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Produce choices : exploring the potential for niche food markets as an incentive for green roof implementation Philp, Lori Jane 2005

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PRODUCE CHOICES: Exploring the Potential for N i che Food Markets as Incentive for G r e e n Roof Implementat ion by LORI JANE PHILP B.L.A., University of G u e l p h , 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Landscape Architecture) UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2005 © Lori J a n e Philp, 2005 abstract A high perceniage of vacani space within downtown Vancouver is composed of inaccessible rooftops that, through green roof implementation, are capable of sustaining a network of accessible open space that supports urban food production. With an increasing local interest in urban agriculture, an organic rooftop food production technology is due to emerge on the marketplace. This study explores the development of urban agriculture within downtown Vancouver as a potential incentive for green roof implementation. Through an analysis of current research and a related case study, a design for an organic herb garden was developed for an existing green roof above a specialty-foods grocery store in downtown Vancouver. This model allows the green roof to support the growing and selling of organic food on-site, bringing the celebration of food production to the public realm, while strengthening the connection between the green roof, its' built form and the surrounding community. The design integrates a highly-productive organic herb garden with social areas for on-site residents and employees. Using developed indicators for sustainability, a final comparative analysis of the proposed design against the related case study and existing site was completed. This study informs new directions for the social function of the green roof, while recognizing how policy and regulations for future urban development can support the advancement of urban agriculture. Table of Contents Abstract 11 Table of Contents »' List of Tables v List of Figures v | Acknowledgements v " Section I 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Problem Statement 4 1.3 Hypothesis 4 1.4 Goa l 5 1.5 Objectives 5 1.6 Methodology 6 Section II 2.1 Research Questions 10 2.2 Theoretical Orientation 2.2.1 Urban Sustainability 11 2.2.2 Public Realm 13 2.2.3 Urban Agricultural Opportunities 14 2.3 Literature Review 2.3.1 Benefits of the Green Roof System 2.3.1.a Environmental 16 2.3.1.b Economical 18 2.3.1.c Social 20 2.3.2 Local Green Roof Trends 22 2.3.3 LEED Certification.. 24 2.3.4 Organic Niche Markets ;....25 2.4 Case Study Analysis 27 Section III 3.1 Site Selection Process 31 3.2 Site Information 3.2.1 Location and Local Context 31 3.2.2 Size and Building Condition 33 3.2.3 Site Features 34 3.2.4 Access 35 3.2.5 Current Use 36 3.2.6 Local Demographics 36 3.3 Site Analysis 3.3.1 Sun and Wind 39 3.3.2 Design Constraints 40 3.3.3 Design Opportunities 41 Section IV 4.1 Design Guidelines 43 4.2 Site Design 4.2.1 Concept Plan 49 4.2.2 Circulation Plan 49 4.2.3 Proposed Site Plan 50 4.3 The Herb Garden 4.3.1 Plant Selection 51 4.3.2 Planting Zones 52 4.3.3 Companion Planting 66 4.3.4 Compost Unit 68 4.3.5 Access and Site Operation 70 4.3.6 Harvest and Market Sales 71 4.4 The Green Roof System 4.3.1 Site Drainage 74 4.3.2 Planting Media 76 4.3.3 Root Barrier and Filter Fabric 78 4.3.4 Irrigation 78 4.4 Organic Certification 79 Section V 5.1 Comparative Analysis 82 5.1.1 Proposed vs. Existing Site 82 5.1.2 Proposed vs. Case Study 86 5.2 LEED Certification 89 5.3 Analysis Summary 91 Section VI 6.1 A Framework for Future Design 94 6.2 Revisiting Local Policy 98 6.3 Social Outcomes 6.3.1 Food Labelling 99 6.3.2 School Curriculum 100 6.3.3 Local Organizations 100 Section Vll 7.1 Conclusion 105 Bibliography 107 Appendix A 112 iv List of Tables: Table 3.1 Yaletown Demographics 37 Table 4.1 Planting Zone A 53 Table 4.2 Planting Zone B 57 Table 4.3 Planting Zone C 60 Table 4.4 Planting Zone D 65 Table 4.5 Companion Planting 67 Table 4.6 Harvest and Market Sales 71 Table 5.1 Comparative Analysis - Function 83 Table 5.2 Comparative Analysis - Aesthetic 85 Table 5.3 Comparative Analysis - Case Study 87 List of Figures: Figure 1.1 Methodology Diagram 8 Figure 2.1 Chicago City Hall 20 Figure 2.2 IGA Marketplace 21 Figure 2.3 Vancouver Public Library 22 Figure 2.4 Ford Plant 23 Figure 2.5 Fairmont Waterfront Hotel 28 Figure 3.1 Choices Market 31 Figure 3.2 Map of Yaletown 32 Figure 3.4 Metropolis Building 33 Figure 3.5 Overhead site view 34 Figure 3.6 Raised Planters 34 Figure 3.7 Existing Skylights 35 Figure 3.8 Privacy Buffer 35 Figure 3.9 Interior View 36 Figure 4.1 Planting Zones 52 Figure 4.2 Compost Unit 68 Figure 4.3 Drying Racks 73 Figure 4.4 Drainage Layer 74 Figure 4.5 Scales of Implementation 95 vi Acknowledgements / would like to extend gratitude towards my entire thesis committee, who have remained supportive throughout the entire duration of this project. In particular, Prof. Patrick F. Mooney and Patrick Condon, for guiding the design process and keeping me focussed on my academic goals. As well, I would like to thank Bruce Hemstock and Maureen Connelly for their consistent enthusiasm, contribution of innovative ideas and overall support towards the project. I would like to extend thanks to Elaine Stevens, who made a significant contribution to the project, while remaining a constant source of inspiration. Finally, I would like to thank Allison Good for all her encouraging comments, sound advice and the extended use of her computer. ' Thank you. vii Section I 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem Statement 1.3 Hypothesis 1.4 Project Goal 1.5 Project Objectives 1.6 Methodology 1.1 Introduction Green roof implementation within North America has increased drastically over the past few decades due to various research studies reporting the abundant ecological, economical and social benefits of the green roof system (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). Some of the common benefits include energy conservation required for heating and cooling, improved stormwater management, moderation of the Urban Heat Island Effect, enhanced biodiversity and habitat support, oxygen loading and offering of additional public space (CMHC, 1999; Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004; Eisenman, 2004; Kortright, 2001). In North America, green roofs are commonly installed as a cost-effective method for mitigating environmental problems at the city scale, while allowing for long-term savings on energy costs at the parcel scale (CMHC, 1999). A recent study conducted by Environment C a n a d a in collaboration with the National Research Council demonstrated how green roofs can save millions of dollars in energy consumption, improve air quality and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the City of Toronto (NRCC, 2002). In Germany, which is considered a leading country in green roof activity, the driving force behind green roof implementation tends to be primarily environmental, as mitigation for habitat and landscape loss within the built environment (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). The motivating factors for 2 green roof implementation vary greatly in cities throughout the world, according to cultural, climatic and even political dynamics (CMHC, 1999). Consequently, the type of incentives and their effectiveness on green roof implementation may also vary across different regions. While such motivating factors are indeed valid and defendable, it seems that the social opportunities presented by the green roof tend to be overlooked when efforts are concentrated on ecological and economic gains. Roof space can be leased for food production or other amenity benefits, extending the current program of the green roof to include a community, social and potentially an educational dimension. The under-utilized rooftop remains an untapped resource, carrying the potential to accommodate the production of healthy food, while providing attractive green places for space-deprived city dwellers. In order to manifest this new vision for the productive green roof with an amplified social dimension, it is important to consider appropriate incentives and motivating factors required for the implementation of such a project. The development of an urban niche market which capitalizes on rooftop-grown organic produce may be a suitable incentive for green roof implementation within downtown Vancouver. It has already been established that rooftops, typically viewed as underutilized urban spaces, can be used to grow high quality food (Baker, 2002). As a result, organic rooftop produce can be sold to niche markets for higher prices than conventional produce 3 (Ibid.), making this expanding technology more economically viable within downtown Vancouver. 1.2 Problem Statement Drastic changes must be made in the manner with which we plan and design our rapidly-expanding urban centers. Expansion of the North American urban center is plagued by numerous afflictions. We over-consume energy and natural resources while over-producing greenhouse gases and other detrimental wastes. We consume over-processed foods which have travelled for days, while we live surrounded by under-used and inaccessible spaces, capab le of growing healthy food. Green roofs carry the potential to mitigate many of the problems associated with urban densification. While green roof implementation is beginning to emerge as a sustainable design practice throughout North America, there is still a missed potential for innovative design. There is a potential for an ecologically and economically functional green roof, which also supports accessible public space, community reinforcement and the communication of sustainable practices, such as urban agriculture. This project aims to realize this missed potential. 1.3 Hypothesis A new model for the green roof can transform lifeless urban rooftops into attractive places, capab le of growing organic food to launch niche markets while existing as catalysts for social interaction, education and local community reinforcement. The 4 proposed green roof will be an exemplary model for a highly-productive, aesthetically-pleasing and multi-functional place, which also supports the many ecological benefits of a traditional green roof system. 1.4 Goal This project will demonstrate the potential for social, ecological and economical benefits obtained by a green roof design through the layering of different functional systems, while advancing the development of a niche market for organic rooftop-grown herbs. 1.5 Objectives The project objectives are as follows: 1. To develop a model for the green roof which can grow and sell organic food on-site, creating a highly-productive and tightly-knit food production circuit; 2. To recognize the role of the green roof as a platform for education and address this within the social programming of the site; 3. To further strengthen the relationship between the green roof, the built form and the surrounding community; green roof built form c o m m u n i t y 5 4. To explore the maximum potential for the accumulation of LEED® credits within a project that combines green roofs and living wall systems for organic food production; 5. To demonstrate the aesthetic value and contribution to the public realm that green roofs offer as forms of rooftop art and public space. The objectives reflect an overall layering of different systems, informing the design of a site which is not only sustainable, but also a model for the future of urban living. These objectives will be revisited in the final comparative analysis (Section 5.1) of the proposed site design and used as a tool for evaluation. 1.6 Methodology The project methodology will be carried out in a manner that allows for the continuous collection of data from a broad range of sources. As the project is based around the intention of generating a model for green roof productivity, it is imperative that precedent models be examined in addition to a more in-depth case study analysis. This will not only allow for the accumulation of necessary technical information to complete the design project, but also provide links to other available resources, including local professionals. The case study analysis will focus on the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel's rooftop herb garden, located within downtown Vancouver. In addition to studying the actual design of this highly-relevant site, interviews with the site's designer and gardener, Elaine Stevens, will assist in the completion of the analysis. 6 A literature review, combined with interviews with local professionals and lectures will provide both the theoretical orientation and technical resources required as the foundation for the design phase of the project. The case study analysis and literature review will be used to develop a set of appl icable design guidelines, which will be used to inform the design of the project site and evaluate its effectiveness in a final comparative analysis. The design phase of the project will involve continual input from the thesis committee as well as direct reference back to the case study analysis. Upon completion of the final site design, a comparative analysis will be made to reflect upon the proposed research questions (Refer to Section 2.1). The proposed design will be compared against the existing site, and be evaluated in terms of adherence to the developed design guidelines as well as the overall project objectives (Refer to Section 5.1). The intentions behind the comparative analysis are as follows: 1) To de termine the extent to wh i ch the d e v e l o p e d g reen roof m o d e l successful ly ach ieves the overal l project object ives; 2) To quant i fy the feasibility of such a project by address ing the p roposed research questions; 3) To d e v e l o p further impl icat ions for such a m o d e l within d o w n t o w n V a n c o u v e r a n d possibly other u rban centers. 7 Figure 1.1: M e t h o d o l o g y d i a g r a m . Literature Review • Interviews • Relevant Case Study Analysis • Meet with Elaine Stevens Framework for Future Design • Develop Project Design Guidelines Evaluation Final Design Section II 2.1 Research Questions 2.2 Theoretical Orientation 2.3 Literature Review 2.4 Case Study 9 2.1 Research Questions An abundance of research is currently available on both the technical design of the green roof and its estimated environmental and economical gains (Baker, 2002; CMHC, 1999; Davis, 2002; Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004; Eisenman, 2004; Kortright, 2001). The central intention behind this thesis project is not to question the existing research conducted on green roof function, but rather to take this knowledge and explore its further implications within a newly constructed model. This model, which fuses a highly-productive green roof with public amenity space, will be explored not only as an expansion of green roof design, but also as an alternative to existing food production-distribution systems that are currently in place. This project is anticipated to unveil a new model for the green roof as both a potential incentive for green roof implementation and a catalyst for growth within local urban agricultural practices. Thus, the major research questions of this study will examine this new green roof model, in terms of economic feasibility, social acceptance and functional practicality. These research questions are: 1. Can the existing model of the green roof be further enhanced to effectively layer economic, ecological and social components into a more productive system? 2. Is the production of an organic rooftop-produce niche market an appropriate 10 and effective motivating incentive for green roof implementation? 3. What are the potential barriers to more highly developed social and educational components of the green roof? How can such barriers be overcome? 2.2 Theoretical Orientation 2.2.1 Urban Sustainability It is a rather obvious, and possibly frightening observation that humans have managed to transform themselves from a predominantly rural people to a significantly urban people in an incredibly brief period of time. Before the children born in 1985 become adults, half of the world's population will be urban, and half of this half will be located in metropolises with over a million inhabitants (Dogan and Kasarda, 1998). Perhaps it is the rapidness of this transformation which has spawned such a great interest in the study of human interaction with the urban environment. The shockingly fast rate of this transformation may be contributing to an over-whelming lack in humans understanding their own living spaces (Lofland, 1998). As urban centers expand and become more dense, innovative methods for layering functional systems at the parcel scale should become higher in demand. It is at the parcel scale where specific objectives for sustainability can be effectively mitigated and monitored, while fostering the potential for a greater functional network, such as a connected network for open space. This layering of systems complies with the concept of sustainability by enhancing site function 11 a n d ach iev ing a greater ef f ic iency in resource a n d land consumpt ion ( C o n d o n et. a l . , 2002). This project is i n tended to explore the rooftop as a highly funct ional pa rce l , wh i ch is part of a greater sustainable system that c o u l d potential ly evo lve within down town V a n c o u v e r . The benefits are not mean t to b e restricted to the pa rce l sca le , but rather prov ide options for integrat ing site design within a greater sustainable urban system. As wel l , through the genera t ion of awareness a n d a c c e p t a n c e of g reen roof f ood produc t ion , the project c a n ultimately a d v o c a t e a more sustainable lifestyle for the city dweller. Providing the city dwel ler with the opportunity to physically a n d visually a c c e s s a product ive urban g a r d e n , while contr ibut ing to its p roduct ion through compos t ing a n d possible market consumpt ion is a rather simple c o n c e p t . However , it seems that this c o n c e p t is se ldom mater ia l ized, or at least not as extensively rep l i ca ted as it c o u l d b e within down town V a n c o u v e r . The i d e a of the e c o l o g i c a l footprint, a c o n c e p t exp lored by Mathis W a c k e r n a g e l a n d Will iam Rees (1996), introduces a revolutionary w a y of ca lcu la t ing humanity 's i m p a c t on the ear th. Topics such as carrying c a p a c i t y , resource consumpt ion a n d sustainability are discussed at both loca l a n d g loba l scales (Rees w., W a c k e r n a g e l M., 1996). As this project comb ines loca l f o o d product ion with current design object ives for urban sustainability, the e c o l o g i c a l footprint c o n c e p t is quite relevant a n d a p p l i c a b l e at m a n y scales, ranging from the pa rce l to the region. The notion of deve lop ing loca l e c o n o m i c systems where f ood c a n b e grown a n d sold on-site at tempts to 12 challenge the resource depletion and transportation concerns which plague the global economic structure (Ibid.). The creation of a tightly knit food and goods production-distribution circuit within downtown Vancouver is worthy of consideration. Harnessing such a production circuit with a functional urban green roof may trigger a series of interrelated ecological, economical and social benefits (Refer to Section 2.3.1). 2.2.2 Public Realm We tend to think of spaces as being either public (accessible) or private (restricted) and ignore the wide continuum of spaces that fall in between (Lofland, 1998). The public realm provides a rich environment for learning, offers respite and refreshment, operates as a center of communication and is the stage for the enactment of social arrangements and social conflict (Ibid.). William H. Whyte confirmed previous observations of a flourishing public realm social life. He also began the construction of a political argument for the indispensability of public space to the life of the city (Whyte, 1998). One of the major challenges of this project's site is its abrupt boundaries between public and private territory (Refer to Section 3.2.4). The predominantly private nature of the site with its restrictive access, confronts the project's objective of strengthening the connection between the green roof, its built form and the surrounding community. As well, the delineation of social realms is far more complex on such a site, where exclusive private terraces abut semi-private gathering space above a vibrant public streetscape 13 environment. The intersection between these different social realms must be handled with sensitivity and consideration for all of the potential users. There is a great opportunity embedded here for the design of a site which successfully manages the balance of existing private space while bringing the green roof system and practice of urban food production further into the public realm. It is not necessary to allow physical space to dictate the quality of social realms which c a n co-exist on a given site. The realm type is not necessarily defined by the physical space in which it is located but by the relational forms that dominate within it (Lofland, 1998). 2.2.3 Urban Agricultural Opportunities The incorporation of an urban food production policy within Vancouver could essentially reduce energy-use and pollution associated with the transportation and packaging of goods, while strengthening a more local economy (Barrs, 1997). As well, reducing vehicular traffic is a major goal of the Greater Vancouver Regional District's Liveable Region Strategy (www.gvrd.bc.ca) which could possibly be mitigated through an intensified urban agricultural system and support of local markets (Barrs, 1997). While this project is not necessarily based upon issues of food security within downtown Vancouver, the ideals and vision for a sustainable future which accompany urban agricultural practices are strongly relevant. A great deal of literature and research on The average American meal travels an astonishingly 1500 miles from field to table, using ten times the caloric value of the food itself (Norberg-Hodge et. al., 2000). 14 the topic of urban agriculture focuses on food production, primarily because of its importance to health, well-being and social equity. It is however, important to consider the production of other agricultural products, such as medicinal herbs, ornamental plants, compost and fuel-wood (Baker, 2002). The production and distribution of such products within an urban context is a rather intriguing concept, which could potentially develop a series of smaller niche markets. The greater idea of growing, packaging and selling products on-site could expand our current view of urban agriculture, making such systems not only economically feasible but also higher in consumer demand. Consumers realize the economic and psychological rewards of purchasing locally-grown produce from retailers. They pay lower prices for higher-quality food, enjoy emotional rewards of consuming locally-grown products and participate in the circulating of money through the local community instead of through a distant financial institution (Olsen, 1994). The concept of growing rooftop organic produce and selling it on-site, brings a progressive outlook to current urban agricultural practices. It suggests a narrowing of the gap that exists between farm and market, creating a more tightly knit food production circuit. As well, it brings the growing and distribution processes of food production into the public realm where they can be celebrated and used for educational purposes. 15 2.3 Literature Review The overall intention behind the literature review remains three-fold: 1) To develop a theoretical orientation which would act as a solid foundation for the proposed research questions; 2) To establish a firm understanding of green roof systems, in terms of historical and current trends as well as modern technologies which will guide the design phase of this project; 3) To gather pertinent information on green roof technologies, urban agricultural practices and the design of urban public spaces to develop a set of replicable design guidelines. 2.3.1 Benefits of the Green Roof System 2.3.1.a Environmental The environmental benefits gained from the green roof tend to be more significant within the urban setting, an area which tends to perpetuate its own air pollution. It is possible to replenish some of the lost equilibrium in the urban ecosystem and make use of wasted resources, such as sunlight and carbon dioxide, through the reintroduction of plant material on the roofs and facades of buildings (CMHC, 1999). Green roof and vertical garden technologies will play a key role in adherence to the Kyoto Protocol, which committed Canada to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly between 2008 and 2012 (Ibid.). Through the direct shading of buildings and improved insulation values, green roofs can significantly reduce urban energy demand and 16 potentially reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). If widely implemented, green roof and vertical garden technologies can provide an effective method for governments, companies and building owners to reduce GHG emissions (CMHC, 1999). In addition to reducing G H G emissions and energy consumption, an established green roof will have a noticeable impact on the humidity, air quality and reflected heat in the surrounding neighborhood (Ibid.). An established green roof is also capab le of absorbing 75% of precipitation that falls on it, which considerably reduces and prolongs stormwater runoff (Lazarus, 2004). The vegetated roof will also moderate the temperature of stormwater and act as a natural filter, removing as much as 95% of cadmium, copper and lead from the discharged water (CMHC, 1999). Green roofs have the capaci ty to not only enhance biodiversity but to also restore endangered habitats and vegetation types (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). As well, the green roof can exist as an element within an interconnected network of green space and functioning habitat within d city (Lazarus, 2004). The green roof ecosystem can indeed be far more diverse and bountiful than that of the typical front yard lawn. A green roof design which emphasizes ecological function, commonly termed a 'living roof, has soil with a rich organic makeup including micro-organisms, insects, fungus and earthworms (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). Once the plants are established, the rooftop becomes a diverse and productive ecological environment. Both intensive (soil depth > 6 inches) 17 and extensive (soil depth < 6 inches) green roof systems have the potential to be effective habitats for a variety of plants, birds and insects (ibid.). As time goes on, we shall hopefully see the biodiversity value of green roofs increase. 2.3. l .b Economica l Many of the common misconceptions regarding green roof implementation fall under the economic category. The widespread myths that green roofs can lead to roof leakage and eventually membrane failure are still quite common (Davis, 2002). The green roof system has a life span which is two to three times longer than that of a conventional roof because the membrane is protected from heat exposure (CMHC, 1999). This translates into savings involving roof maintenance and replacement costs. There is a common misconception that green roofs are very expensive to install and maintain and offer little financial gain to the building owner (Ibid.). The initial installation cost of a green roof tends to exceed that of a conventional roof due to the structural costs of the green roof system, substrate and plant material (Lazarus, 2004). However, the long-term savings in heating and cooling can be quite significant. As well, the building owner may also see a reduction in air-conditioning and heating equipment costs, as well as standard insulation costs (Eisenman, 2004). A green roof, which contributes to urban beautification and acts as a public amenity, may potentially increase property values. According to t American and British studies, good tree cover 18 A study conducted by Environment C a n a d a found that a typical one-storey building with a grass roof and 4 inches of growing medium would result in a 25% reduction in summer cooling costs (www.greenroofs.org). increases the value of a home by 6-15% (CMHC, 1999). While cost savings remain difficult to estimate, it has been established that the overall pay back period of the green roof is typically medium to long-term (Ibid.). This extended pay back period may be a major impediment in widespread green roof implementation, especially when many business owners are not looking twenty years into the future. As there is usually a high cost behind any emerging technology, the cost of green roofs may soon decrease as they become more prominent and accep ted within urban areas. While the private economic benefits of the green roof are quite obvious, there are numerous economic benefits to the public realm which tend to be overlooked. For instance, public policies which support green roof implementation can create hundreds of new jobs. These may include suppliers and manufacturers of green roof systems and materials, designers and engineering professionals as well as contractors, landscapers and maintenance staff. The ability to effectively retain and treat stormwater runoff can eventually decrease capital and operational expenditures on required stormwater infrastructure (CMHC, 1999). The public may also experience a decrease in health care services and medication, as well as an increase in worker productivity due to the benefits of passive experience with nature and vegetation (www.greenroofs.org). On the greater scale, widespread green roof implementation can increase the livability of cities and potentially enhance the tourism industry (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). 19 2.3. l.c Social Figure 2.1: This lush green roof within Chicago provides surrounding residents and employees with a therapeutic setting to look at fwww.areenroofs.org). Rooftops have a vast potential in providing city dwellers with the recreational and amenity spaces required for a healthy lifestyle (Hinshaw, 2004). As outdoor recreational and gathering spaces become increasingly constricted due to urban densification, it is imperative that new sources for such vital spaces be explored. Provision of green roofs in the form of intensive, accessible roof gardens may gradually evolve from being desirable to becoming an urban necessity. Of course, accommodat ing the transition between private and public realms continues to challenge the accessibility, appreciation and in some cases, awareness of many wonderful rooftop spaces. With a great deal of green roof research maintaining its focus on environmental and economic rewards, we see a noticeable propagation of extensive green roof systems throughout the world (CMHC, 1999). An extensive roof, characterized by minimal weight, cost and maintenance, is not normally accessible to the public (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). However, while the extensive system may not be physically accessed by the public, the attractive plantings are beneficial to surrounding residents and workers through visual accessibility. The numerous therapeutic effects of having visual access to green plants and nature include stress reduction, relief of muscle tension, lowering of blood pressure and increased positive feelings (Ulrich, 1986). Such therapeutic benefits become amplified when the natural or "green" setting is replicated throughout the urban environment. In fact, higher therapeutic values appear to be associated with properties that have some form of rooftop or facade 20 1.5 m 2 of uncut grass produces enough oxygen per year to supply one human with their yearly oxygen intake requirement (www.qreenroofs.org) Figure 2.2: Looking down on the turf roof of the IGA Marketplace within downtown Vancouver (L. Philp). greening (Ibid.). Imagine the impact of transforming the view from a downtown office window, an accep ted hotchpotch of unattractive surfaces, into a circumambient collection of gardens and natural settings. This would likely have a positive impact on both the worker's morale and productivity. Aside from addressing both the physical and visual connections with nature provided by intensive and extensive green roofs, it is important to consider the civil role of the green roof within the immediate community. Whether or not it is intentionally communicated, there is almost always an underlying educational component of the green roof. The green roof acts as an effective platform for the exhibition of modern sustainability objectives. Being one of the more innovative and cost-effective methods to repair the ailing urban environment, the green roof can act as a powerful catalyst for change. Naturally, increasing exposure to green roofs not only generates interest towards them, but also encourages other forms of sustainable design to emerge. As well, the incorporation of a productive function to the green roof further amplifies this notion of healing the city while making the green roof a more feasible reality. Whether through the production of food and other agricultural goods, or the enhancement of biodiversity and production of habitat, the roof top is capab le of possessing a philanthropic quality. This notion of the green roof giving back to the urban environment through production, enhancement and education can indeed buttress a local community, generating a sense of unity and pride, while acting as a powerful motivator for green roof implementation. 21 2 . 3 . 2 Local Green Roof Trends Despite a rather impressive history and widespread use throughout the world, green roofs continue to be viewed by many North American building owners and professionals as novel or exorbitant designs (Davis, 2002). However, due to the publication of extensive research on the environmental and economic benefits of green roofs, this discernment may evolve into more accepting and explorative attitudes. Across Canada, there have been some recent advances with the green roof, particularly in Toronto, where a demonstration green roof atop the podium at City Hall was used to measure mitigation efforts on the urban heat island effect (Cohen, 2004). As well, the city's Official Plan calls for the development of green roof strategies, with a goal to green 6% of the city's flat roofs over the next decade (Ibid.). Other Toronto-based projects which boast the environmental benefits of the green roof include Mountain Equipment Co-op's 10,000 square foot planted roof, which significantly cuts down on air-conditioning costs (Ibid.). Vancouver can also be considered a city in the foreground of Canadian green roof activity. Intensive green roofs are becoming quite popular in the city and can be found on sites such as the Coal Harbour Community Center, the Vancouver Public Library and many new high-rise residential developments within the downtown core. While accessible rooftop gardens and patios are abundant throughout the city, the installation of low-maintenance extensive systems atop high-profile Figure 2.3: The intensive g reen roof a t o p the V a n c o u v e r Publ ic Library (National Research C o u n c i l C a n a d a , 2002). 22 Figure 2 .4: The expans ive g reen roof at the n e w Ford Assembly Plant a t tempts to taper the d i sc repancy b e t w e e n sustainability a n d industrial site des ign (www.greenroofs.org). buildings is becoming a major trend throughout North America. The Vancouver Convention Center, which will serve as the media center for the 2010 Winter Olympics, will be expanded by 2008 to boast a 2.4 -hectare extensive green roof, the largest of its kind in Canada. According to Bruce Hemstock of PWL Partnership Landscape Architects, the proposed green roof will likely consist of native wild flowers and grasses planted to create a self-sustaining bird and insect habitat (Lazarus, 2004). Another North American example of a high-profile extensive green roof exists on the new Ford Assembly Plant in Dearborn, Michigan (Figure 2.4). This 10.4 acre extensive green roof planted with nine varieties of sedums was recently deemed the largest green roof in the world. The roof is a vital component of Ford's visitor program, showcasing the company's belief in sustainable site and building design (www.greenroofs.org). While extensive green roofs are still relatively scarce across Canada, they are widespread throughout Europe, especially in Germany, where an estimated 10% of flat roofs contain extensive green infrastructure (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). Perhaps this discrepancy will diminish over time with the exploitation of green roof benefits alongside the removal of green roof misconceptions throughout North America. As in Europe, policy and incentive program support will be required to stimulate the widespread application of this technology. Two programs can be adopted from Europe and implemented within Canada at the municipal government level. These include: 1) The establishment of a financial incentive program of 2 3 grants or indirect subsidies which would reduce payback periods and allow government investment to compensate for market failure. 2) The mandatory requirement for new buildings to be fitted with green roofs and living walls through legislation, planning instruments or amendments to the building c o d e [CMHC, 1999). Establishing such direct government policy and program support within C a n a d a would generate a strong market for green roof technologies while eliminating many of the associated economic uncertainties that tend to accompany implementation. 2.3.3 L E E D Certification The LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System® is a voluntary, consensus-based standard for developing high-performance buildings. LEED provides a complete framework for assessing and meeting sustainability goals, based on state-of-the-art strategies for energy efficiency and material selection. Created to promote environmental leadership within the building industry, the LEED system was introduced to British Columbia, C a n a d a in 2003. While B.C. has been an early adopter of the certification system, it is expected to spread rapidly across C a n a d a with the formation of the C a n a d a Green Building Council (Melnychuk, 2003). The LEED rating system is of particular interest when discussing incentives for green roof implementation. According to Vancouver landscape architect Randall Sharp (2004), a green roof is The number of LEED-registered buildings in B.C. has more than tripled over the span of one year, from 6 in 2002 to 21 in 2003 (Renshaw, 2003). 24 capab le of contributing to an overall accumulation of 17 LEED credits through innovative site design. Some examples of methods for achieving credits include the following: • Biodiversity enhancement • Use of local and/or recycled materials • Composting/ Soil Management • Urban agricultural production • Water efficient landscaping • Stormwater management (treatment, control of rate and quantity) It is difficult to estimate the impact that the LEED system will have on green roof implementation within Vancouver. However, by directly relating LEED credits to innovative green roof design, green roof technologies are being brought further into the foreground of sustainable architecture and site planning. Developers and building owners can use the green roof as a straightforward means of contributing to LEED credits, thus advancing their potential level for certification. Therefore, while the LEED system effectively supports the application of green roof technologies, green roof technologies can provide a significant contribution towards LEED certification. 2.3.4 Organ ic N iche Markets The organic food industry has been growing at a steady rate over the past several years. Sales of organic commodities in natural foods stores were approximately $2.08 billion in 1995, rising to $3.3 billion in 1998 (USDA, 2000). Industry experts expect the 25 average annual increase of 20-24% for organic food sales to extend well into the next d e c a d e (Ibid.). Through organic agricultural methods, the producer attempts to address consumer demand for healthy, chemical free and environmentally-responsible food production. Some organic crops are capab le of generating a greater gross return per acre than conventional crops, and a recent study shows that organic produce captures a price premium for most, but not all of the commodities grown (Parsons, 2005). While most organic crops have a reduced yield compared to conventional crops, organic crops are able to command a price premium from the consumer, likely due to the perceived health, taste and environmental benefits that the consumer is buying (Ibid.). While premium prices give the farmer a strong incentive for providing high-quality food, the food products tend to pass through several intermediaries as they travel from producer to retailer. Thus, it is imperative that food quality be maintained from grower to retailer, to ensure that everyone involved in the organic production industry can realize the profit potential of this market (USDA, 2000). Growth in consumer interest towards organically-grown and locally-grown foods is opening new market opportunities for producers, changing the face of the organic foods industry (Dimitri, C., and Green, C., 2000). It is important that as the organic food industry expands, standards that define "organically-grown" become more universal and clear to the consumer. Rapid growth in consumer demand will present the organic industry with a major challenge; to ensure adequate supply of food while maintaining integrity of both the product and production process (USDA, 2000). 26 There is some question as to whether or not the rapid growth of the organic industry can permit its current classification as a "niche" market. With a large number of organic food products being sold in conventional grocery stores, there is some suggestion that this niche market is indeed converting to mainstream (Parsons, 2005). Perhaps this questioning is rooted in concern that the price premium for organic foods could gradually diminish as its products move into a mainstream consumer base. This project is intended to suggest a new sub-component of the greater organic food market; organic rooftop-grown produce. The novelty of this new niche market is not only that the product is grown directly above the retailer, but also that the market chain from producer to retailer has been immensely reduced to provide assurance of the highest product quality. 2.4 Case Study: The Fairmont Waterfront Hotel, Vancouver, B.C. Numerous precedent sites for urban green roof systems were explored throughout the research phase of this project including Toronto City Hall and Chicago City Hall. The reviewed precedent studies were selected for both their relevance to this particular project and their varying design attributes which could potentially be used within the development of design guidelines. For instance, Ch icago City Hall was studied as a model for a high-profile urban green roof design which achieves aesthetic merit through a formal planting strategy (Eisenman, 2004). As well, this particular site makes use of varying soil depths and ornamental plantings 27 Figure 2.5: The Fairmont Waterfront Hotel roof top herb g a r d e n existed as a n at t ract ive a n d highly-product ive ameni ty to the hotel (The Card ina l G roup , 2002). which attract nat ive insects (Ibid.). While this is a rather at t ract ive demonstrat ion project, it does not qualify as a cost-ef fect ive, widely rep l icab le m o d e l (Ibid.). However , the impressive plant species list a n d techn iques for varying soil d e p t h using light-weight materials c a n easily b e used to inform the design of this design project in down town V a n c o u v e r . Toronto City Hall was exp lored as a mode l for the var iab le g reen roof, wh ich comb ines extensive m e a d o w , semi-intensive plots, agricultural plots, a nat ive prairie ecosys tem a n d nat ive bird a n d insect habi tat (Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, 2004). The use of nat ive vege ta t ion in spec i f ic areas of the site to at t ract bird a n d insect species was of part icular interest a n d a useful re ference for the deve lopmen t of a plant ing s c h e m e for this project. The Fairmont Waterfront Hotel project in down town V a n c o u v e r was exam ined in further detai l d u e to its high re levance (Figure 2.5). The project invo lved a 2100 sq.ft. roof g a r d e n wh ich g rew herbs for use within the hotel . With a n annua l f ood product ion savings of $25,000-$30,000, the g a r d e n was cons ide red a highly-functional a n d at tract ive ameni ty to the hotel (Cardinal G roup , 2002). For eight months of the year , C h e f Daryle Ryo N a g a t a a n d his staff used the garden 's supply of fresh herbs for dishes served in the hotel 's fine restaurant. N a g a t a was not only commi t t ed to his role as execut ive chef , but also to his role in support ing the 'unct ion of the herb g a r d e n (Ibid.). Due to circulat ion • n d other funct ional problems, wh ich required the <itchen staff to walk through the hotel fitness cen te r to a c c e s s the herb g a r d e n , the project was conve r t ed into a simple rooftop pat io (Stevens, 2005). 28 As well, with the recent departure of chef Nagata, the herb garden lost a great deal of committed support required to keep it functioning. The Fairmont Waterfront Hotel roof garden was used as a comparative model for the development of this similar project in Yaletown. Such aspects as the maintenance schedule, plant selection and user circulation were analyzed in great detail. Elaine Stevens, local herbalist and designer of the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel roof garden, was consulted for the design phase of this project. While the Fairmont Hotel's roof garden was initially considered a success, the garden was eventually abandoned due to functional problems and lack of committed support. This includes a committed and knowledgeable garden staff as well as cooperation from surrounding user groups. The major findings from this case study and interviews with Ms. Stevens pertaining to the development of design guidelines for this project are as follows: 1) It is possible for a highly-productive herb garden to flourish on a (retrofitted) green roof site within downtown Vancouver. 2) In order for such a project to thrive and remain productive over time, it must have a stable community support network (i.e. committed garden staff, supporting site users and market managers, etc.). 3) Site circulation and operational concerns are equally important to plant selection and technical details within such a project. 4) A successful project of this nature can indeed exist as a major public amenity and financial asset. 29 Section III 3.1 Site Selection Process 3.2 Site Information 3.3 Site Analysis 30 3.1 Site Selection Process The study site was chosen primarily for its suitable, high-profile location within Yaletown, a growing neighbourhood within downtown Vancouver. Located above a Choices Market (Figure 3.1), western Canada's largest retailer of natural and organic foods, the site has the capacity to be an integral component of a food growing and distribution circuit. As a private roof garden currently exists on the site, which sits at the base of the 29-storey Metropolis residential building, the structural capacity of the building should be able to support the proposed design with minimal, if any, upgrades (Mandelli, 2005). The site is highly-secure and protected from public traffic making it a suitable location for the growing of saleable organic herbs. As many surrounding residential, commercial and office units look onto the site, the aesthetic value and productive attributes of the proposed design will be broadly appreciated. As well, the high-profile nature of the site supports the educational and communicative intentions of the proposed design. 3.2 Site Information 3.2.1 Location and Local Context The site is located at 1238 Richards Street, at the southern corner of the Richards Street and Davie Street intersection within Yaletown (Figure 3.2). This area of Yaletown has undergone a great deal of Figure 3.1: A v iew of the C h o i c e s Marke t from the north corner of the Dav ie a n d Richards Street intersection in Ya le town (L. Philp). 31 development within the last ten years. To the west of the site, a low-rise condominium apartment was built in 2002. The majority of condominium and apartment complexes within the immediate area were constructed and/or renovated within the last 15 years. The first phase of Emery Barnes Park was recently opened in 2003 opposite the Davie -Richards Street intersection. The second phase of this park is scheduled for completion over the next few years. There is a rather rich cultural history to Yaletown. Formerly an industrialised warehouse district within downtown Vancouver, the neighbourhood has gradually transformed into a trendy, high-end residential community. This neighbourhood is characterized by high-end retail outlets, loft-style office and living units, and chic restaurants. As well, the area has a reasonable North Figure 3.2: The location of the site at the southern corner of the Davie and Richards street intersection within Yaletown (www.Choices-market.com). 32 amount of newly-developed open space including Emery Barnes Park, David Lam Park and Coopers' Park. The Quayside Marina, Seawall walk and Roundhouse Community Center are other popular public amenities found within Yaletown. 3.2.2 Size and Building Condition Figure 3.4: The Metropolis residential building with Choices Market located below (www.stuarthoward.com). The building below the site, currently a Choices Market, was originally the Canadian Linen Building. The Art Deco building, dating back to 1928, was recently renovated and incorporated into the design of the Metropolis project. This heritage building, designed by architects Townley and Matheson, retains its notable architectural details including multiple panes, steel sash windows, awnings and concrete pilasters. The post-modern 29-storey Metropolis building, containing 100 condominium units, was constructed in 1996 and designed by Stuart Howard Architects (Figure 3.4). The slender high-rise sits upon a substantial podium, containing the Choices Market, and has underground parking which is accessed via a rear lane. A beauty supplies retailer, Yoga studio and high-end restaurant are also located beneath the Metropolis building podium. The building which houses the Choices Market, which opened in 1996, was renovated during the construction of the Metropolis project. Structural upgrades in the roof were made at this time to support the roof garden which presently exists on the site. New skylights as well as upgrades to the facade were also incorporated into the renovation. The dead load bearing capacity of the building is 75 pounds per square foot (Mandelli, 2005). The building 33 has a consistent 7m grid of supportive columns as well as columned load-bearing walls along the perimeter (Ibid.). 3.2.3 Site Features Figure 3.5: Looking d o w n on the site from the Metropol is bui ld ing (L. Philp). Figure 3.6: The protect ive railing a l ong the per imeter of the roof top g a r d e n (L. Philp). The site is currently an intensive roof garden located on the podium of the Metropolis high-rise residential building. This 960m 2 (10,330 sq.ft.) space is designed as a private rooftop patio for the residents of the Metropolis building. Private terraces, which are buffered by dense plantings, line the perimeter of the Metropolis building. A 10m wide hardscape area sits adjacent the private terraces. The turf area of the site is drained by a conventional green roof system. Water percolates through the soil and is then absorbed by the drainage layer above the roof membrane. Runoff from the hardscape area is channeled towards four separate drains along the central concrete riser. The rooftop garden is designed with a neo-traditional theme, with two focal landscape • elements, the bosque and the tapis vert (Forma Design, 1996). The bosque, or grid of trees, is in planters raised 45cm above the turf due to the condition of the roof (Figure 3.6). The grid layout of the bosque is based upon openings for the Choices Market's skylights, as they were seen as purposeful elements within the landscape design (Ibid.). The tapis vert (open lawn), which sits on 15cm of soil, fills in the remainder of the site. These two traditional landscape elements have been recreated in a rather modern and urban manner to reflect the visual and physical uses intended for the site (Ibid.). The tree Figure 3.7: A view of the raised planters and skylights which dominate the geometry of the site (LPhilp) Figure 3.8: The dense plantings which provide a buffer between the rooftop garden and private terraces. species used on this site include Red Japanese Maple -Acer palmatum Atropurpureum, Katsura -Cercidiphyllum japonica. Saucer Magnolia -Magnolia soulangeana Std., and Pink Flowering Cherry - Prunus serrulata 'Kwanzan'. Shrubs used on the site include Azalea - Azalea japonica 'Nikko', Compact Burning Bush - Euonymus alata compacta, Korean Lilac - Syringa patula, and Varigated Euonymous - Euonymus j. 'Emerald Gaiety' (Ibid.). All of the rooftop landscape elements have been setback 1.5m from the existing structure in an attempt to visually respect and preserve its historical integrity (Forma Design, 1996). There is a standard rock treatment and 1.25m high guardrails which run along this protected edge, commonly used to protect the structural integrity of heritage buildings. As there are private terraces adjacent the rooftop garden, maintaining a privacy buffer between the two areas was a major concern. The use of hedging and dense plantings along the southwest edge of the site (Figure 3.8) provides adequate screening for these different areas (Ibid.). 3.2.4 Access Currently, access to the roof garden is restricted to residents of the Metropolis Building. The residents can enter from the building interior through an east-facing entrance on the second floor of the complex or through a stairway from Richards Street (Refer to Circulation plan - Appendix A). A magnetic access card is required for both entrances, as this is a highly-secured building with a strict policy for non-resident entry. The main access to the Metropolis building is located on the northwest side of the building along Richards Street. The Choices Market has a main entry on the corner of the Richards and Davie St. intersection. There is a loading area and roll-gate at the southeast side of the building, which faces into an alley. 3.2.5 Current Uses The site is currently used by residents of the Metropolis Building as a private rooftop garden. While the physical use of the site is currently limited, the view of the garden from on-looking units (Figure 3.9) is highly-valued by the residents. A resident of the Metropolis building who was interviewed for this project, claimed that the garden was used occasionally by residents, with no more than four users at one time (Spirca, 2005). The most common users were single occupants. User activities include sitting, reading, eating, dog-walking and sun-bathing (Ibid.). The site was seldom used on weekday mornings and afternoons, and used more frequently on weekends. While the garden has lighting for night-time use, it is not commonly used at this time. There are currently no known group functions or regularly-scheduled activities which occur on the site. 3.2.6 Local Demographics Part of the motive behind the selection of this particular site for this project was rooted in the local demographic. As the major intent behind the project is to establish a platform from which an urban niche Figure 3.9: Looking down on the site from a condominium unit of the Metropolis building (LPhilp). 36 food market could evolve, it was imperative to select a locale which would have the potential to foster this market growth. The following table shows statistics on the residents of Yaletown, taken from a telephone survey conducted in 2003 by the Yaletown Business Improvement Association. In summary, the majority of Yaletown residents tend to be middle-aged, living in couples without children and have a combined annual income that is greater than $60,000 (YBIA, 2003). This survey also asked Yaletown residents for their opinions on retail and commercial outlets within the area. The residents claimed to spend an average 27% of total household expenditures in Yaletown (Ibid.). Reasons for this lower percent include perceptions of high prices, limited variety of stores and lack of certain types of goods and services (Ibid.). Grocery stores were considered the top most-needed store within Yaletown, identified by 33% of the survey respondents (Ibid.). Overall, this survey suggests that there is unmet demand for a broad range of 'daily needs' retail goods and services in Yaletown. As well, the survey identified YBIA's objective to broaden Yaletown's overall retail mix by attracting new convenience retail to an already outstanding selection of specialty shops, restaurants and professional services (Ibid.). Table 3.1 Age Ranges Percent 18-24 6.0% 25-44 64.7% 45-64 25.3% Household Type Percent 37 Two adults with no children 49.7% Single adult with no children 36.9% Two adults with children 9.4% Number of Years Living in Yaletown Percent Less than 1 year 8.7% 1 to 5 years 69.3% 6 to 10 years 20.0% 11 to 20 years 2.0% Area Worked in Percent Yaletown/ Downtown Vancouver 64.4% Vancouver 10.0% New Westminster/ Burnaby 10.0% Other 15.6% Combined Household Income (2002) Percent Under $30,000 7.3% $30,000 -$60,000 24.8% $60,000 -$90,000 27.7% $90,000 or more 40.1% Yaletown Business Improvement Survey, 2003). Marked by fashionable shops and restaurants, as well as a common thirst for innovation and modernity, Yaletown is cultivating its own sub-culture within downtown Vancouver. It is rapidly evolving into a hip and exclusive playground for the young urban professional. The notion of growing and selling organic food on the same site is an innovative, exciting idea which may foster the development of trendy niche markets. As Yaletown is an evolving and dynamic neighbourhood, catering to innovative business development, it may be viewed as an appropriate locale for the development of such a niche market. 38 3.3 Site Analysis 3.3.1 Sun and Wind Exposure As this project involves the development of a highly-productive herb garden, sun exposure was a major concern for the site design. The site is located on the northeast side of the Metropolis building, which means that sun exposure is limited at certain times of the day. After conducting a sun analysis of the site (Appendix A), it was concluded that the northern region of the rooftop garden receives the majority of sun, primarily between the hours of 10:00am to 2:00pm. However, due to the location and heights of surrounding buildings, this sun exposure varies greatly across the site throughout the day. The area of the site located immediately adjacent the Metropolis building (private terraces) is constantly shaded. The sun analysis diagram was used to inform the planting design for the site to ensure that shade-tolerant and sun-demanding plants are located appropriately. As well, the distribution of social areas throughout the site was also dependent on sun exposure to allow for a variety of sunny and shaded areas. Since many herbs grow better in sheltered areas, wind protection was also a considerable element within the planting design. The prevalent winds within downtown Vancouver move from the west. The building to the west of the site is a mere 3 storeys in height, which means that wind exposure is of concern. To offset this, a dense hedge, 3 - 4 feet in 39 height will provide sufficient wind protection for an herb garden of this nature (Stevens, 2005). 3.3.2 Design Constraints The most obvious constraint on the design of the herb garden is the geometric order to the site, implied by the rectilinear shape of the podium, as well as the grid of skylights and planters. Rather than remain consistent with this mundane and restrictive grid, the proposed design will integrate a larger and more appeal ing geometric pattern. The immediate adjacency of the Metropolis building acts as another constraint on the spatial experience of the site. Additional structures required for the herb garden (drying shed, tool storage, pergolas) should be designed in a manner which complements the architecture of the building, while creating comfortable social spaces within the garden. Being a rooftop garden, the common challenges of green roof design are present within this project. Adherence to the building's load-bearing capaci ty is a major concern of green roof design (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). After a discussion with the building's structural engineer, recommendations were made for the specific location of new structural elements on the site. By locating heavier structures atop the supportive columns, the depth of planting medium could actually be increased without any structural upgrades (Mandelli, 2005). Another chal lenged involved the selection of a suitable planting medium with adequate drainage rate, depth and composition. Since the herbs are intended to be grown organically, it was imperative 40 to select a growing medium which was high in organic content, yet remained light-weight and well-drained. 3.3.3 D e s i g n O p p o r t u n i t i e s The major opportunity for this site, making it a unique green roof project, is the immediate connection with the Choices Market below. While a current connection between the market and the existing rooftop garden fails to exist, there is a great potential to enhance this relationship. While the skylights into the market act as a constraint on the design of the garden layout, they provide a valuable opportunity to visually connect the market with the food production above. With Emery Barnes located adjacent the Richards - Davie Street intersection, there is a potential to develop a visual connection between these two open spaces. As well, the park space can be used in conjunction with the Choices Market to further support the educational objectives of this project. At a larger scale, the high number of similar podium residential buildings within the local neighbourhood fosters the future development of a rooftop food-production network. 41 Section IV 4.1 Design Guidelines 4.2 Site Design 4.3 The Herb Garden 4.4 The Green Roof System 4.5 Organic Certification 42 4.1 Design Guidelines The final design for the green roof herb garden was based primarily on two over-arching concepts; site function and aesthetic value. These over-arching concepts were sub-divided into smaller design guidelines, which were more readily appl icable to the site design. These guidelines, developed after an extensive literature review, are derived from the successes and failures of precedent green roof designs, the case study analysis and urban public spaces. Upon completion of the final site design, the design guidelines will be revisited within a comparative analysis (refer to Section 5.1) and used to evaluate the effectiveness of the design as solution to the problem statement. As the guidelines are intended to offer a universal framework to inform future green roof design, they remain broad to pertain to a variety of related projects at varying scales. To adequately address the greater concepts of site function and aesthetic value (form and sensory experience), the design guidelines, which address both quantitative and qualitative attributes, are organized under the following categories; environmental, economical and social. These design guidelines, which informed the site layout, planting design and selection of materials are as follows: Site Function: Environmental 1. Stormwater Management a. Stormwater runoff should be significantly reduced in both rate and quantity. 43 b. Stormwater can be treated (pollutant removal) with the use of densely-rooted plants. 2. Resource-use Efficiency a. Replace conventional spray irrigation system with a drip-line system to prevent excessive water waste through evaporation. b. Develop an irrigation schedule which corresponds to planting zones to conserve water use on drought-tolerant plant species. c. Reduce energy consumption required for heating/cooling of the building. d. Implement on-site rainwater harvesting for non-potable uses. e. Implement grey-water recycling system on-site. 3. Urban Heat Island Effect a. Increase the cooling effect of the green roof by using dense plantings, large shade trees and living walls. 4. Biodiversity a. Significantly enhance the biodiversity of plant species used oh the site through a vertical layering of various plant types (ground cover, perennials, shrubs, vines, trees). b. Enhance the biodiversity of wildlife (birds, butterflies, beneficial insects) on the site by including plants which support habitat and provide food. c. Improve biodiversity within the soil (microbial activity)through the continual addition of organic maffer (aerated compost tea, on-site compost, myrchrozia). 5. Biomass Production a. Increase biomass productivity through dense plantings (ground covers, perennials, vines, shrubs, trees) and continual maintenance (harvest, soil management). 44 b. Improve oxygen-loading capacity of rooftop through dense plantings (greater leaf surface area). 6. Soil Management a. Incorporate a communal composting unit on-site for residents to use. b. Use varying compositions of planting media in different planting zones to accommodate plant growth requirements. Social 7. Human Comfort a. Maintain privacy buffers between contiguous user groups through the vegetation. b. Microclimate issues should be addressed to optimize human comfort Q-e. provide pergolas and trees for shade; living walls and hedges for wind protection. 8. Site Access and Circulation a. Provide a hierarchy of different paths (ranging in material and width) to delineate circulation routes for different user groups (i.e. gardener's path vs. visitor's path). b. Ensure that gardener's paths are wide enough to accommodate maintenance tasks and equipment (i-e. wheelbarrow). c. All paving surfaces should accommodate the movement of wheelchairs. d. Provide distinct site access for varying user groups (i.e. gardeners access vs. residents access). e. Assist in user way-finding through the repeated use of paving materials and signage. f. Ensure that adequate lighting is used throughout the garden to accommodate night-use and provide security. g. Site should be in compliance with occupancy code (universal accessibility, egress, life safety) 45 9. Seating a. Provide an adequate number of benches across the site, in a variety of seating environments ranging from public/social to more private and secluded. b. Benches should be located in positions that offer varying and interesting views through the garden. c. Benches should be light-weight and movable to accommodate on-site activities. 10. Food Production a. Ensure that every plant used on the site contributes a useful function to the garden (i.e. food, aesthetic quality, microclimate control) b. Select plants which are capable of growing in the given environmental condition. c. Locate plants on the site On appropriate planting zone) based on sun and soil requirements. d. Use companion planting strategies to properly locate companion species and assist in natural/organic plant growth. e. Provide site users with edible plants for on-site consumption (i.e. berries, fruits). f. Incorporate the necessary structures on-site to facilitate the garden function and create social spaces and areas of interest (i.e. drying shed, tool shed, dumbwaiter, compost). 11. Education and Communication a. Provide on-site information for regular site users and garden visitors (i.e. we/come sign, detailed garden map, plant signage). b. Allow retailer (Choices Market) to act as an outlet for product information (i.e. in-store signage) c. Enhance direct visual and physical connection between rooftop herb garden and Choices Market (i.e. product dumbwaiter, existing skylights). 46 d. Provide gathering areas on-site to accommodate garden tours, workshops and educational programs. Economical 12. Construction Cost a. Allow proposed site design to accommodate existing site features (i.e. existing hardscape, building fagade, railing, skylights)as a means of minimizing additional construction costs. b. Maintain existing green roof components when possible (i.e. roof membrane, root barrier) after full inspection has been completed. c. Use locally-extracted materials to reduce transport costs (i.e. scoria, riversand, granular base) d. Locate major structures over load-bearing columns and load-bearing walls to minimize any potential structural upgrades to the existing roof. 13. Food Product ion a. Select a wide range of annual and perennial herbs which are marketable and in demand (For fresh cut and dried sales) within the local context. b. Select herbaceous plants which are versatile in their uses (culinary, medicinal, dried/fresh-cut) and thus appeal to a wider consumer market (i.e. food markets, restaurants, specialty shops) c. Incorporate attractive edible flowers on the site for both visual interest and capital gain. Site Aesthetic: Form a n d Sensory Exper ience Social 14. Form a. All planting beds within the herb garden should have a 12" edging material to keep paths clear of soil and debris. 47 b. Existing structures (perimeter railing, columnade, skylights) should be softened through the use of planting. c. The overall garden plan should anchored by focal and destination points which are made obvious to the site user. d. Provide an interesting series of paths and surfaces to enhance the experience of travelling through the garden. e. Incorporate plants of varying size, texture and form to define space and provide a visual structure to the site. 15. Sensory Exper ience a. Provide a sequence of varying experiential settings for all site users (i.e. transition from open, social space to more intimate private space). b. Seating areas should provide flowering perennial and tree plantings for appealing aroma. c. Plant palette should provide an interesting and diverse textual experience to the site user. d. Consider the varying of audible experiences throughout the site (i.e. bird bath/feeders, water fountain) e. Select several visually-appealing plant species to add colour and interest throughout the garden (i.e. use several varieties of daylilies) f. Ensure that edible plant species Qntended for user consumption) are clearly labelled and physically accessible. 16. Commun i ty Apprec ia t ion a. The herb garden should maintain an overall attractive and orderly form when viewed from neighbouring buildings (i.e. use of edging materials, legible path system, dense plantings). b. The herb garden should present a high overall aesthetic quality through its planting design (i.e. consider texture, size, colour of selected plants). c. The herb garden should maintain a year-round aesthetic through the use of 48 evergreen plants and coordination of perennials and shrubs with varying bloom times. d. Functional garden structures (i.e. drying shed, tool storage, compost) should be arranged in an inviting and celebratory manner, as opposed to being hidden from public view. e. Views into the herb garden from surrounding buildings should not be obstructed by plantings and structures. f. Incorporate garden elements which can be viewed directly from street level (living walls, trees, pergolas). 4.2 Site Design 4.2.1 Concept Plan Using most of the general criteria from the set of design guidelines, a conceptual site plan was developed. The concept plan (Appendix A) clearly presents the overall functional and experiential intentions for the site. Major focal points, circulation routes and public/private zones are identified. 4.2.2 Circulation Plan Providing an effective circulation system for different groups of users was one of the major categories within the design guidelines. This was achieved through the use of a distinct hierarchy of paths, which separates garden function and social space in a subtle manner. The use of varying paving materials and path widths, combined with form-defining plantings (hedges and edging plants), defines circulation routes while giving an overall visual form to the garden layout. Rather than rely on strict signage and protective gates to delineate circulation routes 49 and accessible spaces, the site embraces a more natural and permeable circulation system. 4.2.3 Proposed Site Plan Using the design guidelines in combination with the developed concept and circulation plans, a specific site plan was developed (Appendix A). The productive herb garden, considered the main feature of the green roof, was distanced from the building and constitutes nearly three-quarters of the entire site. Upon entry to the site, the user is greeted with a welcoming central area, where the garden sheds, dumbwaiter, garden map, compost unit and seating area are located. This area is meant to act as the major gathering space, where potential gardening workshops, guided tours and other non-scheduled social and educational activities are meant to take p lace. The garden diverges into several directions from this central area. Intimate, shaded seating nooks are located on either side of the welcome area, looking out over the herb garden. Three separate focal points were integrated along the far edge of the herb garden, to offset the higher traffic volume and social activity taking p lace within the welcome area. These focal points are: the wasabi pond, the elevated seating deck, and the seating area beneath a shaded trellis. These destination points are meant to motivate movement and exploration through the garden, while giving an overall structural order to the site when viewed from above. While the welcome area and three focal points delineate space and generate interest across the site, the planting design was equally 50 significant in creating a sense of spatial definition and outdoor rooms. 4.3 The Herb Garden 4.3.1 Plant Selection Certain functional objectives for the site design pertain specifically to the selection and organization of plant species. As this is both a productive garden as well as a communal space for immediate residents and employees, it was imperative that the planting design be given equal consideration as the site layout. Therefore, plants were selected for their ability to provide one (or more) of the following attributes to the site: 1. Production: The herbal plants to be harvested and sold on-site were selected for local marketability, resiliency and yield. Companion species were selected to assist in the organic growth of the saleable plants by reducing pest-related nuisances. Edible plants including apples, grapes and wild strawberries, as well as decorative edible flowers, were used on the site. As well, certain plants that are known to attract a variety of insects and butterflies were used in the garden to increase the biological productivity of the site. 2. Structure: Plants were selected to provide an overall sense of order and form to the herb garden. This includes edging species, ornamental trees, hedges, climbers (living walls) and additional form-giving perennials. 3. Aesthetic: Being a site with an expected high usage and visibility, it was suggested that year-round interest be maintained 51 through the selection and arrangement of plant material. This includes "filler" plants (evergreens) to maintain year-round structure, perennials with varying bloom times and aromatic plants adjacent the social areas. 4. Shel ter Plants which provide sun and wind protection were selected for specific areas including the wasabi pond, seating areas and trellis walkways. Hedges and living walls composed of climbing plants were used for areas requiring visual screening. 3.2 Planting Zones The garden was divided into four main planting zones based primarily on environmental conditions affecting the site (Appendix A). Each zone was planted with a separate palette of plants, contained a unique blend of planting media and was controlled by a separate irrigation schedule. The zones are as follows: 52 Zone A: Zone A is located on the northern edge of the site and receives the most hours of sunlight throughout the day. As this is the sunniest area of the entire site, the majority of plant species fall under the traditional Mediterranean herbs category, requiring full sun and a well-drained soil. Growing Media: The growing media in this zone is intended to support plants requiring full sun and well-drained soil. The depth of soil in Zone A is consistently 12". The dry-weight composition of this media is as follows: 50% Aggregate (Scoria) 35% Organic Matter 15% Sand Table 4.1 Herbs: Zone A Name Type Visual Requirements Additional Comments Anise hyssop -Agastache foeniculum Perennial 3 - 4 ' height. Full sun, well-drained soil. Planted by seed or cuttings Basil (Sweet)-Ocimum basilic um Annual 18" height Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Popular herb, best if sold fresh cut Basil (African Blue) -Annual Prefers sun, well-drained soil Bee Balm -Monarda didyma Perennial Large, attractive flowers, 2-3' height Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Highly fragrant, attracts bees and hummingbirds Borage -Sorago officinalis Annual Blue-green leaves, 3' height Prefers sun. Grows well in any soil Very resilient Chamomile (Roman)-Chamaemelum nobile Perennial Daisy-like flowers, 4" height, ground cover Prefers sun, some shade, rich soil Distinct scent, companion planting benefits Chevril -Anthriscus cerefolium Annual 18" height Sun or partial shade Best if sold fresh cut, provides winter interest Chives - Allium schoenoprasum Perennial Bright green clumps (of small bulbs), purple flowers Sun or partial shade, rich soil Rapidly-multiplying, good edging plant 53 all summer 12-18" height Coriander (Cilantro) -Coriandrum sativum Annual Delicate leaves, 2-3' height Sun, well-drained soil Strongly aromatic, best if sold fresh Fennel (Common) -Foeniculum vulgare Perennial Feathery foliage, yellow flowers in late summer, 4 - 7 ' height. Sun, well-drained, rich soil Do not grow near dill or coriander (cross-polination) Garlic - Allium sativum Perennial, grown as an annual 2' height. Sun or partial shade. Bulb. Popular herb, repels aphids Lovage -Levisticum officinale Perennial Tiny yellow flowers in summer, up to 6' height Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Hardy, plant seeds in autumn Marjoram (Sweet) -Origanum majorana Perennial Compac t bush, 1' height Full sun, well-drained soil C a n be sold fresh cut or dried Oregano (Golden) -Oreganum vulgare 'Aureum' Perennial Golden leaves, 1.5' height/pink flowers in summer Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Oregano (Greek) -Oreganum vulgare ssp. hirtum Perennial 1-2' height Sun, well-drained soil Hardy, popular herb Pennyroyal -Mentha pulegium Perennial 6" creeper with mauve flowers in spring Sun, well-drained, rich soil Very strong peppermint scent Sage - Salvia officinalis Perennial 2' height, blue flowers in summer Sun, well-drained soil Grown easily from seed. Savory (Creeping) -Satureja spicigera Perennial 3" height, attractive ground cover Sun, well-drained soil Grown from cuttings Savory (Winter) - Satureja montana Perennial 1.5' height with spikes of white or lavender flowers Full sun, well-drained soil Harvest regularly in spring, hardy plant Sorrel - Rumex acetosa Perennial 2-4' height Full sun to partial shade, rich soil Grown easily from seed Thyme (Lemon) - Thymus x citriodorus Perennial 12" height, good edging plant Sun, drought-tolerant Strong lemon scent Additional Plants: Zone A Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Boxwood (Green Gem) -Buxus microphylla var. insularis 'Green Gem' Dark green, dense hedge, 2.5' height. Sun or partial shade Containing hedge, wind protection Slow-growing for less maintenance, hardy Blueberry (Lowbush) -Vaccinum angustifolium Dense ground cover, 1.5-2' height, white flowers Sun or partial shade, moist soil Ornamental ground cover Edible berries for site users Clematis -Clematis 'Ramona' Lavender-blue flowers, climbing vine Full sun Screening along perimeter railing Clematis -'Huldine' Pearl-white flowers, climbing vine Full sun Screening along perimeter railing Coneflower -Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldstrum' Dark orange-yellow flowers June -October, 2' height Full sun, drought-tolerant Aesthetic, colour Coral Bells -Heuchera micrantha 'Palace Purple' Deep mahogany foliage, white flowers, 2' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour contrast, accent along border front Corkscrew Hazel - Corylus avellana 'Contorta' Twisted branches, small tree form, 7-10' height Sun, partial shade, well-drained soil Accent plant in shrub border Winter interest Dahlia (White) -Dah//a 'Dahlstar White' White flowers, 1.5' height Prefers sun, well-drained soil Aesthetic value, can be sold for cut/edible flowers Daylily -Hemerocallis •Little Wine Cup' Red flowers all summer, 1.5' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Persian Shine' Purple flowers with yellow-green throat, 2' height Sun to partial shade Colour accent, sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Rebecca Lynn' Clear lavender flower with darker eye, mid - late summer, 2' height Sun or partial shade Aesthetic value, can be sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis •Fulva' Rusty, orange-red flowers in summer, 3' height Sun or partial shade, drought/heat tolerant Aesthetic value, can be sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis •Pink Charm' Pink flowers all summer, 2' height Sun or partial shade Aesthetic value, can be sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis •StelloD'Oro' Yellow flowers all summer, 1.5' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Jacob's Ladder - Polemonium caeruleum Perennial 18 -24" height, lavender-blue flowers in summer Aesthetic value, added colour to herb beds Dried flowers can be sold for potpourris Japanese Crabapple -Mai us floribunda Blooms in April with pink (turning to white) flowers 20-30' spread, 15-20' heights. Full sun, rich well-drained soil Garden accent , shade tree above seating deck Smaller fruits (less maintenance), drought tolerant Japanese Maple - Acer palmafum 'Bloodgood' Purplish-red foliage, upright tree form Sun or partial shade, rich soil Colour contrast, shade, used in border plantings along building edge Lavender (Hidcote Blue) -Lavandula •Hidcote Blue' Purple spikes, compact habit, 2' height Sun, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds Lavender (Munstead) -Lavandula angustifolia 'Munstead' Bright lavender-blue flowers in summer, 1.5' height Sun, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds Compact form, attractive Nasturtium -Tropaeolum majus 12" height, orange-red flowers all summer Sun, partial shade, well-drained soil Aesthetic value. Can be sold for cut/edible flowers Half-hardy annual Oregon Grape (Dwarf) -Mahonia aquifolium 'Compacta' Low evergreen shrub, 2-3' height Full sun to partial shade, rich soil Filler plant used around storage shed, compost and throughout garden Looks attractive year-round Perriwinkle -V/'nca minor •Alba' Evergreen, 6" height, white flowers from spring - fall Full sun to full shade, moist, well-drained soil Decorative ground cover Purple Coneflower -Echinacea purpurea Purple flowers in late summer, 4' height Sun, drought-tolerant Aesthetic value, can be sold for cut/edible flowers Primrose -Primula vulgaris Small yellow flowers in early spring, 6" height Sun or partial shade, well-drained, rich soil C a n be sold for cut/edible flowers Flowers early Silver Mound Wormwood -Artemisia schmidtiana Feathery, silver-gray foliage, mound form, 1' height. Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds, colour Low maintenance 'Silver Mound' Snowberry -Symphoricarpos albus Twiggy shrub, 3 -5' height Full sun to full shade, moist to dry soil Used under ornamental trees in shrub border Nectar feeds butterflies, hummingbirds Sweet Violet -Viola odorata White or purple flowers in late winter -spring, 3" height. Sun or partial shade, rich soil. Ground cover, can be sold for cut/edible flowers Sweet scent Sweet Woodruff - Galium odoratum 6" height, white star-shaped flowers in spring-summer Prefers shade, rich well-drained soil Ground cover, can be sold for edible flowers Aromatic Raspberry (ornamental) -Rubus calycinoides 6'" height, evergreen ground cover Sun, partial shade, rich, moist soil Decorative ground cover Edible berries for site users Strawberry (Sand/Beach) -Frageria chiloensis 6"-12" height, evergreen groundcover, white flowers March- August Sun, partial shade, tolerates sand Decorative ground cover Edible berries for site users Wild Strawberry - Fragaria vesca 6 - 1 2 " height, white flowers in early summer Prefers shade, rich, moist soil Ground cover, edible berries for site users Viburnum (Bodnant) -Viburnum x Bodnantense Tree form with pink flowers in winter, 6-10' height, 7' wide Sun to partial shade, moist, well-drained soil Planted as accent in shrub border Winter interest Zone B: Zone B is located within the central area of the site and receives slightly less sun than Zone A. Growing Media: The growing media in this zone is intended to support plants which tolerate a drier, sandy soil. The growing media composition is as follows: 50% Aggregate (Scoria) 25% Organic Matter 25% Sand Table 4.2 Herbs: Z o n e B Name Type Visual Requirements Additional Comments Bay Laurel Perennial Evergreen tree. Sun and wind Garden accent 57 (standard) - Laurus nobilis ornamental protection, well-drained soil. Borage - Borago officinalis Annual Blue-green leaves, 3' height. Prefers sun, grows well in any soil Resilient Chamomile (Roman)-Chamaemelum nobile Perennial Daisy-like flowers, 4" height, ground cover Prefers sun, some shade Distinct scent, companion planting benefits Dill - Anefhum graveolens Annual Fine leaves, 5' height Sun, well-drained soil. Grows easily from seed Pennyroyal -Mentha pulegium Perennial Bright green creeper, 6" height, mauve flowers in spring Sun, well-drained rich soil Strong peppermint scent, grown easily from seed Rosemary -Rosmarinus officinalis Perennial Pale blue flowers in early spring, 3' height Full sun, well-drained, sandy soil C a n be grown into a hedge form, beneficial when planted close to sage Sage - Salvia officinalis Perennial 2' height, blue flowers in summer Sun, well-drained soil Grown easily from seed. Tarragon (French) - Artemisia dracunculus Perennial 3' height Sun, well-drained soil. Grown from cuttings Thyme (Common) - Thymus vulgaris Perennial 12" height. Mauve flowers in late spring Sun, dry, sandy soil Popular herb, fresh cut or dried Thyme (Golden) -Thymus vulgari 'aureus' Perennial 12" height, lilac flowers in summer Sun, dry, sandy soil Thyme (Lemon) -Thymus x citriodorus Perennial 12" height, good edging plant Sun, drought-tolerant Strong lemon scent Thyme (Woolly) -Thymus pse udolan uginosus Perennial 1" height, pink flowers in summer, ground cover Drought tolerant Hardy Yarrow - Achillea millefolium Perennial 1-3' height, white flowers summer-fal l Drought tolerant Root secretions improve disease resistance of nearby plants Additional Plants: Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Apple (Liberty) - Malus 'liberty' Sun, well-drained, rich soil Espalier along railing, for site-user Pest resistant consumption Apple (Red Free) - Malus •Red Free' Sun, well-drained rich soil Espalier along railing, for site-user consumption Pest resistant Apple (Priam) -Malus 'Priam' Sun, well-drained rich soil Espalier along railing, for site-user consumption Pest resistant Bergenia (Heartleaf) -Bergenia cordifolia Low evergreen, pink flowers in spring, 1.5' height Sun or partial shade, tolerates a variety of soils Colour accent Boxwood (Green Gem) -Buxus microphylla var. insularis 'Green Gem' Dark green, dense hedge, 2.5" height. Sun or partial shade Containing hedge, wind protection Slow-growing for less maintenance, hardy Clematis -Clematis 'Ramona' Lavender-blue flowers, climbing vine Full sun Planted on trellis Clematis -'Huldine' Pearl-white flowers, climbing vine Full sun Planted on trellis Coneflower -Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldstrum' Dark orange-yellow flowers J u n e -October, 2' height Full sun, drought-tolerant Aesthetic, colour Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Stello D'Oro' Yellow flowers all summer, 1.5' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Little Wine Cup' Red flowers all summer, 1.5* height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Pink Charm' Pink flowers all summer, 2' height Sun or partial shade Aesthetic value, can be sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Grapes (Concord -seedless) - Vitix labrusca Large, blue-black berry Full sun, well-drained soil Decorative vine, grown on central trellis Edible berries for site users Lavender (Munstead) -Lavandula angustifolia 'Munstead' Bright lavender-blue flowers in summer, 1.5' height Sun, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds Compac t form, attractive Purple Coneflower -Echinacea purpurea Purple flowers in late summer, 4' height Sun, drought-tolerant Aesthetic value, can be sold for cut/edible flowers Silver Mound Wormwood -Feathery, silver-gray foliage, Sun or partial shade, well-Edging around plant beds. Low maintenance Artemisia schmidtiana 'Silver Mound' mound form, 1' height. drained soil colour Strawberry (Sand/Beach) -Frageria chiloensis 6"-12" height, evergreen groundcover, white flowers March- August Sun, partial shade, tolerates sand Decorative ground cover Edible berries for site users Zone C: Zone C-l is located along the southeast edge of the site and receives the largest amount of shade. This zone also includes the shadier plants beds located around the garden shed. While the planting bed surrounding the pond contains the same growing media, it will be classified separately as Zone C-2. Growing Media: The growing media in this zone is intended to support shade-tolerant plants which require a well-drained, high-nutrient soil. The growing media composition is as follows: 50% Aggregate (Scoria) 45% Organic Matter 5% Sand Table 4.3 Herbs: Z o n e C - l Name Type Visual Requirements Additional Comments Anise (Sweet Cicely)- Myrrhis odorata Perennial 2 -3 ' height, small white flowers in spring Prefers rich soil and light shade Fern-like quality Basil (Sweet)-Ocimum basilic um Annual White flowers, large succulent leaves. Sun or partial shade, well-watered soil Popular herb, best if sold fresh Bee Balm -Monarda didyma Perennial Large, attractive flowers, 2-3' height Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Highly fragrant, attracts bees and hummingbirds Chamomile Perennial Daisy-like Prefers sun, Distinct scent. 60 (Roman)-Chamaemelum nobile flowers, 4" height, ground cover some shade, rich soil companion planting benefits Chevril - Anthriscus cerefolium Annual 18" height Sun or partial shade Best if sold fresh cut Chives - Allium schoenoprasum Perennial Bright green clumps, 12-18" height Sun or partial shade, rich soil Rapidly-multiplying bulb Garlic - Allium sativum Perennial 2' height Sun or partial shade Popular bulb, repels aphids Lemon Balm -Melissa officinalis Culinary Spreading clumps. 18" -3' height Prefers partial shade, well-drained soil Popular perennial, distinct lemon scent/flavour, attracts honeybees Mint (Corsican) -Mentha requienii Perennial Tiny purple flowers in summer, ground cover and rock plantings Prefers shade and rich soil Grows well in paths and in between rocks Mint (Chocolate) -Mentha x piperita 'Chocolate Mint' Perennial 2' height, lilac flowers Sun to partial shade, rich soil Strong 'chocolate-mint' scent Mint (Peppermint) -Mentha x piperita Perennial 1 - 2' height, purple flowers in summer Shade, well-drained, rich soil Strong scent, keep separate from other mints to preserve flavour Mint (Pineapple) -Mentha suaveolens 'Variegata' Perennial Attractive cream and green leaves 1.5-2 ' height Shade, well-drained, rich soil Mint - (Spearmint) -Mentha spicata Perennial 1.5 - 2' height, purple flowers in summer Shade, well-drained soil. Most widely grown mint Oregano (Golden) -Oreganum vulgare 'Aureum' Perennial Golden leaves, 1.5" height, pink flowers in summer Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Parsley (French) -Petroselinum crispum French Biennial 1.5-2' height Rich, well-drained soil, shade Self-seeding Shiso - Perilla frutescens Annual Bushy form, 3' height Tolerates shade, rich soil Less common herb, used in Japanese restuarants 61 Additional Plants: Zone C - l Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Astilbe (Fall) -Astilbe chinensis var. taquetti 'Superba' Lavender-magenta flowers in early fall, 3' height Sun or partial shade, rich soil Colour accent Late bloom for fall colour Bellflower (Carpathian) -Campanula carpatica 'Blue Clip' Blue flowers all summer, 8" height Sun or partial shade, rich well-drained soil Colour accent , edging Bergenia (Heartleaf) -Bergenia cordifolia Low evergreen, pink flowers in spring, 1.5' height Sun or partial shade, tolerates a variety of soils Colour accent Bleeding Heart - Dicentra spectabilis Bushy mound with pink flowers in early summer, 2-3' height Sun or partial shade, rich soil Filler plant used throughout garden Blueberry (Lowbush) -Vaccinum angustifolium Dense ground cover, 1.5-2' height, white flowers Sun or partial shade, moist soil Ornamental ground cover Edible berries for site users Boxwood (Green Gernj -Buxus microphylla var. insularis 'Green Gem' Dark green, dense hedge, 2.5' height Sun or partial shade Containing hedge, wind protection Slow-growing for less maintenance, hardy Boxwood (Korean) -Buxus microphylla Korean Dark green, dense hedge, 3' height Shade tolerant Containing hedge around pond, wind protection Clematis -Clematis 'Lasursturn' Purple flowers, climbing vine Sun to partial shade Screening along perimeter railing Clematis -'Nelly Moser' Mauve flowers, climbing vine Sun to partial shade Screening along perimeter railing Columbine (Wild) -Aquilegia Canadensis Greenish-blue foliage, blooms in late spring, 2' height Sun to partial shade Colour contrast Seeds have medicinal value Coral Bells -Heuchera micrantha 'Palace Purple' Deep mahogany foliage, white flowers, 2' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour contrast, accent along border front Daylily - Rusty, orange- Sun or partial Aesthetic value. Low Hemerocallis 'Fulva' red flowers in summer, 3' height shade, drought/heat tolerant can be sold for edible flowers maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis •Utile Wine Cup1 Red flowers all summer, 1.5* height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Persian Shine' Purple flowers with yellow-green throat, 2' height Sun to partial shade Colour accent , sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Pink Charm' Pink flowers all summer, 2' height Sun or partial shade Aesthetic value, can be sold for edible flowers Low maintenance Daylily -Hemerocallis 'Stello D'Oro' Yellow flowers all summer, 1.5' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Colour accent Sold for edible flowers Grapevine -Vitis vinifera Large, glossy green leaves, climber Sun to partial shade Screening along perimeter railing Lavender (Munstead) -Lavandula angustifolia 'Munstead' Bright lavender-blue flowers in summer, 1.5' height Sun, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds Compac t form, attractive Lungwort -Pulmonaria officinalis 1' height, pink flowers in spring Partial shade, rich soil Edging around beds and planter along side railing -Oregon Grape (Dwarf) -Mahonia aquifolium 'Compacta' Low evergreen shrub, 2-3' height Full sun to partial shade, rich soil Filler plant used around storage shed, compost and throughout garden Looks attractive year-round Perriwinkle -V/'nca minor 'Alba' Evergreen, 6" height, white flowers from spring - fall Full sun to full shade, moist, well-drained soil Decorative ground cover Primrose -Primula vulgaris Small yellow fiowers in early spring, 6" height Sun or partial shade, well-drained, rich soil C a n be sold for cut/edible flowers Flowers early Silver Mound Wormwood -Artemisia schmidtiana 'Silver Mound' Feathery, silver-gray foliage, mound form, 1' height. Sun or partial shade, well-drained soil Edging around plant beds, colour Low maintenance Snowberry -Symphoricarpos alb us Twiggy shrub, 3 -5' height Full sun to full shade, moist to dry soil Used under ornamental trees in shrub border Nectar feeds butterflies, hummingbirds Sweet Violet -Viola odorata White or purple flowers in late winter -spring, 3" height. Sun or partial shade, rich soil. Ground cover, can be sold for cut/edible flowers Aromatic Sweet Woodruff - Galium odoratum 6" height, white star-shaped flowers in spring-summer Prefers shade, rich well-drained soil Ground cover, can be sold for edible flowers Aromatic Raspberry (ornamental) -Rubus calycinoides 6"' height, evergreen ground cover Sun, partial shade, rich, moist soil Decorative ground cover Edible berries for site users Strawberry (Sand/Beach) -Frageria chiloensis 6"-12" height, evergreen groundcover, white flowers March- August Sun, partial shade, tolerates sand Decorative ground cover Edible berries for site users Additional Plants: Z o n e C - 2 ( W a s a b i P o n d ) Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Blue Oat Grass - Helictotrichon sempervirens Arching blue-grey tufts, 2' height Partial shade, rich soil Colour contrast around pond Boxwood (Korean) -Buxus microphylla Korean Dark green, dense hedge, 3' height Shade tolerant Containing hedge around pond, wind protection Iris (Yellow Flag) - Iris pseudoacorus Yellow flowers in early summer, 3 -4' height Sun or partial shade Pond-side accent Iris (Blue Flag) -Iris versicolor Blue flowers in early summer, 3 -4' height Sun or partial shade, moist soil Pond-side accent Japanese Blood Grass -Imperata cylindrical 'Red Baron' Upright deep-red grass, 1' height Sun or partial shade Colour contrast around pond Impressive in masses Purple Moor Grass - Molinia caerulea Purple plumes, dark green foliage turns yellow in fall, 4' height Partial shade, moist rich soil Used as accent near pond Requires moisture Sioux Blue Indian Grass -Sorghastrum nutans 'Sioux Blue' Metallic blue, 2.5' height Partial shade, well-drained soil Used as backdrop for pond Sweet Flag -Acorus gramineus 'Oborosuki' Golden foliage, attractive ground cover, 8" height Partial shade, rich soil Ground cover in front of pond Wasabi -Wasab/a japonica Attractive floating plant, bright foliage Requires shade Pond attraction, visual interest Grown in pond in 6" gravel-filled pots Zebra Grass -Miscanthus sinensis 'Zebrinus' 6' height, upright, green foliage with yellow bands Partial shade, well-drained soil Tall accent at back of pond Zone D: Zone D is located along the entrance path and includes all plants adjacent the private terraces. This area involves an extensive green roof system with low-growing and shade tolerant plants, as well as climbers which will be grown into living walls along the structural columns. Growing Media: The growing media in this zone is intended to support plants tolerant of both sun and shade. The same composition of growing media used in Zone C will be used in this area. However, the depth of soil used in the extensive green roof areas will be reduced from 12" to 4". 50% A g g r e g a t e (Scoria) 45% Organ ic Mat ter 5% Sand Table 4.4 Plants: Zone D - Extensive System Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Blue Fescue -Festuca glauca Dense, evergreen tufts of silvery-blue foliage Sun, drought tolerant Colour accent within extensive system, edging Blue Oat Grass - Helictotrichon sempervirens Arching blue-grey tufts, 2' height Partial shade, rich soil Colour/ height contrast Golden Stonecrop -Sedum acre 1' height, bright yellow flowers Partial shade Colour contrast Moss phlox -Phlox subulata •Alba1 1' height, white flowers in spring Partial shade, moist soil Ground cover 65 Moss phlox -Phlox subulata 'Emerald Blue' 1' height, lilac-blue flowers in spring Partial shade Ground cover, colour accent Russian Stonecrop -Sedum kamtschaticum 1' height, bright yellow flowers Partial shade, moist soil Groundcover and edging Climbing Plants: Zone D - Living Walls Name Visual Requirements Site Use Additional Comments Boston Ivy -Parfnenocissus tricuspidata 'Veitchii' Green foliage, brilliant scarlet in fall, 15' height Partial shade, well-drained soil Climber used to cover horizontal support Fall colour Climbing Hydrangea -Hydrangea anomala pefiolaris Large white flower clusters in early summer, 18' height Partial shade, moist, rich soil Climber Summer interest Rose - Rosa 'Madame Alfred Carriere' Large flowers in early summer, 15' height Sun to partial shade, well-drained soil Climbing vine, colour contrast Trumpet Vine -Campsis radicans Orange-scarlet flowers in August, 18' height Partial shade, well-drained soil Climbing vine 4.3.3 Companion Planting Companion planting is the constructive use of plant relationships, involving the grouping of plants having complementary physical demands (Jeavons, 1982). Certain plant species are capab le of enhancing the growth of other species through their ability to repel or trap harmful insects (Ibid.). As well, various herbs including lemon balm, marjoram and oregano, are known to have a beneficial effect on surrounding plants in the garden (Ibid.). Some of the common practices of companion planting will be applied within the planting design of this project to 66 enhance the biodiversity of the site by attracting beneficial insects that act as valuable pollinators, while allowing certain plants to increase the disease resistance of neighbouring plants. Consequently, this would ultimately eliminate the need for on-site chemical use, allowing the herb garden to maintain a standard of organic certification. Some of the common strategies for companion planting to be incorporated into this project are as follows: Table 4.5 Plants that repel harmful insects: Aphids Chives Garlic Mint family Coriander Oregano Flies Oregano Mint Ants Spearmint Pennyroyal Mosquitoes Basil Plants that trap harmful insects: Aphids Nasturtium Flea Beetles Nasturtium Plants that attract beneficial insects: Lady Beetles Yarrow Bees Lavender Borage Bee Balm Mint Marjoram Thyme Hyssop Basil Coriander Lemon Balm Butterflies Parsley Fennel Lavender Chives Hyssop Snowberry Oregano Thyme Mint Nasturtium Yarrow Echinacea Plants that provide nectar for hummingbirds: Hyssop Oregano Lavender Mint Rosemary Sage Echinacea Clematis Nasturtium (Jeavons, 1982; Link, 1999; McVicar, 1998) 67 4.3.4 Site Compost Figure 4.2: The i n tended visual c h a r a c t e r of the site's c o m p o s t bin (www.cityfarmer.org). Additional strategic plant pairings on the site will be used as a means of improving the resistance, health and potential taste of certain herbs. Such plant pairings include the following: • Chives will be planted near apples to prevent scab. • Nasturtium will ward off aphids when planted near apples. • Chamomile, commonly referred to as the "plants' physician" (Jeavons, 1982) will be scattered throughout the garden. • Coriander will be planted near anise (Sweet Cicely) to improve the flavour of it. • Hyssop can improve the growth of grape vines when planted nearby. • Sage is a good companion for rosemary and can repel harmful flying insects, especially when planted near vines. • Fennel should be kept at the edge of the garden as its root secretions are known to have negative impacts on certain surrounding plants (dill, coriander). • Pennyroyal repels ants and can be scattered throughout the garden. • Yarrow's root secretions improve the disease-resistance of nearby plants. (Jeavons, 1982; Link, 1999) Compost is simply organic waste material which has been broken down by the action of aerobic bacteria so that its plant foods are concentrated, and the energy and moisture-retaining quality of its humus are readily available to living soil organisms (Hills, 1977). There are many practical advantages to using compost over chemical fertilizers within a garden. As this herb garden is intended to be organically-certified, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not an option. On-site composting will provide a cost-effective and efficient means of delivering organic matter to the garden soil. The applied compost matter will improve the structure, 68 aeration and water retention of the soil (Jeavons, 1982). It will also provide nutriments for plant growth, and its humic ac id makes nutriments in the soil more available to plants (Ibid.). Compost is essentially created from the decomposition and recombining of various forms of plant life. A rather simple system, commonly employed in residential backyard composting, will be applied on this site. This system will involve a rodent-resistant wood bin, approximately 1.5m length by 1 m depth, p laced in a central and accessible location on the site (Figure 4.2). A 3 -4" base of woody, brushy material should be p laced at the bottom to promote aeration (www.cityfarmer.org). Common green (nitrogen) materials to be continuously added to the compost include food scraps (uncooked fruit and vegetables), coffee grounds, filters, tea bags and egg shells. Common brown (carbon) materials which can also be added include fall leaves, plant cuttings, straw and dry newspaper strips (Ibid.). It is recommended that larger materials be chopped up for faster decomposition (Jeavons, 1982). To prevent flies and undesirable odours, soil should be continuously worked into the compost and green and brown materials should be layered (www.cityfarmer.org). The contents of the bin should be mixed once every two weeks by the garden staff to introduce air into the compost and increase the rate of decomposition (Ibid.). Approximately forty percent of household waste sent to landfills is organic matter which can be composted (www.gvrd.bc.ca). Residents of the Metropolis building will be encouraged to contribute green matter to the compost as a means of reducing 69 their own waste production, while contributing to the organic production of the herb garden. Thus, the on-site compost system will not only grant organic fertility to the garden soil, but also encourage waste reduction through composting for downtown residents. 4.3.5 Access and Site Operation Existing access to the site is perhaps one of the greatest constraints on the design of a functional herb garden. It is recommended that the garden staff do not enter the site through the Metropolis building as this would create potential circulation conflicts with residents. Access through the existing stairway entrance to Richards Street, located at the southwest corner of the site, is expected to be opened to garden staff, visitors and on-site employees who are granted access to the garden for work breaks. As this door requires a magnetic key for entry at street level, the use of it for site access can easily be regulated and controlled. While this is not the ideal solution to this access problem, it is the only feasible solution for this particular site due to spatial constraints. The garden is expected to operate on a flexible schedule. The work schedule of the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel herb garden was used as a comparative model for the development of an operating schedule for this productive herb garden. A staff of approximately 2 -5 experienced part-time gardeners will be required to tend to the garden for routine maintenance one day per week (Stevens, 2005). A knowledgeable and committed head gardener should routinely monitor the garden and 70 execute the harvesting cycle (Ibid.). As times of harvest and maintenance requirements vary greatly among the many plants, a detailed garden operation schedule should gradually develop over time (Mclvar, 1998). 4.3.6 Harvest and Market Sales As only a portion of the selected plants will be used for on-site market sales, it is important to establish a list of these plants and their specific market preparation requirements. There are also a number of edible plants located throughout the site which are intended for on-site consumption by the users. These edible plants include three varieties of apples, concord grapes, blackberries and strawberries. The list of herbal plants to be sold along with their harvest times and market use is as follows: Table 4.6 Plant Name Harvest Market Uses Additional Comments Anise (Sweet Cicely) Pick young leaves at any time Sold fresh cut only Leaves used in salads, valuable sweetener Anise Hyssop Late spring Best if sold fresh cut, can be dried Flowers and leaves used in salads Basil (African Blue, Sweet) All summer Sold fresh cut C a n be sold dried when in abundance Bay Laurel Pick leaves at any time Best if sold fresh cut, can be dried Bee Balm Pick leaves at any time Can be sold fresh cut or dried Flowers can be used in salads or dried Borage Pick leaves in the summer Sold fresh cut Flowers can be used in salads, 71 potpourris Chamomile Pick leaves in spring and early summer and flowers in summer Sold fresh cut or dried Medicinal uses, teas, oils Chevril Pick leaves when 6-8 weeks Best if sold fresh cut, can be frozen Used widely in cooking, herbal infusions Chives Cut to 1" of ground, 4 times per year Sold fresh cut Flowers used in salads and sauces Coriander Pick young leaves at any time Sold fresh cut Seeds and leaves used in cooking Dill Pick leaves at any time (as early as 8 weeks after sowing) Sold fresh cut, can be dried Used widely in cooking Fennel Pick young stems and leaves as required Leaves can be sold fresh cut or dried Seeds can be dried and used in cooking Garlic Remove bulbs in late summer Bulbs sold dried or fresh Lovage Early summer Sold fresh cut Marjoram Pick leaves at any time Sold fresh cut, dried Flowers can be dried for arrangements Mint (Spearmint, peppermint) Pick leaves at any time Sold fresh cut or dried Used in cooking, teas Oregano (Greek) Pick leaves at any time Sold fresh cut (or dried when in abundance) Flowers can be dried for arrangements and potpourris Parsley Pick leaves during first year for fresh use Sold fresh cut or dried Used widely in cooking Pennyroyal Pick leaves at any time Sold fresh cut Used as a replacement for peppermint Rosemary Pick leaves at any time Sold fresh cut or dried Sage Pick leaves at any time Best if sold fresh cut Dried leaves can be used in potpourris Savory (Winter) Pick leaves a t a n y t ime Best if sold fresh cut, c a n b e dr ied Tarragon Pick leaves a t any t ime Sold fresh cu t or dr ied Used wide ly in cook ing Thyme ( C o m m o n , Lemon) Pick leaves a t any t ime Sold fresh cut or dr ied (Jeavons, 1982; M c V i c a r , 1998; Smal l , 2001.) While the greatest percent of profitable plants grown on the site will be comprised of herbs, sold fresh-cut and dried, a significant number of supplementary plants will be marketable. These will include perennial and annual plants grown for the potential selling of their edible flowers to local fine-dining restaurants. These plants include: nasturtium, daylily, primrose, sweet violet, dahlia and purple coneflower. The flowers of such plants make excellent garnishes for many exotic dishes and are an attractive addition to salads (McVicar, 1998). As it is quite difficult for fine-dining restaurants to have access to locally-grown edible flowers, there is an opportunity for a niche market of this nature within downtown Vancouver (Stevens, 2005). It is recommended that the majority of the grown herbs be sold within the Choices Market below the site. If a growing season produces an over-abundance of any given plant, the surplus herb products could be sold to local restaurants and possibly other local grocery stores. A small drying shed Figure 4.3: Drying racks c a n b e s t a c k e d to save s p a c e (Hanson, 2001). 73 complete with a wash sink, drying racks, storage shelves and a vacuum-sealer would be sufficient in preparing the herbs for on-site market sales (Stevens, 2005). The washed and packaged herbs could be efficiently delivered directly to the market below via a dumbwaiter elevator system. The pre-fabricated dumbwaiter system would be installed directly in one of the existing skylight voids, located directly above the produce section within the Choices Market. This mechanical system, which delivers grown products directly from garden to market, would likely be a valuable asset and attractive feature for both the herb garden users and market customers. 4.4 The Green Roof System While green roofs are commonly designed to accommodate a unique plant community and serve a distinct function, they are usually assembled with a conventional structure. This structure generally consists of the following layers: vegetation, growing media, filter fabric, drainage layer, root barrier and waterproof membrane. The performance and physical attributes of each layer were carefully considered for selection within this design project. 4.4.1 Site Drainage i 1 > ^ 1 i 1 ••' I Figure 4 . 4 : A simple profile of the drainage layer showing the waffled core (www.nilex.com). Perhaps one of the most critical factors in the design of a successful green roof lies within the selection of an adequate drainage system (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). Stormwater drainage on a green roof requires the selection of an appropriate drainage layer with a desired holding-capacity and 74 release rate. The drainage layer may consist of an aggregate material or preformed plastic drainage units, with or without a filling of aggregate (Ibid.). The function of the drainage layer is to remove excess water or underflow as rapidly as possible to prevent over-long saturation. Prolonged saturation of the soil is likely to cause plant failure and potential damage to the roof membrane (CMHC, 1999). This project will involve the use of lightweight plastic drainage system, manufactured by Nilex Geotechnical Products Ltd., located within Burnaby, B.C. This prefabricated drainage layer, Nilex WD15WP, consists of a waffled drainage core bonded to a layer of non-woven filter fabric. This drainage layer has a compressive strength of 15,000psf and a 9.5mmm core (www.nilex.com). This product was used on the Vancouver Public Library Green Roof where it proved to effectively accommodate stormwater volumes and contributed to a green roof system which reduced runoff by 16%, when compared to a traditional flat roof (Johnston, 2004) . This specific drainage product was selected for use within this project because it is lightweight, a minimal depth and holds an appropriate volume of stormwater. With a drip irrigation line to be installed on this site, a drainage layer with a higher water-holding capaci ty becomes redundant (Connelly, 2005) . This product can easily and cost-effectively be installed across the entire site to form one seamless drainage system (Ibid.). The entire site is intended to manage stormwater in a similar manner as the existing drainage system. Stormwater will percolate through 75 the growing media into the continuous drainage layer, which sits above the existing roof membrane. The water will then be channeled to one of the existing roof drains. All of the ground surfaces used on the site will be pervious to allow for the direct infiltration of stormwater into the drainage layer. 4.4.2 Planting Media Selection The ideal substrate, or planting media, for a green roof system should have properties which allow it to efficiently absorb and retain water while at the same time, have free-draining properties (Dunnett, Kingsbury, 2004). As well, it should be capab le of absorbing and supplying nutrients, maintaining its volume over time and provide adequate anchorage for the plants (Ibid.). This is commonly achieved by the mixing of granular materials that absorb water and create pore space, with finer particles to which water will cling. Recent research indicates that a successful growing media should be composed of 30-40% substrate and 60-70% pore space to ensure good moisture retention capaci ty as well as aeration to the roots of the plants (Ibid.). For the selection of appropriate growing media to use within this green roof herb garden design, a soil expert at Stream Organics, located within Surrey, B.C. was consulted. It was recommended that this project would require at least three separate growing media compositions to accommodate the plants within each of the different planting zones (Stevens, 2005). The selected growing media will have a consistent 50% aggregate base composed of scoria, a lightweight, reddish-76 brown lava material (McConkey, 2005). Scoria is commonly used on green roofs for its ability to maintain the structural integrity of the soil while remaining lightweight (Ibid.). The organic matter will vary from 25 -45% of the total dry weight across the three different growing media. This will be comprised of a high-grade, highly-nutritious compost, screened to 3/8 - 1 /2" , and should be effective for the growing of organic herbs (Ibid.). The remaining portion of the growing media will be composed of a lightweight river sand, ranging from 5-25% of the total dry weight composition. As both the scoria and the river sand are locally-derived materials, they can assist in the accumulation of LEED credits towards the green roof design (Ibid.). While the composition of the planting media is critical in the success of plant growth, the depth of substrate is equally important. Different plant communities will require different depths of substrate. For instance, a simple community of sedums and mosses can grow in a substrate depth of as little as 2-3cm (Dunnett, Kingsbury, 2004). Taller sedums, grasses and herbaceous species will require a minimum depth of 5-8cm (Ibid.). To grow medium-sized shrubs, edible plants and larger grasses, a minimum substrate depth of 20-50cm is required (Ibid.). The depth of planting media within the herb-growing portion of this site will be a consistent 30cm, classifying this as an intensive green roof system. This has proven to be a suitable depth for the growing of herbs as it was used within the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel's herb garden with much success (Stevens, 2005). The shorter plant species located in planting 77 Zone D will only require a substrate depth of 5cm, classifying this section as an extensive system. 4.4.3 Root Barrier and Filter Fabric A filter fabric is commonly used to separate the growing media from the drainage layer. This will prevent fine material from the growing media from being washed into the drainage layer and blocking pore space (CMHC, 1999). The filter fabric should be composed of a semi-permeable polypropylene fabric and the edges of it should overlap across the green roof site (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). Within this project, the filter fabric will be combined with the pre-fabricated drainage layer. This should prove to be cost-effective and allow for an easier installation of the green roof system (Hemstock, 2005). The root barrier is p laced above the waterproof membrane to prevent plant damage to the roof surface. Root barriers are typically composed of rolls of PVC because it is long-lasting, recyclable and reduces the risk of potential leaks (Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004). As the existing site already supports a green roof system, it is suggested that the proposed green roof herb garden be designed from the membrane up. Thus, it will be assumed that the currently-installed root barrier be maintained after full inspection. 4.4.4 Irrigation The irrigation schedule will be similar to that of the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel's herb garden, which was irrigated for up to 20 minutes twice a night during summer months. It may not be necessary to irrigate 78 the site at all during remaining months of the year. The individual planting beds will receive water through a drip irrigation line which runs directly through the planting media. A drip irrigation line ensures that the substrate is kept moist, without the excessive waste of water through evaporation (Hemstock, 2005). As the herb garden is to be divided into four planting zones, supporting three separate growing media, a specific irrigation schedule could be developed to provide varying quantities of water to each planting zone throughout the summer season. 4.5 Organic Certification Ideally, the long-term goal of this project is to obtain certification for organic food production, under the British Columbia Association for Regenerative Agriculture (B.C.A.R.A). The B.C.A.R.A. is the certifying body for the Lower Mainland, Fraser Valley and Sunshine Coast regions. The road to organic certification is a rather rigorous and time-consuming process. The B.C.A.R.A. program is based on a three-year transition period for land which has identified prohibited substances (chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides) previously used on the site (www.certifiedorganic.bc.ca). In the case of this project, it may be possible to prove part or all of the transition period through documentation confirmed by a pesticide residue test of the soil taken by a B.C.A.R.A. inspector (Ibid.). The process continues with the completion of application forms, describing the history of the site and how it is to be operated. Once all forms are submitted and a nutrient soil test is 79 c o m p l e t e d , the site will b e e x p e c t e d annual ly a n d a de ta i l ed report is c o n d u c t e d . If the site c a n pass the required inspections for three consecu t i ve years a n d all app l i ca t ion forms are c o m p l e t e , a status of Certified Organic will b e g ran ted (Ibid.). 80 Section V 5.1 Comparative Analysis 5.2 LEED Certification 5.3 Analysis Summary 81 5.1 Comparative Analysis The set of design guidelines, which were developed to inform and evaluate the proposed site design (refer to Section 4.1), were based on common indicators for sustainability derived from the literature review and case study analysis and thus can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the design solution. The design guidelines will be evaluated through a check-list format, which shows either their presence or absence within the proposed site design. In addition, the relevance of each design guideline to the original project objectives will be identified as either a primary or secondary relationship. Through a two-part comparative analysis involving the proposed site design against both the existing site design and the case study site, the overall value of the proposed design as a solution to the initial problem statement will be made evident. This comparative analysis is intended to reveal the ultimate improvements of the proposed site design, and more importantly, bring forth strategies for obtaining the maximum potential for a green roof design. 5.1.1 Proposed Design vs. Existing Design The intention behind this comparative analysis is to demonstrate how the proposed site design surpasses the existing design in its adherence to both the established design guidelines and overall project objectives. To reiterate, the project objectives (as discussed in Section 1.3) are as follows: 82 1. Develop a model for the green roof which can grow and sell organic food on-site, creating a highly-productive and tightly-knit food production circuit; 2. Recognize the role of the green roof as a platform for education and address this within the social programming of the site; 3. Further strengthen the relationship between the green roof, the built form and the surrounding community; 4. Explore the maximum potential for the accumulation of LEED® credits within a project that combines green roofs and living wall systems for organic food production; 5. Demonstrate the aesthetic value and contribution to the public realm that green roofs offer as forms of rooftop art and public space; Table 5.1 Site Function V Ev idence of Design Guide l ine Used On-Site • Primary Relationship with Project Objec t ive • Seconda ry Relationship with Project Ob jec t i ve Project Objectives # Design Guidel ine Existing Site Proposed Site 1 2 3 4 5 Environmental l a Stormwater runoff reduc t ion (rate a n d quantity) V V • l b Stormwater t reatment V • 2a Water-eff ic ient irrigation system (drip-line) V • 2b Water-eff ic ient irrigation schedu le ( p lant ing zones) V • 2c Energy Consumpt ion (reduct ion in h e a t i n g / cool ing) V V • • 83 2d Rainwater Harvesting * 2e Grey-water Recycling * 3a Urban Heat Island Mitigation V V • 4a Biodiversity (plant species) V • • • 4b Biodiversity (wildlife) V • 4c Biodiversity (active soil) V • 5a Biomass productivity V • 5b Oxygen-loading capaci ty • • 6a On-site composting V • D • • • 6b Varying soil compositions (different planting zones) V • • Social 7a Privacy buffers V V • • 7b Microclimate control V • • 8a Hierarchal circulation paths V • • 8b Path widths respond to garden function V • 8c Wheelchair accessible paving surfaces V • • 8d Separate site access for different user groups V • a 8e Enhance user way-finding (signage, paving materials) V • • 8f Adequate site-lighting (night-time use, security) V V • • 8g Occupancy code compl iance V • • • • 9a Adequate seating (range of seating environments) V • • 9b Offer varying views through the garden V • • 9c Flexible seating (movable, lightweight benches) V • 10a All plants contribute useful function to the garden V • • a • a 10b Select plants which are capab le of thriving in given environmental condition V • • a 10c Locate plants appropriately in varying planting zones V • • lOd Companion planting V • • • lOe Provide edible plants for site users v • • • • • 1 Of Garden structures arranged to relate to social areas V • • • 11a Provide on-site information for all user groups V • • • • l i b Provide consumer info, within Choices Market V • • • • 11c Strengthen visual /physical connection between garden and Choices Market V • • • • l i d Gathering space for garden tours, workshops, educational programs V • • • • Economical 12a Accommodate existing site elements when possible V • • 12b Maintain existing green roof components when possible V • • 12c Locally-extracted materials V • 12d Minimize structural upgrades to roof V • • 13a Use plants which are locally marketable/ in demand V • • • 13b Select plants with versatile use/ marketability V • • 13c Use edible flowers on-site for additional capital gain V • • • * indicates that there is a recognized potential for the design guideline, although it was not addressed within the scope of this project. Table 5.2 Site Aesthetic: Form and Sensory Experience V Evidence of Design Guideline Used On-Site • Primary Relationship with Project Objective • Secondary Relationship with Project Objective Project Objectives # Design Guidel ine Existing Site Proposed Site 1 2 3 4 5 Social 14a Use edging around beds to contain soil (clean paths) V V • 14b Soften existing structures With vegetation V • • • 14c Herb garden anchored by major focal points V • • 85 14d Interesting series of paths V • 14e Form-defining plants D • 15a Provide a sequence of varying experiential settings V • • • 15b Aromatic plantings adjacent seating areas V • • 15c Textual Experience (plants) V • • 15d Audible Experience V • 15e Visual Experience (plants) V • 15f Taste Experience (edible plants) V • • 16a Maintain overall orderly/ attractive garden form V • • 16b High aesthetic quality through plant selection V • • 16c Maintain high aesthetic year-round V • • 16d Functional garden structures to be central/celebrated V • • • 16e Views into garden from surrounding buildings to be maintained V • • • 16f Incorporate garden elements which can be viewed from street level V V • • • 5.1.2 Proposed Design vs. Case Study As the design guidelines were developed through both the literature review and case study analysis, it is critical that the case study be included within the final comparative analysis. The case study analysis of the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel was used to bring forth both positive and negative design elements which could inform a more lucrative solution for this design project. 86 The following table lists the most critical design guidelines which were employed in the case study site and contributed to its overall success. The replication of these critical design guidelines within the proposed site design are described in the second column. Table 5.3 # Critical Design Guidel ine (Used at Farimont Waterfront Hotel) Replication of Critical Design Guidel ine (Application in Proposed Site Design) *Note any improvements 4a Biodiversity (plant species) The Fairmont Hotel herb garden contained a minimum of 30 plant species for on-site culinary use. The proposed site contains a minimum of 40 species (herbs and edible flowers for market sales) and an additional 30 species (ground covers, edible plants, perennials, shrubs, shade trees, vines). 8a Hierarchal circulation paths The proposed site plan mimics the hierarchal system of paths used at the Fairmont Hotel site (wide access path, stepping stone paths in planting beds) while adding an additional intermediate level of circulation (narrow garden access path). 8b Path widths respond to garden function Main access paths are made wide enough to accommodate gardening equipment and user circulation. 10b Select plants which are capab le of thriving in given environmental condition Specific plant species which thrived at the Fairmont Hotel garden were also used in the proposed site design (i.e. African Blue Basil, Greel Oregano, Lemon Thyme) 13a Use plants which are locally marketable/ in demand The Fairmont Hotel garden supplied herbs which were used daily in the hotel restaurant. The proposed site design will include herbs which are locally in demand and marketable for on-site sales. 15a Maintain overall orderly/ attractive garden form Similar edging plants (lavender, thyme) used to maintain order within the Fairmont Hotel garden will be applied in the proposed site planting design. 15b High aesthetic quality through plant selection Proposed planting plan is intended to resemble a similar aesthetic as the Fairmont Hotel garden (lush/dense garden, rich in colour, texture) 15e Views into garden from surrounding buildings to be maintained Views into the herb garden were considered as a profitable amenity at the Fairmont Hotel, correlating to room rates. Views into the proposed herb garden will similarily be considered as an aesthetic amenity within the local community. 87 The following table lists the most critical design guidelines which were not employed in the case study site, thus possibly responsible for the gradual demise of the project. The application of these overlooked guidelines within the proposed site design are described in the second column. # Critical Design Guideline (Over- looked at Farimont Waterfront Hotel site) Critical Design Guideline (App l ica t ion in Proposed Site Design) 6a On-site compos t i ng The Fairmont Hotel project d id not a d o p t a n on-site compos t i ng p rog ram. A c o m p o s t i n g p rog ram will b e a n integral c o m p o n e n t of the o rgan i c herb p roduc t ion within the p roposed site a n d a c t as a means of involving residents within the ga rden ing process. 6b Vary ing soil composi t ions (different p lant ing zones) While the Fairmont Hotel g a r d e n used o n e consistent growing m e d i a compos i t ion , the p roposed site will i ncorpora te 3 vary ing m e d i a composi t ions. This will permit the herb g a r d e n to remain as a flexible, exper imenta l g a r d e n whi le support ing the growth of a w ider variety of p lant spec ies . 8d Sepa ra te site a c c e s s for different user groups Site a c c e s s a n d c i rculat ion issues w e r e a major obs tac le in the long-term success of the Fairmont Hotel herb g a r d e n . The p r o p o s e d site identifies sepa ra te a n d obvious g a r d e n a c c e s s routes for bo th residents a n d gardeners/employees/v is i tors . 9a A d e q u a t e seat ing (range of seat ing environments) Seat ing areas we re not cons ide red in the soc ia l p rog ramming for the Fairmont Hotel g a r d e n , whereas the p r o p o s e d site identifies t hem as a n integral c o m p o n e n t . lOe Provide ed ib le plants for site users Edible plants for on-site consumpt ion w e r e not of fered on the Fairmont Hotel site. The p r o p o s e d site uses ed ib le plants as a means of improv ing user expe r i ence a n d connect iv i ty with the g a r d e n . l i d Ga the r ing s p a c e for g a r d e n tours, workshops, e d u c a t i o n a l programs While the Fairmont Hotel o f fered g u i d e d tours of the herb g a r d e n , the des ign of the g a r d e n d id not a c c o m m o d a t e potent ia l g roup events, workshops a n d e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Providing a s p a c e for such events is a major intent of the p roposed site des ign . 88 5.2 LEED Certification With the recent adoption of the LEED certification system in British Columbia, it seems logical to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed green roof design against this established standard. As LEED accreditation acts as a major incentive for sustainable development, the total number of credits which are potentially attainable for this project would be of great interest. These potentially attainable credits, (as described in the LEED Version 2.1 Registered Checklist), are as follows: Sustainable Sites: Credit 5.1 Reduced Site Disturbance Protect or Restore Open Space Credit 6.1 Stormwater Management Rate and Quantity Credit 6.2 Stormwater Management Treatment Credit 7.2 Landscape and Exterior Design to Reduce Heat Islands Water Efficiency: Credit 1.1 Water Efficient Landscaping Reduce by 50% Energy a n d Atmosphere : Credit 1 Optimize Energy Performance Materials a n d Resources: Credit 4.2 Recycled content Specify 10% Credit 5.1 Local/Regional Materials 20% manufactured locally Credit 5.2 Local/Regional Materials Of 20% above, 50% harvested locally 89 Innovation a n d Design Process Credit 1.1 Biodiversity/ Wildlife Habitat Credit 1.2 Composting/ Soil Management Credit 1.3 Interpretation/ Education Credit 1.4 Integrated Pest Management (Certified Organic Production) Credit 1.5 Urban Agriculture Note: Maximum of 4 credits are attainable under the Innovation and Design Process category The proposed site design is capab le of receiving a total of 14 LEED credits, based on adherence to all specifications mentioned in the design and program development. This number could potentially be increased if additional sustainable practices were introduced to the project. For example, the establishment of grey water treatment system and/or rainwater collection system for garden irrigation could earn credits under the Innovation in Design category. This category remains undefined under the LEED Registered Checklist, encouraging an extensive range of creative design ventures alongside green roof implementation. A maximum of 17 LEED credits can be granted towards a development project, solely based on innovative green roof design (Sharp, 2004). An accumulation of 36 credits towards a development project would award the highest certified standing of LEED Platinum (www.usgbc.org). Thus, green roof design alone can be responsible for almost half of the total acquired credits, making it a lucrative incentive for LEED-savvy developers. 90 5.3 Analysis Summary The primary intent behind the preceding comparative analysis is to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the proposed design solution. More specifically, this analysis is meant to demonstrate how the proposed design suggests a solution to the over-arching obstacles and missed opportunities surrounding green roof implementation mentioned earlier in the problem statement (refer to Section 1). It is important to note that the proposed design is not intended to act as the correct solution to the given problem, but rather demonstrate one of many suitable solutions, which aims to maximize site function and aesthetic. The comparative analysis between the proposed site design against the existing site design illustrates many obvious improvements. Every design guideline was effectively applied within the proposed site design and improved upon if its application was evident in the existing site. As well, every design guideline showed at least a secondary relationship to one or more of the fundamental project objectives. The design guidelines which showed the highest correlation to the project objectives were as follows; • On-site composting • Consider the function of all plant species • Incorporate edible plants into landscaping • All guidelines addressing educational component and community involvement The comparative analysis against the Fairmont Waterfront Hotel case study site clearly showed which 91 constructive design guidelines were replicated within the proposed site design. As well, those critical guidelines which may have been overlooked in the case study site were identified and addressed accordingly. This analysis simply demonstrates the similarities and differences between the case study site and the proposed site, and how the problems that arose within the case study site were used to inform a more productive solution. It is expected that the proposed site would be as successful as its case study counterpart in terms of its garden function and aesthetic, yet potentially more successful in additional fields of education, social activity and community involvement. 92 Section VI 6.1 A Framework For Future; Design 6.2 Revisiting Local Policy 6.3 Social Outcomes 93 6.1 A Framework For Future Design As demonstrated through the preceding comparative analysis, the green roof exists as a dynamic experimental platform for the collective application of urban sustainability practices. Alongside the recognized ecological and economical benefits, the green roof can perform as an effective outlet for education and community reinforcement. Whether or not such a project as this is ever materialized within downtown Vancouver, its implications for future design strategies are quite tangible. The project is not intended to solve the myriad of concerns that accompany urban growth and densification, but rather to act as a catalyst for change, encouraging a more innovative approach to green roof implementation. The set of design guidelines developed within this project can provide a methodical framework for future related design problems. This framework can readily be applied to the design and evaluation of a variety of green roof projects, which amalgamate urban agricultural practices with social objectives. As well, the framework is universally appl icable at varying scales of development. The most significant product of this study is the set of developed design guidelines, appl icable in similar green roof projects that focus on urban agriculture as a means of community reinforcement and public education. It is important to note that the set of design guidelines can and should be considered at varying site scales, in varying social context. As the design guidelines are intended to 94 remain flexible and widely applicable, they can be applied to projects which broaden the scope of this underlying concept of rooftop urban agriculture. This project focuses on developing a tightly-knit food production-distribution circuit at the parcel scale. While this project remains theoretical, it is important to consider the future extension of such a project and how it could be replicated at varying scales, in varying social contexts. Parcel Seal Con tex t a n d market spec i f i c Marke t remains spec i f ic , soc ia l network Neighbourhood Scale C o n v e n t i o n a l market , f o o d security a d d r e s s e d • G r e a t e r network for f o o d p roduc t i on a n d soc ia l s p a c e Figure 4.5: The underlying concepts and design guidelines developed within this study are appl icable at varying scales to foster varying levels of food markets. M o v e m e n t a w a y from exclusive market, more opportunity for o p e n s p a c e network, communi ty reinforcement, environmental stewardship There are valuable implications for future design derived from this project which are applicable within downtown Vancouver and similar growing urban centers. These implications, which relate directly back to the initial research questions of this project (refer to Section 2.1) are summarized as follows: 95 The existing model for the green roof can actually be enhanced to more effectively layer ecological , economical and social objectives. Adherence to an established set of criteria for sustainability, such as the LEED Registered Checklist or project-specific design objectives, would likely increase the potential long-term success of the project. It is also important to note that while a major emphasis would be p laced upon maximizing site function, site form and sensory experience should not be overlooked as they are critical factors in the educational capaci ty and social vitality of the green roof. The establishment of an organic niche food market could act as a powerful incentive for green roof implementation, if the project is suitably researched and executed. The local context, demographics and market dynamic surrounding the project site should be carefully analysed. As well, the overall operation of the food production-distribution system should be considered prior to design implementation (i.e. maintenance and harvesting schedule, access to market, marketing tactics). More importantly, the concept of an on-site food production-distribution circuit further strengthens the value of the niche market as an incentive for green roof implementation. This condensed food system essentially eliminates the need for product transportation, the product distributor and the wholesaler's profit. Thus, without increasing the cost of the product to the consumer, both the retailer (Choices Market) and the site owner/operator can gain reasonable profit. There are indeed many barriers to a more highly-developed social and educational component of the green roof. In the case of this project, the most notable barriers were site access and the obvious delineation between public and private social realms. Extending green roof access to a more public social realm will remain a challenge due to the restrictive nature of urban residential and commercial buildings. In an ideal world, urban developments intended for social activity and potential agricultural production would initially be designed and programmed in a manner which accommodates such objectives. Spatial relationships, circulation and visual connections between a green roof and its supporting built forms, should be considered at the programming stage of development. Unfortunately, these programmatic elements tend to be overlooked in the design process, restricting the future potential of the green roof as a platform for food production and community reinforcement. This project demonstrates one scenario of how green roof access can be expanded beyond strict privatization to a more intermediate social realm. By extending site access to gardeners, Choices Market employees, and possibly other employees within the Metropolis building, the site is transformed from a strictly privatized to a more flexible social space. While many green roof sites will never become fu//y accessible to the general public, extensive social programming at an early stage can indeed bring the green roof into a more community-based jurisdiction. 6.2 Revisiting Local Policy Issues of food security and urban food production have only recently been brought to the foreground of the local municipal and provincial agenda. The Agricultural Land Reserve, created through the Agricultural Land Act (1975), restricts the conversion of agricultural land to urban uses (www.city.vancouver.bc.ca). In 1992, the City of Vancouver initiated the Greenways Plan, which begins to suggest that urban agricultural practices be included within the programming of public spaces (Holland-Barrs, 2002). The Vancouver Parks Board approved the development of community gardens in 1995 (Ibid.), spawning the widespread development of these neighbourhood amenities throughout the city. Current policy on urban agricultural practices remains limited within the Greater Vancouver Regional District. However, great strides are being taken towards implementing urban agricultural production and policies within major future development. For instance, Southeast False Creek, a proposed sustainable community within Vancouver, has spawned a great deal of interest towards the subject. An extensive analysis of current trends and 98 future projections for urban agriculture within Vancouver was conducted for this high-profile project. It was suggested that the SEFC project, in collaboration with the City of Vancouver, develop new regulations, bylaws and design guidelines that would encourage urban agricultural practices deemed appropriate for the proposed community (Holland-Barrs, 2002). While there is evidence of policy-driven urban agriculture taking place throughout Europe, legislative enforcement towards such practices remains in its infancy throughout North America. While by-laws and incentive programs supporting green roofs are not currently implemented within Vancouver, progressive projects such as SEFC may bring urban agricultural practices to the forefront of municipal initiatives for sustainability. 6.3 Social Outcomes 6.3.1 Food Label l ing Food labelling is primarily the responsibility of the federal government, however, under provincial legislation, a food producer is capab le of obtaining certification when prescribed practices are followed (Holland-Barrs, 2002). As the fundamental goal of this project is to consider the establishment of organic niche markets as an incentive for green roof implementation, it is imperative that the organic certification process be carefully considered. Once the site obtains a basic level of organic certification, the food products sold from the site can be labelled and marketed as organic. 99 6.3.2 Schoo l Curr iculum 6.3.3 Loca l Organizations It is important that food be labelled properly to describe how and where it was produced. This allows people to make informed decisions as to what types of food they wish to consume, while sponsoring sustainable approaches to production. Labelling certification has the ability to affect consumer choice, while promoting locally-grown produce (Barrs, 2002). It is can be extremely valuable to introduce the concept of urban agriculture into the curriculum of local elementary schools. Providing a basic understanding of how the food system operates, in collaboration with basic gardening knowledge, can be highly beneficial to young children. Present concerns regarding food security and sustainable food production practices can easily be communicated through site visits and hands-on experience within a food-producing urban garden. Educational programs that encourage participation in local urban agricultural production can be advantageous to the students as well as the site operator/owner. For example, a program can be implemented which teaches children to sow plants, perform routine maintenance and assist with food harvesting. Not only does such a program bring a hands-on and exciting approach to the learning process, but also can reduce labour and maintenance costs for the site. Ownership and operation of the proposed green roof herb garden was intentionally left 100 undefined within the scope of this project. Currently, the site is owned and maintained by the Strata Corporation responsible for the Metropolis building development. In order for the herb garden to be properly operated and remain profitable, ownership by the Strata Corporation would have to be partially alleviated. This could be accomplished through a variety of measures: 1. A private developer could lease the rooftop space and delegate a local community organization to take over the site operations. 2. The Strata Corporation could partially lease the rooftop space to the Choices Market, which would gain complete control over site operation and profit. 3. The Strata Corporation could delegate local community organizations to operate the garden, in collaboration with the Choices Market, and under their supervision. It seems logical to involve local community organizations in the operation and maintenance of the garden. Not only would this reduce labour and material costs, but also bring the garden to the foreground of sustainable practices within Vancouver. The site could potentially function as a profitable demonstration garden, communicating the sustainable practices of organic farming, composting and green roof development to the general public. There are currently a number of local organizations bringing information on urban agriculture and sustainability to the public. Some of these useful 101 organizations, which could become involved in the management of this project, are as follows: City Farmer: City Farmer is a non-profit organization known for its efforts in promoting food production and environmental awareness throughout C a n a d a . Since 1982, the organization has operated the Vancouver Compost Demonstration Garden, located at 2150 Maple Street. This popular demo garden receives 3000 visitors annually and is considered a useful educational, research and professional tool for communicating the benefits of urban agriculture (www.citvfarmer.org). City Farmer has also made efforts to promote environmental awareness within elementary schools. The School Wormshop Program brings information on home composting to the classroom through hands-on activities and field trips to the demonstration garden. Collaboration with such an organization as City Farmer would be extremely advantageous to the educational objectives of this project. City Farmer could possibly be involved in the establishment of a "volunteer gardeners program" for those who want to participate in urban agricultural production, but do not have a backyard of their own. The green roof herb garden could accommodate such a volunteer program, reducing its own labour costs while acting as City Farmer's downtown demonstration garden. 102 Evergreen Foundation: Founded in 1991, the Evergreen Foundation is a national non-profit environmental organization, focussed on bringing nature to urban public spaces through naturalization projects. The foundation has a specific interest in bringing environmental awareness to elementary schools and assisting in community-based projects (www.evergreen.ca). As well, the foundation provides a support and information network for community members interested in pursing environmental stewardship, as well as funding programs for local schoolyard projects. The Evergreen Foundation could make a great contribution to this project in the areas of educational programming and community awareness. Being a widely-recognized organization, the foundation could effectively promote the significance of this project at a national level. As well, the foundation could develop a strong connection between the productive herb garden and local elementary school curriculum, arranging tours, workshops and gardening activities for children. The Evergreen Foundation also has the capaci ty to fund a variety of community-oriented projects and may be able to arrange the donation of plants, seeds, and garden tools from its affiliated organizations. 103 Section Vll 7.1 Conclusion 104 With the world's population steadily moving to urban settings, capitalizing on resource use and site function at the parcel scale is a concept worthy of exploration. The sustainability of a city depends on its capaci ty to increase in density and reduce its automobile and resource dependency, while maintaining a high standard of livability for its inhabitants (Rees, W., and Wackernagel, M., 1996). Common issues hindering sustainable urban growth such as resource depletion, food security and deficiencies in open space and social amenities can be challenged collectively through innovative design. With available land becoming increasingly scarce, it seems logical to concentrate efforts towards an optimum level of sustainability at the parcel scale. The green roof, while widely implemented throughout Europe for centuries, has only recently been explored as a North American tool for achieving urban sustainable objectives. The past few decades have seen a tremendous growth in North American interest towards green roof implementation. Incentives for green roof implementation continue to be derived from ecologically and economically-rooted objectives. Perhaps this is because such objectives reap benefits which are more widely tangible and quantifiable. The fundamental intent of this project was to investigate alternative schemes for green roof design, potentially unveiling new incentives for implementation. The most significant outcome of this study was the development of a methodical set of design guidelines, which are readily appl icable in future green roof design projects focussing on urban 105 agricultural production. While conventional project objectives surrounding economical and ecological gains are addressed, the framework emphasizes a highly-developed social component for the green roof. This study demonstrated that the green roof is indeed capab le of supporting a food production-distribution system while existing as an attractive, and highly-experiential urban setting. Ideally, the green roof should continue its evolution into a platform for community reinforcement and education, communicating ecological, economical and social objectives for a sustainable future. 106 Bibliography: Baker, L, "Food Product ion: Techno log ica l Cha l lenges a n d Opportunit ies." Foodshare Toronto, 2002. Barrs Robert. "Sustainable urban food product ion in the City of Vancouver : A n analyt ica l a n d strategy framework for planners a n d decision-makers." Vancouve r , B C : City Farmer, C a n a d a ' s Of f ice of Urban Agriculture, 1997. C a r m o n a , Ma t thew et.al. , Publ ic P laces, Urban Spaces : The Dimensions of Urban Design. Archi tectural Press, Oxford, UK., 2003. Chamber la in , L, " M a y o r Daley 's G reen Crusade . " Metropolis. 132.(2004): 104-109. Chambers , J . , "Living walls m a y e a s e f reeway traffic noise." The Detroit News. (2002): 23 August 2004. C o n d o n , Patrick, et.al., Site Design M a n u a l for BC Communit ies. Vancouver , BC: UBC James Taylor Cha i r in L a n d s c a p e a n d Liveable Environments, 2002. C o m t e , M., " G o o d , better, best: Three loca l projects g row up green. " G reen S p a c e : A G u i d e to Sustainable Construct ion Pract ices in B.C. (2002): 12-15. Davis, K., " G r e e n Roof Inventory: P re face Report Greater V a n c o u v e r Regional District." 2002. Dimitri, C , G r e e n e , C , "Recen t Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organ ic Food Marke t / ' 2000. Economic Research Serv ice/ USDA. 26 Sept. 2004 ht tp: / /www.ers.usda.gov/publ icat ions/a ib777/a ib777.pdf D o g a n , Mat the i a n d Kasarda , John . The Metropolis Era: A World of Giant Cities & Meaa-C i t ies . Newbury Park, C A : Sage . , 1988. Dunnett N., Kingsbury, N., Planting G r e e n Roofs a n d Living Walls. N e w York: Timber Press Inc., 2004. Durning, A lan T., This P l a c e on Earth: Home a n d The Pract ice of P e r m a n e n c e . Seatt le: Sasqua tch Books, 1997. Economic Research Serv ice/ USDA / ' O r g a n i c Foods: N iche Marketers Venture into the Mainst ream." Agricultural Out look June-July (2002): 11-14. . Sept.27 2004 ht tp: / /vvww.ers.usda.aov/publ icat ions/AaOut look/Jun2000/ao272f .pdf 107 Eisenman, T. "Sedums Over Baltimore: How a green roof m a d e a rehabi l i tated building more sustainable." L a n d s c a p e Architecture. 94.8 (2004): 52-61. Harris, Marjorie. " G r e e n roofs are gain ing ground." The G l o b e a n d Mai l 24 July 2004. Hills, L, Fertility Without Fertilizers. New York: Universe Books., 1977. Hinshaw, M., "Of f ice park oasis." L a n d s c a p e Archi tecture 94.9 (2004): 38-44. Holland-Barrs Planning Group . "Southeast False Creek Urban Agriculture Strategy." Vancouve r : Holland-Barrs Planning Group , 2002. J a c o b s , J . , Dark A g e A h e a d . N e w York: R a n d o m House Publishing Ltd., 2004. Johnston, C , et. a l . , V a n c o u v e r Publ ic Library G reen Roof Monitoring Project. Kerr W o o d Leidal Associates, Burnaby, B.C. 2004. Kon ieczna , M., "Cities b loom with rooftop gardens. " North Shore News. 2004. 25 Sept. 2004. hftp://www.nsnews.com/issues04/w082204/084204/l ivina/084204li5.html Lazarus, Eve. " V a n c o u v e r joining push for rooftop oases a m o n g c i t yscape canyons . " The G l o b e a n d Mai l 13 July 2004:8. Lazarus, E., " F o o d stores ca te r to V a n c o u v e r city center . " The G l o b e a n d Mai l 16 Sept. 2003: B18. Link, R., Landscap ing for Wildlife in the Paci f ic Northwest. Seatt le: University of Washington Press., 1999. Lof land, L. The Publ ic Rea lm: Exploring the City's Quintessential Socia l Territory. N e w York: Walter d e Gruyter Inc., 1998. M c V i c a r , J . , Jekka 's C o m p l e t e Herb Book. Vancouve r : Raincoast Books, 1994. Melnychuk, P., "LEED Gains Traction." Business in V a n c o u v e r Maqgz ine 4.(2003): 11-12. Nat ional Research Counc i l of C a n a d a . "Governmen t of C a n a d a reveals major greenhouse gas reduct ions a n d air quality benefits from w idespread use of 'g reen roofs'." 2002. Norberg-Hodge, H., et.al., Bringing the food e c o n o m y home: the socia l . e c o l o g i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c benefits of loca l f ood . International Society for 108 Ecology a n d Culture, 2000. Nowak, M., "Urban Agriculture on the Roof top." . 2004. Cornel l University. 25 Sept. 2004. <http://vvww.citvfarrner.ora/rooftopthesis.htnnl> Olsen, M., MetroFarm: The G u i d e To Growing for Big Profit on a Small Parce l of Land. Santa Cruz: TS Books, 1994. Osmundson, T., Roof Gardens : History, Design a n d Construct ion. N e w York: W.W. Norton a n d C o m p a n y Inc., 1999. Parsons, W., "N iche Market of Expanding Industry: The Organ i c Fruit a n d V e g e t a b l e Market in C a n a d a . " Statistics C a n a d a , 2005. Peck, S., " G r e e n Roof Herb G a r d e n C a s e Study/ : 2004. The Card ina l G roup Inc. 20 Sept. 2004. <h t tp : / /www.cmhcsch l .gc .cg /en / imgugf /h imu/bu in 034.cfm> Rees, W., Wgcke rngge l , M., Our Eco log ica l Footprint: Reduc ing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabr io la Island, BC: N e w Society Publishers, 1996. Renshaw, L, "Residential deve lopers co t ton to g reen . " Business in V a n c o u v e r M a g a z i n e 4: (2003) 16-21. Schlosser, Er ic , Fast Food Nat ion: The Dark Side of the A l l -Amer ican M e a l . N e w York: Perennial , 2002. Stevens, E., The Creat ive Conta iner Gardener : Adventurous Themes for Small Spaces . Vancouve r : Ten S p e e d Press, 1995. Stevens, E., et .al . The N e w Twelve Month Gardener : A West Coas t G u i d e . Vancouve r : Wh i tecap , 2001. Tanner, O., Underwood Crocket t , J . , The Time-Life Encyc loped ia of Ga rden ing : Herbs. Virginig: Time-Life Books Inc., 1977. Ulrich, R. "Human responses to vegeta t ion a n d landscapes . " L a n d s c a p e a n d Urban Planning 13: 29-44., 1986. USDA, "Orggn ic Foods Venture into Moinstregm Mgrket." Economic Reseorch Service, United States Depar tment of Agriculture, 2000. Whyte, Will iam, City: Rediscover ing the Center . N e w York: Doub ledoy , 1988. Y.B.I.A. Yo le town Business Improvement Associat ion: Annua l Survey. 2004. 109 Interviews and Lectures: Mandel l i , JJn te rv iew - J M Engineering, 2005. M c C o n k e y , L , Interview - Stream Organics M a n a g e m e n t , 2005. Schimpf W., a n d T., - Lecture: Flying Two Herb Farm -"Growing Organ ic Herbs," 2005. Sharp, R., Lecture: " G r e e n Roofs a n d LEED® Cert i f icat ion," 2004. Spir ica, J . , Interview - Resident of Metropolis Building, 2005. Stevens, E., Interview- Loca l Herbalist, 2005. Web Pages: British C o l u m b i a Certi f ied Organ ic : www.cer t i f i edorgan ic .bc .ca City Farmer, C a n a d a ' s Of f ice for Urban Agriculture: www.ci tyfarmer.org Cho i ces Mgrkets: www.cho ices -morke t .com Foodshore Toronto: www.ci ty . toronto.on.ca Forma Design Inc., North Vancouve r : www. fo rmades ign .cg G r e e n roofs for Healthy Cities: www.areenroofs.org G V R D : www.gv rd .bc . cg International G r e e n Roof Congress: h t tp : / /www.greenroofwor ld .com Nilex Geosynthet ics: yvww.nilex.com Project for Public Spaces : www.pps.ora Roofscapes Inc. h t tp : / /www. roo fmeadow.com Stuart-Howard Architects Inc: www.stuar thoward.com Urban Agriculture: www.foodshare.net US Green Building Counc i l : www.usqbc .o ra Verdir Systems Inc.: ht tp: / /www.verdirsystems.com 111 APPENDIX A 112 Local Context: Yaletown N.T.S. fNorth Site F o c a l Point 1 - W o l c o m Sign 2 - W e l c o m e A r e a • G a r d e n Funct ional Structures •Site Information • G a t h e r i n g S p a c e • Wasab i P o n d •Intimate Seat ing A r e a • S e v a t e d Seat ing D e c k 3-1 > > I 1 ( 1 ( 1 5 - Shel tered Seat ing A r e a Buffer Zone Site A c c e s s Point Site V iew Line Herb G a r d e n Seat ing A r e a / Social Transition Zone Private Terrace Richards Street Site Concept Plan N.T.S. ^ north 114 9-iro«»yrei<*efit>a buying Site Inventory: N.T .S. ^ / N o r t h luce choices • exploring the potential for niche food markets as an incentive for green roof implementation lOri j philp i i r m i a r c i h i r~,t h r i l i r h / - n l i i m h ^ n t i l A I h o r - l r Vl university of britlsh Columbia MLA thesis 2005 site features green roof syi ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ B g n a d to acwnxM* a urtqtm part wanarifr fid arm ayjg/fenaian. itey am usualyosaantiM wf!- d cwiwtfw* it 'jcluit JSjfif'^1-" iw>»a*v consols d f » fctownj ll)«ri wgvtann grownj - - 1 ~ ' JwMbar*»tf «»pratffTj»rira* f^pBrfnrTnanoesrWpn>5»cal of axt] leyer csrtWj' -Jsred tor wfecfwi mthw Wrs exploring the potential for niche produce choices markets as an incentive for green roof implementation Jori J. philp university of british Columbia MLA thesis 2005 

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