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Melodic introspections : the life and cultural landscape of Srul Irving Glick as reflected in his composition… Hopper, Deborah C. S. 2005

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MELODIC INTROSPECTIONS: T H E LIFE A N D C U L T U R A L L A N D S C A P E OF SRUL IRVING G L I C K A S R E F L E C T E D I N HIS C O M P O S I T I O N " O L D T O R O N T O K L E Z M E R S U I T E "  by  D E B O R A H C S . HOPPER B . S c , The University o f British Columbia, 2002  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS F O R THE D E G R E E OF  M A S T E R OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (RELIGIOUS STUDIES)  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A August 2005  © Deborah C S . Hopper, 2005  11  Abstract  Srul Irving Glick was one o f Canada's most brilliant and prolific composers o f the late twentieth century. Born and raised within the Toronto Jewish community, G l i c k was surrounded by a myriad o f musical influences from his father's work as a cantor to his brother's career as a professional clarinetist. Although G l i c k struggled early in his life with his identity as a Jew, he ultimately accepted and embraced his heritage. In his 1998 composition " O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite" G l i c k achieves a seamless blending o f his Jewish and art music backgrounds creating a rich score filled with meaning. Through a historical, musical and autobiographical analysis o f his composition this thesis attempts to show the ways G l i c k has negotiated identity within his music, and how, by reevaluating his own preconceptions, he was able to expand the boundaries o f Jewish and Canadian composition.  Ill  Table of Contents  Abstract  ii  Table o f Contents  iii  List o f Figures  iv  Acknowledgements  v  Chapter I - Prelude: Investigating Canadian Jewish Culture through M u s i c  1  Chapter II - Composition of a Life: The Personal and Professional Development O f S r u l Irving Glick  12  Chapter III - The Musical and Cultural Foundations o f the " O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite"  29  Chapter IV - Finding Autobiography in Musical Terms  57  Chapter V - Conclusion: The Synthesis o f Srul Irving G l i c k  70  Bibliography  74  iv  List of Figures  Figure 3.1: The Five Yiddish Shtejger usually found in Jewish liturgical and folk music  43  Figure 3.2: Transposed Adoshem Malak Shtejger  46  Figure 3.3: Glick's Modified Adoshem Malak Shtejger  46  Figure 3.4: Glick's Pentatonic Scale  49  Figure 3.5: The use of minor thirds in Glick's fourth movement  49  Figure 3.6: The use of the 'Fanfare Motif in Glick's fourth movement  49  Figure 3.7: Recurring thematic motive in three of the four movements in Glick's Suite  52  Figure 3.8: "Oom Pah" pattern in Glick's fourth movement  53  Figure 3.9: Subverted bulgar rhythm in Glick's fourth movement  53  Acknowledgements  Few tasks truly worth accomplishing come without immense investments o f time and energy. Moreover, the nature o f such worthwhile tasks often necessitate the generous support o f our friends, family and colleagues in a manner o f collateral effort for which there can never be true repayment. The selflessness o f one's supporters requires no recompense and yet must be acknowledged as the true foundation o f any important undertaking. While I work within a medium which centers on the ability to communicate effectively, I am unable to adequately elucidate the gratitude I have for my ever expanding web o f helpers and well-wishers. Despite this, I must single out a few notable individuals. First, I would like to thank Betty and Irv N i t k i n for their openness, generosity and encouragement.  Y o u are an exceptional pair! I would also like to  acknowledge the general interest and hospitality o f the Vancouver Jewish community. I could not have gained so much without your willingness to teach. M y deepest gratitude goes to my faculty advisor, Dr. Richard Menkis, for planting the seed for this thesis. Your patience and intellect have been invaluable assets, as has your unending ability to challenge me personally and professionally. Thank you to Dr. Robert Cousland for your unwavering support, and to Dr. Robert Daum for introducing me to the infinite possibilities o f interpretation and Jewish legal philosophy. M y deepest gratitude goes to my defense committee members, Dr. Daphna Arbel and D r . David Creese, for their time and guidance.  vi  To Lt. Commander David Scott Martin and the crew o f the H M C S Nanaimo, a note to remember - even y ' a l l can't k i l l Beethoven. Thanks for keeping me grounded, so to speak. Finally, to my friends and family, you are my heart and soul. Y o u have been there through fits and fury, side-splitting laughter, intense love and deepest despair. We are entwined eternally.  I dedicate this thesis to A l e c John Hopper who has gone ahead to pave the way. Y o u always believed in the importance o f education and service. I listened on both counts, following your lead on one path and forging ahead on another. I miss you.  Deborah  1 Chapter I Prelude: Investigating Canadian Jewish Culture through Music  It is often sarcastically noted that composers, like artists, only gain great fame after they're dead. While this is not necessarily true, it is often the case that academic investigation is not begun on a composer's work until his or her death as seems to be the case with Canadian art music composer Srul Irving Glick. While short biographies in encyclopedias exist, they present a static, simplistic portrait of a complex, multi-faceted 1  individual which belies the openness in which he presented himself when interviewed. Moreover, little academic analysis has been completed on Glick's work beyond a few critiques of some of his compositions found in newspaper and journal articles. The one exception is a dissertation written by George Evelyn for the final concert-lecture series of his Doctorate of Musical Arts program for North Texas State University. In this work, Evelyn presents a short background and analysis of Glick's song cycle i never saw another butterfly, which centers on poems written by children in the Terezin concentration camp. The first five pages of this text outline the context in which the poetry was written, and provide a brief background for each poem. Evelyn then presents a couple of paragraphs regarding Glick's life and the commissioning of the song cycle before moving into an analysis of the music. In addition to many other musical elements present in this song cycle, Evelyn notes the use of Jewish modes and chant rhythms in  ' Standard biographies are available through sources such as The "New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001), Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (1992), Compositeurs Canadiens Contemporains (1977) and the Srul Irving Glick website www.srulirving George E. Evelyn, Words. Music and Ethnic Elements in Srul-lrving Glick's "I never saw another butterfly," A Lecture Recital (North Texas State University: D.M.A. Dissertation, 1981). This dissertation is 20 pages in length with an additional 10 page appendix. 2  2  parts o f the composition. While not an extensive investigation, Evelyn's dissertation provides a point o f comparison for other investigations o f Glide's compositions and w i l l be used as such in the ensuing chapters. Srul Irving G l i c k was born and raised in Toronto, Ontario. The child o f Jewish immigrants, G l i c k struggled throughout his youth to reconcile his identity as a Canadian with his identity as a Jew. Yet, "Canada's characteristic o f 'limited identities' has allowed room for ethnic expression that is seen.. .as legitimate and worthy i n a nation without a pronounced single national personality."  Thus, as I hope to show in this  thesis, G l i c k was able to adopt this multi-ethnic Canadian mentality to bring together the different aspects o f his life into a unified form. Unlike most o f his Jewish predecessors, and many o f his contemporaries, he developed a compositional style that merged Western European and Jewish idioms into a form all his own. H i s lyrical and openly emotional style ultimately elevated him to prominence in the world o f Canadian composition, and has made him extremely popular in Eastern Canada. Yet, his popularity and acceptance were, as w i l l be seen in the following chapters, hard won. The central purpose o f the following thesis is to investigate, through an analysis of his composition O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, the ways in which G l i c k negotiates identity and community. I w i l l attempt to show how this Jewish-Canadian composer negotiated the borders o f Western art music and Jewish music in his suite. Completed less than five years before his death, this piece is said to be a tribute to the Jewish community o f G l i c k ' s childhood. Therefore, through historical, auto/biographical and musical analysis, I w i l l attempt to illustrate the autobiographical influences that exist in  Gerald Tulchinsky, Branching Out: The Transformation of the Canadian Jewish Community (Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Co., 1998) xxii.  3  this composition. In this way, I will show the balance Glick was able to achieve between the two cultural influences in his life, and how this balance was ultimately reflected in his music. The study of Jewish music is an area of academic interest that is only just opening up. While a select few scholars, such as A . Z . Idelsohn, were investigating the topic 4  early in the twentieth century, it is not until the 1970s that the field began to gain ground. Just prior to this time, ethnomusicology too was beginning to rise as a serious field of study within music. The roots of ethnomusicology date back to the 1880s and early 1900s when primitivism was the popular trend in art and music. The uniqueness or exotic nature of the area was of utmost importance in ethnomusicology during this period, not the process of study. It was not until the late 1950s that new theories began entering the field resulting in the concept of ethnomusicology as the study of music within a culture, any culture. It is, therefore, unsurprising that there would be a rise in 5  the study of Jewish music in the wake of these developments. During the 1970s and 1980s, scholar Mark Slobin completed pioneering work in the area of Jewish music in the United States of America. His work on American cantillation and the klezmer revival was groundbreaking and serves as a starting point for any scholar entering the field of North American Jewish music. Through his various books, Slobin tracks the arrival of both Jewish liturgical and folk music in the United States which was brought by the waves of immigrants who settled in the 'New World'  A.Z. Idelsohn did early work in Jewish liturgy and cantillation (the chanting of texts in which music plays a great role). His work is quoted by most North American scholars working in the field of Jewish music. Alan Merriam, The Anthropology of Music (Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1964) 3-6. While Marius Schneider and Bruno Nettl still defined ethnomusicology in terms .of European and nonEuropean, scholars such as Willard Rhodes, Mantle Hood and Gilbert Chase began to view the differences between musicology and ethnomusicology as more methodological than geographical.  4  5  4 throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He shows that, while Jewish liturgical chant and music flourished, by the m i d twentieth century the Jewish folk tradition in the United States was waning. American born Jews wished to move away from the ' O l d W o r l d ' traditions to which their parents clung.  6  Then, in the 1970s, a renewed interest in  Jewish folk music emerged resulting i n the revival o f klezmer in the U S A . Slobin asserts that the musical patterns seen in the U S A are universal to North A m e r i c a ; however, the majority o f the research completed to date has been performed in 7  the Eastern United States.  Equivalent research has yet to be done i n Canada.  A s Gerald  Tulchinsky notes, the social and political history o f the two countries is distinct, and thus the patterns o f development for the two Jewish communities are also divergent.  10  Moreover, the religious demographics o f Jews in the two countries have been quite different. Studies o f the Jewish populations in Canada and the United States in the early 1990s show that the percentage o f the Jewish population in Canada that is Orthodox is twice that o f the United States, while the reverse is true for Reform Judaism. Conversely, approximately one-third o f the Jewish population in both the United States and Canada  Mark Kligman, "Contemporary Jewish Music in America" American Jewish Year Book (2001) 94-95. Mark Slobin notes, in his conclusion to Chosen Voices: The Story of the American Cantorate (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989) 284, that the development of the Klezmer revival in the United States was the same in Canada. He bases this statement on a few conversations with Klezmer musicians originally from or currently living in Canada, but presents no data, sources or interview information to support such a conclusion.  6  7  Another scholar, Ellen Koskoff, entered the field of American-Jewish music during her graduate studies in the United States. Her book on Lubuvitch musical practices, Music in Lubavitcher Life (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000), not only illuminates the world of niggunim performance and development, but also elucidates the complications of the community insiders and outsiders, personal preconceptions, and gender issues and roles in ethnomusicology fieldwork. Moreover, scholars such as Kenneth Kanter, Mark Kligman, Henry Sapoznik and Jeffery Summitt have also written on twentieth century Jewish music in America. 8  As Clifford Ford notes in his 1982 history of Canada's music, research into Canadian music between World War II and the early 1980s has been extremely deficient partly due to the lack of graduate degrees in musicology until the mid 1950s. Clifford Ford, Canada's Music: An Historical Survey (Ontario: G L C Publishers Ltd., 1982) 178-79. Gerald Tulchinsky, Taking Root: The Origins of the Canadian Jewish Community (Toronto: Lester Publishing Ltd., 1992) xxv.  9  1 0  5  practices Conservative Judaism.  11  A s a result, it seems inappropriate to draw conclusions  about Jewish music and identity in Canada when there is little empirical data to buttress such statements. Research on Jewish music occurring outside North America has also seen a rise in interest in recent years. Biro  1 5  12  Scholars such as E d w i n Seroussi, Ruth D a v i s 13  14  and Daniel  have been breaking ground in Europe and the Near East. Yet, despite the rapidly  increasing interest i n the study o f Jewish music in its varied forms, the field possesses vast areas which are, as yet, largely uninvestigated. One relatively pristine region is that o f Jewish music in Canada. The study o f Canadian Jewish music could take many forms: investigations o f historical practices; ethnographic studies o f current practices; or analyses o f current Jewish composers, to name a few. It is into this last category that this thesis falls. While it is important in an ever changing medium such as music creation to know where a community has been and to speculate where it is going, it is equally important to examine the ways in which individuals negotiate their cultural background and how this has the potential to shape future creations. For example, this thesis w i l l show how, while Jewish folk traditions in the United States were floundering, G l i c k was carrying these " Jay Brodbar-Nemzer et ai, "Overview of the Canadian Jewish Community" The Jews in Canada Robert Brym ed. (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1993) 43. Current academics like Frank Alvarez-Pereyre, Hanoch Avenary, Irene Heskes, Ezra Mendelsohn, Israel Rabinovitch, Abraham Schwadron and Amnon Shiloah have followed in Idelsohn's footsteps focusing on historical investigations of Jewish music. Edwin Seroussi works with the Institute of Jewish Music at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Through hisfieldworkand use of the extensive archives at the Institute, Seroussi has been working both broadly in the field of Jewish music writing encyclopedia articles and texts, as well as specifically in the area of Sephardic music. Ruth Davis is part of the Faculty of Music at Cambridge. She has done ethnographic work on Jewish music among the Jewish community of the Tunisian Island of Djerba. Her articles have appeared in the Middle East volume of the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. She is currently conducting research at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Daniel Biro is a professor of theory and composition at the University of Victoria. In 2004, he completed his Ph.D. with a comparative study of plainchant, Hebrew cantillation and Hungarian Siratok. 12  13  14  15  6  traditions forward, first through the act o f learning, then through memory, and finally through re-presentation o f the tradition in his music. In this way, G l i c k presents a different pattern than that laid out by S l o b i n .  16  In writing this thesis, I hope to illuminate a rich field o f study currently neglected, that o f Canadian composition. Specific to Canadian Jewish studies, this study w i l l show the need for investigation into the state and development o f Jewish music in Canada currently and historically. B y completing research into the historical development o f Jewish music i n Canada, comparisons with patterns found in the United States would be possible. O n a broader spectrum, Canada's immense ethnic diversity combined with a multi-cultural mentality has great potential for Canadian composition. The possible idiomatic combinations are vast. Moreover, analysis o f the style a composer adopts, and the ways in which he combines traditions could provide valuable insight into the way that composer views his own heritage and the culture o f the greater Canadian community. Beyond any personal information this might provide about the composer, it may also provide a window into the viewpoint o f the composer's cultural community. In the analysis o f G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, I w i l l dissect some o f the idioms present and indicate the cultural issues reflected in such a representation. Undertaking this type o f analysis has resulted in several areas o f methodological concern. There are the complications involved when one attempts to do musical analysis on music containing specific ethnic characteristics. H o w does one determine which characteristics o f G l i c k ' s music are or are not Jewish? O n a more basic level, how does  In Mark Slobin's Fiddler on the Move: Exploring the Klezmer World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), it is shown that the Eastern European folk tradition was largely lost, and only rediscovered and revived through recordings made of the early twentieth century immigrants. Conversely, Glick presents a pattern of ongoing remembrance which transports itself through time, re-emerging in traditional and newly adapted forms. 16  7  one determine what constitutes Jewish music? The Jewish people have become dispersed around the world and have had to adapt to this dispersion. In doing so, they have integrated aspects of surrounding cultures into their own cultural make-up. As a result, Jews living in Russian areas, for example, have developed traditions and social patterns distinctly different from those in regions of Spain. Religious rituals, culinary practices, language patterns and musical conventions are only a few of the characteristics that range widely throughout the world's Jewish communities. How, then, does one determine the 'Jewishness' or Yidishkayt of a musical composition? To begin, it has been suggested that one look to the commonalities between Jewish communities. The Jewish people, arguably, are seen as a people of books. The secular and religious lives of many communities are bound together through the teachings and wisdom found in their sacred and, in the case of Rabbinic Judaism, legal texts.  17  These writings provide the structural foundations to the culture regardless of regional variation. The individuality of Jewish culture is ".. .reflective, ritually and spiritually bound to the biblical past.. . " ' In this way, there is a commonality among all Jewish 8  people. Moreover, while regional differences complicate analysis and classification, it is these differences which, in fact, may act as a means of cultural cohesion. Despite facing immense hardships, the Jewish people possess the ability to adapt to and endure in the surrounding cultural majority without losing all distinctiveness. "The ability of the Jew to survive and thrive in the face of the vicissitudes of apostasy.. .on the one hand, and his  Rabbinic Judaism developed in the first few centuries of the common era, in part as a response to the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. However, not all Jewish communities follow Rabbinic traditions, though non-Rabbinic communities are rare today. All Jewish communities recognize the authority of the Torah, thereby unifying them to some degree. ' Abraham Schwadron, "On Jewish Music," Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, ed. Elizabeth May (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980) 284. 17  8  8 constant struggle between rationalism and mysticism, on the other, points up the significance, however controversial, of compromise."  19  Finally, the distinctiveness of  Jewish culture gains its strength in the individual Jew's possession of a universal identification with and connection to other Jews throughout the world. Though often the most difficult to prove, the purest bond is one that is internalized. Though the rationalization may or may not be based in empirical data, that which the Jewish community accepts as being Jewish in nature must be conceded as there is little argument one can make against such a belief. Throughout the course of this thesis, I will attempt to show the connections between Glick's early exposure to Western classical, Jewish liturgical and Jewish folk music and the varying aspects of his composition. Moreover, I will outline the cultural significance of the suite's themes in the Toronto Jewish community. Finally, I will show the level of prominence and acceptance Glick obtained both within the Canadian music world and in the Jewish community of Toronto, which would have solidified his position as a composer of Jewish music. The next methodological problem, admittedly well connected with the first, arises in the way in which the music will be discussed in connection with culture. Debate continues regarding the way to deal with music. Should music be studied as a microcosm of culture whereby the musical system replicates the complete social and cultural system? Should music be considered a commentary on the culture existing in some way outside the culture as a reflection of that culture? Or, should music be regarded as one of various  19  Schwadron, 285.  9  activities performed within a society and thus an integral, functioning part of culture?  20  Little progress has been made in this debate, due in large part to the complexity of the arguments. This last issue is of distinct interest as it is often difficult to determine whether or not one should analyze music as an internal or external part of culture. Historically, music has often been regarded as an entity separate from culture. Usually seen as divinely inspired, the day-to-day life and ethnic origins of musicians and composers were of no influence in the creation of music.  21  At most, music was seen as  occasionally reflecting the culture of the day. Despite the rising influence of anthropology and ethnomusicology today, many musicologists still view music in this way. It is often simpler, though not necessarily better, to see music as some form of reflection of or commentary on a specific culture rather than attempting to investigate music as a fully integrated part of culture. There are certainly cultural influences which inform the creation and performance of music; however, the great complexities of this situation are often extremely difficult to elucidate. Possibly part of the complication today is that cultures are becoming so intermingled that it is difficult to determine where cultural borders lie. It is the primary premise of this investigation that the cultural influences of Glick's youth have informed the compositions of his maturity. I will therefore attempt to show that this suite was created within the cultural shadow of the Toronto Jewish community, and that it in some small way functions in that community.  Bruno Nettl, "Ethnomusicology: Definitions, Directions, and Problems" Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, Elizabeth May ed. (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980) 6. To clarify, the ethnicity was unimportant in Western art music as long as the individual was considered to be of European, Christian descent, a category in which the Jews did not fit. 21  10 The final area o f concern exists within the bounds o f auto/biography theory. What characteristics must be present in order to determine whether or not a text is autobiographical? Moreover, is it even possible to define a musical composition in this way? These questions raise many more, dealing with concepts o f communication, audience, intent etc. In chapter I V , I hope to show that, while it may not be possible to definitively classify G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite as an autobiography, this composition has definite autobiographical traits which may be recognized by both performers and a concert audience. There are several questions which seem to arise at the outset o f any investigation of an autobiographical genre. What does the author include in and exclude from his text? What might his motivations have been for these choices?  22  What was the author  attempting to convey with this text and, possibly more important, what understanding does the reader gain from the text?  23  In looking at music such as O l d Toronto Klezmer  Suite, these same questions might be considered. Music, as with most literary compositions, is created with the intent o f it being received by an audience. The  Diane Bjorklund, Interpreting the Self: Two Hundred Years of American Autobiography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998) 20-23, 37, states that autobiographers are purposefully creating a construction of their lives by selecting specific experiences that they weave together into an intelligible story. This is a conscious act of inclusion and exclusion which attempts to present a particular image that the audience will find both interesting and acceptable. Phillip Lejeune, "The Autobiography Contract," French Literary Theory Today (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982) 193, in considering autobiography, determined that the only condition for this genre was that there must be a common identity between the author, the narrator and the protagonist of the text. This identity presented by Lejeune, however, raises questions of intention as the crucial link between author, narrator and protagonist. For Roy Pascal, Design and Truth in Autobiography (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960) 60, 'intentionality' is dependent on the seriousness of the author and his goals, while Karl Weintraub, The Value of the Individual: Self and Circumstance in Autobiography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978) xviii, believed that the key was centered in the author's ability to create understanding and connections with the lives of his readers. Only if the reader could relate to the author's viewpoint was the author successful in the intention of creating autobiography. 2 2  2 3  11  audience is then left to interpret the composition as it w i l l .  2 4  A musical work has an  additional layer, however, as it is first interpreted by musicians so that the audience is, in fact, interpreting an interpretation. It is possibly for this reason, though undoubtedly not this reason alone, that musicologists are generally so focused on the importance o f the musical score, or text, as the only true conveyor o f meaning. While I do not wholly agree * *  25  with this positivist  26  approach, and tend to have more impressionistic  and neo-  27  functionalist  leanings, the majority o f this paper w i l l focus on 'text' analysis; I w i l l ,  however, also briefly look at recorded impressions o f both the composer and musicians o f this and other compositions by Glick.  This is a postmodern concept within musicology. Prior to postmodernism, music was typically divided into concepts o f the important high-culture (urban, stylized traditions) and unimportant low-culture (country, folk traditions). These designations were determined by members o f the social, academic and musical elite, and were not to be questioned by others. In postmodern thought, these designations have been broken down to some extent. Interpretation by an audience is now seen as a valid form o f interpretation. 1 4  Positivism, as used in musicology, sees the musical score and the notes themselves as the only source o f meaning. B y extension, the earlier the score (i.e. the closer to the original score written by the composer) the greater the authority o f that score. B y impressionistic, I am referring to those impressions created by the music in the minds o f the musicians and audience during a performance. Neo-functionalism looks at both the form and the structure o f the piece itself, as well as the functioning o f the piece within a social or cultural framework. It investigates the purpose o f the piece: how it is used, for what and by w h o m . 2 5  2 6  2 7  12  Chapter II Composition of a Life: The Personal and Professional Development of Srul Irving Glick  The world of Western art music has long been an exclusive club ruled by the elite men of the European music tradition. Not only did these musicians see themselves as artistically superior, but they were also reluctant to face the increased competition that would result from the introduction of outsiders into their ranks. Within this restrictive system, it was very difficult for individuals of non-Christian, European descent to gain prominence as performers or composers. The legacy of this mentality, especially with regards to Jewish musicians, has been felt through the twentieth century. Historically, Jewish musicians have often distanced themselves from the rest of the Jewish community in order to disguise their descent. Recently, however, this trend has begun changing and Jews have started maintaining their identity while working successfully in the circles of Western art music. One such musician was the twentieth century Jewish composer Srul Irving Glick who, according to friend and fellow composer Louis Applebaum, ".. .brought forth very moving works that draw inspiration from the Jewish scriptures in his choral and instrumental works, and who overtly celebrated his Jewishness in all his musical compositions"  in defiance of historical precedent.  Prior to the eighteenth century, daily life for the Jews of Europe was often difficult. Frequently forced to live in ghettos or shtetls (small Jewish villages), they were severely limited in their choice of profession through restrictive laws and the anti-Jewish  Walter Pitman, Louis Applebaum: A Passion for Culture (Toronto: The Dundurn Group, 2002) 33.  13 sentiment o f the largely Christian populace.  29  A s rulers changed and economic stability  shifted within Europe, anti-Jewish feelings and rhetoric would also change. Occasionally reaching a boiling point, public sentiment could quickly bring about violent uprisings against local Jewish communities.  Yet, as the effects o f the emancipation began to  spread throughout Europe, the integration and assimilation o f Jews into Western society also spread. To European Jews o f the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, entrance into high European musical culture was seen as both a means o f professional success and a •7 1  sign o f acceptance within Western culture.  A s a result, the nineteenth century saw a  great influx o f Jewish men into the realm o f professional musicians, composers and musicologists.  32  Wealthy Jewish families appreciated the universality o f music, and  often presided over musical soirees and salons. Moreover, musical education was greatly encouraged in all levels o f Jewish society, as the European music world was believed to hold " . . .the greatest prospects for successful acculturation and integration into European society."  33  However, the incursion o f Jews into European music was not accepted in all quarters. While nationalism was developing as the newest trend in composition through  Stanley Sadie Ed., "Jewish Music" New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Vol. 13 (New York: Macmillan Pub., 2001)92. For a summary of the history of European Jewry, see Lloyd Gartner's History of the Jews in Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001). While focused largely on the eighteenth century forward, the text provides an overview of earlier Jewish history in Europe. Within the context of this paper, I will only be discussing issues surrounding the Jewish presence in the world of Western art music. There were a great number of musicians and composers involved with Jewish liturgical and secular music; however, it is the interactions between the Jewish and non-Jewish musicians in Western art music that is of relevance to the argument here. Ezra Mendelsohn, "On the Jewish Presence in Nineteenth-Century European Musical Life." Studies in Contemporary Jewry 9 (1993) 4. Ibid., 6. It is also interesting to note that basic musical education was becoming standard in most middle and upper class households across Europe during this period. 3 0  31  3 2  33  14 the work o f such composers as Bela Bartok and Igor Stravinsky, Jewish musicians 34  focused on the concept o f music as the one universal language. This concept was appealing to a still largely marginalized group as it represented the dream o f building a society where a man's character defined him more than outward differences such as race 35  and religion.  Consequently, their compositions possessed an international quality that  led, in part, to the idea that Jews were incapable o f being truly creative artists. M a n y composers and critics believed that the rootlessness o f the Jewish people resulted in a lack o f cultural authenticity and creativity.  36  In other words, since the Jews lacked a  nation o f their own they were considered to be without a culturally distinct identity. Most attempts to compose in the style o f the nation in which they lived were seen as poor copies o f great composers created by unwelcome guests resulting in a general lack o f acceptance o f their work. This judgment was further reinforced by the separation o f the Jewish musicians from their own ethno-religious, cultural community. The desire to be accepted as full members o f society often resulted in expressions o f alienation from Judaism as a religion and created tension both within the Jewish community and between the Jewish and nonJewish communities.  In an attempt to reduce the influence o f anti-Semitism affecting  their careers many Jewish musicians distanced themselves from anything that appeared Jewish. Some converted to gain acceptance, while others avoided references to their While first emerging in the eighteenth century, nationalism developed most extensively in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Nationalism is characterized by the use of local folk music and idioms in Western art music compositions. As recording technology developed, ethnic music also became important to this trend. Donald Grout and Claude Palisca, A History of Western Music (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2001)644,680. Mendelsohn, p. 11. Ibid., 6-8. One illustration of these beliefs is Wagner's anti-Semitic essay Das Judentum in der Musik ("Judaism in Music"). David Schiller, Bloch, Schoenberg. and Bernstein: Assimilating Jewish Music (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) 168. Many Orthodox Jews viewed assimilated Jews as opportunists or traitors. Grout and Palisca, 93. 3 4  3 5  3 6  3 7  15  Jewish origins in their compositions either because they felt it was o f no consequence or because they believed it was something to be concealed.  Composers such as Felix  Mendelssohn (1809-47) and Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864), while successful composers o f European music for European audiences, were faced with the complications of assimilating to the world o f Western art m u s i c .  39  While Meyerbeer maintained his  Jewish identity, none o f his major stage works were based on Jewish motifs. Conversely, though aware o f his Jewish heritage through his grandparents, Mendelssohn lived as a practicing Lutheran.  40  A . Z . Idelsohn, an early scholar o f Jewish music, determined that  "Composers o f Jewish origin have i n their creations nothing o f the Jewish spirit; they are renegades or assimilants, and detest all Jewish cultural values."  41  This determination  included composers such as Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer. A s a result, there was often little in the works created and performed by these musicians which denoted anything specifically Jewish. The most famous settings o f Jewish liturgical and folksong motifs in this period were completed by gentile composers who possessed no concerns regarding the implications o f this material. For example, the most famous setting o f the Kol Nidre (a liturgical piece performed during the synagogue services on the eve o f Yom Kippur)  was composed by M a x Bruch, while many other non-  Jewish composers, such as Modest Mussorgsky and L u d w i g van Beethoven, worked with Jewish folk motives.  42  The early twentieth century saw the continuation o f these trends. The pressures o f assimilation continued to affect Jewish composers and musicians such that many Jewish  3 8 3 9  4 0  41 4 2  Mendelsohn, 8. Schiller, 3. Grout and Palisca, 94. A.Z. Idelsohn " M y Life (A Sketch)" Jewish Music Journal 2:2 (May-June, 1935) 10. Mendelsohn, 7. N.B. For a definition of Yom Kippur, see footnote 90.  16 composers again distanced themselves from overtly Jewish subjects. The early works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg (1874-1951) were largely uninvolved with Jewish topics. In M a r c h o f 1898, Schoenberg removed himself from Vienna's Jewish community registry and was baptized as a Protestant.  43  It was not until later in his life, after experiencing anti-  Semitism first-hand in 1923, that his music began to reflect his newly found interest in Zionism and other Jewish matters. Aaron Copland continued with the nationalistic trend that had developed in music in nineteenth and twentieth century Europe. Copland was also deeply affected by American nationalism. A s a result, he composed American music without Jewish content  44  Irving Berlin, often seen as the quintessential American-Jewish  songwriter, was an immigrant "...who quickly acclimated, [becoming] as ail-American as his song ' G o d Bless A m e r i c a ' . "  45  A s the century progressed, however, musicians and  composers began investigating these issues and challenging previously accepted assumptions. One such musician was the Canadian composer, Srul Irving G l i c k . Born on September 8, 1934, Srul Irving G l i c k grew up in the culturally diverse atmosphere o f the Toronto Jewish community. The Toronto Jewish community itself was growing dramatically. Between 1921 and 1931, it had increased from 34,770 to 46,751 respectively. Over the next decade, the population would rise by another 2,300 individuals  4 6  In addition to the religious and cultural mix present within the Jewish  community itself, Toronto neighborhoods such as the Kensington district also felt the  'Schiller, 168. William Benjamin, Jews and the Revolution in Music: Liberation and Loss. Lecture Series (Feb. 11 & 18, 2004). Kenneth Kanter, The Jews on Tin Pan Alley (New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1982) 196. Tulchinsky (1998) 17.  43  4 4  4 5  4 6  17  presence of Italian, Chinese and Ukranian immigrants, among others.  47  Srul's parents  had immigrated to Canada, settling in Toronto in 1924. H i s earliest introduction to music came through his family. While his older brother N o r m a n ,  49  a professional clarinetist, brought the world of Western classical music  into the Glick home, Srul was also introduced to the world of Jewish liturgical music through his father's cantorial work. A s a child, Srul often accompanied his father, a Russian-born cantor, to his work in various Toronto synagogues and was a member of his father's choir by the age of 11. It was also at this time that Srul joined the Labor Zionist youth group, H a b o n i m ,  50  where he learned hundreds of Eastern European Jewish folk  songs. They were passed down through oral transmission and the children learned them by rote as had so many generations before them.  51  Within a couple of years, G l i c k was in high school where he took a course on classical composers. The subject matter so intrigued the young man that, at age 15, he began taking piano lessons having made the decision to become a composer. In the next two years, Srul both graduated from high school and completed his grade eight practical  ' Ibid., 17. David Glick was born in Kishinev, Russia on April 15, 1898; died in Toronto on January 29, 1991. Clifford Ford and Robin Elliott "Srul Irving Glick" Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992)532. Ida Glick was born in Bessarabia on August 25, 1901; died in Toronto on January 15, 1997. Srul Irving Glick Old Toronto Klezmer Suite, score 1998, Simon Fraser University Library, Vancouver, title page. Born in Toronto on January 1, 1928. Ihud Habonim was founded in 1958. It is the Labor Zionist.movement's largest pioneering youth movement. In 1969, North America possessed 3,000 members aged 10-21 in twenty metropolitan branches and ten country-wide summer camps. The older members lead younger groups in programs on Jewish and Zionist history, Hebrew language and culture, scouting, work and collective living. Graduates of this program have been highly active in the establishment of kibbutzim in Israel. "Ihud Habonim" Encyclopedia Judaica columns 1240-42. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home," Canadian Composer 23 (November 1967) 38.  4  4 8  4 9  5 0  51  18  piano exam with the Royal Conservatory o f M u s i c , Toronto, the accepted national training program for young classical musicians at the time.  52  Early in his training and career, G l i c k had to deal with many o f the same concerns his predecessors in Europe had faced. A s he noted in a 1975 interview, "Whether we like it or not, there is still tremendous enmity towards Jews in the w o r l d . "  53  A t first, his  response as a composer reflected previous patterns, wherein he maintained a firm belief in music as an international, non-denominational language. His father's work as a cantor initially "...affected [him] ... because it turned [him] away from Judaism." " . . .wanted to be a universalist" in his compositions.  55  54  He  With these ideas firmly in mind,  G l i c k completed his Bachelors (1955) and Masters (1958) o f Music in theory and composition at the University o f Toronto.  56  Affiliated with the Royal Conservatory o f  M u s i c Toronto, the music department at the University o f Toronto maintained the conservative conventions o f Western art music training. Composers o f the baroque, classical and romantic periods were studied with emphasis placed on performance. While music theory and history were gaining importance, ethno-cultural influences on music development were generally ignored, just as they often are today. 57  Prior to W o r l d War II, most Canadian universities followed the British system in which music degrees at the .undergraduate and graduate levels were conferred only in the academic study o f compositional skills such as harmony and counterpoint. It was not  Ibid., 38. " A Composer's Contribution: Being Able to Say Something 'Particular'," Canadian Composer 103 (Sept. 1975)4. " A Composer's Contribution," 4. Ibid. K. MacMillan and J. Beckwith Ed., "Srul Irving Glick," Contemporary Canadian Composers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975) 87. Susan Spier and J. Paul Green, "University of Toronto," Encyclopedia of Music in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992) 1346. 5 2  53  5 4  55  5 6  5 7  19  until after the war that this began changing. It is only in 1954, one year before G l i c k earned his Bachelor degree, that the University o f Toronto began offering a Masters degree in musicology. Moreover, a Ph.D. in musicology (which studies the historical development o f music, but not the cultural influences on this development) was not  CO established until the 1960s.  Prior to this time, study o f music history and musicology  for performers and composers was generally viewed as " . . .mere window dressing, robbing students o f much needed time. Future professionals were in danger o f ending up with neither a liberal education nor sufficient technical competence."  59  A n understanding o f music history was considered superfluous, while the possibility o f cultural influence in the creation and development o f music was not yet universally accepted. Ethnic, culturally-based music, often referred to as folk music, was seen as musically inferior to the 'high music' o f the European art music tradition. Thus, any music Glick had studied with his father or under the auspices o f Habonim would have been seen by the Conservatory and the academic hierarchy as scholastically unimportant and unworthy o f intellectual consideration. Within this atmosphere o f cultural repression, new art composers like G l i c k had few options but to maintain Western traditions in order to be accepted. During the year following the completion o f his Masters degree, G l i c k was highly prolific, completing twelve preludes for piano, a trio for piano, clarinet and cello, and a Divertimento  Sextet.  The style o f these pieces, as Glick himself noted in a 1967 interview, was extremely traditional in keeping with the established pattern o f eschewing Jewish influences in an  Ford (1982) 177-178. Arnold Walter, Aspects of Music in Canada (Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1969) 252-253.  20  attempt to gain acceptance.  60  H i s early compositions thus showed few, i f any, indications  of his early musical training. Despite the conservative nature o f his music, it was not accepted within the Canadian music community. With a lack o f Canadian interest in his compositions, G l i c k went to Colorado in the summers (1958 and 1959) to work with Darius Milhaud who was teaching at an Aspen summer music school.  61  G l i c k reminisced:  I had no money - for four years I couldn't get a Canadian Council grant because the people on the board thought I had no talent, even with recommendations from Darius Milhaud and Nadia Boulanger.. 6 2  A s with so many Canadian composers at this time, Glick had little support within Canada. The Canadian League o f Composers was less than ten years o l d  6 3  and, with  commissions and publishing o f Canadian compositions infrequent, the League was occupied with arranging performances for Canadian music by established composers; consequently, the League had few resources left to help new composers gain 64  acceptance. Milhaud believed in G l i c k ' s inherent compositional talent and, when Milhaud returned to the Paris Conservatoire in France in the fall o f 1959, G l i c k followed in order to continue his studies. When he believed he was ready to move on from M i l h a u d ' s  "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home" 38. Darius Milhaud (1892-1974) produced a vast quantity of compositions in a wide range of forms. He was receptive to many forms of music from ragtime to Brazilian folk, blending these idioms into his own form rather than subscribing to any particular theory or system. Grout and Palisca, 700-701. This pattern would also be seen in Glick's work. " A Composer's Contribution" 6. The Canadian League of Composers was established in 1951 by John Weinzweig, Glick's original composition professor at the University of Toronto. MacMillan and Beckwith, 87. Over the next decade, Glick would not only firmly establish his position as a Canadian composer, but he would also ensure changes in the Leagues priorities. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home" 20. 51  6 2  6 3  6 4  21  tutelage, G l i c k began studying with Louis Saguer; however, when Saguer left Paris to go to Rome, G l i c k did not f o l l o w .  65  It was during these years working and studying abroad (1959-62) that G l i c k appears to have begun revising his desire to be a 'universalist' composer.  66  Through his  years o f study with these composers, G l i c k began to discover that he had to be true to 67  himself.  He learned a great deal through his work with other composers; however, most  importantly he learned to identify those things that cannot be taught. For example, when G l i c k asked M a x Deutsch, his third and final mentor in Paris, to teach him about twelvetone composition  68  Deutsch replied, " Y o u don't learn Twelve-tone technique; when  you're ready for it, you write it and i f you're not ready for it, you won't write i t . "  69  Essentially, G l i c k was learning that there are some things that may only be derived from the self. N o amount of training or practice can create talent, or as G l i c k would later put it, intellect.  70  M a x Deutsch worked with the young composer on musical concepts and analysis, showing G l i c k the importance of direction in composition. Never accepting payment for his time and effort, Deutsch worked extensively with G l i c k eventually convincing the " A Composer's Contribution" 6. Srul Irving Glick - Biography, As Arnold Walter notes, talented performers and composers were sent from Canada to Europe rather like raw materials, only brought back when they were deemed to be ready to contribute to Canadian musical life. Study in Europe was seen as a necessary step to completing one's musical education. Even as universities and conservatories in Canada improved, this belief was maintained for many years. Walter, 256-257. Glick himself only returned to Canada at the request and encouragement of his friend Louis Applebaum who believed that Canada was in great need of her young composers. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home," 20. Quote: "I can only be me." Ibid. Twelve-Tone composition is a complex compositional formula based on a predetermined sequence of tones. " A Composer's Contribution" 8. In an interview Glick stated that "...there are two parts to music: There's a man who has ideas, and there's a man who can express ideas. They are not always in the same person and it's tragic when that happens...I think it takes intellect to write from your heart. This is the point: You have to have a way to do it, to get it out." Ibid., 6. M  6 6  6 7  6 8  6 9  7 0  22  young man o f the importance o f being yourself. Thus, when G l i c k returned to Canada in 1962, he no longer felt the need to bow to convention. Throughout his time away, he had begun considering the deeper philosophy o f both his existence as a composer and his personal identity as a Jew. He questioned, as did so many composers o f the twentieth century, what it meant to attempt to compose music in a world so filled with poverty, fear and violence. He also investigated the abstract nature o f music as an art form. While some composers chose to stop writing music in light o f these disturbing reflections, G l i c k concluded that " M u s i c should be an expression o f your indication that life is an affirmative force" going beyond the darkness o f everyday life.  71  Through endlessly  testing new materials and motives, he could decide whether or not the ideas held truth for him. G l i c k noted i n an interview that he did not want to write music that did not possess beauty, but that he used harshness as a contrast that could evolve into other things.  72  These investigations also led Glick to resolve many issues surrounding his identity as a Jew. He ultimately concluded that his " . . .roots, as a Jew, were deeper than [his] desire to be a composer in the universal sense."  73  I looked at Judaism very carefully, and not prejudicially, and I found that I don 7 have to be inferior, it is one o f the most glorious cultural and philosophical and creative traditions the world has ever known. So I had to work through that personal fear in myself. 74  B y accepting his cultural roots, G l i c k was able to begin incorporating the two branches o f his identity into his work: that o f a Canadian art music composer as well as a Jewish  71  72  73  74  Ibid., 6. Ibid. Ibid., 4. Ibid. Italics presented as found in the original article.  23  composer. ° The cantorial tradition his father introduced to him as a child began to reassert itself, as did the Jewish folk idioms he learned as a child with H a b o n i m .  76  These  musical dialects had sufficiently infused themselves in the recesses o f his mind that he was able to incorporate them in his work, such that he was now striving in his music towards a synthesis o f these folk and symphonic elements.  77  Despite these newly found philosophies and his greater acceptance o f self, G l i c k ' s return to Canada was less than triumphant. I had almost decided to stay i n Paris. Then L o u Applebaum contacted me and said, we need young people like you to come back and help us build the country musically. A n d so I took him seriously and came back and for a year I wandered, I couldn't get a job. I had a Masters o f M u s i c degree, the [Royal] Conservatory was all filled up and couldn't give me a job as a teacher, the Faculty o f M u s i c [at the University o f Toronto] had no use for me because they didn't think I was talented, even then. 78  After a year o f searching, G l i c k phoned Louis Applebaum to say that he was accepting a job at a shoe factory in order to pay the bills. Applebaum however was able to find him a position at the C B C . So in 1963, G l i c k began working as a C B C producer, a career which would last more than twenty years until he left the organization in March, 1986 in order to compose full time. G l i c k ' s work as a producer involved him in every aspect o f creating music programs for shows such as Distinguished Artists, Chamber Music, and Celebrity Recital.  79  He also began working with the Canadian League o f Composers and was  "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian Who Came Home." 38. Robin Elliott, "New Future for Glick" Canadian Composer 210 (May 1986) 18. " A Composer's Contribution" 8. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home" 38.  24 president o f that organization by 1966.  B y now the League's focus has shifted, and it  saw itself as a spokesman for Canadian composers. With this in mind, G l i c k also began furthering what he saw as the League's long-range g o a l , " . . .to see the conditions created wherein more composers could work full time at their profession and the music which results would be programmed and embraced by the Canadian public."  81  Indeed, with the  help o f his C B C supervisor, John Roberts, G l i c k greatly increased the Canadian content in the programs on which he worked.  82  G l i c k was now a central figure in the propagation o f Canadian music, helping to reshape the bounds o f acceptability in the national art music scene. The art music o f Canadian composers which gained prominence and recognition consisted o f those compositions which followed in the Western art music tradition. Solidified through the curriculum o f the Royal Conservatory o f Music, Toronto, and Canadian university music programs, the borders o f 'high' and ' l o w ' music were maintained in Canada. Through his time abroad, however, G l i c k had learned the importance o f identity and heritage in the process o f composition. When he began working with the C B C , Glick applied this idea on a broader spectrum by encouraging and supporting new artists who were breaking new ground and bringing the emerging multi-cultural ethos to Canadian art music composition. B y providing these artists with an avenue to gain an audience with the Canadian public, G l i c k expanded the concept o f what would be accepted as Canadian music. Eventually, this work in production, recording and programming at the C B C  8 0  81 82  Evelyn, 6. His presidency lasted from 1966 to 1969. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian who came Home" 20. Ibid., 38.  25  '  would be recognized through the receipt o f seven Grand Prix du Disque and one Juno award. Concurrently, G l i c k was beginning to work the varying threads o f liturgical, folk and symphonic music together in the tapestries o f his compositions. In some cases, such as his 1967 ballet, Heritage Dance Symphony, he attempted to develop a synthesis o f the rhythmic drive o f jazz and the symmetry o f dance music with the lyrical quality o f , Hebraic m u s i c .  84  A t other times, he layered textural and chordal thickness with Jewish  folk lyricism and tonality, often in a contrapuntal fashion.  85  While his work o f the 1970s  experimented with more contemporary idioms, it is his later works that " . . .achieved a synthesis o f Jewish and classical musical traditions, creating from these two strains a personal idiom that is openly lyrical and direct in its emotional appeal."  86  Srul Irving G l i c k further demonstrated his acceptance o f and connection to his cultural background through his liturgical work. In 1969, he began working at one o f Toronto's Conservative synagogues, Beth Tikvah, as choir director. While working with the synagogue he composed many liturgical pieces and arranged Yiddish folksongs for 87  his choir.  He enjoyed working with cantorial music and its complexities, intrigued by  the ways in which a phrase " . . .spins out in a long line, turning back in on itself and going forth again, forming a dramatic line with emotional content."  88  "Srul Irving Glick - Biography," Canadian Music Centre, At the time of this interview, the ballet was unnamed. "Srul Irving Glick: A Canadian Who Came Home." 38. Glick's only ballet, Heritage Dance Symphony, commissioned by the New Dance Group of Canada in Toronto, tells the story of a Jewish immigrant family and the hardships they faced coming to Canada. Ford and Elliott, 532. MacMillan and Beckwith, 87. Ford and Elliott, 532. Ibid., 532. Elliott (1986) 18. S i  8 4  85  8 6  8 7 88  26  H i s extensive work and dedication to the shul was recognized in 1978 when he was made composer-in-residence o f Beth Tikvah. B y 2001, Glick had written almost two hundred pieces o f liturgical music and had received several awards for his contributions to Jewish music, including the J.I. Segal A w a r d for contributions to Jewish music, the K a v o d A w a r d from the Cantor's Assembly o f America, and the Solomon Schechter A w a r d from the United Synagogue o f A m e r i c a .  He considered his work with the shul  89  to be a labor o f love full o f beauty and inspiration. He once noted that in his early years at Beth Tikvah he "...was so shocked after [they'd] finished Y o m K i p p u r services that 90  [they] hadn't brought Mashiach  91  because o f the intensity and beauty o f the singing."  92  G l i c k had resolved the psychological conflict over his cultural heritage and, unlike his predecessors, he did not believe it was necessary to deny his roots in order to gain or maintain his success within Western art music. .. .I'm a Canadian. I was born here and educated here and I ' m very grateful for all that was offered to me. I bring together my education on two levels in being a Canadian composer and I find that going to my Jewish tradition gives me a profound sense o f identity. 93  This respect for education was demonstrated in aspects o f his varied professional appointments. In addition to his positions at the C B C (1963-1986) and Beth Tikvah (1964-2002), G l i c k taught composition at the Royal Conservatory o f M u s i c Toronto and  Grout and Palisca, 945. He was also presented an Honorary Fellowship from the Royal Canadian College of Organists (Srul Irving Glick-Biography.'). In 1993, Glick was presented the Governor General's Medal for contribution to Canadian culture, and in 1994 was appointed a member of the Order of Canada. "Srul Irving Glick: A Renowned Composer Remembered." Words and Music 9:2 (Summer 2002) 9. Yom Kippur, or the Day of Atonement, occurs on the 9 /10 of the month of Tishri in the Jewish calendar. It is a time for the confession of sins, repentance and reconciliation with both God and other humans. David Noss, A History of the World's Religions (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003) 445. Mashiach is the Hebrew word for Messiah. Frances Kraft, "Srul Irving Glick to be Honored." Canadian Jewish News 30:2 (Jan. 13, 2000) 18. " A Composer's Contribution." 4. 8 9  90  91  9 2 93  th  th  27  Y o r k University. He also received hundreds o f commissions from great artists and institutions; moreover, many o f his compositions have been performed, recorded and published in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Israel.  94  Despite the  long battle for acceptance, G l i c k had managed to gain that acceptance without sacrificing his identity and, in the process, he was able to introduce Canadians to the rich musical legacy o f his people. In 1998, G l i c k combined his Jewish heritage with Western art music in his O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, a four-movement work meant, according to friend and musician Angele Dubeau, to be both "a tribute to the Queen C i t y " and "a voyage into the world o f his childhood memories." Cemetery,  United Baker's  95  Entitled respectively Kensington  Dairy Restaurant,  and The Rabbi's  Market, Wedding  Roselawn at the  Paimerston  Shul, each movement o f the O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite represents an integral part o f Toronto's Jewish community in the 1940s. In the ensuing chapters, I w i l l introduce the background and musical features o f this composition. I w i l l illustrate the way these features reflect the Toronto Jewish community o f G l i c k ' s youth, and I w i l l overlay an autobiographical interpretation o f the construction o f this suite. Tragically, Srul Irving G l i c k died o f cancer on Wednesday, A p r i l 17, 2 0 0 2 .  96  His  contributions to the Canadian musical landscape are immeasurable and live on in performances o f his extensive creations. However, o f more import to future composers than his prodigious melodic legacy is his new approach to identity for Jewish composers seeking acceptance in Canadian art music. Not willing to accept the European stereotype  "Srul Irving Glick - Biography," Canadian Music Centre, Violons du Monde, (Canada: Analekta Inc., 2002) C D Jacket. "Composer/Conductor Srul Irving Glick Dies of Cancer in Toronto." Canadian Press Newswire (April 18, 2002) He was survived by his wife, pianist Dorothy Sandler-Glick, and his three children.  9 4  95  9 6  28  o f uninspired Jewish musicians, Glick investigated his own preconceived notions and found them lacking. B y truly accepting his identity as a Jew, he was able to introduce complex, new layers to the harmonic and melodic texture o f his compositions. Moreover, through his work with the Beth Tikvah, he was able to find great joy in merging his musical talent with his spiritual endeavors. Srul Irving G l i c k gained what so many o f his Jewish predecessors were unable to obtain - the confidence o f identity within a supportive community combined with the security o f professional success in a career he adored.  29  Chapter III The Musical and Cultural Foundations of the "Old Toronto Klezmer Suite"  While many musicologists and musicians would like to maintain the belief that the meaning o f music is found solely in the musical notes themselves, it must be recognized that there is information to be gleaned from the text surrounding the music. In this case, text refers to the manuscript notes, instructions, title and subtitles o f the piece. B y investigating the text as well as the music and context o f the O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, it is possible to begin separating the multiple and complex layers which exist in G l i c k ' s composition. In this way, I hope to show some o f the methods used by Srul Irving G l i c k to fuse the legacy o f his childhood with the art tradition he learned in high school and university. O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite was commissioned by Catherine W i l s o n from Isaac Eisenbaum.  97  on a grant  It was first performed on M a y 8, 1998 at the George Weston  Recital H a l l , the Ford Center, Toronto. This composition is comprised o f four movements and lasts a duration o f sixteen to twenty minutes. already noted, are subtitled Kensington Baker's  Dairy Restaurant,  Market,  and The Rabbi's  The Roselawn  99  The movements, as Cemetery,  Wedding at the Palmerston  The  United  Shut respectively.  Originally from Ontario, Canada, Catherine Wilson is the pianist and artistic director of Ensemble Vivant. The group, which is built around the piano, violin and cello, presents an eclectic variety of genres ranging from J.S. Bach to George Gershwin. They have also taken an interest in newly composed works, many of which, like Glick's Old Toronto Klezmer Suite, were specially written for Ms. Wilson and Ensemble Vivant. Catherine Wilson - Biography. Online, A l l information on this composition's notes, instructions and text is taken directly from the score itself. Srul Irving Glick notes on the score that the duration is approximately sixteen minutes; however, Angele Dubeau's recording runs approximately twenty minutes, twenty seconds. 9 8  9 9  30 Kensington  Market is 100 measures in length with a tempo o f one quarter note  equaling ca. 116. The movement is in D major, sliding occasionally into B minor b  b  through the use o f accidentals (i.e. A natural). The key transitions to F minor, with occasional lapses into A major, at measure 44, then returns to D major at measure 74. b  b  The movement is in common t i m e  100  with a brief (one bar) period o f 5/4 meter leading  into the first key change. Between measures 53 and 57, the meter alternates one measure o f 5/4 time with one measure o f 4/4 time before returning to common time for the remainder o f the piece. There is a 13 measure prelude and a 10 measure postlude which restates the prelude. The melodic line alternates between all the instruments, except the double bass, with a piano solo from measure 35 to 43. The Roselawn  Cemetery is 33 measures i n length with a tempo o f one quarter note  equaling ca. 44 con rubato.  m  This movement is in C minor harmonic with the  occasional use o f B natural to suggest a major element in the music. This movement is in common time and is to be delivered in a slow, mysterious style as noted at the beginning o f the score for this movement. The United Baker's Dairy Restaurant one quarter note equaling ca. 108 con rubato.  is 143 measures in length with a meter o f The key o f this movement w i l l be  discussed later i n the chapter. It is in A time with a short common time section from 3  measure 65 through 69. This movement is presented as a waltz.  Common time is a phrase referring to 4/4 time, or four quarter notes per bar, the most commonly used time signature. Time signatures are designated like a fraction where the numerator refers to the number of notes per measure and the denominator refers to the size of those notes (ex. Eighth notes, quarter notes, whole notes etc.). Con rubato is a musical direction, loosely translated to 'robbed time'. It refers to a style of playing in which the meter is performed freely with interpretive flexibility as opposed to a regimented, unchanging meter. 101  31  The final movement, The Rabbi's Wedding at the Palmerslon Shut, is 172 measures i n length and takes approximately twice the performance time o f any other movement. It is divided into two distinct sections (measures 1-60, and measures 61-172 respectively). The first section begins with a tempo o f one quarter note equaling ca. 48 con rubato. The key o f this section w i l l be discussed later in the chapter. It is in common time from measures 1-24. A t measure 25, the meter shifts to 3+3/8 with a tempo o f one eighth-note = ca. 112 con rubato. A s the meter shift moves the emphatic beat from the first beat o f each measure to the first and the fourth beats o f each measure, the waltz is brought back through the end o f the section (measures 36-60). The second section accelerates from measures 61 to 64 until it has a tempo o f one quarter note equaling ca. 108-112, played in a joyful manner. This section is in common time. It begins accelerating again at measure 112 until it reaches a tempo o f one quarter-note equaling ca. 120 at measure 115, thereby creating a cheerful, energetic finale to the suite. O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite is an instrumental piece written for a quintet o f piano, violin, viola (or clarinet), cello and double bass. This is a classic configuration in Western European art music. The piano quartet which consisted o f piano and string quartet (usually two violins, viola and cello) developed out o f the many C l a s s i c a l  102  piano  concertos, the accompaniments o f which could be performed by a string quartet. In this case, the second violin has been dropped in favor o f a double bass. This instrumental configuration is also highly reflective o f the early klezmer ensembles o f Eastern Europe. The fiddle (fidl), acted as the cornerstone o f these groups along with its siblings the viola, cello and bass. In addition to the flute (fleyt), drum (baradan), cymbal (tats), and Within music there are multiple usages for the term 'classical'. Generally, used in the lower case, the term refers to a long, enduring, time-tested tradition or pattern, while the capitalized form refers to the musical period which occurred from the early eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century. 102  32  hammered dulcimer (tsimbl), these stringed instruments became vital to the klezmorim as they shared a local repertoire, were portable, and could be made and repaired locally.  103  Later, the clarinet was added into this mix. Thus, while a piano was not part of these ensembles, the remaining quartet was one which would have occurred in Eastern European Jewish communities of Glick's parents' early life. In addition to the musical composition itself, the score of this piece reveals a great deal about Glick and his compositional style. Glick's moniker alone suggests a great deal about him as a person. For those within the Jewish community, the name Srul would be recognized as a diminutive of Yisrael. This simultaneously invokes multiple layers of meaning. Firstly, Yisrael is the name given to Jacob by God which means 'he who wrestles with God.'  104  Thus, Glick is connected to the quintessential book of his people,  the Torah. He noted in an interview that he felt it was important that the concept of wrestling with God be connected to all of his compositions through the use of 'Srul.'  105  In this way, his deep spirituality is always present with his music. Secondly, Yisrael was to become the name of the Jewish nation as a whole. Thus, by invoking it, Glick is emphasizing his connection to the Jewish community worldwide. By using the diminutive, Srul, his name takes on a personal quality. This was the name used at home by close friends and family. Conversely, Irving was the name used at school, in the realm of the gentiles. It was a name that would be accepted in the greater Toronto  A l l these instruments could be and were used in the performance of regionally distinct Jewish and nonJewish music. Popular local melodies were mixed with Jewish idioms resulting in the cross-fertilization of these tunes. This mixing would lead to clear regional variations in the Klezmer repertoire. Henry Sapoznik, Klezmer! Jewish Music from Old World to Our World (New York: Schirmer Books, 1999) 6-7. Gensis 32:29. Srul Irving Glick, Srul Irving Glick: Anthology of Canadian Music (Vancouver: IRC, 1989) C D 1, Track 1, Interview. 104  105  33  community without question or comment.  106  Therefore, through his signature alone,  G l i c k has negotiated the divide between his Jewish roots and his gentile surroundings by using both Srul and Irving. O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite as a title provides important direction for the musicians and audience alike. Firstly, it is clear that this piece is about, situated i n or influenced by the city o f Toronto. Yet the title also shows that the influence is not Toronto as it is known today, but ' O l d Toronto', a Toronto o f the past. This places the piece into the realm o f the unknown past for some, and the remembered past for others. For G l i c k , as it w i l l be shown, this is the well-remembered past o f the city o f his childhood. B y using the term 'klezmer', G l i c k places the composition firmly within the context o f the Eastern European Jewish musical tradition. This term has become well known in North America due to the recent klezmer revival in the United States. For many, this term simply indicates Jewish folk music; however, it has far greater, more specific meanings. The word klezmer (pi. klezmorim), which originated from the Hebrew kle zemer ("vessels o f song"), is a Yiddish term which denoted a professional Jewish musician who performed at celebrations in eastern Europe Jewish communities prior to 1939. M a n y klezmorim traveled extensively, especially throughout the southern areas o f the Pale o f Settlement (Bessarabia, Moldova, southern Ukraine, and the Bucovina region of Romania). Over time, elements o f Gypsy, Greek and Romanian folk traditions infused Eastern European Jewish dance m u s i c .  107  The klezmorim were seen as part o f a  hereditary caste that possessed a rather low position within Yiddish society. " W h i l e the * Ibid. Hankus Netsky, "American Klezmer: A Brief History," American Klezmer: Its Roots and Offshoots, Mark Slobin ed. (Los Angeles: California University Press, 2002) 13. 10  107  34  mobility and business acumen o f many klezmorim fit into accepted patterns o f Jewish professionalism, most Jews regarded klezmorim as irresponsible, sexually overactive, and 108  violent."  Their virtuosic instrumental performances presented a repertoire o f both  dance and non-dance genres. The term 'suite', as used in this context, connotes a specific form o f composition within the Western classical music tradition. Since the Baroque period, the term suite has been used to refer to three or more contrasting instrumental movements grouped together and often performed in series as a single piece. Generally, each movement is o f short duration and may be linked by such things as a common key, form, theme, extra-musical program or origins in a larger work. B y presenting the piece as a suite, G l i c k is stating that this is an art music composition firmly centered in the ideology o f Western music. Through his choice o f title, G l i c k provides the framework for his composition. It is, at once, a fusion o f the idioms o f Western European art music and Eastern European Jewish music. Moreover, it is representative o f the folk, liturgical and classical forms o f music which surrounded G l i c k during his youth as they mixed in the Toronto o f G l i c k ' s memory. So what, then, constitutes G l i c k ' s ' O l d Toronto'? G l i c k ' s composition is autobiographical in style in that it is a reflection o f the Toronto Jewish community o f his childhood.  109  A s w i l l be shown, one may see, through his choice o f reflections or  remembrances, those factors o f the community which stood out in his memory as places or events pivotal in his development. One may also find clues to his life and childhood i n his textual notations and subtitles. A l l weave together to create a tapestry o f the life Walter Zev Feldman, "Bulgareasca/Bulgarish/Bulgar: The Transformation of a Klezmer Dance Genre," American Klezmer: Its Roots and Offshoots. Mark Slobin ed. (Los Angeles: California University Press, 2002) 88. 108  109  The issues of autobiography will be investigated more thoroughly in Chapter IV.  35  events, community connections and moral convictions that comprise the psyche o f this phenomenal Canadian composer. Kensington market is the ideal place to start a synopsis of the Toronto Jewish community as it was central to the city's Jewish district during G l i c k ' s childhood. It is here that Toronto's large Jewish community was afforded the opportunity to " . . .buy Jewish food, books, and religious items and attend Jewish religious, social, and political gatherings.""  0  Thus, while there were other areas in the city where there were large  concentrations o f Jewish workers, businessmen or students, it was here at Kensington market where the community maintained its social and cultural center. B y choosing to start his suite with the center o f Toronto's Jews, G l i c k centers his composition within that ethnic framework. He also creates an ever more finely focused lens for the community by starting with an overall impression o f the area before focusing on more specific places and events in the Kensington market district. G l i c k ' s first movement has been entitled Kensington Market after this neighborhood, the center o f the Toronto Jewish community from the 1920s to the end o f the 1940s. Comprised o f the streets just north o f Dundas Street and west o f Spadina Avenue, Kensington Market was a dense, compact urban immigrant neighborhood. Its collection o f butchers, bakeries, homes and institutions created a vibrant Jewish street economy. Moreover, the Kensington district possessed all the religious, cultural and social necessities the orthodox Jewish community required including synagogues, religious schools, mikvaoth, Jewish bookstores and kosher butchers and bakeries. Thus,  V 110  Tulchinsky (1998) 6.  36  "Kensington's dense Jewish life created an environment that the orthodox Jewish community, in particular, considered a sacred space.""  1  Another sacred space used by Srul Irving Glick, what is now known as Roselawn cemetery, was created in 1906. Within Jewish tradition, when members o f the community die, they are buried in the consecrated grounds belonging to the synagogue with which they were affiliated. However, as immigration to Canada increased and as Jewish merchants began traveling further and further afield with their wares, problems arose with this system. For those Jewish travelers passing through Toronto in the late nineteenth century, there was no area set aside for their burial should they be unfortunate enough to pass away while in the city. This problem was solved with the donation o f the Roselawn cemetery.  112  After a visiting Jew was killed in an accident and buried in a Christian cemetery, Samuel Weber, a pious member o f Goel Tzedec, created the Hebrew Free Burial Society. He then bought a lot o f land, now dissected by Roselawn Avenue, and donated it for use as a cemetery. Under the supervision o f Rabbi Jacob Gordon, the accident victim was reburied in the newly established Jewish cemetery. Henceforth, the Hebrew Free Burial Society ensured that all Jews who died in Toronto without money or synagogue 113  affiliation received proper purification and burial. It seems only fitting that Glick include aspects o f both life and death in his composition as they are both inevitable aspects o f any community. It is interesting ' " Etan Diamond, And I Will Dwell in Their Midst: Orthodox Jews in Suburbia (London: University of North Carolina Press, 2000) 29. The creation of a poor man's cemetery is considered the highest form of charity within the Jewish community as the donors will never have the opportunity to be thanked by those whom they have helped. Stephan Speisman, The Jews of Toronto: A History to 1937 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1979) 155. 112  113  37  though that he chooses a cemetery connected with the ideal o f Chesed She! Ernes  114  as his  example. O n one hand he is reinforcing the strength o f the community both on a local level and on the level o f the greater Jewish community. The community takes care o f its own whether friend or stranger. Conversely, this cemetery had a deeper meaning to G l i c k . While walking along the cemetery paths one day (the cemetery was a popular short cut for the school children), Srul encountered a gravestone with the following inscription engraved on it: W e w i l l never forget you Henry, dear. Died 14 July 1921, age 7. Henry G l i c k  He had, inadvertently, discovered that he'd had an older brother, about whom his parents never spoke. This sibling had died over ten years before Srul was born in September, 1934. The depth o f meaning this discovery created in Glick is reflected in the soulful movement entitled Roselawn  Cemetery.  The United Baker's Dairy Restaurant was a meeting place in the Toronto Jewish community. It was established in 1912 on Dundas Street. In 1920, the restaurant moved to Spadina Avenue where it remained until it moved again in 1986. Despite these moves and the passage o f time, the nature o f the restaurant remained largely unchanged. Such establishments are community meeting places where bosses and workers sat elbow-toelbow, talking and arguing often, during G l i c k ' s youth, in Yiddish. Mothers with children, shop owners, factory workers, cantors: all segments o f society met here and those individuals who didn't know each other, knew o f each other. Srul Irving G l i c k grew up in this atmosphere. Those people who didn't personally know Srul when he Hebrew transliteration meaning 'Kindness of Truth'. This refers to the idea that the greatest act of charity one can commit is one for which there will be no thanks. 114  38  went into the Restaurant, knew him through his father. It is this sense o f 'Jewish geography' which G l i c k chose for his third movement, the unchanging dance that is The United Baker's  Dairy  Restaurant.  115  The Toronto Jewish community, still in its formative years, experienced a decade o f intense activity and growing self-assurance in the 1920s. A s the community shifted westward toward Spadina Avenue and the Kensington district, new synagogues were established and built. A s the community's confidence grew, Jewish architects began to design these new synagogues for the first time in Toronto's history. One such shul was Agudath Israel Anshei Sepharad, a "round style" building opened on Palmerston Avenue in 1 9 2 5 . '  16  Originally established in 1914, Agudath Israel Anshei Sepharad was one o f a  small number o f ethnically mixed synagogues established in the early twentieth century.  117  The only movement which reflects a person and an event as well as a place is The Rabbi's  Wedding at the Palmerston  Shul referring back to the mixed synagogue  established in 1914. B y making it the Rabbi's wedding, Glick is emphasizing the importance o f this figure within Jewish society. Rabbis were highly regarded figures though many communities could not afford to retain one of their own. They were not only the spiritual leaders o f the Jewish people, but also the legal authorities for matters within the Jewish community. In addition, the title o f this movement works to relate it  "Srul Irving Glick" Tapestry (CBC Radio One: 2003) Interview between Angele Dubeau and the owner of the United Baker's Dairy Restaurant. The owner presents this idea of Jewish geography, a community social pattern in which everyone knows each other either personally, or through close and distant relatives. " Speisman, 304. Ibid., 104 & 114. In his C B C interview for "Srul Irving Glick" Tapestry. Steven Speisman notes that there were two main types of synagogues at the time of Glick's childhood: Landshaftsman shuls where all members were originally from a specific area in Europe, and community shuls, such as the Palmerston Avenue shul, which possessed a mixed congregation. Eventually, the congregation dwindled as members moved north, out of the Kensington market district. Ultimately, the shul was torn down in 1979. 115  6  117  39  back to the suite's title. It reflects the fact that weddings were the mainstay o f the klezmorim,  who derived the majority o f their repertoire from the vivid mixture o f ritual,  processional and dance music present at Ashkenazi weddings.  118  Possibly this is also  meant to reinforce the central importance o f marriage and family in Jewish culture. I believe it is significant that both life and death are reflected in this work through the presentation o f a wedding and a cemetery. B y emphasizing both, Glick presents a complete cycle o f life ending, no doubt deliberately, on the j o y o f a wedding and the Jewish connection to G o d in the solemn shul ceremony. Yet, despite the subject matter, the suite was written with both a Jewish and gentile audience in mind. For the Jewish audience, there exists the knowledge o f the insider. A s noted by musicologist Jeffery Summitt, the linguistic concepts o f code and code-switching can be applied to melody. That is to say, musical motives and melodies, like language, can be used "as a code to forge connections with people, or to keep them at a distance".  119  For many people in the Jewish community, the motives and even the  movement titles, may invoke associations that would likely be lost on a gentile audience. A t the same time, the use o f a string quartet and piano, as well as the employment o f core Western art music idioms, such as the waltz and typically classical chord progressions, has created a composition to which a non-Jewish audience w i l l easily relate. The final aspect o f the text that w i l l be discussed relates to the title page, the final page and everything in between. The dedication at the bottom o f the title page reads as follows:  118  119  Sapoznik, 9. Jeffery Summitt, The Lord's Song in a Strange Land. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000) 131.  40  In memory o f my beloved mother Ida ("Chaika") Glick Born in Benderi, Bessarabia A u g . 25 1901 Died in Toronto Jan. 15 1997  B y laying out the locations o f her birth and death, Srul Irving G l i c k fully incorporates his mother's life into the text o f the composition. He acknowledges the dual influences o f Jewish community life in both Eastern Europe and Toronto. In addition, he sets the date o f completion o f this composition on Jan. 15, 1998,  120  one year to the day after her death.  Thus, this composition may be seen as a form o f remembrance for yahrzeit. Traditionally, Yahrzeit is observed on the anniversary o f a parent's or child's death. It is usually performed according to the date on the Jewish calendar, not the Gregorian 121  calendar.  I believe G l i c k ' s use o f the Gregorian calendar is further reflective o f his  dual existence in the Jewish and non-Jewish worlds. In this case, it appears that he wished it to be clear to everyone reading this score that it was written both to mourn and to honor his mother's memory.  *** Having investigated the background o f the composition's text, we now turn to the music itself. The musical traditions o f the Toronto Jewish community are diverse, and are represented i n several ways in G l i c k ' s compositions. A s already discussed in Chapter II, Srul Irving G l i c k was exposed to numerous, richly layered musical traditions from an early age. H i s brother, a professional concert musician, initially introduced Srul to the complexities o f Western classical music. This first initiation was quickly reinforced when G l i c k entered the Royal Conservatory o f M u s i c and then the University o f Toronto  120  121  Found with his signature below the final bar of the composition on the last page. "Mourning" Encyclopedia Judaica. Vol. 12 (Jerusalem: Keter Publishing, 1972) column 492.  41 music programs. Interwoven with Western classicism in these early experiences were the inspired realms o f Jewish music. The fluid melodic thread o f his cantorial heritage infused G l i c k ' s consciousness from birth through his father's work as a chazzan. Finally, the rhythmic textures and lyrical aesthetic o f the Eastern European Jewish folk tradition entered through the myriad o f community festivities and his time in Habonim. In the O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, G l i c k brings all these colours together to present the rich cultural canvas o f his youth. Over the past five centuries, the Ashkenazic chant tradition has become strongly acculturated to the Western art music tradition and its accompanying form o f notation. Moreover, as the richness o f cantillation modes and ornaments lie at the heart o f the klezmer tradition, they are inexorably l i n k e d .  122  The key to both Yiddish music and  Ashkenazic cantillation is the combination o f modes, scales and accidentals used in each melody. Within any one tune, a number o f major, minor and modal keys may be found.  123  M u s i c has long been central to the Jewish spiritual world. According to Jewish law, it is obligatory that certain books o f the Tanakh be read aloud in public; however, reading alone was not enough. The Babylonian Talmud, tractate Megilla (32a), states that the Bible w i l l be understood when presented in a sweet, musical tune. To read the Pentateuch without tune shows disregard for it and the value o f its laws. Moreover, the idea is put forth that a deep understanding o f the Torah may only be achieved through its singing, and that "whoever intones the H o l y Scriptures in the manner o f secular song  Sapoznik, 8. Throughout this investigation I have attempted to come to an understanding about Jewish music only within the Ashkenazic tradition. The reality is that too many scholars attempt to condense Jewish music into a few simple formulas. This results in an over-simplification of the musical tradition. 122  123  42  abuses the Torah."  Thus, music is seen as vital to the understanding o f scripture, and  those books for which public reading is obligatory each possess their own mode and motives.  125  Within traditional Ashkenazic cantillation there are five central prayer modes or 126  shtejger.  *  •  *  Traditional Yiddish folk music also has five modes several of which have  been modified slightly from the cantorial tradition (Figure 3.1). In addition, Jewish musical expression uses typical elements such as dreydlekh (grace notes and accidentals) and phrasing in folk music and cantillation. Unique Yiddish terms were developed to identify these sounds. For example, "the word krekhts (Yiddish for 'groan') refers to a wailing sound reminiscent o f weeping, the term tshok might be used to refer to a laughlike instrumental sound, and a kneytsh is a sob-like ' c a t c h ' . "  127  In the following pages, I  w i l l attempt to show the ways in which G l i c k integrates these cantillation modes and folk practices with Western art music idioms. In Kensington Market, G l i c k reflects the dense, busy urban atmosphere through the use of densely layered motifs and accompaniment. The almost constant presence of repeating sixteenth note patterns gives the impression of the never ceasing movement o f  Babylonian Talmud, tractate Sanhedrin (101a). Books for which public reading is obligatory: Pentateuch, Prophets, Ester, Lamentations, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Psalms and, in some communities, Job. There are corresponding modes for each of these books according to A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music and its Historical Development (New York: Tudor Publishing Co., 1944) 36. Shtejger is the Yiddish term meaning scale; however, these modes do not fit within the accepted Western European definition of scale as will be seen shortly. Idelsohn (1944), 72-91. In this chapter, Idelsohn outlines the modes used in prayer which were originally adaptations of the Bible modes, but which are distinct in their own right. He notes five main modes or shtejger. Adonai-moloch [later re-named Adosem malak due to slightly different transliterations and word usage. Noted as seen in Amnon Shiloah Jewish Musical Traditions (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1992) 126], Selicha (or Selihah), Viddui, Mogen-Ovos (or Magen Avoi), and Ahavoh-Rahboh (or Ahavah Rabbah). He also noted the changing and alternate usages of these different modes. Most later scholars agree that there are four main modes, omitting the Viddui. Netsky, p. 14. 125  126  127  43  Major o  «>  -o-  "" - II  M i n o r (usually harmonic) O  «>  O  «>  A h a v a Raba  M i Sheberakh  i k  m  z  —»—  —^—  —  «»  * 9  O  ©  1 1 1  Adoshem Malak  XT  -©-  331  O  »  Figure 3.1 The five Yiddish Shtejger usually found in Jewish folk and liturgical music. The major mode resulted from European influences on the Pentateuch mode. The minor mode is usually used in the harmonic form, while the final three modes are the most characteristic o f Ashkenazic cantillation. Sapoznik, 294-97.  44  Toronto's urban streets. G l i c k ' s instructions that this should be played quickly and brightly indicates an underlying cheerfulness to this piece that, at times, is even playful in nature as indicated in the score notes at measures 52 and 56. A s previously noted, both major and minor scales are accepted as modes used in the Jewish tradition. In Kensington  Market, G l i c k uses accidentals to shift the key from D + to its relative minor, b  B . In this way, G l i c k provides the sound o f Jewish modal writing while largely b  maintaining the major scale. Musicians performing G l i c k ' s second movement, The Roselawn  Cemetery, are  instructed to perform it i n a slow, graceful and mysterious manner. The quarter notes o f the double bass provide an ever present bass line to the composition, rather reminiscent of footsteps plodding through the cemetery. A primary theme (measures 3-14) is initially presented by the cello and viola. It is this theme upon which the solo segments are later based. In this way, G l i c k lays out the basic, mournful melody. After the initial statement of this theme, it is continued, with the bass line, as a constant, underlying foundation for the soloists. These soloists present different voices, rather like echoes o f the voices o f different mourners who have passed through the cemetery over the years. The violin solo (measures 15-22), especially, appears to implement many o f the musical elements typical o f Yiddish folk music. Through the use o f grace notes, G l i c k introduces the idea o f the catching and sliding o f notes, which creates an impression o f a weeping woman. This draws the audience into the remembrance. The harmony o f the duet in measures 23 through 25 suggest the comfort o f others who also mourn, while the deep resonance o f the brief cello solo (measures 28-31) echoes the earlier grief in the violin. Despite the overall beauty o f this mournful harmony, the power o f this movement  45  lies with the dissonance o f the final chord leaving a sense o f disquiet i n its wake, unbroken until the introduction o f the third movement. In United Baker's Dairy Restaurant Glick utilizes aspects o f traditional synagogue modes to provide an Ashkenazic flavor to his flowing romantic framework. This movement is presented as a waltz, a form which was developed during the late eighteenth century in the late Classical and early Romantic periods. Originally fraught with scandal, this dance for couples has come to symbolize the class and elegance o f the ballroom; here, however, this classic formula is given a twist through the introduction o f a cantillation mode which results in the creation o f unexpected melodic patterns. This movement appears to be firmly rooted in the G minor scale; yet it is possible to see the influences o f a modified Adoshem malak Shtejger which was mainly used, historically, for prayers o f thanksgiving and praise.  128  This mode is comprised o f a major  scale with a lowered 7 . When cantillation extends above the octave, the 10 is flattened th  th  a semitone, and when it extends below the tonic, the melody does so only by a semitone. Thus, the result is the following pattern - (ascending) g a b c d e f g a b f e d c b a g f # g (see Figure 3.2).  129  b  (descending) a g  This form o f the Adosem malak Shtejger has been  modified slightly i n G l i c k ' s usage. Firstly, G l i c k maintains the use o f both the flattened 7  th  (f) i n the central octave o f the melody and the semitone below the tonic (f#); however,  G l i c k has shifted the flattened 10 such that the regular octave may use either b or b . th  b  A l s o , i n character with G minor, the flattened 6 (e ) is in constant use. A s with the th  b  Shiloah, 126. Hanoch Avenary, "The Concept of the Mode in European Synagogue Chant" Yuval: Studies of the Jewish Music Research Centre. Vol. II (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1971) 13. The importance in these modes is in the pattern of whole tones and semitones, not in the tonic note itself. In this case, the tonic of 'c' in Avenary's paper, or the tonic o f ' d ' in Firgure 3.1, has been transposed to atonic o f ' g ' as seen in Figure 3.2. 128  129  46  Adoshem Malak Shtejger o  »  °  "  o " °  °  °  ^  ko.  ~  °  o -  »  "  Q  °  »  o  ^  =  p  ,  3  0  Figure 3.2 Transposed Adoshem Malak Shtejger in the more complex form than shown in Figure 3.1. Avenary, 13.  Modified Adoshem Malak Shtejger o  o  o  »t,o^o w  n  »  "  "  O—°—1»—JJ-  ~  "  "  o o  -  „ ~ w  0  < t  p_  Figure 3.3 The adapted form of the Adoshem Malak Shtejger used by Srul Irving G l i c k in "The United Baker's Dairy Restaurant." In this form the flattened 10th is moved into the main body o f the scale such that the 'b' may be used in the natural or flat form.  47  original cantillation Shtejger, the resulting mode, as seen in Figure 3.3, vacillates between major and minor giving the movement a uniquely Jewish flavor, though different i n nature from that in the fourth and final movement, The Rabbi's Palmerston  Wedding at the  Shul.  A s previously mentioned, the Ashkenazic chant tradition has become adopted into the Western art music tradition and its notation; however, as Eric Werner notes, cantillation represents a mixture o f both written and oral traditions. While " a l l notated music breaks melody down into a series o f isolated and exact pitches; oral tradition.. .conceives cantillation purely as sound in movement" and not as sharply defined pitches.  A s a result, cantorial chant generally belongs to a free-flowing, prose-  like category that is not fixed to any particular meter.'  31  Another characteristic o f chant  in the Ashkenazic tradition is the extensive use o f ornamentation through the addition o f transition notes, the extension o f the range o f cantillation modes, and the embellishments of notes. This form o f melodic enrichment developed throughout the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, becoming the general custom by the beginning o f 132  the nineteenth century.  A s w i l l be shown, these characteristics can also be seen i n the  rubato or free meter introduction to the concluding movement o f G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite. In the first six measures o f The Rabbi's  Wedding  at the Palmerston  Shul, the  double bass presents a free flowing monophonic melody. The deep, rich sound o f the lone instrument invokes the image o f a Cantor or Rabbi praying at the wedding Eric Werner, A Voice Still Heard (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976) 70. Werner, 74. Hanoch Avenary, The Ashkenazic Tradition of Biblical Chant Between 1500 and 1900 (Jerusalem: TelAviv University Press, 1978) 57-58. 130  !  3i  132  48  ceremony. Yet these characteristics alone do not conclusively indicate that G l i c k is drawing on the Ashkenazic cantillation tradition. For a more definitive analysis, it is necessary to investigate the melodic foundation o f both Ashkenazic cantillation and the first section o f G l i c k ' s movement. Through the work o f the late scholar Jacob Schoenberg, who investigated the musical notation o f Abraham Baer, a nineteenth-century cantor in S w e d e n ,  133  it has been  shown that Ashkenazic chant o f the Torah is often built on the pattern o f the pentatonic mode.  134  Curt Sachs defined a pentatonic scale as being a five-note, melodic skeleton  based on a " . . .tertian chain o f two minor thirds and a major [third], where the latter is divided by a whole tone step" which has " . . . r o o m in it for single semi-tones provided they remain unstressed transition notes."  135  A s a result, the melodic span o f this scale is  comprised o f both a major and a minor chord. Thus, the audience o f music based on this type o f mode is generally left with the impression that the piece hovers between a major and minor key.  B y analyzing the first section o f The Rabbi's Wedding at the  Palmerston Shul score, 1 believe that G l i c k is using the idea o f a pentatonic scale as the basis for his initial melody though the first part o f this movement (measures 1-24) is in E +. b  1 3 7  In this case, the tonic, or first note, o f the pentatonic scale is G with the G - and  B + triads as the foundational chords (see Figure 3.4). b  Avenary (1978) 79. Schoenberg 1927 as quoted in Avenary (1978) 64. Curt Sachs, "The Road to Major." Musical Quarterly. 29 (1943). Avenary (1978)64. When I state that Glick is using the idea of a pentatonic scale, I am referring to the fact that measures 124 are based in the key of E major, but that the initial melodic scale is presented in the style of pentatonic cantillation with a tonic of G. u i  134  135  136  137  b  49  o Figure 3.4 Pentatonic scale used by G l i c k in the first section o f his fourth movement, "The Rabbi's Wedding at the Palmerston Shul."  Figure 3.5 The first section o f Glick's fourth movement shows the use o f the G - third and the F - third as a nucleus for the melody.  Figure 3.6 A variation on the cantorial 'fanfare motif seen in Glick's fourth movement. This motif starts on the tonic G, ascends the scale ending on a melodic turn onto the third tone o f the scale.  50 Within the framework of the pentatonic scale, musical motifs are traditionally developed out o f a nucleus o f three neighboring sounds comprised o f the scale's major or minor thirds.  138  A s can be seen in the Figure 3.5, this cantorial practice is also echoed in  G l i c k ' s fourth movement (measures 7 to 9) in the initial, in-time double bass melody. In the motives presented in this Figure, the minor thirds o f G to B and F to A serve as the b  b  nucleus for the double bass's melody. However, as with the cantillation tradition,  139  the pentatonic scale is not always  strictly observed and discordant semitones are used regularly as transition notes. One example o f the use o f these discordant transition notes appears in what Hanoch Avenary calls a 'fanfare m o t i f . The 'fanfare m o t i f appears in Torah chant as an ascending movement up the pentatonic scale followed by a descending scale ending i n a melodic turn onto the third tone o f the scale.  140  In G l i c k ' s composition, this motif can be seen in  the introduction o f the viola into the movement before moving into a restatement o f the original double bass melody (Figure 3.6). Though this version o f the cantorial 'fanfare' uses additional embellishments, the core o f the motive is still present. Through a detailed investigation o f both the Ashkenazic cantorial practices and the first segment o f G l i c k ' s The Rabbi's  Wedding at the Palmerston  Shul, it seems  evident that traditional cantillation was used as a foundation for this part o f G l i c k ' s composition. The combination o f these characteristics o f Jewish chant with instrumentation typical o f classical Western music results in a warm, soulful prayer that succeeds in harmonizing two different and diverse musical traditions.  138  139  140  Riemann 1916 as quoted in Avenary (1978) 69. Ibid., 64. Ibid., 70-71.  51  This section (measures 1-60), in addition to introducing new ideas and motives, recalls material presented earlier in the O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite. The practice o f restating earlier motives towards the end o f a suite is common in Western art music as it serves to draw together the diversity o f the composition into a unified whole. This is seen most clearly in the waltz section o f the movement which reintroduces the material from both Kensington  Market and The Roselawn  Cemetery (Figure 3.7). This is a  thematic motive which recurs in several forms throughout the suite, with the exception o f The United  Baker's  Dairy Restaurant  movement.  The celebratory section (measures 61-172) o f The Rabbi's Palmerston bulgar.  Wedding at the  Shul appears to have been influenced by the popular Jewish dance, the  Derived from the bulgaresti  or bulgareasca,  the bulgar is a moderate to lively  paced circle dance. It derives its rhythmic uniqueness through the subdivision o f beats in its 8/8 meter. The melody is lifted and driven when two groups o f three beats followed by one group o f two beats is played against a steady "oom-pah" in the bass. The pattern 123-456-78 with the emphasis on the underscored beat is implied in every bar o f a bulgar even i f it isn't actually played throughout the piece.  141  Although the second section o f G l i c k ' s The Rabbi's Shul is i n 4/4 time, not 8/8,  142  Wedding at the  Palmerston  at the beginning o f the initial transition (measure 61), there  is a strong 8/8 feel in this section. In Figure 3.8, the initial statement o f the bass line is seen. Alternating between the double bass and the violin/viola, the steady "oom-pah" beat is initialized. This bass line is seen in various forms throughout this section providing drive to the melody. The most blatant statement o f the 3-3-2 bulgar pattern Sapoznik, 300-301. In this case, 4/4 time means four quarter-notes per measure. Mathematically, this is equivalent to 8/8 meter as there are two eighth-notes per quarter-note. 141  142  52  "The Rabbi's Wedding at the Palmerston Shul"  "Roselawn Cemetery" m m . 7-10  Figure 3.7 Recurring thematic motive present in three of the four movements in Glick's Suite.  53  mm. 63-64 e»  |<£i>  ¥ J  i  {  ' ti \  •> ^  V  )f  J i  ^—  1—  j  4  1 m-m  1  is  i\  44  I  •*  <  %  • • -2  •  F 1  f  44  0  *  w  _p  W  4—  1  Figure 3.8 The " O o m Pah" pattern, used to drive the bulgar, is continued throughout most o f the second section (mm. 61-172) o f Glick's fourth movement.  mm. 140 -141  > • f  W  > •  .  > •  H H  1t— i  1  •|  > 0  j- W|  > •  > •  H H  — if—  iw  1s— gw  Figure 3.9 Subverted bulgar rhythm in Glick's fourth movement. The accents are grouped such that the rhythm is suggested though altered.  54  is initially seen two-thirds o f the way through the celebratory section. A t measure 140, the solid, full chord motive, as seen in Figure 3.9, seems to be a subverted representation o f the bulgar rhythm. In the bulgar's  use o f this rhythm, emphasis is placed on the first,  fourth and seventh beats o f each measure. Conversely, in G l i c k ' s pattern the accents, which are altered slightly, fall on the first, third and seventh beats. While this seems incongruous with the bulgar, G l i c k ' s accents serve to group the rhythmic sections together so that the beat groupings fall into three sections similar to the bulgar's  8/8  meter. Thus, it seems that this section is a reflection o f the lively dance derived from Moldavian-Bessarabia; yet, by altering the accents, Glick works against the expectations o f an audience that is knowledgeable about this folk dance. The rhythmic pattern o f the bulgar is also seen in the bass o f the piano parts o f Kensington  Market  (measures 65-68).  (measures 68-73) and The United Baker's 143  Dairy  Restaurant  A s in the final movement o f this suite, this rhythm is seen during a  common time section, not in the 8/8 meter o f the traditional bulgar form. While the idea o f the bulgar is only truly felt in the fourth movement, it is foreshadowed in these earlier segments. This also serves to unify the Jewish themes in the suite. Srul Irving G l i c k ' s use o f Jewish modes and rhythmic patterns has also been clearly established in George Evelyn's D M A dissertation on i never saw another butterfly, i never saw another butterfly is a six-song song-cycle with Jewish elements in four o f the songs. In addition to chant-like motives and the use o f rhythms from the <• sanctification chant, YisRadal vyiskadash shimeh raba,  144  both the Prophetic  145  and the  The pattern in Kensington Market shows Glick's altered accents, while The United Baker's Dairy Restaurant example shows the true bulgar rhythm with the first, fourth and seventh beats accented. Evelyn, 10. These rhythms are used in Yes, That's the Way Things Are. Ibid., 15. This mode is used in Narrative. 143  144  145  55  Pentateuch  146  modes are employed. Yet, the importance o f Evelyn's text is that it  illustrates the deliberateness with which G l i c k utilized these musical idioms in a piece written twenty years before the composition currently under investigation. The second song in the cycle, Yes, That's the Way Things Are, utilizes both the chant rhythms o f a sanctification chant and modal writing in a transposed form o f the Pentateuch mode. The key point to this piece is when the two elements come together at the same time that "The authors o f the text were obviously taken by the 'queer old granddad' as he sat in the 'park' p r a y i n g . "  147  B y bringing these musical elements  together with the text o f the song, G l i c k powerfully reinforces the meaning o f the words. This pattern is repeated i n the third verse o f the cycle's sixth song, Butterfly, when textual reference to the Jewish people is heightened by concurrent musical motives that suggest Hebrew chant.  148  The deliberate manner in which G l i c k overlaps musical and literary  ideas indicates that he is a composer for whom no compositional elements may be left to chance, a trait that continued throughout his composing career. The historic, ethnic and musical strata present in Srul Irving G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite are varied and complex. The basic foundation o f the composition centers around the Toronto Jewish community o f the 1940s Kensington district. Through the use of title and subtitle, Glick evokes the urban community o f his youth, while his layers o f rhythmic and melodic idioms create a unique blend o f musical traditions. Thus, the score's text and music reflect both his personal and cultural heritage. The presence o f such diverse and complex thematic content lends itself to deeper analysis. A s shown above, it is apparent that G l i c k left little unexamined in the creation 146 147  148  Ibid., 9, 14. This mode is used in both Yes, Thai's the Way Things Are, and The Little Mouse. Ibid., 10. Ibid., 17-18.  56 o f his compositions. Due to the personal significance o f these themes to the composer, and the perceptible connections to his youth, autobiography theory seems a useful analytical tool. In the following chapter, the initial steps o f this investigation, as already laid out, w i l l be expanded to include questions o f autobiography and the deeper meanings which might be revealed through such inquiry.  57  Chapter I V Finding Autobiography in Musical Terms  Autobiography, as defined by the Concise Oxford Dictionary, is "1) a personal account o f one's own life, especially for publication, 2) this a process or literary form." Despite this broad definition, this form o f literary narrative has long been viewed as the purview o f middle to upper class, Western European men; the men who, in the eyes o f history, had something important to say. Within this model, the stories o f minority racial or religious groups, homosexuals, members o f the lower classes and women held no interest, let alone sway. Moreover, these stories were to be told in a particular, acceptable fashion: a linear narrative, generally starting at birth, with the inclusion o f important people and/or historic events which added to the stature o f the author. Over the past forty years, these views regarding autobiography have been shifting. A s North American society has become more in tune to ideas o f religious, sexual and racial equality, so too have the definitions o f autobiography begun to change. N o longer is the story o f the victor the only tale o f import, nor is the victor's method o f relating his experiences the only acceptable form o f narrative.  149  For example, women's diaries, long  considered too insignificant to engage interest, are now being published and studied with great sincerity. The term 'autobiography' itself has become problematic as many still bind it within the confines o f a narrow definition. M a n y publishers have begun using the phrase 'life writing' in connection with personal stories which do not fit comfortably within the older, limited boundaries o f autobiography. It is this category into which, I believe, Srul 149  Many of these changes in autobiography theory are well laid out in Diane Bjorklund's introduction, 1-12.  58  Irving G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite falls. A traditional definition o f autobiography would never admit a musical composition, even one with such personal elements as this suite, i f only because music was not deemed to fit within the realm o f literature. Conversely, life writing is a more fluid concept. It is less bound by literary conventions, defined instead by the question o f whether or not a composition is telling stories, in any way, about a life. In O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, Srul Irving Glick presents the tapestry o f his childhood. Through song and text, he presents the flavor and character(s) o f the community o f his youth. W i t h this composition, G l i c k has written about his life, even i f the method he has utilized is comprised o f notes rather than words. Consequently, it is possible to use some aspects o f current autobiography theory to investigate the possibility o f deeper meanings in this text. For, as James Olney notes: W e shall never have the experience in consciousness that the autobiographer had, and consequently we shall never know what, in his deepest and inaccessible self, he was. But we might, from autobiography, as from drama or poetry, know what man has been, or what forms have proved possible to humanity, which is a knowledge that one seeks with the intention more particularly o f knowing what •  man is.  150  It is accepted that, in the act o f writing an autobiography, writers are consciously communicating with a future audience o f readers.  151  So too do composers write with the  intention o f communicating with an audience o f readers, the musicians who w i l l perform the work. Their music then reaches further to an audience o f listeners who gain their James Olney, Metaphors of Self: The Meaning of Autobiography (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1972) xi. James Olney has been in and out of favor with the academic community for much of his career. Shortly after his work emerged, it was greatly disputed by other academics. At present, he is looked on more kindly, if still not fully accepted. M y interest in Olney lies in his belief that other forms of literature, such as poetry, as well as art, may be seen as autobiographical in nature. While I am not arguing that this composition is an autobiography, I am attempting to show that it possesses some autobiographical elements. Bjorklund, 16-17. 151  59  experience o f the composer through the presentation o f the musicians. This, in many ways, is analogous to an individual reading a book aloud to a group. The group does not, in fact, see the words on the page, but is presented with an interpretation o f those words, colored by the shading, inflections, pauses, and overall delivery o f the reader. This may seem to be a large divide between autobiographies and musical compositions, but there are commonalities. Inherent within the publication process o f an autobiography is the mediation and interpretation o f the editor and publisher. These figures make decisions regarding the packaging and presentation o f the text. For example, they determine the style o f the book jacket, the illustrations that w i l l be included and excluded, where such illustrations w i l l be placed in the book and so on. These are decisions, or interpretations, that the reader might overlook during his own investigation o f the text. In this way, the decisions o f the editors and publishers are analogous to those o f the musicians when they perform a piece of music. The audience at a concert is not reading the score while listening to the performance and, thus, is likely to be unaware o f editorial decisions the performers make about articulation, trill length, speed and the numerous other details that make up the creation o f music. A l l o f these decisions, whether made by a musician or an editor, influence the way a musical or literary composition is received by an audience. Additionally, just as an autobiographer composes his narrative through the selection o f "facts" or "events" from their l i f e ,  152  G l i c k has also shaped his presentation.  Places and events were chosen or discarded in a conscious act of creating scenes and telling a story. One question that arises regards the composer's motivations for choosing these specific places for his representation o f the Toronto Jewish community. It must 152  Bjorklund, 17.  60  firstly be noted that, with the exception o f his final movement, G l i c k chose places for his representation, not events or people. B y doing so, Glick places this composition into a firm historical context. A s this piece is clearly intended to be associated with the Toronto Jewish community, the composition may be firmly placed in the context o f 1930s and 1940s Toronto. It is at this time that Kensington market was central to the Jewish community. The Palmerston shul, while outside the Kensington district, was within walking distance and still a central part o f community life. Roselawn cemetery was well outside the area, set apart from the community as is common with cemeteries. Yet, the importance o f this cemetery both to G l i c k and the community is well established, placing it into the framework o f the Jewish Toronto o f the 1930s and 1940s. In terms o f musical framing, these places allowed G l i c k a wider scope o f presentation than would have been available i f he had chosen specific people. If he had chosen four people instead o f four places, he would only have been able to present stories relating to five individuals, himself and his four subjects. B y choosing places instead, G l i c k was able to represent dozens, i f not hundreds, o f stories. He could create a picture o f business owners, customers, mourners, waiters, philosophers, parents, worshippers, celebrants, and so on, all within a context o f places rather than o f people. This brings to light the issue o f the ' s e l f , a key component to autobiography. John Sturrock puts forth that it is an intrinsic quality o f an autobiographer that he already has a " . . .proper name that is known to others as a result o f the public achievements that entitle h i m to come forward as an autobiographer; he is singular to start with. The function o f the account he w i l l give is to reaffirm his singularity from within, by  61  justifying it not as an original given but as a lived process."  153  This necessary quality  seems to be a remnant o f older philosophies that only certain people w i l l have something worthwhile to say. Glick, however, does fit well into this category. B y the time he wrote  i J  this suite, G l i c k was at the zenith o f his career. A t the age o f 64, he had long since gained prominence within the Canadian music world, been made composer-in-residence o f his shul, and completed several hundred compositions. Therefore, the singularity o f this composer was well established. Current autobiography theory dictates that the study o f how people use the idea o f ' s e l f in day to day life is an important factor in determining how historical and cultural variants have influenced understandings o f the self. Diane Bjorklund notes that theorists are now attempting to determine the ways in which different groups understand the self.  154  T o this end, we must understand that for many, but not all, Jews, the expression  o f self is often subordinate to the needs o f the community, as in matters o f spirituality. Idelsohn suggests that: .. .Israel's prayers are not exclusively in the singular form; they are not prayers for individuals only, but prayers for the household o f Israel. The same needs, hopes, wishes, and ideals motivate the entire community. The individual is a part o f the community. He does not stand by himself; he could not exist by himself. He is incorporated into the community, and is influenced by the moral strength o f the community. A t the same time - although in the plural - Israel's prayers interpret the life o f the individual. To be aware that a whole community has the same wishes and hopes as he has and shares the same troubles and distress, is in itself a consolation for the i n d i v i d u a l . 155  Robert Folkenflik ed., The Culture of Autobiography: Constructions of Self-Representation (California: Stanford University Press, 1993), 27. Bjorklund, 5. Thus, the Selicha (intercession for pardon), Techinna (outbursts of repentance), Kina (lamentations), and Bakkasha (pleading for a boon) are all taken on individual and community levels, especially since the destruction of the Second Temple and the subsequent increase in persecution of the Jewish people. Idelsohn (1944) 74. Idelsohn makes this statement having studied the Jewish liturgical and folk music of Ashkenazic, Sephardic and Oriental Jewish patterns. Despite his extensive research, this statement is very generalized and is unlikely to be reflective of all individuals and communities. In many cases, tension is created between the needs of the individual and the expectations of the community. I 3 J  154  155  62  The individual self thus may, in certain cases, be interconnected with the community in all aspects o f life. This conception o f the self is quite different from most models which attempt to place the individual on a pedestal beyond and completely separated from the problems and concerns o f other members o f his commune. While this concept o f self is not universal within Judaism, a separation o f Glick from his community does not seem to be present in his composition. It is not a " . . .record o f singularization" where one attempts to rise above the masses.  156  Instead, G l i c k appears to revel in the churning, lively,  immigrant masses o f the Kensington district presenting it in a cheerful, idyllic setting. Moreover, the early importance o f congregational life in his father's work and his experiences i n Habonim where national unity and rebuilding were emphasized likely resulted i n an extremely developed sense o f community. Yet, this collective concept o f self in G l i c k ' s experiences o f the Jewish community also allows him the opportunity to reinforce certain ideas in this community through his music. The O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite reaches out to a potentially wide audience. A t the core o f this composition are themes and musical motifs which are solidly, unmistakably Jewish i n nature. This serves a very important purpose both internal and external to the Toronto Jewish community. Firstly, by incorporating Jewish folk and liturgical idioms into an art music composition, G l i c k clearly denounces the concepts o f high and low music. B y placing the varying motives on an equal level, he is emphasizing the importance and musical complexities o f musical forms some still consider unworthy o f attention. 156  Sturrock, 27.  63  Additionally, the centrality o f these themes, and the skill with which they are woven together with other styles, refutes the idea that Jewish people are culturally or creatively inferior. The power o f this composition celebrates Jewish heritage and encourages listeners to embrace identity. The fact that it was a commissioned work, publicly performed and subsequently recorded shows that acceptance o f Jewish faith and identity can occur without jeopardizing an artistic career. Moreover, that identity may be brought forth into one's work and still have that work flourish. Thus, by celebrating his musical legacy and sharing it with others through his composition, G l i c k is reinforcing a positive cultural identity and outlook within the Toronto Jewish community. Just as the import o f conceptions o f self has been shown, the 'vocabulary o f the s e l f also becomes very important in autobiography as it allows theorists to study changing perceptions o f self-understanding.  157  However, for a composer, this vocabulary  is unlikely to occur in terms o f accepted language; instead, it is likely to revolve around the musical currency o f his life. This currency would be, not only the styles in which he composed, but also in those media which had influenced his life for years. In the case o f liturgical music, this would be a currency shared, in part, with the religious community in which it occurred. A s Bjorklund notes, i f the intention o f autobiographers is to make sense to a general audience, then the vocabulary that is used must contain shared ideas.  158  It could,  therefore, be argued that Jewish liturgical music is not a shared vocabulary when dealing with a non-Jewish audience. However, as previously noted, the liturgical music o f Ashkenaz has intermixed with Western European musical traditions for centuries such  157  158  Bjorklund, 8. Bjorklund, 10.  64  that the vocabulary o f this music is not foreign to a Western, gentile audience. There would be cultural keys that a non-Jewish audience would be unlikely to decode, but the overall form would be familiar in its content. Moreover, the many Western art music elements present i n O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite, including the overall instrumental composition o f the suite, would make this piece comfortably recognizable for a gentile audience. The issue o f audience is one o f interest in music as well as literature. Authors and composers alike take into account the expected reactions o f their audience, and the presentation o f a composition w i l l depend, in part, on the author's assumed audience. In autobiography, this is layered with the knowledge that once the self-portrait is completed it cannot be "altered, enriched, impoverished, beclouded, and q u a l i f i e d . "  159  I would add  that the audience is likely to do all o f these things based on their own background and experiences, but that the author has little control over those aspects o f perception. In the same vein, a musical composition, once completed by the composer, is set; yet, the musicians and audience w i l l add their own interpretations to the foundation set by the composer. G l i c k ' s O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite was commissioned for performance in Toronto; it, therefore, seems likely that his intended audience was three-fold. Firstly, it was written with the current (1997-98) Toronto Jewish community in mind. This is supported by the dedication to his mother and the overall subject matter o f the composition. The Toronto Jewish community, as with many Canadian Jewish communities, has a common base o f knowledge, understanding and familiarity. A s mentioned in Chapter III, it is often a case o f 'Jewish geography', resulting in a closely 159  Robert Perinbanayagam (1991, 12) as quoted in Bjorklund, 17.  65  knit community. Consequently, Glick was able to use a community-shorthand with this implied audience. A s with autobiography where an audience o f friends and family requires less elaboration for comprehension,  160  G l i c k was able to assume that there would  be an underlying knowledge o f community history and recognition o f common musical motifs which would not require explanation. The second intended audience, again determined by the fact that this suite was to be performed i n Toronto, was the greater Toronto community comprised o f multiple socio-economic, racial and religious elements. In this larger audience, autobiographers would provide further description in order to ensure that the readers understand the references, at least in part.  161  It appears that G l i c k has fulfilled this requirement for wider  understanding through his choice o f movements. With the exception o f his final movement, all o f the places chosen are still in existence today. They may have moved, as is the case with the United Baker's Dairy Restaurant, or taken on more diverse cultural influences, such as Kensington market, but they still exist as highly visible and recognizable sites within the larger Toronto community. Moreover, although the Palmerston Shul is no longer standing, the concept o f a rabbi and a wedding would be recognizable for this wider audience. Finally, the greater community o f musicians and music lovers would have been considered as a probable audience. While no initial plans for recording were made at the time o f composition, composers work with the intention o f being heard. W i t h i n such a scenario, composers, as well as authors, m u s t " . . .consider general standards o f taste..."  I6U  161  Bjorklund, 18. Bjorklund, 18.  66  in a diverse audience.  A s such, G l i c k has created a beautiful, lyrically moving work  which is likely to appeal to the majority o f art music performers and listeners. If it is possible to accept the assumption that there are similarities between the process o f creating literature and the process o f composing a musical composition, then it is reasonable to believe that there are also psychological similarities between these two processes. Susanna Egan, in the introduction to her book "Patterns o f Experience in Autobiography," notes that: Whether persuaded by...the simplifying effect o f a personal memory or by the constraints that language imposes on any attempt to relate experience, we learn to summarize crucial and multiform activities and happenings under headings like "childhood", "adolescence", and "mid-life crisis". Such verbal reductionism also affects the autobiographer, who approaches the more formidable task o f writing his life as a narrative. He, too, describes his life in terms o f certain distinct stages... The autobiographer, furthermore, describes these stages according to more elaborate literary conventions than the conversationalist, not only in terms o f summary titles but also in terms o f certain narrative patterns. 163  Thus Egan notes that this habit o f categorizing a life in terms o f stages is a common pattern among people. While composers are not able to use 'elaborate literary conventions' to represent these life stages, the central themes o f their musical narratives are discernable in their compositions. A s already noted, this composition is a reflection o f the Toronto Jewish community o f Srul Irving G l i c k ' s childhood. Through his use o f title and sub-title, the composition is firmly placed in this period. Therefore, during the composition o f this piece, G l i c k was already contemplating these vignettes in terms of his early memories.  Bjorklund, 19. Susanna Egan, Patterns of Experience in Autobiography (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984)3. 162  163  67  Realizing this, the question arises as to how this process of creation might have affected the overall completed composition. Firstly, it is important to note that the composer presents a cheerful, idyllic picture of the Toronto Jewish community, both in the style of music and in the choice of sites to be depicted. True, Glick does present a mournful scene for his second movement, The Roselawn Cemetery, but this does not detract from the general picture of happy cohesion. Death is accepted as a natural part of life within the Jewish community and the presence of a consecrated cemetery is often one of the first steps in establishing a Jewish community. Thus, despite the mournful cry of strings in this section, there is no indication of deeper pain or discord in this segment. In this way, Glick is utilizing the much used metaphor of the Edenic paradise of childhood which has been seen throughout modern autobiographies. Within this metaphor, a paradise is created in which the world is a static, and perfect, place. "Wilderness and garden represent the final polar opposites of a paradigm; wilderness belongs to adults. Only children, green and golden, inhabit the garden; when they leave the garden, they leave their childhood behind."  164  For Glick, this place of perfection is the Kensington district of the 1930s and 40s, forever unchanging in his memory. Little discord mars this reflection and, unlike most autobiographies, this composition also lives eternally in the paradise as it does not continue on into the wilderness of adulthood. It is a framed presentation of a snapshot both in time and in Glick's life. As Egan notes, " A l l aspects of Eden are single, timeless, perfect, and unchanging,"  Egan, 70. Egan, 72  165  and this is certainly true of Old Toronto Klezmer Suite.  68  Throughout the suite, G l i c k presents reflections o f those people who meant most to h i m at that time. H i s father is invoked through his use o f long, lyrical strands representative in mood and mode o f a cantor's chant. He also depicts the shul, an institution in which he spent much o f his childhood shadowing his father's work. Through the dedication to this composition, his mother is remembered and her life, as well as the life o f the Toronto Jewish community, is celebrated. In a less tangible fashion, she is also invoked through the use o f musical characteristics o f the bulgar. Derived from the Moldavian-Bessarabian bulgareasca,  Glick harkens back to his  mother's homeland in tribute. A s previously mentioned, G l i c k ' s second movement acts as an elegy for the brother he never knew; while the composition as a whole, with its art music structure and presentation, reflects the influence o f the brother with whom he was raised. This presentation o f perfection also plays into G l i c k ' s desire as a young man to be a universal composer. It was only after many years o f study and searching that G l i c k decided he needed to be true to his heritage; yet, he is still attempting to reach all people. Just as occurs with other autobiographers, he is "assuming with some justification a sensible equation between the story o f his life and that o f humankind."  166  That is to say  that, i n some way, all people w i l l relate to his life and, by extension, his composition. Moreover, this composition reflects the psychological dichotomy which often exists in childhood. In his work, Claude Levi-Strauss illustrates how the child-like mind conceptualizes the world and everything in it in terms o f opposites. Children first learn the extremes and then slowly build a continuum o f experience between the extremes.  166  1 6 7  Egan, 68. As shown in Egan, 19.  167  69  Glick's suite reflects these extremes in the presentation and placement of The Cemetery  Roselawn  movement. The majority of the composition reflects the happy perfection of  the community as seen by a child. However, sandwiched between the playful bustle of Kensington  Market  and the joyful waltz of The United Baker's Dairy Restaurant  is the  mournfulness of the community cemetery. This movement is at once peaceful and melancholy; yet the sadness is not the deep pain of personally-felt loss, but the reflection of someone else's grief. In this case, the reflection is of his parents' loss of a child. Glick, therefore, placed the disquiet of this discovery between the joyful memories of the market and the restaurant thereby reinforcing the polarities of the three movements. On opposing sides of autobiography theory are Linda Anderson, who believes that autobiography must be controlled and contained within strict disciplinary boundaries,  168  and Candace Lang, who purports the idea that autobiography may be implicated in any work depending on the way it is read.  169  In the context of this chapter, I have attempted  to illustrate the diverse potential of autobiography theory. Those questions and debates which form the core of the autobiography genre may also inform other creative disciplines such as composition. Though Srul Irving Glick's Old Toronto Klezmer Suite is not an autobiography, there is little doubt that it is a form of life writing presenting specific vignettes of his childhood. Through the use of autobiography theory, new layers of interpretation have been gained, uncovering a composer in possession of great personal, cultural and societal conscience.  Linda Anderson, Autobiography (New York: Routledge, 2001) 1-2. Candace Lang, "Autobiography in the Aftermath of Romanticism," Diacritics 12 (1982) 6.  70  Chapter V Conclusion: The Synthesis of Srul Irving Glick  It is important that Canada be mindful o f her composers. They are representative of the great ethnic diversity o f the country and may well be reflective o f deeper social, political and cultural issues which exist here. It would be easiest to accept that research which has gone before in the United States, buying into the idea that North America is a homogenous entity; however, the social and political histories o f the two countries have been distinct suggesting that the cultural and artistic outcome may also be distinct. It is important that Canadian scholars take time to determine where the similarities end and Canadian distinctiveness begins. In 1998, Srul Irving G l i c k completed the composition O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite. After more than forty years working as a composer, G l i c k created this suite which shows itself to be deep with meaning and a well balanced blend o f Jewish and Western art music traditions. A s was shown in Chapter II, Srul Irving Glick did not have an easy path as he attempted to become established as a composer. The Canadian art music world was small and insular. It possessed little interest in expanding its walls to include and mentor young talent, so G l i c k found it necessary to travel to the United States and Europe in order to gain the validation and additional training he required. Frustrated with the Canadian music world's deficiencies, this time away allowed G l i c k to learn the importance o f identity in work as creative and personal as composition. Thus, when he  71 was asked to return to his homeland, he was steadfast in his commitment not to trade his Jewish legacy for professional acceptance. While G l i c k struggled to find work in his first year home, he would soon begin reshaping the landscape o f Canadian music. W i t h the help o f friend and fellow composer Louis Applebaum, G l i c k began working for the Canadian Broadcasting Company as a producer making decisions about what music would reach the Canadian listeners. Moreover, he became extremely active in the Canadian League o f Composers acting as president from 1966 to 1969 and furthering the cause o f up and coming composers. In these ways, G l i c k began breaking down the boundaries he had found so stifling and unproductive. Determined now to find balance between his life in the Toronto Jewish community and his existence in the largely non-Jewish art music community, G l i c k began looking for ways to meld his diverse musical background into his own style. In O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite these varied threads have been intricately woven into a rich musical tapestry. Both in his use o f titles and subtitles, and with his mixture o f liturgical, folk and classical motives, G l i c k depicts an almost seamless blending o f cultural traditions. Through his choice o f subject matter, G l i c k also draws his audience back to the Toronto Jewish community o f his youth. The suite is presented in an idealized fashion filled with beauty, joy and playfulness. Only an echo o f his parents' grief at the loss o f their child disrupts his urban garden, and even that pain is filled with beauty. O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite is a deeply personal creation for Srul Irving G l i c k . Written in tribute to his mother, Ida Glick, and completed on the first anniversary o f her  72  death, there is little separation between the composer and his composition. Reflective o f the Toronto Jewish community o f his boyhood, it seems apparent that this suite possesses an autobiographical quality that should not be ignored. B y utilizing current autobiography theory it has been possible to discover additional layers o f meaning in this composition. It has also been discovered that questions o f compositional process and that o f literary process are not necessarily far removed from one another. B y investigating questions o f personal identity and conceptions o f self, G l i c k ' s sense o f community responsibility has been uncovered. Through his composition, he was able to address issues o f inferiority, Jewish identity and cultural creativity presenting a strong message to those following in his wake. A s he remarked in an interview (1975), " I ' m a Canadian composer who is a Jew - and proud o f i t . "  170  He was also able to speak  to the musical community and attempt to dissolve the still existing mental barriers regarding musical complexity and significance. Through great effort and perseverance, Srul Irving G l i c k gained a prominent place in the Canadian art music world while working with great renown and dedication in the world o f Jewish liturgical music. His career and compositional contributions have been honoured on the local, national and international stages. Moreover, his music had been widely performed and recorded allowing him to speak to an immense audience o f musicians and music lovers worldwide. This thesis has focused its investigation on Srul G l i c k ' s life and one o f his compositions. In both areas there is much more work which could be completed. O l d Toronto Klezmer Suite is a highly complex piece o f music. This thesis has only scratched the surface o f what exists here musically. Moreover, I believe that there is a 170  "A Composer's Contribution." 4.  73  need for greater research into the life o f Srul Irving Glick. Throughout his lifetime, G l i c k composed hundreds o f compositions in a wide range o f media. H i s liturgical compositions alone number over two hundred. Within his sacred music, he was most well known for the choral works he completed for his choir at Beth Tikvah synagogue. This vast body o f work has undoubtedly influenced the course o f Jewish liturgical music in Canada and would provide an interesting area o f investigation. This Canadian composer was instrumental in the development o f music in Canada for decades. Only through additional research w i l l Srul Irving G l i c k ' s contributions be fully understood.  74  Bibliography  " A Composer's Contribution: Being A b l e to Say Something 'Particular'." Composer. 103 (September 1975): p. 4-11.  Canadian  Abella, Irving. A Coat o f M a n y Colours: T w o Centuries o f Jewish Life in Canada. Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys Ltd., 1990. Alvarez-Pereyre, Frank. " Towards an Interdisciplinary Study o f Jewish Oral Traditions." 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