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S.o.u.p. : sustainable operative urban principles 2004

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S.O.U.P. - Sustainable Operative Urban Principles by ROBERTO BOTTAZZI Laurea in Architecture, University of Florence, 1999 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTNS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Architecture We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 2004 © Roberto Bottazzi, 2004 Library Authorization In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Title of Thesis: S.O^).P- €>u_,-L_i triable. Opgrv^wg, Urban Principle*, M * 6 T e f f or Ar>/Ar4cef3 S T V D I S S Degree: tsl A f l g t i i r g g - r u f f e L Y e a r 2co4 Department of <^^00 L o F A R C r f i T g c r u f f E . The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada Jo/05/ 2oo4 Name of Author (please print) Date (dd/mm/yyyy) ABSTRACT Wor ld populat ion is dramat ical ly increas ing . M a n y cit ies a round the wor ld will reach a crit ical m a s s that will turn them into metropol is . Moreover , recent ana lys is on Cal i forn ia d e m o g r a p h i c trend has shown that that region is expec ted to g row by 12 mi l l ions over the next 20 years . A l though Cal i forn ia will be the fastest g rowing a rea in the U.S. , a lmost any region in North A m e r i c a is expec ted to fol low a simi lar pattern. None the less , infil l ings and redeve lopments will cover just the 3 0 % of that hous ing request, whi le the remain ing 7 0 % will require the creat ion of new set t lements. 1 The idea of urban is ing undeve loped land is not b a s e d on op in ions but necess i t ies . At the same time, issues of globalization, distribution network, etc. are redefining economically and socially the concept of city in the late-capitalist market. In spite of these tendencies which could best be described as unpredictable and highly dynamic, architecture and urban planning alike continue to adopt models that ignore these mutations. History, identity and local culture are the misunderstood principles inspiring projects whose coherence exists only on paper. In fact, these blueprints often clash with actual issues of speed, demographic change and market forces resulting in either nostalgic or megalomaniac proposals. S.O.U.P., the product of this research , is an interdisciplinary tool to des ign in s u c h condi t ions of in extreme speed and uncertainty. It cons is ts in a redefinit ion of the tradit ional urban p lanner 's too lbox through a ser ies of d iag rams and me thods that a im to obtain a dynamic , respons ive and ultimately susta inab le not ion of urban p lan. T o d o s o the research is b a s e d on the assumpt ion that only by shifting f rom a prob lem-dr iven attitude to a p rob lem- driven a p p r o a c h will urban p lann ing regain its exper imenta l character and thus be able to meaningfu l ly part ic ipate to the c i ty-making p rocess . A l though the condi t ions just desc r i bed c a n be t raced in many contexts, a site in Vancouve r w a s s ing led out. In fact, the former F inn ing site, s o o n to be deve loped by the four main a c a d e m i c institutions in Vancouve r ( U B C , S F U , BCIT and ECIAD) , represents a perfect test ing g round s ince it is charac ter ised by several of the i ssues d i s c u s s e d . 1 Peter, Calthorpe. "The Urban Network: A Radical Proposal". APA - American Planning Associacion Qournal on-line); available from http://www.planning.org; Internet; accessed 6 June 2002. ii Under s u c h condi t ions two main pa rad igms must be d i s m i s s e d . The d isas t rous tendency that urban p lanning has to go from many to one must be rep laced by a sys tem that will keep opportuni t ies o p e n , a f ield condi t ion wh ich will g o from many to many. This part icular shift can only occu r if s imu l taneous ly we move f rom a prob lem-so lv ing attitude to a p rob lem- dr iven app roach without l imiting the ou t come of the research . Therefore, S . O . U . P . is not an algor i thm to mechan ica l l y p roduce C a m p u s e s , it is rather both a mediator and a facil itator to systemat ize and refine ques t ions regard ing the des ign of a C a m p u s . Pe rhaps , a v iable a p p r o a c h might be one where respons i veness rep laces determin ism and control and o p e n e n d n e s s c o m e to coexist . Therefore, S . O . U . P . c a n be def ined as a sys tem b a s e d on r igorous rules that g ives rise to unpred ic tab le results, a sys tem that in short t ime c a n react to and s h a p e the tradit ional debate occur r ing dur ing the preparat ion of an urban des ign . iii TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENT iv LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDMENTS vii INTRODUCTION: WHY 1 Integrated Difference 12 Comparative study: S.O.U.P. vs. traditional planning 13 Case Study: Great Northern Way in Vancouver 17 CONTENT: WHAT 19 Program Analysis: Clustering 20 TECHNIQUE: HOW 24 S.O.U.P.-The process 25 Responsiveness 27 Sectional Transposition 33 Conclusion 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY 43 iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 - Population trends in the major metropolitan centres in the world 2 Figure 1.2 - The implosion of the Aladin Resort in Las Vegas 3 Figure 1.3- Renzo Piano. Masterplan for Potzdamer Platz, Berlin, 1996 3 Figure 1.4-J. Jerde, Freemont Experience, Las Vegas, USA, 1995 4 Figure 1.5-On the left: map of the server computers in the United States. Source: 6 Mutation. On the right: OMA, Euralille, Lille, France, 1996 Figure 1.6 - Products available at New Covent Garden Market on 7 March 2000. 7 Source: Alex Stetter, "Goods", in Breathing Cities (London: August),2000 Figure 1.7 - Map of the cluster organization in the Greater Vancouver 9 Figure 1.8- Chart showing the relationship between freight and GDP growth 10 Figure 1.9- Map of the existing relationships between UBC and other post- 11 secondary institutions in the world Figure 1.10 - Diagrams describing the three paradigms of the 20th-Century city 12 planning Figure 1.11 - Comparative study between S.O.U.P. and traditional urban planning 13 Figure 1.12- Diagram of the strategic relationship between the existing campuses 17 and the GNW one Figure 1.13 - View of the site 18 Figure 1.14- View of the site 18 Figure 2.1 - Diagram of the possible relationships among programs 20 Figure 2.2 - Matrix of possibilities 21 Figure 2.3 - Matrix of possibilities 22 Figure 2.4 - Matrix of links 23 Figure 3.1 - Diagram to generate infoscapes 26 Figure 3.2 - Continuity diagram 27 Figure 3.3 - Intensity diagram 28 v Figure 3.4 - Rhythm diagram 29 Figure 3.5 - Compementarity diagram 30 Figure 3.6 - Diagram of the second set of rules to encode info scapes 31 Figure 3.7 - The Noise principle 32 Figure 3.9-An example of a transposition form curves to architectural section 33 Figure 3.10- Scenario A: The whole set of both transpositions and variations 34 Figure 3.11 -Scenario B: The whole set of both transpositions and variations 35 Figure 3.12 -Scenario A and B: views from Great Northern Way 36 Figure 3.13 -Scenario A and B: views from inside the campus itself 37 Figure 3.14 -Scenario A and B: aerial views 38 Figure 3.15 -Scenario A and B: views from existing rail yards 38 Figure 3.16 -Noise: housing + community centre 39 Figure 3.17 -Noise: academic space + laboratories 40 Figure 3.18 -Noise: Conference centre 40 Figure 3.20 -Transversal Section through the Campus 41 Figure 3.21 -Transversal Section through the Campus 41 Figure 3.22 - Montage 42 vi ACKNOWLEDMENTS This thesis wou ld not be carr ied out without the help and part ic ipat ion of a very spec ia l g roup of peop le . First, J o h n B a s s who , as a m e m b e r of the thesis commi t tee, prov ided constant and very va luab le c o m m e n t s wh ich st rongly re inforced both the argument and the ou t come of the research . Part icularly, I wou ld like to thank Ol iver Lang for his con t inuous and outs tanding suppor t throughout the who le p rog ram. H e not only taught m e how archi tecture can e m b o d y and poss ib l y e n h a n c e cultural pract ice, but he a lso exp la ined m e what research ing means in our field by letting me explore, attempt and somet ime fail. H is lesson has certainly been invaluable. Mos t importantly, I wou ld like to thank Stefan ia, my wife, for her immense help. The ou t come of the thes is w a s very m u c h b a s e d on the dai ly d i s cuss i ons w e had about architecture and its link to every facet of life. S h e suppor ted me when I w a s d o w n ; she sha red with me the m o m e n t s of exc i tement after any major ach ievement and prov ided me with constant cha l l enges to any idea I c a m e up with. S h e taught m e that "non hai dato tutto se non hai dato anco r " (if you haven't g iven it your al l , you haven't g iven enough) . Final ly, I wou ld like to thank any professor , staff m e m b e r and student that w a s in anyway involved in this research . V l l INTRODUCTION: WHY World population is dramatically increasing. Many cities around the world will reach a critical mass that will turn them into metropolis, among them there is Vancouver that has been expanding at the average 7% growth-rate per year. Moreover, recent analysis on California demographic trend has shown that that region is expected to grow by 12 millions over the next 20 years. Although California will be the fastest growing area in the U.S., almost any region in North America is expected to follow a similar pattern. Nonetheless, infillings and redevelopments will cover just the 30% of that housing request, while the remaining 70% will require the creation of new settlements.1 The idea of urbanising undeveloped land is not based on opinions but rather on necessities. The demographic explosion 30 1975 25 20 15 10 i l il l i l l i i B c o M c s s m m • s = 5 £ 1 o i »Hi i i i Hi i U N Q to — ~ C o <0 to c s i i f i f i — .O J= E 2 Source: Global Urban Observatory Fig. 1.1 - Population trends in the major metropolitan centres in the world. ' Peter, Calthorpe. "The Urban Network: A Radical Proposal". APA - American Planning Associacion [journal on-line]; available from http://vvww.planning.org; Internet; accessed 6 June 2002. 2 It is by now clear that g lobal forces are reshap ing both the notion of urban s p a c e and its future impor tance. In recent years we have s e e n a ser ies of proposi t ions that at tempted to resuscitate deve lopmenta l mode l s that be l onged to a remote past. For examp le ' s , Renzo P iano ' s p lan for Po tzdamer P laz in Berl in w a s insp i red by the o ld 19 t h century hous ing deve lopment . By anchor ing his p roposa l to a formal dev ice extracted by history, P iano ' s p lan m isses to both capture and enhance the character of the con temporary life in Berl in. O n the other hand , the blast of the A lad in in Las V e g a s marked the 7 t h resort in the last 8 years that w a s t ransformed into rubble. The strategy for reconf igur ing the city is quite straightforward in its rad ica l ism: what is obso le te is literally torn d o w n to make room for a new state-of-art resort. In spi te of this data, architecture and urban p lanning keep adopt ing mode ls that ignore these c h a n g e s . History, identity, local cul tures are the pr inc ip les inspir ing projects w h o s e cohe rence exists on ly on paper . In fact, these o u t c o m e s often c lash with i ssues of s p e e d , d e m o g r a p h i c change , market fo rces result ing in either nosta lg ic or mega loman iac p roposa ls . Fig. 1.2 - The implosion of the Aladin Resort in Las Vegas. Fig. 1.3- Renzo Piano. Masterplan for Potzdamer Platz, Berlin, 1996. 3 O n the other hand , an alternative type of urban s p a c e has been sur fac ing as wel l . This is a s p a c e in wh ich several events can coexist desp i te the apparent contradict ions a m o n g themse lves . T h e interest of projects s u c h as J o n J e r d e ' s F reemont Exper ience in Las V e g a s (fig.4) d o e s not rely in the beauty of the p iece of architecture itself, that is to say that the different behav iours occur r ing under one gigant ic roof cannot be g rasped complete ly by an analys is of the phys ica l qual i t ies of the s p a c e only. Charac te r i zed as s u c h , urban des ign has more to do with the not ion of organization a n d ultimately infrastructure rather than quest ions of style or tradit ion. Fig. 1.4-J. Jerde, Freemont Experience, Las Vegas, USA, 1995. 4 However , what is infrastructure and how has it c h a n g e d over the past 30 years? San fo rd Kwinter desc r ibes it as the very D N A of cit ies: "by infrastructure one refers to every aspec t of the techno logy of the rational administrat ion that rout ines, life, act ion and property within larger (ultimately global) o rgan iza t ions . " 2 At the s a m e t ime, he o ld pa rad igm of infrastructures laid out acco rd ing to bas i c geomet r i c pr inc ip les s u c h as gr ids - as in the c a s e of the Amer i can power sys tem or Land Ord inance Ac t of 1785 in wh ich the A m e r i c a n s laid a grid onto the who le country from Pennsy lvan ia to Cal i forn ia - has evo lved towards m u c h more c o m p l e x infrastructural sys tems . In this m a p of the computer servers in the Uni ted States we can observe a p h e n o m e n o n that we can cal l decentralization. With the advent of the e lectronic c o m m e r c e , for example , it is poss ib le to bank by computer , t rade s tocks v ia Internet and s o on . Th is has resulted both in i nc reased mobi l i ty and c h a n g e d c o n c e p t of s p a c e which has blurred the boundar ies of the city. The new kind of city is no longer f ixed, but is b e c o m i n g more fluid and most importantly charac ter ized by an organizat ional pr inc ip le b a s e d on c luster ing g roups of e lements rather then sp read ing them out evenly. In the m a p des i gned by O M A in 1996 for the masterp lan of a new transportat ion hub in Lille, F rance (fig.5), it is poss ib le to evaluate the polit ical c o n s e q u e n c e s that a new type of organizat ion g ives rise to. This d iag ram il lustrates the d is tance in t ime between the F rench city and the rest of Eu rope . T w o main e lements s igna ls a radical shift in the evolut ion of this l andscape : first, no dif ference exists be tween land and s e a in terms of m e a n s of t ransportat ion, s e c o n d , it e m e r g e s a different outl ine of Eu rope , one that potential ly c l ashes with the official limits of the continent. However , what d o e s cluster really m e a n and what ins tances can be brought up to exempl i fy it. 2 Sandford Kwinter and others, eds„ MUTATIONS. (Bordeaux : ACTAR, 2000), 495. 5 Fig. 1.5 - On the left: map of the server computers in the United States. Source: Mutation. On the right: OMA, Euralille, Lille, France, 1996. Source: S,M,L,X-L. 6 The fruit network wh ich dai ly distr ibutes food all over the wor ld represents a g o o d examp le of the complex i ty and prec is ion of current infrastructures. O n a g loba l sca le we can not ice that a vast network exists to feed cit ies; to grow, distr ibute and del iver food that peop le cannot g row their own . Every s tep in this journey involves a different form of transport, a new layer of p a c k a g i n g or type of con ta ine r , another p lace where the g o o d s can be ch i l led, s tored, p a c k e d and eventual ly sent off aga in to the next stat ion. Pr i ces are negot ia ted, a s s e s s e d , orders are p l a c e d and del iver ies and m a d e . This intricate network is not contro l led by governments or official bod ies , but is m a d e up of many private b u s i n e s s e s and indiv iduals. If the network c a m e crash ing d o w n , the wor ld 's major cit ies wou ld f ind themse lves short of food within a matter of days . Aga in , this sys tem is not b a s e d on a l inear gr id but rather c lusters. ••• AUBERGINE BELL PEPPERS •3 * • 1 ; ••YELLOW TOMATOES CAUUFLDWEP • • MINIATURE ENDIVE _f • • MINIATURE CABBAGES • • COURGETTE FLOWERS • • BABY FENNEL RASPBERRIES RASPBERRIES STRAWBERRIES GREEN PEPPtRS ASPARAGUS COS LETTUCE TOMATOES CUCUMBERS SEVIILE ORANGES CUSTARD APPLES tCEBERG LETTUCE jfWffl ASPAflUGUS I • RED DELICIOUS APPLE: iSWFFI PTlTATO # 1 LEMONS * # # • £ A T E E - • G R A P F R U I AVOCADO BLACKBERRIES • CANTALOPE MELON PINEAPPLE • PHYSALIS BANANAS BAYLFAVC! • •BANANAS •RUB* RFD GPAPFFRUIT ORANGES RHUBARB •SUN BURET ORANGE PINEAPPLE* • PINEAPPLE •FINE GREEN BEANS SAtIA Mf.LON • • •PLUMS • • C A C T U S PE AH RED GRAPES BUTTERNUT SQUASH Fig.1.6 - Products available at New Covent Garden Market on 7 March 2000. Source: Alex Stetter, "Goods", in Breathing Cities (London: August),2000. 7 Even by shifting from a g loba l ana lys is to a local condi t ion, we c a n observe the reoccur rence of s imi lar organizat ional types . For instance, c lusters are still present as main e c o n o m i c strategies both in the g loba l and local bus iness . Many industr ies have been forced to const ruct a l l iances in order to keep up with the van ish ing of borders and the consequent ly reorganizat ion of local e c o n o m i e s . T h e s e par tnerships operate in a c o m p l e x way. Cluster ing acts upon the regional conf igurat ion of the territory. A l thought reg iona l ism has often been assoc ia ted with a conservat ive polit ic , in this c a s e it rather r esponds to the inc reased d e m a n d of spec ia l iza t ion that g loba l markets are paradoxica l ly requir ing. What emerges is a new definit ion of reg iona l ism that no longer m e a n s protect ionism but rather di f ference and d ia logue a m o n g different agents . Moreover the spat ial layout of ci t ies reiterates the i dea that decentra l izat ion has been rep lac ing c o m p a c t n e s s of the prototypical Eu ropean city. For example , the infrastructure that del ivers fruit in Vancouve r is strategical ly located at any intersect ion be tween he te rogeneous sys tems of commun ica t i on . Bo rde rs , international airports, d o c k s for sh ipp ing conta iners are the noda l points that material ize g lobal izat ion as a careful ly p lanned discont inui ty in the l andscape . Th is g ives rise to a coex is tence a m o n g e lements that d ia logue with comple te ly different s c a l e s . The tradit ional i dea of s c a l e wh ich p rog resses from the smal ler to the increas ing ly b igger is subst i tuted by one character ized by constant j umps , shift and discont inui t ies be tween local and g loba l c o m p o n e n t s . For ins tance, d u e to per ishab le nature of the commod i t y , this bus i ness heavi ly relies on Air C a r g o . Therefore, different e c o n o m i e s of s c a l e are jux taposed: on the one s ide, the local commun i t y const i tuted by smal l s h o p s a n d , on the other, F e d E x with 146,000 emp loys , 3,2 mil l ion parce ls de l ivered dai ly and the s e c o n d largest fleet in the wor ld . 8 9 F o o d and per ishab le supp l ies in genera l , compute r c o m p o n e n t s and car industry are s o m e of the sec to rs that share d e p e n d e n c y on just-in-time del ivery sys tems . The impor tance of these sys tems is s o crucia l that they are uti l ized to evaluate countr ies ' e c o n o m y . It immediate ly appea rs that a bas ic sys tem for del iver ing g o o d s has m u c h more impl icat ions than s u p p o s e d . Th is , a long with others factors, is one of the noda l points in wh ich a techno log ica l dev ice interweaves e c o n o m y and polit ic. Treat ies, pro toco ls , local conf l icts, new rai lway const ruct ions, regional downturns b e c o m e all part of a larger network. A l though these p h e n o m e n a occu r in a reas far apart f rom e a c h other, they p roduce effects that inf luence local territories in the most unpred ic tab le and surpr is ing manner . world GDP growth and scheduled freight growth '? ' 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 8 2 0 0 0 _ _ • world freight growth — — world GDP growth Fig. 1.8- Chart showing the relationship between freight and GDP growth. Source: IATA - International Air Transportation Association. 10 The s a m e kind of organizat ional pr inc ip les can be s e e n when we shift f rom purely economica l s ys tems to other types of organizat ions. For instance, the comp lex set of relat ionship that universit ies have deep ly resemb les the notion of c luster previously d i s c u s s e d . U B C entertains cultural and a c a d e m i c e x c h a n g e s with 234 other pos t -secondary institutions scat tered all over the wor ld . I ; Univ. per region Fig. 1.9 - Map of the existing relationships between UBC and other post-secondary institutions in the world. Source: UBC web-site. I I INTEGRATED DIFFERENCE The definit ion of infrastructure out l ined s o far is charac ter ized by a ser ies of de termined e lements : it is dynamic, complex, adaptive and precise in the s e n s e that generates indeterminacy out of more spec i f ic ana lys is . Three mode l s were s ing led out to clarify the impl icat ion that organizat ional dev ices has been having in the architectural debate . First, the mode l label led Determined Functional b a s e d on merely quantitative ana lys is , then the Generic Multifunctional mode l b a s e d on the idea that flexibility can only be ach ieved by dec reas ing the deg ree of p rec is ion of sys tem. Final ly, the p r o p o s e d mode l ca l led - Integrated Difference - wh ich a ims to represent a different pa rad igm for organizat ions. It is a sys tem that comp i l es together several layers of information without los ing specif ic i ty, it genera tes indeterminacy is not out of imprec is ion but rather out of more prec is ion a n d thus more know ledge a n d finally and most importantly it is a sys tem that turns quantitative inputs into qualitative outputs. A s Gi l les De leuze put it:" The under termined is not a s imp le imperfect ion in our know ledge or a lack in the object: it is a perfectly posi t ive, object ive structure wh ich acts as focus or hor izon within pe rcep t ion" . 3 determined functional generic multifunctional integrated difference Fig. 1.10- Diagrams describing the three paradigms of the 20th-Century city planning. 3 Gilles De leuze, Difference and Repetition. M inneapo l is : University of M inneso ta Press, I990.p. l 69. 12 COMPARATIVE STUDY: S.O.U.P. vs. TRADITIONAL PLANNING Fig. 1.11 - Comparative study between S.O.U.P. and traditional urban planning. INDIVIDUALIZATION SUSTAINABLE DYNAMIC Our cit ies are charac ter ized by c o m p l e x relat ionships be tween s ing le / loca l e lements and hol is t ic /g lobal factors. A mode l that wants to be operat ional must take into accoun t both and be c a p a b l e to relate different p h e n o m e n a in a d y n a m i c fash ion . EXPERIMENTAL " P r o b l e m so lv ing s imply accep t s the parameters of the p rob lem g iven, in the c a s e of archi tecture, by the client. Des ign is meant to work within these parameters until a solut ion to the p rob lem is worked out, a final d e s i g n . Innovation.. .works by a different, more exper imental log ic where, by r igorous analys is , des ign opportuni t ies are d i scove red that c a n be explo i ted and t ransformed into des ign innovat ions. Whi le p rob lem so lv ing works within a g iven pa rad igm to create solut ions to known p rob lems , innovat ion r isks work ing with existent but unknown condi t ions in order to d iscover opportuni t ies that cou ld not have been pred ic ted in a d v a n c e " . 4 Therefore, S.O.U.P. is a sys tem to turn known p h e n o m e n a into unknown and potential ly innovative quest ions . BOTTOM-UP Innovation is deep ly related to d iscover ing unforeseen opportuni t ies. T h e s e possibi l i t ies might not emerge if the techn ique uti l ized has a determinist ic character , one that es tab l ishes limits and exc ludes possibi l i t ies from the outset. In order to be a bot tom-up sys tem, S.O.U.P. only f ixes the rules of the g a m e but then d o e s not control results. C O N T E N T A s Miche l Foucau l t put forward "Techno logy must be soc ia l before it is t echn ica l . " 5 The current set of too ls and information that regulates urban p lann ing fundamenta l ly has technica l and quantitative character ; S.O.U.P. p r o p o s e s techn iques that a l low urban des ign to be b a s e d on and affect the cultural l a n d s c a p e as wel l . In S.O.U.P quantity b e c o m e s quality. 4 M. Speaks, Design Intelligence: or Thinking After the end of the Metaphysics, AD, vol.72, n. 5 Sept/Oct 2002, p. 4-6. 5 M. Foucault, The order of Things: an Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Routledge, 1989, p, 82 14 OPERATIVE Des ign is not a representat ion of a priori concep ts . In order to be affective, these techn iques must d o away with representat ion. T o d o so , pr inc ip les c o m e to rep lace concep ts . The result is an operat ive sys tem. 3D The abstract f latness of the tradit ional urban p lanning b a s e d on zon ing is rep laced by a me thodo logy that s tud ies s p a c e in its full nature and complexi ty . By us ing C A D - s y s t e m s a tempora l d imens ion is in t roduced. The study of s p a c e involves the fourth d imens ion as wel l . RESPONSIVE With S.O.U.P. respons iveness rep laces flexibility. Whe reas flexibility often impl ies a gener ic condi t ion, a sort of imprec is ion , where mult iple p rograms c a n occur , respons iveness p r o p o s e s a ser ies of pr inc ip les to generate prec ise yet unforeseen results. A s Gi l les De leuze wrote in Difference and Repetition: "the undetermined is not a s imp le imperfect ion in our know ledge or a lack in the object: it is a perfectly posit ive, object ive structure wh ich acts as a focus or hor izon within pe rcep t ion . " 6 INTERDISCIPLINARY N e w results can only be attained if the research is b a s e d on different assumpt ions . Therefore, not only d o e s an interdiscipl inary a p p r o a c h connec t together the mult iple forces shap ing our ci t ies, but it a l so prov ides a d iverse scenar io to work with. S.O.U.P. is an I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y tool that co l locates itself at the threshold between urban p lann ing and architecture. Whe re the former bas ica l ly s h a p e s the city by means of indexes and height restrict ions the latter fundamenta l ly f ocuses on ob jects as wel l as acts within g iven territories. By co l laps ing these two distinct rea lms together we not only rejoin two aspec ts of cit ies mak ing that are artificially separa ted , but we a lso un leash the potential that these two d isc ip l ine have when c o m b i n e d . URBAN PROTOTYPING The prototype, the s imulat ion is the instrument by wh ich S.O.U.P. exper iments and ultimately innovates. The prototyping culture, as it has unfo lded in the Corpora te wor ld over the last d e c a d e , mater ia l izes p rob lems and other polit ical and strategic i ssues in order to constant ly formulate and then refine ques t ions . A s M ichea l S c h r a g e desc r i bes in Serious play: how the world's best companies simulate to innovate :" Proto types and s imulat ions can d o 6 G.Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990, p. 169. 15 more than answer quest ions ; they can a lso raise quest ions that had never been aske d before. P lay ing with a prototype can st imulate innovative quest ions as surely as it can sugges t innovative answers . There are pro found cultural di f ferences between organizat ions that bui ld prototypes primari ly to create quest ions and those that d o s o to answer quest ions . The ratio of ques t ions a s k e d to quest ions c reated s a y s a lot about the o rgan i za t i on ' s innovat ion cul ture." 7 FIELD The determinist ic a p p r o a c h of current urban p lanning is charac ter ized by a systemat ic tendency to go from many (i.e. many opt ions, many types of information, etc.) to one (i.e. one solut ion, one set of indexes and s o on). O n the contrary, f ields are often desc r i bed as dev ices t racing the oppos i te trajectory: they g o f rom one to many, form individual to col lect ive, f rom objects to f ie lds. 7 M. Schrage, Serious ploy: how the world's best companies simulate to innovate. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000, p.77. 16 C A S E STUDY: G R E A T N O R T H E R N WAY C A M P U S IN V A N C O U V E R . Al though the issue desc r i bed have a g loba l re levancy, a c a s e s tudy w a s s ing le out. The G N W (Great Northern W a y C a m p u s ) represents an un ique opportuni ty to test how an exper imenta l p lann ing tool can be app l ied to an exist ing cond i t ion . Many e lements make this part icular site a cha l leng ing one . First of al l , this a rea will w i tness the const ruct ion of an university c a m p u s where the four mayor a c a d e m i c institutions in Vancouve r will merge creat ing a hybr id b a s e d on e a c h institution's main strengths. Al l the bod ies involved are strongly commi t ted to generat ing a s p a c e for innovat ion and exchange . S e c o n d , the p rogrammat ic mix that will be h o u s e d will be m a d e up by: one third a c a d e m i c s p a c e s , a third by either private assoc ia t ions or private c o m p a n i e s a n d finally by residential s p a c e s to be leased or to house s tudents dormitor ies. The complex i ty of the organizat ion of the c a m p u s as wel l as the necess i ty to a c c o m m o d a t e funct ions that have different nature a s k s for a new a p p r o a c h that can e n h a n c e the newness of s u c h endeavour . Final ly, the recent history of this site, w h o s e strategic locat ion a l lows us to think of it as an urban p iece , has been marked by ser ies of fai lures. First the so -ca l l ed B u s b y P lan wh ich env is ioned to turn the who le a rea into a high-tech park and then the S c h r o e d e r site located next to the rai lway station w h o s e p lans for another high-tech park fai led to c o m e true. Both p lans were d o o m e d to be unsuccess fu l d u e to the stiff log ic wh ich insp i red their b luepr ints. However , any new proposi t ion for these a rea must be charac ter ized by a p p r o a c h e s that are respons ive and al low for c h a n g e s and implementat ion. Fig. 1.12- Diagram of the strategic relationship between the existing campuses and the GNW one. 17  CONTENT: WHAT P R O G R A M ANALYSIS: CLUSTERING In order to unders tand the p r o c e s s e s at work in the urban envi ronment we must study the c o m p o n e n t s and var iables avai lable first. In order words , the raw material represents the bas i c and still most powerful e lement to beg in to reshape the tradit ional p lanning p rocess . T o d o s o , the first s tep in the analys is of the p rogram is the search for poss ib le re lat ionships between a c a d e m i c s p a c e s and private sector ones . The methodo logy fo l lowed is b a s e d on what we cou ld cal l rat ional ization or maximizat ion of either exist ing or potential l inks a m o n g this ser ies of p rograms. Fig.2.1 - Diagram of the possible relationships among programs. 20 Then , all the p rograms are rearranged into a matrix wh ich carefully s tudies the relat ionships between each poss ib le assoc ia t ion . Th rough research , exist ing p lanning documen ts and interviews with the m e m b e r s of the consor t ium in cha rge of the construct ion of the c a m p u s this chart is qu ick ly fi l led out a l lowing a high deg ree of both part icipation and exper imentat ion by all the p layers. The result is e n c o d e d by three categor ies: a b s e n c e of relat ionship, exit ing connec t ion and potential l inkage. The a im of this matrix is to m a p both the current situation and the potential ly new one to be h o u s e d in the c a m p u s . This set of information is then u s e d to generate sets of c lusters. Fig.2.2- Matrix of possibilities. 21 By us ing this techn ique a mass ive number of examp les c a n be quick ly generated. E a c h cluster mixes two types of var iab les: first e a c h group is m a d e up by both exist ing relat ionships and potential ones to guarantee a degree of sustainabi l i ty to the s ing le cluster. S e c o n d , each combina t ion a lways interweaves private and a c a d e m i c funct ions. clusters: matrix of links LEGEND . . . . • ••clutter academic link » • » • • • • Private sector link indirect link feQd Hi Fig.2.3- Matrix of possibilities. 22 E a c h individual g roup can then be l inked to other c lusters in order to study hypothet ical pr inc ip les to organ ize the who le site. Every examp le is b a s e d on two var iables: first a quantitative specu la t ion that env is ions what factor cou ld lead the urbanizat ion of the area and then a quantitative project ion wh ich determines how the site cou ld organ ize to a c c o m m o d a t e the pattern of deve lopment . clusters: matrix of links 1. 5. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS design disciplines act as INITIATORS Afc*o to constrtirtn a dutfw themaerves. they are considered to be one ol the ptaus-ib* programs so atari the new campus. growrth is led Dy A CADEMIC inputs - pnvate sectors spaces are tailored ac cording To it. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Private sector • cluster academic link private sector link Fig.2.4- Matrix of links. 23 TECHNIQUE: HOW S.O.U.P.: the process This chapter tack les the actual explanat ion of the p lann ing techn ique d i s c u s s e d in this thes is . The cons t ruc ted tool object of this research is ca l led S . O . U . P . . Here, we will d i s c u s s its character is t ics, pr inc ip les, advan tages , d rawbacks a n d poss ib le implementat ions. The first s tep to beg in this p lanning p rocess is the des ign of the infoscapes. T h e s e are virtual l a n d s c a p e s of information, a way to material ize s o m e of the immaterial fo rces shap ing this a rea (potentially any area). T h e s e initial infoscapes map out the exist ing e lements either sur round ing or intersect ing the site. However , s o m e these c o m p o n e n t s cannot be represented as uniform f ields act ing onto the area. M a n m a d e artefacts s u c h as main roads , skytrain l ines, railway stat ions and v iew corr idors have a linear or isolated character that is better represented by different geometr ica l dev ices s u c h as l ines or dots . Never the less, these are then turned into infoscapes by m e a n s of compu te r -mode led sur faces that register their posi t ion and poss ib le p e a k s of densi ty in their use . By us ing either p lann ing documen ts , interviews or s imple specu la t ions , it is poss ib le to des ign several conf igurat ions for this first set of maps . For instance, the two scenar ios p ictured in the X X X are b a s e d on the p lanned expans ion of the skytrain line from B roadway Stat ion to the International Airport. It is known that this line will serve the F inn ing Si te as wel l , however how this will exact ly h a p p e n is still to be d i s c u s s e d and thus o p e n for propos i t ions. H e n c e , two different so lu t ions: one in wh ich the new skytrain extension will run paral lel to the Great Northern W a y (main traffic a c c e s s to the site) and a s e c o n d one where the new line will cut ac ross the site with a s top right in the midd le of the new c a m p u s . At the end of this first sec t ion two main infoscapes character ize e a c h scenar io : one for the infrastructural layout of the a rea and a s e c o n d for the posi t ion and re levance of v iew corr idors. Onto this first layer of information sits a s e c o n d set of infoscapes that speci f ica l ly relate to the p rogram to be h o u s e d on the site is laid out. A g a i n , by interview s o m e of the peop le involved in the p lann ing p rocess of the area , three main funct ions are s ing led out. T h e s e are: a c a d e m i c institutions, private sector s p a c e s and finally residential a reas . A s for the previous infojscapes, these are too compu te r -mode led sur faces w h o s e va lues a long the z-axis proport ional ly represent their impor tance ac ross the entire site. S i n c e these c o m p o n e n t s are to be d e s i g n e d , no a-priori constra in is set. Therefore, any pe rson involved in the p lann ing p rocess or any ci t izen affected by the new deve lopment can interact with this tool and have a say about the area . Loca l g roups , university depar tments, 25 investors from the private sector , etc. c a n des ign each of these three l andscapes and make pub l ic their v is ions. By means of computer -genera ted animat ions is then poss ib le to v isual ize these "v is ions" either as who le through cont inuous sur faces or as s ingular e lements through sets of curves represent ing sect ions cut at spec i f ic points in the animat ion. Th rough this "what if" ser ies of scenar ios an eno rmous number of p rec ise and yet informed c a m p u s e s c a n be quick ly genera ted . But first we need to take a s tep backward to study what pr inc ip les suppor t this methodo logy . 2 6 RESPONSIVENESS In this p rocess respons iveness rep laces what tradit ionally is unders tood as flexibility. In fact, where flexibility asks for a gener ic condi t ion to be operat ive, respons iveness requires a higher deg ree of prec is ion to be adaptab le (as prev iously desc r i bed in the explanat ion of the concep t of Integrated Difference). C O N T I N U I T Y This pr inc ip les desc r i bes how the methodo logy es tab l ishes a link between the site and the exist ing condi t ions sur round ing the area of intervention. At this s tage, both phys ica l or v is ible e lements present in the a rea and invisible forces are m a d e evident by this d iagrammat ic app roach . Exist ing or p lanned p ieces of infrastructure, v iew corr idors (establ ished by the current p lanning document ) , and main funct ions a round the future c a m p u s are ana lyzed in a straightforward way. Fig.3.2- Continuity diagram. 27 INTENSITY The infoscapes previously d i s c u s s e d are all b a s e d on the criteria that each force is registered by the d iagram by increas ing the z-value of the curves . Intensity is the pr inciple that e n c o d e s these exist ing forces into the info_scapes. SETS OF CURVES -——! 100 intensity 1. Except ional ly great concent ra t ion , power, or force . 2. Physics. T h e a m o u n t or d e g r e e of strength of electricity, light, heat, or s o u n d per unit a rea or vo lume . 3. T h e strength of a color, espec ia l ly the d e g r e e to wh ich it lacks its c o m p l e m e n t a r y color. Fig.3.3- Intensity diagram. 2 8 R H Y T H M Rhythm has to d o with rigor. This pr inciple ensures a direct proport ion between forces and d iagrammat ic representat ion. In other words , s a m e inputs generates equal outputs. Fig.3.4- Rhythm diagram. 29 C O M P L E M E N T A R Y This rule beg ins to set the cond i t ions to turn quantity in quality. E a c h of the three layers can be contro l led and thus its final aspec t can be pred ic ted. However , by introducing this spec i f ic pr incip le, all the layers are s u p e r i m p o s e d with the c o n s e q u e n c e that is no longer poss ib le to g u e s s the final conf igurat ion. By adopt ing a s imp le rule an eno rmous ser ies of so lut ions is c reated. a c a d e m i c s c a p e p r i v a t e - s e c t o r _ s c a p e DEFINITION complementarity 1 . F o r m i n g o r s e r v i n g a s a c o m p l e m e n t ; c o m p l e t i n g . 2. S u p p l y i n g m u t u a l n e e d s o r o f f s e t t i n g m u t u a l l a c k s . 3 . G e n e t i c s . O f o r r e l a t i n g t o a g r o u p o f g e n e s tha t a c t in c o n c e r t t o p r o d u c e a s p e c i f i c p h e n o t v p e r e s i d e n t i a l _ s c a p e Fig. 3.5- Complementarity diagram. 30 E N C O D I N G P R I N C I P L E S A s e c o n d ser ies of pr inc ip les is then in t roduced in order to extract information from the info_scapes. The invention of this s e c o n d set fully tack le the p rob lem of generat ing quality out of quantity. S o far, this me thodo logy has been look ing for ways to measure and map quantitative p h e n o m e n a present in a spec i f i c area, f rom now on the cha l lenge is to p roduce qualitative inputs with wh ich actual ly des ign the new c a m p u s . T h e s e pr inc ip les desc r ibe spat ial qual i t ies not formal out l ines the c a n be t raced. In fact, this thesis doesn ' t endo rse the not ion of d iagram as a metaphys ica l dev ice w h o s e o u t c o m e s have value in themse lves and thus can' t be ques t ioned . Here , d iagrams are used to refine i ssues and address the d i s cuss i on toward the right p rob lem or quest ion. Excep t for the 'zero pr inc ip le ' , all the rules are b a s e d on the comp lementa ry pr incip le; It is not poss ib le to extract any information from the d iag rams un less at least 2 curves are cons ide red . The only pr inciple that requires further explanat ion is the no ise one wh ich will be the object of the next paragraph . zero definition If a layer constantly has the lowest Y-value throughout the whole section, that particular program will not appear in the architectural transposition. territoriality definition Butterfly-etfect that clearly separated two layers and thus two territories. vertical permeability definition Overflow-effect that suggests a potential permeabil i ty between two layers and thus two programs. pinched/smooth The layer that after the pinch that has the greater Y-value is ca l led smooth (and thus programmatically continues on), while the other is pinched (and creates a territoriality). noise definition Perfect adherence between two or more layers. This condition requires an interlocking solution explored through architectural prototypes based on programmatic inputs. Fig.3.6-Diagram of the second set of rules to encode info_scapes. 3 1 NOISE Wherever two or more curves intersect each other numerous t imes within a s ing le sect ion we use this pr incip le in order to e n c o d e what wou ld otherwise be a chaot ic situation. What is interesting to not ice is that no ise areas appear as vo ids in these m a p s . They represent part icular interactions between the p rograms and , in this s e n s e , they a lso remind of the i dea of p rog rams as be ing o rgan ized a round c lusters. The only way to e n c o d e a 'no ise ' knot is by des ign a tai lored solut ion for that spec i f ic point only. Red channel. Fig.3.7- The Noise principle. 32 SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION O n e the pr inc ip les are in p lace it is poss ib le to app ly them to the who le of the scenar ios genera ted . The exerc ise is relatively s imp le : each set of curve is separate ly ana lyzed by app ly ing to it the a l ready d e c i d e d rules a n d a ser ies of quantitative inputs is quick ly ready to be t ransposed into an architectural propos i t ion. By m e a n s of intuition, the fo l lowing step tries to envis ion what kind of s h a p e or rough mass ing cou ld e m b o d y those initial inputs. At this s tage this is only a g u e s s of what archi tecture c a n per form. On ly by go ing through a ser ies of variat ions can quality further be injected into the architectural sec t ions . 100 095 Fig.3.9-An example of a transposition form curves to architectural section. 33 SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION: scenario A Fig.3.10-Scenario A: The whole set of both transpositions and variations. 34 SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION: scenario B Fig.3.11 -Scenario B: The whole set of both transpositions and variations. 35 The two different scenar ios were a lso s h a p e d after the local condi t ions sur round ing the site. Part icularly, Scena r i o A dealt with the skytrain line running a long Great Northern W a y by creat ing a linear structure wh ich co inc ides with the denses t a rea in the new p lan, whereas scenar io B was b a s e d on a more introverted s c h e m e that took advantage of the central posi t ion that the skytrain station wou ld have in this hypothes is . The final result of this spec i f ic p roposa l is a m u c h more horizontal layout, a s c h e m e that exp lores a landscape- l i ke c a m p u s . Fig. 3.12-Scenario A and B: views from Great Northern Way. 36 Fig. 3.13-Scenario A and B: views from inside the campus itself. 38 N O I S E Final ly, a ser ies of prototypes w a s s tud ied to ana lyse what type of app roach cou ld be taken when no ise wou ld sur face in the infojscapes. E a c h no ise is uniquely interpreted acco rd ing to locat ion and the cluster of p rog rams that c o m p o s e that part icular point of the c a m p u s . Fig.3.16-Noise: housing + community centre. 39  Fig.3.20- Transversal Section through the Campus. Fig.3.21- Transversal Section through the Campus. 4 1 CONCLUSION The aim of this thes is was to examine why and how issues of complex i ty , s p e e d and uncertainty are g lobal ly increas ing and b e c o m i n g more and more relevant to the architecture f ield. T h e s e ques t ions are not only cha l leng ing the impor tance of urban des ign , but they are a lso p ropos ing new p rob lems and potential ly new so lut ions for architects. The critical know ledge ga ined by go ing through this exerc ise sugges ts that answers to all these themes only lies in p roposa ls that are charac ter ized by innovative, interdiscipl inary, methodo log ica l and o p e n app roaches that no longer art iculate the debate a round forms or sty les but rather a round quest ions and ideas. Fig.3.22- Montage. 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY: ARTICLES IN MAGAZINES: Allen, Stan. "Diagrams matter" in Any n.23, December 1998, p.16-9. Beers, Daniel. "Curbing 'slurban' sprawl" The Vancouver Sun , 8 June 2001. Sec. B. Boschetti, Andrea. "Darsi alia Macchia". Arch'it [journal on-line]; available from http://www.architettura.it; Internet; accessed 27 October 2001. Branzi, Andrea, and Stefano Boeri. "Unpredictable City Planning" in Lotus n.107, December 2000, p.109-131. 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