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Cultural identity as a mediating factor in help-seeking attitutes among Asian and Caucasian students Barone, Crispian Louis 2003

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CULTURAL IDENTITY AS A MEDIATING FACTOR IN HELP-SEEKING ATTITUDES AMONG ASIAN AND CAUCASIAN STUDENTS by CRISPIAN LOUIS BARONE B.A., Okanagan U n i v e r s i t y - C o l l e g e , 2000 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 2003 (c) C r i s p i a n L o u i s Barone, 2003 Library Authorization In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Z Z /1:/>/ Zc-Z) i-/ Name of Author (please print) Date (dd/mm/yyyy) Title of Thesis: j f ( f p^C 11 < Degree: Year: 1 \ Department of C r The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B C Canada Role of Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking i i A b s t r a c t T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o e x p l o r e how l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s r e l a t e d t o h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a m o n g A s i a n s t u d e n t s a n d t o c o m p a r e b e t w e e n A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . A t o t a l o f 3 6 7 u n d e r g r a d u a t e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , o f whom 184 (127 f e m a l e a n d 57 m a l e ) w e r e A s i a n s a n d 183 (137 f e m a l e , 44 m a l e , a n d 2 u n s p e c i f i e d g e n d e r ) w e r e C a u c a s i a n s . A w e a k p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s f o u n d b e t w e e n A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ( r = .158, p = .034, n = 181) (2- tailed); n o s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ( r = .077, p - .305, n = 178) (2-tailed); n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d a m o n g : (a) h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , (b) l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y A s i a n g r o u p s , a n d (c) C a u c a s i a n g r o u p f o r b o t h p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s {F(2, 186) = 2.405, p = .093) a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s (F(2, 186) = .612), p = .544). M i x e d r e s u l t s w e r e f o u n d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e w a s n o e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e t r e n d b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e o r e t i c a l , c l i n i c a l , a n d r e s e a r c h i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents. . . . . . . . i i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of Figures v i Acknowledgements v i i Chapter I Introduction 1 R e l e v a n c e 1 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 Chapter II Literature Review 4 A c c u l t u r a t i o n : E x p l o r i n g a n d d e f i n i n g t h e p r o c e s s 4 H e l p s e e k i n g t r e n d s : U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r o l e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n 5 P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e s . . . 10 S u m m a r y 15 R e s e a r c h H y p o t h e s e s 16 Chapter III Methodology 19 D e f i n i t i o n s 19 P a r t i c i p a n t s 2 0 M e a s u r e s : 2 7 D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y 2 7 C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y 2 8 P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k A t t i t u d e S c a l e 3 1 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 35 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking P r o c e d u r e 36 Chapter IV Results 3 9 D e s c r i p t i o n o f M a i n V a r i a b l e s 39 H y p o t h e s i s T e s t i n g 4 3 Chapter V Discussion 55 D i s c u s s i o n 55 L i m i t a t i o n s o f S t u d y 63 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s & I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . 64 References 6 7 Appendix 71 D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y 72 C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y 73 P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e S c a l e . 74 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1 T o t a l N u m b e r o f M a l e a n d F e m a l e P a r t i c i p a n t s by-C u l t u r a l G r o u p 2 1 T a b l e 2 A g e s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s b y G r o u p . 2 4 T a b l e 3 Y e a r s s p e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a b y G r o u p 2 5 T a b l e 4 N u m b e r s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n E a c h C u l t u r a l G r o u p . 33 T a b l e 5 P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g s c o r e s b y C u l t u r a l G r o u p 4 2 T a b l e 6 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o n G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s f o r P o s i t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e s 4 9 T a b l e 7 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e o f P o s i t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e 5 0 T a b l e 8 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o n G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s f o r N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e s 5 1 T a b l e 9 D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e o f N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e 52 T a b l e 10 M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g S c o r e s f o r t h e T o t a l C a u c a s i a n a n d A s i a n G r o u p s 53 T a b l e 11 ANOVA a n d D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s f o r P H S A a n d N H S A b y T o t a l C a u c a s i a n a n d A s i a n G r o u p s 54 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking L i s t o f Figures F i g u r e 1 Birthplace o f Asian Participants 26 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking vii A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my M o t h e r L i n d a B a r o n e f o r h e r t i m e a n d e f f o r t i n h e l p i n g me t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my F a t h e r R e n e B a r o n e , f o r k e e p i n g me o n t r a c k a n d h e l p i n g me t o s o r t t h r o u g h t h e r e s u l t s . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my f a m i l y , my w i f e A n d r e a a n d my s o n A n d r e w f o r b e i n g p a t i e n t a n d s u p p o r t i v e t h r o u g h t h i s p r o c e s s . I w a n t t o t h a n k D r . I s h u I s h i y a m a f o r h i s s u p p o r t a n d f o r g r a n t i n g me a c c e s s t o h i s d a t a . I w a n t t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s , D r . B i l l B o r g e n a n d D r . J o e L u c y s h y n f o r t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y a n d s u p p o r t t h r o u g h t h i s l o n g p r o c e s s . I w a n t t o t h a n k D r . I s h u I s h i y a m a , D r . B i l l B o r g e n , a n d D r . J o e L u c y s h y n f o r g i v i n g me r o o m t o make e r r o r s a n d f o r g i v i n g me g u i d a n c e a n d t h e c h a n c e t o p r o v e m y s e l f w o r t h y o f t h e i r s u p p o r t . I w a n t t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s u p p o r t o f M i s h a a n d my f r i e n d s d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 1 C H A P T E R I : I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d A s i a n acculturation level a s d e f i n e d b y l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y a n d a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e v a r i a b l e cultural identity ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a , 1 9 9 7 ) . A s i a n p e o p l e w i t h a low North American cultural identity may b e r e g a r d e d a s m o s t l y t r a d i t i o n a l A s i a n a n d n o t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , w h e r e a s A s i a n s w i t h a high North American cultural identity are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g . L i t e r a t u r e s t a t e s t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l i s a n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r c o u n s e l l o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g A s i a n c l i e n t s ' h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , b u t d i s a g r e e s a s t o t h e s t r e n g t h a n d t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . R E L E V A N C E C a n a d a h a s l o n g b e e n k n o w n f o r i t s c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y a n d i t s p o l i c i e s d e a l i n g w i t h m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . A s c o u n s e l l o r s i n C a n a d a , we s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d t o h e l p p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h e r e t h e t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e o f ' v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y ' p o p u l a t i o n i s 1 7 . 9 % , b a s e d o n 1 9 9 6 c e n s u s d a t a ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 9 6 ) . O f s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n c e t o my t h e s i s , w h i c h f o c u s e s o n t h e A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n , t h e A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r 6 . 1 % o f C a n a d a ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , a s o f 1 9 9 6 . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n m o r e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 2 t h a n d o u b l e s t o 1 3 . 5 % i n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o p u l a t i o n d e m o g r a p h i c ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 9 6 ) . C l e a r l y , t h i s l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o u l d b e a c c o u n t e d f o r w h e n d e s i g n i n g a n d d e l i v e r i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . I f c o u n s e l l o r s a n d a g e n c i e s b a s e t h e i r p o l i c i e s o n a C a u c a s i a n - o n l y c o u n s e l l i n g m o d e l , t h e y r i s k a l i e n a t i n g t h e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s t h a t m a k e u p 1 7 . 9 % o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h e q u a t e s t o 6 6 0 , 5 4 0 p e o p l e i n B . C . ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 9 6 ) . O f t h e s e v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s , 7 3 . 9 % i s a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e B . C . A s i a n p o p u l a t i o n , a t o t a l o f 4 8 8 , 1 0 5 p e o p l e ( S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 1 9 9 6 ) . R E S E A R C H Q U E S T I O N T h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A s i a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a s c o m p a r e d w i t h C a u c a s i a n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h h a d a c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t a n d a c o m p a r a t i v e c o m p o n e n t . F i r s t , i t c o r r e l a t e d A s i a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . T h e n i t m e a s u r e d h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a m o n g h i g h a n d l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e S c a l e ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) a n d t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a , 1 9 9 7 ) , a n d c o m p a r e d t h e m w i t h a C a u c a s i a n s a m p l e . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 3 T h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n e x a m i n e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h i s : How d o A s i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g d i f f e r a m o n g A s i a n c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , o r l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , a n d d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e o f a N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l g r o u p . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 4 C H A P T E R I I : L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W A C C U L T U R A T I O N : E X P L O R I N G AND D E F I N I N G T H E P R O C E S S M i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s c a n n o t b e s t e r e o t y p e d a s b e i n g s t a t i c o r a s h a v i n g o n l y o n e s p e c i f i c w a y o f b e i n g c o u n s e l l e d - t h i s i s w h e r e t h e v a r i a b l e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n g e n e r a l t e r m s , a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s t h e c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , a n d b e h a v i o u r s o f a p e r s o n f r o m a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e a s a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r c u l t u r e ( A t k i n s o n , 1 9 8 9 ; B e r r y , K i m , & B u j a k i , 1 9 8 9 ; G o r d o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o G o r d o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) , l e a v i n g o n e ' s home c o u n t r y a n d m o v i n g t o a n u n f a m i l i a r s o c i e t y i s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e p r o c e s s o f m o v i n g a n d a d j u s t i n g t o t h e n e w e n v i r o n m e n t r e q u i r e s s i g n i f i c a n t a d a p t a t i o n , w h i c h o c c u r s t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . One t h e o r y p r o p o s e d b y A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 8 9 ) i s t h e M i n o r i t y I d e n t i t y D e v e l o p m e n t (MID) M o d e l . I t p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n o c c u r s i n a s e r i e s o f s t a g e s . T h e M I D m o d e l a s s u m e s t h a t a l l m i n o r i t y p e r s o n s e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r o p p r e s s i v e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l g r o u p , w h i c h f o s t e r s a s e n s e o f g r o u p i d e n t i t y . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h i s t h e o r y i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l m i n o r i t i e s who move i n t o a n e w c u l t u r e f r o m t h e i r c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n b e c a u s e e a c h m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e w i l l e x p e r i e n c e s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . T h e M I D m o d e l p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s f o l l o w s a s e r i e s o f f i v e s t a g e s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 5 t h a t a r e d e f i n e d b y a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e l f , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s o t h e r s i n t h e same g r o u p , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s o t h e r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e w h i t e m a j o r i t y . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t s o c i a l c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t s t a t i c a n d t h a t c o n t a c t w i t h N o r t h A m e r i c a n s w i l l c h a l l e n g e a n d c h a n g e e t h n i c m i n o r i t y a t t i t u d e s a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . A c c o r d i n g t o L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) , a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s b e c o m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , t h e y b e c o m e m o r e l i k e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s i n t e r m s o f t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s , v a l u e s , l a n g u a g e , a n d p r e f e r e n c e s . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , A s i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h h e l p s h o u l d c h a n g e o v e r t i m e t o e v e n t u a l l y m i r r o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n a t t i t u d e s a n d b e l i e f s . W h a t i s i m p o r t a n t w h e n e x a m i n i n g t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h e i d e a t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s a n d t h a t t h e l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n w i l l make a d i f f e r e n c e i n A s i a n v a l u e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s . H E L P S E E K I N G T R E N D S : U N E R S T A N D I N G T H E R O L E OF A C C U L T U R A T I O N I N SYMPTOM R E P O R T I N G T o u n d e r s t a n d t h e h e l p - s e e k i n g p a t t e r n s o f A s i a n s who h a v e i m m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e x p l o r e h o w A s i a n s r e p o r t s y m p t o m s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . I t h a s b e e n r e p o r t e d t h a t A s i a n s s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e i n m e d i c a l c a u s e s o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s a n d may n o t s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 6 f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p ( L i n , 1 9 9 4 ) . A s i a n s s e e m e n t a l i l l n e s s i n a n e g a t i v e w a y , b e c a u s e i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r v a l u e s y s t e m a n d b r i n g s s o c i a l s t i g m a b o t h o n t o t h e p e r s o n s u f f e r i n g a n d o n t o t h a t p e r s o n ' s f a m i l y . A l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o F u r n h a m & A n d r e w ( 1 9 9 6 ) , A s i a n s t e n d t o s o m a t i s i z e m e n t a l p r o b l e m s a n d t h e r e f o r e m a y n o t s e e k p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p f o r m e n t a l i l l n e s s , r a t h e r t h e y w o u l d s e e k m e d i c a l h e l p . A c c o r d i n g t o r e c e n t r e s e a r c h , h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r g e n e r a l l y b e g i n s w i t h f a m i l y a n d n e i g h b o u r s , i n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s ( K o k & L i o w , 1 9 9 3 ) . Q u i t e o f t e n , f a m i l y m e m b e r s h e l p w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a n d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r s i n g l e p a r e n t s ) . B o t h f a m i l y a n d n e i g h b o u r s e q u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t i s s u e s . One a r e a w h e r e t h i s t r e n d d e v i a t e s i s w i t h c h i l d c a r e . S i n g l e A s i a n p a r e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o g o t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s f o r c h i l d c a r e c o n c e r n s t h a n t o f a m i l y a n d n e i g h b o u r s . A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s i n g e n e r a l t e n d n o t t o u t i l i z e m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s t o t h e same d e g r e e a s C a u c a s i a n p e o p l e ( Z h a n g , S n o w d e n , & S u e , 1 9 9 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o d a t a r e p o r t e d b y Z h a n g e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) , A s i a n p e o p l e t e n d t o f i r s t t r y a n d d e a l w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s i n d i v i d u a l l y b e f o r e o f s p e a k i n g t o m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I f t h i s f i r s t s t e p i s n o t s u c c e s s f u l , a b o u t 12% o f A s i a n s t u r n t o f r i e n d s f o r h e l p a n d o n l y a b o u t 4% a r e w i l l i n g t o g o t o m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i s i s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 7 s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s t h a n t h e C a u c a s i a n p o p u l a t i o n , o f whom 2 5 . 5 % a r e w i l l i n g t o s p e a k w i t h f r i e n d s a n d 2 5 . 5 % a r e w i l l i n g t o s p e a k w i t h a p s y c h i a t r i s t a b o u t m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . T h e s e d a t a s h o w t h a t A s i a n s o f a l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , f o r e x a m p l e A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s , may n o t b e w i l l i n g t o s e e k p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . G i v e n t h e a b o v e d a t a , a f u r t h e r s t u d y m a y f i n d a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . A s i a n s o f h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s may h a v e s i m i l a r h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a s N o r t h A m e r i c a n C a u c a s i a n s . T h e t r e n d o f n o n - d i s c l o s u r e d i d n o t h o l d t r u e f o r c l i e n t s w i t h s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s ( Z h a n g e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) . T h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r o f s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s a n d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f d i s c l o s i n g m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s . A s i a n s t e n d t o s o m a t i s i z e m e n t a l h e a l t h i s s u e s , w h i c h w o u l d l i k e l y c a u s e i n c r e a s e d v i s i t s t o m e d i c a l d o c t o r s f o r s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s ( F u r n h a m & A n d r e w , 1 9 9 6 ) . S i n c e A s i a n s a r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s e e k h e l p f o r m e d i c a l r e a s o n s ( L i n , 1 9 9 4 ) , t h e y e n d u p i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h m e d i c a l d o c t o r s t h r o u g h w h i c h A s i a n c l i e n t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e w e s t e r n m e d i c a l s y s t e m . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e c l i e n t s w i l l b e c o m e f a m i l i a r w i t h W e s t e r n m e d i c a l s y s t e m s s o o n e r t h a n t h o s e who d o n o t h a v e s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s . F o r A s i a n c l i e n t s , t h i s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 8 i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e c o u l d i n d i c a t e a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . A s i a n s t u d e n t s d i s p l a y s i m i l a r l e v e l s o f m e n t a l d i s t r e s s a s c o m p a r e d t o C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s b u t t e n d t o r e p o r t i t i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s ( T r a c y , L e o n g , & G l i d d e n , 1 9 8 6 ) . T r a c y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) s u r v e y e d s t u d e n t s f r o m a H a w a i i a n U n i v e r s i t y o v e r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d , a n d f o u n d t h a t C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o r e p o r t e m o t i o n a l c o n c e r n s w h e r e a s A s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o r e p o r t c a r e e r o r a c a d e m i c c o n c e r n s . T h e A s i a n s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a s m a n y a s , o r m o r e p r o b l e m s t h a n d i d t h e C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s - t h e a m o u n t o f r e p o r t e d m e n t a l h e a l t h c o n c e r n s w e r e s i m i l a r b u t w e r e r e p o r t e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . I t was c o n c l u d e d W e s t e r n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s o f A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d w e r e l i k e l y m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d a n d t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o T r a c y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) , h a v e s i m i l a r h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a s t h e C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) s t u d i e d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r . I n t o t a l , 3 2 6 C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n men a n d women c o m p l e t e d a s u r v e y t h a t e x a m i n e d d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a , l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n o f s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o c o u n s e l l i n g , a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g c o u n s e l l i n g . R e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i n t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s r e p o r t e d l e s s o f a s t i g m a t o w a r d s s e e k i n g h e l p f r o m a Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 9 m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a h i g h e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . A s l e v e l s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n r o s e , A s i a n s b e c a m e m o r e w e s t e r n i z e d a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) , t h e y b e c a m e m o r e a c c e p t i n g o f w e s t e r n t h e r a p i e s s u c h a s c o u n s e l l i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o Z h a n g e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) , r e l u c t a n c e t o d i s c l o s e m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s m a y i n d i c a t e a c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n A s i a n c l i e n t s a n d W e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . C l i e n t s may e x p e r i e n c e m i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n d u e t o l a n g u a g e a n d e t h n i c a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e c o u n s e l l o r s who i n a d v e r t e n t l y c r e a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n b a r r i e r s t h a t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . L i n ( 1 9 9 4 ) f o u n d t h a t A s i a n c l i e n t s s t a y i n t h e r a p y f o r a s l o n g a s C a u c a s i a n c l i e n t s i f c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s l a n g u a g e s p o k e n a n d e t h n i c i t y w e r e a c c o u n t e d f o r . A s i a n c l i e n t s who s a w a n e t h n i c a l l y o r l i n g u i s t i c a l l y m a t c h e d c o u n s e l l o r s t a y e d i n t h e r a p y f o r a n a v e r a g e o f 12 s e s s i o n s - c o m p a r a b l e t o C a u c a s i a n A m e r i c a n c l i e n t s . When c o u n s e l l i n g was c o m b i n e d w i t h m e d i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e l e n g t h o f A s i a n c l i e n t s ' s t a y i n t h e r a p y n e a r l y t r i p l e d i n l e n g t h ( i . e . 34 s e s s i o n s ) . T h i s t r e n d i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n c l i e n t s who a r e n o t a b l e t o s p e a k E n g l i s h a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d n o t b e n e f i t f r o m h a v i n g a n E n g l i s h o n l y s p e a k i n g c o u n s e l l o r . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 10 A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e f a c t o r s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y a n d c o r r e l a t e d t h e m w i t h s y m p t o m r e p o r t i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y , C h i n e s e a n d C a n a d i a n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e g i v e n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t m e a s u r e d s e l f - r e p o r t e d p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l s y m p t o m s , a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , a n d c o n t r o l l e d f o r s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t A s i a n s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r f r o m C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s i n r e p o r t i n g p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s a n d t h a t t h e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d s t u d e n t s w e r e i n c r e a s i n g l y s i m i l a r t o C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t n o r m s . H o w e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) , A s i a n s t u d e n t s d i d r e p o r t m o r e a n x i e t y , l i k e l y d u e t o p r e s s u r e t o s u c c e e d , c u l t u r e s h o c k , a n d l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r s , b u t d i s p l a y e d l e s s a f f e c t e x p r e s s i o n . T h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t A s i a n s w e r e a w a r e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s a n d w e r e w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s i t w h e n s p e c i f i c a l l y a n d a n o n y m o u s l y a s k e d a b o u t i t . P O S I T I V E AND N E G A T I V E H E L P - S E E K I N G A T T I T U D E S I n a s t u d y b y F u r n h a m a n d A n d r e w ( 1 9 9 6 ) , A s i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e r a p y c h a n g e d a f t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l v i s i t t o a c o u n s e l l o r . I n t h i s s t u d y , 98 A s i a n a n d 78 C a u c a s i a n B r i t i s h p a r t i c i p a n t s f i l l e d o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h h e l p . A c c o r d i n g t o F u r n h a m a n d A n d r e w ( 1 9 9 6 ) , e t h n i c o r i g i n , a g e , Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 11 g e n d e r , o c c u p a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , a n d s e l f - r e p o r t e d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h w e r e n o t c o r r e l a t e d t o h e l p - s e e k i n g w h i l e p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s a n d s e v e r i t y o f s o m a t i s i z i n g d i s t r e s s w e r e . P r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s w a s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s w h i l e s e v e r i t y o f s o m a t i c d i s t r e s s was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . T h i s i m p l i e d t h a t A s i a n s , who t e n d e d t o s o m a t i s i z e p e r s o n a l m e n t a l d i s t r e s s , w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o s e e k m e d i c a l h e l p a n d l e s s l i k e l y t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g . H o w e v e r , o n c e i n t r o d u c e d t o c o u n s e l l i n g A s i a n c l i e n t s w e r e w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t i t a s a v a l i d s o u r c e o f h e l p . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n d r a w n f r o m t h i s s t u d y was t h a t A s i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e r a p y b e c o m e m o r e p o s i t i v e w i t h e x p o s u r e t o W e s t e r n t h e r a p i e s . A t k i n s o n , L o w e , a n d M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 9 5 ) e x a m i n e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d g e n d e r a n d how t h e y i n f l u e n c e A s i a n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . I n t h i s s t u d y , 1 8 7 A s i a n A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , 98 m a l e s a n d 89 f e m a l e s , f i l l e d o u t t h e Willingness to See a Counsellor Questionnaire w h i c h e x a m i n e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l , g e n d e r , a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f A s i a n m a l e s a n d t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f A s i a n f e m a l e s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s e e c o u n s e l l o r s f o r c a r e e r o r a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s , p a r t i c i p a n t s who Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 12 h a d p r e v i o u s l y a t t e n d e d t h e r a p y w e r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o g o t o t h e r a p y a g a i n a n d , i n c o n t r a s t t o o t h e r s t u d i e s , p a r t i c i p a n t l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . T h e s e f i n d i n g s u p h e l d p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d f i n d i n g s i n t h a t t h e i n i t i a l c o u n s e l l i n g v i s i t i s c r u c i a l , a n d o n c e i n t r o d u c e d t o c o u n s e l l i n g , A s i a n s a c c e p t e d i t a s a v a l i d s o u r c e o f h e l p . T h i s s t u d y a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t t h e r e was n o t a g e n d e r s p l i t i n A s i a n c l i e n t s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k t h e r a p y a s t h e r e i s i n C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e -i . e . C a n a d i a n women a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g t h a n m e n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h i s s t u d y c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e i d e a t h a t h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s w e r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g ( A t k i n s o n , L o w e , & M a t t h e w s , 1 9 9 5 ) . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e a n d t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s o u g h t , a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s s e e m i n g c o n t r a d i c t i o n . T h e a u t h o r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who s o u g h t c o u n s e l l i n g f o r a c a d e m i c / c a r e e r c o n c e r n s a n d t h e r e f o r e w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s i n g e n e r a l who a r e n o t i n t r o d u c e d t o u n i v e r s i t y s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e a u t h o r s d i d n o t f i n d a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n e f f e c t w i t h t h e s e A s i a n s t u d e n t s s i n c e A s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g f o r a c a d e m i c r e a s o n s ( A t k i n s o n Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 13 e t a l . , 1 9 9 5 ) , a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v e s t r o n g c o u n s e l l i n g s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s f o r t h i s t y p e o f c o n c e r n . I t s e e m s t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l i s a l s o c o r r e l a t e d w i t h A s i a n p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l o r s . A t k i n s o n , W h i t e l e y , a n d G i m ( 1 9 9 0 ) e x p l o r e d l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d p r e f e r r e d h e l p p r o v i d e r s . T h i s s t u d y g r o u p e d 816 A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d m e a s u r e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r v a r i o u s h e l p e r s . T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e a s k e d t o r a n k t h e t o p t h r e e h e l p p r o v i d e r s who t h e y w o u l d m o s t l i k e l y d i s c u s s a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m w i t h . T h e h e l p p r o v i d e r s g i v e n a s c h o i c e s i n t h e s u r v e y i n c l u d e d : m o t h e r , f a t h e r , s i s t e r , b r o t h e r , o t h e r r e l a t i v e s , r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s , o l d e s t p e r s o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , f r i e n d , t e a c h e r , c o u n s e l l o r / p s y c h o l o g i s t , a n d m e d i c a l d o c t o r . T h e r e s e a r c h e r s e x p e c t e d t h a t l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s w o u l d h a v e a s t i g m a a g a i n s t s e e k i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t c h o o s e a ' p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r ' f r o m t h e l i s t w h e r e a s t h e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s w o u l d . H o w e v e r , t h i s w a s n o t t h e c a s e . T h e l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s c h o s e t h e ' c o u n s e l l o r / p s y c h o l o g i s t ' a s t h e i r p r e f e r r e d h e l p p r o v i d e r o v e r ' m o t h e r ' a n d ' f r i e n d ' . H i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s c h o s e ' f r i e n d ' a s t h e i r p r e f e r r e d h e l p e r . T h e a u t h o r s e x p l a i n e d t h e f i n d i n g s b y s t a t i n g t h e l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s w o u l d p u t m o r e f a i t h i n ' t r u e p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' a n d t h a t t h e y l i k e l y j u s t Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 14 m o v e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d t h e r e f o r e w o u l d n o t h a v e a s many-f r i e n d s t o t u r n t o a s w o u l d t h e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s . G i v e n t h i s s t u d y ( A t k i n s o n e t a l . , 1 9 9 0 ) a n d c o m p a r i n g i t w i t h A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 5 ) s t u d y , p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , w i t h a s t u d e n t s a m p l e , l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n d i d n o t h a v e a c o n s i s t e n t e f f e c t o n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g . A t k i n s o n , W a m p o l d , L o w e , M a t t h e w s , a n d A h n ( 1 9 9 8 ) e x a m i n e d c l i e n t - c o u n s e l l o r p r e f e r e n c e b y s u r v e y i n g A s i a n u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g a n A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y . A s i a n r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r c o u n s e l l o r s who h e l d s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s t o t h e i r o w n , t o c o u n s e l l o r s m a t c h e d o n o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s e t h n i c i t y . A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) u s e d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t o m e a s u r e a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e f e r e n c e s f o r v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s e t h n i c i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y , a g e , g e n d e r , a t t i t u d e s , a n d v a l u e s . A c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a " c o n s i s t e n t p r e f e r e n c e b y e t h n i c m i n o r i t y p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r a c o u n s e l l o r w i t h s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s o v e r a n e t h n i c a l l y s i m i l a r c o u n s e l l o r . . . " ( A t k i n s o n e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 , p . 1 1 6 ) . L o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s h a d a s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a n e t h n i c a l l y s i m i l a r c o u n s e l l o r t h a n d i d t h e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e a u t h o r s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s p r e f e r e n c e r e f l e c t e d a n a s s u m p t i o n o n t h e c l i e n t ' s p a r t t h a t Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 15 c o u n s e l l o r s o f s i m i l a r e t h n i c i t y w o u l d h o l d s i m i l a r v a l u e s a n d a t t i t u d e s . SUMMARY A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s ( A t k i n s o n e t . a l . , 1 9 8 9 ; L a i & L i n d e n , 1 9 9 3 ) t h a t b e g i n s w h e n a p e r s o n f r o m a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e c o m e s i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) , a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s b e c o m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , t h e y b e c o m e m o r e l i k e C a n a d i a n s . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l A s i a n s s h o u l d h a v e s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e e k i n g m e n t a l h e a l t h a s C a u c a s i a n s . A c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l c a n b e u s e d a s a v a r i a b l e t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d s y m p t o m r e p o r t i n g ( L a i & L i n d e n , 1 9 9 3 ) . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s t e n d t o s o m a t i s i z e t h e i r d i s o r d e r s a n d p r e f e r t o s e e k m e d i c a l h e l p f a t h e r t h a n c o u n s e l l i n g ( F u r n h a m & A n d r e w , 1 9 9 6 ) . A s i a n s r e p o r t e q u a l a m o u n t s o f s t r e s s a s C a u c a s i a n s ( T r a c y e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) . D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , t h e r e i s a n i m p r e s s i o n t h a t A s i a n s a r e m o r e r e l u c t a n t t o d i s c l o s e m e n t a l p r o b l e m s t h a n a r e C a u c a s i a n s ( Z h a n g e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) . H o w e v e r , o n c e f a c t o r s s u c h a s t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g ( a c a d e m i c o r c a r e e r ) , s o c i a l f a c t o r s s u c h a s b e i n g a s t u d e n t , a n d e x p o s u r e t o W e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s w e r e a c c o u n t e d f o r , A s i a n s w e r e j u s t a s w i l l i n g t o s e e a m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l a s w e r e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 16 C a u c a s i a n s ( A t k i n s o n e t a l . , 1 9 9 5 ; F u r n h a m & A n d r e w , 1 9 9 6 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a n d t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g c o u n s e l l i n g i s i m p o r t a n t t o k n o w i n g how t o b e t t e r d e l i v e r s e r v i c e s . M a n y r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g , b u t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n ( i . e . p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) w a s u n c l e a r a s v a r i o u s s t u d i e s w e r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y . T y p e o f s a m p l e may a c c o u n t f o r m u c h o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) a n d F u r n h a m a n d A n d r e w ( 1 9 9 6 ) , who s t u d i e d a s a m p l e t h a t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , f o u n d a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . W h e r e a s o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t u s e d a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , s u c h a s t h a t c o n d u c t e d b y A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 5 ) , f o u n d t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g . I n f a c t , A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 0 ) , who u s e d a s t u d e n t s a m p l e , f o u n d t h a t l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s p e a k t o a c o u n s e l l o r / p s y c h o l o g i s t t h a n d i d t h e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n g r o u p . R E S E A R C H H Y P O T H E S E S T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y l e v e l a s a m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r i n A s i a n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g a s c o m p a r e d t o a C a u c a s i a n s a m p l e . T h e A s i a n g r o u p w a s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 17 a r t i f i c i a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o h i g h a n d l o w N o r t h A m e r i c a n C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y s u b g r o u p s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g . N o t e t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h u s e d s c a l e s d e v e l o p e d b y I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 5 a , 1 9 9 5 b , 1 9 9 5 c , 1 9 9 5 d , 1 9 9 7 ) , w h i c h u s e d t h e v a r i a b l e C u l t u r a l Identity a s t h e m e a s u r e o f A s i a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . T h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y : (1) There is a significant positive correlation between Asian cultural identity scores and the positive help-seeking attitude scores. (2) There is a significant negative correlation between Asian cultural identity scores and negative help-seeking attitude scores. (3) There is a significant main group effect on attitudes towards help-seeking among the Asian cultural identity group and the Caucasian group, (i.e. significant group differences on positive and negative attitudes towards help-seeking among the total Asian group and the Caucasian group). (4) There is no significant difference in positive and negative help-seeking attitudes between highly Canadianized Asian students and Caucasian students. Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 18 (5) There is a significant difference in positive and negative help-seeking attitude between low Canadianized Asian students and Caucasian students. Role o f Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 19 C H A P T E R I I I : METHODOLOGY D E F I N I T I O N S Asian: P a r t i c i p a n t s who s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d a s A s i a n o n t h e D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 b ) f i t i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h e c a t e g o r i e s f o r A s i a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d C h i n e s e ( P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , H o n g K o n g , T a i w a n ) , J a p a n e s e , K o r e a n , V i e t n a m e s e , P h i l i p p i n o , M a l a y s i a n , S r i L a n k a n , a n d I n d o n e s i a n . F o r t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e e t h n i c c a t e g o r y o f E a s t I n d i a n was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f A s i a n . Caucasian: T h e r a c i a l g r o u p o f Caucasians i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d m a i n l y N o r t h A m e r i c a n s f r o m C a n a d a o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i t h a C a u c a s i a n b a c k g r o u n d . T h o s e who s e l f -i d e n t i f i e d a s E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n , H i s p a n i c , E a s t I n d i a n , F i r s t N a t i o n s , M i d d l e E a s t e r n , A f r o - A m e r i c a n , o r A f r i c a n e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p . Acculturation: T h e t e r m a c c u l t u r a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e p r o c e s s w h e r e b y a p e r s o n f r o m a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e c o m e s i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t c u l t u r e , a n d h i s o r h e r a t t i t u d e s a n d b e l i e f s a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y s u c h c o n t a c t ( A t k i n s o n , 1 9 8 9 ; B e r r y , K i m , & B u j a k i , 1 9 8 9 ; G o r d o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . I n t h i s p a p e r , a c c u l t u r a t i o n r e f e r s t o h o w A s i a n p e o p l e a r e i n f l u e n c e d a n d c h a n g e d b y c o n t a c t w i t h C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e . Role o f Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 20 P A R T I C I P A N T S T h e s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d o n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g e n d e r , a g e , a n d e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d ( A s i a n o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) . A s w e r e C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y s c o r e s ( l o w t o h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) , a n d p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . T h e s a m p l e h a d t w o m a i n g r o u p s ; t h o s e w i t h a n A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d a n d t h o s e w i t h a N o r t h A m e r i c a n ( C a u c a s i a n ) b a c k g r o u n d . T h e A s i a n b a c k g r o u n d g r o u p w a s f u r t h e r b r o k e n d o w n i n t o l o w a n d h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i f i e d s u b g r o u p s b a s e d o n a r t i f i c i a l l y s e t c u t p o i n t s t o b e e x p l a i n e d b e l o w . T h e s a m p l e was d r a w n f r o m a r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n 184 A s i a n a n d 1 8 3 C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m a l a r g e r p o o l o f d a t a . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , d a t a f r o m n o n - A s i a n o r n o n -C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e e x c l u d e d . T h e r e w e r e 2 6 4 f e m a l e , 1 0 1 m a l e , a n d 2 u n k n o w n p a r t i c i p a n t s . O f t h e A s i a n g r o u p , 1 2 7 w e r e f e m a l e a n d 57 w e r e m a l e . F o r t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p , 1 3 7 w e r e f e m a l e , 44 w e r e m a l e , a n d 2 w e r e u n s p e c i f i e d g e n d e r . See T a b l e l . A g e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g e d f r o m 16 t o 38 (M = 20.22, SD = 2.18, n = 367) y e a r s o l d . A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s a g e r a n g e d f r o m 16 t o 2 8 (M = 19.73, SD = 1.75, n = 183), a n d C a u c a s i a n ' s r a n g e d f r o m 18 t o 38 (M = 20.7, SD = 2.45, n = 183). Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 21 Table 1 Total Number of Male and Female Participants bv Cultural Group Racial Background Gender Total Asian Caucasian Total 367 184 183 Male 264 127 137 Female 101 57 44 Unspecified 2 2 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 22 T h e a g e o f t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g e d f r o m 18 t o 2 5 (M = 19.70, SD = 1.75, n = 66) . T h e a g e o f t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y A s i a n s r a n g e d f r o m 17 t o 2 8 (M = 19.69, SD = 1.84, n = 62) . T h e a g e o f t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w i t h r a n d o m c a s e s r e m o v e d ( t o c r e a t e e q u a l n ' s i n t h e g r o u p s ) , r a n g e d f r o m 18 t o 2 8 (M = 20.77, SD = 2.12, n = 62); s e e T a b l e 2 . T h e t o t a l y e a r s s p e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a r a n g e d f r o m 1 t o 38 (M = 16.83, SD = 6.5, n = 367). T h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p s c o r e s r a n g e d f r o m 5 t o 38 {M = 20.45, SD = 2.92, n = 183), w h e r e a s A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g e d f r o m 1 t o 26 (M = 13.17, SD = 7.059, n = 183) . F o r t h e s u b g r o u p s , t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p r a n g e d f r o m 1 t o 26 (M = 16.54, SD =6.0, n = 66), t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p r a n g e d f r o m 2 t o 2 2 (M = 8.69, SD = 6.05, n = 62), a n d t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w i t h c a s e s r e m o v e d t o e q u a l t h e N ' s r a n g e d f r o m 5 t o 28 (M = 20.53, SD = 2.96, n = 62); s e e T a b l e 3 . C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t b i r t h p l a c e s w e r e C a n a d a ( n = 1 7 4 ) , E n g l a n d ( n = 2 ) , New Z e a l a n d ( n = 1 ) , S o u t h A f r i c a ( n = 1 ) , a n d U S A ( n = 1 ) . A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d b e i n g b o r n i n C a n a d a ( n = 7 8 ) , H o n g K o n g ( n = 4 5 ) , T a i w a n ( n = 1 6 ) , C h i n a ( n = 7 ) , K o r e a ( n = 6 ) , P h i l i p p i n e s ( n = 5 ) , M a l a y s i a ( n = 4 ) , S i n g a p o r e ( n = 4 ) , V i e t n a m ( n = 3 ) , J a p a n ( n = 2 ) , U S A ( n = 2 ) , G e r m a n y ( n = 1 ) , B e l g i u m ( n = 1 ) , B r u n e i ( n = 1 ) , C a n t o n Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 23 ( n = 1 ) , I n d o n e s i a ( n = 1 ) , M a c a o ( n = 1 ) , S o u t h A f r i c a ( n = 1 ) , a n d ' o t h e r ' ( n = 5 ) . A s u m m a r y o f A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' b i r t h p l a c e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g . 1 . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 24 Table 2 Age of Participants by Group Min Age Max Age Mean Age SD N Total 16 38 20.22 2.18 367 Caucasian 18 38 20.7 2.45 183 Asian 16 28 19.73 1.75 183 Caucasian (Cases Removed) 18 28 20.77 2.12 62 High N A ID 18 25 19.70 1.75 66 Low N A ID 17 28 19.69 1.84 62 * N A ID = North American Identity (i.e. Canadian) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 25 Table 3 Years spent in North America by Group Min Max Mean SD n Total Years 1 30 16.83 6.5 367 Caucasian 5 38 20.45 2.92 183 Asian 1 26 13.17 7.06 183 Caucasian (Cases Removed) 5 28 20.53 2.96 62 High N A ID 1 26 16.54 6.0 66 Low N A ID 2 22 8.69 6.05 62 * N A ID = North American Identity Fig. 1 Birthplace of Asian Participants (n = 183) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 26 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 27 MEASURES P a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 b ) , t h e P o s i t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e S c a l e ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) , a n d t h e N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e S c a l e ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) ; S e e a p p e n d i x A - D . S e l f - i d e n t i f i e d A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s f i l l e d o u t t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a ) . DEMOGRAPHIC I N F O R M A T I O N S U R V E Y T h e D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 b ) g a t h e r e d b a s i c d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d a g e , g e n d e r , p r o g r a m o f s t u d y , b i r t h o r d e r , e t h n i c / r a c i a l b a c k g r o u n d , t i m e r e s i d i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , b i r t h p l a c e , m o t h e r ' s b i r t h p l a c e , a n d f a t h e r ' s b i r t h p l a c e . T h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h i s s u r v e y w a s u s e d a s t h e p r i m a r y m e a n s o f s e p a r a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n g r o u p s . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , t h e A s i a n g r o u p c o n s i s t e d o f p a r t i c i p a n t s who s t a t e d t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r e t h n i c i t y ' m o r e t h a t 5 0 % ' A s i a n . B a c k g r o u n d s t h a t f i t i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d C h i n e s e ( P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , H o n g K o n g , T a i w a n ) , J a p a n e s e , K o r e a n , V i e t n a m e s e , P h i l i p p i n o , M a l a y s i a n , S r i L a n k a n , a n d I n d o n e s i a n . T h o s e who i n d i c a t e d Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 28 t h a t t h e y w e r e E a s t I n d i a n ( o r S o u t h A s i a n ) w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e A s i a n g r o u p i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n c l u d e d i n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w e r e t h o s e who c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d a s ' m o r e t h a n 5 0 % ' C a u c a s i a n / W h i t e . B a c k g r o u n d s t h a t f i t i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y w e r e C a n a d i a n , A m e r i c a n , a n d W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n . F a c t o r s s u c h a s t i m e r e s i d i n g i n C a n a d a a n d p a r e n t s ' b i r t h p l a c e s w e r e u s e d a s a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t o r s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l . C U L T U R A L P R E F E R E N C E INVENTORY T h i s s u r v e y c o n s i s t e d o f t w o p a r t s . P a r t o n e h a d t h r e e q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t w h i l e g r o w i n g u p . T h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y , p r e s e n t e d a s p a r t t w o o f t h i s s u r v e y , w a s u s e d t o m e a s u r e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h i s r e s e a r c h u s e d t h e v a r i a b l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a s a m e a s u r e o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y i n s t e a d o f t h e v a r i a b l e a c c u l t u r a t i o n . C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s m e a s u r e d b y I s h i y a m a ' s ( 1 9 9 5 a , 1 9 9 7 ) C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y . T h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e c o r r e l a t e s ( r = . 6 1 ) w i t h t h e S u i n n -L e w a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e ( S u i n n , R i c k a r d - F i g u e r o a , L e w , & V i g i l , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h i s p a p e r u s e d I s h i y a m a ' s ( 1 9 9 7 ) c o n c e p t o f C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y i n s t e a d o f t h e S u i n n - L e w a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e ( S u i n n e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) b e c a u s e I s h i y a m a ' s s c a l e e n c a p s u l a t e s t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n t o m e a s u r e a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i t i s b a s e d o n Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 29 C a n a d i a n D a t a , i t i s f r e e o f e x c l u s i v e l y U . S . t e r m s , a n d i t i s s h o r t e r a n d e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d / i n t e r p r e t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p a p e r , w h i l e t h e S u i n n - L e w s c a l e i s l a r g e a n d t i m e c o n s u m i n g . G i v e n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e S u i n n - L e w A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e , a n d t h e e a s e o f u s e a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h i s r e s e a r c h u s e d I s h i y a m a ' s ( 1 9 9 5 a , 1997) s c a l e t o m e a s u r e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . S c o r e s f o r cultural identity w e r e o b t a i n e d r a t i n g s o n t h e f o l l o w i n g 9 i t e m s i n t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a 1 9 9 5 a , 1 9 9 7 ) : (1) a r t s a n d m u s i c ; (2) l a n g u a g e ; (3) f o o d ; (4) t r a d i t i o n a l e v e n t s a n d c e l e b r a t i o n s ; (5) l o c a l c o m m u n i t y t o b e l o n g t o ; (6) m a n n e r s a n d c u s t o m s ; (7) v a l u e s ; (8) f r i e n d s ; (9) c o u n s e l l o r s / a d v i s o r s . T h e i t e m s w e r e r a t e d o n a 9 p o i n t s c a l e w h e r e 1 i n d i c a t e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r C a u c a s i a n o r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e ( w h i c h i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s r e s e a r c h a s A s i a n h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) , a n d 9 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a p r e f e r e n c e f o r A s i a n c u l t u r e ( A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) . F o r e x a m p l e , i t e m #1 w a s " I p r e f e r a r t s a n d m u s i c " . A n a n s w e r o f 1 i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g e s t p r e f e r e n c e f o r C a n a d i a n m u s i c , a n d 9 i n d i c a t e d s t r o n g e s t p r e f e r e n c e f o r A s i a n m u s i c . S c o r e s f o r a l l n i n e i t e m s w e r e a d d e d t o g e t h e r t o g i v e a t o t a l s c o r e f o r Cultural Identity r a n g i n g b e t w e e n 9 a n d 8 1 . A l o w n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o f 9 i n d i c a t e d a h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 30 i d e n t i t y a n d h i g h n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o f 81 i n d i c a t e d a l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s , t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e w a s u s e d f o r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a n d r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . F o r g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s , t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m t h i r d s o f t h e A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s w e r e u s e d t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e A s i a n s a m p l e i n t o h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s . T h e g r o u p s o f h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y w e r e f o r m e d b y r u n n i n g a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n a n a l y s i s f o r t h e Cultural Identity v a r i a b l e . T h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w e r e u s e d t o g r o u p t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o t h r e e e q u a l p a r t s . S c o r e s f a l l i n g i n t h e b o t t o m t h i r d o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w e r e g r o u p e d a s A s i a n w i t h h i g h C a u c a s i a n ( N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , s c o r e s f a l l i n g i n t h e t o p t h i r d o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w e r e g r o u p e d a s A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a n d t h e m i d d l e t h i r d o f t h e s c o r e s w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . T h e r a n g e o f t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s w e r e 11 t o 78 ( n = 183, M = 48.11, a n d SD = 12.9). A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s r a n g i n g f r o m l o w e s t t o 44 ( n = 66) i n c l u s i v e l y w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d a s h i g h C a u c a s i a n ( N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e . A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h s c o r e s r a n g i n g f r o m 55 t h r o u g h t o t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e ( n = 62) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 31 i n c l u s i v e l y w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p . S c o r e s i n t h e m i d d l e r a n g e ( 4 5 t o 54 inclusive, n = 56) w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . T h i s c r e a t e d t w o d i s c r e t e g r o u p s c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e f i r s t a n d t h e l a s t t h i r d g r o u p s o f A s i a n i d e n t i t y s c o r e s . T h e d a t a f r o m t h e s e t w o g r o u p s w e r e u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n s o f h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y o n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . A l l C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e u s e d i n t h e o v e r a l l C a u c a s i a n c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p (N = 183). F o r g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p a n d w i t h t h e h i g h a n d l o w c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y A s i a n g r o u p s , i t w a s d e s i r a b l e t o h a v e s i m i l a r g r o u p s i z e s . T h e r e f o r e , S P S S r a n d o m l y r e m o v e d c a s e s f r o m t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p l e a v i n g a t o t a l o f n = 6 2 ; s e e T a b l e 4 f o r a b r e a k d o w n o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y r a n g e a n d n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s b y c u l t u r a l g r o u p . P O S I T I V E AND N E G A T I V E H E L P - S E E K A T T I T U D E S C A L E T h i s i n s t r u m e n t c o n t a i n s 26 i t e m s t o m e a s u r e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . T h e p o s i t i v e l y c u e d a n d n e g a t i v e l y c u e s i t e m s o f f e r s c o r e s o n p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . E a c h i t e m c o n t a i n s a p h r a s e i n t e n d e d t o d e s c r i b e e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s c o u n s e l l i n g a n d w a s m e a s u r e d o n a 7 p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . S c a l e i t e m s a r e s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g l y : " D e s c r i b e how y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 32 s t a t e m e n t ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t ) : 1 n o t a t a l l , t o 7 e x t r e m e l y " . A p o o l o f s c a l e i t e m s w a s g e n e r a t e d b y I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 5 c , 1 9 9 5 d ) , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h r e e c o u n s e l l i n g p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a s t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p -s e e k i n g . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 33 Table 4 Number of Participants in Each Cultural Group Group Cultural Identity Range N Min Max Caucasian na* 183 Caucasian (with na* 62 cases removed) Asian(total) 11 78** 183 Asian High N A Cultural ID*** 11 44** 66 Asian Low N A Cultural ID **** 55 78** 62 Asian Excluded Cases 45 54** 56 * Caucasians do not have a cultural identity score ** Asian participants were assigned a cultural identity score, which was used here form the high and low cultural identity groups. Lower Cultural Identity scores represent a higher identification with North American culture. *** Asian High NA cultural ID - High identification with North American culture. Asian Low NA Cultural ID - Low identification with North American Culture. Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 34 T h e s c a l e o r i g i n a l l y h a d 4 0 i t e m s , w h i c h w e r e l a t e r r e f i n e d t h r o u g h r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g . R e l i a b i l i t y w a s m e a s u r e d u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t m e t h o d w i t h a s a m p l e o f 3 5 5 s t u d e n t s , a d m i n i s t e r e d s i x w e e k s a p a r t ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 c ) . I t e m s w i t h a l o w c o r r e l a t i o n , b e l o w . 4 0 , w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e f i n a l s u r v e y . R e v e r s e s c o r i n g o f t h e v a r i a b l e s was o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o y i e l d o n e a t t i t u d e s c o r e . H o w e v e r , w h e n e x a m i n e d , i t w a s n o t e d t h a t a w e a k c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = - . 2 6 e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e s c a l e s ( p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ) w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s f o r p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s b e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . T h e v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a l e u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h c o n t a i n e d 30 i t e m s , 4 o f w h i c h w e r e d e l e t e d f r o m t h e d a t a s e t t o c o n f o r m t o I s h i y a m a ' s ( 1 9 9 5 c ) i t e m r e d u c t i o n s . T h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a l e h a s 9 p o s i t i v e l y w o r d e d s t a t e m e n t s a n d 17 n e g a t i v e l y w o r d e d s t a t e m e n t s t h a t r e f e r r e d t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g h e l p f r o m a p r o f e s s i o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h c l i n i c i a n . T h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s c o r e r a n g e s f r o m 9 -63 w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s r e f l e c t i n g a m o r e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . N e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s c o r e r a n g e s f r o m 17 - 119 w i t h a h i g h e r s c o r e r e f l e c t i n g a m o r e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 35 T h e v a r i a b l e s , t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , w e r e s c o r e d s e p a r a t e l y i n t h i s s c a l e , g i v i n g t w o s e p a r a t e d i m e n s i o n a l s c o r e s i n s t e a d o f o n e o v e r a l l s c o r e . A l t h o u g h t h e s c a l e w a s o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d a s a s i n g l e m e a s u r e , I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 5 c ) a r g u e d t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y l o w c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e v a r i a b l e m e a s u r e s ( - . 2 6 , n = 3 5 6 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s m a y n o t r e f l e c t i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s a n d t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . A l s o , t h e i t e m w e i g h t i n g w a s u n e q u a l w h i c h c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s w h e n r e v e r s e s c o r i n g a n d a d d i n g t h e d a t a t o g e t h e r . I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s , m e a s u r e d b y C r o n b a c h a l p h a s , w e r e r e p o r t e d a s . 9 1 ( n = 3 5 5 ) f o r t h e p o s i t i v e l y w o r d e d i t e m s a n d . 9 2 ( n = 3 5 5 ) f o r t h e n e g a t i v e l y w o r d e d a t t i t u d e s c a l e s ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 c ) . O r i g i n a l m e a s u r e s u s e d i n t e s t i n g t h e s c a l e d i d n o t r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n C a u c a s i a n s a n d A s i a n s ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 c ) . T h i s was e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n t h i s s t u d y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s r e p o r t s o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i g h a n d l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s a s c o m p a r e d t o C a u c a s i a n s i n o r d e r t o s e e i f a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s . S T A T I S T I C A L A N A L Y S I S A q u a n t i t a t i v e a n d c o r r e l a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n w a s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f i t t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 36 t h e l e v e l o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e v a r i a b l e cultural identity, h a d t o b e q u a n t i f i e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e m e t h o d o f f e r e d t h e a b i l i t y t o m e a s u r e d i f f e r e n c e s a n d s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e C a u c a s i a n a n d h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s , a n d t o m e a s u r e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e s a n d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y l e v e l . F o r a l l r e p o r t e d c o m p a r i s o n s , t h e r a w d a t a w e r e e n t e r e d u s i n g a n E x c e l s p r e a d s h e e t , a n d t h e n c o n v e r t e d i n t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o g r a m Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5 f o r m a t f o r a n a l y s i s . T h e S P S S p r o g r a m w a s u s e d t o p e r f o r m a l l s t a t i s t i c a l f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e d a t a , a n d i t w a s a l s o u s e d t o g e n e r a t e r e p o r t s , c h a r t s , a n d g r a p h s . PROCEDURE T h e f i r s t t w o h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d u s i n g t h e P e a r s o n R c o r r e l a t i o n m e t h o d , t w o - t a i l e d ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ) . I t w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s w o u l d h a v e a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y l e v e l a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s w o u l d h a v e a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . T h e P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n m e a s u r e s b o t h t h e d e g r e e a n d d i r e c t i o n o f l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t w o v a r i a b l e s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 37 ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e P e a r s o n R i s a g o o d m e a s u r e f o r t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s b e c a u s e i t s h o w s a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y l e v e l a n d p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . R e c a l l t h a t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e o f cultural identity i s a c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e t h a t r a n g e s f r o m 9 t o 8 1 , 9 i n d i c a t i n g o n e ' s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y b e i n g c l o s e s t t o t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , a n d 8 1 i n d i c a t i n g b e i n g c l o s e s t t o t h e A s i a n c u l t u r e ( i . e . o n e ' s c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n ) . T h e s e d a t a w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s positive and negative help-seeking attitudes, f o r w h i c h t h e s c o r e s w e r e a l s o c o n t i n u o u s a n d l i n e a r . G r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e p e r f o r m e d w i t h a n S P S S - b a s e d MANOVA ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e MANOVA t e s t w e r e t h a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n e a c h s a m p l e w e r e i n d e p e n d e n t , t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e s a m p l e w a s c h o s e n f r o m w a s n o r m a l , a n d t h a t t h e s a m p l e s h a d h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e . R a n d o m s a m p l i n g , L e v e n e ' s t e s t f o r e q u a l i t y o f e r r o r v a r i a n c e ( S P S S 1 1 . 5 ) , a n d p l o t t i n g t h e h i s t o g r a m s w i t h n o r m a l c u r v e s f o r t h e m a i n v a r i a b l e s s h o w e d t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e t e s t w e r e m e t . T h e F r a t i o was c a l c u l a t e d f o r h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g w i t h t h e MANOVA ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ) . A 3 x 2 x 2 f a c t o r i a l ANOVA w a s p e r f o r m e d t o c o m p a r e t h e v a r i a b l e s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , g e n d e r , a n d p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 38 h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e v a r i a b l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s u s e d t o c a t e g o r i z e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o o n e o f t h r e e g r o u p s -C a u c a s i a n , h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . H e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e h a d t w o c a t e g o r i e s -p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 3 9 C H A P T E R I V : R E S U L T S T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e v a r i a b l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a n d a t t i t u d e s ( p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e ) t o w a r d s h e l p -s e e k i n g . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s t h e v a r i o u s v a r i a b l e s u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . T h e s e c o n d p a r t , e n t i t l e d D a t a Analysis, d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . D E S C R I P T I O N O F M A I N V A R I A B L E S A c c u l t u r a t i o n was m e a s u r e d u s i n g t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a ) . T h i s s c a l e h a d a h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .61) w i t h t h e S u i n n - L e w A c c u l t u r a t i o n S c a l e ( S u i n n e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , a c c o r d i n g t o I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 7 ) . T o c o m p l e t e t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a ) , s e l f - i d e n t i f i e d A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s r a t e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s o n n i n e c u l t u r a l i t e m s a s b e i n g e i t h e r C a u c a s i a n o r A s i a n . T h e v a r i a b l e t o t a l r a n g e d f r o m 11 t o 78 w i t h ( M = 48.11, a n d SD = 12.9, n = 183). T h e v a r i a b l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s a l s o u s e d a s a s o r t i n g v a r i a b l e , w h i c h c a t e g o r i z e d g r o u p s o f A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o e i t h e r h i g h o r l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h e g r o u p s o f h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w e r e c r e a t e d b y r u n n i n g a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o n t h e c o n t i n u o u s cultural identity v a r i a b l e a n d s p l i t t i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o 3 e q u a l p a r t s . A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 40 r a n g i n g f r o m l o w e s t t o 44 (n = 66) i n c l u s i v e l y " w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d a s high C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h o s e w i t h s c o r e s r a n g i n g f r o m 55 t h r o u g h t o t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e (n = 62) i n c l u s i v e l y w e r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h e low C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p - w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d a l o w p r e f e r e n c e f o r C a u c a s i a n ( N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) c u l t u r e . P a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h s c o r e s i n t h e m i d d l e r a n g e ( 4 5 t o 54 inclusive, n = 56) w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . T h i s c r e a t e d t w o d i s c r e t e g r o u p s c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e f i r s t a n d t h e l a s t t h i r d s c o r e s , w h i c h w e r e u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n s . A l l o f t h e C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d a t a w e r e r e t a i n e d f o r a n a l y s i s ( n = 1 8 3 ) . H o w e v e r , i n t h e ANOVA t e s t s , r a n d o m c a s e s w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d a t a t o c r e a t e a n e q u a l n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a s t h e A s i a n g r o u p s (n = 62) . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e mean l e n g t h o f s t a y ( i . e . t i m e s p e n t ) i n N o r t h A m e r i c a s u p p o r t e d t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p i n g s ; S e e p r e v i o u s l y p r i n t e d Table 3 f o r a b r e a k d o w n o f t i m e s p e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . M e a n t i m e s p e n t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h o f t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s : C a u c a s i a n (M = 20.45, SD = 2.91, n = 183); A s i a n h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (M = 16.54, SD = 6.0, n = 66); a n d A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y (M = 8.69, SD = 6.05, n = 62). T h i s s u p p o r t e d t h e g r o u p i n g o f A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y b e c a u s e t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 41 i d e n t i t y g r o u p s p e n t s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e t i m e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t h a n d i d t h e l o w i d e n t i t y g r o u p (F(2, 311) = 162.28, p = .00). T h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e w a s m e a s u r e d u s i n g t h e P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p - S e e k C o n c e r n I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . T o t a l o b t a i n e d s c o r e s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e w e r e : range = 9 to 63, (M = 34.19, SD = 9.267, n = 358). A s s h o w n i n t a b l e 5 , t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p h a d p o s i t i v e h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s c o r e s o f {M = 34.59, SD = 9.48, n = 176); t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p , w i t h r a n d o m c a s e s r e m o v e d t o c r e a t e e q u a l n ' s , h a d s c o r e s o f (M = 34.2, SD = 9.28, n = 60); t h e t o t a l A s i a n s a m p l e s c o r e s w e r e (M = 33.8, SD = 9.06, n = 182); t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y g r o u p s c o r e s w e r e (M = 32.43, SD = 9.56, n = 65); T h e l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y g r o u p s c o r e s w e r e (M = 35.84, SD = 8.6, n = 62). See Table 5 for t h e m e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a n d r a n g e s b r o k e n d o w n b y r a c i a l g r o u p f o r t h e P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g s c o r e s . N e g a t i v e help-seeking attitude was m e a s u r e d b y t o t a l l i n g t h e r a w s c o r e s f r o m t h e n e g a t i v e l y w o r d e d i t e m s i n t h e H e l p -S e e k C o n c e r n I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . T h e r e w a s a t o t a l o f 17 n e g a t i v e i t e m s r a t e d o n a 7 - p o i n t s c a l e g i v i n g a t o t a l p o s s i b l e s c o r e o f 17 t o 1 1 9 . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 42 Table 5 Positive and Negative Help-Seeking scores bv Cultural Group Caucasian Caucasian Asian Asian Asian with Random HighNA Low N A Cases Cultural Cultural Removed Identity Identity PHSA M = 34.59 M = 34.2 M = 33.8 M = 32.43 M = 35.84 SD = 9.48 SD = 9.28 SD = 9.06 SD = 9.56 SD = 8.6 Range = 9-63 Range = 9-54 Range = 13-54 Range = 14-54 Range = 13-49 n =176 n =60 n =182 n =65 n = 62 NHSA M = 58.22 M = 51.15 M = 60.36 M =57.77 M = 60.9 SD = 18.22 SD = 18.11 SD = 18.11 SD = 19.28 SD = 15.93 Range = 21 -105 Range = 21 - 101 Range = 22- 111 Range = 22 - 111 Range =25 -91 n =175 n = 62 n =179 n =65 n =60 *PHSA = Positive Help-Seeking Attitude; (Higher PHSA scores indicate more positive attitudes) *NHSA = Negative Help-Seeking Attitude (Higher NHSA scores indicate more negative attitudes) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 43 T o t a l o b t a i n e d s c o r e s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e w e r e : Range = 21 to 111, (M = 59.3, SD = 18.17, n = 354). A s s h o w n i n t a b l e 5 , t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p s c o r e s w e r e (M = 58.22, SD = 18.22, n = 175); f o r t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p , w i t h r a n d o m c a s e s r e m o v e d t o c r e a t e e q u a l N ' s , t h e s c o r e s w e r e (M = 51.15, SD = 18.11, n = 62); t h e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s c o r e s f o r t h e t o t a l A s i a n s a m p l e w e r e (M = 60.36, SD = 18.11, n = 179); f o r t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y g r o u p , (M = 57.77, SD = 19.28, n = 6 5 ) ; f o r t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y g r o u p , (M = 60.9, SD = 15.93, n = 60). M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a n d r a n g e s w e r e b r o k e n d o w n b y r a c i a l g r o u p i n T a b l e 5 . H Y P O T H E S I S T E S T I N G T o t e s t t h e f i r s t t w o h y p o t h e s e s , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t ( 1 ) t h e r e would be significant positive correlation between Asian cultural identity scores and positive help-seeking attitude scores, and (2) that there would be significant negative correlation between Asian cultural identity scores and negative help-seeking attitudes, a b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s ( T r a c h e , 2 0 0 3 ) u s i n g t h e P e a r s o n R c o r r e l a t i o n ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ) w a s r u n u s i n g t h e S P S S 1 1 . 5 c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . H y p o t h e s i s 1 w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n cultural identity a n d positive help-Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 44 seeking attitudes, ( r = .158, p = .034, n = 181 (2-tailed)); w h e r e a s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s e x p e c t e d . ( N o t e t h a t t h e v a l u e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was p o s i t i v e , b u t w a s i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n d u e t o t h e w a y t h e s u r v e y w a s s c o r e d ) . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s w e r e h i g h e r , s o t o w e r e t h e i r p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . R e c a l l t h a t h i g h e r s c o r e s o n t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d a l o w e r C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y . T h e r e f o r e , a s A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y m o v e d t o w a r d s l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . a w a y f r o m i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r e ) , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g i n c r e a s e d . T h i s w a s o p p o s i t e o f t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s w h i c h h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i f i e d A s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w o u l d h a v e m o r e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . R e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g H y p o t h e s i s 2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a s m a l l a n d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n cultural identity a n d negative help-seeking attitudes ( r = .077, p = .305, n = 178 ( n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ) ( 2 - t a i l e d ) ) . A s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h h y p o t h e s i s 1 , t h e s e r e s u l t s w e r e r e p o r t e d a s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n d u e t o t h e s c o r i n g o f t h e s u r v e y . H o w e v e r , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s n e g a t i v e . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t A s i a n s w i t h l o w e r C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t i e s h a d s o m e w h a t l e s s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p -s e e k i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s i n t h e e x p e c t e d Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 45 d i r e c t i o n , i t w a s n o t s t r o n g e n o u g h t o s u p p o r t t h i s s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s . E x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s s h o w e d a s i g n i f i c a n t a n d n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = -.219, p = .003, n = 178) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s b y I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 5 c ) who r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e s e t w o v a r i a b l e s b e t r e a t e d a s s e p a r a t e i t e m s i n r e s e a r c h , i n s t e a d o f a s a u n i t a r y v a r i a b l e . H y p o t h e s e s 3 , 4 , a n d 5 , w e r e g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s o f h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . H y p o t h e s i s 3 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e i n h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s b e t w e e n t h e A s i a n g r o u p a n d t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p . H y p o t h e s i s 4 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d n o t b e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s b e t w e e n A s i a n s t u d e n t s w i t h a h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . H y p o t h e s i s 5 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s b e t w e e n A s i a n s t u d e n t s w i t h a l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d u s i n g a 3 x 2 x 2 MANOVA ( G r a v e t t e r & W a l l n a u , 2 0 0 0 ; T r a c h e , 2 0 0 3 ) i n S P S S 1 1 . 5 . F o r t h i s t e s t , t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d g e n d e r , t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 46 h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s - g e n d e r was u s e d f o r e x p l o r a t o r y -p u r p o s e s . F o r t h i s t e s t , t h e v a r i a b l e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s g r o u p e d i n t o t h r e e d i s c r e t e g r o u p s , (1) C a u c a s i a n , (2) A s i a n h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , a n d (3) A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . I n i t i a l l y , t h e g r o u p c a t e g o r i e s h a d u n e q u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s - C a u c a s i a n ( n = 176), A s i a n h i g h (n = 65), a n d A s i a n l o w ( n = 60). T o c o r r e c t t h i s , S P S S r a n d o m l y e x c l u d e d 35% o f t h e c a s e s f r o m t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p , w h i c h l e f t t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w i t h (n = 62). T h e t w o A s i a n g r o u p s w e r e c r e a t e d b y t a k i n g t h e t o p a n d b o t t o m t h i r d s o f t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y v a r i a b l e . R e s u l t s o f t h e MANOVA o n t h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among t h e c u l t u r a l g r o u p s ( C a u c a s i a n ; A s i a n h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y ; a n d A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y ) F(2, 186) = 2.405, p = .093 ( n o n -s i g n i f i c a n t ) . N e i t h e r was t h e r e a s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r e f f e c t F(l, 186) = .555, p = .457 ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) , n o r a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n ( g e n d e r x c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) F(2, 186) = 1.039, p = .356 ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) . S i n c e t h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s , H y p o t h e s i s 3 was r e j e c t e d . T h e d a t a s u p p o r t e d H y p o t h e s i s 4 i n t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n C a u c a s i a n g r o u p a n d t h e h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y A s i a n g r o u p . H y p o t h e s i s 5 was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 47 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p a n d t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y g r o u p ; s e e T a b l e 6 f o r r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ; s e e T a b l e 7 f o r d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e b y c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p . F o r t h e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e , t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y F ( 2 , 1 8 6 ) = . 6 1 2 , p = . 5 4 4 ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) , n o s i g n i f i c a n t g e n d e r e f f e c t F ( l , 1 8 6 ) = 1 . 2 6 , p = . 2 6 3 ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) , a n d n o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r g e n d e r x c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y F ( 2 , 1 8 6 ) = . 2 0 4 , p = . 8 1 6 ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) . S i n c e t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p e f f e c t f o r t h e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e , h y p o t h e s i s 3 w a s r e j e c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 4 was s u p p o r t e d b y t h e f i n d i n g s b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p a n d t h e A s i a n h i g h N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p w i t h r e g a r d s t o n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . H y p o t h e s i s 5 w a s r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p a n d t h e A s i a n l o w N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p ; s e e T a b l e 8 f o r r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s ; s e e T a b l e 9 f o r d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e b y c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 48 N o t e t h a t f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t A s i a n w i t h l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y h e l d b o t h m o r e p o s i t i v e h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d m o r e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s t h a n d i d t h a t C a u c a s i a n s a m p l e ; p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r a m b i v a l e n t f e e l i n g s a b o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p - s e e k i n g . T h i s s u p p o r t s I s h i y a m a ' s ( 1 9 9 5 c ; 1 9 9 7 ) r e s e a r c h t h a t s t a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e s . P r e v i o u s h y p o t h e s e s t e s t i n g u s e d t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p t h a t h a d c a s e s r e m o v e d t o e q u a l i z e t h e n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . A s e p a r a t e ANOVA was r u n t o c o m p a r e t h e e n t i r e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p t o t h e e n t i r e A s i a n g r o u p . R e s u l t s f o r t h e p o s i t i v e h e l p -s e e k i n g v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t t o t a l g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e F ( 1 , 3 5 7 ) = . 6 2 9 , p = . 4 2 8 , n = 3 5 8 ( 2 - t a i l e d ) . R e s u l t s f o r t h e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g v a r i a b l e a l s o i n d i c a t e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e F ( 1 , 3 5 3 ) = 1 . 2 1 5 , p = . 2 1 7 , n = 3 5 4 ( 2 -t a i l e d ) ; r e f e r t o T a b l e 10 a n d 11 f o r a b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s e D a t a . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 49 Table 6 Results of A N O V A on Group Differences for Positive Help-Seeking Attitudes Source DF F ratio Significance Cultural Identity 2 Gender 1 Cultural Identity X Gender 2 Total 186 2.405 0.555 1.039 .093 (non-significant) .457 (non-significant) .356 (non-significant) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 50 Table 7 Descriptive Statistics for the Dependent Variable of Positive Help-Seeking Attitude Group Mean SD n Caucasian 34.00 9~25 59 Male 35.11 9.24 17 Female 33.55 9.33 42 Asian 34.06 9.20 186 Male 33.14 9.49 56 Females 34.46 9.09 130 Asian High N A ID 32.43 9.56 65 Male 30 9.74 21 Female 33.59 9.36 44 Asian Low N A I D 35.84 8.60 62 Male 34.94 8.95 18 Female 36.2 8.53 44 *NA ID = North American Cultural Identity Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 51 Table 8 Results of A N O V A on Group Differences for Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes Source DF F Significance Cultural Identity 2 0.612 .544 (non-significant) Gender 1 1.26 .263 (non-significant) Cultural Identity X Gender 2 0.204 .816 (non-significant) Total 186 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 52 Table 9 Descriptive Statistics for the Dependent Variable of Negative Help-Seeking Attitude Group Mean SD N Caucasian 58.10 18.26 61 Male 61.61 17.23 18 Female 56.63 18.68 43 Asian 58.89 17.88 186 Male 60.97 17.25 58 Females 57.95 18.15 128 Asian High N A ID 57.77 19.28 65 Male 58.27 19.27 22 Female 57.51 19.51 43 Asian Low N A I D 60.90 15.94 60 Male 63.61 15.01 18 Female 59.74 16.35 42 * N A ID = North American Identity Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 53 Table 10 Means and Standard Deviations for Positive and Negative Help-Seeking Scores for the Total Caucasian and Asian Groups Dependent Variable Mean SD n Caucasian Positive help-seeking attitude 34.59 9.48 176 Negative help-seeking attitude 58.23 18.22 175 Asian Positive help-seeking attitude 33.81 9.06 182 Negative help-seeking attitude 60.36 18.11 179 Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 54 Table 11 A N O V A for PHSA and NHSA bv Total Caucasian and Asian Groups Source DF n F Sig. Positive Help-Seeking Attitude 1 357 .629 .428 (non -significant) Negative Help-Seeking Attitude 1 353 1.215 .217 (non--significant) Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 55 C H A P T E R V : D I S C U S S I O N A c c o r d i n g t o A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 8 9 ) , a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s d u r i n g w h i c h m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e s c h a n g e b y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e h o s t c u l t u r e . L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) t o o k t h i s i d e a f u r t h e r a n d c l a i m e d t h a t a s i m m i g r a n t s b e c o m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , t h e y b e c o m e m o r e l i k e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o e x a m i n e how c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w a s r e l a t e d t o h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s n o t b e e n c o n s i s t e n t a s t o h o w c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n t e r a c t s w i t h h e l p s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . F o r e x a m p l e , A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) f o u n d t h a t h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s w e r e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r , w h e r e a s A t k i n s o n , L o w e , a n d M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 9 5 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l a n d a t t i t u d e s . D I S C U S S I O N T h e f i r s t t w o h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w e r e a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d (1) p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , a n d (2) n e g a t i v e h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . H y p o t h e s i s 1 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A s i a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r e a n d p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . A l t h o u g h a s m a l l p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s f o u n d ( r = . 1 5 8 , p = . 0 3 4 ) b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s c o r e s , Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 56 t h i s w a s c o n t r a r y t o w h a t was e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e t h i s p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h e w a y t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y v a r i a b l e w a s r e p o r t e d , i t d i d n o t i n d i c a t e a h i g h e r C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . T h u s , t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n s h o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f y i n g t h a t a s s c o r e s f o r t h e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y v a r i a b l e r o s e , i n d i c a t i n g a m o r e A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , s o t o d i d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e . T h i s f i n d i n g was i n c o n t r a s t t o w h a t w a s r e p o r t e d b y A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) . T h e y c o r r e l a t e d a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g c o u n s e l l i n g a n d f o u n d t h a t A s i a n s w i t h h i g h e r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m o r e w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f o u n d t h e o p p o s i t e t r e n d i n t h a t A s i a n s w i t h a l o w e r C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , w h i c h a l s o c a n b e s t a t e d a s a m o r e A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , r e p o r t e d h i g h e r p o s i t i v e H e l p -S e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . D a t a f o r t h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e w e r e a l s o i n c o n t r a s t t o a r e p o r t b y A t k i n s o n , L o w e , a n d M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 9 5 ) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l w a s n o t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . W h e r e a s A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1995) d i d n o t r e p o r t a c o r r e l a t i o n ; t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d b e t w e e n A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 57 w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r ( r = - . 1 5 8 , p = . 0 3 4 , n = 1 8 1 ( 2 - t a i l e d ) . A l t h o u g h , a s s t a t e d , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w a s n o t i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a s A s i a n s b e c a m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o C a u c a s i a n s o c i e t y t h a t t h e i r h e l p - s e e k i n g s c o r e s w o u l d i n c r e a s e - t h i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y d a t a r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . A n a l y s i s s h o w e d t h a t n o s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o v a r i a b l e s . A l t h o u g h n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , i t was n o t e w o r t h y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s who i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s a s m o r e ' A s i a n ' t e n d e d t o h a v e h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g v a r i a b l e . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a h i g h A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p s e e k i n g . H o w e v e r , A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p s e e k i n g . O n e m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t i f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d t h e same c o n s t r u c t , t h e n t h e y s h o u l d h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n - i . e . a h i g h p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g s c o r e s h o u l d i n d i c a t e a l o w ( e r ) n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g s c o r e . H o w e v e r , a s i n d i c a t e d b y I s h i y a m a ( 1 9 9 5 c , 1 9 9 5 d ) , a n d b y t h e d a t a i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h i s w a s n o t t h e c a s e . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 58 P e r h a p s t h i s c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d b y e x a m i n i n g t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e S c a l e ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . T h i s s c a l e a s k e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r a t e h o w t h e y w o u l d f e e l a b o u t g e t t i n g h e l p f r o m " a t r a i n e d c o u n s e l l o r o r t h e r a p i s t t o d i s c u s s r a t h e r p e r s o n a l i s s u e s " a n d a s k s " w h a t k i n d o f f e e l i n g s a n d c o n c e r n s m i g h t y o u h a v e a b o u t i t " ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 d ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s may h a v e h a d m i x e d f e e l i n g s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t g e t t i n g h e l p f o r a " p e r s o n a l " i s s u e a n d t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a n t s m a y h a v e g i v e n v a r i e d r e s p o n s e s . A s s u g g e s t e d b y T r a c y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 5 ) , o n e m i g h t e x p e c t t o o b s e r v e d i f f e r e n t h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d i n a l r e s p o n s e s i f a s k e d a b o u t r e c e i v i n g c a r e e r , a c a d e m i c , o r m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g . H y p o t h e s i s 3 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c o u n s e l l i n g b e t w e e n t h e A s i a n g r o u p s a n d C a u c a s i a n g r o u p . R e s u l t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s f o r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s w e r e f o u n d f o r t h e e x p l o r a t o r y v a r i a b l e o f g e n d e r a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n g e n d e r a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 4 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i n b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , b e t w e e n A s i a n s t u d e n t s w i t h a h i g h C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 59 s u p p o r t e d . T h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) w h o p r e d i c t e d t h a t a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s b e c o m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , t h e y b e c o m e m o r e l i k e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s . H y p o t h e s i s 5 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i n b o t h p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s , b e t w e e n A s i a n s t u d e n t s w i t h l o w C a u c a s i a n i d e n t i t y a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t e d A t k i n s o n , L o w e , a n d M a t t h e w s ( 1 9 9 5 ) who d i d n o t f i n d t h a t a c c u l t u r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a c o u n s e l l o r . Z h a n g e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) s t a t e d t h a t 4% o f l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n A m e r i c a n s a n d 2 5 . 5 % o f C a u c a s i a n s w e r e w i l l i n g t o s e e k W e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h a s s i s t a n c e a n d h e l p i n g s e r v i c e s . R e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d h e r e e x a m i n e d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g i n s t e a d o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k W e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e . T h i s g i v e s a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n h e l p - s e e k i n g p a t t e r n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h f o u n d n o s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s f o r b o t h t h e p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e F(2,186) = 2.405, p = .093 a n d f o r t h e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s v a r i a b l e F(2,186) = 0.612, p = .544. T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n t r a d i c t e d t h e s t u d y b y Z h a n g e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) b e c a u s e n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o H e l p - S e e k i n g A t t i t u d e s . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 60 K e y f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d h e l p -s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e w a s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d p o s i t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p e f f e c t s f o r A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . T h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t A s i a n s w i t h a h i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w o u l d b e s i m i l a r i n h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s t o t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w a s s u p p o r t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t A s i a n s w i t h a l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w o u l d h a v e m o r e n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s t h a n t h e C a u c a s i a n g r o u p w a s n o t s u p p o r t e d . I t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s a m p l e w o u l d b e r e s i s t a n t t o h e l p - s e e k i n g f r o m c o u n s e l l o r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a ( t h e h o s t c u l t u r e ) d u e t o p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . T h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d t h a t A s i a n s u n d e r - u t i l i s e d m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ( i . e . L a i & L i n d e n , 1 9 9 3 ; Z h a n g e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) , t h a t t h e y m a y s e e m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n a n e g a t i v e w a y , o r may s e e k m e d i c a l h e l p f o r m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o b l e m s ( L i n , 1 9 9 4 ; Z h a n g e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) , a n d t h a t t h e y w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o t u r n t o f a m i l y m e m b e r s f o r h e l p r a t h e r t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( K o k & L i o w , 1 9 9 3 ) . H o w e v e r , d a t a Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 61 i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s a m p l e w a s s i m i l a r i n h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s t o t h e C a u c a s i a n s a m p l e . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e s u l t s , b a s e d o n o b s e r v i n g t h e d a t a , a r e t h e f a c t o r s o f a g e a n d t y p e o f s a m p l e . F i r s t , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v o l v e d r e l a t i v e l y y o u n g a d u l t s . T h e m e a n a g e w a s a r o u n d 2 0 f o r a l l g r o u p s : C a u c a s i a n g r o u p (M = 20.70, SD = 2.45, n = 183, range 18 - 28); H i g h C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p (M = 19.70, SD - 1.75, n = 66, range 16 - 25); l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p (M = 19.69, SD = 1.85, n = 62, range 17 - 28). I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i f t h e a g e r a n g e w a s i n c r e a s e d b y s a m p l i n g b o t h y o u n g e r a n d o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n s , we m i g h t h a v e s e e n m o r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . M a n y o f t h e s t u d i e s c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w u s e d a n i m m i g r a n t s a m p l e f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h o n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , L i n ( 1 9 9 4 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s v i e w m e n t a l i l l n e s s i n a n e g a t i v e w a y b e c a u s e i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r v a l u e s y s t e m . L a i a n d L i n d e n ( 1 9 9 3 ) f o u n d t h a t a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s b e c a m e m o r e a c c u l t u r a t e d t o C a u c a s i a n s o c i e t y , t h e i r v a l u e s y s t e m s , t h i n k i n g p r o c e s s e s , a n d l a n g u a g e u s a g e b e c a m e m o r e s i m i l a r t o C a u c a s i a n s . Z h a n g e t a l . ( 1 9 9 8 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t 4 p e r c e n t o f A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s , c o m p a r e d w i t h 2 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f C a u c a s i a n s , w e r e w i l l i n g t o s e e Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 62 a m e n t a l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l . A t k i n s o n a n d G i m ( 1 9 8 9 ) , who s t u d i e d 3 2 6 A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s , r e p o r t e d t h a t a s l e v e l s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n r o s e , A s i a n s b e c a m e m o r e w e s t e r n i z e d a n d b e c a m e m o r e a c c e p t i n g o f w e s t e r n m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . S o , w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , a c c u l t u r a t i o n s e e m s t o i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s . T h i s t h e s i s r e s e a r c h e d a s a m p l e t h a t c o n s i s t e d o f U n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . K o k a n d L i o w ( 1 9 9 3 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s , h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r o f t e n b e g i n s w i t h a f a m i l y m e m b e r . T h i s w o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who a r e i n C a n a d a w i t h o u t t h e i r f a m i l i e s . B e c a u s e o f t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e s e s t u d e n t s w o u l d l i k e l y b e m o r e w i l l i n g t o s e e k p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . T r a c y e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t A s i a n s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a s m a n y o r m o r e m e n t a l h e a l t h c o n c e r n s a s C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s , a n d s o u g h t p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p a t s i m i l a r r a t e s , b u t r e p o r t e d c o n c e r n s i n d i f f e r e n t w a y s . A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 5 ) f o u n d n o d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s t u d e n t s w i t h w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k a c o u n s e l l o r . A t k i n s o n e t a l . c o m m e n t e d t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s h a v e s t r o n g c o u n s e l l i n g n e t w o r k s , a n d A s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e t h e s e s e r v i c e s . I n f a c t , A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 0 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s t u d e n t s c h o s e a c o u n s e l l o r o r p s y c h o l o g i s t , o v e r t h e i r m o t h e r o r f r i e n d s , a s t h e i r p r e f e r r e d h e l p p r o v i d e r . I t i s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 63 l i k e l y t h a t A s i a n s t u d e n t s w o u l d t u r n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p e r s , s i n c e t h e y may n o t h a v e f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s a v a i l a b l e a t u n i v e r s i t y . C o n v e r s e l y , A t k i n s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 9 0 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t h i g h l y a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s t u d e n t s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o t u r n t o f r i e n d s f o r h e l p - p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e t h e s e s t u d e n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n C a n a d a l o n g e r , a n d w o u l d h a v e m o r e s o c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s . S t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e g i v e n e a s y a c c e s s t o c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a n d o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e o n c a m p u s . T h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t o e v e r y s t u d e n t a n d a r e g e n e r a l l y n o r m a l i z e d a s p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s may e n c o u r a g e p r o - h e l p s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a m o n g b o t h A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s . A s s u c h , a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g may n o t v a r y g r e a t l y b e t w e e n t h e A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . T h u s , w h e n e x a m i n i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t y p e o f s a m p l e b e i n g s t u d i e d b e c a u s e i t s e e m s t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s c a n b e e x p e c t e d f r o m i m m i g r a n t v s . u n i v e r s i t y s a m p l e s . L I M I T A T I O N S OF STUDY T h i s w a s a c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y . A s s u c h , o n e c a n n o t i n f e r a c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s ( M c G u i g a n , 1 9 9 7 ) . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e o f c u l t u r a l d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 64 h e l p - s e e k i n g . N o r d o e s i t i m p l y a n y d i r e c t i o n i n s u s p e c t e d c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s s u r v e y a s k e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t ' p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g ' . A l t h o u g h t h e s u r v e y d i d o f f e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g may v a r y b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h u s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e m e a s u r e u s e d h a d i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s . T h e s a m p l e i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f y o u n g U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s t u d e n t s a r o u n d 2 0 y e a r s o l d . T h e r e f o r e , i t d o e s n o t e n t i r e l y r e f l e c t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . RECOMMENDATIONS AND I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR FUTURE R E S E A R C H I t i s h o p e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l a d d t o t h e e x i s t i n g b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t A s i a n h e l p - s e e k i n g p a t t e r n s . T h i s r e s e a r c h e x a m i n e d t h e s u b j e c t b y u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e o f C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y a n d b y m e a s u r i n g p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s i n s t e a d o f w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e a ( W e s t e r n ) c o u n s e l l o r ( i . e . Z h a n g e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e l i t e r a t u r e d o e s n o t u n i f o r m l y a g r e e a b o u t how c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s . I t s e e m s t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e m i x e d r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e l i k e l y d u e t o s t u d e n t v s . g e n e r a l i m m i g r a n t s a m p l i n g . M o s t r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d i n t h i s t h e s i s d i d n o t e x a m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s Role o f Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 65 b e t w e e n A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s a n d A s i a n s t u d e n t s w h e n e x p l o r i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . T h e f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s t u d i e s t h a t e x a m i n e d a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a n d w e r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m s t u d i e s t h a t e x a m i n e d t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e n e e d s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o s e e i f a t r u e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t s w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e i r a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l s a n d h e l p - s e e k i n g p a t t e r n s . A s s t a t e d , t h e s a m p l e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h h a s a h o m o g e n e o u s a g e r a n g e . I t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d u s e a s a m p l e t h a t e x a m i n e s a b r o a d e r a g e r a n g e . T h e r e may b e d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s e s i f t h e s u r v e y u s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h o f f e r e d d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g c h o i c e s . I n t h e f u t u r e , r e s e a r c h s h o u l d e x a m i n e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e s p o n s e s t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l i n g a n d c o m p a r e t h e m . R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s e x a m i n e d a s n a p s h o t o f p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p - s e e k i n g . H o w e v e r , a s s t a t e d , a c c u l t u r a t i o n l e v e l a n d i m m i g r a n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h e l p -s e e k i n g c h a n g e o v e r t i m e ( A t k i n s o n , 1 9 8 9 ) ; ( L a i & L i n d e n , 1 9 9 3 ) . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d e x a m i n e h e l p - s e e k i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d a c c u l t u r a t i o n o v e r t i m e t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y c h a n g e . M u c h o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s o n t h e i m m i g r a n t e x p e r i e n c e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n t o a n e w s o c i e t y . I t w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l , Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 66 a n d i n t e r e s t i n g , t o e x a m i n e t h i s r e s e a r c h f r o m t h e h e l p -p r o v i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . H e l p - p r o v i d e r s may h a v e s k e w e d v i e w s o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t p o p u l a t i o n a n d a s s u c h , n o t o f f e r r e q u i r e d o r w a n t e d s e r v i c e s . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d e x a m i n e t h e s e b i a s e s . F u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h w o u l d h e l p t o a l i g n n e e d s a n d s e r v i c e s b e t w e e n t h e h e l p - p r o v i d e r s a n d t h e h e l p - s e e k e r s . A s s t a t e d , t h i s r e s e a r c h a r b i t r a r i l y s o r t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s . T h e s o r t i n g w a s d o n e b a s e d o n a r b i t r a r i l y s e t c u t - p o i n t s b a s e d o n p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y s c o r e s . I t w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l t o d o m o r e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e s e a r c h w i t h t h e C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y ( I s h i y a m a , 1 9 9 5 a ) t o i n c r e a s e i t s u t i l i t y a s a m e a s u r e o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . S t r o n g e r a n d m o r e d e f i n i t i v e d a t a w o u l d a i d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g c u t - p o i n t s f o r g r o u p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o h i g h a n d l o w C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s . M o r e e x p l o r a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e b e t t e r g r o u p d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a n d h e l p s e t c u t - p o i n t s b a s e d o n r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e . T h i s w o u l d a i d i n s o r t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t o h i g h a n d l o w c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y g r o u p s a n d , a s a r e s u l t , s h o u l d i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s . Role o f Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking 67 R e f e r e n c e s A t k i n s o n , D . R . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . M i n o r i t y c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i n S u e , D . W . , C a r t e r , R . T . , C a s a s , L . M . e t a l . ( E d s . ) M u l t i c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g C o m p e t e n c i e s : I n d i v i d u a l a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . T h o u s a n d O a k s , C A : S a g e . A t k i n s o n , D . R . , & G i m , R . H . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . A s i a n - A m e r i c a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 3 6 ( 2 ) , 2 0 9 - 2 1 2 . A t k i n s o n , D . R . , L o w e , S . , & M a t t h e w s , L . ( 1 9 9 5 ) . A s i a n -A m e r i c a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n , g e n d e r , a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o s e e k c o u n s e l l i n g . J o u r n a l o f M u l t i c u l t u r a l C o u n s e l l i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , 2 3 , 1 3 0 - 1 3 8 . A t k i n s o n , D . R . , W a m p o l d , B . E . , L o w e , S . M . , M a t t h e w s , L . , & A h n , H . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . A s i a n - A m e r i c a n p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c o u n s e l l o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e B r a d l e y - T e r r y - L u c e m o d e l t o p a i r e d c o m p a r i s o n d a t a . T h e C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , 2 6 ( 1 ) , 1 0 1 - 1 2 3 . A t k i n s o n , D . R . , W h i t e l e y , S . , & G i m , R . H . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . A s i a n - A m e r i c a n a c c u l t u r a t i o n a n d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p p r o v i d e r s . J o u r n a l o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t D e v e l o p m e n t , 3 1 , 1 5 5 - 1 6 1 . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 68 B e r r y , J . W . , K i m , S . , Y o u n g , M . , & B u j a k i , M . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . A c c u l t u r a t i o n a t t i t u d e s i n p l u r a l s o c i e t i e s . A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y : A n I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 38, 1 8 5 - 2 0 6 . F u r n h a m , A . , & A n d r e w , R . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s e e k i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e l p . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 7 9 , 2 8 9 - 2 9 0 . G o r d o n , M . M . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . A s s i m i l a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n L i f e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . G r a v e t t e r , F . J . , & W a l l n a u . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o u r S c i e n c e s ( 5 t h e d . ) . B e l m o n t , C A . : W a d s w o r t h / T h o m s o n . I v e r s e n , G . R . , & N o r p o t h , H . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : S e c o n d E d i t i o n . N e w b u r y P a r k : S a g e P u b l i c a t i o n s . I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 5 a ) . C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 5 b ) . D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n S u r v e y . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 5 c ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a n d V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p s e e k i n g A t t i t u d e S c a l e . U n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 69 I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 5 d ) . P o s i t i v e a n d N e g a t i v e H e l p s e e k A t t i t u d e S c a l e . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 5 e ) . S u r v e y P a r t i c i p a t i o n F o r m . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I s h i y a m a , I . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . A s i a n I d e n t i t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e / C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e I n v e n t o r y - C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h S u i n n - L e w S c a l e . U n p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a K o k , A . J . , & L i o w , S . R . J . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . C a s e s t u d i e s o f h e l p s e e k i n g b e h a v i o u r among A s i a n s i n g l e p a r e n t s i n S i n g a p o r e . C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y Q u a r t e r l y , 6 ( 4 ) , 3 0 3 - 3 1 6 . K o p a l a , M . , & E s q u i v e l , G . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . C o u n s e l l i n g a p p r o a c h e s f o r i m m i g r a n t c h i l d r e n : F a c i l i t a t i n g t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e p r o c e s s . S c h o o l C o u n s e l l o r , 4 1 ( 5 ) , 3 5 2 , 8 p . L a i , J . , & L i n d e n , W. ( 1 9 9 3 ) . T h e s m i l e o f A s i a : A c c u l t u r a t i o n e f f e c t s o f s y m p t o m r e p o r t i n g . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e , 2 5 ( 2 ) , 3 0 3 - 3 1 3 . L i n , J . C . H . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . How l o n g d o C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s s t a y i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y ? J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 4 1 ( 3 ) , 2 8 8 - 2 9 1 . Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 70 M c G u i g a n , F . J . ( 1 9 9 7 ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y ; M e t h o d s o f R e s e a r c h ( 7 t h e d . ) . U p p e r S a d d l e R i v e r , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l . M a t h e w s , R . ( 2 0 0 0 ) . C u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f S o u t h A s i a n a n d S o u t h e a s t A s i a n A m e r i c a n s . I n t e r v e n t i o n i n S c h o o l & C l i n i c , 3 6 ( 2 ) , 1 0 1 - 1 0 5 . S u i n n , R . M . , R i c k a r d - F i g u e r o a , K . , L e w , S . , V i g i l , P . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e S u i n n - L e w A s i a n s e l f - i d e n t i t y a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e : I n i t i a l r e p o r t . E d u c a t i o n a n d P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 4 7 ( 2 ) , 4 0 1 - 4 0 7 . S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . ( S P S S v . 1 1 . 5 ) S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . C e n s u s D a t a . w w w . s t a t c a n . c a T r a c h e , M . ( 2 0 0 3 ) . S P S S 1 1 . 5 O v e r v i e w . V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T r a c y , T . J . , L e o n g , F . T . L . , & G l i d d e n , C . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H e l p s e e k i n g a n d p r o b l e m p e r c e p t i o n a m o n g A s i a n A m e r i c a n s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 3 3 ( 3 ) , 3 3 1 - 3 3 6 . Z h a n g , A . Y . , S n o w d e n , L . R . , & S u e , S . ( 1 9 9 8 ) . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n A s i a n a n d W h i t e A m e r i c a n s ' h e l p s e e k i n g a n d u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s a r e a . J o u r n a l o f C o m m u n i t y P s y c h o l o g y , 2 6 ( 4 ) , 3 1 7 - 3 2 6 . (96-3-26 wfwdata\demoinfo.95b) Demographic Information Section (Form B) 1. Sex: () Male - () Female 2. Age: years old 6. Ethnicity: (Choose from Item 6 below) 3. Departmental Affiliation: I'm in the Department of. 4. Program: () 1. Bachelors — () BA () BSc () BEd or: () 2. Diploma () 3. Masters — () MA () MSc () MEd or: () 4. Doctorate— () PhD ()EdDor: () 0. Unclassified or 5. Sibling Order: () 1. the oldest () 2. the youngest () 3. the only child () 4. the middle or one of the middle children () 5. others: (please describe) 6. Ethnic/Racial Background: Which; ethnicity constitutes more than 50% of your background? If it is 50-50 in your assessment, please put check-marks in two places. ( ) 01. Caucasian/White (other than 02 and 03); please specify: ( ) 02. Eastern European; please specify: () 03. Hispanic; please specify: () 04. Asian (for East Indian, go to 05) ( )A1 . Chinese—— () PRC () H.K. ()Taiwan () or () A2. Japanese () A3. Korean () A4. Vietnamese () A5. Philippino () A6. Malaysian () A7. Sri Lankan () A8. Indonesian () A9. other Asian; please specify: ) 05. East Indian; please specify: i ) 06. First Nations; or (please specify) ) 07. Middle Easterner; please specify: ; ) 08. Afro-American; please specify: ) 09. African; please specify: ) 10. Other ethnic minority; please specify: ) 11. None of the above; please specify: ) 00.1 prefer not to answer this question. 7. Length of Stay in North America: I have lived in North America for a total of . ' years. 8. Place of Birth: I was born in () Canada, ( ) U.S.A., () Mexico, () other: (please specify) 9. Mother's Place of Brith: My mother was born in (which country?): 10. Father's Place of Birth: My father was born in (which country?): (usiMielpseek A wfwdata\asian.id 96-3-26rev) This page is for persons with an Asian (including East Indian) background only. (That is, your ethnic background is 50% or more Asian). Please specify your ethnic background: Asian Identity Questionaire Please note: In this questionnaire, "Asian" refers to your specific ethnic/cultural background. 1. How strong is your cultural identity as Asian (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, East Indian, etc.)? 1 —2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all moderately extremely strong as Asian 2. How strong is your cultural identity as Canadian or North American (N.Am)? 1—2—3— 4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all moderately extremely strong as Canadian (N.American) 3. How Asian (i.e., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, East Indian, etc.) was the social environment in which you grew up for the most part of your childhood? 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all Asian moderately completely Asian 4. What would be your preferences like, if you were to choose between Asian and Canadian (or North American)? "Asian" refers to your particular ethnic/cultural background. Please use the following scale: Scale: 1—-2—3-—4—5—6—7—8—9 Mostly Canadian about Mostly or N. American < = 50-50 - ~ —> Asian "I prefer __" Canadian/N.Am<= =>Asian (my ethnic culture) (1) arts and music 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (2) language 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (3) food 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (4) traditional events and celebrations 1-2-3-4-5-6^7-8-9 (5) local community to belong to 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (6) manners and customs 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (7) values 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 (8) friends i 1-2-3-4-5-6^7-8-9 (9) counsellors/advisors 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 5. How many years of formal schooling (elementary up to university) have you had in North America? ( ) years (win\helpseek\help95.qr3) HELPSEEK CONCERNS INVENTORY We face various problems and personal issues in life. They may be related to, among other things: relationship, career, emotional well-being, education, personality, family, identity, health, and life in general. Seeking help from others is one way of dealing with such problems and critical issues. Q-l. If you were to seek help from a trained counsellor or therapist to discuss rather personal issues, what kind of feelings and concerns might you have about it? Please assume: (a) that the helping service will be free of charge, confidential, and professional; and (b) that the counsellor wi l l be a stranger to you but speaks the same language. Please circle one of the numbers for each item, using the scale below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not at all little somewhat moderately quite very extremely NAA MOD EXT "If I were to see a professional helper, I would feel about getting NAA MOD EXT NAA MOD EXT. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (1) willing 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (16) self-critical 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (2) worried 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (17) exposed 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (3) hopeful 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (18) cautious 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (4) angry 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (19) proud of myself 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (5) relieved 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (20) disturbed 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (6) self-conscious 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (21) resentful 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (7) inhibited 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (22) rebellious 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (8) good about myself 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (23) ambivalent 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (9) uncertain 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (24) actively involved 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (10) stressed out 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (25) guilty 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (11) skeptical 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (26) hesitant 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (12) comfortable 1 -2-3-4-5-6-7 (27) embarrassed 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (13) shameful 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (28) open 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (14) lonesome 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (29) defensive 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (15) enthusiastic 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (30) indifferent NAA MOD EXT NAA MOD EXT 

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