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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Naming Roberts, Duff Matthew 2005

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NAMING  by  DUFF MATTHEW ROBERTS  B . A . , The University o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 2003 M A . , The University o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 2005  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H ED E G R E E OF  M A S T E R OF ARTS  in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  English  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A  A p r i l 2005  © D u f f M a t t h e w R o b e r t s , 2005  Abstract  N a m i n g is a narrative strategy that serves to explicate the conceptual m o d e l the strategy is d r a w n from. T h r o u g h a close reading and e x a m i n a t i o n o f the narrative strategies i n D a v i d M a l o u f s short stories " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " and " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y " and his n o v e l Remembering Babylon, and Jack H o d g i n s ' short stories " S e p a r a t i n g " and " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " and his n o v e l Innocent Cities, m y thesis proposes that names are stories and n a m i n g is storytelling. T h i s thesis offers a m o d e l o f forward/lateral t h i n k i n g as a structure that performs, s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y , the l a y e r i n g o r e m b e d d i n g o f stories w i t h i n names. Further, this thesis also contains c r i t i c a l engagement w i t h s i m i l a r l a y e r i n g s i n the w o r k o f Fred W a h , A n n e Carson, Laurie R i c o u , Thomas K i n g , D o n M c K a y , Denis Lee, and T i m L i l b u r n . T a k e n together, these diverse w r i t e r s ' t h i n k i n g o n n a m i n g and storytelling respond i n m y thesis to E c o c r i t i c a l and P o s t c o l o n i a l theoretical modes o f textual address and analysis.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  11  Table of Contents  i»  Dedication  1V  Prologue V2.I  On Approach  1  The Story of Forward/Lateral  1  DEFINITION I 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  Placing Emphasis: Texturing Text  8  The Story of "There are no Names But Stories" The Story of Responding to Resistance The Story of Proximal and Distal The Story of Responding to an Ecocritical Model  8 11 13 19  DEFINITION II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12  The Story of Naming Parts of Speech The Story of the Verb "To Re-cognate" The Story of a Lateral Story The Story of Parallax The Story of Tales of the Arabian Nights and Framing The Story of Tales of a Thousand and One Nights and Framing The Story of Alf Layla WaLayla and Framing The Story of the Textured Text of Naming's Approach The Story of So The Story of It The Story of Is, of Metaphor and Naming The Story of Un-Settling Settled  DEFINITION III 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7  Works Cited  Negation, Hyphenation, Identity: Naming's Morphemes  The Story of Hokusai and His Many Names The Story of Negation The Story of Hyphens on Gravestones The Story of Wah's Poetics The Story of Wall's Hyphen The Story of Spit's Re-cognition The Story of Sumner's Re-cognition  DEFINITION III.V 3.5.1 3.5.2  Constellating. Parts of Speech in Parallax  26 26 28 28 30 33 34 34 36 37 39 44 53 56 56 59 60 61 70 76 78  Named Choices  83  The Story of My Dad's Stories The Story of My Choices  83 85 89  IV  Dedication  I would like to thank Laura Moss for her humour, confidence, and advice; Laurie Ricou and Kevin McNeilly for their close reading; Bill New for gifting me "lateral" and "parallax" and helping me to diink through the art of teaching; Travis V. Mason for listening and laughter; My family, Chnstia, Sam and Hans; My cat, Otis; and Kristina, the most, and always.  Definition 0.5  1  namely [NAME sb. + -LY .] 2  1. P a r t i c u l a r l y , e s p e c i a l l y , above a l l .  Prologue/Foreword/Forward On Approach T o g i v e h i m a name w o u l d n a m e the rest. M i c h a e l Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost, 56.  T H E STORY OF FORWARD/LATERAL N a m i n g i n literature functions as a narrative strategy but to contradictory ends. A l t h o u g h n a m i n g is a narrative strategy for e x c l u d i n g and i n c l u d i n g , representing and repressing, subverting and liberating, constructing and deconstructing, e m b r a c i n g and d i s m i s s i n g , suppressing and m a g n i f y i n g that w h i c h is named, n a m i n g is not just, as postcolonial theory w o u l d have it, a p o l i t i c s o f resistance. N a m i n g is i n v e n t i o n , i m a g i n i n g . N a m i n g is m e d i a t i o n , inbetweeness, a " n o i s y h y p h e n " to use F r e d W a h ' s t e n n (Diamond 176).  N a m i n g is story and s t o r y t e l l i n g because "that's a l l w e are" as  T h o m a s K i n g says (Truth 2 ) . N a m i n g is filing and categorization, but for L a u r i e R i c o u that same filing is " c l u s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g to some s h i f t i n g set o f associations," " w i n d i n g and s t r i n g i n g " (Arbutus/Madrone  2). N a m i n g is negation, for D o n M c K a y " n a m e as  epitaph" (Vis 89). N a m i n g is assertion, negation as assertion. Jack H o d g i n s and D a v i d M a l o u f e m p l o y n a m i n g as a textual strategy. M y thesis w i l l suggest a w a y o f r e a d i n g and u n p a c k i n g their strategies.  I h a v e chosen these t w o  authors because a l t h o u g h they are separated b y considerable geography, h i s t o r y , and  ' Chapter entry definitions are from the Oxford English Dictionary. "File" is from the Latinfilum,meaning thread or string.  2  2  culture, a n d although they b o t h w r i t e out o f and about their different respective geographies, histories, a n d cultures, they both e m p l o y n a m i n g as a narrative strategy. E a c h author e m p l o y s different textual strategies under the rather large u m b r e l l a o f n a m i n g proper; h o w e v e r , their n a m i n g functions to m o b i l i z e the fact that h o w w e n a m e mediates o u r interaction i n and w i t h the w o r l d . B o t h o f m y w r i t e r ' s w o r k s are also p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n d u c i v e to close reading; close r e a d i n g activates the theory. H o w i s Jack H o d g i n s i n his short stories " S e p a r a t i n g " and " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " (Spit Delaney's Island),  and h o w i s D a v i d M a l o u f i n his short stories " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " a n d " B l a c k s o i l  C o u n t r y " (Dream Stuff)—or rather, a n d importantly, h o w are their t e x t s — w r i t i n g a n d t h i n k i n g about n a m i n g ? H o w does " J a c k o ' s R e a c h , " a p l a c e name, gesture towards different realizations for different characters - for some, anecdote, for others c o m m u n i c a t i o n , history, m a p , the r o m a n t i c , a p l a c e for games, r u m o u r , i n v e n t i o n , wilderness, and progress. T h e name J a c k o ' s R e a c h contains a l l o f these p o s s i b i l i t i e s . W h a t does S p i t D e l a n e y ' s progress through self-awareness i n " S e p a r a t i n g " a n d " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s Island," a n a m i n g o f s e l f written through a m e a s u r i n g l y m o r e accurate n a m i n g o f s e l f and other(s), reveal about n a m i n g as narrative strategy and n a m i n g as d r a w n f r o m a c o g n i t i v e m o d e l that guides engagement w i t h the w o r l d ? M a l o u f and H o d g i n s are a l w a y s [PJolitics evaporates before aesthetics. already aware that a n y attention to n a m i n g - George Elliott Clarke's Whylah Falls, xxiv. i n texts articulates a p o l i t i c s o f resistance to  I have been asked to define "politics" in this context. A politics of resistance is a reading of naming in a text so that the textural aspects of the text itself—naming as a narrative strategy—are ignored in favour of a immediate interrogation of the text's socio-political implications. I believe that moving directly to the larger context of a text—historical, social, cultural, political (in its governmental sense)—tends to ignore the strategy within the words themselves. I authorize close reading in order to avoid watershed pronouncements of a texts political functioning. 3  3  certain c o l o n i a l practices o f n a m i n g . Laterally, G e o f f W a r d writes i n h i s essay o n / c a l l e d " P o e t i c s " that h i s "essay i s not a rebuttal o f theory b u t rather a r e m i n d e r that the p r a c t i c e o f w r i t i n g p o e m s does i t s e l f and o f necessity s i g n a l a theoretical d i m e n s i o n " An Alphabet of Critical  (Glossalia:  Keywords 227). M a l o u f and H o d g i n s , w h e n w r i t i n g about  n a m i n g , w h e n e m p l o y i n g a strategy that e m p l o y s n a m i n g , s i g n a l multiple theoretical d i m e n s i o n s , instead o f " a " theoretical d i m e n s i o n . T h e w r i t i n g , the crafting, the strategy i n the c h o i c e i n the w r i t i n g and crafting is readable and theoretical, w h i c h i s to say i s reflexive about h o w the w r i t i n g i s read. M y p r i o r i t y i s to attend to the textual strategy first. H o d g i n s ' n o v e l Innocent Cities (1990) and M a l o u f s Remembering Babylon (1993) are a n c i l l a r y characters i n the story I w r i t e about n a m i n g ' s texture.  Remembering  Babylon i s a b o u t h o w a c o m m u n i t y reacts to, a n d co-exists w i t h , the i n t r u s i o n o f an 4  outsider, and h o w the o u t s i d e r ' s v e r y presence ( w h o s e n a m e i s G e m m y ) forces the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c o m m u n i t y to engage w i t h their o w n n a m i n g practices. Innocent Cities is about h o w c o m m u n i t y i s constituent o f i n d i v i d u a l s interacting b y n a m i n g , and h o w their strategies o f n a m i n g c o m e to b e foregrounded. T h a t b o t h authors b e l o n g to a c a n o n o f p o s t c o l o n i a l writers suggests that they f o l l o w the c o n v e n t i o n a l p o s t c o l o n i a l a p p r o a c h to w r i t e i n such a w a y that the w r i t i n g seeks to act as a corrective to past w r i t i n g strategies b y w r i t i n g b a c k to t h e m i n s u c h a w a y that the w r i t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y resists and proposes alternative r e a d i n g strategies, the and a taught connector. H o w e v e r , I I use the preposition "about" while recognizing that it is problematic. It suggests the distillation of text into a singular essence; it proposes synthesis, a limited focus, and linearity when Descartes has long ago passed away. W. H. New begins the follow-up publication to his 2004 Sedgewick lecture by attending to the "about" ("...About Irony...") in the title of his talk. He writes, "the lead preposition in my title hints at a «o«-linear challenge: so I will be non-linear in what I have to say, by intention. About: from OE onbutan, "on the outside." I do not want simply to repeat what critics and theorists have said about irony in general, but to look at what some specific literary examples suggest about the function of subject, strategy, and tone" (11). 4  4  b e l i e v e that M a l o u f and H o d g i n s are r e n d e r i n g a naming-as-narrative-strategy that gets at a different c o m p l e x , a c o m p l e x w h i c h i n c l u d e s yet reaches b e y o n d the n a m i n g as resistance, n a m i n g as strategy for r e s i s t i n g the c o l o n i a l / i m p e r i a l s i n g u l a r i t y , a s i n g u l a r i t y that l i m i t s a n a l y s i s o f the i n c r e d i b l y r i c h textual and textural strategy o f n a m i n g . T h e l i m i t a t i o n here, I t h i n k , i s the tendency to p l a c e the t e x t ' s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d r a m i f i c a t i o n s before, and at times i n e x c l u s i o n of, a close r e a d i n g o f the text itself, e x a m i n i n g h o w the w o r d s o n the page enact certain strategies o f approach, that c a r r y tone, texture, and the tactile. L a u r i e R i c o u ' s The Arbutus/Madrone  Files: Reading the Pacific  (2002), T h o m a s K i n g ' s The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative  Northwest  (2003), D o n  M c K a y ' s Vis a Vis: Field Notes on Poetry & Wilderness (2001), F r e d W a h ' s Diamond Grill (1996) and Faking It: Poetics & Hybridity (2000), and A n n e C a r s o n ' s Economy of the Unlost (1999) are a t y p i c a l theoretical texts. F i r s t , they t e l l g o o d stories, engage i n storytelling. S e c o n d , they offer w a y s for reading, are t h e o r y .  5  I a m interested i n the w a y s  these texts—texts that do not read as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y theoretical, texts that propose theory hesitantly, h u m b l y , d i a l o g i c a l l y , that c o n t a i n b o t h the creative ( f o r m a l l y , n a r r a t o l o g i c a l l y ) and theoretical, and that w r i t e about negation, f i l i n g , s t o r y t e l l i n g , h y p h e n a t i o n , and a post-subject-position-thinking—offer a w a y i n to (and out of) the n a m i n g i n M a l o u f s and H o d g i n ' s texts. A l l the texts also present t h i n k i n g about n a m i n g itself. T h i s intertextual, inter-idea, nested-layering approach a l l o w s each secondary text to g u i d e but not dictate, a l l o w but not d e m a n d , suggest but not insist, p r o v i d e entry but  I suggest that these texts are theoretical because they all reflect on the writing process. They all engage with how words on the page produce meaning. They also all allow specific close readings—readings of the hyphen, of linguistic negation, of how stories are structured and told—to offer ways of thinking about what the close readings themselves posit about the way language mediates our interaction in and with the world. 5  5  not contract the frame o r n a r r o w the funnel/focus or t h i c k e n the lens. In other w o r d s , the engagement I a m interested i n , the approach I w a n t to accede to, is one that attends to m y authors' w r i t i n g o f n a m i n g laterally, or as D e n n i s L e e writes i n " B o d y M u s i c : N o t e s o n R h y t h m i n P o e t r y , " w i t h a " f o r w a r d / l a t e r a l " a c t i o n (41). T h i n k i n g l a t e r a l l y contains traces o f certain chords i n tangential t h i n k i n g . L e e is t a l k i n g about forward/lateral r h y t h m as it generates m e a n i n g i n poetry, a r h y t h m that a l l o w s a " c o h e r e n c e [that] is l o c a l , p r o v i s i o n a l , [and] contingent o n the f l u x " (41) through a l i s t e n i n g (and i n m y case, reading) engagement, the text b e c o m e s s o n i c , the w r i t i n g c o n v e y s "the w o r l d as it is... not c o n s e c u t i v e , but o v e r l a i d " (43). T h e concept o f forward/lateral t h i n k i n g i n f o r m s m y approach.  T h e central, thicker, a r r o w i n the conceptual d i a g r a m to the right denotes the p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h argument and assertion towards c o n c l u s i o n ( s ) or process, a m o v e m e n t that contains the texts I l o o k at, and the n a m i n g as narrative strategy that leads to c o m p l e x i t y i n those texts. T h e lateral s e g m e n t s / t h i n k i n g either i n s p i r e d b y the i d e a s / t h i n k i n g i n m y secondary texts that h e l p to e x p l i c a t e n a m i n g as c o m p l e x i n m y p r i m a r y text, or the instances o f n a m i n g i n m y p r i m a r y text (as evidence) that l e a d m e into the ideas i n m y s e c o n d a r y texts as reflective/refractive o f m y r e a d i n g o f the p r i m a r y texts - further the argument, refuse to categorize, r e i n f o r c e the structure o f the intertextual w r i t i n g i n the thesis itself, a l l o w n a m i n g to be m o r e than resistance, at once. T h e r e is also an implied progression, momentum, buildup. W h i l e the laterals v a r y i n length, they are also b a l a n c e d .  forward/lateral t h i n k i n g  6 F o r w a r d / l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g is important to m e because it m i m i c s not o n l y h o w n a m i n g i t s e l f functions, but h o w I w r i t e : names c o n t a i n d e f i n i t i o n s s t a b i l i z e d m o m e n t a r i l y i n t i m e ; t i m e m o v e s f o r w a r d and names acquire different definitions, d e f i n i t i o n s that are either mutations o f p r e v i o u s definitions or w h o l l y n e w . I w r i t e i n s u c h a w a y as to leave r o o m for m y reader to attach laterals to the laterals I propose. B y w a y o f " c r a c k i n g the perfect, s m u g egg o f p o s s i b i l i t y " ( " T o B e g i n , T o B e g i n " 333), I offer the f o l l o w i n g questions: •  I f n a m i n g categorizes, and as categorization confines, frames, announces l i m i t s and boundedness, i n what w a y s do M a l o u f s and H o d g i n s ' w r i t i n g o f names and n a m i n g counteract these inherent/assumed properties, h o w d o they m u d d y the " p r e c i s i o n " ?  •  H o w does c o n t r o l l e d intertextual structuring w o r k to destabilize that v e r y structure and h o w is that structure l i n k e d to n a m i n g ?  •  W h a t is l e a k i n g out o f n a m i n g ?  •  H o w do M a l o u f and H o d g i n s get at the texture w i t h i n n a m i n g ?  •  In what w a y s are M a l o u f and H o d g i n s a u t h o r i z i n g a different a p p r o a c h to n a m i n g , an a p p r o a c h that attempts to m o v e past the inherent ( a l w a y s already) p o l i t i c s o f n a m i n g ?  •  H o w do w r i t e r s create a c o m p l e x out o f a requirement for representation, and i n s u c h a w a y that the focus is m o r e o n the engagement w i t h the fact o f creating/seeing/glossing/attending (the w r i t i n g thereof, the language, the aesthetics, the strategy) rather than o n subject p o s i t i o n ?  •  H o w is e x p l o r i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the h y p h e n ' s a m b i g u i t i e s , assumed transparencies, and i m p l i c i t p o s s i b i l i t i e s analogous to m y a p p r o a c h to the study o f n a m i n g ?  •  C a n n a m i n g b e story? C a n n a m i n g b e s t o r y t e l l i n g ?  •  H o w is a study o f n a m i n g as strategy o f approach p e d a g o g i c a l ?  •  H o w are M a l o u f and H o d g i n s not u s i n g n a m i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y ? W h i c h i s to say h o w are their approaches to n a m i n g r e v e a l i n g a n e x p e n s i v e engagement w i t h , a n d attention to, the w o r l d ?  6  I propose to a l l o w these question to m o b i l i z e r e a d i n g c l o s e l y . M y forward/lateral approach, m y theoretical texts that tell stories first, the questions I ask, a n d m y close r e a d i n g o f short stories a n d their necessity, as a result o f e c o n o m y , to i n c l u d e strategies that refract m e a n i n g , all force m e to stay c l o s e to the text. I want m y thesis to engage m y reader because I m o v e through the text w h i l e r e a c h i n g out a n d gesturing towards the i m p l i c a t i o n s b o r n o f the text itself. M y m o v e m e n t w i t h i n the n a m i n g i n stories a n d the m o m e n t u m the m o v e m e n t generates i n the f o r m o f a n engagement w i t h tone, texture, a n d strategy, I hope, w i l l m o b i l i z e m y reader as w e l l .  While these questions are not sequential, the interrogatives are controlled by two threads: one, the primary texts that the questions will be applied to, and two, they all ask questions about how naming functions.  6  8 Definition 1  nameable [f. NAME v .  1  + -ABLE.]  1. T h a t admits o f b e i n g n a m e d , o r b e i n g c a l l e d b y a certain name. Chapter 1  Placing Emphasis: Texturing Text  T h e m a g i c o f . . . literature... is not i n the themes o f the stories - identity, i s o l a t i o n , l o s s , c e r e m o n y , c o m m u n i t y , maturation, h o m e - it is i n the w a y m e a n i n g i s refracted b y c o s m o l o g y , the w a y understanding is shaped b y c u l t u r a l paradigms. - from Thomas King's The Truth About Stories, 112.  T H E STORY OF " T H E R E ARE N O N A M E S BUT STORIES" T o name. B o t h D a v i d M a l o u f s " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " a n d J a c k H o d g i n s ' " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " c o n t a i n apostrophes, possessives: one i m p l i e s disparate l o c a t i o n ("reach" - to project, to extend), one i m p l i e s the bordered and contained (islands are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y framed b y their beaches a n d b y water); o n e ' s possessive i s e m b e d d e d i n the p l a c e n a m e itself, o n e ' s p o s s e s s i v e i m p l i e s o w n e r s h i p , the b e l o n g i n g to a n a m e d i n d i v i d u a l . B o t h possessives are a m b i g u o u s . A n a m e d p l a c e c a n not r i g h t l y o w n itself; S p i t D e l a n e y does not o w n V a n c o u v e r Island. B o t h names, then, tell stories about namers, the e m b e d d i n g w i t h i n the name itself, f r a m i n g , a n d the practice o f n a m i n g i m b u e d i n a concept o f o w n e r s h i p , a concept that u n p a c k s the hierarchies i n subject-object p o w e r d y n a m i c s i n order to e x a m i n e the hierarchies i m b e d d e d i n particular c o g n i t i v e schema, w h i c h are, i n turn, r e v e a l e d 7  through a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s c h e m a ' s n a m i n g strategies/practices.  Embedded, imbedded. Rather than the double spelling suggesting a lack of focus, it suggests an initial ambiguity in the syntax of naming. Embedded is used consistently from this point on.  7  9 P h e w ! A l o n g sentence, I k n o w , f u l l o f strategy, approach, text, texture, story, storytelling, names, naming,, and (perhaps) other things I h a v e not n a m e d . A c o m p l i c a t e d system. A c o m p l e x system. A system that i s a c o m p l e x , a w a i t i n g engagement ( c o m p l e x [n. 1]: a w h o l e m a d e u p o f . . . interrelated parts).  A shorter sentence m i g h t read: n a m i n g i s a  narrative strategy that serves to explicate the conceptual m o d e l the strategy is d r a w n f r o m . T h i s thesis then is as e q u a l l y about narrative strategy as it is about conceptual m o d e l s . In fact, they r u n i n p a r a l l e l , o r m o r e accurately i n p a r a l l a x . R e c o g n i t i o n o f the w o r k i n g s o f n a m i n g as a narrative strategy and the subsequent w o r k i n g s o f the c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a the n a m i n g draws o n posits a p o s t - p o s t c o l o n i a l approach. A n d here I must name it, p o s t - p o s t c o l o n i a l that i s , o r at least propose its difference engine. I b e l i e v e , as does L a u r a M o s s i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f " T h e P o l i t i c s o f E v e r y d a y H y b r i d i t y " i n Z a d i e S m i t h ' s White Teeth, a n d as does R o b e r t B u d d e i n his d i s c u s s i o n o f the " P o l i t i c s o f F o r m " i n F r e d W a h ' s prose poetry, that the p o s t - p o s t c o l o n i a l contains s o m e sort o f a l w a y s already m o m e n t . M o s s "want[s] to g o b e y o n d s e e i n g H y b r i d i t y as an i n - b e t w e e n space [as H o m i B h a b h a renders the t h i r d space created i n the contact z o n e b e t w e e n t w o cultures] o r as the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the n e c e s s a r i l y a m b i v a l e n t interaction b e t w e e n c o l o n i a l authority and the c o l o n i a l subject" (Wasafiri 12). Pursuant to h e r desire, M o s s asks the question that she b e l i e v e s White Teeth is attending to, " w h a t happens to the subject w h o is not ' i n - b e t w e e n ' t w o cultures o r r a c e s . . . but w h o s i m p l y i s ? " ( 1 3 ) R o b e r t B u d d e b e l i e v e s that the f o r m o f F r e d W a h ' s fragmented poetry i s a l w a y s already p o l i t i c a l i n that it transgresses " l i n e a r i t y , narrative c o h e s i o n . . . the C a r t e s i a n e g o . . . a n d the integrity o f the w o r d " (292). B u d d e b e l i e v e s that " c r i t i c s h a v e f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e . . . the dual f u n c t i o n o f [ W a h ' s ] w r i t i n g b o t h as o p p o s i t i o n a l a n d as [an] 'agent[] o f r e a r t i c u l a t i o n ' " (288). A s  All definitions are derived from Merriam-Webster (unless otherwise stated).  10 p o s t c o l o n i a l w r i t i n g , the f o r m o f W a h ' s poetry attends to resistance to d o m i n a n t m o d e s o f discourse, the f o r m i s a l w a y s already resisting and therefore p o l i t i c a l ; after the p o l i t i c a l m o m e n t , W a h ' s poetry acts as a reagent for suggestions for the creative c l a y i n g o f language, and focuses o n the w a y language m a k e s m e a n i n g f r o m the i n s i d e out. In this r u b r i c , a w r i t e r ' s strategies, the p e d a g o g y o f their aesthetics, are g i v e n 9  p r i m a c y o v e r p o s t c o l o n i a l i s m ' s s i n g u l a r attention to the p o l i t i c s o f o p p o s i t i o n a n d resistance. Is it p o s s i b l e to envisage B u d d e ' s list o f poetics—resistance, interference, i m p r o v i s a t i o n , colour, disjunction, new w a y o f k n o w i n g , homemaking, interruption and insurrection, redress, f e m i n i s m , e m a n c i p a t i o n , language entanglement/estrangement/stranglement  (293-  4 ) — w i t h o u t fast-tracking straight to their p o l i t i c a l connotations? W h a t happens i f w e m o v e b e y o n d the certainty o f starting a n d c o n c l u d i n g w i t h the " P o l i t i c s " i n the titles o f b o t h articles just discussed? D o n M c K a y writes, " a h u m a n perspective i s i m p o s s i b l e to escape" a n d therefore it i s not about the product o f o u r attention, but the strategies w i t h w h i c h w e attend: not should attend, b u t do attend. W h a t happens w h e n the f o l l o w i n g question i s p r o p o s e d : what i s h a p p e n i n g i n texts b o t h before a n d b e y o n d the noise o f the p o l i t i c a l ?  1 0  H o w e v e r (or but, b i g but), i n the conversation before y o u there is m u c h w o r k to d o w i t h the e m b e d d e d steps in-between, m u c h engagement w i t h the processes at w o r k i n the n a m i n g narrative strategy itself.  A s a m o d e l , storyteller-theorist T h o m a s K i n g locates h i s  a p p r o a c h to s t o r y t e l l i n g i n the approach first. F o r e x a m p l e , h i s interest i n N . Scott M o m a d a y ' s House Made of Dawn, what m a k e s the n o v e l " s p e c i a l , " i s not that it w o n the  What is at stake here in regard to education and teaching is a student's ability to read: read the words on the page, their strategies, and have their strategies activate thinking about how language mobilizes thinking about how language not only describes but mediates and prescribes interaction. I writefiction,tell stories, name with stories; stories comefirst,reading the political in stories is for the reader; writing metaphor, plot, characters, dialogue is for me. Don McKay removes himself from the city to a cabin to write ecopoetry, in part, because it removes him from noise, from the hum of progress. Removal from this noise allows him to hear and write out of the ecology that surrounds him. I propose that sometimes sociopolitical readings of texts are so noisy that they drowned-out the song of the text itself, the way the language speaks, thinks through its own strategies. 9  10  11 P u l i t z e r P r i z e n o r that it is w r i t t e n b y a N a t i v e writer, but "the questions that it raises and its concern w i t h narrative strategies." N a r r a t i v e strategies, for K i n g , are "starting p o i n t s " (102). K i n g starts w i t h strategy, w i t h approach, w i t h an engagement w i t h the c o g n i t i v e m o d e l itself. K i n g and I propose, n a m e that i s , to approach the w a y writers a p p r o a c h r e n d e r i n g text. T H E STORY OF RESPONDING T O RESISTANCE. F i r s t and foremost, " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " b y D a v i d M a l o u f is a story. B u t , " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " is also a story about its title, about a p l a c e name, and e v e n m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y about a n a m e d p l a c e ' s m u l t i p l e stories, w h i c h is a c o m p l i c a t i o n o f certain b i n a r i s t i c ,  11  simply  referential n a m i n g practices. T h e n a m e d p l a c e i s , i n M a l o u f s s t o r y ' s case, m a n y stories h a p p e n i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , or, as K i m Stafford renders the i d e a i n h i s p o e m " T h e r e A r e N o N a m e s B u t Stories," " a story h a p p e n i n g m a n y t i m e s " (11). F i r s t n o t i c e h o w I w r i t e the subject o f the p r e v i o u s sentence " n a m e d p l a c e " rather than p l a c e . S e c o n d , n o t i c e the embedded construct, c o m p l e x : m u l t i p l e stories, one place. " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " also f o r m a l l y embeds stories. It contains a story about e i g h t - y e a r - o l d J i m m y D i c k e n s f i n d i n g the b u r i e d b o d y , or rather the s t o c k i n g e d feet thereof, o f a m u r d e r e d b u l l o c k y  1 2  o n the R e a c h . " J a c k o ' s  R e a c h " is also a story about the "real story" (95) o f an o l d e r J i m m y ' s r e t e l l i n g o f the story c a t a l y z i n g the transportation o f " O l d J i m m y " b a c k into y o u n g J i m m y ' s shoes, and o f the listener o f the story, as a result o f the i m a g i n i n g i n the act o f listening, seeing b o t h J i m m y s before h i m , the paradox b o t h an e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n o f t i m e . " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " then, as a name, " e v o k e s " not just the dusty tracks w i t h their d r i e d leaves and p r i c k l e s that y o u r bare feet had traveled a thousand times and w h o s e e v e r y t u r n i n g led to a destination  ' The place is one half of the binary, the name is the other. A homonymic shift of bullocky into bull-cocky, and the tall-tale or tall-telling, is another layer of the story implicated in the name. 1  12  12 y o u knew a n d h a d a name for, but a place,  e n t i c i n g , unentered, for w h i c h the  old name, to r e m a i n appropriate, h a d to b e interpreted  in new way. ( 9 6 ,  emphases added) T h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n created b y name, place,  old, interpretation,  a n d new offers alternatives to  pure topographies o f p l a c e , to the m a p p i n g o f names, to names as latitude a n d l o n g i t u d e . T o name evokes k n o w l e d g e . N a m e s , as stories, as p a r a b l e s  13  i n fact, require c o g n i t i o n , require  interpretation, require reinterpretation w i t h each successive t e l l i n g . N a m e s repopulate w i t h stories r e s u l t i n g i n r e n a m i n g : the n e w stories o r o l d stories interpreted n e w l y rename the name. T h e n a m e i s a l w a y s " o l d " as a result o f the m a k i n g " n e w " i n the r e t e l l i n g . T h e n a m e is the place, a metaphor. T h e p l a c e i s the story, another metaphor. A n o t h e r w a y o f r e n d e r i n g what the e v o c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s i s b y p o s i t i o n i n g " r e s p o n s e " i n o p p o s i t i o n to "resistance," a p p o s i t i o n a l l y p a r a l l e l . I find B e n O k r i ' s statement "stories are a l w a y s a f o r m o f resistance" (121) i n c o m p l e t e , inadequate i n that its t h i n k i n g about the f u n c t i o n o f stories frames an o p p o s i t i o n a l and b i n a r y feedback l o o p . P o l i t i c a l resistance eschews c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  1 4  Theses p r o m o t e  T h e desire to k n o w the w o r l d b e h i n d its names i s the death o f k n o w i n g w h i c h is objective, ordering, c o m m u n i c a b l e a n d o f the apparently secure life that rests o n such k n o w i n g . from T i m L i l b u r n ' s Living In The World As If It Were Home, " H o w T o B e Here,' 13.  :  antitheses; o p p o s i t i o n a l constructs a n d c o m p e t i n g discourses r a r e l y engage i n d i a l o g u e . I n this sense, filtered t h r o u g h the approach I o u t l i n e i n m y i n t r o d u c t i o n , resistance offers little f o r w a r d and m u c h lateral: resistance also does not a l w a y s n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d to an alternative. Response, h o w e v e r , functions m o r e l i k e c o n v e r s a t i o n : response re-acts, m o b i l i z e s the teller  Chinua Achebe writes: "Until the lions produce their own historian, the story of the hunt will glorify only the hunter" (73). Achebe calls this parable, this story, a "metaphor." Some of the parable's pedagogical power is in its metaphorical capability, in the story it names and more importantly the prescriptive power of the story it names. Perhaps "doesn't necessarily include" instead of "eschews" is better here. Or perhaps the sentence should read "political resistance doesn't necessarily constitute dialogue." 13  14  13 as re-agent: stories result i n response, stories o f f e r i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and alternative. R e s p o n s e connotes s t o r y t e l l i n g , a forward/lateral approach. P u t another w a y , T i m L i l b u r n ' s approach to n a m i n g hopes for a "refus[al] o f posturings j u s t i f i e d b y the o l d h i e r a r c h i e s " (21). M o b i l i z e d b y r e c o g n i t i o n that a f o r w a r d p r o g r e s s i o n (alternatively n a m e d process) requires that a l l hierarchies b e c o m e " o l d h i e r a r c h i e s " and that n o t h i n g remains f i x e d or i m m u t a b l e , for L i l b u r n the o l d b e c o m e s n e w and the n e w b e c o m e s o l d because as a poet he b e l i e v e s h i s gaze s h o u l d be " r o o t e d i n a posture o f deference and attention" (22). T h i s "posture," i n s p i r e d b y the f a i l u r e o f names, recognizes the n e e d to w a t c h w i t h o u t names. W a t c h t h i n g s ' "namelessness" (11). A l l o w things their " h e c t i c c o m p l e x [ i f i c a t i o n ] " (22) instead o f s i m p l e n o m i n a t i o n that h i d e s d e s c r i p t i o n and essence, that doesn't a l l o w the n a m e d to n a m e itself. T h e p o e t ' s strategy is contained b y a p o e t i c attention m e d i a t e d b y metaphor. F o r the storyteller M a l o u f , the o l d becomes n e w and the n e w becomes o l d w h e n m o b i l i z e d b y the requirement for a n a m e ' s necessary r e s t o r y i n g , an interpretive act that necessitates the m a k i n g o f n e w stories.  THE STORY OF PROXIMAL AND DISTAL. In the r u b r i c o f " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " names as stories are located in p l a c e , framed b y place. B e f o r e I get m u c h further I must attend to p l a c e , after a l l " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " is a p l a c e name, and m u c h n a m i n g is place specific. T h e stories that arise out o f the p l a c e are framed b y the place. In this sense, and i n most senses, frames i m p l y contained c r e a t i o n i n the same w a y that names i m p l y storied referents.  L o c a t e d p a r a d o x . I n fact, L a u r i e R i c o u ' s " R e g i o n ,  R e g i o n a l i s m " ( 9 4 8 - 9 5 3 ) entry i n the Encyclopedia  of Literature  in Canada b e g i n s b y stating  that the t w o terms " d i r e c t [ l y ] atten[d] to the w a y s w r i t i n g and c r i t i c i s m use p a r t i c u l a r i z i n g features o f p l a c e and space to shape an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f story and culture [and, to a degree, are a f u n c t i o n o f the w a y s i n w h i c h ] place and i d e n t i t y interrelate" (948). Further, and  14 significant to my study, conceptually "regional writing concerns naming, and, therefore, constructing a 'home' in language" (950). While a discussion of naming as discursive strategy for constructing ideas of 'home' sits outside the scope of the current discussion, two of Kim Stafford's poems offer entry into my naming as storytelling discussion, a response to resistance politics which places primary focus on the strategies of storytelling and the naming therein, rather than on their geopolitical implications or sociopolitical ramifications. Stafford's poems, "There Are No Names But Stories" and "If We Shed Our Names" attend to the ways in which people can and do name, the ways in which naming contains textual strategy of approach. There are no names but stories. "Without a name," Frank Neussal writes, "no linguistic means of reference is possible" (Neussal 2). Fair enough, but incomplete. There are two Vancouvers. Relative degrees of proximity and distance dictate how speakers identify which Vancouver they are calling on. In Australia, a citizen of Vancouver, Washington, U.S.A. would say just that. In Vancouver, Washington, a citizen of Vancouver, British Columbia might say "I am returning to another Vancouver" in order that the located speaker from a similarly named place gesture towards the place elsewhere. The concept of more than once place with the same name requires more naming and storytelling. The opening lines of "There Are No Names But Stories" tells the story of how the Kwakiutl of 15  the Pacific Northwest name. The lines read When the anthropologist asked the Kwakiutl for a map of their coast, they told him stories: Here? Salmon gather. Here? Sea otter camps. Here seal sleep. Here we say body covered with mouths.  Kevin McNeilly writes that this name is no longer the accepted name of these people, Kwakwaka'wakw is (cf. next page). He also mentions that, interestingly, the name also derives from a narrative of misunderstanding. 15  15 H o w c a n a p l a c e have a n a m e ? (11) Stafford's a l i g n m e n t o f n a m i n g and m a p p i n g ( t o p o n y m s o f p l a c e ) and a n t h r o p o l o g y (the study o f h u m a n b e i n g s through a t a x o n o m y o f o r i g i n , p h y s i c a l characteristics, e n v i r o n m e n t a l and social relations, and culture a l l located to a s p e c i f i c place) places t w o c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a i n o p p o s i t i o n , that o f the anthropologists and that o f the K w a k i u t l . T h e p l a c i n g here i s not rendered as resistance but response, the response i s s t o r y t e l l i n g , as w e l l as a response that engages w i t h the c o l o n i a l anthropologist's request w h o expects a certain d e f i n i t i o n o f m a p p i n g , m a p a b i l i t y , and the k i n d o f n a m i n g they p e r f o r m . First, for the K w a k i u t l , no i n d i v i d u a l tells stories, " t h e y " tell stories. T h e " t h e y " s i g n i f i e s c o m m u n a l o w n e r s h i p . S e c o n d , the act o f n a m i n g place, o f m a p p i n g as it were, is the act o f t e l l i n g stories about p l a c e instead o f n a m i n g r e s u l t i n g from a l i m i t e d amount o f white-space next to a dot or picture o n a p i e c e o f paper. T h e K w a k i u t l ' s assertion u n p a c k s the assumptions i n the apparent p r e c i s i o n o f located names.  Third,  N a t i v e culture's place and o w n e r s h i p are m o r e m o b i l e and f l u i d concepts than i n a n o n - N a t i v e system o f i n d i v i d u a l t i t l e . . . . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , K w a k w a k a ' w a k w names w e r e based o n the f o l l o w i n g : (1) p h y s i c a l characteristics ["flat p l a c e " ] (2) use ["winter place" o r " r o c k y p l a c e to tie u p the canoe"] and (3) h i s t o r i c a l events [ " M i n k ' s b u r i a l p l a c e " ] . " ( P o w e l l and W e b s t e r , qtd. i n R i c o u 5 4 - 5 5 ) . I f places are n a m e d for their f u n c t i o n a l i t y — d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n a l i t y i n n e e d o f m o r e than one n o u n for w h a t happens or happened i n t h e m — n o t o n l y do m u l t i p l e names locate each place, the same n a m e locates different places. T h e necessity then, for names as stories b e c o m e s apparent, i f o n l y i n order to describe the m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p l a c e , i f o n l y to r e v e a l the types o f h u m a n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p l a c e t h r o u g h the n a m i n g o f p l a c e .  16 I a m asked the question, " w h e r e i s y o u r p o s t - p o s t c o l o n i a l i s m i n the above a n a l y s i s ? " First, the tone o f the response o f the speaker i n the p o e m i s not one o f resistance p e r se, o r o f " p o s t c o l o n i a l literature as c o r r e c t i v e i n its resistance" ( M o s s , Intro 8). I d o n ' t sense corrective i n Stafford's p o e m , c o r r e c t i v e as agenda, as p o l i t i c a l . I read bemusement.  I read  response. I d o n ' t read annoyance. I read the d e s c r i p t i o n o f a system o f n a m i n g , a n a m i n g that stories i n response to the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f c a r t o g r a p h y ' s n a m i n g . I d o not read p o l i t i c a l project: y o u will b e c o m e aware o f the inadequacies o f y o u r o w n system o f n a m i n g . I read the articulation o f a question that creates a space for the anthropologist to entertain alternatives. S e c o n d , w h i l e p o s t c o l o n i a l i s m focuses o n the degrees to w h i c h those t h e o r i z i n g about p o s t c o l o n i a l texts focus o n the p r o x i m i t y or separation o f the b i n a r i s t i c terms aesthetics and p o l i t i c s , the b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n o f the terms i s not inherently p o l i t i c a l . F o r e x a m p l e , a computer p r o g r a m m e r c o u l d care less about the connotational hierarchies i n the c o m p o n e n t s o f a base t w o n u m b e r i n g system—Os and I s — i n the p o l i t i c a l r e n d e r i n g o f off w o r s e than on, offalse w o r s e than true, o r zero less than one, s a d l y m i s s i n g s o m e t h i n g that one has. I n computer language, zeros a n d ones function outside o f p o l i t i c s , outside o f the t e n s i o n inherent i n b i n a r y o p p o s i t i o n . T h e indefinite article " a " i n " h o w c a n a p l a c e h a v e a n a m e " gestures towards t w o m e a n i n g s . T h e article refers to the n u m b e r o f nouns i n a s i n g u l a r n a m e for a singular p l a c e — " b o d y c o v e r e d w i t h m o u t h s " equals four—as w e l l as the m u l t i p l e names that name one p l a c e — " s a l m o n gather" names the same p l a c e as " p l a c e o f h i d i n g repeatedly" a n d " o n e turned o v e r c o v e r i n g another" (1.1). I m b u i n g the article w i t h p o l i t i c s constructs a m i s r e a d i n g o f the p o e m : its m u l t i p l e definitions are not p r e s c r i p t i v e . T h e i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter o f Having Everything Right elaborates o n the o p e n i n g lines o f Stafford's p o e m :  17 T h e K w a k i u t l p e o p l e o f the northwest coast h a d a habit i n their n a m i n g . F o r them, a n a m e w a s story. W e say " V a n c o u v e r , " n a m i n g an i s l a n d for a captain; w e say " V i c t o r i a , " n a m i n g a v i l l a g e for a queen. F o r them, a p l a c e n a m e w o u l d not be s o m e t h i n g that is, but s o m e t h i n g that happens. T h e y c a l l e d one patch o f ocean " W h e r e S a l m o n G a t h e r . " T h e y c a l l e d one b e n d i n the r i v e r "Insufficient C a n o e . " T h e y c a l l e d a certain m e a d o w " B l i n d W o m e n S t e a m i n g C l o v e r R o o t s B e c o m e D u c k s . " (3) T h e " h a p p e n [ i n g s ] " o f place c a l l s o n a specific type o f subject-object interaction, a m o d e l o f interaction that names w i t h story rather than referent, " T h e T o w n o f G is not so s p e c i a l , " R a s h i d t o l d H a r o u n as  and a m o d e l that " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " offers as  the train carried t h e m towards that v e r y place. " B u t the V a l l e y ofK!  c o n c l u s i o n e m b e d d e d i n the final four sentences: " I f  N o w that is different.  T h e r e are fields o f g o l d and  there is o n l y one w i l d acre s o m e w h e r e w e w i l l m a k e  m o u n t a i n s o f s i l v e r and i n the m i d d l e o f the V a l l e y there is a  that the place. I f they take it a w a y w e w i l l preserve it  beautiful L a k e w h o s e name, b y i n our head. I f there is no s u c h place w e w i l l i n v e n t  the w a y , i s D u l l . " " I f i t ' s so beautiful, w h y i s n ' t it c a l l e d Interesting?" H a r o u n  it. T h a t ' s the w a y w e are" (100). T h e s e l i n e s tend  argued; and R a s h i d , m a k i n g a huge effort to be i n a g o o d m o o d ,  t o w a r d an a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s o m e t h i n g m o r e g l o b a l than  tried to put o n h i s witch-fingers act. " A h — n o w — t h e  Interesting  l o c a l , m o r e u n i v e r s a l , i n that the lines c a l l o n the  L a k e , " he said i n h i s m o s t m y s t e r i o u s v o i c e . " N o w that's  practice o f s t o r y t e l l i n g i n n a m i n g ; also, e v e r y b o d y  s o m e t h i n g else again. T h a t ' s a L a k e o f M a n y N a m e s , yes, sir, so  tells stories rather than n a m i n g a r b i t r a r i l y r e f e r e n c i n g  it i s . " w h e n a select few name. Y e s . U n i v e r s a l . I a m not  From Salman Rushdie's Haroun and The Sea of Stories, 25.  t r y i n g to suggest, as C h i n u a A c h e b e w a r n s against, that a " u n i v e r s a l c i v i l i z a t i o n is i n place a l r e a d y " (91).  Rather, h o w w e locate ourselves i n place through the stories i n names, and e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s t o r y t e l l i n g rather than the p l a c e i t s e l f tends towards a u n i v e r s a l versus a l o c a l focus.  18 Locations in the "Jacko's Reach" mode, a reaching mode, rely less on the location itself than the texture of place, the fact that "you don't lose something as palpable as a solid silver cigarette lighter, not,to speak of your innocence, in a place that is purely symbolic" (99). Reaching relies on the experience of place that is less inspired by the place than the named place, the aesthetic in the name—an aesthetic both discursive and sensual— of the word "Jacko's" itself: "just the word alone [that] fed your body's heated fantasies" (96). Names' stories construct human interaction. Not  place like smoke loon on roof small noise of clapping hollow of stopping having many canoe-cedars place of hiding repeatedly cedarbark bedding of cradles mink's grave insufficient canoe sound of swans one turning over covering another going with tide hollow thing at rest hollow of the northwest wind having everything right from Kim Stafford's "There Are No Names But Stories" (italics are Stafford's)  in the power of the place, but the power of the place name, the power in the "consonantal drift" of Jacko's to Jago's that "lurch[es the name] backwards into an earlier, not-quite-forgotten history" of other people's ownership (94). The "we" who "will invent" in those final lines reads as people in general—storytellers, namers— which calls on a more disparate space than the one contained by Jacko's reach. Stories travel, places do not. The "making," "invention," and attempt to "preserve" are also as equally aligned with naming as they are with storytelling as they are with un-located humans engaging in all three. "There Are No Names But Stories" ends with a giving way to transliteration of the stories of place, which is in the poem to say the names of place. Another of Kim Stafford's poems "If We Shed Our Names" describes an anthill while never naming it as such: it names acts of "buildfing]" and "home"-making, it names the hill as a "pyramid" and the home as a "labyrinth, ancient paradise / the size of a footprint," it names what happens in the place as,  19 w e l l , a p l a c e "to practice b y sleight o f h a n d a n d scent / intimate p o l i t i c s w i t h j u n i p e r and r a i n " (36). L i l b u r n echoes i n Stafford's p o e m , d o u b l y : a refusal to name that requires engagement w i t h the story o f p l a c e , an i n v e r s i o n o f subject-object interaction; i n collaborative echo w i t h D o n M c K a y w r i t i n g that " m e t a p h o r ' s first act i s to u n - n a m e its subject, r e o p e n i n g the question o f reference" (69). N e i t h e r echoes are n e c e s s a r i l y p l a c e specific. L i l b u r n ' s w i l d e r n e s s , although located i n S a s k a t e c h e w a n ' s M o o s e w o o d S a n d h i l l s , also calls o n w i l d e r n e s s itself, a disparate w i l d e r n e s s — e a c h o f h i s successive essays are inspired b y a different l o c a t i o n ; a n d i f a n o d to the diffusely located " S a s k a t o o n " that inspires the " E p e k t a s i s ; U n d e r the Instruction o f T h i n g s " essay c a n be defined as w i l d , w i l d describes, names m o r e than just the n a m e d wilderness. L i l b u r n focuses m o r e o n the p r o b l e m o f language, o n " l a n g u a g e ' s q u i c k n e s s to o v e r c o m e the conflict b e t w e e n p e r s o n and w o r l d [...] caus[ing] i t to reduce b e i n g utterly to its n a m e s " (9). M c K a y locates a n attention to the w o r l d i n s i d e metaphor, i n s i d e language, w h i c h i s to say language outside o f p l a c e . T H E STORY OF RESPONDING T O A N ECOCRITICAL MODEL. W i t h a l l this talk o f subjects a n d objects and referents, it i s important to note that I offer n a m i n g , i n part, as a response to the e c o c r i t i c a l m o d e l , w h i c h is, n a m e l y and l o o s e l y , the practice o f f o c u s i n g o n the l o c a l as a strategy to resist the h o m o g e n i z i n g t e n d e n c y o f pronouncements o f the g l o b a l .  1 6  S o m e o f e c o c r i t i c i s m ' s m e c h a n i s m s f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y to  n a m i n g . B o t h i n v o l v e systems o f interdependent interaction. A s systems, b o t h entertain studies o f the s y s t e m i t s e l f as a n end-goal, rather than the constituent components o f the 16  I also provide the following, more precise, definitions of the ecocritical approach: • Cheryll Goltfelty defines ecocriticism as "the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment" {The Ecocriticism Reader, "Introduction" xvii). • Glen A. Love writes: "[EJcocriticism, unlike all other forms of literary inquiry, encompasses nonhuman as well as human contexts and considerations. On this claim, ecocriticism bases its challenge to much postmodern critical discourse as well as to the critical systems of the past" {Practical Ecocriticism 1). • Susie O'Brien writes that "While the world, in postcolonial terms, comprises the political and economic structures that shape, and are shaped by, culture, ecocriticism focuses on the interface between culture and the physical environment" {Articulating a World ofDifference 140)  20 system proper. B o t h c o m p l e x ( a verb). L a u r i e R i c o u b e l i e v e s that the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t i s a " c o m p l e x e c o l o g y " (16). N a m i n g ' s effects w o r k as a result o f e m b e d d i n g , l a y e r i n g , a n d textual " c o m p r e s s i o n " (91) as I v o r I n d y k has n o t i c e d i n M a l o u f s w o r k . B o t h posit structures embedded i n located and locatable things: p l a c e (region) and n a m e (textually o r s o n i c a l l y rendered).  R i c o u ' s r e n d e r i n g o f " r e g i o n e m e r g i n g ] i n a l a y e r i n g o f stories" (24) runs i n  parallel w i t h n a m i n g ' s l a y e r i n g o f stories. B o t h n a m i n g and r e g i o n i m p l y possession. R e g i o n ' s l a t i n root regere, means to rule ( R i c o u 100); namers c a n arrogate p o w e r o v e r the named. H o w e v e r , w h i l e e c o c r i t i c i s m focuses o n what i s learned from an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the literatures a r i s i n g f r o m g e o g r a p h i c a l l y located places, n a m i n g i s interested i n h o w c o g n i t i v e schema detach f r o m p l a c e as a result o f their first b e i n g a l i n g u i s t i c f o r m then a system; ecologies are not i n i t i a l l y l i n g u i s t i c . E c o l o g i e s exist p r i o r to n a m i n g , n a m i n g does n o t .  17  Or,  as F r e d W a h writes i n h i s essay "Is a D o o r a W o r d ? " , "the d o o r and the w o r d part o f the title I hope reveal themselves for what they are: L a n g u a g e " (39). Jack H o d g i n s ' Innocent Cities attends to the l i m i t a t i o n s o f located n a m i n g . L o g a n S u m n e r ' s return to h i s w i f e ' s grave, to append and rewrite h i s o w n headstone's epitaph, contains m u l t i p l e r e c o g n i t i o n s , some b y S u m n e r , some b y m e : 1. T h e g e o g r a p h y o f stone l i m i t s the n u m b e r o f w o r d s that c a n b e w r i t t e n : m o r e w o r d s require m o r e stone: m e a n i n g a r i s i n g from the g e o g r a p h i c a l l y contained i s not contained b y that geography. 2. T h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f space require strategies for s m a l l spaces m e a n i n g large, necessitates e l i s i o n , r e v i s i o n , a d d i t i o n , e x p a n s i o n o f f o r m , c o n t r a c t i o n o f prose, d o u b l i n g , tripling, conjuncting, embedding. Travis V. Mason points out, and I agree, that my resistance to the ecocritical model locating an engagement that arises from a specific place might be the same resistance I have to postcolonialist theory attaching itself to local and specific culture, history, ecology, and politics to resist the homogenizing and universalizing effects of colonial and imperial practices—to "validate the local in terms of its own history in response to the familiar notion that history happened elsewhere" (Moss 9) or happened everywhere. 17  21 3. Each o f Sumner's successive changes are a product o f a recognition o f the incompleteness o f his previous etchings, a fluid form o f naming, naming that changes through experience, across time, where unnaming equals naming. 4. Sumner's addition o f clauses, sentences, erasure and replacement o f single words is a linguistic recognition, recognition that language tends to describe moments o f stasis, not process. 5. Sumner changing " A L W A Y S " to " O F T E N " embraces not only those instances when our guiding rubric fail, but allows the eventual, which is to say inevitable, failure o f meaning and form. 6. Sumner's use o f the conjunctive " B U T " and " A N D " textualize a strategy o f approach where the futility o f static naming is revealed, a strategy o f process and correction, of approach without arrival, explanation without certitude. Alternatively, David M a l o u f s and T i m Lilburn's "as i f narrative strategy is similar. 6a. The "as i f i n T i m Lilburn's title (naming) o f his essay " L i v i n g i n the W o r l d as i f it Were H o m e " expands and contracts meaning, reaches outward to contextualize an approach to living i n the rather large world, and simultaneously brings close b y defining the world as home. The "as," as simile, is aligned with metaphor. Lilburn is always already a poet; he articulates his " l i v i n g i n the world as i f it were home" with a tool-box made heavy with metaphor, metaphor that is, once again, aligned with naming. "Let the way the golden bean, w o l f willow, snowberry, the deer present themselves to you," Lilburn writes, "be seeing them" (21).  18  Let their names, as language, as written text, as text written b y human,  A written response to "be seeing them": "is something wrong here?" The problem with Lilburn's approach is that it is foreign to us, smacks of gestures towards discourses of "being one with the pickle." I think Lilburn wants us to mute the subject-object binary (in much the same way that McKay does) and let how the flora and fauna present themselves to us, how they name themselves, their ecology, biology, etc. dictate our reaction to them. They create their own ontology. Here I note that the articulation of this approach is difficult as a result of 18  22 b y poet, "assert and cance[l] itself, nam[e] the w o r l d then eras[e] the n a m e , " but m o r e importantly, let a habitation " i n ["namelessness[es]" (11)] restlessness [ a l l o w a] g l i m p s e [into] that aptness o f c o n f u s i o n before the ungraspable d i v e r s i t y o f here" (15). A n d the " i f , " as h a l f o f the c o n d i t i o n a l if/then, a v o i d s closure. L i l b u r n is a r t i c u l a t i n g a q u e s t i o n (put a " ? " after " h o m e " ) . T h e answer - i f i n d e e d s u c h a t h i n g exists w h e n " l i v i n g i n the w o r l d as i f i t w e r e h o m e , " w h e n l o o k i n g w i t h o u t the contextual baggage o f subject p o s i t i o n , w h e n w r a p p i n g c o n t e m p l a t i o n around the question " H o w T o B e H e r e ? " - i s less a l g e b r a i c than process, less c o n c l u s i o n than approach or "stance" (21), m o r e c o n t r a c t i o n b y w a y o f e x p a n s i o n , m o r e focus through " h e c t i c c o m p l e x " (22), m o r e engagement w i t h engagement as perpetual process. 6b. In Remembering Babylon, "as i f peppers the prose (26, 2 7 , 3 5 , 3 6 , 4 3 , 4 8 , 6 3 , 64, 106, 107, et al.). In each a r t i c u l a t i o n , a p r e v i o u s n a m i n g is f o u n d i n c o m p l e t e ; what occurs after the "as i f a c c o m m o d a t e s the change, glosses the shift, processes an e x p a n s i o n o f the f o r m , as w e l l as a l l o w s that there m a y be alternatives to the m o d i f i c a t i o n . " I n t i m e h i s c o m i n g a m o n g t h e m b e c a m e another tale they t o l d a n d [ G e m m y ] w o u l d l i s t e n to it w i t h a k i n d o f w o n d e r , as i f w h a t they w e r e r e c o u n t i n g h a d happened ages ago, i n a t i m e b e y o n d a l l m e m o r y , and to someone else" (27). A s i f conjoins G e m m y ' s " w o n d e r " a n d analysis o f that w o n d e r , authorizes the analysis, eschews stasis and singularities, a l l o w s i m a g i n a t i v e interpretation, promotes the interdependence o f stories. A n attention to n a m i n g i n texts inverts the e c o l o g i c a l approach; a l t h o u g h they articulate different strategies towards the same enlightenment. E c o l o g i e s a n d the p e o p l e w h o name t h e m require an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the e c o n o m i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l , o r e c o l o g i c a l components o f p l a c e that are r e q u i r e d w h e n p e o p l e " l e a r n m o r e n a m e s " ( R i c o u 84), w h i c h is  the binary imbued in language itself: the construction of the sentence marked by the paradox of fragmentation gesturing towards wholeness.  23 to say learn m o r e stories i n place. T h e end-goal o f an e c o l o g i c a l m o d e is to learn m o r e about place, subsequently l e a r n i n g about ourselves in p l a c e . The. end-goal o f a study o f n a m i n g is to learn m o r e about the narrative strategy itself, the aesthetics, text's texturality, and w h a t n a m i n g as narrative and strategy says about us. N a m i n g a l l o w s a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f w r i t i n g and s t o r y t e l l i n g , not n e c e s s a r i l y a s t o r y t e l l i n g and n a m i n g l i n k e d to p l a c e , but a n a m i n g that applies to m u l t i p l e places at once, that is c o g n i t i v e rather than demonstrative. A l t h o u g h c o n v i n c i n g , R i c o u ' s o b s e r v a t i o n requires g l o s s i n g : " S o even w h e n w e h a v e learned a l l the names, w e w i l l , o f course, not h a v e learned a d e f i n i t i v e w o r d , but a set o f l i m i t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s — p o s s i b i l i t i e s that w i l l exceed l i m i t s " (84). I b e l i e v e that the stories i n names not the l e a r n i n g o f n a m e s themselves are w h a t engender e x p a n s i o n , w h e r e n a m i n g facilitates an u n c l e n c h i n g and assembles interaction. N a m i n g as a narrative strategy offers entry i n t o the c r a c k i n g o f a s i g n ' s crust, the d i g g i n g into the conceptual m o d e l s o f the u n i v e r s e that i n f o r m the n a m i n g i n order to a l l o w the readers' reflection i n the b o t t o m o f the w e l l o f a n a m e to u p w e l l . T i m L i l b u r n authorizes an approach s i m i l a r to R i c o u ' s , one b o r n o f names i n places: " w e s h o u l d l e a r n the n a m e s for things as a m i n i m u m — n o t to fulfill t a x o n o m i e s but as acts o f courtesy, for m u s i c a l reasons, entering the gesture o f d e c o r u m " ( " G o i n g H o m e " 184). T i m L i l b u r n is a poet: n a m e s are m u s i c a l , their s o n i c f o r m r h y t h m i c a l l y peaks and troughs b e y o n d the s u m o f its f i l l i n g o f w h i t e space o n the page, n a m e s ' m e z z o - r h y t h m s are forward/lateral. B u t , as w e h a v e seen, K i m Stafford is able to create m u s i c about an ant h i l l w i t h o u t ever n a m i n g it as such. T h e m u s i c for Stafford is i n the stories w i t h i n names. L e a r n i n g n a m e s c a n a b s o l v e the l e a r n i n g o f names w i t h i n stories. F o r e x a m p l e , i n Remembering Babylon M r . F r a z e r asks G e m m y to teach h i m the A b o r i g i n a l names for flora. M r . F r a z e r ' s interest is t a x o n o m i c a l , l e a r n i n g a l l the names to  24 w r i t e them d o w n and order them. G e m m y , o n the other h a n d , listens to what is b e h i n d the names. G e m m y b e l i e v e s that M r . F r a z e r "translates" objects f r o m a " d i m e n s i o n w h i c h w a s a l l effort, sweat and dirt, and g r u b b i n g w i t h y o u r n a i l s " into " o u t l i n e s o n the page that w e r e a l l pure spirit, the product o f stillness and silent c o n c e n t r a t i o n " (66). H o w e v e r , the "entries i n M r . F r a z e r ' s field notebook g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h they w e r e m a d e . . . do not suggest that what is b e i n g recorded b e l o n g s still to the u n t a m e d w i l d e r n e s s " (128). G e m m y ' s r e a d i n g o f text as a d i s t i l l a t i o n o f an object's f o r m is b o t h a r e a d i n g and a r e a d i n g into, one c o n t r o l l e d b y the w a y h e interacts w i t h the p r a c t i c e o f n a m i n g . N a m i n g for M r . F r a z e r is not transformation, it is s i m p l e n o m i n a t i o n , s i m p l e enumerative t a x o n o m y . T h e w o r l d attached to names and the names themselves, for G e m m y , contains " l i g h t , " " e n e r g y , " " s p i r i t , " and " s h a d o w " (68). S e e i n g it as s u c h requires a " s e n s i t i v f i t y ] to this d e a l i n g between n a m e and s p i r i t " (67). S e n s i t i v i t y : another n a m e for awareness. M r . F r a z e r k n o w i n g a l l the names does not a l l o w h i m access to G e m m y ' s set o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n an object's n a m e . W h i l e neither G e m m y n o r M r . F r a z e r are a w a r e o f their strategies o f n a m i n g , G e m m y ' s strategy a l l o w s m u l t i p l i c i t y , a n a m e ' s f u z z y b o u n d a r i e s , boundaries that i n c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y for the spirit w o r l d , an e x p a n s i o n across planes o f r e a l i z a t i o n , or at least b e y o n d the seen. I am uncomfortable w i t h L i l b u r n ' s " d e c o r u m , "  1 9  i n fact, w i t h p r o p r i e t y i n general.  A n a d m i s s i o n : I c a n not r e m e m b e r proper names. A f o r m ' s t a x o n o m y eludes m e .  The  p e o p l e or things names attach to do not attach for m e ; they are not their latches o f b e i n g . F o r m e to learn a l l the names is an insurmountable obstacle. I do, h o w e v e r , r e m e m b e r stories, the stories attached to p e o p l e or things. I ask that a l l m y students c o m e to m y office  A more accurate definition of Lilburn's "decorum" is a desire for an approach that requires respect and humility rather than an enforced propriety. Carson applies the metaphor specifically to adjectives. I use names in place of the adjective and people in place of the noun. 19  2 0  25 for a f i v e m i n u t e m e e t i n g i n order that I see their faces and attach their a n s w e r to the q u e s t i o n " t e l l m e s o m e t h i n g s p e c i f i c about y o u r s e l f to their faces. O n e has a fear o f c l o w n s , one rides u n i - c y c l e s d o w n m o u n t a i n s , one c a m e to C a n a d a f r o m K o r e a , w h o s e capital c i t y is S e o u l , but she is not f r o m S e o u l . I k n o w their faces; I k n o w the stories that l a t c h to their beings. I forget their names. T h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s exist outside their names, exceed the l i m i t s that any n a m e describes or prescribes for them. T h e i r strategies I r e m e m b e r — t h e i r stories name them.  nu  26  Definition 2  named [f. NAME v. + -ED.] 1  a. M e n t i o n e d b y name.  Chapter 2  Constellating: Parts of Speech in Parallax W h a t is a n adjective? N o u n s name the w o r l d . V e r b s activate the names.  A d j e c t i v e s c o m e f r o m s o m e w h e r e else.  T h e w o r d adjective (epitheton i n G r e e k ) i s i t s e l f an adjective m e a n i n g " p l a c e o n top," " a d d e d , " " a p p e n d e d , " " i m p o r t e d , " " f o r e i g n . " A d j e c t i v e s seem f a i r l y innocent additions but l o o k again. These s m a l l i m p o r t e d m e c h a n i s m s are i n charge o f attaching e v e r y t h i n g i n the w o r l d to its p l a c e i n particularity. T h e y are the latches o f being. O f course there are several different w a y s to be. from Anne Carson's Autobiography of Red, 4. T H E STORY OF N A M I N G PARTS OF SPEECH. I n " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " M a l o u f stories the same questions that I ask i n m y i n t r o d u c t i o n : n a m e l y , " w h a t i s l e a k i n g out o f a name and n a m i n g ? " (besides the p o l i t i c a l ) a n d " h o w i s the texture w i t h i n n a m i n g w r i t t e n a n d r e a d ? " and " c a n names b e stories?" and the c o r o l l a r y question " c a n n a m i n g b e s t o r y t e l l i n g ? " " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " also proposes s o m e interesting answers. A l t h o u g h the answer to the last t w o questions is a d e c i d e d yes f o r M a l o u f (and H o d g i n s ) , at this stage the " h o w " a n d " w h a t " questions function to t e x t u a l l y locate the strategy—namely, e x a m i n i n g a n d u n p a c k i n g the stories i n n a m e s — w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x a m i n i n g the function o f the strategy itself. T o n a m e a b e g i n n i n g . H o w do writers name? O r m o r e accurately, w h a t text i n a story signals n a m i n g e m p l o y e d ? T h e f o l l o w i n g i n e x h a u s t i v e list begins to locate n a m i n g ' s u b i q u i t y i n w e l l w r i t t e n stories:  27 1.  V o c a b u l a r y e m p l o y e d that contains the root w o r d s "name," " c a l l , " " t e r m , " and " k n o w , " name.  2.  N a m i n g o c c u r s i n the referencing o f s e l f or the n a m i n g o f else s i g n a l e d b y the verb "to b e , " a verb that contains identity, sameness, algebraic balance, but also metaphor: for e x a m p l e , " I am [ N a m e ] , " or " T h i s is [article] [Name]."  3.  W r i t i n g characters names those characters: for e x a m p l e , characters articulate difference, w h i c h is often s i g n a l e d b y negation, and n a m e d w i t h the prefixes " u n - , " " i n - , " and the adverb "not": for e x a m p l e , " I a m not you/that" functions to n a m e the character proper and n a m e the character u n i q u e l y i n o p p o s i t i o n to s o m e t h i n g else.  4.  P r e p o s i t i o n s s i g n a l n a m i n g i n that prepositions are spatial, r e l a t i o n a l .  5.  L i s t s , as t a x o n o m i c a l structures, name, R e c i p e s , w i t h their lists f ingredients and  b o t h i n what they i n c l u d e and what they  0  instructional verb phrases for the  exclude. 6.  H y p h e n s s i g n a l n a m i n g , or m o r e  r  c o m b i n a t i o n thereof, account a  r  e  l  y  t  a  k  e  i  n  t  o  the s k i l l o f the c o o k , p r e c i s e l y , the failure o f n a m i n g : " m o c k -  '  1  o r a n g e " (Innocent 370). 7.  N a m i n g is flagged i n w r i t e r s ' use o f w o r d s that m e a n a m b i g u o u s l y , b o t h d e n o t a t i v e l y and connotative, a p e r c e i v e d failure o f n a m i n g .  8.  D e s c r i p t i v e clauses name.  9.  N o u n s name, are names. C o m p o u n d nouns m u d d y the p r e c i s i o n o f the act o f n a m i n g : " m a i d e n h a i r , " " b l a c k b e r r y " (370) " c o t t o n w o o d " (371).  28 A d j e c t i v e s m u d d y the p r e c i s i o n again o f a n o u n ' s , c o m p o u n d n o u n ' s name: " O r e g o n grape," " J a c k p i n e , " " d e v i l ' s c l u b " (371). 10. Structure names: for e x a m p l e , the ideas o f f r a m i n g and e m b e d d e d framing. 11. A m b i g u o u s demonstratives fail to n a m e successfully: for e x a m p l e , "It is this, a l l this, that w i l l go u n d e r . . . " ( " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " 99). 12. I t a l i c i z a t i o n , h o l d i n g , u n d e r l i n i n g , s u r r o u n d i n g w i t h "scare quotes" are a setting apart that names. T H E STORY OF T H E VERB " T O RE-COGNATE." N a m i n g embeds stories i n the same w a y that names/signs carry c o e x t e n s i v e definitions. Put another w a y , names as frames, structural frames/containers, are b o t h creative and c o n t r o l l i n g . T h e question then is h o w do authors m a k e n e w out o f restrictive structures? H o w do authors ' r e - c o g n a t e ' ?  H o w do authors articulate and textualize their r e c o g n i t i o n ?  T H E STORY O F A L A T E R A L STORY. A lateral story. I was first i n t r o d u c e d to the idea o f the r e a l i t y o f c o n t r o l l i n g structures i n L a u r a M o s s ' s graduate course o n S o u t h A f r i c a n Literatures. T h e apartheid r e g i m e i n S o u t h A f r i c a is not yet h i s t o r y i n S o u t h A f r i c a , the i m p l i c a t i o n s and m e m o r i e s o f the atrocities perpetrated i n its name are p a l p a b l y present. I n g r i d de K o k w r i t e s that "the apartheid state's d i s c o u r s e m a y have b e c o m e so d e e p l y introjected that its constructions and representations s t i l l determine the w a y w e define ourselves n o w i n space and t i m e " (70). T h i s is a d e f i n i t i o n that transfers into w r i t i n g . O r , put another w a y , " g i v e n the t o t a l i z i n g and introjective p o w e r o f apartheid, its social controls and b i n a r y emphases, is a postapartheid i m a g i n a t i o n e v e n p o s s i b l e ? " (de K o k , Standing) Put another w a y , i n another context, B e n O k r i writes that " w e l i v e b y stories, w e also l i v e i n t h e m " (46). T h i s p r o n o u n c e m e n t is  29 written i n a chapter titled " T h e J o y s o f S t o r y t e l l i n g I " and i n a b o o k c a l l e d A Way of Being Free (1997). O k r i continues about the p o w e r o f stories to facilitate change, O n e w a y o r another w e are l i v i n g the stories planted i n us e a r l y o r a l o n g the w a y , o r w e are also l i v i n g the stories w e planted - k n o w i n g l y o r u n k n o w i n g l y - i n ourselves. W e l i v e stories that either g i v e o u r l i v e s m e a n i n g o r negate it w i t h meaninglessness. I f w e change the stories w e l i v e b y , quite p o s s i b l y w e change o u r l i v e s . (153) T h e j o y a n d freedom is i n the m o l d i n g , crafting, a g e n c y i n s t o r y t e l l i n g that changes l i v e s .  A m e s a m i s r w a n d a i s emportes p a r l a  T o m y R w a n d a n friends swept a w a y  tourmente  i n the m a e l s t r o m  Emerita, Andre, Cyprien, Raphael,  Emerita, Andre, Cyprien, Raphael,  Landouald, Helene, Methode  Landouald, Helene, Methode  A quelques heros obscurs q u i v i v e n t  T o a few u n s u n g heroes s t i l l l i v i n g  toujours. L o u i s e , M a r i e , Stratton, V i c t o r L o u i s e , M a r i e , Stratton, V i c t o r F i n a l l y , to G e n t i l l e , w h o served m e F i n a l e m e n t , a G e n t i l l e q u i m e servit  eggs and beer and c o u l d b e dead o r  des oeufs o u de l a biere et dont j e ne  alive, i f only I knew  sais s i elle est m o r t e o u v i v a n t e . I h a v e tried to speak for y o u J'ai v o u l u parler e n votre n o m .  I h o p e I have not failed y o u  J'espere ne pas v o u s a v o i r trahis. epigraph to G i l Courtemance's Un dimanche a la piscine a Kigali,  2  7.  Patricia Claxton's translation o f epigraph to A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali ("nom" is not translated as such)  ' F a c e d w i t h the i m p o s i t i o n s o n s t o r y t e l l i n g that S o u t h A f r i c a e x e m p l i f i e s , that B e n O k r i  warns against, a n d that " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " attends to w h e n it concludes "there has to b e some To speak for someone is to speak in their name. Why? Accountability? To attach what is said to the speaker? To locate the source—the preposition "in" functions spatially. Perhaps "in" functions to elaborate by conjoining a more precise definition to the ambiguously rendered preposition "for": "for" variously indicates purpose, constitution, being, suitability, representing, duration of time, and concerning. 21  30 place w h e r e that is p o s s i b l e , " the demonstrative e n c i r c l i n g b o t h the " p r e s e n t a t i o n ] " and " i n v e n t i o n ] " o f stories because "that's the w a y w e are" (100), the f o l l o w i n g question arises: h o w do w r i t e r s o f stories w r i t e outside o f framed attention, w h e r e is a storyteller's agency, and h o w does one enact a n a m i n g that contains stories? I have b e e n a r g u i n g that a n attention to n a m i n g ' s assumed transparencies and i m p l i c i t , storied p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " performs a r e - c o g n i t i v e function, m a k e s certain o c c l u s i o n s v i s i b l e . N a m i n g i n M a l o u f s story, n a m i n g as story, is an alternative to b i n a r y structure (most f a m o u s l y articulated i n b i b l i c a l systems), reveals the i n d e x i n g b e t w e e n b i n a r y pronouncements b y a r t i c u l a t i n g binaries i n p a r a l l a x , b o t h p a r a d o x i c a l l y and i n p a r a l l e l . K i n g suggests that writers l i k e M o m a d a y , and I argue M a l o u f and H o d g i n s , suggest "other w a y s o f i m a g i n i n g the w o r l d " — n o t i c e b o t h the story a n d s c h e m a l e a k i n g out the " i m a g i n i n g " — " w a y s that d o not d e p e n d so m u c h o n o p p o s i t i o n s as they do o n co-operations" and the subsequent " t a n t a l i z i n g question[s]" this a p p r o a c h raises ( K i n g 110). O n e o f K i n g ' s questions is "just h o w w o u l d w e manage a u n i v e r s e i n w h i c h the attempt to destroy e v i l is seen as a f o r m o f i n s a n i t y ? " (110). " R e l a x , " he says o n the next page, "It's o n l y f i c t i o n " (111): his r e l a x is a r e c o g n i z i n g o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n attending to, w h i c h is to say the i n e v i t a b l e transformation of, o n e ' s perceptual schematic.  THE STORY OF PARALLAX. R e l a x , I say, I a m o n l y q u o t i n g s o m e b o d y w h o e m p l o y s i r o n y w h e n he c a l l s h i s s t o r y t e l l i n g f i c t i o n . I r o n y reveals the tension process requires. A l o n g w i t h K i n g ' s t h e o r i z i n g about stories and s t o r y t e l l i n g ( w h i c h is to say h i s t e l l i n g stories about t e l l i n g stories), I h a v e found the i d e a o f " p a r a l l a x " to be helpful i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g h o w n a m i n g as story w o r k s as an alternative strategy, as an a-binaristic approach, w h i c h is to say contains less b i n a r i e d t h i n k i n g (object/referent) than i n d e x a b l e , c o m p l e x , process, storied t h i n k i n g . F i r s t , p a r a l l a x  31 is an a s t r o n o m i c a l term and as such connotes constellations o f m e a n i n g rather than linear m e a n i n g : a c o n s t e l l a t i o n that contains p a r a l l e l , p a r a d o x , parable, perception, and p r a x i s , five ideas not t w o . P a r a l l a x is defined as "the apparent displacement or the difference i n apparent d i r e c t i o n o f an object as seen f r o m t w o different points not o n a straight l i n e w i t h the object" ( M e r r i a m - W e b s t e r s ) . T o m a k e this d e f i n i t i o n m o r e present for the reader, p e r f o r m the f o l l o w i n g experiment: raise a finger six inches from the tip o f y o u r nose; close one eye and notice the p o s i t i o n o f y o u r finger; close the other eye and n o t i c e h o w the finger appears to change its l o c a t i o n ; repeat steps t w o and three and y o u r Observer 2's view  Ooserver  1  finger appears to m o v e f r o m side to side. T h e " p e r c e p t i o n " Observer 1 's view of the object, with respect to the background, will be different from Observer 2's view. The further apart they are, the more pronounced the apparent shift of the foreground object with respect to the apparently fixed background.  i n p a r a l l a x ' s d e f i n i t i o n is b i o l o g i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b y the p h y s i c s o f depth p e r c e p t i o n : three d i m e n s i o n a l space is seen as s u c h as a result o f a c o m b i n i n g what each eye sees: e n g a g i n g w i t h the p h y s i c s o f sight forces the participant to  engage w i t h the system that controls the seeing o f an i m a g e t h r o u g h t w o eyes as one. T h e " p e r c e p t i o n " i n p a r a l l a x ' s d e f i n i t i o n is also made f u l l w h e n connected to c o g n i t i v e schema. Further, p a r a l l a x contains the vestiges o f t w o w o r d s : p a r a l l e l and paradox.  Meaning  p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m e d b y a c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l is m e a n i n g p r o d u c t i o n that runs i n p a r a l l e l w i t h the m o d e l itself. P a r a d o x i c a l m e a n i n g assumes separation, assumes that objects are b o u n d e d and cannot o c c u p y the same space at the same t i m e . W h e n names name p a r a d o x i c a l l y , for e x a m p l e , w h e n a name does not act as a s i n g l e referent for a s i n g l e story, or w h e n a w r i t e r writes a w o r d w h o s e a m b i g u o u s l y constructed m e a n i n g d r a w s o n its m u l t i p l e denotative and connotative definitions, a c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a is also articulated, one i n w h i c h storytellers as  32 namers and namers as storytellers are not " b o u n d b y the s i l l y f e e l i n g that i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e for t w o figures to o c c u p y the same space at the same t i m e " ( K i n g , qtd. i n R i c o u 43). S p i t D e l a n e y ' s b e l o v e d " O l d N u m b e r O n e " train and m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y the r a i l r o a d tracks it rides 22  h e l p to v i s u a l i z e p a r a l l e l paradox. R a i l w a y  tracks r u n i n p a r a l l e l . R a i l w a y tracks r u n n i n g  into the h o r i z o n seem to m e r g e at their v a n i s h i n g point. R e c o g n i t i o n that the v a n i s h i n g p o i n t is o n l y an i l l u s i o n requires a certain k i n d o f k n o w i n g . P a r a l l a x is a r e - c o g n i t i v e approach. R e c o g n i t i o n o f textual p a r a l l a x as textual strategy functions i n m u c h the same w a y that Riddles  in the  Dark " J a c k o ' s R e a c h , " a s i n g l e name for a s i n g u l a r  " D o e s it guess easy? It must have a c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h us, m y preciousss! I f  parallel place, contains m u l t i p l e e m b e d d e d  precious asks, and it doesn't answer, w e eats it, m y p r e c i o u s s . I f it asks us,  stories.  and w e doesn't answer, then w e does what it wants, eh? W e s h o w s it the  C h i n u a A c h e b e ' s parable, then, about  w a y out, y e s ! " .. .but B i l b o s i m p l y c o u l d not t h i n k  l i o n s p r o d u c i n g their o w n historians serves an  o f any question w i t h that nasty wet c o l d t h i n g sitting next to h i m , and p a w i n g  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and p e d a g o g i c a l f u n c t i o n ,  and p o k i n g h i m . . . " W h a t have I got i n m y p o c k e t ? " he  requires r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p o w e r o f the stories i n  said a l o u d . H e was t a l k i n g to h i m s e l f , but G o l l u m thought it w a s a r i d d l e , and  names to c o n t r o l perception. T h e r e c o g n i t i v e  he was frightfully upset. " N o t fair! not f a i r ! " he h i s s e d . "It i s n ' t fair, m y p r e c i o u s , is it, to ask us what i t ' s got i n its nassty little pocketses?"  from J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit, 79-84.  m o m e n t refracts the reader's conceptual m o d e l o f the universe b a c k at t h e m , m a k e s readers aware o f h o w their d o i n g , their p r a x i s , is c o n t r o l l e d b y a set o f constructed absolutes that are neither real, n o r innate. A n d f i n a l l y , p r a x i s also c l a m o r s i n the  p o l y p h o n y o f p a r a l l a x . T h e d o i n g i n p a r a l l a x is n a m i n g and s t o r y t e l l i n g i n p a r a l l a x , the w r i t i n g ( i n m y case) or t e l l i n g ( i n K i n g ' s case) o f names that are stories.  Railroad, American nomenclature. Railway, Canadian naming.  T o explicate further, a textual e x a m p l e . T h e p r e f i x re- offers another site o f p a r a l l a x . T h e d e f i n i t i o n o f re- is p a r a d o x i c a l . R e - has t w o c o - e x t e n s i v e and co-existent d e f i n i t i o n s : that o f "back [and] b a c k w a r d " and that o f "again [and] anew." R e - , i n this case then, and that I argue exists i n the re- i n r e - c o g n i t i o n ' s case, betrays the t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t w o c o g n i t i v e systems, and attempts to articulate b o t h i n order to neither be c o n t r o l l e d b y the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the former n o r ignore the former i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the latter. R e s p o n s e , i n the f o r m o f story, m a k e s anew w h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g and recasting the o l d .  M a l o u f writes that the a b i l i t y to  " r e - f o r m " (98) requires the a b i l i t y to see ghosts i n people, and l i k e n s it to " h a v i n g the p o w e r to see into s o m e o n e ' s p o c k e t " (99). M a l o u f w r i t e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r type o f reader, o n e w h o i s aware o f the " b e t w e e n " (99), aware o f the texture and c o n s t e l l a t i o n i n names, the story i n names. F r e d W a h ' s r e a d i n g o f a " ' r e - ' p o e t i c s " i s i n its " i n c i s i v e " qualities: its m a n d i b l e s "cut[ing] into m e m o r y and i m a g e to recuperate, recover, and e s p e c i a l l y , re-insist o n the presence o f the terms o f . . . contact"  (Faking It 108). T o m a k e one aware o f what is  h a p p e n i n g b e h i n d and i n text itself: its strategies, its nuances, its textures, its terms. A t t e n d i n g to the lines "re / c o g n i t i o n " i n R o y M i k i ' s p o e m " h i s t o r y is w e , " W a h asks the f o l l o w i n g question, " c a n M i k i ' s "re / c o g n i t i o n " . . . b e c o m e the " i g n i t i o n " s u c h a c o n s c i o u s poetic seeks to enact" (123). I argue that the stories w i t h i n names function to tinder recognition.  THE STORY OF TALES OF THE ARABIAN NIGHTS AND FRAMING. That there are m e t a p h o r i c a l stories i n names offers alternatives to, responds to n a m i n g ' s c o n t r o l l i n g f r a m i n g . L a t e r a l e v i d e n c e c o m e s i n the f o r m o f a f o r m a l attention to  Tales of the Arabian Nights. S u l t a n Schahriar marries a w o m a n w h o " d e c e i v e s " h i m — although an i n f i d e l i t y is assumed, the act o f d e c e p t i o n is never n a m e d .  T h e S u l t a n decides  to m a r r y a n e w w o m a n every e v e n i n g and have her executed i n the m o r n i n g b y h i s grand-  34 v i z i r . A l o n g c o m e s Scheherazade, the g r a n d - v i z i r ' s daughter, w h o asks to be the next b r i d e i n order to stop deaths that are embarrassing the c o m m u n i t y : " I f I fail, m y death w i l l be a glorious one, and i f I succeed I s h a l l have done a great service to m y c o u n t r y " (www.arabiannights.org). T H E STORY OF  TALES OF A THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS A N D F R A M I N G .  O n the m o r n i n g after her w e d d i n g , the m o r n i n g o f her prescribed death, Scheherazade has asked D i n a r z a d e , her sister, to ask her to tell her one last story before she dies. T h e Sultan c o m p l i e s w i t h D i n a r z a d e ' s w i s h i n the f o r m o f Scheherazade's s t o r y t e l l i n g . T h e story o f the " M e r c h a n t and a G e n i i , " a story about a merchant w h o a c c i d e n t a l l y k i l l s a G e n i i ' s s o n w i t h a c a s u a l l y d i s c a r d e d date pit, and the G e n i i w h o seeks the M e r c h a n t ' s death, and a death w h i c h is stayed as a result o f the G e n i i ' s interest i n h e a r i n g " T h e Story o f the F i r s t O l d M a n and o f the H i n d " leads, i n turn, into other stories w h i c h must also be heard. E a c h s u c c e s s i v e story is b o r n out o f a n u n c o m p l e t e d story. E a c h successive story is e m b e d d e d i n the t e l l i n g o f the p r e v i o u s story l i k e a set o f nested R u s s i a n d o l l s m u c h l i k e " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " and " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y " e m b e d m u l t i p l e stories w i t h i n the frame o f their narratives. Structure i n the f o r m o f a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f stories framed b y one story, w i t h one name, requires r e a d i n g the c o m p l e x as such, a c o m p l e x i n t e r w e a v i n g and r e - f o r m i n g .  T H E S T O R Y O F ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA A N D F R A M I N G . E m b e d d e d narratives structurally break frames as a result o f a t e l e s c o p i n g into the frame. N a m e s are p o l y s e m i c . N a m e s that c o n t a i n stories, stories b o r n o f the n a m e and other stories, telescope into the frame o f the M y n a m e is G a n d a l f and G a n d a l f m e a n s m e . name. " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " e m p l o y s a s i m i l a r -  J. R . R . Tolkien's The  Hobbit, 17.  f r a m i n g and e m b e d d i n g strategy, one that arises out o f J a c k o ' s R e a c h ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " masquerades as the t h i r d -  35 person, w i t h an e m b e d d e d exception. M a l o u f s c h o i c e o f p o i n t o f v i e w subterfuge is deliberate. T h e v o i c e i n the story is b o t h that o f the c o m m u n i t y and that o f the r e a d i n g o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f stories to the c o m m u n i t y . T h e absence o f first-person p r o n o u n s and the repetition o f the " o u r " (93) and " w e " (100) p l u r a l p r o n o u n s c o n v e y an o w n e r s h i p m o r e diffuse than i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p , an a m b i g u o u s o w n e r s h i p b e l i e d not o n l y b y the shared o w n e r s h i p i n the shared p o p u l a t i n g o f the n a m e w i t h stories, but b y the shared access to the stories l e a k i n g out o f the p l a c e name. J a c k o ' s R e a c h w a s p r e v i o u s l y o w n e d b y a s i n g l e person, " M i s s H a r d i e o f P y m b l e " (94). S h e is accused b y the s p e a k i n g " t h e y " o f s e l l i n g the l a n d "for a s o n g " because she was a " S y d n e y s i d e r " (94), an outsider. O w n e r s h i p i n the c o m m u n i t y i n the f o r m o f an investment i n its stories and m y t h s , and i n this case the s p e c i f i c stories and m y t h s b o t h s u r r o u n d i n g and e m a n a t i n g f r o m " J a c k o ' s R e a c h , " w o u l d have precluded her f r o m u n d e r v a l u i n g the investment o f m u l t i p l e stories i n place, i n name. " S o n g " e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y and l i t e r a l l y means "not v e r y m u c h m o n e y , " but the u n d e r v a l u i n g is a result o f not b e i n g p r i v y to the v a l u e o f the songs i n p l a c e names, the songs as stories, as texture. T h i s is, i n part, a failure to read names as stories. I f M i s s H a r d i e w e r e to read " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " I a m certain she w o u l d u p her p r i c e . B e f o r e I noted an e x c e p t i o n to the p o i n t o f v i e w . N e a r the b e g i n n i n g o f the m i d d l e o f the story M a l o u f writes a solitary " I " : " W h e n I w a s seven or eight years o l d w e u s e d to p l a y C o p s and R o b b e r s there" (95-96). I a m s t i l l confused b y this p r o n o u n , and I t h i n k that the c o n f u s i o n is part o f the effect, part o f its m u l t i p l e effects. T h e story is meant for one speaker, the speaker w h o r e c o g n i z e s the strategies o f a p p r o a c h i n the c o m m u n i t i e s stories at w o r k . H o w e v e r , the s i n g l e " I " is subsumed into the m a n y articulations o f " o u r " and " w e , " the " I " is embedded i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g , the personal is e m b e d d e d i n the c o m m u n a l i n m u c h the same w a y that K w a k w a k a ' w a k w n a m i n g m u d d i e s the concept o f i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p . Stories are  36 myths, both experiential and constructed, to which the entire community has access equally. To close out the embedded frame an embedded story: an adjectival "my" is placed near the end of the middle of the story: "Every fellow of my generation knows Valmay's name" (97). Not only is Valmay's story embedded and surrounded by other stories in place, this story does not belong to the speaker proper, but his generation. The adjective connotes less ownership than membership. The membership allows access to not only the story proper, but the knowledge attached to the story arising from the name "Valmay." The stories mute the telling, exist without a teller in much the same way that an object exists without a namer. Also, the recognition of how naming works imbedded once again in the epistemological "know[ing]" of the name Valmay, which is to say the story of Valmay, is more pedagogical (instructs a field of participants) than individual in that it functions re-cognitively: her name's story is added to the myth structure mutating it. THE STORY OF THE TEXTURED TEXT OF NAMING'S APPROACH. "Jacko's Reach" begins with the sentence, "So it is settled" (93). The sentence doubly names some of the textual strategies in "Jacko's Reach" and other stories, and my approach—structural, conceptual, textual—in that it names, which is to say contains, a story, subject, verb, and object rendered in parallax. The sentence opens out onto multiple meanings—denotative, connotative, conceptual—all of which draw on naming as a narrative strategy that is aligned with storytelling: the telling of stories about Jacko's Reach as well as Jacko's Reach as the place that "evoke[s]" (96) stories. A Jacko's Reach that is multiple stories happening at once muddies the biblical and linguistic tendency for precise meaning, for the single word, single referent binary, for names that two-dimensionally frame.  Why does Microsoft Word not recognize "namer" as a word?  37 T H E S T O R Y O F SO.  "So it is settled." "So" signals analytical telling in a similar way that "Once upon a time..." signals quest narrative, and "It was a dark and stormy night..." signals either ironic or cliched writing. The "so" breaks silence, a narrative technique transposed into written text from oral storytelling, opens up a sonic space that fills with "listen to me, I have something to say." So begins a telling in much the same way that a name invites diving into its story pool. This "so" also evokes Thomas King's examination of the strategies in and function of storytelling in his text The Truth About Stories: "the truth about stories," King writes multiple times, "is that that's all we are" (2, 32, 62, 92, 122, 153). At the beginning of each chapter the same story is told, a story about the world sitting on a turtle's back. The story 24  changes both in the telling—in the "voice of the storyteller," in the "details," in the "order of events" (2)—and in the reaction of a listener—a girl laughs (2), a boy laughs (31), a woman smiles (61), a man takes notes (91), a woman "chuckle[s] and rock[s] her baby" (121). The telling of stories cooperates with the listening to stories, and vice versa. The emphasis is equally on the storyteller's craft as it is on the listener's receptivity and analytical prowess, analysis that understands that "how it is we imagine the world in the way we do, how it is we imagine ourselves [is] through our stories" (95). Stories implicate cognitive schema. King's stories are also aligned with naming. For example, the term Indian. You see, Columbus didn't find Indians in North America, the name mistakes North America for India. This linguistically nominal mistake was not rectified, which is to say restoried, until recently. King also talks about how envisioning a name devoid of multiple stories is a failure to name: "the panorama of cultures, the innumerable tribes, and the complex of languages made it impossible for North Americans to find what they most desired. A single Indian who could  "Lecture" might be a more accurate naming here as the chapters were initially written for the 2003 Massey Lectures aired on CBC. 24  38 stand for the w h o l e " (79). W h a t f o l l o w e d w a s a n attempt to j a m - p a c k the m y t h o f Indians into a m y t h i c a l name, to fit the idea o f I n d i a n into a n already e x i s t i n g c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a rather than letting the c o s m i c m i s t a k e i n s p i r e a n awareness o f the failure o f the c o g n i t i v e schema to incorporate n e w data, n e w people. D a v i d M a l o u f s story " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y " contains t w o stories i n p a r a l l a x . First, h o w e v e r , the title connotes the i m p r e s s i o n o f names i n o p p o s i t i o n . B l a c k s o i l c o u n t r y i s nested w i t h i n the larger c o u n t r y o f A u s t r a l i a , but nested i n o p p o s i t i o n : country c o m e s f r o m Latin  contra against, o n the opposite side. " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y " understories A u s t r a l i a ' s story  i n the same w a y that stories understory names. T h e precise i m p r e c i s i o n o f the p l a c e n a m e title (the area i s never g e o g r a p h i c a l l y n a m e d , o n l y located i n terms o f its p r o x i m i t y to another place " D o u b l e B a y " [120], a narrative strategy that betrays systems' r e l a t i v i t y and relationality)  25  parallels the t w o stories the p l a c e n a m e contains, t w o stories t o l d b y a s i n g l e  narrator. S t o r y t e l l e r J o r d a n M c G i v e r n introduces h i s t e l l i n g as a " s h o w [ i n g ] " (116). H e introduces h i m s e l f b y s a y i n g " J o r d a n m y n a m e i s " (116). Y o d a - s y n t a x . L i n g u i s t s refer to this structure as fronting. T h e fronting either presents the fronted m a t e r i a l as " o l d , " o r g i v e s a " n e w " interpretation o f what i s "left-ed' as c o n c l u s i v e , o r both. H i s n a m e i s a transposed object. T h e subject replaces the object; the n a m e i s the object not the subject. T h e subject names the story e m b e d d e d i n h i s name. T h e n a m e i s the story. T h e reader i s t o l d i n i t i a l l y that " b l a c k s o i l c o u n t r y [is] open, e m p t y " as w e l l as " c r o w d e d w i t h ghosts, figures h i d d e n a w a y i n the folds o f i t " (116), a both/and structure, a p a r a l l a x structure. T h e storied l a n d u n s p o k e n as a result o f ghosts that d o not speak but w h o s e presence manifests as a s e n s i n g  Malouf uses this narrative strategy with Remembering Babylon's unnamed town: the town does not have a street, it has an "area between" (5): "not yet a street [with] no name" (5). The town only has meaning in relation to other named places and all that they stand for: "Bowen," twelve miles off and the "Crown" (5) "Brisbane," six hundred miles away and the "Law" (9) - the unknown and urmamable "Absolute Dark," that stands for "nightmare rumours, [and] superstitions" (3) - and "Comet River," the death of "nineteen souls" (42). These places, other places, act as referents.  2 5  39 that makes " h a i r c r a w l o n [the] n e c k " (116). G h o s t s are m e t a p h o r i c a l i n this case; ghosts are stories. T h e narrator i n " J a c k o ' s R e a c h " talks about h o w w a t c h i n g i n v o l v e s a f o r m a l attention, a seeing o f ghosts i n forms, the forms o f p e o p l e i n this case: seeing i n v o l v e s "reform[ing], i n a g h o s t l y w a y " i n order to see the "darker," "deeper," " s u b m e r g e d " (98), ghosted images w i t h i n people, the ghosts as stories i n their n a m e d selves. T h e ghosts i n places, not the places themselves.  S i m i l a r l y , readers learn that the narrator o f " B l a c k s o i l  C o u n t r y " is a ghost. J o r d a n M c G i v e r n is k i l l e d as retribution for h i s father k i l l i n g a b l a c k messenger i n c o l d b l o o d .  THE STORY OF IT. " S o it is settled." T h e " i t , " the i m p r e c i s e p r o n o u n reference gestures towards b o t h the place, J a c k o ' s R e a c h as u n t i l l e d , untamed, w i l d l a n d , and the l o c a l c o u n c i l ' s decision regarding the place, a d e c i s i o n to "clear [it] and b u i l [ d ] " (93) a s h o p p i n g m a l l . T h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f m e a n i n g here, the c o n t r o l l e d a m b i g u i t y i n u n s p e c i f i c p r o n o u n use gestures towards a refusal o f s i m p l e teleologies. T h e p r o n o u n , i n substitution for certain p e r c e i v e d , m u l t i p l e , precise  In this awareness o f t h i n g s ' oddness and i n y o u r c o m p u n c t i o n over y o u r separation f r o m this is a lettingb e - o f - t h e - w o r l d w h i l e y o u are turned f u l l y t o w a r d it. from T i m L i l b u r n ' s " L i v i n g i n the W o r l d as i f it Were H o m e , " 22.  nouns, a l l o w s that the p r o n o u n c o u l d be replaced b y other n o u n s — " s t o r y t e l l i n g , " " k n o w [ i n g ] " (97),  "under" (99)—nouns w h o s e meanings themselves need e x a m i n a t i o n . H u m a n s are u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h m u l t i p l e definitions, w i t h p l u r a l it, w i t h undefined, u n n a m e d itness. T h e a m b i g u o u s l y n a m e d m o b i l i z e s interaction. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , s a l a l ' s " v e r y c o m m o n p l a c e fecundity c o m p e l s [ L a u r i e R i c o u ' s ] attention" (80). N a m i n g e m p l o y e d a certain w a y eases, comforts. N a m i n g i n c o m p l e t e l y e m p l o y e d satisfies the need for guaranteed m e a n i n g . G e m m y , the outsider c h i l d i n M a l o u f s Remembering  Babylon,  threatens the c o m m u n i t y not  40 because h e i s v i o l e n t but because h i s presence u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y subverts, calls into question the c o m m u n i t i e s c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a , forces s e l f and w o r l d - r e f l e x i v i t y , forces an e x a m i n a t i o n o f their n a m i n g strategies. V i s u a l difference ( G e m m y i s m i s s i n g a n e y e b r o w - "strange h o w unimportant e y e b r o w s c a n be, so l o n g as there are t w o o f t h e m " [8], he is also a s y m m e t r i c a l as a result o f one o f h i s legs b e i n g shorter than the other), interactive difference i n the f o r m o f not b e i n g s o c i a l i z e d ( " w h e n he got e x c i t e d he [T]here is no e n d to [the n a m i n g ] language... T h e sea's n a m e i s i n i e n ,  j e r k e d about as i f h e w e r e b e i n g w o r k e d b y strings"  w e l l and g o o d . B u t what w e c a l l the Inmost S e a has its o w n n a m e also i n  [8]), a n d aural a n d l i n g u i s t i c difference ("the m e r e  the O l d Speech. S i n c e no t h i n g c a n have t w o true names, i n i e n c a n m e a n  half-dozen words o f E n g l i s h [Gemmy] could cough  o n l y ' a l l the sea except the Inmost Sea.' A n d o f course it does not m e a n  u p [...] m i s m a n a g e d a n d distorted" [40]) force the  even that, for there are seas a n d b a y s and straits b e y o n d c o u n t i n g that bear  c o m m u n i t y to ask a "harder question": " c o u l d y o u  names o f their o w n . . . [T]hat what g i v e s . . . p o w e r to w o r k m a g i c , sets  lose it? N o t just language, but if. It" (40). T h e  the l i m i t s o f that p o w e r .  from Ursula K. Le Guin's A Wizard of Earthsea,  51.  absence o f f a m i l i a r i t y breeds diagnosis, e x p l a n a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n o f a r e l i a n c e o n the stories  i n the conceptual s c h e m a that f u n c t i o n to o r g a n i z e the interactions o f the s c h e m a ' s m e m b e r s and interaction w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t the m e m b e r s b e l o n g to. A n engagement w i t h an object's q u i d d i t y , rather than its name, m o b i l i z e s engagement w i t h its itness, requires r e c o g n i t i o n o f the stories i m b e d d e d w i t h i n it. W h a t f o l l o w s the "It" are several answers p r o p o s e d b y the t a x o n o m i s t teacher M r . F r a z e r a n d framed b y a n either/or l o g i c , answers, as it were, r e l y i n g o n the faulty l o g i c o f p h r e n o l o g y . T h e either/or i s i r o n i c a l l y constructed as the first o p t i o n requires a s c r i b i n g v e r a c i t y  M a s t e r H a n d i n the C o u r t o f Seeming: I l l u s i o n fools the b e h o l d e r ' s senses; it m a k e s h i m see a n d hear and feel that the t h i n g i s changed. B u t it does not change the t h i n g . T o change this r o c k into a j e w e l , y o u must change its true name. A n d to do that... even to so s m a l l a scrap o f the w o r l d , i s to change the w o r l d .  from Ursula K. Le Guin's A Wizard of Earthsea, 47.  41 to a phrenological reading and the second option requires belief in linguistic phrenology, and the third option, a further irony, is written "or both of these" (40). The either/or is already both, option one is the same as option two, a singular both. The choice is the same. The oppositionality of an either/or structure composed of a singularity posits asymmetrical symmetry, although in this case the analyzer is unaware of this fact. W. H. New offers, instead, a both/and structure, or at least its recognition, and a recognition of its hectic complexity. New used to read the conclusion articulated in a story as "failure of nerve or desire" (About Irony 48). New changes his mind. He now believes that the relationship, or conflict, between two opposing identities "functions more effectively as a sign of the uncertainty of change as well as of inevitability of transformation. Not either/or but 26  both/and [...] of interconnection rather than but sometimes including resistance" (48-49).  I see New's both/and recognition a component of understanding the storying of names: New breaks binary logic in favor of tertiary logic. Employing a similar logic, Malouf takes this realization a step further by using a series of linked sentences that begin with the conjunction "or," an or that destabilizes the binary of the conditional either/or. Understanding occurs when the narrator realizes that "Jacko's Reach" can't be purely "symbolic" because there are other options: Jacko's is also (or) a place where multiple, palpable events occur, either x ("a lost lighter") or y (a "gash[ed] foot") or z ("waiting" and "humiliation") [99]. Multiple or-ings mutes the "either" half of the either/or binary by implying the potential for a series of unending ors: the conjunctive condition doesn't prescribe a set of limits. Perhaps the perpetual or-ing's approach is valued, a textual value leaking out of or's aural homonymic shift into ore. To hear the transmutation, however,  The particular story does not matter—the strategy does: however, the story is Margaret Atwood's poem "Migration: C.P.R."  26  42 requires l i s t e n i n g , l i s t e n i n g to text and/or/or... h o w the t e x t ' s strategies engage w i t h m e a n i n g making, naming. M r . F r a z e r listens b y half. M r . F r a z e r i s not aware o f the l i m i t s that he places o n h i m s e l f as a result o f his b e i n g w e d d e d to the d e s c r i p t i v e l o g i c n a m i n g w i t h a n either/or structure engenders.  L i t t l e else than the t a x o n o m y o f f o r m leaks out o f a n a m e for M r .  Frazer. A w a r e n e s s . T r i c k y business that. P e r c e p t i o n . T r i c k y business a g a i n .  27  Parallax:  stars' locations are p e r c e i v e d d i s p l a c e d , b u t o n l y apparently so. W h e n the f i e l d o f experience is compared to the f i e l d o f the s c h e m a and found l a c k i n g and inadequate, the experience i s u s u a l l y m o d i f i e d to a c c o m m o d a t e the schema. I f w e require o f ourselves that the s c h e m a c a n be f l a w e d , process replaces the c o m p l a c e n c y i n f i x i t y . I n other w o r d s , engagement w i t h narrative strategies, o r i n this case strategies o f a p p r o a c h i n general, focuses us less o n the p o s i t i o n i n g o f o u r experiences i n a particular s c h e m a — I a m part o f X s c h e m a and therefore this is h o w I name, h o w the s c h e m a authorizes the w a y I a m authorized to a p p r o a c h 1, 2 a n d 3—than o n what is learned about the assumptions e m b e d d e d i n and inadequacies o f the g u i d i n g , explanatory p r i n c i p l e s i n the s c h e m a itself. W h e n the narrator says that " i t i s this, a l l this, that w i l l go under" (99) the s h o p p i n g m a l l to b e b u i l t o n J a c k o ' s R e a c h , "under" i s s y n o n y m o u s w i t h embedded, and the f o r m o f " i t , " its p r o n o u n a l shape, " i t " as transposed subject never defined, gestures towards m u l t i p l e n o u n phrases, m u l t i p l e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s — t h e stories, the system w i t h i n w h i c h the stories are i m a g i n e d , the stories i m a g i n i n g the system, the names that g i v e rise to the stories, n a m i n g  For example, Thomas Kuhn's book The Copernican Revolution discusses the power of cosmologies. The Egyptians pictured the earth as an "elongated platter" (5) whose boundaries paralleled the Nile. The Egyptians believed that "circumpolar stars" (those which never dip below the horizon) "know no weariness" and "know no destruction" (6), a storying of stars. "Cosmologies," Kumi writes, "supply both a psychologically satisfying world-view and an explanation of observed phenomena" (7). The implications for cosmologies that are both affectively prescriptive and phenomologically descriptive is important to an understanding of form informing function. If, for instance, crops are harvested when the stars are in a certain configuration, it is very easy to project not only agency onto the stars themselves, but one's happiness as well.  2 7  43 as a narrative strategy the u n p a c k s c o s m o l o g i e s , and so o n . T h e repetition o f the demonstrative, a r e p e t i t i o n that reinforces the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o m p l e t e , perfect demonstrability, perfect n a m i n g , echoes L i l b u r n ' s approach to the subject-object c h a s m that attempts to turn the h u m a n into object and the object into subject (a deer sees h i m "straight t h r o u g h . . . but [he] cannot say h o w [he is] seen" [4]). H i s strategy, so n a m e d , is a strategy o f approach, a p p r o a c h w h i c h requires " q u i e t " (perhaps a quiet i n response to the n o i s e o f the p o l i t i c a l , i n t e r a c t i o n stripped o f inherent p o l i t i c s ) , " c o u r t e s y " (21), " c u r i o s [ i t y ] " (18) and a "letting-be-of-the-world w h i l e [being] turned f u l l y t o w a r d i t " (22) i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the "thisness o f t h i n g s " (21). L i l b u r n ' s approach requires i m m e r s i o n (rather than d e f i n i t i o n ) i n the story o f object/place (its o w n story), rather than the overt s t o r y i n g o f p l a c e : I w i l l fit w h a t I see into what I a l r e a d y k n o w . Perhaps the " r e m e m b e r i n g " i n Remembering Babylon enacts an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the same k i n d o f a p p r o a c h that L i l b u r n strives for and that the c o m m u n i t y i n the n o v e l l a r g e l y fails at. M o s t o f the c o m m u n i t y ' s engagement w i t h what they see, describe, a n d k n o w is c o n t r o l l e d b y , fit into, what they already k n o w , what they remember. " L o o k at the f u r r o w i n h i s b r o w , " the t h i r d p e r s o n o m n i s c i e n t narrator continues an attempt to describe G e m m y ' s thisness, itness. " W a s it a w h i t e m a n ' s thought that set it there, or the k n o w l e d g e o f s o m e t h i n g (they w o u l d not n a m e it) that c o u l d h a r d l y be c o n c e i v e d o f i n a w h i t e m a n ' s t h i n k i n g . . . a t h i n g y o u c o u l d smelF (41). W h i l e synesthetic d e s c r i p t i o n resists the subjectobject separation r e q u i r e d b y syntax outside o f metaphor, that "they w o u l d not n a m e i t " avoids d i c t i o n . T o choose the w o r d s that w o u l d n a m e the i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s , p u z z l e m e n t , concern, a n d q u e s t i o n i n g that G e m m y ' s f u r r o w e d b r o w i m p l i e s , to order a n d to n a m e the b r o w w o u l d require a r e f l e x i v i t y , a stepping outside o f s e l f and engagement w i t h strategic inadequacies that the c o m m u n i t y is not yet capable of. J o r d a n M c G i v e r n synesthetic  44 k n o w i n g is different. H e a l l o w s the "breeze" to " t o u c h " h i m " l i k e h a n d s " (122). J o r d a n decreases the subject-object separation, a l l o w s the breeze a g e n c y o v e r h i m s e l f .  Jordan's  listening translates into the granting o f p e r m i s s i o n , a v u l n e r a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d b y the i n t i m a c y o f touch. T h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y and i n t i m a c y , I think, requires response to s c h e m a that r e l y o n "rightful b o u n d a r i e s " (122), a m e t a p h o r i c a l response. T H E S T O R Y O F IS, O F M E T A P H O R A N D N A M I N G . " S o it is settled." "Is." T h e " i s " is, as D o n M c K a y and T i m L i l b u r n w o u l d h a v e it, metaphor, metaphor r e s p o n d i n g to u n a m b i g u o u s , un-nuanced, n o r m a t i v e n a m i n g .  McKay  believes that a l l n a m i n g translates; translation is i m p r e c i s e ; i m p r e c i s i o n requires awareness o f the f a l l i b i l i t y o f n a m i n g .  2 8  M r . F r a z e r ' s translation is just an-other name. J o r d a n engages  w i t h synesthetic translation, listens to translation's t o u c h . M c K a y w r i t e s that a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the failure o f names runs i n p a r a l l e l w i t h a r e c o g n i t i o n o f h o w metaphor w o r k s . " M e t a p h o r ' s first act," M c K a y writes, and I have quoted before, " i s to u n - n a m e its subject, r e o p e n i n g the question o f reference" (69). A l s o embedded i n M c K a y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n is an attempt to r e v i s i t and revise a W e s t e r n strategy o f n a m i n g that p r i v i l e g e s the n a m e r o v e r the n a m e d — "whatever n a m e [ A d a m ] gave to any l i v i n g t h i n g , that w a s its n a m e " ( G e n e s i s 2 : 1 9 ) — a n d the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , quantifiable, nameable difference manifests f o r m a l l y as separation, separation i m b u e d w i t h a m e t a p h o r i c a l and t a u t o l o g i c a l m o r a l i t y that eschews i n d e x i n g for the polar, b i n a r i e d , d i v i s i b l e and s e p a r a b l e — " G o d separated the light f r o m the darkness" (Genesis 1:4) and " G o d c a l l e d the light day, and the darkness he c a l l e d n i g h t " ( G e n e s i s 1:5). Jordan M c G i v e r n does not d i v i d e h i m s e l f f r o m b l a c k s o i l c o u n t r y i n the w a y that h i s P a does. It is his "sort o f c o u n t r y " p r e c i s e l y because he "give[s] it a chance to s h o w i t s e l f ( 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 ) to h i m instead o f i m p o s i n g h i s o w n system o f names o n it.  McKay is drawing on, in part, Walter Benjamin's "The Task of the Translator."  45 Catherine Martin's 1870 autobiography An Australian Girl reads Australia as a tabula rasa: "The unstoried blank stirs the imagination curiously with dim guesses at the chronicles which may be written of this land in days to come" (qtd. in Ryan 128). There is no recognition that the blank might have its own stories. The imposition is an active attempt to change through the storytelling in names: the imagination is informed by a previous place (England), not the place of which she is writing. Unlike Martin and unlike Jordan's father, Jordan is enamored with the sounds of the place and especially the sounds of a frog which he hears before he sees as a result of its chameleon ability to "take on" (122) the colour of what it clings to. Finding the frog, seeing through its chameleon form is analogous to seeing the stories in names. Jordan enacts frog, becomes a chameleon of place, lets the sounds of place whisper through him. The chameleon metaphor describes a blending with place, frog and human hidden in and by the fabric of place, as well as a taking on of (or listening to) place, 29  letting the stories of place inform the patterns and colours that shape its inhabitance.  Also,  when Jordan lets the breeze "touch him [like] hands" he engages in metaphor, metaphor that decreases subject-object separation, metaphor that contracts the name "wind" into the "happening]" (Stafford, Having 3) of the "wind." And when Jordan hears day voices and night voices, he distinguishes the two not to enact difference, separates the two not to divide, but enacts individuality to immerse himself in their uniqueness, describes their sounds with a "liked" (122) quality (like, adjective, alike, similar) rather than named quantity. Quantity and quality, tricky business them. In Vis a Vis: Field Notes on Poetry & Wilderness, McKay writes what he calls "A Small Fable" (89) and what is in actuality a  I also see a parallel here with Wah's articulation of the hyphen as "camouflage." To camouflage the landscape with names does not engage with how names perform. To let the oneself take on the camouflage of place is to learn through place, allowing a closer naming thereof. 29  46 response to Genesis, or rather a re-storying thereof.  30  Adam, after a day of naming vetted by  his parent, wakes up in doubt, doubting his names' veracity, doubts the fact of "inexorable order inexorably ordering" (89). Screech owl, Adam realizes, is a "bonehead" name as a result of screech connoting ascension— cf, Adam stories again, a '58 Pontiac Bonneville's sharp braking into an accident—when really the "owl's voice fluttered down... like a little aluminum ladder" (90). The screech of the "little aluminum ladder of [the Screech Owl's] scream" calls "quality... forward," turns the "ladder into an act" (90). The ladder also functions to index a previously unindexed naming strategy. Considering asking his father to accept the "revision," Adam realizes the breaking of his naming strategy's economy, of "spending six words on what was after all one of Creation's smaller owls" (91). Ownership again, the ownership investing in naming. And vision, the vision in revision. Walking in the dark, poked in the eye by a branch, Adam wonders "would everything have to have a day name and a night name?" (91). The fable concludes with Adam almost realizing the failure of a name's naming: hearing little-aluminum-ladder on the night air and its failure to coalesce into "words" his feeling of a "gentle fatal presence," both the story of the name and the names failure to tell the story of his experience. Adam's engagement with the failure of his father's proposed naming strategy unnames, which is to say makes him uncomfortable with the ordering that naming occludes. The Bible's narrative strategy articulates one system of naming. When McKay writes of a naming connected to "homage" and prefers "envisaging rather than naming" (101), he articulates a different strategy of approach, one that attempts to move beyond what he feels to be the closed system of a subject-position feedback loop that reinforces binary separation. McKay's approach proposes replacing the loop with emphases on response and  See also Thomas King's "One Good Story That One."  47 r e c o g n i t i o n , o n the r e c o g n i t i v e act that posits a n e w c o g n i t i v e approach and the n a m i n g thereof, rather than the p o l i t i c s o f n a m i n g itself. T h e ghosts i n " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y " are also responses to the B i b l e i n m u c h the same w a y that the b ' s i n Remembering  Babylon are.  G h o s t s are not a part o f B i b l i c a l teachings. T h e p r e c i s e l y c o n t a i n e d realms (although not s p e c i f i c a l l y located) o f heaven, h e l l , purgatory and earth and the s p e c i f i c a l l y defined b o d i e s (both i n quantity and quality) that they c o n t a i n does not account for ghosts i n the same w a y that b i b l i c a l strategies o f n a m i n g d o not account for the stories that w e l l u p out o f names. T h e r e are m a n y b ' s , b o t h bees and letter b, i n Remembering Babylon.  i T h e letter b. T h e title o f the b o o k contains three  1 T h e story o f the bee. M r s .  bs. G e m m y , d i s c o v e r e d b y some c h i l d r e n o f the  H u t c h e n s o n ' s bees are not o n l y  settlement, mistakes a stick that a b o y holds as a  metaphors for c o l o n i a l r u l e — t h e  g u n and stammers, " D o not shoot, I a m a B - b -  singular, algebraic, m e a n i n g s  b r i t i s h object!" (3). T h r e e m o r e bs (plus the b i n  implied by a colonialism aligned  object itself).  w i t h i m p e r i a l i s m , the r a n k i n g o f  Stuttered bs—stuttering as failure o f  language, failure o f the f o r m t o c o n t a i n w h a t the  object as less than subject, an  f o r m defines. M a l o u f is interested i n bs b o t h as a  a p p r o a c h reinforced b y the  response to the a, a response, i n part, to a n absence  metaphors o f bee-boxes and  o f the a m b i g u i t y i m p l i e d b y m i d d l i n g spaces i n  hives: b o x e s contain, package,  R e v e l a t i o n 2 2 : 1 3 — " I a m the A l p h a and the O m e g a ,  l i m i t , ' b o x i f y ' , and hives c o n n o t e  the first and the last, the b e g i n n i n g and the end"—as  the h i v e - m i n d , g r o u p thought i n  w e l l as its affinity w i t h the u n e x a m i n e d l o g i c o f  opposition to individuality,  i n d e x a b l e hierarchies, h o w e v e r arbitrary, i n  agency, creativity, and t h i n k i n g  pronouncements (served here as definitions from  outside the (bee)box—the bees  48  the O E D ) o f the letter b as either the 2  n Q  letter, not  also attend to m o b i l i t y ,  the 1 (as in the B-side o f an album or the other  transformation, and a n interactive  side), or as "abstract reasoning o r hypothetical  approach. F o r Janet, daughter o f  a r g u m e n t a t i o n " (as i n I a. w a l k to the bus, before h.  the M a c l v o r f a m i l y that takes  getting o n it). I f syntax requires object f o l l o w  G e m m y i n , a n experience w i t h  subject, I t h i n k M a l o u f aligns the letter b w i t h a  bees, o r rather what she learns  n a m i n g o f object a n d the tendency t o w a r d s  f r o m this experience, "settles"  objectification that o c c u r s i n the "area b e t w e e n "  her i n the " b u s i n e s s " o f bees and  (Remembering 5), and w i t h the " q u e s t i o n " o f h o w  " l i f e " (141), bees that transform  does one g o about " c o v e r i n g the space between  her life.  [people,] r e c o v e r i n g the c o n n e c t i o n " (33).  unsettled. It is a " s e t t l i n g "  st  B e s i d e s the i n i t i a l s o n i c " B - b - b r i t i s h object"  She is settled b y b e i n g  p r o d u c e d b y the unsettling  (albeit a v o c a l i z a t i o n that opens a space for  inspired not b y the bees as agent,  entertaining the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the idea o f object i n  as a l l e g o r y f o r empire, but the  o p p o s i t i o n to subject), i n the o p e n i n g pages o f  t u r n i n g t o w a r d s herself, an  Remembering Babylon, M a l o u f writes object i n  e x a m i n a t i o n o f h e r s e l f that  relation to G e m m y m u l t i p l e times: object as  carries a p a r a l l e l r e a l i z a t i o n  m u l t i p l e parts o f speech gesturing t o w a r d s more  about faith a n d b e l i e f and  than their definitions, definitions w r a p p e d - u p i n  c o m m u n i c a t i v e acts.  strategies o f approach: G e m m y ' s "object" is " l i k e  Janet, f a r m i n g bees, is  any other creature's... to stay i n [the w o r l d ] b y any  s w a r m e d ; the bees c o v e r her i n a  means he c o u l d " (25); at times " s o m e object out o f  "crust" (142). Janet does not  [ G e m m y ' s ] o l d life w o u l d c o m e f l o a t i n g b a c k a n d  place h e r s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n to the  b u m p against h i m " (27), objects meant to r e m i n d ,  bees, does not resist, rebut the  49 that need attention; i n an attempt to fit i n , to mute  s w a r m . T h e s h e d d i n g o f the  his o b j e c t i v i t y i n favor o f b e c o m i n g a subject i n and  crust changes her.  o f the c o m m u n i t y he is n e w too, G e m m y ' s  particular m e a n i n g — n a m e d  " o b j e c t . . . w a s to m a k e h i m s e l f agreeable" (35); the  f e a r — o f the experience and  c o m m u n i t y attempts to identify the object o f  replaces it w i t h another, m o r e  G e m m y ' s itness, to place h i m (although not  nuanced reading. T h e bees  necessarily i n c l u d e ) i n the i n d e x o f their k n o w i n g .  s w a r m her because o f a mistake:  O r d e r i n g objects i n the hierarchy o f b e i n g leads  She sheds a  the bees b e l i e v e her menstruation  to comfort. T o b r i n g together onto a field o f  to be honey: "they t h i n k it is  k n o w i n g means t o create c o m m u n i t y , create a  h o n e y , " she realizes, and then, "it  system o f interdependency, o f c h e c k s and balances,  i s , " she c o n c l u d e s (142).  o f certainty o f forms. G e m m y m o b i l i z e s J o c k  mistake m o b i l i z e s her  M c l v e r ' s changing w a y o f being, w a y o f listening  understanding that to panic  and interacting, w a y o f "see[ing] the w o r l d " (106);  w o u l d be a mistake. W i l l i n g n e s s  the change changes his field o f k n o w i n g . H e sees  to a l l o w the bees their  insects perched o n blades o f grass, describes t h e m  i m a g i n a t i o n contains a parallel  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ( w h i c h destabilizes stable n a m i n g ) ,  realization, one that entertains  and i n r e l a t i o n to his changed s e l f ( c o g n i t i v e self-  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the  refractivity): "the d i s c o v e r y o f them, the n e w light  transmutation o f forms. In such  they brought to the scene, w a s a lightness i n h i m . . .  an approach, i n s p i r e d b y bees  l i k e a f o r m o f k n o w i n g he had b r o k e n t h r o u g h t o "  " w i t h a flair for g e o m e t r y " (192)  (107). T h e f o r m is " u n n a m e a b l e , " s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  (rather than algebra, spatial  " d i s t u r b [ i n g ] " and " e x h i l a r a t i n g " (107). J o c k ' s shift  c o m p l e x rather than linear  into a m o d e o f interaction that a l l o w s , is  meaning), is the " P r o b l e m " she  The  50 comfortable w i t h , the unnameable object contains  makes her l i f e ' s w o r k , the  the parallel shift i n his c o g n i t i v e schema, an a b i l i t y  "power... o f  to not require that his m o d e o f engagement  (192). Janet, w h o changes her  prescribe d e f i n i t i o n o n the outside w o r l d . Seeing a  name, w h o b e c o m e s Sister  b i r d " b a l a n c e d o n a r o u n d stone" makes h i m aware  M o n i c a , a l l o w s experience to  o f his place o f observation, o f subject p o s i t i o n ,  transform her: b y reading M r s .  "sitting, himself, o n a larger stone, also r o u n d e d "  H u t c h i n s o n ' s fear for her, Janet  (107). J o c k ' s r e a l i z a t i o n , i n part a product o f his  understands that it w a s her  r e a l i z a t i o n i n s u l a t i n g h i m f r o m the g r o u p - t h i n k i n g  " b e l i e f that had supported her.  i n his c o m m u n i t y , c o m e s i n the f o r m o f the  W h i l e her b e l i e f turns her  inadequacy o f w o r d s a b i l i t y to accurately describe,  t o w a r d s a literal faith,  to reduce objects to the " c o m m o n " : "he c o u l d have  C h r i s t i a n i t y , b e l i e f also names, is  found no f o r m i n w h i c h to c o m m u n i c a t e them,  i m b u e d w i t h , " s o m e t h i n g " else:  outside w o r d s " ( 1 0 8 ) — J o c k ' s t u r n i n g t o w a r d s  " s o m e t h i n g G e m m y had t o u c h e d  language and a l l o f its pitfalls and traps gestures  o f f i n [her and L a c h l a n Beattie,  t o w a r d s the storied potential o f n a m i n g . J o c k finds  w h o originally found G e m m y ]  balance w h e n he turns t o w a r d s language, w h i c h is  w a s w h a t they were still l i v i n g . . .  to say he finds its c o m m u n i c a t i v e assumptions  it w o u l d end o n l y w h e n they  w h o l l y inadequate.  w e r e ended, and m a y b e not even  T h e conventions c o n t r o l l i n g the  syntax o f language, and the subsequent system that the syntax is b o r n of, are found arbitrary, inadequate  communicating"  then." (197). I t h i n k the final pages o f  for d e s c r i b i n g the shift that has o c c u r r e d i n J o c k ' s  Remembering Babylon names  approach to the w o r l d around h i m .  this " s o m e t h i n g , " names it as a strategy o f " a p p r o a c h " (200).  51 T h e name " a x e " functions differently for t w o  Janet silently speaks: "let  different people, G e m m y and G r a c i e C o r c o r a n . I n  none be left i n the dark or out o f  b o t h instances axe is i t a l i c i z e d , the italics s i g n i f y i n g  m i n d . . . as w e a p p r o a c h prayer.  the reading o f texture. F o r G e m m y , the w o r d axe is  A s w e approach knowledge. A s  a w e b o f s i g n i f i c a t i o n w h o s e l a t c h i n g to the s i g n  w e a p p r o a c h one another" (200).  subsequently latches to himself: " m e a n i n g c l i n g [ s ]  F o r the reader, the a p p r o a c h is  to the [word/sound] image i n the same w a y that the  learned t h r o u g h an engagement  clothes he w a s w e a r i n g c l u n g to the m a n " (30). T h e  w i t h n a m i n g as a narrative  i t a l i c i z e d axe b r i n g s other w o r d s b a c k to G e m m y ,  strategy.  other m e m o r i e s , other stories. A x e is the genesis  J o c k , E l l e n , Janet, L a c h l a n ,  for a n a l o g i c a l metaphor; G e m m y reads the storied  and G e m m y a v o i d r e n d e r i n g the  potential i n the names o f objects, a storied potential  w o r l d w i t h a perceptual  a r i s i n g f r o m a k n o w i n g o f h i m s e l f that is a t u r n i n g  schematic that relies o n  t o w a r d the w o r l d , an i n q u i s i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  constructing hierarchies to  w o r l d as w e l l as a n attempt to r e c o n c i l e i m a g e s  feel safe: instead, their difference  f r o m his past into himself. F o r G r a c i e , G e m m y is  engines structure their interaction  " l e t . . . l o o s e w i t h an axe" (77), and as a result o f the  b y unsettling the sure w o r l d and  hand that grasps the axe, the w o r d "assumed  their places w i t h i n it. T h e t h i r d  substance, t o o k shape" (77). G r a c i e C o r c o r a n ' s  story, then, i n the story o f " b " is  fearful p e r c e p t i o n o f G e m m y w i t h an axe is m o s t l y  that o f the verb to be, a metaphor  i n f o r m e d b y her p e r c e p t i o n o f G e m m y , not o f the  o f interaction. T h e w a y i n w h i c h  axe. T h e stories attached to the name are i m p o s e d  w e name the w o r l d and the w a y  f r o m outside the name itself, not i n s p i r e d b y  i n w h i c h w e a l l o w the w o r l d to  i m a g i n a t i o n b o r n o f the i t a l i c i z a t i o n o f the name,  name us relies o n a strategy o f  52 but an i m p o s e d reading that comes f r o m outside the  b e - i n g , either settled or unsettled  name. G e m m y c a n not just " c h o p " o r " h e w " w o o d ,  o r b o t h or/as if.  in their literal sense: there exists the potential for h i m , as other, to " c h o p " or " h e w " or " d i s m e m b e r " other  things. T h e i m a g i n a t i o n , i n m a n y cases, fuels  perception: G r a d e ' s i m a g i n a t i o n is s o l e l y i n f o r m e d b y a n i t a l i c i z e d fear: a " p e t r i f i e d " (78) fear that f o s s i l i z e s the potential stories as explanations a r i s i n g f r o m G e m m y ' s hand o n axe.  Alternatively,  G e m m y is interested i n the o s s i f i c a t i o n o f names, i n the w a y they are structural bone.  1 E l l e n M c l v o r ' s d i f f i c u l t y i n t a l k i n g about the death o f t w o o f her c h i l d r e n o c c u r s as a direct result o f "there [being] t o o m u c h space" i n a "here" that is i n front o f the names etched o n their gravestones, as m u c h space " b e t w e e n w o r d s , even the simplest, as there w a s between objects" (111). " H e r e " is also a silence m o b i l i z e d b y grief, the failure o f language, an i n a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n the death o f o n e ' s c h i l d r e n . I w o n d e r , here, h o w J o c k ' s r e a l i z a t i o n c o m i n g f r o m u n n a m e a b l e things applies to sadness and grief. I w o n d e r i f metaphor is enough, w h e t h e r metaphor a u r a l l y fills the space, whether metaphor is a m e t o n y m i c stand-in for grief. I w o n d e r i f the u n w o r d e d g r i e f between w o r d s is the same k i n d o f space that exists b e t w e e n objects. J o c k recognizes that the e x p e r i e n c i n g o f the w o r l d exists " o u t s i d e " w o r d s , is unnameable, i n m u c h the same w a y that J o c k ' s w i f e recognizes that g r i e f is unnameable, exists " b e t w e e n " w o r d s . I do k n o w , h o w e v e r , that those w h o w i l l a l w a y s engage w i t h the w o r l d i n a w a y that i m p o s e s space b e t w e e n objects, w h o a v o i d the process i n d e s c r i p t i o n ,  53 w i l l w i d e n the c h a s m , objectify, never question the " c o m m o n " i n othering. I can i m a g i n e that the death o f o n e ' s c h i l d r e n is p a l p a b l y s i m i l a r to the space b e t w e e n w o r d s — explanations, as t h r o w n stones, fall short o f the opposite side o f c h a s m , f a l l i n g into an abyss o f nameless grief. E l l e n , although perhaps u n a w a r e o f her strategy, is n e g a t i n g the n a m e a b l e w h e n she renders g r i e f as c h i a s m i c , and b y d o i n g so m a k e s an assertion. T h e space " b e t w e e n " for E l l e n is not the singular n a m e " g r i e f (not name: un-name-able); instead the space is an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f stories, " t o o " a quantity, an e m o t i o n a l mass, and q u a l i t y , the texture w i t h i n story that returns too m u c h to the storyteller: the storyteller is unable to h i d e b e h i n d w h a t texture the n a m e o c c l u d e s T H E STORY OF UN-SETTLING SETTLED. " S o it is settled." " S e t t l e d . " T h e c l o s u r e i m p l i e d i n a c u r s o r y r e a d i n g o f the sentence is found w a n t i n g after other definitions b u b b l e to the surface. T h e settled s y n o n y m o u s w i t h " s o l v e d " is o n l y one m e a n i n g , one v o i c e a m o n g a m u l t i p l i c i t y . W h e n J a c k o ' s R e a c h is settled, b u i l t u p o n , populated, n a m e d as such, it is s o l v e d , "resolve[d] c o n c l u s i v e l y , " but also " c o l o n i z e d , " " w o n for progress," o c c u p i e d w i t h h u m a n s o c c u p y i n g themselves w i t h " n i g h t tennis" and "skateboard r a m p [ s ] " and s h o p p i n g , c l a r i f i e d o f " i m p u r i t i e s " l i k e w i n o s , "feral cats," " d u m p e r s o f i l l e g a l garbage... [and] A b o r i g i n e s " i n order that " s e c u r i t y " and "safe" b e c o m e s y n o n y m s w i t h "settle" (93). W h e n M a l o u f e m p l o y s this w o r d laterally, w h i c h is to say a l l o w s m u l t i p l e definitions to arise f r o m its reading, he articulates a strategy o f n a m i n g that r e c o g n i z e s its storied potential. H e unsettles settled n a m i n g . " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y . " Settled country. J o r d a n says, " w h e n w e c o m e it w a s to settle" (116). T h e verb shifts from present to past tense. T h e a r r i v a l is m e d i a t e d and i n f o r m e d b y an i m p e r a t i v e f r o m the past, b o t h as strategy o f a p p r o a c h and actual. J o r d a n M c G i v e r n is k i l l e d i n retribution: to return balance. T h e story o f the c o m i n g as w e l l as what a c c o m p a n i e s the  54 c o m i n g — t h e w a y s i n w h i c h c o l o n i z e r s approach the places they c o l o n i z e , the stories they attempt to i m p o s e o n the places they c o l o n i z e — o r i g i n a t e an occurrence, a death. J o r d a n M c G i v e r n ' s story " b e c o m e s " h i s father's story. A l t h o u g h o n l y ever n a m e d as P a , the father's name is the same as h i s s o n ' s . J o r d a n M c G i v e r n names b o t h father and s o n — J o r d a n M c G i v e r n i s n a m e r and n a m e l i n g . " M y " name is " h i s " name not i n the same w a y that "the story" is " m y s t o r y " " b e c o m e s h i s [story]" (128): the stories i n s p i r e d b y the same n a m e are different. T h e story o f P a ' s s o n ' s death gives shape to b o t h P a and his son: turns P a into a " f i g u r e " o n the landscape, a p r e v i o u s " s u b s e r v i e n [ c e ] " transformed into p o w e r b y a n a m e : " a name to w h i p up fear and j u s t i f i e d rage and the u n b r i d l e d savagery o f slaughter" (130). T h e " b e c o m i n g " is also a m b i g u o u s : the ghost still tells P a ' s story, the narrator does not change. D u r i n g the c u l l i n g , J o r d a n M c G i v e r n lies "quiet i n the heart o f the c o u n t r y , " h i s " s i n k i n g i n t o " it " g r a i n b y g r a i n " a " b l e n d i n g " (130). T h e story o f J o r d a n blends w i t h the story o f P a — J o r d a n ' s n a m e names h i s grief, sanctions it, w h i c h blends w i t h the story o f h i s m o t h e r ' s w h i c h b e c o m e s the story o f J o r d a n ' s b o n e b l e n d i n g w i t h the sand. J o r d a n ' s mother, w h o , before J o r d a n ' s death "[n]ever raised her eyes to the c o u n t r y . . . just acted as i f it w a s n ' t there" (121), n o w "gazes into the " b r i m m i n g heart o f i t " (130), searching, perhaps, f o r her son's n a m e o n and i n it. T h e u n s e t t l i n g o f names, o f the w o r d s that mediate predictable and safe p e r c e p t i o n and interaction. A n u n n a m e d m e m b e r o f the c o m m u n i t y to w h i c h J o c k M c l v o r , and G e m m y , b e l o n g , protests G e m m y ' s otherness b y w r i t i n g a w o r d i n their o w n shit o n a shed that G e m m y is b u i l d i n g . J o c k names the act o f h a n d l i n g defecation an " a b o m i n a t i o n " (115). T h a t the shit forms a " w o r d " m o v e s h i m towards "madness": " W h a t w o r d ? H e s h o o k h i s h e a d w i l d l y to prevent it f o r m i n g , to prevent the p o s s i b i l i t y o f it getting i n there, o f h i m s e l f g i v i n g it f o r m " (116). I h a v e a l w a y s w a n t e d to k n o w the w o r d , to fill, to f u l f i l l the s i l e n c e  55 enacted b y the page, the strategy, and m y o w n desire. T h e u n s e t t l i n g o f guaranteed m e a n i n g here enacts a m o m e n t o f self-reflexivity: w h y do I need to k n o w ? what space w i l l k n o w i n g f u l l - f i l l ? w h y is k n o w i n g that J o c k ' s reaction is i n part a p r o d u c t o f what he sees as a regression into a " d a r k n e s s " that c o m m u n i t y and c i v i l i z a t i o n , for w h i c h w r i t t e n language is a b u l w a r k , " e r a d i c a t e d " (116), not enough? inadequate? i n c o m p l e t e s o m e h o w ?  What is that nameless word? W h a t insatiable desire has the u n n a m e d w o r d mobilized? rru  56  Definition 3  nameless [see NAME sb  and -LESS.]  l b . N o t m e n t i o n e d b y name; left i n obscurity. 5b. H a v i n g no name; u n n a m e d . 8. That one shrinks f r o m n a m i n g  Chapter 3  Negation, Hyphenation, Identity: Naming's Morphemes  B o t h ontologies and goodness h a v e o s s i f y i n g effects. O n t o l o g y points y o u t o w a r d i n t e l l i g i b i l i t i e s , "presences," y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n places i n the w o r l d : the practice this generates i s that o f the s e l f addressing one o f the m a n y h a n d puppets the i m a g i n a t i o n wears. G o o d n e s s tips naturally into rectitude, its m o r a l n a r c i s s i s m ; perhaps a l l a l o n g it w a s s i m p l y rectitude's finest name. S o b o t h s y s t e m a t i z i n g pursuits—the one r e a c h i n g for an understanding o f essence, the other for an e t h i c s — p r o d u c e s o l i p s i s t i c practices, w a y s o f standing apart f r o m the w o r l d .  from Tim Lilburn's  Going Home,  181-2.  THE STORY OF HOKUSAI AND HIS MANY NAMES. I must b e g i n this chapter w i t h a story, the story o f h o w certain names n a m e d an a d m i x t u r e that l e a d m e c a u s a l l y to n a m i n g and n e g a t i o n and h y p h e n a t i o n — t h e story o f the names A n n e C a r s o n and H o k u s a i . A n n e C a r s o n writes a p o e m c a l l e d " H o k u s a i " i n her c o l l e c t i o n Men in the Off Hours.  W h o l e fragments f r o m it go l i k e this:  [•••] H o k u s a i aged 83 said, T i m e to do m y l i o n s . Every morning u n t i l he d i e d  57 219 days later he made a lion.  [•••]  Lions swayed  jn,!,-; ,%#V^INS  and leapt from the crests o f the pine trees onto the s n o w y r o a d or crashed together over his hut, their w h i t e p a w s m a u l i n g stars o n the w a y d o w n I continue to d r a w  N I S S H I N - J O M A : Daily Charm against Evil  31  h o p i n g for a peaceful day, said H o k u s a i as they thudded past. (14-15) T h e p o e m ' s p a r a l l a x : H o k u s a i hopes for a peaceful (/ quiet) d a y w h i l e the l i o n s o f h i s o w n m a k i n g c l a m o r a s y m p h o n y — " t h u d , " " c r a s h , " " m a u l " (although one must i m a g i n e the sound o f mauling)—outside.  I introduce the p o e m here to tell the story o f where it l e d m e ,  u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , laterally, w h e n I w a s n ' t l o o k i n g , to n a m i n g (and negation). H o k u s a i (1760-1849) w a s a painter. H e is k n o w n to have had, and then shed ( l i k e p l u m b l o s s o m s at the onset o f w i n t e r ) m a n y names. B o r n T e t s u z o , his next name w a s a gift, g i v e n to h i m b y h i s namesake first teacher, K a t s u k a w a S h u n r o . H e m o v e d through h i s other names, a c q u i r i n g , i n v e n t i n g , gifting, but a l w a y s l e a v i n g b e h i n d , that is, u n t i l h i s death:  31  From http://www.book-navi.com/hokusai/art/jomal-e.html.  58 G u n m a t e i , M a g u r a S h u n r o , H i s h i k a w a S o r i (and c o m b i n a t i o n s thereof), H o k u s a i S o r i , H o k u s a i (after g i f t i n g S o r i to o n e o f h i s o w n p u p i l s ) , G a k y o j i n H o k u s a i ( l i t e r a l l y m e a n i n g  Hokusai mad about drawing), H o k u s a i T o k i m a s a , T o k i t a r o K a k o , T a i t o , Iitsu (after g i f t i n g T a i t o to h i s p u p i l H o k u s e n ) , a n d M a n j i , w h i c h i s not to m e n t i o n h i s w o o d b l o c k  • • • • • • .  1779: Shunro 1781-1782: Z e w a i s a i 1785-1794: Gumbatei 1795-1798: Sori 1797-1798: H o k u s a i Sori 1798-1819: H o k u s a i 1798-1811:Kako  i m p r e s s i o n i s m , p a i n t i n g - c r a f t i n g stories,  • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . • • .  1799: Fasenkyo H o k u s a i 1799: Tatsumasa Shinsei 1803: Senkozan 1805-1809: K i n t a i s h a 1800-1808: G a k y o j i n 1805: K y u k y u s h i n 1805-1806 and 1834-1849: G a k y o - r o j i n 1807-1824: K a t s u s h i k a 1811-1820: Taito 1812: K y o r i a n B ainen 1812-1815: R a i s h i n 1814: Tengudo Nettetsu 1820-1834: Iitsu 1821-1833: Z e n saki no H o k u s a i Iitsu 1822: Fesenkyo Iitsu 1831-1849: M a n j i 1834: T s u c h i m o c h i N i s a b u r o 1834-1846: H y a k u s h o H a c h e m o n 1847-1849: Fujiwara Iitsu  d i d not.  - from http://www.artelino.com/articles/hokusai.asp  seals, o f M o u n t F u j i , a n d the name/character M o m o (Hokusai 370-371). A m a n w h o has n o permanent identity rooted i n o n e name, and w h o g i f t s h i s 32  o w n n a m e t w i c e , m i g h t h a v e a hard t i m e i m p o s i n g m e a n i n g o n what surrounds h i m , a hard t i m e p r a c t i c i n g the o n t o l o g y o f n a m i n g , o r s u b s c r i b i n g to tautologies. H o k u s a i ' s m a n y names i n f o r m e d h i s life and craft.  H o k u s a i w a s also a n  impressionist painter: the real failed h i m :  D e a t h , n a m i n g , and A n n e C a r s o n h e r s e l f l e d m e to C a r s o n ' s theoretical text  Economy  of the Unlost, a text w h e r e i n she talks about the ancient G r e e k poet S i m o n i d e s (556-467 B . C . ) and his craft, h i s a b i l i t y to w r i t e eulogies i n the f o r m o f epitaphs o n gravestones, epitaphs that  Kevin McNeilly asks whether "gives" or "bestows" is better here. I am thinking that "gift" here is a verb that belongs to a specific strategy of approach and is aligned with Don McKay's "Homage" when he writes that "we can perform artistic acts [including the naming of things] in such a way that, in 'giving things a face' the emphasis falls on the gift, the way, for example, a linguistic community might honour a stranger by conferring upon her a name in their language... homage is, perhaps, simply appropriation with the current reversed" (Vis 99). 3 2  59 required an e c o n o m y o f i n s c r i p t i o n a l f o r m as a result o f the geography o f stone: " o n l y an i n s c r i p t i o n a l poet has to measure h i s i n s p i r a t i o n against the size o f his w r i t i n g surface... out o f this m a t e r i a l f a c e . . . e v o l v e d an aesthetic o f exactitude and v e r b a l e c o n o m y " (78): epitaphs o n stone require the n a m i n g o f person that expands past the b o u n d a r y o f stone i n the same w a y that names e m b e d stories, a b r e a k i n g o f the boundaries o f f o r m . C a r s o n ' s d i s c u s s i o n i s not l i m i t e d to S i m o n i d e s : C e l a n , m o n e t a r y systems and v a l u e and gifting, m e m o r y , w r i t i n g the dead ("the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l i v i n g to the dead is not s i m p l e . It is w e w h o let t h e m go, for w e do not a c c o m p a n y them. It is w e w h o h o l d t h e m h e r e — d e n y t h e m their n o t h i n g n e s s — b y n a m i n g their n a m e s " [84-85]), t i m e , and m u l t i p l e readings o f e c o n o m y w e a v e together to tease and tangle an exit strategy that attends to h o w l i n g u i s t i c n e g a t i o n (not, n o , un-) is a strategy o f assertion. T H E STORY OF NEGATION. N e g a t i o n is assertion. A t o u g h nut to crack. A n n e C a r s o n writes that "the negative is a p e c u l i a r l y l i n g u i s t i c resource w h o s e p o w e r resides w i t h the user o f w o r d s " (102). T h e negative, then, tells as m u c h about l i n g u i s t i c acts as the person w h o uses the negative. " N e g a t i o n , " she continues, "depends u p o n an act o f the i m a g i n i n g m i n d " (102). W h e n I say, as I h a v e b e e n s a y i n g , that a n a m e i s nor j u s t a referent, I " b r i n g together i n m y m i n d t w o pieces o f data, one o f w h i c h is present and actual [the n a m e itself, the s i g n ] , the other o f w h i c h is absent and f i c t i t i o u s [the other p o s s i b i l i t i e s for w h a t a n a m e is, does, h o w it functions, as s t o r y ] . " N e g a t i o n , then, "requires the c o l l u s i o n o f the present and the absent o n the screen o f the i m a g i n a t i o n " (102). T h e differential d i a g n o s i s enacted b y negation, a n d the i m a g i n a t i o n it requires, leads C a r s o n to an observation: " a n e g a t i v e . . . posits a fuller p i c t u r e o f r e a l i t y than does a p o s i t i v e statement" (102). I a m p a r t i c u l a r l y f o n d o f the statement " I d o n ' t disagree," w h i c h is to say, " I agree," and m o r e . T h e more here gestures t o w a r d  60 context, propriety, i n c o m p l e t e analysis, a m b i g u i t y , n a m i n g w i t h story. T h e  more is also an  inheritance for the speaker as reader, an inheritance o f the a b i l i t y to notice strategy, and to name it as such. C a r s o n i s f o n d o f S i m o n i d e s , i n part, because he was f o n d o f the d o u b l e negative: " w i t h cheeks not u n w e t b y tears" (101). T h e e c o n o m y o f stone forced h i m into a strategy that c a r v e d as m u c h content i n t o the etchings to fill out, to m a k e story of, the epitaph's n a m i n g . T H E STORY OF H Y P H E N S O N GRAVESTONES Gravestones, and epitaphs as a k i n d o f n a m i n g , l e a d m e to J a c k H o d g i n s and Innocent  Cities and L o g a n S u m n e r and h i s gravestone and the failure o f n a m i n g . S u m n e r ' s gravestone reaches out b e y o n d the boundaries o f one gravestone: "the c o l u m n o f i n t e r l o c k i n g granite h a d g r o w n so t a l l that it n o w seemed to h a v e thrust up out o f h i s s t i l l - e m p t y grave l i k e s o m e sort o f monstrous fungus, w i t h the apparent i n t e n t i o n o f e v e n t u a l l y p u n c t u r i n g the dark, overcast s k y " (291). T h e i n a b i l i t y o f the gravestone to c o n t a i n " h i s entire story" (291) is a failure o f f o r m , i n part, as w e l l as a failure for S u m n e r to be comfortable w i t h the stories that w i l l a l w a y s exist i n h i s name w i t h o u t n e e d i n g to c h i s e l t h e m into stone; S u m n e r ' s gravestone is a failure to name n a m i n g .  3 3  A n d the failure to name, and J a c k H o d g i n s , leads m e to  " S e p a r a t i n g " and " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " and A l b e r t D e l a n e y ' s m u l t i p l e negations that n a m e b o t h h i m s e l f ( m a n y t i m e s w i t h o u t k n o w i n g ) and the w o r l d around h i m . H o d g i n s ' t w o stories, and an attention the repeated textual strategy o f n a m i n g w i t h h y p h e n , leads m e , b y w a y o f e n d i n g m y story a n d this j o u r n e y o f d i s c o v e r y to F r e d W a h ' s h y p h e n , a h y p h e n that i s i m p l i c a t e d i n n a m i n g . W a h negates the h y p h e n ' s p r e s c r i p t i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g r u b r i c ; instead, through m e t a p h o r i c a l attention, the h y p h e n b e c o m e s an assertion o f h i s o w n identity, a w r i t e r ' s identity, a c r i t i c ' s identity. I w i l l b e g i n w i t h W a h ' s h y p h e n , its affinity w i t h and h i s  Laura Moss points out that the gravestone is also a failure to make a name static or to stop story from progressing. Sumner doesn't change the names, he adds qualifiers to them. 33  61 response to i m p o s e d i d e n t i t y i n the C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n that names h i m . W a h ' s h y p h e n m o b i l i z e s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the h y p h e n i n " S e p a r a t i n g . "  THE STORY OF WAH'S POETICS I t h i n k that the w a y F r e d W a h talks about, e n v i s i o n s language, and p o e t i c s i s a l i g n e d w i t h n a m i n g as a strategy o f approach.  Faking It: Poetics & Hybridity is part o f " T h e W r i t e r  as C r i t i c " series o f texts. I a m enamored w i t h the w a y that W a h e n v i s i o n s text as a l w a y s already theoretical, h o w he places emphasis o n strategy first, o n h o w a poetics manifests as a result o f the p r i n t e d w o r d first, not context. G e o f f W a r d is a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h W a h (whether he k n o w s it or not): W a r d writes i n his essay o n / c a l l e d " P o e t i c s " that h i s "essay is not a rebuttal o f theory but rather a r e m i n d e r that the practice o f w r i t i n g p o e m s does i t s e l f  and o f necessity signal a theoretical d i m e n s i o n " (Glossalia: An Alphabet of Critical Keywords 2 2 7 ) . W a h ' s theoretical w r i t i n g is saturated w i t h other p e o p l e ' s text, their poetry, their t h e o r i z i n g . W a h places large fragments o f text amongst h i s o w n c r i t i c a l prose that i s , at times, i n i t s e l f poetry. D e c o n s t r u c t i o n for W a h takes the f o r m o f r i f f i n g , entertaining the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n s m a l l bits o f what he quotes, and setting his analysis a l o n g s i d e the t h i n k i n g o f others i n order that the reader initiate a differential diagnosis. W a h t h i n k s that poetics is connected to l i n q u i s t i c attention i n m u c h the same w a y that I t h i n k n a m i n g i s : poetics i s a " w a y to be i n l a n g u a g e . . . the m o u t h o f the w o r d w i t h i n the w o r d . . . right there at the tips o f our fingers, i n the ' s n i f f o f the p e n as it hunts the p a g e "  (Faking It 16). M y p e n sniffs the n a m i n g i n the text i n the f u n c t i o n i n g c o g n i t i v e m o d e l . W a h b e l i e v e s that "to w r i t e i n poetry is to m o v e past the c o m f o r t o f a r u l e d discourse; i n order, to m o v e o n , b e y o n d order, the c o m p l e t e thought s p i l l s o v e r to an excess and residue o f language" (20). E n g a g i n g w i t h n a m i n g as a narrative strategy requires the i s o l a t i o n o f s a i d strategy f r o m other strategies, w h i c h requires b o t h r e c o g n i t i o n that alternative strategies exist  62 and the need for a m i c r o n - o s c o p e : attending to the c e l l u l a r i n language, the h y p h e n for example. E n g a g i n g w i t h the fact that language, the w o r d s o n the page, is a l w a y s already a k i n d o f theory, W a h foregrounds strategy b y w r i t i n g that the G r e e k ' " K R I N O , to p i c k out for oneself, to c h o o s e ' has been a useful n a m i n g " (21). W r i t e r s choose n a m i n g to get in/at something: the c h o i c e and the text b o t h function, the c h o i c e and the text have utility. A n d finally, W a h " use[s] the term ' p o e t i c s ' . . . not i n the theoretical sense o f the study o f or t h e o r y about literature, but i n its p r a c t i c a l and a p p l i e d sense, as the tools designed or located b y writers and artists to initiate m o v e m e n t and change. T h a t i s , 'poetics as a sort o f  applied  poetic, i n the sense that e n g i n e e r i n g is a f o r m o f a p p l i e d m a t h e m a t i c s ' ( B e r n s t e i n , " O p t i m i s m " 151)" (qtd. i n Faking It5\).  W a h focuses o n the strategies that arise f r o m the  use o f particular language o v e r others, focuses o n what is enacted b y particular forms o f l i n g u i s t i c attending. W a h latches textual strategy to t h i n k i n g , to r e - c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t s , " w h e n t h i n k i n g manoeuvres the h o r i z o n b y fragment rather than w h o l e , b y difference rather than b y synthesis, w e escape the p r i s o n o f i n t e n t i o n and denouement, o f the assumed safety o f settlement" (185). H e r e I hear an echo o f M a l o u f s unsettling. T o take the r i c h s o i l left b y the compost o f W a h ' s strategy o f approach, n a m i n g as narrative strategy i m p l i c a t e s a poetics, an unsettling o f settlement enacted b y p l a y i n g w i t h language. H y p h e n s p l a y w i t h language. T h e y l a t c h things together to m a k e n e w t h i n g s — o r the descriptions t h e r e o f — w h i l e l e a v i n g the l a t c h v i s i b l e . I t h i n k one w a y o f accessing the strategy i n the h y p h e n is b y c o m p a r i n g it to the c o m p o u n d n o u n . " [ B ] u t t e r c u p " (Spit 9) and "sweet-pea" (11) f u n c t i o n differently. B u t t e r c u p does not flash its n a m i n g ; the c o m p o u n d i n g is t e x t u a l l y i n v i s i b l e : no space, no d i a c r i t i c , no h i c c u p for the eyes s c a n n i n g the w o r d . T h e h y p h e n is v i s i b l e , a p u n c t u a t i o n that enacts t o u c h i n g w i t h the m i n d ' s eye, a B r a i l l e m o m e n t ,  63 three d i m e n s i o n a l space: a punctum that requires f o c u s — a m o m e n t o f puncture,  language  that cannot e l i d e i t s e l f as language, o c c l u d e its c o n s t r u c t i o n — a pundit for text's texturality, for a strategy o f n a m i n g that m a k e s strategies o f n a m i n g v i s i b l e .  3 4  L a n g u a g e needs the  h y p h e n : the " d o n ' t - g i v e - a - d a m n - w h a t - y o u - t h i n k l o o k " b e c o m e s m a s h e d potatoes w i t h o u t it: the " d o n ' t g i v e a d a m n w h a t y o u t h i n k l o o k " o r the " p a u s e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f a c h e w s m i l e " (216). Is it paused i n o r pause d i n ; w h o i s l e o , a n d w h y i s n ' t h i s name c a p i t a l i z e d ? ; d i d s o m e b o d y A c h e w ! ? B l e s s y o u . W h i l e a l a c k o f separation alienates i n the c o n f u s i o n o f f o r m , the h y p h e n functions as i n v i t a t i o n into the act o f n a m i n g , into the crafting o f names, into language as a s y s t e m o f n a m i n g . A s k questions, h y p h e n asks. Entertain m u l t i p l e answers, answers as p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Q u e s t i o n : what about parataxis o r serration? Parataxis means l i n k a g e ; serration i m p l i e s r a w edges. N e i t h e r , l i k e the h y p h e n , m a k e w h a t i s in the p o i n t o f c o h e s i o n v i s i b l e . O n e o f W a h ' s responses to the h y p h e n i s parataxis, l o n g strings o f clauses w i t h o u t the c o n j u n c t i o n ' s c o n n e c t i v e tissue. F o r e x a m p l e , " . . .rope, a little oriented a n c h o r m e d i a t i o n , a taken t o k e n , y a k - y a k d i n o f the H e r m e s draught caught from across the r o o m , r a t t l i n g o f the m a n t i c d i c e , the p a d d e d p a w s o f adverbs, punctum o f metaphor c a m o u f l a g e d into the leaves o f the p a g e . . . " (Diamond  121). E a c h s u c c e s s i v e clause i s b o t h m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d a d d i t i o n , gesture  and retraction, m e a n i n g that hesitates towards closer m e a n i n g , n a m i n g a n d story. P a r a t a x i s has n o b e g i n n i n g a n d n o end; it m a r k s a m i d d l e space, process. R e n d e r i n g this strategy as serration, r e n a m i n g it, initiates r h y t h m : d i p o f phrase to p o i n t o f c o m m a o r pause into d i p o f phrase to p o i n t o f c o m m a and pause, as i f r h y t h m is a s y n o n y m for story, as i f story i s d i f f u s i n g out o f the m e m b r a n e o f the words for things, as i f the m o m e n t u m a n d m o v e m e n t counteracts the stasis o f names. M o r e questions: what synapse i s the h y p h e n p e r f o r m i n g , i n  Punctum, Puncture, and Pundit follow Punctuation in Concise's so what with this footnote; it is purely factual. 34  Oxford Dictionary, 10  th  edition. There is no  64 W a h , i n Spit, i n L o g a n , i n K a t e , i n Z a c h a r y Jack, i n reader? It l o o k s taught, but h o w is it connected, h o w w o u l d w e e n v i s i o n its edges? Serrated, r a w , tentatively clotted? W h i c h side are w e to choose to b e l i e v e , m o r e ? H o w is the act o f separation (not) m o r e precise? J a c k H o d g i n s ' " S e p a r a t i n g " contains m u l t i p l e hyphenations. A n i n e x h a u s t i v e list: "side-tilted l o o k " (9), "paint-peeled s i g n " (10), " t h r o a t - p h l e g m " (11), "sweet-pea" (11), " w i n d - c r i p p l e d s p r u c e " (15), " S e a - W o l f m o n s t e r " (15), " c a r v e d - o u t . . . p i l e d - u p . . . p i m p l e faced" (22), " r e d - f a c e d . . . store-front... w h i s t l e - c o r d " (23), " o n c e - i n - a - l i f e t i m e . . . saved-up o v e r - t i m e . . . o n e - s i d e d " (25), "home-safe" (28),  "god-damned" (33), and " l i k e that w h a t - w a s -  it right b a c k there at the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i n g s " (27). T h e fact that nouns as names n e e d c o m p o u n d i n g denotes the failure o f n a m i n g , the failure o f signs to describe. In the last e x a m p l e , the h y p h e n is m o d u l a t e d b y the p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f the vaguest n o u n o n the planet: thing. T h e h y p e r - p r e c i s i o n enacted b y n a m i n g w i t h h y p h e n is b l u r r e d b y the retraction o f a pronouncement o f d e s c r i b a b i l i t y , an assertion o f u n k n o w i n g , o f un-contracted subject-object separation, o f the i n d e s c r i b a b l e " m a d n e s s "  (Innocent 81) o f " t h i n g . " N a m i n g w i t h h y p h e n  destabilizes the p r e c i s i o n that n a m i n g tends to b o t h desire and o c c l u d e . S p i t D e l a n e y , as the title i m p l i e s , is  separated f r o m those things that act as i d e n t i f y i n g  referents, referents that w h e n p l a c e d i n o p p o s i t i o n to h i m s e l f define h i s identity. H i s w i f e leaves h i m ; h i s j o b o f t a k i n g care o f an antique t r a i n , " O l d N u m b e r O n e , " i s taken a w a y w h e n the train is put to pasture; h i s c o m f o r t a b l e w o r l d o f answers c r u m b l e s w h e n "the stupidest g o d - d a m n e d question he ever heard just p o p p e d into h i s h e a d " (14), a question that m a k e s h i m unsure o f the guaranteed m e a n i n g that keeps h i m settled. " Where is the dividing  line?" the question asks. " B e t w e e n what and w h a t ? " he replies. "Between what is and what isn't" (14). S p i t curses. T h e curse is a r e c o g n i t i o n o f an unsettling o f a requirement o f the w o r l d , the requirement for b o u n d e d things, guaranteed m e a n i n g ( h o w e v e r constructed); the  65 fact that things are a r b i t r a r i l y b o u n d e d , a r b i t r a r i l y n a m e d , that the boundaries are constructed, r e m a i n a necessary ignorance. L o g a n S u m n e r is m u c h l i k e Spit, albeit a little m o r e c i v i l i z e d . R e s p o n d i n g to the fact that M r . H o r n c a s t l e has t w o w i v e s , S u m n e r does n o t curse, h e apologizes, " I ' m sorry, b u t i t ' s a l l too c o n f u s i n g for me. I ' m not a c c u s t o m e d to s u c h a b l u r r i n g o f t h i n g s " (166). L a u r i e R i c o u writes that  Innocent Cities i s " m o s t s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y  concerned w i t h the p h y s i c a l nature o f language itself, w i t h h o w m e a n i n g i s p r o d u c e d " (93), b o t h i n d i v i d u a l and based o n consensus ( w i d e n i n g out f r o m the ' c o m m u n i v e r s a l , ' to the ' r e g i o n i v e r s a l , ' ' c o u n t r i v e r s a l , ' and u n i v e r s a l ) .  35  A c o r o l l a r y question is a s k e d b y S p i t : " A n d  what does it take to see i t ? " (Separating 17), what does i t take to see the b l u r r i n g . T h e shedding, the " u n c o u p l i n g " (17) o f a s i g n ' s guaranteed m e a n i n g m o b i l i z e s the b e g i n n i n g o f a change i n S p i t , albeit one that doesn't reach the c o n c l u s i o n ( o f sorts) u n t i l the r i g i d l i n e between the stories " S e p a r a t i n g " and " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " is b l u r r e d , a shift i n S p i t ' s perceptual s c h e m a t i c that carries a n a c c o m p a n y i n g textual strategy. T h e h y p h e n s s l o w l y disappear f r o m the first story to the next, as i f they b e c o m e inadequate i n t e x t u r a l l y d e s c r i b i n g S p i t ' s transformation. R a t h e r than o u t w a r d c o d i f i c a t i o n b e l i e d b y the act o f h y p h e n a t i o n that performs a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f "sure" n a m i n g , " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " directs S p i t ' s attention i n w a r d s to a n a m i n g o f s e l f where h y p h e n a t i o n fails, falls short, i n the same w a y that C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n i s inadequate for W a h . T h e intermediate space b e t w e e n D e l a n e y ' s acts o f separating, o f the hyphenated nouns that function as descriptors that place, that order, is f i l l e d w i t h descriptions that m u d d y the precise separation: f o r e x a m p l e , " r o w [ s ] o f y e l l o w i s h seaweed" i s " t a n g l e d " w i t h other matter, the " c o n t i n u o u s " i s m e d i a t e d b y " u n e v e n l i n e s " (25) created b y the tide. S p i t ' s need to quantify q u a l i t y is r e p l a c e d w i t h uncertainty. R e s p o n d i n g to his w i f e ' s question, " d o y o u t h i n k y o u  These words are my coinage.  66 can learn to c o o k , " Spit responds w i t h hesitating negatives, " d o n ' t , " " d o n ' t , " " c a n ' t " (30). T h e negatives c o n t a i n a c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t ; the negation b e g i n s to m o b i l i z e a n assertion that recognizes the failure o f n a m i n g : "there wasn't a t h i n g he c o u l d reach out and t o u c h and be sure o f (30). T h e c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t i s i n c o m p l e t e , m o d a l l y u n p o t e n t i a t e d — " S p i t cannot bear to t h i n k w h e r e [the Island tourist-hikers] are g o i n g , w h e r e their rides will take t h e m . . . . H e could f o l l o w t h e m , i n h i s m i n d , he could go the w h o l e distance w i t h t h e m , but he refuses, slides b a c k f r o m it, h o l d s onto the things that are h a p p e n i n g here and n o w " (31 m y emphases). Spit w i t h d r a w s f r o m the creative m o m e n t , f r o m s t o r y i n g their j o u r n e y s . H i s need for the i m m e d i a t e m a t e r i a l i t y and facticity of, as w e l l as u n m e d i a t e d contact w i t h , things persists. T h i n g s again. S p i t ' s n a m i n g — n a m i n g that l o c k s identity—tends towards t u r n i n g objects into things. T h i n g s are not things as a result o f a r e c o g n i t i o n that n a m i n g i s inadequate to the stories l e a k i n g out Bert:  A r e there any c o o k i e s i n the c o o k i e  Ernie:  jar? Y e s there are b u d d y B e r t . I put a n u m b e r o f t h e m i n there a w h i l e ago.  o f their forms, things are things because Spit doesn't k n o w h o w to  Y o u can have them i f y o u give m e y o u r teddy.  engage w i t h t h e m , doesn't Bert:  [After giving Ernie his teddy.] H e y ! T h e r e aren't a n y c o o k i e s i n here. Y o u said y o u put a n u m b e r o f t h e m i n  understand t h e m . F r o m the o p e n i n g pages o f " S e p a r a t i n g , " the a b i l i t y to Ernie:  here. Y e a h , so, zero i s a n u m b e r .  name accurately, to not a v o i d the - A scene paraphrased from Hossein Arsham's website. storying o f names, is connected to a n a b i l i t y to " n o t i c e " : " p e o p l e d r i v i n g b y d o n ' t n o t i c e Spit D e l a n e y " w h i l e " H i t c h - h i k e r s d o n o t i c e " (9). T h e n o t i c i n g i s also connected to p r o x i m i t y and l i s t e n i n g ; l o c a t i n g o n e s e l f closer to Spit requires that y o u notice h i m as a result o f h i s " m u t t e r i n g " (9). T h e h i t c h h i k e r s hear and see S p i t ' s i d i o s y n c r a s i e s , the stories i n h i s name, name the things that m a k e h i m u n i q u e ,  67 that u p w e l l as story. " T h a t was one m o r e t h i n g " (13), Spit thinks, l i t e r a l l y referring to S t e l l a his soon to be e x - w i f e , a n u n a v o i d a b l e s e v e r i n g w i t h h y p h e n , a severing that forces a transformation i n h i m . A t the m o m e n t o f utterance, thing avoids the story he is about to be i m m e r s e d i n , the story o f separating. W h e n they take h i s b e l o v e d train a w a y f r o m h i m (the they an indeterminate p r o n o u n referring to c o m m u n i t y and the takers-away and "the w o r l d out to cheat h i m w h e r e v e r he t u r n e d " [25]), they tell h i m " y o u can't expect  things to last for  ever" (17). T h e i t a l i c i z e d object b o t h names h i s o b s e s s i o n as a thing, d e v a l u i n g it, n e g a t i n g the stories that l a t c h to h i s b e i n g , that referent h i m s e l f and force h i m into the task o f r e p o p u l a t i n g the d e v a l u i n g b y h a n g i n g onto the m e m o r y o f O l d N u m b e r O n e : h e c o m m i s s i o n s a four-foot o i l o f the train, hangs the n u m b e r 1 o f f his d o o r l i k e a t a l i s m a n , and " i m m o r t a l i z e [ s ] o n tape" the sounds o f the train (17), the sounds o f the w h i s t l e not n a m e d s o l e l y as such, the s o u n d also an opiate that "cut[s] right through to his c o r e " (23), and a crutch. S p i t , albeit unaware, h o l d s onto the objects that i n s p i r e the stories b o r n o f h i s h i s t o r y w i t h his train, rather than the O l d N o . 1 so n a m e d . W h i l e the n a m e d object is taken a w a y , the texture is not. T h i n g s m o v e n a t u r a l l y into no-thing-s. T h i n g equals negation, disinterest, t u r n i n g away. W h a t is a thing? N o t h i n g u n t i l n a m e d . W h a t is the h y p h e n ? N o t h i n g . It just i s . G r a m m a t i c a l rules require it. Its f u n c t i o n a l i t y is s i n g u l a r l y defined. T h e p o l i t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f negation is an easy d e f i n i t i o n o f negation, one that requires that its d e f i n i t i o n r e m a i n static. T h e d o u b l e negative casts negative negation into doubt. A y o u t h that S p i t meets "denie[s] n o t h i n g " (26), a n a k e d y o u t h , "as i f w h e n h e ' d stripped o f f h i s clothes h e ' d also stripped o f f whatever it w a s that w o u l d m a k e h i s face different f r o m a thousand others" (26). B e i n g stripped bare, stripped o f the clothes that w o u l d name h i m , set h i m apart, identify h i m ( n a m e [trans, v.] 2. i d e n t i f y b y name), a l l o w s the d o u b l e negative. I f one denies n o t h i n g , one asserts  68 everything, enacts p o s s i b i l i t y , enacts the b r e a k i n g o f f o r m , a l l o w s a g e n c y to choose w h i c h side o f the hyphenated identity to cultivate o n e ' s o w n f o r m f r o m . O r , as W a h writes, "the h y p h e n a l w a y s seems to d e m a n d n e g o t i a t i o n " (Diamond 137). C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n for W a h i s a negation that inspires assertion. C a l l and response. R e s p o n s e n e g o t i a t i n g c a l l .  Call  recognating response. T h i n g s w i t h transparent m e a n i n g s b e c o m e n o t h i n g , i g n o r a b l e , referents that d o not need m e d i a t i o n . K n o w what that thing is, n a m e it, t h i n g it. F o r e x a m p l e , c o n v e n t i o n a l usage o f the h y p h e n requires f o l l o w i n g the f o l l o w i n g imperatives: 2. U s e h y p h e n s w i t h fractions used as adjectives; 5. U s e h y p h e n s w i t h prefixes before proper nouns; 9. U s e h y p h e n s to prevent a w o r d b e i n g m i s t a k e n f o r a n e n t i r e l y different w o r d ; 11. H y p h e n s are sometimes necessary to prevent a m b i g u i t y .  3 6  B u t c o n v e n t i o n s a n d l a w s contain a m b i g u i t y . A n attempt to p r o v i d e the i m p e r a t i v e that dictates i n t e r a c t i o n leads to a n i m p e r a t i v e that contains the w o r d a m b i g u i t y . L a w s f u n c t i o n to d i s s o l v e a m b i g u i t y , as does n a m i n g .  A m b i g u i t y n a m e d results i n m o r e a m b i g u i t y . I f a  h y p h e n i s necessary to prevent a m b i g u i t y , a n d the h y p h e n i s used to m o r e accurately n a m e , the tendency t o w a r d s a c c u r a c y betrays the m a t h e m a t i c a l i n a b i l i t y for c o m p o u n d n o u n s t o ever accurately name: " c o r d " is i n c o m p l e t e — " w h i s t l e - c o r d " ( " S e p a r a t i n g " 2 3 ) i s m o r e p r e c i s e — t r a i n - w h i s t l e - c o r d w o u l d b e e v e n m o r e precise, a n d so o n . L a n g u a g e ' s a b i l i t y to describe i s l i m i t e d : h a l f the distance to a c c u r a c y leads to h a l v i n g the distance i n perpetuity.  From The Canadian Writer's Handbook, 4 Edition, 2005, pp. 302-303. I am reminded of Jan Zwicky's thinking that "a proof in geometry is a gesture that allows other to see what we have seen... like a metaphor, it is a rhetorical strategy" ( W i s d o m and Metaphor 44), as is writing drawing attention to naming as a narrative strategy. She supplies one of James Robert Brown's Theorems on the opposing page, Yi+ A + V»+ ... = I. Using hyphens as a strategy locates the reader in the fact that naming with hyphens implies the infinite perpetuation of hyphens (as the ellipses in Brown's proof imply) as they are required for a solution of wholeness (or the whole number that the 1 on the right hand side of the equals sign denotes). 3 6  th  3 7  [  69 C a n p r e c i s i o n ever b e n a m e d ? C a n n a m i n g ' s inherent a m b i g u i t y ever be named? C a n w h a t a m b i g u i t y i m p l i e s ever b e n a m e d ? In  Innocent Cities, a m b i g u i t y forces its w a y into K a t e M c C o n n e l l ' s attending to the  w o r l d . S h e tells L o g a n S u m n e r h e r story about A u s t r a l i a resonating her, u n s e t t l i n g her. It i s worth quoting i n full: B y the t i m e I left L i l i a n ' s [Australian] p l a n t a t i o n I r e a l i z e d that s o m e t h i n g d i s t u r b i n g h a d happened to m e since I h a d first arrived o n that continent. Y o u must understand, M r . S u m n e r , that w h e n I left m y c h i l d h o o d h o m e i n E n g l a n d I left b e h i n d a c o m f o r t a b l e w o r l d o f  things, o f r e a l places and real trees and  b i r d s and b u i l d i n g s . B u t n o w I saw that I h a d e x c h a n g e d it for a w o r l d m a d e up o f n o t h i n g but beautiful  words?* T h e l o v e l y , l o v e l y sounds o f the p l a c e  h a d d e c e i v e d m e . W h e n w e ' d first a r r i v e d o n that continent I was c h a r m e d , I T  Q  fell i n l o v e w i t h the strangeness and beauty o f their w o r d s , b u t i n return  they  pushed and j o s t l e d m e aside i n their greedy r u s h to germinate, it seemed to m e , to sprout and b u r g e o n and m u l t i p l y , and t h r o w out feelers a n d send u p shoots. T h e y intended to c r o w d m e o u t ! madness?  40  D o y o u t h i n k this is a k i n d o f  L i s t e n ! It i s the fault o f that o l d l u n a t i c A d a m w h o started it a l l , I  think, a n d a l l h i s l u n a t i c o f f s p r i n g m a l e s w h o b e c a m e explorers a n d geographers and d i c t i o n a r y - m a k e r s - a l l o f t h e m w a n t i n g , I ' m sure o f it, to n a i l e v e r y t h i n g d o w n into s o m e sort o f r i g i d i d e n t i t y i n order to perpetrate some a w f u l f i c t i o n u p o n us. T h a t w h o l e ancient w o r n - d o w n flattened-out continent w i s h e d to strangle the breath out o f m e w i t h the arms o f its endless forest o f namesl (81-82) T h e stories b e h i n d the names, and that K a t e w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d to learn them and a l l their p o t e n t i a l l y u n c o m f o r t a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s , are what constrict the breath out o f her. K a t e refuses to embrace the challenge, to animate h e r agency as a listener to stories instead o f a s i e v e for things, p a s s i n g names through their p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d and s m a l l frames. A l t h o u g h K a t e recognizes that she is a p r o d u c t o f " l u n a t i c A d a m [ ' s ] " system, she i s unable to extricate  Economy requires pasting words to things. We rarely have time to entertain the stories in everything around us. That words attach to things, that things are not described by the words that attach to them is a cognitive moment for Kate. Kate engages with language's arbitrarily, language's strategy of codifying in order to "comfort," to silence ambiguity. Re-turn. Turn again. Turn anew. The tension between these two moments is analogous to the hyphen's tension attempting to cohere two nouns into the same space. Two nouns occupying the same space creates a moment of parallax—the law of bounded space fractures. Egocentric structures of control, of definition, are replaced with an attention to the strategies in the structure itself. 38  3 5  4 0  70 h e r s e l f f r o m its c o n t r o l l i n g influences. K a t e still requires that n a m i n g ' s strategies be i n v i s i b l e . A n d H o d g i n s requires that the reader be aware o f the strategies that w e require to remain invisible. F r e d W a h has m a d e a career out o f m a k i n g w h a t the h y p h e n o c c l u d e s , v i s i b l e , o f t a k i n g the s e e m i n g l y i n n o c u o u s b i t o f punctuation and r e n d e r i n g its strategies, o f m a k i n g its silences, n o i s y , o f l i v i n g i n its forest o f names. I h a v e been t h i n k i n g past (or before) W a h ' s w r i t i n g e n a c t i n g a p o l i t i c s o f resistance, attaining a " p o l i t i c a l w r i t i n g stance" (38) w h e n he aligns h i m s e l f w i t h other race writers. F r e d W a h c l a y s language; p u n c t u a t i o n b e c o m e s p u n c t u m . W a h names the h y p h e n , the s i g n e x p a n d i n g to c o n t a i n m a n y m e t a p h o r i c a l m o m e n t s i n m u c h the same w a y that the s i g n o f a n a m e expands o u t w a r d to c o n t a i n m a n y stories. T H E STORY OF WAH'S H Y P H E N T h e h y p h e n performs a certain k i n d o f n a m i n g . T h e h y b r i d i d e n t i t y that the h y p h e n creates—not o n l y the i d e n t i t y o f p e o p l e l i k e i n C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n , but the i d e n t i t y o f objects l i k e i n " d o g - e a r e d " ( " S p i t " 2 0 2 ) — i s b o t h identity f o r m i n g and p e r f o r m a n c e : e a c h c a n be i m p o s e d or desired. B o t h times, the performance is a strategy. T h e h y b r i d , the c o m p o u n d n o u n , and the h y p h e n i m p l i c a t e d i n b o t h construct interaction. T h e h y p h e n articulates difference and "the business o f separation" (207). W a h reads the h y p h e n i n h i s o w n r a c i a l i z e d identity; he responds to the identity that the n a m e constructs for h i m b y teasing out the metaphor h i d i n g i n the punctuation, b y s t o r y i n g the h y p h e n . F r e d W a h names the h y p h e n as p u n c t u m rather than punctuation, as m o m e n t for c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n o n the w a y that language performs. T h e f o l l o w i n g s t o r y — " T h e S t o r y o f W a h ' s H y p h e n " — i s o n the outside o f F r e d W a h ' s experience about b e i n g C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n (I a m not), but turns i n s i d e out the strategy that W a h e m p l o y s to m a k e the story w i t h i n the h y p h e n v i s i b l e . T h e story is meant to  71 be s p o k e n out l o u d , to be p e r f o r m e d i n order to m a k e the p u n c t u a t i o n that it talks about sonic, not silent. —> T h e h y p h e n . C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n . That s e e m i n g l y i n n o c u o u s piece o f s e m i o t i c punctuation. F r e d W a h is angry w i t h it. H e w o u l d l i k e to c r u m p l e up the paper it sits o n into a b a l l . H e w o u l d l i k e to r e m o v e its noose from h i s neck. H e w o u l d l i k e to b l u n t its t w o sharp points. F r e d W a h i s a n g r y w i t h the h y p h e n . F r e d W a h is i n s p i r e d b y the h y p h e n . T h e h y p h e n is h i s muse. W a h ' s h y p h e n does not "freeze" h i m as it does h i s " D u t c h h y p h e n C a n a d i a n " (Faking It 92) colleague A r i t h a v a n H e r k . Instead, I t h i n k , the h y p h e n ' s m a n y a m b i g u i t i e s and tensions are f o r m a t i v e for W a h , formative for b o t h h i s C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n identity and w r i t e r identity. W a h ' s text coalesces into the metaphor that is l e a k i n g out o f the h y p h e n . T h e h y p h e n , for W a h , inspires metaphor. M e t a p h o r sits l i k e a h y p h e n b e t w e e n W a h and h i s w r i t e r i d e n t i t y .  41  T h i s textual and s o n i c N a m e s and n a m i n g . . . indicate the camouflage p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the n a m e (both v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e ,  performance-textualization  both dash and cipher). i n s p i r e d b y the f o l l o w i n g question: - from Fred Wah's Faking It, "Half-Bred Poetics" 79. h o w does W a h ' s c o m p l i c a t i o n o f the ' h y p h e n ' affect our readerly apprehension o f W a h ' s o w n w r i t t e n i d e n t i t y ?  42  I propose  that W a h is m o r e c o m p l i c i t w i t h than c o n t r o l l e d b y the h y p h e n i n Diamond Grill. T h e h y p h e n is v i s u a l w h e n w r i t t e n : C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n . W h e n spoken, the h y p h e n is a space, a slight pause, an e a s i l y forgotten silence: C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n . T h e silence is different w i t h C h i n e s e / C a n a d i a n . T h e slash is s o n i c - it i s p u n c t u a t i o n that is m o r e l i k e l y to be spoken: for e x a m p l e , Diamond Grill's S w i f t Current is described as a "farmer [slash]  41  Naming practices unexplored camouflage how we attend to the world; Wah and I want to wave the flag in  naming's camouflage.  The question was initially asked by Dr. Glenn Deer in his graduate seminar on Asian-Canadian and AsianAmerican texts.  42  72 w o r k i n g class t o w n " (94). F r e d W a h is i m p o r t a n t l y N O T C h i n e s e S L A S H C a n a d i a n . T h e slash separates, seems to offer c h o i c e : either/or it says, choose it says. T h e h y p h e n ' s subtleties, a m b i g u i t i e s , and elisions i s subsumed b y its i n n o c e n t l y s m o o t h s c a n s i o n , w h e n the reading eyes m o v e f r o m left to right across it, over it, through it, w i t h o u t the t y p o g r a p h i c a l obstacle that a slash o r e v e n a v i r g u l e m i g h t p r o v i d e . T h e act o f n a m i n g w i t h a h y p h e n c a n d i s s o l v e b o t h the h y p h e n as c o m p o n e n t o f n a m i n g strategy and w h a t i s i m p l i e d b y a hyphenated n a m e o r identity. T h e h y p h e n i s silence. T h e h y p h e n is a door: C h i n e s e [picture of door] C a n a d i a n . A younger F r e d W a h opens the cafe, alone. H e writes o f the silence i n the cafe: " o p e n u p w i t h a g o o d swift toe to the w o o d e n slab that s w i n g s between the O c c i d e n t and O r i e n t to break the h u s h o f the w h o l e cafe before first l i g h t the r o l l i n g gait w i t h w h i c h I r i d e this  silence that is a  hyphen and the hyphen is the door" (16). H e r e he gestures towards t w o doors - the one into the cafe, and the one that separates the k i t c h e n f r o m the eatery, one that s w i n g s b o t h i n w a r d s and outwards. T h e h y p h e n , as W a h has written it, sits between silence and door. S i l e n c e i s . . . h y p h e n . . . i s door. O r , perhaps, silence-door. S i l e n c e is m o b i l i z i n g critique. T h e h y p h e n i s m o b i l i z i n g text. T h e d o o r is m o b i l i z i n g metaphor.  T h e m o b i l i t y i n these three  instances i s a m b i g u o u s , i n c o m p l e t e , c o n d i t i o n a l , b u t w o n d e r f u l l y so. F r e d W a h i s m o r e C h i n e s e than C a n a d i a n [ C h i n e s e > Canadian] i n a restaurant c a l l e d D i a m o n d G r i l l . F r e d W a h is C a n a d i a n w h e n h e i s p i c k e d for the C a n a d i a n - A n g l o team i n the s c h o o l y a r d because he d o e s n ' t l o o k C h i n e s e . T h e restaurant itself, one that serves m o s t l y C a n a d i a n fare (whatever that m a y be), i s C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n . W a h finds the h y p h e n ' s provocative"  "'inbetweeness'...  (Faking It 103). T h e m o b i l i t y , the freedom, i n the h y p h e n for W a h , I t h i n k , is  the engagement w i t h i t that turns into metaphor i n h i s o w n w r i t i n g . T h i s engagement i s i n s p i r e d b o t h b y the h y p h e n ' s i m p l i c i t elisions, its silence, it N O T s p e a k i n g , and b y i t b e i n g a  73 door that s w i n g s b o t h w a y s , a portal for the w r i t e r i n W a h . W a h is d r a w i n g o n a d o u b l e identity w h e n he writes - b o t h C h i n e s e <—> C a n a d i a n are m a t e r i a l for metaphor. h y p h e n a l l o w s b o t h identities to i n f o r m W a h ' s metaphors.  The  T h e h y p h e n doubles the creative  material/field i n m u c h the same w a y that a n a m e ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s inspires r e c o g n i t i o n o f a name as a story, or o f n a m i n g c o n t a i n i n g strategy o f approach. T h e h y p h e n is a d o u b l i n g : C h i n e s e + C a n a d i a n .  C h i n e s e ( a n d ) C a n a d i a n . T h e r e is  also a d o u b l i n g o f m e a n i n g again, and perhaps a t r i p l i n g and q u a d r u p l i n g , w i t h metaphor.  In  " H a l f - B r e d P o e t i c s " the h y p h e n is w r i t t e n as, w h i c h is to say its f u n c t i o n is a n a l y z e d as, a "property m a r k e r , a b o u n d e r post, a b o r d e r l a n d , a bastard, a r a i l r o a d , a last s p i k e , a stain, a cipher, a rope, a knot, a c h a i n ( l i n k ) , a f o r e i g n w o r d , a w a r n i n g s i g n , a head tax, a bridge, a n o - m a n ' s l a n d , a n o m a d i c , f l o a t i n g m a g i c carpet" (73). W a h ' s r e n d e r i n g o f the h y p h e n into m u l t i p l e , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f u n c t i o n i n g metaphors is analogous to a n a m e ' s s i g n e m b e d d i n g m u l t i p l e stories w i t h i n it. W a h ' s strategy o f r e n d e r i n g the h y p h e n into metaphor is textual; it mutes the restrictive d e f i n i t i o n that b e i n g  Patina n a m e d and categorized as C h i n e s e S o m e t i m e s it seems a l l surfaces are stubbled | the grassy k n o l l |  C a n a d i a n prescribes. T h a t W a h e m p l o y s a  the peach beard o f p r o m i s e just a grit s h a d o w | manifest  strategy that teases out the stories w i t h i n  deceit | | sooner o r later y o u k n e e l o n p o i n t e d rhetoric and painted c r e v i c e s | stumble | flail  the h y p h e n that keeps C h i n e s e and  | | trouble is |  w a n t i n g the m a p to m e a n before  C a n a d i a n together, authorizes the c r i t i c a l  y o u ' v e read it leaves out the d a n c i n g | engagement w i t h not o n l y the c l o s e  - from Bill New's Ramus, 42 r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g about names as textural but also as a narrative strategy o f approach that tends towards storied potential and the p r o b l e m s w i t h referentiality.  74 T h e h y p h e n is punctuation. C h i n e s e ( C a n a d i a n . C h i n e s e (parenthetical - an a m p l i f y i n g or e x p l a n a t o r y w o r d , phrase, or sentence) C a n a d i a n . C h i n e s e ( h y p h e n - a punctuation m a r k - u s e d e s p e c i a l l y to d i v i d e or to c o m p o u n d w o r d s , w o r d elements, or numbers) C a n a d i a n . A s punctuation, the h y p h e n has an affinity w i t h other p u n c t u a t i o n . T h e h y p h e n i s e n a m o r e d w i t h the parenthesis' " p r o v o c a t i v e ( n e s s ) , " or, at least, w i t h h a l f o f it. W a h ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Garrett B r o w n ' s is f o l l o w e d b y an o p e n parenthesis.  How to Beat the Game o n page 60 o f Diamond Grill  T h e r e is no c l o s i n g parenthesis.  B r o w n ' s singularly  racist r e a s o n i n g - c u m - a n a l y s i s that f o l l o w s is d i s a l l o w e d a d e f i n i t i o n that p a r a l l e l s the parenthesis' o w n d e f i n i t i o n . W a h ' s purposeful e l i s i o n o f the end parenthesis c a l l s into question the " a m p l i f y i n g " or " e x p l a n a t o r y " definitions for the paragraph that f o l l o w s . N a m e s , u n e x a m i n e d , neither a m p l i f y n o r e x p l a i n . T h e h y p h e n is N O T a v i r g u l e . W a h is N O T C h i n e s e | C a n a d i a n . T h e v i r g u l e i s too p h y s i c a l l y present. It is too v i s u a l l y i m p o s i n g - s c a n s i o n stops at its w a l l . It is a w a l l , not a door. T h e w a l l m o r e transparently signals m e a n i n g . W a h sees the resistance to the "hyphenated d e f i n i t i o n " (Faking  It 92) m a n i f e s t i n g m o r e subtly i n c o l l e g i a t e poets - one poet  uses w h i t e space i n the m i d d l e o f lines between w o r d s ; one poet p l a y s w i t h s m a l l e r , but m o r e frequent, gaps, gaps o f 2 or 3 spaces; one poet signals hyphenated m e a n i n g w i t h her l i n e breaks and enjambments.  In these cases, the h y p h e n manifests as t y p o g r a p h i c a l absence, an  absence that signals s o m e t h i n g m o r e . W . H . N e w ' s c o l l e c t i o n o f poetry  Raucus (1999)  contains m a n y v i r g u l e s - n o i s y v i r g u l e s , v i r g u l e s as palpable presence. F o r N e w they are a strategy for a m p l i f y i n g m e a n i n g . F o r N e w they are "(a) a cadence stop (b) m u s i c a l bar lines (c) g e o l o g i c a l c l a i m l i n e s , and p r o b a b l y (d) (e) and (eff t o o ) "  (Email 10/27/2003). F o r W a h ,  the h y p h e n ' s i n v i s i b i l i t y is a strategy as w e l l . T h e d i s c o v e r y o f the v i r g u l e s m a n y a m p l i f i c a t i o n s i s , i n part, a d i s c o v e r y o f absence, m u c h as the search for stories i n names  75 discovers the strategy absent i n c u r s o r y readings o f p l o t , character, and setting and the e a s i l y passed o v e r " J o r d a n m y name i s . " T h e h y p h e n is negation: C h i n e s e N O T C a n a d i a n . In this rendering, subject p o s i t i o n is i m p o s e d - C h i n e s e are not, w i l l never be, c a n not be C a n a d i a n because they are C h i n e s e : See? L o o k ? ! C h i n e s e ! T h e v i s u a l i n race requires, as W a h writes, " p u r i t y . " P u r i t y is s y n o n y m o u s w i t h " r e a l " (54). P u r e C h i n e s e is  real C h i n e s e . B u t W a h draws attention to the  fact that i n C a n a d a (and perhaps everywhere) there is n o s u c h t h i n g as p u r e o r r e a l : " I f y o u ' r e pure a n y t h i n g , " W a h writes, " y o u can't be C a n a d i a n " (53). W a h resists an i d e n t i t y i m p o s e d through negation. "[S]top t e l l i n g m e , " W a h frustratedly w r i t e s , " w h a t I ' m n o t " (54). H o w e v e r , negation, the m i n u s s i g n , the h y p h e n as negation, has also been a d d i t i v e for F r e d W a h . It has a l l o w e d h i m to e x p l o r e h i s o w n identity, h i s C a n a d i a n identity, h i s C h i n e s e identity, h i s C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n identity, h i s " b i o t e x t " ( i x ) identity, his " f a k i n g i t " ( i x ) identity, h i s poet identity, h i s f i c t i o n w r i t i n g identity, and so o n . A n n e C a r s o n w r i t e s i n  Economy of the Unlost that a negative statement "posits a fuller picture o f reality than does a p o s i t i v e statement"  (Economy 102). F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n I say that the h y p h e n is not  punctuation, I need to k n o w what p u n c t u a t i o n is/does, a n d further, offer m y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what the alternatives to h y p h e n as punctuation, or N O T p u n c t u a t i o n , m i g h t be. B o t h the h y p h e n and the h y p h e n as negation h a v e m o b i l i z e d , to s o m e degree, F r e d W a h ' s N O T silent text and analysis. T h e silence o f n a m e s seeks a s i m i l a r m o b i l i t y : a n engagement is r e q u i r e d w i t h what exists w i t h i n the s i g n proper, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f u s i n g n a m i n g a strategy to explicate h o w p e o p l e strategize their approaches to the w o r l d through language. W a h c o n c l u d e s w i t h a n o i s y h y p h e n . C h i n e s e J3 C a n a d i a n . I n the last fragment o f  Diamond Grill, W a h a l l o w s , W a h m a k e s , W a h asserts that "the d o o r clangs and rattles a n o i s y h y p h e n " (176). T h e final metaphor, the last h y p h e n i n Diamond Grill is n o i s y , not  76 silent. T h r o u g h an engagement w i t h the n o i s e W a h creates w i t h h i s o w n treatment o f the hyphen, the h y p h e n that connects a c o m p o u n d e d n o u n also b e c o m e s n o i s y w i t h the questions it inspires. S u s a n H a h n ends her p o e m titled " T h e P i t y o f P u n c t u a t i o n , " f i t t i n g l y , w i t h the period. S h e w r i t e s :  ...until finally the period did roll in so bleak and yet what a tiny thing it was as I began to feel the fade into the seamless midnight sky with my being given no choice but to curve onto the dot and disappear with it. T h e h y p h e n i s N O T the p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h F r e d W a h is c o n s u m e d b y the h y p h e n , he does not disappear into it, or disappear w i t h it. H e explores and controls its a m b i g u i t i e s , assumed transparencies, and i m p l i c i t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . W a h , as C h i n e s e - C a n a d i a n , is c o m p l i c i t w i t h the h y p h e n ' s noise. —> A s i m i l a r e x p l o r a t i o n and attention is required w h e n n a m i n g is e m p l o y e d , not o n l y b y W a h , and readers, but b y S p i t and S u m n e r .  THE STORY OF SPIT'S RE-COGNITION T h e shift that occurs i n the o c c l u d e d h y p h e n between the t w o stories about S p i t i n v o l v e s a shift into c o m p l i c i t y .  I  1 A t t e n t i o n is a task w e share, y o u and I. T o k e e p  " S e p a r a t i n g " and " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s  attention strong means to keep it f r o m settling.  I s l a n d " are w r i t t e n i n different points  - from A n n e Carson's "Note on M e t h o d , " v i i i .  o f v i e w . " S e p a r a t i n g " is t o l d i n the third person; " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d " is i n the first person. T h e marionette tense turns into the a c c o u n t a b i l i t y tense. T h e objects that n a m e S p i t turn into objects that need storying. G u a r a n t e e d m e a n i n g turns into a r c h e o l o g y w h e n S p i t m a k e s a n e w story for h i m s e l f , w h e n , o n a w h i m , he j o i n s P h e m i e Porter ( w h o calls her A l b e r t D e l a n e y , a v o i d i n g the m o n i k e r he hides b e h i n d , i g n o r i n g the spit o f h i s j u d g m e n t ) o n  77 a j o u r n e y to the m o u n t a i n s . W h e n i n P h e m i e ' s c o m p a n y , " t w o b i g w i n d o w s [are] d i v i d e d into dozens o f t i n y panes" (224). P h e m i e teaches S p i t that the outside frames o f things are further d i v i d e d into other frameable and readable things. T h e a b i l i t y to read what i s b e h i n d the names o f things, what fragmentation makes up their stories, a l l o w s S p i t to learn a selfr e f l e x i v i t y v i s a v i s what a system o f n a m i n g instructs h i m about h i m s e l f . S p i t ' s c a l l s h i s train a " l o c i " (202). L o c o m o t i v e , l o c a t i o n , L o k i (and T h o m a s K i n g ' s coyote), and an o r a l emphasis o f the letter i a l l exist i n h i s n a m i n g . Perhaps a c e r t a i n k i n d o f madness o f names, p l a y f u l madness, K a t e ' s madness, also exists i n fracturing the  loco f r o m  l o c o m o t i v e . L o c o m o t i v e is easy. L o c a t i o n i m p l i e s r e l a t i o n a l identity, one that accommodates b o t h objectification and self-reflexivity. L o k i is a trickster figure; m a y b e names are too: attached q u i e t l y l i k e price-tags o n garage-sale items, d e s c r i b i n g things so the c a c o p h o n y o f stories l e a k i n g out o f them d o n ' t keep us u p at night. L o k i was also, as one website notes, a " D e c o n t r u c t i o n i s t l o n g before D e r r i d a , "  4 3  a figure o f b o u n d a r y spaces, a  p l a y e r i n the game o f the boundedness o f forms. W h e n enunciated, l o c - I returns to S p i t , to an insistence o f self-consciousness, o f self-awareness, o f S p i t r e c o g n i z i n g h i s life as " a story," an " o f f e r [ i n g ] " o f " a bit o f [himjself," an " e x p o s [ u r e ] " (232). S p i t learns f r o m P h e m i e about " g o i n g into y o u r s e l f (223). P h e m i e asks S p i t a question: " T e l l m e a t h i n g that y o u l o v e and I ' l l tell y o u a t h i n g about y o u " ; S p i t replies, " O l d N u m b e r O n e , " to w h i c h P h e m i e replies, " W h a t ? O l d N u m b e r O n e ? W h a t ' s that? D o y o u m e a n y o u r s e l f ? T h e n y o u are a m a n w h o is trapped b y y o u r o w n l i m i t s " (229). S p i t d o e s n ' t " c o r r e c t " (229) her, the silence a negative space that admits partial c o m p l i c i t y . L o k i p l a y i n g w i t h l i m i t s , w i t h l i m i n a l spaces, r e m i n d s o f R i c o u ' s m o v e m e n t a w a y from habituation, o f l e a r n i n g " l i m i t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s — p o s s i b i l i t i e s that w i l l e x c e e d l i m i t s "  http://loki.ragnarokr.com/pipindex.htm.  78 (84). E x c e e d i n g r e m i n d s o f P h e m i e ' s experience w h e n A m e r i c a n tourists l a u g h at her appearance—she experiences a f e e l i n g that " f o r just a split s e c o n d [they] touched, [they] o v e r l a p p e d " (233).  P h e m i e ' s m o m e n t r e m i n d s o f D e n n i s L e e s y n o n y m for o v e r l a p p e d , a n d  r h y t h m s that attend to "the w o r l d as it is...  not consecutive, but o v e r l a i d " (43). A n d o v e r l a i d  reminds o f the A r b u t u s ' s k i n , and the s h e d d i n g o f that w h i c h contains us, names us, and moments o f r e n e w a l and m o m e n t u m . T h e act o f r e m i n d i n g functions to enact c o m p l e x , to name v a r i o u s l y i n order to n a m e respectfully and interestingly. T H E STORY OF SUMNER'S RE-COGNITION. L o g a n S u m n e r , b y fits and starts and sweats, transforms throughout  Innocent Cities.  H e is forced to attend to " b l u r r i n g " (166). W h e n C h u L e e decides against p i l o t i n g Z a c h and S u m n e r ' s newest v e r s i o n o f their f l y i n g m a c h i n e , retreating to " s e v e r a l days o f s u l k i n g i n h i s o w n r o o m s i n the l a b y r i n t h o f C h i n a t o w n , " S u m n e r asks h i m s e l f , "what sort o f r o o m s ? " (196). H e d o e s n ' t k n o w because it h a d n ' t " o c c u r r e d to h i m to w o n d e r . . . it h a d a l w a y s b e e n enough to t h i n k o f (196) C h u L e e b e h i n d a " c u r t a i n " or " i n a c u p b o a r d " i n order that he not have to t h i n k about h i m . " H a d n ' t " here is m o b i l i z e d into C a r s o n ' s negation. A m o m e n t where S u m n e r entertains h i s o w n strategies o f e c o n o m y : the p l a c e n a m e d C h i n a t o w n is differentially d i a g n o s e d against S u m n e r ' s i m a g i n e d (or not i m a g i n e d ) C h i n a t o w n and f o u n d inadequate—the d i s c r e p a n c y , the i n a d e q u a c y reflects b a c k onto S u m n e r h i m s e l f , a n i n a d e q u a c y o f h i s o w n approach and is annihilated w i t h the negative " n ' t . " In this c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t S u m n e r decides that he is m o r e u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the not k n o w i n g than the o c c l u d e d k n o w i n g or not i m a g i n e d k n o w i n g or i m a g i n e d w r o n g l y k n o w i n g and decides, i n a re- m o m e n t m o b i l i z e d b y the failure o f the sign/name " r o o m s , " that "certain things w o u l d have to be r e c o n s i d e r e d a l l the w a y to their b o t t o m " (197 emphasis added).  79 L o g a n ' s friend and partner, Z a c h a r y Jack, l i v e s i n a shack o f w o r d s , o f names:  "Bazaar... English Linen Billhead Paper... Zonder... Keatings Bon Boris or Worm Tablets... Fancy Goods" (346), " F L O U R , D E Z A S S E I S , S I D E U P , W A L K I N G " (193). T h e w o r d s are from b o x e s o f supplies f r o m trade ships dashed to pieces o n intemperate W e s t C o a s t shores; c o l o n i a l ships destroyed l e a v i n g a series o f u n c o n t e x t u a l i z e d names, names w h o ' v e lost their utility, names u s e d as s i d i n g for Z a c h ' s house. T h e n a m e d objects' u t i l i t y i s shifted. Z a c h doesn't h a v e m u c h use for l o c a t i n g names o n their proper things. Z a c h is often j a i l e d because o f " d i s t u r b i n g the peace" (149), w h i c h is to say m i s - n a m i n g . M r s . G r i s t l e , apparently, m a d e apparent b y a night b e h i n d bars, is a " l a d y " not a " s q u a w " (151). Z a c h calls a tree a " l a h b , " w h e n i n fact i t ' s an arbutus, is " c o r r e c t e d , " takes e x c e p t i o n to the correction, and is t h r o w n into j a i l . W h e n L o g a n b a i l s h i m out he asks, "this tree, what is the name a p e r s o n has to use i f he d o n ' t want to be tossed i n that s k o o k u m - h o u s e a g a i n ? " (149). T h e p l a y f u l c o n v e r s a t i o n that f o l l o w s is a l l about n a m i n g and its arbitrariness, a c o n v e r s a t i o n that L o g a n r e c o g n i z e s that Z a c k is " s t a g i n g " (150).  Arbutus menziesii ( l a t i n trees i n C a n a d a )  i t ' s c a l l e d because it r e m i n d e d someone o f a E u r o p e a n strawberry tree, a n a m i n g after.  Zack  asks, " w h y do the Y a n k e e s c a l l the same tree s o m e t h i n g else right o v e r there across the strait. ' M a d r o n a . ' , " another n a m i n g after, m a y b e , b y a S p a n i a r d i n C a l i f o r n i a after " a c o u s i n o v e r i n S p a i n w i t h that n a m e " (151). L o g a n replies, " m a y b e he [the namer] was b o r n o n this continent too, and thought he h a d the right to name the things he s a w " (151), a right not extended to Z a c h a r y Z a c h . T h a t Z a c h can not n a m e is Z a c h ' s negation, a n e g a t i o n that also i n f o r m s L o g a n ' s transformation. Z a c h ' s p o i n t here is that the p o w e r o f n a m i n g s h o u l d never b e left i m p l i c i t . L o g a n , w h e n the c i t y c o u n c i l decides to d e m o l i s h h i s monstrous tombstone, at first resists their r e a d i n g o f his tombstones as a " r o m a n t i c and exaggerated f i c t i o n " (404):  80 S u c h excess o f the i n d i v i d u a l i m a g i n a t i o n w a s b o t h u n s e e m l y and uncharacteristic o f the n a t i o n to w h i c h they n o w b e l o n g e d [and] S u m n e r was r e q u i r e d to d e m o l i s h h i s ridiculous palace o f fantastical w o r d s i m m e d i a t e l y , and to replace it w i t h a stone as s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t as p o s s i b l e , and to p r o m i s e to c o n f i n e h i m s e l f . . . to the simplest h i s t o r i c a l facts, ' w h i c h , b e i n g  actual, w i l l b e far m o r e interesting to the v i s i t o r p a s s i n g through the cemetery at s o m e future date than this fanciful nonsense about a person w h o , f r a n k l y ,  .  never r e a l l y e x i s t e d . ' (405) Facts. N a m e s . N a m e d things. E c o n o m y . Q u i e t . L o g a n acquiesces because he c a n ' t "remember a n y m o r e w h y the tombstone h a d been i m p o r t a n t " (405). H e has a w i f e , a c h i l d on the w a y , a j o b that a l l o w s h i m to create architecture out o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , " r e a l " and " a c t u a l " architecture that w i l l be " h i s t o r y . " L o g a n S u m n e r does not need the tombstone anymore. N o t : n a m e d as s u c h it is b o t h a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the strategy that kept h i m a l i v e (the i r o n y o f gravestones k e e p i n g one a l i v e a g o o d story), and a r e c o g n i t i o n that certain strategies transform into other strategies. N o t : n a m e d as  O u r nature lies i n m o v e m e n t ; c o m p l e t e c a l m is death.  - From Bruce Chatwin's Songlines, 163, from Pascal's Pensees.  such it p l a y s w i t h the  actual i n o p p o s i t i o n to the imaginative, the c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o , the fictions that are required and the fictions that w e create. N o t : n a m e d as s u c h it returns to n a m i n g , to parallax, to the names for things as fictions, and the fictions or stories i n the names for things. N o t r e m e m b e r i n g h i s need means the n a m i n g he engaged i n turned to story, story u n l a t c h e d to place, stone, or name, but to self. R i c o u ends  The Arbutus/Madrone Files w i t h the Anasayu File, fragmenting a g a i n into  " T r e e L a n g u a g e , " " B o r d e r l i n e , " " T o p o g r a p h i e s , " " P e n u m b r a , " and " A r b u t u s / M a d r o n e . " I have a l w a y s w a n t e d to replace the / i n the title w i t h a h y p h e n , a negation and replacement that j o i n s , but that m a k e s the j o i n i n g p r o b l e m a t i c , o c c l u s i o n s i n s m o o t h scansion. R i c o u ' s choice, h o w e v e r , is c a r e f u l l y accurate. T h e y are t w o names, separate and u n i q u e , each w i t h their o w n stories. B u t that they have stories m a k e s t h e m s i m i l a r , the stories i n names m a k e s  81 them m o r e p r o x i m a l than distal. T h e p o i n t i n the c o m p l e x created b y the m a n y n a m i n g s i n R i c o u ' s last file has to do w i t h n a m i n g , w i t h the language o f s h e d d i n g (bark), l a y e r i n g and e m b e d d i n g , arbitrary borders, vertices that r e s p o n d to the setting-against-demarcation o f h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s , and l o c a t i n g o n e s e l f w i t h i n p e n u m b r a space i n order to locate s e l f not statically but i n m o v e m e n t and process. A n d w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the m i n u t i a e i n language, o f the different names for different things, w h i c h is to say the different stories o f different things, o f the separate stories from a p o o l o f storied attending. A n d w i t h c l o s e r e a d i n g o f p u n c t u a t i o n , r e a d i n g that w h i c h s h o u l d r i g h t l y not be read, that functions to assist w o r d s proper, to separate to m e a n , punctuation that s h o u l d r e m a i n silent, that does r e m a i n silent for m a n y , f u n c t i o n a l .  . Innocent Cities also ends w i t h silence, i n part. K a t e H o r n c a s t l e and N o r a h H o r n c a s t l e have identities not u n r e m o v e d from their hatred f r o m each other, inseparable and i n t e r t w i n e d . T h e y sit at o p p o s i t e tables i n the R e d G e r a n i u m , T u e s d a y after T u e s d a y , not s p e a k i n g . T h e 4 4  last paragraph o f the n o v e l : " I d o n ' t k n o w e x a c t l y w h a t ' s g o i n g o n here, but I k n o w that one o f t h e m is k e e p i n g the other one alive, and one o f t h e m is a l l o w i n g the other to try i t . . . t h e y ' r e t r y i n g to b u i l d some k i n d o f n e w language b e t w e e n t h e m , to b u i l d s o m e t h i n g out o f silence that i s n ' t death" (413). T h e i r language i n silence: the language o f " d e s p a i r and p l e a d i n g , h o p e and reassurance, resentment and hatred, forgiveness and l o v e , fear and c a l m " (413). T h e y c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h o u t speaking. T h e i r silence is a story that speaks.  Listening  to names, to their silences t u r n i n g into stories and what stories c o m m u n i c a t e about n a m i n g , narrative strategies, c o g n i t i v e schemas and ourselves is w h a t is learned f r o m K a t e and N o r a h ' s c o m m u n i c a t i v e silence. T h a t names n a m e their stories i f o n l y w e w o u l d l o o k and  Why is it called this? I wonder.  82 listen is what w e learn f r o m n a m i n g as a strategy o f attending. N a m i n g ' s stories enact the crossing o f f o r m a l boundaries, enact m o b i l i t y . roj  83  D e f i n i t i o n 3.5 n a m e r [f. N A M E v. + - E R . ] 1  1  O n e w h o , o r that w h i c h , g i v e s a n a m e o r names.  C h a p t e r 3.5  Named Choices: Pedagogy and "directing the reader outward into the ongoing processes of pattern, story, and change" (Dreams xi) duff(n.) 1. a boiled or steamed  pudding often containing dried fruit 2. the partly decayed organic matter on the forest floor 3. fine coal 4. buttocks 5. an badly-hit, offcenter golf shot 6. an Australian sheep thief 7. my name 8. what people call me T H E STORY OF MY DAD'S STORIES. I h a v e patterned m y t e l l i n g o n s o m e o f the best storytellers I k n o w : H o d g i n s , M a l o u f , K i n g , M c K a y , W a h , C a r s o n , R i c o u , N e w , and m y father. M y father t o l d m y w i f e a story the other day, a story about h o w h e was saved b y a p i t - b u l l once. Y o u see, he w a s d a t i n g this w o m a n w h o was short o n cash, w h i c h he d i d n ' t m i n d so m u c h cause h e h a d lots, and w h o o w n e d a p i t - b u l l . M y father c a m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that anyone w h o o w n e d a p i t - b u l l w a s e x t r e m e l y n e e d y and so h e got out o f the relationship as fast as he c o u l d . T h a t w a s h i s story about h o w a p i t - b u l l saved h i m . T h o s e are the stories m y dad tells. I k n e w there was s o m e t h i n g f i s h y about the story f r o m the b e g i n n i n g ; m y w i f e d i d n ' t ; I k n o w h o w m y dad tells stories. K n o w i n g that h e was e m p l o y i n g a strategy d i d n ' t m a k e the  84 story any different: it w a s just as w o n d e r f u l . I ' v e o n l y ever k n o w n m y dad through the stories he tells, p i c k i n g through the desuetude w a s h e d up b y the tide o f his i m a g i n a t i o n and history. W h a t I learn about m y father—about the W a r , about e m i g r a t i n g to C a n a d a , about farming, about h i p p i e s , about C a l i f o r n i a n j a i l s , about h i s father t e a c h i n g h i m chess w h i l e he teaches m e c h e s s — i s a l w a y s m e d i a t e d b y the stories he tells, b y the act o f t e l l i n g . It t o o k m e a l o n g t i m e to learn that how he crafted stories w a s a l w a y s m o r e important to m e than the facts i n story. M a y b e that's w h y I ' m w r i t i n g about the stories i n names—the texture l e a k i n g out o f t e x t — a n d narrative strategies, and c o g n i t i v e m o d e l s that tell m e about m e , and the w o r l d . A n d m a y b e not, m a y b e I ' m just a storyteller l i k e m y d a d . T h o m a s K i n g ends  The Truth About Stories w i t h " A f t e r w o r d s : P r i v a t e S t o r i e s . " " F o r  N a t i v e storytellers," he writes, "there is g e n e r a l l y a proper p l a c e and t i m e to tell a story" (153). C o n t e x t latches to s t o r y t e l l i n g , p r o p r i e t y too. K i n g m a k e s the d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n different types o f stories: " O r a l stories. W r i t t e n stories. P u b l i c stories. P r i v a t e stories. Stories I can tell out l o u d . Stories I cannot" (154). H e then goes o n to tell a p r i v a t e story about the C a r d i n a l f a m i l y and h i m , one that p r o b a b l y d o e s n ' t r i g h t l y have a proper p l a c e and t i m e , one that he doesn't want to t e l l , one about a f a m i l y he k n e w , and abandonment, sadness, ethics, and s a y i n g platitudes "because i t ' s what y o u ' r e supposed to say, not because i t ' s true" (161) even t h o u g h e v e r y b o d y k n o w s it. It's p r o b a b l y a story y o u s h o u l d read for yourself, a story about "the m y r i a d o f other codes o f c o n d u c t suggested b y our a c t i o n s " and h o w w e ' v e "created the stories that a l l o w t h e m to exist a n d f l o u r i s h " (164). B u t m o s t l y i t ' s a story about t e l l i n g the stories that w e d o n ' t want to t e l l , o f e n a c t i n g story even w h e n it m a k e s us uncomfortable, w h e n it posits a l a c k o f guaranteed m e a n i n g . I asked m y s e l f early o n i n the process o f w r i t i n g this thesis w h y K i n g chooses to end w i t h h i s personal story. Part o f the answer is e m b e d d e d i n the i r o n y o f K i n g ' s "truth about  85 stories."  W h e n w e search for truth, w e f i n d story. W h e n w e f i n d story, w e enact m u l t i p l e  p o s s i b l e readings. W h e n w e find m u l t i p l e p o s s i b l e readings, w e embrace a m b i g u i t y . T r u t h is a m b i g u o u s . W h i l e K i n g ' s story i t s e l f is important (perhaps m o r e so to h i m than m e ) , as is the k n o w i n g o f as m a n y stories as p o s s i b l e and their m y r i a d o f i m p l i c a t i o n s about h o w w e attend to the w o r l d , the act o f c h o o s i n g to tell it is m o r e so. T H E S T O R Y O F M Y C H O I C E S. I h a v e c h o s e n m y theoretical texts for what I have been c a l l i n g p e d a g o g i c a l reasons. I w o u l d put e v e r y s i n g l e one o f m y theoretical texts o n a course syllabus for  first-year  E n g l i s h ; I p l a n o n d o i n g so w h e n I b e g i n teaching. T h e y are accessible, I think, p r e c i s e l y because they tell stories, first, and let their stories think t h r o u g h n a m i n g . T h o m a s K i n g tells stories about h o w w e tell stories, about h o w stories and their t e l l i n g function. A n n e C a r s o n tells the story o f S i m o n i d e s ' epitaphs, and h o w the geography o f stone forces a l a y e r i n g o f m e a n i n g , l a y e r i n g t h r o u g h the l i n g u i s t i c strategy o f negation. L a u r i e R i c o u tells a story about the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , about its literatures, its e c o l o g y , its names, its lessons about the u n - b o u n d i n g o f boundaries. F r e d W a h tells the story o f h i s w r i t i n g , o f h i s life i n  Diamond  Grill, and o f the h y p h e n , m a k i n g its silence n o i s y . D o n M c K a y tells the story o f a r a v e n k i l l e d w i t h a shotgun and strung up w i t h b a i l e r t w i n e to e v i d e n c e the act, re-stories G e n e s i s , wraps h i s m i n d around ideas o f " u t i l i t y " and " h o m a g e " and " e n v i s a g i n g " and, o f course, m e t a p h o r — M c K a y tells a story about poetry. W h a t I l i k e about these texts is the different w a y s i n w h i c h they engage w i t h n a m i n g . K i n g says that stories is " a l l w e are"—stories name us. K i m Stafford says that "there are n o names but stories"—names are stories. M c K a y writes " n a m e as e p i t a p h " ( 8 9 ) — m o b i l e stories are b e h i n d those a s t o n i s h i n g l y u n - m o b i l e forms. R i c o u says " A r b u t u s / M a d r o n e " and " f i l e s " together—names are category and " k i n e s i s " (90), k i n e t i c thread. M a l o u f unsettles  86 settling. H o d g i n s writes characters w h o have c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t s enacted b y a failure o f referent, b y the instability o f the names o f things. W h a t I l i k e about n a m i n g for students is what happens i n that m o m e n t w h e n I say I ' m interested i n n a m i n g and they reply, " n a m i n g w h a t ? " T o w h i c h I r e p l y n a m i n g e v e r y t h i n g , its a l l about n a m i n g ; and h o w w e n a m e is a reflection o n h o w w e i n d e x interaction, o f the c o g n i t i v e s c h e m a that i n f o r m our n a m i n g strategies. I l i k e w a t c h i n g what happens to students' faces w h e n they h a v e a r e c o g n i t i v e m o m e n t .  W h a t I l i k e about n a m i n g as a  narrative strategy is that it a l l o w s (forces) students (and me) to stay c l o s e to the text, to perform c l o s e readings—to l o o k at the strategies e m p l o y e d rather than the one w h o e m p l o y s them, to l o o k at a m b i g u o u s pronouns and repeated w o r d s , to l o o k at metaphors a n d their l i e s , to engage w i t h the text itself, w i t h its aesthetics, its sensed and sensual qualities, to be  specific. W h a t I l i k e about names is what is h i d i n g b e h i n d t h e m (they turn m e into an A r c h e o l o g i s t ) — e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , their stories, the slippage that sometimes happens w i t h them, to them, that gets m e closer to them and their storied potential. S u m n e r slips into S u m m e r and a d d i t i o n and summoner.  D o n M c K a y knows Trevor G o w a r d , a lichenologist. D o n  M c K a y b e c a m e engaged w i t h G o w a r d even before he k n e w h i m as a result o f a h i s metaphor: " l i c h e n s are... fungi that have d i s c o v e r e d a g r i c u l t u r e " (105), w h i c h is a n a m i n g . G o w a r d is also c o m m i t t e d to "the spread o f e n l i c h e n m e n t " (105), another n a m i n g . I a m engaged b y the slippage, b y w o r d p l a y and n a m e p l a y , i n m u c h the same w a y that F r e d W a h is engaged b y the slippage w h e n he types "poetics o f the potent," w h e n potent b e c o m e s 'poetent' b e c o m e s poet-tent  (Faking 194).  W h a t I l i k e about w r i t i n g about names i s what it m o b i l i z e s i n m y peers, the stories o f their interaction w i t h n a m i n g i n literature, the space that the t o p i c seems to create for those  87 engaging w i t h writers w h o name. L a u r a M o s s , i n r e v i e w i n g the G i l C o u r t e m a n c h e text-box epilogue i n C h a p t e r 2 and C l a x t o n ' s translation o f it, wanted m e to d e l v e deeper into the e l i s i o n o f " n o m , " got e x c i t e d b y it. T r a v i s M a s o n e m a i l e d m e the f o l l o w i n g t w o quotations, the first f r o m  The Songlines b y B r u c e C h a t w i n (1988), the second f r o m T h o m a s H e n r y  H u x l e y ' s essay " S c i e n c e and C u l t u r e " (1881): " P u t it this w a y , " he said. " A n y w h e r e i n the b u s h y o u c a n p o i n t to s o m e feature o f the landscape and ask the A b o r i g i n a l w i t h y o u , ' W h a t ' s the story there?' or ' W h o ' s that?' T h e chances are h e ' l l answer ' K a n g a r o o ' or ' B u d g e r i g a r ' or ' J e w L i z a r d , ' d e p e n d i n g o n w h i c h A n c e s t o r w a l k e d that w a y " ...  " A n d the distance b e t w e e n t w o s u c h sites c a n be measured as a stretch o f  s o n g ? " [The question is rhetorical]. (13) So, i f any o f these opponents [to scientific education] be left, I w i l l not waste t i m e i n v a i n repetition o f the demonstrative e v i d e n c e o f the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f science; but k n o w i n g that a parable w i l l sometimes penetrate w h e r e s y l l o g i s m s fail to effect an entrance, I w i l l offer a story for their c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (526-7). T h i n k i n g about the spaces between names (and perhaps names themselves) as " s o n g s " is s l i p p e r y (and a good) "entry." A n d before I h a d e v e n drafted m y i n t r o d u c t i o n — o r c h o s e n M a l o u f a n d H o d g i n s , o r read F r e d W a h , o r k n e w that D u f f w a s " a b o i l e d o r steamed p u d d i n g often c o n t a i n i n g d r i e d f r u i t " — B i l l N e w put the f o l l o w i n g passage i n m y b o x i n the E n g l i s h office w i t h s t i c k y note attached, " D u f f y - T h o u g h t y o u m i g h t enjoy this phrase.  Cheers,  Bill": W e k n o w almost n o t h i n g o f this lute-maker except the year he a r r i v e d . . . W e d o n ' t even k n o w his real name: M a r t i n e n g o is a t o w n i n A u s t r i a n Italy w h e r e he m a y h a v e l i v e d for a w h i l e , L e o n a r d o c o u l d h a v e been h i s b a p t i s m a l n a m e . . . and G i o v a n n i is an Italian v e r s i o n o f Juan. S o our l u t h i e r ' s n a m e w a s i t s e l f a c o l l e c t i o n o f stories. H e w a s a c o m p o s i t e m a n - m a d e u p o f m a n y different parts, rather l i k e one o f his o w n lutes.  (Colour - Travels Through  the Paintbox, 193). A n d m y w i f e , K r i s t i n a , w h o does not care m u c h for m y a c a d e m i c w r i t i n g , w h o gets lost i n the w o r d s , l i k e d it w h e n I read her m y story o f m y d a d ' s story and the l i n e "the texture l e a k i n g out o f text."  W e are a l l namers. W e are a l l storytellers. N a m i n g ' s u b i q u i t y requires attention. F r a c t a l i n e m o m e n t s o c c u r i n the r e - c o g n i t i o n that occurs w h e n attending to narrative strategies o f n a m i n g .  4 5  rm  Duffy was my grandmother's maiden name. She was a writer. I never knew her.  89 Works Cited  Primary Texts H o d g i n s , Jack. " S e p a r a t i n g . "  In S p i t D e l a n e y ' s Island. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1976.  9—33. . " S p i t D e l a n e y ' s I s l a n d . " In Spit D e l a n e y ' s Island. T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1976. 201—235. M a l o u f , D a v i d . " B l a c k s o i l C o u n t r y . " In D r e a m Stuff. T o r o n t o : V i n t a g e , 2 0 0 1 . . " J a c k o ' s R e a c h . " In D r e a m Stuff. T o r o n t o : V i n t a g e , 2 0 0 1 .  116-130.  93—100.  Ancillary Texts H o d g i n s , Jack. Innocent C i t i e s . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1990. M a l o u f , D a v i d . R e m e m b e r i n g B a b y l o n . T o r o n t o : V i n t a g e , 1993.  Secondary Texts C a r s o n , A n n e . E c o n o m y o f the U n l o s t . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1999. K i n g , T h o m a s . T h e T r u t h A b o u t Stories: A N a t i v e N a r r a t i v e . T o r o n t o : A n a n s i Press, 2 0 0 3 . L e e , D e n n i s . " B o d y M u s i c : N o t e s o n R h y t h m i n P o e t r y . " T h i n k i n g and S i n g i n g : P o e t r y and the P r a c t i c e o f P h i l o s o p h y . E d . T i m L i l b u r n . T o r o n t o : C o r m o r a n t , 2 0 0 2 . 19—58. M c K a y , D o n . V i s a V i s : F i e l d N o t e s o n P o e t r y & W i l d e r n e s s . W o l f v i l l e : Gaspereau Press, 2001. R i c o u , L a u r i e . T h e A r b u t u s / M a d r o n e F i l e s : R e a d i n g the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . NeWest, 2002. W a h , F r e d . F a k i n g It: P o e t i c s & H y b r i d i t y . E d m o n t o n : N e W e s t , 2 0 0 0 .  Post-Secondary Texts A c h e b e , C h i n u a . H o m e and E x i l e . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2 0 0 0 .  Edmonton:  90 A r s h a m , H o s s e i n . " T h e Z e r o S a g a and C o n f u s i o n W i t h N u m b e r s . " F o u n d at http://ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/zero/ZERO.HTM B l a i s e , C l a r k e . " T o B e g i n , T o B e g i n . " In Currents: Stories, E s s a y s , P o e m s , and P l a y s . ed. E d s . W . H . N e w e t a l . Scarborough: Prentice H a l l , 2 0 0 0 .  2  n d  330—333.  B u d d e , R o b e r t . " A f t e r P o s t c o l o n i a l i s m : M i g r a n t L i n e s and the P o l i t i c s o f F o r m i n F r e d W a h , M . N o u r b e s e P h i l i p , and R o y M i k i . "  Is C a n a d a P o s t c o l o n i a l ?  Unsettling  C a n a d i a n Literature. E d . L a u r a M o s s . W a t e r l o o : W i l f r i d L a u r i e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2003.  282—294.  C a r s o n , A n n e . A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f R e d . N e w Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1998. —. M e n i n the O f f H o u r s . N e w Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 2 0 0 0 . — — . . Short T a l k s . L o n d o n : B r i c k B o o k s , 1992. C h a t w i n , B r u c e . S o n g l i n e s . T o r o n t o : P e n g u i n . 1988. C l a r k e , G e o r g e E l l i o t t . "Introduction to the T e n t h A n n i v e r s a r y E d i t i o n . " W h v l a h F a l l s . V a n c o u v e r : Polestar, 2 0 0 0 . x — x x v . C o u r t e m a n c h e , G i l . A S u n d a y at the P o o l i n K i g a l i . Trans. P a t r i c i a C l a x t o n . M o n t r e a l : Vintage, 2004. . U n D i m a n c h e a la Piscine a K i g a l i . Quebec: D i m e d i a , 2002. de K o k , I n g r i d . " S t a n d i n g i n the D o o r w a y : A Preface."  World Literature Today 70.1  ( W i n t e r 1996): 5-8. F i n l a y , V i c t o r i a . C o l o u r — T r a v e l s T h r o u g h the P a i n t b o x . L o n d o n : Sceptre, 2 0 0 2 . Forrer, M a t t h i . H o k u s a i . N e w Y o r k : R i z z o l i , 1988. Glotfelty, C h e r y l l . "Introduction."  T h e E c o c r i t i c i s m Reader: L a n d m a r k s i n L i t e r a r y  E c o l o g y . E d s . C h e r y l l G l o t f e l t y and H a r o l d F r o m m . A t h e n s : U o f G e o r g i a P , 1996.  H u x l e y , T h o m a s H e n r y . " S c i e n c e and C u l t u r e . " P r o s e o f the V i c t o r i a P e r i o d . E d . W i l l i a m E . B u c k l e r . B o s t o n : R i v e r s i d e - H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n , 1958.  526—37.  Indyk, Ivor. A u s t r a l i a n W r i t e r s : D a v i d M a l o u f . A u c k l a n d : O x f o r d , 1993. K h u n , T h o m a s S. T h e C o p e r n i c a n R e v o l u t i o n . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2 0 0 1 . , L o v e , G l e n A . P r a c t i c a l E c o c r i t i c i s m : Literature, B i o l o g y , and the E n v i r o n m e n t . Charlottesville: U o f V i r g i n i a P, 2003. L e G u i n , U r s u l a K . A W i z a r d o f Earthsea.  T o r o n t o : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n C a n a d a , 1991.  L e e , D e n n i s . " B o d y M u s i c : N o t e s o n R h y t h m i n Poetry." T h i n k i n g and S i n g i n g : P o e t r y and the P r a c t i c e o f P h i l o s o p h y . E d . T i m L i l b u r n . T o r o n t o : C o r m o r a n t , 2 0 0 2 . 19—58. L e i t c h , T h o m a s M . W h a t Stories A r e : N a r r a t i v e T h e o r y and Interpretation. U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : P e n n s y l v a n i a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1986. Leggatt, J u d i t h . " N a t i v e W r i t i n g , A c a d e m i c T h e o r y : P o s t - c o l o n i a l i s m across the C u l t u r a l Divide."  Is C a n a d a P o s t c o l o n i a l ? U n s e t t l i n g C a n a d i a n Literature. E d . L a u r a M o s s .  W a t e r l o o : W i l f r i d L a u r i e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2 0 0 3 .  111—126.  L i l b u r n , T i m . L i v i n g i n the W o r l d as i f it W e r e H o m e . D u n v e g a n : C o r m o r a n t , 1999. M c K a y , D o n . " T w i n f l o w e r . " In A N e w A n t h o l o g y o f C a n a d i a n Literature i n E n g l i s h . 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J u l i a n W o l f r e y s and H a r u n K a r i m T h o m a s . E d i n b u r g h : E d i n b u r g h U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2 0 0 3 Z w i c k y , Jan. W i s d o m and M e t a p h o r . K e n t v i l l e : G a s p e r a u , 2 0 0 3 .  

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