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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Infrastructure, production, and the public realm Trumble, Anne R. 2005

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INFRASTRUCTURE, P R O D U C T I O N , A N D THE PUBLIC R E A L M by A n n e R. Trumble B.S. Horticulture, University of N e b r a s k a - Lincoln, 1998 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE D E G R E E O F MASTER O F L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE in FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES [ L A N D S C A P E ARCHITECTURE]  THE UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A S e p t e m b e r 2005 © A n n e R. Trumble, 2005  This project posits the need for a design approach to the use of urban sub-infrastructural spaces as public space. The potential held within these neglected parts of the city presents opportunities for the integration of architecture and landscape. The site beneath the infrastructure of the downtown Granville Bridge is one of the last remaining undeveloped parts of downtown False Creek. Surrounded by extreme residential density, the site is formed by the infrastructure creating a unique space unlike any other in the city. Artists involved in small scale industrial production such as textile, fashion, film, and furniture, rely on the city for survival. The design, prototype, production, display, consumption, and involvement of these activities within the public realm are important components to the identity and vigor of any metropolitan city. This project will explore, capture, and capitalize on the unique landscape qualities of partial enclosure provided by the bridge structure. This existing condition provides a spatial quality that is suggestive of opportunities for the integration of interior and exterior functions. With appro-  priate design intervention this place can become a unique public space while fulfilling the need for a production and entertainment space in downtown Vancouver.  <2 C f!^ Q (j  Title Page Abstract Table of Contents List of Figures Acknowledgements  i ii iii iv-vi vii  ^ —  Introduction Project Basis/Theory Current Production.... Project Summary Site Inventory/Analysis Site Exploration Ground, In Between, Horizontal/Vertical, Light Design Methodology Organizing Principles Program Detail Design  1-2 3-6 7-9 10 11-21 22-33  Appendix Recent Policy/Reports Bibliography  34 35-38 39-69 70-71  72-77 78-81  1.1 [ p a g e 1] North A m e r i c a n Port City, 8?  . 1950's, Getty Images  3.5 [ p a g e 9] L ' E s p a c e Dubruiel, V a n c o u -  5.14  ver, 2004, p h o t o by author  uses, d a t a a n d g r a p h i c b y author  [ p a g e 16] Site a n d a d j a c e n t l a n d  3  1.2 [ p a g e 1 ] Brooklyn Bridge Waterfront  ^}  Park, NewYork, 2002, w w w . m v v a i n c . c o m  4.1 [ p a g e 10] Granville Street enter-  ^  1.3 [ p a g e 1] O l y m p i c Sculpture Park,  tainment district from Granville Bridge,  g r a p h i c by author  O  Seattle, 2002, w w w . m o m a . o r g  Vancouver  5.16  •*—  1.4 [ p a g e 2] G e o r g e Wainborne Park  =  5.15  [ p a g e 16] Circulation o n a n d  a r o u n d site, V a n m a p d a t a , d a t a a n d [ p a g e 17] Project Site, City of  V a n c o u v e r Planning D e p a r t m e n t ortho  a n d C o n c o r d e Pacific D e v e l o p m e n t ,  5.1 [ p a g e 11 ] Site location in relation to  photo  Vancouver, 2004, p h o t o b y author  Greater Vancouver, City of V a n c o u v e r  5.17  1.5 [ p a g e 2] Waterfront O p e n S p a c e ,  Planning Department  author  Vancouver, V a n m a p d a t a 2004, g r a p h i c  5.2 [ p a g e 11] Aerial location of site,  5.18  by author  Waite Air Photography, 2004, g r a p h i c by  V a n c o u v e r Planning D e p a r t m e n t ortho  author  photo  2.1 [ p a g e 3] S a n t a Claus P a r a d e , Burrard  5.3 [ p a g e 11 ] Site in relation to False  5.19  a n d Nelson, Vancouver, 2004, p h o t o by  Creek, City of V a n c o u v e r Planning D e -  author  author  partment ortho, 2004, g r a p h i c by author  5.20  2.2 [ p a g e 3] Building roof as potential  5.4 [ p a g e 11 ] Specific site boundaries,  ments, V a n m a p d a t a , g r a p h i c b y author  [ p a g e 17] On-site uses, photos by [ p a g e 18] Site a d j a c e n c i e s . City of  [ p a g e 18] Off-site uses, photos by [ p a g e 19] Site contours in 1 m incre-  g r o u n d , Vancouver, 2004, p h o t o by  City of V a n c o u v e r Planning D e p a r t m e n t  5.21  author  ortho, 2004, graphic by author  d a t a , g r a p h i c b y author  2.3 [ p a g e 4] B e n e a t h Ueno Station  5.5 [ p a g e 12] False C r e e k from Granville  5.22  Tracks, Tokyo, 2004, p h o t o b y author  Bridge, 1950, City of V a n c o u v e r Archives  d a t a , g r a p h i c b y author  2.4 [ p a g e 4] P r o m e n a d e d e Plantee,  5.6 [ p a g e 12] View from 1 st a n d Burrard  5.23  Paris, www.highline.org  of n e w Granville Bridge, 1956, City of  g r a p h i c by author  2.5 [ p a g e 4] S h o p p i n g b e l o w C h i c a g o ' s  V a n c o u v e r Archives  5.24  'L', w e b i m a g e  5.7 [ p a g e 13] Central A r e a planning  trian d e s i g n a t e d areas a n d points of  2.6 [ p a g e 5] C a r r a s c o p l e i n Infrastructure  jurisdiction. City of V a n c o u v e r Planning  c o n n e c t i o n with the g r o u n d , V a n m a p  Park, The H a g u e , Netherlands, www.  Department  ortho, 2004, g r a p h i c by author  west8.nl  5.8 [ p a g e 13] N e i g h b o u r h o o d s within  5.25  2.7 [ p a g e 5] Flushing M e a d o w s C o r o n a  Central A r e a , City of V a n c o u v e r Planning  a n d curbs, 2004, p h o t o b y author  Park, NewYork, Gastil a n d Ryan, 2004  Department  5.26  2.8 [ p a g e 6] Skatepark under C a m b i e  5.9 [ p a g e 13] N e i g h b o u r h o o d s a d j a c e n t  d i a n , p h o t o by author, 2004, p h o t o by  [ p a g e 19] Site Hydrology, V a n m a p [ p a g e 19] Site v e g e t a t i o n , V a n m a p [ p a g e 19] T o p o g r a p h i c section, [ p a g e 20] Granville Bridge p e d e s -  [ p a g e 20] Granville Bridge sidewalks [ p a g e 20] North e n d central m e -  Bridge, Vancouver, 2004, p h o t o by a u -  to site, g r a p h i c by author  author  thor  5.10  5.27  [ p a g e 14] 3-D m o d e l of a d j a c e n t  [ p a g e 21] Quickest pedestrian  neighbourhoods, graphic by author  routes to the g r o u n d from central bridge  3.1 [ p a g e 7] 37th a n d O a k Film C o - o p ,  5.11  d e c k , V a n m a p ortho, 2004, g r a p h i c by  Vancouver, 2004, p h o t o by author  population growth chart, Statistics  3.2 [ p a g e 8] Parker Street Studios, V a n -  Canada  couver, 2004, p h o t o by author  5.12  3.3 [ p a g e 8] V i d e o In Studios, Vancouver,  designations, City of V a n c o u v e r Planning  2005, p h o t o by author 3.4 [ p a g e 8] A l e x a n d e r w a r e h o u s e , V a n couver, 2005, p h o t o by author  [ p a g e 14] Estimated Central A r e a  [ p a g e 15] Central A r e a Zoning  author 6.1 [ p a g e 22] Granville Bridge from east, 2004, p h o t o by author  Department  6.2 [ p a g e 22] Granville Bridge from west,  5.13  2004, p h o t o by author  [ p a g e 16] Property Line Divisions,  V a n m a p d a t a , graphic by author  6.3 [ p a g e 22] Beneath Granville Bridge,  2004, p h o t o by author  6.23  6.4 [ p a g e 22] G r a n Table Park to west,  shadows mid-August, i m a g e s b y author  g r a p h i c b y author  2004, p h o t o by author  6.24  9.8 [ p a g e 45] S t r a t h c o n a p r o d u c t i o n c o -  6.5 [ p a g e 23] Figure g r o u n d including  d e c k looking east, p h o t o b y author  o p , g r a p h i c by author  b r i d g e plane, d i a g r a m b y author  6.25  9.9 [ p a g e 45] The A R C live/work facility,  6.6 [ p a g e 23] Sections through horizontal  d e c k looking west, p h o t o b y author  planes at 15m increments, diagrams by  6.26  author  p h o t o by author  s p a c e s in design, g r a p h i c b y author  7.1 [ p a g e 34] M e t h o d o l o g y d i a g r a m  s p a c e s , g r a p h i c by author  [ p a g e 32] Sunrise, N o o n a n d Sunset [ p a g e 33] Night light from bridge [ p a g e 33] Night light from bridge [ p a g e 33] Night light u n d e r bridge,  6.7 [ p a g e 23] ' G r o u n d ' p h o t o g r a p h i c essay, photos by author  g r a p h i c b y author 9.10 9.11  6.8 [ p a g e 24] Continuation: ' G r o u n d ' p h o t o g r a p h i c essay, photos by author  9.7 [ p a g e 45] A l e x a n d e r w a r e h o u s e ,  9.12  [ p a g e 46] G r o u n d level p r o d u c t i o n [ p a g e 46] S e c o n d level p r o d u c t i o n [ p a g e 46] Third level [rooftop] pro-  8.1 [ p a g e 35] Bridge d e c k slab of the  d u c t i o n s p a c e s , g r a p h i c by author  6.9 [ p a g e 25] Bridge in b e t w e e n m o d e l  Granville Bridge, p h o t o b y author  9.13  with population numbers, m o d e l by a u -  8.2 [ p a g e 36] Grid c r e a t e d by bridge  p r o d u c t i o n s p a c e s from d e s c e n d i n g coil,  thor, statistics from City of V a n c o u v e r  columns, p h o t o by author  g r a p h i c by author  6.10  8.3 [ p a g e 36] Grid overlaid o n plan,  9.14  by author  graphic by author  s p a c e , g r a p h i c b y author  6.11  8.4 [ p a g e 37] Linear conditions of build-  9.15  ings o n site e n d i n g in bridge c o l u m n ,  o n p r o d u c t i o n plans, g r a p h i c by author  [ p a g e 25] Bridge in b e t w e e n , photos [ p a g e 26] 'In Between' p h o t o essay,  photos by author 6.12  [ p a g e 26] Site sections intermediate  [ p a g e 47] V i e w into g r o u n d level  [ p a g e 48] M a i n p l a z a p r o d u c t i o n [ p a g e 49] Section ' A ' as i n d i c a t e d  p h o t o by author  9.16  s p a c e s , drawings by author  8.5 [ p a g e 37] Plan of major linear c o n d i -  g r a p h i c by author  6.13  [ p a g e 27] Horizontal c o n n e c t i o n  [ p a g e 49] Section material key,  tions organizing the site, g r a p h i c by  9.17  b e t w e e n land, City of V a n c o u v e r Plan-  author  o n p r o d u c t i o n plans, g r a p h i c b y author  ning ortho  8.6 [ p a g e 38] O p e n n e s s of g r o u n d p l a n e  9.18  6.14  c r e a t e d by bridge structure, p h o t o b y  areas, g r a p h i c by author  ture p h o t o essay, photos by author  author  9.19  6.15  8.7 [ p a g e 38] Plan highlighting doors that  areas, g r a p h i c by author  o p e n , graphic by author  9.20  [ p a g e 27] Horizontality in the struc[page 27] Linear c o n n e c t i o n  through site, p h o t o by author 6.16  [page 28] Linear c o n n e c t i o n d i a -  [ p a g e 50] Section ' D ' as i n d i c a t e d [ p a g e 51] G r o u n d level display [ p a g e 51] S e c o n d level display [ p a g e 51] Third level display areas,  g r a p h i c b y author  g r a m , graphic b y author  9.1 [ p a g e 40] Site intervention on ortho  9.21  6.17  p h o t o of Vancouver, g r a p h i c by author  tion s p a c e s from r a m p off bridge n e a r  photos by author  9.2 [ p a g e 41] Site m o d e l aerial, g r a p h i c  elevator, g r a p h i c by a u t h o  6.18  by author  9.22  ary-June, graphics by author  9.3 [ p a g e 42] G r o u n d level p l a n interven-  boxes o n H o w e Street, g r a p h i c b y author  6.19  tion, graphic by author  9.23  9.4 [ p a g e 43] S e c o n d a n d third level  o n display plans, g r a p h i c by author  [page 28] 'Vertical' p h o t o essay, [ p a g e 29] S h a d o w diagrams, J a n u [ p a g e 30] S h a d o w diagrams, July-  D e c e m b e r , graphics by author 6.20  [ p a g e 31 ] S h a d o w diagrams S e p -  [ p a g e 52] V i e w of rooftop p r o d u c -  [ p a g e 53] S e c o n d level display [ p a g e 54] Section ' E ' as i n d i c a t e d  plans of design intervention, g r a p h i c by  9.24  t e m b e r - D e c e m b e r , graphics by author  author  restaurant destinations in V a n c o u v e r ,  6.21  [page 32] ' V openings c r e a t e d by  [ p a g e 55] M a p of s h o p p i n g a n d  9.5 [ p a g e 43] Material key to all three  g r a p h i c b y author  r a m p extensions, p h o t o by author  plans, graphic by author  9.25  6.22  9.6 [ p a g e 44] Existing small s c a l e p r o d u c -  a n d restaurants, g r a p h i c by author  tion in Vancouver, g r a p h i c by author  9.26  [ p a g e 32] V's as skylight a b o v e site,  p h o t o by author  [ p a g e 55] G r o u n d level s h o p p i n g [ p a g e 55] S e c o n d level s h o p p i n g  a n d restaurants, g r a p h i c b y author  9.45  9.27  graphic by author  [ p a g e 56] G r o u n d level production  [ p a g e 68] Third level publicness,  s p a c e with restaurant a b o v e a n d p l a z a  9.46  shallow pool, g r a p h i c by author  public s p a c e , graphic by author  9.28  [ p a g e 69] Aerial perspective into  [ p a g e 57] M a p of theatres in V a n -  couver, graphic by author  10.1  9.29  graphic by author  [page 58] G r o u n d level theatre  [page 70] Front p l a z a blow-up p l a n ,  s p a c e , graphic b y author  10.2 [page 71] Materials a n d elements,  9.30  graphic by author  [ p a g e 58] S e c o n d level theatre  s p a c e , graphic b y author  10.3 [page 71] Smaller elements d e -  9.31  tailed, graphic by author  [ p a g e 58] Section 'F' as i n d i c a t e d  o n theatre plans, graphic by author 9.32  [ p a g e 59] M a i n amphitheatre  s p a c e , retractable film s c r e e n , a n d viewing platform slabs 9.33  [page 60] Seasonal o u t d o o r markets  in Vancouver, g r a p h i c by author 9.34  [ p a g e 60] Potential g r o u n d level  market activities, graphic by author 9.35  [ p a g e 61] V i e w of potential g r o u n d  level market activities, g r a p h i c by author 9.36  [ p a g e 62] Section ' G ' as i n d i c a t e d  o n market p l a n , g r a p h i c b y author 9.37  [page 63] Pedestrian m o v e m e n t o n  a n d off bridge, g r a p h i c by author 9.38  [page 64] V i e w of lower coil rings  from top coil, g r a p h i c by author 9.39  [ p a g e 65] Stairs leading up roof  slabs to bridge elevator a n d c a s c a d i n g stormwater channels, g r a p h i c by author 9.40  [ p a g e 66] Section ' C ' as i n d i c a t e d  in pedestrian m o v e m e n t p l a n , graphic by author 9.41  [ p a g e 66] Section ' G ' as i n d i c a t e d  in pedestrian m o v e m e n t p l a n , g r a p h i c b y author 9.42  [page 67] Built public gathering  s p a c e s in Vancouver, g r a p h i c by author 9.43  [ p a g e 68] G r o u n d level publicness,  g r a p h i c by author 9.44  [ p a g e 68] S e c o n d level publicness,  g r a p h i c by author  J2. 0  r; ^ CD "O > jQ  First and foremost I would like to thank my family. You have been accepting of my need to wander the world from a young age. I reassure you that it has a greater purpose. Thanks to my thesis committee: chair, Cynthia Girling for being patient with my experimentation and for practical guidance, Susan Herrington for an always honest opinion and George Wagner for your mentorship and your friendship. Thanks to UBC SoA for always making me feel welcome in your community and giving me opportunities I never would have imagined. Thanks to Myles Mackenzie and Shaun Smakal for the unparalleled balance we bring to one another - long live Kiley, Rose, and Eckbo. Hanako Amaya, Takane Ogasawara, Katie Murray, and Josie Weins - to the mark we left on Cuba in the name of 'landscape architecture' and the countless surfing trips. And lastly thanks to Thomas Lee for your support.  vii  C .Q (j D "Q *— .Cj  The term 'production' has c h a n g e d in meaning m u c h like the land uses associated with its processes. Almost every city situated on a water course experienced a period of rapid industrization a n d housing for workers. Mid-century post-war activity p r o d u c e d a s e c o n d w a v e of industrialization focused on transport infrastructure a n d the creation of a globalized marketplace. Like a n ant colony toiling to build it's vast empire, the 'production' associated with production c r e a t e d it's own empire a n d a d d e d another segment to the c y c l e of social striving for a utopian ideal of existence, work, a n d pleasure. Although industrial processes have b e e n m o v e d to the peripheries of the contemporary gentrifying city centre a n d other countries, most North American metropolises c o n tain remnants of these vast industrial complexes. Some cities have be-  Fig. 1.1 North American port city, 1950's  c o m e literal fields of ruins resulting from the shift in production from sites dependent on large transportation a n d production infrastructure to sites dependent on access to globalized technological a n d skilled personnel infrastructure. Other cities are being forced to respond to the remaining expensive a n d expansive industrial infrastructure of docks, bridges a n d  Fig. 1.2 Brooklyn Bridge Waterfront Park, New York, 2002  highways in ways that are appropriate to the lifestyles of a globalized society. The responses include the conversion of adjacent a b a n d o n e d lands to landscapes associated with public o p e n s p a c e , green s p a c e , a n d recreation. The rethinking of the design of urban public s p a c e is a n international phenomenon- reactions to our past [mistakes] or a fundamental premise of d e m o c r a c y [Ramoneda, July 2003]? Vancouver is the quintessential m o d -  Fig. 1.3 Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle 2002  el of the 'new' utopian city. Next to N e w York City, it possesses the greatest amount of land a r e a converted from continuous industrial waterfront to a n expansive network of waterfront public o p e n s p a c e [Fig. 1.5]. Within this network lie distinct neighbourhood parks a c c o m p a n i e d by neighbourhoods that are the manifestation of a mere d e c a d e of city planning d e d i c a t e d to intense densification. During this time, the city has b e e n a rapid production line of residential towers a n d townhomes  C  establishing a downtown population by the year 2021 to 57,000 new residents a n d 38,000 new dwellings for a total of 139,000 p e o p l e on 900 hectares of land [Stats C a n a d a , 2001]. These estimates make Vancouver the fastest growing downtown of any North American city. These figures have attracted international attention ranking Vancouver the #3 'most livable city in the world' below G e n e v a a n d Zurich, Switzerland [Mercer Human Resource  Eventually full build out will b e determined by the natural barrier of the water's e d g e . The production of housing will cease, leaving V a n c o u ver with a new set of issues to c o n tend with as it matures. The issues are no longer about providing dense yet healthy living situations but rather how to sustain people in work, lifestyle, a n d community while attracting a n d retaining new a n d young talent - a vested interest for any city [or self-interested system] valuing growth, vitality, a n d sustainability.  Fig 1.4 G e o r g e Wainborne Park a n d C o n c o r d e Pacific Development, Vancouver, 2004  Consulting, March 13, 2005]. Several reasons for this rating include it's location on the Pacific Rim a n d influx of Asian development investment, the 2010 Olympic bid, the ubiquitous natural landscape a n d planning policies d e d i c a t e d to city centre densification.  Fig 1.5 Vancouver's almost continuous waterfront o p e n s p a c e , 2004 ortho 2  C O ~Q "|z Q) *£j  •— O <D JZ •+"D Q ^ Q .+_ U *0* »—  PROJECT BASIS The basis for this project is a n interest in Vancouver's creative production industry a n d how these activities a n d economies c a n inform public s p a c e . The project site under a main bridgehead into the downtown penninsula provides opportunities for layering work, consumption, leisure, a n d entertainment into existing city infrastructure. VANCOUVER PRESENT The mass production of residential density a n d public o p e n s p a c e has c r e a t e d a n extremely livable, but dimensionally singular city often referred to by locals as 'no-fun-couver'. With the exception of annually programmed large festivals, processions, a n d events in public spaces, there is s c a r c e multilayering of activity a n d moreover, scarce provision of partially enclosed public event  Fig. 2.1 Santa Claus Parade, Vancouver, 2004  s p a c e . Each c o m ponent of the urban landscape posesses strict use regulations as well as strict delineation of interior a n d exterior functions. The only deviation from this is the o c casional spilling of a store's contents or c a f e seating onto a fronting sidewalk or diminutive outdoor patio. Furthermore, Vancouver's verficalFig 2.2 Building ity is also regulated by strong distinctions of public a n d private domain. This separation renders large amounts of otherwise o c c u p i a b l e s p a c e either exclusive or useless. Cars reside underground, stores occur at the street, greenspace is at grade, everything a b o v e is residential, a n d roofs are unoccupiable ground. These distinctions, although predictable a n d helpful for positioning oneself, minimize the occurrence of h a p p e n stance civic events, eliminate o p portunities for urban wandering a n d discovery, a n d limit the potential for flexible use of s p a c e a n d even citizen appropriation of s p a c e . In Vancouver, the masterplanned  roof as potential ground, Vancouver, 2004  development of vertical a n d strictly defined private realm has created high density g a t e d communities with a market-oriented franchise aesthetic [Zukin, 1991]. As w e have already started to witness, these developments contribute to a n elevated e c o n o m y that further marginalizes alternative communities a n d activities. Citizens operating on a noncorporate basis b e c o m e limited by land a n d real estate economics a n d use restrictions. In the case of small-scale industrial arts, these factors separate them from the general public exposure a n d social interaction vital to their survival.  ...  PRODUCTION A N D SPACE The concentration of diverse social s p a c e a n d the resultant opportunities is a reason why people gravitate to urban areas. Henri Lefebvre discusses the inseparable link between material production a n d the productivity of s p a c e in his book The Production of Space:  </>  " S p a c e is a social relationship one which is inherent to property relationships [the ownership of the earth] a n d closely bound with the forces of production [which impose a form on that earth]; here w e see the polyvalence of social s p a c e , its 'reality' at o n c e formal a n d material. Though a product to be used, to be consumed, it is also a means of production; networks of exchange a n d flows of raw materials a n d energy fashion s p a c e a n d are determined by it. Thus this means of productioncannot b e separated either from the productive forces, including technolo g y a n d knowledge, or from the social division of labour which shapes it the c o n c e p t of social s p a c e b e c o m e s broader. It infiltrates, even invades, the c o n c e p t of production, b e c o m i n g part - perhaps the essential part - of its content." [Lefebvre, 1974] A c c o r d i n g to Lefebvre, the entire  city is a network of social spaces formed by the production, movement, a n d flow of materials imposing distinct patterns upon the earth - presumably in the form of infrastructure. Since production cannot be separated from the social labour that creates, moves, a n d aquires the products, the s p a c e itself b e comes the most important part of production - a n d perhaps the most consumable. Like public parks, these landscapes themselves d o not discriminate a m o n g consumers. Some of the most social spaces in our cities - markets, shopping areas, a n d artisan districts are often formed around some type of transportation infrastructure because of the necessity of material a n d human movement. Perhaps it is no c o i n c i d e n c e that these types of spaces often colonize in the 'leftover' gaps a n d margins created by transportation infrastructure, but rather it is a logical companionship. The enormous market beneath the tracks at Ueno Train Station, Tokyo, the recent conversion of the Promenade d e Plantee, Paris into a linear series of shops a n d c a fes, a n d beneath the 'L' in C h i c a g o are a few examples of infrastructure interstice colonization. All of these spaces display industrious public use of otherwise neglected brownfield  Fig 2.3 Beneath tracks at Ueno Train Station, Tokyo, 2004  Fig 2.4 Promenade d e Plantee, Paris  Fig 2.5 Shopping below C h i c a g o ' s 'L'  c  o  6  H -  c  0 o u  b  CD  TJ D " -."s *</> O £3 U  (D  urban land where conditions only allow small scale design interventions. Therefore in e a c h example, the o u t c o m e is a fine grained, unique contextual urban solution. Lefebvre's theory of s p a c e a n d production is relevant in the current condition of recovering a n d inventing finer grained nuances that have b e e n lost to contemporary largescale single-use development. It is a c o m m o n condition in contemporary planning to neglect interstitial spaces b e c a u s e of the difficulty of c o n forming these spaces to the methods used in conventional planning. Most interstitial spaces are bound by infrastructure that cannot be altered to a c c o m o d a t e imposing design solutions. Rather, design interventions must b e submissive to the s p a c e a n d the structure - a difficult c o n textual exercise that is often more laborious than the productivity of the o u t c o m e . The result, however, c a n provide a potential for contributing public spaces that a d d diversity a n d identity to our towns a n d cities. THE FUTURE ROLE OF INFRASTRUCTURE Similarly c o m p a r a b l e to the colonization of subinfrastructural spaces by production forces is the conversion of them into designed o p e n s p a c e , parks, a n d entertainment uses.  Infrastructure is increasingly providing the public spaces of cities as they c o n n e c t elements one to another. Roads a n d bridges are required to perform multiple functions a n d this is driving new design approaches. They have to fulfill the requirements of public s p a c e a n d they have to  be c o n n e c t e d to other functioning urban systems for public transit, pedestrian movement, water m a n a g e ment, e c o n o m i c development, public facilities a n d ecological systems.  Fig 2.6 Carrascoplein Park, The Hague, West 8  Fig 2.7 Flushing M e a d o w s C o r o n a Infrastructure Park, New York  <D  ^,.v....  </>  ^ Q  1  "Infrastructure is an operation that combines different kinds of spaces a n d activities - a park, a road, a building - within its domain a n d is able to sustain program beyond its own logistical requirements. As an operation it works strategically to create conditions for future events, as o p p o s e d to a conventional understanding of infrastructure as a n artifact that exists for the sake of a technical program. It is through this combinatorial role that the operation of infrastructure has the potential to mediate between architecture a n d l a n d s c a p e in order to contribute to the reconceptualization of the urban realm. Infrastructure c a n be significant in urban terms b e c a u s e of its c a p a c i t y to reveal unsuspected kinship between elements long known, but assumed to be incompatible with one another, such as a park or public square with a highway." [Bem'zbeitia a n d Pollack, 2004] This project is b a s e d on a very literal comprehension of Lefebvre's theory on the production of s p a c e whereby the a c t u a l acts of artisan production in combination with commercial, market, park, a n d event spaces is a n appropriate [and hopefully promiscuous] collision of programs to p r o d u c e a diverse, small scale, a n d unique series of spaces that  are more important a n d consumable than the actual materials being produced.  C .Q (j ^ "Q ^ . C ^ D ^  Vancouver's 'production' culture a n d e c o n o m y is most clearly explained by the pervasive presence of the Hollywood movie industry. Caravans of people c o m e to Vancouver for a short time whereby business is c o n d u c t e d , resources are e x c h a n g e d , the landscape is c o n sumed a n d quickly left behind. The commodification of Vancouver's ambiguity has b e c o m e a self-fulfilling prophesy affecting how the city conducts business. Every creative industry is affected by the ambiguity of the p l a c e - great to live a n d work but the real opportunity, identify, a n d community is often found elsewhere. C o m b i n e d with exorbitantly increasing land values, the difficulty of finding support outside of a n institutional framework is a difficult endeavor in Vancouver.  attendees to the three weeks of continuous screening. Of the 537 films showcased, 13 were p r o d u c e d by Vancouver film makers [www.viff. org]. In 1995, 2 local film students b e g a n a film production c o - o p in a three storey non-descript building on 37th a n d C a m b i e . It is consistently o c c u p i e d by 10-15 local film makers who consider Toronto, Montreal, a n d the larger American cities as their primary a u d i e n c e .  DIGITAL PRODUCTION There are 3 independent film schools in Vancouver. The largest of the three, the Vancouver Film School attracts 500 students per year from over 15 countries [www.film.bc.ca]. Most of the graduates complete at least one production locally. They struggle in competition with the American production companies a n d for local exposure to their films. Last year's Vancouver International Film Festival entertained 150,000  Fig 3.1 37th a n d C a m b i e Rim C o - o p , V a n c o u ver, 2004  Three of the world's largest digital arts a n d animation companies are located in Vancouver, Electronic Arts, Inc., Mainframe Entertainment Inc., a n d Radical together employ over 3800 digital media artists [www. digitalcareerscanada.com] . The imp a c t of this industry materializes itself in everyday life in the form of small multi-media video events often held at clubs in the Downtown Eastside.  TEXTILE PRODUCTION In 2005 organizers planned 2 large textile a n d fashion event blitzes days apart in order to "emerge V a n c o u ver as a fashion capital" [www. fashionwindows.com]. Vancouver Fashion Week a n d BC Fashion Week collectively drew 2,500 people to the convention center to view over 150 local high-design textile a n d fashion artists [Georgia Straight, April 2005]. South of Main Street [SOMA] is becoming the center of Vancouver street fashion. Six merchandisers have c o n n e c t e d their stores to 'The Incubator' in Toronto - a local government funded collaborative industrial arts facility for living, working, a n d marketing - to create a cross city promotion of locally designed a n d p r o d u c e d goods. Support from the neighbourhood has grown into a community interested in it's designers reputation a n d success as a reflection of it's own. FURNITURE PRODUCTION Vancouver's furniture industry has been gaining attention with a recent showcase at the Stockholm Furniture Fair. Thirteen furniture designers from Vancouver exhibited at the event - the largest number ever. The d e signs a n d production methods from Vancouver attracted a press release  '-  J  calling the work 'fresh a n d simple - Vancouver: a utopia for design?' [www.stockholmfurniturefair.com]. In addition, Vancouver design also attracted attention at the 2002 International Contemporary Furniture Fair in New York. Several Vancouver exhibitors were labeled "honest, g o o d , solid design - people to be watching for the next d e c a d e " [www.puredesignonline.com]. PRODUCTION FACILITIES Vancouver has 3 live/work facilities that include basement collaborative production s p a c e , but no display s p a c e . All are l o c a t e d on the Eastside - Railtown Studios in Japantown near Oppenheimer Park, The ARC on Powell near Commercial, a n d Parker Street Studios on Venebles which is not technically zoned live/work. The A R C has the most comprehensive facilities a n d also a 1 year waiting list  Fig 3.2 Parker Street multi-discipline studios, Vancouver East Side, 2004  for o c c u p a n c y interviews [Interview with Roy M a c k e y , M a y 2005]. In a d dition, there are dozens of live/work zoned buildings that d o not provide collaborative work s p a c e , but ample display s p a c e . With the exception of Gastown, there are no live/work buildings on the downtown penninsula. However, both the new Shangri-La a n d the proposed Fringe Tower by Aurthur Erikson a n d Hillside Development will include live/work zoned units for non-production oriented small businesses.  [www.videoinstudios.com]. Recently a warehouse on Alexander a n d Dunlevy has b e e n appropriated by a group of 12 local fashion a n d furniture designers as a collective workspace. The s p a c e is illegally o c c u p i e d b e c a u s e of the exorbitant cost of permits a n d the fact that there is no zoning designation that properly meets this type of shared a c c o m o d a t i o n a n d use. But nonetheless, it has b e c o m e a n exciting s p a c e with a n unfortunate legally limited lifespan.  The Video In Resource Centre on 4th a n d Main was founded in 1973 a n d now has state of the art facilities a n d provides ongoing educational workshops. They promote video production, exhibition a n d international distribution of documentary films. A yearly membership fee gains access to equipment a n d s p a c e rentals  DISPLAY FACILITIES Besides dozens of local galleries, industrial designers promote themselves through a single annual event, the Eastside Culture Crawl. Held every November, the Culture Crawl invites the public into over 200 private studios, all l o c a t e d in East Vancouver [www.culturecrawl.  Fig 3.3 Video In, 5th a n d Main, Vancouver  Fig 3.4 Alexander warehouse, Vancouver  1  b c . c a ] . Arnt Arntzen, founder of The Crawl a n d furniture designer said his impetus for starting the event was to liberate designers from the construct of the gallery-designer relationship which he says dominates Vancouver [Arnt Arntzen Interview, November 2004]. With the exception of small pockets of stores g e a r e d towads marketing locally designed a n d p r o d u c e d goods in Gastown, Main,  Public Dreams Society has h a d the most success in large scale event planning with it's annual Lantern Festival a n d the Parade of Lost Souls. Both events appropriate large areas of the Eastside for a night of perform a n c e , procession, a n d art installation.  a n d Yaletown, galleries are currently the main consumer venue, which according to Arntzen, has more negative implications than positive b e c a u s e it keeps the designer unseen a n d drives up sales prices to a c c o m o d a t e gallery commissions.  The most used outdoor event spaces in Vancouver are the steps of the Vancouver Art Gallery, the large covered hall under Robson Square, a n d the front steps of the downtown library. All of these spaces are a p propriated by varying social groups, a n d performers with props, video projection, a n d music amplification.  EVENT SPACE Vancouver hosts numerous annual festivals a n d events most of which are held outside in temporarily c o n stucted tents a n d stages in public parks. The only permanent outdoor event spaces in the city are the Plaza of Nations a n d the amphitheatre on Granville Island, but neither of these host regular events. The most regularly scheduled outdoorevents are the Trout Lake Saturday market on the Eastside, the West End Saturday market at Nelson Park, a n d the Yaletown Saturday market on the Corner of Mainland a n d Davie.  Existing on the project site is L'Espace Dubruiel, established by Montrealer Alain Dubruiel in 1980. He originally leased the building from The City for architectural salvage a n d has since resided there while establishing one of the most prominent unadvertised cultural production entities in the city. It is the headquarters of Vision Quest Productions movie c o m p a n y as well as host to numerous free impromptu jazz events a n d fashion shows from around the world several times a year. The s p a c e has b e e n a preferred event facility of the C B C a n d international ambassador groups. In January 2004, The City of  Fig 3.5 L'Espace Dubruiel, Vancouver  Vancouver imposed a reprieve on Dubruiel for not acquiring proper fire escapes, toilets, a n d sprinklers for a public venue, despite over 250 letters a n d 3,000 emails recieved by The City in favor of keeping the venue o p e n [The Courier, January 2004]. As a result, this unorthodox example of 'mixed use' no longer actively exists. The bridge a b o v e L'Espace Dubruiel is a n informal gateway onto Granville Street: the city's primary downtown entertainment district - a frightening proposition in it's current state of physical neglect a n d social a n d e c o n o m i c marginalization. The street houses the city's finest a n d most historic theatres dispersed throughout smaller street fronting facades. The entire street is plagued by high v a c a n c y , graffiti, panhandling, a n d drug activity.  PROJECT SUMMARY Although Vancouver is aplenty with places for living a n d recreating, there has not b e e n equal emphasis on the other elements that comprise a comprehensive urban landscape. As Granville Street 'entertainment district' struggles for survival a n d real estate is consumed by high priced residential condos, more a n d more people are leaving downtown for many aspect of living. As the flow a n d production of m a terials a n d goods lessens in lieu of high density living a n d o p e n s p a c e , so lessens the amount a n d quality of social s p a c e that is intrinsically tied to production. PROJECT SCOPE The project s c o p e is limited to a 1 1/2 block area directly under the north end of the Granville Bridge. The project will address pedestrian a c cess from the bridge to the ground a n d also pedestrian activity on all edges of the project boundaries. The project seeks to create a unique work a n d entertainment district inbetween two high density residential areas.  Fig 4.1 Granville Street entertainment district from Granville Bridge, Vancouver  PROJECT GOALS 1. to create a unique district that is simple but vibrant with program 15 hours a day, 7 days a week 2. to create a multitude of varying sized spaces for the production, display, a n d consumption of goods 3. to actively e n g a g e the bridge structure in the design solution to avoid creating a p l a c e that is only a byproduct 4. to utilize the bridge as structural  support, experiential possibility for people, a n d mediation between interior a n d exterior 5. to address the current lack of pedestrian connections from the bridge d e c k to the ground 6. design to encourage h a p p e n stance civic events, urban wandering a n d discovery, flexible use of s p a c e , a n d citizen appropriation of space  on "to  o C  o  TJ C D O  c CO  >  LOCATION The project site one block inland on False Creek North displays the remains of past a n d current industrial uses a n d the affects of a gigantic imposing bridge structure. It's current condition is contributing very little to the city in terms of attraction a n d productive land use. The o v e r h e a d bridge connects the central city core to the southern part of Vancouver, including Granville Island across False Creek. The site lies in between Pacific Boulevard to the northeast a n d B e a c h Avenue to the southwest, a n d Howe a n d Seymour Streets parallel. The total project site is 2.7 hectares in size a n d is completely in light industrial uses.  Fig. 5.1 Site location in relation to Greater Vancouver  Fig. 5.4  Specific site boundaries  Fig. 5.2 Aerial location of site  HISTORY The industrial history of the site a n d it's surroundings in no w a y indicates that the future use of the land should stay as such. However, it does provide a dialogue about the changing nature of production as a reflection of culture a n d land use, a n d more importantly about the role of transportation infrastructure in the city.  - First bridge was a low timber trestle extending from Beach Ave. on the north to 3rd St. across the water - Bridge widened for streetcar - Wallace Shipyards opens directly under the bridge head - Wallace Shipyards moves to North Vancouver a n d be comes the Burrard Dry Dock, now Versatile Shipyards.  Fig 5.5 View of False Creek from Granville Bridge, 1950.  - New steel bridge built slightly to the east from Pacific Ave. to 4th - Various small industries move in a n d out of old shipyard buildings; all machine-driven harbour activities - New [current] bridge built in location of first bridge, 27.4 m a b o v e False Creek  Fig 5.6 View from Armory on 1st a n d Burrard toward newly built bridge, 1956.  - Site has ongoing history of industrial use. At present, automotive storage a n d repair a n d ironworks [City of Vancouver Archives, http://vancouver.ca/cty clerk/archives/about/index, htm]  12  .23 >  0  D V.  o  35 > *t75  JURISDICTIONS The City of Vancouver is divided into planning jurisdictions. The project site is part of the Central Area - or main downtown jurisdiction. This area includes everything north of False Creek to the Georgia Straight, a n d South False Creek to Broadway, a n d east from Stanley Park to Main Street. The jurisdiction has a population of 100,000 [City of Vancouver Planning document, 2001].  Central Area  Fig. 5.7 Central A r e a planning jurisdiction  activity link the two sides from the water. Three large vehicular bridges, all within the Central Area, link the land a n d are relatively short distances from one another. Burrard Bridge enters the downtown at the boundary of the West End neighbourhood [largest in land area] a n d the more commercial oriented neighbourhoods to the east. C a m b i e Bridge enters directly into False Creek North separating the stadium district from new C o n c o r d e Pacific Development. [Fig.  —j—pre  4 1  N  1  MUM  ™  I% m  Rg. 5.8 Neighbourhoods within Central Area  Downtown Pennlnsuta  5.9] NEIGHBOURHOODS The Central Area is comprised of 15 distinct neighbourhoods [Fig. 5.8], all containing some type of central business a r e a . The most unique feature of the Central Area is it's severing by False Creek. The neighbourhoods that have b e e n built on the creek have a unique role of a d dressing a n d engaging the waterway. Intermittent ferries a n d marina  The Granville Bridge is in between the other / two bridges a n d is the entry to the Granville Street entertainFig. 5.9 Neighbourhoods adjacent to site ment district. The bridge hits ground at what is called severs Granville Slopes a n d False the 'Bridgehead' neighbourhood Creek North, creating a deslolate - which includes a taxi depot, motel, 'no-man's-land' that doesn't definitively belong to either. a n d strip club. The bridge essentially 13  6 c  6 o  c a; >  c  m  POPULATION Granville Bridge enters downtown in between the second a n d third largest population areas [Fig 5.10]. Both False Creek North a n d Downtown South will experience the greatest population growth in the next 10 years - e a c h individually adding 11,000 people to the downtown core - for 22,000 c o m b i n e d [City of Vancouver Planning, August 2003]. Although the West End is the largest, it is near full c a p a c i t y a n d will experience very little growth in the next d e c a d e . Granville Slopes, the neighbour to the west of the bridge, is a n older neighbourhood a n d is also stable in it's current numbers. These trends lead to the conclusion that the v a c a n t s p a c e under a n d around the bridgehead is a prime location both as a g a t e w a y to Granville Street a n d as a c o m m o n public s p a c e in between several highly populated a n d growing neighbourhoods.  Downtown South Granville Slopes  False Creek North  Fig. 5.10 3-D M o d e l of a d j a c e n t neighbourhoods  CENTRAL AREA: ESTIMATED POTENTIAL GROWTH TO 2001 2001 population dwellings West End (less Triangle West) 40,012 28,646 Triangle West 3,972 3,012 Coal Harbour 837 526  Citygate Central Waterfront DOWNTOWN PENINSULA Fairview 6 Burrard Slopes False Creek South Southeast False Creek TOTAL Central Areas  82,256  2021 (2001 data from census, Statistics Canada) n.h. 2021 2021 additional additional size population dwellings population dwellings 1.4 43,770 31,300 2,654 3,758 1.3 5,200 3,950 938 1,228 1.6 4,450 3,613 2,274 2,800  57,983  Fig. 5.11 Estimated Central A r e a population growth chart  .>"  0  c: O  TJ O  o  —  CD >  ZONING The entire site is zoned within the greater False Creek Comprehensive Development District, meaning that future development is regulated by the Official Development Plan a n d limited to the following uses: residential, institutional, industrial, marinas, commercial, commercial-recreational, a n d parks/open spaces [FCCDD Comperhensive Development  Bylaws, 1997]. Both False Creek North a n d Downtown South are exempt from Vancouver DCL By-Laws because they have Official Development Plan's in p l a c e with agreeable public benefit strategies.  Comprehensive Development Districts ICD-1 Comprehensive Development District AwjMr«*<ft 1 b y } j w * « r t « i f « * i K h M » . , » o, t * e rwiwi C t M .  m * i . to  JFCCDD Comprehensive Development District (False Creek • South Side) t h * W*«*t tl* tttH DSSlnXt » * * • S t o m p * * * * * o l t K a f « » d . N dr**to««W«tf p i * m n to m t a u » ^ e Ins* »»txl*<fc ot drwffi and i>eyirtopnwtfo«Ifc* wuu* itwxf of  Comprehensive Development Distrlet (Oowntown)  Th* M eal rrt i h t t Dfct'Kt «ft*3 « * w * p w * j r i f a | o f f t r i * ilpvMo<w>*m (*fj»« H t o m » t tf**t *ti fcotWwft .»<** *-»rt«<)rtw*«t *» t»w t W r t o - w * O W f K I w e t th» M f H e M t w r x t a r Aft*iJpttffi f*y I f * N*»e*tt ft* * t m * « o ftv*. i*wfi or v«iR t b * Otwfttawtw,  f BCPEO Comprehensive Development District (False Creek * North Side) T h * JttMtK ettfmI h s t m t **x1 m two accompany**** o f f i c e d ^ M o p o i e e J  0)  Steal  «*' rtewfn Jsrx! A-vetoj*nf«s »»««« a tw?ifep< of r.*wiMMS*i ^$ht*sw»*»«rv  BH Commercial Districts  C 5 , C-6  Commercial Districts (We»t End) It** * « * f * is 10 0»o»nJf for r e t * * *r ; tf/vtee-v and leM| of fCMAlPMM wtwch a*# t * m p M * * e •«(*> the p r i r n » « y r « « * ^ « * f <h#r«t.i*r <*t v*ru | p | *r*J to p»<?vOr> Kir tfw.l!»s i * w t i tfw*^ with »l ^ n p f a w d MftlSjrtbajt!>* * * m m i O e v j * o* tw^fihr^p M be l o tfte petSeMnan w w « w o» *c«te * * * ( u n c t i o n * The C ft tftvtrKX ( K O t d * * 4 tf MM*) t * t * * » n & » 5 ! ( J W t * » West &*1 !>y pesremtiflg * IMSS! * " n S y *rx3 JkMi » M f*r>ir srf irte* th»n C-5> :  :  Multiple Dwelling Districts R M - 5 , R M - 5 A , R M - 5 B , RM-5C Multiple Dwelling Districts {West End) tht totcftt n t o pmrntt » « * t * t y 0* tvtidentMi de>c4Qf*"»«r*s *f*d « w cempdt*!* o « t t « , »«*vx* * « J M a tM M e t uw^v topftkut H O»*C<S* » * - * « t to -Att*Av,*p* CMNMM * t r * ttvmxn, iv*»«h< Bfljeip And p r h o c y n«r •««•!>*. UM 5S «m} W » - X f h s t r K t i p m r n t f i e < i t f W m M t i n tK»n  IM-i T»w *(M«Kirw( W W 1 0* the Mtt-S O i u r k t « t « r«)Wir« thwe^ciariertti, JWHJNI t o ivnttm mnh trmOrt* The * & * t ! « w r t intent et the Hmt-SC DfttrKt K t o p e m i t * p f « c r f*f*fC" o* UWti.  Historic A r e a Districts HA-3 Historic Area District {Yaletown)  witem. & t o w c o u r a j c the J<»>W^IMI *r>d f(wo*«ti8*i at e m t w g M S M M M W l MMefi » w i the wmttmdtm ** evetppMHi Rpa bwwtf>t>.TOn o d o s e «  wwre  cootemparwy M K erf < c « w n r f < ^ . OMhittfiw *r»J r * t t * w t * ^ « m . » x ) t «  Fig. 5.12  Centra! A r e a Zoning designations a n d color descriptions. City of V a n c o u v e r Planning  lAtfodw:* elMe>eaMe#tJmM pie. Hpucixian »MtuW*«$ t h * <s*te*rurf JPSHfft o* bt«ii»t>»i t o foitew t h * prijpcKtwa chytrvi* 4^0 delate «# t h e prc*min*f« < i r « I K » MMeeWHl K>«u*t«k w h « h e « r«m>vi;i»>| or t o m t f o c I « f « oe«* tJu**f»f.  15  o  c D TJ O O  PROPERTY/LEGAL The entire site is o w n e d by the City of Vancouver a n d leased lot to lot by tenants. The city has intentions of establishing a central neighbourhood district a n d is slowly relocating e a c h tenant [Interview with city planner Eric Lott, O c t o b e r 2004]. The longest term resident on site is the Iron Works facility at 1429 Granville - 1 9 years.  CURRENT LAND USES  CIRCULATION AND ACCESS  Open Space  Pedestrian  Commercial/Retail  Seawall  Residential  Vehicular  Industry Hotel Entertainment  >  Fig. 5.13 Site property line divisions  Fig. 5.14 Site a n d a d j a c e n t land uses  Fig. 5.15 Circulation on a n d around site  16  Ml  >  CURRENT USES [ON-SITE]  P D TJ  O  o cz  >  Taxi Repair Station Fig. 5.17 On-Site Uses 17  Marina-side restaurant  Marina  Senior Housing  G e o r g e Wainborn Park  Fig. 5.19 Off-Site Uses 18  .GO >  o c  c o > 5  TOPOGRAPHY The site slopes down from northeast [downtown] to southwest [False Creek] 6 metres - inversely to the slope of the bridge structure. The grade c h a n g e most significantly effects hydrological cycles a n d at-grade infrastructure, including pedestrian a n d vehicular circulation.  >  Fig. 5.20 Site contours in 1 m increments  HYDROLOGY The site is difficult to m a p hydrologically b e c a u s e it is 99% concrete. The dripline from the e d g e of the main deck drains to c a t c h basins - since there are no permeable surfaces on site. The diagram below describes how water would move according to the topo lines a n d with influence from the bridge d e c k dripline.  VEGETATION AND HABITAT There is little vegetation on site a n d no obvious habitat. The site is barren except for a few planted trees a n d weeds. However, the site is within half a block of significant passive park s p a c e on either side - both a small neighbourhood pocket park, a n d a large waterfront park.  iHH  Bridge Dripline  Tree Canopies  K j  High Areas  Ground vegetation  HBf  Low Areas  Fig. 5.21 Site Hydrology  Fig. 5.22 Site vegetation - ground a n d c a n o p y  Fig. 5.23 Topographic section 19  to *to >  0  C O "D O  >O  £Z 0 >  PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS The Granville Bridge is one of the most challenging pedestrian problems in the city. Overcrowding on the Burrard Bridge is being dealt with by converting automobile lanes into full time bike lanes, a n d the C a m b i e Bridge was built recently enough to have considered pedestrian needs including wide walkways a n d ramps connecting to the ground. The central d e c k has sidewalks on both sides a n d the extension arms only contain them on the outermost side [Fig. 5.24]. The sidewalks are 1 meter wide - below standard for even secondary city streets, a n d too narrow for passing pedestrians, let alone bicycles [Fig. 5.25]. Bridge c a r speeds are too high for comfortable on-road bicycle sharing a n d the sidewalk is e d g e d by a 10 inch curb, c o m p o u n d i n g the difficulty for road bicyclists. Pedestrian crosswalks exist c o n necting e a c h ramp sidewalk to the central deck, but it is not possible to cross the central d e c k b e c a u s e of a concrete median [Fig. 5.26]. Therefore, if a pedestrian ascends the bridge on the central deck, they c a n access only that side, but not the other until they fully cross the bridge where then they c a n cross via a c o n -  Fig. 5.24 Granville Bridge pedestrian designated areas a n d points of connection with ground  Fig. 5.25 Granville Bridge sidewalks a n d curb  Fig. 5.26 North e n d center median  20  voluted underground passageway.  c;  c TJ ..„..  Q  >•  o55  c> CD "tTS  The connections to the ground are either by completely d e c e n d i n g the bridge to where it meets land at Drake Street, or via stairs adjacent to the entrance of the strip club on Pacific Boulevard [Fig. 5.24]. The stairs land in the most unpleasant part of the under-bridge structure where to reach directly under the bridge from here requires walking through a serious of f e n c e d parking a n d storage lots darkened by the low bridge structure a n d then crossing the giant median on Pacific Boulevard. Fig. 5.27 shows the only options for getting from point ' A ' a n d 'B' on the central bridge deck - e a c h accessible from the adjacent arm - to point 'X' directly under the bridge. Route A is 464 meters a n d Route B is 504 meters. Route B includes stairs a n d is not h a n d i c a p p e d or bike a c c e s sible. Doing so would a d d a n extra 74 meters to the original route for a total of 578 meters. These analyses justify a n involved solution for better pedestrian circulation should the s p a c e under the bridge a n d the d e c k itself ever bec o m e a fully active part of the city. The current lack of connection from  Fig. 5.27 Quickest pedestrian routes to the site from central d e c k  the o v e r h e a d bridge d e c k further separates this s p a c e in a n already separated condition, a n d ignores potentials for interaction with the bridge structure at the human scale, rather than vehicular only.  c  o o o  a x  CD fl)  The project quickly called for eng a g e m e n t with the exploratory c o n text of the site, which immediately b e c a m e about infrastructure as a n armiture that could produce positive e c o n o m i c a n d spatial quality, first a n d foremost for the surrounding neighbourhoods a n d secondly for the downtown district as the 'gatew a y ' to Granville Street. Through this site exploration, a series of incidental conditions inherently p r o d u c e d by the bridge structure were chosen to explore how the structure a n d the site interact:  Fig. 6.1 Granville Bridge from east  -Ground -In Between -Horizontal/Vertical -Light Fig. 6.2 Granville Bridge from west  Fig. 6.3 Beneath Granville Bridge  Fig. 6.4 Gran Table Park to west of bridge [bridge in background]  22  § o o  GROUND " N e i t h e r v o l u m e nor flat s u r f a c e , but s o m e w h e r e in b e t w e e n t h e t w o ; t h e a r e a a r o u n d a n d b e l o n g i n g to  a.  x  a h o u s e or o t h e r b u i l d i n g ; a n a r e a  CI)  for belief, a c t i o n , or a r g u m e n t ; m a -  0)  u s e d for a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e ; a basis  *l7j  terial t h a t serves a s a substratum." [Merriam W e b s t e r ' s D i c t i o n a r y , 2003] " A s u r f a c e t h a t lies in b e t w e e n o b j e c t a n d s p a c e , " [Tschumi, 1996]  Fig. 6.5 Figure ground  3  Fig. 6.6 Sections through horizontal planes at 15m increments  ark foreground, bridgedeck b a c k g r o i J n o ^ 5 n a g e J ^  Fig. 6.7 'Ground' photographic essay  23  o p o CI, x  0 CO In  Fig. 6.8 continuation: ' G r o u n d ' photographic essay  C  IN BETWEEN  o Q "Q_  '  "Inside/outside; back/front; u p / d o w n ; a residual s p a c e m a d e of accidents; the p l a c e of u n e x p e c t e d events; leftovers, gaps, a n d margins; interdisciplinary." [Gausa, G u a l lart, Muller, Soriano, Porras, Morales,  2002]. Interstices h a p p e n when different city grids collide; these are the leftover e d g e spaces, offering special opportunities for the creation of identity at a human scale.  Fig. 6.9 Bridge in between model with population numbers [City of Vancouver, August 2003]  Fig. 6.10 Bridge in between  X  to  Bridge in between two neighbourhoods; building in between columns;  Fig. 6.11 'In Between' p h o t o e s s a y  Fig. 6.12 Sections of intermediate spaces at 15 m  c; .2 • SI  CD 0)  HORIZONTAL/VERTICAL Each element of the bridge structure takes a d v a n t a g e of the adjacent b e a m to provide horizontal stabilization. The basic function of a bridge c o n nects two pieces of the city horizontally A N D the city floor to a new level of existence/experience. "Within a bridge structure, a n d therefore the site it forms, none of the horizontal members c a n exist alone; however, no one must d e p e n d on the others in order to exist. Meanwhile, events cut across them a n d establish ephemeral relations b e t w e e n them." [Gausa, G u a l lart, Muller, Soriano, Porras, Morales, 2002].  bridge impact a n d human experience on it need for n e e d for water crossing pedestrian crossing pedestrian crossing f  Fig. 6.13 Horizontal connection between land  Fig. 6.15 Linear connection through site  -||!  11  [  \  >! i i i  Hi  / •••  /? / t  • '  /  /  1; 1 1 I  u %  1 ill —.i^*  Rg. 6.16 Linear connections  i diagram  Pedestrian movement through the site is most prominent east a n d west b e c a u s e of the potential to c o n n e c t with surrounding circulation. North/ south movement stops at the north by the m e d i a n in Pacific Boulevard a n d the bridge hitting the ground, but connects to the seawall to the south.  Vertically emphasizing infrastructure; building vertically meets deck; column. Fig. 6.17 'Vertical' photo essay  LIGHT Shade. Shadow. Day. Night  CD  Natural light: 6 hours, limited areas. Artificial light: 24 hours, any a r e a . Especially under a bridge.  CD  January  Shadow diagrams cannot appropriately display the effects of double a n d triple shadows, such as those on the site. Shadows from surrounding towers layer on top of shadows from lower buildings, which are all in the shadow [and shade] of the bridge structure.  February  March  o o - y *.  M  However, seasonal patterns of shadow c a n be seen a n d used in planning for vegetation a n d the placement of uses according to the time of d a y a n d year in which they will be most used.  April  f » f  o 5 o a  X  Q)  m "In  As seen from the diagrams, the site remains in shadow a g o o d portion of the d a y except for a few hours around high noon when the only darkness is directly below the bridge structure. The sunrise shadow moves just a few degrees to the south from January to July when it then begins May  June  to move back towards the north. This shadow pattern would most affect what happens at the furthest southwest corner of the site, leaving it in complete shadow every morning, but lightening up by mid-morning.  July  The late afternoon shadow is the heaviest a n d deepest on the site due to the closeness of the towers to the southwest. This shadow pattern leaves no part of the site untouched but does lighten up in the southeast part of the site in November a n d December. August  c o o  0 c  D on  Fig. 6.19 S h a d o w diagrams July-December  30  October  November  December  Fig. 6.20 S h a d o w diagrams S e p t e m b e r - D e c e m b e r  31  Q  ii::  The shadow diagrams allow for m a c roanalysis of the site, but upon closer observation, there is a complex pattern of lighting created by the forking of the d e c k structure into two V s . These openings a c t as skylights to the site. The light they allow into the site is then filtered through the columns a c c o r d i n g to the shadow diagrams a b o v e . While analysis of the patterns of light c a u s e d by the columns is a whole study in itself, it c a n quickly b e d e d u c e d that the V's allow ample light for smaller shadetolerant vegetation a n d any uses that require some natural light.  Fig. 6.22 V's as skylight a b o v e site  o o a X  The nighttime light qualities of the site are phenomenal. From on top of the bridge, many points of prospect allow for a view of either side as a pixelatation of nondescript residential lights. Right now the site is one  of the few that does not join in the pixelation. It is relatively dark from the bridge looking down with the exception of a few street lights. However, o n c e on the ground underneath the bridge, a quality entire-  ly different is discovered. The bridge streetlights create a datum atop the ones on the street beneath which light the structure like a theatre. The lighting is 'warm' in stark contrast to the daytime coolness of the site.  m "So  Fig. 6.24 Night light from bridge d e c k looking east  Fig. 6.25 Night light from bridge d e c k looking west  Fig. 6.26 Night light under bridge  33  -problem identification -personal interests  -economics -ample space and physical characteristics to solve problem -problem solution fits context  -analysis -exploration -diagramming -proposals -reports -planning decisions  -who -what -when  -demographics -statistics -economics  -how -principles and directives  -theoretical orientation -references  -how many -how much -how often -active language  -spatial quality -movement -configurations -formal language  -concept into design through specifics: materials. connections, conditions. transparencies, adjacencies.  Fig. 7.1 Methodology diagram  34  *g •p: 7T C  a  A set of four organizing principles have b e e n derived from existing conditions on site. These principles provide a starting p l a c e from which to begin to give form to the site.  O) c 'c  oO) o  THE SLAB The site is dominated by the slab a n d the column. This simple system will be a defining characteristic of the new landscape.  •— C  D) c:  SIMPLE GRID The center columns dominate the overall structure of the site. These columns will b e extrapolated across the site in the form of a grid which c a n help to organize onsite elements.  O O)  36  .__  LINEAR SITE ARRANGEMENT Piroritized connections on the ground b e t w e e n the two neighbourhoods. The connection towards the city centre will be m a d e via the bridge deck.  r, O)  b  37  PERMEABILITY AT THE GROUND The bridge is structure that allows the ground plane to b e completely permeable. All work structure walls are able to b e o p e n e d completely continuing the free groundplane created by the bridge. N *C  D  iO)  o  38  £i Q QJ O O  A critical aspect of programming urban s p a c e is the designer's inability to control the o u t c o m e . Henri Lefevbre's analysis of the contradictions of the built enviornment describes the complexity of the city as " a s p a c e of differences" [Lefebvre 1991]. This s p a c e is about tension, which includes nature, as evident in his definition of social s p a c e as the "encounter, assembly, [and] simultaneity of everything that is p r o d u c e d by nature a n d by society, either through their cooperation or through their conflicts" [Lefevbre, 1991]. This vision of a city establishes relationships between social a n d natural forces, acknowledges conflict b e t w e e n them a n d denies absolute control to one over the other [Pollack 2004]. Whether inside or outside, one way of conceptualizing public s p a c e is as everyday s p a c e - the non-monumental aspects of urban life that allows a n d supports social interaction. In the c a s e of this project, there is a driving program that gives primary definition to the s p a c e . However, that program is about everyday work activity a n d the many facets that comprise it's successful function. The crucial c o m p o n e n t is how to design social s p a c e around that program in a w a y that allows for a multitude of  appropriated uses that c a n h a p p e n in conjunction with, as a result of, or e v e n in opposition to the activities of the primary program. O n e w a y of doing so is by encouraging a project to e m b o d y a n d facilitate difference by considering how different functions operate at different scales a n d then create links between these scales. This includes a n intense layering of multifunctional, multi-scale activities within a single formal gesture. For example, creating slabs as pedestrian circulation off the bridge, stopping points for a production freight elevator, potential nighttime performance s p a c e , a n d as viewing platforms to a film screen a n d activity occuring on the ground below. This example from the project utilizes 'ground' as an active surface in two senses - not only a surface that supports activites, but also a performative element whereby the s p a c e itself is continually being p r o d u c e d , whether intended by the design or not. Rather than a s p a c e existing in a n a priori, "black a n d white" entity, it is d e v e l o p e d performatively, that is, happening as a process similarly to how much of the world operates [Pollack 2004]. The structure of the programming in this project is to alternate between affiliation a n d differentiation. Af-  filitation by situating the stepped amphitheatre so that it b e c o m e s a part of the sloping terrain of the city b e y o n d , aligning the major on-site circulation linearly to suggest c o n nection with the adjacent neighbourhood grids on either side, a n d orchestrating the main motion off the bridge d e c k as a n experience of situating oneself within the s p a c e a n d the city. Meanwhile differentiation c a n be r e a c h e d by creating a district with distinct boundaries that clearly define a district from When both affiliation a n d differentiation c a n be articulated, a s p a c e has the potential to b e c o m e both a center a n d a whole within the context of the city. The following active programs will be the focus of the project, with a n overarching emphasis on the ultimate production of public a n d social s p a c e : *small scale production "product display a n d exhibition "shopping a n d restaurants "theatre "market "movement on a n d off bridge  Fig. 9.1 Site intervention in reference to dowtown Vancouver  PACIFIC B O U L E V A R D  \  o  x  \ .••"*!•  MEW POMARIA TOWER  itt  •  \  Workspace  o  X  . -  \ \ .... *^  •j i ... :  V Exterior Workspace  I  —f—»  Pedestrian Passageway  \ B  •\  Underground Parking  L  <A \**\  \  Market Space  /  Exterior Workspace  \  !|  \  GRAN TABLE  Commercial space  I  r— . r  !•  '  O /  /  ||  I  / ^> /  VIZ  CGNCGHDE PAC  '  OH I  /  n  /  t  Theatre Seating  I »: ••••  Elevator from bridge Dock front parking |__J  Rim Screen  |  j  *  B E A C H AVEIMU6 SEAWALL ROUTE  Ground Level Plan Fig. 9.3  scaie:i:4oo  G r o u n d level plan of design intervention [scale not accurate]  42  Etovatcst/aS corfiwceln  tobndoB  I  <>  Third Level Plan scaie:i:6oo  Large concrete  paver  Small concrete  paver  /  /  T u r f - semi-shade variety  T a l l G r a s s - sun/shade mixture  Concrete slab  Gravel  I  Water  i : % % •% % % -  4  T r e e - Maple  Fig. 9.5 M a t e r i a l k e y to all t h r e e p l a n s  43  rjj  SMALL SCALE PRODUCTION Figure 9.5 illustrates the four main industrial arts facilities in Vancouver, in relation to the project site. All of these are publicly available [with a 1 year minimum wait list] a n d represent 4500 square feet of collective production s p a c e , 44,000 square feet of private live/work s p a c e , a n d 50 square feet of display s p a c e .  Railtown > Alexander Warehouse *  Four are located in the boundaries of the downtown eastside which accounts for the disproportion of allocated display s p a c e . None of the four are in a n area of high public traffic. The A R C [Artist Resource Center] is l o c a t e d in between the waterfront trainyards a n d a large chicken processing plant - therefore plagued by repulsive noise a n d smell. The facilities provided at The A R C are a m o n g the best in the city a n d acquiring a s p a c e requires a 1 year wait a n d indepth interview a n d selection.  The ARC "  Strathcona Co-op •  Video In —  Rg. 9.6 Existing small scale production in Vancouver  Railtown is similar to The A R C a n d is also in a less-than-desireable l o c a tion being separated from Gastown [and any real amenities] by O p p e n heimer Park a n d J a p a n t o w n .  to current zoning standards, a n d therefore probably not sustainable, but could be a model for the types of shared a n d inclusive facilities that provide community a n d independ e n c e for local producers. It is in the middle of a cluster of small scale industrial buildings, a n d like the other facilities, segregated from nodes of activity a n d public exposure.  The Alexander Warehouse, as previously mentioned, is illegal a c c o r d i n g  Overall, all facilities retain a very low profile in city activity a n d therefore  are kept from significantly contributing diversity to Vancouver's urban landscape. Fig. 9.5 illustrates the lack of such facilities from the downtown core a n d thus the types of zoning being neglected a n d marginalized.  QJ  All of the a b o v e facilities were visited a n d d o c u m e n t e d at the beginning of the project. The criteria taken into a c c o u n t on these visits focused mainly on the collective production s p a c e , its location within the building, access to the outside, access to appropriate docking a n d movement of materials, a n d level of exposure to the public.  None of the three are l o c a t e d within any visual access to the public, nor contain any significant display s p a c e - of process or product.  Figures 9 . 6 - 9 . 8 diagram the production spaces of three of these facilities based on this criteria. All three of  Furthermore, none of the three are l o c a t e d with any proximity to significant public s p a c e .  these spaces are collectively shared by 10 or more people. Two of the three are l o c a t e d in basements with no access to the exterior a n d only accessible by elevator a n d stairs.  exterior workspace storage metal activity wood activity entrance/flex space  D O  The visits to local facilities revealed several things.  work/exhibit space, and permeable walls for ventilation and public exposure when desired  - almost all located in basements - limited outdoor connection - limited docking space - overall lack of shared workspace for the number of artists in the city  *4,000' less active shop workspace freight elevator, washrooms, air, light, easily accessed outside work/exhibit space  Therefore, the following programs and sizes have been prioritized for this project:  *3,000' private workspace open plan, easy access to other workspaces, air, light, outside access  * 10.000 sq. ft. active workspace on ground floor with open plan, freight elevator, air, light, ample docking, easily accessed outside color key H  active workspace  Hi  less active workspace  MU  exterior work/exhibit  private workspace docking  JA  Fig. 9.10 Ground level production spaces  JA  Fig. 9.11 S e c o n d level production spaces  Fig. 9.12 Third level [rooftop] production spaces  46  Fig. 9.13 View into ground level production spaces from descending coil  47  Fig. 9.14 Main plaza production s p a c e  D) O  i  i i i i i  Fig. 9.15 Section ' A ' as indicated on production plans [Scale roughly 1:1000]  i  Fig. 9.17 Section 'D' as indicated on production plans [Scale roughly 1:1000]  p 0)  O  Q.  DISPLAY Active display is impossible to m a p in Vancouver. Although there are dozens of galleries with large street windows, a n d numerous local stores promoting local designers, the c o n c e p t of 'display' is greatly underplayed by city ordinances that very strictly control means, size, a n d location of display.  *active display places where actual work processes are viewed ""exhibition s p a c e temporary exhibit s p a c e , in view but out of reach of the public  The following types of display are b a s e d on what a p p e a r to b e lacking at local production locations: color key *500 sq. ft. static product display [this is 1 Ox the cummulative amount provided at current workspaces]  pjpj |HS  static display active display special event display  it  J  lift!  ™U 1"  G "  9.18  G r o u n d level display areas  ! //  Fig. 9.19 S e c o n d level display areas  t  i i  Fig. 9.20 Third level display a r e a  52  9.22 S e c o n d level display 'boxes' on Howe Street 53  Fig. 9.23 Section 'E' as indicated on display plans [Scale roughly 1:1000]  SHOPPING AND RESTAURANTS Downtown is not lacking in quantity of shopping a n d restaurant experiences. Rather the lack is in distinctivneness between these districts, a n d quality of the experience a n d goods being sought. Gravnville, Robson, a n d Denman form a continuous high street fabric that definitely works from a planning perspective. But in comparison to high streets in c o m p a r a b l e sized cities, the experience of these streets leaves m u c h to be desired. In addition, the 'pocket' areas of such activities in Vancouver are small in comparison to the population. Gastown, Yaletown, a n d Granville Island are substantial 'pockets' that serve their own unique function a n d define very specific characterstics. The following programmatic uses will be incorporated into the design: *mix of clustered eating a n d shopping "flagship restaurant  nirrm  "manipulable s p a c e [awnings, seating, plants, signage] "ample patio s p a c e  Fig. 9.25  Ground level shopping a n d restaurants  !i  Fig. 9.26 S e c o n d level shopping a n d restaurant  THEATRE Vancouver contains six downtown movie theatres for a total of 8,000+ seats. In sharp contrast is an extreme lack of outdoor theatre s p a c e . The Plaza of Nations a c c o m o d a t e s 500 people but it's separation from a c tive city s p a c e deems it a specialevents-only stage. The amphitheatre on Granville Island is also secluded from activity a n d is used only for special planned events. It c a n c o m fortably hold 100+ people, but the informality of it's seating a n d lack of overhead covering makes it a fully seasonal venue. The Vancouver International Film Centre on Davie a n d Seymour is to be c o m p l e t e d in 2006 as a headquarters for the VIFF a n d 175 seat theatre.  * Denman Place  Paramount • Pacific Cinemateque. Pr  Vancouver International Film Centre Site PSaza of Nations  ^Granville Island Amphitheatre  l. 9.28 Theatres in Vancouver  The following outdoor film theatre will include the following elements: *1000 seats - 600 informal. 400 formal ""retractable film screen on bridge columns "live performance stage[s] at various levels  The Vogue Granville The Orpheum *• * » Tinseltown * Queen Elizabeth  O  b) Q.  — ! —  '  color key §|jjj  performance formal seating informal seating  Fig. 9.29 Ground level theatre s p a c e  Fig. 9.31  Fig. 9.30  S e c o n d level theatre s p a c e  Section 'F' as indicated on theatre plans [scale roughly 1:1000]  58  Fig. 9.32 Main amphitheatre s p a c e , retractable video screen, a n d viewing platform slabs 59  MARKET The ultra-dense downtown only has two summer w e e k e n d farmer's markets. Both markets are humble in size c o m p a r e d to the communities that surround them. The West End Market consists of two rows of vendors down C o m o x street for 2 blocks with a p proximately 30 vendors. The Yaletown Market is located in a parking lot with 20-30 vendors with a majority being arts a n d crafts. The following market elements will be incorporated into the design:  West End Market \  ; i: ProW^Site • Yaletown Market  *25 - 30 outside vendor stalls articulated on ground, but not a 24 hour designation "production facility vendor s p a c e  j . 9.33 Seasonal outdoor markets in downtown Vancouver  "approriate movement of goods 4 m. wide delivery drive with turnaround color key HI •B  outside vendor s p a c e production vendor delivery/movement  Fig. 9.34 Potential ground level market activities  60  Fig. 9.35 View of potential market areas  61  Fig. 9.36 Section ' G ' as indicated on market plan [scale roughly 1:1000]  O  PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT FROM BRIDGE Addressing the pedestrian problem discussed in Chapter 4 is imperative for this design. There are few solutions that could be worse than the current situation.  3z:  250 meter long colfchMnp  V  mil  /  \ o \ Best c a s e scenario is to provide all three possible options for d e c e n t to the ground from the bridge d e c k : ramp, stairs a n d elevator. All three of these cover every possible m o d e of travel for a person not in a n automobile. Also important is that these solutions b e more than simple function. Dec e n d i n g off of a p i e c e of infrastructure as significant as the Granville Bridge requires more importance than simple stair circulation. With these points in mind, the following users will be able to choose how they m o v e o n a n d off the bridge structure directly to the ground b e n e a t h in less than 500 meters - the a v e r a g e route from the central bridge d e c k to beneath the bridge. "bikes - rgmp "wheelchairs - ramp, elevator "pedestrians - stairs, ramp, elevator  a  a  a  l a n d s c a p e d platforms grafted to bridge < olumns d t o one a n  ramp off bridge, decending staircase and. elevator  Fig. 9.37 Pedestrian movement on/off bridge  color key m|  bicycle, wheelchair a n d pedestrian pedestrian only  /  n  ." ~  / /  O  Stairs l e a d i n g u p s l a b roofs t o b r i d g e e l e v a t o r . C a s c a d i n g s t o r m w a t e r d r a i n s f o l l o w p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n .  4  &  Fig. 9.40 Section ' C as indicated on pedestrian movement plan  Fig. 9.41 Section ' G ' [repeat] as indicated on pedestrian movement plan  <Z  PUBLIC SPACE Vancouver has no shortage of public s p a c e with it's continuous public waterfront. Although the waterfront is extremely active, it is public s p a c e focused primarily on physical activity as entertainment. The Seawall has b e c o m e Vancouver's linear 'public square'. Aside from the Seawall, the primary built spaces where p e o p l e actively gather on a daily basis include Robson Square, Wall Center Plaza, a n d the Library Steps. In these three spaces, the following activities dominate: *sitting alone •"sitting with others "something to w a t c h "performance "sunning "water "stairs  67  nut  :  j Fig. 9.43  Ground level publicness  Figures 9.42-9.44 show the high degree of publicness contained in the project. Everything outside of the actual interior production spaces is public a n d would essentially be publically o w n e d considering the site is currently o w n e d a n d will b e develo p e d by The City. The project design includes rougly 1200 meters of sitting wall/stairs, a low level water feature positioned to recieve the most sun possible. The design includes over 6000 sq. meters of platformed s p a c e for various degrees of prospect/refuge. Most importantly, a large amount of public s p a c e has b e e n devoted to human experiences close, up, a n d under the actual bridge structure  i  Fig. 9.44 S e c o n d level publicness  Fig. 9.45 Third level publicness  - a type of public s p a c e not often d e e m e d important by cities.  color key public semi-public private  Front Plaza Plan  scale:  1.100  Fig. 10.1 Front plaza blow-up plan [scale not accurate]  Fig. 10.2 Materials a n d elements  .>< "D ^  City of Vancouver Policy Report: Urban Structure January 27, 2004  Q_ Q^  To: Vancouver City Council From: Director of Current Planning Subject: A Neighbourhood Commercial Centre on city lands between Pacific Street a n d B e a c h Avenue, a n d between Howe a n d Seymour Streets, under the Granville Bridge. Recommendation: That Council endorse in principle the creation of a small local-serving neighbourhood commercial centre under the north e n d of the Granville Bridge, subject to a report on the results of a study on the uses, form, a n d amenities for the subject area.  Relevant Council Policies: 1984 Southeast Granville Slopes 1989 Granille Slopes C o n c e p t Plan 1990 False Creek North ODP 2002 Downtown Transportation Plan 2002 Pacific Boulevard Redesign Purpose and Summary: Staff have identified the opportunity to establish a small but unique neighbourhood commercial centre in the area b e neath the north e n d of the Granville Bridge, south of Pacific Street. The centre would serve the needs of adjoining developing high density  residential neighbourhoods of the westerly False Creek North neighbourhood. Downtown South a n d Granville Slopes, as well as provide for local employment opportunities. The development of the centre would also seek to improve pedestrian a n d bicycle links between the downtown plateau a n d False Creek. Consultant services for urban design a n d retail potential are anticipated as technical bases for possible zoning changes. Study Objectives: The main objective of the study is to clarify land use a n d urban design policy about developement of the subject lands as a mixed use 'neighbourhod centre' to serve the residents of the adjoining neighbourhoods a n d complement waterfront commercial a n d marina uses. Activity a n d built form will also  contribute to Pacific Boulevard as a 'great street'. Character: The situation under the bridge has the potential for creating a very special character of with full year-round weather protection a n d sidewalks for outdoor retailing, that c o u l d lend form to a n amorphous area a n d support existing restaurants a n d marinas along False Creek. The location of bridge a n d ramp supports a n d the Engineering Department's requirement for a 3 m setback from the bridge a n d ramp decks present a challenge to physic a l a n d e c o n o m i c developement. However, if addressed in a creative w a y these challenges may create a unique p l a c e in the city. From report found at: www. city.vancouver.bc.ca/ctyclerk/ cclerk/20040224/p6.htm  Under* fMfa&  P o t e n t i a l ' h i g h street' f r o m r e p o r t  ^  City of Vancouver Administrative Report July 19,2002  a •  To: Standing Committee on Planning a n d Environment From: Engineering Services Subject: Urban Design review of P a cific Boulevard - Phase 1 Recommendation: That the g e o metric design, the c o n c e p t u a l streetscape plan, a n d the tree planting details a n d standards d e v e l o p e d for Pacific Boulevard be a p p r o v e d  Discussion: The frontage will consist of a 7.5 m wide multi-way boulevard on the south side, with a 3.0 m wide treed centre median. There is a 1.8 m wide treed side median on the south side which separates the moving lanes of traffic from the side-boulevard or access road. This side-boulevard will be an area for parked cars a n d pedestrians, a n d will include a 1.8 m wide lane for cyclists a n d skaters. From report found at http://www. city.vancouver.bc.ca/cfyclerk/ cclerk/020801 /csb7.htm  Background: On may 2, 2002, C o u n cil a d o p t e d the Preferred Schematic Design for Pacific Boulevard a n d a p p r o v e d a budget for a consultant a n d associated resources to finalize the designs for Pacific Boulevard from Burrard to Nelson Street. The report noted that the first phase of implementation fo the proposed plan would be the B e a c h Neighbourhood frontages from Homer to Seymour. Staff retained the expertise of AllanJ a c o b s a n d Elizabeth M a c d o n a l d to oversee the development a n d Stacy Moriarty to complete the detailed landscape plans a n d tree planting details. Typical cross-section  Street Trees in G r * u Strips— Street Tr<*» in Cental Metfterw-  Boulevard configuration  X X5 ^ Cl  Bridgehead Guidelines  a n d expectations  From City of Vancouver Land Use a n d Development Policies a n d Guidelines.  These guidelines are to be used in conjunction with the zoning schedules a n d the False Creek Official a n d Area Development Plans, the False Creek North ODP, a n d applicable CD-I By-laws. These guidelines should be consulted in seeking a p proval for conditional uses or for the relaxation of regulations. As well as assisting the applicant, the guidelines will be used by City staff in the evaluation of development initiatives a n d rezoning applications for sites adjacent to selected bridgeheads.  Guidelines are bridge specific:  Bridgehead Guidelines. December,  The intent of these guidelines is to: -maintain key public views from the bridges; -reinforce a n d e n h a n c e the experie n c e of crossing the bridges; -reinforce a n d e n h a n c e existing urban form patterns; -establish optimum setbacks of towers from the bridge decks; -limit building height immediately adjacent to the bridges to below the bridge deck; -minimize views of unsightly roofs from bridges; -encourage, where possible, improved pedestrian connections -reconcile public objectives with adjacent private development rights  1997.  4.5 North Granville Bridgehead The following siting a n d height guidelines should be followed for buildings that are proposed on the North Granville Bridgehead: (a) no buildings should be within 10 m of central bridge deck; (b) between 10m a n d 30m, buildings should not e x c e e d the height of the bridge d e c k (except for sites east of the Seymour ramp). Buildings up to 18.2 m in height may be considered between Pacific Street a n d Beach Avenue provided that: - a 20m minimum setback is maintained; - the roof is positively articulated as a visible elevation -livability issues are satisfactorily addressed  Downtown bridges a n d viaducts subject to guidelines  S  I 0* nmdmM MM • main.  TRfew*  n  Cr&tto **B«h  4 , ; , • • » — ( . r.  North Granville Bridgehead setbacks a n d height restrictions  It*  ,X 0 Jj;  City of Vancouver Administrative Report O c t o b e r 1, 2002  CL U  To: Vancouver City Council  O  From: M a n a g e r of Engineering Subject: Granville Bridge Pedestrian a n d Cyclist Improvements Recommendation: That Council seek further public a n d stakeholder input into the preliminary design a n d that more funding be put into a d ditional o p e n houses, presentation materials, a n d further design work. Background: In M a c h 2002, Council a d o p t e d recommendations for improvement from a final study report prioritizing Burrard Bridge Pedestrian improvements, a n d Granville Bridge s e c o n d . These improvements include d a mid-level walkway/cyclist path suspended beneath the bridge a n d d e c k level improvements for pedestrians, disabled users a n d cyclists.  tudy a n d criteria boards presented at o p e n house. City of Vancouver Planning  The mid-level walkway option was seen with merit by stakeholders. Cyclists supported d e c k level imporvements, but cautioned that it would be difficult to make a commuter cyclist connection work underneath the bridge d e c k b e c a u s e of c o n nection points a n d grades.  75  City of Vancouver Administrative Report O c t o b e r 1,2002  Q Q  To: Vancouver City Council  n From: M a n a g e r of Engineering Subject: Granville Bridge Pedestrian a n d Cyclist Improvements Recommendation: That Council seek further public a n d stakeholder input into the preliminary design a n d that more funding b e put into a d ditional o p e n houses, presentation materials, a n d further design work. Background: In M a c h 2002, Council a d o p t e d recommendations for improvement from a final study report prioritizing Burrard Bridge Pedestrian improvements, a n d Granville Bridge s e c o n d . These improvements include d a mid-level walkway/cyclist path suspended beneath the bridge a n d d e c k level improvements for pedestrians, disabled users a n d cyclists.  |  *  i  i  The mid-level walkway option was seen with merit by stakeholders. Cyclists supported d e c k level imporvements, but cautioned that it would be difficult to make a commuter cyclist connection work underneath the bridge d e c k b e c a u s e of c o n nection points a n d grades. GI Option, City of Vancouver O p e n House Boards  City of Vancouver Administrative Report O c t o b e r 1,2002  o.  To: Vancouver City Council From: M a n a g e r of Engineering Subject: Granville Bridge Pedestrian a n d Cyclist Improvements Recommendation: That Council seek further public a n d stakeholder input into the preliminary design a n d that more funding be put into a d ditional o p e n houses, presentation materials, a n d further design work. Background: In M a c h 2002, Council a d o p t e d recommendations for improvement from a final study report prioritizing Burrard Bridge Pedestrian improvements, a n d Granville Bridge second. These improvements include d a mid-level walkway/cyclist path suspended beneath the bridge a n d d e c k level improvements for pedestrians, disabled users a n d cyclists.  Those with disabilities noted the n e e d for crossing with elevators particularly in the a b s e n c e of effective disabled accessible ferry system. Other members noted that is a n interesting idea but that it warranted further explora-  C6 Option, City of Vancouver O p e n House Boards  The mid-level walkway option was seen with merit by stakeholders. Cyclists supported deck level imporvements, but cautioned that it would be difficult to make a commuter cyclist connection work underneath the bridge d e c k b e c a u s e of c o n nection points a n d grades.  77  Ackerman, Kurt. Building For Industry. U.K.: Watermark Publications, 1991. CL  D O) O  Arntzen, Art. Personal interview, November 2004. Bayley, Stephen e d . Commerce and Culture. London: Fourth Estate, 1989. Berrizbeitia, Anita a n d Linda Pollack. Inside Outside: Between Architecture a n d Landscape. Massachusetts: Rockport, 1999. Birksted, Jan e d . Relating Architecture to Landscape. New York: E&FN Spon. 1999. City of Vancouver Archives. http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/archives/about/index.htm City of Vancouver Land Use and Development Policies and Guidelines. "Bridgehead Guidelines." December, 1997. City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Downtown South Community Plan." February 1991. City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Pacific Boulevard Redesign." July 2002. http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/020801/csb7.htm City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Central Area Zoning". City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Granville Bridge Pedestrian and Cyclist Improvements." October 2002. http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/021001 /A8.htm City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Urban Structure Report." January 2004. http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20040224/p6.htm City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Central Area Estimated Future Growth to 2021." August 2003. City of Vancouver Planning Department. "Granville Bridge Pedestrain and Cyclist Improvements - Capital Plan Consideration." October 2002. http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/021001/A8.htm. City of Vancouver Planning Department. "FCCDD Comperhensive Development Bylaws." 1997.  >•  aD  JZ  O) O  Corner, James. Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. Sparks, NV: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Decker, Thomas. The Modern City Revisited. New York: Spon Press, 2000. Ensor, Bradley E. A Brief Introduction to Basic Marxist Concepts: Capitalist M o d e of Production. 2000. January. http://plaza.ufl.edu/ensor/mareanthro.htm Gastil, Raymond a n d Zoe Ryan eds. O p e n : New Designs for Public S p a c e . New York: Van Alen Institute, 2004. Gausa, Guallart, Muller, Soriano, Porras, and Morales. The Metapolis Dictionary of A d v a n c e d Architecture: CityTechnology, and Society in the Information A g e . Barcelona: Institute for A d v a n c e d Architecture, 2000. Gobfe, Emerson e d . Buildings for Industry. F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1957. Grube, Oswald W. Industrial Buildings and Factories. New York: Praeger Publishers. 1971. Hinchcliffe, Daniel a n d Judith Rugg, eds. Advances in Art and Urban Futures Volume 2: Recoveries a n d Reclamations. England: Intellect Books Ltd., 2002. Hurd, M.K., and Stewart C . Watson, eds. Esthetics in Concrete Bridge Design. Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1990. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. "  " . The Death a n d Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. 1961.  Jones, Michael Owen. The Hand M a d e Object and its Maker. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.  Kuhnert, Nidolaous, Volker Martin, Karl Pachter and Heinrich Suhr eds. Berlinmodell Industriekulture: Redesigning the Urban Factory. Basel: Birkhauser, 1989. LeFaivre, Liane and Alexander Tzonis. Aldo van Eyck: Humanist Rebel. Rotterdam: 010, 1999. Lefebvre, Henri. The Production of Space. Translated by Donald Nicholson-Smith. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1991.  79  Lott, Eric. Vancouver City Planner in charge of North Granville Redevelopment. Personal Interview, Octover 2004. Mercer Human Resource Consulting. March 13, 2005. Meistrich, Allison et al. Documentation on Waterfront Development: Selected from presentations at the International Making Cities Livable Conferences. California: IMCL Council, 1997. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield: Mem'am-Webster, Inc., 2003. Mumford, Lewis. The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformation a n d Its Prospects. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961. Munich Reinsurance Company. Bridges: Technology and Insurance. Munich, 1992. Paetzold, Heinz. City Life: Essays on Urban Culture. Province of Limburg: Jan van Eyck Akademie, 1997. Pollack, Linda. "Paradoxical Spaces." O p e n : New Designs For Public S p a c e . New York: Van Alen Institute, 2004. Pye, David. The Nature and Art of Workmanship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968. Ramoneda, Josep. "(In)Visible Cities: Spaces of Risk, Spaces of Citizenship." El Pais, July 2003. Center of Contemporary Culture: Barcelona. Rowe, Peter. Civic Realism. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1997. Schwartz, Frederic J . The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture before the First World War. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1996. Smith, Peter F. The Dynamics of Urbanism [The Living Environment]. London: The Anchor Press Ltd., 1974. Spens. Modern Landscapes. London: Phaidon Press, 2003. Stats C a n a d a , 2001 The Courier Vancouver weekly newspaper. January 2004.  >«.  Tschumi, Bernard. Event Cities 3. Cambridge: MIT Press. 2004.  Q. Q  b) O ~Q  Turner. Michael. A Contextual Report on False Creek. Vancouver: City of Vancouver Planning Department. 1981. United Nations Industrial Development Organization. Production management for small - a n d medium-scale furniture manufacturers. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 1992. Vancouver City Planning Commission. Selected Interviews on the Future of Downtown Vancouver. 1989. Walker, Peter and Melanie Simo. Invisible Gardens. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1994. Zukin, Sharon. Landscapes of Power: From Detroit to Disney World. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.  Bark Design Collective, www.barkbark.ca Digital Careers C a n a d a , Pure Design Inc.  www.digitalcareerscanada.com  www.puredesignonline.com  Stockholm Furniture Fair,  www.stockhomfurniturefair.com  Video In Studios, www.videoinstudios.com Vancouver International Film Festival, www.viff.org Vancouver Annual Eastside Culture Crawl,  www.culturecrawl.bc.ca  81  

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