus leaving the station. View from Waterfront Park Image 4-36: Looking north from the bottom of Chesterfield Court.  a  Image 4-37: The retails at the entrance of the SeaBus Station. Moving from the Waterfront Park towards Foot of Lonsdale D Image 4-38: The "Q" tower in Lonsdale Quay Market, This is the view from Foot of Lonsdale towards the market and tugboat operation.  52  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  O n the Edge  Project Sites  Opportunities and Constraints Waterfront Pork, like Foot of Lonsdole is g n u n d e r u s e d site in a g r e a t l o c a t i o n . The park hgs a vgst waterfront section a n d a relatively l o n g shoreline, w h i c h is a great opportunity for a vibrant a n d l o n g seowglk. But t h e park has a f e w b i g problems. The biggest of oil is t h e p o o r a n d b r o k e n circulation. O n e c a n s e e the w a t e r standing in front of the park in E s p l a n a d e b u t c a n not g e t t o it in a direct m a n n e r . As a result of l a c k of visibility a n d t h e site's t o p o g r a p h y , o n e d o e s n ' t s e e a t first t h e train tracks t h a t c u t t h e park-in t h e m i d d l e , y e t the crossing opportunities a r e e q u a l l y difficult t o find (Images 4-28 a n d 4-32). The section of t h e park b e t w e e n E s p l a n a d e a n d train tracks, t h e northern section, is not u s e d a s m u c h a s o n e w o u l d normally e x p e c t of a g r e e n s p a c e in t h a t l o c a t i o n . The only t w o points of a c c e s s t o t h e other side of t h e tracks a n d waterfront s e c t i o n of the park a r e v i a t w o pedestrian bridges. The eastern b r i d g e is i n c o r p o r a t e d in t h e residential building b e s i d e t h e park, b u t a s it w a s c l e a r in t h e i m a g e s (Images 4-33 a n d 4-34) it d o e s n o t offer a p l e a s a n t journey t o the other side. The western b r i d g e runs a l o n g t h e BCIT building. It b e g i n s with a r a m p from E s p l a n a d e but e n d s in a spiral staircase o n t h e other side. The stairs a r e t w o m a n y a n d t h e c o n c r e t e c o r e a r o u n d w h i c h they turn c r e a t e s a c l a u s t r o p h o b i c s p a c e with m a n y blind corners t h a t a r e n o t i d e a l in a site afflicted periodically b y p e t t y crime. The e x i s t e n c e of t h e train tracks c a n b e r e g a r d e d as a n opportunity for t h e site d e s p i t e all t h e p r o b l e m s they h a v e c r e a t e d . They represent a n alternative m o d e of transportation a n d t h e p r o s p e c t of a n o t h e r point of a c c e s s t o the site.  54  O n the Edge  Project Sites  The p r o b l e m of blind corners can glso b e s e e n in other sections of t h e park e s p e c i o l l y in front of t h e w o s h r o o m facilities (Imge 4-31). The waterfront section of. t h e u s e d s e c t i o n of the park. The c l o s e to it a r e often used b y c h i l d r e n from d a y c a r e c e n t r e s  park, p r e d i c t a b l y , is the most c o m m o n l y children's p l a y a r e a a n d the grassy lands children a n d their parents; picnicers a n d a r e other frequent users.  The " M e t a l C a t h e d r a l " is a n o t h e r favourite spot that e n t i c e s children to g o u n d e r n e a t h it or swing from t h e m e t a l bars. But this s e c t i o n has its o w n problems. Currently the waterfront w a l k w a y is a m o n o t o n o u s curvilinear pattern with out a n y g r a d e c h a n g e s ; The w a t e r itself is m a n y f e e t below, l a p p i n g against the sheer c o n c r e t e wall a n d t h e rocks t h a t support the w a l k w a y . As a result there is no direct a c c e s s to t h e w a t e r but e v e n so, o n e c a n s e e visitors s c r a m b l i n g d o w n the boulders, w h i c h a r e p i l e d u p against the s e a w a l l , to g e t as c l o s e as possible to t h e water. O n t h e south-eastern c o r n e r of t h e parks waterfront there is a tidal p o o l w h i c h o n a busy d a y in t h e park seems to b e a m o n g the favourite spots. Tidal pools a r e both e d u c a t i o n a l a n d p r o v i d e m a n y r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities. In c o n c l u s i o n , Waterfront Park with the h e l p of a n u m b e r of major d e s i g n m o v e s , m o r e p r o g r a m m i n g a n d detailing c a n b e turned into o n e of t h e g r e a t e s t waterfront parks.  1  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  A Wider Look Both t h e s e sites f a c e south o n d enjoy o fair a m o u n t of direct sunshine o n sunny d a y s . The m o v e m e n t of sun a n d c h a n g e s in t h e s h a d o w s , t h e reflection of the sunlight o v e r t h e water, t h e s e a r e all natural qualities t h a t exist in b o t h sites a n d m a k e t h e m e v e n m o r e p l e a s a n t a n d attractive p l a c e s to b e o n n i c e days. Even a t night t h e v i e w from b o t h sites is a g l a m o r o u s o n e . The flickering buildings in t h e D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r , t h e lit u p market o n t h e Q u a y , t h e harbour lights a n d e v e n the reflection of the m o o n o n the o c e a n , all these c r e a t e a beautiful nocturnal show.  Image 4-40 (left): The magnificent view of Downtown Vancouver through the Metal Cathedral in Waterfront Park.  Image 4-41 (right): The sunset from Foot of Lonsdale.  56  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  O n the E d g e  Project Sites  TTTI No Thorough w a y oVer the Trap ConneJi :c r» the Two Se  lidvKFj&^jm  Image 4-42: Diagram of constraints in the two project sites  58  O n the E d g e  Design  Design Concept This d e s i g n aspires to establish n e w c o n n e c t i o n s w h e r e there w e r e n o n e o n site, a n d t o i m p r o v e existing c o n n e c t i o n s in order to c r e a t e a c o h e r e n t a n d h a r m o n i o u s f a b r i c of multi-purpose s p a c e s with i m p r o v e d visibility a n d featuring o p t i m a l utilization of t h e s p e c t a c u l a r waterfront l o c a t i o n of t h e sites.  Images 5-1 and 5-2: Existing (left) and proposed (right) connections  O n the Edge  Design  Connections A t t h e present time, t h e most d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o sites ( m o v i n g East t o West), is a c o n f u s i n g m e a n d e r v i a t h e L o n s d a l e Q u a y market, t h e SeaBus Transit l o o p , a short-stay p a r k i n g lot in C h a d w i c k C o u r t a n d finally b y a n u n r e m a r k a b l e l a n e t h a t passes b e t w e e n t h e residential building t o t h e e a s t of t h e park a n d t h e small c o m m e r c i a l building in front of it. This c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e Foot of L o n s d a l e a n d Waterfront Park is t e n u o u s a n d uninviting, isolating t h e s e sites from e a c h other a n d muting w h a t c o u l d b e a r e m a r k a b l e stretch of p u b l i c , m i x e d - u s e waterfront. To redress this d e f i c i e n c y , I h a v e p r o p o s e d in m y vision for t h e s e sites three a d d i t i o n a l east-west c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e f o o t of L o n s d a l e a n d Waterfront Park: •  A n e w harbour-front w a l k w a y running from a l o n g t h e shoreline of Waterfront Park all t h e w a y u p t o t h e s e c o n d - s t o r e y platform of t h e " Q " t o w e r a t L o n s d a l e Q u a y . A t its mid-point t h e w a l k w a y s p a n s o v e r t h e SeaBus station in t h e form of a suspension b r i d g e , structured similarly t o t h e n e w b r i d g e p r o p o s e d for Waterfront Park. This n e w w a l k w a y ties into t h e existing w a l k w a y , w h i c h is e n h a n c e d b y t h e h e l p of a d e f i n e d p e d e s t r i a n route e x t e n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e SeaBus / transit l o o p . Public art a n d h a r m o n i z e d furniture will further d e f i n e this corridor, a s well a s a series of digital s c r e e n s t h a t s h o w live i m a g e s of t h e p l a z a a n d Waterfront Park. A s well a s inviting a n d orienting, t h e s c r e e n s will also fulfill a security role, h e l p i n g t o r e d u c e t h e petty c r i m e t h a t has a f f l i c t e d t h e a r e a in t h e past.  •  A l t h o u g h a lot of c o n s i d e r a t i o n h a s b e e n g i v e n a l r e a d y t o t h e restoration of a streetcar s e r v i c e a l o n g L o n s d a l e A v e n u e , in this  Image 5-3: Waterfront Streetcar, Alaskan Way and Main Street, Seattle, Washington.  60  O n the E d g e  Design  project I h a v e p r o p o s e d instead a n alternative, east-west route for t h e streetcar. Historically t h e railroad u s e d to run parallel to t h e shoreline a n d at street g r a d e , passing by the P G E building. In m y d e s i g n I p r o p o s e t h a t a streetcar service run a l o n g the existing C N right-of-way through Waterfont park, c o n t i n u e a t street g r a d e through the foot of Lonsdale a n d finally c o n n e c t to t h e historical rail tracks t h a t h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d at t h e Versatile Shipyard site. This w a y a streetcar service c a n m o v e passengers a n d tourists al a l o n g t h e shoreline a n d possibly s o m e d a y all the w a y to A m b l e s i d e B e a c h a n d park in West V a n c o u v e r .  •  As a waterfront city, t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r should t a k e a d v a n t a g e of its l o c a t i o n . W a t e r transportation b o t h for daily c o m m u t i n g a n d for tourism has p r o v e n to b e successful in m a n y other waterfront areas. In this project I've a d v a n c e d the possibility of a w a t e r taxi service with stops a t The Pier (Versatile Shipyards), Waterfront Park, Harbourside Business Park, a n d eventually A m b l e s i d e B e a c h . A m o r e sophisticated service c a n e v e n offer trips across the Inlet a n d o v e r to D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r a n d Stanley Park.  61  t  O n the E d g e  Design  O n the Edge  Design  Foot of Lonsdale Legend l a n d 2. Retail, Office a n d Residential Buildings 3. P G E Station 4. C a r r i e C a t e s Tugboats 5. L o n s d a l e Q u a y M a r k e t a n d Hotel 6. The " Q " Tower 7. The S u s p e n d e d Seashore Walk 8. The Pedestrian Pier 9. The Pier D e v e l o p m e n t 10. U r b a n P o c k e t Park 11. S u s p e n d e d D e c k  Image 5-5: Plan view. Foot of Lonsdale  63  O n the E d g e  Design  Introduction The f o o t of L o n s d a l e is o t present a n u n d e r u s e d a r e a in a first class l o c a t i o n . It is very well s e r v e d b y p u b l i c transportation, is s u r r o u n d e d b y relatively high-density residential d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d it offers beautiful views o v e r t h e Burrard Inlet t o D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . The b i g g e s t p r o b l e m with this site is the spatial c h a o s t h a t currently d r a w s e v e r y o n e a r o u n d it a n d through it, b u t n e v e r t o it. I d r e w my first lines with the o b j e c t i v e of finding s o m e order in t h e m i d d l e of all t h e different routes a n d s p a c e s , e d g e s a n d centres.  Spatial Order I h a v e p r o p o s e d a division of t h e s p a c e into a c o m b i n a t i o n of o p e n s p a c e s a n d a building mass. This d u a l d e s i g n a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h e e c o n o m i c e x i g e n c i e s of a d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t t h a t seeks t o m a x i m i z e p u b l i c o p e n s p a c e without b u r d e n i n g unduly a m u n i c i p a l b u d g e t t h a t has m a n y c l a i m s u p o n it. Therefore, in t h e northern s e c t i o n of the site (the lot that is e n c l o s e d b y L o n s d a l e A v e n u e t o the east, Rogers A v e n u e t o the west, East E s p l a n a d e t o t h e north a n d C a r r i e C a t e s C o u r t t o t h e south), I h a v e l o c a t e d a m i x e d use c o m p l e x . All the s u r f a c e parking t h a t currently blights this s p a c e is r e l o c a t e d t o t h e t w o - l e v e l u n d e r g r o u n d parking u n d e r n e a t h this building. The first t w o levels a r e d e d i c a t e d t o retail s p a c e , while a b o v e t h e m I h a v e d e s i g n e d t w o s e p a r a t e five-story towers with a n u r b a n p o c k e t park in b e t w e e n t h e m . This park will b e a c c e s s i b l e a t street g r a d e from E s p l a n a d e , while o n its southern side it h a s a transparent extension t h a t is c a n t i l e v e r e d o v e r C a r r i e C a t e s Court. The t w o towers also h a v e a transparent d e s i g n with s t a g g e r e d storeys a n d large p l a n t e d d e c k s t o m a x i m i z e t h e ingress of light a n d t o minimize t h e interruption of v i e w corridors from E s p l a n a d e a n d a b o v e . The a r c h i t e c t u r e of the  Image 5-7: Installations in the water  Image 5-8: Seating on the ocean's edge  64  O n the E d g e  Design  buildings a n d t h e d e c k a r e light, transparent a n d h i g h - t e c h , As I m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , this a r e a is still a working waterfront a n d ports h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d with industry a n d t e c h n o l o g y . The a r c h i t e c t u r e I've p r o p o s e d a i m s to r e s p e c t t h e genius of a working port while e m u l a t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e w a t e r t h a t sustains it. Both of the towers h a v e g r e e n roofs as well.  The Fountain Plaza Across C a r r i e C a t e s Court, to t h e south of m y m i x e d - u s e towers, I h a v e e n v i s i o n e d a small u r b a n p l a z a to c o m p l i m e n t t h e L o n s d a l e Q u a y market. The s e a t i n g a r e a s will a c c o m m o d a t e overflow from t h e m a r k e t o n sunny, busy d a y s or t h e y c a n simply b e u s e d as v i e w i n g a n d relaxing spots. There is also a w a t e r f e a t u r e / p a r k a n d s o m e p u b l i c art i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e plaza. Carrie C a t e s t u g b o a t s o p e r a t i o n is i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e d e s i g n for as l o n g as it remains in its present l o c a t i o n . The major s e c t i o n of t h e C a t e s building is a w o r k s h o p / r e p a i r s h o p for t h e t u g b o a t s . By m a k i n g t h e eastern f a c i n g f a c a d e of this building m o r e transparent, this industrial o p e r a t i o n will b e c o m e a n a t t r a c t i o n for t h e p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y c h i l d r e n w h o a r e enjoying t h e p l a z a . A t L o n s d a l e A v e n u e ' s southern terminus, t h e r e u s e d to b e a pier d e d i c a t e d to t h e ferry service. I h a v e p r o p o s e d to rebuild t h e pier, this t i m e a s a n extension of L o n s d a l e A v e n u e , but exclusively for p e d e s t r i a n a n d w a t e r uses, The pier is t o b e d o m i n a t e d b y p e o p l e . It is lined with lights a n d a narrow w a t e r w a y t h a t runs to the pier t h r o u g h t h e p o c k e t park off E s p l a n a d e a n d t h e p l a z a b e n e a t h . O n c e arrived a t the pier, this w a t e r w a y flows d o w n t h e m i d d l e of t h e pier t o its e n d , w h e r e it a p p e a r s t o fall into t h e s e a ; lights lining t h e w a t e r w a y ' s e d g e s a r e e x t e n d e d a  Images 5-9 and 5-10: Children and animals playing and enjoying the water fountains at Fountain Place, Dallas, Texas.  65  O n the E d g e  c o u p l e of meters further past the d i s a p p e a r i n g point into t h e horizon. This a r r a n g e m e n t of water, lights a n d p e r s p e c t i v e will r e - c r e a t e a s p e c t a c u l a r but indefinite terminus for Lonsdale A v e n u e , equally impressive from t h e shorefront as from higher u p o n t h e hill. The P G E building will b e p r e s e r v e d as a tourist c e n t r e a n d as a streetcar stop.  Design  O n the E d g e  Design  Waterfront Park Introduction As I m e n t i o n e d in t h e site gnalysis, s o m e of t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s afflicting Woterfront Park is its p o o r circulation, strangled c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e a r e a surrounding it, a n d l a c k of visibility a n d clarity. A n o t h e r , corollary issue is t h a t a significant s e c t i o n of t h e park a l o n g W E s p l a n a d e Street (north of the train tracks), is greatly under-utilized a s a result of t h e park's d i s m e m b e r m e n t b y t h e tracks a n d t h e poorly d e s i g n e d bridges over t h e m . This grassy a r e a is currently t o o c l o s e t o t h e r o a d a n d t o o far from t h e w a t e r t o b e e n t i c i n g for most uses.  Circulation A c c o r d i n g l y , m y first d e s i g n i m p r o v e m e n t for t h e park w a s t o i m p r o v e a c c e s s t h r o u g h t h e northern s e c t i o n of t h e p a r k t o t h e southern s e c t i o n . I've d o n e this b y r e m o v i n g t h e f e n c e s a l o n g t h e rail tracks a n d r e - g r a d i n g t o c r e a t e a direct, wholly visible route from E s p l a n a d e straight a c r o s s t h e tracks. I've also s o u g h t t o d r a w p e d e s t r i a n b r i d g e a c c e s s a w a y from t h e u n c e r t a i n margins of t h e park b y r e p l a c i n g t h e western p e d e s t r i a n b r i d g e with a universally a c c e s s i b l e o n e with a straight d e c k t h a t d e p a r t s directly from t h e sidewalk o n E s p l a n a d e . Light a n d h i g h - t e c h in d e s i g n , this n e w suspension b r i d g e has a form t h a t e v o k e s masts a n d sails, a n d its light a n d thin structure d o e s n ' t obstruct unnecessarily t h e m a g n i f i c e n t v i e w of D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r a n d t h e harbour. The s o c c e r field is situated 1.8 meters b e l o w E s p l a n a d e t o r e d u c e t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e of street traffic with leisurely sport, while t h e adjoining p l a z a exists a s a n extension of t h e sidewalk a n d a b r o a d point of entry t o t h e park.  Image 5-11: one of Santiago Calatrava's three bridges over Hoofdvaart Canal, Zurich  67  O n the Edge  Design  Image 5-12: The three major sections in the design process and the proposed circulation network.  68  O n the Edge  Design  Legend  1 .The new western bridge: Alar Crossing 2. The Park Plaza 3. Small-sided Soccer Pitch: Pete Larson Filed 4. Streetcar Stop 5. The Great Lawn 6. Wildflower Hill 7. Observia Tidal Pool 8. Water taxi Pier 9. Sandy Beach 10. Outlook Terraces 11. Waterfront Playpark 12. Ocean View Art Gallery 13. Retails 14. High Tide Outdoor Pool and Waterpark 15. Pool building 16. Rock Point Breakwater  Image 5-13: Plan view. Waterfront Park  69  O n the Edge  Design  Image 5-14: Section A-A North-South overall section  Image 5-15: Section B-B East-West section along railroad  70  O n the E d g e  O n t h e rail tracks there is a platform a c c e s s i b l e b y a series of steps a n d a w h e e l c h a i r r a m p . This platform is t h e streetcar stop for t h e Waterfront Park. There a r e planters a n d murals c o v e r i n g t h e retaining wall south of t h e platform in order t o c r e a t e a p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t for p e o p l e waiting for t h e streetcar a n d a beautiful v i e w for the p e o p l e in t h e s o c c e r field, t h e P l a z a a n d e v e n passer bys in E s p l a n a d e .  Spatial Order In t h e d e s i g n process I d i v i d e d t h e park into three major sections: t h e northern s e c t i o n (the l a n d b e t w e e n W E s p l a n a d e a n d t h e rail tracks), t h e southern s e c t i o n .(the l a n d e n c l o s e d b y BCIT o n its west, t h e residential building o n its e a s t a n d t h e rail tracks o n its north) a n d finally t h e waterfront ( a thick b a n d t h a t runs a l o n g t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e ) . A strong structural e l e m e n t in t h e p r o p o s e d d e s i g n for the park is a linear axis t h a t e x t e n d s a n existing city g r e e n w a y c o m i n g d o w n S e m i s c h A v e n u e all t h e w a y to the w a t e r ' s e d g e . As well as constituting a p h y s i c a l axis, this a l i g n m e n t helps t o e m p h a s i z e t h e direct v i e w from t h e street t o t h e water. The existing sculpture in t h e park lines u p with this axis a n d functions a s a " g a t e " or a " f r a m e " for t h e v i e w of t h e w a t e r a n d D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . This axis also ties t h e three sections of t h e park together. Before reviewing t h e different elements of my design in detail, here I h a v e m a d e a list of different s p a c e s a n d functions t h a t h a v e b e e n p l a n n e d for t h e park:  Design  O n the E d g e  Small-sided s o c c e r p i t c h : P e t e Larson Field The Park P l a z a The n e w western b r i d g e : Alar Crossing The G r e a t L a w n Wildflower Hill O c e a n V i e w Art G a l l e r y with o u t d o o r display a r e a C h i l d r e n ' s p l a y a r e a : Waterfront Playpark High Tide o u t d o o r p o o l a n d W a t e r Park The S u s p e n d e d S e a s h o r e Walk Sandy B e a c h R o c k Point b r e a k w a t e r O b s e r v i a tidal p o o l Retail s p a c e : P e t e ' s Pit P u b , Rental facilities, e t c . Shady bosque W a t e r taxi pier Northern  Design  Image 5-16: Reflecting pool in Plaza Tower, Costa Mesa, California  Section  In the underutilized northern s e c t i o n of t h e park I h a v e p r o p o s e d a n artificial turf s o c c e r field. It is a small-sided s o c c e r field t h a t a y o u n g city like City of North V a n c o u v e r c a n enjoy a n d a p p r e c i a t e . This field a n d the p a v e d p l a z a a d j a c e n t t o it will constitute t o g e t h e r t h e s p a c e n e e d e d for the n u m e r o u s festivals t h a t t a k e p l a c e in t h e park during t h e summer. In the p a v e d p l a z a a reflecting p o o l will bring a portion of t h e clarity of t h e o c e a n to this e n d of t h e park while t h e u n d i s t u r b e d v i e w line from W E s p l a n a d e to t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e promises m o r e . This p a v e d p l a z a will r e p l a c e t h e existing J a p a n e s e g a r d e n . This w a s a gift from City of North V a n c o u v e r ' s sister city, C h i b a , J a p a n . B e c a u s e of  Image 5-17: Soccer players in a park in the City of North Vancouver  72  O n the E d g e  Design  various factors, i n c l u d i n g invisibility of t h e g a r d e n in its present l o c a t i o n a n d safety c o n c e r n s , C h i b a G a r d e n is n o t u s e d or visited. I have p r o p o s e d for t h e g a r d e n t o b e r e l o c a t e d t o a m o r e suitable l o c a t i o n s o t h a t t h a t s e c t i o n of t h e park c a n b e t u r n e d into a m o r e f u n c t i o n a l s p a c e .  Southern Section The southern s e c t i o n of t h e park consists of a n o p e n grass field t h a t slopes gently t o w a r d s t h e w a t e r . It is a flexible s p a c e t h a t c a n b e a d a p t e d t o different uses: for p i c n i c k i n g , g a m e s like B o c c e a n d l a w n b o w l i n g , o u t d o o r p e r f o r m a n c e s , festivals a n d shows or simply for strolling. This field is s e p a r a t e d from t h e residential building o n its e a s t b y a w a l k w a y t h a t is lined with trees a n d a v e g e t a t e d buffer in order t o m a x i m i z e t h e p r i v a c y of t h e units o n t h e g r o u n d floor of t h e building.  Waterfront The waterfront s e c t i o n is t h e most diverse part of t h e park. As o n e walks a l o n g t h e w a t e r ' s e d g e o n e e x p e r i e n c e s different s p a c e s a n d various levels of c o n t a c t with t h e w a t e r . I h a v e p r e s e r v e d a c o n t i n u o u s w a l k w a y t h a t allows t h e visitors t o w a l k a l o n g t h e w a t e r e n j o y i n g t h e beautiful v i e w of D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r . L o c a t e d in b e t w e e n this w a l k w a y a n d t h e o n e a l o n g t h e south side of t h e grass field is a hill-like a r e a with its p e a k c e n t e r e d o n t h e north-south axis t h a t runs t h r o u g h t h e park. This hill also h a s g e n t l e slopes a n d d o e s n o t obstruct t h e views of t h e w a t e r from W E s p l a n a d e . The hill is p l a n t e d with a flowering m e a d o w t h a t will h a v e white, yellow, b l u e a n d pink flowers t h r o u g h o u t spring a n d s u m m e r a n d t h a t will b e m o w e d from late A u g u s t to February. O n its southern side f a c i n g t h e w a t e r there a r e seats  Image 5-18: Vaughan's design for a tidal pool in Concord Pacific, Vancouver, British Columbia  " \ 73  O n the E d g e  Design  f a s h i o n e d from m e t a l sheets in different reclining a n g l e s , c o v e r e d by astro turf. As well as b e i n g a form of p u b l i c art, t h e s e seats a r e l o c a t e d t o b e i d e a l for c o m f o r t a b l e e n j o y m e n t of t h e view, r e a d i n g or p l a y i n g music. A t t h e western e n d of t h e w a l k w a y r e m a i n t h e N a v y m e m o r i a l a n d the Trans C a n a d a Trail G a t e . A p r o p o s e d pier e x t e n d s into t h e w a t e r a s a n extension of t h e western b r i d g e . This pier will f u n c t i o n a s t h e Waterfront Park stop of a North Shore w a t e r taxi service. B e l o w this pier is a s a n d y b e a c h t o t h e e a s t a n d a rocky tidal p o o l to t h e west; t h e latter e x t e n d s a s far a s t h e reserve l a n d of t h e S q u a m i s h First Nations B a n d . A series of steps a n d c o n c r e t e platforms will m a k e it e a s y for children or a n y other visitor to g o d o w n to t h e tidal p o o l . A c c e s s to t h e s a n d y b e a c h is also b y steps, l o c a t e d further e a s t (see b e l o w ) .  Image 5-19: Section C - C Section through the Sandy Beach looking at the terraces  74  On the Edge  Design  1.  2, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  High Tide Outdoor Pool Building and restaurant Swimming Pool Waterpark Grassy Hills Seating Art Gallery's outdoor display area Waterfront Playpark Wildflower Hill Outlook Terraces  10. Butterfly Meadow 11. Wheelchair ramp 12. Terraces 13. Sandy Beach 14. Water taxi pier 15. Observia Tidal Pool 16. Rock Point Breakwater 17. Suspended Seashore Walk  Design  O n the E d g e  Also p r o p o s e d is a n extension t o t h e BCIT building, d e s i g n e d to a c c o m m o d a t e a t e r r a c e d restaurant t h a t c a n b e a c c e s s e d a n d u s e d by visitors to t h e park. As t h e w a l k w a y w e a v e s its w a y east, it runs a l o n g a relatively plain e d g e with b e n c h e s a n d planters o v e r l o o k i n g t h e s a n d y b e a c h , Where the waterfront w a l k w a y intersects with t h e p a r k ' s north-south, the w a l k w a y ' s e d g e c h a n g e s a n d a series of steps a t different intervals b e c k o n visitors d o w n to various t e r r a c e s a t different levels. These c o n c r e t e t e r r a c e s a r e flexible s e a t i n g a r e a s for p e o p l e to simply sit a n d enjoy t h e view, w a t c h t h e swimmers or e v e n s u n b a t h e , a n d in their midst is a butterfly m e a d o w with diverse plants to a u g m e n t t h e h a b i t a t v a l u e of t h e n e w shoreline.  Images 5-21 a n d 5-22: Sections D-D a n d " ' Sections through the terraces  E  E  O n the E d g e  Design  It is by t h e s e steps g n d t e r r a c e s that visitors c a n w a l k d o w n to t h e s a n d y b e a c h . C l o s e to w h e r e t h e steps a r e l o c a t e d there is also a r a m p with a g e n t l e s l o p e of 3.5% in order t h a t visitors o n w h e e l c h a i r , bike or roller b l a d e s m a y g e t d o w n to t h e b e a c h . In front of t h e s a n d y b e a c h , a l o n g t h e b r e a k w a t e r , in t h e w a t e r sits a line of f a b r i c sculptures, lights a n d w a t e r fountains. The white sculptures r e s e m b l e t h e sails of t h e sailing b o a t s in t h e d a y a n d a r e lit with a bright white-yellow light a t night. The fountains a r e t i m e d to r e s p o n d t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l events. For e x a m p l e t h e w a t e r jets start w h e n a SeaBus l e a v e s t h e station or w h e n a cruise ship is passing by. This b r e a k w a t e r will also f u n c t i o n as a n e n c l o s u r e for t h e b e a c h a n d s w i m m i n g a r e a , m a k i n g it a safer e n v i r o n m e n t for p e o p l e t o enjoy.  Images 5-24 and 5-25: Sculptures and fountains installed in the water. Tokyo Sea Life Park, Japan. At night these art pieces create a beautiful effect resembling sailboats.  O n the E d g e  Design  Also a t this intersection is a fork in t h e waterfront w a l k w a y , offering visitors t h e o p t i o n either to c o n t i n u e a l o n g t h e e d g e of t h e w a t e r or to walk e a s t b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d / s w i m m i n g p o o l c o m p l e x a n d t h e art gallery. The shoreline b r a n c h of t h e w a l k w a y l e a d s quickly p a s t a rocky b r e a k w a t e r t h a t e x t e n d s into t h e water. It p r o t e c t s t h e b e a c h a n d w a s h e d a w a y . It is also possible for visitors to w a l k a l o n g t h e b r e a k w a t e r a n d c l i m b d o w n its rocky sides into t h e water. The c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d consists of p l a y e q u i p m e n t , natural features for m o r e c r e a t i v e thinking, a small w a t e r park a n d s e a t i n g a r e a s a r o u n d it for parents. The p l a y g r o u n d is s u r r o u n d e d b y grass, shrubs a n d trees for shade a n d protection. The art gallery is t o the north of the c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d a n d b e s i d e t h e northern b r a n c h of the w a l k w a y . The art gallery consists of t h e gallery building itself a n d a sunken o u t d o o r exhibition y a r d . The c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e style of t h e building allows it to b e light a n d transparent a n d suitable for a waterfront l o c a t i o n . There will b e digital s c r e e n s o n t h e outer wall of t h e gallery f a c i n g t h e exhibition y a r d , p l a y i n g music, art a n d s c i e n c e p r o g r a m s a n d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s for the gallery's shows. The gallery c a n a c c o m m o d a t e various art a n d s c i e n c e exhibitions for different a g e a n d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r a n d will b e a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r to d r a w p e o p l e to t h e Waterfront Park all y e a r a r o u n d . The park's services s u c h a s p u b l i c w a s h r o o m s a n d p u m p h o u s e c a n also b e i n t e g r a t e d into the gallery building's structure. This w a y t h e y will r e c e i v e p r o p e r service, c l e a n i n g a n d surveillance.  Image 5-27: Breakwater at the Ferry Terminal in Tsawwassen, British Columbia  Image 5-28: Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson, Rozel Point, Great Salt Lake  In the existing building a d j a c e n t to t h e gallery building s o m e retail is i n c o r p o r a t e d . Restaurants, c o f f e e shops a n d rental facilities with  80  O n the E d g e  waterfront a n d p o o l views c a n h e l p to i n c r e a s e t h e liveliness a n d v i b r a n c y of the waterfront. To the south of t h e gallery a n d t h e shops a n d in b e t w e e n the t w o b r a n c h e s of t h e waterfront w a l k w a y , sits t h e o u t d o o r s w i m m i n g p o o l c o m p l e x . The c o m p l e x consists of a y e a r a r o u n d s w i m m i n g p o o l , a kids' p o o l , a w a t e r park a n d t h e p o o l building t h a t houses t h e services, showers, l o u n g e s a n d a rooftop i n d o o r / o u t d o o r c o f f e e s h o p . The s w i m m i n g p o o l is a n endless p o o l . W a t e r flows o v e r its southern e d g e d o w n t h e p o o l wall a n d is p u m p e d b a c k into t h e p o o l . This e f f e c t m a k e s t h e p o o l to a p p e a r endless from the swimmers' p e r s p e c t i v e , e x t e n d i n g right into t h e h a r b o u r itself. In order not to disturb this view, t h e southern b r a n c h of t h e waterfront w a l k w a y t h a t runs a l o n g the p o o l ' s southern e d g e slopes d o w n a n d stays low while passing b y t h e p o o l .  Design  Image 5-32: Plan view, High Tide outdoor swimming pool and Waterpark  O n the Edge  Design  For t h e s a m e r e a s o n t h e f e n c e s a l o n g t h e southern e d g e of t h e c o m p l e x a r e m a d e of c l e a r glass. The p o o l building houses t h e showers, c h a n g i n g facilities a n d t h e p o o l ' s administration office. It also features o n its s e c o n d floor a restaurant with a n outside d e c k . The building has a g r e e n roof, w h i c h c r e a t e s a p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t for a restaurant d e c k . The building o n its western side h a s a c u r v e d wall with w a t e r jets in it a t different elevations. This is w h e r e t h e children's w a t e r p l a y a r e a begins. It has different sections with various types of jets r a n g i n g from o v e r h e a d jets to fountains t h a t shoot t h e w a t e r u p from t h e g r o u n d , in t h e form of c o n c e n t r i c circles a r o u n d t h e kid's p o o l . This w a y t h e e x c e s s w a t e r from the jets will run into t h e kid's p o o l . There a r e t w o grassy a r e a s with s h a d e - p r o v i d i n g trees in t h e m for p e o p l e w h o w a n t t o lie d o w n , r e a d or rest or e v e n s u n b a t h e . There a r e also t w o shelter units for p e o p l e seeking s h a d e in t h e p o o l a r e a . The p a v e m e n t in t h e p o o l a r e a is a c o m b i n a t i o n of a formal c o n c r e t e p a v e m e n t with straight joints a n d a w a v y pattern, a g a i n with c o n c r e t e , w h o s e joints r e s e m b l e w a v e s o n t h e s u r f a c e of t h e water.  Image 5-33: Precedent for pavement patterns in the pool area  83  O n the E d g e  Design  The northern b r a n c h of t h e w a l k w a y runs a l o n g t h e f e n c e s a r o u n d t h e p o o l a n d b e c o m e s t h e s i d e w a l k for C h a d w i c k C o u r t ; it l e a d s f r o m t h e r e t o t h e Foot of L o n s d a l e P l a z a . The southern b r a n c h slopes u p a g a i n after it passes t h e s w i m m i n g p o o l a n d b e c o m e s t h e suspension b r i d g e t h a t s p a n s t h e SeaBus station building a n d e v e n t u a l l y c o n n e c t s t o t h e " Q " t o w e r in t h e L o n s d a l e Q u a y market p l a z a .  images 5-34 a n d 5-35: Sections F-F a n d G - G Sections through the pool a n d gallery area  O n the E d g e  Conclusion The City of North V o n c o u v e r is in t h e m i d d l e of o n e of t h e most important stages of its evolution from purely industrial to public, mixed-use waterfront. H o w the city r e d e v e l o p s its waterfront will d e f i n e a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e C i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r for m a n y d e c a d e s to c o m e . As d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , North V a n c o u v e r is a city rich in history a n d culture in t h e Lower m a i n l a n d . The n e w waterfront should r e s p o n d to t h e everg r o w i n g n u m b e r of residents, visitors a n d tourists w h o will turn their attention to t h e City of North V a n c o u v e r . A well c o n n e c t e d , multi functional a n d visible waterfront will m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o use it a n d over time t h e v i b r a n c y of t h e waterfront will b e c o m e a major asset t o t h e rest of t h e city. This important notion w a s t h e f o c u s of principle four t h a t g u i d e d t h e d e s i g n of a series of continuous w a l k w a y s o n t h e waterfront a n d i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e north-south c o n n e c t i o n s in t h e park. The later w a s a c h i e v e d by a n e w b r i d g e a n d crossings o v e r t h e rail tracks. In this project I h a v e identified recreation a n d tourism as t h e driving e l e m e n t s of t h e planning a n d design. R e c r e a t i o n a l facilities a n d s p a c e s a r e o n e of t h e integral parts of a successful waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t . As n o t e d a b o v e , recreation a n d tourism a r e the most c o m m o n t h e m e s in m a n y successful waterfront r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . By designing a diverse a n d lively waterfront I h a v e tried to fulfill the City's n e e d for a p u b l i c waterfront t h a t features t h e o p e n s p a c e s , facilities a n d services that residents a n d visitors w o u l d h o p e to find in a m o d e r n , healthy a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d community.  Conclusion  O n the E d g e  The alternative a n d diverse c o n n e c t i o n s I've c r e a t e d b e t w e e n the f o o t of L o n s d a l e a n d Waterfront Park will h e l p these sites to function in c o l l a b o r a t i o n , with the result of m o r e v i b r a n c y , better a n d m o r e consistent use, a n d - ultimately - new. vitality in a n a r e a that has b e e n s o m e h o w n e g l e c t e d to this d a y . M y d e s i g n for t h e Foot of L o n s d a l e Plaza transforms its present, c h a o t i c state into a n orderly s p a c e with interesting a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d real n e i g h b o u r h o o d function. It will b e a p e a c e f u l but exciting c o m b i n a t i o n of living, working, recreation a n d industrial activities. T o d a y ' s Waterfront Park is a passive a r e a t h a t d o e s not necessarily d r a w t h e individuals in the c o m m u n i t y to g o a n d s p e n d time in it. In order to solve this p r o b l e m I i n c l u d e d diversity a n d flexibility in use a n d p r o g r a m m i n g in my design principles. By a p p l y i n g this principle in my p r o p o s e d d e s i g n for the park, I f o c u s e d o n attracting the residents of North V a n c o u v e r to spent time in it. In my d e s i g n , the park is a n a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e t h a t offers a g r e a t variety of activities a n d events for various c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s while h a v i n g the potential of b e i n g a major tourist a t t r a c t i o n in t h e North Shore a n d the G V R D . The Art Gallery, festival a n d p e r f o r m a n c e grounds satisfy part of the cultural n e e d s of the c o m m u n i t y . The S o c c e r field, Playpark, the Swimming p o o l a n d the W a t e r p a r k invite t h e y o u t h as well as the families with their children to visit t h e park a n d s p e n d t i m e in it. Various relaxing a n d seating a r e a s a n d the n e w s a n d y b e a c h promise a n e n j o y a b l e d a y for every m e m b e r of the c o m m u n i t y . Various c a f e s a n d restaurants a d d to the v i b r a n c y of t h e park all y e a r a r o u n d . This diversity in use is also a design response to my last d e s i g n principle w h i c h focuses o n the m i x e d use nature of a successful waterfront redevelopment.  Conclusion  O n the E d g e  In my re-design of Woterfront Park, I've c r e a t e d a " w h o l e " park in p l a c e of a c o l l e c t i o n of u n d e r u s e d s p a c e s that h a p p e n to sit next to e a c h other. The waterfront a n d the views of D o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r will a l w a y s a t t r a c t p e o p l e , but my vision allows p e o p l e to a c c e s s t h e m directly a n d easily, without f e n c e s , blind corners a n d invisible a r e a s to intimidate a n d repel t h e m . The n e w Waterfront Park invites p e o p l e for different events a n d activities all y e a r round. By a p p l y i n g my design principles I a c h i e v e d a w e l l - c o n n e c t e d , wella c c e s s e d waterfront that will function as a n integral part of the city f a b r i c a n d b y offering a great r a n g e of events a n d activities, will contribute to its vibrancy. The City of North V a n c o u v e r should represent itself with a waterfront s u c h as I've p r e s e n t e d here: innovative, inviting, a c t i v e , a n d very m u c h alive. The City's waterfront should reflect the promise of its g r e a t future.  Conclusion  O n the E d g e  References  References  10 principles for Sustginable Urbgn Waterfront D e v e l o p m e n t , <http://www.waterfront-net.org/main.html> J u n e 2005. A c c l a i m Images, < w w w . a c c l a i m i m a g e s . c o m >  July 2005.  Barr, C a p t . J a m e s . Ferry Across t h e Harbour - The Story of t h e North V a n c o u v e r Ferries, V a n c o u v e r : Mitchell Press Ltd, 1969. Blair, Hilary. North V a n c o u v e r City. < h t t p : / / w w w . d i s c o v e r v a n c o u v e r , c o m / G V B / n o r t h - v a n c o u v e r - c i t y . a s p >  J u n e 2005.  Breen, A n n a n d Dick Rigby. Urban Waterfronts '85, B a l a n c i n g Public/Private Interests, A S u m m a r y of a c o n f e r e n c e a t G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n University, Washington, D . C , o n S e p t e m b e r 30- O c t o b e r 1, 1983. W a s h i n g t o n D . C : The Waterfront Press, 1984. Breen, A n n a n d Dick Rigby. Urban Waterfronts '85, Towards N e w Horizons, A S u m m a r y of a c o n f e r e n c e in W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , o n S e p t e m b e r 14-15, 1984. W a s h i n g t o n D . C : The Waterfront Press, 1985. Breen, A n n a n d Dick Rigby. Urban Waterfronts '85, W a t e r M a k e s a Difference!, A S u m m a r y of a c o n f e r e n c e o n S e p t e m b e r 27-28, 1985, in W a s h i n g t o n , D . C Washington D . C : The Waterfront Press, 1986. Breen, A n n a n d Dick Rigby. Waterfronts: Cities R e c l a i m Their E d g e . N e w York: M c G r o w - H i l l , Inc., 1994. Busby + A s s o c i a t e s Architects. The Foot of Lonsdale, W h e r e t h e M o u n t a i n a n d t h e C o m m u n i t y m e e t the s e a : The Planning Study for the Foot o Lonsdale, The City of North V a n c o u v e r : The City of North V a n c o u v e r , 2001 /2002. C a m p b e l l , C r a i g S. WATER IN L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE. USA: Litton E d u c a t i o n a l Publishing, Inc., 1978.  88  References  O n the Edge  City of North V g n c o u v e r Lower Lonsdgle D e v e l o p m e n t , <http://www.apeg.be,ca/branches/seotoskv/pastevents,html>  April 2005.  C o o p e r M a r c u s , C l o r e , a n d C a r o l y n Francis. P e o p l e Places: Design G u i d e l i n e s for Urban O p e n S p a c e . N e w York: V a n Nostrand Reinhold,1990. C o t t o m - W i n s l o w , Margaret. International L a n d s c a p e Design: A r c h i t e c t u r e of G a r d e n s , Parks, Play g r o u n d s & O p e n S p a c e s . N e w York: P B C International, Inc., 1991. Craig-Smith, S t e p h e n J . a n d M i c h a e l F a g e n c e . R e c r e a t i o n a n d Tourism as a C a t a l y s t for Urban Waterfront R e d e v e l o p m e n t . L o n d o n : Praeger, 1995. Harney, A n d y L e o n . Reviving the Urbgn Waterfront. N e w York: Partners for Livable P l a c e s , n a t i o n a l E n d o w m e n t for the Arts, O f f i c e of C o a s t a l Z o n e M a n a g e m e n t , 1979. Lonsdale A v e n u e , <http://www.lonsdaleavenue.ca>  July 2005.  M a i n t a i n i n g Wildflower M e a d o w s . Horticultural A d v i c e , July 2005.  <http://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profiles0600/wildflower.asp>  M o o r e , C h a r l e s W. Water a n d Architecture. N e w York: Harry N. A b r a m s , Inc. 1994. M o s c a t o , Derek. Lower Lonsdale: situated o n the south f a c i n g slopes of North V a n c o u v e r o n t h e shores of Burrard Inlent, is a n e i g h b o u r h o o d in transition. Price Tag. Issue 49 (2004). < http://www.northwestwatch.org/publications/pricetags49.pdf> July 2005. North V a n c o u v e r C h a m b e r of C o m m e r c e . < h t t p : / / w w w . n v c h a m b e r . b c . c a / w e b / i n d e x . s h t m l >  July 2005.  North V a n c o u v e r , waterfront Park, < h t t p : / / w w w . t r i u m f . c a / v a n c o u v e r images/north-van-waterfront-park.html> April 2005.  References  O n the E d g e  Pgrker, Allen. Lonsdgle Q u a y . The City of North V o n c o u v e r : Lonsdole Q u a y D e v e l o p m e n t C o m p a n y LTD., 1984. Plonts for Wildflower M e a d o w s . <http://www.essexwt.org.uk/Tgbles/wildflower  m e a d o w s , h t m > July 2005.  Shgrp & D i a m o n d L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d Planning. Lonsdale Corridor Master Plan: Final Report., 2000. S o c c e r Field Size. < http://www.soccerhelp.com/Soccer_Field_Size.shtml>  M a y 2005.  Thaler, Ruth E. U r b a n Waterfronts '87, Water: The Ultimate Amenity, A S u m m a r y of a c o n f e r e n c e o n S e p t e m b e r 17-19, 1987, in W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Washington D.C.: The Waterfront Press, 1988. The C o r p o r a t i o n of City of North V a n c o u v e r . 2004 C o m m u n i t y Profile: S u m m a r y of D a t a 2001 N a t i o n a l Census. The City of North V a n c o u v e r , 2004. The C o r p o r a t i o n of City of North V a n c o u v e r . Official C o m m u n i t y Plan: The City of North V a n c o u v e r , 2002. The C o r p o r a t i o n of City of North V a n c o u v e r . Lonsdale Streetcar Feasibility Study,, 2002. The C o r p o r a t i o n of City of North V a n c o u v e r . Official Website, < h t t p : / / w w w . c n v . o r g > A u g u s t 2005. The North Shore, North V a n c o u v e r , Lonsdale Q u a y , < h t t p : / / w w w . s e e t h e n o r t h s h o r e . c o m / l o n s d a l e q / l o n s d a l e q . h t m July 2005.  >  The Pier. < http://www.thepier.info/living.htm> August 2005. Three Bridges o v e r the H o o f d v a a r t C a n a l . Detail. N o 4. (2205) P. 351. Woolley, Helen. Urban O p e n S p a c e s . L o n d o n : S p o n Press, 2003. Wrenn, D o u g l a s M. et al. Urban Waterfront D e v e l o p m e n t . Washington D . C : ULI-the Urban L a n d Institute, 1983.  IV  90  1  O n the E d g e  Plant Lists  Appendix  Recommended plants:  Trees: Black locust (Robinia p s e u d o a c a c i a ) D o v e tree ( D a v i d i a involuctrata) E u r o p e a n white birch (Betula p e n d u l a ) Full m o o n m a p l e ( A c e r j a p o n i c u m ) H o n e y locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) Katsura tree ( C e r c i d i p h y l l u m j a p o n i c u m ) Northern c a t a l p a ( C a t a l p a s p e c i o s a ) P a c i f i c d o f w o o d (Cornus nuttalii) Q u a k i n g a s p e n (Populus tremuloides) R a y w o o d ash (Fraxinus angustifolia ' R a y w o o d ' ) S m a l l - l e a v e d linden fjilia c o r d a t a ) S m o o t h s u m a c (Rhus g l a b r a ) S w e e t g u m (Liuidambar styraciflua) Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) V i n e m a p l e ( A c e r circinatum) W e e p i n g willow (Salix x sepulcralis var. c r y s o c o m a )  91  O n the Edge  Plant Lists  Shrubs and Grasses: Edward G o u c h e r ' s abelia (Abelia 'Edward Goucher') Fool's O n i o n ( B r o d i a e a hyacinthine) Giant vetch (Vicia gigantea) Lydia ( G e n i s t a Lydia) Pipsissewa ( C h i m a p h i l a u m b e l l d t a ) Twinflower ( L i n n a e a borealis) V a n c o u v e r g o l d (Genista pilosa) White c l o v e r (Trifolium repens) Big b l u e s t e m ( A n d r o p o g o n gerardii) Blue o a t grass (Helictotrichon sempervirens) Buffalo Grass ( B u c h l o e d a c t y l o i d e s ) Blue-green m o o r grass (sesleria heufleriana) C a n a d a wild rye (Elymus C a n a d e n s i s ) Dwarf fountain grass (Pennisetum a l o p e c u r o i d e s ' H a m e l n ' ) Feather r e e d grass (Calamagrostis acutiflora) J a p a n e s e silver grass (Miscanthus sinensis) K o r e a n f e a t h e r r e e d grass ( A c h n a t h e r u m b r a c h y t r i c h a ) Little b l u e s t e m ( A n d r o p o g o n scoparius) Northern s e a oats ( C h a s m a n t h i u m latifolium) Perennial fountain grass (Pennisetum a l o p e c u r o i d e s ) P o r c u p i n e grass (Stipa s p a t e a ) Prairie d r o p s e e d (Sporobolus heterolepis) Switch grass ( P a n i c u m virgatum)  92  Plant Lists  O n the E d g e  Flowering Meadow: Spring M e a d o w : Black m e d i c k ( M e d i c a g o lupulina) C o w s l i p (Primula veris) Kidney v e t c h (Anthyllis vulneraria) Lesser trefoil (Trifolium d u b i u m ) M e a d o w b u t t e r c u p (Ranunculus acris) S a l a d b u m e t (Poterium sanguisorba) Sneezewort (Achillea ptarmica) White c a m p i o n (Silene latifolia) Y e l l o w rattle (Rhinanthus minor)  Yellow flowers Y e l l o w flowers Yellow flowers Y e l l o w flowers Yellow flowers R e d flowers White flowers White flowers Yellow flowers  Summer M e a d o w : G o a t s b e a r d (Aruncus Sylvester) L a d y ' s b e d s t r a w ( G a l i u m verum) M e a d o w v e t c h l i n g (Lathyrus pratensis) O r a n g e h a w k w e e d (Hieracium a u r a n t i a c u m ) Selfheal (Prunella grandiflora) Wild c a r r o t ( D a u c u s c a r o t a ) Y a r r o w ( A c h i l l e a millefolium)  White flowers Y e l l o w flowers Yellow flowers O r a n g e flowers Violet flowers White flowers White flowers  Plgnt Lists  O n the E d g e  Butterfly Meadow: C o r e o p s i s (Coreopsis tinctorio) Dwarf l o n t a n a ( L a n t a n a c a m a r a ) G o l d e n r o d ( S o l i d a g o altissima) Hollyhock ( A l c e a rosea) Milkweed (Asciepias speciosa) Phlox (Phlox p a n i c u l a t a ) Purple c o n e f l o w e r ( E c h i n a c e a purpurea) Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) V e t c h (Vicia Americana) Wild c a r r o t ( D a u c u s c a r o t a )  Yellow flowers White flowers Yellow flowers White a n d Ruby flowers White a n d pink flowers Purple flowers Purple flowers Yellow flowers Purpule flowers White flowers  

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