UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

S.o.u.p. : sustainable operative urban principles Bottazzi, Roberto 2004

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
ubc_2004-0337.pdf [ 11.01MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0091624.json
JSON-LD: 1.0091624+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0091624.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0091624+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0091624+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0091624+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0091624 +original-record.json
Full Text
1.0091624.txt
Citation
1.0091624.ris

Full Text

S.O.U.P. - Sustainable Operative Urban Principles by  R O B E R T O BOTTAZZI Laurea in Architecture, University of Florence, 1999  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTNS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER O F A D V A N C E D STUDIES IN A R C H I T E C T U R E in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Architecture  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 2004 © Roberto Bottazzi, 2004  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Jo/05/ 2oo4 Name of Author (please print)  Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  Title of Thesis:  S.O^).P-  €>u_,-L_i triable.  Opgrv^wg, Urban  M * 6 T e f f or Ar>/Ar4cef3 S T V D I S S Degree: tsl A f l g t i i r g g - r u f f e L  Y  e  a  Department of <^^ A RCrfiTgcruffE. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada 00  L  o  F  r  Principle*,  2co4  ABSTRACT  W o r l d p o p u l a t i o n is d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g . M a n y cities a r o u n d the w o r l d will r e a c h a critical m a s s that will turn t h e m into m e t r o p o l i s . M o r e o v e r , recent a n a l y s i s o n C a l i f o r n i a d e m o g r a p h i c trend h a s s h o w n that that region is e x p e c t e d to g r o w b y 12 millions o v e r the next 2 0 y e a r s . A l t h o u g h C a l i f o r n i a will b e the fastest g r o w i n g a r e a in the U . S . , a l m o s t a n y r e g i o n in North  America  is  expected  to  follow  a  similar  pattern.  Nonetheless,  infillings  and  r e d e v e l o p m e n t s will c o v e r just the 3 0 % of that h o u s i n g r e q u e s t , w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g 7 0 % will require the c r e a t i o n of n e w s e t t l e m e n t s . T h e i d e a of u r b a n i s i n g u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d is not b a s e d 1  o n o p i n i o n s but n e c e s s i t i e s .  At the same time, issues of globalization, distribution network, etc.  are  redefining economically and socially the concept of city in the late-capitalist market. In spite of these tendencies which could best be described as unpredictable and highly dynamic, architecture and urban planning alike continue to adopt models that ignore these mutations. History, identity and local culture are the misunderstood  principles  inspiring projects whose coherence exists only on paper. In fact, these blueprints often clash with actual issues of speed, demographic change and market forces resulting in either nostalgic or megalomaniac proposals. S.O.U.P., the p r o d u c t of this r e s e a r c h , is a n interdisciplinary tool to d e s i g n in s u c h c o n d i t i o n s of in e x t r e m e speed a n d uncertainty. It c o n s i s t s in a redefinition of the traditional u r b a n p l a n n e r ' s t o o l b o x t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of d i a g r a m s a n d m e t h o d s that a i m to o b t a i n a d y n a m i c , r e s p o n s i v e a n d ultimately s u s t a i n a b l e notion of u r b a n p l a n . T o d o s o the r e s e a r c h is b a s e d o n the a s s u m p t i o n that o n l y b y shifting f r o m a p r o b l e m - d r i v e n attitude to a p r o b l e m driven a p p r o a c h will u r b a n p l a n n i n g regain its e x p e r i m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r a n d t h u s b e a b l e to m e a n i n g f u l l y participate to the c i t y - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h the c o n d i t i o n s just d e s c r i b e d c a n b e t r a c e d in m a n y c o n t e x t s , a site in V a n c o u v e r w a s s i n g l e d out. In fact, the former F i n n i n g site, s o o n to b e d e v e l o p e d b y the four m a i n a c a d e m i c institutions in V a n c o u v e r ( U B C , S F U , B C I T a n d E C I A D ) , r e p r e s e n t s a perfect testing g r o u n d s i n c e it is c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y s e v e r a l of the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d .  Peter, Calthorpe. "The Urban Network: A Radical Proposal". A P A - American Planning Associacion Qournal on-line); available from http://www.planning.org; Internet; accessed 6 June 2002.  1  ii  Under s u c h conditions two  main paradigms must  be dismissed. The disastrous  t e n d e n c y that u r b a n p l a n n i n g h a s to g o from many to one m u s t b e r e p l a c e d b y a s y s t e m that will k e e p opportunities o p e n , a field c o n d i t i o n w h i c h will g o from many to many. T h i s particular shift c a n only o c c u r if s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w e m o v e f r o m a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g attitude to a p r o b l e m driven a p p r o a c h without limiting the o u t c o m e of the r e s e a r c h . Therefore, S . O . U . P . is not a n a l g o r i t h m to m e c h a n i c a l l y p r o d u c e C a m p u s e s , it is rather b o t h a m e d i a t o r a n d a facilitator to s y s t e m a t i z e a n d refine q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d e s i g n of a C a m p u s . P e r h a p s , a v i a b l e approach  might  be  one where  responsiveness replaces determinism  and  control  and  o p e n e n d n e s s c o m e to coexist. T h e r e f o r e , S . O . U . P . c a n b e d e f i n e d a s a s y s t e m b a s e d o n r i g o r o u s rules that g i v e s rise to u n p r e d i c t a b l e results, a s y s t e m that in short time c a n react to a n d s h a p e the traditional d e b a t e o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of a n u r b a n d e s i g n .  iii  TABLE OF CONTENT  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENT LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDMENTS  INTRODUCTION: WHY  ii iv v vii  1  Integrated Difference  12  Comparative study: S.O.U.P. vs. traditional planning  13  Case Study: Great Northern Way in Vancouver  17  CONTENT: WHAT Program Analysis: Clustering  TECHNIQUE: HOW  19 20  24  S.O.U.P.-The process  25  Responsiveness  27  Sectional Transposition  33  Conclusion  42  BIBLIOGRAPHY  43  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1.1 - Population trends in the major metropolitan centres in the world  2  Figure 1.2 - The implosion of the Aladin Resort in Las Vegas  3  Figure 1.3- Renzo Piano. Masterplan for Potzdamer Platz, Berlin, 1996  3  Figure 1.4-J. Jerde, Freemont Experience, Las Vegas, USA, 1995  4  Figure 1.5-On the left: map of the server computers in the United States. Source:  6  Mutation. On the right: OMA, Euralille, Lille, France, 1996 Figure 1.6 - Products available at New Covent Garden Market on 7 March 2000. Source: Alex Stetter, "Goods", in Breathing Cities (London:  7  August),2000  Figure 1.7 - Map of the cluster organization in the Greater Vancouver  9  Figure 1.8- Chart showing the relationship between freight and GDP growth  10  Figure 1.9- Map of the existing relationships between UBC and other postsecondary institutions in the world  11  Figure 1.10 - Diagrams describing the three paradigms of the 20 -Century city planning Figure 1.11 - Comparative study between S.O.U.P. and traditional urban planning  12  Figure 1.12- Diagram of the strategic relationship between the existing campuses and the GNW one  17  Figure 1.13 - View of the site  18  Figure 1.14- View of the site  18  Figure 2.1 - Diagram of the possible relationships among programs  20  Figure 2.2 - Matrix of possibilities  21  Figure 2.3 - Matrix of possibilities  22  Figure 2.4 - Matrix of links  23  Figure 3.1 - Diagram to generate infoscapes  26  Figure 3.2 - Continuity diagram  27  Figure 3.3 - Intensity diagram  28  th  13  v  Figure 3.4 - Rhythm diagram  29  Figure 3.5 - Compementarity diagram  30  Figure 3.6 - Diagram of the second set of rules to encode info scapes  31  Figure 3.7 - The Noise principle  32  Figure 3.9-An  33  example of a transposition form curves to architectural section  Figure 3.10- Scenario A: The whole set of both transpositions and variations  34  Figure 3.11 -Scenario B: The whole set of both transpositions and variations  35  Figure 3.12 -Scenario A and B: views from Great Northern Way  36  Figure 3.13 -Scenario A and B: views from inside the campus itself  37  Figure 3.14 -Scenario A and B: aerial views  38  Figure 3.15 -Scenario A and B: views from existing rail yards  38  Figure 3.16 -Noise: housing + community centre  39  Figure 3.17 -Noise: academic space + laboratories  40  Figure 3.18 -Noise: Conference centre  40  Figure 3.20 -Transversal Section through the Campus  41  Figure 3.21 -Transversal Section through the Campus  41  Figure 3.22 - Montage  42  vi  ACKNOWLEDMENTS  T h i s t h e s i s w o u l d not b e c a r r i e d out without the h e l p a n d participation of a very s p e c i a l g r o u p of p e o p l e . First, J o h n B a s s w h o , a s a m e m b e r of the t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , p r o v i d e d c o n s t a n t a n d very v a l u a b l e c o m m e n t s w h i c h s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d both the a r g u m e n t a n d the o u t c o m e of t h e research. Particularly, I w o u l d like to t h a n k Oliver L a n g for his c o n t i n u o u s a n d o u t s t a n d i n g  support  t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e p r o g r a m . H e not o n l y t a u g h t m e h o w architecture c a n e m b o d y a n d p o s s i b l y e n h a n c e cultural p r a c t i c e , but he a l s o e x p l a i n e d m e w h a t r e s e a r c h i n g m e a n s in our field  by  letting m e  e x p l o r e , attempt a n d s o m e t i m e fail. H i s l e s s o n h a s certainly  been  invaluable.  M o s t importantly, I w o u l d like to t h a n k S t e f a n i a , m y wife, for her i m m e n s e h e l p . T h e o u t c o m e of the t h e s i s w a s very m u c h b a s e d o n the daily d i s c u s s i o n s w e h a d a b o u t architecture a n d its link to every facet of life. S h e s u p p o r t e d m e w h e n I w a s d o w n ; s h e s h a r e d with m e the moments  of  excitement  after  any  major  achievement  and  provided  me  with  constant  c h a l l e n g e s to a n y i d e a I c a m e u p with. S h e taught m e that " n o n hai d a t o tutto s e n o n hai d a t o a n c o r " (if y o u haven't given it y o u r all, y o u haven't g i v e n e n o u g h ) . Finally, I w o u l d like to t h a n k a n y p r o f e s s o r , staff m e m b e r a n d s t u d e n t that w a s in a n y w a y i n v o l v e d in this r e s e a r c h .  Vll  INTRODUCTION: WHY  World population is dramatically increasing. Many cities around the world will reach a critical mass that will turn them into metropolis, among them there is Vancouver that has been expanding at the average 7% growth-rate  per year.  Moreover, recent analysis on California demographic trend has shown that that region is expected to grow by 12 millions over the next 20 years. Although California will be the fastest growing area in the U.S., almost any region in North America is expected to follow a similar pattern. Nonetheless, infillings and redevelopments will cover just the 30% of that housing request, while the remaining 70% will require the creation of new settlements. The idea of urbanising undeveloped land is not based on opinions but 1  rather on necessities.  The demographic explosion 1975  30 25  20  15  10  il  il B  l i l l i i 5 £1  c o M c s s m m• s = o  i  »Hi i i i H i i so i i f <0  U  N  Q  to —  ~  C  —  to c  .O  i f i J=  E  2  Source: Global Urban Observatory  Fig. 1.1 - Population trends in the major metropolitan centres in the world.  ' Peter, Calthorpe. "The Urban Network: A Radical Proposal". APA - American Planning [journal on-line]; available from http://vvww.planning.org; Internet; accessed 6 June 2002.  Associacion 2  It is b y n o w c l e a r that g l o b a l f o r c e s are r e s h a p i n g both the notion of u r b a n s p a c e a n d its future i m p o r t a n c e . In recent y e a r s w e have s e e n a s e r i e s of p r o p o s i t i o n s that a t t e m p t e d to resuscitate d e v e l o p m e n t a l m o d e l s that b e l o n g e d to a r e m o t e past. F o r e x a m p l e ' s , R e n z o P i a n o ' s p l a n for P o t z d a m e r P l a z in Berlin w a s i n s p i r e d b y the o l d 1 9  th  century h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t .  By  a n c h o r i n g his p r o p o s a l to a formal d e v i c e extracted b y history, P i a n o ' s p l a n m i s s e s to both c a p t u r e a n d e n h a n c e the c h a r a c t e r of the c o n t e m p o r a r y life in Berlin. O n the other h a n d , the blast of the A l a d i n in L a s V e g a s m a r k e d the 7 8 y e a r s that w a s t r a n s f o r m e d  th  resort in the last  into r u b b l e . T h e strategy for reconfiguring the city is quite  straightforward in its r a d i c a l i s m : w h a t is o b s o l e t e is literally torn d o w n to m a k e r o o m for a n e w state-of-art resort. In spite of this d a t a , architecture a n d u r b a n p l a n n i n g k e e p a d o p t i n g m o d e l s that i g n o r e t h e s e c h a n g e s . History, identity, l o c a l cultures are the p r i n c i p l e s inspiring projects  whose  c o h e r e n c e exists o n l y o n p a p e r . In fact, t h e s e o u t c o m e s often c l a s h with i s s u e s of s p e e d , d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e , market f o r c e s resulting in either n o s t a l g i c or m e g a l o m a n i a c p r o p o s a l s .  Fig. 1.2 - The implosion of the Aladin Resort in Las Vegas.  Fig. 1.3- Renzo Piano. Masterplan  for Potzdamer Platz, Berlin, 1996.  3  O n t h e other h a n d , a n alternative t y p e of u r b a n s p a c e h a s b e e n s u r f a c i n g a s well. This is a s p a c e in w h i c h s e v e r a l e v e n t s c a n c o e x i s t d e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s . T h e interest of projects s u c h a s J o n J e r d e ' s F r e e m o n t E x p e r i e n c e in L a s V e g a s (fig.4) d o e s not rely in t h e b e a u t y of t h e p i e c e of architecture itself, that is to s a y that the different b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r r i n g u n d e r o n e g i g a n t i c roof c a n n o t b e g r a s p e d c o m p l e t e l y b y a n a n a l y s i s of t h e p h y s i c a l qualities of t h e s p a c e only. C h a r a c t e r i z e d a s s u c h , u r b a n d e s i g n h a s m o r e to d o with the notion of a n d ultimately  organization  infrastructure rather than q u e s t i o n s of style or tradition.  Fig. 1.4-J. Jerde, Freemont Experience, Las Vegas, USA, 1995.  4  H o w e v e r , what is infrastructure a n d h o w h a s it c h a n g e d o v e r the past 3 0 y e a r s ? S a n f o r d Kwinter d e s c r i b e s it a s the very D N A of cities: " b y infrastructure o n e refers to every a s p e c t of the t e c h n o l o g y of the rational administration that routines, life, a c t i o n a n d property within larger (ultimately global) o r g a n i z a t i o n s . "  2  A t the s a m e time, he o l d p a r a d i g m of infrastructures laid out a c c o r d i n g to b a s i c g e o m e t r i c p r i n c i p l e s s u c h a s g r i d s - a s in the c a s e of the A m e r i c a n p o w e r s y s t e m or L a n d O r d i n a n c e A c t of 1785 in w h i c h the A m e r i c a n s laid a grid o n t o the w h o l e c o u n t r y  from  P e n n s y l v a n i a to C a l i f o r n i a - h a s e v o l v e d t o w a r d s m u c h m o r e c o m p l e x infrastructural s y s t e m s . In this m a p of the c o m p u t e r s e r v e r s in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w e c a n o b s e r v e a p h e n o m e n o n that w e c a n call decentralization.  With the a d v e n t of the e l e c t r o n i c c o m m e r c e , for e x a m p l e , it is  p o s s i b l e to b a n k b y c o m p u t e r , trade s t o c k s v i a Internet a n d s o o n . T h i s h a s resulted b o t h in i n c r e a s e d mobility a n d c h a n g e d c o n c e p t of s p a c e w h i c h h a s blurred the b o u n d a r i e s of the city. T h e n e w k i n d of city is n o l o n g e r fixed, but is b e c o m i n g m o r e fluid a n d m o s t importantly c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e b a s e d o n c l u s t e r i n g g r o u p s of e l e m e n t s rather t h e n s p r e a d i n g t h e m out evenly. In t h e m a p d e s i g n e d b y O M A in 1 9 9 6 for the m a s t e r p l a n of a n e w transportation h u b in Lille, F r a n c e (fig.5), it is p o s s i b l e to e v a l u a t e the political c o n s e q u e n c e s that a n e w t y p e of o r g a n i z a t i o n g i v e s rise to. This d i a g r a m illustrates the d i s t a n c e in time b e t w e e n the F r e n c h city a n d the rest of E u r o p e . T w o m a i n e l e m e n t s s i g n a l s a radical shift in the evolution of this l a n d s c a p e : first, n o difference exists b e t w e e n l a n d a n d s e a in t e r m s of m e a n s of transportation, s e c o n d , it e m e r g e s a different outline of E u r o p e , o n e that potentially c l a s h e s with the official limits of the continent. H o w e v e r , what d o e s cluster really m e a n a n d w h a t i n s t a n c e s c a n b e b r o u g h t up to exemplify it.  2  Sandford Kwinter a n d others, eds„ MUTATIONS. (Bordeaux : ACTAR, 2000), 495. 5  Fig. 1.5 - On the left: map of the server computers in the United States. Source: Mutation. On the right: OMA, Euralille, Lille, France, 1996. Source:  S,M,L,X-L.  6  T h e fruit network w h i c h daily distributes f o o d all o v e r t h e w o r l d r e p r e s e n t s a g o o d e x a m p l e of t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d p r e c i s i o n of current infrastructures. O n a g l o b a l s c a l e w e c a n notice that a v a s t network exists t o f e e d cities; to g r o w , distribute a n d deliver f o o d that p e o p l e c a n n o t g r o w their o w n . E v e r y s t e p in this j o u r n e y involves a different f o r m of transport,  a new  layer of p a c k a g i n g or type of c o n t a i n e r , a n o t h e r p l a c e w h e r e t h e g o o d s c a n b e c h i l l e d , s t o r e d , p a c k e d a n d eventually s e n t off a g a i n t o t h e next station. P r i c e s a r e n e g o t i a t e d , a s s e s s e d , o r d e r s a r e p l a c e d a n d deliveries a n d m a d e . T h i s intricate network  is not c o n t r o l l e d b y  g o v e r n m e n t s or official b o d i e s , but is m a d e u p of m a n y private b u s i n e s s e s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s . If the network c a m e c r a s h i n g d o w n , t h e w o r l d ' s major cities w o u l d find t h e m s e l v e s short of f o o d within a matter of d a y s . A g a i n , this s y s t e m is not b a s e d o n a linear grid but rather c l u s t e r s .  AUBERGINE BELL PEPPERS  •3  *• 1  •••  ;  ••YELLOW TOMATOES  CAUUFLDWEP • • MINIATURE ENDIVE _f • • MINIATURE CABBAGES • • COURGETTE FLOWERS • • BABY FENNEL RASPBERRIES RASPBERRIES STRAWBERRIES GREEN PEPPtRS ASPARAGUS COS LETTUCE TOMATOES CUCUMBERS SEVIILE ORANGES CUSTARD APPLES tCEBERG LETTUCE jfWffl ASPAflUGUS  I •  RED DELICIOUS APPLE:  iSWFFI PTlTATO  * # #  • £  #  1  A  T  LEMONS E  E  -  •GRAPFRUI  AVOCADO  •RUB* RFD GPAPFFRUIT  BLACKBERRIES • CANTALOPE MELON PINEAPPLE • BANANAS  ORANGES RHUBARB  •SUN BURET ORANGE PHYSALIS BAYLFAVC! • •BANANAS  PINEAPPLE* • PINEAPPLE  •FINE GREEN BEANS  SAtIA Mf.LON •  • •PLUMS •  • C A C T U S PE AH  RED GRAPES BUTTERNUT SQUASH  Fig.1.6 - Products  available at New Covent Garden Market on 7 March 2000. Source: Alex Stetter,  "Goods", in Breathing Cities (London:  August),2000.  7  E v e n by shifting f r o m a g l o b a l a n a l y s i s to a local c o n d i t i o n , w e c a n o b s e r v e the r e o c c u r r e n c e of similar o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t y p e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , c l u s t e r s are still p r e s e n t a s m a i n e c o n o m i c strategies both in the g l o b a l a n d l o c a l b u s i n e s s . M a n y industries h a v e b e e n f o r c e d to c o n s t r u c t a l l i a n c e s in o r d e r to k e e p u p with the v a n i s h i n g of b o r d e r s a n d the c o n s e q u e n t l y r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l e c o n o m i e s . T h e s e p a r t n e r s h i p s o p e r a t e in a c o m p l e x w a y . C l u s t e r i n g a c t s u p o n the r e g i o n a l configuration of the territory. A l t h o u g h t r e g i o n a l i s m h a s often b e e n a s s o c i a t e d with a c o n s e r v a t i v e politic , in this c a s e it rather r e s p o n d s to the i n c r e a s e d d e m a n d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n that g l o b a l m a r k e t s are p a r a d o x i c a l l y requiring. W h a t e m e r g e s is a n e w definition of r e g i o n a l i s m that n o l o n g e r m e a n s p r o t e c t i o n i s m but rather difference a n d d i a l o g u e a m o n g different a g e n t s . M o r e o v e r the spatial layout of cities reiterates the i d e a that d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n h a s b e e n r e p l a c i n g c o m p a c t n e s s of the prototypical E u r o p e a n city. F o r e x a m p l e , the infrastructure that delivers fruit in V a n c o u v e r is strategically l o c a t e d at a n y intersection b e t w e e n h e t e r o g e n e o u s s y s t e m s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . B o r d e r s , international airports, d o c k s for s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s are the n o d a l p o i n t s that materialize g l o b a l i z a t i o n a s a carefully p l a n n e d discontinuity  in the  l a n d s c a p e . T h i s g i v e s rise to a c o e x i s t e n c e a m o n g e l e m e n t s that d i a l o g u e with c o m p l e t e l y different s c a l e s . T h e traditional increasingly  bigger  i d e a of s c a l e w h i c h p r o g r e s s e s f r o m the s m a l l e r to  is s u b s t i t u t e d  by  one  characterized  by  constant  jumps,  shift  the and  discontinuities b e t w e e n l o c a l a n d g l o b a l c o m p o n e n t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , d u e to p e r i s h a b l e nature of the c o m m o d i t y , this b u s i n e s s heavily relies o n Air C a r g o . T h e r e f o r e , different e c o n o m i e s of s c a l e are j u x t a p o s e d : o n the o n e s i d e , the l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c o n s t i t u t e d b y s m a l l s h o p s a n d , o n the other, F e d E x with 1 4 6 , 0 0 0 e m p l o y s , 3,2 million p a r c e l s d e l i v e r e d daily a n d the s e c o n d largest fleet in the w o r l d .  8  9  F o o d a n d p e r i s h a b l e s u p p l i e s in g e n e r a l , c o m p u t e r c o m p o n e n t s a n d car industry are s o m e of the s e c t o r s that s h a r e d e p e n d e n c y o n just-in-time delivery s y s t e m s . T h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e s e s y s t e m s is s o c r u c i a l that they are utilized to evaluate c o u n t r i e s ' e c o n o m y . It i m m e d i a t e l y a p p e a r s that a b a s i c s y s t e m for delivering g o o d s h a s m u c h m o r e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a n s u p p o s e d . T h i s , a l o n g with others factors, is o n e of the n o d a l points in w h i c h  a  t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v i c e i n t e r w e a v e s e c o n o m y a n d politic. T r e a t i e s , p r o t o c o l s , l o c a l conflicts, n e w railway c o n s t r u c t i o n s , r e g i o n a l d o w n t u r n s b e c o m e all part of a larger network. A l t h o u g h t h e s e p h e n o m e n a o c c u r in a r e a s far apart f r o m e a c h other, they p r o d u c e effects that influence l o c a l territories in the m o s t u n p r e d i c t a b l e a n d s u r p r i s i n g m a n n e r .  world GDP growth and scheduled freight growth  '?  ' 1 9 9 0 1 9 9 2 1 9 9 4 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 8 2 0 0 0 __•  world freight growth  — — world GDP growth  Fig. 1.8- Chart showing the relationship between freight and GDP growth. Source: IATA - International Air Transportation  Association.  10  T h e s a m e k i n d of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s c a n b e s e e n w h e n w e shift from e c o n o m i c a l s y s t e m s to  other t y p e s  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  purely  F o r i n s t a n c e , the c o m p l e x set  of  relationship that universities h a v e d e e p l y r e s e m b l e s the notion of cluster p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . U B C entertains cultural a n d a c a d e m i c e x c h a n g e s with 2 3 4 other p o s t - s e c o n d a r y institutions s c a t t e r e d all over the w o r l d .  I  ; Univ. per region  Fig. 1.9 - Map of the existing relationships  between  UBC and other post-secondary  institutions in the  world. Source: UBC web-site.  I I  INTEGRATED DIFFERENCE T h e definition of infrastructure o u t l i n e d s o far is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s e r i e s of d e t e r m i n e d elements:  it  is dynamic,  complex,  adaptive  a n d precise  in the  sense  that  generates  i n d e t e r m i n a c y out of m o r e s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s . T h r e e m o d e l s w e r e s i n g l e d out to clarify the implication that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v i c e s h a s b e e n h a v i n g in the architectural d e b a t e . First, the m o d e l l a b e l l e d Determined b a s e d o n m e r e l y quantitative a n a l y s i s , then the Generic Multifunctional  Functional  m o d e l b a s e d o n the  i d e a that flexibility c a n o n l y b e a c h i e v e d b y d e c r e a s i n g the d e g r e e of p r e c i s i o n of s y s t e m . Finally, the p r o p o s e d m o d e l c a l l e d - Integrated  Difference  - w h i c h a i m s to r e p r e s e n t a  different p a r a d i g m for o r g a n i z a t i o n s . It is a s y s t e m that c o m p i l e s together s e v e r a l layers of information without l o s i n g specificity, it g e n e r a t e s i n d e t e r m i n a c y is not out of i m p r e c i s i o n but rather out of m o r e p r e c i s i o n a n d t h u s m o r e k n o w l e d g e a n d finally a n d m o s t importantly it is a s y s t e m that turns quantitative inputs into qualitative outputs. A s G i l l e s D e l e u z e put it:" T h e u n d e r t e r m i n e d is not a s i m p l e imperfection in o u r k n o w l e d g e or a lack in the object: it is a perfectly positive, objective structure w h i c h a c t s a s f o c u s or h o r i z o n within p e r c e p t i o n " .  determined functional  generic multifunctional  integrated difference  Fig. 1.10- Diagrams describing the three paradigms of the 20 -Century th  3  Gilles D e l e u z e , Difference  and Repetition.  3  city planning.  M i n n e a p o l i s : University of M i n n e s o t a Press, I990.p.l 69.  12  C O M P A R A T I V E S T U D Y : S . O . U . P . vs. TRADITIONAL P L A N N I N G  Fig. 1.11 - Comparative study between S.O.U.P. and traditional urban planning.  INDIVIDUALIZATION S U S T A I N A B L E DYNAMIC O u r cities are c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s i n g l e / l o c a l e l e m e n t s a n d h o l i s t i c / g l o b a l factors. A m o d e l that w a n t s to b e o p e r a t i o n a l m u s t t a k e into a c c o u n t b o t h a n d b e c a p a b l e to relate different p h e n o m e n a in a d y n a m i c f a s h i o n . EXPERIMENTAL " P r o b l e m s o l v i n g s i m p l y a c c e p t s the p a r a m e t e r s of the p r o b l e m g i v e n , in the c a s e of architecture, b y the client. D e s i g n is m e a n t to w o r k within t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s until a s o l u t i o n to the p r o b l e m is w o r k e d out, a final d e s i g n . Innovation...works b y a different, m o r e e x p e r i m e n t a l l o g i c w h e r e , by r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s , design opportunities  are d i s c o v e r e d that c a n b e e x p l o i t e d a n d t r a n s f o r m e d  into d e s i g n  i n n o v a t i o n s . W h i l e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g w o r k s within a g i v e n p a r a d i g m to c r e a t e s o l u t i o n s to k n o w n p r o b l e m s , innovation risks w o r k i n g with existent but u n k n o w n c o n d i t i o n s in o r d e r to d i s c o v e r opportunities that c o u l d not h a v e b e e n p r e d i c t e d in a d v a n c e " . T h e r e f o r e , S.O.U.P.  is a s y s t e m to turn  known  4  p h e n o m e n a into u n k n o w n  and  potentially innovative q u e s t i o n s . BOTTOM-UP Innovation  is  deeply  related  to  discovering  unforeseen  opportunities.  These  possibilities might not e m e r g e if the t e c h n i q u e utilized h a s a d e t e r m i n i s t i c c h a r a c t e r , o n e that e s t a b l i s h e s limits a n d e x c l u d e s p o s s i b i l i t i e s from the outset. In o r d e r to b e a  bottom-up  s y s t e m , S.O.U.P. o n l y fixes the rules of the g a m e but t h e n d o e s not control results. CONTENT A s M i c h e l F o u c a u l t put f o r w a r d " T e c h n o l o g y m u s t b e s o c i a l before it is t e c h n i c a l . " T h e 5  current set of t o o l s a n d information that regulates u r b a n p l a n n i n g f u n d a m e n t a l l y h a s t e c h n i c a l a n d quantitative c h a r a c t e r ; S.O.U.P.  p r o p o s e s t e c h n i q u e s that a l l o w u r b a n d e s i g n to b e b a s e d  o n a n d affect t h e cultural l a n d s c a p e a s w e l l . In S.O.U.P quantity b e c o m e s quality.  M. Speaks, Design Intelligence: or Thinking After the end of the Metaphysics, AD, vol.72, n. 5 Sept/Oct 2002, p. 4-6. M. Foucault, The order of Things: an Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Routledge, 1989, p, 82  4  5  14  OPERATIVE D e s i g n is not a representation of a priori c o n c e p t s . In o r d e r to b e affective, t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s m u s t d o a w a y with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T o d o s o , p r i n c i p l e s c o m e to r e p l a c e c o n c e p t s . T h e result is a n o p e r a t i v e s y s t e m . 3D T h e a b s t r a c t flatness of the traditional u r b a n p l a n n i n g b a s e d o n z o n i n g is r e p l a c e d by a m e t h o d o l o g y that s t u d i e s s p a c e in its full nature a n d c o m p l e x i t y . B y u s i n g C A D - s y s t e m s a t e m p o r a l d i m e n s i o n is i n t r o d u c e d . T h e s t u d y of s p a c e involves the fourth d i m e n s i o n a s well. RESPONSIVE With S.O.U.P.  r e s p o n s i v e n e s s r e p l a c e s flexibility. W h e r e a s flexibility often i m p l i e s a  g e n e r i c c o n d i t i o n , a sort of i m p r e c i s i o n , w h e r e multiple p r o g r a m s c a n o c c u r , r e s p o n s i v e n e s s p r o p o s e s a s e r i e s of p r i n c i p l e s to g e n e r a t e p r e c i s e yet u n f o r e s e e n results. A s G i l l e s D e l e u z e wrote in Difference  and Repetition:  "the u n d e t e r m i n e d is not a s i m p l e imperfection in our  k n o w l e d g e or a l a c k in the object: it is a perfectly positive, objective structure w h i c h a c t s a s a f o c u s or h o r i z o n within p e r c e p t i o n . "  6  INTERDISCIPLINARY N e w results c a n o n l y b e attained if t h e r e s e a r c h is b a s e d o n different a s s u m p t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , not o n l y d o e s a n interdisciplinary a p p r o a c h c o n n e c t together the multiple f o r c e s s h a p i n g our cities, but it a l s o p r o v i d e s a d i v e r s e s c e n a r i o to w o r k with. S.O.U.P.  is a n I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y tool that c o l l o c a t e s itself at the t h r e s h o l d b e t w e e n  u r b a n p l a n n i n g a n d architecture. W h e r e the former b a s i c a l l y s h a p e s the city b y m e a n s of i n d e x e s a n d height restrictions the latter f u n d a m e n t a l l y f o c u s e s o n o b j e c t s a s well a s a c t s within g i v e n territories. B y c o l l a p s i n g t h e s e t w o distinct r e a l m s t o g e t h e r w e not o n l y rejoin t w o a s p e c t s of cities m a k i n g that are artificially s e p a r a t e d , but w e a l s o u n l e a s h the potential that these two discipline have w h e n c o m b i n e d . URBAN  PROTOTYPING  T h e p r o t o t y p e , the s i m u l a t i o n is t h e instrument b y w h i c h S.O.U.P.  experiments and  ultimately i n n o v a t e s . T h e p r o t o t y p i n g culture, a s it h a s u n f o l d e d in the C o r p o r a t e w o r l d over the last d e c a d e , materializes p r o b l e m s a n d other political a n d strategic i s s u e s in order to c o n s t a n t l y f o r m u l a t e a n d then refine q u e s t i o n s . A s M i c h e a l S c h r a g e d e s c r i b e s in Serious how  6  the world's  best companies  simulate  to innovate  play:  :" P r o t o t y p e s a n d s i m u l a t i o n s c a n d o  G.Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990, p. 169. 15  m o r e than a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s ; they c a n a l s o raise q u e s t i o n s that h a d never b e e n a s k e d before. P l a y i n g with a prototype  c a n stimulate innovative q u e s t i o n s a s s u r e l y a s it c a n s u g g e s t  innovative a n s w e r s . T h e r e are p r o f o u n d cultural differences b e t w e e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s that build p r o t o t y p e s primarily to create q u e s t i o n s a n d t h o s e that d o s o to a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s . T h e ratio of q u e s t i o n s a s k e d to q u e s t i o n s c r e a t e d s a y s a lot a b o u t the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s innovation c u l t u r e . "  7  FIELD T h e deterministic a p p r o a c h of current u r b a n p l a n n i n g is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s y s t e m a t i c t e n d e n c y to g o from many (i.e. m a n y o p t i o n s , m a n y t y p e s of information, etc.) to one (i.e. o n e s o l u t i o n , o n e set of i n d e x e s a n d s o on). O n the contrary, fields are often d e s c r i b e d a s d e v i c e s t r a c i n g the o p p o s i t e trajectory: t h e y g o f r o m one to many, form individual to collective, f r o m o b j e c t s to fields.  M. Schrage, Serious ploy: how the world's best companies simulate to innovate. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2000, p.77. 7  16  C A S E S T U D Y : G R E A T N O R T H E R N W A Y C A M P U S IN V A N C O U V E R .  A l t h o u g h the i s s u e d e s c r i b e d h a v e a g l o b a l r e l e v a n c y , a c a s e s t u d y w a s s i n g l e out. T h e GNW  (Great Northern W a y C a m p u s ) r e p r e s e n t s a n u n i q u e opportunity  to test h o w  an  e x p e r i m e n t a l p l a n n i n g tool c a n b e a p p l i e d to a n existing c o n d i t i o n . M a n y e l e m e n t s m a k e this particular site a c h a l l e n g i n g o n e . First of all, this a r e a will w i t n e s s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a n university c a m p u s w h e r e the four m a y o r a c a d e m i c institutions in V a n c o u v e r will m e r g e c r e a t i n g a h y b r i d b a s e d o n e a c h institution's m a i n s t r e n g t h s . All the b o d i e s i n v o l v e d are strongly c o m m i t t e d to g e n e r a t i n g a s p a c e for innovation a n d e x c h a n g e . S e c o n d , the p r o g r a m m a t i c mix that will b e h o u s e d will b e m a d e u p by: o n e third a c a d e m i c s p a c e s , a third by either private a s s o c i a t i o n s or private c o m p a n i e s a n d finally b y residential s p a c e s to b e l e a s e d or to h o u s e s t u d e n t s dormitories. The complexity  of the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  c a m p u s a s well  a s the  n e c e s s i t y to  a c c o m m o d a t e f u n c t i o n s that h a v e different nature a s k s for a n e w a p p r o a c h that c a n e n h a n c e the n e w n e s s of s u c h e n d e a v o u r . Finally, the recent history of this site, w h o s e strategic location a l l o w s u s to think of it a s a n u r b a n p i e c e , h a s b e e n m a r k e d b y s e r i e s of failures. First t h e s o - c a l l e d B u s b y P l a n w h i c h e n v i s i o n e d to turn the w h o l e a r e a into a h i g h - t e c h park a n d then t h e S c h r o e d e r site l o c a t e d next to the railway station w h o s e p l a n s for a n o t h e r h i g h - t e c h park failed to c o m e true. B o t h p l a n s w e r e d o o m e d to b e u n s u c c e s s f u l d u e to the stiff l o g i c w h i c h i n s p i r e d their blueprints. H o w e v e r , a n y n e w p r o p o s i t i o n for t h e s e a r e a m u s t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a p p r o a c h e s that are r e s p o n s i v e a n d allow for c h a n g e s a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  Fig. 1.12- Diagram of the strategic relationship between the existing campuses and the GNW one.  17  CONTENT: WHAT  P R O G R A M ANALYSIS: CLUSTERING In o r d e r to u n d e r s t a n d the p r o c e s s e s at w o r k in the u r b a n e n v i r o n m e n t w e m u s t s t u d y the c o m p o n e n t s a n d v a r i a b l e s a v a i l a b l e first. In o r d e r w o r d s , the raw material r e p r e s e n t s the b a s i c a n d still m o s t powerful e l e m e n t to b e g i n to r e s h a p e the traditional p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T o d o s o , the first s t e p in the a n a l y s i s of the p r o g r a m is the s e a r c h for p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n a c a d e m i c s p a c e s a n d private s e c t o r o n e s . T h e m e t h o d o l o g y f o l l o w e d is b a s e d o n what w e c o u l d call rationalization or m a x i m i z a t i o n of either existing or potential links a m o n g this s e r i e s of p r o g r a m s .  Fig.2.1 - Diagram of the possible relationships among  programs.  20  T h e n , all the p r o g r a m s are r e a r r a n g e d into a matrix w h i c h carefully s t u d i e s the relationships  between  each  possible  association. Through  r e s e a r c h , existing  planning  d o c u m e n t s a n d interviews with the m e m b e r s of the c o n s o r t i u m in c h a r g e of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the c a m p u s this chart is q u i c k l y filled out a l l o w i n g a high d e g r e e of b o t h participation a n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n b y all the p l a y e r s . T h e result is e n c o d e d b y three c a t e g o r i e s : a b s e n c e of relationship, exiting c o n n e c t i o n a n d potential l i n k a g e . T h e a i m of this matrix is to m a p both the current situation a n d the potentially  n e w o n e to b e h o u s e d in the c a m p u s . T h i s set of  information is then u s e d to g e n e r a t e s e t s of c l u s t e r s .  Fig.2.2- Matrix of  possibilities.  21  B y u s i n g this t e c h n i q u e a m a s s i v e n u m b e r of e x a m p l e s c a n b e q u i c k l y g e n e r a t e d . E a c h cluster m i x e s t w o t y p e s of v a r i a b l e s : first e a c h g r o u p is m a d e u p b y both existing relationships a n d potential o n e s to g u a r a n t e e a d e g r e e of sustainability to the s i n g l e cluster. S e c o n d , e a c h c o m b i n a t i o n a l w a y s interweaves private a n d a c a d e m i c functions.  clusters:  LEGEND  matrix  of  . . . . • ••clutter  Fig.2.3- Matrix of  links  academic link  » • » • • • • Private sector link  indirect link  feQd  Hi  possibilities.  22  E a c h individual g r o u p c a n then b e l i n k e d to other c l u s t e r s in o r d e r to s t u d y hypothetical p r i n c i p l e s to o r g a n i z e the w h o l e site. E v e r y e x a m p l e is b a s e d o n t w o v a r i a b l e s : first  a  quantitative s p e c u l a t i o n that e n v i s i o n s what factor c o u l d l e a d the u r b a n i z a t i o n of the a r e a a n d then a quantitative projection w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s h o w the site c o u l d o r g a n i z e to a c c o m m o d a t e the pattern of d e v e l o p m e n t .  clusters:  matrix  of  links  1.  5.  QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS design disciplines act as INITIATORS Afc*o to constrtirtn a  dutfw  themaerves. they are considered to be one ol the  ptaus-ib* programs so atari the new campus.  QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Private sector  •  cluster academic link private sector link  growrth is led Dy A CADEMIC inputs - pnvate sectors spaces are tailored ac cording To it.  Fig.2.4- Matrix of links.  23  TECHNIQUE: HOW  S.O.U.P.: the process T h i s c h a p t e r t a c k l e s the actual e x p l a n a t i o n of the p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e d i s c u s s e d in this t h e s i s . T h e c o n s t r u c t e d tool o b j e c t of this r e s e a r c h is c a l l e d S . O . U . P . . H e r e , w e will d i s c u s s its characteristics, principles, advantages, drawbacks a n d possible implementations. T h e first s t e p to b e g i n this p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s is the d e s i g n of the infoscapes.  T h e s e are  virtual l a n d s c a p e s of information, a w a y to materialize s o m e of the immaterial f o r c e s s h a p i n g this a r e a (potentially a n y area). These  initial infoscapes  map  out  the  existing  e l e m e n t s either  surrounding  or  intersecting the site. H o w e v e r , s o m e t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s c a n n o t b e r e p r e s e n t e d a s uniform fields a c t i n g onto the a r e a . M a n m a d e artefacts s u c h a s m a i n r o a d s , skytrain lines, railway stations a n d v i e w c o r r i d o r s h a v e a linear or i s o l a t e d c h a r a c t e r that is better r e p r e s e n t e d b y different g e o m e t r i c a l d e v i c e s s u c h a s lines or d o t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e are t h e n t u r n e d into infoscapes  b y m e a n s of c o m p u t e r - m o d e l e d s u r f a c e s that register their position a n d p o s s i b l e  p e a k s of d e n s i t y in their u s e . B y u s i n g either p l a n n i n g d o c u m e n t s , interviews or s i m p l e s p e c u l a t i o n s , it is p o s s i b l e to d e s i g n s e v e r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s for this first set of m a p s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the t w o s c e n a r i o s p i c t u r e d in the X X X are b a s e d o n the p l a n n e d e x p a n s i o n of the skytrain line from B r o a d w a y S t a t i o n to the International Airport. It is k n o w n that this line will s e r v e the F i n n i n g Site a s w e l l , h o w e v e r h o w this will exactly h a p p e n is still to b e d i s c u s s e d a n d t h u s o p e n for p r o p o s i t i o n s . H e n c e , t w o different s o l u t i o n s : o n e in w h i c h the n e w skytrain e x t e n s i o n will run parallel to the G r e a t Northern W a y (main traffic a c c e s s to the site) a n d a s e c o n d o n e w h e r e the n e w line will cut a c r o s s the site with a s t o p right in the m i d d l e of the n e w c a m p u s . A t the e n d of this first s e c t i o n two m a i n infoscapes  characterize e a c h scenario:  o n e for the infrastructural layout of the a r e a a n d a s e c o n d for the position a n d r e l e v a n c e of view corridors. O n t o this first layer of information sits a s e c o n d set of infoscapes  that s p e c i f i c a l l y  relate to the p r o g r a m to b e h o u s e d o n the site is laid out. A g a i n , b y interview s o m e of the p e o p l e i n v o l v e d in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s of the a r e a , three m a i n f u n c t i o n s are s i n g l e d out. T h e s e are: a c a d e m i c institutions, private s e c t o r s p a c e s a n d finally residential a r e a s . A s for the p r e v i o u s infojscapes,  t h e s e are t o o c o m p u t e r - m o d e l e d s u r f a c e s w h o s e v a l u e s  a l o n g the z - a x i s proportionally r e p r e s e n t their i m p o r t a n c e a c r o s s the entire site. S i n c e t h e s e c o m p o n e n t s are to b e d e s i g n e d , n o a-priori c o n s t r a i n is set. T h e r e f o r e , any p e r s o n involved in the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s or a n y citizen affected b y the n e w d e v e l o p m e n t c a n interact with this tool a n d h a v e a s a y a b o u t the a r e a . L o c a l g r o u p s , university d e p a r t m e n t s ,  25  investors from the private s e c t o r , etc. c a n d e s i g n e a c h of t h e s e three l a n d s c a p e s a n d m a k e p u b l i c their v i s i o n s . By  m e a n s of c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d  animations  is t h e n  p o s s i b l e to visualize t h e s e  " v i s i o n s " either a s w h o l e t h r o u g h c o n t i n u o u s s u r f a c e s or a s s i n g u l a r e l e m e n t s t h r o u g h s e t s of c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g s e c t i o n s cut at s p e c i f i c points in the a n i m a t i o n . T h r o u g h this "what if" s e r i e s of s c e n a r i o s a n e n o r m o u s n u m b e r of p r e c i s e a n d yet i n f o r m e d c a m p u s e s c a n b e q u i c k l y g e n e r a t e d . But first w e n e e d to t a k e a s t e p b a c k w a r d to s t u d y what p r i n c i p l e s s u p p o r t this m e t h o d o l o g y .  26  RESPONSIVENESS In this p r o c e s s r e s p o n s i v e n e s s r e p l a c e s w h a t traditionally is u n d e r s t o o d a s flexibility. In fact, w h e r e flexibility a s k s for a g e n e r i c c o n d i t i o n to b e operative, r e s p o n s i v e n e s s requires a higher d e g r e e of p r e c i s i o n to b e a d a p t a b l e (as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d in the e x p l a n a t i o n of the c o n c e p t of Integrated Difference). CONTINUITY T h i s p r i n c i p l e s d e s c r i b e s h o w the m e t h o d o l o g y e s t a b l i s h e s a link b e t w e e n the site a n d the existing c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a r e a of intervention. At this s t a g e , b o t h p h y s i c a l or visible e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t in the a r e a a n d invisible f o r c e s are m a d e evident b y this d i a g r a m m a t i c a p p r o a c h . E x i s t i n g or p l a n n e d p i e c e s of infrastructure, view c o r r i d o r s ( e s t a b l i s h e d b y the current p l a n n i n g d o c u m e n t ) , a n d m a i n f u n c t i o n s a r o u n d the future c a m p u s are a n a l y z e d in a straightforward w a y .  Fig.3.2- Continuity diagram.  27  INTENSITY T h e infoscapes  p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d are all b a s e d o n the criteria that e a c h f o r c e is  registered b y t h e d i a g r a m b y i n c r e a s i n g the z - v a l u e of the c u r v e s . Intensity is the principle that e n c o d e s t h e s e existing f o r c e s into the  info_scapes.  SETS OF CURVES  - — — ! 100  intensity  1. E x c e p t i o n a l l y g r e a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n , p o w e r , o r f o r c e . 2. Physics. T h e a m o u n t o r d e g r e e of s t r e n g t h of electricity, light, heat, o r s o u n d p e r unit a r e a o r volume. 3. T h e s t r e n g t h of a color, e s p e c i a l l y t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h it l a c k s its c o m p l e m e n t a r y c o l o r .  Fig.3.3- Intensity diagram.  28  RHYTHM R h y t h m h a s to d o with rigor. T h i s principle e n s u r e s a direct proportion b e t w e e n f o r c e s a n d d i a g r a m m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In other w o r d s , s a m e inputs g e n e r a t e s e q u a l outputs.  Fig.3.4- Rhythm  diagram.  29  COMPLEMENTARY T h i s rule b e g i n s to set the c o n d i t i o n s to turn quantity in quality. E a c h of the three layers c a n b e c o n t r o l l e d a n d t h u s its final a s p e c t c a n b e p r e d i c t e d . H o w e v e r , b y introducing this s p e c i f i c principle, all the layers are s u p e r i m p o s e d with the c o n s e q u e n c e that is n o l o n g e r p o s s i b l e to g u e s s the final c o n f i g u r a t i o n . B y a d o p t i n g a s i m p l e rule a n e n o r m o u s s e r i e s of s o l u t i o n s is c r e a t e d .  academicscape  private-sector_scape  residential_scape  DEFINITION complementarity  1 .Forming or serving as a c o m p l e m e n t ;  completing. 2. S u p p l y i n g m u t u a l n e e d s o r o f f s e t t i n g  mutual  lacks. 3. G e n e t i c s . O f or relating to a g r o u p of g e n e s that a c t in c o n c e r t t o p r o d u c e a s p e c i f i c p h e n o t v p e  Fig. 3.5- Complementarity  diagram.  30  ENCODING PRINCIPLES A s e c o n d s e r i e s of p r i n c i p l e s is then i n t r o d u c e d in o r d e r to extract information from the info_scapes.  T h e invention of this s e c o n d set fully t a c k l e the p r o b l e m of g e n e r a t i n g quality out  of quantity. S o far, this m e t h o d o l o g y h a s b e e n l o o k i n g for w a y s to m e a s u r e a n d m a p quantitative p h e n o m e n a p r e s e n t in a s p e c i f i c a r e a , f r o m n o w o n the c h a l l e n g e is to p r o d u c e qualitative inputs with w h i c h actually d e s i g n the n e w c a m p u s . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s d e s c r i b e spatial qualities not formal outlines the c a n b e t r a c e d . In fact, this t h e s i s d o e s n ' t e n d o r s e the notion of d i a g r a m a s a m e t a p h y s i c a l d e v i c e w h o s e o u t c o m e s have v a l u e in t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h u s c a n ' t b e q u e s t i o n e d . H e r e , d i a g r a m s are u s e d to refine i s s u e s a n d a d d r e s s the d i s c u s s i o n t o w a r d the right p r o b l e m or q u e s t i o n . E x c e p t for the ' z e r o p r i n c i p l e ' , all the rules are b a s e d o n the c o m p l e m e n t a r y principle; It is not p o s s i b l e to extract a n y information from the d i a g r a m s u n l e s s at least 2 c u r v e s are c o n s i d e r e d . T h e only principle that requires further e x p l a n a t i o n is the n o i s e o n e w h i c h will b e the object of the next p a r a g r a p h .  If a layer constantly has the definition lowest Y-value throughout the  zero  territoriality  whole section, that particular program will not appear in the architectural transposition.  vertical permeability  definition  Overflow-effect that suggests a potential permeability between two layers and thus two programs.  pinched/smooth  definition  Butterfly-etfect that clearly separated two layers and thus two territories.  The layer that after the pinch that has the greater Y-value is c a l l e d smooth (and thus programmatically continues on), while the other is pinched (and creates a territoriality).  noise  definition  Perfect adherence between two or more layers. This condition requires an interlocking solution explored through architectural prototypes based on programmatic inputs.  Fig.3.6-Diagram  of the second set of rules to encode  info_scapes.  31  NOISE W h e r e v e r t w o or m o r e c u r v e s intersect e a c h other n u m e r o u s t i m e s within a s i n g l e s e c t i o n w e u s e this p r i n c i p l e in o r d e r to e n c o d e what w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e a c h a o t i c situation. W h a t is interesting to notice is that n o i s e a r e a s a p p e a r a s v o i d s in t h e s e m a p s . T h e y r e p r e s e n t particular interactions b e t w e e n the p r o g r a m s a n d , in this s e n s e , they a l s o r e m i n d of the i d e a of programs as being organized around clusters. T h e o n l y w a y to e n c o d e a ' n o i s e ' knot is b y d e s i g n a tailored s o l u t i o n for that s p e c i f i c point only.  Red channel.  Fig.3.7- The Noise  principle.  32  SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION O n e the p r i n c i p l e s are in p l a c e it is p o s s i b l e to a p p l y t h e m to the w h o l e of the s c e n a r i o s g e n e r a t e d . T h e e x e r c i s e is relatively s i m p l e : e a c h set of c u r v e is s e p a r a t e l y a n a l y z e d b y a p p l y i n g to it the a l r e a d y d e c i d e d rules a n d a s e r i e s of quantitative inputs is q u i c k l y r e a d y to b e t r a n s p o s e d into a n architectural p r o p o s i t i o n . B y m e a n s of intuition, the following s t e p tries to e n v i s i o n what kind of s h a p e or r o u g h m a s s i n g c o u l d e m b o d y t h o s e initial inputs. At this s t a g e this is o n l y a g u e s s of what architecture c a n p e r f o r m . O n l y b y g o i n g t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of variations c a n quality further b e injected into the architectural s e c t i o n s .  100 095  Fig.3.9-An  example of a transposition  form curves to architectural  section.  33  SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION: scenario A  Fig.3.10-Scenario  A: The whole set of both transpositions and variations.  34  SECTIONAL TRANSPOSITION: scenario  Fig.3.11 -Scenario  B: The whole set of both transpositions  and  B  variations.  35  T h e two different s c e n a r i o s w e r e a l s o s h a p e d after the l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g the site. Particularly, S c e n a r i o A dealt with the skytrain line r u n n i n g a l o n g G r e a t Northern W a y by c r e a t i n g a linear structure w h i c h c o i n c i d e s with the d e n s e s t a r e a in the n e w p l a n , w h e r e a s s c e n a r i o B w a s b a s e d o n a m o r e introverted s c h e m e that took a d v a n t a g e of the central p o s i t i o n that the skytrain station w o u l d h a v e in this h y p o t h e s i s . T h e final result of this s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l is a m u c h m o r e horizontal layout, a s c h e m e that e x p l o r e s a l a n d s c a p e - l i k e c a m p u s .  Fig. 3.12-Scenario  A and B: views from Great Northern Way.  36  Fig. 3.13-Scenario  A and B: views from inside the campus itself.  38  NOISE Finally, a s e r i e s of p r o t o t y p e s w a s s t u d i e d to a n a l y s e what t y p e of a p p r o a c h c o u l d b e t a k e n w h e n n o i s e w o u l d s u r f a c e in the infojscapes.  E a c h n o i s e is u n i q u e l y  interpreted  a c c o r d i n g to location a n d the cluster of p r o g r a m s that c o m p o s e that particular point of the campus.  Fig.3.16-Noise:  housing + community  centre.  39  Fig.3.20- Transversal Section through the Campus.  Fig.3.21- Transversal Section through the Campus.  41  CONCLUSION T h e a i m of this t h e s i s w a s to e x a m i n e w h y a n d h o w i s s u e s of c o m p l e x i t y , s p e e d a n d uncertainty are g l o b a l l y i n c r e a s i n g a n d b e c o m i n g m o r e a n d m o r e relevant to the architecture field. T h e s e q u e s t i o n s are not o n l y c h a l l e n g i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of u r b a n d e s i g n , but they are a l s o p r o p o s i n g n e w p r o b l e m s a n d potentially  n e w s o l u t i o n s for architects. T h e  critical  k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d b y g o i n g t h r o u g h this e x e r c i s e s u g g e s t s that a n s w e r s to all t h e s e t h e m e s only lies in p r o p o s a l s that are c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y innovative, interdisciplinary, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a n d o p e n a p p r o a c h e s that n o l o n g e r articulate the d e b a t e a r o u n d f o r m s or styles but rather around questions and ideas.  Fig.3.22-  Montage.  42  BIBLIOGRAPHY:  ARTICLES IN MAGAZINES: Allen, Stan. "Diagrams matter" in Any n.23, December 1998, p.16-9. Beers, Daniel. "Curbing 'slurban' sprawl" The Vancouver Sun , 8 June 2001. S e c . B. Boschetti, Andrea. "Darsi alia Macchia". Arch'it [journal on-line]; available from http://www.architettura.it; Internet; a c c e s s e d 27 October 2001. Branzi, Andrea, and Stefano Boeri. "Unpredictable City Planning" in Lotus n.107, December 2000, p.109-131. Cacciari, Massimo. " Metropoli della mente". Casabella  n.523 (April 1986): 14-5.  Chaplin, Sarah. "Heterotopia deserta: Las Vegas and other spaces". In Intersections: Architectural Histories and Critical Theories, ed. lain Borden and Jane Rendell, p.203-20. New York: Routeledge, 2000. Lootsma, Bart. "The New Landscape". USE: Uncertain States of Europe [catalogue on-line]; available from http://www.use.net; Internet; a c c e s s e d 27 October 2001. Miller, Bernard. "Idelfonso Cerda: an Introduction". Architectural Association 1977), 12-22.  Quarterly, v.9, n.1 (January  Rajchman, John. "New Pragmatism". Anyhow Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1982. p. 180-5 Sassen, Saskia. "Urban Economies and fading distances". Lotus n.82, December 2001, p.109-131. Sola Morales, Edward. "Territories (Territori)". Lotus n.82, December 2001, p.109-131. Sola-Morales, Manuel de. "Toward a definition: Analysis of the urban growth in the Nineteenth century". LOTUS International, n.19, 1978, 28-36. Wynn, Martin. "Barcelona: Planning and C h a n g e 1854-1977. Town Planning Review. V.50, n.2 (January 1973), 185-203.  43  BOOKS: Allen,  Stan.  Practice:  architecture,  technique  and  representation.  Amsterdam:  The  G+B  Arts  International, 2000.  Antonelli, Paola, ed. Workspheres:  Design and Contemporary  Work Style. New York: The Museum of  Modern Art, 2001. Auge, Marc. Non-Places:  Introduction to an Anthropology  of Supermodernity.  New York, London: Verso,  1995.  Branzi, Andrea. The Fourth Metropolis  - Design and Environmental  Culture. Milan: Domus Academy ed.,  1990. Careri, Francesco. Constant: una citta nomade. Rome: Testo&lmmagine s.r.l., 2001. Choay, Francoise. The Modern City: Planning in the 19th Century. New York: george Braziller Inc, 1969.  Davis, Mike. City of quartz: Excavating the future in Los Angeles. London: Verso, 1988. Debord, Guy. The Society of Spectacle  (La Societe du spectacle). New York: Zone Books. 1994.  De Landa, Manuel. A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York: Zone Books , 2000. Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. Difference Press, 1990. Deleuze, Gilles. Bergsonism.  and  Repetition.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota  New York: Zone Books, 1988.  Deleuze, Gilles, and Felix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus : Capitalism and Schizophrenia Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.  (Mille plateaux).  Deleuze, Gilles. The Fold: Leibniz and Baroque (Le Pli: Leibniz et le baroque). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Duany, Andres, and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. and Speck, J . Suburban Nation: The rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press, 2000. Foucault, Michel. "Of other spaces", Joan O c k m a n (ed.) Architecture  and Culture 1943-1968. New York:  Rizzoli, 1993. Hays, K. Michael, ed. Architecture  Ibelings,  Hans.  The Artificial  Theory since 1968. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1998.  Landscape:  Architecture in the Netherlands.  Contemporary  Architecture,  Urbanism,  and  Landscape  Cities - The future of Town planning.  New York:  Rotterdam: Nai Publishers, 2000.  Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Vintage Books, 1961.  Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Koolhaas, Rem. and Mau, B., S,M,L,XL.  Rotterdam: 010 Publisher, 1995.  Koolhaas,Rem, Stefano Boeri, Sandford Kwinter, Tazi Nadia, Obrist Hans Ulrich, H.  MUTATIONS.  Bordeaux : A C T A R , 2000.  44  La Biennale di Venezia. International Architecture Exhibition / More Ethics Less Aesthetics. Venice: La Biennale di Venezia, 2000.  Lefebvre,  Henry. Critique of Everyday Life (Critique de la vie quotidienne  I: Introduction). New York:  Verso, 1991.  Lerup, Lars. After the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000. Lynn, Greg. Animate Form. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Lootsma, Bart. SuperDutch: New architecture Thames&Hudson, 2000.  in the Netherlands.  Migayrou, Frederic, and Marie-Ange Brayer. Archilab: York: Thames&Hudson, 2001.  New York:  Radical Experiments in Global Architecture.  New  Mitchell, W. J . City of Bits: space, place and the Infobahn. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1995. Mitchell, W. J . E-topia. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1999. Moore, Rowan, ed, Vertigo: the strange new world of the contemporary Publishing, 1999.  city. London: Laurence King  MVRDV, FARMAX: Excursion on Density. Rotterdan: 010 Publisher, 1998. OMA/Koolhaas  Rem. DutchTown:  A City Center  Design  by OMA/Rem  Koolhaas.  Rotterdam:  Nai  Pubblishers, 2000. Pettena, Gianni. RADICALS:  Architecture  and Design  1960/1975  (RADICALS: Architettura e design  1960/1975). Florence: II Ventilabro s.r.l., 1996. Perniola, Mario. IIsex-appeal  dell'lnorganico.  Turin: Einaudi ed., 1996.  Pope, Albert. Ladders. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. Rattazzi, Cristina. Andrea Branzi. Militanza tra teoria e prassi. Milan: Franco Angeli s.r.l., 1997. Richer, Dagmar. XYZ: The Architecture  of Dagmar Richter.  New York: Princeton Architectural Press,  2001. Riley, Terence, ed. The Un-private House. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1999. Rogers, Richard. Citta per un piccolo pianeta. Rome: E.R.I. d'A/ Kappa, 1997. Rossi, Aldo. The Architecture  of the City (L'architettura della Citta). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1982.  Sadler, Simon. The Situationist City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1998. Schrage, Michael. Serious play: how the world's best companies Business School Press, 2000.  simulate to innovate. Boston: Harvard  45  Venturi Robert,  Denise Scott Brown, and Steve  Izenour. Learning  from Las  Vegas.  Cambridge,  Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1972. Virilio, Paul. L'espace critique : essai. Paris : C . Bourgois, 1984. Virilio, Paul. The third interval: a critical transition. In Andermatt-Conley (ed.) Rethinking  Technologies,  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Wiilams, Donald C . Urban Sprawl: a reference handbook. Wines, James. Green Architecture.  Santa Barbara: A B C - C L I O , 2000.  New York: Taschen America, 2000.  46  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
Japan 24 0
United States 8 0
China 5 12
City Views Downloads
Tokyo 24 0
Beijing 4 0
Ashburn 2 0
Absecon 2 0
Unknown 2 1
Sunnyvale 1 0
Redmond 1 0
Guangzhou 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0091624/manifest

Comment

Related Items