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From roadblocks to traffic jams : a history of three regional libraries in Saskatchewan Fox, Ken 2004

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FROM ROADBLOCKS  TO TRAFFIC JAMS :  A HISTORY OF THREE REGIONAL L I B R A R I E S I N  SASKATCHEWAN  by KEN FOX  BASc, U n i v e r s i t y  o f R e g i n a , 1996  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF MASTER OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION STUDIES  In The  Faculty  (School o f L i b r a r y ,  of Graduate  Archival  Studies  and I n f o r m a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u l y 2004  Studies)  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  kv.h  Name of Author  Title of Thesis:  Degree:  fix  (please  3c?/o7/2ooy Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  print)  froY^  fioct/jliocJcS  mi  Department of ScAool <Â The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada  grad.ubc.ca/forms/?formlD=THS  ? 4" ri\STOT y :  4b I fû {^C  Year:  L^XUf-j,  ArCr\\\foJ^  page 1 of 1  6^  ZoO^  ^)r(ttrm/n6)q  S*W)Cf  last  updated:  29-Jul-04  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no w i d e s p r e a d a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n Saskatchewan, broader p o l i t i c a l o b s t a c l e s f o r c e d a w i d e s p r e a d campaign a t l o c a l l e v e l s , c a r r i e d out by hundreds o f v o l u n t e e r s a c r o s s t h e p r o v i n c e , g u i d e d by a s m a l l number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l i b r a r i a n s , and r e l e n t l e s s l y s u p p l e m e n t e d by a p r o v i n c i a l l o b b y c o n s i s t i n g o f l i b r a r i a n s and t r u s t e e s . The s t u d y f i n d s t h a t t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t s t r a t e g i e s u s e d by l i b r a r y advocates i n promoting r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . A p r i n c i p a l c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s y s t e m was n o t t h e r e s u l t o f g o v e r n m e n t i n i t i a t i v e , b u t o f p u b l i c demand. W h i l e t h e CCF g o v e r n m e n t s b e t w e e n 1944 and 1964 c r e a t e d t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t h a t e n a b l e d r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s t o e x i s t , t h e L i b e r a l Government r e s p o n d e d t o t h e p u b l i c l o b b y i n p r o v i d i n g t h e key f u n d i n g i n c r e a s e s t h a t l e d to the establishment of a province-wide r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y network. T h i s s t u d y i s d e r i v e d f r o m and b a s e d on p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l s , f o r e m o s t among them t h e r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s owned b y t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n A r c h i v e s Board. I have a l s o used s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l s t o i l l u m i n a t e primary sources.  Table of Abstract  Contents  i i  i i  Table of Contents List  i i i  of Tables  Part  ' v  I : Background  and M e t h o d  1  A Introduction  1  B H i s t o r i c Background  3  1. The  C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  3  2 . Networks  5  3. M o d e r n L i b r a r y S e r v i c e  7  4. C e n t r a l i z a t i o n v s . L o c a l Autonomy  9  5. R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y S e r v i c e  v  12  C L i t e r a t u r e Review  13  D Sources  20  and  Scope o f S t u d y  E Methodology Part  . 22  I I : Findings  27  A Beginnings  27  B The  31  1.  North C e n t r a l Region Premature  Baby  31  2. M e l f o r t a n d K i n i s t i n o  33  3.  37  Future P o l i c y ,  1952  4. The  1953  and  1954  Funding N e g o t i a t i o n s  5. The  1954  Bookmobile  Demonstration  39 43  6.  S t a l e m a t e s : B u c k l a n d and Canwood  53  7.  Funding N e g o t i a t i o n s ,  56  8. G r o w t h S p u r t , 1958  1957  60  9. Seeing i s B e l i e v i n g  64  C The Southeast Region 1. Two  66  Cities  66  2. Advocacy i n the Southeast, 1944 . 3. F l u c t u a t i o n s , 1958-1961  67 '  69  4. The 1962 Committee  72  5. Change o f Government  75  6. The P o r t e r Campaign, 1964-65  76  7. Amalgamation w i t h Qu'Appelle V a l l e y . . . .  80  8. I t can be done, because we d i d i t  83  D The West C e n t r a l Region  85  1. S p o t t y I n t e r e s t  85  2. B e g i n n i n g w i t h a Bang: The 1959 Committee  86  3. Zone Offense  89  4. Amalgamation T a l k s w i t h the N o r t h West, 1965  93  5. The 1964-66 Bookmobile  94  Demonstration  6. M u n i c i p a l I s s u e s 7. A M a t t e r of B i r t h and Death: The LIC, 1966  95 100  Addendum: The LIC Report  107  Conclusions  110  References  113  L i s t of Tables Table 1:  P o p u l a t i o n Growth of N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l  Part A  I : Background  and  Method  Introduction In t h e f a l l  o f 1966 t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t  a'committee o f three services  t o study t h e adequacy o f e x i s t i n g  library  i n S a s k a t c h e w a n a n d make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f i n a n c i n g .  Despite being notoriously 1987,  hired  tight-fisted  i n social  spending  1 3 9 ) , t h e g o v e r n m e n t a d o p t e d many o f t h e L i b r a r y  Committee's increases  (Eisler  Inquiry  (LIC) recommendations and approved key s p e n d i n g  f o rlibrary  s e r v i c e over several  years.  o f L I C r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s was t h e c r e a t i o n o f f i v e  One m a j o r r e s u l t  regional  libraries  b e t w e e n 1968 a n d 1 9 7 3 , f o r m i n g a n e t w o r k a c r o s s t h e p o p u l a t e d  area  of t h e province. The the  LIC held well-attended  province,  p u b l i c hearings i n every region of  a n d s o l i c i t e d many s u b m i s s i o n s a n d b r i e f s f r o m  c o m m u n i t i e s a n d r u r a l a r e a s . The c o m m i t t e e r e c e i v e d consistent,  small  a remarkably  b r o a d - b a s e d , and f a r - s i g h t e d message. P e o p l e i n t h e most  remote, l i b r a r y - p o o r corners o f t h e p r o v i n c e for c e n t r a l i z e d services, a strong p r o v i n c e - w i d e network o f r e g i o n a l  submitted b r i e f s  provincial library, libraries.  asking  and a  The o b j e c t i v e  of this  paper i s t o examine t h e network o f advocacy t h a t  l e a d t o such a  broad-based and c l e a r - s i g h t e d v i s i o n f o r l i b r a r y  service across  a sparsely The  populated, predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l area. research  f o r t h i s paper began w i t h  development o f r e g i o n a l obstacles  such  libraries  the hypothesis that the  i n Saskatchewan faced  t h a t were n o t m e r e l y e c o n o m i c , b u t p o l i t i c a l .  substantial That i s ,  t h a t there was r e s i s t a n c e t o the idea of u s i n g t a x money t o expand l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s i n Saskatchewan, r a t h e r than r e s i s t a n c e based s o l e l y ' on l a c k o f funds. Although there was no widespread argument a g a i n s t libraries,  broader p o l i t i c a l  campaign a t l o c a l across  levels,  the p r o v i n c e ,  librarians,  obstacles  regional  n e c e s s i t a t e d a widespread  c a r r i e d out by hundreds o f v o l u n t e e r s  guided by a small number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  and supplemented by a r e l e n t l e s s p r o v i n c i a l lobby by  l i b r a r i a n s and t r u s t e e s . The  ultimate  success of t h i s province-wide campaign brought on  not v i c t o r y and r e s o l u t i o n , but a c r i s i s . regions  In 1966, when s e v e r a l  had convinced e i t h e r enough, or c l o s e t o enough  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o form a r e g i o n ,  the government r e a l i z e d t h a t the  e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l framework f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g i o n a l was outdated and i n s u f f i c i e n t ,  libraries  and t h a t there was a severe shortage  of t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n s to run the new l i b r a r i e s . d i s j u n c t u r e o f popular o r g a n i z a t i o n as a g a i n s t p r o v i n c i a l support t h a t l e d to the establishment  It i s this insufficient o f the L i b r a r y  I n q u i r y Committee i n 1966, and to the adoption o f i t s recommendations by the government.  B Historic  Background  1. The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation In 1944 the Saskatchewan people e l e c t e d the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  (CCF) as i t s p r o v i n c i a l government.  The  CCF's years i n power from 1944 to 1964 saw many s o c i a l democratic experiments i n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and p u b l i c ownership. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a province-wide network of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s can be read as the product of advocacy and l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n support of a new  concept, but i t a l s o f o l l o w s i n the wake of the CCF's  e a r n e s t development of r u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n the 1940s and 1950s: t h e i r networks of highways, power, and telephone l i n e s . In particular,  n e i t h e r the necessary advocacy nor the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of  books r e q u i r e d to run a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y would be p o s s i b l e without the u n i q u e l y comprehensive g r i d of roads i n Southern Saskatchewan. The chapter on the North C e n t r a l Region w i l l  1  show i n s t a n c e s where  the r e g i o n a l p l a n spread e x a c t l y as f a s t as the development o f roads allowed i t t o . C o n t r a r y to the CCF government's r e p u t a t i o n as c e n t r a l p l a n n e r s - t h e i r well-known l a r g e - s c a l e i n i t i a t i v e s i n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , education, and h e a l t h - t h e i r approach to l i b r a r i e s was  s u r p r i s i n g l y passive. Essentially,  they passed a very b r i e f A c t  i n 1946 a l l o w i n g t h a t r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d through m u n i c i p a l bylaws and l e v i e s  (Province of Saskatchewan 1946).  Any f u r t h e r developments i n l i b r a r y l e g i s l a t i o n ,  funding, or p o l i c y  would be i n i t i a t e d by l i b r a r i a n s ,  t r u s t e e s , and other advocates i n  the p r o v i n c e . With r e s p e c t t o the broader  concern o f c u l t u r e , the CCF were  f a r from being of one mind. In 1946, the Premier Economic A d v i s o r y and Planning Board  appointed an  (EAPB) with broad a u t h o r i t y and  c o n s i d e r a b l e power over other departments  (Johnson  2004, 120). The  EAPB i d e n t i f i e d e l e v e n government o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i z e d them f o r c a b i n e t . Lowest i n p r i o r i t y was " p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l amenities and community p l a n n i n g "  (Johnson  2004, 134).  On the other hand, there was a wing of the CCF t h a t  initiated  many c u l t u r a l amenities t h a t l a s t t o t h i s day, i n c l u d i n g the Saskatchewan A r t s Board and the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . The P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , an important  f o r c e i n l i b r a r y p l a n n i n g from i t s i n c e p t i o n  to the p r e s e n t day, was a CCF i n i t i a t i v e . For h i s p a r t , W.S. L l o y d , the long-time M i n i s t e r i n charge o f L i b r a r i e s , was g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t i v e and e n t h u s i a s t i c about r e g i o n a l libraries,  but c a u t i o u s with spending.  The p o s i t i o n o f the CCF  government on the whole i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by P r i n c e A l b e r t  (P.A.)  Alderman and l i b r a r y board member Marion  t o the  Sherman's statement  North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Board on October  25, 1958:  At t h e meeting w i t h the T r e a s u r y Board i t was e v i d e n t t h a t t h e members o f P a r l i a m e n t p r e s e n t , i n c l u d i n g Premier Douglas, were of the o p i n i o n t h a t u n t i l they had some assurance t h a t t h e R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y was here t o s t a y they were not p r e p a r e d t o put money i n t o a b u i l d i n g - f o r r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1958, 6) T h i s i s the paradox t h a t r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y advocates many y e a r s : how t o c r e a t e the needed assurance  l i v e d with f o r  (that i s , i n c r e a s e  i n t e r e s t i n the l i b r a r y and government support, i n order  2.  r e c r u i t new  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ) with l i m i t e d  to gain government support.  Networks In 1946  Marion G i l r o y , having been i n s t r u m e n t a l  development of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s  i n Nova S c o t i a , was  Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y to head the new D i v i s i o n . In her  1978  i n the  account, she  stated  h i r e d by  the  Regional L i b r a r i e s  that,  The f i r s t h u r d l e I f a c e d was t h a t t h e r e were hundreds o f r u r a l municipal units with t i n y populations . . . and i n n u m e r a b l e s m a l l towns and v i l l a g e s . . . Here was a l a r g e p r o v i n c e w i t h a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . ( G i l r o y 1979, 9) The  distances  between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a f f e c t every aspect  l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , as w e l l as advocacy. The  of  concept of a r e g i o n a l  system i s based on the d e s i r e to b r i n g a q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e more t y p i c a l of c i t y l i b r a r i e s to r u r a l areas.  This means t r a n s p o r t i n g  books between branches on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . In 1948, Library Association difficulties prospect the  (CLA)  published  the  Canadian  a cross-Canada account of  the  of p r o v i d i n g r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . On  the  of u s i n g a bookmobile, a c r u c i a l  report stated  f e a t u r e of r u r a l  service,  that  The c o s t o f r u n n i n g a v e h i c l e i n Saskatchewan would be p r o h i b i t i v e because t h e r e are v e r y l a r g e areas w i t h a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n . . . S i n c e few roads are paved, d u s t would be a n o t h e r s e r i o u s problem. (Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1948, 40) In f a c t , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Saskatchewan's highway g r i d simultaneous with the development of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . Municipal  Advisory  Council,  set up  i n 1952  was  The  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  needs  of l o c a l governments, recommended a ten-year p l a n f o r a p r o v i n c e wide system of a l l - w e a t h e r roads. The government adopted and shared 50% of the c o s t with m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . By  the p l a n ,  1964,  Saskatchewan boasted the best g r i d road system  i n the country  (Archer 1980,  a f t e r the  300). As the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s ,  C e n t r a l r e g i o n i n 1950,  were e s t a b l i s h e d between 1965  North  and 1973,  c o n n e c t i o n can be i n f e r r e d between the development of these  a  two  networks. The p e r i o d between 1949  to 1955  was  the age of a c c e l e r a t e d  development of the r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n network, with thousands farms b e i n g hooked up to the power g r i d f o r the f i r s t 1980, gas  275).  fields,  In 1955,  SaskPower purchased  and by 1960,  Additionally,  time . (Archer  and developed  i t s natural  83 towns and v i l l a g e s and a l l of the  were connected to a n a t u r a l gas h e a t i n g network  of  cities  (Johnson 2004, 207) .  SaskTel continued to develop telephone  service,  i n c r e a s i n g the number of l i n e s i n s e r v i c e by n e a r l y 30% between and 1960 The  1956  (Johnson 2004, 207) . r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y system  f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y behind  other networks, at times aiming to overtake them,  2  these  but f o r the most  p a r t l a g g i n g s l i g h t l y behind i n terms of the areas served. The  types  of s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s are dependent on modern i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n a p r a c t i c a l sense, but there i s a l s o a  deeper  c o n n e c t i o n . A s o c i e t y with modern i n d u s t r y and modern u t i l i t i e s r e q u i r e s a much h i g h e r standard of p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and  knowledge  than a p i o n e e r i n g , a g r a r i a n s o c i e t y : i t r e q u i r e s modern l i b r a r y service.  3. Modem Library  Service  In 1957, an e d i t o r i a l p u b l i s h e d Association  i n the Saskatchewan L i b r a r y  (SLA) B u l l e t i n e n t i t l e d "Dream No Small Dreams" e x p l o r e d  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a c h i e v i n g  greater  cooperation i n a l l aspects of  Saskatchewan's l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . On the t o p i c o f modern l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , the w r i t e r ( s )  state  that,  The independent s m a l l l i b r a r y i s as inadequate as ox-power i n the atomic age, as f e e b l e as a TV s t a t i o n cut o f f from n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l networks. The p o i n t i s t o d e c i d e what form o f c o o p e r a t i o n i s most e f f e c t i v e , and how b r o a d l y based l o c a l s e r v i c e must be t o a c h i e v e modern s t a n d a r d s . (SLA 1957, 13) The  terms used t o d e s c r i b e  the inadequacy o f the independent  l i b r a r y are common i n l i b r a r y advocacy i n that p e r i o d . year, i n her annual r e p o r t , saying,  The same  Marion G i l r o y quoted L i o n e l M c C o l v i n  "A good l i b r a r y i s never extravagant, a bad one always i s "  ( G i l r o y 1957b, 6 ) . In the 1950s, such o r g a n i z a t i o n s Association discuss  as the Canadian L i b r a r y  (CLA) and American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n  (ALA) began t o  support o f l i b r a r i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y i n terms o f "modern"  s e r v i c e . While the d e f i n i t i o n of modern l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i s an evolving  s e t of standards, common c r i t e r i a  include  a minimum  c o l l e c t i o n s i z e , multimedia s e r v i c e s , up-to-date r e f e r e n c e and  most i m p o r t a n t l y , For  professional  service,  and s p e c i a l i z e d s t a f f .  s e r v i c e to r u r a l areas, a key f a c t o r i s t h a t modern  s e r v i c e standards are expressed i n terms o f the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t o a population, Inquiry  regardless  o f i t s s i z e . The SLA's b r i e f t o the L i b r a r y  Committee d i s c u s s e s  the i n t e n t o f the ALA's 1956 Standards:  These s t a n d a r d s show t h a t t h e t r e n d has been away from e q u a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s i z e w i t h f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . They s t a t e , i n s t e a d , what number o f books i s r e q u i r e d t o g i v e any r e a d e r an a c c e p t a b l e s e r v i c e . (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1966, 14) T h i s t r e n d has obvious s i g n i f i c a n c e more s p a r s e l y  for l i b r a r y service i n  populated areas. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r u r a l areas  smaller portions of p u b l i c  received  funding f o r l i b r a r i e s than urban areas  p r e c i s e l y because adequate s e r v i c e  requires  centralized  collections  of a c e r t a i n s i z e . For a p r o v i n c e as d i s p e r s e d as Saskatchewan, delivery  o f a c c e p t a b l e s e r v i c e means c r e a t i n g  much s m a l l e r communities, so that  l i b r a r y centres i n  c o l l e c t i o n s can be u s e f u l  to r u r a l  people who may l i v e more than 50 m i l e s from the n e a r e s t medium-sized city  ( f o r i n s t a n c e , Regina, Saskatoon). Consequently, the t r e n d i s  reversed - r u r a l service  i s more expensive. The SLA b r i e f c o n t i n u e s :  The presumption . . . i s t h a t areas w i l l combine t o p r o v i d e a p o p u l a t i o n and r a t i n g base l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e t h a t k i n d of s e r v i c e . The s i z e o f p o p u l a t i o n n e c e s s a r y i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h because so many l o c a l f a c t o r s e n t e r i n . S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as sparseness o f p o p u l a t i o n add t o t h e c o s t o f s e r v i c e . (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1966, 14) N e v e r t h e l e s s , minimum p o p u l a t i o n s i z e i s f r e q u e n t l y  used as a  standard i n Canada, by c a l c u l a t i n g the tax base r e q u i r e d  t o supply  fully-equipped  service.  The 1955 CLA standards s t a t e d  that:  The minimum annual income f o r an e f f i c i e n t l i b r a r y u n i t i n terms o f t h e s e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $37,500 a y e a r , an amount which would p r o v i d e minimum s e r v i c e f o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f about 25,000. ( G i l r o y 1956d, 5) Note t h a t  t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n presumes an annual tax base o f  approximately $1.50 per c a p i t a . difficult  figure  In the mid-1950s, t h i s would prove a  f o r Saskatchewan t o achieve, i n terms o f shared  funding by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  and the p r o v i n c e .  The  1955  CSA  to ensure the  Standards i n c l u d e  a list  of nine items i n t e n d e d  "minimum e s s e n t i a l s f o r adequate s e r v i c e "  1956d, 5). The  key  concept i n t h i s l i s t  of e s s e n t i a l s i s  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n : centralized f i n a n c i a l administration book p u r c h a s i n g , c a t a l o g u i n g c o l l e c t i o n s , and  and  classification,  would d i s p u t e  n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , the  accounting,  central  that  reference  centralization  concept  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n meanwhile sparked many c o n t r o v e r s i e s the  development and  and  a " c e n t r a l r e s e r v o i r of c i r c u l a t i n g books" ( i n  G i l r o y 1956d, 6). Although few  areas d u r i n g  (in G i l r o y  CCF  years i n Saskatchewan, and  was  of i n other p o l i c y  complicated  the  e x e c u t i o n of p u b l i c l i b r a r y p o l i c y .  4. Centralization vs. Local Autonomy C e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s an i s s u e that grew i n response to p o l i c i e s throughout t h e i r years i n power, r e a c h i n g i t s z e n i t h i n the  1964  on a p l a t f o r m  of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e  The  issue.of  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , which the and  explosive  L i b e r a l Party  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n Saskatchewan p o l i t i c s was  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were c o n s i d e r e d "too of a modern s t a t e "  issue,  as the  l a r g e r school  government i n the was  a struggle  small  u n i t s had  e a r l y 1940s  not  as  to c a r r y out  (Johnson 2004, 224).  of l a r g e r u n i t s of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s was  won  de-centralization.  expressed i n p r o p o s a l s f o r l a r g e r u n i t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  functions  CCF  The  basic  strictly a  257).  The  the the utility  partisan  been i n i t i a t e d by the  (Archer 1980  often  issue,  between r u r a l m u n i c i p a l governments and  the  Liberal rather,  p r o v i n c i a l government. H i s t o r i a n John Archer  summarizes the  a t t i t u d e of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to the l a r g e r school  general  units:  There were arguments f o r r e t a i n i n g l o c a l c o n t r o l but on t h e o t h e r hand, i n an expanded area the l a r g e r t a x base would p e r m i t o f b e t t e r s e r v i c e s , b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f , and a s h a r i n g - hence an evening up - of o p p o r t u n i t y . The same arguments were used i n promoting l a r g e r h o s p i t a l u n i t s , w i t h some s u c c e s s . (Archer 1980, 276-7) On the other hand, c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was  f r e q u e n t l y regarded  t h r e a t to l o c a l autonomy, p a r t i c u l a r l y where i t concerns m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , whose e x i s t e n c e was  threatened by a  as a  rural  long-time,  never-implemented CCF p r o p o s a l to c o n s o l i d a t e the system of  rural  municipalities  i s s u e of  i n t o a county system  l a r g e r school u n i t s , c o n s u l t a t i o n i n 1945,  ( E i s l e r 1987,  132) . The  implemented q u i c k l y and with minimal almost caused the CCF  to l o s e the  1948  e l e c t i o n . Even i n l a t e r years, as m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y saw the advantage of c o n s o l i d a t e d school u n i t s , and voted i n favour, they  fought  f o r t h e i r own  p l a n of m u n i c i p a l The  CCF  was  number of Cabinet  continued e x i s t e n c e a g a i n s t the  c o n s o l i d a t i o n (Johnson 2004,  The  224).  never of one mind on the q u e s t i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g a committees over the years to examine the i s s u e of  l o c a l governments, at times with more than one simultaneously  broader  producing  c o n f l i c t i n g reports  committee  (Johnson 2004, 225-6).  CCF's p l a n f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n t o c o u n t i e s r e s t e d upon  soliciting  co-operation  from the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Because of  p e r s i s t e n t r e s i s t a n c e to government programs t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d t h r e a t s to l o c a l i d e n t i t y or autonomy, the needed c o - o p e r a t i o n never o f f e r e d , and the p l a n was  never implemented.  was  The r e s u l t of t h i s dispute was the c r e a t i o n of separate d i s t r i c t s f o r many services i n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l s , schools, v e t e r i n a r y s e r v i c e s , and conservation f o r land reclamation, with the o r i g i n a l 300-plus r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l e f t with p a r t i a l c o n t r o l over highway development and l i t t l e else under t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n (Johnson 2004, 224). Thus, i n many cases, proposals f o r " r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n " were met with extreme skepticism, regardless of the p a r t i c u l a r advantages of the proposal. The prejudice against any form of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n grew throughout the CCF's f i v e terms i n government, u n t i l by 1964, major newspapers began to feature strongly-worded  anti-centralization  editorials : A l l  these  h o s p i t a l s .  .  .  In  plans  -  -  based  are  the  those  massive  respecting  on  the  takeover  contemplated  by  the  master  compensation  i n  any  form  in  t h e i r  h o s p i t a l s  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l o c a l  has  a u t h o r i t y  tendency  w i l l  .  .  continue  of  l o c a l  l o c a l  h o s p i t a l  there  i s  c a p i t a l  Throughout a  long  as  no  i t s  by  i s  l e f t  i n  of  the  to  present  encroach  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . i t  the  communities  2 0 years,  tendency  and  a u t h o r i t y  f a c i l i t i e s  mention  invested  strong  government as  down  of  e x h i b i t e d  through  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  plan,  for  .  the  w h i t t l i n g  on  This  power.  3  C e n t r a l i z a t i o n became a debate where good conscience was on the side of l o c a l autonomy. This p o s i t i o n would a f f e c t the work of l i b r a r y advocates,  although there was r a r e l y any l o c a l l i b r a r y  service whose autonomy was worth p r o t e c t i n g . As f o r the CCF's s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s , the case i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the school u n i t s , h o s p i t a l u n i t s , and other regional plans. The CCF d i d not i n i t i a t e any p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y plan; they l e f t i t to the regions to organize themselves. However, because of the concepts involved -  centralization, support, there For points,  l a r g e r u n i t s - and because o f the p r o v i n c i a l funding was o p p o s i t i o n  libraries,  on an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s .  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n does not equate t o fewer s e r v i c e  as i t does with h o s p i t a l s . In f a c t , with the r e g i o n a l  the o p p o s i t e region,  i s t r u e . When a r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y  plan,  joins a library  o f t e n s e v e r a l new branches are e s t a b l i s h e d .  5. Regional Library Service A r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i s widely regarded as the best p r o v i d i n g modern l i b r a r y s e r v i c e t o small  communities. E s s e n t i a l l y ,  a number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s come together t o pool create all  t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and  one b i g l i b r a r y that meets a p p l i c a b l e standards. In almost  cases, a l a r g e r government u n i t creates  regulate  the l i b r a r y and s u p p l i e s  board with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the  s o l u t i o n to  funding.  the l e g i s l a t i o n t o The l i b r a r y i s run by a  from a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s who have e n t e r e d  r e g i o n a l agreement. In most cases, r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s are funded by a combination  of m u n i c i p a l  tax and p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s .  "matching" grants,  where the p r o v i n c e  This  i s o f t e n done through  agrees t o supply funds equal  to what the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have r a i s e d . Therefore, f o r many regions be  i s how much money the v a r i o u s  a key d e c i s i o n  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should  asked t o r a i s e . I f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are asked t o r a i s e too much,  they many drop out o f the r e g i o n a l agreement. I f they r a i s e too little,  then the o v e r a l l support may b e • i n s u f f i c i e n t , or the r e g i o n  may l o s e t h e i r i n c e n t i v e t o r e c r u i t them. Often, l a r g e r communities  are asked to r a i s e more, because t h e i r s e r v i c e l e v e l s are higher  generally  ( l a r g e r c o l l e c t i o n s , more s t a f f ) .  A r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y contains i t s e l f not  a s e r v i c e p o i n t ) , and  a c e n t r a l headquarters any  number of branch l i b r a r i e s .  headquarters i s l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y , p r e f e r a b l y for materials  s e l e c t i o n , cataloguing,  c e n t r a l reference  s e r v i c e s , and  proportionately s i z e , but  the  in a city,  book r e p a i r ,  consultation  s t a f f . Branches are e s t a b l i s h e d i n p r o p o r t i o n l o c a l population.  (which i s  and  The  i s used  processing,  f o r branch to the  library  s i z e of  the  That i s , a l a r g e r community w i l l have a  l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n and  s t a f f . The  branches may  be  any  convenience of a high number of s e r v i c e p o i n t s must  balanced a g a i n s t  the u s e f u l n e s s  (i.e.,  be  s i z e ) of the c o l l e c t i o n .  In terms of s e r v i c e , the most important aspects of  the  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y are r o t a t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s , r e c i p r o c a l borrowing,  and  i n t e r l i b r a r y loans.  are  rotated generally  The  c o l l e c t i o n s at a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y branch  s e v e r a l times a year, so t h a t small  w i l l have a wider v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s time, i d e a l l y p o s s e s s i n g certain period. the  on t h e i r l o c a l shelves  I n t e r l i b r a r y loans give users access to any  item i n  cataloguing.  borrowing means that a user's card i s v a l i d at any  l i b r a r y i n the  region  over  the e n t i r e r e g i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n over a  r e g i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l system through c o o p e r a t i v e  Reciprocal  communities  (or again,  i n the whole  other  province).  C L i t e r a t u r e Review There are two  book-length p r o j e c t s t h a t recount the g e n e s i s  s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l systems i n Saskatchewan: R.H.  of  (Rusty) Macdonald's  Don't Cry Baby -- We'll be Back! The History Library,  of Wheatland  1967-1987, and Max B r a i t h w a i t e ' s Like  a h i s t o r y of the Wapiti/North accounts,  a  Millionaire,  C e n t r a l r e g i o n . Both are  near-primary  w r i t t e n by l o c a l h i s t o r i a n s who  Being  Regional  experienced  the  events  they d e s c r i b e f i r s t - h a n d . B r a i t h w a i t e w r i t e s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of a book e n t h u s i a s t , u s i n g an a t t r a c t i v e l i t e r a r y to  form. The  opening chapters  a g e n e r a l p e r i o d sketch of the p r o v i n c e ,  A l b e r t and genesis  the north c e n t r a l area. He  with the presence of the CCF  are devoted  the c i t y of  Prince  c l o s e l y connects the  library's  in provincial politics,  but  a l s o pays t r i b u t e to h e r o i c f i g u r e s , Marion G i l r o y i n p a r t i c u l a r , whom the book i s d e d i c a t e d . correspondence, notes and her e x t e n s i v e  Braithwaite  to  cites Gilroy's  t r a v e l l o g s , and  lends an e p i c f e e l i n g  to  t r a v e l to advocate f o r r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n :  And the b a t t l e had t o be fought over a g a i n i n each new town and r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t wanted a l i b r a r y . True t o p a t t e r n , t h e r e were the people who v a l u e d books and who wanted t h e l i b r a r y and those who d i d n ' t v a l u e books, c o n s i d e r e d them a n u i s a n c e o r worse, who d e f i n i t e l y d i d n ' t want a l i b r a r y . And so t h e l o n g hard s t r u g g l e o f keeping the l i b r a r y g o i n g was begun. And the s t r o n g e s t f o r c e working f o r the l i b r a r y was t h e l i b r a r y i t s e l f . From the branches a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d came l e t t e r s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n and a c t u a l wonderment. ( B r a i t h w a i t e 1980, 63) Some of the events i n B r a i t h w a i t e ' s work can be with G i l r o y ' s p e r s o n a l n a r r a t i v e i n Pioneers! Genesis  of Regional  Libraries  cross-checked  O Pioneers:  the  ( G i l r o y 1999), which, while  g i v e s a f i r s t - h a n d account of the same  events.  Macdonald's book i s s p a r s e r than B r a i t h w a i t e ' s , e x t e n s i v e l y from a primary account by Susan Cross, member of the Wheatland Regional  brief,  and  quotes  a former  L i b r a r y . S i m i l a r l y to  staff  Braithwaite,  Macdonald d e s c r i b e s sell  regionalism  a h e r o i c journey across  to stubborn mayors and  appears as mentor to a new  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  c o u n c i l o r s . Marion G i l r o y  c a s t of h e r o i c women. The  Wheatland  comes o f f as a smoother road than the W a p i t i s t o r y , as the effort  i n e f f e c t blazed  a  story  earlier  trail.  Although n e i t h e r book emphasizes s p e c i f i c debates, Braithwaite's  book, p a r t l y owing i t s l e n g t h , ' p r o v i d e s  some d e t a i l  on  r e s i s t a n c e to r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y development. In p a r t i c u l a r , he documents a n t i - l i b r a r y sentiment i n small m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the most p e r s i s t e n t argument being the most obvious: competing demands f o r tax  revenue. Braithwaite  a l s o mentions an o f t e n - n e g l e c t e d  political  component: a widespread s u s p i c i o n of anything c o n s i d e r e d amongst a l a r g e segment of the p u b l i c who NDP  government. An  d i d not  support the  CCF-  i n c i d e n t where a l o c a l j o u r n a l i s t accuses G i l r o y  of s t a r t i n g "propaganda a g e n c i e s , " which both G i l r o y Braithwaite  "socialist"  (1980, 34)  (1979, 11)  and  mention, suggests the tenor of t h i s s o r t of  argument. In B r a i t h w a i t e ' s  work, though, one  r e s i s t a n c e . Each o b s t a c l e  cannot sense a s u b s t a n t i a l  i s dismissed, often with n a r r a t i v e  s l e i g h t s of hand. For example, i n chapter 10, discuss region leads  the d i f f i c u l t y of adding new a f t e r the  l i b r a r y was  u s e f u l the  (1980, 65),  Wapiti  (1980, 63).  rural children's  i n demonstrating the value of the  then jumps ahead to 1962  begins to  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to.the  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1950  i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of how  books was  Braithwaite  s e r v i c e . The  This  love  of  narrative  d u t i f u l l y f o l l o w i n g the  chain  of s i g n i f i c a n t moments i n the l i b r a r y ' s h i s t o r y . The p r e s e n t will  study  focus h e a v i l y on t h a t dark p e r i o d between 1951 and 1957, a  p e r i o d where the l i b r a r y s t r u g g l e d , no new branches were added, and the government very p a t i e n t l y waited f o r i t s experiment t o bear f r u i t before  proceeding  with any l a r g e r p l a n .  G i l r o y ' s account i s a t r a n s c r i p t o f the Mary Donaldson Memorial l e c t u r e she d e l i v e r e d i n 1978. L i k e B r a i t h w a i t e and MacDonald, she lends a sense of d e s t i n y t o the p r o j e c t . L o c a l r e s i s t a n c e i s countered by appeal to the p r o v i n c e : Mayor C u e l e n a e r e came w i t h me t o some o f t h e t o u g h e s t r u r a l c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s . He got nowhere w i t h the Reeve o f B u c k l a n d who q u i v e r e d w i t h rage a t the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t a x money be spent f o r a l i b r a r y . A f t e r no r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e r e g i o n would pay 37^ c e n t s a p e r s o n a year out o f t a x e s , t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l Branch L i b r a r y Committee put t h e problem b e f o r e the M i n i s t e r i n charge o f l i b r a r i e s , Hon. Woodrow L l o y d . ( G i l r o y 1979, 11) T h i s statement i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t , a s i d e cents, and  i t describes  from the 37^  a s i t u a t i o n encountered i n 1949 (as intended)  a l s o a s i m i l a r s c e n a r i o i n 1957, when a s i x - y e a r stalemate  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s caused the r e g i o n a l board t o i n c r e a s e on L l o y d once  with  pressure  again.  In MacDonald's account o f the West C e n t r a l Region, encounters with  r e s i s t a n t c o u n c i l s and s u s p i c i o u s j o u r n a l i s t s are mentioned  almost i n p a s s i n g  and not s u b j e c t t o contemplation.  Instead  Macdonald uses aggregate f i g u r e s t o gauge campaign success and represents  obstacles  to progress  i n the a b s t r a c t :  As c o s t s r o s e , and w h i l e the campaign was s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s , i t became o b v i o u s t h a t the i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n minimum must be r a i s e d t o 40,000 and c o n s e q u e n t l y more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would have t o be e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r f o r the p r o j e c t t o become s e l f supporting. This necessary expansion f u r t h e r delayed the c r e a t i o n o f the l i b r a r y system. (MacDonald 1987, 8)  As a member o f the 1966 L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee, Macdonald o f f e r s a window i n t o the province-wide  status of r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n at  a key moment. The years of commission f o r the r e g i o n a l systems i n Saskatchewan, f o l l o w i n g Wapiti (Southeast),  (North C e n t r a l ) i n 1950, were 1965  1967 (Wheatland), 1968 (Parkland), 1971 (Chinook), 1972  (Lakeland), and 1973 ( P a l l i s e r ) . Owing t o the Report's success i n i n c i t i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government t o a c t , Macdonald acknowledges the support  o f two premiers  but does not go i n t o any d e t a i l  r e s p e c t t o changes i n p o l i c y or spending As a study,  with  priorities.  the L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee Report  (Library  I n q u i r y Committee 1967b) i s a h i g h l y u s e f u l document, o u t l i n i n g i n f i n e d e t a i l the advantages of an i n t e g r a t e d system and the r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d . I t s impact i s a l l u d e d to i n Linda F r i t z ' s  article,  "Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Development: The Saskatchewan Experience"  ( F r i t z 1990), which focuses c h i e f l y on the s t a t e o f the  r e g i o n a l system a t the time of the p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y  forum in. 1987.  The  Report p r o v i d e s p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s  and  serves as a b l u e p r i n t f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government's p o l i c y  concerning  f o r a l l o f the r e g i o n s ,  l i b r a r i e s i n the f o l l o w i n g years.  Taking another  approach, a 1940 study p u b l i s h e d by the  American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education  t r i e s t o demonstrate the  importance o f r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s by s u r v e y i n g the r e a d i n g h a b i t s o f rural  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d e r s f o r three years a f t e r i t s  establishment  of a r e g i o n a l system. Besides  drawing  connections  between r e a d i n g h a b i t s and demographic f a c t o r s , the study high c i r c u l a t i o n  shows t h a t  f i g u r e s r e s u l t e d from b r i n g i n g l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s t o  r u r a l PEI, p r o v i d i n g a v a l i d a t i o n of the need f o r r e g i o n a l Macdonald,  systems.  G i l r o y and B r a i t h w a i t e ' s a n e c d o t a l accounts may be l e s s  convincing to a skeptic. In marked c o n t r a s t to B r a i t h w a i t e and G i l r o y ' s impassioned narratives,  J e s s i e M i f f l e n takes a detached approach t o r e c o u n t i n g  the many years o f s t r u g g l e i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n Newfoundland.  4  library  She even d i s c u s s e s her own appointment as  S u p e r v i s o r o f R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s i n the t h i r d person, emphasizing the work's s t a t u s as a formal r e p o r t . As the Newfoundland Saskatchewan's, to Saskatchewan,  system p r o g r e s s e d a l o n g s i d e  i t o f f e r s a u s e f u l p o i n t of comparison. As opposed where there was a l a g between f i r s t and second  regional l i b r a r i e s ,  with o t h e r s f o l l o w i n g i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n i n the  wake o f the 1967 I n q u i r y Report, i n Newfoundland,  the gap was  between d e s i g n a t i n g r e g i o n a l c e n t e r s , p l a n n i n g o f r e g i o n a l  systems  i n the 40's and 50's, and t h e i r u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n i n the 1970s. Although t h i s study i s not comparative, the Newfoundland  case o f  p r o g r e s s extending from a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n lends p e r s p e c t i v e t o the independent development  i n Saskatchewan.  O n t a r i o o f f e r s another p o i n t of comparison. I t s r e g i o n a l . systems have perhaps the r i c h e s t p u b l i c documentation, owing t o the O n t a r i o L i b r a r y Review's  q u a r t e r l y "Regional Report" which r a n from  June 1967 t o September o f 1970 and, b e f o r e t h a t , a " R e g i o n a l Roundup" from August 1965. The "Roundups" were o f f i c i a l  reports  that  accounted f o r major meetings, events and l i b r a r y openings i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s . More r e l e v a n t to t h i s study, each s u c c e s s i v e R e g i o n a l  Report focuses on a p a r t i c u l a r system to p r o v i d e a much r i c h e r account and v a l u a b l e general i n s i g h t s i n t o the f o r m a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l systems. The f a c t t h a t O n t a r i o ' s r e g i o n a l systems were e s t a b l i s h e d between 1956 and 1967, Saskatchewan  i n p a r a l l e l with the development  network between 1965 and 1973,  comparison. A 1972 Meadows, t i t l e d  further  of the  invites  Canadian L i b r a r y J o u r n a l a r t i c l e by Donald F.  " L i b r a r i e s i n Saskatchewan"  (1972) d e s c r i b e s the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s and the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y j u s t as the f i n a l two r e g i o n a l systems are b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . Although b r i e f , Meadows' a r t i c l e p r o v i d e s u s e f u l  detail  about the r o l e s of the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y departments i n r e l a t i o n to r e g i o n a l  systems.  The O n t a r i o h i s t o r y a l s o c o n t a i n s a s t r o n g note of an adverse political  climate  (Pepper 1967)  s i m i l a r to what B r a i t h w a i t e  d e s c r i b e s . A counter-example would be Ruth M. McDormand's a r t i c l e the founding of Manitoba's f i r s t 1970,  on  r e g i o n a l system i n P a r k l a n d i n  which seems a n t i - c l i m a t i c and undramatic i n the wake of the  e a r l i e r developments  to the West and East  (1972).  Another counter to the i d e a of the r e g i o n a l system as a m o n o l i t h i c success i s Judy Thompson's 1981 a r t i c l e ,  "Going i t Alone:  A L i b r a r y Stays Independent" which p r o v i d e s a f a s c i n a t i n g example o f a r u r a l Saskatchewan  l i b r a r y system t h a t f o r a long time r e s i s t e d  j o i n i n g i t s r e g i o n a l system. The a r t i c l e p r o v i d e s a b r i e f h i s t o r y of the Wolseley l i b r a r y , summarizes  a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g small town l i b r a r y ,  and  the t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l advantages and disadvantages  of becoming r e g i o n a l i z e d . The the  D  Wolseley l i b r a r y  i s now  a branch of  Southeast Regional L i b r a r y .  Sources The  library  and  Study  major source m a t e r i a l  for this  to focus  the study on three  5  regional library  system. The  Southeast and West C e n t r a l  formation  of the remaining regions  regions  e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r 1968  an  framework f o r the next  to develop  obvious  I chose  the  because they were  the  to be e s t a b l i s h e d . Because a l l of ( i . e . , a l l but  North C e n t r a l  and  recommendations  of the L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee, I b e l i e v e t h a t the to a l a r g e extent,  and  of the e n t i r e  South West) were aided by the implementation of the  libraries,  study,  was  North C e n t r a l Region was  (Wheatland) regions  library  goal i n s e l e c t i n g  because of the e a r l y date of i t s formation.  two  Archives  seven  f o r study w i t h i n those r e g i o n s ,  as complete as p o s s i b l e a p i c t u r e of the  the  regional  both i n d e c i d i n g on the t h r e e - r e g i o n  on s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l  first  of the  formed i n Saskatchewan up u n t i l 1973. My  research materials,  choice,  study i s the  c o l l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e through the Saskatchewan  Board. I decided regions  Scope o f  first  three  c r e a t e d the economic and p o l i t i c a l  four.  In terms of the networks of l o c a l advocacy t h a t were formed around each r e g i o n , regions with the  I a l s o chose on the b a s i s t h a t the  first  three  e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d precedence f o r , or worked i n p a r a l l e l f i n a l four, and  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s  would be adequately represented  by a sample of  three.  of the  seven  At the o u t s e t , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1969  I considered with  l o o k i n g at the Parkland  region,  i t s headquarters i n Yorkton, r a t h e r  the Wheatland, because there a l r e a d y e x i s t s a h i s t o r y of Wheatland r e g i o n uniquely  than  the  (MacDonald). I chose Wheatland because of i t s  r u r a l character  (there were no towns of more than 3,500  people i n the r e g i o n ) , and because the Wheatland a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n (according to i t s d e s c r i p t i o n ) contained formative The  years. c o l l e c t i o n s themselves were f o r the most p a r t  comprehensive and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d c l i p p i n g s , and  f i l e s of r e p o r t s ,  correspondence. There were two  North C e n t r a l c o l l e c t i o n , and  more m a t e r i a l from i t s  between 1959  and  1962.  The  notable  l a t t e r gap begins at a time when the r e g i o n  To get the best  f o r the three regions have c o n c e n t r a t e d  was  6  library  of development .  the study on the years between the two  considerable  i n t e r e s t , and  book. Conversely, formation  gaps i n  of the r e g i o n i n 1950  Because of i t s s t a t u s as an " e x p e r i m e n t a l "  treatment of the  was  i n i t s scope. For the North C e n t r a l Region, I  source m a t e r i a l - from the formation  Braithwaite's  by  of 1958  snapshot of the o b s t a c l e s to r e g i o n a l  development, t h i s study emphasizes d i f f e r e n t stages  p e r i o d holds  1949,  Librarian's report  taken as an a r b i t r a r y ending p o i n t to the n a r r a t i v e .  of 1958.  and  I compensated f o r the e a r l i e r gap  growing q u i c k l y and becoming more s t a b l e , so the end  end  "gaps" i n the  c o v e r i n g p e r i o d s between 1948  r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on the North C e n t r a l Regional from 1950.  briefs,  to  the  region,  this  i s underemphasized i n  Braithwaite  g i v e s a more thorough  of the r e g i o n i n 1948  and  1949.  With the Southeast and West C e n t r a l Regions,  I emphasized  the  years l e a d i n g up to the formation of the l i b r a r i e s . Again,  this  c h o i c e p e r m i t t e d c l o s e study of o b s t a c l e s to province-wide  library  s e r v i c e . Because these r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s were much l a r g e r , s t r o n g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t h e i r i n c e p t i o n than was  the North C e n t r a l  library,  the u n c e r t a i n t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y of t h e i r e a r l i e r development  hold  more i n t e r e s t . Other primary sources i n c l u d e newspaper s t o r i e s , p r i n t e d i n the SLA B u l l e t i n ,  and SLA a r c h i v a l  articles  collections.  Newspapers p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d of the p r o g r e s s of l i b r a r i e s from a broad p u b l i c s t a n d p o i n t ; they p r o v i d e a gauge o f the  social  s i g n i f i c a n c e of an event, and viewpoints of o u t s i d e commentators. The SLA B u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e c h r o n i c l e of events from the l i b r a r i a n s ' p o i n t of view. The b u l l e t i n r e p r i n t s many r e p o r t s briefs,  as w e l l as e d i t o r i a l comments, and p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t s  the advocacy process i n the form of updates  and into  from around the  p r o v i n c e . The SLA A r c h i v e s p r o v i d e d some s p e c i a l documents, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the 1940s, t h a t were not a v a i l a b l e i n the Bulletin,  i n c l u d i n g some f a s c i n a t i n g correspondence around  southeast area from  E  SLA the  1944.  Methodology In the h i s t o r i c a l chapter of t h e i r Qualitative  the Information  Professional,  Gorman s t a t e s  Research  that:  In t h e p r o c e s s t h e r e may have been some r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e problem, because, i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , t h e r e i s 'give and t a k e ' between t h e h i s t o r i a n and t h e  for  s o u r c e s . The l a t t e r may suggest t h e need t o m o d i f y , r e j e c t o r r e p l a c e i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , o r p o s s i b l y even f u n d a m e n t a l l y s h i f t the focus o f the e n t i r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (Gorman 1997, 169) T h i s p r o j e c t began with the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s of i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s p e c i f i c s of o p p o s i t i o n to r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . However, i n a p p l y i n g the above q u o t a t i o n , historical  search to evidence  I d i d not  of a "debate" or any  limit  my  specific  arguments a g a i n s t r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n . Rather, I a p p l i e d a broader criteria  f o r relevance  i n my  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of h i s t o r y , t a k i n g note  of a l l documents t h a t p o i n t e d to any development, or any way,  kind of obstacles  Finding l i t t l e  i s s u e , t h i s study  library  e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r overcoming them. In  I would have s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y  necessary.  to  i n the way  to s h i f t  this  focus i f  of debates on the  particular  i s focused on the broader t o p i c of advocacy f o r  .and o b s t a c l e s to r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y development i n Saskatchewan. In the-chapter  " H i s t o r i c a l Research," Ronald  Powell  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t i s "guided formal h y p o t h e s i s "  and  by a  a "more f l e x i b l e methodology, such as a  s o u r c e - o r i e n t e d approach"  (Powell  1997,  170).  In t h i s study,  I have  used a h y b r i d of these methodologies. I b e l i e v e t h a t the r e s e a r c h i s stronger  f o r having  been guided  by a hypothesis,  even though i n i t s  most s p e c i f i c v e r s i o n , i t has proven i n c o r r e c t . Conversely, h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t i s not s o u r c e - o r i e n t e d w i l l be b l i n k e r e d by a p r e s e n t i s t view and s e i z e upon s i g n i f i c a n t Similarly,  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  own  assumptions and  fail  to  information.  some h i s t o r i a n s draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between  n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y and  i n t e r p r e t i v e h i s t o r y . This dichotomy I a l s o  refuse:  a l l h i s t o r i c w r i t i n g i s both n a r r a t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e . The  creation of narrative i t s e l f ,  i n t h i s case, i n v o l v e s  extracting  common themes from a c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y arranged source o f m a t e r i a l and forging vectors  and themes across d i s p a r a t e  sources. Both o f these  p r o c e s s e s are i n t e r p r e t i v e i n nature, and c r e a t e m a i n t a i n s the o b j e c t i v i t y o f i t s source  a narrative  that  materials.  T h i s study i s guided by primary m a t e r i a l s .  F i r s t and foremost  are the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s . Where I have used secondary m a t e r i a l ,  i t i s t o i l l u m i n a t e or c o l o u r what i s i n the  primary sources. Throughout evaluating  t h i s study, I have a p p l i e d some p r i n c i p l e s f o r  sources taken from Haynes McMullan's paper,  "Primary  Sources i n L i b r a r y Research." McMullan's p r i n c i p l e s are adapted  from  t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l methodology s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the study o f l i b r a r y h i s t o r y . I quote them here i n f u l l . The  first:  The s m a l l e r t h e i n t e n d e d audience, t h e g r e a t e r t h e chance t h a t the w r i t e r t o l d t h e t r u t h . (1971, 29) A l a r g e b u l k o f the content o f the f i n d i n g s of t h i s paper w i l l from p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s between l i b r a r y advocates, w r i t t e n various  come  with  degrees o f candor. In many cases, two accounts o f an event  are p r e s e n t e d i n an o f f i c i a l instances,  r e p o r t and i n correspondence.  In such  the l a t t e r i s u s u a l l y more r e v e a l i n g .  The second p r i n c i p l e i s : Always c o n s i d e r t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e a u t h o r toward t h e event he i s d e s c r i b i n g . (1971, 30)  T h i s i s extremely important i n e n s u r i n g that  not too rosy a p i c t u r e  i s p a i n t e d on every v i c t o r y . When i n h a l i n g the ether o f advocacy, i t i s important t o s t a y a l e r t t o p o s s i b l e presently And  complications that  are not  being discussed. the t h i r d :  The c l o s e r the account i s i n time t o the date o f the event, the g r e a t e r the chance t h a t i t i s a c c u r a t e . (1971, 30) This fact applies  not only t o names and dates, but t o a t t i t u d e s and  o p i n i o n s . The s e n t i m e n t a l Marion G i l r o y o f 1979 sounds n o t h i n g the  focused Marion G i l r o y of 1950, where d e s c r i b i n g The  fourth  like  the same events.  h i s t o r i c p r i n c i p l e d i s c u s s e d by. McMullan i s :  M a t e r i a l r e c o r d e d by a person w r i t i n g f o r p o s t e r i t y i s l i k e l y t o be l e s s r e l i a b l e than m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n f o r h i s contemporary. (1971, 31) Again, t h i s study has p l a c e d i t s emphasis upon correspondence and ephemera w r i t t e n history, And  i n the heat of the moment, not when r e f l e c t i n g upon  no matter how r e c e n t . the f i f t h and s i x t h p r i n c i p l e s :  Never a c c e p t what any document says u n l e s s you have v e r i f i c a t i o n from an independent s o u r c e . (1971, 31) even when we have agreement by two s o u r c e s , the agreement means v e r y l i t t l e u n l e s s the two sources are independent o f each o t h e r . (1971, 33) T h i s i s a c t u a l l y a r u l e .of advocacy. I f a group wants government action,  the best p l a n i s to lobby from s e v e r a l  p l a c e s a t once, and  forge independence.. Of course, genuine independence i s d e s i r a b l e f o r the  h i s t o r i a n , but not always p o s s i b l e .  For the most p a r t ,  study t r e a t s documents as h i s t o r i c v e c t o r s responding t o not  evidence t h a t  this conditions,  an "event" happened. Where f a c t u a l events do  happen i n t h i s h i s t o r y , they can be e a s i l y v e r i f i e d through a number of  sources. Because t h i s study i s s o u r c e - d r i v e n ,  subjects,  namely the three  regions,  example, with the Southeast region,  i t does not  with conceptual  treat i t s  consistency.  I documented, and  For  commented  upon, a l a r g e number of mass-mailed propaganda. For the West C e n t r a l region,  I focused  more h e a v i l y on p r i v a t e correspondence between  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and  l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . These c h o i c e s  are  the  not  based on a b e l i e f t h a t these types of m a t e r i a l s more a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e i r respective subjects' h i s t o r i e s ; using  i t i s the r e s u l t of  the most i n t e r e s t i n g , e n l i g h t e n i n g m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e .  Furthermore, i f the Southeast r e g i o n a l a r c h i v e preserves preponderance of propaganda l e t t e r s , because they are h i s t o r i c a l l y  I b e l i e v e there  a  i s a reason:  interesting.  In t h i s study I have sought to f i n d out what were the obstacles  to e s t a b l i s h i n g r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s  understand them as best the  as I can.  As  to  such, I have examined i n d e t a i l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l i b r a r y committees and p a r t i c u l a r  municipal  c o u n c i l s over time spans as long as s e v e r a l y e a r s .  p a i d c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to the language used by activists, exact best  i n Saskatchewan, and  local politicians,  and  dates when r e p o r t s , b r i e f s ,  librarians,  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , and and  trustees, to  l e t t e r s are w r i t t e n i n  to understand what events drove what ideas,  and  vice  I have  the order  versa.  Part  II:  Findings  A Beginnings The Saskatchewan regional l i b r a r i e s development  L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s t e a d i l y advocated  i n Saskatchewan  i n the 1960s and 1970s. As e a r l y as J u l y 1941,  of the Regina C o l l e g e L i b r a r y , who 1944  from the 1940s, and through t h e i r  to 1945,  Emma B e l l  served as the SLA p r e s i d e n t  addressed Saskatchewan  from  t e a c h e r s about Carnegie-funded  r e g i o n a l experiments i n B r i t i s h Columbia and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and spoke of the p o s s i b i l i t y of s i m i l a r experiments i n (Bell  Saskatchewan  1941). In the SLA's B r i e f to the L i b e r a l Government's R e c o n s t r u c t i o n  C o u n c i l of 1944,  they o u t l i n e d a goal f o r a province-wide l i b r a r y  system and made seventeen recommendations, e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a commission an i n i t i a l  i n c l u d i n g the  to survey Saskatchewan  and  institute  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y experiment. In accord with the times,  the SLA recommended a p p l y i n g f o r a Carnegie grant. However, by t h a t time the Carnegie Foundation was r e g i o n a l experiments A new  (Gilroy  no longer g i v i n g g r a n t s f o r  1956c).  e r a began i n December 1945 when the newly  Canadian Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  elected  (CCF) government a p p o i n t e d the  three-member L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l  (LAC) at the recommendation  L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r i a n Jesse Bothwell (Braithewaite 1980, c h a i r o f the LAC was  of  30). The  Dr. C a r l y l e King, a c h i e f ideologue i n the CCF  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n with s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n p a r t y p o l i c y . The L A C s  first  a c t i o n was t o recommend t h a t the government enact  legislation  to e s t a b l i s h r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s and appoint a s u p e r v i s o r t o oversee their  establishment The  (King 1956, 7 ) .  d e c i s i o n t o h i r e a r e g i o n a l s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d e s an  e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f how ideas, apart from b e i n g the product o f i n d i v i d u a l minds, are p e r s i s t e n t s o c i a l  facts.  On January  Jesse Bothwell wrote t o B e t t y Davis, an advocate  9, 1946,  i n Prince A l b e r t  t h a t "developments f o r which some of us have been s t r i v i n g years are, I b e l i e v e about t o take p l a c e , " and asked "respond  f o r many  Davis t o  and not be backward i n a d v i s i n g us as t o j u s t what you  t h i n k should be done" (Bothwell 1946a). Davis  responded:  I f e e l t h a t t h e f i r s t s t e p i n l i b r a r y improvement s h o u l d be the appointment o f a l i b r a r y s u p e r v i s o r - T h i s p e r s o n s h o u l d be a q u a l i f i e d and e x p e r i e n c e d l i b r a r i a n . . . who had p e r s o n a l l y v i s i t e d each p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n the p r o v i n c e (Davis 1946) . It  i s i r o n i c t h a t a P r i n c e A l b e r t l i b r a r y advocate  t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r v i s i t  would  suggest  a l l areas o f the p r o v i n c e , as even b e f o r e  the s u p e r v i s o r p o s i t i o n was f i l l e d ,  Bothwell was o f the o p i n i o n t h a t  P r i n c e A l b e r t would be the area with the g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t experiment The  i n an  (Bothwell 1946b).  CCF's treatment  o f l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s throughout  their  five  terms i n government from 1944 t o 1964 was i n a way counter t o the p r o a c t i v e p o l i c y implementation for.  7  and c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g they are known  The government a p p l i e d funding c a u t i o u s l y and i n c r e m e n t a l l y ,  w a i t i n g f o r the impetus t o come from the p u b l i c b e f o r e t a k i n g d e c i s i v e a c t i o n . Rather  than fund a f u l l - s c a l e experiment, as i n the  heyday o f Carnegie p r o j e c t s , the CCF approved the h i r i n g  of a  S u p e r v i s o r of Regional L i b r a r i e s to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o t e n t i a l of a r e g i o n a l experiment i n a l l areas of the p r o v i n c e . Before funds,  the government wanted some assurance  committing  t h a t the experiment  would be s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s c a u t i o u s approach i n i t i a t e d a funding paradox t h a t would hover over the growth of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s u n t i l the LIC of In order to promote the i d e a , funding was  needed to t r a v e l  1966.  to  hundreds of small communities to meet with m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l o r s and facilitate  l o c a l campaigns. However, i n order to grant  i n c r e a s e s , the government needed to see evidence  t h a t the  would be accepted and used. I t i s perhaps p a r t l y due approach t h a t Saskatchewan's r e g i o n a l system was  funding libraries  to t h i s  founded on such a  f i r m f o u n d a t i o n of v o l u n t e e r advocacy across the p r o v i n c e . The p o l i t i c s of l o c a l advocacy of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i s a game of c o n v i n c i n g m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s to pass r e s o l u t i o n s to commit tax money, and the p r o v i n c e commits a matching grant i n r e t u r n . The game i s a tough one,  and  f r e q u e n t l y unpleasant.  o f t e n used i n correspondence The  between  M i l i t a r y metaphors are  advocates.  game i s an u p h i l l b a t t l e , as the best way  to demonstrate  the v a l u e of the s e r v i c e i s to p o i n t to s u c c e s s f u l examples a l r e a d y i n o p e r a t i o n . Thus, regions tend to begin at the moment a number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a minimum p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e has to j o i n . But as t h i s number i s minimal, s i z e of c o l l e c t i o n ,  resolved  the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e (the  f o r example) i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than what i t  would be i f and when the e n t i r e area has  joined. It i s d i f f i c u l t  to  commit a c o u n c i l to j o i n a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i n embryo. I t i s e q u a l l y  difficult of  t o convince a . c o u n c i l to accept any d e l a y i n the d e l i v e r y  s e r v i c e once a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i s i n f u l l A vitally  important  first  swing.  step i n a c h i e v i n g the e l u s i v e .  m u n i c i p a l r e s o l u t i o n i s e n l i s t i n g the a i d o f l o c a l organizations  community  ( G i l r o y 1950e, 1 ) . In 1950s r u r a l Saskatchewan,  o f t e n meant homemakers' c l u b s , home and s c h o o l s o c i e t i e s ,  this  and farm  women's c l u b s . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y e d a major r o l e i n the growth of  a l l o f Saskatchewan's r e g i o n a l  libraries.  The necessary web o f province-wide  advocacy  was spun by many  over the years, but none so much as t h e . f i r s t S u p e r v i s o r o f R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s , Marion G i l r o y . G i l r o y ' s competent l e a d e r s h i p and zealous advocacy  a r e legendary i n Saskatchewan's r u r a l l i b r a r y  Gilroy's f i r s t  communities.  t a s k as Regional S u p e r v i s o r , from 1946 t o 1948 was a  comprehensive survey o f the p r o v i n c e ' s l i b r a r y community, w i t h the purpose  o f d e t e r m i n i n g the best l o c a t i o n f o r an experimental  regional library.  In 1948 and 1949, the North C e n t r a l area o f the  p r o v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g the c i t y o f P r i n c e A l b e r t , was chosen. From the s p r i n g o f 1950 u n t i l the summer o f 1955, G i l r o y was " l e n t " from the p r o v i n c i a l government t o the North C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y as t h e i r f i r s t  Regional L i b r a r i a n , a term t h a t was  o r i g i n a l l y t o be one year, but was r e p e a t e d l y extended to  due i n p a r t  the d i f f i c u l t y o f the task, and i n p a r t t o the d i f f i c u l t y o f  finding qualified,  experienced l i b r a r i a n s i n Canada i n the 1950s.  S e r v i n g as the P r e s i d e n t o f CLA i n the e a r l y 1950s, G i l r o y found h e r s e l f i n 1950 c h a i r i n g a N a t i o n a l Standards  Committee  ( G i l r o y 1950e) , even as she was running an underfunded,  substandard  l i b r a r y h e r s e l f . In March of 1955, a delegate at a Saskatchewan A s s o c i a t i o n of Rural M u n i c i p a l i t i e s (SARM) convention commented on G i l r o y ' s persuasive a b i l i t i e s , saying that "no one was ever more convinced of the value of h i s wares than Marion G i l r o y of Prince Albert."  B  The  8  North  Central  Region  1. Premature Baby The e a r l y years of the North Central Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y read something l i k e the Book of Acts i n that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how such a small, s t r u g g l i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n as the l i b r a r y and the C h r i s t i a n Church could grow i n t o the strong i n s t i t u t i o n s they would become. In recommended standards, and i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e over the years, various figures were quoted as to what was  the  minimum population, or minimum tax base, required f o r adequate r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . The 1967 CLA standards recommend a minimum of 50,000 - 100,000. The most frequent number used i n Saskatchewan i n the 1960s was 40,000. The North Central Region s t a r t e d s e r v i c e i n 1950 with 24,695 people, s l i g h t l y less than the 25,000 which was then considered the minimum. A t r u l y premature baby, North Central l i v e d f o r s e v e r a l years on l i f e support i n the form of the loan of the Supervisor of Regional L i b r a r i e s from the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y . An experiment:  from the p r i v i l e g e d present, i t may  be  d i f f i c u l t to see how i t could have been anything but u l t i m a t e l y  s u c c e s s f u l . Yet the western world's l i b r a r y development i s f a r from uniform,  and not a l l experiments were s u c c e s s f u l . In 1957,  Gilroy  quoted American l i b r a r i a n G. Schenk, saying: the p a t h o f l i b r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and development i s strewn w i t h t h e t r a g i c wreckage of d e m o n s t r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h o u t the w i l l and consent o f t h e people f o r whom i t was i n t e n d e d , ( i n G i l r o y 1957b, 3) The  North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y was  l i b r a r y on the Canadian p r a i r i e , k i n d to be developed  and was  the f i r s t r e g i o n a l  c a l l e d the " f i r s t  s o l e l y under p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1950, Canadian r e g i o n a l experiments without  4). The  first  rural municipalities,  auspices"  of the  funding from the  C o r p o r a t i o n s t a r t e d with the c i t y of P r i n c e A l b e r t two  of i t s  great  Carnegie  (P.A.),  one  town,  and three v i l l a g e s . Under the gaze of  h i s t o r y ' s microscope, each of the communities i n v o l v e d i n t h i s experimental in  r e g i o n gleams with symbolic  f o r many others l i k e i t : one  cities,  one  villages,  s i g n i f i c a n c e . Each  small c i t y to r e p r e s e n t a l l s m a l l  large' town to represent a l l l a r g e towns, t h r e e  j u s t two  stands  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (RMs)  r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n across Saskatchewan t h a t was  small  to r e p r e s e n t t h a t huge so v i t a l  to the  regional project. Regional  l i b r a r i e s tend to f i n d t h e i r e a r l i e s t  urban areas, and difficult r e g i o n was  correspondingly  to e n l i s t . The  i n more  f i n d r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the most  base of support  the c i t y of P r i n c e A l b e r t . The  about 13,000 i n 1950,  support  f o r the North C e n t r a l c i t y had  a p o p u l a t i o n of  r e p r e s e n t i n g more than h a l f of the  initial  p o p u l a t i o n , and had the great advantage of a c i t y c o u n c i l s t r o n g l y in  favour of the i d e a .  2. Melfort and K i n i s t i n o As of October, 1949, the RMs of Prince A l b e r t and S t . L o u i s , and  the v i l l a g e s of Leask, Weldon, and K i n i s t i n o had agreed t o j o i n  the  region  of P r i n c e  ( G i l r o y 1950e, 1). S e v e r a l Albert,  other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i n c l u d i n g the town of Nipawin, had expressed  i n t e r e s t i n j o i n i n g , but were not brought i n t o the r e g i o n t h e i r distance possible  from P.A. was c o n s i d e r e d too great  ( G i l r o y 1950e, 2 ) . On November  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were h o l d i n g of M e l f o r t  northeast  because  f o r s e r v i c e t o be  2, three other  p u b l i c votes on the q u e s t i o n :  and the RMs of Buckland and Moose Range  the town  ( G i l r o y 1950e,  3). Vigorous campaigns were run by l o c a l a c t i v i s t s i n a l l t h r e e areas, i n c l u d e d discussions  p u b l i c d i s p l a y s , newspaper ads, h a n d b i l l s ,  and r a d i o  ( G i l r o y 1950e, 3).  As the only a key i n g r e d i e n t  l a r g e town i n the Prince A l b e r t area, M e l f o r t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the i n i t i a l  s e r v i c e area. L o s i n g  regional  was  library  i t would have the e f f e c t of r e d u c i n g the  experiment t o l i t t l e more than a c i t y and surrounding area. According to G i l r o y ' s report, extremely b i t t e r c o n t e s t " , e f f e c t of r e v e r s i n g  the M e l f o r t  campaign became "an  and the negative campaign l i k e l y had the  the d e c i s i o n i n nearby K i n i s t i n o  ( G i l r o y 1950e,  3). The r e s o l u t i o n was d e f e a t e d i n Buckland.. In Moose- Range, the r e s o l u t i o n won, but was i n v a l i d a t e d i n 1950 by a newly e l e c t e d c o u n c i l . Although the e l e c t i o n was won i n M e l f o r t , problems persisted.  On  February 16,  1950,  Marion G i l r o y wrote to Mr.  D.J.  McCarthy, Chairman of the M e l f o r t P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board and of the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y campaign i n t h a t area, Melfort refuse  c o u n c i l o r s were s t i l l to s i g n , d e s p i t e  against  organizer  t h a t the m a j o r i t y  the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y and  the p u b l i c m a j o r i t y  i n favour  of  might  (Gilroy  1950a). Meanwhile, perhaps to push v a c i l l a t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a d e c i s i o n , M i n i s t e r i n charge of L i b r a r i e s W.S. deadline  of A p r i l  1950d). Any until  10  L l o y d had  f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to j o i n the r e g i o n  (Gilroy  m u n i c i p a l i t y j o i n i n g a f t e r t h i s date would have to wait  the l i b r a r y was  i n operation  before  being  admitted.  l e t t e r to the M i n i s t e r , G i l r o y mentioned t h a t she mayor of P r i n c e A l b e r t , who  p e r s i s t s i n M e l f o r t and  had  In a  spoken to  the  would speak to the M e l f o r t town c o u n c i l .  McCarthy f e l t t h a t the mayor c o u l d "counteract  1950d). The  set a  a l s o p o s s i b l y win  the  sniping  over K i n i s t i n o " ( G i l r o y  s t r a t e g y must have worked where M e l f o r t was  because G i l r o y remarked on A p r i l  14,  that  concerned,  i n a l e t t e r to Saskatoon  l i b r a r i a n J . S. Wood: I f e e l t h a t M e l f o r t i s f a r from b e i n g o f one mind on the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y . However, the c o u n c i l l o r who opposed i t most a c t i v e l y s u p p o r t e d Mr. McCarthy i n t h e c o u n c i l meeting o f A p r i l 3 and t h e y endorsed t h e agreement and Mr. McCarthy i s r e p r e s e n t i n g them on the Board ( G i l r o y 1950b) The  f i r s t new  opened i n M e l f o r t , The  branch l i b r a r y i n the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n and  became a very popular, well-used  change i n K i n i s t i n o , on the other  s t r u g g l e t h a t would go on f o r  hand, i n i t i a t e d an  library.  9  epic  years.  In f a c t , the K i n i s t i n o c o u n c i l had the meantime, the v i l l a g e had  was  passed a r e s o l u t i o n , but  held i t s municipal  e l e c t i o n , and  a  in new  council public  r e v e r s e d the vote  decision  of the  first  ( G i l r o y 1950c). I n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  r e v e r s e of the  d e c i d e d to h o l d a  t h i s i s i n a sense  Moose Range s i t u a t i o n , where there had  p o s i t i v e vote but vote d i d not  and  the  new  c o u n c i l had  occur u n t i l  1952,  invalidated  when G i l r o y had  r e p l a c e d Jesse Bothwell as  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n . By  Minister, On  Rev.  March 22,  three-tier position, and  George W. 1952,  Wright, had  Kinistino  Mary Donaldson  the  taken up  had  t h i s time,  the  l o c a l U n i t e d Church the  fight.  G i l r o y wrote to Donaldson what amounts to a  l e t t e r : a b r i e f , o f f i c i a l version a longer v e r s i o n  a handwritten note on  d e t a i l s of the  The  been Regional  f o r two  w e l l - o r g a n i z e d and  been a  it.  L i b r a r i a n i n North C e n t r a l  K i n i s t i n o community was  years and  the  discussing  r e g a r d i n g an  business at the  the back that  included  assistant  head branch,  some  revealing  p i t f a l l s of r u r a l l i b r a r y advocacy:  We had a 3^ hour meeting at K i n i s t i n o Thursday. Rough r o a d s ! Some n i c e people wondering how they can c o n v e r t i g n o r a n t c o u n c i l o r s who a r e as a n t i - l i b r a r y as a n y t h i n g can be. Someone s a i d he had been t o l d the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y was i n v e r y bad f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n . F o r t u n a t e l y , they had had c o p i e s o f the r e p o r t & had seen i t wasn't so. I wonder i f i t ' s worth the 150 m i l e d r i v e which shows how low I am! I t h i n k t h e y c a n ' t p o s s i b l y put i t over t h e r e t h i s year. ( G i l r o y 1952a) The l o c a l tax  K i n i s t i n o c o u n c i l was that  the  so determined not  c i t y c l e r k c o n t a c t e d the  to add  resolution  ( G i l r o y 1952c). The  f a c t , p l e a s e d to f i n d out a vote r a t h e r On  May  G i l r o y . The  that  than r e j e c t the 7,  the idea  Donaldson r e c e i v e d  the  Provincial Library  determine i f a o n e - h a l f or two-thirds m a j o r i t y would be pass the  to  required  l i b r a r y community was,  council  had  altogether  to  d e c i d e d to put  in i t to  ( G i l r o y 1952d).  another t w o - t i e r note from  u n o f f i c i a l , handwritten p a r t  included  the  to  following:  The K i n i s t i n o f i g h t gets h o t t e r . p o s t e r s t o Mrs. Wright today. Mr. Supr. was here & C a r l y e s t e r d a y . Mayor came t o t e a w. the l i b r a r y K i n i s t i n o . ( G i l r o y 1952b)  Such language was of s h o r t h a n d ,  Sent 7 c a r t o n s o f books & Eston, the K i n i s t i n o S c h o o l They & Mrs. Sherman & the t o d i s c u s s the s o f t e n i n g o f  not uncommon i n the e a r l y b a t t l e s f o r RMs.  ampersands, and d i g i t s  out) c r e a t e s the i m p r e s s i o n of one who  The  use  ( r a t h e r than numbers s p e l l e d l i v e s i n a war  zone, t r y i n g  t o s o f t e n the enemy b e f o r e expending another 7 rounds o f ammunition. The v i l l a g e v o t e d a g a i n s t the r e s o l u t i o n .  1 0  Apparently,  the  o p p o s i t i o n t o t a x i n c r e a s e was b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d or h e l d more sway i n the community than d i d the l i b r a r y  lobby.  The b a t t l e of K i n i s t i n o f l a r e d up a g a i n i n 1958. January  Around  25, Sherman v i s i t e d the town, and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e  interest in  both the town and the RM  (Campbell  was  1958b). On J u l y  22,  R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i a n Grace Campbell wrote a l o n g l e t t e r t o Mary Donaldson w i t h updates on the s i t u a t i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l c o u n c i l s (some of whom were years away from j o i n i n g the r e g i o n ) . Towards the end the note, she  of  wrote:  There are d e f i n i t e s i g n s t h a t the Town of K i n i s t i n o wants t o j o i n . I hope t h a t I have not made you f e e l as d i z z y about the s i t u a t i o n as we a l l do here. (Campbell 1958e)  E v e n t u a l l y , the K i n i s t i n o Town C o u n c i l d e c i d e d t o h o l d a p l e b i s c i t e . An a r t i c l e i n the October 28 P r i n c e Albert  Herald  explains : because the c o u n c i l of the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s a ^ l a c k of i n t e r e s t ' on the p a r t of the r a t e - p a y e r s a p l e b i s c i t e w i l l be p l a c e d b e f o r e the people a s k i n g them i f t h e y wish the s e r v i c e c o n t i n u e d . The c o s t t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s 30 c e n t s per person per year.  The  f i n a l subheading i n the a r t i c l e reads, "NO  The  Herald  OPPOSITION APPARENT."  r e p o r t e r had i n t e r v i e w e d e i g h t l o c a l p e o p l e , who  each  testified The  t h a t t h e e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y was i n f a v o u r  report If  of the l i b r a r y .  concluded:  there  l i g h t e n Garden  i s and  any  River  s u r p r i s e  for  d i s t r i c t , the  Such c i r c u m s t a n c e s In any case,  o p p o s i t i o n  enlighten  the  to  then  November  the  L i b r a r y  existence 5  perhaps  Board's  the  they  i n favour  efforts  residents  are  p l e b i s c i t e .  raise the question  the vote  of  keeping  i t  the as  a  '  o f why a p l e b i s c i t e  i s needed.  o f t h e l i b r a r y won. The c o u n c i l  c o n c e d e d and t h e town o f K i n i s t i n o j o i n e d t h e l i b r a r y .  3. F u t u r e P o l i c y ,  to  of  1 1  1952  I n A u g u s t o f 1952 M a r i o n G i l r o y " c o m p l e t e d a r e p o r t on f u t u r e policy  t h a t had been r e q u e s t e d  by t h e m i n i s t e r i n charge o f  libraries.  I n t h e r e p o r t , G i l r o y l i s t e d a number o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  networking  and p u b l i c i t y ,  government f u n d i n g Since  ( G i l r o y 1952f, 1 ) .  1948, t h e g r a n t i n g s y s t e m h a d b e e n b a s e d on an a n n u a l  c o s t o f 50 c e n t s the  and o u t l i n e d t h e need f o r i n c r e a s e d  p e r c a p i t a per year  g o v e r n m e n t s u p p l i e d 25 c e n t s  urban areas,  to run the l i b r a r y .  for rural  Gilroy living,  grant  o f $1.00 p e r  ( G i l r o y 1952f, 1 ) .  s u g g e s t e d t h a t , due t o t h e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d c o s t o f  the t o t a l  annual funding  capita, with the province populations  this,  a r e a s a n d 12.5 c e n t s f o r  p l u s a o n e - t i m e book p u r c h a s i n g  c a p i t a when a new m u n i c i p a l i t y j o i n e d  Of  s h o u l d be d o u b l e d t o $1.00 p e r  supplying  50% o f t h a t amount f o r u r b a n  and 75% f o r r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s  (Gilroy  1952f, 1 ) . G i l r o y  closed the report with a provocative  statement c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d a t  the M i n i s t e r i n charge of L i b r a r i e s ,  who was a l s o t h e M i n i s t e r o f  Education,  W . S. L l o y d :  Saskatchewan spends on i t s p u b l i c s c h o o l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i r t y - o n e d o l l a r s per c a p i t a on the whole p o p u l a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e each year. Another d o l l a r spent on r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s would enhance the v a l u e of the e x p e n d i t u r e on s c h o o l s as b a s i c a l l y as r a i n on a wheat f i e l d c o n t r i b u t e s t o a good c r o p . ( G i l r o y 1952, Report, 2) Before  t h e r e p o r t was  submitted  L i b r a r i a n M a r y D o n a l d s o n was document. A l t h o u g h  t o the government,  Provincial  given the o p p o r t u n i t y to review  g e n e r a l l y favourable to the  the  suggestions,  D o n a l d s o n had r e s e r v a t i o n s : you have not i n d i c a t e d how much you t h i n k c o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d i n the next f o u r or e i g h t y e a r s . T h i s i s a c t u a l l y the p e r i o d our s u g g e s t i o n s were t o cover. How many R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s do you t h i n k c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h a t l e n g t h of time? (Donaldson 1952, Aug26) Donaldson threw out libraries  i n the next  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  f i g u r e s o f two  e i g h t y e a r s , and  Gilroy  o r t h r e e new asked  regional  G i l r o y t o comment  on  responded:  I p u r p o s e l y d i d not hazard a guess about how many R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the next f o u r or e i g h t y e a r s . Unless t h e r e i s v e r y much more money spent f o r p u b l i c i t y , u n l e s s we have a much more v i g o r o u s body of l a y support h e l p i n g , t o promote R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s , more concern on the p a r t of more people, as w e l l as more f i e l d workers f o r l i b r a r i e s , we s h a l l not have one more R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y i n f o u r or e i g h t y e a r s . ( G i l r o y 1952e) Gilroy's asked  response  b r i n g s to the f o r e the paradox of  t o s p e c u l a t e on how  investment  being  much c a n be done t o b r i n g i n a d d i t i o n a l  from the community w i t h o u t  any  a d d i t i o n a l commitment  from  the t r e a s u r y . G i l r o y t h e n went on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t none o f t h e smaller c i t i e s  i n Saskatchewan  Saskatoon,  and  Moose Jaw)  even h a l f of the p o p u l a t i o n of P r i n c e A l b e r t ,  and  had  (excluding Regina,  other  t h e r e f o r e more r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o u l d h a v e t o p a r t i c i p a t e ;  "I  not have t o t e l l  of  you  what t h a t means"  (Gilroy 1952f).  In terms  do  numbers, the North C e n t r a l Region needed fewer than 12,000 people from s m a l l e r  communities; the areas around Swift Current,  Yorkton,  or North B a t t l e f o r d would each r e q u i r e more than 20,000 to achieve an adequate base. G i l r o y corresponded e x t e n s i v e l y with Donaldson throughout her  (three times extended) term as Regional L i b r a r i a n .  Caught between Cabinet and a b s t r a c t g o a l s , but was  reality,  Donaldson was  o b l i g a t e d to s e t  a l s o a c u t e l y aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  promoting l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n r u r a l Saskatchewan. On  September 17,  1952,  Donaldson wrote to G i l r o y t h a t she  submitted the r e p o r t to Lloyd, b r i e f e r and  and  had  t h a t he requested t h a t i t be  i n c l u d e cross-Canada f i g u r e s f o r p r o v i n c i a l support to  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s - . L l o y d a l s o t o l d Donaldson t h a t , i t would be more e f f e c t i v e i f a s p e c i f i c amount was i n d i c a t e d when we s a i d t h a t the Government g r a n t must be i n c r e a s e d i n f u t u r e r e g i o n s . (Donaldson 1952b) I t i s a r e c u r r i n g theme i n r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y advocacy, perhaps i n a l l l o b b y i n g  f o r funds, t h a t the  e x a c t l y what e f f e c t the  funding  much more w i l l be  4. The 1953 The  and 1954  increased  f u t u r e , and  how  road.  Funding Negotiations  February, 1953  forecasted  funder needs to know  w i l l have i n the  r e q u i r e d down the  and  p r o v i n c i a l Speech From the  grants  which k i n d of l i b r a r i e s  to l i b r a r i e s , but was  Throne  not  specific  about  (Sherman 1953). Marion Sherman, long-time  c h a i r of the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Board wrote to L l o y d i n q u i r e i f there would be an i n c r e a s e libraries,  and  i n the grant  to  to r e g i o n a l  r e i t e r a t e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t the North C e n t r a l board  had passed i n February, t h a t the Government i n c r e a s e the g r a n t s t o 50 cents per c a p i t a capita  for rural municipalities  f o r urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  Central  Region,  and t o 25 cents per  (Sherman 1953).  For the North  t h i s would double the annual grant from $4,374.64 to  $8,749.28. G i l r o y wrote to Donaldson  on February  24:  She (Mrs. Sherman) has been w a i t i n g t o hear from Mr. L l o y d b e f o r e t a c k l i n g t h e P r i n c e A l b e r t C i t y C o u n c i l f o r an i n c r e a s e d g r a n t . Our r u r a l members say t h e i r c o u n c i l s won't pay more; but i f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t were l a r g e r we c o u l d use i t as b a i t w i t h t h e urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . ( G i l r o y 1953a) Sherman's p l a n was  to r a i s e the t o t a l annual f u n d i n g to 75  cents per c a p i t a , based on u s i n g the i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l grant t o l e v e r a g e an i n c r e a s e to 50 cents per c a p i t a  (from 37.5  cents)  the urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  ( G i l r o y 1953b). In another l e t t e r to  Donaldson,  that,  Gilroy stated  from  They w i l l a l s o v o t e $4000 - t o $5000 f o r b u i l d i n g upkeep & maintenance & i n c i d e n t a l s t o t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board . . . Mrs. Sherman f e e l s Mr. L l o y d i s s y m p a t h e t i c . ( G i l r o y 1953b) On A p r i l 9 Donaldson  a d v i s e d G i l r o y that  had passed second r e a d i n g and was but t h a t Act  the B i l l  (Donaldson  the new  Bill  going to l e g i s l a t i v e committee,  c o n t a i n e d no amendments to the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s  1953).  Toward the end of A p r i l ,  Sherman and G i l r o y ' s  the government came out i n a l e t t e r from G i l r o y to Although her tone i s p r o f e s s i o n a l  as always,  f r u s t r a t i o n i n the c l o s i n g sentences, that is complicit  Library  impatience w i t h Donaldson.  one can sense  the P r o v i n c i a l  her  Librarian  with Cabinet's h e s i t a t i o n .  Mr. L l o y d would not l e t me t r y t o get Mrs. Sherman i n t o have a t a l k w i t h him. She i s v e r y angry because he d i d n ' t and f e e l s t h a t he d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d e d her because he won't s u p p o r t t h e  board's r e q u e s t f o r i n c r e a s e d g r a n t s . I don't know what we s h a l l do i f no e x t r a money comes from the Government o r t h e C i t y o f P r i n c e A l b e r t and Mrs. Sherman says t h e e x t r a P.A. g r a n t w i l l be p a i d on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the Government i n c r e a s e d i t s g r a n t . Mr. L l o y d t o l d me t h a t you and he f e l t t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d g r a n t t o p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s would i n d i r e c t l y h e l p o u t the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y . I t o l d him what you know t h a t M e l f o r t r e f u s e s t o g i v e an e x t r a cent t o the P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board. ( G i l r o y , 1953c) The meaning o f the f i n a l sentence member o f a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y ,  i s u n c l e a r because, as a  M e l f o r t would not be e l i g i b l e f o r  i n c r e a s e d grants t o p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s ,  which were governed under a  separate A c t (or a f t e r 1953, a separate p a r t o f the P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s Act).  However, the i m p l i c a t i o n o f the p r e v i o u s sentence  i s perfectly  c l e a r : Sherman's request f o r a general i n c r e a s e t o grants was t o be declined. On May 8, L l o y d wrote t o Sherman t h a t the government would p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l grant t o the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y o f $4,000, emphasizing  t h a t , "the government would not wish t h i s t o be  c o n s i d e r e d as a b i n d i n g precedent  f o r future years"  Note t h a t the amount of $4,000 stands proposed t o p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s  (Lloyd 1953) .  i n f o r both the amount  f o r b u i l d i n g upkeep and the $4,374.64  Sherman was r e q u e s t i n g as an annual  increase. Lloyd  continued,  I t h i n k I s h o u l d add t h a t i t seems t o me obvious t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t depends on i n t e r e s t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o become p a r t o f the r e g i o n . I know o f course t h a t your b o a r d and s t a f f have t h i s i n mind. I t r u s t t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s d u r i n g the year w i l l meet w i t h success ( L l o y d 1953) . There i s a c r u e l i r o n y i n Lloyd's words here,  as f o r the  p r e v i o u s two years G i l r o y had been i n a p o s i t i o n o f c o n s t a n t l y having t o p r i o r i t i z e the l i b r a r y  her l i m i t e d budget and s t a f f  between promoting  t o new areas, and s e r v i n g the member communities t h a t  had p a i d t h e i r town and  one  dues. Since the r e g i o n began i n A p r i l ,  village  Despite  Lloyd's  had  1950,  only  one  joined.  a s s e r t i o n t h a t the grant was  occurrence,  the announcement i n the P.A.  t h a t i t was  a general  a one-time o n l y  Herald s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d  increase:  The $4,000 r e p r e s e n t s a 100 p e r cent i n c r e a s e i n t h e g r a n t . F o r m e r l y , the grant from the government was 12H c e n t s p e r c a p i t a and t h e c i t y i t s e l f p a i d 37*3 c e n t s . The government has i n c r e a s e d t h e amount t o 25 c e n t s per c a p i t a . 1 2  Although i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to s p e c u l a t e as to i n t e n t i o n s , such a  p u b l i c statement can o n l y i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y of the  funding  i n c r e a s e becoming permanent. A d d i t i o n a l l y , a Western Producer  a r t i c l e on November 26,  used language t h a t r e f l e c t e d G i l r o y ' s e a r l i e r per c a p i t a , not funding  1953  a s s e r t i o n that  $1.00  50 cents or 75 cents, would be an a p p r o p r i a t e  annual  level:  The a u t h o r i t i e s o f the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y would l i k e t o see more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r u r a l , j o i n i n g the l i b r a r y u n i t . They f e e l t h a t t h e r e i s an immediate need f o r r a i s i n g t h e minimum c o s t p e r p e r s o n from 50 cents t o $1 per year. And even t h i s w i l l p r o v i d e o n l y a bare minimum of s e r v i c e . . 13  Less than a year l a t e r , n e g o t i a t e d once again,  as the annual grants were to  L l o y d wrote a note to Donaldson a u t h o r i z i n g  an a d d i t i o n a l $5,000 f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s On A p r i l L.F. met  19,  1954,  f o r 1954  (Lloyd 1954).  members of the government, i n c l u d i n g L l o y d ,  Mcintosh, and L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y  C o u n c i l c h a i r Dr. C a r l y l e King,  with members, of the North C e n t r a l Regional  s t a f f to d i s c u s s p r o p o s a l s  f o r every  L i b r a r y board  f o r f i n a n c i n g . L l o y d brought  recommendations f o r augmented funding maintenance grant  be  and  forth  i n the form of a $10,000  25,000 people,  with $400 f o r every  a d d i t i o n a l 1,000 people, provided dollar fordollar  that the Region match t h i s  funding  (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y  1954a). L l o y d f u r t h e r recommended that the i n i t i a l book grant be r a i s e d from $1.00 per c a p i t a t o $1.50. I t was agreed that t o t a l annual funding  should  be $1.00 per  c a p i t a , $.50 o f which would be s u p p l i e d by the government. Suggestions were brought f o r t h as t o how t o r a i s e the r e g i o n ' s  half  (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1954a). Although the r e c o r d leaves  out the d e t a i l s , t h i s must have been a d i f f i c u l t  because i t would mean asking both m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a l r e a d y  topic  i n the  r e g i o n and new m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f l o c a l t a x money than had been the b a s i s f o r previous The  question  negotiations.  o f how t o d i v i d e the region's  p o r t i o n was  u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r r e d t o the r e g i o n a l board, e s t a b l i s h i n g a precedent to be used i n f u t u r e r e g i o n s .  The North C e n t r a l r e g i o n decided t o  break down the cost as f o l l o w s : $.55 per c a p i t a from the c i t y o f P r i n c e A l b e r t , $.50 from towns, $.42^2 from v i l l a g e s , rural municipalities  and $.30 from  (Lloyd 1957a). The d e c i s i o n t o p l a c e a h e a v i e r  tax burden on urban areas has a c e r t a i n f a i r n e s s because the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y d i s t r i b u t e s books t o branches i n p r o p o r t i o n population  o f the l o c a l  t o the  community.  5. The 1954 Bookmobile Demonstration Everywhere the image o f the road i s encountered. In the h i s t o r y o f North C e n t r a l , one cannot escape i t . I t i s the p h y s i c a l connection  t h a t l i n k s a r e g i o n together  by i t s branches, and i s  v u l n e r a b l e t o the elements. Road c o n d i t i o n s d e c i d e d when meetings c o u l d be h e l d : Today was r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y board meeting day but t o o many o f our board members were marooned i n mud and water t o have a , quorum except by t e l e p h o n e ! ( G i l r o y 1955a) And i n some cases they determined when the l i b r a r y c o u l d f u n c t i o n : T h i s d r e a d f u l b l i z z a r d today w i l l be the l a s t s t r a w f o r t h e farmers up here. We've been w a i t i n g f o r 2 weeks f o r a good day t o get t o S h e l l b r o o k w i t h a c o l l e c t i o n . I t s h i n e s o n l y when I can't go. ( G i l r o y 1955b) Years l a t e r , i n the mid-1960s, when the f i r s t  w i n t e r bookmobile  demonstration was conducted i n the West C e n t r a l out  by Marion Sherman t h a t  been p o s s i b l e  Area, i t was p o i n t e d  a winter demonstration would never have  i n the North C e n t r a l  area  (MacLean 1962).  G i l r o y d e s c r i b e s an experience d u r i n g one o f her f i r s t  trips  east t o T i s d a l e : What r o a d s ! ! The m u f f l e r banged l o o s e i n the mud & we were r e s c u e d by our meeting companions. I t was much more amusing h a v i n g company i n r a i n & mud than g o i n g i t a l o n e . The r o a d from M e l f o r t t o T i s d a l e i s a l l new grade, i n n o c e n t o f g r a v e l ( G i l r o y 1954c) One can get a sense t h a t regional  libraries,  physical  infrastructure  G i l r o y was determined t o e s t a b l i s h  wherever she could, e x a c t l y  as soon as the  would permit i t . In 1954, she wrote t o  Donaldson, You would have e n j o y e d s e e i n g C a r l and me s l i t h e r i n g t h r o u g h the muddy roads w i t h t h i s machine t o t r y t o f i n d Mr. I f e so t h a t we c o u l d have a t a l k by a farmer t o the farmers o f S h e l l b r o o k and Buckland. I am s t i l l t r y i n g t o f i n d a garage f o r t h e P o n t i a c . . . We a l s o need a c o u p l e o f g a l l o n s o f good q u a l i t y a n i t - f r e e z e and a f l a s h l i g h t . I hope t h a t the t i r e s w i l l see us t h r o u g h t h i s w i n t e r . ( G i l r o y 1954f) At  times there i s a genuine sense o f the r u r a l l i b r a r y advocacy  occurring grid.  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y with the development o f the r u r a l road  During the same p e r i o d ,  she wrote t o Donaldson again,  that  Wakaw w i l l come i n - a l t h o ' t h e y haven't f o r m a l l y s i g n e d p a p e r s . N i c e - o n l y 10 m i l e s from Domremy & soon i t w i l l be b l a c k - t o p p e d r o a d t h e r e ( G i l r o y 1954g). The 1954  image o f the road r i s e s t o a p i n n a c l e  when the r e g i o n ,  with a i d from the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y ,  a f r e e bookmobile demonstration s e r v i c e had  i n the summer o f  f o r areas o f the r e g i o n  not j o i n e d the l i b r a r y . The Province s u p p l i e d  van-load o f books  wduld c o n t r i b u t e  1 4  a $3,000 budget, a  Donalda Putnam  (Sherman  i t s s t a f f t o the o p e r a t i o n and  l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , approximately $675 f o r o p e r a t i n g expenses o f s t a f f ,  that  (that i s , the bookmobile, ' f u l l y l o a d e d ) , and the  loan of p r o v i n c i a l Extension L i b r a r i a n 1954a). The r e g i o n  planned  a driver, supplies,  the van, t r a v e l i n g  and a d d i t i o n a l books. Marion  Sherman wrote t o Donaldson: As you can see t h i s i s a severe s t r a i n on o u r s m a l l s t a f f and budget. However, we f e e l t h a t we are w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the l i m i t o f o u r r e s o u r c e s t o t h i s experiment which our b o a r d members f e e l i s so worth w h i l e and n e c e s s a r y . . . We f a c e d the f a c t t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s we propose t o s e r v e w i t h t h e bookmobile a r e among the most d i f f i c u l t i n the whole r e g i o n t o c o n v i n c e o f the v a l u e o f l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . However, we agreed t h a t t h e r e was no more e f f e c t i v e way t o show them the v a l u e o f l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . (Sherman 1954a) Their willingness  t o s t r e t c h every resource t o the l i m i t  sentiment t h a t the North C e n t r a l conclusion The for  isa  s t a f f would r e v i s i t a t the  o f the demonstration. bookmobile i t s e l f was a t h r e e - q u a r t e r t o n t r u c k  library service.  1 5  The f i r s t o f i t s kind on the p r a i r i e ,  been used s i n c e August o f 1953 j o i n e d the r e g i o n .  adapted  16  i t had  to. serve the r u r a l areas t h a t had  For reasons o f cost,  i t was d e c i d e d t h a t the  demonstration would concentrate on the two RMs immediately n o r t h o f P r i n c e A l b e r t : Buckland and S h e l l b r o o k  (Sherman 1954a). The  bookmobile would t r a v e l on a four-day, 400 m i l e route on a l t e r n a t i n g  weeks f r o m J u l y one  6 to mid-October,  and a h a l f h o u r s e a c h .  services:  o v e r 1,000  The  1 7  books,  s t o p p i n g a t 10 bookmobile  the  library, The  travel  d e m o n s t r a t i o n was and  library  imperfect roads"  i n terms  to o f f e r reference s e r v i c e .  an e p i c a d v e n t u r e b o t h i n t e r m s of the p o l i t i c s  rain"  of advocacy.  the  of the  Near the  r o a d s , a n d w o u l d be i n a c c e s s i b l e  that  in a  "two  heavy  (Putnam 1954). I t must h a v e b e e n a c h a l l e n g e t o n a v i g a t e t h e  t h r e e - t o n van trouble  full  o f books t h r o u g h those rough r o a d s ,  some l o c a l  considering  c i t i z e n s went t o :  I t s (.the d e m o n s t r a t i o n ' s ) s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s h a r d t o e s t i m a t e among a s c a t t e r e d r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and d u r i n g an e x c e p t i o n a l l y wet season when many a farmer has c o n f e s s e d t h a t h i s work i s so bogged down t h a t he "might as w e l l r e a d " . Yet enthusiasm has been s u f f i c i e n t t o b r i n g people t h r o u g h o t h e r w i s e impassable roads by t r a c t o r . The l i b r a r y van, r o u t e d m o s t l y over g r a v e l or h a r d t o p , g e n e r a l l y got t h r o u g h , though two s t o p s on mud roads had at times t o be by-passed, o r approached another way. (Munroe 1954) A letter  from G i l r o y t o Donaldson  what l e n g t h s t h e l i b r a r y  s e n t S e p t e m b e r 11  s t a f f were w i l l i n g  to  by  1 8  b e g i n n i n g o f t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n , Putnam w r o t e t o D o n a l d s o n p l a c e s a r e o f f on d i r t  (Monroe  range o f f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n o f f e r e d  and a l i b r a r i a n  itself,  offered f u l l  "tightly-packed to t r y to maintain  t i d i n e s s w h i l e t r a v e l i n g on S a s k a t c h e w a n ' s 1954), c o v e r i n g t h e f u l l  service points for  shows t o  go:  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s g o i n g w e l l , except t h a t the Honeymoon s t o p , where we needed t o go most, was i n a c c e s s i b l e most of the summer because the roads were i m p a s s i b l e . When C a r l got t h e r e l a s t week, w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , he found a washout on the r o a d which w i l l not be r e p a i r e d t h i s f a l l . C a r l and I went out t h e r e and t o White S t a r y e s t e r d a y w i t h the Van, a r r a n g e d f o r new s t o p s on t h i s s i d e of the washout and t h e y w i l l t r y t o get to a second s t o p i n Honeymoon from A l b e r t v i l l e i f t h a t r o a d becomes p a s s a b l e . T h i s means t a k i n g a day i n a n o t h e r week but we a r e w i l l i n g t o do t h a t . We do a l l the campaigning we can. L a s t week I went out the two days w i t h C a r l on the S h e l l b r o o k r u r a l r o u t e . I t was s u r p r i s i n g how many people t u r n e d up i n s p i t e of a heavy c l o u d b u r s t one day and a steady, c o l d r a i n the o t h e r . There was some g r a v e l on those roads but i n one  p l a c e t h e r o a d was under water and i n o t h e r s p r o b a b l y o n l y C a r l ' s e x c e l l e n t d r i v i n g got us through' ( G i l r o y 1954b) The forty.  number of v i s i t s at any one  stop ranged from f i v e to about .  That the s t a f f went to so much t r o u b l e to make a l l of the  1 9  stops show how  much they had p e r s o n a l l y and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y i n v e s t e d  i n these small communities. T h e i r e f f o r t s were p e r f e c t l y i n l i n e with the "experimental" watching  s t a t u s . With the p o l i t i c i a n s  i n Regina  the r e g i o n f o r signs of success, two  c o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t i n demonstrating on would double  the number of RMs  region's carefully  sparsely populated  RMs  a growth t r e n d . S i g n i n g them  i n the r e g i o n , and  i n d i c a t i o n to the p r o v i n c e and to other RMs  send a s t r o n g  t h a t l i b r a r y s e r v i c e can  be of value i n r u r a l Saskatchewan. Thus, the demonstration  was  accompanied by a v i g o r o u s  p u b l i c i t y campaign i n favour of the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y . The Albert  Herald  the Western  p r i n t e d two Producer  p i c t u r e s . The  separate a r t i c l e s . The Women's e d i t o r of  took a t r i p on the van and ran a f e a t u r e with  P r i n c e A l b e r t r a d i o s t a t i o n , CKBI, ran d a i l y n o t i c e s  and a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n spots. The p r i n t e d 200  Prince  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y board  p o s t e r s and a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of l e a f l e t s  itself  (North C e n t r a l  Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1954b, 2). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , 1954  turned out to be a poor year f o r crops i n  the North C e n t r a l area. Despite o c c a s i o n a l comments such as "might as w e l l r e a d , " poor crop c o n d i t i o n s have a d e c i d e d l y n e g a t i v e  effect  on l i b r a r y promotion i n r u r a l areas. When the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy i s down, m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s are understandably approve any  i n c r e a s e i n tax. Regarding  much l e s s l i k e l y  promotional  work i n the  to North  B a t t l e f o r d area the same year, G i l r o y remarked t h a t " t o work i n t e n s i v e l y r i g h t now c o u l d be a mistake"  when the bad  crop psychology  i s at i s worst  ( G i l r o y 1954e). G i l r o y ' s l e t t e r of September  11  continues, I f o n l y t h i s h o r r i b l e weather does not p r e v e n t the farmers from g e t t i n g t h e h a r v e s t i n I t h i n k t h a t we might see r e s u l t s t h i s y e a r . I f t h e r e i s n ' t a crop, then we s h a l l j u s t have t o s t a r t o f f a g a i n next year. We j u s t c o u l d n ' t have worse weather . . . We a r e s t i l l v e r y much concerned about t h e Town o f S h e l l b r o o k . ( G i l r o y 1954b) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n the language - "we r e s u l t s t h i s year" - how  might  see  the development can be seen as a crop,  the  growth of a l i b r a r y seed p l a n t e d i n the r e g i o n through v a r i o u s promotional  activities,  with i t s f a t e t i e d to t h a t of the  real  crops. The  events  t h a t took p l a c e i n the S h e l l b r o o k area i n the  months l e a d i n g up to the 1954 and downs. The t h a t had  demonstration  town of S h e l l b r o o k was  one  were to have many ups  of o n l y two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  j o i n e d the r e g i o n s i n c e i t s i n a u g u r a t i o n i n A p r i l of  When the town f i r s t  1950.  j o i n e d the r e g i o n , Donaldson wrote to G i l r o y ,  C o n g r a t u l a t i o n s on g e t t i n g S h e l l b r o o k i n t o the r e g i o n . I am sure i t won't t a k e the R.M. l o n g t o come i n and i t does mean some e x t r a money. (Donaldson 1952a) In October of 1953,  groups of l o c a l advocates i n the  S h e l l b r o o k area the began to work with the r e g i o n a l board on approaching  the RM  c o u n c i l . On November 12,  the R.M.  and  staff  passed a  r e s o l u t i o n to j o i n the l i b r a r y . G i l r o y wrote to Donaldson: Cheers! Hooray! The R.M. o f S h e l l b r o o k v o t e d y e s t e r d a y t o form the l i b r a r y a r e a . T h e i r p o p u l a t i o n i s a t l e a s t 3500. I s n ' t i t w o n d e r f u l t h a t we've broken t h a t d r e a d f u l s t r a n g l e h o l d o f R.M's! . . . But on Monday I'm a f r a i d we shan't have such l u c k w i t h B u c k l a n d R.M. ( G i l r o y , 1953, Nov 12)  The  celebration  turned out  to be premature. In January the  RM  c o u n c i l d e c i d e d to d e f e r t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n u n t i l a f t e r January, 1955,  when most of the  agreements, and Not  hold  other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  a p u b l i c vote i n the meantime  long a f t e r , the  town d e l i v e r e d  C a r l wicklund s a i d of the t h i r d among 12 o p e r a t i o n and  regional  from towns, the agreement  s i m i l a r news. L i b r a r i a n  branches from the p o i n t  granting  (Horley 1954) .  Town of S h e l l b r o o k Branch t h a t  books l e n t . "  changes i n the  were to renew t h e i r  2 0  i t "ranked  of view of  able  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a f t e r the A p r i l ,  1954  structure,  requiring  an a d d i t i o n a l  12^  cents  Town of S h e l l b r o o k decided to withdraw from the  ( G i l r o y 1954a). Town C o u n c i l  of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  such as new  also stated  sewers and  that  sidewalks has  a d d i t i o n a l tax money f o r l i b r a r i e s i m p r a c t i c a l .  2 1  new  development made the  G i l r o y wrote to  Donaldson, come September we s h a l l get the Home and S c h o o l t h e r e , our g r e a t a l l y , t o p l a n a c o u n t e r move. And S h e l l b r o o k R.M. shows e v e r y s i g n o f r e a l i n t e r e s t and s u p p o r t . ( G i l r o y , 1954, J u l y 22) Both town and soon a f t e r the School S o c i e t y , led  the  Herald  RM  decided to hold a p u b l i c vote on November  conclusion who  had  campaign f o r the running an e x t r a  of the  a i d e d i n funding f o r the library. story,  r u r a l representatives  of the  S h e l l b r o o k paper, the  Chronicle,  committee. Notably, r e s i d e n t s to do  radio  demonstration s e r v i c e . The  and  2 2  The  Home  media a l s o helped, w i t h  l i b r a r y board. The  two  of  spots i n favour of the  S h e l l b r o o k RM  l i b r a r y , but  the the  local  a l s o ran p u b l i c i t y p r o v i d e d by of the  and  library building,  CKBI running t a l k s by  regional  3,  were a l s o  a l l refused.  the  asked  Although otherwise overworked, the a l s o worked i n earnest  to keep  r e g i o n a l headquarters  staff  Shellbrook:  C a r l and Grace are b o t h o f f today i n S h e l l b r o o k on t h e campaign. Grace i s s p e a k i n g t o a l l the s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w h i l e C a r l i s making c a l l s and h a v i n g t h e van on d i s p l a y a l l a f t e r n o o n . We are d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g we can t o swing t h e November e l e c t i o n i n the town and r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . We p l a n to c i r c u l a t e t h e books u n t i l a f t e r the e l e c t i o n and t h e n we s h a l l have t o make another round w i t h the van t o p i c k up t h e books t h a t are i n c i r c u l a t i o n . ( G i l r o y 1954d) Even a f t e r three  years of l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n the  months of bookmobile s e r v i c e i n the RM, remained the best promotional, t o o l ,  town and  four  the books themselves  such t h a t the expense and  effort  of another s e v e r a l hundred m i l e s i n the bookmobile seemed a  natural  a c t i o n . Support f o r the bookmobile s e r v i c e i n the RM  the  demonstration s e r v i c e had weather and The RM,  was  during  been s u r p r i s i n g l y good, d e s p i t e  road c o n d i t i o n s  poor  ( G i l r o y 1954b).  main n e g a t i v e f a c t o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y where i t concerned the poor h a r v e s t .  residents  of the RM  and  In a l e t t e r on b e h a l f  the  of the board to a l l  town, Sherman wrote:  Our l i b r a r y board r e a l i z e s t h a t you are making a d e c i s i o n on t h i s i m p o r t a n t s u b j e c t . i n an e x c e p t i o n a l l y bad year. S e v e r a l of our board members are farmers themselves and know t h e problems. However, a good, f r e e l i b r a r y w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d and used perhaps even more i n a poor year t h a n when t h e r e a r e bumper c r o p s . The r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b e s t r e a d i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r the l e a s t p o s s i b l e c o s t . (Sherman 1954b) When the votes were t a l l i e d , against,  and  the RM  voted 187  the town voted 167  f o r , 510  against  Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1954b, 2). The report the  (North  for,  80  Central  regional l i b r a r y ' s  l i s t e d a number of p o s s i b l e reasons f o r the n e g a t i v e vote i n  RM: •  U n w i l l i n g n e s s t o v o t e any i n c r e a s e i n t a x e s i n g e n e r a l and i n t h i s poor year i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The bad c r o p . Resentment i n some p a r t s o f t h e R u r a l M u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g s c h o o l and h o s p i t a l t a x e s . Some p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o any s e r v i c e p a r t l y s u p p o r t e d by government funds. D e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n o f f a c t s by some C o u n c i l l o r s and o t h e r s opposed t o the l i b r a r y p l a n . Lack o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as Homemakers, t h r o u g h t h i s l a r g e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3,200. Complete u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h books f o r many. (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1954b, 3) The  most s t r i k i n g t h i n g about t h i s l i s t  reasons f o r the negative  vote are c o n d i t i o n s  i s t h a t a l l o f the t h a t are g e n e r a l f o r  Saskatchewan RMs on any year where farm income i s sub-par, and the majority  o f them w i l l apply  to any-year. The one f a c t o r t h a t  be worked on from the advocates' s i d e i s the r e c r u i t m e n t organizations,  although the S h e l l b r o o k  could  of l o c a l  Home and School S o c i e t y was  a c t i v e i n the campaign. The list  r e p o r t o f the r e g i o n a l s t a f f a l s o c o n t a i n e d  o f seven " l e s s o n s  l e a r n e d . " The l i s t  a very  sober  i s particularly  f a s c i n a t i n g when compared t o l a t e r statements made i n connection the  to  campaigns i n the Southeast r e g i o n - the s t r a t e g i e s agreed on  some p o i n t s , and d i s a g r e e d t h a t , before vote,  there  on o t h e r s .  The f i r s t  l e s s o n l e a r n e d was  a m u n i c i p a l i t y i s brought t o the p o s i t i o n o f a p r i v a t e should  be a strong  l o c a l l i b r a r y committee t o run the  campaign. The  second l e s s o n was t h a t f u t u r e demonstrations c o u l d not  r e l y upon the u s u a l extensive  l i b r a r y s t a f f contingent  t o c a r r y out the  work and t r a v e l necessary:  T h i s d e m o n s t r a t i o n was u n e x p e c t e d l y time consuming i n t h e slow, h e a v i l y l o a d e d van, w i t h the l o n g d i s t a n c e s between t h e s m a l l s t o p s o f a s p a r s e l y - s e t t l e d c o u n t r y , t h e many s i d e t r i p s t o make c o n t a c t s , the e x t r a work f o r t h e van s t a f f when o f f  the road i n f i l l i n g r e q u e s t s , r e l o a d i n g , and t h e unexpected chores which f e l l on l i b r a r i a n s o p e r a t i n g a bookmobile w i t h o u t a d r i v e r . (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1954b, 3) There i s a s t r o n g  sense here of an appeal to the p r o v i n c e  the burden of promotion t h a t has  been p l a c e d on the North C e n t r a l  r e g i o n a l s t a f f was  too great,  the  have f a l l e n s h o r t . The  impossible  and  t h a t they have been w i l l i n g to attempt language - slow, h e a v i l y  loaded, chores, r e l o a d i n g - very a p t l y conveys the mental p h y s i c a l exhaustion t h a t the s t a f f must have f e l t at the of the  that  and conclusion  demonstration.  The  s i x t h l e s s o n i s worth quoting  in  full:  The s m a l l s i z e o f the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t y ; the r e l u c t a n c e or r e f u s a l o f c o u n c i l l o r s t o r a i s e the m i l l r a t e by even a t h i r d to h a l f a m i l l f o r the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t w i t h p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r f i n a n c i n g r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i t w i l l be v e r y slow and l a b o r i o u s work t o round out the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a r e a i n N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t may be e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r e s t a group i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the p r o v i n c e t o pay t h e i r share toward s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . With i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l h e l p tor u r a l areas r e s u l t s would undoubtedly be q u i c k e r . (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1954b, 3) The  North C e n t r a l r e g i o n decided  to concentrate  energies,  f o r a time, on two  difficult  ones, because of t h e i r c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  a l l of i t s  r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , two  headquarters. In e f f e c t , the experiment was  very  to the  to t r y see  regional i f a certain  amount of a t t e n t i o n focused  i n one  p l a c e would guarantee r e t u r n s .  d i d n ' t . As  no new  RMs,  of January 1956,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , had The  final  j o i n e d the  lesson learned  and  only two  other  region. from the demonstration was  l i b r a r i a n s everywhere have proven time and  time again:  one  that  t h a t when  It  people anywhere are g i v e n p u b l i c l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , a s o l i d p o r t i o n of them w i l l use i t .  In t h i s  case,  the f a c t t h a t t h i s summer men, women and c h i l d r e n came over wet and muddy roads, o f t e n f o r l o n g d i s t a n c e s , and on o c c a s i o n even by t r a c t o r , t o borrow books i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e need i s t h e r e . (North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1954b, 4) The  1954  bookmobile demonstration was  not unique  from a '  s e r v i c e p e r s p e c t i v e - s i m i l a r e p i c experiences can be found i n many areas a c r o s s Canada and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y .  I t was,  however, a r a r e  e x e r c i s e i n terms of the amount of s e r v i c e t h a t was l o c a l tax support, and only minimal  p r o v i d e d w i t h no  aid provincially.  6 . Stalemates : Buckland and Canwood When the p l e b i s c i t e was 1950, yet"  d e f e a t e d i n Buckland  i n November of  the l o c a l a c t i v i s t s wrote to G i l r o y t h a t , "we ( G i l r o y 1950,  r e p o r t ) . However, the Buckland  won't g i v e up  c o u n c i l proved to  be a tough egg to break. As G i l r o y r e c o l l e c t e d i n l a t e r years, the Mayor " q u i v e r e d w i t h rage at the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t tax money be for a l i b r a r y "  ( G i l r o y 1979,  11).  During the demonstration,  the Buckland C o u n c i l had d e c i d e d  t h a t they would not be able to pay  f o r a p u b l i c vote u n l e s s t h e r e  was  to be a c o n t e s t f o r reeve. As there was  was  to decide on the q u e s t i o n at a meeting  C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1954,  no c o n t e s t , the i n December  council  (North  2 ) . G i l r o y wrote to  Donaldson : We're g e t t i n g B u c k l a n d primed up f o r t h e Monday meeting. Burn c a n d l e s a l l day Sunday & Monday ( G i l r o y 1954g). The  c o u n c i l voted no.  23  spent  Despite  not  c o n t a i n i n g any  towns or v i l l a g e s ,  the RM  of  Buckland r e c e i v e d a l o t of a t t e n t i o n because of i t s l o c a t i o n immediately n o r t h of the headquarters r i v e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t ) , and incrementally  In May  the  the board's s t r a t e g y of moving  outward from P.A.,  d i f f u s e region.  (in f a c t , j u s t across  of 1954,  r a t h e r than c r e a t i n g a s c a t t e r e d , G i l r o y wrote to Donaldson,  We c o u l d e a s i l y get Paddockwood i n but two r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w e ' l l be s e r v i n g t h i s summer are i n between P . A . and Paddockwood and i t j u s t wouldn't pay us t o jump over. ( G i l r o y 1954h) Considering considered  the c o s t s and  time i n v o l v e d i n t r a v e l ,  i t was  economical to cross l a r g e r u r a l areas t h a t were not i n  the l i b r a r y system. A d d i t i o n a l l y , anyone who Saskatchewan knows how "Jumping o v e r , " p a s s i n g  v i s i b l e one  has  worked i n r u r a l  i s i n t r a v e l i n g those roads.  through an RM  t r u c k to s e r v i c e an adjacent  with a huge, lumbering book  community would be a h i g h l y  conspicuous, and p o s s i b l y p o l i t i c a l l y damaging, a c t . The Buckland was  of Buckland decided  p u b l i c vote on October 31, m u n i c i p a l i t y at  provided  to put  there was  the q u e s t i o n  more than  of region.  to a  one  stake.  i n 1954.  compares i n s c a l e and i n t e n s i t y  Again, CKBI and  v a l u a b l e p u b l i c i t y . The  than e i g h t separate and  1956,  Buckland campaign of 1956  to S h e l l b r o o k  RM  the gateway to the whole northwest area of the  Thus, when the RM  The  not  the P r i n c e A l b e r t  Herald  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s t a f f made no  t r i p s to d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  every employee of the r e g i o n a l headquarters i n P r i n c e A l b e r t  involved.  less  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1956,  was  3). Marion Sherman  wrote a l e t t e r to a l l r e s i d e n t s emphasizing the wide v a r i e t y of  p r a c t i c a l books a v a i l a b l e and promising  s e v e r a l l o c a l branches  (Sherman 1956a). T a l k s were given a t l o c a l c l u b s , a t the c e n t r e h a l l s o f two v i l l a g e s ,  and f i v e schools  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y  A s s o c i a t i o n 1956, 3 ) . Good times were had and f r i e n d s were made (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1956, 3 ) . The p l e b i s c i t e was l o s t by one vote. Donaldson wrote t o Sherman: I have j u s t heard from Marion, and I r e a l l y can't b e l i e v e t h a t the v o t e i s g o i n g t o s t a y one a g a i n s t . I t i s u n b e l i e v a b l e . . . I am s t i l l hoping t h a t maybe on November f i f t h t h e v e r d i c t w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . (Donaldson 1956) On November 5, the RM and v i l l a g e of Canwood, immediately of  west  S h e l l b r o o k , h e l d t h e i r own p l e b i s c i t e , with no p u b l i c i t y a t a l l .  Incredibly,  the RM voted f o r the l i b r a r y with a m a j o r i t y o f one. On  November 8, G i l r o y wrote t o Donaldson, They v o t e d f o r t h e l i b r a r y w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f one - 355-354! And t h i s w i t h no campaigning! . . . We s h a l l have t o t a l k over the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f jumping t h e R.M.of S h e l l b r o o k t o g i v e them s e r v i c e i f they want i t . But t h e i r R.M. has 3700 p e o p l e & t h e v i l l a g e o f Canwood another 310. We'd l o v e t o have some p o s i t i v e r e t u r n f o r our e f f o r t s . Oh Buckland . . . ( G i l r o y 1956a). The  v i l l a g e o f Canwood had voted 55 to 25 i n favour  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1956, 3) . Again,  the r e g i o n a l  l i b r a r y was h e s i t a n t t o t r a v e l across one RM t o serve another, a t c u r r e n t funding  levels.  On the evening  o f t h a t very day, G i l r o y wrote t o t e l l  Donaldson t h a t a mistake Buckland, one  had been made i n the p o l l  centre at  and the vote was now a t i e , 168 t o 168 ( G i l r o y 1956b). Now  RM was a s i n g l e - v o t e win, and the other a t i e . As w e l l , the  l o c a l s u p p o r t e r s i n Buckland c l o s e d an hour e a r l y  were p r o t e s t i n g t h a t the p o l l s had  ( G i l r o y 1956b). A d e l e g a t i o n from the r e g i o n a l  l i b r a r y board and  the m u n i c i p a l i t y attended a Buckland c o u n c i l  meeting i n December to see what c o u l d be done about the c l o s e vote (Campbell 1956). In the end,  n e i t h e r the Buckland nor the Canwood RM  passed r e s o l u t i o n s i n favour the  1956  plebiscites.  councils •  of the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y as a r e s u l t of  (Sherman 1956b). Because there was  no  l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t bound the c o u n c i l s to the e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s , they were allowed d i s c r e t i o n to decide the w i l l of t h e i r communities. RM  deadlock was  still  not broken. In her  1956  report, G i l r o y  a number of f i n a n c i a l concerns t h a t were p r e v e n t i n g municipalities tax,  the  from j o i n i n g : the a l r e a d y  road c o n s t r u c t i o n  Ultimately,  the Canwood RM  r e g i o n i n 1969  and  Buckland would not 1974;  rural  high l a n d tax,  the  school  ( G i l r o y 1956d). c o u n c i l would r e c o n s i d e r ,  j o i n e d the r e g i o n l a t e i n 1958.  the  listed  f a i l u r e to c o l l e c t e x i s t i n g tax because of poor wheat  market, and  RM  The  Shellbrook,  fall  RM  of  until  of 1956  1957 and  s p r i n g of 1957  M i n i s t e r i n charge of L i b r a r i e s , W.S.  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n , funding s i t u a t i o n :  and  regional  libraries  In a l e t t e r to  Lloyd,  update on the outcome of some votes and  the  of  24  reappeared on p r o v i n c i a l Cabinet's radar.  brought up  The  j o i n the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y 1997.  the  then dropped out  j o i n e d once more f o r good i n 1975.  7. Funding N e g o t i a t i o n s , In the  Canwood RM  and  the  the  Sherman gave a  lengthy  s t a t u s of some  towards the end  tactfully  E a r l y i n November I met w i t h a group i n Y o r k t o n t o d i s c u s s r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . I f e l t i t was not r e a s o n a b l e t o d i s c u s s w i t h them t h e terms of our agreement as a b e g i n n i n g f i g u r e f o r a new r e g i o n . The problem o f p r o v i d i n g s t a f f would be almost i m p o s s i b l e i n the l i g h t o f our e x p e r i e n c e on our budget. I t seems i n c r e d i b l e t h a t i t i s o n l y two y e a r s s i n c e we f i n a l i z e d our new agreement and t h a t i n f l a t i o n has a g a i n p l a c e d our b o a r d i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . As f o r the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n p r o s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s , we do not a n t i c i p a t e much d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o l i b r a r y c o s t s t h a n we have found i n our a r e a . I t would appear t h a t the a t t i t u d e o f the r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s the reason f o r the f a c t t h a t t h e r e are not more r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n Saskatchewan. Another p o i n t the Board o f the N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y o f t e n q u e s t i o n s i s t o what e x t e n t our r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be used i n e n c o u r a g i n g new m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o j o i n the r e g i o n . Granted i t would be i n our i n t e r e s t t o round out the area, i t makes u n f a i r demands on our s m a l l , overworked s t a f f which has a f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the areas which pay. (Sherman 1956b) In t h i s p i e c e of correspondence, Sherman connects issues that p o l i t i c a l  s t a s i s would p r e f e r to keep separate:  North C e n t r a l region's resources  to p r o v i d e  f a i l u r e to gain RMs,  L i b r a r i a n and the  regions,  and  new  staff the  d e p r e c i a t i n g currency.  ( e a r l i e r ) an urgent need f o r a new  She  Children's  headquarters b u i l d i n g i n P r i n c e A l b e r t . C l e a r l y ,  l e t t e r i s intended  increase  the l a c k of  the  adequate s e r v i c e to the e x i s t i n g r e g i o n ,  l a c k of development of new also discusses  several  to open up n e g o t i a t i o n s  for a  general  i n funds.  In h i s response, L l o y d c a r e f u l l y separates the i s s u e s back into t h e i r categories, on d e f l a t i o n , and i n the  context  1956). The  so as to defuse them. He  addresses the need f o r a new  of the need f o r m u n i c i p a l  i s s u e of g a i n i n g new  l o c a l people who  avoids  the  headquarters b u i l d i n g  re-organization  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s he p l a c e s  do want l i b r a r i e s ,  government a s s i s t a n c e would be any  dismissing help,  comment  the i d e a  as i f p o l i t i c a l  (Lloyd upon the that campaigns  have nothing  to do with money. He  C e n t r a l s t a f f should  not be  agrees with Sherman t h a t the  campaigning i n new  q u a l i t y s e r v i c e to the e x i s t i n g r e g i o n , Provincial Library s t a f f ,  2 5  and  areas at the  North  cost  o f f e r s the a i d of  of  the  with a s t e r n caveat:  We do however have t o keep i n mind t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t has a l r e a d y been spent on t h i s i n t h o s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which might become p a r t o f the N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Region. How much more o f t h i s time and e f f o r t can be g i v e n i n t h i s area without being g r o s s l y u n f a i r to other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n which we have t o f a c e . ( L l o y d 1956) For L l o y d ,  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s around P r i n c e A l b e r t and  r e s t of the p r o v i n c e  are competing i n t e r e s t s . Although he has  v a l i d p o i n t where i t concerns Buckland and  Shellbrook,  i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the success of the "experiment" and r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e i s s u e s must have been b e w i l d e r i n g  are  1957,  the growth of separate  to Sherman.  guided by the L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y  to P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r  a  his  While what took p l a c e behind the scenes i s u n c e r t a i n , January 3,  the  on  2 6  C o u n c i l , L l o y d wrote  C. M . Fines with an account of the  s t a t e of  the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y , i n c l u d i n g s t a f f i n g , b u i l d i n g , and  growth problems. L l o y d c l o s e d the l e t t e r with a s e t of  funding  proposals  (Lloyd 1957a). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , he r e v e r s e s  e a r l i e r c l a i m about funding  increases  and  growth of the  LAC his  region:  even w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o m o t i o n a l work v e r y few a d d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s even though t h e y are a d j a c e n t t o those p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the r e g i o n , have agreed t o j o i n . There are o f c o u r s e a v a r i e t y of reasons f o r t h i s , t h e one most u s u a l l y g i v e n b e i n g t h a t of c o s t s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l areas are e s s e n t i a l from the p o i n t o f view o f s h a r i n g p r e s e n t overhead c o s t s . ( L l o y d 1957a) He  also reverses  h i s p o s i t i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  C e n t r a l r e g i o n and  the r e s t of the  province:  North  While there i s considerable i n t e r e s t i n these areas, i t appears t o me t h a t t h e r e i s not t o o much p o i n t i n p r o m o t i n g t o o s t r o n g l y u n t i l some o f t h e e x i s t i n g problems can be c l e a r e d up. ( L l o y d 1957a) The LAC recommendations grant from 50 cents to $1.00  i n c l u d e d an i n c r e a s e of the annual per c a p i t a , a government  contribution  to the headquarters b u i l d i n g , and a government-supplied bookmobile f o r each r e g i o n . When the p r o p o s a l came out of the t r e a s u r y board, it  had been w h i t t l e d down to only an i n c r e a s e i n the annual grant to  75 cents per c a p i t a  (Lloyd 1957b), which i s perhaps p a r t l y what the  LAC had intended, but had shot high f o r the sake of n e g o t i a t i o n s . L l o y d wrote Sherman to open up d i s c u s s i o n on what matching g r a n t s from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the p r o v i n c i a l money would be c o n t i n g e n t upon (Lloyd  1957b).  I t was  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n Mary Donaldson, though, who  d e l i b e r a t e d over the matching grants i s s u e . On A p r i l d e t a i l e d r e p o r t addressed to L l o y d on how  had  3, she wrote a  the i n c r e a s e d grant  should  be handled (Donaldson 1957). In Donaldson's a n a l y s i s , the t i e r e d funding system had been f u n c t i o n i n g as a d i s i n c e n t i v e to add RMs  and  v i l l a g e s to the r e g i o n , because t h e i r small payments lowered the average per c a p i t a income of the r e g i o n . On the other Donaldson m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the RMs  hand,  and v i l l a g e s do not have the same  q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e as c i t i e s and l a r g e towns,  and t h e r e f o r e  should  have a lower tax burden. Based on these assumptions, Donaldson put f o r t h t h r e e p o s s i b l e formulas f o r d i s c u s s i o n , based on c i t i e s and towns r e c e i v i n g matching g r a n t s , and RMs  and v i l l a g e s r e c e i v i n g  "requalization"  g r a n t s , or a more than matching grant from the p r o v i n c e .  (Donaldson  1957). In the end,  the government e s t a b l i s h e d a f l a t  c a p i t a a g a i n s t the previous  The  and  w e l l r e c e i v e d by Regional L i b r a r i a n  wrote to Donaldson t h a t the s t a f f was  e x c i t e d about the prospect  situation"  the r e q u a l i z a t i o n  pushing f o r .  i n c r e a s e d grant was  Grace Campbell, who  of such an improved  "thrilled  financial  (Campbell 1957a). Charged with seeing the b i g p i c t u r e ,  G i l r o y found t h a t while  the i n c r e a s e was  important,  s t i m u l a t e the c o u n c i l s i n the l i b r a r y area to r a i s e contribution" $1.25  per  t i e r e d system f o r m u n i c i p a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n s , a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e , but without i n c e n t i v e Donaldson was  75 cents  is s t i l l  ( G i l r o y 1957b, 2). She  " i t d i d not their  added t h a t the t o t a l  w e l l below the minimum of $2.00, a c c o r d i n g  funding to  of  CSA  standards. ( G i l r o y 1957b, 2 ) .  8. Growth Spurt, As  1958  i f by magic, the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n began to grow almost  as soon as the new  funding was  approved. On  J u l y 10,  1957,  Campbell  wrote to Donaldson, Today w i l l go down as a Red L e t t e r Day. The s i g n e d agreements came from t h e R.M. o f Garden R i v e r and t h e V i l l a g e o f Meath Park. (Campbell 1957b) The  r e g i o n had  o n l y two  not gained  any new  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s i n c e 1952,  s i n c e t h e i r s t a r t i n 1950.  I t i s not the case,  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were n e c e s s a r i l y responding p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s . Located  just northeast  Buckland, Garden R i v e r and Meath Park  to the  and  though, t h a t  increased  of P r i n c e A l b e r t , east  (the v i l l a g e i n Garden  of  River)  had l i k e l y been v i s i t e d many times over the years by both s t a f f and t r u s t e e s . I t a l s o was years of campaigning On August  23,  by l o c a l 1957,  library  l i k e l y an accumulative e f f e c t o f committees.  Campbell wrote to Donaldson  again, with  more good news : Things are b e g i n n i n g to move r a p i d l y i n the e x t e n s i o n of the North C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y area, and we are a n t i c i p a t i n g a busy f a l l season. There are s i g n s t h a t the R.M. and V i l l a g e of Canwood, the V i l l a g e of Weirdale and the R.M. of Torch R i v e r are on the verge of j o i n i n g the r e g i o n . (Campbell 1957d) Once new new  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s began to j o i n the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , a  c o n f i d e n c e appears i n correspondence, as i f a curse had been  lifted. The new problems  growth,  however, brought new  f o r the overworked  The v i l l a g e of B i r c h H i l l s ,  p a i n s , new  s e t s of  s t a f f at the North C e n t r a l headquarters. south of P r i n c e A l b e r t ,  f o r example,  joined with a threat: As you have noted, t h e V i l l a g e i s j o i n i n g on a one-year t r i a l b a s i s o n l y and i f a t t h e end o f t h a t time s t a t i s t i c s do not show t h a t t h e l i b r a r y i s b e i n g f u l l y u t i l i z e d , a p p l i c a t i o n f o r w i t h d r a w a l w i l l be made i m m e d i a t e l y . ( F o s t e r 1957) B i r c h H i l l s had a c t u a l l y m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the agreement o f f e r e d by the r e g i o n , which  r e q u i r e d t h a t the v i l l a g e j o i n f o r a minimum of  y e a r s . Campbell exception  wrote to Donaldson  two  and G i l r o y , hoping t o make an  (Campbell 1957e). G i l r o y responded t h a t any d e c i s i o n t o  d e v i a t e from the standard c o n t r a c t would have to be made by the board, and warned t h a t making an e x c e p t i o n c o u l d s e t a precedent  ( G i l r o y 1957a).  In the new  dangerous  year, the B i r c h H i l l s  council  agreed t o the two-year term, under the pressure  of a l o c a l  lobby.  Campbell wrote t o Donaldson: I don't t h i n k we w i l l ever know what f i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d B i r c h H i l l s t o s i g n . A f t e r t h e i r l a s t d i s t u r b i n g l e t t e r I l o s t two n i g h t s s l e e p composing an answer (Campbell 1958a) For the s t a f f o f the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y , not  relief,  Albertville,  but a n x i e t y . When i n t e r e s t  the new growth brought  f l a r e d up i n the hamlet o f  some new problems opened up, and o l d ones re-opened.  Campbell w r i t e s : A l b e r t v i l l e i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t problem. I phoned Mr. MacGuire, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r o f t h e R.M. o f Buckland, t o g e t the m a t t e r s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t . He says t h a t i t i s a Hamlet, not o r g a n i z e d , and t h a t i t i s almost a l l i n the R.M. o f B u c k l a n d , but t h a t t h e s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d i n the R.M. o f Garden R i v e r . I f t h e r e i s enough i n t e r e s t i n the hamlet t o have a b r a n c h l i b r a r y e s t a b l i s h e d we would i m m e d i a t e l y run i n t o t h e problem of c o l l e c t i n g out o f t h e r e g i o n fees from most o f the p e o p l e . The o n l y s o l u t i o n seems t o be another campaign i n the R.M. o f B u c k l a n d , and t h i s one s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out l o c a l l y . I am c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o u r a g e d even w i t h the c h e e r f u l support o f Mr. MacGuire. (Campbell 1958c) Because A l b e r t v i l l e was a hamlet, without municipal  by-laws  the a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e  (as a v i l l a g e or town), i t c o u l d not j o i n the  l i b r a r y independently.  A branch l i b r a r y t h e r e , on the border between  Buckland and Garden R i v e r , would l i k e l y be used e q u a l l y by both RMs, causing  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s and awkward fees f o r h a l f o f the  u s e r s . From her d i s t a n c e i n Regina, Donaldson found i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e t o Campbell's a n x i e t y over such a t i n y  community:  I don't know what the answer i s t o A l b e r t v i l l e . . . I don't see why you s h o u l d f e e l d i s c o u r a g e d , so many new d i s t r i c t s have come i n t h a t I would t h i n k you have as much as you can h a n d l e . (Donaldson 1958, Feb 15) Soon, the Garden R i v e r RM s o l v e d the problem by withdrawing from the r e g i o n , s a y i n g t h a t , "there i s no reason belong  t o the Regional  why the R.M. should pay t o  L i b r a r y when people can get books f r e e from  Regina"  ( G i l r o y 1958a). While  they were b e t t e r o f f without  the North C e n t r a l board d e c i d e d t h a t t h i s "problem c h i l d "  G i l r o y went to work on the problem with the l o c a l G i l r o y ' s s t r a t e g y was  (Campbell  1958d),  advocates.  to c a p i t a l i z e on the f a c t t h a t Garden  R i v e r had a l r e a d y s i g n e d an agreement, and would r e q u i r e a minimum of s i x month's n o t i c e to withdraw. Therefore, the RM  was  to be  given  h a l f of a year's f r e e s e r v i c e , with the government o f f e r i n g a year's grant i n t h i s one  case. G i l r o y b e l i e v e d t h a t i n t e r e s t  full was  s t r o n g enough i n the community t h a t the c o u n c i l would f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o back out a f t e r the s e r v i c e had been d e l i v e r e d .  (Gilroy  1958a, 1958b). By the end of 1958,  the r e g i o n had s i g n e d on the towns of  Naicam, Nipawin, and T i s d a l e ; the RMs and the v i l l a g e s of Meath Park, Fox,  and  of Torch R i v e r and Canwood;  Canwood, C h o i c e l a n d , Wakaw, White  F l e t t ' s S p r i n g ; and had s o l i d p r o s p e c t s of s i g n i n g the town  of K i n i s t i n o ,  the RMs  v i l l a g e s of Weirdale,  of S p i r i t w o o d and Garden R i v e r , and Love, and Smeaton. The  the  region's population  s t a t i s t i c s over the years show a s t r o n g growth t r e n d , b e g i n n i n g a l e a p of 20,000 i n  1958:  Table 1 — Population Growth of North Central Saskatchewan Regional Library Year  Population of Region  1950  24,695  1951  25,345  1952  27,427  1953  28,728  1954  29,223  with  1955  29,531  1956  31,187  1957  31,764  1958  51,007  1959  53,000  1960  54,879  1961  63,648  1962  68,057  1963  74,752  1964  75,838  1965  79,613  1966  82,965  Source: N o r t h C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , Annual Reports 1951 - 1966, Saskatchewan A r c h i v e Board, Regina.  The  growth b e f o r e 1958  was  b a s i c a l l y the p o p u l a t i o n growth of  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The m a j o r i t y of the growth a f t e r 1958  was  due  of P r i n c e A l b e r t  to the i n c l u s i o n of the l a r g e r towns to the e a s t  (e.g., Nipawin, T i s d a l e ) , and the f a c t t h a t the  r e g i o n had r e l a x e d i t s p o s i t i o n on not "jumping over" o u t - o f - r e g i o n RMs .  9. Seeing i s Believing In 1963,  when the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y  had  e s t a b l i s h e d a s o l i d - growth t r e n d , and r e g i o n a l movements i n s e v e r a l areas of the p r o v i n c e were beginning to blossom, the  Provincial  L i b r a r y s t a f f arranged a bus tour of the r e g i o n f o r d e l e g a t e s the Southeast,  West C e n t r a l , and Qu'Appelle  V a l l e y areas.  from  Marian  Sherman greeted  delegates  at the new  headquarters b u i l d i n g  and  provided, an o u t l i n e o f the l i b r a r y ' s h i s t o r y from i t s shaky b e g i n n i n g i n 1951 w i t h 25,345 p e o p l e t o i t s p r e s e n t t o t a l o f 74,752 p e o p l e - and i t s worth so proven t h a t c o u n c i l s now come and r e q u e s t t o j o i n , i n s t e a d o f w a i t i n g t o be persuaded. ( F a f o r d 1963, 5) At a c e r t a i n p o i n t , the r e g i o n had s e r v i c e came to be The greeted  tour was  needs" reports  seen as a b a r g a i n  but we  r a t h e r than a burden.  taken to the town of T i s d a l e , where they were  by the mayor, who  sidewalks,  reached a c r i t i c a l mass where the  f e l t we  (Faford 1963,  s a i d : "we should  needed g r a v e l and  we  needed  take a long-range view of  6). Qu'Appelle v a l l e y advocate K.  our  Faford  that:  The L i b r a r y Board p r o u d l y showed us t h e 7,000 books housed i n t h e i r C i v i c C e n t r e . In a t i n y room b e h i n d t h e s h e l v e s f i l l e d w i t h t h e c o l o r f u l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y books, I d i s c o v e r e d t h e bookstock of the o r i g i n a l l i b r a r y . S t i l l t h e i r s , s t i l l f r e e t o c i r c u l a t e , but o u t - d a t e d , t o o few i n numbers, t o o r e s t r i c t e d i n t o p i c s t o s t i m u l a t e r e a d i n g demand, the faded volumes w a i t e d f o r t h e few r e a d e r s who came i n s e a r c h o f an o l d f a v o r i t e ( F a f o r d 1963, 6) In f u t u r e r e g i o n a l campaigns, s t a t i s t i c s  from T i s d a l e would  f r e q u e n t l y be used to show how  c i r c u l a t i o n r i s e s when a p u b l i c  l i b r a r y becomes hooked up to a  region.  Faford's  r e p o r t concludes with an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n f r o n t a t i o n  between advocate and m u n i c i p a l  councilor:  On t h e bus coming home I spoke t o a c o u n c i l l o r from a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i n the West C e n t r a l r e g i o n . 'You p e o p l e l o o k e d a t books and p e o p l e r e a d i n g books,' he t o l d me, 'but I had t o c o n s i d e r what we'd be g e t t i n g our p e o p l e i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r t a x money. I spent my time a s k i n g a l l t h e m u n i c i p a l men I met about t h i s . ' 'And - ?' I prompted. 'Oh,' he s a i d , 'I'm c o n v i n c e d . They l i k e the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , and i t works. Ask the Mayor o f T i s d a l e . ' "  Although l i b r a r y advocates w i l l requires a  (male) m u n i c i p a l  f i n d humour i n the i d e a t h a t i t  c o u n c i l o r to judge what people  are  g e t t i n g f o r t h e i r tax money, there i s a l s o a t r u t h r e v e a l e d t h a t most s o l i d and  r e l i a b l e argument i n the advocate's toolbox  is  the  indeed  the a l r e a d y s u c c e s s f u l l i b r a r y , with s p e c i a l bonus p o i n t s where a municipal  C  The  1 . Two  c o u n c i l o r i s w i l l i n g to  Southeast  Region  Cities  The  Southeast r e g i o n has  false starts, The  boast.  and  stops to development of the'necessary  r e g i o n i n c l u d e s two  populations  of 9,500 and  urban p o p u l a t i o n  an uneven h i s t o r y , with many s t a r t s ,  smaller c i t i e s , 8,200 i n 1964  Weyburn and  networks.  Estevan,  with  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a combined  s l i g h t l y higher than P r i n c e A l b e r t i n the  1950s. A l s o c o n t a i n i n g approximately f e r t i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n , and p r o v i n c e ' s major o i l p r o d u c t i o n  100  mid-  towns and v i l l a g e s ,  i t is a  s i n c e the 1950s has been the region.  As with the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , there were advocates f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n the southeast  w e l l before the Regional  D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y was the  first  c r e a t e d . On May  r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y experiment had been approved,  L i b r a r i a n Jesse Bothwell  1946,  when  Legislative  wrote to a t r u s t e e i n the P r i n c e A l b e r t  area t h a t P r i n c e A l b e r t i s the o n l y p l a c e t h a t has "although  9,  Library  the Weyburn people w i l l probably  evinced  become a c t i v e "  1946b). T h i s statement a p t l y d e s c r i b e s the p a t t e r n of  interest, (Bothwell  interest  around the Weyburn and regional l i b r a r i e s :  Estevan areas throughout the h i s t o r y of  sporadic  activism.  2. Advocacy i n the Southeast, In the  summer and  fall  1944  of 1944,  a l i b r a r i a n from T r o s s a c h s ,  Saskatchewan named Agnes Weweler formed a committee and vigorous  began a  campaign f o r a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y experiment i n the  southeast  p a r t of Saskatchewan, i n c l u d i n g l o c a l promotions, s o l i c i t a t i o n involvement from community o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  attempts at funding  the Carnegie and  and  National On  R o c k e f e l l e r foundations,  F i l m Board October 10,  a proposal  of from  for a  production. Weweler wrote to her main Saskatchewan  U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan P r o f e s s o r  and  on the Canada L i b r a r y C o u n c i l , Thomas R.  contact,  p r o v i n c i a l representative Barcus,  D u r i n g the p a s t week I was a b l e t o meet r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the C o u n c i l s , Boards o f Trade, e t c . a t E s t e v a n , Omega and R a d v i l l e , and at each c e n t e r t h e r e was a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y . Our committee would l i k e t o a p p l y t o the Canadian L i b r a r y C o u n c i l f o r a s u r v e y o f t h i s c o r n e r o f the p r o v i n c e . . . we would l i k e t o s e t up a d e l e g a t i o n from the Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n and our Committee, t o meet t h e Government f o r the purpose o f g e t t i n g some a c t i o n i n a r u r a l l i b r a r y program . . . J u s t r e c e i v e d e n c o u r a g i n g l e t t e r from t h e P r e m i e r . (Weweler, 1944a). T h i s l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s a very  r e s o u r c e f u l and  knowledgeable advocate,  doing groundwork s i m i l a r to G i l r o y ' s a c t i v i t i e s r e g i o n around 1948.  On  i n the North  October 13 she wrote to the SLA  committee wish to approach the Government r e g a r d i n g legislation was  for regional l i b r a r i e s "  made more than a year before  that  "our  enabling  (Weweler, 1944b). T h i s  Bothwell and  Central  proposal  the newly formed  L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l made a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l t h a t l e d t o the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s Act o f 1946. the  In l i g h t o f Bothwell's comment about  Weyburn people becoming a c t i v e ,  l i b r a r y development  i n Saskatchewan  i t demonstrates  that' r e g i o n a l  was a g r a s s r o o t s i n i t i a t i v e .  While Weweler's campaign was s p i r i t e d and d a r i n g , her e f f o r t s were h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Because her campaign was conducted on b e h a l f o f h e r own  r e g i o n , and l a c k e d a v i s i o n  f o r the p r o v i n c e , i t became  a l i e n a t e d from key p r o v i n c i a l advocates, i n c l u d i n g the SLA.  Around  October 14, Barcus wrote t o Weweler t h a t he was s k e p t i c a l about the Canada L i b r a r y C o u n c i l p r o v i d i n g funding, but t h a t the Saskatoon branch o f the SLA had moved t o a s s i s t  the  Weyburn-Trossachs  Committee, and t o a s s i s t i n i m p r e s s i n g t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government w i t h t h e need f o r a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y system f o r t h e whole p r o v i n c e . I f e e l t h a t we s h o u l d not l o s e s i g h t o f our u l t i m a t e g o a l o f a l i b r a r y system f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e as o u t l i n e d i n t h e S.L.A.'s B r i e f t o our R e c o n s t r u c t i o n C o u n c i l . (Barcus 1944a) At  the same time, the SLA was p r o p o s i n g a survey commission t o  "institute  a R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Experiment with a view t o l a t e r  a p p l y i n g the scheme on a province-wide b a s i s " October and e a r l y November o f 1944, B e l l each met with Premier Douglas  ( B e l l 1944a).  In l a t e  Weweler and SLA p r e s i d e n t Emma s e p a r a t e l y t o propose  legislation  to enable a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y experiment. Before Weweler's meeting, Bell  found i t prudent t o send a memo t o the Premier,  cautioning  a g a i n s t q u i c k l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would h i n d e r the province-wide p l a n , and s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a survey be commissioned Presumably,  first  (Bell  1944b).  Weweler proposed quick l e g i s l a t i o n and an experiment i n  the southeast  area. In the end, the survey was conducted  of  the Regional Supevisor's. province-wide  It  is difficult  survey  i n the form  i n 1946 and 1947.  t o a s c e r t a i n i f the competing p r o p o s a l s i n 1944  damaged the movement, and t o what extent. Years  later,  Superintendent  i n 1956, Marion G i l r o y would meet J.D.  o f Schools  Robertson,  i n Weyburn, who spoke o f  the e f f o r t s o f a Mrs. Weler [ s i c ] , a l i b r a r i a n who had l i v e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t i n 1944-45, t o get a C a r n e g i e g r a n t t o p u t i n a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y t h e r e . The C a r n e g i e C o r p o r a t i o n a t t h a t time was not g i v i n g g r a n t s f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y d e m o n s t r a t i o n s so t h e movement had c o l l a p s e d . ( G i l r o y 1956c) The Weweler campaign, p r e s e r v e d i n the SLA a r c h i v e s , p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e window i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s about r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n the p r o v i n c e w e l l b e f o r e the appointment o f the LAC, the f o r m a t i o n of  the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , and the appointment o f a r e g i o n a l  s u p e r v i s o r . I t demonstrates the p e r s i s t e n c e o f the province-wide p l a n from an e a r l y date, and a remarkable c o n s i s t e n c y o f c e r t a i n proposals  for' l e g i s l a t i o n and funding. For example, a f t e r her  meeting with the Premier,  Weweler wrote t o B e l l ,  I b e l i e v e t h a t when l e g i s l a t i o n f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i s p r o v i d e d , i t w i l l be i n l i n e w i t h t h a t o f Nova S c o t i a r e g a r d i n g government s u p p o r t . The d o l l a r f o r d o l l a r p l a n i s the b e s t i n c e n t i v e f o r l o c a l s u p p o r t . (Weweler 1944c) It  i s n o t a b l e t h a t i n 1944 l i b r a r y advocates  were a l r e a d y  proposing  the matching grant system t h a t would e v e n t u a l l y become the b a s i s f o r funding i n a l l o f the r e g i o n s .  3. Fluctuations, 1958-1961 In August o f 1958 the Weyburn  Review  with the h e a d l i n e "Dream f o r Southeast  f e a t u r e d a huge a r t i c l e  Sask L i e s i n P o s i t i v e  Approach of 90,000 R e s i d e n t s "  27  The  a r t i c l e o u t l i n e d the kinds of  s e r v i c e a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y can o f f e r , and urged the p u b l i c t o o r g a n i z e a committee. Subheadings were "Can  be E s t a b l i s h e d i n  and "Spark Needed to F i r e Machine." T h i s l a s t phrase  1959"  proved  p r o p h e t i c , as many people and groups were e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n the Southeast  d u r i n g t h a t time, but none w i t h  s u f f i c i e n t m o t i v a t i o n to spark a movement. P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n Mary Donaldson r e c e i v e d t r i c k l e s l e t t e r s concerning r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s  of  from v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s ,  c o u n c i l s , and agencies i n the southeast area throughout  the  late  1950s and e a r l y 1960s. Donaldson, always a l e r t to the l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e , p o s s i b l e grant s t r u c t u r e s , and suggestions f o r advocacy, p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as homemaker c l u b and the t e a c h e r conventions. She Putnam a l s o had area.  and E x t e n s i o n L i b r a r i a n  frequent speaking engagements i n the  Donalda  southeast  2 8  In June of 1959,  the Estevan Chamber of Commerce passed a  r e s o l u t i o n to work toward r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n the southeast formed a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y committee, with J.N. convener Leader  (Donaldson  Post.  1959a). The meeting was  as  covered i n the June 19  Donaldson c o n t a c t e d Dyer immediately,  of the Act and R e g u l a t i o n s , annual Region,  Dyer of Estevan  and  sending  copies  r e p o r t s from the North C e n t r a l  a t e n t a t i v e budget, s e v e r a l c u r r e n t a r t i c l e s on r e g i o n a l  libraries,  and i n v i t i n g him to c o n t a c t h e r s e l f or Putnam f o r a d v i c e  (Donaldson  1959c).  Four months l a t e r ,  on October 14, Dyer wrote to Donaldson  e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he had not t a c k l e d the Estevan c i t y c o u n c i l yet because of bad t i m i n g . The o l d F i r e H a l l was was  to be c l o s e d , and Dyer  c e r t a i n t h a t the c o u n c i l , i f approached, would p l a c e  there,  despite  the f a c t t h a t i t was  the l i b r a r y  a poor l o c a t i o n (Dyer 1959).  Donaldson must have taken t h i s as a s i g n t h a t the movement had steam. On October 28, she wrote to her Wawota  lost  contact:  How I w i s h I c o u l d t e l l you t h e approximate date, even f o r a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y meeting t o c o n s i d e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i n the south-east part of the province. The i n t e r e s t i n Weyburn keeps f l u c t u a t i n g and a t t h e moment nobody seems t o be p r e s s i n g . I n E s t e v a n , Mr. J.N. Dyer was a p p o i n t e d by t h e l o c a l Chamber o f Commerce t o s e l e c t and c h a i r h i s own committee. I had a l e t t e r from him t h e o t h e r day. He has been busy and as f a r as I know had not s e t up a committee. I r e a l l y don't t h i n k t h a t much p r o g r e s s i s b e i n g made. I f t h e Community Development C o u n c i l o f Wawota, t h e Chamber of Commerce, Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n o r any o t h e r group would s t a r t s t i m u l a t i n g some r e g i o n a l i n t e r e s t o r perhaps even w r i t e a l e t t e r t o Mr. Dyer, I t h i n k perhaps i t would g i v e him some encouragement. (Donaldson 1959d) By November 1960, f a r t h e r north sent  Donaldson had made a new  s e t of  contacts  and saw encouraging signs of l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t . She  25 l e a f l e t s to the c h a i r of the P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board i n  Moosomin, mentioning other writing  contacts  i n M e l v i l l e and  Broadview,  that  T h i s a l l l o o k s e n c o u r a g i n g . Maybe we w i l l have a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y o r even two r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n t h e e a s t e r n p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h i n t h e next f i v e y e a r s . (Donaldson 1960b) In the meantime, the T r a v e l l i n g L i b r a r i e s s e r v i c e P r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y was providing province  discontinued  2 9  of the  permanently on A p r i l  15,  1961,  Donaldson with a f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e f o r readers around the to become r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a c t i v i s t s  (Donaldson 1961a).  By l a t e 1961,  i n t e r e s t seemed to be on the r i s e a g a i n . Another  Estevan group, l e d by p u b l i c l i b r a r y board c h a i r Mrs. had h e l d a meeting with p u b l i c i t y from the Leader  K.W.  Post.  30  Turner, Donaldson  began to r e f e r southeast i n q u i r i e s to Ida Peterson of Estevan James P o r t e r , C h a i r of the Weyburn P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board  and  (Donaldson  1961a).  4. The 1962 In  Committee  January  of 1962,  Peterson and Turner c a l l e d v a r i o u s  i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s together to form another L i b r a r y Committee. A r t Forgay of Estevan was  Southeast  Regional  e l e c t e d c h a i r and James  P o r t e r of Weyburn s e c r e t a r y . The  Weyburn  the new  and a p o s i t i v e follow-up  committee on January  25,  Review  ran p u b l i c i t y f o r editorial  on March 1. By the end of March i t had become obvious t o Donaldson t h a t P o r t e r would be the one southeast  f i n a l l y to l e a d a s u s t a i n e d movement i n the  (Porter 1962a, Donaldson 1962a, Donaldson 1962b).  He  immediately  began a vigorous m a i l campaign, some l e t t e r s  "to  i n p o s i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " and o t h e r s d i r e c t e d at  persons  addressed  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . P o r t e r ' s advocacy l e t t e r s were e n e r g e t i c , emphatic, and at times, a g g r e s s i v e : not a l l those who would l e a r n l i v e i n some f a r - o f f c i t y o r u n i v e r s i t y - some o f them, e s p e c i a l l y the good ones, t h e young ones, l i v e r i g h t here among us! And we a l l must g i v e them t h e o p p o r t u n i t y they must have i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e i r aims t o improve t h e w o r l d . We a r e the o n l y ones who can h e l p them! And perhaps i t i s our r o l e i n l i f e t o do j u s t t h a t . ( P o r t e r 1962a) In  some cases, P o r t e r ' s tone and s t y l e are aimed at a r e a d i n g p u b l i c  t h a t i s e n t h u s i a s t i c but p a s s i v e . His l e t t e r s ,  f r e q u e n t l y u s i n g the  second person, seem to reach r i g h t out of the page and reader  tug  the  into action:  I f you haven't y e t brought t h i s m a t t e r b e f o r e a m e e t i n g - o r s e v e r a l m e e t i n g s , do i t r i g h t away! Read some o f t h e s e l e t t e r s t o t h e m e e t i n g s , t o o . You s h o u l d get some q u e s t i o n s you can't answer - t o pass on t o us. Or you s h o u l d get some r e q u e s t s f o r a m e e t i n g a t which we can get h e l p f o r you! L e t us know t h e response! ( P o r t e r 1962b) He  a l s o t r i e s to grab community l e a d e r s r i g h t i n t h e i r  vulnerable  conscience : A p e r s o n cannot p i c k h i m s e l f up by h i s b o o t s t r a p s , but a n a t i o n must p i c k i t s e l f up by i t s youth! We do p r o v i d e t h e s c h o o l s , but we must a l s o p r o v i d e the e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t p u b l i c l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s t h a t not o n l y f o s t e r but p e r m i t p r o g r e s s ! ( P o r t e r 1962c) On May and  14,  1962,  t a k i n g notes,  the committee met  i n Estevan,  G i l r o y present  with the purpose of d i s c u s s i n g how  to enlarge  committee to i n c l u d e members from every p a r t of the Representatives  the  region.  from s i x d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the r e g i o n were  present.  Names of v a r i o u s community groups, boards, c l u b s , and media o u t l e t s were r a i s e d . The meeting notes c o n t a i n an e x t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l s to r e c r u i t  list  of  from communities not yet r e p r e s e n t e d  (Gilroy  1962b). G i l r o y l a t e r wrote to Putnam, We have sent out hundreds o f l e t t e r s i n Mr. P o r t e r ' s name, t r y i n g t o get a l a r g e r and more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e committee. I found t h a t t h e y needed l o t s o f h e l p and welcomed s u g g e s t i o n s when I was t h e r e i n May ( G i l r o y 1962a). The  presence of both G i l r o y and  P o r t e r must have been a  powerful  one-two punch to urge members i n t o a c t i o n . From the o u t s e t , the campaign was as the minimum p o p u l a t i o n ,  r e p r e s e n t i n g approximately  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the r e g i o n seemed daunting  run on the b a s i s of 40,000  to some, but  h a l f of  (Porter 1962e). T h i s f i g u r e may  i f achieved,  the have  such a p o p u l a t i o n would  ensure a h e a l t h y , library  strong l i b r a r y ,  capable of p r o v i d i n g good modern  s e r v i c e from the o u t s e t . The  goal of 40,000 a l s o gave the  committee impetus to expand to a l l p a r t s of the r e g i o n at once, r a t h e r than moving i n c r e m e n t a l l y outward from i t s urban c e n t r e ( s ) , as the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n  had.  P u b l i c meetings were h e l d i n June i n Estevan and  November i n  Weyburn, both f e a t u r i n g Donalda Putnam as guest speaker, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the media i n attendance. The attended The  by 28 d e l e g a t e s ,  and  with  June 28 meeting  covered i n the Leader  was  Post.  31  column r e i t e r a t e d some l e s s o n s t h a t had been l e a r n e d d u r i n g  campaigns i n the North C e n t r a l  the  region:  I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t demand f o r a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y w i l l have t o come from p e o p l e and be made t o t h e i r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . I t was suggested s e r v i c e c l u b s and o t h e r community groups be encouraged t o pass motions i n f a v o r o f a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y and n o t i f y t h e i r l o c a l c o u n c i l s . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d a g r e a t number o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the proposed r e g i o n a r e a l r e a d y i n f a v o r o f r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s e r v i c e and would welcome p e t i t i o n s and d e l e g a t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g i t . 3 2  The  November meeting was  r e p o r t of the year's members had and  one  attended  by  town c o u n c i l had first  p e r s i s t e n t l y and  communities, and  time, a southeast  movement was  g a t h e r i n g momentum. The  crop year i n Saskatchewan  (Archer  P o r t e r ' s c e n t r a l mail-out  1980,  seeds sown by the 1962  favour.  RM 33  growing  f i e l d s themselves a l s o must  319).  was  For 1963  a record and most of  campaign would pause i n order  a l l o w the networks of l o c a l a c t i v i s m to sprout from the  t h a t one  a l r e a d y passed r e s o l u t i o n s i n  have c o n t r i b u t e d to the l i b r a r y ' s momentum, as 1963  1964,  Forgay gave a  a c t i v i t i e s , emphasizing t h a t many committee  been a c t i v e i n t h e i r own  For the  37 d e l e g a t e s .  committee.  across  the  to  region,  5. Change of Government In January of 1964,  Mayor T.G.  Laing of Weyburn d e c l a r e d  on the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p o l i c i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l government,  war saying  t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s put the r e s t the p r o v i n c e  at a d i s a d v a n t a g e .  34  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s s u e i s a world p r o c e s s i n g and  Although t h i s s i d e of  i t s e l f became a r a l l y i n g c r y i n the southeast  The  hero i n 1964  tendencies  the  away from the type of c e n t r a l i z e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n used by r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s ,  the time of the 1964  of  the word  of Saskatchewan around  election. f o r a l l those who  of the government was  opposed the  Ross Thatcher,  centralization  l e a d e r of  the  L i b e r a l Party of Saskatchewan. Thatcher ran a campaign which p i t t e d liberal 115).  " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " a g a i n s t CCF  He  "socialism" (Eisler  s e i z e d upon the i s s u e of " l a r g e r u n i t s " and m o b i l i z e d  resentment at the t h r e a t to l o c a l autonomy the CCF  boasted  f r e e , and  rural  133).  While  4,000 m i l e s  dust-  a highway system extended to La Ronge," as w e l l as "65,000  r e s i s t a n c e to m u n i c i p a l  strengthened,local  (Archer  Once i n o f f i c e ,  313),  government  the day. (Archer  i t was  rural  fight for In A p r i l of  1964,  1980, -316) .  Ross Thatcher made c o n t r o l of government  spending h i s top p r i o r i t y the P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r ( E i s l e r 1987,  1980,  r e s t r u c t u r i n g and  government t h a t won  the L i b e r a l s became the new  payments  ( E i s l e r 1987,  "9,200 m i l e s of highway graded and  farm houses served by e l e c t r i c i t y " areas'  1987,  ( E i s l e r 1987,  139),  even making  himself  i n order to e x e r c i s e complete c o n t r o l over  158).  A l l Cabinet  M i n i s t e r s were asked,  on  t h r e a t of d i s m i s s a l , to cut departments by at l e a s t 10% 1987,  (Eisler  141). Thatcher and  p o l i c y regarding  the L i b e r a l s d i d not d e c l a r e any p a r t i c u l a r l i b r a r i e s e i t h e r before,  e l e c t i o n . Advocates may Cuelenare, the  policies,  former mayor of P r i n c e A l b e r t who  Resources. In any or the RMs'  or a f t e r the  have taken i t as a p o s i t i v e s i g n t h a t John  e s t a b l i s h i n g the North C e n t r a l Regional of N a t u r a l  during,  case,  was  instrumental  L i b r a r y , was  in  named M i n i s t e r  i f the L i b e r a l s ' c o s t - c u t t i n g  resistance against  p r o v i n c i a l t h r e a t to l o c a l autonomy was  " l a r g e r u n i t s " and  the  an o b s t a c l e to r e g i o n a l  l i b r a r y development, i t d i d n ' t deter James P o r t e r .  6. The Porter Campaign, 1964-65 In the  fall  mass m a i l - o u t s municipal  across  James P o r t e r began a second s e r i e s of  the southeast  councils directly,  the g e n e r a l Regional  of 1964,  r e g i o n , t h i s time  addressing  r a t h e r than j u s t l o c a l advocates  p u b l i c . In the meantime, members of the  and  Southeast  L i b r a r y Committee, or of l o c a l committees, were to have  v i s i t e d as many c o u n c i l meetings as p o s s i b l e . By November, c o u n c i l s representing but  a population  of 14,700, i n c l u d i n g the c i t y of Weyburn,  not Estevan, had passed r e s o l u t i o n s . P o r t e r addressed the c o u n c i l s i n a s i m i l a r way  general  campaign of  to the more  1962:  You, b e i n g a member o f a C o u n c i l , are charged w i t h many i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s , and e n s u r i n g t h a t our p e o p l e get v a l u e f o r t h e i r d o l l a r s i s , p r o b a b l y , as i m p o r t a n t as any! . . . F o r t u n a t e l y you, b e i n g a l e a d e r o f your p e o p l e , are aware t h a t t h e r e i s a v i t a l p l a c e i n our communities f o r good l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . . . There i s o n l y one way f o r us i n a s p a r s e l y  p o p u l a t e d a r e a such as ours t o o b t a i n r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y s e t - u p . . . And the get your c o u n c i l t o pass a r e s o l u t i o n up and send a copy o f t h a t r e s o l u t i o n  good l i b r a r y s e r v i c e : a o n l y way i s f o r you t o i n f a v o u r o f such a s e t t o me. ( P o r t e r 1964a)  Again, P o r t e r uses g u i l t and f l a t t e r y i n the manner o f a hard salesman. H i s d i r e c t address and overuse of emphasis a t t a c k the reader, can  perhaps d e t e r r i n g some, but c e r t a i n l y m o b i l i z i n g those who  agree with the l i b r a r y p l a n i n p r i n c i p l e . P o r t e r a l s o demands more work from advocates whose c o u n c i l s  are a l r e a d y  on s i d e . He a t t a c k s  t h e i r conscience w i t h a p o i n t i n g  finger,, i n the manner o f a m i l i t a r y recruitment become a c t i v e again you,  poster:  "now we must  t o add some o f the r u r a l and urban c o u n c i l s near  and f o r t h i s we need your h e l p " By t h i s time, he has d e v i s e d  approaching c o u n c i l s . F i r s t ,  (Porter 1964c).  a somewhat e l a b o r a t e  i t i s desirable that  strategy f o r  disagreeable  c o u n c i l o r s are approached by l o c a l clubs or groups. F a i l i n g the best o p t i o n  that,  i s f o r groups o f two or three, who between them know  all  o f the members o f a c e r t a i n c o u n c i l t o approach t h a t c o u n c i l .  The  task o f the advocates, then, i s t o assemble such a group,  it  on the i s s u e , and i f p o s s i b l e , accompany i t t o the meeting  brief  (Porter 1964c). At the b e g i n n i n g of December, the Estevan C o u n c i l passed a r e s o l u t i o n , b r i n g i n g the p o p u l a t i o n  of the r e g i o n t o 22,931, more  than h a l f o f the r e q u i r e d 40,000, and i n c l u d i n g two c i t i e s , town, two v i l l a g e s , total,  one  and four RMs. The second h a l f o f the p o p u l a t i o n  though, would n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y o f s m a l l e r  communities, and c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more d i f f i c u l t  t o achieve.  So  Porter, prepared another round of l e t t e r s ,  population  f i g u r e as leverage.  using  the  new  As he wrote to the c i t y c l e r k of  Estevan, I b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h the s u p p o r t o f E s t e v a n we can now e x p e c t p o s i t i v e a c t i o n on the p a r t o f a d j a c e n t towns and r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and soon a t t a i n our g o a l o f 40,000 p e r s o n s . ( P o r t e r 1964d) His next m a i l - o u t type-face), board and  to c o u n c i l s was  longer  (a f u l l page i n a  emphasizing t h a t the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i s run by  operated by  l o c a l branches, and  its  speaking at l e n g t h on  proven success of the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n a f t e r i t was Typically,  smaller own the  established.  P o r t e r a l s o attempts to provoke the c o u n c i l i n t o a c t i o n :  The o n l y way a R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y can come i n t o b e i n g i s f o r us to ask f o r i t . T h i s can come about i n e i t h e r o f two main ways: (a) i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s can "push" t h e i r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l u n t i l i t passes a r e s o l u t i o n . (b) f o r w a r d - t h i n k i n g m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s who want t o h e l p keep t h e i r p e o p l e by p r o v i d i n g some o f the s e r v i c e s o f a c i t y , can i n i t i a t e the r e s o l u t i o n . ( P o r t e r 1964b) There i s a c e r t a i n f a l s e n e s s i n P o r t e r ' s stage,  attempt at f l a t t e r y at  as a l l of the c o u n c i l s , e s p e c i a l l y those who  agreement, had  a l r e a d y been "pushed." He  s t a t i n g t h a t i t was  only  this  showed signs  even c l o s e s the l e t t e r  of by  sent out to those c o u n c i l s t h a t were most  l i k e l y to j o i n , based on an estimate of t h e i r expressed i n t e r e s t . Porter's  l e t t e r s became more a g g r e s s i v e  campaign approached i t s goal of signed m u n i c i p a l i t i e s representing  by degree as  the  agreements from  more t h a t 40,000 people. In January,  wrote to h i s network of advocates: I t ' s ready t o push over the t o p ! . . . You are q u i t e l i k e l y the p e r s o n i n your community who can o b t a i n your c o u n c i l ' s f a v o r a b l e r e s o l u t i o n . You are q u i t e p o s s i b l y the p e r s o n who, by b r i n g i n g i n the one more (only 12 or more a d d i t i o n a l c o u n c i l s , i f t h e y ' r e the r i g h t ones, w i l l t u r n t h e t r i c k )  he  c o u n c i l , can make a R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y i n S o u t h e a s t e r n Saskatchewan a r e a l i t y . ( P o r t e r 1965b) J u s t as P o r t e r i s seeking need pushing, he letter  3 5  out  forward-thinking  c o u n c i l s t h a t do  implores the p u b l i c to push even harder. Another  t h a t can be dated around February of 1965  councilors personally, public l i f e ,  and  not  how  expressing  how  few  appeals to  rewards there  r a r e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  are,  l a s t i n g s e r v i c e t h a t w i l l always be a p p r e c i a t e d " l e t t e r c l o s e s with a m i l d  36  are  in  "to do a r e a l  and  (Porter 1965f).  The  threat:  For your own b e n e f i t , p l e a s e note t h a t once t h e a r e a i s formed i t i s more d i f f i c u l t t o j o i n than now ( t h e y ' r e w a i t i n g t h e i r t u r n i n t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l a r e a p r e s e n t l y ) . ( P o r t e r 1965f) In the e a r l y months of 1965  P o r t e r went on the  p e r s o n a l l y v i s i t i n g many of the c o u n c i l s he had followed  i t up with yet more m a i l - o u t s ,  p r o g r e s s r e p o r t , and had  visited,  and  two  letters:  the other  now  had  r e s o l u t i o n s from seven RMs  demonstrating t h a t the campaign was  1980, out  from the  319).  The  i n stronger  He  general  d i r e c t e d at m u n i c i p a l i t i e s he not.  The  progress  report  of the r e g i o n at 26,011, having gained  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s i n c e December  w i t h help  been w r i t i n g t o .  sending out a  to those he had  s t a t e d the c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n four new  one  road,  (Porter 1965i).  (and only two  The  committee  towns),  working i n r u r a l areas,  s u c c e s s f u l harvests  of the mid-1960s  r e p o r t r e i t e r a t e d the t h r e a t of the  perhaps  (Archer  February m a i l -  words:  as soon as the r e q u i r e d t o t a l of 40,000 persons i s a t t a i n e d we w i l l p r o b a b l y s t o p s o l i c i t i n g and your p e o p l e might have t o w a i t f o r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . ( P o r t e r 1965i) . Porter's those he had  follow-up  l e t t e r s to c o u n c i l s he had  not v i s i t e d , were sent on A p r i l 20,  visited,  1965.  This  and mail-out  exaggerated the progress  of the r e g i o n , implying t h a t the c o u n c i l s  were being g i v i n g a f i n a l questionnaires  opportunity  to gauge p r o g r e s s .  The  to j o i n ,  and  including brief  questionnaires  essentially  asked i f the c o u n c i l had passed a r e s o l u t i o n , were going  to pass a  r e s o l u t i o n , or were seeking more feedback or i n f o r m a t i o n .  (Porter  1965c, P o r t e r 1965d) For a l l of i t s aggressiveness,  t e n a c i t y , and r e p e t i t i v e n e s s ,  the  P o r t e r campaign proved s u c c e s s f u l . The  and  June  ( i n yet two  populations  more mass mail-outs  of 31,774 (Porter 1965e) and  committee r e p o r t e d i n  to m u n i c i p a l  May  councils)  37,160 (Porter 1965h), a  remarkable achievement i n a very s h o r t time, when compared to developments i n other r e g i o n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t of the success aggressive  to s p e c u l a t e how  of the Southeast committee i s due  s t r a t e g y , and how  much i s due  to  Porter's  to the wealth of  the  r e g i o n , or, where compared to the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , to leverage  much  the  gained by the e x i s t e n c e of an a l r e a d y s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n .  In 1968,  James P o r t e r would become the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t of  Saskatchewan L i b r a r y T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , and advocate f o r Saskatchewan l i b r a r i e s  the  remained a s t r o n g  f o r many years  (Saskatchewan  L i b r a r y T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , Appendix 1).  7 . Amalgamation with Qu'Appelle Valley As  the Southeast Regional  L i b r a r y Committee fought  around the Weyburn-Estevan area, a p a r a l l e l development happening to the north,  for was  i n the Qu'Appelle V a l l e y . At times  movements even overlapped  (Donaldson 1962c). The  support-  the  Qu'Appelle V a l l e y  r e g i o n began i n Esterhazy,  and  Qu'Appelle R i v e r v a l l e y ' and Kipling,  and  the No.  growing mostly along 1 Highway, as  the  f a r south'as  l o o k i n g to spread northward toward Yorkton, where yet  another committee was become the  was  Parkland  w e l l on i t s way  to developing  Regional L i b r a r y . An  what would  a r t i c l e i n the Leader  Post  from November, 1963  ( w r i t t e n by a member of the Qu'Appelle V a l l e y  committee) captured  the  happenings:  There i s a b a t t l e b e i n g waged i n e a s t e r n Saskatchewan. I t i s b e i n g fought by t e a c h e r s , farmers, m i n i s t e r s , m i n e r s , and housewives. I t i s a b a t t l e f o r books. For almost a year now i t has been a q u i e t campaign, conducted i n s m a l l towns and v i l l a g e s , but i t i s g a i n i n g momentum and i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t a f u l l - s c a l e b a t t l e i s about t o be j o i n e d . 3 7  But  by e a r l y 1965,  considerable  the Qu'Appelle V a l l e y committee was  disadvantage i n t h e i r region's  finding  l a c k of c i t i e s . At  their  February 24 meeting, the committee approved a recommendation f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y  Council:  That when c o u n c i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g 25,000 p e o p l e i n any s u i t a b l e a r e a have j o i n e d t o form a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y , the M i n i s t e r s h a l l d e c l a r e t h e whole area t o be i n c l u d e d i n a R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y . (Committee f o r Qu'Appelle V a l l e y R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1965a) P o s s i b l y , the committee was  l o o k i n g f o r experimental s t a t u s , as w i t h  the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , hoping to c o n s o l i d a t e core. if  Such a p l a n , however, was  the  the r e g i o n around a  u n l i k e l y to be approved, e s p e c i a l l y  " c o r e " m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were s c a t t e r e d around the  Meanwhile, on A p r i l 21, members w i t h an  James P o r t e r contacted  area.  h i s committee  Idea:  The more I work on t h i s r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y program, t h e moire I wonder about t h e s i z e of the proposed r e g i o n s . . . I am wondering whether or not you c o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m b i n i n g e f f o r t s , because I t h i n k b o t h o f us may now be w o r k i n g a g a i n s t g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s . . . A l s o , I b e l i e v e t h a t two u l t i m a t e  r e g i o n s of 100,000 or more persons w i l l p r o v i d e a s u p e r i o r s e r v i c e t h a n c o u l d t h r e e u l t i m a t e r e g i o n s a v e r a g i n g 60,000 t o 70,000 p e r s o n s . Such a combining of f o r c e s w i l l ensure t h a t n e i t h e r your p e o p l e nor ours w i l l have wasted our time thus f a r - and w i l l a l s o ensure t h a t t h e s e r v i c e can d e f i n i t e l y commence i n January 1966 - which would be t o everyone's s a t i s f a c t i o n ! At t h e moment our r e g i o n has r e c e i v e d commitments from the c o u n c i l s r e p r e s e n t i n g over 27,000 p e o p l e , or 65% o f our o b j e c t i v e . I expect t h a t by t h e end of June we s h a l l r e a c h our o b j e c t i v e , but i f we do i t w i l l i n c l u d e a number of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s common t o b o t h our proposed a r e a s . ( P o r t e r 1965g) It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t Porter would make such a p r o p o s a l  when the  area he had  been working f o r was  at a moment  i n a r a p i d growth phase.  His numbers make sense, as some standards recommend l i b r a r i e s populations  of a minimum of 100,000 p e r s o n s .  38  Mary Donaldson  agreed, w r i t i n g to both committees on A p r i l 26 to encourage merger  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y a l s o c i r c u l a t e d to' committee members  of " f a v o u r a b l e  s t a t e d t h a t the  p o i n t s " and  "doubtful  p o i n t s . " The  of some c o u n c i l s r e v e r s i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s Qu'Appelle r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a r e a s ) . The showed t h a t the merger would c r e a t e  create  the d i s t a n c e the  centre  avert  list  provide  the  danger  (Merger of Southeast &  l i s t of d o u b t f u l  points  a "bulky board," with many more  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p o s s i b l y cause a problem r e g a r d i n g location,  first  l a r g e r r e g i o n would be e s t a b l i s h e d q u i c k e r ,  a sounder f i n a n c i a l base, save money on s t a f f , and  in  the  (Donaldson 1965).  The lists  serve  the  headquarters  the need to r e - e n l i s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and  increase  between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with a l a r g e of the  regional library  region  areas)  (Merger of Southeast & Qu'Appelle  gap  L i k e l y the q u i c k e r  s t a r t - u p date and  were the major f a c t o r s . In any  case,  "sounder f i n a n c i a l  on May  12,  the  base"  Qu'Appelle  V a l l e y committee passed a r e s o l u t i o n , That t h e Qu'Appelle V a l l e y r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y j o i n w i t h t h e Weyburn-Estevan area t o form one l a r g e r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y w i t h s u f f i c i e n t no. c o u n c i l s s i g n e d up t o get t h e l i b r a r y under way i n 1966, i f , a l l c o u n c i l s who j o i n the Q.V.R.L. w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n the l i b r a r y s e r v i c e (Committee f o r Qu'Appelle V a l l e y R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y 1965b). The  population  of the combined r e g i o n i n June was  from the o r i g i n a l Southeast r e g i o n and r e g i o n . The  r e g i o n was  (Southeast  24,000 from the v a l l e y  d e c l a r e d by M i n i s t e r i n charge of L i b r a r i e s  George Trapp on November 13, 1966  63,975: 40,000  1965,  and began o p e r a t i o n by June of  Saskatchewan Regional  L i b r a r y Committee 1967). At  the time of the o f f i c i a l opening of the r e g i o n a l headquarters i n June, 1967,  the r e g i o n had  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w a i t i n g to  8.  I t can  be  Saskatchewan Regional had  entitled,  join.  done, b e c a u s e we  James P o r t e r was  dust  r e c e i v e d s e v e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n s from 3 9  did i t  e l e c t e d f i r s t Chairman of the L i b r a r y Board. On October 27,  s e t t l e d on the new  region,  southeast for  campaign, and  anyone wishing The  first  1965,  before  d i d i t " (Porter 1965a). In  the recent h i s t o r y of  the  o u t l i n e s an i n v a l u a b l e set of i n s t r u c t i o n s  to form a f u t u r e  step, a c c o r d i n g  region.  to P o r t e r , i s to " e s t a b l i s h . . .  s t e e r i n g committee of r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d persons to work i n the p a r t i c u l a r area"  the  P o r t e r wrote a 3-page r e p o r t  " I t can be done, because we  t h i s b r i e f r e p o r t , P o r t e r recounts  Southeastern  (Porter 1965a). F o l l o w i n g  this,  the  committee  a  should  run a widely  based "education"  program, by which P o r t e r means  a l l - o u t campaign, i n c l u d i n g m a i l - o u t s ,  meetings, and mass media.  P o r t e r a l s o remarks t h a t , T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l phase r e q u i r e s some f i n e s s e or management, because p e r s o n n e l (and e s p e c i a l l y e x e c u t i v e s ) or o r g a n i z a t i o n s does change. T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the program o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e s a p e r i o d o f time t o reach enough p e o p l e , i t s h o u l d a l s o be kept s h o r t enough t o be w i t h i n t h e terms o f o f f i c e o f a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e o f f i c e r s . ( P o r t e r 1965a) P o r t e r c a l l s the second phase of the program  "enlistment,"  meaning the s o l i c i t a t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n s from m u n i c i p a l most important aspect  of t h i s stage,  for Porter,  councils.  i s that  "every  member of the s t e e r i n g committee f u l l y understand the concept the  f u n c t i o n i n g of a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y " P o r t e r makes one  enlisting,  t h a t "you  provocative  and  (Porter 1965a).  statement on the matter of  never f o r c e the i s s u e to a showdown; i f you  don't get a favourable back to the  The  a c t i o n from any  local residents  c o u n c i l , stop  for reinforcements"  there  and  go  (Porter 1965a). T h i s  i s where P o r t e r perhaps most departs from the t a c t i c s used i n the North C e n t r a l Region, where matters were o f t e n pushed to a  municipal  plebiscite. T h i s departure, though, may than p o l i t i c a l  s t y l e . Once a r e g i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , there  advantage to f o c u s i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . On  considerable  the other  l i k e l y have seemed odd, 1940s or 50s,  be more a d i f f e r e n c e of s i t u a t i o n  with no  and  i s more  a t t e n t i o n on a small number of  hand, a P o r t e r - s t y l e campaign would u l t i m a t e l y been u n s u c c e s s f u l  i n the  s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n anywhere on the p r a i r i e  p o i n t to as an example of what c o u l d  be.  to  Porter's  campaign s t y l e should be t r e a t e d f o r what i t i s : the  refinement and  p e r f e c t i o n of a set of t a c t i c s t h a t worked f o r a  s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , and other  which can be a p p l i e d to v a r i o u s  degrees i n  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . I t s success a l s o c r e a t e d a r i p p l e of  excitement across  the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y networks of Saskatchewan,  s p u r r i n g them toward a s i m i l a r  D The  West C e n t r a l  success.  Region  1. Spotty Interest In October of 1959, described  the  i n t e r e s t i n a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i n the  of the p r o v i n c e she  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n Mary Donaldson Southeast  as " f l u c t u a t i n g " (Donaldson 1959d). The  wrote to Mrs.  J.B.  (Edith) Stephenson of S t r a n r a e r  i n the West C e n t r a l area had d i f f e r e n c e between the two  been " s p o t t y "  and  remained so,  the  area. The  that i n t e r e s t  (Donaldson 1959b).  r e g i o n a l developments i s e n c a p s u l a t e d i n  the West C e n t r a l has places  periods  t h a t were  West C e n t r a l r e g i o n i s i n many ways the a n t i t h e s i s of  i n t e r e s t . The  gradual.  committee e s t a b l i s h e d at the o u t s e t  There was  and  hot,  the  f a l s e s t a r t s or obvious f l u c t u a t i o n s i n  w i t h e v o l v i n g members, u n t i l the l i b r a r y was  mail-outs,  The  long enough to spread the i n t e r e s t to the r e s t of  Southeast. There were no  was  part  same month,  t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . Where the h i s t o r y of the Southeast shows where i n t e r e s t f l a r e d up,  had  i n 1958  established.  continued, Progress  no l a r g e , c e n t r a l i z e d campaign, few mass  no a g g r e s s i v e  c e n t r a l r e c r u i t e r . I n t e r e s t began to  develop i n the West C e n t r a l r e g i o n about one  year a f t e r the  first  s i g n s o f a c t i v i t y i n the Southeast  (excluding the Weweler campaign  of 1944), and the West C e n t r a l r e g i o n took one year its  longer t o reach  goal. L i k e the Southeast, West C e n t r a l Saskatchewan i s a r i c h  agricultural  r e g i o n with some o i l and gas development. The West  C e n t r a l r e g i o n ' s b i g g e s t o b s t a c l e was i t s l a c k o f c i t i e s . As demonstrated i n the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , and l a t e r by the Southeast, l a r g e r urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l g e n e r a l l y s i g n on e a r l y , g i v i n g the r e g i o n a p o p u l a t i o n boost  a t the o u t s e t o f campaigning.  In the West C e n t r a l area, there were no towns with p o p u l a t i o n s o f more than 3,500. In s p i t e  of i t s lack of c i t i e s ,  i n West C e n t r a l d i d not, i n f a c t ,  interest  i n a regional l i b r a r y  i g n i t e from even a l a r g e r town  l i k e Outlook or K i n d e r s l e y , but from the t i n y v i l l a g e s o f S t r a n r a e r ( p o p u l a t i o n 100) and P l e n t y  ( p o p u l a t i o n 300). Stephenson r e p l i e d t o  Donaldson, A l t h o u g h as you s a y t h i s area may have shown o n l y s p o t t y i n t e r e s t , I do not b e l i e v e t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t by any means. I t h i n k t h e y await some d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n . I t o n l y needs a few o f the. e s s e n t i a l f a c t s t o c o n v i n c e them t h a t i t i s a g r e a t b a r g a i n g o i n g a-begging. (Stephenson 1959a)  2. Beginning with a Bang: The 1959 Committee On November 25, 1959, delegates  r e p r e s e n t i n g f i v e RMs,  two  towns, and seven v i l l a g e s met i n the v i l l a g e of S t r a n r a e r t o d i s c u s s r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s i n the West C e n t r a l area o f Saskatchewan. An executive  committee was formed with A.E. N e l l , a bank manager from  P l e n t y , as P r e s i d e n t , Mrs. E. McCuaig from S t r a n r a e r as V i c e  P r e s i d e n t , Helen Stewart from P l e n t y as S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r , s e v e r a l others  (West C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Committee 1959) . The  committee r e s o l v e d to have o f f i c i a l p r o g r e s s meetings, and  annual meetings, r e g u l a r open  set a goal t h a t Marion G i l r o y must have  amusing: to have a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i n a year's g i v e n to J.B.  time. C r e d i t  (Edith) Stephenson of S t r a n r a e r f o r v i s i o n  enthusiasm, and present  and  found  was  and  f o r i n s t i g a t i n g and p l a n n i n g the meeting. G i l r o y  f o r guidance and  support  was  (West C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y  Committee 1959). Stephenson wrote to Donaldson a f t e r the meeting: M i s s G i l r o y w i l l have t o l d you about the w o n d e r f u l m e e t i n g t h a t we had here a t S t r a n r a e r , but i n her own s e l f e f f a c i n g way she w i l l p r o b a b l y have g i v e n us a l l the c r e d i t , so I must t e l l you how she r e a l l y was the k i n g - p i n . From t h e time she dropped i n on us t h a t b l i s t e r y morning, & f o r t h e next t h r e e or f o u r hours, w i t h o n l y the break o f a pot o f home made soup, she went over t h e r e p o r t s , the r e s o l u t i o n and t h e s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s d e t a i l by d e t a i l , i r o n i n g out a l l the crude c o r n e r s , and g u i d i n g i t around t h e p i t f a l l s and r o u n d i n g i t out w i t h i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n s , u n t i l f i n a l l y we a c h i e v e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n of p o l i c y t h a t won t h e a p p r o v a l and endorsement o f t h e m e e t i n g . . . I shudder t o t h i n k o f the c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t may have been a v e r t e d by M i s s G i l r o y ' s e x p e r i e n c e and diplomacy. Anyway we are v e r y happy about i t a l l , and wasn't i t r e a l l y a m i l e s t o n e ! (Stephenson 1959b) T h i s l e t t e r p r o v i d e s a v a l u a b l e window i n t o the r o l e of  the  P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y s t a f f i n the development of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e . G i l r o y ' s management s k i l l s and experience people  extensive  as a l i b r a r i a n must have had a s i g n i f i c a n t  i n many areas of the p r o v i n c e . Her  have been a very  important  tactic,  i n f l u e n c e on  " s e l f e f f a c i n g " way  i n the i n t e r e s t of making  t h a t the l i b r a r y remains a l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e ,  would sure  r a t h e r than a  government program. In terms of a c t u a l funding, the l i b r a r i e s were a p r o v i n c i a l - l o c a l p a r t n e r s h i p . But there was  s t r a t e g i c advantage i n  m i n i m i z i n g the presence of government,  which i s why  l o c a l meetings  were r a r e l y attended by more than one P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y member  (and the s t a f f would  staff  l i k e l y have attended meetings i n g r e a t e r  number i f i t were to the advantage of the l i b r a r y development). G i l r o y would a t t e n d a l l  of the e a r l y meetings of the West C e n t r a l  r e g i o n , and Committee P r e s i d e n t N e l l would c a l l her t h e i r light"  (Nell  "guiding  1960).  I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note the c l o s e r a p p o r t  Stephenson  has w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n . Donaldson's correspondence w i t h Stephenson began l a t e i n 1958 and continued i n t o the e a r l y long a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an e x e c u t i v e committee, e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the " o f f i c i a l "  l i n e s of communication  1960s,  and the and  r e p o r t a g e . Donaldson's s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l advocacy and enthusiasm f o r the p r o j e c t p r o v i d e d a sound base f o r each of Saskatchewan's  forming r e g i o n s throughout the 1950s and 1960s,  until  her death i n 1966. The meeting was Phoenix.  41  covered i n the Leader Post  40  The K i n d e r s l e y Clarion  and Saskatoon  Star  a l s o the covered the event, adding  an e d i t o r i a l comment t h a t was not present i n the coverage o f the major papers: " f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t i s the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e problem f a c i n g the committee  now."  42  This r e p o r t was  challenged i n a l e t t e r  to the e d i t o r i n the next e d i t i o n of the Clarion. c a p i t a c o s t was  compared  to a movie t i c k e t ,  The 75 cents per  a magazine  subscription,  the C.B.C. Times, "and i t ' s going to be a good many years b e f o r e TV s e t s come at t h a t c o s t . "  4 3  The l e t t e r c l o s e d by p u t t i n g the c o s t o f  l i b r a r i e s i n the context of education, a common move f o r l i b r a r y advocates  in'that era:  Why, i n heaven's name, a l l t h i s a g o n i z i n g over t h e e d u c a t i o n system, a l l t h i s v i e w i n g w i t h alarm, i f Johnny must q u i t r e a d i n g as soon as he l e a v e s s c h o o l because we can't a f f o r d s e v e n t y - f i v e c e n t s a year t o p r o v i d e him, and o u r s e l v e s , w i t h books t o r e a d . 44  The  author, Adenne F r a s e r , was a K i n d e r s l e y s c h o o l t e a c h e r , and not  on the Regional L i b r a r y committee. Even at the committee's i n c e p t i o n , the i d e a o f a r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y was w e l l known i n the r e g i o n , and had many s u p p o r t e r s .  3. Zone Offense Before the November 25 meeting,  the Rosetown and Biggar Home  and School s o c i e t i e s had h e l d a meeting  and passed a r e s o l u t i o n  which was sent t o every other Home and School s o c i e t y i n the r e g i o n ( U n t i t l e d Document 1959) . Stephenson wrote t h a t , M i s s G i l r o y ' s spadework i n Rosetown was r e a l l y c r u c i a l and t h e K i n d e r s l e y Clarion i s a most p o t e n t f o r c e down t h e r e . K e r r o b e r t r e a l l y wants i t and I t h i n k perhaps B i g g a r w i l l f a l l i n l i n e t o o . (Stephenson 1960) Very q u i c k l y a f t e r forming as a committee, the West C e n t r a l r e g i o n had an e x t e n s i v e network t h a t covered most of the l a r g e r towns i n the area, and many RMs and v i l l a g e s . In  i t s e a r l y days,  the committee h e l d p r o g r e s s meetings every  two months, and sponsored guest speakers the North C e n t r a l Board, and user o f the Nipawin  such as Marion  Sherman from  and R.E.F. Harvey, a s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n t branch l i b r a r y i n the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n  ( N e l l 1960). Although progress was being made, the committee d e c i d e d  in A p r i l  1960  t h a t a l e s s c e n t r a l i z e d s t r a t e g y was  a l l p a r t s of the r e g i o n  ( N e l l 1960).  At Stephenson's suggestion committee decided  (Donaldson 1960a), the  point, the  executive  to break the r e g i o n i n t o zones, so t h a t  members c o u l d run i n t e n s i v e campaigns i n and communities  needed to reach  committee  around t h e i r  own  (West C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Committee 1960). At  the committee had  25 members, from many d i f f e r e n t areas of  region. Another change i n s t r a t e g y implemented i n the summer of  was  this  f o r committee members to a t t e n d  e x i s t i n g community meetings,  r a t h e r than h o l d s p e c i a l meetings to promote the 1960). A p p l y i n g  a s t r a t e g y t h a t had  North C e n t r a l r e g i o n ,  library  (Nell  been e f f e c t i v e l y used i n the  the committee began to book time at  meetings of Church Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Saskatchewan Farm Union meetings, and critical  reassessment and  1960  regular  Homemaker c l u b s ,  others  ( N e l l 1960). Such s e l f  s t r e a m l i n i n g of energy demonstrates  an  e f f e c t i v e committee at work. At the committee's second annual meeting on October 5, and  1960,  three v i l l a g e s had  context  of other  N e l l reported  passed r e s o l u t i o n s  regions,  t h i s was  t h a t two  towns, three  RMs  ( N e l l 1960). Taken i n the  an impressive  first  year of  campaigning. I t was  a l s o observed t h a t some of the more  difficult  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to convince were those t h a t a l r e a d y libraries  i n operation.  from a d i f f e r e n t angle.  had  public  T h i s b r i n g s up the i s s u e of l o c a l A community t h a t has  autonomy  worked hard f o r i t s  p u b l i c l i b r a r y i s understandably h e s i t a n t to r e o r g a n i z e  into a  larger regional  framework, w i t h  these l i b r a r i e s  a step  o f us Nell  stop  h a l f way?"  compared the  library cubic  to the  i n the  ( N e l l 1960). For  of  one  q u i t e an  s o l d hardware, and  a  regional  f o o t r e f r i g e r a t o r and  the  team and  10  was  h i s t o r y of the  important  the  of  the  as members became  Such f l e x i b i l i t y  c a m p a i g n , as  impressive  several capable leaders,  committee c h a i r changed f r e q u e n t l y ,  s u s t a i n i n g the  any  advantage of a l a r g e urban p o p u l a t i o n ,  c o m m i t t e e had  things.  should  1960).  L i b r a r y C o m m i t t e e had  or pursued other  considered  why  M a y o r , who  d i f f e r e n c e between a 5 c u b i c  The  Nell  d i f f e r e n c e between a p u b l i c l i b r a r y  Working w i t h o u t the  activists.  taxes.  r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , "but  foot r e f r i g e r a t o r (Nell  West C e n t r a l  increased  role  unavailable in  Southeast  region  d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t p r o g r e s s i s q u i c k l y undone i f r e l a t i o n s w i t h c o u n c i l s and A.E.  communities are  N e l l served  His  successor  the  The  was  Country  as  Mrs.  Guide  not  the  maintained.  committee c h a i r u n t i l  in  1960.  J e a n K a l l i o o f L u c k y L a k e . I n November, r a n an  In the  article  featuring Kallio.  4 5  argument a g a i n s t  the  libraries  and  own  counterargument:  o u t l i n e s her  late  article,  on  regional  Kallio  i s the  libraries,  s t a t e s t h a t the  tax burden to the  chief  community,  Most of us groan about t a x e s , but we r e a l l y don't t h i n k s p e c i f i c a l l y about them. A c t u a l l y , I'm i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k i t ' s about time we r e a l i z e d what one m i l l i n t a x e s means t o us i n d i v i d u a l l y . I e x p l a i n , f o r example, t h a t i n most v i l l a g e s and towns 75 c e n t s per p e r s o n works out t o the e q u i v a l e n t of one m i l l , much of which i s p a i d by such v i l l a g e and town b u s i n e s s e s as e l e v a t o r and o i l companies. In r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h i s l i b r a r y c o s t ranges from 1/4 t o 1/6 of a m i l l . And I p o i n t out t h a t , on t h i s b a s i s , a town house a s s e s s e d at $1,500 c o s t s the r a t e p a y e r $1.50 a year f o r a l i b r a r y w h i l e , i n r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the c o s t works out t o 60 t o 75 c e n t s on each q u a r t e r s e c t i o n . 4 6  1961  K a l l i o had i n nature,  and  recognized  t h a t the tax o p p o s i t i o n was i d e o l o g i c a l  t h e r e f o r e had  developed a counterargument based  the p a r t i c u l a r s of the m u n i c i p a l  on  tax system. L i k e the arguments of  advocates t h a t compare the p r i c e of l i b r a r i e s to the p r i c e of education, context  K a l l i o ' s argument puts the tax i n c r e a s e s  that i s d i f f i c u l t  Strategically,  to  in a  realist  counter.  the West C e n t r a l used a combination of  North C e n t r a l ' s incremental  approach, and  the  the  Southeast's  everywhere-at-once campaign. While they t r i e d to promote the i n every area of the r e g i o n , they found t h a t there was  library  a natural  tendency f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to j o i n i n clumps. In December they had  secured  a c o l l e c t i o n of RMs  t h a t s t r u c k a broad  swath from the center of the r e g i o n to the southeast total, and  the committee had  e i g h t RMs,  commitments from two  for a t o t a l population  The  (West C e n t r a l Regional  West C e n t r a l r e g i o n continued  1962,  i t was  estimated  the p o p u l a t i o n Kindersley,  had  In  villages,  l e s s than a t h i r d an e x c e l l e n t  L i b r a r y Committee 1961) . to grow s t e a d i l y , with  committee members c o n t i n u i n g to r e p o r t progress zones. In June of 1961,  corner.  of almost 12,000: l e s s than  40,000 t h a t would u l t i m a t e l y be r e q u i r e d , but  s t a r t nonetheless  diagonal  towns, e i g h t  h a l f of the 25,000 t h a t they were working f o r , and of the  1961,  in their  respective  the p o p u l a t i o n had been 7,360, and by  April,  at 13,000 (MacLean 1962). In October of  1963  r i s e n to 14,571, but a p l e b i s c i t e was  lost in  the l a r g e s t town i n the r e g i o n , which would have pushed  the p o p u l a t i o n  to almost 18,000 ( K i n d e r s l e y Regional  Committee 1963).  Library  4. A m a l g a m a t i o n  Talks with  the Northwest,  1965  In August of 1961, E d i t h Stephenson and Helen McCuaig of S t r a n r a e r wrote to Mary Donaldson with a p r o p o s a l t h a t the West C e n t r a l and Northwest  (then c a l l e d the North B a t t l e f o r d area,  to become Lakeland) r e g i o n s amalgamate  later  (McCuaig 1961). McCuaig  wrote the l e t t e r ) and Stephenson (who f i r s t  (who  suggested the idea)  felt  t h a t the two r e g i o n s c o u l d operate together when the combined p o p u l a t i o n reached 25 or 30,000, then separate a g a i n once they each had reached those numbers  (McCuaig 1961). This s u g g e s t i o n  applies  the l o g i c t h a t had been s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the North C e n t r a l r e g i o n , namely t h a t once the l i b r a r y i s i n o p e r a t i o n , i t w i l l a t t r a c t many more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Donaldson wrote back t h a t although the i d e a had m e r i t , i t was i m p r a c t i c a l because the i n t e r e s t i n the Northwest was c o n c e n t r a t e d to the n o r t h e r n and western p a r t s of the area. T h e r e f o r e , amalgamating r e g i o n s would i n v o l v e a l a r g e gap, and e x c e s s i v e t r a v e l costs  (Donaldson 1961b).  By 1965, the North West r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y area had i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , and the amalgamation p l a n was proposed a g a i n . T h i s time, the West C e n t r a l committee voted unanimously to approach the North West committee with a p r o p o s a l  (Wheatland Regional  Library  Board 1966, L I C ) . The b a s i s of the amalgamation would be t h a t ,  while  each r e g i o n , a c c o r d i n g to c u r r e n t p o l i c y , would need a p o p u l a t i o n of 40,000, the combined area c o u l d operate with 60,000, an e a s i e r f i g u r e to achieve than the combined 80,000. The North West committee at t h a t time was  r e l u c t a n t , but the idea was  kept open f o r f u t u r e  consideration  (Wheatland  Regional L i b r a r y Board  r e g i o n s would u l t i m a t e l y remain  1966, L I C ) . The two  separate.  5. The 1964-66 Bookmobile Demonstration In December o f 1963, a meeting  was h e l d , with  L i b r a r i a n Mary Donaldson and S u p e r v i s o r of Regional Donalda Putnam  Provincial Libraries  ( G i l r o y had accepted a P r o f e s s o r p o s i t i o n a t UBC  L i b r a r y School i n August of 1962), t o p l a n a two-year bookmobile demonstration first  s e r v i c e , b e g i n n i n g i n May, 1964, and i n c l u d i n g the  ever w i n t e r bookmobile s e r v i c e on the p r a i r i e  (West C e n t r a l  R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee, 1963) . The demonstration was i n a l l r e s p e c t s b i g g e r than the 1954 demonstration r e g i o n . Tweleve RMs,  i n the North C e n t r a l  and two towns whose RMs had not j o i n e d , were t o  be covered, with twenty-seven  stops o f two weeks  each.  T h i s was an enormous undertaking, and at a t o t a l budget o f approximately $134,000  ( M i l l e r 1966e) i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g  w i l l i n g n e s s on the p a r t of the p r o v i n c e to i n v e s t i n l i b r a r i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n o f the r e g i o n a t the time was 17,175  (MacLean 1964), an  i m p r e s s i v e f i g u r e f o r a r e g i o n t h a t had been h e a r i n g about libraries  regional  f o r f i v e years but had y e t to see any s e r v i c e , but s t i l l a  f a r c r y from the number necessary t o form a r e g i o n . I f precedents of, demonstration  s e r v i c e h e l d t r u e , the p o p u l a t i o n growth o f the r e g i o n  would r i s e i n response. In the December, 1964 i s s u e o f the SLA B u l l e t i n , p r o v i d e d a b r i e f summary o f the response  Donaldson  i n the r e g i o n a f t e r the  first  10 weeks: i t was d e s c r i b e d  as dramatic. Donaldson  reported  that: C i r c u l a t i o n o f books t o t a l l e d 13,453; and t h e s e were t a k e n out by 2,620 b o r r o w e r s , o f whom 1,008 are a d u l t s . I n one community of l e s s t h a n 500 p e o p l e , 216 books were l o a n e d between 11 o ' c l o c k and 12 noon. (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n 1964) By the end o f the two year t r i a l ,  the p o p u l a t i o n  r e g i o n had shot up, more than doubling i n c l u d i n g eleven  o f the proposed  to over 35,000 i n two years,  towns, twenty RMs, and twenty-one v i l l a g e s  (West  C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Committee 1966). The rural,  dramatic r i s e i n a predominantly r u r a l  depending on how " r u r a l " i s defined) area  (or c o m p l e t e l y demonstrates  c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i t s e l f i s the best  testament t o  the need f o r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e . When compared t o the e f f e c t o f bookmobile s e r v i c e i n the Northwest r e g i o n , shows t h a t the e x i s t e n c e  such an i n c r e a s e  also  of a s u c c e s s f u l s e r v i c e i s a powerful  i n c e n t i v e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o buy i n . In March o f 1966, the North C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y was s e r v i n g a p o p u l a t i o n  o f 80,000  (Beveridge 1966) . A l s o i n March o f 1966, a committee member from Macklin  was able t o say p u b l i c l y t h a t , "The West C e n t r a l  Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y , long a dream, i s t o become a r e a l i t y by  1967, our C e n t e n n i a l  Year"  (Beveridge 1966).  6. Municipal Issues When the l i b r a r y r e g i o n was approaching i t s b o i l i n g p o i n t o f 40,000 i n the summer of 1966, s e v e r a l i s s u e s began t o bubble up concerning  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . While none of these i s s u e s was unique t o  t h i s l a t e moment i n r e g i o n - b u i l d i n g , the impending r e a l i z a t i o n o f  the p r o j e c t seemed to cause them to i n s i s t themselves upon the historic  record.  Of these, was  the most f o r c e f u l ,  and p o t e n t i a l l y most damaging,  the i s s u e of the r e g i o n a l headquarters.  In the Southeast  region,  Committee C h a i r A r t Forgay had warned advocates as e a r l y as June of 1962  not to lobby  f o r the headquarters to be i n any p a r t i c u l a r  u n t i l the r e g i o n was  d e c l a r e d and an o f f i c i a l  such i n f i g h t i n g at an e a r l y stage project." advice  4 7  The  committee formed, as  " c o u l d very w e l l k i l l  e a r l i e r or not,  With the p o p u l a t i o n sure to reach  followed i t p e r f e c t l y . 40,000, a meeting was  on June 11 with P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y s t a f f present  about what was  g r e a t e r than 1,000  r e q u i r e d i n a headquarters,  at the meeting. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Rosetown presented  d e l i v e r e d a proposal i t s own  to d i s c u s s  t h e i r case,  were sent  and  information  i n v i t e d to  present  from the towns of  Unity  and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from Kyle  f o r the c i t y of Saskatoon, a l a r g e r c i t y  p u b l i c l i b r a r y system, l o c a t e d s l i g h t l y beyond the  edge of the r e g i o n at t h a t time U n i t y and  and  In advance of the meeting, a l l communities i n  the r e g i o n with p o p u l a t i o n s  and  called  choose a r e g i o n a l name, set up a pro-tern e x e c u t i v e ,  choose a headquarters.  proposals  the whole  West C e n t r a l committee, whether aware of Forgay's  from f o u r years  planning,  place  ( M i l l e r 1966b). The  reports  with  eastern from  Rosetown both s t r e s s e d t h a t they were l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y i n  the r e g i o n and  had  e x c e l l e n t highway access.  The  Rosetown  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a l s o emphasized a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t town (West C e n t r a l Regional  facilities  L i b r a r y Committee  1966). N e i t h e r town c o u l d c l a i m a b u i l d i n g l a r g e enough to meet the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the headquarters, which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a book processing  warehouse. The  opportunities  Saskatoon p r o p o s a l  for attracting qualified staff,  system, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of cooperating a v a i l a b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g s , and the r e g i o n ,  headquarters  Rosetown 14,  transportation  with other  libraries,  towards Saskatoon. The  Unity  the  1. Saskatoon was  vote  declared  the  (West C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Committee 1966), and  name Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y was On  the  the  the p o t e n t i a l f o r eastward growth of  hence s h i f t i n g the centre  went Saskatoon 25,  highlighted  J u l y 9, E l s p e t h M i l l e r ,  and A c t i n g S e c r e t a r y  the  chosen.  P r o v i n c i a l Extension  Librarian,  of the Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y Committee,  r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the RM  of St. Andrews  (office located i n  Rosetown), s t a t i n g t h a t : u n l e s s the h e a d q u a r t e r s o f the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y i s moved back t o Rosetown, from Saskatoon, they, the c o u n c i l , a r e d i s i n c l i n e d t o s i g n the s a i d agreement. (B.A.C. B r a i t h w a i t e 1966a) M i l l e r wrote back promptly, c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b i n g the process whereby Saskatoon was  chosen, and  emphasizing the space requirement and  n o n - p u b l i c r o l e of the r e g i o n a l headquarters second l e t t e r a r r i v e d from the S e c r e t a r y o f f i c e , marked "Without P r e j u d i c e , "  the  ( M i l l e r 1966b). A  at the St. Andrews  RM  saying,  The c o u n c i l was not o v e r l y impressed w i t h t h e arguments brought f o r t h i n t h i s correspondence i n s u p p o r t o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o s w i t c h t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s t o Saskatoon. (B.A.C. B r a i t h w a i t e 1960b) On office,  September 7, M i l l e r r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from another t h i s time the RM  named B r a i t h w a i t e ,  of Pleasant  oddly),  Valley  (also with a  s t a t i n g t h a t the c o u n c i l had  RM  secretary passed a  r e s o l u t i o n not to enter the r e g i o n as long as the headquarters i s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the area served  (S. B r a i t h w a i t e  C o u n c i l , " i s i n t e r e s t e d i n having  1966), but t h a t  the s e r v i c e s of the bookmobile."  The  l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t the RM  and  c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t f o r the l o c a l area would be minimal with  headquarters i n Saskatoon  c o u n c i l f e l t t h a t access  (S. B r a i t h w a i t e  1966). Again,  a l e t t e r i n r e p l y , e x p l a i n i n g the process headquarters  (Miller  of choosing  to books  the  1966f).  agreements, Rosetown, Pleasant V a l l e y , and 5,256) had  commencement i n 1967  decided  St. Andrews  signed  (combined  a l l j o i n e d the r e g i o n by the time of i t s (West C e n t r a l Regional  L i k e l y the c o u n c i l s r e a l i z e d they had and  the  M i l l e r wrote  Although three of the l a s t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to r e t u r n  population  the  L i b r a r y Committee 1967).  l o s t the headquarters d i s p u t e ,  t h a t they d i d not want to l o s e the l i b r a r y s e r v i c e .  Because of t h e i r c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n i n the r e g i o n , the absence of these  two  key RMs  would have i n c r e a s e d c o s t s c o n s i d e r a b l y ,  i n terms  of the r a t i o of t r a v e l costs to tax revenue. Although i t i s difficult  to weigh the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s ,  i t i s l i k e l y that a  headquarters debate at an e a r l i e r date would have s e t back the region  considerably.  Pleasant V a l l e y ' s request  f o r bookmobile s e r v i c e i n l i e u  j o i n i n g the r e g i o n i s an i s s u e t h a t came up with more than m u n i c i p a l i t y f o l l o w i n g the two  years  W.S.  and  requested  one  of f r e e bookmobile s e r v i c e .  S e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were unable, or u n w i l l i n g , to supply f o r a branch l i b r a r y ,  of  continued  a space  bookmobile s e r v i c e .  Bruce, s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r f o r both the v i l l a g e of  Colville,  and  the RM  prospect  of Oakdale, wrote t h a t the RM  of having to supply  (Bruce 1966a), and  c o u n c i l was  a w e l l l i g h t e d room on the ground  t h a t the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l i s "too  or support such a p l a c e  "shocked at  floor"  small to a f f o r d  . . . even with the support of the RM"  but  "would be w i l l i n g to support the t r a v e l l i n g bookmobile as they enjoyed f o r the past  two  years"  the  had  (Bruce 1966b). M i l l e r r e p l i e d t h a t ,  The d e m o n s t r a t i o n bookmobile used d u r i n g the p a s t two y e a r s was a b l e t o c o v e r o n l y about a t h i r d o f the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a r e a on i t s s c h e d u l e d v i s i t s and i t c o s t almost as much as t h e t o t a l r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y budget w i l l be. ( M i l l e r 1966h) M i l l e r also explained  the advantages of s h a r i n g a l i b r a r y space w i t h  a nearby town such as K i n d e r s l e y d i s t a n c e would be g r e a t e r ,  or K e r r o b e r t .  Although the t r a v e l  the s i z e of the c o l l e c t i o n would  correspond to the combined p o p u l a t i o n s  of a l l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  t h a t used t h a t p a r t i c u l a r branch. The  v i l l a g e of Handel, on the other hand, found, the  t r a v e l i n g to another m u n i c i p a l i t y u n d e s i r a b l e ,  of  and wanted a  guarantee t h a t Handel would r e c e i v e a branch l i b r a r y , was  idea  i f the  space  made a v a i l a b l e . Otherwise, bookmobile s e r v i c e would be  p r e f e r a b l e to t r a v e l i n g to another m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r s e r v i c e (Fruhstak  1966) . M i l l e r r e p l i e d t h a t the  be d e c i d e d and  l o c a t i o n s of branches would  by the r e g i o n a l board as the l i b r a r y was  being  t h a t a branch i n Handel c o u l d not be guaranteed. She  as with O a k d a l e / C o l e v i l l e  and  Pleasant  (Miller  1966e).  v i l l a g e of Dunblane v o i c e d a problem t h a t was  throughout the development of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s what to do  a l s o wrote,  V a l l e y , t h a t the r e g i o n would  not be able to a f f o r d bookmobile s e r v i c e The  developed,  i n the  i f a v i l l a g e wants to j o i n without i t s RM  persistent province:  or n e i g h b o u r i n g  villages the  (Romuld 1966)  . Depending on  region, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  with another m u n i c i p a l i t y ,  t h e i r d i s t a n c e from the  rest  of  were sometimes t o l d to j o i n i n clumps, 4 8  or sometimes, i n the  case of  larger  towns, were allowed i n alone. M i l l e r encouraged Dublane to wait,  as,  the L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee a p p o i n t e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s s t u d y i n g p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . T h e i r recommendations may have an e f f e c t on our f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n and t h e i r r e p o r t i s not e x p e c t e d b e f o r e December. ( M i l l e r 1966a)  7.  A Matter of B i r t h  and  D e a t h : The  LIC,  Mary Donaldson passed away i n the serving  as  Miller,  now  at the  Provincial  Librarian  1966  summer of 1966,  s i n c e 1953.  On  after  October 26,  Elspeth  S u p e r v i s o r of Regional L i b r a r i e s , wrote to Marion  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia about an  impending  Gilroy  crisis:  My purpose i n w r i t i n g t o you i s one which w i l l p r o b a b l y make you l a u g h . You d o u b t l e s s have l e t t e r s on the same s u b j e c t e v e r y week - i f not every day. I t ' s about s t a f f . Do you know any e n t h u s i a s t i c , d e d i c a t e d and tough l i b r a r i a n s who are l o o k i n g f o r a r e a l c h a l l e n g e ? Or can you suggest where we c o u l d s t a r t l o o k i n g ? The Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y ( i . e . the West C e n t r a l ) and the P a r k l a n d R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y ( i . e . the Y o r k t o n area) have b o t h reached the p o i n t of a c c e p t i n g s i g n e d agreements from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . . . the South C e n t r a l Region i s g e t t i n g p e r i l o u s l y near i t s p o p u l a t i o n t a r g e t . . . C u r r e n t l y , I am the s o l e s u r v i v o r i n the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y D i v i s i o n . . . One s h o u l d r e j o i c e g r e a t l y , I guess, at these new developments. Except f o r s h u d d e r i n g every now and then r e the s t a f f p o s i t i o n , one does. ( M i l l e r 1966c) Donalda Putnam had Barbara K i n c a i d  moved back to PEI,  had  and  former E x t e n s i o n  a l r e a d y moved to Weyburn to take the  Librarian  role  Regional L i b r a r i a n  i n the  Southeast. Saskatchewan had  infants  and  d o c t o r s to d e l i v e r them, much l e s s  on  the  way  no  to r a i s e them. A c c o r d i n g to M i l l e r , the forced  to f o l l o w  the  Southeastern s a l a r y  new  three  of new  l i b r a r i a n s "would  scale  parents be  ($9,000 s t a r t i n g  s a l a r y f o r the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i a n ) . As w e l l , the L i b r a r y  Inquiry  Commission, d e l a y e d because of the sudden death o f i t s o r i g i n a l chair,  Judge Peter  Deis,  Provincial Library  had recommended an e n l a r g e d  (Miller  and expanded  1966c).  Because o f the impending LIC r e p o r t , many o f the i s s u e s , including staff, confronting,  t h a t the Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y was  were d e f e r r e d  f o r the committee's recommendations: an  overdue baby, b i g , and k i c k i n g i n i t s womb. The l i b r a r y was a l s o i n danger o f malnourishment once born: p r o v i n c i a l grants l i b r a r i e s were s t i l l  f r o z e n a t the 75 cents  to regional  per c a p i t a n e g o t i a t e d  a  decade e a r l i e r . Miller,  though, had high hopes f o r the committee. She had  done her p a r t i n a w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d  e f f o r t across  the p r o v i n c e ,  c o l l a b o r a t i n g with the Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y board c h a i r Willard Kallio  (husband t o former West C e n t r a l committee c h a i r Jean  K a l l i o ) on a b r i e f ,  encouraging others  to do so, and p r o v i d i n g  guidance. On August 27, Marion Sherman, c h a i r o f the North board c a l l e d Porter, briefs  a meeting with M i l l e r ,  Kallio,  Central  K i n c a i d , and James  c h a i r o f the Southeast board to d i s c u s s and c o o r d i n a t e  their  t o the LIC (Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y Board 1966).  Many o f the suggestions can be read i n M i l l e r ' s Rooke, an advocate from Eston.  Miller  l e t t e r t o W.  f i r s t states that i t i s  important t h a t as many people as p o s s i b l e submit b r i e f s committee. M i l l e r  also states  t o the  that:  The main p o i n t s t o make a r e ; a) t h e need f o r l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , b) what e x i s t s and what shortcomings t h e r e a r e c) what s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e . ( M i l l e r 1966g)  As  f o r grants,  M i l l e r suggested t h a t people not  amounts, as the crisis.  The  1957  funding  what the  specific  l e v e l s are what l e d to the  important p o i n t s are,  are needed, and  request  current  current  r a t h e r , what s e r v i c e s and  amount of a v a i l a b l e money i s  ( M i l l e r 1966g). This s t r a t e g y s u c c e s s f u l l y worked i t s way LIC s final funding books,  r e p o r t , which recommended f o r the  for materials  first  into  time t h a t  purchase be granted based on the price  r a t h e r than on a per  capita basis  Committee. 1967). M i l l e r a l s o made one SLA's war  staff  c r y s i n c e at l e a s t  (The L i b r a r y  suggestion  the annual  of  Inquiry  t h a t r e f l e c t e d the  1944:  C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f , and c o - o p e r a t i o n between, a l l t y p e s o f l i b r a r i e s i s w e l l worth m e n t i o n i n g . T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t t h e r e i s no need f o r , say, both s c h o o l and p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . Each s e r v e s i t s p a r t i c u l a r purpose and t h e r e i s urgent need f o r b o t h , but c o - o p e r a t i o n between them (and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a f f s ) i s a l s o very necessary to achieve the best use o f b o t h . . . T h i s sounds, l i k e a sermon - i t i s n ' t meant t o . I j u s t get c a r r i e d away sometimes! ( M i l l e r 1966g) For the Wheatland board b r i e f  (also summarized i n the  letter  to  Rooke), M i l l e r emphasized more p r o f e s s i o n a l concerns, such as need f o r a c e n t r a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g ,  ordering,  s e r v i c e s at the  (Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y Board  Provincial Library  and  the  consultation  1966). Although s h o r t e r than the North C e n t r a l submission,  the  Wheatland b r i e f i n c l u d e d many i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s . The  longest  s e c t i o n was  from standards sources,  i n the  form of a s e r i e s of c i t a t i o n s  such as the ALA's " I n t e r i m  Standards f o r  Small P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , " on v a r i o u s p o i n t s , i n c l u d i n g the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , minimal c o l l e c t i o n requirements, and  special  programs. A l t e r n a t i n g with these p o i n t s were notes showing t h a t Wheatland's demands were w e l l short of the standards. The  brief  also  discussed  the need f o r i n c e n t i v e grants f o r b e t t e r i n t e r - l i b r a r y  operation,  and  f i n i s h e d on the a l l - i m p o r t a n t  more l i b r a r i a n s to the province 1966,  i s s u e of a t t r a c t i n g  (Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y Board  LIC). The  SLA's b r i e f ,  an e l a b o r a t e  25-page p r o f e s s i o n a l  a l s o focused on standards, quoting ALA chapter B3  of Part  I ) , and  Association  1966). The  standards  libraries  b r i e f c a l l e d for a greatly increased  s t a t i n g t h a t " l i b r a r y s e r v i c e i n a- given of the  centre"  I t a l s o spoke a great l i b r a r i e s and reference  The  1966,  Reciprocal  the  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n  placed  emphasis on the  1966,  7).  between  and  statement,  "Public  13).  much of the d i s c u s s i o n around  statement  co-ordination:  p r i v i l e g e s have been extended t o members Saskatchewan, the South C e n t r a l [ s i c ] Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s and the P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , ( i n M i l l e r 1966d)  borrowing p r i v i l e g e s opens up the advantages of  library,  and  l i n k e d to form a system" (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y  R e c i p r o c a l borrowing of the N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan and the Regina and Moose Jaw  province,  area depends on  Saskatoon P u b l i c L i b r a r y submission made a key  that exemplifies  regional  on the matter,  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n areas such as p r o c e s s i n g  L i b r a r i e s should be  role for  deal to the need f o r more c o - o p e r a t i o n  s e r v i c e s , and  Association  in  (Saskatchewan L i b r a r y  P r o v i n c i a l Library, including d e t a i l e d points  strength  report,  standards at length, (see  comparing v a r i o u s  Saskatchewan, with few meeting the  the  co-  i n terms of i n t e r l i b r a r y loans,  to the  the  entire  e f f e c t i v e l y g i v i n g patrons i n the most remote areas access  to hundreds of thousands of items.  The  North C e n t r a l b r i e f focused  on the funding  requirements o f  regional l i b r a r i e s  i n order  its  region's  i t breathed the l i f e  one  o f i t s p r i n c i p a l s e c t i o n s , "HEAVY EXPENSES INVOLVED IN  past,  to meet b a s i c standards. Drawing from of h i s t o r y , b o l d l y  entitling  MAINTAINING A REGIONAL LIBRARY SERVICE WHICH CITY LIBRARIES DO NOT HAVE" the  (North  C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1966). Heading  l i s t was t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The b r i e f i n c l u d e d a lengthy  recommendations, i n c l u d i n g i n c r e a s i n g collection size,  r e c r u i t i n g more s t a f f ,  between branches, and i n c r e a s e d materials. Library,  (North  increased  the minimum co-ordination  c o l l e c t i n g o f a number o f muli-media  The b r i e f a l s o recommended a strengthened P r o v i n c i a l  i n c l u d i n g cooperative  services,  (or c r e a t i n g )  set of  cataloguing,  specialist  consulting  f o r e i g n language c o l l e c t i o n s , and c e n t r a l i z e d  storage  C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y 1966). S i m i l a r recommendations were heard from across  In S w i f t Current,  several organizations,  the p r o v i n c e .  i n c l u d i n g the Southwest  Regional L i b r a r y s t e e r i n g committee, submitted b r i e f s , all suggesting  " t h a t a system of r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s be s e t up by an a c t  of the l e g i s l a t u r e . "  4 9  As w e l l , a l l b r i e f s s a i d t h a t "the present  system o f government grants province,  i n Prince A l b e r t ,  to l i b r a r i e s 5 0  Moose Jaw,  i s inadequate." A c r o s s the  51  Weyburn,  52  Yorkton,  elsewhere, b r i e f a f t e r b r i e f s t a t e d t h a t the p r o v i n c e  53  and  needed a  strengthened P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y and a system o f r e g i o n a l  libraries.  In December of 1966 the L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee r e l e a s e d an Interim  Report, i n l i e u o f i t s f i n a l r e p o r t , which was d e l a y e d due  to the death o f Judge Deis. The I n t e r i m  report  addressed  "recommendations r e q u i r i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n , " with the r e p o r t to be p u b l i s h e d  some time i n 1967.  The  full  report stated  that:  Your Committee i s s a t i s f i e d beyond any doubt t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i n t e g r a t e d l i b r a r y network embracing the whole o f the p r o v i n c e i s t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a l way t o p r o v i d e adequate l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s t o the p e o p l e o f Saskatchewan ( L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee 1967a, 10) In the the  $1.50  s e c t i o n on r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s ,  per  c a p i t a establishment  book grant  average book p r i c e of $3.00, which had Therefore,  the r e p o r t s t a t e d was  based on the  establishment  be reviewed as c o s t s i n c r e a s e :  "future  t h i n k i n g must be based on the cost of an adequate c o l l e c t i o n than a sum  of money" ( L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee 1967a, 6).  r e p o r t l a i d out how increased  the m u n i c i p a l  s i n c e 1957  to keep pace with i n f l a t i o n ,  the Committee strongly  recommended t h a t the annual per  to not  l e s s than $1.25  Committee 1967a) . Further,  The  per c a p i t a  capita.  (Library  Therefore, capita  regions,  grant  Inquiry  headquarter b u i l d i n g s , and  requirements f o r new  had  the  the r e p o r t recommended t h a t the  m a i n t a i n i t s p r a c t i c e of funding the p o p u l a t i o n  per  while  remained at 75 cents  increased  rather  c o n t r i b u t i o n to annual grants  p r o v i n c i a l p o r t i o n had  be  1957  doubled s i n c e then to $6.00.-  a minimum $100,000 should be granted at the  of a r e g i o n , which should  that  province relax  because:  I t has been proven many times t h a t some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r e s i s t s i g n i n g up but once they see t h e l i b r a r y s e r v i c e t h a t i s p r o v i d e d by a r e g i o n they are w i l l i n g and eager t o j o i n . ( L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee 1967a, -7) The  r e p o r t urged the  f i s c a l year and  formation  at l e a s t one  of one  during  region.within  the  the  1966-67  1967-68 f i s c a l year  (Library  On March 4, the Wheatland Regional L i b r a r y ' s long wait was over. A meeting was c a l l e d where the M i n i s t e r o f L i b r a r i e s George J . Trapp d e c l a r e d the r e g i o n on b e h a l f o f the p r o v i n c e . New P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n Harry Newsome was a l s o present t o present the p r o v i n c e ' s o f f e r i n d e t a i l . Newsome's speech acknowledged the groundwork done by l i b r a r y advocates  across the p r o v i n c e :  In Sask. we a r e v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n two o r t h r e e ways. We know what r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s s h o u l d be. T h i s i d e a o f t h e r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y has always been i n f r o n t o f us. When we speak o f l i b r a r i e s today, t h i s i s the o n l y k i n d o f l i b r a r y t o b r i n g t h e depth o f s e r v i c e we need. Secondly, we have people i n Sask. w i t h v i s i o n t o do t h i s tremendous amount o f work. We a r e f u r t h e r ahead than A l b e r t a and Manitoba - we can d e v e l o p v e r y r a p i d l y and s t r o n g l y because we have the p r o p e r b a s i s . (Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Board 1967) Newsome then o u t l i n e d the r e v i s e d funding s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e g i o n . The  government would grant the r e g i o n $1.50 per c a p i t a f o r an  initial  book grant, which amounted t o $60,000. Of t h i s ,  $16,000  would be based on the s a l e of the 17,000 books used i n the bookmobile demonstration  f o r l e s s than $1.00 per book  (where they  would c o s t $5.00 per book to r e p l a c e ) , and the other $47,000 would be a cash grant. Depending on the c o n d i t i o n o f the c o l l e c t i o n , the s a l e o f the books was l i k e l y an e x c e l l e n t d e a l , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t they would not have t o be catalogued and processed  as new books  would, which amounts t o a f u r t h e r saving o f $1.00 per book. A one-time grant of $15,000 would be g i v e n f o r equipment purchases, The  and $7,000 would be granted f o r r e n t a l o f headquarters.  annual matching grant would be i n c r e a s e d from 75 cents t o $1.00  per c a p i t a , with a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t being i n c r e a s e d t o $1.50 (as the LIC recommended) i n one or two years'  time.  R.H.  MacDonald, one of the t h r e e members of the LIC and  author of a book on the West C e n t r a l Region, s a i d  (at the  future  official  opening of the South West r e g i o n a l headquarters i n Weyburn) t h a t "the  L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Commission i s one of the few committees  commissions final  t h a t got a c t i o n on i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s even b e f o r e i t s  r e p o r t was  a "traffic  or  presented."  54  He a l s o expected t h a t t h e r e would be  jam of r e g i o n s w a i t i n g  to be formed."  55  Wheatland  was  to  be the f i r s t one out.  Addendum: The LIC Report On August  25,  1967,  the Leader  Po^t  f r o n t page h e a d l i n e was  "SEVEN REGIONAL LIBRARIES URGED." The newspaper coverage of the LIC Report r e i t e r a t e d demands t h a t the Saskatchewan l i b r a r y had been making f o r more than two decades: committee urged a l i b r a r y throughout  Saskatchewan."  'system'  "In essence, the  t h a t would be a v a i l a b l e t o people  56  Premier Thatcher announced $247,000 i n new libraries, practical  community  assistance for  and t o l d the LIC t h a t they had a produced a " s e n s i b l e , report."  5 7  Thatcher a l s o commented t h a t he r e g r e t t e d  the  r e p o r t d i d not say where the money would come from, and made a c r a c k about the committee j o i n i n g the "big-time s p e n d e r s . " did,  58  The  Premier  however, promise to implement the recommendations of the  report,  "as funds become a v a i l a b l e . "  An e d i t o r i a l i n the Leader up the s i t u a t i o n t h a t was  Post  l a t e r i n the same week summed  f a c i n g the new  regional l i b r a r i e s :  The p r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r y e n q u i r y committee [ s i c ] , which produced i t s f i n a l r e p o r t l a s t week, was s t a t i n g n o t h i n g new when i t  s a i d t h a t l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s i n Saskatchewan have e n t e r e d a s t a t e o f c r i s i s and t h a t w i t h o u t u n i f i c a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n the s e r v i c e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e w i l l be i n p e r i l . T h i s view has been s t a t e d f o r y e a r s by many a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . I t was r e p e a t e d t i m e and t i m e a g a i n i n the b r i e f s heard by the committee. What i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t the committee made n i n e p e r t i n e n t and s p e c i f i c recommendations on how the s i t u a t i o n can be a l l e v i a t e d . 5 9  It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the use  to Saskatchewan l i b r a r i e s i n the  of the word " c r i s i s " with  1960s, a time when l i b r a r i e s  not been cut or c a n c e l l e d or abandoned. In f a c t , grown and new  expanded. The  respect  c r i s i s was  had  some of them  had  c r e a t e d by a p u b l i c demand f o r  service. Not  a l l commentators wholly agreed t h a t the r e p o r t was a l l  good. W r i t i n g  as a UBC  Professor  wrote a c r i t i q u e c a l l e d "Two Committee." Presumably, she p o s s i b l e t h r e e . Her  of L i b r a r y Science,  Cheers f o r the L i b r a r y r a t e d the r e p o r t two  Inquiry  cheers out  of a  c r i t i q u e covered s e v e r a l p o i n t s , n o t a b l y  l a c k of c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e q u a l i z a t i o n and funding  Marion G i l r o y  formulas. I f government grants  area  the  f a c t o r s i n the  are not a d j u s t e d  f o r an  area's e q u a l i z a t i o n assessment, based on s i z e of m u n i c i p a l i t y its  economy, then the r e s u l t w i l l be a t i e r e d l i b r a r y  favouring  the c i t i e s  and  system  ( G i l r o y 1967).  A d e t a i l e d review of the contents of the r e p o r t i t s e l f i s beyond the scope of t h i s study. However, there should The  be  points  that  r a i s e d f o r the l i g h t they shed upon the e x i s t i n g c o n t e n t .  r e p o r t recommended a m o d i f i e d  libraries.  are a few  approach to funding  D i r e c t p r o v i n c i a l support is* to be  of establishment  grants  for materials  and  for regional  s u p p l i e d i n the  equipment;  operating  form  grants f o r m a t e r i a l s , s t a f f , and d i s t r i b u t i o n ; i n c r e a s e l o c a l support;  i n c e n t i v e grants t o  s p e c i a l grants; and headquarters  space  ( L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee 1967b, 35). Of these, o n l y the o p e r a t i n g grants and e s t a b l i s h m e n t  grants were i n c l u d e d i n the e x i s t i n g  s t r u c t u r e , while the p r o v i s i o n o f headquarters  space was a common  p r a c t i c e , but not y e t an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y . The i n c e n t i v e grants would l i k e l y work on the model of Donaldson's p r o p o s a l f o r " r e q u a l i z a t i o n " grants i n 1957 The  (see Part I I , chapter B7).  r e p o r t f u r t h e r recommended t h a t the grant s t r u c t u r e be  r e d e s i g n e d t o enable effectively,  newer or s m a l l e r r e g i o n s to operate  more  t o a s s i s t the regions i n s e l l i n g the s e r v i c e t o non-  participating municipalities,  and to g i v e the r e g i o n s more  control  over l o c a l support. The f i r s t  of these was l i k e l y untimely,  as by  August of 1967 most or a l l of the regions were formed on the b a s i s of b e g i n n i n g at 40,000 and working up to 80,000 or more. The second p o i n t , a s s i s t i n g i n promotion, i s p r e c i s e l y what Marion Sherman had fought with W.S.  L l o y d over i n the 1957 funding n e g o t i a t i o n s (see  Part I I , chapter B7). The  r e p o r t a l s o proposed i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l support  municipalities,  i n c l u d i n g minimum annual  support  from  o f 75 cents per  c a p i t a , c o n t i n u i n g p r o v i s i o n by l o c a l branches o f adequate q u a r t e r s and  staff,  and a p l a n f o r t o t a l support  (including s a l a r i e s ) to  reach $2.00 i n the near f u t u r e . Finally,  the r e p o r t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t c a l c u l a t e s  total  recommended budgets f o r the p r o v i n c e f o r d i f f e r e n t areas, g e n e r a l l y i n three t i e r s  (i.e.,  Plan A, Plan B, and Plan C ) . The p l a n f o r the  1966-67 f i s c a l year i n c l u d e d the establishment  o f one r e g i o n a l  l i b r a r y a t a c o s t ranging from $100,000 to $150,000, depending on which p l a n i s adopted. The r e p o r t s e t out a p l a n t o have seven regional l i b r a r i e s  (corresponding t o the two e x i s t i n g l i b r a r i e s , and  f i v e committees a t d i f f e r e n t stages of development) e s t a b l i s h e d by 1970.  E x e r c i s i n g t h e i r "when funds become a v a i l a b l e " caveat, the  L i b e r a l s took u n t i l 1973.  Conclusions Although  the three regions examined developed  in different  ways and had t h e i r growth s p u r t s at d i f f e r e n t times, striking similarities.  In a l l cases, there was a s t r u g g l e t o r e c r u i t  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o the r e g i o n f o r a time, wave o f i n t e r e s t , reality,  t h e r e are some  f o l l o w e d by a, s i g n i f i c a n t  and a t the p o i n t where the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y  i n v a r i a b l y there was a t r a f f i c  became  jam of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  w a i t i n g t o j o i n . T h i s p a t t e r n demonstrates t h a t governments are h e s i t a n t t o a c t alone. In p a r t i c u l a r , m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s are o f t e n motivated  by a d e s i r e t o have what t h e i r neighbours  have. T h i s  m o t i v a t i o n makes l i b r a r y promotion i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n e a s i e r as more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s j o i n , u n t i l a c r i t i c a l p o i n t i s reached promotion i s no longer necessary,  where  and the c h a l l e n g e i s r a t h e r t o  f i n d ways t o accommodate the l a r g e number o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t wish t o j o i n a t once. There are two d i s t i n c t  s t r a t e g i e s f o r forming a r e g i o n a l  l i b r a r y . One i s t o begin with a small r e g i o n , and s l o w l y expand i t to  a l a r g e r area; the other i s t o d e f i n e a l a r g e area and attempt t o  r e c r u i t a majority e s t a b l i s h i n g the a region  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n  region.  The  is riskier,  confidence that a majority  and  i s most a p p r o p r i a t e  In the  can be  The  density  i s necessary  to  l i b r a r y economically v i a b l e .  1950s, Marion G i l r o y worked s i m u l t a n e o u s l y at  were substandard, while l a u d i n g s e r v i c e r e g i o n a l l y . The  describe  expected.  gained. Both s t r a t e g i e s work under  p r o v i n c i a l • l e v e l s to show that  s e r v i c e , and  for  i s best a p p l i e d where t h e r e i s  assumption t h a t a minimum p o p u l a t i o n  make a r e g i o n a l  and  strategy  area b e f o r e  where a h i g h degree of e a r l y support i s not  second s t r a t e g y  the  first  the  and  national  c e r t a i n l e v e l s of l i b r a r y  service  promoting those same l e v e l s of  terms "adequate" and  "modern" l i b r a r y  l i b r a r y " s t a n d a r d s " were c r e a t e d  and  s e r v i c e l e v e l s that were above what was  deployed to currently  standard  or adequate i n order to make them inadequate, substandard, and . outdated. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the the  " c r i s i s " of l i b r a r i e s  1960s o c c u r r e d at a time when l i b r a r i e s  cancelled. of c r i s i s lapse  6 0  In f a c t , some of them had  grown  i n Saskatchewan L i b r a r i e s i n 1966  or f a i l u r e of e x i s t i n g systems; i t was  waking to t h e i r need f o r modern s e r v i c e and The was  the  c r e a t i o n of the  regional  had not been cut  cases the  l i b r a r i a n s and  state  was not  any  its  own.  caused by  the modern p u b l i c demanding i t .  l i b r a r y system i n Saskatchewan number of  hundreds of community l e a d e r s .  government's involvement was  Never d i d i t a c t on  or  and expanded. The  r e s u l t of a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between a small  professional  in  a response to l o c a l  In a l l activity.  Where l i b r a r i e s are concerned, 1960s had  sharper ears than the CCF  e a r l y 1960s and,  the L i b e r a l government of the governments of the 1950s and  a g a i n s t impressions, was  u l t i m a t e l y more  p r o g r e s s i v e on l i b r a r i e s . The d e f i n i n g evidence of t h i s i s not e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the LIC i n 1966, bookmobile demonstration  the  but the funding of a two-year  i n 1964-1966. T h i s study f i n d s t h a t t h i s  :  key expenditure by the f i s c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l s would have seemed extravagant Although  to the CCF  government.  government p o l i c y i s not the s u b j e c t of t h i s study, a  h y p o t h e s i s of i n v e r t e d c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be put f o r t h . As  libraries  i n v o l v e much s m a l l e r amounts of money than other government programs, they p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r governments to demonstrate a c h a r a c t e r i n c o n t r a s t to t h e i r known p r o c l i v i t i e s : r e s t r a i n e d i n the case of the CCF, of the  cautious  and  f l e x i b l e and generous i n the  case  Liberals.  Nonetheless,  the CCF  i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the networks  of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e a c r o s s r u r a l Saskatchewan - highways, telephones,  gas, e t c . The p e r s i s t e n t presence  electricity,  of the road i n the  h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l , used both l i t e r a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , i s not an a c c i d e n t ; In f a c t , the network of l i b r a r y advocacy b u i l t 1950s and Although libraries  1960s is. an aspect  i n the  of r u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development.  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s o f t e n found to be i n c o m p e t i t i o n with f o r government support, the r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y network i s  a c t u a l l y the u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n and completion of t h a t infrastructure.  References Archer, John H. 1980. Saskatchewan Producer P r a i r i e Books.  : A History.  Saskatoon:  Western  Barcus, Thomas R. 1944a. L e t t e r from Saskatoon t o Agnes Weweler, Trossachs, Sk., n.d. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41. Barcus, Thomas R. 1944b. L e t t e r from Saskatoon t o Emma B e l l , Regina, 24 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41. Bell,  Emma. 1941. School and Community L i b r a r i e s f o r Saskatchewan. Speech g i v e n t o Saskatchewan t e a c h e r s , J u l y , 1941. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 39.  Bell,  Emma. 1944a. L e t t e r from Regina t o Thomas R. Barcus, Saskatoon, 18 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41.  Bell,  Emma. 1944b. L e t t e r from Regina t o T.C. Douglas, Regina, 2 November, Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41.  Beveridge, T.M. 1966. A r t i c l e A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  W r i t t e n f o r Newspaper.  Saskatchewan  B o t h w e l l , J e s s e . 1946a. L e t t e r from Regina t o B e t t y Davis, P r i n c e A l b e r t , 11 February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. B o t h w e l l , J e s s e . 1946b. L e t t e r from Regina t o B e t t y Davis, P r i n c e A l b e r t , 9 May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. B r a i t h w a i t e , B.A.C. 1966a. L e t t e r from Rosetown t o E l s p e t h M. M i l l e r , Regina, 9 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. B r a i t h w a i t e , B.A.C. 1966b. L e t t e r from Rosetown t o E l s p e t h M. M i l l e r , Regina, 3 August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. B r a i t h w a i t e , Max. 1980. Like Friesen.  Being  a Millionaire.  A l t o n a , Mb.:  B r a i t h w a i t e , S t e l l a . 1966. L e t t e r from McGee, Sk. t o E l s p e t h M. M i l l e r , Regina, 7 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Campbell, Grace. 1957a. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 11 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Campbell, Grace. 1957b. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 10 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Campbell, Grace. 1957c. 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Campbell, Grace. 1958e. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 22 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Campbell, Henry Cummings. 1969. Canadian Archon Books.  Libraries.  Hamden, Conn.:  Canadian L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1948. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n R e g i o n a l and County L i b r a r y Work. CLA Bulletin 5, J u l y : 40-41. Chandler, H. B. and J . T. Croteau. 1940. A Regional  Readers:  A Study  of Five  American A s s o c i a t i o n  Years  f o r Adult  of Rural  Library  Reading.  and Its  New York:  Education.  Committee f o r Qu'Appelle V a l l e y Regional L i b r a r y . 1965a. Minutes o f Meeting o f P r o v i s i o n a l Committee f o r Q.V.R.L., February 24, 1965. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Committee f o r Qu'Appelle V a l l e y Regional L i b r a r y . 1965b. Minutes o f Meeting o f P r o v i s i o n a l Committee f o r Q.V.R.L., March 12, 1965.. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Donaldson, Mary. 1952a. L e t t e r from Regina to Marion G i l r o y , P r i n c e A l b e r t , 17 January. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1952b. L e t t e r from Regina to Marion G i l r o y , P r i n c e A l b e r t , 17 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1953. L e t t e r from Regina to Marion G i l r o y , A l b e r t , A p r i l 9. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Prince  Donaldson, Mary. 1956. L e t t e r from Regina to Marion Sherman, P r i n c e A l b e r t , 2 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1957. L e t t e r from Regina to W.S. L l o y d , A p r i l 3. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Regina,  Donaldson, Mary. 1959a.. L e t t e r from Regina to A. Gingras, Estevan, 15 June. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1959b. L e t t e r from Regina to J.B. Stephenson, S t r a n r a e r , 8 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1959c. L e t t e r from Regina to J.N. Dyer, Estevan, 16 June. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1959d. L e t t e r from Regina to V.C. Watkinson, Wawota, Sk., 28 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1960a. L e t t e r from Regina to J.B. Stephenson, S t r a n r a e r , Sk., 19 February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1960b. L e t t e r from Regina to R.A. M i t c h e l l , Moosomin, Sk., 17 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1961a. L e t t e r from Regina to Dorothy Yoner, Sk., 11 May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Midale,  Donaldson, Mary. 1961b. L e t t e r from Regina to Helen McCuaig, S t r a n r a e r , Sk., 15 August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Donaldson, Mary. 1962a. L e t t e r from Regina to James P o r t e r , 16 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Weyburn,  Donaldson, Mary. 1962b. L e t t e r from Regina to James P o r t e r , 22 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Weyburn,  Donaldson, Mary. 1965. L e t t e r from Regina t o Members o f the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y S t e e r i n g Committees i n the Qu'Appelle V a l l e y and the South E a s t , 26 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Dyer, J.N. 1959. L e t t e r from E s t e v a n t o Mary Donaldson, October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Regina,  14  E i s l e r , Dale. 1987. Rumours o f G l o r y : Saskatchewan and the T h a t c h e r Y e a r s . Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s . F a f o r d , K. Seeing i s B e l i e v i n g . 1963. SLA Bulletin  17, no. 1:  5-8.  Focus on Saskatchewan L i b r a r i e s . 1974. Canadian Library Progress A Selection of the Best Writings From Canadian Library Publications, 192-8 Vancouver: V e r s a t i l e .  2:  F o s t e r , Audrey. 1957. L e t t e r from B i r c h H i l l s t o Grace Campbell, P r i n c e A l b e r t , 4 December. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. F r i t z , L i n d a . 1990. Community P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Development: The Saskatchewan E x p e r i e n c e . Canadian Library Journal 47, no. 2: 97-101. F r u h s t a k , S. 1966. L e t t e r from Handel t o E l s p e t h M. M i l l e r , 18 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Regina,  G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1950a. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o D.J. McCarthy, M e l f o r t , 16 February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1950b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o J.S. Wood, Saskatoon, 14 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1950c. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o John Lukan, Hoey, Sk., 25 February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, R e g i n a . G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1950d. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o W.S. L l o y d , Regina, 21 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1950e. Report o f the R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s D i v i s i o n June 1, 1949 t o May 1, 1950. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1952a. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 22 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , M a r i o n . 1952b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 7 May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  G i l r o y , Marion. 1952d. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 9 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1952e. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 28 August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1952f. Regional L i b r a r i e s : A Programme f o r Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1953a. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 24 February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1953b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 3 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1953c. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 28 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954a. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 22 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 11 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954c. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 18 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954d. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 21 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954e. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954f. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 12 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1954g. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o Mary Donaldson, Regina, 3 December. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1953h. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 22 May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1955a. L e t t e r from Prince A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 30 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1955b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 3 May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  G i l r o y , Marion. 1956b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 8 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1956c. Notes on the Meeting With the Weyburn P u b l i c L i b r a r y Board and the S u p e r v i s o r of R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s , Thursday, 22 March, 1956. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.G i l r o y , Marion. 1956d. Regional L i b r a r i e s i n Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Saskatchewan.  G i l r o y , Marion. 1957a. L e t t e r from Regina to Grace Campbell, P r i n c e A l b e r t , 9 December. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. G i l r o y , Marion. 1957b. 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Urbana, I I . : U n i v e r s i t y of Illinois. Meadows, Donald F. 1972. L i b r a r i e s i n Saskatchewan. Journal 29, no. 3: 186-90.  Canadian  at  Library  Miffieri,  Jessie.  Newfoundland Public  1978.  The Development  1934-1972: A Report  Libraries  of Public  Prepared  Library  Services  in  for the Newfoundland  Board. London: Vine Press.  M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966a. L e t t e r from Regina to A. Romuld, 26 August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Deblane,  M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966b. L e t t e r from Regina to B.A.C. B r a i t h w a i t e , Rosetown, Sk., 12 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966c. L e t t e r from Regina to Marion G i l r o y , Vancouver, 26 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966d. L e t t e r from Regina to Norman French, Donavon, Sk., 13 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966e. L e t t e r from Regina to S. Fruhstak, Handel, Sk., 21 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966f. L e t t e r from Regina to S t e l l a B r a i t h w a i t e , Rosetown, Sk., 12 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966g. L e t t e r from Regina to W. Rooke, Eston, Sk., 8 September. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. M i l l e r , E l s p e t h M. 1966h. L e t t e r from Regina to W.S. Bruce, C o l e v i l l e , Sk., 12 August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Munroe, E l e a n o r . 1954.  Bulletin  Saskatchewan  L i b r a r i e s Go M o b i l e . SLA  18, no. 1: 5-7.  N e l l , A.E. 1960. Report of A.E. N e l l , P r e s i d e n t , West C e n t r a l Saskatchewan Regional L i b r a r y Committee, Given at the F i r s t Annual Meeting, K i n d e r s l e y , October 5, 1960. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. 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Ontario Library Review 51, no. 2: 85-7. P o r t e r , James. 1962a. L e t t e r from Weyburn to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 13 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1962b. L e t t e r from Weyburn to p u b l i c , Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  April.  P o r t e r , James. 1962c. L e t t e r from Weyburn to p u b l i c , Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  April.  P o r t e r , James. 1962d. L e t t e r from Weyburn to p u b l i c , Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  May.  P o r t e r , James. 1962e. L e t t e r from Weyburn to Southeast Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y S t e e r i n g Committee, 4 June. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1964a. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.'  councils,  P o r t e r , James. 1964b. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , December. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1964c. L e t t e r from Weyburn to p u b l i c , Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  19  n.d.  P o r t e r , James. 1964d. L e t t e r from Weyburn to W.A. B i l a w i c h , Estevan, 2 December. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965a. I t can be done, because we d i d i t . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965b. L e t t e r from Weyburn to p u b l i c , 11 January. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965c. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s ( v i s i t e d ) , 20 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965d. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s v i s i t e d ) , 20 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965e. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , May. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965f. L e t t e r from Weyburn to m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , n.d. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  (not  21  P o r t e r , James. 1965g. L e t t e r from Weyburn to Southeast Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y S t e e r i n g Committee, 21 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. P o r t e r , James. 1965h. Progress Report No. 2. Saskatchewan Board, Regina.  Archives  P o r t e r , James. 1965i. Report of Progress to a l l C o u n c i l l o r s . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Powell, Ronald R. 1997. Basic Research Methods ed. Greenwich, Conn.: Ablex Pub. Corp.  for Librarians.  P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan. 194 6. An Act to p r o v i d e f o r the E s t a b l i s h m e n t and Maintenance of R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s .  Bulletin  3d  CLA  2: 101.  Putnam, Donalda. 1954. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to Mary Donaldson, Regina, 28 J u l y . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Putnam, Donalda. 1957. L e t t e r from Regina to Grace Campbell, A l b e r t , 4 A p r i l . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Romuld, A. 1966. L e t t e r from Dublane to E l s p e t h M i l l e r , August. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Regina, 24  Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1950. U n t i t l e d r e p o r t , Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. S-A70, f i l e Saskatchewan  SLA  Saskatchewan  Bulletin Saskatchewan  SLA  25.  L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1956. News from Country and  Bulletin  Prince  City.  10, no. 1: 2-5.  L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1957. Dream No Small Dreams. SLA  10, no. 2: 6-16. L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1964. Bookmobile Demonstration.  Bulletin  18, no. 1: 9.  Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . 1966. Submission to the L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee, p r e s e n t e d by the Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n . SLA Bulletin 20, no. 1: 5-26 Saskatchewan L i b r a r y Trustees A s s o c i a t i o n . 2004. T r u s t e e s <http://www.lib.sk.ca/slta/html/manual-index.htm>  Manual.  Sherman, Marion. 1953. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to W.S. L l o y d , Regina, 3 March. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  Sherman, Marion. 1954b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to P u b l i c , S h e l l b r o o k , Sk., 1 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Sherman, Marion. 1956a. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t t o P u b l i c , Buckland RM, Sk., 30 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Sherman, Marion. 1956b. L e t t e r from P r i n c e A l b e r t to w.S. L l o y d , Regina, 24 November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. South East Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1967. South E a s t e r n Saskatchewan's Regional L i b r a r y O f f i c i a l Opening, Saturday, February 25, 1967, Weyburn, Sk. (brochure). Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Stephenson, J.B. 1959a. L e t t e r from S t r a n r a e r to Mary Donaldson, October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  19  Stephenson, J.B. 1959b. L e t t e r from S t r a n r a e r to Mary Donaldson, November. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  29  Stephenson, J.B. 1960. L e t t e r from S t r a n r a e r t o Mary Donaldson, February. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  16  Thompson, Judy. 1981. Going i t Alone: A L i b r a r y Stays Independent.  Canadian  Library  Journal  38, no. 6: 423-4.  U n t i t l e d Document. 1959. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1959. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1960. How the Campaign f o r the West C e n t r a l Regional L i b r a r y Committee S t a r t e d : A Progress Report from the Committee. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1961. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Which Had Agreed to J o i n the Proposed West C e n t r a l Saskatchewan R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y by December 15, 1961. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1963. Proposed West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y : Meeting to p l a n Bookmobile S e r v i c e i n Community H a l l , Rosetown, December 16, 1963, 1:30 p.m. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1966. R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Meeting, Saturday, June 11, 1966 (minutes). Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  West C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Committee. 1967. Scheme f o r Opening .Branch L i b r a r i e s . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Weweler, Agnes. 1944a. L e t t e r from Trossachs to Thomas R. Barcus, Saskatoon, 10 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41. Weweler, Agnes. 1944b. L e t t e r from Trossachs to Saskatchewan L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , Regina, 13 October. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98-BVIII, f i l e 41. Weweler, Agnes. 1944c. L e t t e r from Trossachs to Emma B e l l , Regina, 20 November. Saskatchewan. A r c h i v e s Board, Saskatoon. B98BVIII, f i l e 41. Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Board. 1966. Minutes of the Pro-Tern E x e c u t i v e Committee, August 17, 1966. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Board. 1966. L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Committee: B r i e f From the Pro-Tem E x e c u t i v e Committee of the Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Board. Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina. Wheatland R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Board. 1967. F i r s t Board Meeting, Wheatland P u b l i c L i b r a r y ( t r a n s c r i p t ) . Saskatchewan A r c h i v e s Board, Regina.  By s o u t h e r n Saskatchewan, I mean t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t e d p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e , b e g i n n i n g s l i g h t l y n o r t h o f P r i n c e A l b e r t and e x t e n d i n g s o u t h t o the American b o r d e r . I n i t s e a r l y days, t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y c l e a r l y l a c k e d modern o f f i c e c o n d i t i o n s : " A l l t h e money we c o u l d squeeze out was spent on books. I t was a c o l d , wet summer and we s h i v e r e d as-we worked l o n g h o u r s . B e f o r e t h e cement f l o o r got i t s cover o f i n l a i d l i n o l e u m I wore f l e e c e - l i n e d b o o t s . One day a f r i e n d appeared w i t h a bear s k i n . We were t o t a k e t u r n s p u t t i n g our f e e t on i t " ( G i l r o y 1979, 1 2 ) . A l s o see c h a p t e r B-8 o f P a r t I I f o r i n s t a n c e s where t h e l i b r a r y system t r i e d t o o v e r t a k e t h e g r i d r o a d development. " C e n t r a l i z a t i o n Trend," Regina Leader Post, 13 March 1964, 23. F o r example, M i f f l e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f Hedley K i n g ' s t r a v e l s , as . S u p e r v i s o r o f R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s , which resemble G i l r o y ' s i n scope and s c a l e , i s l i m i t e d t o one sentence (1978, 57-8). B r a i t h w a i t e and Macdonald, i n c o n t r a s t , devote whole c h a p t e r s t o t r a v e l s i n Saskatchewan. There was one more r e g i o n formed i n N o r t h e r n Saskatchewan i n 1991: the P a h k i s i m o n Nuye-ah L i b r a r y System; w i t h i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s i n A i r Ronge. U n l i k e t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s , whose s t o r i e s r e a c h a n a t u r a l break a t the p o i n t o f t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l N o r t h C e n t r a l Region s t r u g g l e d t h r o u g h y e a r s o f d i f f i c u l t growth t h a t has no p r e c i s e end, but was c l e a r l y over by 1962. 1  2  3  4  5  6  As d e s c r i b e d i n Ormand McKague, " . ' S o c i a l i s t E d u c a t i o n ' I n Saskatchewan, 1942-1948 : A Study I n I d e o l o g y And B u r e a u c r a c y . " Ph.D. diss., U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1981. " I n f i n i t e Riches i n a L i t t l e Room," Western Producer, March 10, 1955. A c c o r d i n g t o K. F a f o r d , "Seeing i s B e l i e v i n g , " SLA Bulletin 17, no. 1 (1963) : 5-8. T h i s i s an assumption based on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e v i l l a g e does n o t e n t e r i n t o any documentation f o r t h e years f o l l o w i n g 1952. A n o t h e r ( s l i m ) p o s s i b i l i t y would be t h a t t h e v i l l a g e v o t e d f o r t h e l i b r a r i e s , and t h e c o u n c i l went a g a i n s t t h e m a j o r i t y . That t h e vote was won i s based on an e m a i l from K e v i n P h i l l i p , c u r r e n t R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f t h e W a p i t i R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , J u l y 13, 2004 t o m y s e l f , s t a t i n g t h a t t h e town o f K i n i s t i n o j o i n e d t h e l i b r a r y i n 1959. I have no document on t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t o f t h e p l e b i s c i t e . " P r o v i n c i a l Government Ups P.A. R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y G r a n t " Prince Albert Herald, May6, 1953. "Need R e g i o n a l L i b r a r i e s . " Western Producer, November 26, 1953. The E x t e n s i o n L i b r a r i a n was a p o s i t i o n i n which a l i b r a r i a n was h i r e d t o work w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r i a n and R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y S u p e r v i s o r i n d e v e l o p i n g l i b r a r i e s throughout t h e p r o v i n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . B e f o r e t h e h i r i n g o f Putnam, G i l r o y wrote t o Donaldson: "That i s one j o b where you need t o know what you're s e n d i n g o u t and what h i s p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l as h i s p r a c t i c e would be. I t h i n k i t i s b e t t e r t o have no one than someone who i s j u s t a l l r i g h t , " June 26, 1953. " F i r s t L i b r a r y 'Bookmobile' I n O p e r a t i o n Tuesday, Prince Albert Herald, July 2, 1954. " L i b r a r y on Wheels Proves P o p u l a r . " Saskatchewan News, December 8, 1953. " F i r s t L i b r a r y 'Bookmobile' I n O p e r a t i o n Tuesday, Prince Albert Herald, July 2, 1954. Ibid. "Bookmobile V i s i t s R u r a l C e n t r e s , " The Commonwealth, Aug 11, 1954. " A s s o c i a t i o n B a c k i n g L i b r a r y , " Saskatoon Star Phoenix, September 17, 1954. " F i n a l D e c i s i o n Pending on Fate o f S h e l l b r o o k L i b r a r y , " Saskatoon Star Phoenix, September 17, 1954. " A s s o c i a t i o n B a c k i n g L i b r a r y , " Saskatoon Star Phoenix, September 17, 1954. T h i s statement i s i n f e r r e d from t h e f a c t t h a t B u c k l a n d was not a member i n e a r l y 1957. I have not seen any documentation o f t h e a c t u a l meeting. The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s paragraph comes c o u r t e s y o f K e v i n P h i l l i p , c u r r e n t R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f t h e North C e n t r a l (now W a p i t i ) R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , i n an e m a i l t o m y s e l f , J u l y 13, 2004. That i s , Mary Donaldson, Marion G i l r o y , Donalda Putnam, a l l o f whom were a l r e a d y working f u l l - t i m e on promoting r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s a l l over t h e p r o v i n c e ) Because t h e R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s a r e based, f o r the most p a r t , around l i b r a r i e s ( f o r example, t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y ) , correspondence between t r u s t e e s such as Sherman and a d v i s o r s such as L i b r a r y A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l c h a i r C a r l y l e K i n g i s u n a v a i l a b l e from t h i s source. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , I would s p e c u l a t e t h a t Sherman's and t h e L A C s s e p a r a t e lobbies, were i n f a c t c o o r d i n a t e d . 7  8  9  10  11  12  13 14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  Gary Cooper, "Dream f o r Southeast Sask L i e s i n P o s i t i v e Approach o f 90,000 R e s i d e n t s , " Weyburn Review, August 21, 1958. From 1958 t o 1962, G i l r o y makes f r e q u e n t appearances at meetings i n t h e West C e n t r a l r e g i o n , and i s absent from t h e S o u t h e a s t p r o c e e d i n g s , where Putnam made f r e q u e n t appearances. L i k e l y , the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y s t a f f d e c i d e d t o s p l i t the advocacy work g e o g r a p h i c a l l y so t h a t t h e y c o u l d b u i l d more i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h l o c a l advocates and c o u n c i l s . The t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y s e r v i c e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1914, c o n s i s t e d o f , " l a r g e wooden boxes of 60 t o 80 books t h a t were l o a n e d t o a group or a community f o r a p e r i o d of one year. I n the b e g i n n i n g , books from t h e L e g i s l a t i v e L i b r a r y were used, but as the demand f o r m a t e r i a l s i n c r e a s e d , a s e p a r a t e c o l l e c t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d , " Saskatchewan L i b r a r y T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n Manual, (http://www.lib.sk.ca/sita/html/manual/manual12_apndx2.htm). The Leader Post, September 27, 1961, " R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y Proposed." " R e g i o n a l l i b r a r y d i s c u s s e d , " Regina Leader Post, June 28, 1962. Ibid. "Book C i r c u l a t i o n Climbs I n a R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y , " Weyburn Review, November 15, 1962. "Weyburn mayor a t t a c k s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n by g o v ' t , " Regina Leader Post, J a n u a r y 10, 1964, pg. 2. I t becomes d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n how many, and which l e t t e r s any g i v e n c o u n c i l r e c e i v e d , as some were d i r e c t e d t o c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o t h e r s were g e n e r a l . P o r t e r ' s mass m a i l - o u t s were sent t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y f o r d e l i v e r y . The a r c h i v e s do not show e x a c t l y where t h e y were d i r e c t e d . T h i s date i s based on t h e f i g u r e of 24,500 quoted as the p o p u l a t i o n of t h e r e g i o n i n the document. Jean Pask, " R e g i o n a l l i b r a r y campaign under way i n e a s t Sask," Regina Leader Post, November 15, 1963, pg. 2. The 1967 LIC Report s t a t e d t h a t a minimum p o p u l a t i o n of 100,000 i s needed f o r adquate modern l i b r a r y s e r v i c e ( L i b r a r y I n q u i r y Commission 1967b). "Southeast L i b r a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s open," Regina Leader Post, F e b r u a r y 27, 1967. pg. 2. " R e g i o n a l l i b r a r y proposed," Regina Leader Post, December 8, 1959. " R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y For W e s t - C e n t r a l , " Saskatoon Star Phoenix, December 9, 1959. The o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e i s u n a v a i l a b l e , but was quoted i n t h e December 23 e d i t i o n of the Clarion, i n a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r . See next note. " L e t t e r t o E d i t o r : F i n a n c i n g s h o u l d be easy," Kinderley Clarion, December 23, 1959. Ibid. Eva F l e t c h e r , " B a t t l e f o r Books," r e p r i n t e d from The Country Guide, 1961. Ibid. " R e g i o n a l l i b r a r y d i s c u s s e d , " Regina Leader Post, June 28, 1962. For example, Donalda Putnam wrote t o Grace Campbell about a meeting i n Naicam, i n the N o r t h C e n t r a l Region i n 1957, "They seemed t o have had a h i n t t h a t t h e y might not be too welcome i n t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l Saskatchewan L i b r a r y u n l e s s t h e y brought an r.m. w i t h them. I t o l d them t h e y were about r i g h t " (Putnam 1957). . " B r i e f s heard by committee" Regina Leader Post, November 17, 1966, pg- 2 . , 27  28  29  30 31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39  40 41  42  43  44  45  46  47 48  49  " P r o v i n c e - w i d e l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s asked by b o a r d , " Regina Leader Post, October 6, 1966, pg. 2. " B r i e f t o committee c l a i m s p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n a d e q u a t e , " "More p r o v i n c i a l support sought," Regina Leader Post, November 18, 1966, pg. 2. " B r i e f s s p e l l out aims and needs o f l i b r a r i e s , " Regina Leader Post, November 23, 1966, pg. 2. "Problems o f r e g i o n a l l i b r a r y a r e o u t l i n e d , " Regina Leader Post, November 23, 1966, pg. 2. " S o u t h e a s t L i b r a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s open," Regina Leader Post, F e b r u a r y 27, 1967, pg. 2. Ibid. "Seven L i b r a r i e s Urged," Regina Leader Post, August 25, 1967, pg. 1. Ibid. I b i d , pg. 36. 50  51  52  53  54  55 56  57  58  "Cost b i g m a t t e r i n l i b r a r y p r o p o s a l s , " Regina Leader Post, August 1967, pg. 21. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e T r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r i e s , whose c a n c e l l a t i o n i s a mark o f p r o g r e s s f o r r e g i o n a l l i b r a r i e s . 59  31,  60  

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