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UBC Theses and Dissertations

From big box to town center : how redevelopment of the Greenwood Shopping Center can help create a more.. Cherniak, Theresa Anne 2004-12-31

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FROM BIG BOX TO TOWN CENTER: How Redevelopment of the Greenwood Shopping Center Can Help Create a More Livable and Sustainable Town Center While Reinforcing the Neighborhood's Distinctive Character by THERESA ANNE CHERNIAK B.A., Purdue University, 1982 M.U.R, University of Illinois, 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Landscape Architecture Program) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2004 © Theresa Anne Cherniak, 2004 JUBCl THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Library Authorization In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Name of Author (please print) Date (dd/mm/yyyy) Title of Thesis: Degree: Department of IAA^AS£^& A^d^-U^Asr^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC Canada grad.ubc.ca/forms/?formlD=THS page .1 of 1 last updated: 24-Jul-04 ABSTRACT Seattle is a city of neighborhoods. The City's long range plans call these neighborhoods 'urban villages', and lays out how they might develop over time into fuller service centers for community life. Few designated urban villages have the potential that Greenwood does. Starting with a historic main street commercial area at its core, Greenwood also has a 3 1/2 block area in the center that is ripe for redevelopment. The impetus for this thesis is the proposed expan sion of a big box retail store within this 3 1/2 block area, and the community's desire to see the entire area planned comprehensively. This project starts with the solid policy base established over ten years of study, hard work, and consensus building within the Greenwood community. It analyzes this existing policy base against three critical elements of sustainable community design: Green Infrastructure, Liabil ity and Placemaking, and builds on this base where it doesn't fully address these elements. Measures of sustainable community design are developed for use in later assessment of the alternatives. Through extensive inventory, analysis and research on the community, the physical and social opportunities and constraints for the project are developed. The two alternative master plans arising from this foundation provide a range of development options intended to meet the design strategy's requirements. Finally, this project presents an assessment of the two alter natives based on the measures of sustainable community design. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT » TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES viACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii1. INTRODUCTION 1 Thesis IntroductionIntroduction to Greenwood & the Site 2 Project Goals and Objectives 4 Limitations 4 Methodology2. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR PROJECT 6 Existing Policy Framework 6 Elements of Sustainable Community Design 9 Green Infrastructure Livability Placemaking Assessment of Existing Policy Framework 11 3. DESIGN STRATEGY. 12 4. FRAME OF REFERENCE 5 Greenwood's HistoryWho is Greenwood? 19 Community Character. 20 Built Character 1 Commercial & Residential Market Analysis 22 Retail Center Planning Considerations 3 5. SITE INVENTORY & ANALYSIS 25 The Site, Defined 2Site Images 7 Inventory & Analysis Maps 31 Synthesis Map 46. SITE DESIGN 8 Overall Concept Plan 9 Master Plans 50 Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Design Details 7 Street Layout & Typology 60 "Theresa Cherniak August 2004 TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT'D.) 7. DESIGN ASSESSMENT 64 Assessment Maps 5 Development Details Green Infrastructure Assessment Livability Assessment Placemaking Assessment Economics Assessment Alternatives Comparison Tables 73 8. CONCLUSIONS 76 REFERENCES 7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Seattle Context Map 2 Figure 2: Neighborhood Context MapFigure 3: Site Aerial 3 Figure 4: Comprehensive Plan Urban Village Map 6 Figure 5: Town Center Plan Development Scenario 8 Figure 6: Historic Photo 15 Figure 7: Evolution of a Creek 6 Figure 8: Historic Photo 7 Figure 9: McCausland Mural 8 Figure 10: Greenwood Character Photos 20 Figure 11: Greenwood Built Character Photos 1 Figure 12: Boundaries Map 25 Figure 13: Historic Aerials 6 Figure 14: Site Images Legend 7 Figure 15: Site Images - Block 1 8 Figure 16: Site Images - Block 2 9 Figure 17: Site Images - Block 3 0 Figure 18: Microclimate 2 Figure 19: Shaded Relief Map 3 Figure 20: DrainageSystem 4 Figure 21: Topography & Soils 35 Figure 22: Peat Thickness 6 Figure 23: Depth to Compressible Soil 37 Figure 24: Impervious Surfaces & Vegetation 8 Figure 25: Existing Land Use 9 Figure 26: Zoning 40 Figure 27: Building Heights and Business Type & Size 41 Figure 28: Street Right-of-Way & Subdivision 42 Figure 29: Transportation 3 Figure 30: Community Resources 44 Figure 31: Figure Ground & Imageability 5 Figure 32: Retail Market Areas 6 Figure 33: Synthesis Map 7 Figure 34: Overall Concept Plan 49 Figure 35: Alternative 1 Site Plan 50 Figure 36: Alternative 1 Sections A, B 1 Figure 37: Alternaitve 1 Axonometric 2 Figure 38: Alternative 2 Site Plan 3 Figure 39: Alternative 2 Sections A, B 54 Figure 40: Alternative 2 Sections C, D 5 Figure 41: Alternative 2 Axonometric 6 Figure 42: Green Infrastructure Details 57 Figure 43: Livability Details 58 Figure 44: Placemaking Details 9 LIST OF FIGURES (CONT'D.) Figure 45: Street Layout with Street Type 60 Figure 46: Street Type Sections & Plans A, B 1 Figure 47: Street Type Sections & Plans C, D 2 Figure 48: Street Type Sections & Plans E, F, G 63 Figure 49: Development Details: Existing Conditions 5 Figure 50: Development Details: Alternative 1 6 Figure 51: Development Details: Alternative 2 67 Figure 52: Green Infrastructure Assessment 8 Figure 53: Livability Assessment: Alternative 1 9 Figure 54: Livability Assessment: Alternative 2 70 Figure 55: LivabilityAssessment: Connectivity 1 Figure 56: Placemaking Assessment 72 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Design Strategy Matrix 13 Table 2: Alternatives Comparison: Land Area . 7Table 3: Alternatives Comparison: Development Details 74 Table 4: Assessment of Alternatives 75 _ i>iTaQ}^^a^^^^Bvii Theresa Cherniak August 2004 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful for the guidance provided by my Thesis Advisors: Don Luymes and Patrick Condon from the UBC Landscape Architecture Program, and Michael Larice from the UBC Community Planning Program. Each has different areas of expertise and therefore offered very different and valuable insights. I thank Doug Paterson for his periodic casual critiques, his depth of design knowledge, and his dedication to the cause. Numerous people in Seattle provided assistance and in return I give my gratitude. This project would not have been possible without their input and support. Thanks also to my classmates and friends both at the University of Washington and at UBC, who have been there for me throughout this odyssey. My deepest gratitude goes to my partner, Ken Shaw, for his patience and support as I've slaved away at this degree. I appreciate it more than he could imagine. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION "Without community we are all doomed to private worlds that are more selfless and loveless than they need be. As our society becomes more privatized and our culture more narcissistic, the need and appetite to be part of something bigger than our individual selves grow...." Douglas Kelbaugh, Repairing the American Metropolis, 7. Where and how we live is important to us as human beings. Many people desire to live in a community where they feel comfortable and at home. They seek a human scaled, under standable place, with everything they need close-by. They seek a community with op portunities for social interaction as well as solitude. They seek welcoming places - with spaces for raising their families. They often seek a place with a center, which becomes the focus of community life. The physical form of a place is important in this equation. One thread in urban design theory that is rel evant to this project is the current interest in pursuing simplicity, of creating "more from less". The inspiration for this approach, ac cording to Nan Ellin in Postmodern Urbanism is "nature, the vernacular, the mundane, the 'everyday'" (10). She further goes on to state that the place that results from this approach is "not a generic machine for living, nor an escape from the present into the past or from reality into fiction or virtual reality, nor a sur render to market forces. Rather it is a place that sustains the environment including the people who use if (10). (Emphasis added) A place that sustains the environment as well as the people who use it - that is the ultimate goal of this project. This project borrows from many theories - in cluding sustainability, new urbanism, smart growth, critical regionalism, and others - in addition to those described by Ellin above. Thesis Introduction While there are many ideas on what elements constitute a good community and the town center at its core, this project focuses on three elements considered critical in developing 'a place that sustains the environment as well as the people who use it'. These three ele ments are: Green Infrastructure, Livability, and Placemaking. These three elements must be considered within, and tempered by, an economic and market context. A town center is a community place in large part because it is the mar/cerplace. A successful town center plan ensures that it works for both purposes. Within this context, this project undertakes the design of a redeveloped town center for the Greenwood neighborhood in Seattle, Wash ington. It is at this level that change can be made, and where broad goals and policy ob jectives are implemented on the ground. Having played a role in the development of the policy framework for Seattle's Comprehen sive Plan, its implementation on the ground is of particular interest. This chapter introduces the site and the project, including its goals, objectives, limita tions, and the methodology used to develop the project designs. The following chapters fill in all the details. Guiding principles and a design strategy are first developed. Two dif ferent alternatives for a redeveloped Green wood Town Center area are then presented. Through development and assessment of these two plans, the guiding principles are implemented and tested. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Figure 1: Greenwood is located about 5 miles north of downtown Seattle. Source: Historylink Website. Figure 2: The heart of Greenwood is located at the intersection of 85th St. and Greenwood Ave. Source: Seattle Kroll Map uction to Greenwood & The Site Greenwood is one of over 30 distinct neigh borhoods within the city of Seattle. It is lo cated about 5 miles north of downtown, and about a mile west of Interstate 5, just north west of Green Lake. Like many of Seattle's neighborhoods, it has a commercial core that serves the surrounding, primarily single fam ily residential area. The heart of Greenwood is at the intersection of 85th St. and Green wood Ave., but the community spreads out at least 1/2 mile in each direction. Greenwood houses both community and region serving businesses. As detailed in Chapter 4, Greenwood started as a forested and marshy area considered un fit for habitation. Over time the forested area was logged and the marsh filled in, and a bus tling community developed. The community's historic commercial core, at the crossroads of 85th St and Greenwood Ave., began as the terminus for the streetcar running from down town Seattle and a stop on the Interurban line that ran northward. This neighborhood of ap proximately 15,000 residents continues to grow and change, always building on its past. Located adjacent to the commercial main street core are several large blocks that con tain a 'big box' discount store (Fred Meyer) and several other large buildings housing a grocery store, drug store and other uses. The planned expansion or redevelopment of the Fred Meyer discount store, housed in a 1970's era concrete building too small for its current purposes, is the impetus for the development of a master plan for these properties to guide future development. This 3!4 city block area, located at 85th St. and 1st Ave. - one block from Greenwood's main intersection - is the subject site for this project. The aerial photograph on the next page shows the site and adjacent area. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 The majority of the site is currently owned by a family trust, although Fred Meyer is the major tenant and is influential in development decisions. The owners, along with Fred Meyer, are currently preparing their own mas ter plan for the entire site, though actual de velopment will occur incrementally. The community is very interested in how re development of this site can forward their in terest in developing a fuller and more cohe sive town center area that fulfills more of their community needs. Seattle's Comprehensive Plan identifies the area as a residential urban village, the Neighborhood Plan identifies con cepts for this town center area, and both a Main Street Plan and a Town Center Plan fur-Introduction (Cont'd.) ther develop some of these ideas, though still at a conceptual level. Greenwood is an ordinary neighborhood, with 'good bones' and great potential to once again become a thriving hub of activity. The neigh borhood envisions itself as a community with "all the familiarity and comforts of a small town as well as the vibrancy and amenities of a di verse urban center" (Greenwood Neighbor hood Plan, p.4.) Redevelopment of this key site and the sur rounding area will determine how well the neighborhood develops as a pedestrian ori ented, full service, live-work-play urban village. um,)wmmesm Figure 3: This 1999 aerial photo shows the site, highlighted in yellow, adjacent to the historic commercial core at 85th St. and Greenwood Ave. Note the differences in scale and character between the areas. Source: City of Seattle DPD Website, GIS Maps. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Project Goal To demonstrate how redevelopment of the Greenwood Shopping Center can help create a more livable and sustainable town center, while reinforcing the neighbor hood's distinctive character. Project Objectives 1. Review the existing policy framework & assess how well it addresses principles of sustainable community design, with specific focus on: (1) Green Infrastruc ture; (2) Livability; and (3) Placemaking. 2. Consolidate the Vision/Goals, Objectives and Design Interventions from the exist ing policy framework, into one compre hensive design strategy matrix. Make additions to more specifically address the 3 elements of sustainable community de sign, where appropriate. 3. Develop measures of sustainable com munity design to use in assessing alter native master plans. 4. Apply the comprehensive design strat egy through development of: • Two alternative town center de signs. • Detailed design of the public realm (e.g., open space, plazas, public walkway, streetscapes, etc.) 5. Assess how well the two alternatives and the existing condition address the design strategy, including an analysis of how they meet the measures of sustainable community design. Project Limitations The physical boundary of this site is limited to the Greenwood Shopping Center and imme diately surrounding properties. It does not include the entire urban village, though much of the inventory and analysis, of necessity, looked at the entire area and how the site fits within it. The redevelopment of the Greenwood Shop ping Center properties is a real likelihood, therefore this project was approached as though it was a real project. This project acknowledges and uses the vari ety of plans and policy documents that have already been done. It does not attempt to 'recreate the wheel', but rather to look at site development from a different angle. Finally, this project acknowledges that there are ongoing studies on transportation, ground water and peat issues. The designs presented here are intended to provide ideas that may need to be tested further when additional in formation is available. On the other hand, it is also the intent of this project to question some of the conventional thinking, therefore the reader is asked to keep an open mind. Methodology The iterative design process followed for this project included the following elements: Site Selection - this site was chosen based on a familiarity with the neighborhood, knowl edge of impending redevelopment plans, and an interest in development of this town cen ter. Methodology (Cont'd.) Map and Plan Review-All existing plans and maps from various sources, including historic maps, were reviewed to gain an understand ing of the area and the neigborhood's aspira tions for it. Develop and Refine Design Strategy - Re search was undertaken on the various exist ing theories on community design and town center development to develop and refine the critical elements that would be used in this project. These were applied to the existing policy framework and resulted in a design strategy matrix for the project. Site Visits and Experiential Assessment -The site and surrounding area was visited and experienced on a number of occasions, at dif ferent times of day, different days of the week, and different seasons of the year. Site History - The influence of the past can be seen in present day Greenwood. Neigh borhood and site history was explored to gain an understanding of how it has influenced current development and implications for this project. Precedent Studies - A number of precedent studies were done on town center and mixed use projects in the Seattle area, in other cit ies in the US, and in Vancouver, British Co lumbia. These studies were undertaken to better understand the design and develop ment of such projects as it might be applicable to this project. Issue Studies - Several issue studies were undertaken on special areas of concern, in cluding place-making, parking requirements, mixed use development, natural stormwater management and wetland design. This infor mation was used to inform the design. Consultation - Interviews and conversations were donemwith city staff, neighborhood rep resentatives, property owners, and special in terest groups to gain knowledge, understand limitations, and better understand the project area and people's aspirations for it. Site Inventory & Analysis - A thorough in ventory and analysis of all aspects of Green wood that could impact the design of the town center was completed. This included tradi tional site planning and urban design analy ses as well as an assessment of census data. These resulted in an assessment of opportu nities and constraints for the project develop ment. Develop Overall Conceptual Plan - Based on the information gathered, an overall con cept was developed for the project. Develop Conceptual Master Plan Designs for Town Center - several concepts for the master plan were developed, including (1) ex panding existing Fred Meyer and (2) demoli tion and new construction. Design Development - detailed concepts/de signs for portions of the public realm were articulated. Design Assessment - Each of the alterna tives and the existing condition was assessed based on how it met the various measures outlined in the design strategy. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 CHAPTER 2 GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR PROJECT This chapter sets out the principles that guided development of the design strategy and master plans. It includes a summary of the existing policy framework, a discussion of the elements of sustainable community design that are considered critical for town center development, and provides an assessment of the existing policy framework against these critical elements. A number of plans have been developed for and by the Greenwood community that guide development of the town center area. These plans serve as the overall guiding policy framework for the designs in this the sis, and are summarized below. Specifics of the plans, including vision, objectives and design interventions are considered and summarized in Chapter 3, Design Strategy. A. Seattle Comprehensive Plan (1995) Seattle's Comprehensive Plan was pre pared by City staff and adopted by City Council in response to State Growth Man agement legislation. This legislation re quired the city to plan how it would address growth and development over a twenty year period. The Plan lays out the Citywide Vi sion, Goals, Objectives & Policies, includ ing the urban village strategy. The urban village strategy directs concen trated development into certain neighbor hood centers with higher density housing, transit service, commercial goods and ser vices, infrastructure and community ameni ties. The Plan identifies Greenwood/ Phinney Ridge as a Residential Urban Vil lage, with an emphasis on creating a mixed-use center with a focus on retail and resi dential uses served by transit. The addi tion of at least 350 new units was expected in the village over 20 years, although ac tual development has already exceeded these figures (as it has in most city neigh borhoods.) Guiding Policy Framework Goal and policy statements from each neigh borhood plan are adopted into the Plan and used to determine consistency of projects with the Plan. Most statements are general and are not prescriptive/specific requirements. Figure 4: Seattle Comprehensive Plan map showing designated urban villages. Source: Comprehensive Plan, p. 10-11. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 B. Greenwood-Phinney Neighborhood Plan (April 1999) Implementation and realization of the Compre hensive Plan started with the development of Neighborhood Plans, work on which began in 1996. Greenwood-Phinney's Plan was prepared by A Northwest Collaborative Consultants closely working with the community. While the entire Neighborhood Plan technically carries no legal weight, it is a strong indicator of the Community's desires. The vision and concepts formed the basis for the goals and policies subsequently adopted into the Neighborhood Planning Element of the Comprehensive Plan. A number of design ideas are discussed in the neighborhood plan. Most of these are not specifically adopted, but indi cate the tone and flavor of neighborhood de sign discussions. The Plan identifies potential redevelopment of the Greenwood Shopping Center properties as "a great opportunity to reconceive Greenwood," and further states "this location has the poten tial to become a part of what unifies the com munity" (8). The Plan contains two conceptual plans and principles for this redevelopment. While primarily the work of the consultant and not necessarily indicative of community support (Spiegel interview), these plans include some interesting ecological principles, which are de tailed in the matrix in Chapter 3. Goals and policies adopted into the Neighbor hood Planning Element of the Comprehensive Plan were broad and general, and didn't include specific reference to, or design interventions for, the Greenwood Shopping Center properties. Based on the Plan, the neighborhood identified Key Strategies for Implementation, which were adopted in a matrix. The City has committed to including some of these in the City's work plans. ing Policy Framework (Cont'd.) C. Greenwood/Phinney Main Street Design Report (March 2001) This report was the first step in implement ing the Neighborhood Plan. It was prepared by a consultant to the community, MAKERS architecture, and paid for by City "Early Implementation" funds. It recommends and prioritizes design improvements in the ex isting linear business core area on Green wood Ave. and 85th St. to facilitate neigh borhood plan implementation. The plan concept consists of a set of circu lation and design projects, and a palette of urban design elements to strengthen and unify the area's visual identity. Recommen dations for the Greenwood business core emphasized "pedestrian connectivity and the reconfiguration of Greenwood Ave. N. for smoother traffic transitions" (5). Specif ics from the plan are included in the matrix. D. Greenwood Town Center: Concepts for Potential Redevelopment (Decem ber 2002) This plan was also prepared as result of Neighborhood Planning recommendations. It was prepared by consultants Heartland, GGLO Architects and Heffron, working closely with an active Citizen Advisory Com mittee and City staff. This town center plan was initiated by citizens to proactively guide and nurture the redevelopment potential of the town center area, particularly the Green wood Shopping Center properties. While it was not officially adopted, it has received buy-in from the community, the property owner and Fred Meyer to a large extent. It includes both a Transportation and Market analysis. This plan has aspects of a strate gic urban design plan, and gets much more specific than other Plans on the physical manifestation of the community's vision. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Town Center Plan (Cont'd.) Projected development scenarios were in cluded in the plan, which identified the most likely scenario to be the addition of: 125,000-175,000 square feet of commercial and 750-1000 residential units throughout the center (see map below). The prefeence is for these to be in mixed use structures. The Plan pro poses increases in development capacity through a contract rezone in return for con structing pedestrian related amenities. The 142 recommendations regarding Eco nomic Development, Urban Design, and Transportation are summarized in the matrix. uiding Policy Framework (Cont'd.) E. Greenwood/Phinney Neighborhood Design Guidelines (June 2004 Draft) Design guidelines grew out of the Neighbor hood Planning process. The City is now final izing the neighborhood-wide guidelines that were initially drafted by a consultant & put on hold pending completion of the Town Center Plan. The neighborhood-wide guidelines cover: Site Planning; Height, Bulk & Scale; Architectural Elements and Materials; Pedes trian Environment; and Landscaping. Town center specific guidelines are based primarily on the urban design recommendations of the Town Center Plan. Redevelopment Potential High Potential Moderate Potential Low Potential ;i i '•'fir 1 -J * Sm I- r 8". Development Scenario D4 - Mixed Use Note Figure 5: This figure, from the Greenwood Town Center Plan, shows the preferred development scenario, the report shows the Greenwood Shopping Center Properties, in blue, as having a high potential for redevelopment. Under this scenario, likely development capacity was set at about 250,000 square feet of retail space and 264 residential units. Source: Greenwood Town Center Report, p. 65. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Elements of Sustainable Community Design Based on a review of a number of theories and the various existing plans, three elements stand out as being critical to sustainable community development. These critical elements are: Green Infrastructure, Livability, and Placemaking. These three elements are the guiding principles for this project. This section outlines these guiding principles and concludes with an assessment of existing plans based on these elements. Sustainable Community Design Seattle's Comprehensive Plan: Toward A Sustainable Future refers to sustainability as "the long-term social, economic and environ mental health of our community. A sustain able culture thrives without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs" (Comprehensive Plan, ix). The Com prehensive Plan's four core values are seen as the foundation upon which to build a sus tainable future. These core values are: 1. Protect the environment; 2. Retain a sense of community; 3. Build a strong economy; and 4. Ensure no one is left out (Comprehensive Plan Digest). The urban village strategy is the City's means of achieving a sustainable future. This strat egy includes policies that strive to develop and enhance the following qualities of urban vil lages: • Diversity in age, income, culture, em ployment and interests; • Vibrant, pedestrian oriented commer cial areas; • A variety of housing types; • A strong relationship between residen tial and commercial areas; • Community facilities within walking dis tance of the village core; • Transit, bicycle and pedestrian facili ties with connections to neighboring villages, and good circulation within the village and between the village and surrounding neighborhoods; • Well integrated public open space; and • A unique identity reflecting local his tory, natural features and culture (Comprehensive Plan, x). Citywide environmental goals and policies were added well after initial plan adoption, and are not well integrated with the urban village strategy Condon has identified Six Principles of Sus tainable Communities (lecture Notes,), most of which overlap with those identified in Seattle's plan, as follows: 1. Mix of housing types with a broad range of densities in the same area. 2. A compact walkable neighborhood where basic services such as transit and shops are within a 5-6 minute walking distance. 3. Buildings that present a friendly face to the street. 4. An interconnected street network. 5. Lighter, greener, cheaper, smarter infra structure. 6. Natural drainage systems where sur face runoff infiltrates naturally back to the stream. From both of these sources, there seem to be two subsets within the rubric of sustainability: Green Infrastructure and Liv ability. These are detailed further in the next section. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Elements of Sustai Green Infrastructure Green infrastructure includes the principles and strategies in the above discussion hav ing to do with protecting and sustaining the environment. Condon states that green in frastructure refers to "...the ways in which natural systems are integrated into the struc ture of a community. Green infrastructure can mean using the naturally absorptive areas of the streets, forests and open areas to allow rainwater to infiltrate the ground. It can also mean integrating stream systems with large natural areas..." (Sustainable Urban Land scapes, 53) Green infrastructure means using natural sys tems when possible to perform the functions that are now typically performed by human-made infrastructure. In practical terms, it typi cally refers to stormwater management. Livability Livability includes the majority of principles in the lists on the previous page. A livable place is one that is capable of sustaining a good life. Many of these principles are pulled from the work of the New Urbanists, who pulled the principles from older communities that seemed to work well. These principles have been adopted by many people under many different names, but essentally include the fol lowing: • Compact, walkable neighborhoods. • All facilities and services within walk ing distance. • Mixed uses. • Variety of housing options. • Connectivity of street and pedestrian system. • A commercial core with higher den sity housing surrounding and mixed in with it. ble Community Design (Cont'd.) Placemaking Place Theory promotes identification and re inforcement of the historic context, human needs, and essential qualities of a place in an authentic and un-sentimental way. This ad dresses the urban village strategy's objective of developing and enhancing "A unique iden tity reflecting local history, natural features and culture" (Comprehensive Plan, x). Trancik discusses place theory as giving "...physical space additional richness by in corporating unique forms and details indig enous to its setting. This response to context often includes history and the element of time and attempts to enhance the fit between new design and existing conditions....In place theory, social and cultural values, visual per ceptions of users, and an individual's control over the immediate public environment are as important as principles of lateral enclosure and linkage" (98). He further states that "The es sence of place theory in spatial design lies in understanding the cultural and human char acteristics of physical space" (112). This may include symbols and fragments of the past to show continuity of time. Accord ing to Lynch, each locality should seem con tinuous with its recent past and its near future (116). These three elements are described in gen eral terms here and are operationalized in the Design Strategy Matrix in Chapter 3. wn Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Each of the existing plans to a greater or lesser extent address the three elements of sustain able community design. Following is an as sessment of how the existing plans address these elements. This assessment serves as the basis for the Design Strategy matrix pre sented in Chapter 3. Seattle Comprehensive Plan (1995) The urban village strategy covers Livability quite well. It also acknowledges Placemaking. While protecting the environment is a core value of the Plan, the concept of Green Infra structure is not integrated with the urban vil lage strategy. Additionally, the designation of Greenwood/Phinney as a Residential Urban Village doesn't recognize the dual role of the town center area as both region and local serving. The interest and desire of the com munity is key to ultimate development of the Greenwood town center. The Plan does in clude a core value to 'Build a strong economy" and includes an economic development ele ment which provides guiding policy. Greenwood-Phinney Neighborhood Plan (April 1999) The Neighborhood Plan addresses all three areas: Green Infrastructure, Livability and Placemaking. Several preliminary plans for the town center are presented, and include Green Infrastructure elements. Green Infra structure discussion and recommendations, however, were not translated into the adopted Plan and key strategies. The Plan is general and leaves much of the detailed work to fur ther planning efforts. Additionally, the Plan doesn't fully address the dual nature of the commercial core: neighborhood and region serving. snt of Existing Policy Framework Greenwood/Phinney Main Street Design Report (March 2001) This plan has a narrow focus on the linear business core. It addresses community iden tity and Placemaking to a large extent, and addresses some aspects of Livability. It does not address Green Infrastructure, nor does it address using the unique natural setting or aspects of the area's natural history as part of Placemaking (except for views.) Greenwood Town Center: Concepts for Potential Redevelopment (December 2002) This report contains a set of good design rec ommendations. It addresses Livability ele ments well. Additionally, it does address the dual nature of the area as both region and local serving to some extent. However, the Plan: (1) doesn't go far enough on Green Infrastructure (there are many more ways to put the green in Greenwood!). Specifically, it doesn't address stormwater/drainage or cur rent peat issues; and (2) doesn't adequately address how to maintain/reinforce a sense of place - particularly in relation to the natural setting, and use of this as design inspiration. This report includes a Market Analysis, which grounds it in reality, however it appears the plan is driven by market and economic 'reali ties' much more than by consideration of the 3 elements of sustainable community design. Greenwood/Phinney Neighborhood De sign Guidelines (June 2004 Draft) The draft design guidelines address Livability and Placemaking well. Green Infrastructure is not addressed, in large part because these guide lines were based on the Town Center Plan. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 CHAPTER 3 DESIGN STRATEGY This chapter outlines the design strategy used to prepare and assess the master plans as part of this project. The community's vision and objectives were culled from the various existing plans and are summarized below. These are accepted as the Vision and Objectives for the master plans and set the broader stage for design. Following from the vision and principles is a design strategy matrix that summarizes the set of design instructions used to develop the plans. Policy direction from the existing plans forms the basis for the matrix. Additions to the existing policy framework are made to more fully address all three elements of sustainable community design. Vision A community that has: • A center with the familiarity of a small town main street and the vi brancy, convenience and amenities of a diverse urban center. • Vibrant, economically vital, and pe destrian oriented commercial areas providing a variety of goods & ser vices within walking distance. • A strong and positive relationship between residential and commer cial areas. Objectives/Principles 1. Put the Green Back in Greenwood. 2. Celebrate the heart: revitalize the historic commercial crossroads at N. 85th St. and N. Greenwood Ave. 3. Improve mobility and accessibility in the neighborhood. 4. Maintain the human scale. 5. Address the infrastructure deficit north of 85th St. 6. Connect the mixed use district to reinforce the center. 7. Populate the urban core. 8. Respect the surrounding community. Design Strategy Matrix The matrix on the next two pages more spe cifically fleshes out the design instructions used to develop the master plan alternatives and design details. Following is an explana tion of the categories used in the matrix: Elements of Sustainable Community Design: Green Infrastructure, Livability, and Place-making, as defined in Chapter 2 and used throughout this document. Principles: Culled from existing plans and lit erature relating to the elements of sustainable community design. These are the overarching principles for development of the master plan alternatives. Measures: Developed as indicators for how well the principles are being met. They will be more fully described and used in Chapter 7 to assess the master plan alternatives. Program Guidelines: Design & performance targets pulled from the existing plans. This is the set of design instructions used to develop and judge the master plan alternatives. Specific Design Interventions: A detailed list of design moves from the existing plans, with additions to address all elements of sustain able community design. These informed de velopment of the master plan alternatives and were incorporated, as possible, in the designs. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 —i m —j 5" =R J <" 8 S i CD In ° ' ' CD O =S o 01 sr rr <D 2 0) CD (5' 3> 5' » CD en 2 0) CD - 3 I5' CD 3 &> W g 5J CD ^ o 5T » O 3 < 3" 3" CD O A O 3 5 CD •D s CD g CD (O o o 5 •o Q. 3 CD C/l' 3* < —t CD *^ -, CD CD CO 03 5; ~ CD 3 91 os 3 Q. O 3 CQ O O 3 3 CD < CT 0) 3 Q.T3 03 CD — Q-0) CD C/> 0) CT ?! ro o o 1? CD CD 5) 03 - • 3 O CO o o CL p. SH. O O 03' CT CD ? CD ro 3 CD 3 CD CQ 3" CT O 5. ° 03 CD 3 r—t-CD CL CT 3 > O 2> 3 *< ? — O < 3 —— O CD -s. 0 03 r a S|S CD 3 CD W CQ CL 3. 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TJ —* O < CL CD 3 o CD T> 03 CD is CL TJ o £-g cr °1CD 03 CQ o » " a CD a g - CO § TJ Ti. 03 cr. 0) TJ O 3, CD 3 g Q " o CD " CO O 0) -> 3 n n O (A 3 A < fD 3 (A CHAPTER 4 FRAME OF REFERENCE This chapter provides contextual information that helped guide Master Plan development. It includes Greenwood's history, information on Greenwood's population, community character, and built character, and a summary of the market analysis prepared for the Town Center Plan. Green - Natural History "Greenwood was once exactly that: a lush and green forest. It stretched across low rolling hills and shallow ra vines with no discernable boundaries or borders.. ..Late in the 1890's loggers came to the area and established two lumber mills.. After the loggers came the farmers who cleared more land, [and] planted it in grains and fruit or chards. ..." (SPL, 1-2) Prior to human settlement, Greenwood was a forested, marshy swamp and peat bog, con sidered unsuitable for building. This landform was likely scoured by the Vashon glaciation some 10,000 years ago. This swampy bog constitutes the headwaters of Piper's Creek, once a salmon bearing creek, which empties to the Puget Sound. Figure 7 shows the evo lution of Piper's Creek from the time of early settlement to today, showing how it once ex tended close to the project site. There is no known Native American presence in the immediate area, although it is possible natives gathered cranberries in the bog, as they did in other bogs in the area. Early settlers began trickling into the area in the 1870's. Construction of the Great North ern Railroad along the coast in the 1890's en abled lumbermen to penetrate the woods, and the ensuing sawmills turned Green Lake, Haller Lake and Bitter Lake into log ponds (Beurge, 27). Dirt and plank roads connect ing Seattle with Edmonds to the north were built in the early 1900's. Greenwood's History Commercial Core - Transportation Based At the beginning of the new century Green wood began to emerge and grow as a settle ment. By the early 1920's the Greenwood district had all of the retail outlets & services found in a small town of the times (SPL, 1-2). Greenwood developed as a streetcar suburb - the streetcar ran on 85th St. and Green wood Ave. The Interurban railway, built in 1910 to connect Seattle and Everett, also had Figure 6: Top Photo: Mother and son wait for the Interurban streetcar at the corner of Greenwood and 85th, 1910. Bottom Photo: The streetcar ran on 85th St. and Greenwood Ave. Source: University of Washington Special Collections. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 a stop in Greenwood. The community's his toric commercial core developed where the streetcar stopped, at the intersection of Green wood Ave. and 85th St. The majority of modest homes in the neigh borhood were built between 1900 and 1940. Some of oldest homes were originally sum mer cottages. At the end of WWII the area grew again quickly, and about a third of the housing reflects the "hurried and bland" con struction of this period. (SPL, 2) Greenwood's hey-day as a commercial cen ter was in the 1940's, when it boasted a vari ety of retail and services, grocery stores, a public library, and a department store. Most of Greenwood developed outside Seattle's borders - until 1952 Seattle's northern bounds was 85th St. Areas N of 85th developed un der King County's more relaxed standards. Until city annexation, "Greenwood had a repu tation as a somewhat naughty place, with nightclubs, taverns and a Chinese gambling den flourishing in what was unincorporated King County, right across the city line. The home of the Taproot Theater was, at one point in its history, a porno palace" (Dietrich, 22). Figure 8: Corner of Greenwood Ave. and 85th St. in 1947. Source: U. of Washington Special Collections. History (Cont'd) City Annexation, Unfulfilled Promises Annexation to the city in 1952 brought the promise of paved streets and sewers. In 1971 the City installed a storm drain system in NW Greenwood to address flooding & high groundwater problems, however, almost 50 years later residents still complain of the lack of sidewalks & inadequate storm sewers. By the time the drainage improvements were beginning, "much of the neighborhood was slipping into slum." (Historylink) For a long period, area development lagged behind the rest of the city. Greenwood's Fred Meyer discount store was built in 1971, just north of 85th St. Residen tial land was rezoned & street rights-of-way were vacated to make development possible. Today's commercial core is surviving, though not as thriving and as bustling as it once was. Urban Village The City's Comprehensive Plan, adopted in 1995, identified the Greenwood core as an "urban village." The neighborhood subse quently prepared a neighborhood plan identi fying revitalization of the commercial core as a priority, and redevelopment of the Green wood Shopping Center properties as a prime opportunity. The community is keen on rede velopment of the shopping center properties. Nature Reasserts Herself Recently, the area's natural history has be gun to reassert itself. The peat layer which underlies a large portion of northern Green wood has begun to compress and sink, due presumably to dewatering occurring with new development as well as recent drought con ditions. Portions of roadways and homes have been sinking, leading to resident and City concerns and various responses. This issue is addressed in the Inventory & Analysis. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 History (Cont'd) Figure 9: The Robert D. McCausland Mural, painted in the 1920's on a wall in an apartment on Greenwood Ave., shows the community as it was at the time. Note the area covered in water in the upper right hand comer, which appears to be on the current Greenwood Shopping Center properties. Also note the trolley system. Source: Greenwood Neighborhood Plan, p. 8. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Who is Greenwood? Existing Population & Housing Greenwood is a fast growing, relatively racially homogeneous, and gentrifying, neighborhood. It is primarily a neighborhood of single family homes, though new multi-family development is taking place in the commercial core on both 85th St. and Greenwood Ave. A new condo building, a market rate apartment building and several high quality subsidized housing projects have been built on 85th St. just east and west of the commercial core and on Greenwood Ave. at 87th St. Particularly in the area north of 85th St., owner occupied housing is significantly more afford able than the citywide median, although rents are about the same as citywide averages. This area has fewer amenities, and the hous ing stock is newer and has less character than areas to the south. As a result of these fac tors, younger families are moving in and reno vating homes. The census shows a big de crease in the number of elderly in the area, potentially indicating the sale of family homes and downsizing - it also may indicate the lack of smaller, affordable senior housing. In 2000, there was still a big difference be tween areas north and south of 85th St. in terms of incomes, housing value, and diver sity. Areas north of 85th had lower incomes and housing values, greater racial diversity and higher percentages of rental properties. These differences increased between 1990 and 2000, however, their current direction is uncertain. Anecdotal evidence suggests both that the Hispanic population continues to grow, increasing the racial diversity, and that in comes and housing values are increasing as younger families (with children) start to move into the area and renovate the homes. Single family rental homes will likely be sold and reno vated to owner occupancy as demand and prices increase. Potential Future As housing prices increase throughout the city, people look for less expensive areas. Once undesirable because they were too far away or didn't have the desired amenities, these ar eas are now becoming more attractive. The upscale character of the shops further south on Greenwood Ave. is slowly moving north, though none have pushed past 85th St. With amenities moving up Greenwood Ave. and the likely Fred Meyer/Town Center rede velopment, Greenwood is becoming more de sirable. Gentrification is possible in the area, with people buying and renovating these more af fordable homes. This process has likely al ready started. The area is becoming more affluent, pushing out the lower income resi dents and reducing ethnic and income diver sity. The area south of 85th St. has already gentrified, and the area north of 85th St. ap pears to be in the process of gentrifying. Implications for development: With a younger and more affluent population in the area, there is an increased and chang ing market for goods and services. This group has more options and therefore may be more demanding - different types of goods and services may be supported than are currently available. The pressure for infrastructure im provements will increase as people invest more in their homes and have children. Sidewalks in particular will increase in impor tance. With a younger and more affluent population, there may be more openness to innovative and greener solutions to infrastruc ture issues. As gentrification occurs, racial, income, and other types of diversity will de crease. Efforts will be needed to ensure a range of housing types and sizes, and a range of services in maintained. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 FigurelO: Clockwise from top: Greenwood Classic Car & Rod Show; Seafair Parade participants - on bikes & in formation; Taproot Theater sandwich board; Pumpkin carving at Greenwood Market; and Artwalk poster. Sources: Greenwood Chamber of Commerce website, bottom photos by Author Community Character "The beauty of Greenwood is in its con trasts. It's a kind of old fangled neighbor hood with a trendy edge, a place where coffee shops mix with espresso bars and where young families live among senior citizens. This is a community that comes together for block parties and tree plantings, for holiday caroling and Seafair Parades, for arts and antiques." Seattle Post Intelligencer Webtowns Greenwood's history has resulted in an eclec tic but strong community. The historic com mercial core is the locus for a number of events, including the Classic Car and Rod Show, the summer Seafair parade and festi val, pumpkin carving, Halloween Trick-or-Treating, a holiday tree lighting, and an an nual ArtWalk where local businesses feature the work of local artists. Greenwood is a modest place. "The com mercial hub seems to have one foot comfort ably stuck in the 1950's. The shop owners are real and unpretentious. The kids still go to the Boys & Girls Club. The Fred Meyer is as worn as a comfortable old boot" (Dietrich, 19). Other cultural events include live perfor mances at the Taproot Theater, ethnic res taurants and Latin markets on Greenwood Ave., a dance studio and yoga studio, and several pubs. Community character in ad dressed in more detail in the Inventory and Analysis. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Figure 11: Images of Greenwood's built character. Clockwise from top left: Antique store on Greenwood Ave.; new Safeway streetscape; 1920's architectural detail; new mixed use on 85th; Pig & Whistle bar & grill; fish at seafood store on Greenwood; funky storefront on Greenwood. Built Character Greenwood's commercial core is character ized by low-rise, historic, brick-faced storefront buildings dating from the 1920's. These house a diverse mix of merchants including antique stores and restaurants. The overall feel is historic, funky and eclectic. The community's image of itself, as described in its Main Street Plan, is that of being a solid, and stable community, with simple vernacu lar architecture and mid-20th century signs (6). These are elements the community cherishes about itself, and wants to preserve. The immediate area is also characterized by 1950's to 1970's era, concrete box structures. More recent development is much larger in scale, but is attempting to fit in through use of similar materials and detailing, primarily brick. The images on this page show the range of built character in Greenwood. -fTr Figure 11 (Cont'd.): Images above, clockwise from top left: Fred Meyer store; Washington Mutual Bank historic building at corner of 85th St and Greenwood Ave. (Photo: Seattle Times/Post Intelligencer); view from Safeway parking structure to residential buildings. (Photos by author except as noted) From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Commercial A market analysis prepared by Heartland in April 2002 for the Town Center Plan identified market trends guiding development in Green wood. It began with demographics which, in combination with regional competition and land availability, are the primary determinants of the size, format and composition of retail developments (Lyon, 29). The market study's demographic findings included: relatively con sistent population growth since 1980 within the primary service area (one mile ring) of Fred Meyer, which is expected to continue; high average incomes, which are expected to con tinue to rise; and a high pecentage of popula tion between the ages of 25 and 54 yrs old -typically the age group with the largest an nual increases in income & the highest an nual expenditures on retail goods. Commercial Market Analysis The report concluded that the retail market in Greenwood's core was relatively healthy and the long term outlook was good. Retail va cancies were low since rents have kept pace with other closer-in neighborhoods. The di versity of goods available and limited sup ply of land for the competition are significant advantages that make the neighborhood func tion as a strong retail center. Redevelopment of the Greenwood Shopping Center properties is seen as a key opportu nity that will have a positive substantial spillover effect on the neighborhood. The analysis concluded that businesses tar geted for the neighborhood should build on the existing customer base, and include: • Art galleries • Bookstores (e.g., Elliott Bay, B&N) • Boutique clothing and jewelry • Home Stores • Food: sidewalk cafes, ethnic restau rants, brew pubs and restaurants • Entertainment: art movies & live mu sic in existing venues. and Residential Market Analysis The analysis compared Greenwood to other neighborhood centers (Fremont, Ballard, Wallingford) and found that the neighborhood was positioned as a full service retail hub. The existing variety of goods and scarcity of land for new commercial centers are the most sig nificant competitive advantages. Specific findings were that: • Not much retail development is likely east of Greenwood on 85th - mixed use here will likely include office uses. • Restaurants and the Taproot Theater are some of strongest businesses in neighborhood. Retail rents in the area in 2002 were $16/sf per year on a net basis, and new shop space was expected to rent for $13-17/sf. Larger spaces for anchor tenants would likely range from $16-19/sf. Competition between current and future retailers was less likely to be an issue than rising rents because of the close proximity to the newly redeveloped center. Residential Market Analysis The residential market was considered strong, with lower rental and sales prices than nearby neighborhoods. The analysis expected new development of townhomes, stacked flat con-dos and apartments. Following are data on existing residential units in the area: • Townhomes: average size - 1,300 square feet (sf) (range 833-1500) • Stacked flat Condominiums: average size-823 sf (450-1532 sf) • Stacked flat Apartments: average rent - $807 (2002), average size - 710 sf Single family housing prices continue to rise out of reach of many. Homeownership in Seattle is now down to 47%, compared to the national average of 66%. Given these trends, the analysis concludes that multifamily options will be an attractive alternative to single fam ily housing. Retail Center Planning Considerations To achieve long term sustainability, plans for rebuilding neighborhood shopping streets must.. .embrace solutions that are realistically market based. It is not enough to base them solely on enlightened public policy goals or the community's wish list, no matter how well intentioned." (Beyard, vi) Greenwood contains two very different retail areas: the Greenwood Ave. neighborhood shop ping street, focused at the intersection of Greenwood Ave. and 85th St., and the broader serv ing community shopping center, which includes the Fred Meyer and other large format retail ers. The two types of retail areas have different and sometimes conflicting design require ments that can make compatibility between the two difficult. Research indicates, however, that there may be flexibility in the requirements. The intent is to ensure compatibility between the community shopping center and neighborhood shopping streets, while ensuring the town center's economic vitality. This section summarizes literature on this issue that was used in develop ment of the master plan alternatives. Neighborhood Retail The Urban Land Institute (ULI), a developer based organization, recognizes the impor tance of neighborhood shopping streets and districts in creating more livable environments and sustainable communities - and that this can be good for business! In their report, Ten Principles for Rebuilding Neighborhood Re tail, they discuss how neighborhood streets can compete with other shopping destinations "by providing goods and services tailored to the specific needs of each neighborhood in an environment that is convenient, service ori ented, pedestrian-scaled, and connected to the urban lifestyles of the neighborhood's resi dents" (4). Many of the Livability factors dis cussed in Chapter 2 reflect the importance of both the commercial and residential compo nents of a neighborhood, and also appear to be good for business. Three of the ULI's ten principles are most per tinent to this project, as follows: Think Residential: "Successful retail de pends on successful residential neighborhoods....Where residential growth and revitalization is occurring, retail is primed to follow...." (6). Mixed use developments with housing, retail and office uses "supports re tail by creating more customers, supporting longer business hours, and bringing in rents up to 20 percent higher" (7). Office uses, pro fessional tenants like doctors and lawyers, and educational facilities are "demand anchors" for retail while civic, cultural and entertainment anchors attract visitors (21). Honor the Pedestrian: "The first goal for a neighborhood shopping street should be to satisfy the aspirations and enhance the lifestyles of a neighborhood's residents. Neighborhood retail should not be structured in a way that encourages commuters to move quickly through the neighborhood to reach other neighborhoods" (8). They also caution not to "...let traffic engineers rule the streets" (8), recognizing that accommodating traffic is only one of many goals for successful shop ping streets. Both the pedestrian and auto mobile must be accommodated. Parking is Power: "Easy accessibility, high visibility, a sense of personal security, and adequate, convenient parking are all precon ditions for successful retailing, and without them retail likely will fail, regardless of the Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Retail Center sophistication of the shopping environment or the quality of the tenants" (12). Both on- and off-street options are needed, with on-street parking critical for stop and go type retailers. They do recognize, however, that parking needs will be less because some people will walk, bike or use transit. Additionally, they admit that in dense urban locations "Innova tive parking designs - such as parking be hind, above or below the stores - should be considered" (13). Community Shopping Center To successfully plan for the redevelopment of the Greenwood Town Center - including an expanded Fred Meyer and other successful retail stores - one must first understand the conventional rules of auto oriented shopping and how and when these can be modified. Retailers are inherently conservative and risk averse, and their willingness to innovate is dependent on market conditions & the retail ers attitude & corporate goals (Lyons, 49-53). Typically, these stores assume people rely exclusively on the car for shopping, and see no economic value in catering to the pedes trian. Richard Lyons, in his Master's thesis on this topic, summarizes the typical planning requirements: • A convenient, highly visible location at or near major arterials, preferring cor ners at the intersection of 2 arterials. • Signage, scale and facade orientation designed to appeal to drivers on an arterial moving at 35 mph. • Intuitive circulation and ample parking within close proximity of front entrance. • Dedicated service drives behind and at sides of buildings. • A limited number of entrances with clear internal circulation and minimal external glazing - preferring one way in and out. Planning Considerations (Cont'd.) • A center turn lane or controlled access at the primary entrance. Primary ac cess at mid-site (47-49). Parking is important. Customers will usually choose stores nearest and easiest to reach from their home. Adequate, free and conve nient parking in comparison to the local com petition is critical. The goal is to have a vast majority of parking directly in front of the cen ter and within 300-350 feet of the main en trance (44-47). This goal is met in the exist ing development. Changes, however, are underway in the retail world. In order to remain competitive with new 'lifestyle centers', retailers are making stores more 'comfortable, intuitive and appealing' (52). Also, urban markets have different con straints and retailers are beginning to rethink their assumptions (e.g., multi-level stores, less parking). By locating as part of a larger retail area, the store serves as a generator of retail demand and vitality, creating additional demand. If augmented with restaurants, community ser vices and designed as a pedestrian center, they can become destinations - which may mitigate the need for massive frontal expo sure (98). Lyons' research found that flexibility in retail siting, design and operations is a function of market strength and demographics. Ameni ties reduce price competitiveness and sales, and retailers are generally more amenable to capital than operating cost increases. While there is little evidence that amenities increase sales, this may be changing. Finally, he con cludes the retailer will risk innovation only when a location is a 'sure thing' (83-85). In formation on the retail market areas is shown in the Inventory & Analysis. Box to Town Center CHAPTER 5 SITE INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS Existing Neighborhood and Town Center Plans were based on extensive inventory and analy sis of area conditions, though in general these are not included in the reports. The reader, therefore, typically isn't aware of the extent of this work. For this project, a comprehensive inventory and analysis was completed of the physical and social aspacts of Greenwood con sidered pertinent to the town center design. This information is presented on individual maps, followed by a Synthesis Map that summarizes the key opportunities and constraints. The chapter starts with an aerial photo history of the site, followed by current site images, concludes with the Inventory and Analysis and Synthesis Maps. It The approximately 15.7 acre Greenwood Shopping Center (GSC) properties were the starting point for defining the site area for this project. Also included are several adjacent properties within this 3-1/2 block area that are not owned by GSC but were deemed impor tant to include in order to comprehensively plan for the area. Finally, 100' of the single family residential area just north of 87th St. was included to provide room for transitional land uses. The project area also includes all street rights-of-way within this defined area. The final land area for the project is, there fore, 19.7 acres. The boundaries are shown in Figure 12 below. The Site, Defined Many different geographies are referred to in this report. Following are definitions for these areas, which are shown on the map below: Urban Village: that area defined by the City in it's Comprehensive Plan as the hub of com mercial and residential activity in Greenwood & Phinney Ridge. It includes a linear corridor down Greenwood Ave. along Phinney Ridge. Town Center: A term coined by the Green wood community in its Town Center Plan to describe a smaller area focused on Green wood itself. Commercial Core: Refers to the smaller, older main street area focused at the intersection of 85th St. and Greenwood Ave. f 1 Mr 1 1 t' 31 • .... Be Li ) 1 > 1 \m f" 1 ^ — —1 i r:.rL; "' J —J < f — L:/ .'?T1;:^I \ f'•" * 1 85th SJ- """" - -' Urban Village -Project Site Commercial Core Town Center Figure 12: This map shows the site area and the boundaries of the three geograohic areas referred to in this report. 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P OCD 5' o CD j£ w c 3 cn en ^ 3 rjD o co C 3, % % S. cn o 3 c 3 co sft a © > CO CO o 03 CD 3 CD COB 1 = CD co il 03 --h cn O 3' -* CO. 3 CD CD to § sr ^ CD SE o o CD -5 o 3 CD 00 Q. O a CD CL 03 ^ 03 2 cn ct CD c &3 §• co D n CD 3 CD to CO 4^ ai cn » 3 o * _ © 3 3 — 03 3 00 CD c 00 § © Q. 3 CD CO'cQ g g 3 3 O CD 03 cn CD CQ II ^1 o 3. o 00 m I 55" o CQ' c 3 —Il CO > •l. s* o rt O Site Pictures - Legend The images on the next three pages show various aspects of the site and immediate surround ings. Each page shows images of structures and the surrounding streetscape on one of the blocks, as shown below. From Big Box to Town Center Theresa Cherniak August 2004 CD Inventory & Analysis Maps The Inventory and Analysis maps are grouped as they relate to the three elements of sus tainable community design: Green Infrastruc ture, Livability, and Sense of Place. Individual Inventory and Analysis maps are presented first, followed by a Synthesis Map that identi fies the top urban design issues and idea gen erating concepts identified through the inven tory and analysis. These opportunities, con straints and design implications served as the basis for master planning and detail design work. The following Inventory and Analysis maps are included: Green Infrastructure Microclimate Shaded Relief Map Drainage System Topography & Soils Peat Thickness Depth to Compressible Soils Impervious Surfaces & Vegetation Livability Existing Land Use Zoning Building Heights Business Type & Size Street Right-of-Way and Subdivision Pattern Transportation Sense of Place Community Resources Figure-Ground (Positive-Negative Space) Imageability Retail Market Areas Synthesis Map Theresa Cherniak August 2004 c o © CD co 5) s CD CD XT > c CO c CO o o 3 < 0 CD 3 Q. O -) TJ O » m O CD 3 3 TJ 9 CD 09 ar o ig 8 3 CO c CL CD CD CD °- CD CD 3 T3 CO "O H -3 -» ar © r-I? 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O o — o 3 CO CD -> Q, 03 3 3 CL ro- o 3 CD 9 CD CD g ro ro ^ co 3' CO CD 3 a ?i ro T) CO CD co' co" O 5= 3 3 CD 5 in ii 2. ^ CQ I z I J • co < J u m cn o TJ TJ O c 3" HI re (A 8° n o 3 (A rf 1 0J in Z > CHAPTER 5 SITE DESIGN Based on the design strategy and the knowledge gained through information gathered and analyzed in the previous chapters, an overall concept plan and two alternative master plans were developed. This chapter starts with the overall concept plan, which served as the basis for more detailed design. Two alternative master plans are presented, along with sections and axonometrics to further explain the plans. Design details and a closer look at the street types in the project give a fuller understanding of the two alternatives. Overall Concept Plan The overall concept plan is based on oppor tunities presented by the natural history of the area, its location relative to Piper's Creek, expected redevelopment of GSC properties, the location of community facilities, and the drainage needs of the community. The over all concept is one of "Connections, with a Green Heart", and is described in detail on the next page. Master Plans Two alternative master plans were developed to provide a range of options. These are pre sented in plan, section, and axonometric. The primary variables are the location and size of the Fred Meyer store, since this is the driver for the redevelopment, and the location and size of a proposed storm-/groundwater re charge and recreation wetland. Other vari ables include the location and mix of building and use types, the location and types of pub lic spaces, and the street layout. Alternative One keeps the existing Fred Meyer and expands it southward to link the store with 85th St. It includes a 2 acre wetland and in creased stormwater infiltration. Most build ings other than the Fred Meyer are mixed use. Alternative Two includes a new 2 story Fred Meyer store, with housing above, located on 85th St. It includes a 3+ acre wetland and re moval of the portion of Palatine that is cur rently sinking, to be replaced with a pedes trian boardwalk connection. The master plans, sections and other drawings flesh out the details of these two alternatives. Design Details One sheet is presented for each sustainable community design element, detailing one as pect of the alternative plans related to that element, along with precedent photos. The aspects detailed are: • Green Infrastructure - Wetland Design • Livability - Pedestrian Walkway Design • Placemaking - Materials Street Typology The proposed street system is an important aspect of the proposed designs. They are a large part of the implementation of the Green Infrastructure principles, as well as having important implications for Livability and Placemaking. This section shows the exist ing and alternative street typologies, followed by sections and descriptions of the streets. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Figure 34 Overall Concept Plan CONNECTIONS, WITH A GREEN HEART Create a true "Urban Creek's Legacy" for Piper's Creek through these Major Moves: Connect human and water flows to Piper's Creek. Provide Green corridors connecting all open space and the Village. Reveal and restore the Wetland's historic functions. Develop the wetland area as the "Green Heart" of Greenwood. Use public land to reveal and address stormwater issues (street right-of-way and parks). Reduce impervious surfaces and increase vegetation to increase stormwater infiltration. j o Address drainage in an artistic & educational way. 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CD ill 111 ^ 1—»• " ti i at rt 6 n ' CD =t, £ « N—• ' cr » G) o o u fD =*, Z fD % cn CQ fD fD rt H < XI fD (/> fD n rr 5" 3 V5 *> 13 OJ 3 V) TI C CD J> CO CHAPTER 7 DESIGN ASSESSMENT Two alternative master plans were prepared, based on the guiding principles set out in the Design Strategy Matrix in Chapter 3. The purpose of this Chapter is to assess the two alterna tive plans, as well as the existing conditions, against the measures included in the matrix. It begins with maps that provide detailed information on commercial and residential develop ment and parking. These are followed by maps showing the design moves from each alterna tive that address the three elements of sustainable community design. Finally, a numerical assessment of the alternatives is presented, based on the measures listed in the Design Strat egy matrix. Development Details Maps To perform an assessment of the existing conditions and alternative plans, many details about the plans were needed. The uses and layout of each building were therefore de signed at a basic level, including residential unit layout, circulation, parking layout, and size of commercial storefronts, in order to under stand and assess the proposals. These de tails are presented in the three figures on the following pages. Assessment Maps The major design moves from each alterna tive master plan that areintended to address each of the three elements of sustainable community design are then presented. These are shown in several figures and compared against each other. Alternatives Comparison The graphic assessments are followed by sev eral tables that numerically compare the two alternatives and the existing conditions based on the measures listed in the design strategy matrix. As a recap, the measures were: % Effective Permeable Surfaces % of Residents within a 5 minute walk ing distance (1/4 mile) of daily desti nations Range of Housing Types Provided Housing Density Commercial Frontage on the Sidewalk Street Interconnectivity Placemaking Elements These measures help assess how well each design meets the elements of sustainable community design. The intent was not to judge which alternative was better or to make a recommendation -each alternative is an attempt to fulfill the de sign strategy as laid out. They are both pre sented as different options to show that a more sustainable development could occur even if the Fred Meyer remains in its current loca tion. o to n 92. o TJ QJ 5' to L__1 o o I QD r 2 1 n o 3 3 n> n 5' y • L J-A CT3~ 1 1 • 0 DC DPQ • a • can 0 °Q 8 QB a 2oa QQ P o. a. a 73 n w a 3 rt 5' a> D) 7T > C CQ C cn NO o o 0) in o a o 0 o CD 3 1 I i s IT Q 3 CD' 0 7T c a. 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See Figure 12 on p. 24 for map of the site area. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 Table 3 ALTERNATIVES COMPARISON DEVELOPMENT DETAILS Residential Units Single Family/Duplex Townhouse Stacked Flat (Apartment or Condo) Loft Total Existing 27 0 0 0 27 Alternative 1 0 71 366 0 437 Alternative 2 5 56 240 40 341 Commercial Square Footage Fred Meyer only 106,345 Other retail 81,800 Office 0 Total 188,145 % Commercial sf in Fred Meyer 57% 135,470 87,675 33,200 256,345 53% 134,000 78,755 41,760 254,515 53% Community/Public Space Community Buildings 0 Plaza/Wetland/ParksPedestrian Walkways (E-W & N-S) 0 Semi-public (e.g., infiltration gardens, 0 green space, rain garden) Total 0 4,700 sf 78,000 sf 34,500 sf 35,000 sf 152,200 sf 9,500 sf 132,250 sf 34,750 Sf 5,250 sf 181,570 Parking Spaces Surface Lot Underground Structured Street Total (not incl. single family) 763 50 0 72 885 36 715 125 255 1131 plus 62 spaces (at least) in proposed community parking structure 33 551 396 217 1197 plus proposed commmunity parking struc ture Parking Details Commercial Spaces Commercial Parking Ratio Residential Parking Spaces (not including single family) Residential Parking Ratio 885 1 space/213 sf, 4.7sp/1000 sf 671 1 sp/392 sf on-site, 2.62 sp/1000 sf (or 1/350 sf including off-site spaces) 460 Typ. 1 sp/u 832 1 sp/306 sf, or 3.25 sp/1000 sf 347 Typ. 1 sp/u Box to Town Ce rites Theresa Cherniak August 2004 74 Table 4 ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVES Green Infrastructure Pervious Surfaces % Pervious Effective Permeable Area* Existing approx 3ac* approx 15% approx 15% Alternative 1 3.4 ac 17% approx. 90% Alternative 2 4.5 ac 23% approx. 90% Livability % of residents w/i 5 minute walk of services Residential Density (gross acreage) Range of Housing Options % Comm sf in Mixed Use bldg. Commercial Street Frontage - linear ft. Commercial Use Frontage on Street Commercial Use Frontage as % of Street Frontage Street Interconnectivity & Walkability Node Numbers: (A) Vehicular & Pedestrian, (b) Pedestrian Only Linkage Numbers : Total Vehicular & Pedestrian Network Connectivity Index Placemaking Subjective based on included Elements 100% 1.4 du/ac None. Single family only. 0 1,500' 200' 13% Broken Network. No connection through superblock Pedestrian con nections made through parking lots. 100% 22.6 du/ac Limited variety of hsg. types 47% 4,000' 2,655' 66% 100% 17.5 du/ac Most Variety of hsg. types 90% 3,540' 2,675' 76% Mostly Interconnected Interconnected Network. Several critical linkages missing. Alleys in N. area provide connectivity for single family area. (A) 23, (B) 4 (A) 37, (B) 9 (Informal) 32 Total 0.43 Few elements. Start of street furniture & street trees; Piper's Creek Bus Stop; Jeweller's Clock; Historic Buildings. 64 Total 0.48 Network. More complete grid -more overall con nectivity through site & between site & neighborhood. (A) 33, (B) 10 62 Total 0.50 Connection to creek; Green Streets; Re-create McCausland Mural; Gateways; Preserve Historic Bldgs.; markers & education elements; reconnection to natural history through wetland, urban forest; historic building materials (board walk, brick); preserve small storefront feel; reestablish the grid. Notes: All impervious surfaces are on single family lots Effective Permeable Area is "a measure of how much of the land is permeable to rainwater or delivers rainwater to another permeable area" (Teed, 5). 7 CONCLUSIONS This project started with the solid policy base established over ten years of study, hard work, and consensus building within the community. It analyzed the existing policy base against three critical elements of sustainable community design: Green Infrastructure, Livability and Placemaking, and built on this base where it didn't fully address these elements. Through extensive inventory, analysis and research on the community, the physical and social opportu nities and constraints for the project were developed. The two alternative master plans arising from this foundation provide a range of development options intended to meet the design strategy's requirements. Both alternatives contain a larger Fred Meyer store, though in different configfurations. While both alternatives propose large wetland/open space areas, they still accommodate the amount of development projected by the community in its Town Center Plan. This development would require transferring development capacity from one area to another within the project site. In response to current peat/ground subsidence concerns, the city has indicated its willingness to modify some of its requirements. Alternative 2, with a rebuilt 2-story Fred Meyer in a new location on 85th St., comes out ahead on most of the measures of sustainable community design. This alternative, however, would require tearing down the old Fred Meyer and building new, which would be an expensive undertaking. Alternative 1 is still a good option, particularly considering the economics of teardown and building new. The intent, however, was not to judge which alternative was better or to recommend one over the other. Each alternative is an attempt to fulfill the design strategy as laid out. Both are presented to show that a more sustainable development could occur even if the Fred Meyer remains in its current location. This project's intent is to offer alternative town center plans that are more livable, sustainable and distinctive than many current proposals. Both plans would result in 'a place that sustains the environment and the people who use it'. Both would connect with the existing core in a way that would enhance both, and make the area feel like a cohesive town center. And, it is hoped, both would help the community realize its visions. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein. 1977. A Pattern Language Towns, Buildings, Construction. New York: Oxford University Press. A Northwest Collaborative and the Greenwood/Phinney Ridge Steering Committee. April 1999. A Vision of Community Greenwood/Phinney Ridge Neighborhood Plan. Seattle: Self Published. Bacon, Edmund. 1976. Design of Cities. New York: Penguin Books. Beurge, David M. Any there there? In Seattle Weekly, June 18, 1997, p. 25-28. Beyard, Michael D., Michael Pawlukiewicz, and Alex Bond. 2003. Ten Principles for Rebuilding Neighborhood Retail. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute. Bird, Frederick. "29 Years and 29 Miles. The Seattle-Everett Interurban Railway, 1910-1939" Snohomish County History Series <http://www.co.snohomish.wa.us/council/ Interurban.htm> Bohl, Charles C. 2002. Placemaking: Developing Town Centers, Main Streets, and Urban Vilages. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute. Bush, James. "Greenwood Battles Historic Division." in Seattle Press July 1991: 5-8. Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The Next American Metropolis. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. City of Portland Environmental Services. September 2002. Stormwater Management Manual Revision #2. Portland, Oregon: City of Portland. City of Seattle. June 2004. Greenwood Phinney Neighborhood Design Guidelines. Seattle: City of Seattle. City of Seattle. November 2000. Flow Control Technical Requirements Manual. Seattle: City of Seattle. City of Seattle. November 2000. Stormwater Treatment Technical Requirements Manual. Seattle: City of Seattle. City of Seattle. 1995. Seattle's Comprehensive Plan: A Plan For Managing Growth 1994-2014 Toward a Sustainable Seattle. Seattle: City of Seattle. City of Seattle. May 2001. Seattle's Comprehensive Plan Digest. Seattle: City of Seattle. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES (CONT'D.) City of Seattle. Quantity and Design Standards for Access and Off Street Parking. Seattle Municipal Code Chapter 23.54. <http://clerk.ci.seattle.wa.us/~public/code1 .htm> accessed 11 March, 2004. City of Seattle Parks Department Website. <www.ci.seattle.wa.us/parks/history/SandelPG.pdf> City of Seattle Public Utilities Website <www.seattle.gov/services> Condon, Patrick. 2003. Sustainable Urban Landscapes: Site Design Manual for B.C. Communities. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, James Taylor Chair in Landscape and Liveable Environments Condon, Patrick. Course Lecture Notes. University of British Columbia. Congress for the New Urbanism. Michael Lecesse and Kathleen McCormick, eds. 2000. Charter of the New Urbanism. New York: McGraw-Hill. Cullen, Gordon. 1966. The Concise Townscape. Cambridge: University Press. Dames and Moore Consulting Engineers. March 24, 1972 revised March 30, 1972. Report of Soils Investigation and Environmental Impact Studies Proposed Storm Drain Improvement North Greenwood Portion of South Carkeek Park Drainage System. Seattle: Dames and Moore. Dietrich, William. "Identity Crisis." Pacific Northwest Magazine, magazine of the Sunday Seattle Times and Post Intelligencer. 4 April 2003. Duany, Andres and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberg, eds. 1992. Towns and Townmaking Principles. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. Ellin, Nan. 1996. Postmodern Urbanism. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Forman, Richard TT. 1995. Land Mosaics. The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. France, Robert L. 2003. Wetland Design: Principles and Practices for Landscape Architects and Land Use Planners. New York: W.W. Norton Gehl, Jan. 1987. Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Greenwood Chamber of Commerce Website, <http://www.greenwood-phinney.com/pages/ events. asp> "Greenwood - Thumbnail History" Seattle/King County HistoryLink.org ,<http:// www.historylink.org/_output.cfm7file_id-3456> accessed November 19, 2003 Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES (CONT'D.) Hedman, Richard and Andrew Jaszewski. 1984. Fundamentals of Urban Design. Washington D.C: Planners Press. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. Katz, Peter. 1994. The New Urbanism - Toward An Architecture of Community. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kelbaugh, Doug. 2002. Repairing the American Metropolis Common Place Revisited. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Lecesse, Michael. "Cleansing Art" in Landscape Architecture. January 1997. v.87 n 1 p. 70-77, 130. Liptan, Thomas and Robert K. Murase. 2002. "Watergardens as Stormwater Infrastructure in Portland Oregon." in A Handbook of Water Sensitive Design. Ed Robert France. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers. Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Lyon, Richard B. 1997. The Future of Large Building Retail in Portland's Town Center Devel opments. Master of Urban Planning Thesis, University of Washington. Makers Architecture, for Greenwood/Phinney Main Street Steering Committee and the City of Seattle. March 2001. Greenwood/Phinney Main Street Design Report. Seattle: Self Published. Oldenburg, Ray. 1999. The Great Good Place. New York: Marlowe & Company. "Old Fashioned Neighborhood with a Trendy Edge" Seattle Post Intelligencer Webtowns. <www.seattlepi.nwsource.com/webtowns/article.asp?WTID=26«8(ID=103361 > Oregon Department of Transportation. November 1999. Main Street...When a Highway Runs Through It: A Handbook for Oregon Communities. Oregon Department of Transporta tion. Paterson, Doug. LARC 505B Course Notes. University of British Columbia. Portland Metro. June 2002. Green Streets. Innovative Solutions for Stormwater and Stream Crossings. Portland: Metro. Portland Metro. June 2002. Trees for Green Streets. An Illustrated Guide. Portland Oregon: Metro. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES (CONT'D.) Puget Sound Action Team. March 2003. Natural Approaches to Stormwater Management Low Impact Development in Puget Sound. Olympia, Washington: Office of the Governor. Schwartz, Susan. "North Greenwood Has Real Troubles" in Seattle Times 24 October, 1971: C9. Seattle Public Library (SPL) Community Services Division Northwest Region. 1980. Greenwood Community Study. Seattle: Seattle Public Library. Schneekloth, Lynda H. and Robert G. Shibley. 1995. Placemaking: The Art and Practice of Building Communities. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Schueler, Thomas R. October 1992. Design of Stormwater Wetland Systems Guidelines for Creating Diverse and Effective Stormwater Wetland Systems in the Mid-Atlantic Region. Washington, D.C.: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Shannon and Wilson, Inc. Geotechnical and Environmental Consultants. April 21,2004. Greenwood Subsurface Characterization Study, Seattle Washington. Seattle: Shannon and Wilson. Sobel, Lee with Ellen Greenberg and Steven Bodzin, Congress for the New Urbanism. 2002. Greyfields into Goldfields. Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. Pittsburgh: Geyer Printing Co. Song, Yan and Gerritt-Jan Knapp. "Measuring Urban Form: Is Portland Winning the War? on Sprawl" in Journal of the American Planning Association, Spring 2004, Vol. 70 #2, p. 210-225. Steinberg, Lynn. Greenwood: Seattle's Hidden Treasure is Neighborhood of Contrasts." in Seattle Post-Intelligencer 11 July 1998: D1. Strom, Steven and Kurt Nathan. 1998. Site Engineering for Landscape Architects. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Sucher, David. 2003. City Comforts. How to Build an Urban Village. Seattle: City Comforts Inc. Teed, Jackie and Patrick Condon with Sara Muir and Chris Midgley. Undated. Sustainable Urban Landscapes. Neighbourhood Pattern Typology. Vancouver: University of British Columbia James Taylor Chair in Landscape and Liveable Environments Trancik, Roger. 1986. Finding Lost Space. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES (CONT'D.) University of Illinois, Department of Urban and Regional Planning. Urban Design Project Manual. Online at <http://www.urban.uiuc.edu/CoursesA/arkki/up326/manual/manual.htm> accessed January 30, 2004. University of Washington, Special Collections, <http://content.lib.washington.edu/seattle/im-age/14002125102001_311.JPG>, and <http://content.lib.washington.edu/imlsmohai/image/ 249.jpg>n, accessed on February 22, 2004. Whyte, William H. 1980. The Social Life Of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Conser vation Foundation. Personal Communications Anderson, Matt. Heartland Consultants. Personal Communication 26 January and 18 March, 2004. Andrews, Denise. Seattle Public Utilities Seastreets Program. Personal Communication. January 16, 2004. Bicknell, Lyle. City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development. Personal Communi cation. Multiple Dates. Brunt, Gary. Greenwood Shopping Center Representative. Personal Communication. March 25, 2004. Cannaday, Shaun. GGLO. Personal Communication. January 22, 2004. Pflug, Beth. City of Seattle Neighborhood Service Center Coordinator. Personal Communica tion. January 14, 2004. Gibbons, Tom. Fred Meyer. Personal Communication. January 26, 2004. Kasperczyk, Davidya. Consultant. Personal Communication. February 17, 2004. Kofoed, Kristian. City of Seattle DPD. Personal Communication. Multiple Dates. Lyons, Vince. City of Seattle Design Review. March 23, 2004. McGinn, Mike. Greenwood Community Council President. Personal Communication. Janu ary 16, 2004. Meier, Dennis. City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development. Personal Commu nication. Multiple Dates. Theresa Cherniak August 2004 REFERENCES (CONT'D.) Snyder, Mary-Catherine. Seattle Department of Transportation - Parking. Personal Commu nication. Multiple Dates. Smith, Jeff. City of Seattle Public Utilities. Personal Communication. Multiple Dates. Spiegel, Marty. Greenwood Community Council Member. Personal Communication January 15, 2004. Walgren, Shauna. City of Seattle Department of Transportation. Personal Communication. January 14, 2004. 

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