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Investigating computer-supported collaborative learning and critical inquiry : a case study of the seeds… Zhang, Tianyi 2005

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INVESTIGATING COMPUTER-SUPPORTED C O L L A B O R A T I V E LEARNING A N D CRITICAL INQUIRY: A C A S E S T U D Y OF T H E SEEDS OF P O S S I B I L I T Y INTEGRATING INFORMATION A N D COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES PROJECT IN T H E T W O - Y E A R E L E M E N T A R Y T E A C H E R E D U C A T I O N P R O G R A M A T T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A  by TIANYI Z H A N G B . A . Nanjing Normal University, 2003  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES {^Technology Studies Education^  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A August 2005  © Tianyi Zhang, 2005  Abstract The central question in this thesis is: what were, i f any, the relations, tensions, and contradictions that occurred when critical inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ( C S C L ) were introduced to enhance Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy i n the Two-Year Elementary Teacher Education Program ( T Y E T E P ) course o f study at the University o f British Columbia ( U B C ) . The study was guided methodologically using discourse analysis and case study and it was focused on the development o f (ICT) literacy within two core courses (Principles o f Teaching and Communication). The data were analyzed i n light o f contemporary educational issues identified from the overall teacher education program at U B C and a literature review o f I C T perspectives, practices, and policies within Canada, British Columbia, and more generally North America. The preliminary findings were based on empirical research I collected and indicated that collaborative learning, critical inquiry and the concept o f learning spaces were enhanced when I C T was integrated into the T Y E T E P . Some social and infrastructure problems were found as tensions during the program. Insufficient I C T hard infrastructure as well as teachers' and students' low attitude towards the integration o f I C T were found to contradict the literature review. This thesis reports on one line o f research from a more comprehensive research project called "Seeds o f Possibility: Integration Information and Communication Technologies." Seeds o f Possibility was a pilot program with a research objective that examined how over the course o f several years' teacher education students can enhance their I C T literacy and fluency as they engage in using I C T through their program.  iii  Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations.... Acknowledgements Chapter I Introduction  •  ii iii vi vii viii ix 1  Background o f the Problem  3  Method  6  Discourse Analysis  7  Case Study  8  Research Setting and Participants  9  Data Collection  10  Synopsis o f Chapters  11  Chapter 2 Research Background  12  Learning Spaces  12  From Face-to-Face Classrooms to Online and Distance Education  13  A n Interpretation — Hidden Issues o f U s i n g Computers i n Classrooms  16  Critical Inquiry — Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy  18  Critical Theory  19  Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Education  19  Critical Inquiry  23  Critical Inquiry and Learning Spaces  24  Collaborative Learning and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning  28  Collaborative Learning ( C L )  28  Two Approaches to C S C L  31  Chapter 3 ICT and Teacher Education  34  Introduction Education i n Canada  34 ;  36  Public Education  38  Postsecondary Education (Colleges & Universities)  39  Private Schools & Career Colleges  39  Home Schooling  39  Special Needs Students  40  The National W i d e P o l l and Surveys—The use o f I C T in Canadian schools  40  I C T Infrastructure i n British Columbia  48  Teacher Education Program i n B C  -54  University o f Victoria ( U V I C )  54  Simon Fraser University (SFU)  55  Thompson Rivers University ( T R U )  55  The University o f British Columbia ( U B C )  55  Chapter 4 CSCL, Critical Inquiry, and Learning Spaces in Seeds Program. 58 Two-Year Elementary Teacher Education Program ( T Y E T E P )  58  Seeds o f Possibility  63  Description and Analysis o f Seeds Program  65  Pre Surveys  65  Module 1—A Transition to Module 2  68  Module 2-Inquiry  74  Module 3-Assesment  97  Summary  99  Chapter 5 Summary and Suggestion  100  Relations  100  Learning Spaces  101  Critical Inquiry and Pedagogy  102  Computer Supported Collaborative Learning  ,  103  Tensions..  105  Contradictions  106  Significance  108  Future Study  108  Dimensions o f I C T and C S C L  110  The Role o f Teachers  110  The Role o f Students  111  Conclusion  112  References  114  Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix  122 123 124 125 126 127 131 137  A Program Schedule B Classroom Bookings: B Classroom Bookings: B Classroom Bookings: B Classroom Bookings: C Pre Survey D Post Survey E Consent Form  Group A Group B Group C Group D  List of Tables Table 1 Average number o f computers and students per school, school year 2003/04.. .43 Table 2: Average number o f Internet-connected computers and students per school, school year 2003/04  45  Table 3: Monthly I C T technical support time per computer, school year 2003/04  46  Table 4: Connectedness, school year 2003/04  46  Table 5: Strategies to help teacher learn how to use ICT, school year 2003/04  47  vn  List of Figures Figure 1: Student-to-computer ratio by school characteristics (median)  43  Figure 2: Student-to-computer ratio by provinces/territories (median)  44  Figure 3 Teacher Education Program at U B C  56  Figure 4: Elementary Cohorts at U B C 2004/05  59  Figure 5: Teacher Education Office (TEO)  60  Figure 6: T w o year Elementary Teacher Education Program ( T Y E T E P ) Overview  61  Figure 7: Courses Offered During T Y E T E P .  62  viii  List of Abbreviations BEd: Bachelor o f Education BC: British Columbia CAI: Computer Assisted Instruction CL: Collaborative Learning CMS: Computer and M e d i a Services CWL: Campus W i d e Login  CSCL: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning CSCW: Computer-Supported Collaborative W o r k CUST: Curriculum Studies  J  FOE: Faculty o f Education ICT: Information and Communication Technology ICTSS: The Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey ITS: Intelligent Tutoring Systems NLS: oN-line System ODE: Online Distance Education  PISA: Programme for International Student Assessment SFU: Simon Fraser University TEO: Teacher Education Office TEP: Teacher Education Program TES: Teacher Education Students UBC: University o f British Columbia  UVIC: University o f Victoria TYETEP: Two-Year Elementary Teacher Education Program TRU: Thompson Rivers University  ix  Acknowledgements The completion o f this thesis i n such a short time was not a solo effort. M a n y people deserve m y heartfelt thanks. M y committee members Dr. D o n Krug, Dr. Stephen Petrina Dr. E . Wayne Ross and Dr. Samson Madera Nashon have provided an incredible level o f understanding, support and advice. M y greatest appreciation is to Dr. D o n Krug, who not only created an opportunity for me to participate i n the research but also provided me with valuable information. I owe a great deal o f thanks to Richard Beaudry and Deb Vanstone for providing me with valuable information they have collected from the research. I am also extremely grateful to Laurel Tien, and Hedieh Najafi for their contribution and support during the research. Last but not the least, I would like to thank m y parents back in China from the bottom o f m y heart. Their greatest support and love means a lot to me.  1  Chapter I Introduction In Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom, Cuban (2001) contended that schools need to be reformed through the use o f new technologies. N e w technologies refer to the hard infrastructure, such as computers, software applications, and other equipment, as well as the soft infrastructure or the technical support o f all equipment and the professional development o f teachers and administrators (Cuban, 2001, p. 12). In this thesis, I w i l l group hard and soft infrastructure under the heading o f information and communication technologies (ICT) and focus m y investigation primarily on the use o f I C T in the professional development o f pre-service teacher educators. I C T is widely used i n school settings across North America, Australia, Europe, and Asia. In a regional case study that examined the use o f I C T i n 12 schools within the Silicon Valley area o f the United States, including Stanford University, Cuban (2001) unexpectedly found that even with the abundant availability o f hard infrastructure and the growing support o f soft infrastructure, "students and teachers use[d] computers and other technologies more at home than at school" (Cuban, 2001, p. 177). Even for the small percentage o f teachers who used I C T seriously or occasionally, most "maintained] existing classroom practices rather than alter customary practices" (Cuban, 2001, p. 177). If computers have also been oversold i n Canada, what is being done through teacher education programs so that I C T is not being underused? I have focused this case study on the development o f I C T literacy within one cohort o f the teacher education program (TEP) at the University o f British Columbia. The data were analyzed i n light o f contemporary educational issues identified from a  2  literature review o f I C T perspectives, practices, and policies within Canada, British Columbia, and more specifically the overall teacher education program at U B C . I was drawn to conduct this research because the study o f relations among conditions i n the teacher education program, collaborative learning, and I C T are increasingly becoming important areas o f investigation for researchers and educators. However, most research on these topics has been done at primary and secondary school levels (Gokhale, 1995). From m y review o f literature, I found that more empirical research is needed at institutions o f higher education, especially i n the areas o f computer supported collaborative learning ( C S C L ) and teacher education that critically examines the role o f I C T literacy with regards to its influence on the development o f student learning. I C T literacy refers to a teacher's competency and confidence i n using technologies (Becker, 2000; Wray, M e d w e l l , & Fox, 2000; Petrina, 2000; Laferriere et al., 2001; Krug, 2002a; Zhao et al., 2002; Irvine, Mappin, & Code, 2003; Krug, 2004). Throughout this research it was defined as the skills and knowledge teachers and students need to use I C T to improve learning, productivity, and performance ( U S D E , 1996; Irvine, & Montgomerie, 2001). Zhao et al. (2002) contended, a teacher's I C T l i t e r a c y was a key factor in effectively using I C T in teaching and could be acquired through self-directed learning, teacher education programs, professional development education, and daily interactions within their own classroom settings. This thesis w i l l report on one line o f research from a more comprehensive pilot research project called "Seeds o f Possibility—Integration Information and Communication Technologies into the T w o Year Teacher Education Program." The  3  Seeds o f Possibility research objective examined how over the course o f several years, teacher education students can enhance their I C T literacy and fluency as they engage i n using I C T and critical inquiry through their program o f study. In this thesis, I reported on how students benefited and were limited from engaging i n a course o f study during their teacher education program that simulated the use o f I C T within collaborative learning spaces. I w i l l describe, analyze, and interpret these pedagogical and computer supported collaborative learning ( C S C L ) processes and provide some educational contextual background to examine these issues within broader educational perspectives. I am also aware, however, o f the limitations o f this case study i n relationship to any broader view for generalizing about the development o f I C T literacy within the full teacher education program at U B C . This study only investigated the preliminary development o f I C T literacy i n the Seeds o f Possibility project within the T w o Year Elementary Teacher Education Program ( T Y E T E P ) at U B C . Still, these preliminary findings based on the empirical research I collected are significant i n that they support current research that the effectiveness o f I C T in teacher education lies i n developing the teachers' comfort and confidence with applying I C T within their own existing pedagogical knowledge.  Background of the Problem In chapter 2,1 discussed a broad range o f ideas and issues i n detail that informed m y journey i n completing this research. Briefly, the literature indicated that more empirical research is needed regarding I C T literacy i n Canada at institutions o f higher  4  education. According to Lehtinen, et al. (2004), education i n the future w i l l need to prepare students to participate i n a networked information society, which regards knowledge as the most critical resource for social and economic development. Some researchers speculate that computer-supported collaborative learning ( C S C L ) is one o f the most promising innovations, along with online distance education ( O D E ) , for improving teaching and learning through educational settings. B r o w n (2005) described a multitude o f variables i n the creation o f virtual learning spaces. One o f the key variables was the specific environment where cultural conditions became integrated with past educational traditions and emerging forms o f ICT. Brown (2005) suggested that i f ICT is to be beneficial for learning, teachers w i l l need to be aware o f how it can be used for teaching within various forms o f face-to-face, mixed-mode (hybrid), and online distance education learning spaces. The inclusion o f ICT within educational settings has its own unique historical and social contexts that should not be ignored or separated from an examination o f educational theories and philosophies o f pedagogy. There are contextual conditions that create relations among I C T , collaboration, pedagogy, and learning spaces i n educational settings. In Chapter 2,1 argued that a re-examination o f ICT literacy, i n light o f contemporary research, can perhaps deepen one's understanding o f related issues and perspectives. I identified some significant I C T literacy issues around critical inquiry that have not been systematically researched i n the past. Critical inquiry is used in this thesis as a method o f research drawing methodologically from some o f the past cultural work i n critical theory and critical pedagogy. I examined the complexity o f cultural conditions with regards to collaboration  5  and analyzed these social relationships through relations, tensions, and contradictions associated with the Seeds o f Possibility Project specifically. Nevertheless, this research was based on critical theory and critical pedagogy eventhough I did not explicitly examine any one or combination o f social category systems such as: age, ability, gender, race, etc.. I acknowledge that these social category systems are extremely important, however contemporary research has indicated that they are also dynamic, fluid, and complex and should not be viewed i n isolation such as they were i n some past work i n critical theory and critical pedagogy. This research does not avoid these issues, but I have choosen to critically examine other important cultural conditions associated with collaboration (social relations), I C T , and pedagogy. Through this research, I examined how a computer supported collaborative learning space can potentially create a safe and democratic environment for active participation. M c L a r e n (1988) stated that the goal o f critical pedagogy is to "empower students to intervene i n their own self-formation and to transform the oppressive features o f the wider society to make such an intervention" (cited i n Frechette, 2002, p. 1). H e called for classrooms that provide safe spaces for authentic participation (Frechette, 2002). I discussed these results with regards to some o f the current research i n the use o f ICT for supporting collaborative learning i n schools (Dillenbourg et al, 2001, cited i n Lipponen & Lallimo 2004). I w i l l contend that the teacher education program at U B C might benefit from adopting M c L a r e n ' s (1999) notion o f a "critical pedagogy o f space" philosophy that puts into practice the development o f ICT literacy based on using C S C L and critical inquiry to create a safe and democratic environment for the active participation o f T E S (cited in Morgan, 2000).  6 Method This study was guided methodologically using discourse analysis and case study to examine the use o f ICT i n the T Y E T E P . I used discourse analysis and case study to adopt particular methods for the research. Here I also want to acknowledge that an important presupposition underpinning m y selection o f a case study approach was that I believe research cannot be understood outside o f its contextual conditions. Data for this research was continuously checked against the views o f research participants and fellow researchers i n the larger pilot study. The aim o f this thesis was to critically examine ideas o f C S C L and critical inquiry and identify relationships between these ideas along with related issues o f I C T literacy within the T Y E T E P course o f study. In this regard the research served to generate new hypotheses and not to validate or prove a proposition.  ^  Research Objectives The case study objectives were to: 1)  Identify the need for introducing I C T literacy into the T E P course o f study generally and the 2-year elementary T E P specifically based on a thorough review o f educational literature and theory.  2)  Describe and analyze relations, tensions, and contradictions that occurred when pedagogy and C S C L were introduced to enhance I C T literacy i n the T E P course o f study.  7  Discourse Analysis Discourses connect the historical, social, and contextual conditions where issues are produced, circulated and negotiated b y people with particular interests. Educational discourses influence teachers' curriculum positions and practices (Krug & Cohen-Evron, 2000). Sassevile (2004) wrote that " A discourse . . . does not exist alone... It's ideological content and form are interwoven and related to other discourses present i n society" (pp. 67). "Discourse analysis can be characterized as a way o f approaching and thinking about a problem" ("Discourse Analysis", 2005, p. 1). It does not provide a tangible answer to a specific problem as claimed by most scientific researchers, but enables one to understand the ontological and epistemological contexts o f an issue, statement, or research that is involved. For the purpose o f this thesis it allowed me to examine the specific uses o f I C T literacy and the broad contextual conditions o f this specific teacher education program. Furthermore, it provided me with a means to analyze people's various perspectives i n connection to a broader picture o f educational technologies i n order to interpret the relations o f some issues ("Discourse Analysis", 2005). For this thesis, .. .the purpose o f discourse analysis is [was] not to provide definite answers, but to expand our personal horizons and make us realize our own shortcomings and unacknowledged agendas/motivations-as well as that o f others.. .The contribution o f the discourse analysis is [was] the application o f critical thought to social situations and the unveiling o f hidden politics within the socially dominant as well as other discourses, and insight knowledge based on continuous debate and argumentation ("Discourse Analysis", 2005, p. 2).  8 I selected discourse analysis to examine the relationships o f learning spaces designed using C S C L and critical inquiry. In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5,1 w i l l identify and discuss emerging I C T literacy issues and reveal potential gaps or hidden meanings that might be useful for further study. I also integrated past theoretical and empirical studies, in order to focus this research on I C T and within teacher education at a university level.  Case Studv This case study was connected to a unique setting, the teacher education program at U B C and within the contexts o f particular social, historical and economic environments. Stake (2000) contended that the "Definition o f the case is not independent of interpretive paradigm or methods o f inquiry" (p. 449), because the objectivity o f a case might be challenged due to the subjectivity o f differing views, situations and times. H e continued by saying "the definition o f the case changes i n different ways under different methods o f study" (p. 449). This case study was bound by the winter (January - A p r i l 2005) term and limited to a particular population (120 teacher education students). The research focused on teacher education students' development o f ICT literacy. It involved detailed and in-depth data collected through observations, interviews, field notes, audiovisual materials and other documents beginning several months before and after this period o f time. I selected a case study methodology not only to represent the case but also to critically analyze the situation and student I C T literacy perspectives and practices. I sought to identify certain variables within the research and investigated these emerging variables for further studies. Therefore, the value o f this case study lies i n the  9  identification o f complexities and refinement o f theories for ongoing investigations (Atkinson & Delamont, 1986; Creswell 1999; Stake 2000).  Research Setting and Participants The "Seeds o f Possibility" research was with elementary teacher education students (TES) at U B C i n the T Y E T E P i n the Faculty o f Education. This research program was i n conjunction with two education courses (Principles o f Teaching and Communication) that students are required to take for certification. The research program was guided by a professor from the Faculty o f Education and five graduate research assistants. The one-hundred and twenty students were enrolled i n seven different sections of two courses and each class had an individual faculty advisor. The students met on Monday (forty minutes) and Wednesday (twenty minutes) each week from the end o f January to the beginning o f A p r i l . T w o computer labs and two carts o f twenty wireless laptops (both O S X and W I N ) were at the students' disposal during the program. The Seeds o f Possibility program was organized around three modules: introduction, inquiry, and assessment. Module one provided students a brief introduction to the use o f I C T and asked them to consider the following questions: 1) W h y should I C T be integrated into their teacher education program?; and, 2) H o w can I C T literacy inform one's own pedagogy to support student learning? Module two was designed to demonstrate ways to integrate I C T across the curriculum. Collaborative learning was emphasized to promote a student-centred learning environment where the teacher was a facilitator. Through the use o f ICT, various communication and learning spaces were  10  introduced to students during this module. For instance, students posted their comments and questions about articles they read and lectures they attended on a blog, w i k i and discussion forum. They learned to not only collaborate and communicate with each other, but more importantly they learned about how to address issues o f bullying and assessment (reading and lecture topics) i n their teaching b y sharing conversations with their classmates, teachers and administrators. This module also provided students an opportunity to create their own e-portfolios and think about the communication space these e-portfolios represent. In order to do this, basic html formatting and file transfer protocol skills were taught, but not for the sole purpose o f using an I C T application. Instead the emphasis was on the context o f creating an e-portfolio that highlighted their professional learning and personal interests.  Data Collection Three main sources o f data were collected for this research. Each source provided a different perspective o f the research questions. One source o f data was pre- and postquestionnaires, which were given to students at the beginning and the end o f the course. The pre-survey examined students' general knowledge, access, and use o f I C T . The postsurvey indicated students' level o f understanding, comfort and confidence towards the use o f ICT. The second source o f data was comments and reflections provided by students, instructors, and teacher assistants. Informal conversations were recorded and additional comments were gathered by students' online journaling periodically after regularly  11 scheduled classes. There were also periodic meetings between the instructor and the researchers each week after the course sessions. The researcher's records o f classes, meetings and observational notes from classes provided a third set o f data. The focus was on student participation i n the classes. Videos, photographs, and field notes were collected during and after class observations. The data collected were used, first to identify the characteristics o f learning spaces, critical pedagogy, and C S C L that supported or limited I C T literacy i n this cohort o f the teacher education program from both the students' and the teachers' perspectives.  Synopsis of Chapters This thesis w i l l explore issues around I C T literacy i n one cohort o f the teacher education program at U B C . Chapter 2 w i l l review the literature o f learning spaces, collaborative learning ( C L ) , and critical inquiry i n relation to ICT. Chapter 3 w i l l examine the use o f hard and soft infrastructures i n recent years, as well as the challenges for teachers (with a focus on those i n British Columbia, B C ) . Chapter 4 describes the case study and the data collected through observations, pre- and post-surveys, as well as online documents. The last chapter w i l l present an interpretation and analysis o f the key issues around I C T using discourse analysis and case study methods. I also illustrated the usefulness o f this research i n teacher education and suggested possible directions for future studies in the last chapter.  12  Chapter 2 Research Background Information and communication technologies (ICT) have influenced peoples' daily practices b y being applied in such areas as education, entertainment, government, and industry. Since the emergence o f electronic computers, telecommunication and the W o r l d W i d e Web have been the primary ways most people use the Internet. The Internet provides a wealth o f services such as educational websites and online journals that have significantly impacted learning and teaching practices. People especially between the ages o f 2-22 are using I C T for learning and entertainment i n both formal and informal environments (Tapscott, 1998). In this chapter, learning spaces, such as face-to-face and online education along with concepts o f critical theory, pedagogy and critical inquiry w i l l be examined. I w i l l discuss these concepts i n relation to teaching and learning with ICT. To assist i n interpreting the relationships among learning spaces, critical inquiry, computer supported collaborative learning ( C S C L ) , I w i l l present some emerging I C T issues through this literature review.  L e a r n i n g Spaces  Historically, the places where formal learning occurs is i n traditional face-to-face classrooms. Until recently, most faculty and students still gathered together i n classrooms for teaching and learning. However, with the facilitation o f electronic technologies, networks, and computers, learning can now happen beyond physical boundaries at any time as well as i n many locations. Learning can take place i n formal and informal environments not typically considered learning spaces. Students can take online distance  13  education courses facilitated by vast networks o f cable and wireless technologies. Learning is being facilitated by networked learning spaces where people can communicate, discuss, and deliberate about issues. In short, any formal or informal environment has the potential to become a virtual learning space.  From Face-to-Face Classrooms to Online and Distance Education During the past few decades, teachers have witnessed dramatic changes in both classrooms and learning space designs: from low-tech rooms equipped with only tables and chairs to networked digital spaces; and from face-to-face teaching with textbooks and blackboards to online distance education virtual spaces with access to various forms o f rich media. Wired and wireless connections alongside o f rich media and other technologies have created the "potential for immediate, interactive and engaging instruction" (Krug, W a n g & Zhang, 2005, Multimedia section). For example, asynchronous and synchronous communication spaces enabled by I C T have freed teaching and learning from not only the physical boundaries o f classrooms but have placed a different set o f time constraint on class schedules. In face-to-face classrooms, I C T can be used to support teaching and learning both in and outside o f classes by providing asynchronous communication such as e-mails, discussion forums, hypertext, mailing lists and group calendars, just to mention a few. In online distance or mixedmode education, synchronous communication, such as shared whiteboards, video communications systems and visual e-journals are used. These virtual spaces are changing the conditions o f teaching from the requirements o f physical space and scheduling o f classes to virtual learning spaces that allow more people from all over the  14  world to participate and engage i n classes at times that fit their own schedules. A variety o f asynchronous groupware are also being used to support collaborative communication spaces. These synchronous and asynchronous communication systems have the potential to facilitate and enhance safe and democratic participation and interaction (social relations) among instructors and students. However, with billions o f dollars invested i n higher education physical facilities, teachers meanwhile have to face these new challenges o f teaching with I C T . Cuban (1986) concluded that teachers were reluctant to integrate I C T into their daily teaching activities. Sasseville (2004) further argued that only slightly more than fifty percent o f teachers are using I C T for learning despite the fact that millions o f dollars have been invested to make I C T available in almost every primary and secondary school. A l s o "at the same time, some people question the relevance o f widespread use o f I C T i n the classroom as most studies show no significant improvement i n student performance and learning" (p. 6). Robertson (2003) criticized Apple Logo "Classroom Computers = Remarkable Results" (p. 280) because they had misled people using a technopositivist ideology. Apple (2002/2003) reported that people in this program "believe the effective integration o f technology into classroom instruction can and will result i n higher levels o f student achievement" (cited i n Robertson, 2003, p. 280). Instead o f using the words "has and does" Robertson (2003) claimed "can and w i l l " lead people to a naive faith " i n the 'promises' o f technology" (p. 280). Moreover, the advocacy o f "naive faith" (Robertson, 2003, p. 280) i n I C T , especially digital media, has created unsubstantiated meanings and values within various educational conditions. This form o f technological determinism has influenced and  15  changed the way people perceive, interpret, and conceptualize I C T i n different school contexts. W i t h very little empirical evidence o f supportive research to draw on, more and more people are becoming concerned about how and why the circulation and representation o f these technologically driven meanings are being used for political and economic gain i n society. Harraway (1991) cautioned, "a machine is not an it to be animated, worshiped and dominated. The machine is us, our processes, an aspect o f our embodiment" (cited i n Krug, W o n g & Zhang, 2005). In other words, we need to be continuously vigilant and informed or "critical" o f how technologies mediate the contextual cultural conditions o f peoples' lives. According to some researchers and scholars, the integration o f I C T into classrooms can also have additional negative consequences. For instance, B i g u m (1997) mentioned that with the frequency o f computer use and the Internet, especially i n our classrooms due to government incentives, "the process o f computerization i n education can be perceived as a new means o f control imposed upon teachers and students by an increasingly invasive technology-based economic complex" (cited i n Sasseville, 2004, p. 6). This issue is discussed further later i n this chapter. Some other issues include: what are the cultural and social influences on how teachers teach and students learn when using ICT?; and how can teachers create opportunities for helping students and themselves to interpret the associated meanings and values o f I C T within their learning environments and as a way to support students in their life-long learning? A s K r u g (2003) pointed out, a "vital contemporary issue for educators is how can teachers and students engage i n critical inquiry about this struggle  16  over the meanings and values o f everyday semiotic dimensions o f representation, visualization and simulation" (cited i n Krug, W o n g & Zhang, 2005).  A n Interpretation — Hidden Issues o f Using Computers i n Classrooms W i t h the advent o f computers and the Internet, people are benefiting from the efficiency and convenience o f collecting and analyzing information derived from this technology. However societies must face many challenges created b y this same technology. For example, the use o f I C T also produces issues o f privacy, the impersonal nature o f communication, and the changing conditions o f public discourse relative to political perspectives and the ongoing development and evolution o f democracy. O n the one hand, the proliferation o f websites seems to provide unlimited freedom for people to listen and learn from new ideas, to voice opinions and to compare and challenge existing views and concepts through direct communication with others and participation i n discussion groups. O n the other hand, such widespread use o f technology can also enhance the creation o f sophisticated centralized information systems, with increased possibilities for government agencies, businesses, groups and individuals to engage i n surveillance o f one's most private details. The power to control the flow o f information, as well as the ability to interpret information, opens the possibility for the development o f new forms o f economic and linguistic imperialism (Henderson & Kesson, 2004). Linguistic imperialism is connected to the very language used to produce computer programming languages and systems. Before the emergence o f advanced operating systems, people who wanted to use computers had to use a basic operating system, such as D O S , which was created using the English language. Most computer  17  programming languages and operating systems are still primarily based on the English language. Today English remains the dominant form o f communication i n the world o f computer science. In addition, although there are websites produced i n the native language o f different people around the world, there is often a feeling for the need to create an English language version o f those sites, particularly where the site is focused on economic activity and the desire to attract customers from around the world. The increasing difficulty to author websites or to operate computer systems in a person's native language can result in linguistic imperialism. Linguistic imperialism indirectly forces people to abandon or neglect their native languages i n order to effectively understand and use information technology. The growing demand for workers skilled i n the use o f computers has created a parallel need for both students and existing employees to learn English for the better utilization o f existing software and the needs o f business globalization. It is not surprising then that some people criticize this phenomenon as a form o f "bloodless opium war" for the 2 1 century. st  The second issue I w i l l discuss is the consolidation o f ownership o f media companies. H o w do they represent information and whose ideas do they represent? A general analysis o f these issues requires both teachers and students to think about different ways that government, business and media groups represent ideas, question whose point o f view is being represented, and assess whose voices are either being heard or are being deliberately suppressed. It is especially important for teachers and students to be critical i n using computers when gathering information, given that the way i n which ideas are represented has a significant influence on people's perspectives and  18  understanding o f meanings and values i n society. Therefore, it is important that teachers and students are knowledgeable about how to use critical inquiry, which can create opportunities for them to examine, question, contextualize, and evaluate a broad range o f meanings and values related to these and other important issues.  Critical Inquiry — Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy I used critical inquiry in this thesis drawing methodologically from some o f the past cultural work i n critical theory and critical pedagogy. For example, critical theory has historically and pragmatically examined educational problems such as the issues mentioned above. I have used perspectives o f critical theory to see connections with social, cultural, historical, political, race, class and gender issues in'dimensions o f society. In the Seeds project, critical theory provided me a means to interpret various philosophical positions o f critical pedagogy. Critical pedagogy can be characterized i n one sense as a teaching method o f critical theory. Kanpol (1999) wrote "The doing o f critical theory" (p. 27) has been referred to as critical pedagogy i n educational literature reviews. I employed critical inquiry then drawing from both critical theory and critical pedagogy to describe, analyze and interpret i f and how the T E S were able to examine I C T issues using both their own experiences as well as the larger contextual conditions in society. O f course similarities as well as differences exist among critical theorists, pedagogues and those who use critical inquiry as a research method or approach to learning. In this thesis, the emphasis was on the relations, tensions, and contradictions among these areas to analyze them within the teacher education program and the Seeds  19  program. But critical inquiry was also a teaching and learning strategy for engaging T E S in learning about I C T literacy. These ideas w i l l be discussed i n Chapter 4 in more detail. Critical Theory  From a historical point o f view, critical theory has been rooted i n Western Marxist philosophy with an emphasis on social and cultural relations i n societies, such as gender, race, and class. Orthodox Marxism examined the cultural materialism o f economies rather than other social forces and relationships. Critical theory generally puts emphasis on resistance, reskilling, similarities within differences, individuality, positive competition, authority, democracy and critical empowerment instead o f deviancy, deskilling, multiculturalism, negative competition, authoritarianism, control and traditional empowerment. W i t h regards to aspects o f schooling, critical theory provided ways to examine the formation o f social relationships i n schools and how economic dimensions influence the social status o f students and their parents. Neo-Marxists generally have viewed schools not only from the perspective o f economic inequality but also from broad cultural perspectives. In this study, I drew from critical theory to look at how I C T impacted the formation o f classroom culture i n the Seeds project (Morgan, 2000).  Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Education In the above section on "Learning Spaces", I discussed that learning can happen anywhere and at any time. Critical pedagogy can also occur i n a similar fashion — i n teacher meetings or meetings between teachers and parents or administrators, during lunch in the dining hall, outside schools and within families, public places, church, and through media. In Popular Culture, Schooling, and Everyday Life, Giroux and Simon  20  (1989) stated that "any process which tries to influence the production o f meaning" (cited in Frechette, 2002, p. 1) could be regarded as a pedagogical process. There have been many interpretations o f critical pedagogy i n the field o f education. Some researchers use it to research cultural politics, which is about challenging or transforming the existing social structures and values that lead to oppressive, alienating, and subordinative relations. However struggling for the end o f this oppression, subordination and alienation is not the only means to an end. Human values lie i n living these ideas i n one's daily life. Rather than "teaching techniques" (Frechette, 2002, p. 1), critical pedagogy can be more about the evaluation and analysis o f the processes o f learning that riot only define the importance o f knowledge, but one's ways o f knowing as well. It encompasses how one creates social identity through the production o f knowledge. Because the T E P is strategically positioned to provide the potential teacher with more than administrative strategies on how to control a classroom or how to prepare lesson plans, I was interested in seeing i f critical pedagogy can be used as an important educational concept for T E S to study. Kanpol (1999) i n Critical Pedagogy: An Introduction argued that there should be "no one correct way to 'do' critical pedagogy" (p. 137) since critical pedagogy is "about teachers struggling for some semblance o f control in their lives—control that has to do with achieving a qualitatively better life for students and teachers; control that has to do with finding a democratic path that begins to alleviate forms o f oppression, alienation, and subordination" (p. 137). It is fair to say that most teachers take the daily control o f their classroom management for granted, and they struggle to fit critical pedagogical methods into their teaching practices. Nevertheless, some teachers do find ways o f using  21 critical methods i n their everyday teaching and living experiences that are open, democratic, and nurturing. Critical pedagogy is also deeply connected with personal backgrounds and values. Teachers with different personal backgrounds and experiences can share a critical perspective as a part o f their professional worldviews. Therefore, i n order to adopt critical pedagogy, teachers need to make a conscious choice i n their teaching and politics to create opportunities for students to speak with their own voices and i n the formation o f their own sense o f self and entitlement. Only i n this way, can students synthesize and be aware o f the formation o f self, stereotypes, prejudices and the various discourses within these context conditions. The Seeds project was designed to create opportunities for teacher education students (TES) to ponder questions, such as whose ideas or interpretations that are presented through educational systems. I wanted to know i f critical pedagogy can be a means for them to ask whose knowledge was being taught or voices were being heard when one teaches? The Seeds program asked T E S to consider questions, such as: should I present or introduce issues i n an authoritarian way or can I find ways for students to hear various voices that are both critical and transformational about these issues? H o w can I empower m y students with the ability and the courage to challenge authorities? The Seeds project was organized to provide students with opportunities to reach beyond different cultures, and also strove for challenging students to reformulate their thoughts of self, other, similarities, differences, social justice and human rights. In this way, the Seeds project was based on critical pedagogical perspectives, which were to help future teachers become critical, constructive, and informed in their use o f I C T . In short, the  22  Seeds project was interested i n not just providing the potential teacher with strategies on how to control the classroom or how to prepare lesson plans, but to nurture their own student attitudes to be rooted firmly i n critical theory, critical pedagogy and educational research. O f course this is no easy task and these goals were not fully reached as m y research bears out. However, the aim was still to create opportunities for students to participate i n discussions that drew from broad educational contexts as well as the community-at-large. This goal strove to rectify Kanpol's (1999) caveat that, Teacher Education programs are caught i n a deceptive paradox....In many respects, teacher education programs have simply not given teachers the conceptual tools in order to view knowledge as problematic, as a historically conditioned, socially constructed phenomena, (p. 181) In a course at U B C , "Introduction to Curriculum Issues," some o f m y classmates suggested that it is easy to be critical when we are at the university discussing educational issues drawing from a perspective o f critical theory and critical pedagogy. But most teachers are reluctant to adopt this position i n the real world since being "critical" too often can be misinterpreted as being a troublemaker. I believe that an integral part o f practicing critical pedagogy i n teacher education "is to move beyond mere critique or cynicism to a position where action can occur, where students can joyfully respond to structural constraints in a timely manner and in ways that create opportunities for democratic hope and critical citizenry" (Kanpol, 1999, p. 190). Only when students, teachers and administrators realize the historical and socially constructed contradictions between what we say and what we do can educators move  23  from "cynicism to action, from critique to praxis, from passivity to activity", and "from reaction to proaction" (Kanpol, 1999, p. 191).  Critical Inquiry Although there has been a call to incorporate critical pedagogy into curricula for decades, the implementation has not been as successful as the theorists had hoped. Critical pedagogues claimed that for the fulfillment o f one o f the ultimate goals o f critical theory, that is to alter injustice, such as oppression, alienation, and subordination, critical pedagogy should be adopted as a way o f teaching and learning. It is important to prepare Teacher Education Students (TES) to use critical pedagogy i n practical ways. Critical inquiry can be used by combining ideas from both critical theory and critical pedagogy. "Critical inquiry is a continual process o f identifying and posing problems, asking questions and questioning the validity o f the questions asked" (Krug, 1999, p. 2). The processes o f critical inquiry can help one to better understand how an idea becomes an issue or how a body o f knowledge is mediated and interpreted b y directing one's thoughts and actions. Through processes o f critical inquiry, people can be encouraged to relate knowledge to their own experiences and the dynamic and complex forces (historical, political, economic, social, cultural, technological, etc.) o f contextual conditions at play in societies. Therefore, critical inquiry can be advocated i n education to create opportunities for interpretation by both teachers and students to challenge multiple perspectives (ideas-at-issue) by positioning various views within the changing complexity o f social, cultural, economic, political and historical contextual conditions (Krug, W o n g & Zhang, 2005).  In this thesis, I have drawn from several sources to understand ideas o f critical inquiry (Budnitz, 2003; Krug, 1995, 1999; K o l b , 1984). Budnitz (2003) argued that inquiry was asking questions that are accessible, informed and meaningful (cited in Krug, 2005). People have different interpretations o f inquiry within various social contexts. Critical inquiry is not just asking questions, but it is an ongoing process o f observation, reflection, connection, analysis and interpretation. A thoughtful question or statement posed by a teacher or a student can be a starting point for initiating an inquiry process. This can lead students to their own investigations for their own answers, which may likely lead to more questions. Through continual inquiry processes, students can gain problem-solving, decision-making and research skills that can be applied to lifelong learning. Meanwhile, collaborative as well as individual learning are required when students interact through inquiry processes. These processes also can enable teachers to better understand their students and be more effective facilitators (Budnitz, 2003).  Critical Inquiry and Learning Spaces Some perspectives o f critical inquiry view schooling as "a form o f cultural politics" (Morgan, 2000, p. 276), since schooling prepares students with ways to critically examine and live i n the world outside the classroom. Schooling is always tied to power relationships, racism, sexism, class discrimination, and ethnocentrism. Critical inquiry involves recognizing how current curriculum, resources and approaches o f teaching promote a perspective o f the world that serves to marginalize certain voices and ways o f life. The task o f critical inquiry is for teachers and students to examine curricular  25  knowledge and practices to understand whose interests are being taught and what voices are included and excluded i n the dialogue.  ,  Critical inquiry can be a renewing pedagogical practice. Instead o f providing one specific model, method, or advice for teachers to follow, issues are presented through critical inquiry for teachers and students to explore the pedagogical and learning possibilities. Even critical inquiry itself should not be accepted uncritically but be undertaken and used as a resource to evaluate curriculum and imagine alternative practices (Krug, 1999, 2002; Morgan, 2000). W i t h regards to critical inquiry and learning spaces, according to Morgan (2000), the importance o f space "was largely unrecognized i n the historical materialist tradition o f social science" (p. 276) until the emergence o f "a Marxist inspired geography from the early 1970s" (p. 276). Challenged by this cultural geography, the view o f space shifted from "an empty container or 'receptacle' o f social relationships to analysis o f the social and economic processes involved i n the creation and perpetuation o f inequality" (Morgan, 2000, p. 276). Space i n this context is recognized as a medium through which social relationships are produced, reproduced and interpreted (Morgan, 2000). Furthermore, the production o f space is also tied up with power and politics (Morgan, 2000). Therefore, spaces are organized and divided to exclude certain people from certain places. A good example would be the commercialization o f the Internet and the access to certain websites. A l l knowledge represented on the Internet is not public. A t most universities, libraries limit access to their online collections to only registered students at the university. Spaces have also been constructed through competition. There have always  26  been people trying to question or redefine the boundaries o f spaces (Keith & Pile, 1993; Sibley, 1995; Cresswell, 1996, cited i n Morgan 2000). Learning spaces are also socially produced and interpreted. The digital divide has already split the world conceptually into developed and underdeveloped societies. Typically so-called underdeveloped countries have less access to I C T , not to mention less power to participate in various virtual learning spaces. Although passwords and usernames guard the safety o f clients, at the same time they also build a wall to separate people who cannot afford to belong. Social, political and economic dimensions o f education impact the formation and use o f learning spaces i n educational learning environments. The key element i n teaching and learning within various learning spaces is to help both teachers and students realize that learning spaces are socially constructed and are impacted b y positions o f power, authority, control, and policy. Critical inquiry aims to help teachers and students analyze power relationships within different physical and virtual spaces as well as the "ways in which learning space is used to dominate and oppress some individuals and groups" (Morgan, 2000, p. 283). Students need to empower themselves to "make their own spaces" instead o f just understanding the interpretation o f spaces (p. 283). A t the heart o f these debates and issues are perspectives o f democracy. Democracy as a theory has been the subject o f much research and has been advocated for many decades. However, facing daunting challenges, democracy as a practice is still much different than the theoretical concepts o f democracy, with both the meaning o f democracy and its practice subject to increasing debate and uncertainty. Dewey's writing indicated that he had profound faith i n the capacity o f the common person to engage i n  27  intelligent social action. He also believed that democracy was not a thing, but a means o f association (Henderson & Kesson, 2004). In other words, democracy includes ways o f living (cultural conditions) and how people connect (social relations) with each other and the environment. Collaboration was also an important part o f a pedagogical approach to education that was advocated b y John Dewey. Accordingly, the mission o f any educational system in a democratic society should not only be to help children develop their analytical abilities, group work skills, and communicative competencies, but should also be to develop students' intellectual talents, civic understanding, and abilities to think critically about issues i n society. Through dialogue and deliberation which are based on principles o f freedom and equality, collaborative learning can create a community where students communicate with each other, their fellow community members and with people from different parts o f the world. It not only can provide the opportunity for learning about different cultures but also how people as individuals, and i n society as a whole relate to others i n the world. Therefore, in a broad sense in relationship to education, this study examined i f the goal o f sustaining and nurturing a democratic society can be supported through the use o f ICT, collaborative learning, and critical inquiry. In order to have a strong democracy, societies must embody the freedom and equality o f all human beings. Public representation o f ideas, issues, and the freedom to negotiate them are significant characteristics o f democracy. In schools, collaboration must also be built on the basis o f freedom and equality, so that teachers and students are able to communicate, deliberate, speak, listen, reflect and inquire, both individually and collectively, by learning from and living i n relationships with others. This ability should  28  not be taken-for-granted. Can a computer supported collaborative learning space be developed to create a safe and democratic environment for active participation?  Collaborative Learning and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning The notion o f Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ( C S C L ) was developed from theories and practices based on collaborative learning ( C L ) (Lehtinen & Hakkarainen, 2004). Accordingly, i n order to understand C S C L , it is necessary to have an informed understanding o f C L . The first part o f this literature review w i l l generally answer the following questions: 1. What are C L and C S C L ? What are the struggles over the meanings o f the concepts? 2.  A r e C L and C S C L methodologies or philosophies?  3.  What are the negative aspects o f C L and C S C L ?  4. H o w do C L and C S C L change ones' horizon? 5. H o w do C L and C S C L differ from sociality? 6. What is the role o f language i n C L or C S C L ? 7. Can we replace C L b y C S C L ?  Collaborative Learning ( C L ) Most research defined "collaborative learning" as a situation or an environment in which two or more people work together to learn or produce something. Each element of the definition can be interpreted i n different ways. Dillenbourg (1999) examined three elements o f C L :  29  1. "two or more" may be interpreted as a pair, a small group (less than 5), a class (20-30 students), a community (a few hundreds or thousands o f people) or a society (several thousands or millions o f people). 2. "work together" may be interpreted as different interactive forms, such as^ face-to-face, computer-mediated, or on-line. It can also be interpreted as different degrees o f collaboration, such as instruction or negotiation. 3. there is a broad acceptance o f what is "learning" i n the research literature. Therefore, "learn or produce something" may refer to the mastering o f certain material or (  to learn to think critically and live i n relations with others. In addition, I believe people involved i n C L can include students exclusively, or teachers, students and other members from society i n communication. Further, a situation or an environment also varies according to the degree o f symmetry i n the interaction, such as people's knowledge and status. A situation can be characterized as more or less collaborative. For example, collaboration is unlikely to occur between people with different authority i n a social setting, such as a boss and an employee. Interactions tend to vary according to the degree o f collaboration. Dialogue seems to have a stronger collaborative meaning than instruction. Accordingly, collaborative learning is a coordinated, synchronous situation i n which "particular forms o f interaction among people are expected to occur" (Dillenbourg, 1999, p. 5) for the purpose o f learning. Although the effects o f C L are not used to define collaboration itself, the divergent views concerning the measurement o f the effects deepen one's understanding toward any definition o f C L . There are multi-directional links among the situations and the interactions, the interactions and the processes, and the processes and the effects o f C L .  30  Take the interactions and situations for example. A situation defines the conditions i n which interactions may occur. The interactions, on the other hand, help with the labelling o f the situation. There w i l l be a collaborative situation i f the interactions between members are collaborative. Therefore, I regard C L as a philosophy rather than a teaching method. Situations, interactions, processes, and effects are four characteristics o f "collaborative learning".  The Benefits and Challenges of CL C L has been widely researched and advocated through professional literature. Wiersema (2000) stated "learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not isolated. Sharing one's ideas and responding to others improves thinking and deepens understanding" (p. 2). According to Walker (1997), C L not only supported students' active learning roles and accommodate various learning styles, but also promoted critical thinking and developed communication and self-confidence. It allowed learning to happen through dialogue and deliberation rather than individual learning or overwhelming instructions. These elements are important for the school children and students to learn, who are our future citizens. Therefore, C L has been a potential educational goal acted i n research for many decades. Panitz (1996) pointed out that given the numerous benefits o f C L , it was surprising to find out that so few teachers use it i n their actual teaching practices. The first challenge appears to be resistance from teachers. The basis for this resistance included the feeling o f losing control o f classroom management or content coverage, a  31 lack o f self-confidence i n the particular teacher, the absence o f effective teaching materials and the lack o f familiarity with C L and its assessment techniques. Another source o f resistance to C L came from students. Students were not familiar with C L or may have perceived teachers who used C L as not doing their work, from a traditional teacher-cantered point o f view. Accordingly, students might have preferred teachers do most o f the talking i n class, with students focused on taking individual notes rather than learning by discussion with each other and the teacher. Each o f these factors contributed to students' reluctance to become involved i n C L . Other elements such as large class sizes, inappropriate classroom setup, and a lack o f understanding o f the philosophy and goals o f C L by administrators and parents also hindered the successful implementation o f C L i n classrooms. In addition, research conducted b y Zurita and Nussbaum (2004) revealed the weakness in C L activities, such as the tendency o f some students to take a controlling role in the process while other students are left aside, either voluntarily or through a lack of confidence to actively participate. Other elements such as negotiation, interactivity and mobility were also said to be insufficient i n C L environment according to their research.  Two Approaches to C S C L One o f the requirements for education, according to Lehtinen et al. (2004), w i l l be to prepare students to participate i n a new-networked information society, which regards knowledge as the most critical resource for social and economic development. Therefore, the exploration o f the relation between computers and C L has become an increasingly important endeavour for researchers and educators. In this study, I assume that C S C L is among one o f  32  the most promising innovations for the improvement o f teaching and learning through the increased use o f information and communication technology. T w o approaches to answering what C S C L is, were stated by Bannon (1989) i n Issues In Computer-supported Collaborative Learning. The first perspective viewed C S C L as an "umbrella" under which meetings, workshops, and various researchers with different backgrounds and techniques can all be brought together for dialogue, discussions and negotiations. This can allow for the crossfertilization o f ideas as well as multi-disciplinary perspectives through the use o f computers. A n alternative approach to understanding C S C L was to try and ascertain what its unique problems and concerns were, and to make it a separate interest area for researchers. One suggestion was to look at the meaning o f each composition o f C S C L . What does learning mean? What does C L mean? What is C S C L ? Therefore, instead o f imposing exclusive interpretations o f C S C L , attention can be given to the specific interest areas, such as collaborative learning, the role o f computers and how computers can support C L . .  The Advantages and Limitations of CSCL According to Simons et al. (2002), a well-designed C S C L activity can support the coordination, communication, negotiation and interactivity among group members. Other benefits such as easier organization i n the classroom, better visibility o f collaborative processes (involvement o f all students) i n protocols, and communication patterns were also mentioned (Simons, Meijden & Jong, 2002). However, Myers, Stiel, and Gargiulo (1998), and Stewart, Bederson, and Drain (1999), claimed that P C technology constrained users to support face-to-face activities because people who wanted to collaborate through computers must adapt their interactions to the single-user  33 paradigm that most P C s were based on. Haythomwaite (1999) argued " C S C L is not just collaboration around computers with the computer providing a means to coordinate tasks or to simulate problem-solving situations; but rather collaboration through computers, where group members use the computer to structure and define their collaborative endeavours" (p. 292).  CSCL versus Computer-supported Collaborative Work. C S C L has grown out o f wider research into computer-supported collaborative work ( C S C W ) and collaborative learning. C S C W can be defined as "a computer-based network system that supports group work i n a common task and provides a shared interface for groups to work with (Hsiao, n.d., p. 1)." Both C S C W and C S C L are based on the promise that computer supported systems w i l l "support and facilitate group process and group dynamics i n ways that are not achievable by face-to-face, but they are not designed to replace face-to-face communication" (Hsiao, n.d., pp. 1-2). The differences between C S C W and C S C L lie i n their focus, use, and purpose. C S C L focuses on the object that is being communicated, and it has been used mainly i n educational settings to scaffold or support students to learn effectively. C S C W on the other hand, has tended to focus on communication techniques and is often used i n business settings for the purpose o f facilitating group communications to enhance productivity. In the next chapter, I w i l l discuss some o f the hardware and software infrastructure o f ICT and its relation with the T Y E T E P . The focus is on British Columbia and the T E P at the University o f British Columbia.  34  Chapter 3 ICT and Teacher Education Introduction Based on a report from the Canadian Education Statistics Council, on the 2001 Pan-Canadian Education Research Agenda Symposium, i n the near future, classrooms are likely to be networked, thus differing markedly from today's classroom. Before imagining or describing what the future might look like, one first needs to scrutinize the classrooms o f today. Cuban (1986, 2001) argued that computers have been oversold at schools and teachers seldom incorporate them as a regular part o f their instructional practice for several factors, such as: the large number o f students, difficulties o f computer application, and the lack o f professional training. Becker (2000) suggested that these factors may have been correct i n the mid-1980s (with "8-bit" computers), when teachers could keep track o f student files on dozens o f floppy disks, but today, teachers can store files or programs on C D / D V D , U S B storage devices, or on local area networks. A s for the software applications, they are not only simplified for users and have greater functionalities, but also provide "much more i n the way o f on-line user help" (p. 1). Furthermore, teachers have more options available for classroom instructional practices with the development o f new software and applications. A few examples include: student-created multimedia authoring environments and digital video-editing, the W o r l d W i d e Web, electronic mail, etc. Over the years, a number o f software applications have been specifically designed for individual learners, for example: Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Intelligent  35  Tutoring Systems (ITS) and Logo, for supporting collaborative activities. Simply put, C A I , ITS, and Logo were all designed for teachers and students to incorporate social and collaborative experiences into teaching and learning (Lipponen & Lallimo, 2004). According to Lipponen and Lallimo (2004), these "collaboratively usable applications"(p. 435) began i n the late-1960s with the work o f D o u g Engelbart and his research group, who developed the oN-line System ( N L S ) , "a hyper-media-groupware environment with tools to support communication, planning, and debugging" for asynchronous collaboration among teams distributed geographically (p. 435). N L S has been recognized as one o f the most inclusive systems for computer-supported collaborative work ( C S C W ) . Collaborative computing, workgroup computing, and multiuser applications are labelled as part o f C S C W , which can include e-mail, bulletin boards, videoconferencing (i.e., W e b C T , Blackboard, and Breeze); shared calendaring and scheduling; and document and knowledge management systems. W h i l e most contemporary groupware applications are not specifically designated for C S C L i n educational settings, such as wikis, blogs, and discussion forums they can be used for communication among teachers, students, and administrators. In fact, most o f the C S C W applications can be adopted for C S C L , such as teleconferencing and videoconferencing for communication between teachers and students. Given that these hard and software infrastructures are available to facilitate collaborative teaching and learning, it is surprising to find that teachers seldom use them in the classrooms. In addition to data represented i n the statistics and literature reviews (Plante & Beattie, 2004; Panitz 1996), m y personal teacher assistant experiences i n the teacher education program at U B C indicated that the hard and software infrastructures, or  36  the reticence o f educators has led to the lack o f new technologies being incorporated into their practice. In this chapter, b y looking at educational systems as well as the use o f ICT i n Canadian schools i n connection with teacher education program, the aim w i l l be to provide an overview o f the hard as well as soft I C T infrastructure i n Canadian schools with a focus on the schools i n British Columbia. W i t h the information and data provided by Information and Communications Technologies i n Schools Survey 2003-2004 (Plante & Beattie, 2004), I w i l l examine whether there is sufficient hard infrastructure i n Canadian schools to support C S C L , the kinds o f software being used to facilitate C S C L , and the problems and issues involved in the use o f ICT. Teacher education and the changing pedagogy influenced by the emergency o f ICT at schools w i l l also be discussed and probed i n this chapter.  Education in Canada Canada's vast area stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and its richness includes many natural resources (e.g. diamonds, fish, timber, and wildlife.) It became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while "retaining ties to the British crown." ("The W o r l d Fact Book", p. 1). After W o r l d War II, a dramatic growth occurred i n manufacturing, mining, and service sectors, which transformed the nation primarily into one that was more industrial and urban. The nation developed economically and technologically i n parallel with the U S , especially in its market-oriented economic system, pattern o f production, and affluent living standards. For example, the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994 and the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement i n  37  1989 led to booms i n the trade and economic integration with the U S . "Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the United States, which absorbs more than 85% o f Canadian exports. Trade accounts for roughly a third o f [the] G D P . " ("The W o r l d Fact Book", 2005) Canada is a confederation o f ten provinces and three territories. Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, N e w Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, N o v a Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, and Northwest are ten provinces in Canada. The three territories are: Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Y u k o n Territory. Canada has no national or federal department o f education and the primary responsibility for education rests with the provinces and territories. Nevertheless, the Government o f Canada plays an important support role i n education. The provinces and territories are responsible for elementary, secondary and postsecondary education. Although the 13 education systems across Canada share several similarities, each reflects the diversity o f its own regional history, culture, and geography. The Council o f Minister o f Education, Canada was formed i n 1967, its purpose is to "act as the national voice o f education i n Canada" ("Council o f Minister o f Education", 2005, para. 1) and to provide a forum where the provincial and territorial ministers meet to discuss education interests i n working with national education organizations, the federal government, foreign governments, and international organizations. The education system in Canada was described on the Web sites o f "Council o f Ministers o f Education, Canada" (http://www.cmec.ca/index.en.html) and Education @ Canada (http://educationcanada.cmec.ca/EN/home.php). A summary is listed below:  38 Public Education Public education in Canada is from Kindergarten to Grade 12 and it is free to all Canadian citizens and permanent residents. Compulsory schooling is generally between ages 5-7 and 16-18, though it varies across Canada. Unusually at the local level, the authority o f school boards comes above the public education. Each province or territory decides the powers and duties o f their schools, but generally these are consistent throughout Canada.  Elementary / Secondary Education (K-12) Local school authorities offer Kindergarten programs to 4-5 year-olds i n elementary schools across Canada. In most provinces and territories, elementary education covers the first 6 or 8 years o f compulsory schooling. Different ministries / departments o f education have various grade organization, for instance, i n some areas, elementary grade involves kindergarten to grade 8 and secondary level is from grades 9 to 12. Junior high school or middle school is distinguished as an intermediate level o f schooling b y most school systems. Students proceed to secondary school (grade 11 i n Quebec) (also called high school or senior high school), following elementary or middle school. A t the secondary level, curriculum programs include both academic and vocational programs. The academic program enables students to gain the credits necessary for the entrance requirements o f universities and colleges. The vocational program, on the other hand, provides students with the credits necessary to continue their studies at a postsecondary college, or to enter the job market.  39 Postsecondarv Education (Colleges & Universities) The provincial and territorial governments also have the responsibility to operate, support and fund their postsecondary education (both colleges and universities) i n Canada. Although most funding is provided by these provinces and territories, there is also additional funding from the federal government, research grants, and student tuition fees. Either by charter or by local legislation, all post-secondary institutions i n Canada have the authority to grant academic credentials. Generally, universities offer undergraduate degrees (bachelor's and honours), and graduate degrees (master's degrees and doctorates). Colleges offer certificates and diplomas for vocationally-oriented programs o f study.  Private Schools & Career Colleges A large number o f private or independent schools and career colleges can be found, including those, with a religious-orientation. A s long as they meet the general standards described by the government authority, private schools and colleges may operate i n any province or territory. These schools or colleges function and charge fees independently, though they are required to closely follow the curriculum and diploma requirements o f the department or ministry o f education.  Home Schooling Home schooling is allowed i n all provinces and territories o f Canada with similar restrictions as those followed by independent schools. General standards, curriculum, and  40  diploma requirements prescribed b y the relevant provincial or territorial authority are required.  Special Needs Students Students who are physically or mentally disabled, or gifted, etc., are accommodated i n the public schools and integrated into regular classrooms. They also follow the regular program o f instruction to the maximum extent. In some cases, separate programs are available to meet their needs. (Council o f Ministers o f Education, Canada and Education, 2005)  The National Wide Poll and Surveys—The use of ICT in Canadian schools "Over the past decades, considerable effort has been devoted to acquiring hardware and software for elementary and secondary schools, to connecting them to the Internet, and to helping educators improve their own ICT-related knowledge" (Plante & Beattie, 2004, p. 1). A s stated i n Connectivity and ICT integration in Canadian elementary and secondary schools: First results from the Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey, 2003-2004, the importance o f  integrating I C T into teaching and learning has been recognized b y education authorities and governments i n Canada. Information and Communication Technologies in Schools Survey (ICTSS) 2003-  2004 was conducted b y Statistics Canada, i n partnership with Industry Canada's SchoolNet program i n October 2003. The purpose o f I C T S S was to obtain benchmark data on the I C T infrastructure and make it accessible to elementary and secondary schools  41  across Canada. "Infrastructure includes the different components o f I C T that make up the underlying foundation o f a connected school, such as the number o f computers and their characteristics. Access referred to the degree to which teachers and students have access to the I C T infrastructure" (Plante & Beattie, 2004, p. 2). These two elements for measuring school connectivity and I C T integration were central to the I C T S S . According to the I C T S S research, there were approximately 10,100 elementary schools, 3,400 secondary schools and 2,000 mixed elementary and secondary schools i n Canada during 2003/04 (Plante & Beattie, 2004). The survey was sent to principles o f all of these schools and the report was based on the responses o f around 6,700 elementary and secondary schools. There research was reported i n five sections. Section one offered the information on current I C T infrastructure i n schools, such as the number o f computers available to students and teachers. Section two presented the connectivity o f computers in schools. It examined the number o f computers with Internet access that was available to students and teachers for educational purposes. The third section documented the access that students and teachers had to computers and software. The fourth section explored several factors, such as teachers' skills and professional development that might play a role in the integration o f I C T i n the classrooms. This section also presented information on the strategies implemented by schools to help teachers learn how to use ICT. Finally, section five gave an overview o f the challenges perceived by school principals in using I C T . A l l specific statements o f comparison made i n this report were tested for statistical significance at the 95 percent confidence level or better.  42  According to this ICTSS research, less than 1% of the elementary and secondary schools in Canada were without computers (Plante & Beattie, 2004). It was estimated that more than one million computers were available for educational use in schools across Canada. Table 1 presented an average of 72 computers per school during the 2003/04 school year. The median number of students per computer in elementary and secondary schools was estimated at 5. These findings, according to the report, were consistent with data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The student-tocomputer ratio in Canadian schools was among the first rank when compared with Australia and the United States (one computer for every five students); New Zealand and Norway (one computer for every six students) and Germany, Greece, Mexico, Poland, Portugal and Spain (more than 20 students per computer). However, it was noticeable in both Table 1 and Figure 1 that the number of students per computer in elementary schools was higher than the number in secondary schools. This meant elementary students had less access to computers than students in secondary schools.  43  Table 1: Average number of computers and students per school, school year 2003/04 Instructional level of school All schools  (Elementary)  All schools (Average number of computers) [Average number of (students) (Student-to-computer (ratio) (median))  72 351 5.0  (53) (294)  Small school Average number of computers Average number of students Student-to-computer ratio (median)  Mixed elementary Secondary and secondary  ___]  134 608 4.3  55 204 3.4  32 106 3.4  31 112 3.7  46 137 3.1  14 29 2.1  Medium school Average number of computers Average number of students Student-to-computer ratio (median)  65 301 5.0  53 273 5.5  117 490 4.6  40 123 3.1  Large school Average number of computers Average number of students Student-to-computer ratio (median)  112 629 6.3  74 487 6.9  227 1145 5.1  104 452 4.6  Source: I n f o r m a t i o n a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n s T e c h n o l o g i e s i n S c h o o l s S u r v e y 2 0 0 3 / 0 4 , C e n t r e f o r E d u c a t i o n Statistics, Statistics Canada.  Figure 1: Student-to-computer ratio by school characteristics (median)  Number of students per computer 7 6  Source:  Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey 2003/04, Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada.  44  Figure 2 illustrates that the student-to-computer ratio varied dramatically in different Canadian regions. The fewest number of students shared one computer in the Yukon Territory while in Quebec, a single computer was shared by the most students. British Columbia ranked fourth among the regions of Canada in terms of student to computer ratio.  Figure 2: Student-to-computer ratio by provinces/territories (median) Number of students per computer 7 I 6  •  =r  Source: Information and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s T e c h n o l o g i e s in S c h o o l s S u r v e y 2 0 0 3 / 0 4 , Centre for E d u c a t i o n Statistics, Statistics Canada.  This ICTSS research also revealed that during the 2003/04 school year, more than 97% of computers at schools were connected with Internet (Plante & Beattie, 2004). The  median number of students per Internet-connected computer was 5.5, only 0.5 higher than the student-to-computer ratio across Canada. Students at elementary schools still had  less access to the Internet-connected computers than students at secondary schools in Canada (Table 2). Also, according to Table 3, the amount o f time spent on I C T technical support per computer was more in secondary than in elementary schools.  Table 2: Average number of Internet-connected computers and students per school, school year 2003/04 Instructional level of school  All schools  (Elementary)  Mixed elementary and Secondary secondary  All schools  (Average number of Internet-connected computers) 66 [Average number of students) 351 (Student-to-Internet-connected-computer ratio (median)) 5.5  (48) HJD  128 608 4.6  49 204 4.1  27 112 4.2  43 137 3.5  9 29 3.2  48 273 5.9  113 490 4.7  35 123 3.4  68 487 7.6  216 1145 . 5.4  98 452 5.1  (294)  Small school  Average number of Internet-connected computers 28 Average number of students 106 Student-to-Internet-connected-computer ratio (median) 3.9 Medium school  Average number of Internet-connected computers 61 Average number of students 301 Student-to-Internet-connected-computer ratio (median) 5.4 Large school  Average number of Internet-connected computers 105 Average number of students 629 Student-to-Internet-connected-computer ratio (median) 6.8  Source: I n f o r m a t i o n and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s T e c h n o l o g i e s in S c h o o l s S u r v e y 2 0 0 3 / 0 4 , C e n t r e for E d u c a t i o n Statistics, Statistics Canada.  46  Table 3: Monthly ICT technical support time per computer, school year 2003/04  All schools  Elementary  Secondary  Mixed elementary and secondary  Public  Private  Number of minutes (median) All computers  12  12  19  13  13  19  11 14 16  11 13 13  15 19 27  11 16 16  11 13 15  3 27 31  Majority of computers with:  Low processor speed Medium processor speed High processor speed Source:  Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey 2003/04, Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada.  Table 4: Connectedness, school year 2003/04 Connectedness, school year 2003/04 Instructional level of school  All schools  Elementary  Secondary  Student to Internet-connected computer ratio (median)  Canada  5.5  6.0  4.6  Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut  5.0 5.6 5.1 5.0 6.5 5.8 4.2 4.0 4.5 5.6 2.9 3.9 4.8  6.5 5.6 6.2 5.3 6.4 6.4 4.6 4.9 5.0 6.0 4.8 4.6 9.3  4.7 5.7 4.7 4.0 6.9 4.4 3.6 3.8 4.1 5.0 3.5 4.2 4.1  Source: Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey 2003/04, centre for Education Statistic, Statistic Canada.  47  The median number o f students to Internet-connected computers i n British Columbia ranked as the third highest among all the provinces and territories. This median number was also 0.1 higher than the median number for all the regions i n Canada (Table 4). More than 90% o f principals agreed that I C T not only allowed students to go beyond the prescribed curriculum but also broadened and enriched teacher perspectives towards the hidden curriculum and instruction (Plante & Beattie, 2004). Table 5 demonstrated the strategies adopted b y school principles to help i n T E S learning how to use ICT. Mentoring and coaching activities were greatly emphasized by principals and were perceived as most effective activities by school principals i n Canada.  Table 5: Strategies to help teacher learn how to use ICT, school year 2003/04 "Some" to "a lot" of emphasis placed, by principal, on strategies to help teachers learn how to use ICT  "A lot" of emphasis placed, by principal, on strategies to help teachers learn how to use ICT  Strategy perceived as "highly effective" by principal  Percent of schools (Mentoring/coaching activities with other) (teachers or ICT professionals) (Professional development) (information-sharing with other staff members /) (discussion forum) ' (Training sessions) (Personal-learning activities) Staff meetings Organized after-school sessions Informal online-learning Summer programs Courses online (Formal credit courses) Source:  (69.0) (59.4)  25.1 12.8  (59.2) 56.9) (55.7) 46.4 43.7 21.4 20.7 13.4 (12.7)  18.2 12.2 14.6 8.0 7.2 3.2 2.7 1.4 1.2  (37.5) (20.8)  I19.1- ! 17 5  (20.7) 4.3 7.7 4.7 9.1 4.6 (11-8)  Information and Communications Technologies in Schools Survey 2003/04, Centre for Education Statistics, Statistics Canada.  48  Given this broad picture o f the hardware and software infrastructure i n Canadian schools, next I examined the I C T infrastructure i n British Columbia with a close look at the hardware infrastructure, kinds o f software available to students, challenges o f the use o f I C T as well as teachers' skills o f using I C T i n B C schools.  I C T Infrastructure i n British C o l u m b i a  Visitors to British Columbia ( B C ) often mention its beautiful scenery such as the majestic Rockies and the amazing beaches along the North Pacific. But there's more to B C than just scenery, its also offers a strategic location for trade and industries, rich natural resources, and a well-known quality education system, just to name a few. The numbers listed below summarize the hard and software infrastructure o f I C T used i n B C elementary and secondary schools through 2003/04. These numbers and proportions also document access and some challenges o f I C T integration i n B C schools.  Hardware Infrastructure  2020.  •  Number o f elementary and secondary schools:  •  Average number o f computers per school: 68.4.  •  Student-to-computer ratio (Median): 5.  •  Schools with Internet connected computers:  •  Student-to-Internet-connected-computer ratio: 5.6.  •  Schools with websites: 78.6%.  •  Schools with I C T policy and plans: 91.3%.  •  Schools had I C T policy for appropriate use o f I C T b y teachers: 66%.  98.3%.  49  Proportions o f Schools with Software Available to Student •  Internet browsers:  96.9.  •  W o r d processing: 96.4.  •  Educational, drill, and practice programs:  •  Spreadsheet and database programs:  •  Graphics program: 86.1.  •  Presentation software: 77.  •  E-mail software:  •  Computer aided design or computer aided manufacturing program:  •  Mathematical/statistical and business programs:  93.9.  85.4.  61.8. 20.2.  16.2.  Proportions o f Schools with Challenges i n using I C T •  Having sufficient funding for technology: 70.5.  •  Ensuring computers and peripherals are up to date: 54.8.  •  Obtaining sufficient copies/licenses o f software for instructional purpose:  •  Obtaining adequate technical support/assistance for operating, maintaining computers and/or solving technical problems:  •  46.6.  43.3.  Maintaining sufficient level o f I C T i n all subjects for teachers to provide adequate level o f instruction: 41.2.  •  Finding enough time to integrate I C T into learning: 41.1.  •  Having enough training opportunities for teachers: 40.7.  •  Obtaining sufficient number o f computers:  •  Integrating computers i n classroom instruction practices:  •  Finding enough time i n the school's or teachers' schedule for using the Internet: 34.8.  39.3. 35.9.  50  •  Obtaining software specific or adaptable:  34.3.  •  Ensuring information obtained is o f sufficient quality: 25.2.  •  Having sufficient connections for simultaneous access to the Internet: 24.6.  •  Lack o f knowledge, skills, interest and/or willingness o f teachers to use computers:  •  Finding space to integrate computers into classroom appropriately:  •  Having sufficient number o f teachers supervising students using computers:  21.1. 18.3.  Teachers' Skills The pecentage o f schools with teachers possessing the required technical skills to engage students i n using I C T effectively to enhance their learning: •  Less than 25% o f the teachers: 24.3.  •  From 25% to 50% o f the teachers: 13.4.  •  From 50% to 75% o f the teachers: 27.2.  •  75% o f the teachers or more: 35.2.  % o f schools with technology applications frequently incorporated into teaching practices •  Use o f word processing:  76.8.  •  Use o f Internet/Intranet to disseminate information: 29.2.  •  Use o f Internet for online learning: 25.3.  •  Use o f desktop publishing: 18.  •  Use o f presentation software:  •  Use o f software supporting creative works:  •  Use o f spreadsheets and database software: 7.2.  13.3. 9.6.  22.9.  51  % o f schools with strategies to help teachers learn how to use I C T & Training sessions: 7. •  Mentoring/coaching activities with other teachers: 17.8.  •  Organized after-school sessions: 4.  •  Information-sharing with other staff members/discussion forum: 12.8.  •  Staff meetings: 5.7.  •  Personal-learning activities: 11.2.  •  Professional development: 8.5.  % o f schools where I C T learning is included for teacher development i n the following subjects: •  Computer Education/Informatics: 30.8  •  Mathematics: 26.1  •  English: 22.7  •  General Science: 10.7  •  Arts: 7.1  •  Physics: 4.3  •  Chemistry: 3.9  Source: Information  and Communications Technologies i n Schools Survey 2003/04, centre for Education Statistic, Statistic Canada.  Even though the data above regarding I C T and schools shows adequate access to computers and the Internet, only minimum changes have occurred in classroom teaching and learning practices in the past five years. Evidently, there continues to be a lack o f professional development for the use o f I C T for instruction. The integration o f computers  52  and classroom curriculum and instruction has been restricted to word-processing practice (76.8%). Hardly any schools included I C T learning for teacher development i n math (26.1%), English (22.7%) or general science (10.7%), along with physics (4.3%) and the arts (7.1%). Despite funding issues, the reasons for inadequate integration o f ICT included the out-dated computers, insufficient technical support/assistance and a lack o f time for teachers to find relevant software or try out products. These findings were consistent with Cuban's (2001) findings i n  Oversold and Underused, while inconsistent  with the nation wide poll about teacher use o f I C T (cited i n O'Haire, 2003). O'Haire (2003) reported that nearly every teacher in the survey had used a computer frequently, and regarded the computer as essential or important i n the way they teach. " T w o thirds o f teachers reported] using the Internet and instructional C D - R o m s in their classes. Onethird use[d] desktop publishing for their classes, while half use[d] spreadsheets, computer games and simulations. Nearly half o f them use[d] PowerPoint and other presentation software" (p. 23). The key elements for the integration o f I C T into teaching and learning not only lied i n the hard infrastructure, such as the number o f computers, the access to the Internet and software, but i n the teachers and other professional training and support.  adaptation, appropriation,  and  Adoption,  invention were introduced by Cuban (2001)  approaches to integrate I C T into classroom teaching and learning. In the  as four  adoption level,  computer skills, such as the use o f keyboard, mouse and word document were taught, not integrating into curriculum but generally through text, lecture and other conventional approaches. The next level o f integration was  adaptation. The use  o f I C T was adapted to  traditional curriculum, i n such ways as homework and daily work i n class. In this way,  53  technical skills were learned within the academic curriculum, although it was still teacher-centered direct instructional pedagogy. A l s o , learning and assessment practices remained unchanged i n adaptation level. Most teachers i n this level viewed technology as interesting but optional, and unnecessary to achieve present curriculum goals. In the level of  appropriation,  teachers not only felt fully comfortable but confident i n the use  and integration o f I C T into daily teaching and learning. Constructivist pedagogy advocated i n this level allowed the student to be at the centre o f their learning, and teachers to be facilitators. Collaborative learning enabled teachers and students to learn and work together. Teachers viewed technology as essential for developing higher-order thinking i n this level. The highest level was  invention,  where interdisciplinary approaches  were used. This meant teachers needed to build I C T into daily instructions and meet curriculum objectives with I C T integration. Teachers could engage students i n knowing how to search, evaluate and interpret information and to build these I C T practices into their own knowledge system. Although through these four levels o f I C T integration, the responsibility for learning and evaluating information sources shifted gradually from the teacher to the learner, it was still the teachers' responsibility to select and apply I C T appropriately to best facilitate teaching and learning. Simply, teachers needed to have the confidence and competence to integrate I C T into curriculum effectively and efficiently. However, most teachers felt that they were "not adequately trained to use computer technology i n their classes and lesson plans" and neither did they feel that they were using I C T " i n the most effective and efficient ways" (O'Haire, 2003, p. 23). Meanwhile, according to the report in  Teachers' Perspectives, most  o f the teachers were learning I C T "on the job, self-  54  taught" or relied on other teachers or their students" (O'Haire, 2003). The significance o f ICT literacy for pre-service and in-service teachers had been recognized b y educational policy makers and teacher organizations for efficient professional development. It was the responsibility o f teacher education programs to make teachers feel comfortable and confident using I C T to enhance teaching and learning..It was also recommended that all newly certified teachers should acquire a certain level o f I C T literacy through formal and informal experiences through a teacher education program.  Teacher E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m i n B C Nine colleges or universities offer a teacher education program i n B C , namely: Malaspina University College, The U B C Okanogan, Simon Fraser University, Trinity Western University, Thompson Rivers University, University o f British Columbia, University o f Northern British Columbia, and University o f Victoria. Some research has been done on the teacher education programs offered i n four o f the universities (Krug, Beaudry, Najafi, Philips, & Zhang, 2005). A n d the partial list below highlights some aspects o f these T E P .  University o f Victoria ( U V I C ) E D U C 406 Instructional Technology course examines information technologies that are used to support and extend instruction. Topics include: computer-based technologies and their integration into instruction; multi-media; networking; evaluation of instructional software; instructional applications o f the Internet. ("The U V I C Teacher Education", 2005)  55  Simon Fraser University (SFU) Three technology courses are available, namely: E D U C 260 Learning and Teaching Through Technology (a practical and theoretical exploration o f technology use in K - 1 2 classroom settings); E D U C 358 Foundations o f Educational Technology (a survey o f major traditions o f research and development i n educational technology); and E D U C 482 Designs for Learning: Information Technology (a critical understanding o f information technologies i n education and the integration o f these technologies into classroom settings) ( " S F U Teacher Education", 2005).  Thompson Rivers University ( T R U ) The purpose o f E D I T 415: Information Technology Across the Curriculum course is preparing teachers to integrate I C T into all subjects o f studies, from math to physics. For instance, word and PowerPoint are taught for the preparation o f teaching materials, and e-mails are used for communication among teachers and students. Nearly all technology courses mentioned above are taught not for skills' sake only, but also to provide students with the teaching philosophy for the effective integration o f ICT with curriculum. However, none o f these technology courses researched listed as a requirement for the successful completion o f a B E d degree ( " T R U Teacher Education", 2005).  The University o f British Columbia ( U B C ) Table 1.9 provides an overview o f the teacher education program offered i n U B C . In this research, the focus is a Bachelor o f Education (BEd) program. The general areas  56  o f studies i n B E d program include principle o f teaching, social studies, arts, music, science, math, language and physics. The available technology course for B E d middle year is T S E D 320: Design & Technology Education. This course is "designed to provide students with both a general introduction to Technology Education and specific hands-on preparation for teaching" ( " U B C Teacher Education", 2005, Program section). E D U C 3 9 0 : Teaching and Learning in Digital Environments is also available for students enrolled i n the Faculty o f Education. This course provides students a way to integrate digital technology into teaching and learning. Meanwhile, it also emphasizes the development and evaluation o f curriculum resources and critical perspectives i n relation to digital media technologies ( " U B C The Department o f Education", 2005). F i g u r e 3 Teacher E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m at U B C : h e r  E d u c a t i o n  D i p l o m a  F*r o  i n  B  E  r a m  ~|  E d u c a t i o n  d  N a t i v e  I n d i a n  E l e m e n t a r y S e c o n d a r y  • c r i e r  B E d E d u c a t i o n  E l e m e n t a r y  1 2  |  m o n t h s 2  y e a r s  P i l o t  O P t i o n  M i d d l e  1 2  Y e a r s  m  ]  o n t h s  S e c o n d a r y  1 2  m o n t h s  P i l o t T e a c h e r  P i  H  2  |  |  O p t l o n ~ |  R e c e r t i f i c a t l o n  F*r o  g , r a m  57  In the next chapter, details o f the T Y E T E P w i l l be presented. I also described the Seeds o f Possibility 2004-2005 project and analyzed the Seeds project in relation to C S C L , critical inquiry and learning spaces.  58  Chapter 4 CSCL, Critical Inquiry, and Learning Spaces in Seeds Program In this Chapter, I described and analyzed two modules o f Seeds o f Possibility 2004-2005 two-year elementary cohorts research project that was conducted with the Teacher Education Program (TEP) i n the Faculty o f Education at U B C . These two modules o f the Seeds program w i l l be described and analyzed in relation to C S C L , critical inquiry and learning spaces. Module three was not completed due to time constraint in the Seeds project.  Two-Year Elementary Teacher Education Program (TYETEP) T E P is one o f the largest programs offered in the Faculty o f Education. A s a component o f the learning community, teacher education is constantly changing and it reflects society i n an effort to offer quality courses and programs. The mission o f the T E P is to prepare educators for the responsibility o f instructing students i n British Columbia and Canadian schools. Therefore, the Faculty o f Education is committed to prepare teachers not only to be "knowledgeable, skilful, flexible, and compassionate in their professional practice" but also to be "rigorous, creative and reflective in designing and assessing their classroom performances" (Brown, 2002, p. 1). Furthermore, teachers' social and ethical responsibilities for their students and to society as a whole are guided during the T E P (Brown, 2002). According to the report from the Faculty o f Education, the T E P supplies almost one-half o f the Province o f B C ' s pre-service teachers, including thirty seven percent o f elementary teachers and fifty-eight percent o f secondary teachers. Three options are  59  offered for prospective students, namely elementary, middle and secondary teacher education programs. In most cases these programs are organized i n cohorts (Figure 4 as an example o f elementary cohorts 2004-2005), and the intent is to "provide a sense o f community, greater integration o f coursework, coordination o f assignments, and the avoidance o f content duplication" (Faculty o f Education, 2005, p. 110). F i g u r e 4: E l e m e n t a r y Cohorts at U B C 2004/05  C  French Immersion ""N,  C  and Core French  Technology and  Critical Thinking  rrey-UBC Partnerships (Education and  )  Burnaby Cohort (UrbanN . Educab'oji and u'teracy/ ^-  Education).^^  Sources: U B C Faculty o f Education Self-Study 2005  The Teacher Education Office ( T E O ) serves to provide administrative support for the T E P and is a crucial element for upholding the vision and academic thrust o f the undergraduate program. The major role for the T E O is to support teacher education and diploma programs. The T E O consists o f the Associate Dean Teacher Education, Director o f Teacher Education, eight professional staff and six support staff (Figure 5).  60  Throughout the academic year o f 2004-2005, 1035 B E d students, 117 faculty advisors and 544 diploma, visiting, and unclassified students benefited from the programs offered through T E O (Faculty o f Education, 2005).  Figure 5: Schematic Overview Teacher Education Office (TEO) Associate Dean, Teacher Education  Director Elementary and Middle Years P.ractica  Program Coordinators (5)  Admissions Officers (2)  1 Admissions Clerics (4)  Program Planning Manager  :  Administrative Manager  \ Secretaries (2)  Receptionists (2)  Sources: U B C Faculty o f Education Self-Study 2005  The average G P A o f students i n the two-year elementary program was 72 percent. A m o n g all the students enrolled i n both two-year and 12-month elementary program, 88 percent were females. The Achievements section i n the U B C Faculty o f Education SelfStudy 2005 reported that there was an increase o f technology use among both students and instructors for the last five years. Technology was adapted to develop e-portfolios, prepare lesson plans and presentations as well as to enhance teaching and learning during course work and practicum (Faculty o f Education, 2005).  61  The Tech-coach Project was offered during 2004-2005 academic year. T w o student technology coaches i n each cohort program (around 24-35 students) were selected to be received I C T instruction from personnel i n Computer and M e d i a Services ( C M S ) as well as the T E O . These coaches i n turn assisted other students and instructors with the use o f technology during this course study i n the T E P .  Figure 6: Two year Elementary Teacher Education Program (TYETEP) Overview Year 1  Winter Term 1 POT/CornmunleatSons Methods Courses (see sidebar) Developmental Psychology Social Issues in Education Pre-Practicum Experience  Winter Term 2 POT/Communications Two-Week Orientation Practlcum Methods Courses (see sidebar) Exceptionality  Year 2  Required Methods Courses Introduction to Reading and Language Arts Language and Literacy Arts French Alt Music Mathematics Science Social! Studies Physical Education  Winter Term 1 Thirteen-Week Extended Practicum  Winter Term 2 School Organization In its Social Context Evaluation and Assessment Foundations Electives to Satisfy Teaching: Concentration  Sources: U B C Faculty o f Education Self-Study 2005  Avaitable Concentrations: Early Childhood/Primary Expressive Arts in Education English as a Second Language j Humanities Mathematics and Science Special Education Diversity  62  The T Y E T E P consists o f 72 credit hours to be completed over 24 months and 4 terms. Figure 6 above provides an overview o f the T Y E T E P and Figure 7 below provides details o f courses offered during each year. Besides E D S T 314, E P S E 313, L L E D 310, E D U C 315 and other courses provided by C U S T during winter term 1, E D U C 310 "Principles o f Teaching: Elementary & Middle years", and E D U C 316 "Communication Skills i n Teaching" are taught as the core courses. These two courses were the focus o f Seeds o f Possibility Program, which was offered during 2004-05 winter term 2 i n addition to all the E D U C , E P S E , L L E D and C U S T courses.  Figure 7: Courses Offered During TYETEP  ICT & Educational Kese?.ich  Teacher Education eportfolio year 1  EDST 314 L  Ham 1  E E U C 3 1 0 & EDUC 316 tar  Term 3  JHH^HHHH  ICT & Tsaching and Leaning and Communication  GGMM  EDUC 321 ^  J EPSE 317 LLED 320  I"T aCmricDluiii CUST CUST CUST 1 : C T & AdimnistiatiDn and Asssessmert  Sources: Seeds o f Possibility Project 2005  fETI3»  63  Seeds of Possibility M a n y researchers have opposing views regarding how I C T spaces should engage students i n an active learning environment. Furthermore, as m y literature review indicated, educators are reluctant to incorporate new technologies into their practices (Cuban, 1986; Cuban, 2001; Zhao et al., 2002). This research set out to examine how the Seeds o f Possibility: Integrating Information and Communication Technologies program offered opportunities for two-year elementary T E S to engage i n dialogue regarding the integration o f I C T within the T E P . B y using empirical evidence, the purpose o f this pilot research was to understand how to better enable T E S to use I C T confidently and competently within their own teaching practices (ICT literacy). "The goal is [was] to inspire pre-service teachers to find practical ways to integrate technology into their teaching assignments i n the first year o f the two-year program" (Faculty o f Education, 2005, p. 122). The specific pedagogical goals were to enable teacher education students to "1) examine the impact o f technology on individuals, societies, and the environment, 2) learn how to investigate ideas, issues, and problems by using I C T to conduct critical inquiry, analyze solutions and problems, and present results, and 3) learn how to use I C T for assessment and evaluation o f their own teaching practices, student learning, content selection, and curriculum and program development" (Appendix C Seeds o f Possibility Pre Survey, 2005, p. 1). Echols (2005) wrote "these cohort instructors are also gaining professional development i n the use o f technology as a means to accomplish their curriculum goals" (Faculty o f Education, 2005, p. 122). The Seeds program was coordinated by Dr. D o n K r u g , a faculty member o f the Department o f Curriculum Studies. It was an I C T literacy research program formed i n  64  conjunction with two education courses (Principles o f Teaching and Communication) that students were required to take for certification. Five graduate research assistants also participated i n the program. One hundred and twenty students were enrolled i n seven different sections o f the two courses and each class had an individual faculty advisor. The research was organized around three modules. Module one provided students with a brief introduction as to why I C T should be integrated into teaching and learning, and how the use o f I C T literacy can inform one's own pedagogy i n an effort to support student learning. Module two demonstrated ways to use I C T across the curriculum using critical inquiry. C L was emphasized to promote a student-centred learning environment in which the teacher acted as a facilitator. Module three was to focus on assessment, which would allow both instructors and students to evaluate and examine the processes o f using I C T i n teaching, learning and communication. It was never implemented due to time constraint. The students and their instructors met with the program instructor and five teacher assistants on Monday (forty minutes) and Wednesday (twenty minutes) each week from the end o f January to the beginning o f A p r i l , with the exception o f two classes i n which students attended the Dean's lecture and a lecture dealing with the subject o f "bullying" (see Appendix A Program Schedule and Appendix B Classroom Bookings). Reading week also fell during week 7 o f the term and all classes and sessions were suspended at this time. H a l f o f the sessions meet in room 1128 Scarf and the remaining sessions were held i n the C M S computer lab 1011 ( W I N operation system) and 1007 ( O S X operation system). The rooms were scheduled to accommodate 2 sections o f 18 students (36 students total) before the term and two carts o f twenty wireless laptops (both O S X and  65  W I N ) were provided for the students during the program. In addition, classrooms were also set up by the instructor and teacher assistants before each session to adjust to the large number o f students, the classroom space and the curriculum content. In Chapter 1,1 provided an overview o f the Seeds program. In this section, a brief description and analysis o f modules one and two are offered.  Description and Analysis of Seeds Program Pre Surveys Participants o f this program completed a survey at the beginning and end o f the program to identify their knowledge o f and access to a variety o f I C T literacy as well as their attitudes toward the use o f technologies i n educational settings (See Appendix C pre survey and Appendix D post survey). The survey was limited i n certain ways. The comparatively small sample size o f the T Y E T E P students provided only a partial baseline o f data to make a significant comparison regarding the students' knowledge, access and attitudes i n the overall T E P at U B C . The introductory demographic question on both pre and post surveys asked questions about the students' age, gender, access to computers and the Internet, type o f computers and Internet connection, and sources o f computer skills. Questions concerning students' competency using computers and attitudes towards the importance o f learning technology i n the T E P were also included i n the pre survey. These questions were put forth again in the post survey to examine i f any changes had resulted from students' participation in the Seeds program regarding their attitude and competency i n using technology. The frequency o f student usage o f technology during the T E P was also asked  66 in the post survey. The combined time for the two surveys was approximately forty minutes. A t selected class sessions, digital video was also used to record class collaborative interactions for data analysis. Eighty-eight female students and 13 male students completed the pre survey and the majority o f students were in their 20s. Section one indicated that a majority o f students used desktop computers with a windows operation system while working at home. Most o f the students had high-speed Internet and used it at home as well. However, approximately 79% o f students' computer skills were self-taught and about 57% learned these skills from friends or relatives. Eight out o f one hundred and one students wrote the optional pre survey comments about their attitudes towards technology. Unfortunately they do not reflect a comprehensive survey o f views.  / believe technology is always changing and it is important for ev  teachers, to educate themselves and understand technology. (F 30)  I would like to have some basic knowledge to feel comfortable an my use of computers. (Female student- age 20)  If there is access in the school, then I will use more technology. age 20)  While I would love to see such technological measures impleme  classroom, I would be deluded ifI thought that such avenues are  even some schools. For example, the school I'm in does not hav available .... (Male student-age 30)  67  At this time when our students are so excited and involved with  think a teacher who also matches those attitudes would be bene  students. We need to teach with student interests in mind. (Fe  It's important to have these skills but how realistic is it that we  utilize them in schools? School budgets don't seem to allow for m  I've seen computer time used for only typing or simple games; m  can't support much past that because they are too old. (Female  I will be working in a grade 1/2 classroom, I don't see technolog  place in that class right now. I guess @ this point I am curious ho technology in grade 1/2. (Female - age 30)  I think there should definitely be more of an emphasis on techno edprogram. Also there should be a lot emphasis put on teaching and assess using computers. (Female - age 20) These surveys demonstrated that some students regarded technology as an essential part o f teacher education. They were not only positive about the changes technology can play in classroom teaching and learning but also eager to learn and use technology in their teaching experience. The small sample o f students' comments were echoed by the statistic Canada report on teacher's attitude towards technology mentioned in Chapter 3. However, according to the survey comments, as well as questions raised by students  68  during the classes, most students seemed to be concerned with the lack o f availability and the insufficient number o f computers at schools where teaching practices were undertaken. For example, a school i n which a student had performed his practicum had no computers at all. Despite that the average student to computer ratio i n British Columbia was 5.0 to 1 (Plante & Beattie, 2004), some schools, especially i n Vancouver urban inner cities, continued to experience an inadequate supply o f computers for their students. Access to computers is still an important issue that needs to be addressed i n other research.  Module 1—A Transition to Module 2 The development o f module one was based on suggestions from prior meetings with faculty advisors at the beginning o f the project. These faculty advisors were concerned about the students' interest i n using ICT. The instructor suggested discussing broad philosophical questions o f why and what are the needs o f integrating I C T into teaching. Most o f the faculty advisors were unsure o f the importance o f integrating I C T within educational experiences. Module one, therefore, was developed i n particular to meet these concerns. In week one, module one consisted o f one 40-minute lecture and another 20-minute session. During these sessions, students were shown how technology has become part o f everyone's daily life, from the decor i n some washrooms to videogame rooms at a Japanese airport. They were shown websites that some elementary school students created and were asked to critically assess these websites. The session informed the students about the necessities o f technology and the ways i n which I C T can  69  be integrated into teaching and learning. Most importantly it asked them to think about how teacher pedagogy using I C T can support student learning. Module 2 was developed to introduce various communication spaces to students, such as email, discussion forums, blogs and wikis. A W i k i or w i k i is "a website (or other hypertext documents collection) allowing users to add content" (Krug, 2005) and to edit a Web page freely. The name " W i k i / w i k i " originated from the native language Of Hawaii, and means "quick" or "super-fast". " W i k i s supports hyperlinks and has a simple text syntax for creating new pages and crosslinks between internal pages on the f l y " (Leuf & Cunningham, 2005). W i k i s are commonly used for communication among small groups of people because o f the convenience o f access and "open editing" (Leuf & Cunningham, 2005, W h a t l s W i k i section). According to L e u f and Cunningham (2005) a w i k i can allow any user to create and edit any page i n a w i k i Website. W i k i s are a communication space that encourages a democratic use o f the Web. Democracy in this sense is a means o f association, which is based on free and equal dialogue and deliberation. However, the open editing features o f a w i k i also make it more difficult to maintain what gets posted on the space. This creates the need to provide adequate security, which i n turn raises additional issues o f access, control, and authority over who can exercise this power. These concerns have already been voiced by some users o f wikis. Prior to the twenty minute class session o f Module 1, students were asked to read "What Teachers Need to K n o w about Technology?", and discuss two questions: 1) according to the article, what does the author think teachers need to know about ICT? 2) What do you, as teachers to be, think teachers need to know about ICT? T o encourage collaboration, students were divided into groups o f four or five with one teacher assistant  70 in each group (This size group was chosen because it was broad enough to generate ideas, yet manageable in terms o f the number o f teacher assistants and time needed to discuss and respond). A s future elementary teachers, groups were given names o f fruit, such as Apples, Grapes, Bananas and Oranges to simulate an elementary classroom experience. During the discussion, teacher assistants were responsible for guiding group member participation, recording the discussions and posting them on the w i k i . Some comments posted on the Seeds websites are listed below: Group A : Grapes  1) What did the article say? Skills to troubleshoot the problems in te  using technology for instructions and research Integrating into curric the attitude to learn and incorporate these skills.  2) What is your opinion? Basic skills for teaching, eg, browsers, pow  excel Attitudes of using technology into teaching integrate technolog  Group A : Apples  What does the article put forth as what teachers need to know abou  how to solve problems - see technology as a tool and use it creative  know what useful software is out there - technology should be situat  (for example brainstorming) - can use technology for classroom man instruction and for teachers to know more about their students (for forums; learn how they think)  What do you think teachers need to know about technology? - teach  learn what software is available for them in the district and particula  71  to use technology for instruction - need to understand your own beli about technology  Group A : Bananas  What do teachers need to know about ICT (technology)? a. Accordin According to you as a pre-service teacher  - teachers do not really use technology - they see it as an artifact - te  for the sake of using and not to enhance any learning outcome - it's n  we use technology but how we use it - it's almost what kind — it's a be using it - what technology can do for. the teachers - need to know differences between computers  - need to know what students are working on - spread sheets, word, - need to knew search engines, classroom file folders - basic competency in programs would be adequate - programs for reporting student marks An Analysis of CSCL, Critical Inquiry and Learning Spaces During I C T sessions, the emphasis was not focused on the skills needed to use the technology, such as a w i k i . Instead critical inquiry was emphasized for students to relate technology to their own teaching or learning experience in a larger context. A s the program continued, more and more problems were identified and posted by students, many questions were raised regarding how and why the use o f technology was related to their own experience.  72  B y working i n small groups, the involvement o f students was enhanced. Student confidence and competence in using technology was encouraged within these small group settings. Teacher assistants helped simulating future use o f a w i k i . B y simulating class experiences most students began to slowly feel comfortable and confident enough later on to take over the typing and posting tasks from the teacher assistants. The groups o f students first discussed topics while teacher assistants typed the discussion into laptop computers. Sometimes members o f a group took turns typing as well. After each group posted their discussion onto the W i k i , which was accessible to all students i n this program, they were provided the opportunity to share their discussions with their classmates, graduate assistants, and instructors through both face-to-face and online learning environment with the support o f the computers. A s a reminder, some researchers stated i n the literature review that student activities i n face-to-face and C S C L learning environments would be constrained by computers and the fixed classroom setting (Myers, Stiel, & Gargiulo, 1998; Stewart, Bederson, & Drain, 1999), because people who collaborate through computers must adapt their interactions to adhere to the single-user paradigm that most P C s were based on. However, the activity i n the Seeds program mildly showed that students were not restrained b y computers or the classroom setting. Instead, the mobility and convenience ofthe laptops created a friendly group-work setting. This virtual learning environment was not accidental but was intentionally arranged b y the instructor and teacher assistants before each class to simulate I C T pedagogical practices. During these sessions, students and teacher assistants were randomly assigned to discuss collaboratively i n small groups. The instructor o f the program walked around the  73  class and joined different group discussions. Rather than simply asking learners questions, the instructor and teacher assistants mentored students to answer questions and helped them follow their own learning paths, instead o f providing a prescriptive set o f instructions. Furthermore, real time dialogue provided during discussions and through a cycle o f critical inquiry was encouraged during these collaborative processes o f learning that included direct experiences, observations and reflections, along with critical analysis and taking action (Krug, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002). B y sharing power with the instructor, students also assumed responsibility for guiding their own learning. They explored and shared different ideas, challenged each other to observe new perspectives and considered alternatives to traditional ways o f thinking. Students began to learn to ask questions, negotiate, interpret and make decisions democratically. They grew to self evaluate their learning processes, rather than just reflect on the outcomes o f these processes. Furthermore, as students learned to work collaboratively, they began to be aware o f themselves as collaborative researchers instead o f just passive knowledge recipients. A good example o f this was that most students became very involved and excited about the use o f these collaborative communication spaces and incorporated them into other program assignments. The students' confidence i n their own ability and i n the ability o f the group to effectively face and work through I C T problems increased as students came to rely on and be motivated by social contact with other group members.  74  Challenges Not all o f the sessions were as effective as planned. One challenge was that some students did not do their assigned reading before the session. In one o f the groups to which I worked, for example, none o f the four student members did the reading and they did not bring the article with them either to the session. Therefore some valuable time was used to allow them to look quickly through the article. The I C T experience then had to be adjusted i n order for these students to answer the assigned question: "what do they think teachers need to know about technology?" A different technical challenge was presented by the large number o f students i n each session. Limited by the class time, multiple groups were asked to simultaneously post their discussions on a w i k i . However, some groups' discussions could not be posted due to a networked conflict that was created when two or three groups trying to post at the same time. T o deal with this challenge, the teacher assistants took turns posting the group discussions. A few times, teacher assistants posted the text on the w i k i after the sessions to compensate for the difficulty.  Module 2-Inquiry On the Seeds website there are several definitions o f inquiry to illustrate the multiple perspectives associated with interpreting this learning process. One reference on the Seeds website stated, "Inquiry creates opportunities for teachers to learn how their students' minds work.. .some o f the skills teachers learn when using inquiry include: •  knowing when to provide a nudge  •  knowing what hints to give each particular student  75  •  knowing what not to tell students (not to give away the answer)  •  knowing how to read student behaviours as they work through challenges and how to design meaningful learning situations that take those behaviours into account  •  knowing how to help students collaborate i n solving problems together  •  knowing when observations, hypotheses, or experiments are meaningful  •  knowing how to tolerate ambiguity  •  knowing how to use mistakes constructively.  •  knowing how to guide students so that giving them control o f their explorations  ,  does not mean losing control o f the classroom" (Krug, 2005, Inquiry section). The goal o f module two was to simulate for the education students how to apply critical inquiry into their own teaching practice to facilitate their learning processes o f I C T with their students' pursuit o f knowledge. One activity designed to help achieve this goal, included four vignettes developed to create opportunities for students to practice what they had learned i n previous classes. For example the simulation looked at how to 1) search and evaluate information online and post on the w i k i , 2) share information i n a broader context, such as discussing and posting information online and/or i n groups. In the bulling vignette below, students related information from a lecture they attended with their own daily teaching experience i n Canadian elementary schools.  76  Teaching Vignette: Bullying Task: First, examine the image on the left. Using the Module 2: Inquiry — week 5 - your team #, area in the discussion forum, write a short description o f this situation. Second, imagine that you are a new teacher at this suburban school and you saw 2 students in your class after school, describe how you would deal with this situation. Third, describe what information you feel you need that is not available from this image so as to properly handle this situation. Last, read the postings o f your 3 other group members and respond to at least 2 o f them offering a critique o f their response to the above questions. Discussion Forum: Post your response in the Module 2: Inquiry — week 5 - your Team # (Resource: Krug, 2005, http://www.cust.educ.ubc.ca/cust565-05/seeds/inquiry_bully.htm)  A. Bullying Issues Before the first class o f module 2, students attended a lecture about bullying. T o combine technology with student experience, the I C T session was designed around this topic. A PowerPoint presentation entitled "Information Literacy Skills in Searching The Net" was presented b y one o f the teacher assistants. This presentation not only helped students review the lecture about bullying, but also provided information as to the  77  locations and methods used to search related data through online resources. Most importantly, issues were raised for discussion including how to evaluate and use information from the Internet as well as whether teachers and students should be critical about the information found through this medium. A t the end o f the presentation, it was recommended that collaboration with other teachers who teach the same grade, or working with teacher-librarians could aid i n the search for resources and information. A weblog, as a form o f communication space, was introduced to students after the presentation and students had an opportunity to integrate what they had learned into a search for information about bullying through the Internet. The results o f their findings were posted on a "blog". " A weblog, Web l o g or simply a blog, is a web application which contains periodic entries on a common webpage" (Krug, 2005). A blog can be a personal diary, chronicle a political campaign, or be found within a media program. There can be one author or a large community o f authors working on a blog. Some weblogs allow visitors to post public comments while others are non-interactive (Krug, 2005). Students were encouraged to search for information and engage i n discussions with their classmates, and most students left comments about various websites for the purpose o f sharing more information with other students. Some o f the websites students searched, as well as students' comments and evaluation towards the websites are listed below:  http://www. bced.gov. be. ca/sco/guide/scoguide.pdf  I think this website is really important because it has a guide of w  ministry thinks about bullying and violence in schools. It describ  78  safe, caring and orderly schools that the education community st  while providing provincial standards for codes of conduct necessar our vision. (A Female Student) http://www.ssta.sk.ca/research/school_improvement/97-06.htm  This website provides information about research and the histor  research project gives the results of a questionnaire completed by  as students. As a result of this study, there are also recommenda research and recommendations for schools. (A Female Student)  http://www.bullying.org  Bullying.org is a user friendly, and interactive website. We would  grades three and up. It has a variety of information, both specifi  site also has a bullying survey for visitors tofillout. (Two Female  http://www.pta.org/bullying/  This website-The National Parent Teacher Association has a pleth  on understanding bullying and how parents, teachers and studen  together to stop bullying. Easy to navigate/provides additional li parent/teacher resources. (A Female and A Male Student) The topic o f bullying, along with gathering information from online resources and students' experience in their teaching practica at schools, complemented each other in ways that enabled students to integrate issues raised at those schools and in the research obtained through various virtual learning spaces. Therefore, there was less o f a focus on  79  technological skills and more o f a focus on understanding the context and how and w h y T E S should incorporate technology into their teaching and learning practices. In this way, the focus was shifted from how the technology was used, to how technology was the medium. The connection o f coursework and student experiences, communication spaces, critical inquiry and collaboration were emphasized i n I C T literacy. B y understanding the educational value o f technology, critical inquiry was developed when students interpreted whether and how to use a particular technology. Most importantly critical inquiry showed with whom a particular technology could be used. For example, one group o f students searched, evaluated and recommended bullying websites for students attending grade three and higher. Below, a student discussion dealing with the difference between a w i k i , blog and discussion forum is presented. The issue o f when, where, how and with whom to use these various forms o f I C T and learning spaces w i l l be further analyzed below.  Challenges Students were divided into groups and collaborated with their classmates, teacher assistants and/or their instructors. The majority o f students had Campus W i d e Login ( C W L ) accounts but some students did not apply for their accounts so they could not use the laptops to access the wireless networking system at U B C .  B. The Wiki, Blog and Discussion Forum After two classes discussing the subject o f bullying and searching for relevant information, a "discussion forum", another form o f communication space, was introduced to students. A discussion forum, also known as a "bulletin board" or "message board", is  80  a web application, which provides online conversation. It has become the "modern descendant o f the bulletin board systems and existing Usenet news systems that were widespread i n the 1980s and 1990s" (Krug, 2005). A discussion forum usually does not exist alone but as a part o f a website, and is created to share conversations and discussions among users (Krug, 2005). During the subsequent class, students were asked to work i n groups and discuss the differences between and advantages o f a w i k i , blog and discussion forum. In addition, they were expected to identify activities that could be adopted i n class to facilitate the use of these three communication spaces. However, some technical problems arose. Although students could not log i n and post their discussions during the class, a good conversation resulted between students, teacher assistants and instructors. Most students were full participants i n the discussion; but a few students did not join, instead they checked emails or engaged i n other activities irrelevant to the session. After several reminders b y the instructor and teacher assistants, they eventually joined the group discussion. Students brainstormed ideas as a group and their discussions were recorded by one teacher assistant. A summary is listed below:  Blogs - Group responses Blogs: A communication and advising tool between parents/teachers/students and the community that is easily updated  Activities •  reporting fieldtrips and posting class research activities  •  posting class assignments and assignments for absent students  81  •  school/class newsletters and bulletin board  •  school wide chronicle o f classroom activities - for example -highlights  •  online exhibit o f student poetry, stories and drawings that facilitates pride and allows students to appreciate peer work  •  use it as a tag board - for further info view www.petersangels.blogspot.com  •  resource list, unit and lesson plans for teachers to share, add and refer to  W i k i s : Group responses W i k i s : A n interactive communication tool that allows editing o f posted work or messages Activities •  suggestion box, minutes o f meetings and archive o f information  •  homework help groups/peer tutoring  •  weekly time tables and daily student agendas  •  posting o f student questions for teacher assistance  •  buddy activities - for example - editing/book responses  •  pen pal interaction - inter-city/global  •  brainstorming  •  project collaboration/group work - groups can share components o f what their learning with others  Concerns for a Wiki -  site security and accountability o f user.  Questions for the adoption of both Wikis and Bogs 1) H o w w i l l blogs and wikis be networked to the school computer system? 2) W h y should we learn this i f we w i l l not be able to use it once we are i n the schools?  82 After the discussion, one group o f students were very interested in the topic and they continued this conversation through an online communication space after the class. Some o f the points they posted on the w i k i regarding the advantages o f using a w i k i are listed below:  / think wiki's are an excellent way to assess student learning, b  post their thoughts/questions/ideas on what they are learning i Female Student called A)  I agree.. .1 think wiki's would be a great place for students to p  suggestions or other comments that they might have after clas Female Student)  Yeah! With A's help I was able to figure out this whole wiki thi  would be beneficial to students by asking and receiving questio  from fellow peers about assignments. It's just like asking for he  classmates before having to ask the teacher for help and feedba whole ask 'three before me'situation. (A Female Student)  wikis can be a space for brief student responses to a class discu  concerning issues; or a space for simple andfree, creative expr  function as a space for daliy bulletins or reponses to daily quot  wikis create a "class community"? they can definitely engage  dialogue, allowing those "quieter students" to participate and  83  ideas to class too. having a wiki dialogue as an integral part of  may also encourage and motivate students to continue thinking  have learned AFTER or outside ofschool, as they will be consta  online dialogues with their peers and even the teacher! (A Fem  while wikis welcome random posts & ideas, lengthy posts (like  be hard to view and organize in this unstructured format?! as w  need to take caution ofstudents being able to "edit" texts in w need to think of appropriate use of wikis while remembering to  using them? hmm, what are some creative and effective activit with the "editing" tool in wikis?(A Male Student)  Based on the discussion, it was evident that students began to regard the technology as a means o f communicating ideas relevant to their own experiences. They began to think about the adaptation and use o f a w i k i and blog in their teaching practices, which demonstrated that they had begun to take more responsibility for their own I C T literacy and shape o f the technology initiative. Students inquired as to how, when and to whom the application o f technology could best be applied for student learning. A s shown on the previous page, one student suggested a w i k i could be utilized for daily bulletins or responses to daily quotes. In addition, it could contain messages which would create a "class community" by engaging students i n a dialogue and allowing those "quieter students" to participate and contribute as well. Critical awareness and reflection was also evident through students' discussion and the posts on the w i k i . They began to realize that  84  the effects associated with using I C T communication spaces, such as a w i k i , could be both positive and negative. For example, some students were concerned about the site security and accountability of user for a wiki. One male student concluded that while wikis welcome random posts & ideas and lengthy posts, it might be hard to view and organize them in this unstructured format. A s a result, he concluded that teachers might need to make sure students are able to edit their own texts i n a w i k i . H e further inquired about the "creative and effective activities" students can perform using the "editing" tool in contained in a w i k i . One point o f worth was that students built on and developed meaning around their classmates' comments. They also helped each to navigate this online communication space. For example, one student used "I agree" as a comment to another student's post and continued her comment based on that. Another student wrote "with A ' s help...I was able to d o . . . " Students affirmed this position i n post-program surveys. Online collaboration enabled students to make a wide array o f connections between their peers and people in their community that had created through a forum for public inquiry. In this v way, students collectively developed a set o f critical opinions related to the use o f technology in schools. The issue o f collaboration w i l l be further analyzed i n the section on CSCL-Collaboration between Peer Student, Students, Instructors and Teacher Assistants.  Challenges ICT infrastructure problems were a continuous challenge. L o g i n problems happened in sessions on several occasions. The biggest challenge was that some students  85  still had not applied for their C W L accounts so they could not log i n online using U B C wireless service. Time was spent helping them logging i n using the instructor and the teacher assistants' accounts. O f course this challenge could easily have been rectified were the students told by T E O to bring their C W L and C M S account information to each session. A t other times, some technical problems occurred which prevented students from logging into the discussion forum using the user name and password they had just created. A t one point, the teacher assistants could not borrow the two carts o f laptops they had already booked from C M S due to scheduling policy issues. However, this problem was later resolved.  C. CSCL- Peer Student, Students, Instructors and Teacher Assistant The instructor and teacher assistants met every Wednesday after the last session o f the day and each Friday during the program to examine and discuss the program. This was done to discuss the optimal methods o f teaching and for the purpose o f critical inquiry simulations where I C T is incorporated to enhance teaching and learning. This critical inquiry framework was organized to not only support teachers to develop cross curricular and student centered activities within a teacher-guided environment but also to generate opportunities for students to learn to collaboratively identify, analyze, and interpret information. During any given session there were usually four teacher assistants and one professor working with a group o f 36 students. A l l the teacher assistants were quite busy and it was difficult to meet the needs o f every student. Some o f the students, including some o f the tech coaches eventually were quite w i l l i n g to help others.  86  During one section, two tech coaches shared their experiences o f incorporating technology into their classroom teaching and course work. I was impressed by a student from group C , who presented field pictures from his practicum and applied them i n the form o f an "imovie" called "Winter Art". In this way, he demonstrated to his classmates and instructors another way o f incorporating technology into teaching and learning. During week four, the instructors o f the program and teacher assistants had their first meeting with faculty advisors assigned to the seven classes. The faculty advisors were asked how sessions were going and i f they had any suggestions for improving the program. T w o suggestions were that they preferred to have the program as a course consisting o f a one-hour session once a week, i n an area that is closely situated to their other teaching classrooms. Second, they said that some students questioned the relevance o f the program regarding the practical application o f this form o f teaching i n schools, since some schools i n which they did their practicum did not have any computers. Once again, the purpose o f the Seeds program was emphasized, that was to make students feel comfortable and confident i n using technology. The expectation was that these future teachers might influence other teachers and administrators and spread the possibility o f critically using I C T i n schools. Other comments raised by the faculty advisors included that they meet with D r D o n Krug, the instructor o f the Seeds program, either as a group, or as individuals/partners to collaboratively plan how the technology component would be incorporated and presented to students. Additionally, they all responded positively to D r . Krug's presentation on the use o f technology for student research—using library or classroom computers i n both primary and intermediate student learning.  87  One question was raised as to whether this program over-lapped with the tech coaches' responsibilities i n each cohort. After the discussion, the conclusion was that, the role o f tech coaches was to raise the level o f technology skills amongst the students and faculty advisors i f possible. However, this Seeds program was to address the necessity and importance o f I C T literacy i n the teacher education program at U B C . I C T literacy encompasses more than any set o f technology skills. The collaboration between peer students, students, the instructors and teacher assistants was intense throughout the whole program. It was carried out through forms o f discussion, inquiry, web postings and students' engagement i n critical inquiry and I C T . Searching and sharing information i n both face-to-face, hybrid and online distance education communication spaces were important components as well. Although several I C T challenges occurred during the program, overall the C S C L created a public forum for inquiries with on-going feedback with people i n the community at large.  D. The Dean's Lecture After the reading break at U B C , the Seeds program welcomed students back with the Dean's lecture. Later, the Dean joined the students i n the discussion forum and encouraged them to send h i m comments or thoughts about the lecture outside o f the regular class time. However, none o f the students obliged the Dean's request. Therefore, class time was adapted, and students were asked to write something and send it to the discussion forum. Some technical problems arose yet again. The discussion forum website's software was not sufficient, and students were not able to type their comments for more than 5 minutes. This prompted students to type their threads in a W o r d  88  document and to later copy and paste the text into the discussion forum. A t the end o f this class, most o f the students sent the Dean a message voicing their opinions or comments. Later, despite his busy schedule, the Dean, replied to some o f the questions the students posted on the discussion forum thread. Some o f the student comments as well as the Dean's reply are listed below.  ...I believe in this form of assessment. It allows parents, studen  accurately gauge the students 'performance in the classroom. H  service teachers, Do you honestly expect us to have the necessa  implement this type of assessment in our classrooms? ...Are we t  students to provide their portfolios every time this occurs? Also, students' time in the classroom should be dedicated to creating  their portfolio. Does this not limit the actual time spent on learn  It reminds me about the debate on winter performances, where spent on concert lead up and not on learning.  This thread demonstrated that students had begun to ask meaningful questions about the lecture they attended and the knowledge they gained. They also related this knowledge to their past experience.  / thought that the lecture was very informative. Your ideas on a  to be valuable in the classroom, as I too believe in a child-cente  looking forward to implementing these ideas and techniques in t Thank-you so much for presenting your ideology on assessment  89  ... Your lecture brought in real life examples, and made me feel a about the whole assessment process. Thanks...  ... I really like the idea of using portfolios...and having the studen  assessing themselves. I also really like the idea of building on th  collective knowledge and building the bridge from them towards  curriculum/IRPs ...I think that more and more people will start to  benefits of this type of thinking and you may get your assessmen Dean's reply:  Let me try to address some of the themes raised in many of the c  Many of you seem to see the worth of student-centered assessme  form of negotiation with the students. I see student self-assessm  educational endeavours. As students learn...you (as a teacher) a  look at their efforts using a range of lens... Our goal is to develop  systems... They can pursue self assessment by students individu a whole class. And, it can occur formally or informally.  Portfolios (individual, group, project etc.) may help a student an  a range of assessment goals including self assessment. In terms o  portfolios can serve as a means ofgathering together material fo  ...portfolios can serve as conversation starter for students lookin  with their peers, teachers and others...In terms of teacher asses  afford teachers the opportunity to look over a range of classroom  90.  In essence, I see student-centered assessment as ongoing...and q heloing students learn how to learn across any course of study.  This online discussion forum simulation encouraged students to explore and relate knowledge to their experience b y encouraging them to critique and post their individual responses. In this forum, communication and learning were extended beyond physical boundaries and fixed class time. Communication and learning are essential i n critical inquiry. A s students explored the issues o f assessment, they posed questions relating assessment to their teaching experiences. B y reading each other's threads and communicating with people i n the community-at-large, such as the Dean, they benefited from sharing their learning in a public forum and by investigating ideas, and presenting them to a wide audience. Educational communication spaces are one way to explore issues to learn from others. Meanwhile, the faculty advisors also found benefits i n this online communication by moderating what students knew and did not know about a topic. In so doing, they were able to be more effective facilitators i n the students' learning processes.  Challenges The uses o f I C T provided many technical challenges. A related issue was to help students overcome their frustration during these times. Occasionally some students showed impatience when small technical problems occurred. Even more challenging was when a few students i n one particular group were regularly absent. In addition faculty advisors were also encouraged to participate e.g., send their comments to the Dean or join  91  a student communication space. However, only one faculty advisor from a group o f seven sent the Dean a message on the discussion forum.  E Using ICT to Conduct Inquiry—The Vignette The instructor o f the Seeds program explored some I C T teaching, learning and communication strategies that teachers and students would use to conduct critical inquiry. The purpose was to simulate how critical inquiry can be conducted b y relating knowledge to the students' experiences, and connecting their learning "with new situation through writing, representation, and dialogue" (Krug, 2005). Critical inquiry can also be conducted b y allowing students to "observe, reflect on, negotiate, analyze, and interpret meanings and values o f everyday events, issues, and problems" (Krug, 2005). A s mentioned before, the vignettes were designed to build T E S ' knowledge and understanding o f pedagogy and extend their learning experience. Students were asked to complete the inquiry b y reading and choosing one vignette from four simulations posted on the Seeds website: Vignette #1—Bullying, Vignette #2 — Accessing Information, Vignette #3—Collaboration and Vignette #4—Online Collaboration. In groups o f four or five, students selected a group leader who was responsible for monitoring and providing a summary o f the group discussion. Students were required to post their own responses to the discussion forum. They were also asked to read and respond to other group members' postings. One example is listed below:  92  Teaching Vignette: Collaboration  Task: First, examine the image above. Using the Module 2: Inquiry — week 5 - your team #, area i n the discussion forum, write a short description o f this situation. Second, imagine that you are the teacher at this school and you saw 1 student excluded from a group project in your class, describe how you would deal with this situation. Third, describe what information you feel you need that is not available from these 2 images so as to properly handle this situation. Last, read the postings o f your 3 other group members and respond to at least 2 o f them offering a critique o f their response to the above questions. Discussion Forum: Post your response in the Module 2: Inquiry — week 5 - your Team # Resource: Krug, 2005, http://www.cust.educ.ubc.ca/cust56505/seeds/inquiry_collab.htm)  Student responses: Teaching Vignette- Collaboration SHORT DESCRIPTION: - a girl is working by herself because she is being excluded from the other girls  SECOND TASK: - ask outgoing/friendly students to include the student in - go over the rules of behavior THIRD TASK: - did an event occur to lead to exclusion? - did the child choose to work alone?  93  - does exclusion occur on a regular basis for this child?  WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF WORKING TOGETHER IN GROU face)? - immediate response - clarification  - if you're not comfortable or used to dealing with the use of tec  questions are more likely to be answeredface to face (A Femal  Led by the instructor o f a course, one group o f students did a case study using the discussion forum.  so, then Therese Carmen and science. Let's discuss the issues f  The issue isn't science! think about what you know about curri  professional decision making. What does TC see as the role of t what does she believe about teaching young children? (Posted ...In addition, one ofthe negative points  of her teaching is som  experienced, and quickly learned not to do during my practicum Student).  If you were TC, what would you do when the principal came to  could TC get some concrete support (in the long term) with un curriculum? (The Instructor)  94  This is so fun, I can't stand it! Whatever happened to motivatin  Could Teresa Carmen not have adapted her lessons to make th students?(A Female Student)  I too agree with TC's need to be adaptable, flexible, and reflect noted above... (A Female Student)  so far so good with identifying issues. What do you think about children? and her role in teaching them? (The instructor)...  Starting with an open-ended question that an instructor posted, this dialogue continued as students explored more coherent and meaningful questions, which lead to more exploration and evaluation. B y posting their thoughts and questions online, students were able to communicate with their classmates, instructor and people in the at-large community. In this way, they both taught and learned from each other. The instructor was also able to learn about the students in order to provide immediate feedback guiding them in their investigations to answer these questions. Learning in this collaborative and critical learning environment using critical inquiry, students were able to experience problem-solving, reflect on decision-making and learn to use research skills through the use o f ICT.  F. E-Portfolio The fifth week o f module 2 introduced the concept o f "e-portfolio" to students. The emphasis was on the importance o f creating an e-portfolio as a communication space  95  for students to represent their learning and performance. Therefore most students created a personal page related to their life experiences and a professional page with their teaching philosophies. The eportfolios were very modest once again because ofthe time constraint o f the program. The subsequent classes o f module 2 were devoted to teaching students how to create their own e-portfolios using Dreamweaver, which is an application that allows one "to edit web pages and manage web sites through a graphical environment" ("Elevate IT", 2005, Glossary section). The sample e-portfolio contained an intro page, a personal page and a professional page. A PowerPoint presentation that dealt with web and networking construction also introduced students to methods required to upload and save their web pages to a server at U B C . This allowed students to author and administer their web pages and to make them publicly viewable over the Internet. The public presentation o f the websites was a form o f formative assessment based on self and social critique.  Challenges and Solutions T w o teacher assistants within the program shared with me their experiences o f teaching. According to them, some o f the students were not patient with the technology they were learning and they showed their impatience and frustration in front o f the teacher assistants and the instructor i n the class. After a discussion among some o f the students, teacher assistants and the instructor, the progress o f module 2 was slowed down so that students had more time to become familiar with the technology. T w o groups o f students had some problems due to the inadequate supply o f computers i n the C M S computer lab. Some students had to use laptops, which increased the difficulties to access, upload and save the web pages from their C M S accounts to the  96  server. One student was very impatient when uploading and saving files from their C M S account to the server. However, no matter how frustrated this student was, he/she chose to stay after the class to observe the methods I used to save and upload the file. I also got a chance to work with a physically challenged student who was very interested in I C T and active i n the class. Instead o f following the class, this student chose to work at his/her own pace and perform the tasks i n a less structured way. The teacher assistants spent extra time with this student to meet his/her individual needs. Students were encouraged to discuss and assist each other throughout the program. A s the program continued, they became more and more comfortable with I C T . A good example was when students became familiar with authoring their e-portfolios online. Most o f them became less dependant on the teacher assistants and began to aid each other or confer with their classmates when assistance was needed. Sometimes when I worked with one student, another student would j o i n the discussion and together we solved a problem or even discovered a new function o f authoring online. Teacher assistants spent the majority o f their time attending to students who had been absent from many classes. Due to these absences, these students fell behind the rest o f the class and required additional assistance to complete their e-portfolios.  Incorporating I C T into the Curriculum A large part o f Seeds program was delivered through an I C T online environment. The Seeds website was created for students to review the three modules, check assignments and respond through online communication spaces. Students were able to review presentations presented during the sessions, communicate with the instructor and  97 teacher assistants during and after classes, and explore more information through the resource links provided in the website. Rather than delivering the program on paper with handouts and paper assignments, the Seeds program demonstrated the possibility o f incorporating I C T into curriculum.  Module 3-Assesment During the final week o f the term, post-class surveys were distributed to students at that time. Three o f the four groups handed in their completed surveys the next day. The teacher assistants felt appreciated when students conveyed their gratitude at the end o f the program. Twenty-four out o f eighty-three students (one group did not hand in the post survey) completed their optional post survey comments. Some representative post survey comments are listed below:  This was a helpful class because it made me lose my fear of tech  least be more interested in incorporating technology in my class  support a future required class on technology in classrooms. (Fe  I thought the idea of instructing us in technology was great how  time constraints feel I didn 't take a lot away from classes becau rushed. I think it should be a full course. (Female — age 30)  Thank you very much for all the instruction and help in creating  thought I could do it and it is pretty easy to use within the class  98  children, so thank you. And Ifeel so much more comfortable wor  computer than I did in the beginning. I now feel more prepared to  within the classroom. Thank you once again. (Female student, 3  I thought this tech class was helpful. But it was not long enough  basic. I think if we had an actual tech class we would learn more  with that would be that everyone is at different levels. Personal  video on the computer. For those who knew how to do basic th was not that helpful. Thanks for everything. (Female - age 20)  Although it was interesting to learn how to use dreamweaver, I  learn how to create a web page with a less specialized piece of s  probably will not have access to that software in my schools. (F  If this is going to be a course it needs to be slower and things n  why/how this would be used in the classroom. There needs to b  creating and putting together for those who are not computer lit  be in a room where all computer work. The laptop labs were ve (Female - age 30) According to these post-program surveys, most students felt more comfortable and confident using computers after having completed this program and some o f them indicated that it had raised their interest in using computers within their own teaching practices. Time constraint was the most frequent complaint from students. Most students  99  had hoped that this program could develop into a course that would allow them to learn at a slower pace and meet their individual needs as they relate to I C T literacy.  Summary In this chapter, I described the Seeds program i n detail and analyzed how C S C L , critical inquiry and various learning spaces challenged and enhanced T E S learning o f I C T literacy during the Seeds program. While there were many social, technical and curricular challenges, which resulted from the introduction o f ICT, none o f these challenges were insurmountable or stifled social interaction during the program. I believe the above analysis provides a useful overview for understanding how and w h y I C T can be successfully incorporated into a T E P . The Seeds program successfully enabled teacher education students to use I C T confidently and competently within their own teaching practices. The post surveys, exit interviews, and classroom conversations provided some evidence as to what success meant i n the context o f the Seeds program. This pilot research broadly demonstrated that some students did increase their I C T literacy as well as their interests i n incorporating I C T into their practice after the program. A more complete summary is provided in Chapter 5.  100  Chapter 5 Summary and Suggestion  The research objectives o f this thesis were first, to identify the need for introducing I C T literacy into the T E P course o f study generally and the 2-year elementary T E P specifically based on a thorough review o f educational literature and theory, and second to describe and analyze relations, tensions, and contradictions that occurred when critical inquiry and C S C L were introduced to enhance I C T literacy i n the T Y E T E P course o f study. In chapter 2 and chapter 3 I identified the need for introducing ICT literacy into the T Y E T E P course o f study, based on current literature as well as the I C T S S report conducted by Statistic Canada. In this final chapter, I summarize the data and findings from previous chapters and provide m y own interpretation o f the second research objective, the relations, tensions, and contradictions that occurred when critical inquiry and C S C L were introduced to enhance I C T literacy i n the T Y E T E P course o f study.  Relations The Seeds program was designed to combine both critical inquiry and I C T literacy i n order to have students feel comfortable and confident i n using educational technologies within their own pedagogical practices. T o provide students opportunities to feel comfortable using both M a c and Windows operating systems i n each class, one cart of 20 Windows and one cart o f 20 M a c laptop computers were at the students' disposal. Students also had the opportunity to work i n both M a c and Windows computer labs and try different browsers, such as Internet Explore, Netscape, Safari, and M o z i l l a . Through  101 the Seeds program students had opportunities to create their own e-portfolios and engage in and think about communication spaces. In order to do this, some basic html programming and file transfer protocol skills were taught. However, these technical skills were not taught for the sole purpose of using an I C T application, instead the emphasis was on the context o f teaching and learning and creating an e-portfolio that highlighted their professional learning and personal interests.  Learning Spaces B y introducing various learning spaces, such as asynchronous and synchronous communication systems (e.g. w i k i , blog and discussion forum), virtual learning environments were created for students to converse i n small groups which allowed them opportunities to collaborate on course assignments, not only with their classmates, but also with the session instructor, teacher assistants and the faculty advisors. Faculty advisors were very reluctant to directly participate i n most I C T sessions. Discussions were sometimes focused on an article regarding the knowledge and attitude required by teachers involved i n the use o f ICT. O n several occasions, after these discussions and debates, one student i n a group was responsible to either post their collaborative conclusions on a w i k i , blog or discussion forum or present this information i n front o f the class. Occasionally, their discussions were posted on the W i k i with the help o f a teacher assistant. In this way, students not only reflected on the article i n small groups but also had the opportunity to critically relate contextual information and read other groups" discussions. During this program, students learned not only to collaborate and communicate with each other, but more importantly they learned how to address issues  102  from multiple perspectives on topics such as bullying and assessment (reading and lecture topics) i n their teaching by sharing conversations with their classmates, teachers and administrators (Beaudry, Krug, Najafi, Vanston, & Zhang, 2005). A s mentioned before, group size usually consisted o f three-five students and one teacher assistant. This was the most productive group size when trying to use computer supportive collaborative learning.  Critical Inquiry and Pedagogy Another important finding was that critical inquiry had the potential to enhance I C T literacy during the program. For example, as described i n chapter 4, students posted their thoughts on a w i k i about an article they read which discussed what teachers need to know about ICT. They also posted questions on a blog and discussion forum about vignettes that were directly connected to another article and a lecture they had attended. To add continuity to the program, students identified and posted more questions and also questioned the validity o f the questions they asked. Critical inquiry provided ways for students to move beyond merely reflecting on ideas to consider issues i n relation to contextual conditions i n society and how to use particular technologies to best enhance the social conditions o f student learning. Most importantly critical inquiry guided the use o f ICT to engage students i n heated discussions and ways to explore multiple meanings and values. For example, one group o f students searched, evaluated and recommended bullying websites for students attending grade three and higher. Then they used a vignette posted on a website to talk about the social consequences o f their own particular practices related to how they would handle a bullying situation.  103  Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Collaboration among peer students, students, the instructors and teacher assistants was intense throughout the whole program. It was carried out through forms of discussion, inquiry, web posting and students' responses to questions. Searching and sharing information in both face-to-face, hybrid, and online communication spaces were important components as well. Overall, through various communication spaces, C S C L created a public forum for inquiries with on-going feedback from people in the community-at-large. Students benefited from this public forum by investigating ideas, presenting them to a wide audience, exploring issues, and learning in a collaborative and critical environment. Students developed problem-solving, decision-making and research skills as they took responsibility for their own learning. For example, students searched information about bullying issue emerged in Canadian elementary schools. They evaluated and shared the information retrieved from the websites with their classmates, the instructor and teacher assistants on the discussion forum. Further discussions were developed when students posted questions and responded to others'. Meanwhile, faculty advisors also found benefits in this online communication by learning more about their students with regards to what they know and do not know. In so doing, the faculty advisors were able to be slightly more effective as facilitators in their students' learning processes. Of course with greater participation on the part of the faculty advisors, this potential would also increase. Rather than simply ask questions, the instructor and teacher assistants guided students to ask their own questions and then assisted them with following their own learning paths during the program. Furthermore, real time dialogue provided during  104  discussions and critical inquiry was encouraged throughout the collaborative processes and simulations. Students also took on responsibility guiding their own learning. They explored and shared different ideas through discussions, challenged each other to observe new perspectives and considered alternatives to traditional ways o f thinking. They grew to feel comfortable with self-evaluation o f their learning processes, rather than seek attainment o f predetermined outcomes. Furthermore, as students learned to work collaboratively i n groups, they began to be aware o f themselves as collaborative researchers instead of just passive knowledge recipients. A good example o f this is that most students became very involved and excited about the use o f I C T like the W i k i and B l o g as a collaborative communication space. The students' confidence in their own ability and i n the ability o f the group to effectively face and work through problems increased as students came to rely on and be motivated by social contact with other group members. These positive aspects o f I C T and the changing roles o f teachers and students were also echoed i n the literature review o f C S C L . Some researchers stated i n the literature that student activities i n face-to-face and C S C L learning environments can be constrained by computers and the fixed classroom setting (Myers, Stiel, & Gargiulo 1998, and Stewart, Bederson & Drain, 1999) because as people collaborate using computers they must adapt their interactions to adhere to a single-user paradigm that most P C s are based on. The activity i n the Seeds program mildly showed that students were not restrained by computers or the classroom settings. Instead, the mobility and convenience o f the laptops created a group-friendly classroom setting. This virtual learning environment was not accidentally achieved but was  105  intentionally arranged by the instructor and teacher assistants before each class to simulate I C T literacy.  Tensions Some o f the tensions listed here might seem small i n comparison to the overall goals o f the project. However, i n the day-to-day grind o f classroom activities, these tensions did not feel like minor events at the time. A s the coordinator o f weekly time blocks during the program, the instructor and the teacher assistants could only mentor the program as a supplement to other activities i n the for credit courses. There were tensions that did not allow easy combination o f pedagogy and I C T literacy, such as time constraint (most sessions are 20 minutes), classroom locations (far from the computer lab and other classrooms), as well as the lack o f positive values and different understanding o f I C T and pedagogy between the faculty advisor o f each class and the mentors i n the Seeds program. Some social problems occurred at times during the program, such as 1) teacher assistants could not always borrow the two carts o f laptops they had booked form C M S due to scheduling policy issues, 2) students didn't do the work they were asked, specifically, posting their response about the Dean's lecture after school, 3) some o f the students did not apply for or forgot their C W L and /or C M S accounts, which required the instructor and teacher assistants to spend class time helping them to log i n at the beginning o f each class. The second and third problems revealed that the I C T learning environments were not viewed by some students as an integrate part o f T E P for several reasons listed below: a.  N o grade was attached to student assessment.  b.  Seeds program was facilitated by an outside mentor (not as a faculty advisor)  106  c.  Some faculty advisors did not participate i n the program  d. Some students doubted the availability o f computers at B . C . schools There were also infrastructure and technical problems that hindered the process o f the class. Instances o f these tensions were: 1) a lack o f appropriate software application (video editing and graphic manipulation) and computers available through C M S (36 students sharing 20 computers); 2) a delay for students posting their comments simultaneously on the W i k i , so students had to take turns posting or had to wait after the class i n order to post; 3) a router conflict that prohibited it from refreshing the IP addresses. This hardware problem prohibited multiple users o f one computer to log i n after each other. The result was that some students could not log into a communication space to post their responses to an assignment.  Contradictions There were several contradictions between the literature reviewed and the perspectives o f the T E S and the conditions o f their earlier practicum experiences. The first contradiction was that the I C T S S reported more than 90% o f principals agreed that I C T not only allowed students to go beyond the prescribed curriculum but also broadened and enriched teacher perspective towards the hidden curriculum and instruction. However the monthly technical support time per computer at Canadian schools was only 12 minutes per computer (Table 3). Further, most schools continue to be challenged b y funding for technology and there is not enough professional development opportunities for teachers (Plante & Beattie, 2004).  107  Despite that the average student to computer ratio i n British Columbia is 5.0 to 1 and the average student to Internet-connected computer ration is 5.6 to 1 (Plante & Beattie, 2004), some schools, especially i n B C ' s inner cities, continue to have an inadequate number o f computers for their students. According to the Seeds pre survey, as well as questions raised b y students during the sessions, most students seemed to be concerned with the insufficient number o f computers at schools where teaching practices were undertaken. In the research paper (Plante & Beattie, 2004), 35.2% o f schools indicated that 75% of the teachers or more possess the required technical skills to engage students i n using I C T effectively to enhance their learning. Teachers' Perspectives reported that nearly every teacher i n the survey had used a computer frequently, and regarded a computer as essential or important i n the way they teach. Most o f the teachers were learning I C T on the job, self-taught or relied on other teachers or their students (O'Haire, 2003). A l s o , according to the pre survey for Seeds, approximately 79% o f the T E S computer skills were self-taught and about 57% learned these skills from friends or relatives. However, according to the pre surveys, most faculty advisors and students felt neither comfortable nor confident to incorporate I C T into their teaching and learning at the beginning o f the Seeds pilot study. Still provided with the opportunities o f learning I C T during the Seeds program, some o f the faculty advisors and students did not participate, despite the fact that all faculty advisors and students agreed to be fully involved at the beginning o f the program. For example, the faculty advisors were encouraged to send their comments to the Dean after his lecture and j o i n the student/Dean  108  discussion. However, only one faculty advisor from a group o f seven sent the Dean a message on the discussion forum.  Significance  W h i l e some attention i n Canada has been paid to the professional development o f teachers' attitude and competencies towards integrating I C T into teaching and learning, little attention has been paid to the T E P . This thesis draws attention to this gap by providing a close examination o f ICT literacy education i n T Y E T E P at U B C , especially how I C T can be integrated into the curriculum and the ways in which faculty advisors and future teachers responded to one attempt to integrate I C T through a systemic program. Some o f the tensions and contradictions, such as the social and technical problems mentioned above were anticipated before the program started. However, these concerns were not seen as significant enough as to drastically modify the curriculum. Overall, the purpose o f this pilot program was to observe and collect data for future ongoing development i n this area o f study. This thesis was designed to help report on this preliminary data collected from the Seeds program.  Future Study  A t the writing o f this thesis, it is anticipated that the Seeds o f Possibility: Integrating I C T into Teaching and Learning w i l l be developed into a one-hour per week program which w i l l run through the whole academic year. Instead o f developing a standalone course separated from other courses, a research mentorship team w i l l work with  109  faculty associates and students on integrating it into all courses offered through the T Y E T E P . The first step o f the new Seeds Program w i l l be to integrate I C T literacy into the existing methodology courses. The next step w i l l be to integrate learning technologies into the practicum courses, and then to work with sponsor teachers who work directly with students during their extended practicum experiences. According to the post-program surveys, most students felt more comfortable and confident using computers after having completed the Seeds program and some o f them indicated that it had raised their interest in using I C T within their own teaching practices. I believe further research w i l l need to be conducted to extend understandings o f how pedagogical and communication practices are changing i n light o f integrating I C T into curricula. B y observing and documenting empirical evidence o f teaching practices this data can provide researchers a way to analyze whether these students w i l l actually benefit from integrating I C T into their teaching practices and whether these seeds o f possibility students can help spread their I C T literacy among other seasoned teachers. Furthermore, it would be o f value to consider what kind o f I C T that students adopt i n their teaching practices, and particularly to consider the degree to which I C T is used as part o f professional communication and learning. The Seeds program can perhaps offer on-going professional research for fostering links between teacher education students and their first couple o f years o f teaching. Dillenbourg (1999) mentioned four characteristics o f C L namely: situations, interactions, processes, and effects. It would be o f value to examine and analyze these four factors, especially i n relation with C S C L when I C T was introduced to T E P .  110  Dimensions of ICT and CSCL Each new finding can lead an individual to ask fresh questions, change their perspective or explore new horizons. The main reason why people study new things, whether they be new facts, theories, concepts or philosophies, is the potential influence they w i l l have on people's understanding and behaviour. W h e n introducing a new concept o f learning, it w i l l greatly influence the educational system at all levels, from micro to macro. The implementation o f C L and critical inquiry through the Seed program not only changed the role o f the teacher and student at the micro level o f the daily practice, but also had the potential to influence the teachers philosophical position, the structure and purpose o f the school system and I C T ' s potential i n society.  The Role o f Teachers H o w can teachers overcome not only the challenges o f C L but also take advantage o f the power o f C S C L ? This question w i l l be the focus o f m y future research. After this research, m y conclusion is that, critical inquiry, C L and C S C L environments can enable teachers to act more as guides, tutors, facilitators or even partners, rather than merely experts or authorities. Teachers can guide learners to answer their own questions, instead o f simple asking learners to memorize prescribed content. They can also help learners follow their own learning routes, and assist them i n making informed decisions about what they should do. This was the case when the instructor and teacher assistants during the Seeds program offered in-time feedback and encouraged students to critically analyze I C T issues in the context o f personal experiences and contemporary educational issues.  Ill  However, it was not easy for the instructor to fulfill this role because o f the challenges mentioned i n both the literature reviewed and the actual day-to-day workings of the program. T o overcome these challenges, specific learning materials and tasks were developed to use i n the C S C L environment. The instructor and teacher assistants had to be also critical o f their own practices i n order to overcome several technical problems. A s Simons et al. (2002) concluded, teachers have to deal with several class management challenges: the management o f technologies, information, time and learning groups. Meanwhile, introducing C S C L into classrooms w i l l necessarily require teacher support, for example, technical support, professional development, guidelines and symmetrical computer supported collaborative teaching evaluation for teachers, to mention just a few. I believe, the key to all o f the above challenges w i l l require ongoing dialogue through a cycle o f critical inquiry, which is not only between teachers and students, but also between teachers, parents, administrators and beyond. W i t h i n a community o f practice people from the school to the local community and from national and international groups w i l l need to participate and discuss, learn from and support each other, and build a collaborative learning and research environment.  The Role o f Students Through critical inquiry and within the C S C L environment students can explore and share different ideas, challenge each other to look at new perspectives and consider alternatives to traditional ways o f thinking, through discussions with others within the learning institution, in the local community, the country and even internationally. Students can learn to ask questions, negotiate, and make decisions democratically. Rather  112  than attempting to control ideas, they can learn to respect and listen to others. They also can learn to evaluate their own learning processes, rather than just the outcomes o f those processes. Sharing power with teachers, students can learn to cherish and make effective use o f that power by taking more responsibility for their own learning. A s students learn to work collaboratively, they w i l l become aware o f what it means to be a collaborative researcher instead o f a passive recipient o f knowledge. The students' confidence i n their own ability and i n the ability o f the group to effectively face and work through problems can increase as students come to rely on and are motivated by a social contact with other supportive group members.  Conclusion Finally, I would like to use a metaphor to summarize the relationship between C L , C S C L , critical inquiry, learning spaces and I C T integration. If life-long learning is like the growth o f a tree, then this tree should grow with the development o f effective theory and practice. If teachers are gardeners, then they w i l l use their knowledge to water this tree. If C L is one o f the branches on the tree, it may not be strong enough to support other branches upon which to grow. I C T can be used as a kind o f fertilizer to help strengthen this branch. But i n this use, we have to consider factors such as what kind o f fertilizer, how much to apply and the actual methods o f application that should be used by the gardener. W e also need to understand how effective the roots are at conveying the required nutrition to all branches o f the tree and the relationship between the branches and tree to elements in the outside world, such as the sun and air. O n l y b y understanding the interrelationships within the broad educational system and the influence o f the  113 surrounding environment, can people ensure the future healthy growth of this tree of learning.  114  References Atkinson, P., & Delamont, S. (1986). Bread and dreams or bread and circuses? A critique of 'case study' research i n education. In M . Hammersley (Ed.), Controversies in Classroom Research (pp. 238-255). Philadelphia, P A : Open University Press. Bannon, L . J . (1989) Issues i n computer-supported collaborative learning. Retrieved November 20, 2004, from http://www.ul.ie/~idc/library/papersreports/LiamBaruion/12/LBMarat.html Becker, H . J. (2000). Findings from the teaching, learning, and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? 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Ml  HI  M  M  1  >  *  P r a c t i c ii m 1 n  M  XI  m  module 1  module 1 (20 minutes)  (40 minuto*)  n  M  I  P r a c t i c \j m  H Uullytiiy leutuie  •  module 2 (40 minutes)  FebritJMv 2005 M m  Ml  module 2 (40 minutes)  module 2 (20 minutes)  u  TM  M  m  1  module 2 (20 minute*)  1  M  module 2 (20 minutes)  tl  U  1  ml d - term brea k Dean's lecture  n  module 2 (40 minutes) •  u M  M  modulo 3 (40 minutes) module 3 (40 minutes) module 3 (40 mlnuM*)  module 2 (20 minute*)  1  _  module 2 (20 minutes) •  u  u  module 3 (20 minutes) module? (20 minute*) module 3 (20 minute*)  N n  •  P  H  n  1  123  A p p e n d i x B C l a s s r o o m Bookings: G r o u p A Room Bookings Seeds of Possibility M o r n i n g Session Date: 1/24/05-3/30/05 Day: M Time:  W I0am-4pm  R o o m : S c a r f e 1128 (36+scat room)  * * ( A L L C L A S S E S W I L L M E E T I N S C A R F E 1128)  C o m p u t e r L a b s : 1006 ( m a c ) , 1011 ( w i n ) N o t e b o o k s : ( m a c ) and ( w i n ) D a t a P r o j e c t o r : I per r o o m  Group A  (10:45-11:35) ( 2 0 o r 4 0 minute time w i l l fall w i t h i n this time slot)  Lorn a Lewis  ( D e b b i e Jeroff)  Module 1  M  Scarfe  W  Ponderosa  M  Ponderosa  127  W  Scarfe  210  Introduction M  01/17  (40 minutes)  W  01/19  (20 minutes)  Ml(con't)  Module 2  M  01/24  Bullying Lecture  W  01/19  (40 minutes)  M W  01/31  (40 minutes)  02/02  (20 minutes)  M  02/07  (40 minutes)  W  02/09  (20 minutes)  Inquiry  M2(con't)  Mid-term Break  02/14-02/16  M2(con't)  M  02/2J  Deans Lecture  W  02/23  ( 2 0 minutes)  M2(con't)  Module 3  203 1023  M  02/28  ( 4 0 minutes)  W  03/02  ( 2 0 minutes)  ePortfolio (Assessment) M  0 2 /2 8  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M3(con't)  no session  M  03/07  W  03/09  . ( 2 0 minutes)  M  03/14  (40 minutes)  W  03/16  (20 minutes)  M 3 (con't)  124 Appendix B Classroom Bookings: Group B Room Bookings Seeds of Possibility Afternoon Session Date: 1 / 2 4 / 0 5 - 3 / 3 0 / 0 5 Day: M W Time: 1 0 a m - 4 p m Room: Scarfe 1128 (36+scat r o o m )  * * ( A L L C L A S S E S WILL M E E T IN S C A R F E 1128)  Computer Labs: 1006 ( m a c ) , 101.1 ( w i n ) Notebooks: ( m a c ) and ( w i n ) Data Projector: 1 per r o o m  Group B ( 1 : 0 0 - 1:40) ( 2 0 o r 4 0 m i n u t e t i m e w i l l fall w i t h i n this t i m e slot)»see January 17 & 19* Carla Rae  Bev Parslow '  Module  M  Scarfe  210  W  Ponderosa  121  M  Scarfe  1003  W  Scarfe  1003  Introduction  M W  01/17 01/19  (60 m i n u t e s ) ( 2 : 3 0 - 3 : 3 0 )  M  01/24  Bullying  w  01/19  (40 m i n u t e s )  Inquiry M W  0.1/31 02/02  (40 m i n u t e s ) (20 m i n u t e s )  02/07 02/09  (40 m i n u t e s )  no session ( H a n d o u t article to students)  Ml(con't)  Module 2  Lecture  M2(con"t)  M W  (20 minutes)  02/14-02/16  Mid-term Break M2(con't) M  02/21  Deans Lecture  W  02/23  (20 minutes)  M  02/28 03/02  (40 minutes)  M2(con't) W Module 3  (20 minutes)  cPortfolio (Assessment) M  02/28  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M W  03/07  no session  03/09  (20 minutes)  03/14 03/16  (40 minutes)  M3(con'f)  M 3 (coivt) M W  (20 m i n u t e s )  125  Appendix B Classroom Bookings: Group C Room Bookings Seeds of Possibility Afternoon Session  Date: 1 / 2 4 / 0 5 - 3 / 3 0 / 0 5  Day: M W Time: 10am - 4 p m Room: Scarfe 1128 (36+seat r o o m ) Computer Labs: 1006 ( m a c ) , 1011 Notebooks: ( m a c ) and ( w i n ) Data Projector: I p e r r o o m  Group C ( 1 : 5 0 - 2 : 3 0 )  ( 2 0 o r 4 0 m i n u t e t i m e w i l l f a l l w i t h i n t h i s t i m e s l o t ) * please sec  Laurie Kocher  Jim Morris  Module 1  **(ALL CLASSES WILL MEET IN SCARFE  M  Ponderosa  123  W  Ponderosa  123  M  Scarfe  1024  W  Scarfe  1023  Introduction M  01/17  (40 minutes)  W  01/19  ( 2 0 m i n u t e s ) *( 1:40-2:00)  Ml(con't)  Module 2  M  01/24  Bullying  W  01/19  (40 minutes)  M  01/31  (40 minutes)  w  02/02  (20 minutes)  M  02/07  (40 minutes)  W  02/09  (20 minutes)  Lecture  Inquiry  M2(con't)  Mid-term Break  02/14-02/16  M2(con't)  M  02/21  Deans Lectin  W  02/23  (20 minutes)  M  02/28  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M2(con't)  Module 3  1128)  (win)  ePortfolio (Assessment) M  02/28  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M3(con't)  M  03/07  no session  W  03/09  (20 minutes)  M  03/14  (40 minutes)  W  03/16  (20 minutes)  M 3 (con't)  OI/I 9 tor time difference.  126  Appendix B Classroom Bookings: Group D Room Bookings Seeds of Possibility Afternoon Session  Date: 1 / 2 4 / 0 5 - 3 / 3 0 / 0 5 Day: M W Time: 1 0 a m - 4 p m Rooms : 1006 ( m a c ) . 1011 ( w i n ) , 1128 (36+seat r o o m )  Group D ( 2 : 4 0 - 3 : 1 0 ) ( 2 0 or 4 0 m i n u t e t i m e w i l l f a l l w i t h i n this t i m e slot) '(Please see o i / i 9 for time difference) Peter Bay ley  Marian Rosse  M  Ponderosa  121  W  Scarfe  203  M  Scarfe Scarfe  1023 1328  W  Module 1  Introduction 01/17  (40 minutes)  01/19  (20 minutes) (2:10  M  01/24  Bullying Lecture  W  01/19  (40 m i n u t e s )  M W  Ml(con't)  Module 2  Inquiry M  01/31  (40 m i n u t e s )  W  02/02  (20 minutes)  M  02/07  (40 minutes)  W  02/09  (20 m i n u t e s )  M2(con't)  Mid-term Break M2(con't)  02/14-02/16  M  02/21  Deans Lecture  W  02/23  (20 minutes)  M  02/28  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M2(con't)  Module 3  cPortfolio (Assessment) M  02/28  (40 minutes)  W  03/02  (20 minutes)  M3(con't) M  03/07  no session  W  03/09  (20 minutes)  M W  03/14  (40 minutes)  03/16  (20 minutes)  M 3 (con't)  127  A p p e n d i x C P r e Survey  Seeds of Possibility Pre-Course Survey Section A: Please circle your answer for each of the questions listed below: Age closest to  20  30  Gender  M  F  40  50  What computer system do you have at home  None Mac Windows Linux Other  What kind of computer do you have? None Laptop Desktop What is your home internet connectivity? None  High-speed with Telus/Shaw  High Speed Wireless  Dial-up  Where do you most frequently access the internet? Home University internet cafe library friend's house Other: Where did you learn your computer skills? (circle all that apply) Have none  Self-taught  High School  University  Workplace  Friends/Relatives  Other: Section B: Please indicate your degree of current competence for each of the activities listed below: Choose "None" if you have no knowledge of, or experience with, this task. Choose "Low" if you have some limited experience with the task, but are unsure of your ability to complete it unassisted. Choose "Medium" if you feel reasonably sure of your ability to complete this task. Choose "High" if you are sure of your ability to complete this task to the point that you could teach it to someone else.  r  Create or modify a spreadsheet document.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create or modify a database document.  None  Low  Medium  High  Make a backup copy of a computer file.  None •  Low  Medium  High  Create a folder or directory.  None  Low  Medium  High  Copy a file from one disk to another.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use a scanner to create a digital image.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use a digital camera to create an image on a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create a presentation e.g.: PowerPoint or SlideShow.  None  Low  Medium  High  Place an image or graphic into a document.  None  Low  Medium  High  Make a web bookmark or favorite.  None  Low  Medium  High  Do an advanced search with AND and OR operators  None  Low  Medium  High  Download files to your computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create or record your own music using a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Bum a CD.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use an FTP program to upload files.  None  Low  Medium  High  Save or use an image from a web page.  None  Low  Medium  High  Install an application or program onto a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Modify an image or graphic with the computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use advanced word processing features such as tables/templates. None  Low  Medium  High  Create a chart or graph with a spreadsheet program.  None  Low  Medium  High  Download a plug-in for your browser.  None  Low  Medium  High  Participate in an on-line discussion or newsgroup.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create and upload a web page on the World Wide Web.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create and use a biog or wiki.  None  Low  Medium  High  Seeds of Possibility Pre-Course Survey Page 1 of 4  128  Section C: How important do you think it is that you know or attain the following competencies in your teacher-education program? Create a document with a word processor. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Use advanced word processing features such as tables/templates. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Create/manipulate graphics or images with a computer. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Create a chart or graph with spreadsheet software. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Create a document with database software. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Create a presentation with presentation software. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Important  Very Important  Important  Very Important  Conduct research using the library. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Conduct research using the Internet. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Send or receive e-mail with an attachment Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Use a search engine to find useful information on the Web. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Download a file from the Internet or the Web. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Burn a CD . Not Important  Participate in an on-line discussion, forum, or bulletin board. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Create a web page and upload It to the World Wide Web. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Be able to integrate computers into your classroom lessons. Not Important  Somewhat Important  Important  Very Important  Section D: Should there be a required course on computer use in the Teacher Education Program? Yes No Should computers be Integrated on a regular basis into course instruction? Yes No What sort of computer support would you find most helpful? Onsite Help Desk remote help desk—phone/email  peer tutorials  online tutorials  workshops  As a student, to which of these services do you feel the university should provide ready access ? (check all that apply) Computers printers e-mail computer lessons web access basic software technical assistance  specialist software  Seeds of Possibility Pre-Course Survey  Page 2 of 4  129  Section E: As a prospective teacher, indicate your level of agreement with these sentences: I am interested in learning more about how to use technology in the classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to use the Internet as an instructional resource. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  New technologies have a positive effect in transforming instruction. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to teach computer skills in my future classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  The use of technology promotes student-centred learning. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to use educational software in my classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I understand the ethical issues involved in using technology in the classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  It's not really important for teachers to know how to use technology. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Integrating the use of technology across subjects maximizes student learning. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I think that there is too much emphasis on using technology in the classrooom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I feel competent in using technology in my classroom in a meaningful manner. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I do not plan to use technology in my future classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to use technology for assessment and evaluation in my classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to use multimedia to explore different ways to represent concepts. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  / am going to write extra comments  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  on the next page.  No  Yes  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey!  Seeds of Possibility Pre-Course Survey  Page 3 of 4  130 Feel free to leave additional comments here.  Seeds of Possibility Pre-Course Survey  Page 4 of 4  Appendix D Post Survey  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey Section A: Please circle your answer for each of the questions listed below: Age closest to  20  30  Gender  M  F  40  50  What computer system do you have at home  None Mac Windows Linux Other  What kind of computer do you have? None Laptop Desktop What is your home internet connectivity? None  High-speed with Teius/Shaw High Speed Wireless Dial-up  Where do you most frequently access the internet? Home University internet cafe library friend's house Other: Where did you learn your computer skills? (circle all that apply) Have none  Self-taught  High School University  Workplace Friends/Relatives  Other: Section B: Please indicate your degree of current competence for each of the activities listed below: Choose "None" if you have no knowledge of, or experience with, this task. Choose "Low" if you have some limited experience with the task, but are unsure of your ability to complete it unassisted. Choose "Medium" if you feel reasonably sure of your ability to complete this task. Choose "High" if you are sure of your ability to complete this task to the point that you could teach it to someone else. Create or modify a spreadsheet document.  None  Create or modify a database document  None  Low Low  Medium Medium  High High  Make a backup copy of a computer file. Create a folder or directory.  None  Low  Medium  High  None  Low  Medium  High  Copy a file from one disk to another.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use a scanner to create a digital image.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use a digital camera to create an image on a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create a presentation e.g.: PowerPoint or SlideShow.  None  Low  Medium  High  Place an image or graphic into a document  None  Low  Medium  High  Make a web bookmark or favorite.  None  Low  Medium  High  Do an advanced search with AND and OR operators  None  Low  Medium  High  Download files to your computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Create or record your own music using a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Burn a CD.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use an FTP program to upload files.  None  Low  Medium  High  Save or use an image from a web page.  None  Low  Medium  High  Install an application or program onto a computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Modify an image or graphic with the computer.  None  Low  Medium  High  Use advanced word processing features such as tables/templates. None Create a chart or graph with a spreadsheet program. None  Low Low  Medium Medium  High  Download a plug-in for your browser.  High  None  Low  Medium  High  Participate in an on-line discussion or newsgroup. Create and upload a web page on the World Wide Web.  None None  Low Low  Medium Medium  High High  Create and use a blog or wiki.  None  Low  Medium  High  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  Page 1 of 6  132 Section C : A s part of your teacher-education program C O U R S E W O R K , how frequently did y o u : Create new graphics or Images using graphics software? N/A  Never  Create a chart or graph with spreadsheet software? Burn a CD?  N/A  N/A  Use the internet to obtain teaching resources? N/A  Never Never  A Few Times  Never  A Few Times  A Few Times  Create lessons that incorporate subject-specific software? N/A  Never  Weekly  A Few Times Weekly Weekly  Daily  Weekly  Daily  Daily Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily Create lessons that incorporate simulation software? N/A Create or record your own  Never  music using a computer. N/A  Create or modify a spreadsheet document N/A  Never  Never  Never  M a k e a backup copy of a computer file. N/A Create a folder or directory. N/A  Never  Use a scanner to create a digital image. N/A  Never Never  Never  A Few Times Weekly  Place an m i age or graphic into a document. N/A  Never  Weekly  Daily  Daily  Weekly  A Few Times  PowerPoint or SldeShow. N/A  Daily  Daily  Daily  Daily  Use a digital camera to create an m i age on a computer. N/A Create a presentation e.g.:  Weekly  Daily  Weekly  Weekly  A Few Times  A Few Times  A Few Times  Weekly  A Few Times  A Few Times  Do an advanced search with AND and OR operators. N/A Create or modify a database document N/A  A Few Times  Weekly  Never  Never  Daily  A Few Times  A Few Times  A Few Times  Weekly  M a k e a web bookmark or favorite. N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Downo l ad files to your computer. N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Create lessons using presentation software (e.g., PowerPoint)? N/A  Never  Weekly  Weekly  Daily  Daily  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily Create lessons incorporating student use of digital video, graphics or sound editors? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Use software to maintain student grades? N/A  Weekly  Never  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Introduce a new approach to technology to your school or faculty advisor? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Use email to communc i ate with your faculty advisor? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Use email to communc i ate with your school advisor? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Use email to communc i ate with your students or their parents? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily Participate in on-line discussions related to your education program? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Participate in a school or district technology workshop? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Section D: A s part of your teacher-education program PRACTICUM, how frequently did you: Create new graphics or m i ages using graphics software? N/A Create a chart or graph with spreadsheet software? Burn a CD?  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  N/A  Never N/A  Never  A Few Times  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  A Few Times Weekly  Daily  Weekly  Daily  Page 2 of 6  Daily  133  U s e the i n t e r n e t to o b t a i n t e a c h i n g r e s o u r c e s ?  N/A  Never  C r e a t e l e s s o n s that i n c o r p o r a t e s u b j e c t - s p e c i f i c s o f t w a r e ?  A Few Times N/A  Never  Weekly  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily C r e a t e l e s s o n s that i n c o r p o r a t e s i m u l a t i o n s o f t w a r e ? Create or record y o u r own music using a computer. Create or modify a spreadsheet document.  N/A  N/A  Never  N/A  Never  Never  Do an a d v a n c e d search with A N D and O R operators.  A Few Times  N/A  Never  Create or modify a database document.  N/A  Never  A Few Times  M a k e a b a c k u p c o p y o f a c o m p u t e r file.  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Create a folder or directory.  N/A  Never  U s e a s c a n n e r to c r e a t e a d i g i t a l i m a g e .  A Few Times N/A  Never  P l a c e a n i m a g e o r g r a p h i c into a d o c u m e n t .  N/A  Weekly  N/A  Never  Never  Weekly  Daily Daily  Daily Weekly  Weekly  Daily  Weekly  Daily  Daily  Daily Weekly  Never  N/A  Weekly Weekly  A Few Times  A Few Times  U s e a d i g i t a l c a m e r a to c r e a t e a n i m a g e o n a c o m p u t e r . Create a presentation e.g.: P o w e r P o i n t or S l i d e S h o w .  A Few Times A Few Times  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  A Few Times  A Few Times  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  D o w n l o a d f i l e s to y o u r c o m p u t e r .  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  C r e a t e l e s s o n s u s i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t w a r e (e.g., P o w e r P o i n t ) ? N/A  Weekly  Weekly  M a k e a w e b b o o k m a r k o r favorite.  Never  Daily Daily  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Create l e s s o n s incorporating student use of digital video, g r a p h i c s or s o u n d editors?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  U s e s o f t w a r e to m a i n t a i n s t u d e n t g r a d e s ?  N/A  Weekly  Never  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  I n t r o d u c e a n e w a p p r o a c h to t e c h n o l o g y to y o u r s c h o o l o r faculty a d v i s o r ?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  U s e e m a i l to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h y o u r f a c u l t y a d v i s o r ?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  U s e e m a i l to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h y o u r s c h o o l a d v i s o r ?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  U s e e m a i l to c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h y o u r s t u d e n t s o r t h e i r p a r e n t s ?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  P a r t i c i p a t e in o n - l i n e d i s c u s s i o n s related to y o u r e d u c a t i o n program?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  P a r t i c i p a t e in a s c h o o l o r d i s t r i c t t e c h n o l o g y w o r k s h o p ?  N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  Section E: A s part of your practicum, h o w frequently did you have v o u r students: U s e w o r d p r o c e s s i n g p r o g r a m s to c o m p l e t e w r i t t e n w o r k ? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily U s e the i n t e r n e t f o r r e s e a r c h ? N/A  Never  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily  U s e m u l t i m e d i a s o f t w a r e w i t h a n i m a t i o n , s o u n d , g r a p h i c s a n d / o r v i d e o ? N/A Weekly  Never  A Few Times  Daily  C r e a t e w e b p a g e s ? N/A  .Never  A Few Times  U s e e d u c a t i o n a l C D - R O M s ? N/A  Never  Weekly  A Few Times  U s e e m a i l to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s ? N/A  Never  Daily Weekly  Daily  A Few Times  U s e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t w a r e s u c h a s P o w e r P o i n t o r S l i d e s h o w ? N/A  Never  Weekly  Daily  A Few Times  Weekly  Daily P a r t i c i p a t e in o n - l i n e i n t e r a c t i v e p r o j e c t s w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s ( e x c l u d i n g e m a i l ) ? Times  Weekly  N/A  Never  A Few  Daily  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  Page 3 of 6  Daily  134 Section F: Indicate your level of agreement with the following statements: Males are more comfortable using information technology than are females. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Teachers should advocate less corporate involvement related to information technology in s c h o o l s . Don't K n o w  Strongly D i s a g r e e  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  My practicum school provided teachers with adequate means to use information technology in instruction.  Don't K n o w  Strongly D i s a g r e e  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  My practicum school provided teachers with adequate means to use information technology for professional development. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Females are less likely to use information technology while teaching than males. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Female students have less access to information technology within the school environment than do males. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  The World Wide Web advances gender and racial equity. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Information technologies are just tools. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Significant electronic game playing (i.e., 2 hrs+ per day) promotes hyperactive, aggressive behaviour.  Don't K n o w  Strongly D i s a g r e e  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Online courses improve the learning process and outcomes for students who are unsuccessful In traditional educational systems. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Online distance education courses reduce employment opportunities for teachers.  Don't K n o w  Strongly D i s a g r e e  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Internet access at home is essential to education for North American school-age students. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Males are less concerned with the implications of information technology than are females. Don't K n o w  Strongly D i s a g r e e  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  Section G: As a prospective teacher, indicate your level of agreement with these sentences: I am interested in learning more about how to use technology in the classroom. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to use the Internet as an Instructional resource. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  New technologies have a positive effect in transforming instruction. Don't K n o w  Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly A g r e e  I would like to teach computer skills in my future classroom.  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  Page 4 of 6  135  Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  The use of technology promotes student-centred learning. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  I would like to use educational software in my classroom. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  I understand the ethical issues involved in using technology in the classroom. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly Agree  It's not really important for teachers to know how to use technology. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  Integrating the use of technology across subjects maximizes student learning. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  I think that there is too much emphasis on using technology in the classrooom. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  I feel competent in using technology in my classroom in a meaningful manner. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I do not plan to use technology in my future classroom. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree  Agree  Strongly Agree  I would like to use technology for assessment and evaluation in my classroom. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  I would like to use multimedia to explore different ways to represent concepts. Don't Know Strongly Disagree  Disagree Agree  Strongly Agree  / am going to write extra comments on the next page. N o Yes  Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey!  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  Page 5 of 6  136 Feel free to leave additional comments here.  Seeds of Possibility Post-Course Survey  Page 6 of 6  

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