Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Realizing the sustainable city park : redesign of John Hendry Park Chen, Hongbing 2004

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_2004-0189.pdf [ 29.63MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0091610.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0091610-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0091610-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0091610-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0091610-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0091610-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0091610-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0091610-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0091610.ris

Full Text

REALIZING THE SUSTAINABLE CITY PARK REDESIGN OF JOHN HENDRY PARK by HONGBING CHEN B.E., Beijing Forestry University, 1989 M.E. , Beijing Forestry University, 1996 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Landscape Architecture We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2004 © Hongbing Chen, 2004 Library Authorization In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Name of AutHor (please print, ) Date (dd/mm/yyyy) Title of Thesis Rw&^tgn of John HesioiA-ij p^b Degree: /vj j / \ Year: Department of AfrhokoOtDJl ArpJuhffU^tP The University of British Colurrfbia ZMOJ n  Vancouver, BC Canada Abstract City parks play an important role in the urban life. As well as providing a range of public recreational activities, they can increase landscape function and enhance the wildlife habitats. By using sustainable technologies to revitalize parks and their adjacent neighborhoods, we can provide sustainable places, where people want to be, that can be maintained with minimal cost. This project studies, applies and demonstrates different methods and technologies to achieve a sustainable city park. The proposed park will meet the public's needs for a range of activities and community functions, while providing ecological functions such as wildlife habitat and storm water management. Through a context and site analysis of John Hendry Park, this study develops a set of factors illustrating the opportunities and constraints of this park. In order to enrich the old program, increase the attraction, overcome the limitations, and enhance the sustainability of this park, a new proposal has been developed. Through the factor comparison between the existing and the proposed park, this study will emphasize the significance of sustainable city parks and sustainable technologies that can be applied in other city parks. i i Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vi Acknowledgements viii 1. Statement of Intent 1 2. Design Proposal 1 2.1 Project Goals 1 2.2 Project Objectives 1 3. The Significance of This Study 1 4. Methodology 2 5. Literature Review about Sustainability, Sustainable Development, and Sustainable Landscape 2 5.1 Concepts 2 5.2 The Meanings of Sustainable Landscape and Sustainable Development- 3 5.3 The Approaches to Make Sustainable Landscape and Development 4 5.4 The Precedents of Water, Plant and Habitat Sustainable Landscape 6 5.4.1 Storm Water 6 5.4.2 Plants and Habitat 7 6. Design Criteria 8 7. Principles of Sustainable City Park 9 7.1 Principles of Sustainable City Park 9 7.1.1 Social 9 7.1.2 Ecology 9 7.1.3 Economic 10 7.2 Evaluation Criteria for Sustainable City Parks 10 7.2.1. Social 10 7.2.2 Ecological 10 7.2.3 Economic 11 8. The Site Analysis 11 Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park jjj 8.1 Existing Context 11 8.2 Watershed Analysis 13 8.3 Inventory 13 8.4 People Flow and Access Analysis 14 8.5 Circulations and View Analysis 15 8.6 Degree of Use Analysis 17 8.7 Eco-Sensitive Analysis 17 8.8 Statistics of Sports Fields Nearby 18 8.9 Existing Factors 19 9. Proposed Design 20 9.1 Proposed program 20 9.1.1 Proposed program 20 9.1.2 Program Relationship 22 9.1.3 Concept Diagram 24 9.1.4 Design Concept 24 9.2 Master Plan 27 9.3 Detail Design 33 10. Sustainable Technologies Applied in this park 43 11. Comparative Analysis of Existing and Proposed Design 48 11.1 Habitat Comparison 48 11.2 Activities Comparison 51 12. Conclusion— 54 References 55 Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park j v List of Tables Table 8.9.1 Eco-factors of Existing John Hendry Park 20 Table 8.9.2 The Habitat Diversity of the Existing John Hendry Park 20 Table 9.1.2 Program Relationship 22 Table 11.1.1 Eco-factors of Proposal John Hendry Park 50 Table 11.1.2 The Habitat Diversity of the Proposal John Hendry Park 51 Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park V List of Figures Figure 8.1.1 The park location 12 Figure 8.1.2 Zoning map around the John Hendry Park 12 Figure 8.2.1 Watershed map 13 Figure 8.3.1 Map of inventory- 14 Figure 8.4.1 People flow and access analysis 15 Figure 8.5.1 Circulation and view analysis 16 Figure 8.5.2 Existing circulation 16 Figure 8.6.1 Degree of use analysis r— 17 Figure 8.7.1 Eco-sensitive analysis —18 Figure 8.8.1 Charts for the use degree of playing fields —19 Figure 8.8.2 The surrounding sports fields of John Hendry Park 19 Figure 9.1.3.1 Program relationship diagram 24 Figure 9.1.4.1 Concept diagram 25 Figure 9.2.1 The layout of the park 28 Figure 9.2.2 John Hendry Park master plan with planting 29 Figure 9.2.3 Wetland perspectives 30 Figure 9.2.4 Restoration area grass perspective 31 Figure 9.2.5 woods perspective — 32 Figure 9.2.6 Section i n d e x — -32 Figure 9.2.7 Section 1-1- —33 Figure 9.2.8 Section 2-2 33 Figure 9.2.9 Section 3-3 33 Figure 9.2.10 Section 4-4 — — 33 Figure 9.2.11 Section 5-5 - — 33 Figure 9.3.1 The layout of the detail site — 34 Figure 9.3.2 Viewing deck and pavilion detail 34 Figure 9.3.3 Section of the bridge — 35 Figure 9.3.4 North-south section of the channel road 35 Figure 9.3.5 East-west section of the pavilion deck — 35 Figure 9.3.6 Details of seating wall 35 Figure 9.3.7 Details of the rail 36 Figure 9.3.8 Color of the wooden materials 36 Figure 9.3.9 Pebble bottom of the pond 36 Figure 9.3.10 Patio pavement- — — 3 7 Figure 9.3.11 Details of the patio — — 37 Figure 9.3.12 Section of the p a t i o — 38 Figure 9.3.13 Details of the center area 38 Figure 9.3.14 Section of the higher channel 39 Figure 9.3.15 Colour of the concrete—- 39 Figure 9.3.16 Section of the center area— i — - — — —-39 Figure 9.3.17 Section of the pedestrian road 40 Figure 9.3.18 Coloured pebble on the channel bottom — 40 Figure 9.3.19 Pavement pattern and colour 40 Figure 9.3.20 The details of the goldfish pond and viewing terrace— 41 Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park vi Figure 9.3.21 Section of the seating wall—type I 41 Figure 9.3.22 Section of the seating wall-type II -42 Figure 9.3.23 Details of the children's playground 43 Figure 9.3.24 The earthwork scheme of the park 42 Figure 10.1 Swale : 44 Figure 10.2 Parking area bioretention cell 45 Figure 10.3 Roof garden on the Nature House 46 Figure 10.4 Recommended storm water treatment pond edge plantings 47 Figure 10.5 Wetland pond 47 Figure 11.1.1 Existing eco-factors and habitat diversity charts 48 Figure 11.1.2 Proposal eco-factors and habitat diversity charts 49 Figure 11.1.3 Existing habitat map 49 Figure 11.1.4 Proposed habitat map 50 Figure 11.2.1 Existing activities keeping in the proposal 52 Figure 11.2.2 New activities in the proposal 53 Figure 11.2.3 Activities being deleted in the proposal 54 Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park v i i Acknowledgements For their assistance and insight that contributed significantly to the completion of this thesis, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Professor Patrick Mooney, UBC Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, FCSLA, and my committee chair for his insight care and timely advice. I would also like to thank Don Luymes, UBC Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, and Don Vaughan, FCSLA for their great help and support. As thesis committee members, they provided invaluable feedback and recommendations throughout this project. Their guidance and encouragement were greatly appreciated. Professor Douglas Paterson and Joanna Staniszkis are thanked for their interest and valuable suggestions during this project. A big thanks to Kate Davis-Johnson, Park Development Manager and Mr. Dougald McLardy, Park Board for their significant contribution to this project. Initially, background information and site maps for the study site were provided, and subsequent basic AutoCAD information for the study site was supported. Thank you to Alan Slater Duncan, Rezoning Planner, Rezoning Centre Planning Department, Devorah Kahn, Your Local Farmers Markets and Public Dream Society for their assistance with various information about the study site. Finally, a warm thank you is extended to all the Professors, staff and students of the Landscape Architecture Program for their valuable support and cooperation during my two and half years of graduate study at the university. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park v i i i 1. Statement of Intent City Parks are a very important part of the green system in a city. They have multiple functions in urban planning and urban life. Restoring old parks provides many direct benefits in the form of pleasant landscapes and diverse surroundings. When the surroundings and the built environment are attractive, people are more likely to want to be there- to walk, socialize, recreate, and achieve a sense of freedom. City parks also play a very important role in the urban ecological system. They are the crucial areas to increase the landscape diversity and enhance the wildlife habitats. We have a responsibility to protect them for future generations. Understanding their importance to our natural and cultural world is the first step toward their development and preservation. It is also important to take advantage of sustainable technologies to revitalize these parks and their adjacent neighborhoods, to help make them places where people want to be that are easy to maintain with minimal cost. The question is, how can city parks meet people's different desires and how can the city parks be more sustainable? 2. Design Proposal 2.1 Project Goals The goal of this project is to study, apply and demonstrate different methods and technologies to achieve a sustainable city park and using John Hendry Park e.g., to develop a sustainable city park that meets the various needs of public activities and community functions, as well as ecological requirements; and emphasizes the significance and importance of sustainable city parks in modern life. 2.2 Project Objectives To develop a set of new design guidelines based on sustainability concepts for John Hendry Park in Vancouver. To meet different people's various desires for this city park. To emphasize the various functions of John Hendry Park. To offer an alternative master plan and detail designs for John Hendry Park. To demonstrate sustainable technologies in John Hendry Park To explore sustainable park design methods To educate people 3. The Significance of This Study Through a context and site analysis of John Hendry Park, this study will develop a set of factors illustrating the opportunities and constraints of this park. Through the redesign, the new proposal will enrich the old program, increase the attraction, overcome the limitations, and enhance the sustainability of this park. Through the factor comparison between the existing and the proposed Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 1 park, this study will emphasize the significance of sustainable city parks and sustainable technologies that can be applied in other city parks. 4. Methodology Research focusing on identifying issues, understanding issues, selecting thesis topic and site; Literature review focusing on sustainable theories, precedents and identifying criteria of sustainable city parks; Presenting to committee/Feedback and critique will be invited; Revising criteria; Researching on-site information, photo document and observations of the site. Conducting detailed analysis, (Mapping and Analysis); Understanding the diversity and complexities involved in the social, economic and ecological aspects of the park. Using multiple design approaches, to explore options; A new program for the site will be developed to create a solid framework for this project; Detailed design solutions for the site will be based on the master plan and sustainable technologies; Evaluation and comparison of existing and proposed will be studied and analyzed according to the criteria developed; Document conclusions and final design solutions. 5. Literature Review About Sustainability, Sustainable Development, and Sustainable Landscape 5.1 Concepts A milestone in public acceptance of the term of sustainability came when the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), which the United Nations General Assembly charged with formulation an "agenda for the future," based its proposals on sustainable development (Lyle, 1994). The term "sustainable development" was first coined in the World Conservation Strategy (WCS), published jointly in 1980 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the United Nations environmental Programme (UNEP), and the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) (Thayer, 1994). The WCED defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the future to meet its own needs" (WCED, 1987, p.42; Lyle, 1994). It means using, developing and protecting resources at a rate and in a manner that enables people to meet their current needs and that also ensures that future generations can meet their own needs (Lyle, 1994). The World Conservation Strategy is an influential and often-quoted document emphasizing three objectives which have now become widely accepted as fundamental to sustainable development :(a) that essential ecological processes and life-support systems must be maintained; (b) that genetic diversity must be preserved, and (c) that any use of species or ecosystems must be sustainable (Thayer, 1994). Robert L Thayer defined Sustainability as " a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained indefinitely" (Thayer, 1994, p 235). Sustainability requires simultaneously meeting environmental, economic and community needs. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 2 A "sustainable economy" is the product of sustainable development. It maintains its natural resource base. It can continue to develop by adapting, and through improvements in knowledge, organization, technical efficiency, and wisdom (Thayer, 1994). The term "Landscape" includes all the biotic and abiotic materials within and on the land both natural and human, invisible processes and visible forms, buildings, roads, and whatever else humans or others may have put there. Landscape is the physical context of an ecosystem and its visible manifestation. It is a community. In its complex range of activities this community carries on processes to support itself and others (Lyle, 1994, p25). The term "sustainable landscape" is defined by Robert L. Thayer as " a physical place where human communities, resource uses, and the carrying capacities of surrounding ecosystems can all be perpetually maintained" (Thayer, 1994, p235). In other words, "Sustainable landscapes" are those that contribute to human well-being, work with native landscape conditions, do not deplete or damage other ecosystems, conserve valuable resources such as water, soil nutrients, energy, and species diversity, and generally are in " harmony with the natural environment" (CELA, 1988). A sustainable landscape must embody certain fundamental properties relating to time, landscape structure and function, and the flow of energy and physical materials (Thayer, 1994). 5.2 The Meanings of Sustainable Landscape and Sustainable Development Throughout the 20th century, consumption, the throughput of the one-way flows, became increasingly concentrated in large cities, demanding ever-increasing volumes of material from natural sources. These demands determined what happened in the rest of the landscape, namely, a pattern of degeneration. When materials are taken from the earth at rates far higher than can be replaced, the sources must eventually diminish. Herein lies the modern crisis of resource depletion and degradation. The global statistics on deforestation, desertification, salinization, soil erosion, habitat loss and other landscape pathologies tell that story very clearly (Lyle, 1994). Eventually a one-way system destroys the landscape on which it depends. Source landscapes will eventually run out of materials, and sinks will eventually become loaded beyond their ability to function; Whether we like it or not, a considerable level of development- of change in the global landscape- will be necessary to meet the needs of the world's growing population and to redress present imbalances. The blending of continuity and change, sustainability and development will require approaches to reshaping the landscape that are quite different from those of the past two centuries (Ibid). In effect, development means designing a new ecosystem, whether by intention or default. The order of this new ecosystem- its structure, function, and spatial distribution of activities-determines its effects in terms of both resource use and environmental quality (Ibid). Rather than mitigating impacts, we might create ecologically harmonious development that by its very nature requires no mitigation, recognizing that humans are integrally part of the environment (Ibid). It has become discouragingly clear that the palliatives are not succeeding. They can be useful in the short term; perhaps they can help to prevent the environment from deteriorating to hopeless levels while we work on longer-range solutions. But they have brought us no closer to a Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — — Redesign of John Hendry Park 3 sustainable biosphere (Lyle, 1994). Thus, design and the making of sustainable landscapes seem more important than ever before. Another important reason for the development of sustainable landscapes is the existing conflict between technology and nature. In the past, we developed technology as a means of survival in nature. Now it is killing other life forms and threatening us as well. Yet technology is the "nature" of human nature. The conflict between nature and technology has become large, oppressive, and inescapable (Thayer, 1994). Sustainable landscapes, therefore, are an essential grounding element in the transition to a new philosophical framework- the antidote to a runaway world of consumption and fantasy where technology is destroying nature and making a lifeless replica (Ibid). Sustainability emerged as an inevitable response to the dynamic and increasingly dissonant tension between nature and technology in contemporary society. Landscape is where the current conflict between technology and nature is most easily sensed; it is also the place where any attempt at resolution of the conflict must be tested and proven. In essence, sustainability is a notion by which we intend to allow ourselves once more to become part of nature; to see ourselves subordinate to a larger context of universal life. The concept of sustainability is beginning to find use as a filter to separate technological alternatives and a way of choosing only those that reinforce rather than destroy existing ecological and social values. If it can be physically demonstrated that certain ways and means of organizing human living systems result in living lightly, sensitively, and perpetually on the land with our companion species, then we may rightfully claim to have created- or rediscovered- sustainable landscapes. For now, the sustainable landscape is a promising vision, which, although somewhat fuzzy, is sharpening quickly. This vision may be brought into clearer focus by understanding it as a multidimensional response to a complex cultural conflict (Thayer, 1994). All in all, reversing the degenerative trend will be a long and difficult job that may well occupy the world's attention for the next century or more (Lyle, 1994). 5.3 The Approaches to Make Sustainable Landscape and Development "Undisturbed nature provides our best source for understanding how natural processed work." Lyle, John Tillman. 1994 In order to be sustainable, the supply systems for energy and materials must be continually self-renewing, or regenerative, in their operation. That is, sustainability requires ongoing regeneration (Lyle, 1994). Regenerative design generally has the following characteristics: 1. Operational integration with natural processes, and by extension with social processes; 2. Minimum use of fossil fuels and manmade chemicals except for backup applications; 3. Minimum use of nonrenewable resources except where future reuse or recycling is possible and likely; Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 4 4. Use of renewable resources within their capacities for renewal (Ibid). The regenerative capacities of the landscape lie largely in six basic phases of ecosystem functioning: conversion, distribution, filtration, assimilation, storage, and, where human development occurs, human thought. These six basic processes of regeneration are the keys to the sustenance of life itself and thus to sustainability (Lyle, 1994). Virtually all of the human life-support functions dealing with energy, shelter, water, food, and waste are performed in undisturbed nature by the highly evolved natural processed of conversion, distribution, filtration, assimilation, and storage. Replacing these with engineered processes relying heavily on hardware and fossil fuels is a costly habit, both in terms of money and environmental disruption. Often the necessary services could be performed just as well by simply augmenting the already operational natural processes. For purposes of regenerative design, biological processes of the landscape generally provide more useful models than physical processes. Examples include the use of predator species to control agricultural pests (in preference to chemical pesticides), the use of landforms to guide and absorb the flow of runoff water (in preference to pipes and concrete channels), and the use of trees to control urban microclimates (in preference to mechanical heating and air conditioning) (Ibid). Natural process rather than horticultural technology forms the underlying framework of sustainable landscapes. It involves the introduction of natural landscape elements into the city that include the re-establishment of woodlands through the reforestation of some lands, the creation of wetlands where hydrological conditions are appropriate, the development of meadow communities through modified turf management and the establishment of varied wildlife habitats. These are inherently productive self-regulating communities achieved through ecologically sensitive management rather than total maintenance control. When this approach is placed in context with areas requiring higher levels of upkeep, benefits in environmental, social and aesthetic diversity and in overall economy in energy, materials and manpower accrue (Thayer, 1994). Storage lies also at the core of regenerative systems. Maintaining adequate storage and balancing the rate of replenishment with the rate of use are important keys to sustainability (Lyle, 1994). When considering whether a landscape is sustainable, we must ask several questions; first, whether each living system, when examined independently, can be expected to continue indefinitely without detriment to other system components; and second, whether the connections of input, output, and throughput of energy and materials between systems is efficient and produces little physical waste, disorder, or dissipated energy (Thayer, 1994). According to Robert L. Thayer, Sustainable landscape will: 1. Use primarily renewable, horizontal energy at rates which can be regenerated without ecological destabilization; 2. Maximize the recycling of resources, nutrients, and byproducts and produce minimum "waste," or conversion of materials to unusable locations or forms; 3. Maintain local structure and function, and not reduce the diversity or stability of the surrounding ecosystems; 4. Preserve and serve local human communities rather that change or destroy them; 5. Incorporate technologies that support these goals. In the sustainable landscape, technology is secondary and subservient, not primary and dominating. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 5 Sustainable landscapes also require concurrent social structures and cultural values that support sustainability. Human culture, of course, is an immensely complex system of codes, behaviors, signs, and symbols. Today there are strong indicators of an increasing desire for sustainable living: intentional communities built upon sustainable values; watershed associations and citizen-initiated planning advisory groups (Thayer, 1994). Finally, continuous monitoring, feedback, and conscious change are important for sustainable landscape management. When the work of planning, design, and engineering is done, management takes over. Because regenerative systems continue to evolve after taking their initial form, management is necessarily a creative activity as well (Lyle, 1994). 5.4 The Precedents of Water, Plant and Habitat Sustainable Landscape The conservation and creative use of key resources—water, plants, wildlife and nutrients—re-establishes natural balance and enhances the city by diversifying its environment and providing a variety of benefits. Water, stored temporarily or as a permanent feature, contributes to the reestablishment of the hydrological cycle and solves problems of water quality, groundwater recharge and stream erosion. The conservation and enhancement of remnant native forest associations and the naturalized plant communities contribute to biological stability and social usefulness by maintaining a greater diversity of plant species and wildlife habitats (Thayer, 1994). 5.4.1 Storm Water An ecological basis for urban design suggests that when the city's water resources are recycled back into the system there are reduced costs and increased benefits. Urban development becomes a participant in the operation of natural systems (Hough, 1984). The basic lesson that nature provides in the water cycle is one of storage. Natural floodplains and lakes are the storage reservoirs of rivers that reduce the magnitude of peaks downstream, by spreading and equalizing flows over a longer period of time. Vegetated soils and woodlands provide storage by trapping and percolating water through the ground with minimum run-off and maximum benefit to groundwater recharge. Water quality is enhanced by vegetation and storage that in turn will contribute to the diversity of natural and human habitat. Thus storm drainage must be designed to correspond as closely as possible to natural patterns, allowing water to be retained and absorbed into the soil at a similar rate to natural conditions (Ibid). Vegetation is the crucial factor that ensures that water is recycled back to the natural system. Natural drainage, woodlands, rough grass small streams and marshes preserved for this purpose provide the functional basis for determining open space patterns (Ibid). With examples like Allentown's Trexler Park (Allentown, Pennsylvania); Arcata's Wastewater Wildlife Marsh (Areata, California), and the West Davis Ponds (Davis, California), it is possible for any community to gain both clear direction and inspiration to reclaim the ecological integrity and sustainability of the water that courses through its riparian surface and buried pipe "veins" (Thayer, 1994). In addition to taming the automobile and saving household energy, the community of Village Homes in Davis, California has a highly successful open or "natural" drainage system. Instead of Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 6 buried storm drains, frequent curb cuts in the streets empty water into common area swales interrupted by numerous check dams or weirs. This system allows winter storm water to collect and percolate into the local soil profile and allows an ephemeral riparian planting regime to take hold. After rains, the retention ponds fill up, but percolate down within a matter of hours. Combined with the general de-emphasis on chemical herbicides and pesticides the open drainage system allows for a rich ecological diversity- there are toads, lady beetles, doves, mockingbirds, killdeer, cedar waxwings, crows, magpies, owls and numerous flocks of migratory birds visit each year, and an occasional resident possum or skunk. The open drainage system is a haven for small children who enjoy the ability to directly interact with the water, sand, and mud. In summer, when the rains have gone, many percolation ponds double as sandboxes and excavation sites for toy trucks and sandcastles. Other percolation zones are in lawns, and allow shady venues for camping out under the stars (Ibid). In summary, The natural drainage system of Village Homes allows storm water to collect behind small weirs (a) and percolate into the soil in small, temporary ponds (b) Open drainage systems can reduce site development material costs, improve habitat, add visual diversity and provide places for children to experience nature firsthand (Thayer, 1994). Water, being a part of the whole interconnected system of natural processes, affects every aspect of the subject at hand. It is central to the maintenance of biological communities- plants and animals- which are themselves vital to the city's environmental health (Hough, 1984). 5.4.2 Plants and Habitat Plants are the basis of life on earth. They produce all the oxygen in the earth's atmosphere: they provide the food through photosynthesis and the habitats that support all living creatures (Thayer, 1994). Aquatic plants can act as a filter. Biologists have known for some years that marshes have very high capacities for recycling wastes. The highly productive nature of marshland ecology promotes the uptake of nitrates and phosphates by aquatic plants (Hough, 1984). Planting to provide a diverse vegetation structure and an adequate food and cover supply in a park could greatly enhance the diversity of wildlife in the city. Tall trees provide an upper-story canopy for birds preferring this habitat, (such birds as Vireos, Tanagers and Orioles). Smaller trees attract other species of the intermediate canopy ground cover and shrubs provide places for species preferring habitats closer to the ground such as song sparrows. Food sources may be provided by planting fruit and berry-bearing shrubs and trees, patches of wild or cultivated flowers that are a source of food for seedeaters in the fall and winter. Cover and a water supply will also be provided to create a varied and useful habitat that will attract a large number of animal and bird species at different times of year (Ibid). Woodland and forest, grassland and meadow, marshes and water, are the habitat for wildlife. The diversity, structure and continuing evolution of plant communities and their interaction with landform, soils and climate, dictate the diversity and stability of wildlife populations (Ibid). The layering or structure of forest vegetation provides distinct environments that support different groups of species. Some feed and breed on the forest floor, some inhabit the uderstorey and others live in the canopy. Warblers have been found to populate well defined nesting niches according to species, thus reducing competition and enabling a large variety of species to occupy the same forest (Papanek, 1971). Different plant associations provide places for different groups of species. Plant succession produces, over time, a range of habitats from Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 7 open field to mature forests. Each successive stage is home for different associations of insects, birds and animals (Hough, 1984). Open land was populated by Savannah Sparrows, Song Sparrows and Bobolinks. In low brush these were replaced by Field Sparrows, Nashville and Chestnut-sided Warblers. Pioneer forest attracted ovenbirds, warblers in the succeeding evergreens. Woodpeckers and Kinglets appeared with the climax forest (Ibid). Similarly, in aquatic environments, the increased productivity of a lake as it proceeds from an oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) condition to a eutrophic (nutrient-rich) one attracts an increasing number and variety of wildlife species (Hough, 1984, p162). Thus wetlands, being highly productive ecosystems, provide habitat for large numbers of birds and other wildlife. Places that have many different plant associations tend to bericher in species than those that have only a few. The composition and numbers of wildlife species are also affected by other factors. The edge, or interface between one habitat and another is often more diverse than the interior of the habitats themselves. Continuity of habitat provides essential migratory routes and helps maintain wildlife populations (Ibid). Although many species of wildlife depend on wetlands, the destruction of natural wetlands has been particularly severe in and around most densely populated urban regions. The ability of wildlife to survive urban pressures depends on the complexity, productivity and quality of habitat. It also depends on the intensity and kind of public use and the varying degrees of restriction imposed on the site. The best habitats in cities are often those with the greatest impediments to human use (Ibid). In the urban parks of the Dutch cities, the well-known image of tulip beds and beautifully tended lawns is only one part of a great diversity of habitats that are considered essential to a good park environment. These habitats serve many purposes, including a climate function, active and passive recreation, and education in natural sciences, horticulture, animal husbandry and allotment gardening. Every major park in the large cities contains wildlife sanctuaries and interpretive centers where animals and birds may be observed and studied in their particular habitats (Ibid). Setting aside areas as wildlife reserves would enhance many city parks and would reduce maintenance costs as well. The lake in Stanley Park in Vancouver is a favorite place for visiting and breeding birds. Disturbance to breeding swans by people and domestic pets has been minimized by incorporating simple fences between the footpaths and nesting sites along the lake edge (Thayer, 1994). In this way the enjoyment and educational value of seeing nesting birds is maintained easily and effectively (Ibid). 6. Design Criteria "Parks are the designated recreation places for urban people." Thayer, Robert L. 1994 Design Criteria for a good park (Molnar, Rutledge, 1986) 1. Design everything with a purpose. Have good relations of the park to its surroundings, use areas and structures; 2. Design with people in mind. Have a good balance of impersonal and personal needs; Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 8 3. Both function and aesthetics must be satisfied. Have good balance of dollar and human values; 4. Establish a substantial experience, including effects of lines, forms, textures and colors, dominance and enclosure; 5. Establish an appropriate experience, suited to the personality of the place, user, function and scale; 6. Satisfy technical requirements, including size, quantities and operating needs; 7. Meet needs for lowest possible cost; 8. Provide for supervision ease. Have good circulation, safety, and balance of use freedom and control. 7. Principles of Sustainable City Park "The first connection to be reestablished is that between people and nature; and next is that between art and science. At its best, environmental design is where people and nature meet, where art and science join." Lyle, John Tillman. 1994, Pix Humans can be considered natural players in the dynamics of the ecosystems they inhabit and change. When analyzing a human-influenced ecosystem, it is most important to keep in mind that humans are only part of, and not the center of a greater system of structure, order, and operation (Thayer, 1994). In practice, to establish a sustainable park, the principles below should be followed. 7.1 Principles of Sustainable City Park 7.1.1 Social 1. Promote health and a good quality of life for residents in the community and visitors; 2. Provide a diversity of recreational needs, both passive and active, and for all age groups (especially children) in a park (City of Vancouver, 1999 and 2003); 3. Profile environmentally sustainable practices and incorporate education by making sustainability methods visible (City of Vancouver, 2003; UEI, 2002); 4. Celebrate cultural heritage and provide for cultural and athletic uses (City of Vancouver, 1999 and 2003); 5. Provide easy to access for the residents to the park, including handicapped access; enhance the relations and connection of each spaces. 7.1. 2 Ecology 1. Decrease the usage of resources. Protect the local and global environment by using less energy, water, and materials in the park. Extend the life cycle of materials in the landscape (UEI, 2002); Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 9 2. Increase the connectivity. Connect the park to the network in surrounding neighborhoods and nearby greenways; 3. Enhance the diversity and productivity. Maximize the soil and biological productivity and site biodiversity in a park (Sheltair Group, 1998); 4. Increase the water restoration and the water efficiency. Maximize restoration of aquatic environments; increase availability of marine and foreshores habitats (Sheltair Group, 1998) as well as wildlife habitats. Increase the presence of naturalized freshwater ecosystems; reduce potable water usage, and decrease wastewater production and resulting pollution in a park (UEI, 2002; Sheltair Group, 1998); 5. Reduce storm water run-off quantities. Improve storm water quality, increase groundwater recharge, and filter water in parks (UEI, 2002); 6. Maximize the recycling of resources, nutrients, and byproducts and produce minimum "waste," or conversion of materials to unusable locations or forms in a park. 7.1.3 Economic 1. Ensure park costs are allocated equitably (City of Vancouver, 1999); 2. Reduce energy consumption in the park; 3. Maximize sustainable and efficient use of energy resources; 4. Meet needs for the lowest possible cost. 7.2 Evaluation Criteria for Sustainable City Parks 7.2.1. Social 1. Provide interpretive information about the sustainable practices and technologies in use at a number of sites in the park; 2. Provide a number and diversity of spaces allocated to community and cultural uses; 3. Provide a number of spaces with various functions in the park. 7.2. 2 Ecological 1. Decrease the usage of resources. Provide a percentage of structures on site that are lit only when required; Provide a percentage of buildings with a southern aspect; Provide a percentage of use of efficient irrigation systems. 2. Increase the connectivity. Provide a high level of interconnectivity between parks and open space; Provide the greatest extent of habitat connectivity (Forman, 1990; Thayer, 1994). 3. Enhance the diversity and productivity. Soil: Provide high soil organic matter levels (Forman, 1990); Provide a limited rate and amount of pesticide / herbicide use (Thayer, 1994); Provide soil moisture retention capability and drainage. Biological productivity: Provide a defined percentage of roof surfaces with vegetation in a park; Provide a defined percent of area dedicated to organic food production; Provide a defined percent of site with native vegetation; Provide a defined percent of site with vegetative cover. Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 10 Site biodiversity: Attempt to maximize the number of bird species surveyed in a park. To do this provide a number of various types of plant communities and habitats appropriate for the park (Forman, 1990; Sheltair Group, 1998); Provide a defined percent of site vegetation that provides food and shelter to wildlife; Provide a level of vegetative vertical stratification; Provide an amount of usable shade created by vegetation and structures for habitat; Provide a depth of leaf litter (insect and small mammal habitat); Provide an amount of habitat for amphibians and reptiles (as opposed to just birds and mammals); Provide an amount of space with significant habitat value (City of Vancouver, 2003; Sheltair Group, 1998). 4. Increase the water restoration. Provide a lakeshore that filters water. 5. Enhance the water efficiency. Provide for daylighting of pre-existing stream courses in parks. 6. Reduce storm water run-off quantities. Reduce the amount of storm water runoff conveyed at the surface of road and roof in the park (City of Vancouver, 2003); Increase infiltration through retention, vegetation and reduction in impermeable surfaces. 7. Decrease the waste. Provide a level of use of long-lasting building materials and quality construction techniques; Provide a percentage of fly ash concrete content in all concrete (UEI, 2002); Provide a percentage of recycled construction waste (UEI, 2002). 7.2.3 Economic 1. Provide level of ownership and maintenance by residents as opposed to Parks Board; 2. Provide a percentage of solar powered lighting utilized in the park, reducing peak electrical power demand for the park; 3. Provide a percentage of sewage treated within the park; 4. Provide a percentage of irrigation water from rainwater collection; 5. Provide a percentage of recycled materials and of renewable energy generated within the park. 8. The Site Analysis 8.1 Existing Context John Hendry Park is located in East Vancouver on latitude 49° 15' 20"north; 123°03'40" west. It is bounded by Nanaimo to the west, Broadway to the south, and Victoria Dr. to the east and sky train to the north (Ker, Priestman & Associates Ltd, 1976). It is one of the larger neighborhood parks in the city. It covers an area of approximately 65 acres. Trout Lake (about 8 acres) is in the middle of the park and the Trout Lake Community Center is on the west edge of it. The lake and its surrounding parkland are currently used for many varied sports and recreational purposes. During summer time, big activities of the city are held here, such as the Lanterns Festival and the Summer Farm Market (Figure 8.1.1 The park location). Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 11 Currently, most of the surrounding area is single family residential. According to the development planning, west and north of John Hendry Park will increase the residential density in the future, due to an increase in zoning density to duplex from single family detached (Figure Figure 8.1.1 The park location Figure 8.1.2 Zoning map around John Hendry Park Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 12 8.2 Watershed Analysis Examining the topography and hydrology of John Hendry Park, shows that Trout Lake is the lowest area in the watershed. According to the nature landform, there are three watersheds situated in the south of Trout Lake, from which storm water contributes to Trout Lake. The big water comes from the southeast and west (Figure 8.2.1 Watershed map). John Hendry Park Watershed Analysis Figure 8.2.1 Watershed map The water balance of Trout Lake is made up of: a) Input from: 1. Surface runoff from the surrounding park area; 2. Direct rainfall over the water surface; 3. Minimal ground water flows from the surrounding soil body; 4. The inflow of city water through the fountain at the southern end b) Losses from: 1. Evaporation from the water surface; 2. Outflow through the 24" overflow pipe in the northwestern corner. Max depth of the lake is 6.4 ft. Mean depth of the lake is 4.3 ft. (Ker, Priestman & Associates LTD, 1976). 8.3 Inventory Realizing the Sustainable City Park- Redesign of John Hendry Park 13 Inventory Map Of John Hendry Park Figure 8.3.1 Map of inventory Besides these, Walking Dogs and Lantern Festival use all the park area From the Map above, we can see the Inventory of the John Hendry Park is: 1. Trout Lake • Swimming • Fishing • Kayaking 2. Community Center 3. Parking (Paved 5 parking areas with total 351 parking lots) (Summer Farm Market use one of the parking lot on Saturday during the summer time) 4. Kid's Playground (2) 5. Night Soccer Field (1) (gravel surface) 6. Tennis Court (4) (concrete) 7. Baseball Playground (5) 8. Soccer Field (1) 9. Man-made Sand Shore/Beach (1) 10. Deck and Board Walk 11. Duck Nesting Island (1) 12. Picnic Area 13. Changing Room (1 building) 14. Marsh Vegetation Area 15. Bridge (1) 16. Walking Trail 17. Biking Trail 8 . 4 People Flow and Access Analysis There is no main entrance for John Hendry Park. It is easy for people to access this park from various directions. A lot of people go to the community center first and then enter the park from the center. Because of the two big roads (Commercial Dr. and Victoria Dr. with traffic lights on the Grandview highway) right on the west of the park, more people and more vehicles come from west and northwest of the park. Because of the Grandview highway cutting on the northeast corner of the park, there is no friendly pedestrian route connecting the north residential area and the northeast corner of the park. Although there is a bridge over the highway, the busy traffic and noise are also reasons why fewer people come from northeast. When people drive along the highway, it is difficult to be aware of the park. Based on the analysis, four potential entrances in the park are shown on the analysis drawing. Combining the community center, parking and west entrance together and making it a main entrance will meet the requirements of the people and vehicle flow and enhance the attractiveness of this park (Figure 8.4.1 People flow and access analysis). Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 14 People Row And Access Analysis Figure 8.4.1 People flow and access analysis 8.5 Circulations and View Analysis According to the analysis, there are five factors that can be concluded (Figure 8.5.1 Circulation and view analysis). 1. There is only one circulation in the existing park and a bikeway going through it. People have no other choice of route (Figure 8.5.2 Existing circulation). 2. Walking along the circulation, people receive only one impression—that of open spaces with scattered trees outside the lake all along the circulation. 3. The park has little view diversity and few viewpoints (passive recreation area). Good views are around the lake and looking to the north mountain as well. More comfortable and diverse viewpoints need to be created. 4. Edges of the park, which are back lanes and residential houses, need to be concerned about views both inside and outside the park. 5. Community Center area needs to be more harmonious with the park. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 15 Circulation And View Analysis Figure 8.5.1 Circulation and view analysis Figure 8.5.2 Existing circulation Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 16 8.6 Degree of Use Analysis According to the analysis, the most intense areas of use include entrance parking, the community center and the main circulation road. They are all used year round. High degree areas of land use include the lawn between Community Center and the lake, the beach, the two kid's playgrounds and the pavilion picnic area. Middle degree areas of use include sports areas (some are seasonal), swimming area (only summertime), and north parking area. Low degree areas of use include the south lawn area, the northeast corner of the park and the front of the Community Center area. Seldom used areas include the water body and the marsh vegetation area on the bank, which have limited access (Figure 8.6.1 Degree of use analysis). Figure 8.6.1 Degree of use analysis 8.7 Eco-Sensitive Analysis Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 17 Eco-sensitive Areas are the areas where special measures may be given to protect the natural habitats which present a high level of vulnerability (Figure 8.7.1 Eco-sensitive analysis). Eco-Sensitive Map Of John Hendry Park Figure 8.7.1 Eco-sensitive analysis According to the definition of the eco-sensitive area, in John Hendry Park, the most sensitive area includes the lakeshore and the water body. They have very high levels of vulnerability. Second level sensitive areas are riparian areas. Middle level sensitive areas include the sports lawn. And Low sensitive level areas are parking areas and structure areas. 8.8 Statistics of Sports Fields Nearby The question is "Are the sport fields in John Hendry Park efficient all year round?" According to the Facility Statistics Report of the Park Board in Vancouver, the Soccer field at the northeast in Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 18 John Hendry Park has 67.39% usage by day and 19.66% usage by hour. The other play field has 31.78% usage by day and 7.75 % usage by hour (Figure 8.8.1 Charts for the use degree of playing fields). Some sport fields tend to be seasonal. The Use Degree of Playing F i e l d i n John Hendry Park 80r' 60 40 20 0 Usage Percentage by Day FJ playing f i e l d NE • Playing f i e l d NW • Playing f i e l d • Playing f i e l d -sand The Use Degree of P lay ing F i e l d i n John Hendry Park w Usage Percentage by Hour • P lay ing f i e l d NE • P laying f i e l d NW • P lay ing f i e l d • P laying f i e l d -sand Figure 8.8.1 Charts for the use degree of playing fields Another question is "Does the park need so many sports fields?" Within 10 blocks of John Hendry Park, there are 8 soccer fields, 4 tennis courts, 4 baseball fields and 9 informal playgrounds (Figure 8.8.2 The surrounding sports fields of John Hendry Park). In order to increase the efficiency of usage, give more lands for restoration of Trout Lake marsh habitat and establish a healthy and sustainable city park, overlapping the sport fields are proposed. % Soccer Field (8 ) # Tennis Court ( 4 ) # Baseball Field (4 ) A Informal Playground ( 9 ) Figure 8.8.2 The surrounding sports fields of John Hendry Park 8.9 Existing Factors Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — — Redesign of John Hendry Park 19 T a b l e 8.9.1 E c o - f a c t o r s o f E x i s t i n g J o h n H e n d r y Park Total Area: 275120 m 2 Name Gravel paved Concrete paved Vegetations Grass Water Beach Buildings Tota l A r e a Area (m2) 17888 15881 12290 182029 39716 2803 4513 275120 Percentage(%) 6.5 5.8 4.5 66.2 14.4 1.0 1.6 100 Perimeter: 2309m Roads, Baseball area and kid's playground Roads, Parking and Tennis Courts Marsh plants (shrub) Trout Lake Man-made Summary: Permeable area 254726 Impermeable area 20394 92.6 7.4 The plant community is the result of the processes that have occurred or are occurring on the site. T a b l e 8.9.2 T h e Habitat D ivers i ty o f the E x i s t i n g J o h n H e n d r y Park Name Area (m2) Percentage (%) Note M i x e d F o r e s t R ipar ian M a r s h O l d F ie ld H e d g e r o w M e a d o w 0 7133 5157 182029 3092 0 0 2.6 1.9 66.2 1.1 0 15m width along the bank Grass open spaces 9. Proposed Design "There are many situations where a greater balance could be brought to the city environment by a greater respect for natural processes in design and management." Thayer, Robert L. 1994 9.1 Proposed program 9.1.1 Proposed program 1). Various sports Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 20 • A soccer field (including grass hockey and football) • Two baseball fields • Tennis courts • Swimming area (including Aquatic playground) • Walking trail (including running trail) • Fishing area • Biking trail • Model sailboats competition area • Kayaking area 2) . Recreation • Resting area • Dog releasing pond • Picnic areas • Bird watching deck • Sunbathe on the beach • Open fireplaces • Nature center • Viewing site • Kid's playgrounds • Woodland area • Reading Shelter 3) . Public Activities • Lantern Festival • Farm Market • Community garden • Concerts • Other festivals • Various shows • Outdoor classes • Convenient meeting place • Gymnastic exercises and dances (outdoor) • Various competitions (fishing, sailboats, etc.) • Community Activities • Celebration activities 4). Restoration and Sustainability Aspects • Wetland demonstration area Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 21 • Restore (Daylight) the streams around the lake • Plant association diversity in restoration areas (including the riparian, wetland and forest areas) • Habitat diversity in restoration area, (including the nesting islands) • Sustainable educational gallery and signs 9.1.2 Program Relationship Table 9.1.2 Program Relationship a) Parking b) Access a) Bathhouse b) Beach, c) Resting area and furniture d) Viewing points e) Parking (drop off) f) Access trail g) Water area h) Open space a) Circulation b) Viewing point c) Resting spaces a) Trad b) Deck or bank c) Sitting furniture d) Viewpoint e) Education sign f) Educational gallery a) Trail b) Deck c) Watching area d) Lake e) Parking ^~^D6g releasing!^* " ™ ^ i " * r ;lfv''":{Kr .... , . . . : » . . . . i . V . r i y * ^ . t . . . ,. •; . . • $ » ! . . L i f t s , r ...as?.-fff.r,A a) Access to water b) Trail c) Open space d) Watching point f) Resting furniture -^s^picnlclif«as7including open firepiacesr7 - ' ' * " • * • ~ " ~ 7 " , ^ T ~ T ~ ; ^ T 7 " V * >rp a) Playfields b) Comfort station c) Parking d) Concession a) Access trail b) Habitat restoration area c) Bird watching d) Parking e) Outdoor classroom g) Education gallery and sings h) Viewing point I) Resting area and furniture Realizing the Sustainable City Pa rk— Redesign of John Hendry Park 2 2 a) Trail b) Furniture c) Deck or open space a) Community center and daycare center b) Swimming area c) Picnic area d) Access trail e) Resting area a) Trail b) Plant community restoration area c) Resting area and furniture d) Viewing point e) Open space A l l the aspects in the park 5 \ , „ i...iA , \. A-; a) Community garden b) Parking c) Access trail M^J^£onvaniant-maatina*nla<M>Gvmn^ a) Access trail b) Open space c) Resting furniture d) Parking » ' i • /Wetland demonstration area a) Educational gallery and signs b) Trail (or deck or walking board) , " fW.* -^ . ; * . . • *" fM % . „ \ ,' • - 1. „, ,,, i. •„», a .,n,,l„. a) Wetland area b) Lake area c) Nesting islands d) Nature flows of restoration area e) Habitat area f) Dog releasing pond g) Woods area h) Trail (access) i) Viewing point a) Lake area b) Riparian area c) Wetland area d) Woods area e) Habitat area f) Access (trail) g) Viewing point h) Fishing area • V Habitat diversity in restoration area, (including the nesting islands) a) Nesting Island b) Access (trial) c) Bird watching area d) Fishmg area e) Educational gallery and sign f) Nature house g) Wetland area h) Stream (day lighted) • i Sustainable educational gallery and signs A l l over the park area Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 23 9.1.3 Concept Diagram Figure 9.1.3.1 Program relationship diagram SUMMER FARM PROGRAM RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 9.1.4 Design Concept Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 24 Figure 9.1.4.1 Concept diagram CONCEPT DIAGRAM Relation of each area to the site (characteristics of each program) 1. Nature House Good view Approximate to diverse natural interest area Isolated from noise Easy to access and to be visible from most part of the park 2. Habitat restoration area Isolated water area with nesting islands Less human activities with access limitation and far from noise Diverse plant communities and landforms with good soil Incorporate a sustainable natural drainage system and irrigation system Related riparian and wetland area Plenty of "edge" areas Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 25 3. W o o d s Good soil with flat or undulating landform Have diverse enclosed open spaces and passive activity area Good views to the lake Diverse mixed planting forest with high vertical foliage density Thick leaf litter 4. W e t l a n d (day l ighted s t ream) Undulating landform with certain slope Stable soil Relate to the lake and the restoration area 5. B e a c h arid s w i m m i n g Sandy soil Changing room Maximum solar exposure Close to kid playground Good views Easy to access 6. O u t d o o r act iv i t ies (the a x i s o f the c e n t e r bui ld ing) Related to the community center and easy access Good views of, and connection to the lake Flat site Transition from urban to nature Separated activity spaces 7. P i c n i c k i n g Flat site with stable soil Canopy trees View of water (good views) In path of summer breezes form lake Related play area in flat treeless space 8. C o m m u n i t y g a r d e n ( s u m m e r fa rm market) Flat site Related the summer farm market Good connection with the park Separated but not isolated with other parts of the park Easy access 9. E n t r a n c e Flat area with parking lot nearby Have good opposite views to attract people to the park 10. S o c c e r f ie ld a n d b a s e b a l l a rea Flat site with parking lots Easy to access Separated with quiet resting area Have comfortable audience area Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 2 6 11. Tennis court Easy access, near parking lots Flat site 12. Open space Good views Canopy trees Flat or undulant landform 13. Dog release pond Separated from other activates Easy to access Near water 14. Kayaking deck Near parking and entrance Close to the big water 9.2 Master Plan Figure 9.2.1 The layout of the park (next page) and Figure 9.2.2 John Hendry Park master plan with planting. 1) Community center and the outdoor activity area In order to create a harmonious relationship between the community center and the lake, a friendly walkway with water feature connects the center and the lake along the axis of the building. A small plaza deck with an arbor, floating on the west edge of the lake is the end of the walkway. The arbour and the center building echo each other with the same roof style. There are also several open spaces along the path for outdoor activities. The walkway and the deck integrate the center and the park as a whole and increase the view quality from both sides. They also provide a transition from the urban to the natural landscape. (See detail design) The children's playground integrates with the daycare, occupying the northeast corner of the building. In order to collect the roof water, a goldfish pond is right on the east of the center. Due to the higher terrace, this is a good place for resting, enjoying the fish, chatting and viewing the park. 2) Daylight stream To improve the water quality of the lake and take advantage of all the storm water from the watershed, a biological treatment wetland is created at the southeast of the park. The source of the stream is the water pumped from dog releasing pond and the duck ponds, as well as storm water from the city system. After being treated in the wetland, the purified stream water goes back to the lake. This sustainable wetland not only increases the water quality, but also enhances the habitat and the biodiversity of the site (Figure 9.2.3 Wetland perspectives). 3) Habitat restoration and the woods area In order to enhance the habitat diversity, small islands, peninsulas and a dyke are created on the northeast of the lake to offer various territories for different species. The densely wooded island in the lake provides undisturbed sanctuary for many species of ducks and other birds. And also the sanctuary is close enough to allow people to observe the activities of its inhabitants (Hough, 1984). The nature house is located on one peninsula and Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 27 provides public education and possibly some research. The nature house is also a demonstration building using various sustainable technologies. Besides these, a quiet bird watching spot and a viewing deck provide people with a good place to get various experiences (Figure 9.2.4 Restoration area grass perspective), (Figure 9.2.5 woods perspective). Figure 9.2.1 The layout of the park Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — — Redesign of John Hendry Park 28 PARKING (FARM MARKET) Figure 9.2.2 John Hendry Park master plan with planting To limit the access and to protect this restoration area from disturbance by human activities and noise, this area is surrounded by woods. The intent of it is to create diverse plant associations that are in harmony with the nature of the site (Hough, 1984). Several enclosed open spaces with meadows, grass or shrubs are interspersed in the woods providing a diversity of spaces. A reading shelter is located at one of the open space to offer people rest, passive activity facilities. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 29 Figure 9.2.3 Wetland perspectives Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 4) Community garden and the summer farm market. The community garden, along with the parking lot, which is used as the farm market during the summertime, occupies the northwest corner of the park. They are close to the west main entrance and have good connection with the park. The water feature supplies the water for the garden, and serves as a center of the market as well. The trellises with resting benches provide a good environment for people shopping, chatting, performing, teaching and learning. On the east side of the garden, the pedestrian road also offers people social area. 5) Sports area To reduce the interaction between sports and other activities, the sport area is focused on the northeast corner of the park. To increase the efficiency of the usage, the two baseball fields and the soccer field are overlapped. Being on the corner and surrounded by the woods, the sports activities don't disturb other activities in the park. 6) Circulation Instead of one circulation, the new proposal has more options for people to choose. The fast bike road is separated from the interior circulation. There are three hierarchical routes in the park. Walking along these routes, not only can people get to different.destinations, but also feel various experiences and enjoy diverse views. All of the pavement in the park is of permeable materials. The proposed parking lots use grass pavers. _ _____ _ Figure 9.2.4 Restoration area grass perspective Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 31 TRAIL AND WOODS PERSPECTIVE Figure 9.2.5 Woods perspective Figure 9.2.6 Section index Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 32 OPEN s r A a MAIN OPEN SPACE PARKING (GRASS) CIRCULATION (GRASS) MAIN CIBOMllDtj R1PAMAL i - • r r P « EAST NESTIKfc MAIN BIKE WATER ISLAND; STREAM WOODS CIRCULATION WOODS _ _ _ | y _ j | _ » A Y Figure 9.2.7 Section 1-1 COMMUNITY CENTER fRONr COMMUNITY SLOPE CEHTER TENNIS COURT u m OPEN SPACE PICNIC AREA CIRCULATION BEACH TROUT LAKE SBEAJ! MAIN STREAM CIRCULATION WETLAIJD WETLAND WETLAND — r r WETLAND WOODS fAST BIKE WAY Figure 9.2.8 Section 2-2 ptmw WOODS WATER <R£STQSATION WTUfff AREA) NATURE SWIMMING CHANCING PtCHtC 8T.ACH ROOM M U Figure 9.2.9 Section 3-3 VIEWING DECK ISLANO BIRD WMCHMG AREA NATURE HOUSE TTT1TTTT STREAM CRASS (SMALL LAKEJGRASS Figure 9.2.1.0 Section 4-4 READING LAKE MEADOW STREAM WOODS SHELTER GRASS . MAIN CIRCULATION WOODS WOODS FAST BIKE WAY Figure 9.2.11 Section 5-5 9.3 Detail Design The detail site is located between the community center and the lake area (Figure 9.3.1 The layout of the detail site). In order to increase the harmonious relationship between the community center and the lake, a friendly pedestrian way has been designed. At the end of the road is a viewing deck with roofed pavilion providing people a good viewpoint for the opposite side of the lake (Figure 9.3.2 Viewing deck and pavilion detail). A shallow pond is located in the middle of the deck. A bridge and the seating wall together shape the edge of the pond and offer people a comfortable social and resting area (Figure 9.3.3 Sections of the bridge), (Figure 9.3.4 North-south section of the channel road), (Figure 9.3.5 East-west section of the pavilion deck), (Figure 9.3.6 Details of seating wall), (Figure 9.3.7 Details of the rail). Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 33 avilion Deck Figure 9.3.1 The layout of the detail site Figure 9.3.2 Viewing deck and pavilion detail Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 34 Figure 9.3.6 Details of seating wall Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 35 0.20 H 0.20 » O O M N UATCRIAL ( W I H T E C LIGHT B t O W ) GLASS ( N O COLOUR) WOODEH U A T F R U I XX X 0,40 J,0.40 ,0.37 ,0.46 ,0.57 , 0.40 ,040 PAVILION RAIL ELEVATION L L WOODEN MATERIAL (PAINTED UCHT BROWN) l- l SECTION PAVILION RAIL PLAN VIEW Figure 9.3.7 Details of the rail The material of the rail and top surface of the seating wall is hard wood. The color is light brown (Figure 9.3.8 Color of the wooden materials), (Figure 9.3.9 Pebble bottom of the pond). Figure 9.3.8 Color of the wooden materials Figure 9.3.9 Pebble bottom of the pond The space of the outdoor activity patio is created by vegetation and the wooden pavement (Figure 9.3.10 Patio pavement). Big trees provide shade. It is a good place for outdoor Realizing the Sustainable City Park- Redesign of John Hendry Park 36 dancing and Tai-Chi and other exercise (Figure 9.3.11 Details of the patio), (Figure 9.3.12 Section of the patio). Figure 9.3.10 Patio pavement -Figure 9.3.11 Details of the patio Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 37 Figure9.3.12 Section of the patio The channel of the pedestrian road is very shallow with 20cm depth, and colored pebbles as the bottom materials. During the summer time when there is no water left, it is still good looking and fun for kids (Figure 9.3.13 Details of the center area). The higher channel on the circle road uses the same material on the bottom as the channel in the middle of pedestrian road (Figure 9.3.14 Section of the higher channel). The base of the higher channel is porous concrete (Figure 9.3.15 Colour of the concrete), (Figure 9.3.16 The section of the center area), (Figure 9.3.17 Section of the pedestrian road), (Figure 9.3.18 Coloured pebble on the channel bottom), (Figure 9.3.19 Pavement pattern and colour). Figure 9.3.13 Details of the center area Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — — Redesign of John Hendry Park 3 8 PERMEABLE PAVEMENT 0.20 0.20 Figure 9.3.16 Section of the center area Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 39 Figure 9.3.17 Section of the pedestrian road Figure 9.3.18 Coloured pebble on the channel bottom (left) Figure 9.3.19 Pavement pattern and colour (right) The goldfish pond collects the roof water of the community center. Due to the differences of the elevation, the terrace is a good place for people to take a rest and enjoy the good view to the east of the park (Figure 9.3.20 The details of the goldfish pond and viewing terrace). The detail of the seating wall and the wall match the style with the rail on the pavilion deck (Figure 9.3.21 Section of the seating wall—type I), (Figure 9.3.22 Section of the seating wall--type II). Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 40 Figure 9.3.20 The details of the goldfish pond and viewing terrace Figure 9.3.21 Section of the seating wall—type I Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 41 0.15 Figure 9.3.22 Section of the seating wall-type II On the northeast corner of the community center is the children's playground, connecting with the daycare and the daycare playground (Figure 9.3.23 Details of the children's playground) (next page). Figure 9.3.24 shows the earthwork scheme of the park. Figure 9.3.24 The earthwork scheme of the park Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 42 Figure 9.3.23 Details of the children's playground 10. Sustainable Technologies Applied in this park Daniel Bell (1973) has defined technology broadly as "the use of scientific knowledge to specify ways of doing things in a reproducible manner" (p. 29). "Sustainable technologies contribute to a reintegration of nature and human nature" (Thayer, 1994). Sustainable technologies are those developed and utilized because of their relatively benign or stabilizing effects on human cultures and surrounding ecosystems. All technologies have Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 43 environmental impacts. However, the technologies likely to be considered sustainable may rely on renewable resources and more locally available materials, may be smaller in scale and more dispersed throughout the landscape rather than concentrated in a few centralized locations, and will likely emit only outputs and byproducts that are easily reabsorbed and utilized by surrounding ecosystems. Sustainable technologies may abandon the tendency to save time by rapidly consuming energy and wasting resources in favor of preserving ecological stability human community, self-sufficiency, and essential quality of life (Thayer, 1994). 1) Swale Landscape swales are planting areas with a slight depression of up to .15m that allow runoff to enter, infiltrate, and flow through. They are usually long and narrow in width, which makes them well suited for parking lots and other narrow landscape spaces. Swales are constructed with a variety of trees, shrubs, grasses, and ground cover, depending on soil. The roots of these plants help maintain an open soil structure and cause more water to infiltrate (France, 2002) (Figure 10.1 Swale). Figure 10.1 Swale 2) Biofiltration Biofiltration is a soil and plant-based storm water management best management practice (BMP) employed to filter runoff from developed communities. Biofiltration is a critical component of Low Impact Development (LID). All green space is made functional to keep storm water onsite, to minimize runoff by maximizing infiltration, and to employ natural processes for water quality improvement. Also known as a rain garden, a biofiltration facility consists of a porous soil covered with a thin layer of mulch. A stand of various grasses, shrubs, and small trees is established to promote evapotranspiration, maintain soil porosity, encourage biological activity, and promote uptake of some pollutants. Runoff from an impervious area is directed into the biofiltration facility. The water infiltrates through the plant/mulch/soil environment, providing the Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 44 treatment (http://www.ence.umd.edu/~apdavis/Bioret.htm) (Figure 10.2 Parking area bioretention cell). POND SOIL 1 .5M FILTER FABRIC GRAVEL O PIPE Figure 10.2 Parking area bioretention cell 3) Increase interflow Open lawns and play fields in the catchments are open spaces that can serve the dual purposes of recreation and runoff control. Groundwater recharge beds could be constructed under these areas, while maintaining their surface uses for sports and parks. Increasing the urban forest throughout the catchments reduces runoff, moderates urban climate, improves air quality, and reduces noise. A dense vegetative structure, such as trees, shrubs, and native ground covers, absorbs more rainwater than a turf slope and is more resistant to erosion during intense storms (France, 2002). Landscape infiltration areas can be integrated into the site landscaping. The design can be formal or informal in character. They may be used in courtyards, parking lots, or where other planting areas are available. Although the area is saturated during storm events, infiltration occurs quickly (Ibid). 4) Porous pavements Porous pavements allow us to take care of a large part of the urban runoff problem at the source, where the rain falls, without having to get into downstream basins at all (Ibid). There are many different types of porous materials are available to meet various needs. Such as grass pavers (used in parking lots), porous concrete, porous asphalt, and so on. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 45 5) M i n i m i z e i m p a c t t e c h n o l o g i e s The technologies of minimizing impact include: Minimize clearing; save organic soil; Alternative surfaces; Reforestation; Reduce pipes; Reduce impervious surfaces. 6) S t o r m w a t e r p l a n t e r ( p o n d s ) The storm water detention pond continues to be one off the most widely used techniques in storm water management. It has three basic functions: 1) flood control; 2) water quality enhancement; 3) ecological and aesthetic values. And also almost all storm water ponds provide some wildlife habitat value to the ecological system (France, 2002). 7) R o o f g a r d e n An eco-roof is a lightweight roof system of waterproofing material with a thin soil layer and protective cover of vegetation. The eco-roof can be used in place of a traditional roof (Ibid). There is a small spot on the roof of community center, which could be publicly accessible. This highly visible spot could be turned into a roof garden and provides an ideal site for upper-level urban green land (Figure 10.3 Roof garden on the Nature House). Figure 10.3 Roof garden on the Nature House 8) W e t l a n d "Constructed wetlands are principally intended to use natural processes and energy sources to remove water pollutants -- including, suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, pathogens, nitrogen, phosphorous, hydrocarbons, and metals. However, they also can be purposely Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 46 designed, monitored, and integrated within the landscape to provide attractive and quality habitat for wildlife. Other ancillary benefits are also commonly realized, such as water reclamation and reuse, outdoor recreation, educational opportunities, and aesthetic improvements" (http://www.suscon.org/wetlands/index.asp) (Figure 10.4 Recommended storm water treatment pond edge plantings), (Figure 10.5 Wetland pond). 3 > (BOCM TO 180CM OF WATER) R E C O M M E N D E D S T O R M W A T E R T R E A T M E N T P O O D E D G E P L A N T I N G S Figure 10.4 Recommended storm water treatment pond edge plantings Overflow (Optional) Figure 10.5 Wetland pond 9) Water harvest Some ponds (infiltration basin) have been combined with water harvesting to support multiple ecological functions. They receive storm water from the roof of the community center and support water features. One is a goldfish pond for recreation on the south. Realizing the Sustainable City Park- Redesign of John Hendry Park 47 One is a shallow retention pond in the children's playground on the north, planted with native wetland vegetation. The bottom of the pond is covered with small pebbles and sand. In the winter, it is the water feature; in the summer time, it still looks nice and becomes a children's play area. 10) Cistern The cistern in the community garden entrance area collects storm water all year round. It is used for irrigating the community garden, greenhouse, and the vegetation in the park. 11) Education Interpretive signs throughout the park explain the history of the park; the overall concept and design of the park; the vegetation, fish, and wildlife and their ecological importance, as well as the sustainable technologies. These signs are well integrated into the park. 12) Compost Compost is one of nature's best mulches and soil amendments. Using compost improves soil structure, texture, and aeration and increases the soil's water-holding capacity. Compost loosens clay soils and helps sandy soils retain water. Adding compost improves soil fertility and stimulates healthy root development in plants. The organic matter provided in compost provides food for microorganisms, which keeps the soil in a healthy, balanced condition (http://www.compostguide.com/7mcpstr). 11. Comparative Analysis of Existing And Proposed Design "There is an aesthetic appeal to old trees rising clear from an open grassed sward uninterrupted by obstructions. It is the landscape that is encouraged in urban parks because it permits maximum use of the ground plane for human activity. It is achieved all at once and is easily maintained. But this is a landscape without a future; the ultimate death of the old trees leaves nothing in their place." Hough, 1984. p132 11.1 Habitat Comparison From the charts below and the habitat maps, we can easily to see that, in the existing park, grass is the dominant eco-factor, and meanwhile, open space dominates the park and provides a low diversity of habitat (Figure 11.1.1 Existing eco-factors and habitat diversity charts). The E x i s t i n g Eco-Factors of John Hendry Park A A A • Gravel Paved • Concrete Paved • Vegetations • Grass • Water • Beach • Bu i ld ings Percentage The E x i s t i n g Habitat D i v e r s i t y o f John Hendry Park Percent age • Mixed Forest • R i p a r i a n • Harsh • Old F i e l d • Hedgerow • Meadow Figure 11.1.1 Existing eco-factors and habitat diversity charts Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 4 8 On the other hand, in the proposal, planted areas occupy the largest part of the park. Meanwhile, it has much more balanced habitat diversity (Figure 11.1.2 Proposal eco-factors and habitat diversity charts). The Eco-Fac tors of Proposal John Hendry Park Percentage • Gravel Paved • Permeable paved • Vegetations • Grass • Wat er • Beach • B u i l d i n g s The Habitat D i v e r s i t y of Proposal John Hendry Park Percentage BMixed Fores t | • Ripar ian • Marsh • Old F i e l d • Hedgerow ®Meadow Figure 11.1.2 Proposal eco-factors and habitat diversity charts Figure 11.1.4 Proposed habitat map Table 11.1.1 Eco-factors of Proposal John Hendry Park Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 50 Total Area: 275120 m 2 Perimeter: 2309m Name Gravel paved Permeable paved Vegetations Grass Water Beach Buildings Tota l A r e a Area (m2) 11431 25059 109155 74854 46970 2776 4915 275120 Percentage(%) 4.1 59.1 39.7 27.2 17.1 1.0 1.8 100 Roads, Baseball area Roads, Parking and Tennis Courts, Kid's Playground, square Summary: Permeable area 270205 Impermeable area 4915 98.2 1.8 T a b l e 11 .1 . 2 T h e Habitat D ivers i ty o f the P r o p o s a l J o h n H e n d r y Park Name Area (m2) Percentage (%) Note M i x e d F o r e s t R i p a r i a n M a r s h O l d F ie ld H e d g e r o w M e a d o w 25031 9735 12722 74854 35295 4119 9.1 3.5 4.6 27.2 12.8 1.5 15m width along the bank Grass open spaces 11.2 Activities Comparison From the comparison maps below, we can see that although the activities are not the dominate program in the proposal, there are still a lot of outdoor activities to meet various people's different needs (Figure 11.2.1 Existing activities keeping in the proposal), (Figure 11.2.2 New activities in the proposal), (Figure 11.2.3 Activities being deleted in the proposal). Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 51 NOTE: LANTERN FESTIVAL 1 CAN STILL USE THE WHOLE PARK AREA COMPARISfON NAME EXISTING AREA (SQUARE METERS) PROPOSAL AREA MARKET 37TJ 7185 PICNIC AREA 12S26 26507 DOG RELEASE AREA 1239 1330 PARKING LOT 351 (LOTS] 392 [LOTS) EXISTING ACTIVITIES KEEPING IN THE PROPOSAL Figure 11.2.1 Existing activities keeping in the proposal Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 52 Figure 11.2.2 New activit ies in the proposa l Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 53 ACTIVITIES BEING DELETED IN THE PROPOSAL Figure 11.2.3 Activities being deleted in the proposal 12. Conclusion To achieve a sustainable city park, various technologies and methods could be used and combined together. Only some of them have been discussed in this thesis. City parks have multiple functions in our urban life. They are the crucial areas to increase the landscape diversity and enhance the wildlife habitats. We have the responsibility to protect them for future generations. Sustainable development doesn't conflict with other functions. The key thing is to find the balance. "There are many situations where a greater balance could be brought to the city environment by a greater respect for natural processes in design and management" (Thayer, 1994). In a word, sustainable city parks are and will play more significant and more important roles in our modem life. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 54 References Ambrose, James. 1992. Site Details—From Architectural Graphic Standards. John Wiley & Sons, INC. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The coming of the Post-Industrial Age. New York. Basic Books. Campbell, Craig S. and Ogden, Michael H. 1999. Constructed Wetlands In The Sustainable Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto. Campbell, Craig S. and Ogden, Michael.1999. Constructed Wetlands in the Sustainable Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto. City of Vancouver Board of Parks & Recreation, 1976. Environmental Improvements to Trout Lake in John Hendry Park. Ker, Priestman & Associates Ltd. Ducks Unlimited Canada, 1998.Understanding Wetlands: A Wetland Handbook For British Columbia's Interior. Ducks Unlimited Canada. Kamloops. Firehock, Karen; Graff, Leah; Middleton, Julie V.; Starinchak, Kelly D. and Williams, Christy. 1998. Handbook For Wetlands Conservation And Sustainability. Gaithersburg, Md. U.S. France, Robert L. 2002. Handbook of Water Sensitive Planning and Design. Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, London, New York, Washington. D.C. France, Robert L. 2003.Wetland Design—Principles and Practices for Landscape Architects and Land -Use Planners. W.W. Norton. New York. London. Golder Associates. 1983.Geotechnical Investigation Parkiing Areas And Playing Fields John Hendry Park. City of Vancouver Board of Parks & Recreation. Vancouver. Hammer, Donald A. 1997. Creating Freshwater Wetlands. Lewis Publishers. Boca Raton, New York, London, Tokyo. Harris, Charles W., Dines, Nicholas T.1998. Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture: Design and construction Data. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. New York. Hatfield Consulting Limited, 1979. Recommendations Concerning. The Preservations And Enhancement Of The Natural Aquatic Environment Of John Hendry Park. Vancouver. Hough, Micheal. 1984. City Form and Nature Process—Towards a New Urban Vernacular. Croom Helm. London& Sydney. Ker, Priestman & Associates LTD. 1976. Preliminary Report Environmental Improvements to Trout Lake In John Hendry Park.City of Vancouver Board of Parks & Recreation. Vancouver. Ker, Priestman & Associates LTD. 1977. Conceptual Design Report -—Trout Lake Rehabilitation In John Hendry Park. City of Vancouver Board of Parks & Recreation. Vancouver. Lyle, John Tillman. 1994. Regenerative Design for Sustainable Development. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, Brisbane, Chichester, Toronto, Singapore. Molnar, Donald J . , Rutledge, Albert J . 1986. Anatomy of A Park—the Essentials of Recreation Area Planning and Design. McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York. Papanek, Victor. 1971. Design For The Real World. Pantheon Books, Random House. New York. Payne, Neil F. 1992. Techniques For Wildlife Habitat Management Of Wetlands. McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York R. Tanasichuk and J. Villamere. 1980. An Interim Report On The Redevelopment Of John Hendry Park: Effects Of Construction Activities On The Aquatic Environment Of Trout Lake. Hatfield Consultants Limited. Vancouver. Realizing the Sustainable City Park Redesign of John Hendry Park 55 Roger Hughes, Pomeroy Engineering Ltd., D.W. Thomson Consultants Ltd., Golder Associates. 1978. Aqua Playground and Swimming Lagoon in John Hendry Park Trout Lake. City of Vancouver Board of Parks & Recreation. Vancouver. Rutledge, Albert J. 1971. Anatomy Of A Park—The Essentials of Recreation Area Planning And Design. McGraw- Hill Book Company, New York. Sheltair Group, Inc. Vision, Tools and Targets: Environmentally Sustainable Development Guidelines for Southeast False Creek. Vancouver: City of Vancouver, April 18, 1998. Sheltair Group. 1998. Visions, Tools, and Targets: Environmentally Sustainable Development Guideines for Southeast False Creek. Simo, Melanie and Dillon, David. 1997. Integrated Environments. Space maker Press. Washington DC, Cambridge MA. Thayer, Robert L. 1994. Gray World, Green Heart—Technology, Nature, and the Sustainable Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, INC. New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore. Thompson, J. William and Sorvig, Kim. 2000. Sustainable Landscape Construction— A Guide To Green Building Outdoors. Island Press. Washington, D.C. and Covelo, California. Urban Environmental Institute (UEI). 2002. Resource Guide for Sustainable Development in an Urban Environment. Seattle, Washington, Urban Environmental Institute. Winslow, Margaret Cottom. 1991. International Landscape Design. PBC International, INC. New York. Zonneveld, Isaak S. and Forman, Richard T.T. 1990. Changing Landscape: An Ecological Perspective. Springer-Verlag. New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong. City of Vancouver. 1999. SEFC Policy Statement www.citv.vancouver.bc.ca/commsvcs/currentplanninq/sefc/SEFCpolicy.htm City of Vancouver. 2003. Southeast False Creek Official Development Plan Proposal. http://www.vancouver.ca/commsvcs/southeast/plan.htm http://www.epa.gov/owm/mtb/biortn.pdf http://www.compostguide.com/7mcpstr http://www.suscon.org/wetlands/index.asp Realizing the Sustainable City P a r k — Redesign of John Hendry Park 5 6 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0091610/manifest

Comment

Related Items