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Moonbathing : a night park for Sea Island Amaya, Hanako 2005

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MoonBathing: A Night Park for Sea Island by HANAKO AMAYA B.Eng., Ritsumeikan University, 1997 M.Eng., Ritsumeikan University, 2000 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FORTHE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Landscape Architecture THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2005 ©Hanako Amaya, 2005 Abstract The public park at night is recognized as a dangerous place in many urban cities in the world. This view overlooks countless opportunities for community development, appreciation of nature within urban context, and enrichment of public space through the phenomenology of night. This project reviews possibilities of introducing night activities to the public park, and rethinks active public space at night. The goal of this project is to introduce night use of a public park that is accessible from an urban setting. Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Figures v Acknowledgements vii Chapter 1 Theoretical Framework 1 1.1 Night Logic 2 1.1.1 Darkness as Origin of Life 2 1.1.2 Cosmic Region 2 1.1.3 Night and Death 3 1.1.4 SacredTime 4 1.2 Phenomenology of Night 5 1.2.1 Darkness 5 1.2.2 Shadow 5 1.2.3 Light 5 1.2.4 Fire 6 Chapter 2 Site Analysis 7 2.1 Site Criteria 8 2.2 Physical Context 9 2.2.1 Context Map 9 2.2.2 Accessibility 10 2.2.3 Land Ownership 11 2.2.4 Land Use Regulations 12 2.3 Historic Layers 13 2.3.1 Life of Coast Salish 13 2.3.2 European Settlement 15 2.3.3 Geographical Change of Sea Island 17 2.4 Natural Environment 18 2.4.1 Moon and Sun 19 2.4.2 Stars 20 2.4.3 Climate 21 2.4.4 Aquatic Environment 22 2.4.5 Existing Plants and Soil 23 Chapter 3 Design Proposal 25 3.1 Design Overview 26 3.2 Spacial Organization 27 3.2.1 Destinations 27 3.2.2 Connections 28 3.3 Program 30 3.3.1 In the Context of the City 30 3.3.2 Physical Site 33 3.4 Material Selection 34 3.4.1 Hard Material 34 3.4.2 Plant Material 35 3.5 Design Interventions 37 3.5.1 Entrance Transition 37 3.5.2 Festival Area 40 3.5.3 The Walks 43 Chapter 4 Concluding Remarks 46 Bibliography 48 Appendix / Presentation Boards 50 Appendix A Master Plan 51 Appendix B EnranceTransition 52 Appendix C Festival Area 53 Appendix D Festival Area Details 54 Appendix E Firefly Garden to Moon Dew Pond 55 Appendix F Leaf Perfgola to North Star Island 56 Appendix G Astral Field to Wispering Pathway 57 iv List of Figures Figure 1 Zingu Bosatsu , Kiyomizu Temple Figure 2 Wi l l iam Blake, Jacob 's Dream Figure 3 Tsukiyama Jinja, M o o n Shrine Figure 4 M o o n God , Sin, Harran Figure 5 M o o n G o d , Thoth, Egypt Figure 6 M o o n Goddess , Lx Chel , Maya Figure 7 Silver Boots , Ch imu Kingdom Figure 8 Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Necropol is Figure 9 Stonehenge, England Figure 10 Chichen Itza, Mex i co Figure 11 Shugakuin, Japan Figure 12 Shadows on a Wal l , Daitokuji Figure 13 Tadao Ando, Church of Light Figyre 14 Van Gogh , Starry Night FigjQYe 15 .Daimonj iYaki , Japan Figure 16 ' Context M a p Figure 17 Detai led Context M a p Figure 18 Accessib i l i ty Map Figure 19 Land Ownersh ip Map Figure 20 Zoning M a p Figure 21 Land U s e Regulat ions M a p Figure 22 M u s q u e a m Sett lement on Sea Island Figure 23 M u s q u e a m House and Canou Figure 24. M u s q u e a m Berry Basket Figure 25 M u s q u e a m W o m a n Spinning Figure 26 Hugh McRober t s Figure 27 Hugh McRober ts ' s First House on Sea Island Figure 28 The Sea Island Presbyterian Church Figure 29 Fraser Farm Figure 30 Vancouver Civic Airport Figure 31 Vancouver International Airport Concept Plan Figure 32 Historical M a p s Figure 33 M o o n Chart Figure 34 Sun Chart Figure 35 Star Chart Figure 36 Temperature Figure 37 Precipitation Figure 38 W ind Diagram Figure 39 Riverine and Estuanne Figure 40 Exist ing Trees and Shrubs Figure 41 Exist ing Herbaceous Plants Figure 42 Dest inat ions Diagram Figure 43 Connect ions Diagram Figure 44 Ch inese Lantern Festival, China Figure 45 Parade of Lost Souls, Vancouver Figure 46 Light on Shoes Figure 47 Loy Krathong, Thailand 30 Figure 48 Hal loween 30 Figure 49 Night Flowering Evening Primrose 31 Figure 50 Celebrat ion of Light, Vancouver 31 Figure 51 3D M ov i es on Fog, Finland 31 Figure 52 Ch inese Funeral Process ion, Vancouver 31 Figure 53 M a s s fo rTsunami Vict ims, Thailand 31 Figure 54 PineTrees at Daitokuji, Japan 32 Figure 55 S n o w y O w l 32 Figure 56 C o m e t Bennet 32 Figure 57 Cai Guo-Qiang, France 32 Figure 58 Ukai, Night Fishing, Japan 32 Figure 59 Lantern Pavilion Program 33 Figure 60 Silver Log 34 Figure 61 Whi te Oyster Shell 34 Figure 62 Glasphalt as Stars in the Sky 34 Figure 63 Black Slate 34 Figure 64 Burnt Log 34 Figure 65 Rusted Corten 34 Figure 66 Vegetat ion M a p 35 Figure 67 Silver Bark of Paper Birch 36 Figure 68 Cedar Forest 36 Figure 69 • Mock Orange 36 Figure .70 Pacific Dogwood 36 Figure 71 Field of Clover 36 Figure 72 L E D Light on Wi re 37 Figure 73 Emily Carr, Forest, British Columbia 37 Figure 74 Trees Cast ing Shadows on Water 37 Figure 75 Light Through the Woven Basket 40 Figure 76 Layers of Leaves 40 Figure 77 Lantern Pavilion, C losed 40 Figure 78 Lantern Pavilion, Open 40 Figure 79 Torch Pier 42 Figure 80 LED Light as Firefly 44 Figure 81 Leaf Pergola 44 Figure 82 North Pavilion 44 Figure 83 David Nash, Burnt Log Steps 44 Acknowledgements I would like to thank all those who have assisted me through this project: my thesis committee chair Joanna Stanszkis for encouraging artistic exploration, my committee members Douglas Paterson and Kelty Mackinnon for providing thoughtful and inspiring critiques. Fellow landscape architecture students for their encouragement. M y partner Matthew Halverson, for his continuous support and patience and my family, whose support and understanding permitted my living and studying abroad. This thesis wouldn't be here without any of them. Thank you very much. vii Chapter 1 Theoretical Frame Work 1 1.1 Night Logic 1.1.1 Darkness as Origin of Life The darkness represents the start and the end of life, just as people are born from a dark womb to a world of light and go back to the dark earth at the end of their life. In traditional Japanese culture, the transition from darkness to light represents the experience of birth. Kiyomizu Temple provides complete darkness to recreate the experience of death and rebirth. The completely dark underground space refers to the womb of the Zuigu Bosatsu, the Goddess of Mercy (Figure 1). By going into and passing through the dark room, people are said to experience death and being born again. Life starts from the darkness and comes back to the darkness and restarts from the darkness. It is like night and day. The sunrise is a birth and the sunset a death and one allows the other. 1.1.2 Cosmic Region Both night and day and their celestal representatives, the sun, the moon, and the stars have been worshipped in some form by all people of the world. (Figure 2) Their absolute power is described by Micea Eliade, who writes "It (the sky) exists absolutely because it is high, infinite, eternal, powerful." (Eliade, 119). The sun and moon were considerered as the most important symbols of day and night sky and their transcendent power is believed to control life and death. Moon Worship The power of moon is perceived in different ways. The beautiful shining object in the dark sky was believed to have positive powers. In the city of Harran inTurkey, the Moon God, Sin (Figure 4), was called the Lamp of Heaven who protected human lives from the disease and chaos. The cycle of waxing and waning is compared to people's life and death and resurrection. In the Moon Cult in Japan, (Figure 3) people believe they can receive eternal life by drinking water from the moon, while in African Bushman's mythology, the moon has the power to bring people back to life. On the other hand, as the word "lunatic" suggests, some have also believed that the moon has negative power over people. Ideas like this are reflected in contemporary representation of werewolves and similar nocturnal monsters that draw their power from the Figure 1 Zuigu Bosatsu, Kiyomizu Tempi Figure 2 William Blake, Jacob's Dream Figure 3 Tsukiyama Jinja, Moon Shrine Figure 4 Moon God, Sin, Harran 2 moon. Different cultures around the world associate the moon while different genders. The silver light of the moon was perceived as masculine (Figure 5). Other cultures have imagined the moon to be a female deity (Figure 6). Waxing and waning was compared to female emotions by eastern First Nations like the Delaware, Huron, Iroquois, Lenape and Wyandot. Also the moon's gender changed by its shape. The roundness describes as a pregnant woman and the crescent shape describes male gender. Lunar symbol ism has enabled man to relate and connect such heterogeneous things as birth, becoming death, and resurrection (Eliade, 156). Shining materials are believed to capture the power of moon and sun. For the Inca, silver was considered the tears of moon. At Chimu Kingdom in Peru, silver boots (Figure 7) were found that are believed to have been used in the moon related ceremonies. Star worship Stars are also considered important elements at night. The North Star is a special star for many peoples. While North Star stays fixed at the center of the night sky while all the other stars rotate around. This makes the North Star a sacred directional guide, or, for some cultures, the god of the night sky. In China, the North Star was the god that controls night and death. Pawnee also believed night is a place for the dead and the stars are their souls. Instead of burials, they placed their dead on high place to be close to the stars. They believed that at the end of the world, everyone become stars. Dark night sky was closely tied to the world after the death. 1.1.3 Night and Death Night is often used as a metaphor for death. The Necropolis (Figure 8), city of dead, in Egypt, was situated the west of the River Nile, where the sun sets and day ends. The city of living was placed on the east side,where sun rises and night is pushed away. In many cultures, night festivals are a time to have conversation with the world of dead. North American Native groups, such as Haida, Kwakiutl, Tlingit and Tsimshian enjoyed the night ceremonies in the dark months of the winter. The ceremonies were an Figure 5 Moon God, Thoth, Egypt Figure 6 Moon Goddes, Lx Chel ,Maya Figure 7 Silver Boots, Chimu Kingdom Figure 8 Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Necropolis 3 opportunity for the living to visit dead friends and ancesters. During Dia de los Muertes, a holiday tracing back to Mesoamerican native traditions, Mexican families picnic on the graves of their ancesters and celebrare late into the night. 1.1.4 Sacred Time Concept of time and its measurement started from moon and star symbol ism. It is said that the monolithic stones at Stonehenge in England were placed to relate specific time of the year. (Figure 9) Inuit predicted when caribou migrated or fish shoals appeared by the position of the stars. Similar to Inuit, agricultural societies like the Algonkian, Chipewa, and Nascopie analysed stars to know when to sow and harvest crops. Mayan people in Chichen Itza, Mexico (Figure 10) had highly precise technology for observing the cycle of the stars and phases of the moon, with which they measured time. Aztec culture is also well known of their advanced understanding of astronomy. Understanding the cycle of time was very important for their agricultural life. In their calender, each hour and day had patron deities who were related with agriculture and natural phenomena. The night gods, such as Mictlantecutli (God of Death) and Xiuhtecutli (God of Fire) characterizes their spiritual conversation with the night. A moon calender was first developed in Mesopotamia, where the Moon God was seen as the Lord of the Month. A lunar calender is still widely used in Islamic and Asian Countries. The moon is key to the imagination of time everywhere the word "moon" forms the root of the word "month" not only in English, but also in Chinese and Japanese. Figure 9 Stonehenge, England Figure 10 Chichen Itza, Mexico 1.2 Phenomenology of Night 1.2.1 Darkness Darkness is an imaginative opportunity given by the night. Eighty percent of the information we gather from our senses comes through eyesight. Losing eyesight in the darkness leads to feelings of disorientation, fear, and insecurty. However, when people lose eyesight, the other four senses greatly improve. Dialogue in the Dark was started in 1989 by German doctor, Andreas Heinecke. The exhibition is designed to allow people to experience sound, smell , touch, and tastewithout sight. People walk in the completely dark exibition space, direct themselves by listening to the flow of water, cross a bridge using sticks, and drink wine at an invisible bar. In this world, blind people work as guides, navigating the sighted through a blackened field. Most people realize towards the end that they can see without seeing. As Andress Heinecke says, "Things are beautiful not only when they look beautiful." 1.2.2 Shadow In fact, night is not complete darkness. It is created by countless layers of shadows. These are where the mystery and beauty of night is created. Junichiro Tanizaki describes his love of shadows. In his book, In Praise of Shadows, he writes, " W e find beauty not in the thing itself but in the patterns of shadows, the light and the darkness, that one thing against another creates."(Tanizaki, 30) The layers of shadows, such as the corner of the room (Figure 11), the tree shadows against the wall (Figure 12), or in the forest, allows people to see the imaginative beauty of darkness. Henry Plummer also explains the dreaming experience or shaded space. "The lull of shadows evokes the quiet of nighttime, the stillness and coolness of a sleeping body, a nocturnal fatique, but also an entry into a lost inner world, the world of our own inner blackness to which myth has been relegated today." (Plummer, 104) 1.2.3 Light Within an ambiguous darkness, light captures imagination in very powerful and poetic way. Christopher Alexander reads the human draw towards light where he says, "People are by nature phototropic—they move toward light, and when stationary, they orient themselves toward Figure 11 Shugakuin, Japan Figure 13 Tadao Ando, Church of Light 5 the light." (Alexander) The church of the light by Tadao Ando (Figure 13) shows the power of light coming into a dark room. Light is a symbol of the relief from insecurity and the provision of warmth. Gaston Bachelard explains the longing after light and the fear of darkness when he writes, "a lamp is waiting in the window, and through it, the house, too, is waiting. The lamp is the symbol of prolonged waiting." (Bachelard, p34, 1958) The light in the darkness gives people the sense of protection and its allure captivates people. (Figure 14) 1.2.4 Fire Figure 14 Fire was believed to have an extra power that light V a n G ° 9 n ' S t a r r v N ' 9 h t doesn't have. It purifies souls and conquers the evil spirit that night brings. This makes fire a very common element to many rituals. Daimonji Yaki, in Japan is a giant ^ fire lit to mark the end the week of the dead in summer. E S P * (Figure 15) The fire on the mountain guides dead souls HP^ back to the other world. At Dewali, Indian New Year's, E | candles are arranged around the house and fireworks [Pr^ * and firecrackers are used to celebrate light and the t .^|HttjK&^_ eradication evil spirits. fetfi^^^^^^l The attraction of fire is not only to its sacred power, Figure 15 but also to its warmth and comfort. It brings people Daimonji Yaki, Japan together in the dark. It creates "a kind of extra pleasure" (Bachelard, p15, 1970). It enlivens decorations at festivals, gives extra flavour to barbeques, and creates relaxed atmosphere for conversation at night. 6 Chapter2 Site Analysis 2.1 Site Criteria Darkness The darkness is the most critical criteria for the night park to allow people to experience the mystery of the night. The most significant elements; the moon and the stars become powerful and spiritual only against the dark sky. Location The site must be accessible within half an hour from an urban centre. This ensures that the park is more convenient for people who may use the site after dinner on a regular basis, and also encourages better turn out to organized events. Direct access to water Water is an important part of the experience at night as a dark, reflective and imaginative substance. The site should have a direct access to the water or contain water within. Existing park The site should be an existing park to provide day activities and suggest alternative uses of the park. Natural setting The site must be adjacent to natural landscape to develop a strong spiritual quality. Project site The north tip of Sea Island was chosen as it best matched the above criteria. 8 2.2 Physical Context 2.2.1 Context Map McDonald Beach Park is located on the north edge of Sea Island in Richmond. A circle with a ten kilometre centered on the park encompasses most of the City of Vancouver and the City of Richmond. Despite its close proximity to urban centers, the park is bordered by the north arm of the Fraser River to the north and west, protected green space to the south and lona Island to the west. The existing green spaces around the park make it dark enough to see stars at night. Both the convenient location and the natural context make McDonald Beach Park an ideal site for people to enjoy a dark night experience in a city. 10km M c D o n a l d B e a c h Park 0 Scale 1:500,000 Figure 16 Context Map 9 2.2.2 Accessibility Car is the easiest and most convenient way of coming the McDonald Beach Park in its existing condition. The closest major bus stop is about four kilometres away from the site. The existing trail along the park is only connected to a small parking lot that is two kilometres east to the park and not part of any other trail systems. The Richmond Airport Vancouver Rapid Transit Project (RAV project) may bring new access opportunities to the park, but the closest proposed stop will still be about three kilometres away. For nighttime use, a car would be the best way of getting to the park for convenience and safety. However the trail system could be connected from lona Island to the city of Richmond and Vancouver via McDonald Beach Park as a future consideration, which will also allow an immediate expansion of activities both day and night. 0 S c a l e 1 :100,000 Figure 18 Accessibility Map 1 0 2.2.3 Land Ownership Although most of Sea Island is owned by the Federal Government, McDonald Beach Park is owned by the City of Richmond. It suggests a possibility of adapting localized programmes in this park. The area directly east and west to the park is privately owned. Legend 0 Scale 1:100,000 Figure 19 Land Ownership Map Zoning The Richmond Official Community Plan designates the McDonald Beach Park as a Public Open Space, which is defined as those areas of the city where the principal use is flexible, such as public or private recreation, parks, schools, religious facilities, public administration and city works, transportation, utilities, health-care facilities, or other institutions. The park is surrounded by a Conservation Area (Richmond Official Community Plan) to the south and a Limited Agriculture District (City of Vancouver Zoning District Plan) to the north. Both areas lessen the impact on noise and pollution from the residential, industrial or commercial areas, as well as from the Vancouver International Airport. Legend Richmond Official Communi ty Plan Conservation Area Public Open Space Airport | Low Density Residential Area Business and Industry Commercial City of Vancouver Zoning District Plan Limited Agriculture District One-Family Dwelling Districts Two-Family Dwelling District H Multiple Dwelling Districts | Comprehensive Development District Industrial District Commercial District 0 Scale 1:80.000 Figure 20 Zoning Map 2.2.4 Land Use Regulations The site is covered by several regulations that protect the ecosystem and natural beauty. Regulations also protect the site from light pollution and disturbance from development, which will keep the site as an ideal place to enjoy night in a future. The Environmentally Sensitive Area has a design guideline that this project will adhere to. Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) ESA is included in the Official Community Plan (OCP) to improve and protect environmental features that are sensitive to change. A Design Manual of ESA allows new development while protecting natural environment and controlling flooding in Richmond. Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) ALR encourages the protection of agricultural land and maintains and enhances agricultural viability and productivity in Richmond. The regulation ensures that adjacent land use is compatible with farm uses and regulates its impacts on farmland. ALR Green Zone Green Zone is part of The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) Livable Region Strategic Plan (LRSP). The O C P also supports Green Zone. The focus of Green Zone is to identify and protect different types of natural land assets and resources including renewable resource lands, ecologically important lands and outdoor recreation and scenic lands Green Zone Sea Island Conservation Area (SICA) SICA was applied by the Canadian Wildlife Service to minimize the impact of airport operations and development of the surrounding natural environment and community. The objective is mainly focused on protecting habitat and populations of wildlife from airport operations. SICA 0 Scale 1:200.000 Figure 21 Land Use Regulations Map 12 2.3 Historic Layers 2.3.1 Life of Coast Salish Ethnic Divisions and Their Territory on Sea Island It is said that Musqueam people used Sea Island as a fishing, hunting, and gathering ground for more than 3000 years. The biggest Masqueam settlement was located on the southern shore of Point Gray, just across from the site. Smaller settlements were located on the west side of Sea Island (Figure 22). The site may have been used as a temporary hunting and gathering ground. The north-west corner of Sea Island was designated as Musqueam land in 1862, but most of the land was exchanged for land in Ladner due to the airport construction. •McDonald Beach Park • X'yutsum'al'sum •Wuy'quzun Figure 22 Musqueam Settlement on Sea Island Housing Types The biggest Musqueam village, LeLt. in Point Gray was arranged in a semi-circular shape around a bay. The second biggest village, Winialts, consisted of a series of dwellings connected to form a linear building. The buildings were shed-like houses built from split ceder planks. They were divided into smaller spaces using woven mats or blankets. The houses were decorated with carved animal heads and human figures. The fronts of the houses were often painted with symbols representing the talent of the person living inside. Fishing and Hunting Fish was the staple food for Masqueam. They caught sturgeon, and salmon at north arm of the Fraser River. The northern half of Sea Island consisted of series of sloughs, which may have provided spawning habitat for salmon and transportation routes for canoes. People also hunted sea lion, seal, deer and beaver. Somet imes hunting was done at night using torches to lure game. Songs and ritual played an important role in calling on supernatural help to assist in the hunt. Gathering In spring, people harvested young shoots of thimble berries, horse tails and roots of various plants. In fall, berries, crabapples were collected using handcrafted cedar, cherry and birch baskets. The Masqueam called the western part of Sea Island 'blueberry forest'. Figure 23 Musqueam House and Canoue Figure 24 Musqueam Berry Basket 13 Weaving Weaving and basket-making was traditionally a woman's job. They used mountain goat wool and dog hair to make blankets, robes and other garments. Mats were made from split cedar bark, cattails, and true reeds. They also used cedar roots and wild cherry bark for Figure 25 basket making. Some of the materials are still used by Musqueam Woman Spinning Salish weavers and basket makers. Indigenous material, such as mud, Oregon grape root, lichen, and alder may be used for dyeing. Night Dancing During winter, ceremonies were held almost every night with singing and dancing. While somet imes these ceremonies held spiritual significance or marked important t imes in individuals' lives—the Musqueam puberty ceremony lasted three nights with people dancing all night—most of the time people used song and dance simply to fill the long and dark months with joy and activity. 14 2.3.2 European Settlement In 1791 Hugh McRoberts, the first European settler on Sea Island, began constructing dykes, cultivating land and harvesting crops. The population increased and the community developed with the establishment of a school and a church. The construction of bridges, demand for dairy products in Vancouver and new food preservation technologies helped agricultural and industrial practices flourish on Sea Island. While Sea Island was once dominated by farmland, since the first airport was built in 1931 its continuous expansion has slowly replaced previous uses. Arrival of the European Settlers 1781-1782 Small pox epidemic decimated the Coast Salish. 1791 The first European found Sea Island. Simon Fraser reached the mouth of the north arm of Sea Island 1808 David Thompson (Hudson's Bay Company) named the Fraser River after Simon Fraser. 1814 Colony of Vancouver Island established. 1849 Captain George Henry Richards surveyed Sea Island. 1858 JohnTrutch surveyed Sea Island. 1859 Hugh McRoberts settled on northeast 1861 corner of Sea Island. His home was called "Richmond View'.' He first harvested wheat and first constructed dyke on Sea Island. Sea Island was known as McRoberts Island. Community Developmet 1862 Sea Island formally designated on British Admiralty charts 1866 Early settlement on Sea Island by Hugh Boyd and Alexander Kilgour 1879 Incorporation of the Municipality of Richmond. 1880 First municipal election and the council meeting. 1886 The Sea Island Presbyterian church is built. (Destroyed by fire in 1933 and not rebuild). 1889 The Marpole bridge, the first bridge connected Marpole, Sea Island and Lulu Island is opened. 1890-1900 Many Japanese immigrated and housed on the south of Sea Island 1890 The first school opened. (52 students in 1902, closed in 1914). Figure 26 Hugh McRoberts Figure 27 Hugh McRoberts's First House on Sea Island Figure 28 The Sea Island Presbyterian Church Industrial and Agricultural Establishment 1890 1894-1899 1894-1905 1914 1920s Alexander Ewan and company started first Sea Island Cannery Dinsmore Island Cannery, the Canadian Canning company, Acme canning company was built. Much of dyking system was washed away Municipality of Richmond improved all the dykes to engineered standard. From 1890 to 1954, dairy industry flourished on Sea Island by improvement of drainage system and expanding population in Vancouver. Airport Construction 1931 Vancouver Civic Airport and Sea Plane Harbour Opened. (Previous landing field was located in Lansdowne Park, Lulu Island) 1939 The dairy farm was expropriated by the Federal Government due to the airport expansion. 1946 Cora Brown Subdivision was built due to a great housing shortage following W W 2 . (Taken over for expansion of the Vancouver International Airport in 1962) 1947 Burkeville became part of municipality of Richmond 1948 The airport was renamed Vancouver International Airport. 1953 The Federal Government funds east-west runway 1961 The new runway was completed. 1963 Sewage Treatment Plant was completed. 1968 Federal Government acquired 4,000 acres of land on Sea Island as an airport preserve. The Arthur Laing Bridge opened 1976 International Terminal Building at Vancouver 1996 International Airport opened 1990s The park was owned by North Fraser Harbour Commission and was used to store sand dredged from the river. 1997 The area to the west of the park was used for landing fill used for the airport. 2009 Proposed operational date for 18 RAV line stations. 2020 Vancouver International Airport Extention slated for completion. Figure 29 Fraser Farm Figure 30 Vancouver Civic Airport Figure 31 Vancouver International Airport Concept Plan 16 2.3.3 Geographical Change of Sea Island In addition to the history of Sea Island, maps and aerial photos show change in geography and land use on Sea Island. Over time, Sediment deposition from the Fraser River slowly expanded Sea Island while absorbing smaller islands around it. The McDonald Beach Park was once one of them. It used to be an independant island called Woods Island, as indicated in the 1938 map. Around 1940s to 1960s the island became part of Sea Island. The 1940 map shows that the name McDonald likely came from the family who owned the north tip of Sea Island at the time. 17 The Major Change in Land Use Airport expansion can be observed in sequence in the aerial photographs. In1957 agricultural land dominates Sea Island and small portion of the land is occupied as an airpot but by 2003, almost all of Sea Island has been converted to airport facilities. The 2020 map from the Airport Authority show future northward expansion plans of the airport. Figure 32 Historical Maps 18 2.4 Natural Environment 2.4.1 Moon and Sun Moon The Moon rises from the east travelling in the same direction as the sun, reaches its zenith in the south and setting in the west. This cycle lags around 51 minutes every day and makes the perfectly with the waxing and waning cycle, which is 29.53 days. Because of the matching of the two cycles, the angle of the specific shape of the moon relative to sun is always the same. For example, the full moon always appears 180 degrees from the sun (Figure 33). The angle of the zenith dramatically changes within one luner month. At the project site, the highest zenith reaches 69 degrees and the lowest drops to 12 degrees. In Spring and Fall equinox, the full moon rises from true east and sets in the true west. The orbit of the moon from the earth is very close (only 5.1 degree difference) to that of the sun and it fluctuates like a pendulum. Sunset Sunrise East South West East South West g u n Figure 33 Moon Chart In the summer months, the sun sets to the more open northwestern part of the design while in the winter the setting sun creates interesting silhouettes against the trees to the southwest. Beautiful sunsets will occur in the autumn and spring as the sun sinks into the water to the west. Between spring and autumn, the sun rises across from the water, casting light on the water and in the winter the sun rises between trees on the southeast. Summer Solstice Sunset 21:10 309 degrees Spring (Autumnal) Equinox Sunset 18:10 270 degrees Winter Solstice Sunset 16:00 233 degrees Summer Solstice Sunrise 3:50 50 degrees Spring (Autumnal) Equinox Sunrise 6:00 90 degrees Winter Solstice Sunrise 8:00 126 degrees "SummerTime is not considered in this chart. 0 Scale 1:500,000 Figure 34 Sun Chart 19 2.4.2 Stars McDonald Beach Park is one of the few places accessible from the city where one is able to see stars. Visible constellations vary slightly different by the season. The angle of the north star is 49 degrees, which is same angle as the latitude of the site. The charts below show constellations visible in spring, summer, fall and winter two hours after the sunset. The year 2005 was chosen for this example. Location: Richmond (Latitude 49 North Longitude123 West) Spring Equinox: March 20 2005 20:36pm Summer Solstice: June 21 2005 22:21pm Autumnal Equinox: September 23 2005 20:08pm Winter Solstice: December 22 2005 18:17pm Spring Equinox Summer Solstice West North East West North East Figure 35 Star Chart 20 2.4.3 Climate McDonald Beach Park is located in a Pacific Climate Region, which is characterised by relatively mild rainy winters and relatively cool, dry summers. The climate in Richmond is very similar to that in Vancouver, except the average rainfall is thirty percent less. Average daily temperature does not drop below zero degrees and frost-free days are 160 to 211 days, which is the longest frost-free period of any region in Canada. Strong wind is one of the characteristics of the site. In summer, sea breeze blows from the northwest in daytime and reverse with offshore breezes towards the Strait of Georgia at night. In Winter, cold arctic air comes through the Fraser River valley to the Strait. Calm periods, which occur less than ten percent of the time are mostly in the fall. Temparature (°C) Precipitation (mm) J F M A M J J A S O N D Maximum Minimum Mean 6 8 10 13 16 19 22 22 8 14 9 6 0 1 3 5 8 11 13 13 10 6 3 1 3 5 6 9 12 15 17 17 14 10 6 4 Figure 36 Temparature Wind J F M A M J J A S 0 N D Rain Snow Total 132116105 75 62 46 36 38 64 115 167161 21 9 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 150 124 109 75 62 46 36 38 64 115 167 170 Figure 37 Precipitation Summer-Day Summer-Night Winter J F M A M J J A S O N D Wind Speed (km/h) 12 12 13 13 11 11 11 11 10 11 12 12 (T) Scale 1:500,000 Figure 38 Wind Diagram 21 2.4.4 Aquatic Environment McDonald Beach Park is located at the mouth of the north arm of the Fraser River, which receives ten percent of total amount of the discharge of the Fraser River. The maximum flow occurs between May and July. The site is affected by the tide. Twice in a lunar day, causing water level changes up to five metres. The salt content of the water is usually very low, but around one hour after high tide the salt water creeps under the fresh water and can reach as far as Annacis Island, New Westminster. Similarly, fresh water travels thirty kilometres to the west of the river mouth during heavy discharge. At the McDonald Beach Park, both riverine and estuarine environment should be considered due to the fluctuation of salt effect. Legend Figure 39 Riverine and Estuarine Riverine The European settlement greatly changed the ecological system in Fraser River by diking and cultivating the land. The area around the McDonald Beach Park used to be sloughs. The existing McDonald Slough, which is an artificially created freshwater slough caused by the lona sewage plant construction, provides important habitat for wildlife. The marshes also support habitat for waterfowl, waders, shore birds, salmonids, and other fish. The water quality tends to be poor because of pollution from nearby farms, industry, and from the Vancouver International Airport. Generally, The area around McDonald Beach Park accumulates sediment from the Fraser River. However, the heavy aquatic traffic erodes the sandy beach area. Estuarine The salinity of the area fluctuates by the amount of discharge from the river and tides, but usually the transition of freshwater and salt water (about 1.5% salt) occurs at the estuary. The environmental contribution of this area is enormous. Wildlife The Fraser River supports more than two hundred bird species and fifty-two species of fish. Gulls (Mew, Herring, California, Bonaparte's and Ringbilled) and dabbling ducks (American Wigeon, Mallard, Green-winged Teal and Northern Pintail) are the most abundant groups of birds in the river. Five species of salmon, oolichan, and sturgeon are major species of the fish around the site. Commonly found mammals include racoons, coyotes and skunks. There are eighteen species of amphibians and reptiles present, including frogs, snakes and snails. Many wildlifes are nocturnal and the effect on their daily activity cycles, and reductions in dispersal, foraging, disorientation, habitat reduction, evolution and reproductive opportunities are reported. 22 2.4.5 Existing Plants and Soi l Trees and Shrubs Early stage forest succession trees and shrubs such as Red Alder, Black Cottonwood, Pacific Crab Apple and Pacific Wi l low successfully dominated most of the site. These native plants, which grow on nitrogen-rich and wet soils are very important trees to support biodiversity. Black Cottonwood, Common Snowberry, Pacific Crab Apple and Pacific Wi l low are artificially planted as part of the habitat conpensation marsh project to protect the area directly east of the site. Green Ash and Pin Oak are introduced trees planted on the existing jetty. Some introduced trees are planted at caretaker's house. They are not invasive plants, however they do not blend well into either the history of the site nor the existing landscape. Native Species Alnus rubra (Red Alder) Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch) Malus fusca (Pacific Crab Apple) Populus balsamifera ssp.Trichocarpa (Black Cottonwood) Rosa woodsii (Wood's Rose) Salix lucida ssp. Lasiandra (Pacific Willow) Sambucus racemosa ssp. pubens (Red Elderberry) Symphoricarpos albus (Common Snowberry) Introduced Species Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore Maplew) Betula pendula (European White Birch) Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green Ash) Picea spp. (Spruce) Prunus spp. (Fruiting Cherry) Quercus palustris (Pin Oak) Viburnum Plicatum (Doublefile Viburnum) Jetty Red Alder Pacific Willow Pacific Crab Apple Black Cottonwood Figure 40 Existing Trees and Shrubs 23 Herbaceous Plants Compared to trees and shrubs, invasive herbaceous plants have successfully dominated the site, reflecting the former dredging activity. Scotch Broom and Blackberry are heavily established in the west of the site and have spread through most of the park. The City of Richmond started an annual volunteer program to remove invasive plants—especially Scotch Broom—in 2003. The most effective method to eradicate invasive species at the site is to establish native trees to provide shade, making it harder for invasive plants to get established. The native Large-Headed Sedge and Dune Grass compete with introduced species around the existing sand dunes in the east of the site and along the beach. The habitat compensation marsh project east of the site established the tidal marsh and riparian habitat with Baltic Rush, Dune Grass and Lyngby's Sedge, which start to remediate the park. These areas should be protected and promoted in the design. Native Species Agrostis scabra (Hair Bentgrass) Aster subspicatus (Douglas Aster) Carex lyngbyei (Lyngby's Sedge) Carex macrocephala (Large-Headed Sedge) Conyza canadensis (Horseweed) Elymus mollis (Dune Grass) Juncus balticus (Baltic Rush) Juncus effusus (Common Rush) Lathyrus japonicus (Beach Pea) Typha latifolia (CatTail) Typical Introduced Species Introduced Species Agrostis capillaris (Colonial Bentgrass) Atropa belladonna (Deadly Nightshade) Cirsium arvense var. horridum (Canada Thistle) Cytisus scoparius (Scotch Broom) Hypochaeris radicata (Hairly Cat's-Ear) Lythrum salicaria (Purple Loosestrife) Melilotus officinalis (Sweet Clover) Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort) Polygonum arenastrum (Common Knotweed) Polygonum hydropiper (Common Smartweed) Rubus discolor (Himalayan Blackberry) Rubus laciniatus (Evergreen Blackberry) Solanum dulcamara (European Bittersweet) Solidago canadensis (Canada Golden Rod) Taraxacum officinale (Common Dandelion) Trifolium repens (White Clover) Trifolium pratense (Red Clover) Scotch Broom Hymalayan Blackberry Typical Native Species Dune Grass Baltic Rush Large-Headed Sedge © Scale 1 : 1 0 , 0 0 0 Figure 41 Existing Herbaceous Plants 24 Chapter 3 Design Proposal 25 3.1 Design Overview Statement of Intent Traditionally, night was recognized as important part of the communit ies for ceremonies, festivals, and enjoyment. It connected the living and the dead, created local identities, and developed folk art. As artificial light fills the urban realm, the power of night slowly fadeds away. People started to stay in the artificial light after dark and public parks became recognized as the dangerous place to be at night. History suggests that the night has a great psychological power effected on people, an affect which can contribute to creating stronger active public park within urban context. Project Goal To introduce night use to a public park that is accessible from the city. Objectives Explore the possibilities of a public park at night by considering phenomenology, ecology, culture and the public realm. 26 3.2 Spacial Organization 3.2.1 Destinations Focal points This project tries to achieve two seemingly contradicting "nights" for an urban night park. One aspect is a well-lit, safe and comfortable night for community events, festivals, and ceremonies, and the other is to explore dark, delicate, and mysterious night for smaller groups of people or individual person. The two opposing ideas express the nature of an urban park that is seemingly domestic, but could bring the hidden spiritual qualities that come alive at night. To reflect the two ideas, the site is organized in two parts, the main focal point and the walks with secondary focal points. The Harbour, Full Moon Circle and the White Garden define the main focal point and accommodate two thousand to three thousand people for large events. The walks and the smaller focal points along it accommodate another five hundred people strolling in the park. Transition To achieve the gentle arrangement between the main focal point and the walks with secondary focal points, the design was imagined as a series of overlapping transition: light to dark, artificial to natural, formal to informal. The existing landscape vegetation, topography, development were also considered. At the existing site, as people move towards the east, the vegetation changes from introduced weedy species to native species. The parking lot with strong light progress to minimum structures and existing forest. To refrect this shift into the design, the heavily developed west side of the site was planted with native plants envisioned with a minimum of structure to guide people where to walk without disturbing the vegetation. As the pathway goes from west to east, the vegetation becomes thicker, are less structure is placed, and less lighting is provided. Two hills, which are exaggerations of existing small hills support the idea of a buffer between the east and west of the site. Consequently the west side of the park becomes well-lit and formal and the east side of the site becomes dark and natural. (See Figure 42 Destinations Diagram) 27 3.2.2 Connections The city and the site The easiest access to the site is by automobile. People enter the park by driving parallel to the airport and turning the world into the Alley of Emily Carr (McDonald Road) by which is the only car access bringing people to the site. The bright light and the sound of airplanes symbolize the urban development. As soon as people turn at the Alley of Emily Carr, it brings people into the agricultural reserve, where quiet and dark night is kept, and the end of the road, the Lantern Pavilion appears in the dark, welcoming arrivals. The Alley of Emily Carr is part of the entering and leaving experience that divides the bright city from the dark park. Parking is placed on west side of the harbour to make the most of the site. By keeping the parking separate from the main focal area, the site suggests that people to forget about their cars, and concentrate on the experience of being in the night. It is possible to come to the park on foot, by bus, by bike or combination of these. In these cases, there are two possible approaches to the site. One is the same as by car the Alley of Emily Carr has a 1.8 metre bike lane. The other is the existing trail on the south of the site. The trail is connected to the small parking lot two kilometres east of the site. The trail goes along the north arm of the Fraser River and as it comes close to the park, thick vegetation brings people into the darkness. Then again, the lantern pavilion appears, offering a similar experience as the approach from the Alley of Emily Carr. Pedestrian Circulation in the site The site is pedestrian oriented and connected by the walking path and the jogging path, laid out to have minimum conflict. The walking path guides people to stroll slowly and maximize the experience of each focal point. The jogging path brings people for more quiet and private experience yet allows people to recognize their location within the park. Both paths create that lead back to their origins, to reflecting the cycle of the night, the waxing and waning of the moon and the rotation of the stars. It suggests that each visitor a become dweller of the dark sky. (See Figure 43 Connections Diagram) 28 Figure 42 Destinations Diagram 3.3 Program 3.3.1 In the Context of the City Night parks are a neglected part of the design. Most of the parks in the city are designed for daytime activities and closed at night for security reasons. However, Vancouver is known for its low violent crime rate and the wilderness surroundings. Security and darkness are the two fundamental elements available that make a night park possible. In addition to this, multicultural communit ies provide a range of different night ceremonies, rituals and festivals needed to activate the site. Figure 44 Chinese Lantern Festival, China Protecting dark green space within cities The site is one of the few places left in the citiy, where night becomes dark. Siting dark green space protects wildlife habitat, helps environmental health for the cities and also provides a spiritual quality to everyday life for urban dwellers. Connecting greenways The fragmented existing greenways could be connected to extend night activities. Night marathon competit ions, from lona Island to the site, night parades or walks from sunset to sunrise, biathlons from Downtown to the site could be among the possible activities. People could disguise themselves in glowing or black dress, carry a torch, play music or sing a song along the greenway. It could accommodates a competit ions of individuals or events for families. Promoting multicultural communities Most of the communit ies in Lower Mainland are made up of a consisted on variety of different ethnic groups. Some people have distinguished ethnicity and the others have mixed ethnic background. The mixture of different cultures provides an interest in countless night cultural activities, such as Chinese Lantern Festival, Dewali, Full Moon Festival, Star Festival, Hanukah, Loy Krathong, Christmas, Easter, Halloween, Kecak, Firework Festival, Musqueam Fire Dance and Summer Night Dance. It promotes local events and ultimately establishes the identity of community groups. Mf \ Figure 45 Parade of Lost Souls, Vancouver Figure 46 Light on Shoes Figure 47 Loy Krathong, Thailand Figure 48 Halloween 30 Developing local identities The night park supports countless community events such as sunset/moonlight concerts, white/light reflecting dress fashion show, outdoor play, night dance performances, shadow pictures, outdoor movie watching, nocturnal wildlife watch, night flowering plants exhibition, kids summer camp, story telling night. The site also offers localized ceremonies such as weddings and funerals. The events contribute to developing a sense of community. Celebrating special time Even the simple cycle of the day is easily forgotten in urban cities. Abundant artificial lights, air-conditioned rooms and imported exotic fruits and vegetable confuse time and place. The site provides opportunity to celebrate time. It could be as simple as viewing changes of the light at sunset and sunrise and enjoying darkness at night. It could be also be used to mark special moments of the year in both solar and lunar calendar: spring and fall equinox, the longest night of summer solstice, the shortest night of winter solstice, the first sunrise of the new year's day, the last night of the new year's eve, the full moon, new moon and blue moon. Lunar eclipses and comets are special astronomical events that could also could be celebrated at the site. Celebrating life and death The night is a time of day that makes people sense the cycle of their life. The cycle of the day is often compared to the life of the human. The sun rises, as the newborn baby starts new life, grows to its highest point and then slowly falls down to the horizon, as people get older and go back to the ground. The waxing and waning of the moon suggest a similar concept of life and death. The ceremonies and rituals at night will celebrate the cycle of life and death, which has been separated from urban life. Figure 49 Night Flowering Evening Primrose Figure 50 Celebration of Light, Vancouver Figure 51 3D Movies on Fog, Finland Figure 52 Chinese Funeral Procession, Vancouver Figure 53 Mass for Tsunami Victims, Thailand Creating new opportunities at the public park Night is a special show, rich with subtle imagery: the shining moon and stars against dark sky, shooting star, ghost in the layers of shadows, multiple shadows under several lights, moon reflecting on water, dim light in a mist, white flowers show off, silver berks shines, black stones disappear, each dew drops shines on spider's net, blinded by a small flashlight and cat's round pupils become long by the light. As eyesight grows weaker in the dark, the other four senses become more sensitive. Listening to the wind blowing, the river f lowing, tug boats going by, coyotes howling, crickets chirp, frogs croaking, owls hooting, sand squeaking as you walk, leaves rustling and people whispering are only possible at night. Flowers in bloom, the bark of the trees, salty air, rain, young leaves in spring, perfume of one's lover, marshmallows at the campfire and sausages on the grill smell better in dim light. Water and sand change their texture in the dark. The smallest noise in a bush, a skunk passing by or a few drops of water from the roof, creates monsters in the darkness. There are a number of people in the local community involved in professions and field of studies related to night and darkness: such as poi dancers, astronomers, night landscape painters, lighting artists, night photographers, lantern makers, horror story tellers, and glass blowers. Exhibitions, lectures or workshop could happen at the site. The night park provides a place to promote local and international cultures by giving people opportunity to express themselves and teach their skills. On top of the special activities at night, usual daytime activities like dancing, rowing a boat, fishing, jogging, breathing, meditating, talking, eating and walking become special experiences at night. Figure 54 Pine Trees at Daitokuji, Japan Figure 55 Snowy Owl Figure 56 Comet Bennet Figure 57 Cai Guo-Qiang, France Figure 58 Ukai, Night Fishing, Japan 32 3.3.2 Physical Site Lantern Pavilion Program The lantern pavilion accommodates 300 people for a range of festivals, ceremonies, and community events proposed by the project. The 1000 m 2 building including 120 m 2 reception and cafe area attached to 45 m 2 kitchen, 350 m 2 main gathering area with 300 storable chairs, 60 m 2 storage, 3 5 m 2 office, two flexible 17 m 2 rooms for waiting, changing, meeting or storing, total 50 m 2 for men's women's and handicapped washrooms on the first floor. The second floor is 350 m 2 of flexible space to support the main gathering area. Outdoor Space Program The total area of the site is approximately 25ha, which is roughly divided into four parts: entrance area, parking, main gathering area, and strolling area. The total entrance area is approximately 10ha, which includes McDonald Road, 90m, the area is approximately 7ha and the other entrance trail on the south side of the site, approximately 3ha. The regular parking has 37 car spots and 30 car and boat spots. For large events, 0.7 ha open area adjacent to the regular parking becomes temporary parking that accommodates up to 250 cars. The main gathering area including the Harbour, the Full Moon Circle and the White Garden is approximately 4ha total to accommodate a range of international and local events. The strolling area is approximately 12 ha. The rest of the area is occupied by the caretaker's house and the relocated existing radio tower. 1 st Floor 2nd Floor Flexible Space © Scale 1:10,000 Figure 59 Lantern Pavilion Program 33 3.4 Material Selection 3.4.1 Hard Materials The materials are selected to reflect the nature of the night, history of the site, and the passage of the time. The weathered silver logs (Figure 60) shine in the moonlight and celebrate the poetic beauty of silver light. The white concrete with oyster shells (Figure 61) stands out and recalls the middens found at Sea Island. Glasphalt, asphalt made with ten percent glass aggregate, used for the parking area shines like stars in the sky (Figure 62) by reflecting light of the cars. The black slate stepping stones (Figure 63) at the Moon Dew Pond and the burnt log walk (Figure 64) at the Whispering Pathway disappear in the darkness to show the connection to the earth. Corten steel (Figure 65) is used in the Lantern Pavilion, Leaf Pergola, stairs at north of Leaf Pergola. These will be weathered by the wind and the rusty colour and texture will blend into the landscape. Figure 60 Silver Log Figure 61 White Oyster Shell Figure 62 Grasphalt as Stars in the Sky Figure 63 Black Slate Figure 64 Burnt Log Figure 65 Rusted Corten 34 3.4.2 Plants The plant materials are selected to enhance the experience of each space of the site. The silver bark of white birch at the entrance shines in car headlights. Pseudostuga menziesii ssp menziesii (Western Red Cedar) is planted along the Alley of Emily Carr, bring people into a deep dark tunnel. The Circle of Full Moon is surrounded by white flowering plants and the White Garden is filled with native clover to celebrate flowers that glow in the moonlight. The vegetation of the Astral Field becomes smaller to the top of the field to create the experience of seeing stars from the canopies of a forest. The site is listed as an Environmentally Sensitive Area and more than fifty percent of plant material will be selected from the recommended plant list. Most of the site is covered by mixed deciduous forest in the proposed design. The plant species meet the plant list and are selected for their appropriateness to the site. Eventually the selected plants will establish and support wildlife habitat and environmental sustainability. Mature trees will create shade to eradicate invasive plants, such as Cytisus scoparius (Scotch Broom), Rubus discolor (Himalayan Blackberry) and Rubus lacinlatus (Evergreen Blackberry). The water edge is protected by water-loving plants for erosion control to reduce dependency on retaining walls, thereby contributing to the ecology of the site. (D Scale 1:10,000 Figure 66 Vegetation map 35 Silver Bark at New Moon Gate Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch) Cedar Trees along Alley of Emily Carr Pseudostuga menziesii ssp menziesii (Western Red Cedar) White Flowering Plants at Full Moon Circle Betula papyrifera (Western White Birch) Cornus nutallii (Pacific Dogwood) Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn) Malus fusca (Pacific Crabapple) Philadelphus lewisii (Mock Orange) Physocarpus Capitatus (Pacific Ninebark) Oemleria cerasiformis (Indian Plum) Native Clovers Trifolium wormskjoldii, (Springbank Clover) Trifolium wormskjoldii (Thimble Clover) Trifolium microcephalum (Small Headed Clover) Small Plants at Astral Field Cornus stolonifera (Red-Osier Dogwood) Philadelphus lewisii (Mock Orange) Rosa pisacarpa (Swamp Rose) Rubus parviflorus (Thimbleberry) Rubus spectabilis (Salmonberry) Sambucus racemosa (Red Elderberry) Symphoricarpos albus (Snowberry) Mixed Forest Plants Alnus rubra (red alder) Crataegus douglasii (Black Hawthorn) Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (Black Cottonwood) Rhamnus pershiana (Cascara) Salix lucida spp. lasiandra (Pacific Willow) Water Loving Plants at Water Edge Cornus stolonifera (Red-Osier Dogwood) Malus fusca (Pacific Crabapple) Salix lucida spp. lasiandra (Pacific Willow) Figure 67 Silver Bark of Paper Birch Figure 68 Ceder Forest Figure 69 Mock Orange Figure 70 Pacific Dogwood Figure 71 Field of Clover 36 3.5 Design Interventions 3.5.1 Entrance Transition New Moon Gate (See Appendix B, Entrance Transition, plan and Section bb') At the intersection of the existing McDonald Road and Grauer Bypass is the very beginning of the journey of the night park. As people come closer to the intersection, the alley of Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch) appears on both sides of the Grauer Bypass. The silver bark of the birch would shines by the reflective light of the cars throughout the year, as a part of the excitement of approaching to the site. The concept of separation is traditionally described as "Hare" and " K e " in Japanese rituals and "Sac red" and "profane" in Christian and Jeuish rituals. As the park suggest unusual experience and opportunity to explore night, the separation from everyday life is critical. "The threshold between two worlds concentrates not only the boundary between outside and inside, but also the possibility of passage from one zone to another" (Eliade, The Sacred and Profane). In this design, the three-metre heavy rusted corten wall provides separation between the unusual and usual experience. It also functions practically as the controlling point of visitors. The existing McDonald Road goes straight to the site with the existing ditch, which collects water on Sea Island and brings to the harbour at McDonald Beach Park. As the starting place of the site, the water is contained at the intersection in a 1,600 m 2 rectangular concrete wall, referring the geometrical form of urban structure. Water is concentrated west of the concrete retaining wall and the topography slopes up towards east. The east of the concrete wall is open and it is covered by marsh plants. The solar powered LED light on a wire (Figure 72) is randomly planted within a marsh to mimic the form of the marsh plants. They catch the wind and waves and match the movement of the marsh plants. These lights indicate of the beginning of the night park. Figure 73 Emily Carr, Forest, British Columbia Figure 74 Trees Casting Shadows on Water 37 Alley of Emily Carr (See Appendix B, Entrance Transition, section aa') After passing the gate, the existing McDonald Road plunges people into darkness. Thuja plicata (Western Red Cedar) is planted on both sides of the roads and the space between the bike path and the car road. The darkness is meant to evoke the spiritual mysterious night that Emily Carr recorded in her paintings of West Coast Forest (Figure 73) qualities people no longer feel in the urban environments. After driving or biking two hundred metres in the midway to the site, sixty metres of openings appears to the west of the alley, showing the agricultural field. The first European Settlers started their new life by cultivating the land and from the1890s to 1950s, most of the Sea Island was cultivated as farmland. By opening the site to the west, the remaining agricultural field tells part of the history of Sea Island. As people come close to the site, the lantern pavilion appears symbolically in front of the road. After passing the dark forest, the light of the building we lcomes people arriving the site. A two-metre wide bike path is added between the existing car road and the ditch for alternative access to the park and to accommodate new programs, such as bike race at night. Turning radius and the width is designed to accommodate fire truck and ambulance accessibility. Pond of Woven Shadows (See Appendix A, Master Plan) Before the Alley of Emily Carr turns to the left, the water accumulates and expands. It is referring the unique history of the site that the most of the site used to be a separated island until 1940s to 1960s. It contrasts the pond at the gate, which is formal and small. The Pond of Woven Shadows is about 0.8ha, its informal shape suggesting water in the wilderness and proximity to the north arm of Fraser River. The mixed deciduous trees are planted around the pond to cast shadows (Figure 74) . All plant species are native to the site and listed as the recommended plant list on Environmentally Sensitive Area. Also they are selected to meet the requirement of the existing soil, climate, the ability to grow on the disturbed site, and contribution to the established ecology of the site. The lantern pavilion glows beyond the pond gives the illusion that the lantern is floating on water. Caretaker's House (See Appendix A, Master Plan and Appendix B, Entrance Transition, section cc') The Caretaker's House is relocated on a proposed hill in south-west part of the site. The location is decided to the proximity to the main entrance to the park for easy access, the visibility to the main focal areas of the park. The visibility to the park lets visitors see the light of the house, offering a sense of security. 38 Parking (See Appendix A, Master Plan) The parking is surrounded by the mixed deciduous trees to maintain ecology and the darkness of the site. The paving material is glasphalt which shines like stars when the light of the cars hits on the surface. The parking creates the excitement and the sense of arrival. Parking is located on west of the harbour, which is across from the main focal areas to maximize the opportunity and experience of being in the night park. The parking accommodates thirty seven cars and thirty cars with attached boats to accommodate the daytime use of the park. In case of the large events, or large school bus, the 0.7ha open space on west of the parking becomes temporary parking accommodating around 250 cars. The space is filled with structural grass to support ecology of the site. It is also possible to park along the Alley of Emily Carr. There is drop off area accommodating five cars along the Alley of Emily Carr. To connect the parking and the main focal areas, both side of the pathway are planted with Philadelphus lewisii (Mock Orange), one of the most fragrant of the native plants around the area and very showy white flowers persist through spring to fall. 39 3.5.2 Festival Area Lantern Pavilion (See Appendix C, Festival Area and Appendix D, Festival Area Details) The main building of the site accommoda tes around three hundred people for festivals, events, ceremonies , wedd ings and funerals for both international and local communi t ies . The form of the building derives f rom the context of the site. Sea Island w a s occup ied by M a s q u e a m people before European sett lement. The w e s t part of the island w a s once cal led 'blueberry forest ' and also middens have been found indicating that the island was used as a site to gather berries and shel l f ish. The design adopts a language of weaving that recalls M u s q u e a m baskets used for food gathering. The baskets were made primarily f rom cedar, cherry and birch using weaving patterns reflecting images of the nature around them. The concept of weaving also recalls M u s q u e a m blankets. Woven blankets were used to divide inside spaces of dwel l ings, and, as wi th the baskets, the patterns of the blankets expressed the landscape around them. The second concept guiding the design of the pavilion is the posit ive phototropic. Posit ive phototropic descr ibes the tendency to grow toward light. Like many creatures, people are drawn to the warmth and securi ty of light. However, light is more than just a symbol of securi ty and comfort . The power of the light in the dark has strong psychological power. In his book, Light in Japanese Architecture, Henry P lummer descr ibes light coming out of darkness as exerting more than just a perceptual allure, arguing that count less poetic images are set off within the subconsc ious mind. Light funct ions to concentrate energy at night, thereby creating a strong centre to the site. (Figure 75) The third reading of the building's design is the layering of leaves. A beautiful aspect of the site are the layers of leaves on the exist ing dec iduous t rees. On s u m m e r nights, the layers upon layers of leaves create myster ious and beautiful si lhouettes. W h e n the w ind b lows, the leaves make sounds like people whisper ing in the shadows . In the fall, they dance wi th the w ind and accumulate on the ground, creating again beautiful layered patterns on the ground. A s people walk on the leaves, it creates a pleasant sound. In spring new leaves start to create the thick covers on the trunk and branches. The cycle of leaves repeats every year, Figure 75 Light Through the Woven Basket Figure 76 Layers of Leaves Figure 77 Lantern Pavilion, Closed Figure 78 Lantern Pavilion, Open 40 constantly creating new layers since the site is fully covered by deciduous trees. Being in the layers of the leaves describes the genius loci of the site. (Figure 76) In combining and elaborating the three ideas, the lantern pavilion was conceptually formed. It looks like a glowing basket lit from an interior light. (Figure 77) Soft light oozes from frosted glass placed within a corten filigree representing structure of the leaf. The lantern pavilion offers a sense of focus to the whole site. The pavilion is placed at the edge of the water and opens toward the harbour connecting night activities on the water with those inside the pavilion. (Figure 78) Harbour (See Appendix D, Festival Area Details, section dd') The harbour is part of the main focal area, where the most dynamic transition from artificial to natural occurs. It becomes a shining mirror reflecting the light of the Lantern Pavilion, floating lanterns, or the light from boats. The water in the daylight is not the mirror that reflects the spirit of the site. As Ivan lllich writes, "the water we seek is the fluid that drenches the inner and outer space of the imagination." (lllich, p24). At night, the still water of the day becomes an enchanting dark mirror. It impresses people with the life-sustaining, infinite, and sacred power of water. To maximize the experience of the water, the drawbridge completes the pathway around the harbour at night. It opens by day to allow boat traffic to pass. During daylight hours, the site retains its existing function as a public boat launch. The existing pier is replaced from the east to the west side of the harbour. The covered structure with seating for eight is added at the end of the pier to explore further opportunities of occupying the water surface at night (Figure 3.38). It becomes a romantic spot for lovers on quiet nights, a place to be surrounded by the floating lanterns, or a place to play music for people walking and sitting around the harbour. The pier responds to the five-metre daily tidal change. The fire can be lit in the ceiling structure like a torch or lighthouse on the water. It makes the structure a beacon in the dark night. Circle of Full Moon (See Appendix C, Festival Area) The main gathering area is directly connected to the Lantern Pavilion and the north arm of the Fraser River. It is a flexible circular space one hundred metres in diameter designed to accommodate around one thousand people for a range of events, festivals and ceremonies. White flowering plants are selected to edge the Circle of Full Moon. A variety of species are chosen to support biodiversity on the site and to ensure a lag between each plant's flowering and fruiting season, creating consistent visual and aromatic entertainment in the area throughout the seasons. Weathered silver logs are placed around the edge of the circle for seating that references naturally found logs that are carried by the flow of water to accumulate around the area. The silver logs shine in the moonlight enhancing the sense of time. 41 White Garden (See Appendix C, Festival Area) This area is filled with native clover. The whole surface of the space is filled with white, red, and pink flowers that pick up the moon light. These are native species and chosen for their high adaptability to disturbed sites. In case of bigger events with more than a thousand people, the White Garden act as a supporting space to the Circle of Full Moon. This gives the flexibility to accommodate another thousand people. The Circle of Full Moon and the White Garden can accommodate events for up to two thousand people. il [fail Figure 79 Torch Pier 42 3.5.3 The walks Dark Hill (See Appendix E, Firefly Garden to M o o n D e w Pond, plan and sect ion ee') If people c o m e to the park to jog, this is the starting and f inishing point. Dark Hill raises the exist ing hill by two metres to create a stronger buffer be tween the main focal area and the quiet walks . From the hill, a v iew line directs people to see the Firefly Garden and the M o o n D e w Pond to the south and opens onto the north arm of the Fraser River to the north. The Dark Hill and the Lantern Pavilion are connec ted by a v iew line as wel l to let their oppos ing qualit ies balance one another. The area is less than eighty square metres, just large enough to have space to w a r m up and stretch for smal l group of people and give a sense of enclosure. The t rees are tightly planted around it to provide darkness wi th the speci f ic v iews toward the key landscape e lements . From this point, a precisely one-ki lometre jogging path loop starts and ends. Firefly Garden (See Append ix E, Firefly Garden to M o o n D e w Pond, plan, sect ion ee ' and detail section) Firefly Garden is next to the Whi te Garden. The trail starts to the southeast of the Wh i te Garden wi th randomly placed L E D lights on w i res—the s a m e lights as used at the N e w M o o n Gate . A forty-metre diameter clearing wi th a field fi l led wi th tall grass and lights on wi res appear after passing the dec iduous tree forest pathway. The design is intended to mimic firefl ies in the field (Figure 80), but also recalls stars in the sky, and nauti luses on a sandy beach. The artificial recreation of the natural phenomena reflects the idea of urban night and the transitional p lacement be tween artificial and natural night within the site. The straight two-metre w ide boardwalk and comple te circle clearing supports the same idea. The design reduces the vo lume of light compared to the main focal area to respect the ecology of the site and w e l c o m e people into the darker part of the site. The silver log benches are placed to offer p laces to sit and enjoy the smal l lights swaying in the breeze in the f ield. Moon Dew Pond (See Append ix E, Firefly Garden to M o o n D e w Pond, plan, sect ion ee ' and details of stepping s tones and deck) In many mythologies, people bel ieved that water f rom the moon brought w i s d o m and eternal life. The brightest natural light in the space and the ref lected light on the water are both very powerful exper iences that people can still enjoy in an urban context. During festivals, lanterns or whi te f lower petals can be f loated on the water, making a space especial ly wel l -sui ted to events like the Ch inese Full M o o n Festival. The space funct ions as a moon-v iewing pond. M u s i c can be played at the shore or on boats to accompany the eating of moon cakes and other activit ies. On other days, this area b e c o m e s a romantic place to have a dialogue wi th loved ones . The board walk turns to the south, where the moon reaches to its zenith and brings people to the pond connec ted to the Pond of W o v e n Shadows . A t the end of the pathway is a deck floating on the pond. The stepping-stones be tween the path and the deck are made of black slate, disappearing in the darkness at night. W h e n people walk on the black stone, it is as though they are walking on water. The three-metre by f ive-metre deck wi th five chairs w a s des igned to v iew ref lected moonl ight on the water or the moon directly. The forty cent imetre high chairs are placed at the edge of 43 the deck to act as handrails as well to encourage people to approach the water without interruption. The pathway goes around the pond and the same stepping-stones appear at the west, where people can see the rising moon beyond the water in east. Leaf Pergola (See Appendix F, Leaf Pergola to North Star Island, plans, sections) The pathway disappears into dark forest. The planted forest is next to the existing established forest and uses the same plant species to add layers to existing vegetation. The series of leaf-shaped structures (Figure 81) covers the pathway compressing the space. The structure exaggerates the experience of going through the forest at night. When the structure sways with the wind, its components touch each other and create a metallic chiming sound. The woven patterns of the leaf are similar to that of the Lantern Pavilion to create a connection. The heights differ from 2m 65cm to 3m 45cm to mimic the layering of leaves. North Star Island (See Appendix F, Leaf Pergola to North Star Island, plans, sections) The compressed space dramatically opens to the view of the field and island beyond. The steps are made of white concrete with white oyster shells. The path cuts through the middle of the grass field and reaches to the island. This experience becomes the final part of a procession if people use the site for funerals. The ceremony can take place in the Lantern Pavilion. Then, if people wish, the island is a place to distribute ashes. The corten stairs bring people down to the field and across to the North Star Island following the shining white pathway and bridge. The pavilion is designed on the island for people to be able to have a conversation with each other. The structure points upward to create a sense of connection to the sky. The angle of the roof was decided by the angle of the North Star, so that people can see the North Star from the chairs at the back. The North Star was thought to be the god of the heavens controlling life and death as all the other stars rotate around it. The bridge comes out to the north arm of the Fraser River and brings people to the water to say good-bye to their loved ones. Figure 80 LED Light as Firefly Figure 81 Leaf Pergola Figure 82 North Pavilion Figure 83 David Nash, Burnt Log Steps Astral Field (See Appendix G, Astral Field to Whispering Pathway, plan and section gg') If people do not go to the island, the path continues to the east after the Leaf Pergola. The vegetation becomes smaller as the path goes towards the Astral Field. It is an artificial ten-metre hill created by the heaping of silt onto the existing five-metre hill. On top of the hill, all the vegetation is lower than the eyeheight of people to create the experience of seeing stars on top of a forest canopy with the river below. The jogging path only comes to this point before returning to the Dark Hill. Whispering Pathway (See Appendix G, Astral Field to Whispering Pathway, plan and section hh') As the Astral Field cuts most of the artificial light from the main focal area, the west side of the hill becomes the darkest area in the site. The existing sand dunes and marsh are protected from the light pollution. Consequently, the hill protects existing wildlife and their habitat. The music of crickets around the existing sand dunes is one of the most pleasing experiences on the existing site. To keep and promote the quality of the nature, a 1.5 metre wide burnt log pathway is laid out to direct people to the sand dunes, marsh and then north arm of the Fraser River. Burnt Log Pathway (Figure 83) keep people from stepping on existing native herbaceous plants, such as Carax macrocephala (Large Headed Sedge) and Lathyus japonicus (Beach Pea). The black burnt log disappears in the darkness at night. The path eventually opens to the bridge situated at the east end of the site. It allows people to see the blinking lights of arriving planes and the light of the Arthur Laing Bridge in the east. After passing the bridge, the pathway along the north arm of the Fraser River brings people back to the main focal area by the soothing sounds of tug boats, waves and sand. 45 Chapter 4 Concluding Remarks 46 Rethinking Public Parks Contemporary urban life and the supporting infrastructure offer an excess of light at night. Only a few places in the city provide place to go to experience the darkness of night and activities relating these experiences are very limited. The night and its culture will hardly survive without having place to evolve. However, in many traditions, night was very special time in the sequence of a day. Without artificial lights, people saw a great dark sky filled with millions of delicate shining stars, mature cedar trees creating invisibly dark shadows, and felt warmth and joy of fire to celebrate feasts. Based on these rich experiences, people developed folk art, literature, language, rituals, festivals, and stories to appreciate the night. Current interest in sustainability has started to encourage such experiential consideration through the discussion of light pollution. This consideration is expanding into other areas, such as community development, economic growth, or cultural development of the city. This project offers a new active public space by bringing traditional night appreciation a new opportunity to thrive in the urban context. 47 Bibliography Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa and Murry Silverstein. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997 Amidon, Jane. Radical Landscapes: Reinventing Outdoor Space. New York: Thames & Hudson. 2001 Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space: The Classic Look at How We Experience Intimate Places. Boston: Beacon Press. 1958 Bachelard, Gaston. Psycho Analysis of Fire. London: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd. 1970 Barnett, Homer G. The Coast Salish of British Columbia. Oregon: University of Oregon. 1955 Burland, Cottie, Irene Nicholson, Harold Osborne. Mythology of the Americas. New York: The Hamlyn Publishing Group. 1970 Chippindale, Chiristopher. Stonehenge Complete. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1883 Coe, Michael D. The Maya. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1984 Duff, Wi lson. The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser River of B.C.. British Columbia: Brit-ish Columbia Provincial Museum. 1952 Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. Florida: Harcourt. 1959 Green, Tamara M . The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran. The Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. 1992. Grice, Art. Landscapes, Pacific Coast Photographs. Toronto: Impressions. 1976 Frazer, James George. The Illustrated Golden Bough. New York: George Rainbird Limited. 1978 Hoos, Lidsay M . and Glen A. Packman. The Fraser River Estuary Status of Environmental Knowledge to 1974: Report of the Estuary Working Group Department of the Environment Regional Board Pacific Region. British Columbia: Environment Canada. 1974 lllich, Ivan. H20 and the Water of Forgetfullness. London: Marion Boyars. 1986 Johnson, Elizabeth L. Kathryn Bernick. Hands of Our Ancestor, Masqueam Note No. 16. British Columbia: U B C Museum of Anthropology. 1986 48 Johnson, Paul. The Civilization of Ancient Egypt. Canada: Harper Collins. 1999 Keen, Mary. A Bridge To The World: The Life and Times of Sea Island. British Columbia City of Richmond Archives. 2002. Lazar, Arthur. Intimate Landscapes. Illinois: Lake Forest Collage. 1993 Plummer, Henry. Light in Japanese Architecture. Tokyo: a+u Publishing. 1995 Pojar, J im, and Andy Mackinnon. Plants of Coastal British Columbia: including Washington, Oregon & Alaska. Canada: Lone Pine Publishing. 1994 Rivers, Victoria Z. The Shining Cloth, Dress and Adornment that Glitter. New York: Thames and Hudson. 1999 Ross, Leslie. Richmond, Child of the Fraser. British Columbia: Richmond '79 Centennial Society and the Corporation of the Township of Richmond. 1979. Strelow, Heike, Vera David. Aesthetics of Ecology, Art in Environmental Design, Theory and Practice. Boston: Birkhauser. 2004 Tanizaki, Junichiro. In Prise of Shadows. Connecticut: Leete's Island Books. 1967 Turrell, James. The Other Holizon. Germany: Hatje CantzVerlag. 2002 On-Line Publications City of Richmond website. www.r ichmond.ca City of Vancouver website, vancouver.ca Coast Salish website, collections.ic.gc.ca/salish International Dark-Sky Association website. www.darksky.org Vancouver International Airport website. www.yvr.ca Appendix / Presentation Boards 50 Appendix A Master Plan Appendix B Entrance Transition Appendix C Festival Area Appendix D Festival Area Deatails Appendix E Firefly Garden to Moon Dew Pond Appendix F Leaf Pergola to North Star Island Appendix G Astral Field to Wispering Pathway 

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