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Revealing an ocean edge Dick, Beryl Allen 2005

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Revealing an Ocean Edge by Beryl Allen Dick B.Sc. University of British Columbia, 1975 M.Sc. Queen's University, 1980 A thesis submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies (Landscape Architecture) The University of British Columbia February, 2005 © Beryl Allen Dick, 2005 Revealing an Ocean Edge Abstract A design is developed for a community park on the ocean edge of West Vancouver, British Columbia. The guiding design goal is to achieve a sensitive response to the essence of this edge. The experience of this ocean , land and sky interface is explored as are its conditions of context and memory. Overarching design responses are presented and a conceptual design is articulated. The design of the park attempts to reveal the tactile nature of this ocean edge. The design is authentic to today yet the hope is that it will inspire experimentation and change with time. The park will have a quality of stable impermanence, like the edge where it is found. Revealing an Ocean Edge Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Plates vi Acknowledgements xiii 1. Introduction 1 2. The Essence of Place 3 2. 1 Design Objective 3 2.2 Des/'gn Philosophy 3 2.3 Design Methodology 4 3. The Ocean Edge Experience 9 3.7 Introduction 9 3.2 Quality of Light 10 3.3 W/nd 12 3.4 Rain and Surface Runoff 13 3.5 Access/'b/e, Interactive Ocean Edge 14 3.6 Weave of Sounds 15 3.7 Views fo the Horizon 16 3.8 Public-Private Dialectic 17 3.9 Summary 17 Revealing an Ocean Edge 4. Conditions of Context 18 4.1 Introduction 18 4.2 Adjacencies 18 4.3 Fabric 21 4.4 Connections 26 4.5 Pedestrian Circulation 30 4.6 The Land-Ocean Interface 32 5. Memory 36 5.1 Introduction 36 5.2 The 17th Street Pier 36 5.3 The 14th Street Pier 38 5.4 An Ax/'s of History, Culture and Community 39 5.5 Ro/7 40 6. Program 41 7. The Concepf 44 7.7 Introduction 44 7.2 An Overview 46 7.3 An Access/b/e, Interactive Ocean Edge 53 7.4 A Stroll Along the Edge 57 7.4.1 Navvy Jack House and Garden 57 7.4.2 Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary 59 and The Great Lawn 7.4.3 The Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery 66 and John Lawson Pier Revealing an Ocean Edge 7.4 A Stroll Along the Edge continued... 7.4.4 The Harmony Arts Parkland 75 7.4.5 The Solar Slopes 78 7.4.6 The Edge Performance Plaza, 80 Sand Theatre and Wind Garden 7.4.7 The Bosque and The Galleria 86 7.4.8 The Patio and Garden at the 88 Ferry Building Gallery 7.4.9 Ambleside Landing Pier 89 7.5 Threading the Park together, Linking it to 90 the Community 7.6 The Urban Edge 97 8. Final Thoughts 101 References 102 Revealing an Ocean Edge List of Plates Plate 1.1 Argyle Waterfront, photo from www.icon.bc.ca 1 Plate 1.2 Argyle Waterfront, aerial photo from 2 wvvwv.globalairphotos.com Plate 2.1 Boa Nova Restaurant, Portugal, Alvaro Siza, 1958-1963, 4 photo from Nakamura, 1989 Plate 2.2 Boa Nova Restaurant, Portugal, Alvaro Siza, 1958-1963, 5 photo from Nakamura, 1989 Plate 2.3 Boa Nova Restaurant, Portugal, Alvaro Siza, 1968-1963, 5 photo from Nakamura, 1989 Plate 2.4 Entrance to swimming pool, Leca de Palmeiro, Portugal, 6 Alvaro Siza, 1961-1966, photo from Frampton, 2000 Plate 2.5 Children's swimming pool, Leca de Palmeiro, Portugal, 6 Alvaro Siza, 1961-1966, photo from Nakamura, 1989 Plate 3.1 child on beach, photo by author, 2004 9 Plate 3.2 light and shadow, photo by author, 2003 10 Plate 3.3 light and shadow, photo by author, 2003 10 Plate 3.4 beach, ocean and sky, photo by author, 2004 10 Plate 3.5 morning, photo by author, 2004 11 Plate 3.6 night, photo from www.pbase.ca 11 Plate 3.7 wind, photo by author, 2004 12 Plate 3.8 waves, photo by author, 2004 12 Plate 3.9 Lawson Creek, photo by author, 2003 13 Plate 3.10 concrete storm sewer pipe, photo by author, 2003 13 Plate 3.11 child on beach, photo by author, 2004 14 Plate 3.12 driftwood fort, photo by author, 2004 14 Plate 3.13 freighter, floatplane, waves, seagulls, photo by author 2004 15 Plate3.14 freight train, photo from www.pbase.ca 15 Plate 3.15 horizon, photo by author, 2004 16 Plate 3.16 patio, photo by author, 2004 17 vi Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 4.1 Conditions of context locat ion map, aerial photo from 19 www.globala i rphotos.com Plate 4.2 Fabric of Argyle Waterfront Land, aerial photo from 21 District of West V a n c o u v e r Plate 4.3 Ambles ide Landing, photo by author, 2004 22 Plate 4.4 Public boat launch, photo by author, 2004 23 Plate 4.5 Hollyburn Sailing C lub, photo by author, 2004 23 Plate 4.6 Artist at Harmony Arts Festival, photo by author, 2003 24 Plate 4.7 Lawson Creek flowing over b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 25 Plate 4.8 Lawson Creek in o p e n culvert, photo by author, 2004 25 Plate 4.9 Existing vehicular connect ions 26 Plate 4.10 Existing pedestrian connect ions 27 Plate 4.11 View south from Bellevue Avenue, photo by author, 2004 28 Plate 4.12 Topographic map , aerial photo from District of 28 West Vancouve r Plate 4.13 Existing conditions of visual connectivity, aerial photo from 29 District of West V a n c o u v e r Plate 4.14 Existing ent rance to John Lawson Park from 17th Street, 29 photo by author, 2004 Plate 4.15 Waterfront pedestr ian walkway, aerial photo from 30 www.globala i rphotos.com Plate 4.16 Centennia l Seawalk, photo by author, 2004 30 Plate 4.17 Argyle Avenue, photo by author, 2004 31 Plate 4.18 Cap i l ano River recreat iona l pathway, photo from 31 www.globala i rphotos.com Plate 4.19 Beach composit ion, photo by author, 2004 32 Plate 4.20 O c e a n water depths, chart from C a n a d i a n Hydrographic 32 Service Plate 4.21 Conc re te retaining wal l on b e a c h , photo by author, 2003 33 Plate 4.22 V iew to Lions G a t e Bridge, photo by author, 2003 34 Plate 4.23 V iew to Stanley Park a n d city of Vancouver , photo by 34 author, 2004 Plate 4.24 Argyle Waterfront Land piers, aerial photo from 35 District of West V a n c o u v e r Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 4.25 Pier at 14th Street, photo by author, 2004 35 Plate 4.26 Pier at 17th Street, photo by author, 2004 35 Plate 5.1 Memory of 17th Street, aerial photo from District 36 of West Vancouve r Plate 5.2 Donce l la ferry d o c k e d at Hollyburn Wharf, 1913, photo 37 from West Vancouve r Museum a n d Archives Plate 5.3 V iew down 17th Street, photo from West Vancouve r 37 Museum and Archives Plate 5.4 Pier at 14th Street a n d ferry ticket office, photo from 38 West Vancouve r Museum a n d Archives Plate 5.5 17th Street axis of history, culture a n d community, aerial 39 photo from www.globala i rphotos.com Plate 5.6 End of the P.G.E. Railway, Dundarave, 1914, photo from 40 West Vancouve r Museum a n d Archives Plate 6.1 Art installation, photo from Brooks, 2002 41 Plate 6.2 Harmony Arts Festival, photo by author, 2003 42 Plate 6.3 Harmony Arts Festival, photo by author, 2003 42 Plate 7.1 C o n c e p t u a l plan of Argyle Waterfront Park 47 Plate 7.2 Orthographic of west end of park 48 Plate 7.3 Orthographic of east end of park 49 Plate 7.4 Spatial pattern of vegetat ion, aerial photo from 50 District of West Vancouve r Plate 7.5 W a v e a n d pebb le on b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 50 Plate 7.6 Intersection of property lines, street grid a n d w a v e form, 51 aerial photo from District of West V a n c o u v e r Plate 7.7 Pebbles on b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 52 Plate 7.8 Driftwood, photo by author, 2003 53 Plate 7.9 O c e a n water, photo by author, 2003 54 Plate 7.10 b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 55 Plate 7.11 b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 55 Plate 7.12 b e a c h , photo by author, 2004 55 Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 7.13 proposed l and/beach edge , aerial photo from 54 District of West V a n c o u v e r Plate 7.14 Orthographic v iew of The Sand Theatre a n d 55 Park Promenade Plate 7.15 Stone block seating in Gantry Park, New York, photo from 56 www.ecoc i tyc leve land.org Plate 7.16 Perspective of stone b lock seating a long Park 56 Promenade Plate 7.17 Navvy Jack House a n d G a r d e n , c o n c e p t u a l p lan 57 Plate 7.18 Orthographic v iew of Navvy Jack House a n d G a r d e n 58 Plate 7.19 Orthographic v iew of Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek 59 Sanctuary and The G rea t Lawn Plate 7.20 Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary a n d The Grea t 60 Lawn, c oncep tua l p lan Plate 7.21 Perspective of path to br idge and Navvy Jack House 60 Plate 7.22 Orthographic v iew of furniture in The Great Lawn 62 Plate 7.23 Orthographic v iew of b e n c h and chair 61 Plate 7.24 Bench in section 62 Plate 7.25 Chair in section 62 Plate 7.26 Chair in side section 62 Plate 7.27 Table and chairs 63 Plate 7.28 Table and chairs in sect ion 63 Plate 7.29 Sand blasted glass panels, Topher Delaney, photo from 64 C o o p e r and Taylor, 2000 Plate 7.30 o c e a n water, photo by author, 2004 64 Plate 7.31 Perspective of cu rved glass walls 64 Plate 7.32 Orthographic v iew of steps to b e a c h at en t rance to 65 John Lawson Pier Plate 7.33 The Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gallery, c o n c e p t u a l p lan 66 Plate 7.34 Orthographic v iew of The Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery 66 Plate 7.35 Existing waterfront buildings and commercial/res ident ia l 67 Plate 7.36 Proposed waterfront buildings a n d commercial/res idential 67 Plate 7.37 Eulogy to the Horizon, Eduardo Chill ida, 1990, photo from 68 Wagner Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 7.38 Perspective of the Gallery a n d the horizon 68 Plate 7.39 Atelier Mimesis, Germany, Peter Haimerl, Ralph Feldmeier 69 a n d Mar ia Laurent, 1993, photo from Newhouse Plate 7.40 Rodin Museum, Seoul, Korea, Kevin Kennon, 1999, photo 69 from Trulove Plate 7.41 Rodin Museum, Seoul, Korea, Kevin Kennon, 1999, photo 69 from Kennon Plate 7.42 Sonnenhausen estate, Germany, Herbert Dreiseitl, photo 70 from Dreiseitl et al. Plate 7.43 Town square in Gummer sbach , Germany , Herbert Dreiseitl, 70 photo from Dreiseitl et al. Plate 7.44 Pebbles in trough, Javier Sordo, photo from Y p m a 71 Plate 7.45 Flow of rainwater, Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gallery 71 Plate 7.46 Perspective of Pavilion a n d pebble-f i l led trough 72 Plate 7.47 Perspective of The Pier P romenade from John Lawson Pier 73 Plate 7.48 Wedd ing on pier, photo from goog l e images 74 Plate 7.49 Relocat ion of John Lawson Pier 74 Plate 7.50 Orthographic v iew of John Lawson Pier 74 Plate 7.51 Harmony Arts Parkland, c o n c e p t u a l p lan 75 Plate 7.52 Orthographic v iew of Harmony Arts Parkland 75 Plate 7.53 Listening Pavilion, Kalkriese A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Museum Park, 76 Germany, Annette G igon a n d Mike Guyer, 1998-2001, photo from G i gon et al. Plate 7.54 Pavers in grass, Dan Kiley, 1994, photo from C o o p e r and 77 Taylor, 1996 Plate 7.55 Orthograhic v iew of The Solar Slopes 78 Plate 7.56 The Solar Slopes, c o n c e p t u a l plan 78 Plate 7.57 Perspective of v iew to horizon a n d park from top of The 79 Solar Slopes Plate 7.58 Wind vanes a n d glass wall, base of The Solar Slopes 79 Plate 7.59 The Edge Performance Plaza, The Sand Theatre and 80 The Wind Ga rden , c o n c e p t u a l p lan Plate 7.60 Orthographic v iew of The Edge Per fo rmance Plaza, 80 The Sand Theatre a n d The Wind G a r d e n Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 7.61 Orthographic view of seating for The Edge 81 Performance Plaza Plate 7.62 Steel benches in amphitheatre, France, Kathryn 81 Gustafson, 1995, photo from C o o p e r a n d Taylor, 2000 Plate 7.63 Birds-eye view of The Sand Theatre 82 Plate 7.64 Perspective of The Wind G a r d e n ad jacent to The Edge 83 Performance Theatre a n d The Sand Theatre Plate 7.65 Perspective of The Wind G a r d e n 84 Plate 7.66 Combs of the Wind, Eduardo Chill ida, 1977, photo from 84 The 20th Century Art Book Plate 7.67 Eagle wind vane, photo from Klamkin 84 Plate 7.68 C o d wind vane, photo from Klamkin 84 Plate 7.69 Sailboat and seagull w ind vane, photo from Klamkin 84 Plate 7.70 Spiral paving, photo from Brooks 85 Plate 7.71 Orthographic v iew of washroom facility 85 Plate 7.72 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Museum, Switzerland, Annet te G i gon 85 a n d Mike Guyer, 1992, photo from Newhouse Plate 7.73 Orthographic v iew of The Bosque and The Gal ler ia 86 Plate 7.74 The Bosque a n d The Gal ler ia, c o n c e p t u a l p lan 86 Plate 7.75 De Poortere's Ga rden , Russell Page, photo from Schinz a n d 87 van Zuylen Plate 7.76 Shadows on wall, Andres Casillas, photo from Y p m a 87 Plate 7.77 Over lapping perforated steel panels, photo from 87 C o o p e r and Taylor 2000 Plate 7.78 Orthographic v iew of The Patio a n d G a r d e n of 88 The Ferry Building Gal lery Plate 7.79 Spiral pebb le pattern tree grate 88 Plate 7.80 Orthographic v iew of Ambles ide Landing Pier 89 Plate 7.81 Pedestrian walkways, aerial photo from District of 90 West Vancouver Plate 7.82 The Promenade linking Ambles ide Landing with 91 Ambles ide Park, aerial photo from District of West Vancouve r Revealing an Ocean Edge Plate 7.83 Conc re te pav ing with an a g g r e ga te e d g e , Javier 92 Sordo, photo from Y p m a Plate 7.84 Conc re te pavers in grass, Dan Kiley, photo from C o o p e r 92 and Taylor 1996 Plate 7.85 Walkway design 93 Plate 7.86 Perspective of fenc ing a long rail line 94 Plate 7.87 Fence precedent , photo from Atkinson 94 Plate 7.88 Park entrances at 17th a n d 16th Streets 95 Plate 7.89 Park ent rance at 15th Street 96 Plate 7.90 Ambles ide commerc i a l district, c o n c e p t u a l plan 98 Plate 7.91 15th Street park ent rance showing drop-off a rea a n d 99 ex tended sidewalk Plate 7.92 16th and 17th Street entrances showing Bellevue Green, 99 underground parking a n d pedestr ian drop-off Plate 7.93 Winterthur Museum of Art extension, Switzerland, 100 Annette G i gon a n d Mike Guyer, 1995, photo from Newhouse Plate 7.94 Parking h idden beh ind glass panels, Winterthur Museum 100 of Art extension, Switzerland, Annet te G i gon a n d Mike Guyer, 1995, photo from Newhouse Plate 8.0 time, photo by author, 2003 1 0 1 Revealing an Ocean Edge Acknowledgements I thank my thesis commit tee members, Cynth ia Girling, Kevin Pike, Inge Roecker a n d J o a n n a Staszniskis for their g u i d a n c e a n d stimulating critiques. I also app rec i a te the gu idance of John Bass at the incept ion of this project. Hans Breuer, Oxana Dexter, Lois Enns, Stephen Jenkins, Karen Kristensen a n d Colette Parsons of the District of West V a n c o u v e r always found time to answer my questions a n d provided me with aerial photographs, maps, reports a n d archival information. I was very fortunate to have h a d during my three years in the L and s cape Architecture Program at U.B.C., a wonderfu l group of classmates whose help, friendship a n d creativity were a constant source of inspiration. Finally I would like to thank my chi ldren, Darwin, Stefan, A n a a n d A lan for their pat ience, encou ragement a n d their co l lect ive ability to see the humour in life's chal lenges. Introduction I. Introduction West Vancouve r is a residential suburb of Vancouve r with a popu lat ion of approx imately 42,000. It is b o u n d e d by the Coas t Mountains to the north a n d Burrard Inlet to the south (Plate 1.1). West Vancouve r is a tranquil ne ighbourhood with spec tacu la r views. The thesis project a rea , wh ich will b e referred to as the Argyle Waterfront Land 1 , is l o c a t e d on the o c e a n e d g e of West Vancouver , south of the British Co lumb ia Railway tracks (Plate 1.2). Ambles ide Vil lage, the commerc i a l district of West Vancouve r is l o c a t e d directly to the north of the project a rea . The communi ty vision for this waterfront land is the creat ion of a publ ic waterfront park. The Argyle Waterfront Land Acquisition Program was formal ized in the 1970's with the goa l of acquir ing the privately o w n e d waterfront properties a long this o c e a n edge . The District of West V a n c o u v e r has a cqu i r ed twenty-four pr ivately-owned properties since 1975 and is considering the acquisit ion of the remaining eight as they b e c o m e avai lable. Twenty of the twenty-four properties a cqu i r ed have b e e n conve r ted to park and communi ty use. The remain ing four are life tenancies. A number of workshops, studies a n d publ ic consultations have b e e n c o n d u c t e d over the past 20 years to explore cultural, env i ronmental a n d e c o n o m i c issues re lated to the deve lopment of the proposed waterfront park. A variety of c o n c e p t u a l designs for this o c e a n e d g e have b e e n p roposed. This project app r oache s the design of the waterfront park from an experiential perspect ive. Rather than rely on quantif iable information, the goa l is to understand the essence of this p l a ce in order to c o n v e y that essence to built form. The name refers to the well-known, narrow residential street Argyle Avenue that currently exists within the waterfront land Introduction The Essence of Place The ultimate goal would be: to grasp that everything in the realm of fact is already theory. The blue of the sky shows us the basic law of chromatics. Let us not seek for something beyond the phenomena-they themselves are the theory Goethe, January 1873. 2. The Essence of Place 2.1 Design Objective The guiding design object ive is to design a communi ty publ ic park for this o c e a n e d g e that reveals the exper ience a n d conditions of context of this edge . 2.2 Design Philosophy The guiding design object ive a n d design methodo logy are informed by phenomenology. Phenomeno logy has been descr ibed by Seamon (2000, 6) as " the exploration and description of p h e n o m e n a , where p h e n o m e n a refer to things or experiences as human beings exper ience them" . Johann Wolfgang van Goe the (1789-1832) is known for his poetry a n d plays but he also p r oduced a body of scientific work. Direct experiential c o n t a c t was the basis for his scientific a p p r o a c h to nature. His w a y of sc ience was an early example of the phenomeno logy of the natural world. Seamon eloquently sums up the philosophy of Goe the , "I bel ieve strongly that Goe th i an sc ience provides us a rich, intuitive a p p r o a c h to meet ing nature a n d discovering patterns and relationships that are not only stimulating intellectually but are also satisfying emotionally and spiritually. Goe the ' s method teaches a m o d e of interaction be tween peop le a n d environment that involves reciprocity, wonderment and gratitude. He wished us to encounter nature a n d discover how all its parts, including ourselves, b e l o n g " (1998, 10). The phenomeno logy of Martin Heidegger, a co l l eague of the founder of phenomeno logy , Edmund Husserl, combines the exper ience of the natural world with that of the built as exper ienced by humans. He idegger c a l l ed this 'being-in-the-world ' . Norberg-Shulz's interpretation of 'being-in-the-world ' is that "natural exper ience is neither subjective nor object ive, and does not establish a separat ion b e t w e e n body a n d awareness (2000,19). The Essence of Place Why use phenomeno l ogy to inform a design methodo logy ? Norberg-Schulz (20) writes, "The qual itative world with all its immed iacy has fallen v ict im to quantif icat ion wh ich estranges us from the d e e p e r mean ing of our eve ryday exper ience " . L and s cape architects a n d architects are tra ined to perform site analyses a n d quantitat ive inventory of topography, soils, hydrolog ic conditions, solar orientation, existing vegetat ion, cl imatic conditions a n d other relevant natural a n d contextual factors in the hope of creat ing an environmental ly sensitive design (Howett). "But se ldom do designs emerge that m a k e awareness of these c omp lex natural systems access ib le to the bodies a n d psyches of the ordinary peop l e who use these p laces in the course of their eve ryday lives" (Howett, 70). A designer canno t rely only on quantif iable information but needs to understand the essence of a p l a c e in order to convey that es sence into built form. Howett writes of how our customary ways to look at the world, even qualitatively, often blind us to the reality of what is there. Our vision b e c o m e s the dominant w a y of ' seeing ' the world yet it is just one of many forms of percept ion. He idegger emphas i zed that the phenomeno l og i ca l v iew involves a more intimate interaction with s p a c e than just seeing a n d con temp la t i on . The " d o m i n a n c e of contemplat ion effects a separation b e t w e e n built form a n d everyday life, a n d c a n cause a major disjunction in the design process " (Dovey, 260). Kawasaki, Sasaki a n d Wang found an understanding of peop le ' s emot iona l responses to waterside areas to be important w h e n deve l op i ng principles for their planning a n d design. "Apply ing the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l perspect ive to designing the built environment ensures that the p r imacy of exper ience is not lost" (Seamon, 2000, 40). 2.3 Design Methodology The process of creat ing a design methodo logy for this o c e a n e d g e b e g a n with the exploration of the work of Alvaro Siza whose o c e a n e d g e arch i tecture shows a sensitive response to the exper ience of its environment. Plates 2.1 to 2.3 are photographs of the Boa Nova Restaurant des igned by Alvaro Siza a n d built in L e ca d e Palmeiro, Portugal be tween 1958 and 1963. His arch i tecture shows an intimate a n d subtle understanding of p l ace . Siza a c h i e v e d a great familiarity with the site through a process of long concent ra t i on a n d The Essence of Place Plate 2.2 Restaurant in rocks Plate 2.3 Roof, beachline and horizon drawing. He wou ld explore the site a n d draw, before at tempt ing a de ta i l ed site analysis. He wrote, "As a working tool (these sketches) help to establish a permanent d ia lec t i ca l relationship be tween intuition and precise examinat ion, in a progressive process of full understanding a n d visualization. In this process of visualization, in a provisionally final image, the all important almost nothing beyond what is a l ready there gradual ly begins to take shape..." (Frampton, 55). Siza's architecture reveals rather than interprets its context. Gregott i (175) writes, "for Siza the sense of be long ing to northern Portugal is paramount, stony a n d bright, poor a n d full of intimacy, where the light of the Atlant ic is low a n d long, illuminating poverty in an abstract way, revealing all the surface irregularities, high-lighting every c h a n g e of path around houses, where every d i s c repancy is shown up in a manner that is both g rand a n d dry, full of sweetness a n d me lancho l y " Siza himself wrote of how the design of the Boa N o v a Restaurant required a great understanding of the p l ace , a p l a c e frequently visited for its beauty. He w a n t e d to c rea te a building that o n c e it was there wou ld not be possible to imagine its not be ing (Angelillo, 149). Thiis-Evenson (in Seamon, 2000, 30) describes the three "existential expressions of arch i tecture " wh ich he feels n e e d to be cons idered to establish a tension b e t w e e n built form a n d exper ience. These are motion, weight a n d substance. Motion relates to the sense of dynamism or inertia evoked by the arch i tectura l e lement - whether it seems to expand , contract or rest in b a l a n c e . Weight involves a sense of heaviness or lightness of the e lement a n d its relation to gravity. Substance refers to the material sense of the e lement - whether it is soft or hard, coarse or fine, wa rm or co ld , etc. These existential expressions of architecture are implicit in the Boa Nova Restaurant. Alvaro Siza's other o c e a n e d g e constructions are the swimming pools at L e c a de Palmeiro, Portugal, built b e t w e e n 1961 a n d 1966. "Here everything is a subtle mediat ion b e t w e e n the coasta l road, rock strewn site a n d the o p e n sea... Everything is part of an earthwork" (Barata in Frampton, 16). A lvaro Siza was extremely recept ive to understanding the conditions in wh ich he worked. He emphas i zed conditions not context (Moneo, 8). Siza wrote of the swimming pool , " the force of the sea a n d of men had left, as well as fragments, a supporting wall one kilometer long a n d four meters high. The chang ing rooms building The Essence of Place backs onto the wall a n d does not interrupt it. In a certain w a y this is more than anything a door giving acces s to the b e a c h . In the ga te of a wall, the transition is m a d e through its own thickness, determining a time a n d a c h a n g e of light. The s ame thing happens here through other processes" (Angelillo, 151). Siza sees human interaction with a p l a c e important. He be l ieved that the design i dea summarized the disparate parts of perce ived reality (Wang, 189). O n e has to discover the ent rance to the pools, which is be tween two c o n c r e t e walls. Walking d o w n a ramp to the chang i ng area, one loses sight of the horizon. There is a reduct ion of light in the interior, a n d then one returns to the outside light but still c anno t see the o c e a n . Finally one emerges from the thick walls of the c hang i n g a rea to the full p a n o r a m a of the o c e a n (Frampton, 177). There is an interplay of light a n d shadow within the built form that reveals the quality of natural light in this p l a c e (Plate 2.4). The pools were des igned to fit into the rocks (Plate 2.5) to " look as though they had always been there, spontaneously created...like the occa s i ona l sand p a t c h through inundations of the s e a " (Frampton, 16). The bound ing wall has been carefully c o n c e i v e d . Martin He idegger wrote, " a boundary is not a point at which something stops but,... the boundary is that from wh ich something begins presencing (in Frampton, 16). Siza be l i eved that built form should be socially d e c i p h e r a b l e a n d access ib le. Gregott i writes, "Siza does not use deta i l as deco ra t i on or t echno log i ca l ostentation but as an intimate decis ion wh ich makes architecture access ib le: a way of tactilely verifying the consistency a n d uniqueness of the thing m a d e in a certa in p l a c e at a certa in time; a means of c om ing into c o n t a c t with the construction by feel ing one ' s w a y around it" (in Frampton, 57). The Essence of Place Siza understood that his transformation of p l a c e was a moment in time, inextricably linked to the past a n d to the future. He wrote a prose p o e m in 1979 entitled, "To c a t c h a precise moment of the flittering image in all its shades (Frampton, 20), "...Each design is bound to catch, with utmost rigour, a precise moment of flittering image in all its shades and the better you can recognize that flittering quality of reality, the clearer your design must arise, It is more valuable as it is true... This may be the reason why only marginal works (a quiet dwelling, a holiday-house miles away) have been kept the way they were originally designed. This is an outcome of a participation in a process of cultural transformation or construction-destruction. But something remains. Pieces are kept here and there, inside ourselves, perhaps gathered by someone, leaving marks on spaces and people, melting in a process of total transformation". Alvaro Siza's work demonstrates how sensitive part ic ipat ion in the exper ience of this o c e a n e d g e in Portugal e n a b l e d him to c rea te works that reveal the es-sence of this edge . The methodo logy for app roach i n g the design of the communi ty park on the o c e a n e d g e of West Vancouve r b e g a n with spending many hours in the project a rea during different seasons, var ied weather conditions a n d var ied times of day to gain an intimate understanding of the exper ience of this o c e a n edge . G range writes, "The human body, in the final analysis c anno t lie. Perception is our con sc ience . P lace while not our body arises as a felt phenomenon through our body ' s part ic ipation in it. When w e a c t through our body ' s posture, orientation, feel a n d comprehens ion, w e beg in the human effort towards founding, ce lebrat ing and building p l a c e " (Grange, 1985). The sensory experiences of hearing, smell a n d touch were explored in addit ion to visual percept ion. Conditions of context were then explored a n d the history of the The Essence of Place area was researched. Finally the program requirements were c o m p i l e d through meetings with members of the West Vancouve r Waterfront Planning Commit tee. Overarching design responses were d e v e l o p e d wh ich reveal the exper ience of this o c e a n e d g e and are sensitive to the conditions of context a n d memory while meet ing the suggested program requirements. The experiential expressions of built form, motion, weight a n d substance, cons idered by Thiss-Evensen (in Seamon, 2000, 30) to c rea te an experiential tension b e t w e e n built form a n d exper ience were cons idered during the design process. Thinking in four dimensions he lped to think of s p a c e as exper ience rather that s p a c e as geometry. Dovey (2003, 250) writes, "Geomet r i c s p a c e ... is pu rged of social a n d cultural mean ing ... it ach ieves a c c u r a c y a n d predictabil ity at the expense of experiential depth " . Dovey feels that in the design process, l ived s p a c e is r educed to two dimensions, w h e n in reality lived s p a c e is four dimensional, with time as the fourth dimension. Design interventions were carefully cons idered to not only ensure that they par t i c ipated in reveal ing the exper ience of this o c e a n e d g e but also that they were tacti le, socially dec ipherab le , socially access ib le a n d socially engag ing. A number of orthographic views a n d perspectives were drawn to attempt to illustrate the co r re spondence b e t w e e n s e q u e n c e in time a n d the organization in space . In summary the methodology was an intimate, sensitive a p p r o a c h to the design of this waterfront park, one that a l l owed the rich a n d comp lex exper iences of this o c e a n e d g e to guide the design-making. In the words of Siza ( Frampton, No tree uprooted for building and no stone taken from the mountain is restored to us No yellowed photograph brings back the Beauty that is gone It remains to us to attempt -to continue-the construction of Beauty... Natural or constructed we transform everything with too much eagerness with too much ambition or dissatisfaction. The liberty gained, endlessly paralyses, or reduces to dust... The Ocean Edge Experience 3. The Ocean Edge Experience 3.1 Introduction The interface b e t w e e n land, air a n d water is rich in exper iences. In an urban context there is a constant e b b a n d flow of peop le at this interface (Plate 3.1). Sunnie Kidd wrote, " W e share this r ibbon of foaming, ever -chang ing e d g e of the world. We co l lec t together every day. Many familiar faces a p p r o a c h , others are unknown. We are like shells cast upon a b e a c h for only a short time, d i sappear ing as if swept a w a y by the next wave , carr ied b a c k to the o c e a n ' s depths. We are here for a moment, washed b a c k into the sea of humanity " (2003). Some of the experiential conditions of the Argyle Waterfront Land are presented. The Ocean Edge Experience 3.2 Quality of Light The Argyle Waterfront Land is south-facing a n d on sunny days there is a n interplay of light a n d s hadow on both hard (Plate 3.2) and soft (Plate 3.3) surfaces. Sun a n d s hadow also reflect the passage of time as the sun's position changes from sunrise to sunset. The interplay of light a n d s hadow in not only visible but tact i le as one moves from warm to coo l places. The quality of light also affects the co lour of the o c e a n , creat ing different kinds of condit ions that a p p e a l to the emotions (Plate 3.4). The Ocean Edge Experience Plate 3.6 The quali ty of ref lected light off the o c e a n adds another layer to the expe r ience a n d c h a n g e s with wea the r condi t ions a n d time of day . Plate 3.5 shows the ref lect ion of morning light c reat ing dark silhouettes of vege ta t ion . At night (Plate 3.6) moonl ight reflects off the o c e a n as do the lights of o c e a n vessels a n d the existing homes a long the b e a c h . The Ocean Edge Experience 3.3 Wind This ocean edge is windy much of the time (Plate 3.7). Even on a warm summer day the breeze is cool. During the fall, winter and spring it is often windy and cold. The air can be damp from the spray of the waves crashing against the breakwaters and the beach (Plate 3.8), carried landward by the wind. The wind combined with the rain can make the experience of this edge very cold and wet. However, strong wind is also an exhilarating experience. Plate 3.7 Plate 3.8 The Ocean Edge Experience 3.4 Rain and Surface Runoff Rain is a common experience along this ocean edge, which is often windy and wet. The experience of the rain is enhanced by the natural runoff of rainwater from the land to the ocean. The most prominent example of this is Lawson Creek (Plate 3.9) which flows into the ocean within the project area. The remnants of old concrete storm water pipes (Plate 3.10) along the beach remind a person of the flow of rainwater from the land to the ocean. Grass in the area is often soggy and spongy. The rain falling results in a variety of sounds depending on the composition of the surface on which it is falling. Rain also alters the colour, smell and feel of surfaces. Plate 3.10 The Ocean Edge Experience 3.5 Accessible, Interactive Ocean Edge Most of the waterfront e d g e is access ib le (Plate 3.11) a n d a person is free to explore a n d interact with the o c e a n a n d the b e a c h . The very visible change s of the b e a c h a n d the o c e a n with time and weather c rea te a d y n a m i c e d g e that invites exploration a n d part ic ipat ion (Plate 3.12). Logs are thrown up by the waves a n d tides in a disorderly array a n d native b e a c h vegeta t i on grows freely. It is a tacti le environment of logs, rocks, sand a n d vegetat ion. The Ocean Edge Experience 3.6 Weave of Sounds This is a very dynamic environment with an intricate weave of sounds. Some of these are the sounds of waves breaking, sounds of float planes, airplanes and helicopters, the sounds of many kinds of ocean vessels from small motor boats to freighters (Plate 3.13) and cruise ships, the sounds of a variety of birds, the sounds of horns on foggy days, the sound of rain falling on different surfaces, the sound of Lawson Creek flowing and the sound of the freight train (Plate 3.14) which passes the project area. Plate 3.13 Freighter, float plane, waves and seagulls Plate 3.14 Freight train rumbling past northern edge of Argyle Waterfront Land The Ocean Edge Experience 3.7 Views to the Horizon A person has a view to the horizon to the west from anywhere along this ocean edge (Plate 3.15). Views to the horizon have a spiritual quality and enhance one's sense of scale in relation to the sky and ocean. The Ocean Edge Experience 3.8 Public-Private Dialectic There exists an experience of transparency of private places along this waterfront edge. A number of private homes still exist within this public area and people often sit on retaining walls or picnic on the patios of these homes. Private patios such as the one in Plate 3.16, provide a sense of human scale in the larger context of public open space. They also provide a place of refuge from wind, sun and rain while still providing a sense of prospect. The forms and composition of these ocean edge patios reinforce their accessibility. Plate 3.16 3.9 Summary An exploration of the qualitative aspects of the Argyle Waterfront Land is the first step in understanding the identity of this place in order to preserve and reveal it through design interventions. The next section explores the more quantitative conditions of context of the Argyle Waterfront Land. Conditions of Context 4. Conditions of Context 4.1 Introduction Existing conditions within and ad j a cen t to the project a rea are outlined. An understanding of these conditions is important to the deve l opment of a design response that is sensitive not only to experiential conditions but also to the conditions of context. These conditions will be discussed beginning with the e d g e be tween the waterfront land a n d the community, then moving seaward to the e d g e be tween the waterfront land a n d the o c e a n . Conditions of context are g rouped into the following categories: Adjacencies Fabric Connections Pedestrian Circulation Land-Ocean Interface 4.2 Adjacencies The Argyle Waterfront Land is b o u n d e d to the north by the main commerc i a l a rea of West Vancouver, Ambles ide Vil lage. The British Co l umb ia Railway line separates the waterfront land from the commerc i a l district. The commerc i a l a rea is surrounded by a med ium to high density residential a rea . This a rea is in turn enve loped by s ing le-detached housing. Marine Drive is the main east-west connec t i ng road through the entire communi ty a n d connect s West Vancouve r to Greater Vancouver. Bellevue Avenue is a secondary east-west road that runs parallel to the waterfront land just north of the B.C. Railway line. Fifteenth Street connects Ambles ide Vil lage with the Upper Levels Highway. The Upper Levels Highway is a loca l segment of the TransCanada Highway. Plate 4.1 graphical ly illustrates these contextual conditions. Conditions of Context Plate 4.1 Conditions of context location map The Ambles ide Vi l lage ne ighbourhood ad jacent to the project a r e a was e xam ined by a g roup of university students in 2003. Their study, c a l l e d the FACE Audit (Wex et. al.) was ba sed on a p l a c e audit tool d e v e l o p e d by Dr. Don A lexander to eva luate the overall health of a ne ighbourhood. In his manuscript, " P l a ce , Repairing the Fabric of Human Exper ience", Dr. A lexander contends that there is a 'crisis of p l a c e ' resulting from the w a y w e have b e e n constructing our built environments a n d landscapes for the past century. The p l a c e audit tool considers four categor ies with various indicators, to try too look at a ne i ghbourhood holistically. These categories are function, aesthetics, c iv ic health a n d eco logy . While the Ambles ide ne ighbourhood r e c e i v e d high marks for aesthetics, c iv ic health a n d eco logy, function rece ived a rating of 60%. This 19 Conditions of Context was primarily the result of the lack of mixed density housing in the ne ighbourhood a n d the lack of live-work housing within the commerc i a l district. Some mixed commercia l/high density residential buildings exist within the c ommerc i a l district a n d the District of West Vancouve r is encourag ing more (Official Communi ty Plan). The Ambles ide commerc i a l a rea consists primarily of l oca l businesses, a few cha in stores and professional services such as med i ca l , denta l a n d legal. The health of the Ambles ide c o m m e r c i a l district is as important to the successful functioning of a new public waterfront park as is the design of the p roposed waterfront park to the health of the c ommerc i a l district. The eastern e d g e of the Argyle Waterfront Land is b o u n d e d by Ambles ide Park (Plate 4.1). Ambles ide Park is a twenty-four hectare ocean-front park with a sandy b e a c h . It has artificial turf, grass a n d al l -weather playing fields, basebal l diamonds, tennis courts, basketbal l courts a n d a skate park. The park also has a children's playground, a par 3 golf course a n d an off-leash waterfront d o g area. 20 Conditions of Context 4.3 Fabric Two communi ty publ ic gather ing p laces currently exist within the Argyle Waterfront Land, John Lawson Park a n d Ambles ide Landing (Plate 4.2). John Plate 4.2 Fabric of Argyle Waterfront Land Lawson Park has a grassy p icn ic a r ea and children's p layground. Ambles ide Landing is a publ ic commun i ty space . It has grassy areas a n d plazas for communi ty events wh ich surround the Ferry Building Gallery (Plate 4.3). The Ferry Building Gallery, originally a ferry ticket office built in 1913 was restored in 1988 a n d is now a Commun i ty Art Gallery ope ra ted by West V a n c o u v e r Cultural Services. The gallery has high-qualilty, juried exhibits a n d showcases past a n d present residents of the North Shore. The gallery also offers art lectures, classes a n d workshops a n d organizes art tours and art-network groups. The gallery has over 1000 visitors a week (Dexter). Conditions of Context Plate 4.3 The Ferry Building Gallery and 'Granite Assemblage' in Ambleside Landing (view west) Don Vaughn ' s 'Granite As semblage ' , an art p i e ce about the qualities of stone a n d the e d g e condit ions be tween the land a n d the o c e a n , exists a l ong the shoreline of Ambles ide Landing. The work is c o m p o s e d of blocks of granite p l a c e d in a m a n - m a d e tide pool (Plate 4.3) with some granite blocks extending into the grassy areas of the Landing. 22 Conditions of Context West of Ambles ide Landing is a publ ic boat launch (Plate 4.4) a n d the Hollyburn Sailing C lub (Plate 4.5). The Hollyburn Sailing C lub is a d inghy sailing c lub. It has had , s ince its incept ion in 1963, Licenses of O c c u p a t i o n with the District of West V a n c o u v e r to o c c u p y this waterfront land (Hollyburn Sailing Club). Plate 4.4 Public boat launch Plate 4.5 Hollyburn Sailing Club (view south) (view east) The remainder of the land is a combinat ion of privately o w n e d properties, District of West V a n c o u v e r o w n e d properties and life tenants, who live on properties purchased by the District of West Vancouver . Conditions of Context Two of the houses a long the waterfront are used by the district for cultural activities. The Silk Purse Arts Centre, housed in a fifty year o ld house, is m a n a g e d by Parks a n d Commun i t y Services partnered with the West V a n c o u v e r Arts Counc i l (Dexter). The Arts Centre has exhibitions, art classes a n d also hosts musicians, poets a n d authors as well as artists in a number of events. Ad j a cen t to the Silk Purse Arts Cent re is a house which is the headquarters for the West Vancouve r ' s Harmony Arts Festival, held in August of e a c h year. During the Arts Festival, tents are set up on the grassy publ ic areas of the Argyle Waterfront Land a n d a w i d e variety of cultural activities take p l a ce over a per iod of ten days (Plate 4.6). The Harmony Arts Festival staff share the house they o c c u p y with musicians, actors a n d other members of the arts community. Plate 4.6 Artist, Harmony Arts Festival August, 2003 The cultural activities c en te red in this waterfront a rea provide a w i de range of enriching exper iences to those who part ic ipate in them. Conditions of Context One of the houses within the most western group of existing houses is the Navvy Jack House, a primary heritage building. It is West Vancouver's oldest house, built in 1873. It has been extensively remodelled but the main body of the house is still intact. Navvy Jack House was built on the bank of Lawson Creek, which flows into the ocean to the east of the house (Plate 4.7). Lawson Creek has been culverted in a closed culvert under the commercial district and in an open culvert between Bellevue Avenue and the beach (Plate 4.8). Plate 4.8 Lawson Creek, Navvy Jack House on right (view south) Conditions of Context 4.4 Connections Vehicular, pedestrian and visual connections between the Argyle Waterfront Land and the Ambleside neighbourhood and commercial district are discussed. Plate 4.9 shows the existing vehicular connections with the Argyle Waterfront Land. Eastern Argyle Avenue is a narrow, one way westerly street that can be accessed by 13th, Nth and 15th Streets. It provides access to the Hollyburn Sailing Club, the public boat launch and to the houses along the waterfront. Western Argyle Avenue is a narrow two-way street that provides access to the houses west of Lawson Creek. Plate 4.9 Existing vehicular connections Conditions of Context Pedestrian connections between the waterfront land and the Ambleside neighbourhood to the north are along the existing streets, 13th to 18th Streets (Plate 4.10). Plate 4.10 Existing pedestrian connections 27 Conditions of Context Visual as well as spatial connectivity between the waterfront land and the Ambleside neighbourhood is an important component in creating a strong interdependent relationship between the two. The visual connections between the waterfront and the Ambleside neighbourhood north of the commercial district are optimized due to the sloping topography (Plate 4.11). However, a topographic depression between 15th and 16th Streets along Bellevue Avenue, together with an elevated rail bed, hinders the visual connection between the waterfront and the commercial district (Plate 4.12) in this area. Plate 4.11 View south from Bellevue Plate 4.12 Topography Avenue to waterfront land Conditions of Context A n addit iona l h indrance to strong visual connectiv ity is the coniferous a n d broad leaf evergreen vegetat ion growing a long the rail line. Plate 4.13 summarizes the existing conditions of visual connectivity. Plate 4.13 Existing conditions of visual connectivity The entrances to the waterfront land at 16th, 17th and 18th Streets are spatially a n d visually w e a k a n d lack unique, defining characters. These a cce s s points to the waterfront land do little to e m b r a c e the existence of the rail line so at present it feels more like a barrier than an intriguing condit ion of these a cce s s points. Plate 4.14 shows the existing ent rance from 17th Street to John Lawson Park, the existing park within the waterfront land (see Plate 4.2 for locat ion). Plate 4.14 Existing entrance to waterfront land from 17th Street (view south) Conditions of Context 4.5 Pedestrian Circulation There exists a strong east-west a n d west-east movement of p e o p l e through the Argyle Waterfront Land. This waterfront land links the existing 1.7 ki lometer C e n -tennial Seawalk, wh ich extends from Dundarave Park to 18th Street, with the beachf ront wa lkway in Ambles ide Park (Plate 4.15). Argyle Waterfront Land Plate 4.15 Waterfront recreational walkway connection, with Ambleside Park seawalk The Centenn ia l Seawalk is a rip-rap p ro tected o c e a n - e d g e wa l kway b o u n d e d to the north by the rail line a n d med ium to high density townhouses a n d apar tment towers (Plate 4.16). Plate 4.16 Centennial Seawalk (view west) Conditions of Context The Argyle Waterfront Land link in this recreational route is primarily Argle Avenue which takes people away from the waterfront (see Plate 4.10). People share the road with vehicles (Plate 4.17). The entire waterfront recreational walkway connects with a 7.5 kilometer path that leads to the Cleveland Dam, along the west side of the Capilano River (Plate 4.18). The combined waterfront recreational walkway and river pathway is a heavily used recreational facility in all seasons. Plate 4.17 Argyle Avenue (view east) Plate 4.18 Capi lano River recreational pathway Conditions of Context 4.6 The Land-Ocean Interface An understanding of the processes occurring along the land-ocean edge is important to any proposed alteration of the edge between the beach and non-beach land. The beach is a moderate energy cobble, pebble and sand beach (Plate 4.19). Waves are generally from the south-west and sediment transport is easterly along the shore (Everts). Plate 4.20 Ocean water depths Three or four storm events occur each year accompanied by waves of 1.2 to 1.5 meters high. Water depths in the area are shown in Plate 4.20. Tides are 4.5 meters. Artificial submerged reefs have been constructed adjacent to the two piers along this shoreline to encourage sediment deposition. Lawson Creek contributes sediment to the beach. P 32 Conditions of Context Some of the existing waterfront lots have encroached on the natural beach conditions. Concrete retaining walls exist at the high tide line east of 16th Street. Some of these walls are higher than two meters (Plate 4.21). Retaining walls also exist along the beach near Lawson Creek. These retaining walls leave no public access to the beach during high tide events. Plate 4.21 Concrete retaining walls This is a south-facing land-ocean edge. It receives winds which predominantly vary from south-east to south-west. Variations in solar exposure and winds are quantitative measurements as well as experiential qualities and are important to consider from the perspective of environmental and economic sustainability of any design interventions. Conditions of Context Another condit ion of this o c e a n e d g e are the views it affords of Stanley Park, the city skyline, the Coas t Mountains a n d of the Lion's G a t e Bridge (Plate 4.22) and Vancouver ' s inner harbour. O c e a n vessels from kayaks to freighters travel past the b e a c h (Plate 4.23). Plate 4.22 View to Lions Gate Bridge (view east) Plate 4.23 View to Stanley Park, city skyline and ocean vessels (view south) Conditions of Context Plate 4.25 Pier at 14th Street Plate 4.26 Pier at 17th Street Two piers (Plate 4.24) span this l and -ocean interface, one at the foot of 14th Street (Plate 4.25) a n d one at the foot of 17th Street (Plate 4.26). Plate 4.24 Argyle Waterfront Land piers Piers form an interactive e d g e with the o c e a n . They also prov ide a person with a sense of p l a c e in relation to the larger l and scape of the o c e a n , sky a n d mountains. The role of these two piers in shaping the commun i ty of West Vancouve r is important to consider in the design process a n d will b e discussed in the following section, Memory. Memory 5. Memory 5.1 Introduction The Argle Waterfront Land has loca l historical s ignif icance, be ing one of the first areas to be settled in West Vancouve r by European settlers 2. Mod i f ied remnants of this history still exist within this waterfront land. A respect for memory increases the experiential dep th of any design intervention. 5.2 The 17th Street Pier During the late 1800s a few logging families l ived a long the shore in w h a t w e ca l l Ambles ide Vi l lage today. John 'Navvy Jack ' Thomas, a British man, built a house near Lawson Creek in 1873, starting an on -demand ferry service for this small settlement whose only acces s was by water. The Navvy J a c k House (Plate 5.1) is the oldest house in West Vancouve r a n d today has heritage status. Memory John Lawson a n d his family bought Navvy Jack ' s house a n d surrounding land in 1906. His property, where he raised horses, b e c a m e known as 'Hollyburn Ranch ' , the n a m e der ived from the holly bushes he p lanted a long the banks of the creek or in Scottish, the 'burn ' . West Vancouver ' s first settlement a d o p t e d the n a m e 'Hollyburn'. John Lawson e x p a n d e d on Navvy Jack ' s ferry service a n d he built a pier at the foot of 17th Street. The ferry service grew a n d by 1909 ferries ran six times a day b e t w e e n Hollyburn a n d English Bay a n d also a l ong the North Shore coastl ine. The land wh ich is now John Lawson Park was leased by Lawson in 1906 to a logging c o m p a n y for use as a log d u m p a n d boom ing ground. The City of North V a n c o u v e r was established in 1891 a n d i n c l uded all of the present West Vancouver . The North Vancouve r District Counc i l built a publ ic wharf at the foot of 17th Street in 1910 (Plate 5.2). Although the wharf was unsuitable for ferries due to its exposed locat ion a n d due to the f ac t that it was short a n d d id not ex tend into d e e p water, it was still used by ferries until 1913. West Vancouver ' s first c o m m e r c i a l center was l o ca ted at the corner of 17th Street a n d Mar ine Drive, directly north of the pier (Plate 5.1). The commun i ty gather ing hall, Hollyburn Pavilion was l o ca ted here. Plate 5.3 shows the v iew Plate 5.2 Donceiia ferry docked at d o w n 17th Street to the ferry wharf. Hollyburn Genera l Store a n d Post Of f ice is on Hollyburn wharf, 1913 the right. Memory 5.3 The 14th Street Pier West Vancouver became a separate District Municipality in 1912. The same year it acquired the West Vancouver Transportation Company owed by John Lawson and began a municipally-run ferry service. In 1913 the ferry service was moved to a new pier built at the foot of 14th Street (Plate 5.4). A ferry ticket office was also built in 1913 (Plate 5.4). The original building, a designated heritage building, was restored in 1988 and is now used as a community art gallery. The municipal ferry service ran until 1947. The ferries ran hourly, seven days a week, for 18 hours a day. They travelled between West Vancouver and the foot of Columbia Street in Vancouver. They also ran as water buses along the North Shore coastline and in the summer made excursions to places along the coastline and to other popular summer destinations such as Stanley Park and English Bay. The opening of the Lions Gate Bridge in 1938 and the popularity of vehicular transportation led to the end of the ferry service. Plate 5.4 Pier at 14th Street, ferry ticket office o n l e f t The original piers located within the Argyle Waterfront Land were places of arrival and departure and their roles as the only points of access to the community until the construction of the rail line and the bridge made them important centers for the community. Though both piers have been reconstructed a number of times, the memory of their original importance to the community should be honoured. Memory 5.4 An Axis of History, Culture and Community Over the years, 17th Street has b e c o m e an axis of history, culture a n d communi ty . The first ferry service in West V a n c o u v e r o p e r a t e d from the pier cons t ruc ted at the southern e n d of 17th Street. The early businesses of West V a n c o u v e r were c e n t e r e d a round the intersection of 17th Street a n d Mar ine Drive, where the post off ice a n d first te lephone e x c h a n g e (1912) we re l o c a t e d . The commun i ty gather ing hall, Hollyburn Pavilion was also l o c a t e d on this street. Ger t rude Lawson, the daugh te r of John Lawson, built a house (Plate 5.5) on 17th Street b e t w e e n 1939 a n d 1940. The house was const ruc ted of stone from the ballast of ships. It r ece i ved her i tage designat ion in 1990 a n d t o d a y is h o m e to the West V a n c o u v e r Museum a n d Archives. Seventeenth Street is a w ide street p lan ted with chestnut trees. They we re p lan ted by the s e c o n d t roupe of West V a n c o u v e r Boy Scouts to c o m m e m o r a t e a visit by Lord B a d e n Powel l in 1934. The West V a n c o u v e r Mun i c i pa l Hall was built on 17th Street in 1934. The West V a n c o u v e r Mun ic ipa l Hall was built in 1964. Seventeenth Street terminates to the north at West V a n c o u v e r S e c o n d a r y Schoo l , the locat ion of West Vancouver ' s first high schoo l , Ing lewood, built in 1927. More recently the Kay M e e k C e n t r e for the Performing Arts was built ad j acen t to the schoo l . It is a state of the art pe r fo rmance centre with large a n d small theatres a n d facilities for performing arts classes. Design interventions in the Argyle Waterfront Land should revea l the historical, cultural a n d communi ty i m p o r t a n c e of the 17th Street axis. West Vancouver's oldest house West Vancouver's first pier Plate 5.5 17th Street axis of history, culture and community Memory 5.5 Rail The Pacif ic Great Eastern Railway C o m p a n y ran trains b e t w e e n North V a n c o u v e r a n d West V a n c o u v e r from 1913 to 1928. The trains carr ied freight a n d commuters. The first West V a n c o u v e r train station was c a l l ed Ambles ide, from wh ich the current ne ighbourhood derives its name. There were several other stations in West Vancouver . Plate 5.6 shows the end of the line in Dunda rave (25th Street), West Vancouve r in 1914. The line eventually c o n n e c t e d North V a n c o u v e r with northern British Co lumb ia . In 1972 the P.G.E. Rai lway was bought by the government of British Co lumb ia , who c h a n g e d the n a m e to British Co l umb i a Railway. Today the route is used for freight transportation. The role of the railway in the history a n d settlement of this a rea adds another layer of memory to e m b r a c e during the design process. Plate 5.6 End of P.G.E. Rail line, Dundarave, 1914 Program 6. Program The exper ience of this o c e a n e d g e will a d d a richness to activities p ropo sed for the Argyle Waterfront Park - a richness unique to this p l a c e . In the words of Williams et al., "It is h o p e d that ' the shaping of space , the organizat ion of program, the pattern of circulation ... c reate an a m b i e n c e c ongen i a l to con temp la t i ve a n d creat ive use ..." (Williams et al., 19). The vision of the District of West Vancouve r for the Argyle Waterfront Land is to c r ea t e a publ ic park that is different in cha rac te r from the a d j a c e n t Centenn ia l Seawalk a n d Ambles ide Park, while seamlessly linking them together to c r ea te a continuous publ ic waterfront e d g e from 25th Street to the C a p i l a n o River. The park will provide opportunities for recreat ional a nd cultural uses a n d h a v e a strong, cohesive, identifiable character , legible from the Amb le s ide c o m m e r c i a l district. The design will ensure that the east-west recreat ional c i rculat ion route is wel l -def ined for those walking, jogg ing or running a long the o c e a n e d g e for exercise, while also providing opportunities to part ic ipate in more passive recreat ion. Strong visual a n d spatial connect ions be tween the park a n d the c o m m e r c i a l district will e n cou r a ge north-south pedestrian movement . The c o m m e r c i a l district will provide a variety of amenities for the park. The strong connec t i on to the commerc i a l , residential a n d professional e d g e will help to make this waterfront park socially a n d economica l l y sustainable. The Argyle Waterfront Land is rich in history a n d culture. The District wou ld like the p roposed park to be a cultural ' cent re ' for the arts for West V a n c o u v e r (Dexter). The Silk Purse Gallery, currently housed in an old house that does not h a v e historical s ignif icance will b e re l oca ted to a new building that will also have add i t iona l gallery a n d workshop space . A pavilion and outdoor theatre spaces are p roposed for cultural a n d social activities. Though specif ic locat ions have b e e n se lec ted for an arts comp lex a n d per formance areas, the design of the who le park will e n c o u r a g e the synthesis of art with this o c e a n e d g e environment. Art s ituated in the l a nd s cape (Plate 6.1) allows the viewer to expe r i ence the art from a variety of perspectives a n d in various conditions of light, shadow, Program Plate 6.3 Harmony Arts Festival, August 2003 rain, wind a n d human activity. Minimalist Dona ld Judd 'was disturbed by the museum's d ivorce of art from life; to him it meant "hav ing culture without culture hav ing any e f fec t " wh ich served to " m a k e art fake " (Newhouse,! 13). The historian a n d critic M i chae l Fried wrote in his 1967 essay 'Art a n d O b j e c t h o o d ' , "The better new work takes relationships out of the work a n d makes them a function of s pace , light a n d the viewers field of vision ... O n e is more a w a r e than before that he himself is establishing relationships as he app rehend s the ob jec t from various positions a n d under varying conditions of light a n d spatial context " (in Newhouse,! 13). Site specif ic installations a n d c o n c e p t u a l , v ideo a n d pe r fo rmance art will find a variety of environments with wh i ch to part ic ipate. The District of West V a n c o u v e r recognizes publ ic art as be ing an important part of the cha r a c te r of West Vancouve r (Municipal Art Co l l ec t i on Policy) a n d is d e d i c a t e d to taking a leadership role in integrating publ ic art in its publ ic amenities. A number of commun i ty events o c c u r a long the waterfront of West V a n c o u v e r every year. It is h o p e d that the design of the Argyle Waterfront Park will stimulate imaginat ive thinking a n d willingness to experiment to c rea te new activities for this o c e a n edge . The park will have a variety of v e g e t a t e d a n d hard-surfaced o p e n spaces of different sizes, composit ion a n d orientations to faci l i tate a variety of activities from large communi ty events such as the Harmony Arts Festival (Plate 6.2) to small family picnics to individual contemplat ion. The entire park will h a ve underground wiring a n d plugs in both areas of hard a n d soft l and scap ing in ant ic ipat ion of the var ied cultural activities a n d artistic installations that may occur . The configurat ion a n d locat ion of permanent seating will faci l i tate conversat ion a n d small group gatherings. Temporary seating, stages, tents, etc., are p roposed for larger groups. Plate 6.3 shows a stage for rock music installed in the poo l of Don Vaughn ' s 'Granite Assemblage ' , during the Harmony Arts Festival. Program The District of West Vancouver also recognizes a n d wou ld like to protect the heritage of this waterfront land. The piers will be p ro tec ted a n d the historically significant Navvy Jack House will be restored (West Vancouve r Official Community Plan). It is proposed that the restored Navvy Jack House will host cultural activities and will be an historical centre, functioning as a b ranch of the current West Vancouve r Museum and Archives. A grassy a rea , pat io a n d d e c k are proposed for the land ad jacent to the house, to facil itate small group gatherings. Similarly, an outdoor pat io a n d garden are proposed for the land west of the Ferry Building Gallery to function as an outdoor gathering p l a c e for events taking p l a c e at the Ferry Building Gallery. A proposal exists to begin a small passenger ferry service b e t w e e n the pier at Ambles ide Landing and Vancouve r (TransLink). A ferry ticket office, c a f e a n d indoor and outdoor waiting areas are p roposed for the w i d e n e d pier, as well as addit ional seating in the vicinity of the Ferry Building Gallery. The architectural l anguage of the design interventions related to the programs descr ibed will not only reveal the essence of this edge , but will incorporate natural systems and processes into the design to make it environmentally sustainable. The Concept 7. The Concept 7. 7 Introduction Overarching design responses have b e e n d e v e l o p e d wh ich at tempt to reveal the essence of this o c e a n edge . These responses are sensitive to the sensorial human exper ience of the water, land a n d sky interface as well as to conditions of context, memory and program. Form a n d the organization of s p a c e creates a design which is tacti le a nd sensuous, one the resonates emotional ly with a person interacting with it. The c o n c e p t u a l p lan responds to these overarch ing design responses: Create a continuous, accessible, interactive waterfront edge. Orient pedestrian pathways to provide changing views, and changing exposure to sun, wind and sounds, while respecting topography and the linear nature of this edge. Develop a spatial pattern of vegetation to reveal the tension between natural phenomena and the built environment. The spatial orientation of both vegetation and built form will provide opportunities to find shelter from or to interact with the wind. Reveal the experience of hydrological processes. Allow existing conditions of context and memory to guide the siting of indoor and outdoor places for cultural activities while allowing the design of these places to reveal the dynamic nature of their context Develop unique design elements to define this edge and create a cohesive, recognizable waterfront public park The Concept Re-establish the 17th Street pier's former importance within the community Create well-defined links between the Ambleside neighbourhood and the waterfront land that embrace the railway and their specific experiential and contextual conditions. Strengthen the vitality of the built edge, the Ambleside commercial district The c o n c e p t u a l p lan for the Argyle Waterfront Park in descr ibed in the following sections. The Concept 7.2 An Overview The c o n c e p t u a l plan for the Argyle Waterfront Park is show in plan v iew in Plate 7.1 and in orthographic views in Plates 7.2 and 7.3. A number of distinct p laces are th readed together by pedestr ian walkways, patterns of vegetat ion a n d de-sign elements. The sequence of these places, moving from west to east are: Navy Jack House and Garden Lawson Creek Sanctuary John Lawson Pier The Great Lawn Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery The Harmony Arts Parkland The Solar Slopes The Edge Performance Plaza The Sand Theatre The Wind Garden The Bosque The Galleria Ferry Building Gallery, Garden and Patio Ambleside Landing Pier The existing heritage buildings a n d their patios a n d gardens form the western and eastern edges of the park. Navvy Jack House a n d G a r d e n are l o c a t e d at the western e d g e of the park where it joins the Centenn ia l Seawalk. The Ferry Building Gallery, G a r d e n a n d Patio are l o c a t e d at the eastern e d g e of the park. The locations for areas of cultural activities, the Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gallery, The Edge Performance Plaza, The Sand Theatre a n d The Gal ler ia are gu ided by conditions of context a n d memory a n d their designs reflect the dynamic nature of their context. The Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery is s ituated a long the historically a n d culturally important axis of 17th Street where it extends into the waterfront land. The Edge Performance Plaza a n d The Sand Theatre, two outdoor per formance p laces are l o c a t e d at the foot of 15th Street, the main north-south community acces s road to the Argyle Waterfront Land. 46 The Concept Navy Jock House and Garden u; Jj * * lawton Cfeek Soncluoiy Th* Great lawn John lowion Plw • $ * I i it « s * I * IS The Wind Garden Argyic Artt Pavilion and Gallery The Solar Slope* The Sand Theatre ! *-L The Ferry Building GoKeiy. Garden and Poho ft' j f j f ii Ambleside Landing Pier Plate 7.1 Conceptual Plan Argyle Waterfront Park 47 The Concept The Concept The Concept The Lawson Creek Sanctuary, Solar Slopes, Wind G a r d e n a n d Bosque are all design elements wh ich e n h a n c e the experiential conditions of this o c e a n e d g e . Lawson Creek N Plate 7.4 Spatial pattern of vegetation The spatial pattern of p roposed vegetat ion reflects w a v e form a n d direct ion to heighten the awareness of this natural p h e n o m e n a (Plate 7.4). This pattern of vegetat ion provides shelter or exposure to winds which are predominant ly from the south-east to south-west. The proposed vegetat ive pattern is l ayered over existing trees wh ich will b e reta ined. These break up the w a v e form pattern much like rocks a n d logs do to waves on the b e a c h (Plate 7.5). The grid of waterfront settlement will inform the locat ion of semi-private p laces within this publ ic waterfront. This will capture the existing d ia lec t i c b e t w e e n publ ic a n d private. A d ia logue is established be tween curvilinear forms der ived from o c e a n processes a n d the residential a nd street grids of the community . Plate 7.5 Wave and pebble on beach The Concept The intersection of the residential urban grid with the organ ic w a v e form (Plate 7.6) reveals the tension b e t w e e n natural p h e n o m e n a a n d the built environment a l ong this o c e a n edge . The grid of the commerc i a l district extends into the waterfront as a cont inuat ion of the urban street pattern. Plate 7.6 Intersection of property lines, street grid and wave form Unique de ign elements a n d materials will define this e d g e a n d help to c r ea te a cohes ive, recogn izab le waterfront park. Some of the materials cho sen for built form respond the natural p h e n o m e n a of this o c e a n e d g e such as the compos it ion, colour, texture, feel a n d luminosity of pebbles (Plate 7.7) a n d dr i ftwood (Plate 7.8), the e t c h e d translucency of shards of glass w a s h e d onto the b e a c h a n d the chang i ng colours a n d transparency, trans lucency a n d opac i t y of o c e a n water (Plate 7.9). The Concept Plate 7.7 Cobbles and pebbles Plate 7.8 Driftwood Plate 7.9 Ocean water on the beach Other materials such as c onc re te a n d aluminum reflect the e n c r o a c h m e n t of the urban e d g e . The design considers the experiential condit ions c r e a t e d w h e n the materials chosen c o m e into c on t ac t with water. Specif ical ly des igned pav ing, fences, furnishings, tree grates, drains, lighting, wind vanes will def ine this park. Wind vanes not only e n h a n c e the exper ience of the w ind but also respect memory. They make reference to the past when o c e a n travel to this coastl ine was d e p e n d e n t on wind a n d weather conditions. Wind vanes are found in groupings a long the main east-west walkway, the most prominent e xamp le of this be ing The Wind G a r d e n . They will reinforce the continuity of the var ied spaces a n d p laces in this park. The Concept 7.3 An Accessible, Interactive Ocean Edge The f reedom to explore a n d interact with the dynamic o c e a n e d g e will b e ma inta ined a n d e n h a n c e d . Interactions with this tacti le environment c a n be passive or ac t i ve (Plates 7.10, 7.11, 7.12}. Plate 7.11 Existing c onc re te retaining walls wh ich restrict publ ic acces s to the b e a c h during high tide events a n d wh ich make acces s to the b e a c h a n d o c e a n difficult will b e removed . Calculat ions using existing b e a c h grades a n d a v e r a g e high water levels during storm events ind icate that this c a n be a c h i e v e d in some areas by increasing the width of the b e a c h . An easily access ib le waterfront e d g e in areas with higher retaining walls a n d a narrower existing b e a c h profile c a n only be a c h i e v e d by comb in ing a widening of the b e a c h with the construct ion of a p e r c h e d b e a c h to raise the b e a c h elevat ion by half a meter. A p e r c h e d b e a c h is c r e a t e d by the construction of small artificial reefs offshore. Small artificial reefs currently exist near the piers at 14th a n d 17th Streets. It is p ropo sed that this waterfront e d g e retain its natural cha rac te r of sand, pebbles a n d cobb les . The wider b e a c h provides an opportunity to sit a m o n g the logs e ven during a high tide event. The Concept Plate 7.13 shows the existing a n d proposed edges be tween the b e a c h a n d the land. The b e a c h a n d o c e a n will be easily access ib le a long its entire length. The p roposed p e r c h e d b e a c h wou ld be l o ca ted in the a rea of the existing houses (white roofs in aerial photo) l o c a t e d west of the Ambles ide Landing Pier (Plate 7.13). 7.13 Proposed land/beach edge The Concept Plate 7.14 Orthographic view of The Sand Theatre and Park Promenade Most of the b e a c h will b e walk-on level waterfront with the excep t i on of the a r ea of the p roposed p e r c h e d b e a c h . Access to the b e a c h here is by using the steps that form The Sand Theatre seating or down a gentle s lope to the b e a c h from the Park P r omenade to the east (Plate 7.14). With the set -back of the land-b e a c h e d g e in this a rea , the c h a n g e in elevation be tween the b e a c h a n d the Park P r omenade is a max imum of 1.2 meters in the a rea of The Sand Theatre. The steps of The Sand Theatre have a minimum tread of 0.6 meter with risers of 0.2 meter. The Concept Plate 7.15 Stone block seating, Gantry Park, New York The slope from the Park P r omenade to the b e a c h , east of The Sand Theatre, var-ies from a max imum of 36% ad j a cen t to the steps of The Sand Theatre to a more gent le s lope of 15% as one moves eastward a long the wa lkway. Randomly a r ranged granite b lock seating nestled in b e a c h vegeta t i on invites a person to venture d o w n the slope to the b e a c h (Plate 7.16), c reat ing a more tact i le route to the b e a c h than the steps. The granite blocks are an extension of Don Vaughn ' s 'Gran i te A s semb lage ' (see p a g e 22). The blocks prov ide seating here but still honour his intent to emphasize the role of local ly der i ved granite rip-rap wh ich creates an artificial barrier be tween the b e a c h a n d the o c e a n a l ong the Centenn ia l Seawalk. The blocks are a r ranged in such a w a y as to e n c o u r a g e conversat ion, after the p recedent from Gantry Park, N e w York (Plate 7.15). Plate 7.16 Park Promenade with granite block seating 56 The Concept Plate 7.17 Navvy Jack House and Garden, conceptual plan 7.4 A Stroll Along the Edge The individual elements of the c o n c e p t u a l design for the Argyle Waterfront Park are presented. The s e q u e n c e of presentation will be from west to east mov ing a long this o c e a n edge . 7.4.1 Navvy Jack House and Garden The main east-west wa lkway of Argyle Waterfront Park, the Park P romenade , begins at 18th Street, where it joins the Centennia l Seawalk. The Park P r omenade is set b a c k from the b e a c h vegetat ion, passing to the south of the historically significant Navvy Jack House, the home of early settler John Lawson. Navvy J a c k house, l o c a t e d where Lawson Creek flows into the o c e a n , will be restored to its original design a n d b e c o m e the home to commun i t y cultural a n d historical activities. It is p roposed that the designs for the gardens a n d patios of both Navvy J a c k House a n d the heritage Ferry Building Gal lery respect their small sca le a n d history a n d be distinctive from the more organic des ign of the rest of the park. Navy J a c k House is not only access ib le from the Park P r o m e n a d e but also from Argyle A v e n u e to the north. Vehicular access to the house is p rov ided a n d temporary parking a n d parking for the d i sab led exists a l ong Argyle Avenue. It is p roposed that the pat io a n d ga rden of Navvy Jack House incorporate elements of the old o rchard a n d holly bushes that o n c e existed here. The ga rden a n d pat io provide south a n d west fac ing p laces to host outdoor cultural activities, while the h e d g e a round the perimeter of the property c reates a d e g r e e of pr ivacy a n d also some protect ion from the wind (Plate 7.17). The existing beach- f ront retaining walls h ave been removed, c reat ing a continuous, naturally v e g e t a t e d e d g e b e t w e e n the b e a c h a n d the Park P romenade . A n e l e va ted d e c k (Plate 7.18) extends over this edge , providing a p l a c e for pedestrians to pause a n d to exper ience this p l a c e where Lawson C reek flows into the o c e a n . The d e c k also provides addit ional public s p a c e for activities re lated to Navvy J a c k House. A seat wall a n d planter a long the south e d g e of the house provides addi t iona l seating for pedestrians to rest a n d p e o p l e w a t c h . 57 The Concept Plate 7.18 Orthographic view of Navy Jack House and Garden Permanent tables a n d chairs on the deck a n d benches in the g a r d e n are typ ica l of those des igned for the park a n d will be seen throughout this journey a l ong the edge . Unique furniture is p roposed for this park to reflect the t ime w h e n the park is c r e a t e d . The furniture will b e descr ibed in the following section, Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary and The Great Lawn. Flexible seating, as shown on the patio, will b e a feature of all the semi-private p laces in the Argyle Waterfront Park. The Concept 7.4.2 Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary and the Great Lawn Plate 7.19 Orthographic view of Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary Lawson Creek, presently in an o p e n conc re te culvert, will b e a l l owed to flow and The Great Lawn more freely by eliminating a portion of the conc re te wall on the east side of the creek. The conc re te west e d g e of the creek will be in stark contrast to the east bank of the creek, a visual e xamp le of the alteration of the natural system of runoff from the land to the o c e a n by the enc roachment of sett lement a l ong this o c e a n edge . A treed vegetat i ve refuge, Lawson Creek Sanctuary is c r e a t e d on the east side of the creek (Plates 7.19, 7.20). Some of the existing trees in this a rea have b e e n reta ined. The proposed vegetat ion for the sanctuary will b e primarily indigenous to this environment to c rea te a naturally v e g e t a t e d sanctuary. Some sheltered, partially h idden seating has b e e n p rov ided within the sanctuary. This will b e a p l a c e to sit quietly near the creek. A pa th leads The Concept through the trees to 17th Street, providing direct access to Navvy J a c k House from the community. The configuration of trees a long the p a t h w a y creates glimpses of Navvy J a c k House as one walks toward the c reek crossing (Plate 7.21). Plate 7.20 Lawson Creek, Lawson Creek Plate 7.21 Path to bridge and Navvy Jack Sanctuary and The Great Lawn, House conceptual plan. The Concept A br idge spans Lawson Creek near its mouth (Plates 7.19, 7.20) a n d affords the opportunity to exper ience this p l a c e where Lawson Creek flows into the o c e a n , an interface that is constantly chang ing with time, wea the r condit ions a n d seasons. The br idge provides an e leva ted perspect ive of this natural p h e n o m e n a of fresh water flowing into o c e a n water. The over lapp ing sounds of the creek, the o c e a n a n d the wind will c h a n g e as one moves closer to, over a n d then a w a y from the bridge. The bridge railing a n d the railing a round the Navvy J a c k House d e c k will b e similar to the new fenc ing p roposed for the rail line bordering the Argyle Waterfront Park, to help to give a un ique recogn i zab le cha rac te r to the park. The design of the railing will incorporate the a luminum mesh found in all of the park seating a n d will be descr ibed in the sect ion Threading the Park Together, Linking it to the Community. The furniture found in the park is not a c o p y of a design of the past, nor o rdered from a ca t a l o gue , but unique to the conditions of today. The benches , tables, chairs a n d p icn ic tables are m a d e of granite a n d aluminum. The granite is in reference to the granite boulders a n d pebbles found in the c reek a n d on the b e a c h , that have b e e n e r o d e d from the granitic Coas t Mountains. A luminum is used for its practical ity. The tab le tops and seats are m a d e of a luminum mesh that will a l low rainwater to pass through, drying quickly. The Concept Plate 7.24 Bench in section Plate 7.25 Chair in section Plate 7.26 Chair in side section Plate 7.22 shows a c o m m o n configuration of chairs, benches a n d tables within the park. The configuration of seating impacts useability a n d types of gatherings that c a n b e fac i l i tated. Furniture groupings encou rage conversat ion a n d small group gatherings. Plate 7.22 Orthographic view of furniture in The Great Lawn Plates 7.23 to 7.26 illustrate the design of benches and chairs for the park. 62 The Concept The design of pe rmanent tables a n d chairs is shown in Plates 7.27 a n d 7.28. The tables are des igned to hold umbrellas that will provide shelter from sun or rain. These umbrellas c ou l d be des igned specifically for communi ty events. 1 [ 0.5 meter Plate 7.28 Table and chairs in section The Grea t Lawn (Plate 7.20), south-east of Lawson Creek Sanctuary, is currently a popular a r ea for family picnics. This grassy a rea has b e e n redes igned but still provides p icn ic tables for individuals a n d families. The p icn ic tables are similar in construction to the tab le a n d chairs, m a d e of granite a n d a luminum a n d des igned to hold large umbrellas for sun or rain (Plates 85, 86). The grassy a r e a spills south across the Park P romenade. The Great Lawn is large enough to host movies in the park. The Concept Plate 7.29 Sand-blasted glass panels, Topher Delaney Plate 7.30 The colour of ocean Cu r ved grey-green glass walls are found in the a rea of The G r e a t Lawn (Plate 7.19). Their positioning reflects w a v e form a n d direction. Their p r e c e d e n t is w e a t h e r e d glass w a s h e d up on the b e a c h by the waves. These bo t tom lit panels (Plate 7.29) reflect light during the day, and g low at night like glass reflecting moonlight. The co lour of these glass panels c omes from the co lour of o c e a n wate r (Plate 7.30). Permanent seating is l o ca ted on the w i ndwa rd side of these three walls, or iented for views to the horizon in the west (Plate 7.31). Peop le c a n also sit on the l eeward side, in the shelter of the walls. This s em i -opaque grey-green glass is found throughout the park in the form of low walls a n d it is also p roposed for other lighting elements. The colour, texture a n d o p a c i t y of lighting elements m a d e with this glass will b e unique to this park a n d will not interfere with the night sky or night reflections of the moon, ships a n d buildings on the o c e a n water. Plate 7.31 Curved glass walls The Concept Plate 7.32 Orthographic view of steps to beach at entrance to John Cu r ved steps l o c a t e d where the Park P romenade meets The Pier P r o m e n a d e Lawson Pier (Plate 7.32) provide acce s s to the b e a c h a n d seating with views to the south-west or south-east. The children 's play structures have b e e n removed from this a r ea . The unstructured exploration offered by this o c e a n e d g e does not n e e d supplementat ion. This is still a p l a c e for parents to socialize while their chi ldren explore the b e a c h . The Concept 7.4.3 Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery and John Lawson Pier Plate 7.33 The Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery, Plate 7.34 Orthographic view of The Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery conceptual plan The Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery is located along the cultural, historical and community axis of 17th Street which now extends to John Lawson Pier as a pedestrian promenade, The Pier Promenade. The buildings of the arts complex appear to be washed up on the shore, trapped by the rail line at the urban edge (Plates 7.33, 7.34). The buildings are oriented along the wave form and P 66 The Concept direction, their positions informed by the disordered a r rangement of logs w a s h e d up on the b e a c h . Kurokawa believes that architecture wh ich is a symmetr ica l shows a quality of stable i m p e r m a n e n c e (in Steele, 105). In the p l a c e m e n t of these structures a d i a logue is established be tween the curvil inear w a v e form, topog raphy a n d the communi ty grid which extends to the o c e a n as a cont inuat ion of 17th Street. The sca le of these new buildings reflects the sca le of the existing waterfront houses a n d is in contrast to the sca le of buildings in the Ambles ide c o m m e r c i a l a r e a (Plates 7.35, 7.36). Waves of o rnamenta l grasses of different heights engulf the buildings to the north (Plate 7.34). The p r e c e d e n t is the native b e a c h grasses wh i ch beg in to engulf logs a b o v e the high tide line. The grasses will move in the slightest breeze. As they move they c r ea te sounds. "Subtle a n d sinuous in their yielding, they paint portraits of the w i n d " (Darke, 17). The movement of air c a u s e d by a passing freight train will also b e revea led visually by the grasses. Grasses were also chosen for their translucency. Their a p p e a r a n c e change s d ramat i ca l l y with chang i ng angles of sunlight, enhanc ing the exper ience of c h a n g i n g light conditions. Plate 7.35 Existing waterfront buildings and commercial / residential Plate 7.36 Proposed waterfront buildings and commercia l / residential The Concept Plate 7.37 Eulogy to the Horizon, 1990 The buildings are highly visible from the Ambles ide c ommerc i a l district, strengthening the c onnec t i on of the Argyle Waterfront Park with the communi ty . However, their small sca le a n d orientation reduces their possibility of b lock ing views to the o c e a n from the condominiums a n d apartments to the north. The designs of the Gal lery a n d Pavilion capture views to the horizon. The Gal lery first c o n c e a l s then reveals the horizon as a person a p p r o a c h e s it from 16th Street (Plate 7.38). A p receden t is Eduardo Chil l ida 's 'Eulogy to the Horizon' (Plate 7.37). Chi l l ida says, "Al l men are equa l at the horizon a n d w e are all brothers, the horizon is our c o m m o n h o m e l a n d " (Wagner, 2). He idegge r wrote that the sculpture of Chi l l ida reveals the exact cha rac te r of a s p a c e a n d also reveals living s p a c e that is in relation to humans (Wagner, 3). A person leav ing the Pavilion will also have a v iew to the horizon f r amed by trees in the foreground. Plate 7.38 The Gallery conceals and reveals the horizon 68 The Concept The buildings will b e cons t ruc ted of panels of grey-green glass. The transparency, opac i t y a n d trans lucency of this material enab les the buildings, like the o c e a n , to c o n c e a l , suggest or make appa ren t (Plate 7.39) wha t lies within. The g lazed panels will reflect light in d ia logue with the o c e a n water . An night these buildings will b e inviting, suggesting what events are taking p l a c e within. A p receden t for their design is The Rodin Museum in Seoul, Korea (Plate 7.40). Similarly to the i m a g e of the Rodin Museum shown in Plate 7.41, the grasses ad j acen t to the buildings will becomes silhouetted against the b a c k d r o p of the museum at night, mov ing in the slightest wind, like a s hadow play. The orientation of the gallery a n d the pavilion minimizes the exposure of the inside of the buildings to the strongest sun of mid-day c o m i n g from the south. The transparency of the glass panels c a n be adjusted to r e d u c e or e l iminate Plate 7.39 Atelier Mimesis studio, Germany Plate 7.40 Rodin Museum, Seoul Plate 7.41 Rodin Museum at night, Seoul Plate 7.42 Sonnenhausen estate, Glonn Plate 7.43 Town square, Gummersbach The Concept dayl ight entering the building if necess i tated by an exhibition or event. It is p r opo sed that the Gallery a n d Pavilion spaces be relatively u n p r o g r a m m e d so that artists c a n o c c u p y the spaces as they like, take any position. The interior spaces, like the o c e a n e d g e itself will not be static but constantly chang i ng . The Pavilion will have tall glass doors wh ich open to the horizon a n d to the inner courtyard, making the Pavilion an extension of the park a n d blurring the definition b e t w e e n inside a n d outside. The Gal lery has three components , like logs pi led up on the b e a c h a n d responds to the movement of peop le , providing different perspect ives from wh ich to exper ience art. The Gallery has an outdoor roof a r e a ava i l ab le for outdoor display or performances. This roof a rea creates a p l a c e for art to be e xpe r i enced from above , below, inside or outside. The roof-top art installation s p a c e has views to the park, the o c e a n , the horizon a n d to the mountains. Set b a c k from the b e a c h a n d f ramed by trees, it is sheltered from wind, yet receives filtered sunlight from the south (Plates 7.34, 7.38). The des ign of the Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gallery comp lex also reveals natural hydrologic processes a n d makes them an exper ience of the senses. Water flow patterns observed in nature are revea led in the courtyard b e t w e e n the Pavilion a n d the Gallery. Rainwater will run across the courtyard a n d entry p l a za in small depressions in the conc re te a n d conc re te a gg rega te pav ing, f lowing into a pebble-f i l led trough that will be full or empty of water d e p e n d i n g on wea the r condit ions. Precedents showing how the movement of ra inwater c a n b e i nco rpo ra ted in the built form are shown in Plates 7.42 and 7.43. These rainwater-filled depressions will b e tactile, interactive a n d will increase env i ronmenta l awareness. The Concept Cobb le s a n d pebbles are used throughout the design for the Argyle Waterfront Park to ind icate areas a s soc ia ted with natural rainwater flow a n d infiltration. These naturally o c c u r in areas of this o c e a n e d g e as soc ia ted with water, the b e a c h a n d the creek b e d . The colours and textures of pebb le s a n d cobb l e s are revea led when they are wet. Plate 7.44 shows a p r e ceden t for the pebble-f i l led trough. Plate 7.45 shows the flow of rainwater in the courtyard. Plate 7.44 Pebbles in trough Plate 7.45 Flow of rainwater, Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery The Pavilion has a glass roof. Rainwater co l l ec ted from the roof flows over the e d g e of the roof to c r ea te a waterfal l a long the southern e d g e of the building. The sound and intensity of the waterfal l will vary from a small trickle to a sheet of water a n d c a n be expe r i enced from inside a n d outside (Plate 7.46) the building A person c a n walk b e t w e e n the waterfal l a n d the southernmost Pavilion wal l or 71 The Concept over the troughs where the waterfal l water flows into the p e b b l e trough. These troughs are c o v e r e d with a luminum mesh grates. The Gallery has v e g e t a t e d roofs, that find their origin in the vegeta t i on that engulfs logs w a s h e d up on the b e a c h , a b o v e the high tide line. Water from the outdoor roof display a n d per fo rmance a r ea flows visibly d o w n a cha in drain to the pebble- f i l led trough. Plate 7.46 Pavilion, waterfall, pebble-filled trough The water is c o l l e c t e d a n d stored in be low-ground cisterns for irrigation. The circular pebble-f i l led troughs in the courtyard a n d entrance p laza e a c h surround an indigenous species of tree with wa te r a n d sun requirements specif ic to their locations. These are in reference to the natural pre-settlement condit ions of this o c e a n e d g e . The Concept The half meter tall c o n c r e t e seat walls a long the e d g e of the pebble-f i l led troughs provide pe rmanent seating for both the courtyard a n d the grassy a r e a to the south. The seat wal l has openings where the shallow depressions in the courtyard a n d entry p laza pav ing, meet the troughs. Trees prov ide shad ing a long this seating. The courtyard is an outdoor a rea where a semi-private function as soc ia ted with the Pavilion or Gallery c a n o c c u r a n d temporary seating c a n be installed. Mainta in ing the existing d ia lect ic b e t w e e n publ ic a n d private p laces a long this o c e a n edge , any gathering in the courtyard is visible a n d access ib le to the publ ic . The orientation of the courtyard strengthens ties to the railway a n d the pe rmanent seating fac ing north encou rage s views to the larger l a n d s c a p e of the Coa s t Mountains. The Pier P romenade to John Lawson Pier is lined with o rnamenta l grasses a n d cu rved grey-green glass panels wh ich are also light sources at night a n d on dark rainy days (Plate 7.47). The grasses are silhouetted against the glass. The Concept The strong visual and spatial connection between the foot of 17th Street and John Lawson Pier, and its adjacency to the proposed complex for cultural activities will transform the pier into a place to congregate and linger. A re-design of the pier will aid in this transformation. John Lawson Pier will be reconstructed in its original location and widened to form a strong terminus to West Vancouver's axis of history and culture at the land - ocean interface where this community began. Plate 7.49 shows the proposed location of the new pier. The pier will have both exposed and sheltered seating with room for social and cultural events (Plate 7.48). It will also have an at tached floating dock to facilitate the arrival of people by small water craft (Plate 7.50). Plate 7.49 Relocation of John Lawson Pier Plate 7.50 Orthographic view of John Lawson Pier The Concept 7.4.4 The Harmony Arts Parkland A n a r ea of grass a n d trees borders the Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery to the south a n d east (Plates 7.51, 7.52). The Silk Purse Gal lery a n d Harmony Arts Festival off ice presently exist here. The Silk Purse Gallery has b e e n re invented in the n e w Argyle Arts Gallery a n d this c o n c e p t u a l design proposes to re loca te the Harmony Arts Festival off ice to a new community facility cons t ruc ted on the site of the Mason ic Hall, near the corner of Belleuvue A v e n u e a n d 17th Street, just a f ew steps a w a y from the cultural axis of 17th Street. This will b e discussed in more deta i l in the section, Strengthening the Vitality of the Built Edge. Plate 7.51 The Harmony Arts Parkland, conceptual plan The Concept The Parkland has a variety of t reed a n d open grassy areas of varying sizes a n d degrees of enclosure. Picnic tables, benches a n d chairs a re s ca t te red throughout this a r ea for individuals a n d small groups. A person c a n c h o o s e b e t w e e n an o p e n sunny locat ion or a shady one, a n d b e t w e e n a p l a c e in the wind or one sheltered from it. The linked grassy areas of different orientations c a n be o c c u p i e d during communi ty social a n d cultural events. The smaller areas enc lo sed by trees c ou l d be, for example, kitchens for a commun i t y culinary event. The Harmony Arts Parkland offers a variety of p l a ce s for publ ic art installations. Three dimensional art, like the Kalkriese listening pavil ion in Kalkriese A r chaeo l o g i c a l Museum Park in Ge rmany (Plate 7.53) is a n e x a m p l e of the synthesis of art with the environment it inhabits. The listening pavil ion invites a person to enter a soundproof structure, then listen to the sounds of the forest by chang i n g the position of the listening dev i c e inside. It is h o p e d that this d y n a m i c o c e a n e d g e will e n c o u r a g e similar interactive installations. Plate 7.52 Orthographic view of Harmony Arts Parkland The Concept At the 16th Street entrance to the park, aggregate concrete pavers set in the grass invite a person to wander on the grass of the Harmony Arts Parkland. Plate 7.54 shows a precedent of concrete pavers in grass from a garden designed by Dan Kiley in 1994. A narrow path of pavers leads a person east to the base of The Solar Slopes. Moving east along the Park Promenade, the walkway meanders away from the beach and a person has glimpses of a semi-private garden. The current grid of residential settlement and the memory of the Harmony Arts Festival house and Silk Purse Gallery house will inform the location and design of this garden. The Concept 7.4.5 The Solar Slopes A one meter topograph ic depression b e t w e e n 15th a n d 16th Streets a l ong Bellevue A v e n u e af forded the opportunity to c rea te the Solar Slopes, a landform that reaches 2.5 meters a b o v e the existing elevat ion at its highest point (Plates 7.55, 7.56). The restructuring of the l and -beach inter face as well as the excava t i on n e e d e d for the construction of the one level of underg round parking under Bellevue Green , north of the Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery provides the fill n e e d e d for this earthwork. People sunning, sitting, walking a n d relaxing will be visible from Bellevue Avenue. This will c r ea te a visual connect iv i ty b e t w e e n the park a n d Ambles ide Village. Plate 7.55 Orthographic view of The Solar Slopes Plate 7.56 The Solar Slopes, conceptual plan Plate 7.57 View to horizon and park from top of The Solar Slopes Plate 7.58 Wind vanes and glass wall The Concept The a ve r age g rade of The Solar Slopes is 22%. The earthwork gives an e l e v a t e d perspect ive of the entire Argyle Waterfront Park, the o c e a n a n d b e y o n d (Plate 7.57). The south-facing grassy a r ea of the slopes invites lounging in the sun. The organ ic form of the earthwork references w a v e form a n d the o c e a n e d g e . It provides both exposure to a n d shelter from the wind and the w e a v e of sounds will vary with a person's position. At the top of the Solar Slopes urban sounds from Ambles ide Vi l lage will mix with those of this o c e a n e d g e . The open , grassy a rea of The Solar Slopes spills south over the barely visible pa th of pavers wh ich borders the base of the slope, then across the Park P r o m e n a d e to the b e a c h , linking the earthwork with the b e a c h a n d o c e a n . The low grey-green glass walls a n d the rows of wind vanes found here reveal the present property lines a n d edges of existing waterfront patios (Plate 7.58). The glass walls, like the present private patios, provide p laces to find exposure or shelter from the wind a n d sun. The wind vanes ce lebra te the wind a n d their w o o d e n posts c a n function as supports for tents during a commun i ty event. The creat ion of The Solar Slopes a f forded the opportunity to c r e a t e the seat ing on its eastern slope for the Edge Performance Plaza, desc r ibed in the following section. The Concept 7.5.6 The Edge Performance Plaza, Sand Theatre and Wind Garden The Edge Per formance Plaza a n d The Sand Theatre, p laces for artistic a n d cultural events, are l o c a t e d at the foot of 15th Street, the main north-south access road to the waterfront from the community (Plates 7.59, 7.60). The a rea is highly visible from a n d directly a d j a c e n t to, the commerc i a l district. The pedestrian only en t rance to the Plaza is f ramed by the same grey-green low glass walls a n d ornamenta l grasses found at the entrance to the Argy le Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery a n d The Pier P romenade. The design of these p l ace s is a synthesis of pe r fo rmance areas with the o c e a n , air a nd rail line. Plate 7.59 The Edge Performance Plaza, The Sand Theatre and The Wind Garden, conceptual plan Plate 7.60 Orthographic view of The Edge Performance Plaza, The Sand Theatre and The Wind Garden The Concept Permanent seating for the Edge Performance Plaza is found on the eastern slopes of The Solar Slopes earthwork. The seating takes the form of low granite a n d a luminum mesh benches , that are curved in response to the form of the earthwork (Plate 7.61). A p r e c e d e n t for these benches is shown in Plate 7.62. The a u d i e n c e for a pe r f o rmance c a n sit or stand on the grassy s lope of the earthwork a n d a u d i e n c e members c a n find sun or shade. The Lion's G a t e Bridge in the east b e c o m e s the b a c k d r o p to a pe r fo rmance v i e w e d from this pe rmanent seating. The small sca le a n d organic, intimate contextua l condit ions of this seating makes it a p l a c e for groups or individuals. The Plaza pe r f o rmance s p a c e does not have a de s i gna ted per formance area. Any number of configurations c a n be chosen , keep ing the s p a c e loose, e ve r chang i ng , fluctuating, a n d vibrant, like the exper ience of an o c e a n e d g e . Artists c a n c o m p o s e a n d organize their own s pace , time a n d actions. Temporary seat ing c a n be conf igured in any way. Plate 7.61 Orthographic view of seating Plate 7.62 Steel benches, Kathryn Gustafson, France The Concept Plate 7.63 Birds-eye view of The Sand Theatre The Sand Theatre (Plates 7.59, 7.60, 7.63) is formed by the steps wh i ch l e a d to the e x p a n d e d b e a c h a rea . The Sand Theatre is a p l a c e to sit at the e d g e of the b e a c h as well as a theatre for organized cultural activities a n d impromptu performances. The Sand Theatre configuration will c h a n g e with waves a n d tides. The disorder of the b e a c h stage will e n c o u r a g e imag inat ive performances. Here the a u d i e n c e c a n sit on logs or on the sand a n d rocks as a tact i le alternative to the conc re te steps. The Sand Theatre seat ing c a n be used for events occurr ing on the water. The widening of the b e a c h will a l l ow b e a c h fires to b e built during existing celebrations such as The First Night ce leb ra t i on a n d ca ro l ship evenings. Both outdoor pe r fo rmance places are subject to weather condit ions. The sounds of this o c e a n e d g e , the wind, waves, birds, o c e a n vessels, p lanes a n d the train, will a d d a richness a n d unpredictabil ity to activities occurr ing at this e d g e . The u n p r o g r a m m e d nature of the per formance p laces encou rages the a u d i e n c e to The Concept b e c o m e part of the ' p rog ram ' . Events will be woven together by a u d i e n c e part ic ipat ion in them. Performers a n d a u d i e n c e members c a n arrive by train or by sea, c reat ing an exper ience that not only reveals the condit ions of this o c e a n e d g e but honours the memory of the past a n d the impo r tance of the o c e a n a n d the rail line to the early setters of this waterfront edge . A Wind G a r d e n has been des igned for this important centre of activity. It will b e visible (Plate 7.64, 7.65) a n d heard from both per fo rmance p laces . Pedestrians walk ing or running a long the Park P romenade will pass through the Wind G a r d e n . Plate 7.64 Wind garden adjacent to The Edge Performance Plaza and The Sand Theatre Plate 7.66 Combs of the Wind, Chiilllida, 19; Plate 7.69 Sailboat and seagulls The Concept The Wind G a r d e n consists of 3 rows of wind vanes which are a r r anged a l ong the organ ic w a v e form pattern that informs the locat ion of p roposed trees (Plate 7.65). The g a rden of wind vanes will g ive the menta l image of air movement . Plate 7.66 shows Eduardo Chil l ida 's sculpture, " C o m b s of the Wind " , a n art installation that heightens the exper ience of the wind at the o c e a n e d g e . Wind vanes will also b e l o c a t e d in other areas a long the o c e a n e d g e to revea l the chang i n g condit ions of w ind s peed a n d direction. They will b e un ique to this park a n d help to def ine its character . A compet i t ion cou ld b e held to design the w ind vanes. Some precedents of w ind vanes from the turn of the century are shown in Plates 7.67, 7.68, 7.69. Plate 7.65 Wind Garden The Concept Plate 7.70 Spiral pebble paving Plate 7.72 Kirchner Museum Davos, 1992 O p e n d ra inage depressions in the Plaza cou ld be hazardous to performers due to the irregularity of the surface a n d d u e to the use of e lectr ica l dev i ce s for sound a n d lighting during per formances. The dra inage channels here h a v e a luminum mesh covers. Rainwater flows from the channels into drains in the centres of spiral p e b b l e pav ing patterns. A p receden t for the spiral p e b b l e pav ing pattern is shown in Plate 7.70. The pattern is in reference to the infiltration of rainwater. The rough texture of the pebb les will b e felt by pedestrians. Aga i n the design reveals natural hydrolog ic processes a n d makes t hem an expe r i ence of the senses. All rainwater c o l l e c t e d will b e stored in a cistern for irrigation purposes. A washroom facility is l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t to the rail line (Plate 7.71). As with the buildings of the Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gallery, the intent is to c r e a t e a building that seems to be wa shed up a n d t r apped by the rail line, the representat ion of the urban e d g e . The design of the building uses the palette of grey-green glass panels together with conc re te . A p r e c e d e n t for the building c l a d d i n g is seen in the design for the Kirchner Museum in Switzerland, shown in Plate 7.72. Here the architects c o v e r e d c o n c r e t e with glass in areas of the museum where no natural light enters the building. Glass c l o d d e d conc re te is p ropo sed for areas of the washroom that n e e d privacy. Translucent glass panels a b o v e e ye level a l low p e o p l e using the facility to see a train pass by from inside the bui lding. A v e g e t a t e d roof a ga i n finds its origin in the vegetat ion that engulfs logs w a s h e d up a b o v e the high tide line. Vege ta t i on , in the form of c lumping b a m b o o surrounds the building, c reat ing a washroom facility that is partly h idden. The b a m b o o , like the o rnamenta l grasses used elsewhere will respond to w ind a n d to the d i sp lacement of air by passing freight trains. The b a m b o o will b e si lhouetted against the building at night w h e n light flows from the inside out. 85 The Concept 7.5.7 The Bosque and The Galleria 1 " 1 1 ^Qj4 • • i * 4 .^f~ p . . . . . . 1 ' ' 1 ' ] t 11 V Plate 7.73 Orthographic view of The Bosque and The Galleria Plate 7.74 The Bosque and The Galleria. conceptual plan An unconvent iona l bosque (Plates 7.73, 7.74) mirrors The Wind G a r d e n to the east. All of the dec iduous trees of The Bosque will be l ighted during all seasons to c rea te an ever -chang ing e d g e a n d backd rop to the Edge Pe r fo rmance Plaza. Fragrant, summer-flowering dec iduous trees with beautiful fall co lour a n d an e legant form w h e n bare, are suggested for The Bosque. A narrow pa th of a g g r e ga te c o n c r e t e pavers set in grass leads from the Wind G a r d e n , through the Bosque to The Gal ler ia. The Gal ler ia (Plates 7.73, 7.74) is an a r e a of semi-private gardens within this publ ic waterfront park. The existing property lines form the edges of these gardens a n d c ou l d take many forms. Plates 7.75, 7.76 a n d 7.77 show some p recedent s for forms these g a r den edges cou l d take. The edges c a n b e cont inuous or discontinuous. The use of property lines as edges for these gardens c reates a persistency in the l a n d s c a p e wh ich distinguishes the pe rmanent over the transitory a n d ever -chang ing. The gardens are o p e n to a large grassy a r e a to The Concept the south, maintaining the existing sense of transparency a l ong the interface of private a n d public. These small sca le gardens, like the existing private b e a c h front patios a n d gardens, h a v e a human scale. They will p rov ide refuge from wind, sun a n d rain while still providing a prospect of the o c e a n . In the manner of the Parque C i t roen in Paris, these semi-private gardens will b e des i gned through a design compet i t ion related to the sensory exper iences of the natural p h e n o m e n a of this o c e a n edge . They c ou l d b e ephemera l or permanent . They will also b e p l ace s for art installations. It is p roposed that the existing communi ty gardens l o c a t e d a l ong Argyle A v e n u e b e r e l o ca ted to the land just south of the rail line. These c ou l d b e ma inta ined as they are t oday or alternately some of these ga rden plots c ou l d b e c o m e kitchen gardens for the restaurants l o c a t e d a long Bellevue Avenue . This wou ld foster a sense of communi ty ownership. Access to the kitchen gardens is from the temporary parking a d j a c e n t to the Ferry Building Gallery. A gravel path leads west to the washroom facility where an outdoor wash ing station for the gardens is found. Irrigation is from co l l e c ted rainwater, a u g m e n t e d if necessary by po t ab l e water. Plate 7.76 Shadows on wall as an edge Plate 7.77 Overlapping perforated steel panels The Concept Plate 7.78 Orthographic view of Patio and Garden of Ferry Building Gallery 7.4.8 The Patio and Garden at the Ferry Building Gallery A pat io a n d ga rden is p roposed for the a rea to the west of the Ferry Building Gallery (Plate 7.78). The plant pa let te a n d design of the ga rden is similar to that proposed for the heritage Navvy Jack House, making this r ecogn i zab le as a ga rden as soc ia ted with a her itage building. The small g a rden has seat wall seating a n d forms the eastern en t rance to The Gal ler ia. A raised south a n d west fac ing pat io of pe rmanent seating overlooks the gardens of The Gal ler ia. The pat io a n d ga rden prov ide p laces for outdoor functions a s soc ia ted with the Ferry Building Gal lery but c a n also be used by individuals. The tables, as descr ibed in the sect ion, Lowson Creek, Lawson Creek Sanctuary and The Great Lawn, c a n hold large umbrellas wh ich will provide protect ion from the sun a n d rain. Trees also prov ide shade in summer. Tree grates a nd drains in this a r e a will use the p e b b l e p r e c e d e n t to ind icate the infiltration of rainwater. Plate 7.79 is a c o n c e p t u a l d rawing of the proposed design for tree grates. Open ing s in the tree grate rep l i cate the p e b b l e pav ing design found in areas of ra inwater infiltration on p a v e d surfaces. The seating on the pat io a n d also the granite b lock seating that extends a l ong The Park P romenade south of The Ga l le r ia will provide addi t iona l p laces to wait for the proposed TransLink passenger ferry b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r a n d Ambles ide Landing Pier. Vehicular a cce s s to the Ferry Building Gallery is reta ined a n d temporary parking a n d parking for the d i sab led exists north of the garden. Plate 7.79 Spiral pebble-pattern tree grate The Concept 7.4.9 Ambleside Landing Pier Ambles ide Land ing Pier has been w i d e n e d near the shore to c r e a t e s p a c e for a Ticket Off ice, c a f e a n d a wait ing a rea on the pier with m o v e a b l e tables a n d chairs (Plate 7.80). Locat ing the Ticket Off ice on the pier will e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e to explore a n d linger on the pier, exper iencing the w ind a n d spray from waves on windy days. Shelter c a n be found inside the building a n d p e o p l e c a n rearrange the chairs a n d tables to find sun or shade, wind or c a l m . Plate 7.80 Orthographic view of Ambleside Landing Pier The Concept 7.5 Threading the Park Together, Linking it to the Community Pedestrian walkways a n d pathways thread together the individual e lements p roposed for the Argyle Waterfront Park, a n d link the park with the communi ty . Pedestrian walkways are or iented to provide chang ing views, a n d c h a n g i n g exposure to sun, wind a n d sounds, while respecting topography (Plate 7.81). The cu rved forms of the walkways are e voca t i v e of the b e a c h , shoreline a n d waves. Plate 7.81 Pedestrian walkways The sca le a n d s e q u e n c e of the main east-west walkway, the Park P romenade , relates to existing topog raph i c condit ions as well as to the b r o a d sca le of this linear edge , linking together the des ign elements like a ne ck l a ce . The ma in east-west pedestr ian wa lkway currently follows Argyle Avenue, just south of the rail line a n d pedestrians share the r oad with vehicles. The p roposed main east-west pedestr ian wa l kway is now a pedestr ian only wa lkway that meande r s closer to the b e a c h (Plate 7.81). The Concept Argyle Avenue, o n c e the acces s road to the existing waterfront houses, n ow exists only to a l low acce s s to Hollyburn Sailing C lub, the publ ic b oa t ramp, the Ferry Building Gal lery a n d Navvy Jack House (see c o n c e p t u a l p lan on p a g e 47). The width of Argyle A v e n u e north of the Hollyburn Sailing C l ub has b e e n nar rowed to al low the sailing c lub to b e set b a c k from the b e a c h . A pedestr ian wa lkway now exists a l ong the shoreline, linking Ambles ide Landing to the b e a c h front wa lkway in Ambles ide Park (Plate 7.82). The wa lkway crosses the publ ic b oa t l aunch a n d the sai lboat launch, connec t i ng pedestrians with the activities occurr ing a long the shoreline. Very high storm tides will result in waves wash ing over this walkway, enhanc i n g the exper ience of w ind -genera ted waves. Pedestrians wou ld then have the c h o i c e of continuing a long the wa l kway or using the alternate route of Argyle Avenue. Plate 7.82 The Park Promenade linking Ambleside Landing with Ambleside Park 91 The Concept Plate 7.83 Precedent of concrete paving with an aggregate edge Plate 7.84 Concrete pavers in grass The Park P romenade is universally access ible, 2.5 meters w ide a n d p a v e d with porous c onc re te with an a g g r e g a t e conc re te edge . Plate 7.83 shows a narrower version than p roposed for this walkway, of c o n c r e t e with an a g g r e g a t e c onc re te e d g e . The porous concrete offers improved infiltration of rainwater reduc ing the amoun t of stormwater runnoff. The lower density of porous c o n c r e t e also reduces its heat storage c a p a c i t y a n d allows the cooler, earth temperatures from b e l o w to coo l the concrete , a l lowing the c o n c r e t e to a p p r o a c h natural g round c o v e r in heat absorbing a n d storage c a p a c i t y . Pebbles a n d cobb les are used throughout the design to i nd i ca te the m o v e m e n t a n d infiltration of rainwater from hard to soft surfaces. Pebbles a n d cobb l e s naturally o c c u r on the b e a c h a n d in Lawson Creek, areas of natural hyro log ica l processes. Pedestrians walk ing across the e d g e of the Park P r o m e n a d e will see a n d feel the texture of the p e b b l e agg rega te edge , as they m o v e from a hard to soft surface, moving in the s ame direction as rainwater flows. Seconda ry walkways are m a d e of pe rmeab le a gg rega te c o n c r e t e pavers set in grass. Plate 7.84 shows a p r e c e d e n t for this type of pav ing. The seconda ry walkways are r emoved from the l and -beach e d g e (Plate 7.81) a n d offer more shelter from wind a n d sun. They have varied vegetat i ve c o v e r a n d their orientation creates var ied a n d chang i n g views. These walkways will b e more uneven to walk on, a transition b e t w e e n the hard-surfaced Park P r o m e n a d e a n d the grass. From a d i s tance the secondary walkways will d i s appea r in the grass. Finally, gravel pathways are found in the Lawson Creek Sanctuary a n d near the kitchen gardens in the a r ea of The Galleria. Their compos i t ion reflects the more organ ic nature of their locat ion. Night lighting a long the walkways a n d pathways will illuminate the trees a n d vegetat ion . No permanent lighting elements will illuminate from a b o v e waist height to preserve night views to the sky, the o c e a n a n d b e y o n d . The Concept Plate 7.85, a c o n c e p t u a l p lan v iew of a portion of Lawson C reek Sanctuary illustrates the hierarchy of wa l kway design. Plate 7.85 Walkway design Strong north-south connect ions be tween the Argyle Waterfront Land a n d the Ambles ide c ommerc i a l district a n d ne ighbourhood are c r e a t e d . The unique, wel l -def ined cha rac te r of e a c h acces s point to the park will e x tend north a l ong the acces s streets to Mar ine Drive in the form of sidewalk a n d street design, specif ic street tree select ion a n d specific palettes of vegeta t ion for traffic bulges. The design of e a c h entry point to the park will reveal their specif ic experiential a n d contextua l conditions. The coniferous and broad leaf everg reen vege ta t i on growing a l ong the rail line visually reinforces the rain line as a barrier a n d will b e selectively removed. The remova l of this vegetat ion will also improve the visual connec t i on be tween the c o m m e r c i a l district a n d the park. The design of the links b e t w e e n Argyle Waterfront Park a n d the Amb le s ide ne ighbourhood will e m b r a c e the existence of the rail line. The cha in link f e n c e edg ing the rail line a l ong the north e d g e of the park will b e r e p l a c e d with The Concept a unique a luminum f e n c e set a b o v e a low c o n c r e t e wall (Plate 7.86). The f e n c e will establish the rail line as something to be ce l eb r a ted . The a luminum f e n c e design is rep l i ca ted in the railings found on Ambles ide Landing Pier, John Lawson Pier, the br idge over Lawson Creek a n d the Navvy Jack House deck . These similarly des igned fences will help to c rea te a recogn izab le cha r a c te r for the park, forming a c o n n e c t i v e thread to visually link what seem to b e d i sparate parts of the park together. The aluminum mesh c o m p o n e n t of this f e n c e is also found in the furniture des i gned for the park. Plate 7.87 shows a p r e c e d e n t for the f e n c e design. Rather than have a mountain inspired design as this f e n c e does, a sinuous, w a v e form pattern of a luminum mesh is proposed. Plate 7.86 Fence along rail line Plate 7.87 Fence precedent The Concept The 17th Street en t r ance is now a primary en t rance to the Argyle Waterfront Park. A pedestr ian only p romenade , The Pier P romenade, links Bellevue A v e n u e to John Lawson Pier. To help to emphas ize the impor tance of this en t r ance a n d this axis of community, culture a n d history, the sidewalks b e t w e e n Mar ine Drive a n d Bellevue A v e n u e have b e e n w i d e n e d to 2.0 meters, to e n c o u r a g e ou tdoor seating a long this sect ion of 17th Street. Street trees found a l ong 17th Street cont inue a long the Pier P romenade into the park. The 17th Street en t r ance is the primary ent rance for The Argyle Arts Pavil ion a n d Gallery. Here the waterfront park enc roaches into the urban env i ronment in the form of a communi ty park, Bellevue G reen (Plate 7.88). The design of this park reflects the urban grid. Parking, wh ich o n c e existed here has b e e n r e l o c a t e d to a be low ground lot to a l low the creat ion of this park on slab. It c o u l d b e a children's play a r e a next to the rail line with a small off-leash d o g a r e a for the elderly populat ion living in the Ambles ide ne ighbourhood. Bellevue G r e e n enhances views from the communi ty to The Argyle Arts Pavilion a n d Gal lery a n d Plate 7.88 Park entrances at 17th and 16th Streets Plate 7.89 Park entrance at 15th Street The Concept to the o c e a n , reinforcing the integration of the park with the communi ty . The ent rance to the park at 16th Street is of a different cha rac te r (Plate 7.88). A gg r ega te pavers set in grass are in contrast to the more formal ent rances at 17th a n d 15th Streets. These pavers invite a person to move off the w a l k w a y a n d explore the grass a n d v e g e t a t e d areas of the park. The ent rance to the park at 15th Street is also a pedestrian only en t r ance . Existing turning lanes on this ma in acce s s road to the waterfront from the communi ty prevent w iden ing the sidewalk. Low glass walls a n d o rnamenta l grasses, trees a n d wind vanes f rame the ent rance (Plate 7.89). The 14th Street en t r ance remains similar to what exists now e x c e p t for a c h a n g e in traffic c irculat ion. The sidewalks a long N t h Street, be tween Bel levue A v e n u e a n d Mar ine Drive have b e e n w i d e n e d to 2 meters, like those on 17th Street, to c rea te a g rand sense of entry when app roach i n g the park a n d to c r e a t e more opportunity for s idewalk seating. A sidewalk has b e e n c r e a t e d on the east side of 18th Street for pedestr ians to acces s Navvy J a c k House a n d the western e d g e of The Argyle Waterfront Park (Plate 7.90). Though the 17th, 16th a n d 15th Street entrances to Argyle Waterfront Park are now pedestr ian only, their design allows for the passage of del ivery a n d emergency vehic les w h e n necessary. The Concept 7.6 The Urban Edge A vibrant compl imentary urban e d g e is essential to the success of The Argyle Waterfront Park. Currently the Ambles ide commerc i a l a rea lacks energy a n d many stores have been f o r ced to c lose leaving empty shops a l ong the main shopping streets of Marine Drive a n d Bellevue Avenue. As ment ioned previously, in the section Conditions of Context, the Ambles ide c o m m e r c i a l a rea has some mixed commerc ia l/h igh density residential buildings a n d the District of West Vancouve r is encou rag ing more. A greater popu lat ion living within the commerc i a l district wou ld help the overall health of this a rea . New commercial/residential buildings have b e e n a d d e d to the c o m m e r c i a l district in this c o n c e p t u a l design for The Argyle Waterfront Park in order to illustrate some suggestions for improving the health of this a rea. Two of the commerc i a l / residential buildings are proposed for the lots b e t w e e n 16th a n d 17th Streets (Plate 7.90), an a rea currently o c c u p i e d by a big box Sa feway a n d large parking lot. Two other buildings are p roposed for currently v a c a n t lots at the corner of Bellevue Avenue and N t h Street (Plate 7.90). These buildings a re set b a c k from the Street, increasing sidewalk widths a n d also creat ing small south-facing semi-enclosed spaces that c a n be used for outdoor seating. It is p roposed that all redeve lopment in this a rea increase the set-back from the street enough to c rea te areas for outdoor seating, particularly seating that allows views to the Argyle Waterfront Park and to the o c e a n beyond . The Concept —- — Ambteiide lone •Hi Harmony e Avenue I I 1 I f ] • lawson Creek Sanctuary The Great Lawn Ambleside tone • t e n * Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery The Edge The Solar Slopes Performance Praia The Sand Theatre The Vftnd Garden The Galleria John Lawson Pier The Ferry Building Gallery, Garden and Patio Ambleside Landing Pier Plate 145. Ambleside commercial district, conceptual plan The Concept As ment ioned in the previous section, sidewalk widths on 14th a n d 17th Streets b e t w e e n Mar ine Drive a n d Bellevue Avenue have been i nc reased from 1.5 to 4.0 meters. Where possible other street widths have b e e n i nc rea sed from 1.5 to 2.0 meters. To improve pedestr ian access to The Argyle Waterfront Park, the s idewalk on the south side of Bellevue Avenue be tween 15th a n d 16th Streets has b e e n ex tended easterly to the 15th Street park en t rance ( Plate 7.91). The s idewalk width at the ent rance to The Edge Performance Plaza a n d Wind G a r d e n is 3.5 meters. A pedestr ian drop-off a rea is l o c a t e d west of the en t rance (Plate 7.91). Similarly the sidewalk width at the ent rance to The Arts Paviion a n d Gal lery has b e e n increased to 3.5 meters. A drop-off a rea is l o c a t e d to the east of the en t rance (Plate 7.92). Plate 7.93 Winterthur Museum of Art extension, Switzerland, 1995 Plate 7.94 Garage hidden behind glass panels The Concept Turning lanes at the intersection of 16th Street with Bellevue A v e n u e faci l i tate the movemen t of vehicular traffic entering the parking under Bellevue G r e e n (Plate 7.92). The pedestr ian exit a n d ent rance to the underground parking is l o c a t e d on the east side of the extension of 17th Street into the park. Parking has b e e n r e d u c e d in the a rea of the p ropo sed park by the remova l of Argyle Avenue . Some of this parking has b e e n r e l o ca ted to the ground floor of the p roposed new Harmony Arts Festival off ice wh ich cou ld be const ructed on the site of the existing Mason ic Hall, a short d i s tance west from the intersection of 17th Street a n d Bellevue Avenue. The pa le t te of materials chosen for this bui lding should c o m p l e m e n t that of the Argyle Arts Pavilion and Gallery as they are linked culturally a n d visibly. Plates 7.93 a n d 7.94 show a p r e ceden t for the arch i tectura l style of the building. It is p roposed that public transportation prov ide the primary a cce s s to the Argyle Waterfront Park, encourag ing pedestrians to walk through the c ommerc i a l district on their w a y to the park, thus increasing the v ibrancy of the c ommerc i a l district. Pedestrian circulation within the Ambles ide commerc i a l a rea c a n also be e n h a n c e d by redesigning the existing segments of Ambles ide Lane (Plate 7.90) to make them more pedestr ian friendly. The entrances to some c o m m e r c i a l enterprises are currently found in the lane. Trees cou ld be p l an ted a n d shop owners e n c o u r a g e d to put entrances to their businesses in the lane. The mixed commercial/res ident ia l d e ve l opmen t proposed for the existing Sa feway property incorporates Ambles ide Lane into its design (Plate 7.90). Bellevue A v e n u e is often very windy due to its l ocat ion near the o c e a n . The lanes prov ide shelter from the wind. It is also p roposed that the big block fabric of this c o m m e r c i a l a r ea be broken up with more pedestr ian passageways b e t w e e n Mar ine Drive a n d Ambles ide Lane. Some currently exist but more are suggested. Increasing the vitality of this built e d g e is invaluable to the funct ioning of the Argyle Waterfront Park. It is h o p e d that this, together with s t rengthened spatial a n d visual connect ions b e t w e e n the park a n d the Ambles ide ne i ghbourhood will seamlessly link the two a long this urban edge . Final Thoughts 8. Final Thoughts The c o n c e p t u a l des ign d e v e l o p e d for the Argyle Waterfront Park is a sensitive response to the es sence of this o c e a n edge . Although the design was d e v e l o p e d through a very personal exper ience of this edge , many of the c o n c e p t u a l ideas presented are similar to those d e v e l o p e d through a process of commun i ty consultat ion (West Vancouve r Waterfront Directions Study). Clear ly the exper ience of an o c e a n edge , the feelings of peop l e w h o are d r awn to this e d g e a n d their responses to these feelings are similar. To make the des ign for this o c e a n e d g e truly sustainable, the design process must involve a publ ic process to cult ivate a sense of ownership a n d pride. In order for the publ ic process to b e true to the tact i le a n d rich exper ience of this o c e a n edge , the p r opo sed design must stimulate imaginat ive thinking a n d the willingness to exper iment. The design for the park attempts to reveal the tacti le a n d every -chang ing nature of the land, o c e a n a n d air interface. The Argyle Waterfront Park is authent ic to today, yet will b e a pa let te that will al low exper imentat ion a n d c h a n g e with time. The park will h a v e a quality of stable impermanence , like the e d g e where it is found. 101 References References Alexander, Don. P lace: Repairing the Fabric of Human Experience. Vancouver : unpublished manuscript, 2004. Angelillo, Antonio, editor. Alvaro Siza, Writings on Architecture. Milan: Skira, 1997. Atkinson, Scott, editor. Patios a n d Decks. California: Sunset Publishing Corporat ion, 1994. Brookes, John. Ga rden Masterclass. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2002. Cooper , Guy and Go rdon Taylor. Gardens for the Future. New York: The Monace l l i Press, 2000. Cooper , Guy and Go rdon Taylor. Paradise Transformed. New York: The Monace l l i Press, 1996. Darke, Rick. The Color Encyc l oped i a of Ornamenta l Grasses. Portland: Timber Press, 1999. Dexter, Oxana . Cultural Services Manager , Parks a n d Community, District of West Vancouver, personal conversations, 2004. Dovey, Kimberly. "Putting Geomet r y in its P lace: Toward a Phenomeno logy of the Design Process,". In Dwelling, Seeing a n d Designing, ed . D. Seamon. N e w York: State University of New York Press, 1993. Dreiseilt, Herbert, Dieter G rau a n d Karl Ludwig. Waterscapes; Planning, Building a n d Designing with Water. Basel: Birkhauser, 2001. References Everts, Ralph. Hay and C o m p a n y Consulting Incorporated, personal conversations, 2004. Frampton, Kenneth. "Arch i tecture as Critical Transformation: The Work of Alvaro Siza." In alvaro siza, e d . Kenneth Frampton. London: Pha idon Press Limited, 2000. G igon, Annette and Mike Guyer. el croquis editorial. Madr id : 102,2000. Grange, Joseph. " P l ace , Body a n d Situation". In Dwelling, P lace a n d Environment, ed . D. Seamon a n d R. Mugerauer. New York: Co lumb ia University Press, 1985. Gregotti, Vittoria. "A lvaro Siza." In Alvaro Siza 1954-1988, e d . Toshio Nakamura. Tokyo: a+u Publishing C o . Ltd., 1989. Howett, Catherine. "If the Doors of Percept ion Were C lean sed : Toward an Experiential Aesthetics for the Des igned Landscape. " In Dwelling, Seeing a n d Designing, ed . D. Seamon. N e w York: State Univeristy of New York Press, 1983. Hollyburn Sailing Club, <http://www.hollyburnsailingclub.ca> (July 2004) Kidd, Sunni. Seashore Philosophy: A Living Example of Taoism. Ma r ch 27, 2003. <http://www.superdirector.com> (October 2003) Kawasaki, Masashi, Tsuna Sasaki a n d Hai Yang. "The analysis of Image in Waterfront Cities". In Recreat ion a n d Tourism as a Catalyst for Urban Waterfront Redevelopment, ed . S. J. Craig-Smith a n d M. Fagence . Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995. Kennon, Kevin. The Rodin Museum, Seoul. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001. 103 References Klamkin, Charles. Weather Vanes. The History, Manufac tu re a n d Design of an Amer i can Folk Art. New York: Hawthorn Books Inc., 1973. Moneo, Jose Rafael. " Comment s on Siza's Arch i tecture" . In Alvaro Siza, Figures and Configurations, Buildings a n d Projects 1986-1988, e d . W. Wang. Cambr i dge : Harvard University G radua te School of Design, 1988. Nakamura, Toshio, editor. A lvaro Siza 1954-1988. Tokyo: a+u Publishing Co . Ltd., 1989. Newhouse, Victoria. Towards a New Museum. New York: The Monace l l i Press, 1998. Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Phenomeno logy from Architecture: Presence, Language, P lace. Milan: Skira, 2000. Seamon, David. "Goe the , Nature a n d Phenomenology. " In Goe the ' s Way of Sc ience, A Phenomenology of Nature, e d . D. Seamon a n d A. Zajonc. New York: State University of New York Press, 1998. Munic ipal Art Col lect ion Policy. West Vancouver : District of West Vancouver , 2004. Schinz, Marina a n d Gabriel le v a n Zuylen. The Gardens of Russell Page. New York: Stewart, Tabori a n d C h a n g , 1991. Seamon, David. "Phenomenolo lgy, P lace, Environment a n d Architecture." Environmental a n d Architectural Phenomeno logy Newletter. <http://www.arch. ksu.edu/seamon/articles/2000 phenomeno logy review.htm.> (October 2004) Steele, James. Museum Builders. London: A c a d e m y Group Ltd., 1994. The 20th Century Art Book. London: Pha idon Press Ltd., 1996. References TransLink. A rea Transit Plans, North Shore, <http://www.translink.bc.ca> (March 2004) Trulove, James Grayson. Designing the New Museum. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Rockport Publishers, 2000. Wagner, Sandra. "An Interview with Eduardo Chi l l ida" . Sculpture Magaz ine. <http://www.sculpture.org> (March 2004) Wang, Wilfried. "Notes on the Architecture of Alvaro Siza." Alvaro Siza 1954-1988, ed . Toshio Nakamura. Tokyo: a+u Publishing C o . Ltd., 1989. West Vancouve r Waterfront Directions Study: Ambles ide to Dundarave. West Vancouver : Guzzi Perry a n d Associates, 1992. West Vancouve r Official Communi ty Plan. West Vancouver : Planning Department, 2001. Wex, A n n a and Shawn Natrasony, Ben Kyllo, Katy A m o n a n d Rache l Forbes, The FACE Audit, An Assessment of a P l ace Audit Tool Through a Ca se Study of Ambles ide, West Vancouver . Vancouver : SFU Semester in Dialogue: The Urban Experience, 2001 Williams, Bill Lacy, Stephen D. Rountree a n d Richard Meier. The Getty Center Design Process. Los Angeles: The J. Paut Get ty Trust, 1991. Ympa , Hebert. Mex ican Contemporary . New York: Stewart, Tabori a n d C h a n g , 1997. 

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