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Cultural identity as a mediating factor in help-seeking attitutes among Asian and Caucasian students Barone, Crispian Louis 2003

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CULTURAL IDENTITY AS A MEDIATING FACTOR IN HELP-SEEKING ATTITUDES AMONG ASIAN AND CAUCASIAN STUDENTS by CRISPIAN LOUIS BARONE B.A., Okanagan U n i v e r s i t y - C o l l e g e , 2000 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f C o u n s e l l i n g  Psychology)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 2003 (c)  C r i s p i a n L o u i s Barone,  2003  Library Authorization  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Z Z /1:/>/ Name of Author (please print)  Title of Thesis:  j f f (  p^C 11  Date (dd/mm/yyyy)  <  Degree: Department of  Year: C  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B C Canada  Zc-Z)  r  1  \  i-/  Role o f Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking i i Abstract The p u r p o s e i d e n t i t y was students  of this  s t u d y was  related  in  study,  this  o f whom 184  female  44 m a l e ,  A weak p o s i t i v e  attitudes  ( r = .158,  significant negative  p = .034,  n = 181)  i d e n t i t y A s i a n groups, positive  help-seeking  and negative  help-seeking  Mixed r e s u l t s  attitudes  positive clinical,  and negative and r e s e a r c h  help-seeking  no  cultural identity p -  were  .305,  for  186) = 2.405,  (F(2,  and  n = 178)  f o u n d among: (a) cultural both p = .093)  186) = .612),  were found i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  i d e n t i f i a b l e t r e n d between  found  (b) l o w C a u c a s i a n  {F(2,  gender)  help-seeking  a n d(c) C a u c a s i a n group attitudes  were  (2- tailed);  ( r = .077,  Caucasian c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ,  easily  c o r r e l a t i o n was  no significant differences  (2-tailed);  participated  and 2 u n s p e c i f i e d  c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between  help-seeking attitudes  students.  and 57 male)  A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and p o s i t i v e  .544).  among A s i a n  u n i v e r s i t y students  (127  and 183 (137 f e m a l e ,  were Caucasians.  high  of cultural  and t o compare between A s i a n and C a u c a s i a n o f 367 u n d e r g r a d u a t e  between  how l e v e l  t o help-seeking attitudes  A total  Asians  t o explore  there  cultural identity attitudes.  p = was n o  and  Theoretical,  implications are discussed.  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking Table  o f Contents i i  Abstract Table  o f Contents.  . . . . . . .  i i i  List  o f Tables  v  List  of Figures  v i v i i  Acknowledgements  1  Chapter I I n t r o d u c t i o n Relevance Research  1 Question  2 4  Chapter I I L i t e r a t u r e Review Acculturation: Help  seeking  Exploring and defining  trends:  the process  Understanding the role  of  acculturation Positive  5  and Negative  Help Seeking  Attitudes  . . .  Summary Research  4  10 15  Hypotheses  16  Chapter I I I Methodology  19  Definitions  19  Par t i ci p a n t s  20  Measures:  27  Demographic  Information Survey  Cultural  Preference  Positive  and Negative  Statistical  Analysis  27  Inventory Help-Seek  28 Attitude  Scale  31 35  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking Procedure  36  Chapter IV Results  39  Description Hypothesis  of Main Variables  39  Testing  43  Chapter V Discussion  55  Discussion  55  Limitations  o f Study  Recommendations  63  & Implications  f o r Future Research.  64  References  67  Appendix  71  Demographic  Information Survey  Cultural  Preference  Positive  and Negative  72  Inventory Help-Seeking Attitude  73 Scale  . 74  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking List Table  1  Total  Table  3  P a r t i c i p a n t s by-  Group  21  Ages o f P a r t i c i p a n t s Years  Tables  Number o f M a l e a n d Female  Cultural Table 2  of  spent  b y Group  . 2 4  i n N o r t h America by Group  Table 4  Numbers o f P a r t i c i p a n t s  Table 5  Positive  and Negative  25  i n Each C u l t u r a l Group  Help-Seeking  . 33  scores  by C u l t u r a l Group Table  6  Results Positive  Table 7  Table  8  T a b l e 10  o f ANOVA o n G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s  Statistics  of  Help-Seeking Attitude  Positive  Results  for  Help-Seeking Attitudes Statistics  of  Help-Seeking Attitude  Negative  52  for the  and A s i a n Groups  ANOVA a n d D e s c r i p t i v e Caucasian  Variable  for Positive  Help-Seeking Scores  Caucasian  51  f o r t h e Dependent  Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s  by T o t a l  Variable 50  o f ANOVA o n G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s  and Negative  T a b l e 11  49  f o r t h e Dependent  Descriptive  Total  for  Help-Seeking Attitudes  Descriptive  Negative Table 9  42  Statistics  53 f o r PHSA a n d NHSA  and A s i a n Groups  54  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking  List of Figure 1  Figures  Birthplace o f Asian Participants  26  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking vii Acknowledgements I and  effort  like and  would l i k e  t o t h a n k my M o t h e r L i n d a  i n h e l p i n g me t o c o m p l e t e  t o t h a n k my F a t h e r  Rene B a r o n e ,  h e l p i n g me t o s o r t  t h a n k my f a m i l y , patient I  want  me a c c e s s  members,  Dr. Bill  thank  D r . Ishu  this  Ishiyama,  I want  through t h i s Dr. Bill  g i v i n g me r o o m t o m a k e e r r o r s  and  t h e chance I  during  want  myself  t o acknowledge  the time  would  me o n t r a c k  I would l i k e  f o r h i s support  to  for their  long process.  Borgen,  I want  to  and D r . Joe Lucyshyn  a n d f o r g i v i n g me g u i d a n c e  worthy o f t h e i r  the support  of writing this  and f o r  t o t h a n k my c o m m i t t e e  and D r . Joe Lucyshyn  for  t o prove  I  process.  Ishiyama  to h i s data.  and support  f o r keeping  the results.  through  Borgen  thesis.  f o r h e r time  A n d r e a a n d my s o n A n d r e w f o r b e i n g  t o thank D r . Ishu  granting  flexibility  through  my w i f e  and supportive  this  Barone  thesis.  of Misha  support. a n d my f r i e n d s  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking CHAPTER I : The p r e s e n t as  study  defined by level  and as measured 1995a,  1997).  A s i a n acculturation  by the variable  cultural  w i t h a low  as mostly  North  high  American  North American culture, Literature important Asian  factor  clients'  strength  states  that  help-seeking  whereas  cultural  Asians with  integrated  are  a  into  speaking.  acculturation level  for counsellors  and type  help-seeking  identity  relatively  American  t r a d i t i o n a l Asian andnot  i n t o North American culture, cultural  society  (Ishiyama,  identity  integrated North  level  of integration i n t o North American  may b e r e g a r d e d  identity  INTRODUCTION  investigated  Asian people  to consider  attitudes,  i s an  i n understanding  but disagrees  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between  as t o the  acculturation and  attitudes.  RELEVANCE Canada h a s l o n g been known f o r i t s c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y a n d its  policies  Canada,  dealing with multiculturalism.  we s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d  backgrounds. where 17.9%, Of  This  the total based  specific  population, Canada's  t o help people  i s especially  percentage  o n 1996 census relevance  of  true  data  from  i n British  (Statistics  t o my t h e s i s ,  population,  As counsellors  Columbia  Canada,  which focuses  accounted  as o f 1996.  i n  different  'visible minority' population  the Asian populations  total  1  is  1996).  on the Asian  f o r 6.1% o f  T h i s p r o p o r t i o n more  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking than doubles  t o 13.5% i n t h e case o f B r i t i s h  demographic  this  portion of the Asian population i n B r i t i s h  should be accounted counselling policies  British in  f o r when d e s i g n i n g  services.  If counsellors  on a Caucasian-only  alienating  minority  cultures,  population,  Canada,  a total  that  they  their  risk  make u p 1 7 . 9 % o f t o 660,540  Of these  73.9%i s accounted  Columbia  and agencies base  which equates  1996).  Clearly,  and d e l i v e r i n g  the v i s i b l e minority cultures  (Statistics  1996).  c o u n s e l l i n g model,  Columbia's population,  B.C.  Canada,  Columbia's  population large  (Statistics  people  visible  for by the B.C. Asian  o f 488,105 people  (Statistics  Canada,  1996) . RESEARCH QUESTION The p r e s e n t Asian with  research  examined  the relationship  acculturation and help-seeking Caucasians.  and a comparative acculturation (Ishiyama,  This  component.  level  1995d).  research  attitudes  with attitudes  towards  Then i t measured  1995d)  and Negative  help-seeking as measured  Inventory  1997) , a n d c o m p a r e d them w i t h a C a u c a s i a n  component Asian  counselling  Help-Seeking Attitude Scale  and the C u l t u r a l Preference  between  compared  i t correlated  among h i g h a n d l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s , Positive  as  had a c o r r e l a t i o n a l  First,  2  attitudes by the (Ishiyama,  (Ishiyama,  sample.  1995a,  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking The g e n e r a l Asian  attitudes  cultural of  those  towards  groups,  integration  question  examined  counselling  differentiated  i n this differ  by cultural  i n t o North American society,  of a North American c u l t u r a l  group.  research among  3  i s : How d o  Asian  identity, and d i f f e r  or  level  from  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE ACCULTURATION:  E X P L O R I N G AND D E F I N I N G THE PROCESS  Minority populations static  o r as having  -  i s where  this  beliefs,  culture  (Atkinson, According  terms,  1989; Berry, t o Gordon  of contact  leaving  acculturation process. new e n v i r o n m e n t  occurs  through  the process  One t h e o r y Identity  assumes t h a t oppressive  is  proposed  Development  acculturation  fosters  requires  occurs  from t h e i r  by Atkinson  i n a series  home c o u n t r y a n d step  i n the  adaptation,  (1989)  of stages.  that  similar  c u l t u r a l group, In this  sense,  into  similar conditions.  the acculturation process  T h e MID m o d e l  follows  which this  theory  a new c u l t u r e  o f o r i g i n because each m i n o r i t y  that  which  The MID model  experience  identity.  experience  to  i s the Minority  I t postulates  within their  will  1964).  acculturation.  t o a l l m i n o r i t i e s who move  culture  culture  o f moving and a d j u s t i n g  significant  (MID) M o d e l .  a sense o f group  1989; Gordon,  i s the f i r s t  a l l m i n o r i t y persons  conditions  applicable  of  from a  with another  one's  The process  counselled  i s t h e change  of a person  Kim,& Bujaki,  (1964),  being  i s an important  acculturation  and behaviours  as a result  as  way o f b e i n g  of acculturation  moving t o an u n f a m i l i a r s o c i e t y  the  be stereotyped  o n l y one s p e c i f i c  I n general  attitudes,  minority  cannot  the variable  consideration. in  REVIEW  a series  culture proposes  of five  stages  4  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking that  are defined by attitudes  others  i n t h e same g r o u p ,  groups,  and attitudes  implication and t h a t  i s that  contact  towards  attitudes  towards  social  become  more l i k e  case, health  help  idea  challenge and  (1993),  as A s i a n immigrants  toward seeking  If this  professional  i s the  mental  time t o eventually mirror  North  and beliefs.  What  i s i m p o r t a n t when e x a m i n i n g t h e s e  that  acculturation i s a process  acculturation will  they  of thinking  and preferences.  s h o u l d change over  American attitudes  are not static  to North American society,  language,  Asian attitudes  The  and preferences.  North Americans i n terms  values,  towards  other minority  cultural attitudes  t o L a i and Linden  more a c c u l t u r a t e d  processes,  towards  w i t h North Americans w i l l  become  attitudes  the white majority.  change e t h n i c m i n o r i t y a t t i t u d e s According  self,  make a d i f f e r e n c e  studies  and that  i s the  the level  of  i n Asian values and  perceptions. HELP SEEKING TRENDS:  UNERSTANDING THE ROLE OF ACCULTURATION I N  SYMPTOM R E P O R T I N G To u n d e r s t a n d t h e h e l p - s e e k i n g p a t t e r n s have  immigrated t o Canada,  Asians It medical  report  causes  i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e x p l o r e how  symptoms o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  has been  reported that  of mental  o f A s i a n s who  Asians  illness  distress.  strongly believe  a n d may n o t s e e k  i n  counselling  5  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking for in  psychological a negative  system  Andrew  that  rather  social  person's  (1996),  therefore  Asians  they  countries  (Kok & L i o w ,  help  financial  with single  contribute  to  stigma  Also,  deviates  t o Furnham &  help  f o r mental  illness,  help.  research,  1993).  help-seeking  Quite  often,  behaviour  i n Asian family  and with information  support  issues.  i s with childcare.  l i k e l y t o go t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s  equally  One a r e a  Single  members (especially  Both family and neighbours  t o emotional  suffering  mental problems and  with family and neighbours,  parents).  illness  value  the person  according  tend t o somatisize  support  see mental  with their  both onto  family.  to recent  begins  more  i t conflicts  would seek medical  generally  trend  Asians  may n o t seek p s y c h o l o g i c a l  According  for  ( L i n ,1994).  way, because  and brings  and onto  help  where  Asian parents  for childcare  this are  concerns  than  family and neighbours. Asian  health  immigrants  services  Snowden,  Asian people  12% o f A s i a n s  If this  According t o data tend  first  turn to friends  t o go t o mental  tend not t o u t i l i z e  degree as Caucasian  i n d i v i d u a l l y before  professionals.  willing  t o t h e same  & Sue, 1998).  al.(1998), problems  i n general  to first  step  mental  people  reported  t r y and deal  of speaking  t o mental  with  This  about  is  et  their  health  and o n l y about  health professionals.  (Zhang,  b y Zhang  i s not successful,  for help  6  4% a r e  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking significantly 25.5% to  are willing  speak  These  show  t o speak  that  help.  towards  acculturation  The  about  Asians  seeking  positive  mental  health  may n o t be w i l l i n g  higher  may h a v e  to  help.  d i d not hold true  (Zhang e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) .  t h e number o f s o m a t i c  tend  issues,  likely  cause  to somatisize increased  mental  visits  (Furnham & Andrew,  t o seek help  to medical 1996).  f o r medical  with medical  health  reasons  doctors  i t i s l i k e l y that  doctors  attitudes  these  clients  is a  complaints  which  would  for  somatic  a r e more they end  through which Asian medical  clients  system.  will  w i t h Western medical  systems  not  somatic  For Asian clients,  complaints.  for  ( L i n ,1994),  familiar have  higher  problems.  Since Asians  are introduced t o the western  Therefore,  of  There  Asians  clients  levels and  Caucasians.  complaints  interacting  s t u d y may  similar help-seeking  health  up  for  seek  Asians  and t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f d i s c l o s i n g mental  willing  level,  a further  acculturation  professional  c o r r e l a t i o n between  complaints  problems.  of a low acculturation  trend of non-disclosure  somatic  o f whom  and 25.5%a r e w i l l i n g  G i v e n t h e above d a t a ,  levels  North American  population,  with friends  a c o r r e l a t i o n between  attitudes  with  the Caucasian  Asian immigrants,  professional  as  than  with a psychiatrist  data  example  find  less  sooner  become  than those this  who d o  7  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking increased western  exposure  mental health  Asian as  could indicate  students  (1986)  ways  display  three-year likely  period,  likely  students  more p r o b l e m s  different  students  Atkinson acculturation  career  study  similar  likely  as the Caucasian  general  pattern reported  data,  i n that less  were  more  concerns.  The  - t h e amount o f b u t were  university  have  similar  between  I n t o t a l , 326 a survey  that  of acculturation, and attitudes  of the survey  perception towards  indicated a  participants with higher  o f a stigma towards  reported  students.  behaviour.  level  Results  a  students  studied the interaction  to counselling,  counselling.  et a l .  more a c c u l t u r a t e d a n d  t o Tracy e t a l . (1986),  and help-seeking  seeking  levels  were  students  I t was c o n c l u d e d W e s t e r n  examined demographic  i t i n  r e p o r t e d h a v i n g a s many a s , o r  concerns  a n d G i m (1989)  attached  students  o r academic  than d i d the Caucasian  attitudes  distress  Tracy  whereas A s i a n  A m e r i c a n m e n a n d women c o m p l e t e d  stigma  1986).  Caucasian  to report  ways.  of mental  from a Hawaiian U n i v e r s i t y over  concerns  according  help-seeking  of  & Glidden,  emotional  i n this  levels  but tend t o report  o f A s i a n background were  therefore,  Chinese  students  and found that  reported mental health in  similar  Leong,  students  to report  were more Asian  (Tracy,  surveyed  understanding of  services.  compared t o Caucasian  different  a clearer  8  seeking  acculturation help  from a  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking mental  health  professional  counsellor.  As levels  and a higher  of acculturation  more w e s t e r n i z e d  and, according  they  accepting  became more  willingness rose,  t o see a  Asians  became  t o A t k i n s o n a n d G i m (1989) ,  of western  therapies  such  as  counselling. According  t o Zhang e t a l . (1998),  mental  h e a l t h problems  exists  between  Asian clients  professionals. language  Clients  and ethnically  inadvertently with  may i n d i c a t e  create  stay  may e x p e r i e n c e  counsellor  insensitive  e t h n i c i t y were accounted ethnically therapy  with medical therapy  trend  intervention,  nearly  tripled  i s especially  who a r e n o t a b l e benefit  clients  stayed  - comparable  i f  i n  to  was c o m b i n e d  of Asian clients'  stay  ( i . e . 34 s e s s i o n s ) .  for low acculturation  English and therefore  an English only  Asian  who s a w a n  counsellor  the length i n length  interfere  spoken and  When c o u n s e l l i n g  important  t o speak  from having  that  Asian clients  o r l i n g u i s t i c a l l y matched  American c l i e n t s .  health  found that  such as language  f o r a n a v e r a g e o f 12 s e s s i o n s  Caucasian  in  L i n (1994)  for.  that  c o u n s e l l o r s who  f o r as long as Caucasian  characteristics  disclose  miscommunication due t o  communication b a r r i e r s  i n therapy  to  a cultural barrier  and Western mental  the counselling process.  clients  reluctance  speaking  This  clients  would not  counsellor.  9  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 10 A study the  conducted  factors  of acculturation  correlated Chinese  and Canadian u n i v e r s i t y  measured  of British  acculturation  conformity.  differ  symptoms  increasingly according  level,  The r e s u l t s  significantly physical  physical  and that  psychological specifically  and controlled  distress  but displayed  asked  d i d report culture affect  were aware  to express  about  were  However,  less  Asians  a n d were w i l l i n g  and anonymously  students  norms.  t o succeed,  suggested that  d i dn o t  i n reporting  Asian students  l i k e l y due t o p r e s s u r e  The authors  for social  Asian students  s i m i l a r t o Canadian student  that  psychological  t h e more a c c u l t u r a t e d  and language b a r r i e r s ,  expression.  a questionnaire  symptoms,  (1993),  study,  enrolled at the  from Canadian students  t o L a i and Linden  anxiety,  In this  students  indicated that  incorporated  conformity and  Columbia were g i v e n  self-reported  symptoms,  shock,  and social  (1993)  them w i t h symptom r e p o r t i n g .  University  more  by L a i and Linden  i t  of  when  i t .  P O S I T I V E AND N E G A T I V E H E L P - S E E K I N G A T T I T U D E S In a study towards  therapy  b y Furnham a n d Andrew changed  counsellor.  In this  participants  filled  after  study,  their  initial  Asian  visit  attitudes  to a  98 A s i a n a n d 78 C a u c a s i a n  out questionnaires  seeking  (1996),  attitudes  towards  professional  According  t o Furnham a n d Andrew  (1996),  regarding mental ethnic  British  their  health origin,  help. age,  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 11 gender, health  occupation,  were n o t c o r r e l a t e d  contact  were.  positively  Previous  related  somatic  distress  Asians,  who t e n d e d  were more  contact  were w i l l i n g  once  therapy  t o accept  become  somatisizing  while  personal help  This  mental  and less  was  severity implied  likely to  i t as a v a l i d source study  more p o s i t i v e  was t h a t  of that  distress,  introduced to counselling  i m p l i c a t i o n drawn from t h i s  towards  attitudes  correlated.  to somatisize  However,  of  previous  with psychotherapists  to help-seeking  was n e g a t i v e l y  physical  while  and severity  l i k e l y t o seek medical  counselling.  The  and self-reported  to help-seeking  with psychotherapists  distress  clients  religion,  with exposure  Asian  of  Asian  seek  help.  attitudes  to  Western  therapies. Atkinson, influence  Lowe,  and Matthews  o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and gender  Asian willingness  t o see a counsellor.  Asian American u n i v e r s i t y  filled  o u t t h e Willingness  which examined see  of  counsellor. counsellors  a n d how t h e y In this  98 m a l e s  level,  The r e s u l t s  gender,  of this  differences  and the willingness  The p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r career  examined t h e  a n d 89  females,  and willingness  study between  indicated  to  that  the willingness  of A s i a n females  problems,  187  Questionnaire  were more w i l l i n g  o r academic  influence  study,  to See a Counsellor  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  A s i a n males  students,  acculturation  a counsellor.  there  (1995)  t o see a  t o see  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 12 had p r e v i o u s l y therapy level  again  therapy  were more w i l l i n g  and, i n contrast  to other  studies,  of acculturation d i d not significantly  willingness previously visit  t o see a c o u n s e l l o r . mentioned  is crucial,  accepted implied  findings  and once  i t as a v a l i d that  willingness i.e.  attended  there  These  i n that  t o go t o participant  influence  findings  upheld  the i n i t i a l  counselling  introduced to counselling,  source  of help.  was n o t a gender  t o seek therapy  split  as there  C a n a d i a n women a r e m o r e  likely  This  study  i n Asian  Asians  also clients'  i s i n Canadian c u l t u r e t o seek c o u n s e l l i n g  -  than  men. Interestingly, higher  acculturated  counselling of  participants for  and type  seeming  Lowe,  & Matthews,  of counselling  students  concerns  to university  surprising  that  support  the authors  with these Asian students  likely  who s o u g h t  networks.  t o seek c o u n s e l l i n g  since  seek Examination  that  for  the  counselling  were n o t  i n general  d i d not find  that  accounted  stated  and therefore  of Asian immigrants  to  1995).  sought,  were u n i v e r s i t y  introduced  the idea  were more w i l l i n g  The a u t h o r s  representative  more  contradicted  contradiction.  academic/career  effect  study  Asians  (Atkinson,  t h e sample  this  this  who a r e n o t I t i s not  an a c c u l t u r a t i o n  Asian students  f o r academic  reasons  were (Atkinson  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 13 et  a l . , 1995),  support  and u n i v e r s i t i e s  networks  It  for this  seems t h a t  Asian preference  type  for certain  a n d G i m (1990)  preferred  help providers. students  measured  t h e i r preferences  The  into  w o u l d most  help providers  mother,  father,  leaders,  three  were asked  oldest  given  sister,  against  that  levels  discuss  seeking  a  the  case.  other  as t h e i r  and ' f r i e n d ' .  'friend'  as t h e i r preferred  findings  by stating  faith  i n 'true  religious  friend,  teacher,  The  researchers  would have a help  stigma  and that  from the l i s t  However,  this  they  whereas  was n o t  chose the  preferred  help  provider  High acculturation Asians helper.  with.  included:  relatives,  helper'  would.  providers  problem  i n the survey  The l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n Asians  'counsellor/psychologist'  more  a personal  psychological  high acculturation Asians  The  help  and medical doctor.  the  'mother'  816 A s i a n  helpers.  i n t h e community,  'professional  Atkinson,  of acculturation and  as choices  professional  with  of acculturation and  grouped  low acculturation Asians  would n o t choose  over  level  study  brother,  correlated  of counsellors.  t o rank the top three  counsellor/psychologist, expected  counselling  i s also  for various  likely  person  level  types  This  strong  concern.  explored  American  who t h e y  of  acculturation  Whiteley,  participants  have  The authors  chose  explained the  the low acculturation Asians  would p u t  professionals'  likely  and that  they  just  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 14 moved  t o North America and therefore  friends Given  t o t u r n t o as would t h e h i g h a c c u l t u r a t i o n  this  Atkinson thesis, level  study  the results  towards  examined  Atkinson  Lowe,  students  reported  matched  that  used  they  preference  similar counsellor  analysis  personality,  and values  . . . "  own, t o ethnicity. to  reflected  measure for various  age,  gender,  correlated  with for a  1998,  preference  than d i d the high proposed  on the c l i e n t ' s  a  an  (Atkinson et a l . ,  The a u t h o r s  an assumption  over  had a stronger  similar counsellor  acculturation participants.  counsellors  minority participants  Low a c c u l t u r a t i o n A s i a n s  an ethnically  preference  such as  Acculturation level  ethnically  for  university.  to their  regression  by ethnic  Asian  would p r e f e r  variables  with similar attitudes  116).  by surveying  and values  counsellor  p.  on  a n d A h n (1998)  an American  such as e t h n i c i t y ,  and values.  "consistent  sample,  effect  and i t s correlation with preferences  characteristics attitudes,  preference  on other  e t a l . (1998)  acculturation  with  i n this  with a student  Matthews,  attending  similar attitudes  counsellors  that,  reported  i t  counselling.  Wampold,  respondents  previously  d i d n o t have a c o n s i s t e n t  client-counsellor  undergraduate  who h e l d  study,  indicated  of acculturation  Atkinson,  Asians.  ( A t k i n s o n e t a l . , 1990) a n d c o m p a r i n g  e t a l . (1995)  attitudes  Asian  w o u l d n o t h a v e a s many-  that part  this that  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 15 counsellors  of similar  e t h n i c i t y would hold  similar  values and  attitudes. SUMMARY According  to the literature,  acculturation  (Atkinson e t . a l . , 1989; L a i & Linden, a person host  from a m i n o r i t y culture  culture.  become  more  like  acculturation toward  more  to  than  problems  report  that  and prefer  amounts  Despite  such as type  factors  as w i l l i n g  health  of stress  this  fact,  attitudes  to  1993).  help  This  a student,  services  t o see a mental  is tend help  1996). as  Caucasians  there  i s an  to disclose  (Zhang e t a l . , 1 9 9 8 ) .  of counselling  such as being  higher  t o seek m e d i c a l  a r e more r e l u c t a n t  than are Caucasians  Western mental just  Asians  then  they  low acculturation Asians  (Furnham & Andrew,  equal  as Asian  as a v a r i a b l e  (Lai & Linden,  that  with the  Caucasians.  can be used  disorders  counselling  factors  social  their  e t a l . , 1986).  impression  once  level  as  when  society,  i s the case, similar  process  begins  (1993),  t o Canadian  s h o u l d have  health  when c o n s i d e r i n g  Asians (Tracy  If this  symptom r e p o r t i n g  somatisize  father  Asians  mental  Acculturation  apparent  comes i n c o n t a c t  acculturated  Canadians.  level  seeking  understand  1993) t h a t  According to L a i and Linden  i m m i g r a n t s become  is a  (academic  However, or  and exposure  were a c c o u n t e d  mental  career), to  f o r , Asians  health professional  were  as were  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 16 Caucasians  ( A t k i n s o n e t a l . , 1995; Furnham & Andrew,  Understanding these counselling  attitudes  i s important  and the factors  1996).  influencing  t o k n o w i n g how t o b e t t e r  deliver  services. Many r e s e a r c h e r s level but  of acculturation  reported  and willingness  was u n c l e a r  o f sample  as various  may a c c o u n t  findings.  F o r example,  and Andrew  (1996),  general  population,  level  counselling.  In fact,  that  sample,  they  were  that  contradictory.  consisted  correlation  a student  d i d not correlate  found  were more w i l l i n g  counsellor/psychologist  help. such  with attitudes  towards  who u s e d  a  stated  to a  than d i d the high acculturation  group.  RESEARCH HYPOTHESES This mediating compared  study factor  examined  Cultural Identity  i n Asian attitudes  t o a Caucasian  sample.  as  that  low acculturation Asians t o speak  of the  between  population,  A t k i n s o n e t a l . (1990),  found that  a n d Furnham  t o seek p r o f e s s i o n a l  used  or  contradictory  that  b y A t k i n s o n e t a l . (1995),  acculturation  student  studies  found a p o s i t i v e  studies  conducted  (i.e. positive  who s t u d i e d a s a m p l e  Whereas  between  counselling,  A t k i n s o n a n d G i m (1989)  and willingness  other  t o seek  f o r much o f t h e  acculturation  that  a correlation  the direction of the correlation  negative) Type  have  towards  level  as a  counselling  The A s i a n g r o u p was  as  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 17 artificially Cultural  categorized  I d e n t i t y subgroups  testing.  Note that  Ishiyama  (1995a,  variable  Cultural  acculturation The  this  1995b,  cultural  There  is  is  attitudes cultural  identity significant  negative total (4) and  attitudes Asian  There negative  Canadianized  group is  scores  and  the  scores.  identity  correlation  scores  and  group  effect  negative  scores. main  help-seeking  among  group  and the  group  differences  towards and the  no significant help-seeking Asian  study:  correlation  negative  a significant  towards  Asian  positive  attitude  There  which used the  i n the present  attitude  cultural  help-seeking  (i.e.  tested  a significant  Asian  1997),  society.  identity  help-seeking  between  (3)  were  a significant  Asian  positive (2)  1995d,  hypothesis developed by  as t h e measure o f  Identity  is  of  research used scales  t o North American  There  between  f o r the purpose  1995c,  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses  (1)  i n t o high and low North American  students  the  Asian  Caucasian  group,  on positive  help-seeking  among  Caucasian  and the  group).  difference attitudes  on  in  positive  between  highly  and Caucasian  students.  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 18  (5) and  There negative  Canadianized  is  a significant help-seeking Asian  students  difference attitude  in between  and Caucasian  positive low students.  Role o f Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking  19  C H A P T E R I I I : METHODOLOGY DEFINITIONS Participants  Asian: Demographic  Information  category. Chinese  The  Lankan,  Korean, and  category  definition  East of  for  Republic  of  Vietnamese,  Indonesian.  of  self-identified  Survey  categories  (People's  Japanese,  who  (Ishiyama,  China,  The  racial  with a Caucasian  Nations,  as  Eastern  not  were not  process  whereby  contact  with the  1989; paper,  are  Berry,  host  into  this  included  Taiwan),  the  Sri  ethnic working  in this  Caucasians  from Canada  Hispanic,  in this  or  Those  Afro-American,  the  who  East  influenced  Kim, & Bujaki, refers  by  and h i s  to  Indian,  First  ethnic  group. refers  or her  Gordon,  to  the  comes  in  attitudes  (Atkinson, 1964).  how A s i a n p e o p l e  by contact  United  or African  such contact  1989;  study  self-  from a m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e  culture,  and changed  of  term a c c u l t u r a t i o n  a person  acculturation  influenced  research,  background.  included The  Acculturation:  and b e l i e f s  Hong Kong,  included i n the  group  European,  Middle Eastern,  backgrounds  fit  Philippino, Malaysian,  included mainly North Americans  identified  1995b)  the  Asian.  Caucasian:  States,  A s i a n on  Asian identification  For t h i s  I n d i a n was  as  with Canadian  In  this  are culture.  Role o f Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking 20 PARTICIPANTS The  sample  from  the  University of British  were  collected  background  consisted  positive  and n e g a t i v e  attitudes  w i t h a North American  background  points  group  was  identified  t o be explained  The  sample  was  and  183  Caucasian  For  the  purpose  Caucasian male,  female  were  female,  The  w i t h a nA s i a n background  based  background. low and  The  and  Asian  high  ona r t i f i c i a l l y s e t c u t  drawn from a random s e l e c t i o n  participants  from a l a r g e r  study,  data  were e x c l u d e d .  and 2 unknown p a r t i c i p a n t s .  were  identity),and  below.  of this  students  data  ethnic  help-seeking.  b r o k e n down i n t o  subgroups  students  Cultural  cultural  (Caucasian)  further  Demographic a g e ,and  towards  those  university  A s were  (low t o h i g h Caucasian  had two m a i n g r o u p s ;  Caucasian  gender,  (Asian o r North American).  scores  those  Columbia.  o np a r t i c i p a n t s '  Identity  sample  o f undergraduate  and 57 were m a l e . 44 were male,  pool  184  Asian  o f data.  from non-Asian o r nonThere  w e r e 264  female, 101  O f the A s i a n group, 127  For the  Caucasian  group, 137  and 2 were u n s p e c i f i e d  g e n d e r . See  Table l . Age 2.18, 16  of participants  n = 367) y e a r s  t o 2 8 (M = 19.73,  ranged  old.  ranged  f r o m 1 6 t o 3 8 (M = 20.22,  Asian participants  SD = 1.75,  f r o m 1 8 t o 3 8 (M = 20.7,  n = 183), SD = 2.45,  and  ageranged Caucasian's  n = 183).  SD = from  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 21 Table 1 Total Number of Male and Female Participants bv Cultural Group  Racial Background Gender  Total  Asian  Caucasian  Total  367  184  183  Male  264  127  137  Female  101  57  44  Unspecified  2  2  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 22 The  ageo f the high Caucasian  participants The  1 7 t o 2 8 ( M = 19.69,  Caucasian  group  = 62);  total  (M = 16.83,  ranged  ranged  years  identity  group  cases  ranged  ( t oc r e a t e  equal n ' s  SD = 2.12,  i nN o r t h America ranged  n  SD = 2.96,  England  Germany  SD = 7.059, cultural  ranged  and the Caucasian  n =  from 2 group  f r o m 5 t o 2 8 (M =  seeTable 3 . birthplaces  were Canada  (n = 1 ) , South A f r i c a reported  (n = 4 5 ) , Taiwan  (n = 6 ) , P h i l i p p i n e s  (n = 4 ) , Vietnam  scores  whereas  SD =6.0,  group  t h e N ' s ranged  Asian participants  ( n = 7 8 ) , Hong Kong  Singapore  identity  n = 62),  t o equal n = 62);  group  n = 183),  the high Caucasian  cultural  ( n = 2 ) , New Z e a l a n d  = 7 ) , Korea  SD = 2.92,  f r o m 1 t o 2 6 ( M = 16.54,  participant  and USA (n = 1 ) .  The Caucasian  from 1 t o  f r o m 1 t o 2 6 (M = 13.17,  SD = 6.05,  removed  Caucasian  Canada  ranged  The ageo f t h e  n = 62) .  removed  n = 367).  ranged  t h el o w Caucasian  20.53,  2),  spent  F o r t h esubgroups,  2 2 ( M = 8.69,  with  SD = 1.84,  f r o m 5 t o 3 8 {M = 20.45,  n = 183) .  to  identity Asians  f r o m 1 8 t o 2 8 ( M = 20.77,  SD = 6.5,  Asian participants  66),  Asian  seeTable 2 .  The 38  cultural  w i t h random c a s e s  the groups),  identity  f r o m 1 8 t o 2 5 (M = 19.70, SD = 1.75, n = 66) .  age o f t h el o w Caucasian  from  in  ranged  cultural  (n =1 ) , born i n  (n = 16), China (n  (n = 5 ) , M a l a y s i a  (n = 3 ) , Japan  (n = 1 ) , Belgium  being  (n = 1 7 4 ) ,  (n = 4 ) ,  (n = 2 ) , USA ( n =  (n = 1 ) , Brunei  (n = 1 ) , Canton  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 23 (n = 1 ) , 1),  Indonesia  and 'other'  birthplaces  (n = 1 ) ,  (n = 5 ) .  i s presented  Macao  (n = 1 ) ,  South A f r i c a  A summary o f A s i a n i n f i g .  1.  (n =  participants'  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 24 Table 2 Age of Participants by Group Min Age  Max Age  Mean SD Age  N  Total  16  38  20.22 2.18  367  Caucasian  18  38  20.7  2.45  183  Asian  16  28  19.73  1.75  183  Removed)  18  28  20.77 2.12  62  High N A ID  18  25  19.70  1.75  66  Low N A ID  17  28  19.69  1.84  62  Caucasian (Cases  * N A ID = North American Identity (i.e. Canadian)  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 25 Table 3 Years spent in North America by Group Min  Max  Mean SD  n  Total Years  1  30  16.83  367  Caucasian  5  38  20.45 2.92  183  Asian  1  26  13.17  183  Removed)  5  28  20.53 2.96  62  High N A ID  1  26  16.54  6.0  66  Low N A ID  2  22  8.69  6.05  62  6.5  7.06  Caucasian (Cases  * N A ID = North American Identity  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 26 Fig. 1 Birthplace of Asian Participants (n = 183)  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 27  MEASURES Participants  completed  t h e Demographic  (Ishiyama,  1995b),  the Positive  (Ishiyama,  1995d),  and the Negative  Scale  (Ishiyama,  1995d);  Asian participants Inventory  gathered  basic  Information order,  America,  birthplace.  In  Kong,  Self-identified  Preference  (Ishiyama,  i n f o r m a t i o n about  background, mother's  of separating  the current  that  category  Attitude  1995b)  the participants.  program o f study, time  residing  birthplace,  and  survey  participants  birth  i n North father's was used  as the  into Asian and  groups.  participants 'more  Information Survey  The i n f o r m a t i o n from t h i s  p r i m a r y means  Scale  SURVEY  i n c l u d e d age, gender,  birthplace,  Caucasian  out the Cultural  demographic  ethnic/racial  Help-Seeking  Survey  1995a).  DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION The Demographic  Help-Seeking Attitude  See appendix A - D.  filled  (Ishiyama,  Information  study,  who s t a t e d  that  50%' A s i a n .  Malaysian,  Japanese,  S r i Lankan,  they  (People's Korean,  consisted  considered  Backgrounds  included Chinese  Taiwan),  the A s i a n group  that  their  f i t into  of  ethnicity this  Republic of China,  Vietnamese,  and Indonesian.  Those  Hong  Philippino, who i n d i c a t e d  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 28 that in  they  were  Indian  t h e A s i a n group Included  their  American,  i n the present  that  as  This questions  measure  This measure  used  cultural  Lew a c c u l t u r a t i o n s c a l e  Cultural  The C u l t u r a l  two o f t h i s  survey,  Preference  was u s e d  to  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y as a instead of  C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was measured b y  correlates (Suinn, used  Inventory.  The  ( r = .61) w i t h t h e S u i n n -  Rickard-Figueroa, Lew, & Ishiyama's  (1997)  concept  of  instead o f the Suinn-Lew a c c u l t u r a t i o n  ( S u i n n e t a l . , 1987) because necessary  one had three  i n t o North American society  This paper  Identity  as a d d i t i o n a l  Part  1997) C u l t u r a l P r e f e r e n c e  i d e n t i t y score  1987).  used  residing  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  the variable  acculturation.  (1995a,  such as time  o f two p a r t s .  as p a r t  of integration  Ishiyama's  Vigil,  were  Canadian,  identity.  research  variable  who c o n s i d e r e d  level.  t o measure  presented  cultural  were  Factors  environment while growing up.  Inventory,  those  INVENTORY  consisted  designed  were  category  birthplaces  of acculturation  survey  not included  than 50%' C a u c a s i a n / W h i t e .  f i t into this  CULTURAL PREFERENCE  were  study.  and Western European.  indicators  the  'more  Canada and p a r e n t s '  social  (or South Asian)  i n t h e Caucasian group  background  Backgrounds  in  East  Ishiyama's  i n f o r m a t i o n t o measure  scale  encapsulates  acculturation,  scale the  i t i s based on  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 29 Canadian shorter this  Data,  i t i s free  and easier  paper,  while  consuming.  the Suinn-Lew scale  Given the correlation Scale,  this  used  research  for  9 items  (Ishiyama  1995a,  Ishiyama's  (1) a r t s  to;  scale  where  to  measure  cultural  (which  identity).  and music".  preference  for Asian  low numerical  Cultural  score  for  rated  Caucasian  to i n this and 9  (Asian low  i t e m #1 w a s " I  of 1 indicated  and 9 indicated  strongest  strongest  music.  f o r a l l nine for  values;  were  identity),  F o r example,  (3)  local  (7)  The items  cultural  A n answer  f o r Canadian music,  score  (5)  and customs;  i s referred  on the  (2) l a n g u a g e ;  for Asian culture  preference  Scores  and music;  ratings  Inventory  1 indicated preference  with a preference  arts  Preference  (6) m a n n e r s  as Asian high Caucasian  correlated  total  1997) s c a l e  events and celebrations;  or North American culture  prefer  and time  were o b t a i n e d  (9) c o u n s e l l o r s / a d v i s o r s .  a 9 point  Caucasian  (1995a,  identity  1997):  to belong  friends;  research  i s large  to  with the Suinn-Lew  i n the Cultural  (4) t r a d i t i o n a l  community  on  with reference  is  and the ease o f use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  cultural  following  (8)  and i t  identity.  Scores  food;  U . S . terms,  to understand/interpret  Acculturation  cultural  of exclusively  items  were added  Identity  of 9 indicated  ranging  together  to give  a  between 9 and 81.  a high Caucasian  cultural  A  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 30 identity  and high numerical  Caucasian  cultural  To t e s t the  comparisons, participant's the  Asian  the entire  and regression  cultural into  sample  analysis.  the top and bottom  sample  o f 81 i n d i c a t e d  a low  identity.  the hypotheses,  correlation  score  identity  was u s e d  for  F o r group  thirds  of the Asian  scores  were used  high and low Caucasian  to  categorize  cultural  identity  groups. The by  groups  running a frequency variable.  Identity group in  The r e s u l t s  third  high Caucasian  falling Asian  scores The  three  cultural  identity  analysis parts.  Cultural  were used Scores  cultural  identity,  from the  identity,  identity  ranging  scores  were  11  from lowest  t o 44  (North  American)  which represented  a North  identity,  American c u l t u r a l preference. f r o m 55 t h r o u g h  as  third  of  Asian participants  to the highest  t o 78  score  (n =  with  ( n = 66)  as h i g h Caucasian  ranging  scores  Asian participants  i n c l u s i v e l y were c a t e g o r i z e d cultural  Asian  analysis.  a n d SD = 12.9).  scores  as  and the middle  to  falling  o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n were grouped  cultural  were excluded  M = 48.11,  equal  (North American)  range of the c u l t u r a l  ( n = 183,  of this  formed  for the  o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n were grouped  i n the top t h i r d  low Caucasian  i d e n t i t y were  distribution analysis  the distribution into  t h e bottom  with  the  of high and low Caucasian  with 62)  scores  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 31 inclusively identity  group.  last  two d i s c r e t e  third  these  Scores  into the low Caucasian  i n the middle range  n = 56) w e r e e x c l u d e d  inclusive, created  were c a t e g o r i z e d  groups  two groups  groups  from t h e a n a l y s i s .  consisting of the f i r s t  t h e Caucasian group  i d e n t i t y A s i a n groups, sizes.  Therefore,  Caucasian group  t o have  SPSS r a n d o m l y removed c a s e s  leaving a total  negative  positively positive  Each item contains positive  attitudes  t o measure  4 for a  cues  items  offer  attitudes,  towards  - type  positive and  1995d).  The  scores on respectively.  intended to describe  attitudes  measured on a 7 p o i n t L i k e r t scored accordingly:  from t h e  SCALE  (Ishiyama,  help-seeking  a phrase  or negative  group  a n d number o f  26 i t e m s  cued and n e g a t i v e l y  and negative  similar  group.  instrument contains help-seeking  comparisons  of n = 62; see Table  P O S I T I V E AND N E G A T I V E H E L P - S E E K A T T I T U D E This  i n the overall  and with the high and low c u l t u r a l  i t was d e s i r a b l e  by cultural  from  help-seeking.  F o r group  (N = 183).  breakdown o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y range participants  and the  The data  towards  C a u c a s i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s were used  Caucasian comparison group between  This  f o r comparisons o f h i g h andl o w  Caucasian c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y on attitudes All  ( 4 5 t o 54  of Asian identity scores. were used  cultural  either  c o u n s e l l i n g a n d was  scale.  " D e s c r i b e how y o u f e e l  Scale about  items a r e the following  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 32 statement  (positive  extremely". (1995c,  positive seeking .  A pool of scale  1995d),  psychology  or negative  statement):  items  was g e n e r a t e d  i n consultation with three  graduate  students  and negative  1 not at a l l , to 7 by Ishiyama  counselling  as t o the v a l i d i t y o f the  statements  about  professional  help-  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 33  Table 4 Number of Participants in Each Cultural Group Group  Cultural Identity Range Min  N  Max  Caucasian  na*  183  Caucasian (with  na*  62  cases removed) Asian(total)  11  78**  183  Asian High N A Cultural ID***  11  44**  66  Asian Low N A Cultural ID ****  55  78**  62  Asian Excluded Cases  45  54**  56  * Caucasians do not have a cultural identity score ** Asian participants were assigned a cultural identity score, which was used here form the high and low cultural identity groups. Lower Cultural Identity scores represent a higher identification with North American culture. *** Asian High N A cultural ID - High identification with North American culture. Asian Low NA Cultural ID - Low identification with North American Culture.  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 34 The refined using  scale  o r i g i n a l l y h a d 40 i t e m s ,  through r e l i a b i l i t y  the test-retest  administered  testing.  w h i c h were  Reliability  method w i t h a sample  s i x weeks a p a r t  (Ishiyama,  below  survey.  scoring of the variables  Reverse  planned it  t o y i e l d one a t t i t u d e  was n o t e d  between  that  a weak  the scales  negative scores  . 4 0 , were  for positive  o f 355  students,  Items  from t h e  with a  final  was o r i g i n a l l y  However,  when  examined,  correlation of r = -.26 existed  (positive  help-seeking  removed  score.  was measured  1995c).  low c o r r e l a t i o n ,  later  help-seeking  attitudes)  attitudes and  which suggested  and negative  attitudes  be  that  the  treated  separately. The v e r s i o n o f t h e s c a l e 30 i t e m s , to  4 o f w h i c h were  Ishiyama's  the  scale  (1995c)  that  The p o s i t i v e 63 w i t h h i g h e r  ranges  referred  1995d).  attitude  reflecting  Negative  attitude.  towards  negatively seeking  clinician. score  help-seeking score  version of  a n d 17  ranges  a more p o s i t i v e  119 w i t h a h i g h e r  contained  set t o conform  The f i n a l  to attitudes  mental health  help-seeking  scores  f r o m 17 -  negative  research  from the data  item reductions.  from a p r o f e s s i o n a l  (Ishiyama,  deleted  i n this  has 9 p o s i t i v e l y worded statements  worded statements help  used  from 9 -  attitude  attitude reflecting  score a more  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 35 The v a r i a b l e s , attitudes,  were  the positive  scored  separately  separate  dimensional scores  Although  the scale  measure,  Ishiyama  correlation measures not  reflect  i n this  help-seeking  scale,  (1995c)  argued  the positive  that  identical constructs  treated  separately.  created  p r o b l e m s when r e v e r s e  score.  single  a relatively low  and negative  n = 356) i n d i c a t e d t h a t  Also,  g i v i n g two  i n s t e a d o f one o v e r a l l  was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d a s a  between  (-.26,  and negative  variable  t h e s e v a r i a b l e s may  and therefore  should be  t h e i t e m w e i g h t i n g was u n e q u a l  which  scoring and adding the data  together. Internal reported .92  as  consistencies,  .91  measured b y Cronbach a l p h a s ,  (n = 355) f o r t h e p o s i t i v e l y worded i t e m s a n d  (n = 355) f o r t h e n e g a t i v e l y  (Ishiyama,  worded a t t i t u d e  scales  1995c).  Original  measures  reveal  significant  Asians  (Ishiyama,  study.  used  i n testing  the scale  cultural differences 1995c).  In addition, this  between  d i dnot Caucasians and  T h i s was e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r thesis  reports  h i g h a n d l o w a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n s a s compared t o  in  order  t o see i f a s i g n i f i c a n t  this  difference  Caucasians  exists.  ANALYSIS  A quantitative in  i n this  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  STATISTICAL  were  study.  and c o r r e l a t i o n a l research  This research  design  f i t this  d e s i g n was u s e d study  because  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 36 the  level  cultural  of acculturation,  ability  Similarly,  t o measure  Caucasian  identity For using  comparison  method o f f e r e d  the  and s i m i l a r i t i e s between cultural  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  a l l reported  statistical  comparisons,  spreadsheet,  identity  attitudes  the groups,  and c u l t u r a l  (SPSS)  version  the raw data  and then converted  p r o g r a m Statistical  p r o g r a m was u s e d data,  differences  for  variable  level.  an Excel  Sciences  the quantitative  and high and low Caucasian  and t o measure  by the  had t o be q u a n t i f i e d  identity,  purposes.  as measured  Package format  11.5  for  used  Social  for analysis.  to generate  entered  into the  the  to perform a l l s t a t i s t i c a l  a n d i t was a l s o  were  The SPSS  functions  reports,  f o r the  charts,  and  graphs. PROCEDURE The  first  two hypotheses  c o r r e l a t i o n method,  two-tailed  It  that  was h y p o t h e s i z e d  positive  help-seeking  correlation.  were t e s t e d  high Caucasian  attitudes  Conversely,  cultural  attitudes  would have a n e g a t i v e  direction  Pearson of  identity  and negative  2000).  i d e n t i t y and  positive that  low  help-seeking  correlation.  C o r r e l a t i o n measures  linear  cultural  would have a  level  the Pearson R  & Wallnau,  i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  Caucasian  The  (Gravetter  using  both the degree and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  two  variables  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 37 (Gravetter for  these  cultural  & Wallnau, 2000). hypotheses  because  identity level  attitudes.  Recall that  indicating  one's  American culture, culture  and p o s i t i v e  culture of origin).  (Gravetter were  independent,  of  cultural  from 9 t o 81, 9 to the North  These  to the Asian  data  positive  were  and  were  p e r f o r m e d w i t h a n SPSS  & Wallnau, 2000). that  negative  also  curves  (SPSS 1 1 . 5 ) ,  t h e samples  Levene's  sample  of the were  of the test  were  test  had homogeneity for equality of  and p l o t t i n g the histograms  f o r the main v a r i a b l e s  hypothesis  i n each  based  t h e p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h t h e sample was  Random s a m p l i n g ,  variance  -  The assumptions  the observations  f r o m was n o r m a l , a n d t h a t  assumptions for  that  variance.  normal  variables  between  and l i n e a r .  MANOVA t e s t  error  ranges  f o r which the scores  Group comparisons were  of  that  variable  measure  help-seeking  a n d 81 i n d i c a t i n g b e i n g c l o s e s t  attitudes,  continuous  and negative  t h e independent  w i t h t h e dependent  help-seeking  a correlation  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y being closest  ( i . e . one's  correlated  chosen  i t shows  i s a continuous variable  identity  MANOVA  The Pearson R i s a good  met.  with  showed t h a t t h e  The F r a t i o was c a l c u l a t e d  t e s t i n g w i t h t h e MANOVA  (Gravetter  & Wallnau,  2000) . A 3x2x2 variables  f a c t o r i a l ANOVA w a s p e r f o r m e d t o c o m p a r e t h e  cultural identity,  gender,  and p o s i t i v e  and negative  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 38 help-seeking used  attitudes.  to categorize  Caucasian,  The v a r i a b l e  participants  high Caucasian  cultural  identity.  positive  and negative  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was  i n t o one o f three  cultural identity,  Help-seeking attitude help-seeking  groups  -  and low Caucasian  had two c a t e g o r i e s  attitude.  -  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 3 9 CHAPTER I V : RESULTS The p u r p o s e between  of this  acculturation,  study  was t o examine  as measured  identity,  and attitudes  seeking.  The f i r s t  variables  used  (positive  part  of this  i n the analysis.  D a t a Analysis,  describes  the relationship  by the variable and negative)  section  towards  describes  The second  the results  cultural help-  the various  part,  entitled  of the statistical  tests.  DESCRIPTION OF MAIN VARIABLES Acculturation Inventory  was measured  (Ishiyama,  correlation  1995a).  according  the C u l t u r a l Preference  self-identified nine  This  cultural  variable  the Cultural  scale  Preference  had a high  positive  ( r = .61) w i t h t h e S u i n n - L e w A c c u l t u r a t i o n  (Suinn e t a l . , 1987), complete  using  Inventory  Asian participants  items  total  t o Ishiyama  as being  ranged  either  rated  (1997).  To  (Ishiyama,  1995a),  t h e i r preferences  Caucasian  f r o m 11 t o 78 w i t h  Scale  or Asian.  on  The  ( M = 48.11, a n d SD =  12.9, n = 183). The v a r i a b l e variable, either high  cultural  which categorized  identity parts.  groups  high o r low Caucasian  and low Caucasian  running  i d e n t i t y was a l s o  a frequency variable  as a  identity.  i d e n t i t y were c r e a t e d  identity  of  by  cultural  and s p l i t t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o with cultural  into  The groups  d i s t r i b u t i o n on the continuous  Asian participants  sorting  of Asian participants  cultural  cultural  used  3  scores  equal  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 40 ranging  from lowest  categorized scores  as  ranging  inclusively identity  in  range  (45 t o This  of the first  f o r comparisons.  were  retained  t h e low C a u c a s i a n  cultural  data  North America  See  previously  groups:  supported  printed  (n = 1 8 3 ) .  from t h e  Caucasian Asian  high  cultural  This  excluded  scores,  which  were  participants'  data  i n t h e ANOVA  Caucasian  number  of  participants  of stay  Table  ( i . e . time  identity  spent)  groupings;  3 f o r a breakdown o f time spent  f o r each  spent  i n N o r t h A m e r i c a was  of the cultural  identity  ( M = 20.45, SD = 2.91, n = 183); A s i a n  low Caucasian  = 62).  scores  groups  However,  the cultural  Mean t i m e  different  Caucasian  with  (n = 62) .  i n North America. significantly  third  an equal  for  n = 56) w e r e  A l l of the Caucasian  C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e mean l e n g t h in  Participants  and the last  to create  t h e A s i a n groups  a low preference  two d i s c r e t e  random c a s e s were e x c l u d e d  with  (n = 62)  54 inclusive,  created  Those  score  culture.  for analysis  participants' as  into  were  identity.  to the highest  - which represented  used  tests,  cultural  f r o m 55 t h r o u g h  the analysis.  consisting  Caucasian  (North American)  the middle  from  high  were c a t e g o r i z e d  group  Caucasian  t o 4 4 (n = 66) i n c l u s i v e l y "  identity cultural  supported  and low Caucasian  high  ( M = 16.54, SD = 6.0, n = 66); a n d identity  the grouping  (M = 8.69, SD = 6.05, n  of Asian participants  i d e n t i t y because t h e h i g h  Caucasian  into  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 41 identity  group  spent  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t i m e  than d i d t h e l o w i d e n t i t y group The p o s i t i v e using  the Positive  (Ishiyama,  were:  1995d).  range  seeking  high  attitude  and Negative  Help-Seek  sample  scores  of  were  the Positive Negative raw scores  scores  and ranges  and Negative  help-seeking  17 n e g a t i v e score  removed  variable  help-  to create  were  equal  items  were  (M  5 for t h e m e a n s ,  help-seeking  attitude  group  scores.  was measured b y t o t a l l i n g worded items 1995d).  on a 7-point  o f 17 t o 1 1 9 .  scores  b r o k e n down b y r a c i a l  (Ishiyama,  rated  ( M = 32.43, SD =  i d e n t i t y group  from t h e negatively  Seek Concern I n v e n t o r y  possible  for this  Inventory  ( M = 33.8, SD = 9.06, n = 182); t h e  i d e n t i t y group  standard deviations,  of  Concern  (M = 34.2, SD = 9.28, n = 60); t h e t o t a l  = 35.84, SD = 8.6, n = 62). See Table  the  was measured  {M = 34.59, SD = 9.48, n = 176);  w i t h random c a s e s  scores  Caucasian  of  9.56, n = 65); T h e l o w C a u c a s i a n  for  variable  Total obtained scores  group,  had scores  Asian  (F(2, 311) = 162.28, p = .00).  5, t h e Caucasian group had p o s i t i v e  attitude  Caucasian  n's,  America  = 9 to 63, (M = 34.19, SD = 9.267, n = 358). A s  shown i n t a b l e  the  help-seeking  i n North  There  scale  i n the Helpwas a  giving  a  total total  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 42 Table 5 Positive and Negative Help-Seeking scores bv Cultural Group  Caucasian  PHSA  NHSA  Caucasian  Asian  Asian  Asian  with Random  HighNA  Low N A  Cases  Cultural  Cultural  Removed  Identity  Identity  M = 34.59  M = 34.2  M = 33.8  M = 32.43  M = 35.84  SD = 9.48  SD = 9.28  SD = 9.06  SD = 9.56  SD = 8.6  Range = 9-63  Range = 9-54  Range = 13-54 Range = 14-54 Range = 13-49  n =176  n =60  n =182  n =65  n = 62  M = 58.22  M = 51.15  M = 60.36  M =57.77  M = 60.9  SD = 18.22  SD = 18.11  SD = 18.11  SD = 19.28  SD = 15.93  Range = 21 -105  Range = 21 - 101 Range = 22- 111  Range = 22 - 111 Range =25 -91  n =175  n = 62  n =65  n =179  *PHSA = Positive Help-Seeking Attitude; (Higher PHSA scores indicate more positive attitudes) *NHSA = Negative Help-Seeking Attitude (Higher N H S A scores indicate more negative attitudes)  n =60  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 43 Total  obtained  111,  scores  (M = 59.3,  the  Caucasian  for this  SD = 18.17, group  n  scores  were  create  equal  N ' s , the scores  the negative  62); Asian  sample  were  ( M = 60.36,  high  Caucasian  65);  f o r the low Caucasian  15.93,  Means,  HYPOTHESIS  Asian  the f i r s t  would  be  cultural scores,  negative  correlation  negative  analysis  computer  significant  and  positive  n =  removed  to  f o r the  n = total  for the  n = 179); SD = 19.28,  n =  (M = 60.9,  SD =  and ranges  were  5.  that  correlation  between  and  positive  that  there  would  (2)  2003)  which stated  scores  between  (Trache,  Asian  attitudes,  cultural  help-seeking be  significant identity  a bivariate  scores correlation  using the Pearson R c o r r e l a t i o n  & W a l l n a u , 2000) was r u n u s i n g t h e SPSS  11.5  program.  Hypothesis research.  i n Table  5,  SD = 18.11,  scores  (M = 57.77,  two hypotheses,  help-seeking  (Gravetter  attitude  standard deviations,  identity  attitude  and  ( M = 51.15,  to  TESTING  To t e s t (1)there  = 21  SD = 18.22,  i d e n t i t y group,  b r o k e n down b y r a c i a l g r o u p  Range  w i t h random c a s e s  SD = 18.11,  i d e n t i t y group,  n = 60).  ( M = 58.22,  were  help-seeking  were:  A s shown i n t a b l e  = 354).  f o r the Caucasian group,  175);  variable  1 was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y t h e r e s u l t s  Results  c o r r e l a t i o n between  indicated a significant cultural  identity  of  this  negative  a n d positive  help-  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 44  seeking  attitudes,  ( r = .158, p = .034, n = 181  whereas  a positive  c o r r e l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d .  value a  o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was p o s i t i v e ,  negative  This  were h i g h e r ,  attitudes. survey Asian  Recall  that  scores  Caucasian  attitudes  This  was o p p o s i t e  that  high Caucasian  more p o s i t i v e Results  o f the expected  attitudes of testing  towards  identity  Caucasian  help-seeking which  increased.  hypothesized would  case w i t h hypothesis  1,  2 indicated that  negative  correlation  help-seeking  t h e r e was  between  attitudes  these  results  (r=  were r e p o r t e d  positive  c o r r e l a t i o n due t o t h e s c o r i n g o f t h e  However,  the theoretical  negative.  This  identities  h a d somewhat  seeking.  have  help-seeking.  .077, p = .305, n = 178 ( n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ) ( 2 - t a i l e d ) ) . the  as  low Caucasian  results  Hypothesis  a n d negative  identity  Therefore,  identified Asian participants  small and non-significant  cultural  towards  identity  on the c u l t u r a l  identity.  as  help-seeking  ( i . e . away f r o m i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h  positive  the  was s c o r e d ) .  as A s i a n c u l t u r a l  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y moved t o w a r d s  identification  a  higher  that  b u t was i n t e r p r e t e d  s o t o were t h e i r p o s i t i v e  i n d i c a t e d a lower  culture),  (Note  c o r r e l a t i o n due t o t h e way t h e s u r v e y  correlation indicated that  scores  (2-tailed));  A s was as a  survey.  d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was  indicated that less  Asians with lower  negative  attitudes  A l t h o u g h t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was i n t h e  Caucasian towards  expected  help-  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 45 direction,  i t was n o t s t r o n g enough t o s u p p o r t  this  second  hypothesis. Exploratory help-seeking  analysis  attitudes  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t .003,  n = 178) .  reported these  and negative  and negative  These  be t r e a t e d  of as a u n i t a r y  Hypotheses help-seeking  correlation  between  group  identity that  seeking  difference  hypotheses  difference  tested  & Wallnau, 2000;  this  the independent v a r i a b l e s  test,  and gender,  t h e dependent  Trache,  variables  2003) were were  attitudes  stated  i n help-  with a low students.  u s i n g a 3x2x2  (Gravetter  would  cultural  Hypothesis 5  Asian students  were  i n help-  there  with a high Caucasian  between  there  and the  that  Caucasian c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and Caucasian These  i n research,  that  i n help-seeking  would be a s i g n i f i c a n t  attitudes  that  comparisons o f  t h e A s i a n group  and Caucasian students.  there  p =  to the previously  difference  Hypothesis 4 stated  Asian students  ( r = -.219,  items  Hypothesis 3 stated  between  not be a s i g n i f i c a n t  attitudes  variable.  attitudes.  Caucasian group.  positive  who recommended  as separate  3 , 4 , a n d 5, were  attitudes  similar  (1995c)  would be a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t seeking  help-seeking  f i n d i n g s were  findings by Ishiyama  two v a r i a b l e s  instead  o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between  MANOVA  i n SPSS cultural positive  11.5.  For  identity and negative  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 46 help-seeking purposes. grouped high  For this  into  cultural  identity,  Initially,  participants  excluded  group  by taking  cultural Results  Caucasian  186)  significant = 1.039,  p  Since differences, Hypothesis  difference  which  thirds  left were  of the scores f o r  among t h e c u l t u r a l  identity;  = 2.405,  was t h e r e  help-seeking  groups  and Asian low (non-  p = .093  a significant  (non-significant),  (gender x c u l t u r a l  scores  gender  effect  nor a  identity)  F(2,  186)  (non-significant).  = .356 there  186)  = .457  interaction  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  Hypothesis 4 i n that  between Caucasian group.  F(2,  p  group,  randomly  variable.  Neither  = .555,  SPSS  (n =  The two A s i a n groups  = 62).  Asian high Caucasian  significant) .  Asian high  this,  o f t h e MANOVA o n t h e p o s i t i v e  identity)  (2) A s i a n  categories had  ( n = 176),  the top and bottom  indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t (Caucasian;  i d e n t i t y was  a n d (3) A s i a n l o w C a u c a s i a n  To c o r r e c t  (n  exploratory-  (1) C a u c a s i a n ,  from t h e Caucasian  with  identity  for  cultural  t h e group  - Caucasian  35% o f t h e c a s e s  Caucasian  created  F(l,  groups,  a n d A s i a n l o w ( n = 60).  65),  the  the variable  discrete  identity.  unequal  - g e n d e r was u s e d  test,  three  Caucasian  cultural  the  attitudes  Hypothesis  3 was r e j e c t e d .  there  group  cultural  identity  The d a t a  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  and the high Caucasian  5 was r e j e c t e d  because  there  group  supported  differences identity was n o  Asian  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 47 significant Caucasian for  difference  i d e n t i t y group;  positive  descriptive cultural  statistics  the negative  F(l,  p=.544  p=.816  6 for results  attitudes;  for positive  help-seeking  main effect  p=.263  see Table  and the low o f t h e ANOVA  7 for  help-seeking  attitude  attitude  findings  f o r gender  there  variable,  no significant  there  gender  effect  and no s i g n i f i c a n t  x cultural identity F(2,  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  186)=.204,  because there  identity  group  cultural identity  help-seeking  3 was r e j e c t e d .  Caucasian group  attitude  Hypothesis  variable,  difference  between  and the Asian high North American c u l t u r a l  with regards  t o negative  Hypothesis  5 was r e j e c t e d  significant  difference  found between  help-seeking  because there the Caucasian  was n o group and  A s i a n low North American c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y group; 8 for results  attitudes;  o f t h e ANOVA f o r n e g a t i v e  see Table  help-seeking  group  4 was s u p p o r t e d b y t h e  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  attitudes.  Table  by  o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y F ( 2 , 186)  (non-significant),  f o r the negative  hypothesis  the  group  (non-significant).  Since effect  see Table  (non-significant),  186)=1.26,  interaction  the Caucasian  group.  no s i g n i f i c a n t  =.612,  the  help-seeking  identity  For was  between  attitude  9 for descriptive  help-seeking  statistics  by cultural identity  see  group.  for  negative  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 48 Note  that  findings  indicated that  Asian with low  C a u c a s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y h e l d b o t h more p o s i t i v e seeking  attitudes  than d i d that ambivalent  a n d more n e g a t i v e  Caucasian  feelings  about  supports  Ishiyama's  positive  and negative  as  separate  possibly indicating  professional  (1995c;  help-seeking  hypotheses  testing  removed t o e q u a l i z e  the e n t i r e A s i a n group.  seeking group  This  stated  that  should be  treated  used the Caucasian group  the entire  Results  difference  F(1,357)=.629,  p=.428,  tailed);  t o Table  A  group  help-  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  total  n = 358 ( 2 - t a i l e d ) .  help-seeking variable  difference  refer  Caucasian  for the positive  there  f o r the negative  that  t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s .  indicated that  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Data.  that  attitudes  variable  Results  their  help-seeking.  1997) r e s e a r c h  s e p a r a t e ANOVA w a s r u n t o c o m p a r e to  attitudes  variables.  Previous had cases  sample;  help-seeking  help-  F(1,353)=1.215,  also  p=.217,  indicated  n = 354 ( 2 -  10 a n d 11 f o r a b r e a k d o w n o f  these  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 49 Table 6 Results of A N O V A on Group Differences for Positive Help-Seeking Attitudes Source  DF  F ratio  Cultural Identity  2  2.405  .093 (non-significant)  Gender  1  0.555  .457 (non-significant)  Cultural Identity X Gender  2  1.039  .356 (non-significant)  Total  186  Significance  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 50 Table 7 Descriptive Statistics for the Dependent Variable of Positive Help-Seeking Attitude Group  Mean  SD  n  Caucasian  34.00  9~25  59  Male  35.11  9.24  17  Female  33.55  9.33  42  Asian  34.06  9.20  186  Male  33.14  9.49  56  Females  34.46  9.09  130  N A ID  32.43  9.56  65  Male  30  9.74  21  Female  33.59  9.36  44  NAID  35.84  8.60  62  Male  34.94  8.95  18  Female  36.2  8.53  44  Asian High  Asian Low  *NA ID = North American Cultural Identity  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 51 Table 8 Results of A N O V A on Group Differences for Negative Help-Seeking Attitudes Source  DF  F  Significance  Cultural Identity  2  0.612  .544 (non-significant)  Gender  1  1.26  .263 (non-significant)  Cultural Identity X Gender  2  0.204  .816 (non-significant)  Total  186  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 52 Table 9 Descriptive Statistics for the Dependent Variable of Negative Help-Seeking Attitude Group  Mean  SD  N  Caucasian  58.10  18.26  61  Male  61.61  17.23  18  Female  56.63  18.68  43  Asian  58.89  17.88  186  Male  60.97  17.25  58  Females  57.95  18.15  128  N A ID  57.77  19.28  65  Male  58.27  19.27  22  Female  57.51  19.51  43  NAID  60.90  15.94  60  Male  63.61  15.01  18  Female  59.74  16.35  42  Asian High  Asian Low  * N A ID = North American Identity  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 53 Table 10 Means and Standard Deviations for Positive and Negative Help-Seeking Scores for the Total Caucasian and Asian Groups  Dependent Variable  Mean  SD  n  Positive help-seeking attitude  34.59  9.48  176  Negative help-seeking attitude  58.23  18.22  175  Positive help-seeking attitude  33.81  9.06  182  Negative help-seeking attitude  60.36  18.11  179  Caucasian  Asian  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 54 Table 11 A N O V A for PHSA and NHSA bv Total Caucasian and Asian Groups  Source  DF  n  F  Positive Help-Seeking Attitude  1  357  .629  .428 (non -significant)  Negative Help-Seeking Attitude  1  353  1.215  .217 (non--significant)  Sig.  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 55 CHAPTER V : D I S C U S S I O N According  to Atkinson  (1989),  during which minority cultures culture. claimed American  L a i and Linden that  of this  related  to help-seeking  this  interacts  Atkinson  a n d G i m (1989)  were more w i l l i n g  with the host  further and  more a c c u l t u r a t e d  to North The  how c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was  attitudes.  with help  consistent  seeking  found that  found that  acculturation level  a s t o how c u l t u r a l  attitudes.  higher  t o see a counsellor,  (1995)  idea  process  more l i k e N o r t h A m e r i c a n s .  has n o t been  identity  between  took  s t u d y was t o examine  literature  and Matthews  (1993)  t h e y become  purpose  The  change b y c o n t a c t  a s i m m i g r a n t s become  society,  acculturation i s a  there  F o r example,  acculturation  whereas A t k i n s o n ,  Asians Lowe,  was n o c o r r e l a t i o n  and attitudes.  DISCUSSION The  first  the  nature  (1)  positive  seeking  culture  of the present  o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between help-seeking  attitudes,  s t u d y were  about  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and a n d (2) n e g a t i v e  help-  attitudes.  Hypothesis positive  two hypotheses  1 stated  that  c o r r e l a t i o n between and positive  there  would be a  significant  Asian acculturation to  help-seeking  attitudes.  Caucasian  Although a  small  positive  c o r r e l a t i o n was found  (r = .158, p = .034) between  cultural  i d e n t i t y and p o s i t i v e  help-seeking  attitude  scores,  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 56 this  was c o n t r a r y  correlation  t o what  reflected  variable  was r e p o r t e d ,  cultural  identity.  interpreted scores  as a negative  Atkinson  and Gim (1989). towards  higher  correlated  lower  a more A s i a n c u l t u r a l  identity,  as  indicating a of the  was r e p o r t e d b y acculturation and  and found  that  t o North American  Asians culture  t o see a c o u n s e l l o r . trend  i n that  which also  reported  Atkinson  e t a l . (1995)  correlation  that  with willingness  study  help-seeking  to a report  which indicated  correlated  present  t o what  identity,  for the positive  i n contrast  (1995)  that  The  Asians  with  a  can be stated  higher  positive  as  Help-  attitudes.  Data also  levels  found t h e opposite cultural  should be  rose,  correlated  w i t h more w i l l i n g n e s s  Caucasian  Caucasian  variable.  counselling  acculturation  study  Seeking  They  seeking  identity  so t o d i d the scores  attitude  positive  a higher  signifying  identity variable  f i n d i n g was i n c o n t r a s t  attitudes  present  correlation  correlation  identity,  help-seeking  This  this  this  the cultural  i t d i d not indicate  Thus,  more A s i a n c u l t u r a l  with  t h e way t h a t  f o r the cultural  positive  was e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e  existed  variable  were  by Atkinson,  Lowe,  and Matthews  acculturation  level  was n o t  t o see a c o u n s e l l o r .  d i d not report  d i d indicate  attitude  that  Whereas  a correlation;  a significant  between A s i a n c u l t u r a l  the  negative  identity and  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 57 willingness  t o see a counsellor  (2-tailed).  Although,  the  direction.  expected  more a c c u l t u r a t e d scores  i n this  Hypothesis  as stated,  - this  society  that  that  2 stated  negative  help-seeking  there  would be a  Caucasian  attitudes.  correlation existed  Analysis between  these  who i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s  a s more  results  positively seeking.  However,  same  construct,  correlation indicate  that  participants  tended  to  have  variable.  towards  s h o u l d have  negative  attitudes  identity help  help-seeking  1995d),  was n o t t h e c a s e .  score.  help  measured t h e  a significant  help-seeking  (1995c,  towards  i f these variables  - i . e . a high positive  this  two v a r i a b l e s .  that  attitudes  with negative  expect  indicated by Ishiyama research,  no  A s i a n c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y d i dnot  then they  a low(er)  that  a high Asian cultural  with positive  correlate  One m i g h t  'Asian'  help-seeking  indicated that  correlated  significantly seeking.  f o r negative  significant  showed  i t was n o t e w o r t h y  The  help-seeking  cultural identity and  Although not significant,  scores  their  became  was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y d a t a  that  c o r r e l a t i o n between  higher  as Asians  thesis.  negative  significant  p = . 0 3 4 , n = 181  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was n o t i n  I t was e x p e c t e d  t o Caucasian  would increase  reported  (r = -.158,  score  negative should  However,  and by the data  as  i n this  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 58 Perhaps of  the positive  (Ishiyama, they or  this  and negative  1995d).  would feel  therapist  kind  c a n be understood b y examining t h e wording  about  As  suggested  (1995),  P a r t i c i p a n t s may have  attitudinal academic,  by Tracy  responses  Hypothesis  the  groups Similar gender  that  there  difference, attitudes,  significant  or negative  identity  feelings issue  responses.  different  help-seeking  receiving  career,  would be a  significant  Results  differences  help-seeking  between  d i dn o t between  the  attitudes.  found f o r the e x p l o r a t o r y v a r i a b l e  4 stated  that  i n both positive between  had mixed  toward c o u n s e l l i n g  a n d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between  Hypothesis  "what  about i t "  given varied  and Caucasian group.  were  and asks  f o r a "personal"  about  i n attitudes  statistically  results  counsellor  counselling.  3 stated  for positive  t o r a t e how  and Atkinson et a l .  t o observe  i f asked  difference  A s i a n groups  indicate  e t a l . (1986)  expect  or marital  main group  help  p a r t i c i p a n t s may have  one might  issues"  might y o u have  getting  Scale  from "a t r a i n e d  rather personal  and understanding about  attitude  asked p a r t i c i p a n t s help  and concerns  1995d).  and t h e r e f o r e ,  scale  getting  to discuss  of feelings  (Ishiyama,  This  help-seeking  there  students.  and acculturation.  would be no s i g n i f i c a n t  and negative  Asian students  and Caucasian  gender  of  help-seeking  with a high  Caucasian  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 59 supported. predicted  The r e s u l t s that  supported L a i and Linden  a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s become  North American society, Hypothesis difference, attitudes,  between  This  (1995)  Asian Americans  instead  t o see a  This  research  the  stated  identity  was n o t s u p p o r t e d b y  that  acculturation  that  4% o f l o w a c c u l t u r a t i o n were  willing  and helping  perspective  help-seeking  attitude  = 0.612,  p = .544.  to  help-seeking  on help-seeking group  differences  variable  The p r e s e n t  found between  seek  services.  towards  help-seeking  s t u d y b y Z h a n g e t a l . (1998)  Attitudes.  correlated  t o seek Western mental h e a l t h  F(2,186)  Help-Seeking  with low Caucasian  found no s i g n i f i c a n t  were  significant  help-seeking  examined a t t i t u d e s  and f o r the negative  differences  Americans.  counsellor.  p = .093  the  and negative  health assistance  a different  positive  North  would be a  and 25.5%o f Caucasians  of willingness  gives  there  like  to  f i n d i n g s u p p o r t e d A t k i n s o n , Lowe, a n d  reported here  This  more a c c u l t u r a t e d  more  This hypothesis  Z h a n g e t a l . (1998)  Research  that  who d i d n o t f i n d  with willingness  Western mental  become  Asian students  students.  research.  Matthews  5 stated  i n both positive  and Caucasian the  they  (1993) who  F(2,186) attitudes  study  service.  patterns. f o r both =  2.405,  variable  contradicted  because no s i g n i f i c a n t  the groups  with respect  to  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 60 Key f i n d i n g s identifiable seeking Asian  indicated that  there  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  attitudes.  There  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and help-  was a p o s i t i v e  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and p o s i t i v e  On t h e o t h e r between There  hand,  there  was no e a s i l y  correlation  help-seeking  was n o s i g n i f i c a n t  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and negative  were no s i g n i f i c a n t  group  help-seeking  effects  hypothesis  with a high Caucasian  would be s i m i l a r i n help-seeking g r o u p was s u p p o r t e d . a  low Caucasian  help-seeking  However,  attitudes.  attitudes  The  cultural  identity  to the Caucasian  the hypothesis  that  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y w o u l d have more  attitudes  attitudes.  f o r Asian and  f o r help-seeking  Asians  attitudes.  correlation  Caucasian participants that  between  Asians  with  negative  t h a n t h e C a u c a s i a n group was n o t  supported. It  was assumed  that  the low Caucasian  sample would be r e s i s t a n t North America the  literature  under-utilised 1993;  review.  culture)  mental health  mental  h e a l t h problems  they  rather  i n a negative  services  that  identity  from c o u n s e l l o r s  due t o p a t t e r n s  The l i t e r a t u r e  Zhang e t a l . , 1998),  services  that  (the host  to help-seeking  cultural  i n  identified i n  suggested that  Asians  ( i . e . L a i & Linden,  t h e y may s e e m e n t a l  health  w a y , o r may s e e k m e d i c a l h e l p f o r ( L i n ,1994; Zhang e t a l . , 1998), a n d  w e r e more l i k e l y t o t u r n t o f a m i l y members  than professionals  (Kok & L i o w ,  1993).  f o r help  However,  data  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 61 in  the present  cultural to  study  Possible observing  adults.  explanations  f o r these  are the factors  the present  study  (M = 20.70,  SD = 2.45,  66,  16  19.69,  o f age and type  of  SD = 1.85,  t h e age range  n = 62,  attitudes  towards  was i n c r e a s e d  cited  i t conflicts  Caucasian  and language al.(1998)  High  1.75,  n =  is possible  (M = that  by sampling both younger and seen more d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the literature  from the general  on acculturation.  found that  Caucasian  - 28); SD -  It  - 28).  F o r example,  with their value  L i n (1994)  i n  system.  their value  u s a g e became reported  that  compared w i t h 2 5 . 5 p e r c e n t  systems,  reported way  L a i and Linden more  acculturated  thinking  processes,  more s i m i l a r t o C a u c a s i a n s . 4 percent  used  their  i n a negative  a s A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s became  society,  review  population for  A s i a n immigrants view mental i l l n e s s  (1993)  young  help-seeking.  an immigrant sample  because  18  sample.  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y group  17  we m i g h t h a v e  Many o f t h e s t u d i e s  research  range  range  (M = 19.70,  low Caucasian  - 25);  older populations,  et  on  n = 183,  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y group  to  based  involved relatively  Caucasian  that  results,  T h e mean a g e was a r o u n d 20 f o r a l l g r o u p s :  range  attitudes  sample.  the data,  First,  if  the Asian low Caucasian  i d e n t i t y sample was s i m i l a r i n h e l p - s e e k i n g  the Caucasian  group  indicated that  Zhang  of Asian immigrants,  of Caucasians,  were  willing  t o see  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 62 a mental  health professional.  studied  326 A s i a n i m m i g r a n t s ,  acculturation  rose,  more a c c e p t i n g  of  the  A t k i n s o n and Gim  general  reported  A s i a n s became  western  population,  that  as  (1989),  levels  more w e s t e r n i z e d  mental health  services.  a c c u l t u r a t i o n seems t o  who  of  and  became  So,  with  influence  attitudes. This  thesis  University Asian  students.  countries,  family  member.  students the  willing  to  reported mental  professional  family,  these  concerns help  at  as  al.  begins  seek a c o u n s e l l o r .  universities  students  were  Atkinson  et  students  chose  friends,  strong  encouraged  al.  as  have  et  al.  h a v i n g as  and  reported  (1995)  found no  (1990)  reported  a counsellor  Atkinson et  that  their preferred  over  more  concerns  in  difference with commented and A s i a n  In  fact,  low acculturated  help provider.  more  sought  al.  services.  or psychologist,  of  (1986) many o r  but  these  a  Because  counselling networks,  t o use  with  would l i k e l y be  h i g h and low a c c u l t u r a t e d A s i a n students to  in  international  students,  similar rates,  of that  families.  Tracy  Caucasian  Atkinson et  for  students  reported  reported  often  their  help.  Asian students  ways.  willingness  or  the  consisted  (1993)  behaviour  i n Canada w i t h o u t  seek p r o f e s s i o n a l  health  between  Kok and L i o w  that  T h i s w o u l d be d i f f e r e n t  of  that  different  a sample  help-seeking  who a r e  absence  that  researched  Asian  their It  mother is  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 63 likely since  that  t h e y may n o t h a v e  university. highly  Conversely,  would turn  f o r help  Students easy access assistance student  were  these  and would have  to counselling services These  and are generally  more s o c i a l  towards  between  the  of acculturation,  type  different university  results  c a n be expected  every  student  attitudes the Asian  when e x a m i n i n g t h e  i t i s important t o take  o f sample b e i n g s t u d i e d because  to  attitudes  As such,  Thus,  have  connections.  of the  among b o t h A s i a n a n d C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s .  effects  would  to  professional  pro-help seeking  and Caucasian u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s .  to turn  are presented  h e l p - s e e k i n g may n o t v a r y g r e a t l y  that  Columbia are given  n o r m a l i z e d as p a r t  T h i s may e n c o u r a g e  reported  students  and other  services  helpers,  at  more l i k e l y  at the University of British  o n campus.  experience.  available  A t k i n s o n e t a l . (1990)  - p o s s i b l y because  i n Canada l o n g e r ,  to professional  family or friends  acculturated Asian students  friends been  Asian students  i t seems  into  account  that  from immigrant v s .  samples.  L I M I T A T I O N S OF STUDY This a  cause  was a c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d y .  and effect  (McGuigan,  1997).  does n o t i n d i c a t e  As such,  r e l a t i o n s h i p between T h i s means a causal  that  one cannot  infer  the variables  the variable  of cultural  relation with attitudes  towards  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 64 help-seeking. causal  i t imply any d i r e c t i o n i n  suspected  relationships.  This about  survey  'personal  description  between  asked p a r t i c i p a n t s counselling'.  of personal  participant's  used  N o r does  had inherent  British  counselling,  sample  Thus,  their  feelings  Although the survey  d i d offer  i t i s possible  interpretation of personal  participants.  The  to rate  a  that  c o u n s e l l i n g may v a r y  i t i s possible  that  t h e measure  limitations.  i n this  study  Columbia students  does n o t e n t i r e l y  consisted  o f young U n i v e r s i t y o f  a r o u n d 20 y e a r s  reflect  the attitudes  old.  of the  Therefore,  i t  larger  population. RECOMMENDATIONS A N D I M P L I C A T I O N S FOR F U T U R E It of  i s hoped that  knowledge  about  instead  of willingness  Zhang e t a l . , 1998).  uniformly  agree  help-seeking mixed r e s u l t s student reviewed  add t o the e x i s t i n g patterns.  by using a different  and by measuring p o s i t i v e  attitudes (i.e.  study w i l l  Asian help-seeking  examined the subject Identity  this  about  t o see a  However,  measure  of  (Western)  how c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y l e v e l  reported  i n the literature  immigrant sampling.  thesis  d i d n o t examine  the reason  the  research Cultural  counsellor does n o t influences  for the  are likely Most  body  help-seeking  the literature  I t seems t h a t  i n this  This  and negative  attitudes.  vs. general  RESEARCH  due t o  research differences  Role o f Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 65 between  A s i a n immigrants and A s i a n students  attitudes  towards  The the  different This  that  difference  needs  between  levels  stated,  range.  sample  It  that  the is  In  the  to  different Research  present  acculturation  sample  types  of  time  1993).  Future research  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n over  of  acculturation to  if  types of  thesis  a  homogeneous should  the  survey used  counselling  use  However,  as  towards  choices. responses  on the  of  stated, help-  (Lai & Linden,  t i m e t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e y  It  in  them.  s h o u l d examine h e l p - s e e k i n g  a new s o c i e t y .  the  examined a snapshot  help-seeking.  focuses  true  range.  (Atkinson, 1989);  research  a  their  research  and immigrant a t t i t u d e s  change over  to  has  c o u n s e l l i n g and compare  towards  level  i f  patterns.  future  age  see  s h o u l d examine p a r t i c i p a n t ' s  in this  to  population.  p o p u l a t i o n and  research  responses  different  conducted  the  in this  different  seeking  Much o f  student  a broader  research  attitudes  investigation to  and h e l p - s e e k i n g  offered  future,  general  immigrants with regards  examines  research  the  were s i m i l a r  p o p u l a t i o n and were  examined the  recommended t h a t  T h e r e may b e this  that  research  student  further  population of  As  a  examined a  exists  acculturation  age  reported i n this  from studies  difference  general  help-seeking.  findings  studies  when e x p l o r i n g  immigrant  w o u l d be  attitudes change. experience  beneficial,  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 66 and  interesting,  provider's of  t o examine  perspective.  research  from the h e l p -  H e l p - p r o v i d e r s may h a v e  skewed  t h e needs o f t h e immigrant p o p u l a t i o n and as such,  offer  r e q u i r e d o r wanted  examine  these biases.  research  would help  help-providers As into  participant's beneficial Cultural its more  utility  discrimination  scores.  and research  (Ishiyama,  of cultural  based on  with the  1995a)  identity.  to  increase  Stronger and cut-points  More e x p l o r a t i o n would p r o v i d e b e t t e r set cut-points  based  on  i d e n t i t y groups  understanding  group  research  and, as a r e s u l t ,  of the participant's  for  cultural  This would a i d i n s o r t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s  groups.  The  I t would be  i n t o high and low Caucasian  and help  and l o w c u l t u r a l  the  participants  i d e n t i t y groups.  data would a i d i n understanding  groups.  increase  identity  as a measure  identity  evidence.  cultural  Inventory  participants  this  between  a r b i t r a r i l y sorted  t o d o more d e v e l o p m e n t  grouping  not  could  on a r b i t r a r i l y set cut-points  cultural  definitive  from  views  help-seekers.  research  based  Preference  research  t o a l i g n needs and s e r v i c e s  this  was done  Future  Further understanding  and the  stated,  services.  high and low Caucasian  sorting  the  this  into  high  should  attitudes  within  R o l e o f Cultural Identity i n Help Seeking 67 References Atkinson,  D.  R.  Sue,  D.  W.,  (Eds.)  (1989). Carter,  Atkinson,  CA: D.  T.,  & G i m , R.  36(2),  209-212.  D.  H.  R.,  Lowe,  S.,  counselling.  Counselling  L.,  & Matthews,  Wampold, B.  & Ahn, H.  (1998).  D.  gender,  E.,  R.,  mental  L.  Psychology,  (1995).  and w i l l i n g n e s s  23,  model  Lowe,  S.  M.,  Matthews,  A p p l i c a t i o n of  to paired  Psychologist,  Whiteley,  providers.  Development,  31,  to  130-138.  S.,  26(1),  & G i m , R.  Journal of 155-161.  College  data.  101-123. H.  (1990).  Student  for  the  comparison  Asian-American a c c u l t u r a t i o n and preferences help  Asian-  Asian-American preferences  characteristics:  Counselling  towards  Journal of M u l t i c u l t u r a l  Bradley-Terry-Luce  Atkinson,  Thousand  Asian-American  Counselling  and Development,  R.,  counsellor  The  al.  Competencies:  (1989).  Journal of  American acculturation,  D.  M. et  Development.  i d e n t i t y and a t t i t u d e s  services.  Atkinson,  L.  in  Sage.  health  seek  Casas,  and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  R.,  cultural  Atkinson,  R.  c u l t u r a l development,  Multicultural Counselling  Individual Oaks,  Minority  for  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 68 Berry,  J . W . , K i m ,S . , Young,  Acculturation Applied  Psychology:  Furnham,  A . , & Andrew, attitudes  (1989).  societies.  An International  R.  towards  Psychological Gordon,  i n plural  M.  Review,  185-206.  38,  of  attitudes  M . , & Bujaki,  (1996).  A cross-cultural  seeking  psychological  Reports,  M . M . (1964).  help.  79, 289-290.  A s s i m i l a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n L i f e . New  York:  Oxford University  Press.  Gravetter,  F. J . ,& Wallnau.  (2000). S t a t i s t i c s  Behaviour  study  Sciences  (5  t h  f o r the  e d . ) . Belmont, C A . :  Wadsworth/Thomson. Iversen,  G. R., & Norpoth,  Variance:  Second  H . (1987).  Edition.  Analysis  Newbury P a r k :  of  Sage  Publications. Ishiyama,  I.  (1995a).  Vancouver, Ishiyama,  I.  Ishiyama,  I.  Positive  Canada:  (1995b).  Vancouver,  C u l t u r a l Preference  (1995c).  University of British  Demographic  Canada:  Development  University  research. of British  Columbia  Information  University of British  and Negative  Unpublished  Inventory.  Survey. Columbia  and V a l i d a t i o n of the  Helpseeking Attitude Vancouver, Columbia  Canada:  Scale.  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 69 Ishiyama,  I.  (1995d).  Positive  Scale.  Vancouver,  Attitude British Ishiyama,  I.  I.  (1995e).  Survey  Canada:  (1997).  Cultural  Kok,  University of British  Preference  Inventory  Questionnaire/ - Correlation  with  Vancouver,  Columbia  S . R. J . ( 1 9 9 3 ) .  behaviour  Singapore.  Columbia  Unpublished research.  University of British  A . J . , & Liow, seeking  University of  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Form.  Asian Identity  Suinn-Lew Scale. Canada:  Canada:  Helpseek  Columbia  Vancouver, Ishiyama,  and Negative  Case  studies  of  among A s i a n s i n g l e  parents  i n  Counselling  Psychology  help  Quarterly, 6(4),  303-316. Kopala, for  M . , & Esquivel, immigrant  acculturative  G.  (1994).  children: process.  Counselling  approaches  Facilitating the School  Counsellor,  41(5),  352, 8 p . Lai,  J . ,& Linden,  W. ( 1 9 9 3 ) .  Acculturation  effects  Canadian  The smile  o f symptom  Journal of Behavioral  of Asia:  reporting.  Science,  25(2),  303-313. Lin,  J . C. H . (1994).  How l o n g  i n psychotherapy? Psychology,  41(3),  do Chinese  Journal of 288-291.  Americans  Counselling  stay  Role of Cultural Identity in Help Seeking 70 McGuigan, of  F . J . (1997).  Research  Jersey: Mathews,  R.  (7  ed.) .  t h  Prentice (2000).  Experimental  Upper Saddle  Cultural patterns  Suinn,  36(2),  scale:  Psychological  Measurement,  Package  (SPSS v . Statistics Trache,  (1996). SPSS  seeking  Americans.  Zhang,  Initial  report.  47(2),  Education and  401-407.  Sciences.  Census  Data.  www.statcan.ca Vancouver,  Canada:  Columbia.  F. T. L . , & Glidden,  and problem perception  Journal of Counselling  C.  (1986).  among  Asian  Psychology,  331-336.  A . Y . , Snowden,  Differences seeking area.  P.  self-identity  11.5 Overview.  of British  T. J . ,Leong,  33(3),  K . , Lew, S . , V i g i l ,  for the Social  Canada.  M. (2003).  Help  i n School &  11.5)  University Tracy,  of South Asian and  Intervention  The Suinn-Lew A s i a n  acculturation  Statistical  R i v e r , New  101-105.  R. M . , R i c k a r d - F i g u e r o a , (1987).  Methods  Hall.  Southeast Asian Americans. Clinic,  Psychology;  L . R . , & Sue, S.  between A s i a n and White Americans'  and u t i l i z a t i o n patterns Journal of  317-326.  (1998). help  i n the Los Angeles  Community P s y c h o l o g y ,  26(4),  (96-3-26 wfwdata\demoinfo.95b)  Demographic Information Section (Form B) 1. Sex: () Male - () Female  2.  Age:  years old  6. Ethnicity: (Choose from Item 6 below)  3. Departmental Affiliation: I'm in the Department of.  4. Program:  () 1. Bachelors — () BA () BSc () BEd or: () () () ()  5.  Sibling Order:  () 1. the oldest () () () ()  6.  2. Diploma 3. Masters — () M A () MSc () MEd or: 4. Doctorate— () PhD ()EdDor: 0. Unclassified or  2. the youngest 3. the only child 4. the middle or one of the middle children 5. others: (please describe)  Ethnic/Racial Background: Which; ethnicity constitutes more than 50% of your background? If it is 50-50 in your assessment, please put check-marks in two places. () () () ()  ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 7. 8.  01. 02. 03. 04.  Caucasian/White (other than 02 and 03); please specify: Eastern European; please specify: Hispanic; please specify: Asian (for East Indian, go to 05) ( ) A 1 . Chinese—— () PRC () H.K. ()Taiwan () or () A2. Japanese () A3. Korean () A4. Vietnamese () A5. Philippino () A6. Malaysian () A7. Sri Lankan () A8. Indonesian () A9. other Asian; please specify: 05. East Indian; please specify: i 06. First Nations; or (please specify) 07. Middle Easterner; please specify: 08. Afro-American; please specify: 09. African; please specify: 10. Other ethnic minority; please specify: 11. None of the above; please specify: 00.1 prefer not to answer this question. ;  Length of Stay in North America: I have lived in North America for a total of Place of Birth: I was born in () Canada, ( ) U.S.A., () Mexico,  () other: (please specify) 9. Mother's Place of Brith: My mother was born in (which country?): 10. Father's Place of Birth: My father was born in (which country?):  .  ' years.  (usiMielpseek A wfwdata\asian.id 96-3-26rev)  This page is for persons with an Asian (including East Indian) background only. (That is, your ethnic background is 50% or more Asian). Please specify your ethnic background:  Asian Identity Questionaire  Please note: In this questionnaire, "Asian" refers to your specific ethnic/cultural background  1. How strong is your cultural identity as Asian (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, East Indian, etc.)? 1 —2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all moderately extremely strong as Asian  2. How strong is your cultural identity as Canadian or North American (N.Am)? 1—2—3— 4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all moderately extremely strong as Canadian (N.American)  3. How Asian (i.e., Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, East Indian, etc.) was the social environment in which you grew up for the most part of your childhood? 1—2—3—4—5—6—7—8—9 not at all Asian moderately completely Asian  4.  What would be your preferences like, if you were to choose between Asian and Canadian (or North American)? "Asian" refers to your particular ethnic/cultural background. Please use the following scale: Scale: 1—-2—3-—4—5—6—7—8—9 Mostly Canadian about Mostly or N. American < = 50-50 ~ —> Asian  "I prefer  __"  Canadian/N.Am<=  =>Asian (my ethnic culture)  (1) arts and music  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (2) language  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (3) food  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (4) traditional events and celebrations 1-2-3-4-5-6^7-8-9 (5) local community to belong to  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (6) manners and customs  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (7) values  1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  (8) friends (9) counsellors/advisors 5.  i  1-2-3-4-5-6^7-8-9 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9  How many years of formal schooling (elementary up to university) have you had in North America?  ( ) years  (win\helpseek\help95.qr3)  HELPSEEK CONCERNS INVENTORY We face various problems and personal issues in life. They may be related to, among other things: relationship, career, emotional well-being, education, personality, family, identity, health, and life in general. Seeking help from others is one way of dealing with such problems and critical issues.  Q-l. If you were to seek help from a trained counsellor or therapist to discuss rather personal issues, what kind of feelings and concerns might you have about it? Please assume: (a) that the helping service will be free o f charge, confidential, and professional; and (b) that the counsellor will be a stranger to you but speaks the same language. Please circle one o f the numbers for each item, using the scale below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 not at all little somewhat moderately quite very extremely NAA MOD EXT  "If I were to see a professional helper, I would feel NAA  MOD  EXT  NAA  about getting  MOD EXT.  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (1) willing  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (16) self-critical  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (2) worried  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (17) exposed  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (3) hopeful  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (18) cautious  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (4) angry  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (19) proud of myself  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (5) relieved  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (20) disturbed  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (6) self-conscious  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (21) resentful  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (7) inhibited  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (22) rebellious  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (8) good about myself  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (23) ambivalent  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (9) uncertain  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (24) actively involved  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (10) stressed out  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (25) guilty  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (11) skeptical  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (26) hesitant  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (12) comfortable  1 -2-3-4-5-6-7 (27) embarrassed  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (13) shameful  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (28) open  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (14) lonesome  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (29) defensive  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (15) enthusiastic NAA  MOD  EXT  1-2-3-4-5-6-7 (30) indifferent NAA MOD  EXT  

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