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Recomposing remnant industrial land : Union Bay, BC De Greeff, Paul Thomas 2003

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Recompos ing Remnant I n d u s t r i a l L a n d : U n i o n Bay , BC b y P a u l Thomas de G r e e f f B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1997 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES (Department o f L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t e e t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September , 2003 © P a u l Thomas de G r e e f f , 2003 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y the head o f my depar tment o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f iAMCaScAPE AEgjri'T^CTUJgg, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , Canada Abstract Union Bay is a small community of 650 people located on the east coast of Vancouver Island, BC. At the turn of the century and during the early stages of development in the province of British Columbia, Union Bay played an important role as a shipping port for coal mined at Cumberland 13 miles to the northwest. Today, the town of Union Bay remains as a picturesque seaside settlement, but the waterfront site of the old coal wharf facilities and industrial buildings that once bustled with activity now rests idle. Much speculation has existed over how the historic industrial site in Union Bay should be restored, or to what use the land should be put. This project attempts to move beyond speculation, and to propose a tangible vision for the future use of the site so that it contributes once again to the overall health of the region. Contained in the report is a body of work that investigates the physical constraints of the former industrial lands, as well as cultural biases that might affect a development proposal for the site. Using this background research as a basis, a development proposal for the 101 acres (41 hectares) is presented. Highlights of the development proposal include the establishment of a pedestrian oriented village centre that envelopes a marina development in the sheltered waters of Union Bay. Higher density residential development is aggregated in clusters around the village centre, with one residential cluster proposed for the northwest portion of the site. A park is proposed for the remainder of the site, with an integrated trail system that links park amenities and development clusters together. Although the various aspects of the development proposal are supported by site observations and research, the project represents a qualitative assessment of what could happen with the abandoned industrial lands at Union Bay. As such, the proposal reflects various theoretical and physical landscape precedents, as well as the personal values of the author. It is hoped the project will stimulate discussion with respect to the site, and will help to generate ideas that could lead to the development of a healthy and enjoyable landscape. ) Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC ii Table of Contents ABSTRACT ii TABLE OF CONTENTS iii LIST OF FIGURES v LIST OF TABLES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 The Study Site 1 1.2 Project Goal 3 1.3 Geographic Context 4 Union Bay and the Baynes Sound Region 4 Union Bay Statistics 5 1.4 Historical Context 5 1.5 Literature Review - Theoretical Context 8 Decomposition 8 Ecological Aesthetic & Ecorevelatory Design 8 2. SITE ANALYSIS 10 2.1 Landscape-based Community Planning 11 2.2 Characterizing the Site - Existing Literature 13 2.3 Characterizing the Site - Observations and Inventories 13 Geomorphology 13 Coal Waste Pile Material - Physical and Chemical Characteristics 17 Vegetation and Wildlife 19 2.5 Tying it Ail Together - Suitability Analysis 20 Methodology 20 Discussion of Results - Commercial 21 Discussion of Results - Residential 21 Discussion of Results - Open Space 23 Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC iii 3. SITE DESIGN 24 3.1 Literature Review - Precedents 24 Park Precedents 24 Waterfront Development Precedents 25 3.2 A Vision for The Study Site 26 3.3 The New Town Centre 29 The Cluster Concept 29 Public Space and Housing Diversity 29 3.4 Coal Hills Park 33 Museum/Park Centre 33 Trail System and Sequence of Park Spaces 33 Site Reclamation Program 39 Changing Over Time - An Experimental Approach 41 Development Scenario/Phasing Option 42 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS 43 5. REFERENCES 44 6. APPENDICIES Appendix A 50 Appendix B 58 Appendix C 63 Appendix D 68 Appendix E 72 Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC iv List of Figures Figure 1-1 The Study Site Boundary 1 Figure 1-2 Site Character Images 2 Figure 1 -3 The Study Site in 1940 6 Figure 1-4 Historical Images of Union Bay 7 Figure 2-1 Prime Residential and Commercial Development Locations 11 Figure 2-2 Union Bay Landscape Analysis Diagram 12 Figure 2-3 Gully Erosion - High slope angles 14 Figure 2-4 Absence of Gully Erosion - Low slope angles 14 Figure 2-5 Evidence of Soil Erosion 15 Figure 2-6 Cliffs adjacent to Hart Creek 15 Figure 2-7 Coastal Longshore Process 16 Figure 2-8 Acidity Measurements 17 Figure 2-9 Orange Staining on the Beach 18 Figure 2-10 Saltwater Intrusion 18 Figure 2-11 Pile Drainage 18 Figure 2-12 Weighted GIS Overlay Process 21 Figure 2-13 Commercial Suitability Analysis Results 22 Figure 2-14 Residential Suitability Analysis Results 22 Figure 2-15 Open Space Suitability Analysis Results 22 Figure 3-1 Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord, Germany 24 Figure 3-2 Gasworks Park, Seattle 25 Figure 3-3 Granville Island, Vancouver 25 Figure 3-4 Conceptual Site Layout 26 Figure 3-5 Site Layout Diagram 27 Figure 3-6 Master Plan 28 Figure 3-7 New Town Centre Proposal 30 Figure 3-8 Section - Highway 19A Corridor 31 Figure 3-9 Section - The New Town Centre Market 31 Figure 3-10 Section - Row Housing . 32 Figure 3-11 Section - Retirement Home/Condominium 32 Figure 3-12 Reinterpretation of the Coal Washer Foundation 33 Figure 3-13 The Coal Hills Park Proposal 34 Figure 3-14 Section - Diverted Creek Channel 35 Figure 3-15 Section - The Museum Site 35 Figure 3-16 Section - Gully Treatment 35 Figure 3-17 Trellis Walk 36 Figure 3-18 Fire Circle- Coal Hills Summit 36 Figure 3-19 Trail Views 37 Figure 3-20 Section - Main Access Path 38 Figure 3-21 Section - Service Vehicle Access 38 Figure 3-22 Section - Summit to Point Path 38 Figure 3-23 Section - Active Recreation Path 39 Figure 3-24 Section - Passive Recreation Path 39 Figure 3-25 Vegetation Structure Diagram 40 Figure 3-26 Water Collection System 41 Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC v List of Tables Table 1-1 Union Bay Statistics 5 Table 1-2 The Study Site Property - Historical Control 6 Reoomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC vi Acknowledgements For their assistance and insight which contributed significantly to the completion of this thesis, I would like to thank the following: Patrick Mooney, UBC Associate Professor of Landscape Architecture, Will Marsh, Adjunct Professor of Landscape Architecture at UBC and Professor Emeritus of the University of Michigan, Rod Beaumont of Weldwood of Canada Limited and Patrick Lucey, principal of Aqua-Tex Scientific Consulting Ltd. as thesis committee members provided invaluable feedback and recommendations throughout the production of this report. Their guidance and encouragement were greatly appreciated. Weldwood of Canada Limited is thanked for their significant contribution to this project. Initially, permission to use Weldwood's property as the topic of this thesis was enthusiastically granted, and subsequent funding support was provided for the completion of field studies and lab analyses. Thank you to Larry Yee and Chris Pharo at the Pacific Environmental Science Centre for their assistance with soil and water sample analysis. Finally, a warm thank you is extended to the many Union Bay and surrounding community members for their insight and assistance in compiling information on the study site. In particular, Ed Dahl and Barb Sedgwick provided assistance with bird survey information, Janette Glover-Giedt and Cliff Boldt gave feedback on the vision of the community, Janette Glover-Geidt and Jack Turner gave invaluable insights on the history of Union Bay, Brian McMann of Kensington Properties provided background information for the study site and Regional District of Comox Strathcona staff were supportive in providing site maps and GIS data. Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC vii 1. Introduction Union Bay is a small community of almost 700 people situated just south of the Comox Valley on the East Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. This rural seaside community has experienced a unique and eventful past. The town was established in the late 1880's to serve as a major coal shipping port for coal mined in the Comox Valley and surrounding area. The regional importance of the town gradually grew as industrial activity was expanded to include not only port facilities, but also a railroad maintenance yard and associated industrial shops, coking ovens and later, a briquette manufacturing plant (Glover-Geidt, 1990). By the early 1950's, decreasing demand for coal and exhaustion of local coal reserves resulted in a gradual downturn in mining activity (Barr, 1997). The bustling industrial activity that had characterized Union Bay since its inception had all but vanished. Yet the legacy of a vibrant industrial centre can still be found in the town today where small company houses have been converted into quaint heritage homes, the post office and jail house have been beautifully restored and a large industrial site remains idle. "Brownfields are abandoned, idle or underused industrial or commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination." (USEPA, 1996) Dereliction is defined as being deserted by an owner, being a social outcast or being wilfully neglected (Houghton Mifflin, 1982). 1.1 The Study Site A clue to Union Bay's industrial history is the presence of a 41 hectare (101 acre) parcel of land (Figure 1-1) along the waterfront that is best described as a brownfield or derelict site. The site seems an excellent location for homes or commercial development, but instead is used as a garbage depository, motocross destination and illegitimate camping site. The condition of the site is a consequence of changes in resource economics in the region. In brief, large amounts of land on Vancouver Island had been acquired through land grants around the turn of the century by Robert Dunsmuir, former premier of British Columbia and wealthy coal baron, in exchange for his railway construction and mine development efforts (Reksten, 1991). When coal reserves were exhausted in the Comox Valley and mining operations ceased, the vast land reserves owned by the Dunsmuir family in the area shifted from having principally a mineral (coal) resource value to having a timber resource value. The Dunsmuir family's lands surrounding Union Bay and the Comox Valley were gradually sold to forest companies interested in Figure 1-1 Union Bay and the project study site. Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC I securing lands for timber extraction rights (Turner, 2003). Although not having a merchantable forest cover, the former industrial lands generally outlined in Figure 1-1 were sold to a forest company as part of a larger land acquisition. The industrial buildings, old coal washing works, coking ovens and shipping wharves had little value to a company interested in timber resources, and the site subsequently fell into disrepair. Buildings were dismantled and no trespassing signs were erected Figure 1-2 shows the existing derelict nature of the site. Figure 1-2 Existing site character. Clockwise from top left: old coal washer foundation, remains of the freight wharf, traces of machinery, no-trespassing signs and gully erosion with an abandoned vehicle. As is common with brownfield sites, there has been a history of ambiguity and speculation on the future of the study site (Kirkwood, 2001). Union Bay community members seem to favour a park with a prominent waterfront walk for the site (Glover-Geidt, 1999). In contrast, development speculation for the site has included rumours of industrial facilities, tourism developments and housing (Turner, 2003; Glover-Geidt, 1999). Without a clear picture of what the site can accommodate economically and politically and sustain environmentally, it is likely that this ambiguity will remain. "The landscape site is to the region what the cell is to the body." (Condon, 2003) The analogy of site as cell and region as body makes clearly evident the importance of the health (see Foster, 2000 for discussion of health as applied in a landscape context) of a site, like the former industrial lands at Union Bay, to the health of the region. In fact, it is possible that the study site contains vital keys to the economic, ecological and social sustainability of the region. Therefore, addressing the ambiguity surrounding the site and proposing a plan for its re-integration with the surrounding landscape should be a regional priority. In general terms, the goal of this project is to move beyond the speculation that surrounds the site and propose a tangible vision for the future use of the area so that the site contributes once again to the overall health of the region. The project goal is elaborated below. Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 2 1.2 Project Goal There has been a growing need in the past twenty years to address the damaging legacy of derelict buildings, environmentally compromised lands and polluted soils and water (Kirkwood, 2001). One of the factors that has increased this need is a decrease in availability of new lands for development, increasing the real-estate value of derelict lands and making their previously inhibitive clean-up cost seem more reasonable (Whyte, 1968). "We should restore contaminated urban land and buildings to productive use... In the last four years, we cleaned up 250 toxic waste sites, as many as in the previous twelve years. Now, we should clean up another 500, so that our children grow up next to parks, not poison." (Clinton, 1997 as quoted in Kirkwood, 2001) Another factor has been mounting pressure from politicians, environmental groups, scientists, corporations and society at large to clean up brownfield sites. Michael Hough (in Kirkwood, 2001) suggests that it is society at large that must decide the fate of these sites and that there is a need for collaborative solutions. The problems encountered on brownfield sites are sufficiently complex that they require scientists, engineers, designers and others to work collaboratively to reintegrate these sites into their surroundings. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional ways of dealing with clean up, such as entombing contaminated sites in an engineered cap, we must explore creative ways to prevent these sites from becoming less interesting than they were before the clean up process began (Jackson in Kirkwood, 2001). Landscape architects such as Peter Latz at Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord in Germany (Latz, 1992) and Richard Haag at Gasworks Park in Seattle (Tate, 2001) have shown that it is possible to create culturally stimulating landscapes out of the derelict remains of past industry. They have shown that integrating park design and the creative interpretation of pollution remediation is one possible way of renewing brownfield sites. Their leadership in integrating design with site remediation will be used as a precedent for this project. So far, the Union Bay study site delineated in Figure 1-1 (will now be referred to as "the study site") has been described as a derelict site that requires both environmental and cultural renewal. The goal of this project is to study the site and to then propose a design that is sensitive to existing site characteristics that will bring life and meaning back to the site. This goal statement can be expanded as a series of steps: Step 1: Study the landscape to make sensitive design meaningful First, a thorough understanding of the landscape must be acquired in order to accomplish sensitive design. The variability inherent in landscapes makes it imperative to study the landscape in order to avoid mismatches between land uses and environment (Marsh, 1998). Although it is not possible to find conclusive answers to all of the questions that arise throughout this project in the time allotted, it is possible to use landscape indicators to gain insight into how processes on the site are likely to be operating. Where possible, qualitative observations will be supplemented by literature review or analyses to support and strengthen assumptions. Step 2: Reclaim the site so that it is physically stable, does not deliver contaminants to the receiving environment, can sustain vegetation growth and support wildlife The second step in achieving the project goal is to define what is meant by bringing life back to the site and to suggest how this might be accomplished. The aim of ecological restoration is to fully restore the components and processes of a damaged site or ecosystem... .towards a desired future condition. Reclamation is the process of stabilizing soil and water on lands that have been damaged by industrial activity, and to return the land to some useful purpose. . (Paraphrased from Gayton, 2001) Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 3 In the goal statement, the process of bringing life back to the study site is analogous to reclaiming the site. The Step 2 statement indicates four primary objectives of reclamation. This project will assume the premise that returning the site to a pre-disturbance condition would not only be a very costly goal, but would be a very difficult one to achieve physically, biologically and politically (Gobster, 1997). For this reason, site reclamation will be examined at length, but will be restricted in scope. The project will propose a design that focuses on the reclamation of only the specific site functions of physically stabilizing the site, limiting the delivery of contaminants to the receiving environment, reclaiming vegetation growth processes and the capability of the site to support wildlife. Step 3: Propose a design that will bring intention and meaning back to the site The entire 100 acre study site is currently highly disturbed by un-programmed human activities, contributing to the derelict nature of the site. The third step of this project is to bring a sense of intention or meaning back to the site to address the issue of dereliction (Whyte, 1968). William Whyte suggests that there is often a paradox in people's minds with regards to landscapes. He suggests that people often despise development for its effect of degrading landscapes, but curiously, people generally consider unused land as the ugliest. To address this paradox, Whyte recommends that sites be programmed - they must be accessible and have an intended use in order for them to be successful and aesthetically enjoyable places. A major goal of this project, therefore, is to develop a comprehensive program of use and corresponding site design for the study site. This is an imperative step in reclaiming this site from a social perspective since the site has been derelict for so long and misconceptions are deeply entrenched. 1.3 Geographic Context Union Bay and the Baynes Sound Region It appears that the original settlers of Union Bay were particularly adept at reading the landscape. The town site location was selected on the basis of its protected position from storms in the lee of Denman Island, making it a favourable site for a coal shipping port. Further adding to its success, the naturally gentle rise of southeast facing slopes provided sunny and scenic vistas over Baynes Sound for settlers. Fresh water was also made available in this location at the Langley Lake reservoir, rounding out requirements for the establishment of a unique and successful community. These attributes still contribute to making Union Bay a highly desirable settlement location today. In spite of its beautiful location, there are existing challenges that face the community of Union Bay. One of the issues that communities face in the Baynes Sound region is sewage treatment. Currently, aging septic fields seem to be causing a non-point source pollution problem in the sound (Chamberlain, 2003). This problem threatens productive shellfish rearing areas (BCMSRM, 2003). Another regional issue is the proximity of industrial forestry activities close to settlement areas. Although forestry activity is important in supporting this region's communities economically (CVEDS, 2003), there may be issues surrounding scenic quality that could significantly degrade the backdrop of a community and result in lower property values (Blair, 1986; Lynch, 1976). This is a local issue that individual communities need to investigate to avoid potential future economic losses. A third local issue involves developing a strategy to harness the full potential of a thriving tourism industry on Vancouver Island (Whyte, 2003). There are provincially significant historical and cultural features in Union Bay that are entirely hidden from view. There is a productive salmon fishery that could be marketed locally, and access for both commercial and sport fishers could be expanded. There is also a potential for taking advantage of historical railway rights-of-ways to create greenway systems to link Union Bay with surrounding communities along Baynes Sound. These features would not only make the area more attractive to visitors, but improve the quality of life for existing residents (Kent and Elliot, 1995; Seams, etal., 1993). Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 4 Union Bay Statistics Union Bay is a relatively small rural town on the East Coast of Vancouver Island. It lies ten minutes drive to the south of Courtenay/Comox, the nearest urbanized centre. Although considered part of the Georgia Basin and subject to urban growth pressures, the town of Union Bay is somewhat isolated and is characterized by relative quiet and tranquility. However, the summers tend to be busier in the town, with tourism traffic passing through on scenic Highway 19A. The construction Table 1-1 Union Bay Statistics (Industry Canada, 2003). Population Rural Settlement Area Existing # Dwelling Units Schools Hospitals (including nursing homes and clinics) Libraries Population within 10 Km of Union Bay Population within 20 Km of Union Bay Population within 10OKm of Union Bay 653 11.54 Km 2 310 1 (elementary) 0 1 3,394 (3 communities) 47,551 (10 communities) 294,482 (46 communities) of the inland island highway, Highway 19, has lead to an overall reduction in the amount of commuter traffic passing through Union Bay. This may have jeopardized commercial enterprises that rely on tourism, but most seem to still operate from local traffic and the summer tourism traffic that prefers the scenic seaside route over the inland highway. Many of the rural towns in the Baynes Sound/Comox Valley region lack a curb appeal or roadside attraction that could draw a significant number of tourists. There are few motels, limited opportunities to shop, and only site-specific locations to enjoy beaches and the outdoors. For some local residents, this is viewed as a good thing since some who settle in these communities prefer the associated quiet, rural lifestyle and would prefer not to attract tourism or pay taxes for the amenities that would attract tourism. Union Bay seems different in this respect. There has been some speculation over the community's ambition to incorporate as a municipality, take care of its own sewage treatment and control its own growth (Boldt, 2003; Murray, 2003). Through the design proposal, this project will attempt to show that if the Union Bay community desires to pursue development and growth, that it does have the natural beauty, recreation amenities and construction/development sites that would be required to facilitate this growth. 1.4 Historical Context The history of Union Bay is significant to the form and character of the study site. In broader terms, it is also important to recognize the significance of the history of Union Bay to the province of BC. Union Bay played a central role in the early years of British Columbia, as it was an important coal shipping port on the BC coast at the turn of the century (Glover-Geidt, 1990). The primary role of industry in Union Bay was to supply steam ships with the coal that was necessary to make voyages from BC to all areas across the Pacific Ocean. Coal was transported by train from the productive coal mines in Cumberland to the port at Union Bay where the coal was cleaned and then loaded onto ships. For a period of twenty years, coal was also coked at Union Bay and shipped to copper smelters and steel mills along the coast (Moore, 1967). Further industrial activity at the port town included all aspects of train maintenance and construction. In addition to the large coal shipping wharf, a smaller freight wharf was constructed at the site to permit the convenient shipment of a wide range of goods to Cumberland (Glover-Geidt, 1990). Historical images of the site are presented in Figure 1-3. Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 5 Figure 1-3 Historical Images of Union Bay. Clockwise from top left: the main coal shipping wharf, coking ovens, coal washer viewed from the north, coal washer from the south west, coke ovens with smokestack, and freight wharf (BC Archives, 1999). Other than some restored historical buildings in Union Bay that hint of a thriving past, it is difficult to pick up on the industrial history of Union Bay when passing through the town. Little remains visible from the highway to indicate the former significance of Union Bay. But with some time to search the area, clues abound. In particular, a coal waste pile that accumulated as a result of washing the rock out of the coal was built up over time on the study site. The pile stands about 15 meters tall, covers approximately 14 hectares (35 acres) and is composed primarily of blackish, shale gravel. Also found on the site are the remains of pilings, pipes and railway grades with decomposing, wooden railway ties still in place. Figure 1-4 shows the configuration of the study site as it was in the early 1940's and clearly illustrates the intensity of industrial development that existed. The ownership history of the study site, as previously discussed, has played a significant role in its current form and character. Table 1-2 outlines the transfer of control of the site by various stakeholders. The recent purchase of a significant portion of the site by Kensington Island Properties Limited, a local development company, was likely spurred by real-estate speculation. The site has become more attractive over time from a commercial/residential development perspective, largely due to the fact that it is one of the few remaining undeveloped sections of waterfront in the Baynes Sound/Comox Valley region. However, an awkward tenure issue remains at the study site. Although Weldwood of Canada Limited has sold their waterfront properties, they were forced to retain a water lot lease from the provincial government on an area that covers most of the coal waste pile area. When a plan for the reclamation of the site is realized, it is likely that the lease will become dissolvable. Until that time, however, the site is certain to remain in a state of disuse. Table 1-2 The Study Site Property - Historical Control (revised from Glover-Geidt, 1990). 1888 Union Colliery Co. of B.C. (Dunsmuir Family) Wellington Colliery Co. Ltd. (Dunsmuir Family) Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd. Vancouver Island Coals Ltd. (Same company with name changes) Canadian Collieries Resources Ltd. (Same company with name changes) Weldwood of Canada Limited (Forest sector) Kensington Island Properties Ltd. (Real estate development) 1900 1910 1914 1957 1960 1995 Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 6 Figure 1-4 Union Bay and the study site in 1940. Significant features include the coal washer along Hart Creek, the coal waste pile to the north-east, a collection of industrial shops at the centre of the site and the main coal wharf and freight wharf to the south (Revised from Glover-Geidt, 1990). Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 7 The project goal statement from Section 1.2 indicates that a design proposal will be the culmination of work on this project. There are a number of design theories that have been instrumental in guiding this project. They will be introduced here to help explain why specific design decisions have been made and where design ideas originated from. 1.5 Literature Review - Theoretical Context Decomposition There are a number of theoretical underpinnings that have guided the development of this project. One of the particularly instructive theories was that of decomposition, applied by Peter Latz in his work on the Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord in Germany's Rhur Valley. John Flemming (1999) defines decomposition as the process whereby the active composition elements are freed from their existing context so they can be applied in a new staging. In practical terms, existing site features are retained where possible and reinterpreted to serve a new role. At Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord, Peter Latz rejected outright the bygone arcadian ideal, or the traditional and pastoral landscapes associated with parks at the turn of the century, as being a form of cultivated sterility. "On the occasion of a lecture which I recently gave in Dresden, I called for the protection of destruction from destruction... these sites offer potential for the development of things which are completely different." (Peter Latz in Weilacher, 1999) Latz was concerned with preserving the industrial heritage of the Rhur Valley and saw the great industrial ruins as a source of design inspiration in and of themselves. He explains that it is a question of what force the existing objects already have and what density of information they already possess that guides the design process (Weilacher, 1999). Some authors have suggested that the decomposition approach is fully transferable to other industrial sites and can be a highly successful theoretical basis (Lowry, 2001; Lang, 2001). In contrast, the result of reinterpreting old structures has been criticized as resulting in "junk aesthetics and an unprecedented chaos of materials" (Luhrs, 1990). Another danger in the theory is suggested by Jorg Dettmar (1999), who describes Latz's work as being isolated, scattered and impossible to experience as a whole. This is assumed to be a consequence of respecting and preserving the existing site organization, preventing a new and unifying landscape organization from being imposed to give structure to Latz's work. Although not without criticism, Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord and the decomposition theory represent a legitimate approach to landscape design for derelict sites. Preserving existing site features at the Union Bay study site, such as the coal washer foundation, coal waste pile and railway corridors, provides a unique opportunity to retain traces of the history of the site and at the same time, establish a system of features to enrich the experiential quality of the site. As a theoretical basis, decomposition is viewed as a workable and practical approach to restoring derelict industrial land at Union Bay (Kohler, 1999; EAUE, 2001). Ecological Aesthetic & Ecorevelatory Design Other theories that have been instrumental in guiding the form of this project are the ecological aesthetic and ecorevelatory design. People's desire for interaction with nature or the natural world is stronger than ever (Gobster and Barro, 2000) and evidence is mounting that supports the benefits to humans of interacting with nature (Hull and Michael, 1995; Kaplan, 1995). But what is it that is driving people's desire to experience nature and how, or at what level of intention should the interaction take place? Aldo Leopold viewed knowledge and experience as essential in developing an appreciation of nature (Leopold, 1949). His view was that a shift in values was attainable, through reappraising things unnatural, tame and confined in terms of things natural, wild and free. Leopold saw a shift in values as a consequence of knowledge and experience of the natural world. In extension to Leopold's thoughts, Paul Gobster (1995) suggests that pleasure through the ecological aesthetic is derived from Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 8 knowing that an ecosystem is ecologically fit. He suggests this is in contrast to the scenic aesthetic, where pleasure is derived purely from viewing the landscape, irrespective of its ecological function. In other words, an ecological aesthetic suggests that people derive a sense of pleasure or comfort from knowing the environment is working properly. The local popularity of viewing salmon spawning grounds provides an example, in that the public certainly derive pleasure from viewing the salmon, but likely also from knowing the environment is healthy and the creeks and rivers are functioning to sustain the fish. The ecological aesthetic theory is an important basis for this project. The site's existing role as a garbage dump site, source of firewood and motocross track is indicative of the way locals and visitors alike perceive the site. The site is mistreated and disrespected. The ecological aesthetic theory suggests that restoring the ecological functions of the site, such as plant growth or biomass accumulation, salmon spawning habitat and bird habitat, might provide the necessary influence that could change perceptions of the site and subsequently the actions of people interacting with it. "[Ecorevelatory design] can punctuate and enliven our environment and sensitize us to what is known about its interlocking complexities. And we may assume that if one is more aware of environmental phenomena and processes - if one is able to see and comprehend them - one is better able to appreciate, evaluate and make wise decisions concerning them." (Brown et al., 1998) Ecorevelatory design is similar in application to the ecological aesthetic. Although, instead of being a human perception theory, ecorevelatory design as the name implies is a design theory concerned with revealing and interpreting ecological phenomena, processes and relationships (Brown et al., 1998). It is possible to go beyond simple ecosystem revelation with design that is "healing - the deliberate manifestation of a normative, corrective process in the landscape" (Thayer, 1998). Here, Robert Thayer is suggesting that healing the landscape is the obvious end of the revelatory process. Ecorevelatory design is a useful concept in the context of this project for the following reason. It is apparent that there is an impediment to some ecological process on the site since a large proportion of the site is unvegetated. In the process of reclaiming the site, this impediment will have to be addressed. The application of ecorevelatory design at this stage in the design process could not only result in the restoration of an ecological process and a move towards healing the site, but also the revelation of this process to future site visitors. A criticism of ecorevelatory design is that it assumes that a landscape must have a meaning or must be interpreted. Marc Treib (1995) in his seminal paper "Must Landscapes Mean?" challenged the notion that good design has a hidden meaning or a larger lesson hidden within the benches and pathways of the physical design. He suggests that the sensual pleasure and beauty of a design is at least as important as the intellectual meaning, and in Treib's opinion,"... meaning accrues over time; like respect, it is earned not granted". For this project, ecorevelatory design will be pursued, but Treib's criticism underlining the importance of designing for the sake of beauty will be taken into account. Design theory provides a conceptual basis and direction for the design process. As outlined, existing features on the study site will be retained where possible and decomposition theory applied. As well, existing and reclaimed site processes and features can be revealed or interpreted through ecorevelatory design. However, it is recognized that an appreciation of existing site processes and features is of critical importance before progressing to design. The site processes and features need to be understood before they can be revealed, interpreted or re-defined. Significant effort in this project, therefore, has been placed on developing an understanding of the natural and human-influence processes that are occurring on the study site. The synthesis of this work is presented as Section 2 of this document. Introduction Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 9 2. Site Analysis "What are the natural features which make a township handsome? A river, with its waterfalls and meadows, a lake, a hill, a cliff or individual rocks, a forest, and ancient trees standing singly. Such things are beautiful; they have a high use which dollars and cents never represent. If the inhabitants of a town were wise, they would seek to preserve these things, though at a considerable expense; for such things educate far more than any hired teachers..." (Thoreau, 1861) Dramstad et al. (1996) gave a concise definition of ecology and culture. Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with their environment and includes biological patterns, physical processes entwined in vegetation, wildlife populations, species richness, wind, water, wetlands and aquatic communities. Culture is defined as the integration of diverse human dimensions of economics, aesthetics, community social patterns, recreation, transportation and sewage/waste handling. Dramstad et al. suggest that a fundamental problem that has evolved in the management of the landscape is a divergence in these two basic components. One of the precepts this project follows, is that ecology and culture need to be integrated and that studying the environment and culture in tandem could help in the discovery of solutions for the study site, which has many complex ecological and cultural challenges. For example, studying the hydrological systems on the site could give an understanding of how problems of excessive erosion might be resolved, while simultaneously generating design ideas for the creation of a park amenity. As Thoreau points out, there are many things to be learned from nature, and many things to be enjoyed. In this section of the report, a study of the ecological and cultural features and processes around Union Bay will be catalogued and will subsequently be used to guide and enhance the design process. The site analysis work for this project involved three stages. First, existing literature was reviewed and the results of these studies synthesized. This information is given in Section 2.2. Second, a series of tests, designed to be indicators of site processes, were conducted at the study site. In particular, it was felt that a more thorough understanding of the coal waste pile material was necessary to determine if it would be possible to re-establish vegetation growth on this material without importing a growing medium (refer to Section 3.4 for rationale of importance to avoid importing growing medium). Therefore, adding to the existing fertility analysis information that exists for the study site, the texture and moisture retention properties of the coal waste pile materials were explored. The behaviour of rainwater on the surface of the coal waste pile and the chemical composition of the pile were suspect, and investigated also. Lastly, a series of observations were made at the site. Various indicators of specific physical or biological processes were observed and recorded. These have been used to propose hypotheses, and guide possible explanations for the existence of certain site features and processes. As a caveat to the information and analyses conducted for the purposes of this report, it should be noted that test results and observations presented are indicators only. The tests and observations were necessary to carry out this project to avoid ignorance, or what Whynne (1992) describes as a condition of not knowing what questions to ask. However, due to time constraints, it was necessary to perform a quick analysis and to give indications of what existed and what was happening on the site, rather than a complete synthesis. Bruce Mitchell (1995) explains that many aspects of ecosystems are not understood fully by humans and that management decisions must often be made despite uncertainty. Similarly, the landscape indicators used to guide this project point in a direction; they give clues as to what can be expected from the environment, much like frost on the windshield of a vehicle on a given morning does not prove, but rather, indicates that the road surface could be icy that morning. Indicators will be used in this project to make design and management decisions. A hopeful outcome of the site analysis work conducted for this report is to provide useful information about site processes and features, not only for this project, but for any further work on the study site. At a minimum, the work will raise questions about topics that need to be explored further and verified. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 10 2.1 Landscape-Based Community Planning To start the process of getting to know the study site, an investigation of the landscape surrounding Union Bay was conducted. Figure 2-2 is a diagram that combines a number of significant landscape processes and features with culturally significant features. The purpose of the diagram is to catalogue significant features surrounding the study site, and to also facilitate a discussion of a landscape-based planning process for the community of Union Bay. "Resource management is a process of decision making whereby resources are allocated over space and time according to the needs, aspirations, and desires of humans within the framework of technological inventiveness, political and social institutions, and legal and administrative arrangements" (O'Riordan, 1971) The primary objective of planning is to make decisions about the use of resources (Marsh, 1998). Figure 2-2 can be thought of as a graphic catalogue of resources that surrounds the community of Union Bay. For example, viewing locations are a resource in the sense that they represent a desirable landscape characteristic for development. Wetlands are a resource in the sense that they serve as valuable wildlife habitat, water storage and biomass accumulation sites (Marsh, 1998). Planning the community of Union Bay should be a process of managing a wide spectrum of resources in a way that benefits the community as a whole. The physical manifestation of planning might include a greenway system that takes advantage of viewing locations, a commercial development that is within a five or 10 minute walking distance from most residences in the community, or a park amenity that lies outside of the freeway influence corridor so that noise does not deteriorate the experience of the park. The processes and features shown in Figure 2-2 were used in a preliminary suitability study to delineate four areas around Union Bay that are most desirable for residential or commercial development. Areas A-D in Figure 2-1 are rated desirable for development since all of the areas have scenic view potential, are within a ten minute walking distance to the community's centre (the post office), are outside of the riparian/wetland boundary and are of a slope angle suitable for development (ie: <10% slope). Areas A, B and C have an additional asset in that they are non-basin drainage areas - water from these sites does not drain into a creek. This avoids concern over developed areas polluting creeks in the long term or changing the hydrology of a creek. One last consideration is the proximity of each site to highway corridors. Noise from the highway is not likely to influence areas A and B. Area D is sheltered from highway noise by the remains of a railway grade embankment and Area C, if developed for commercial purposes, would benefit from its proximity to the highway through visual exposure for businesses. Areas C and D fall within the study site boundary defined in Figure 1-1 and will therefore be analysed in greater detail in terms of their development potential in Section 2.4. Figure 2-1 Residential (A, B & D) and commercial (C) development sites in Union Bay with unsuitable development areas in red. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 11 Figure 2-2 Union Bay landscape analysis diagram. Important cultural and environmental resources are shown together as a catalogue of information to be applied in a generalized landscape planning exercise. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 12 2.2 Characterizing the site - Existing Literature The analysis of coal spoil material formed the bulk of effort in new site analysis work for this project. However, some analysis work had already been done for the study site (NDM, 1998; NDM, 1995) and will be discussed here. In particular, previous site analysis work has been referenced in the development of Figure D-4 in Appendix D which highlights areas of known metal contamination (NDM, 1995) on the study site. As well, fertility analysis of the coal waste pile material was completed (NDM, 1999) and the following conclusions and recommendations were drawn: 1. The coal waste pile material is highly acidic (pH 2.8 to 6.7). 2. The material has fairly high organic matter content (16.1% to 32.4%). 3. With the exception of sulfur, macronutrients appear deficient. 4. An E.C. (electrical conductivity) value greater that 2, was measured for several of the test plots indicating a salt problem typically associated with poor soil drainage. 5. Fertilizer application recommendations (for trees and shrubs) include a balance application of macronutrients (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) in the range of 300 lbs/acre (335 kg/hectare). Another study conducted at the coal spoil pile site examined the human health risks of arsenic (NDM, 1995). The risk assessment showed that for walking, biking and motocross activities, there is an insignificant risk of contamination from arsenic since the arsenic level is below half the level identified as safe by provincial government standards. Additional literature was reviewed to provide background information on coal waste piles. A unique character of coal spoil piles is their ability to spontaneously combust. This phenomenon is a significant impediment to potential commercial or residential development on the coal spoil pile at the study site. The following were synthesized from research on the combustibility of stockpiled coal (Krishnaswamy, 1996; Bhat, 1996; Hull, 1997; Fierroa, 2001): 1. Increasing the supply of oxygen to a pile enhances potential for fire. 2. Hot spots occur near the surface in the windward direction caused by oxygen being injected into the pile. 3. Slopes >10% enhance potential for fire due to increased wind penetration. 4. Wind velocity has a negative effect on the combustability of coal piles. 5. Pore space and wind are important factors although the effect of pore space is higher. 6. Compaction enhances safe storage of coal and coal wastes. 7. Low reactivity and high moisture content delays ignition. 8. High sulphur content, (present at the study site) adds to the likelihood of combustion. Evidence of previous burns exists at the Coal Hills. The locations where evidence of burns occurs at the coal waste pile show a relationship with the facts given above. Burns seem to have occurred on the steepest southwest facing slopes that are exposed to prevailing winds. The length of time that the pile has been in place and the evidence of previous burns suggest that the pile is currently stable with respect to fire. However, increased infiltration of water or exposing surfaces to air through excavation could lead to future fires. In corollary, re-establishing vegetation could reduce the wind velocity at ground level reducing the risk of fire. Clearly, the design of any structure or facility on the Coal Hills must respect the combustible nature of the material and function to eliminate this risk. 2.3 Characterizing the Site - Observations & Inventories Geomorphology Water: A question concerning the coal waste pile material's interaction with water emerged from observing indicators on the site. The pile material appears to be porous gravel upon visual Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 13 observation, but gully erosion and the dry cliff faces along Hart Creek seem to indicate that the pile surface is impermeable to water. Percolation tests were conducted in several test plot locations to give an indication of the percolation rate through the coal waste pile material. The methodology used to conduct this test followed the procedures outlined by the British Columbia Ministry of Health Planning percolation test procedure (BCMHP, 2003). The results of this test are shown in full in Table A-5 of Appendix A. In summary, measured percolation rates vary from 4cm/hr to 1.7m/hr; a considerable variation, suggesting that localized texture variations or compaction may exist. Despite pockets of less permeable material, percolation rates are not unlike those expected for a coarse textured soil (Satterlund, 1972). In sharp contradiction to this observation, other site observations point to surface impermeability. A second test examining the behaviour of water on the surface of the coal waste pile was established to help clarify the contradiction between percolation test results and an apparent absence of groundwater. The absence of percolation from the base of the cliffs along Hart Creek was hypothesized to be a result of sloping surfaces of the coal waste pile shedding water to channels before surface infiltration could occur and causing gully erosion as shown in Figure 2-3. In contrast, areas with lower slope angles at the eastern margin of the coal waste pile were assumed to be accepting infiltration as in Figure 2-4. A series of test plots were set up to give an indication of whether or not this hypothesis was reasonable. At each test plot, a small, sloped area (approximately 1 m2) of the coal waste pile surface was isolated by installing an aluminum strip barrier in a circular form. At the bottom end of each circle, a water tight collection basin was installed. Rain gauges were then installed on site to measure rainfall amounts over an approximate one month test period. It was then possible to compare the total amount of precipitation falling on each test plot to the amount of water that collected in each collection basin. In theory, if minimal amounts of water collected in the basins, then the surface of the coal waste pile would likely be accepting significant infiltration. However, if the basins collected a high percentage of the total amount of available water volume for each isolated surface area, then the above hypothesis would more likely be valid. The results of the runoff test are shown in Table A-6 of Appendix A. In general, the results indicate that most of the moisture from small rainfall events infiltrates the surface, except for on the steepest slopes. Larger rainfall events seem to result in high surface runoff rates on slope angles greater than approximately 10%, but areas with lower slope angles seem to have no measurable surface runoff, even for larger rainfall events (Figure 2-4). The indication is that the surface seems to be conditionally impermeable; for high Figure 2-3 High slope angles, minimal infiltration, gully erosion and no vegetation establishment. Figure 2-4 Low slope angles, high infiltration rates, no gully erosion and vegetation establishment. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 14 intensity rainfall events, infiltration is low, and for low intensity rainfall events, infiltration is high and influenced by slope. Soil Erosion: The universal soil loss equation (Marsh 1998) was used to derive a crude estimate of the severity of erosion from the coal waste pile. The equation used is as follows: A = R x K x S x C ; where A is the material loss in metric tons per hectare per year, R is a rainfall erosion index, K is a soil erodibility factor, S is a slope factor based on steepness and slope length, and C is a plant cover factor. RULSE2 software (NRCS, 2003) was used to generate an estimate of 15 tons/hectare/year for the unvegetated portion of the coal waste pile. This works out to an estimated 100 metric tons of material eroded from the site annually. Most of this material ends up on the beaches or in the Hart Creek estuary/delta. The relatively coarse nature of the soil (Table A-8), the steep slopes and the lack of vegetation result in high erosion rates. Gravity, wind, frost and rain-water all function to move soil down slope. Figure 2-5 is a photo-graph of a seedling taken on the lower slopes of the waste pile. The photograph shows an accumulation of over four centimeters of soil around the base of this seedling that is likely only two to three years old, providing an indication of the downward F i g u r e 2 . 5 A 3 . y e a r . 0 i d s e e d l i n g a t b a s e o f t h e c o a l migration Of soil. waste pile slopes; 4 centimetres of material bury its roots. Fluvial Processes: Another geomorphic process is the effect of Hart Creek on the coal waste pile. In fitting with other creeks of this region, Hart Creek would have originally entered Baynes Sound perpendicular to the coastline. In its current form, as seen in Figure 2-6, Hart Creek is forced to the north by the position of the coal waste pile. At the point where the creek meets the waste pile, there are tall cliffs in the order of six to nine meters (20 to 30 feet) tall that have developed as a result of the creek undercutting the base of the cliffs as the creek attempts to build a meander pattern (Ritter, 1995). The creek seems to be stabilizing, but peak discharge events in Hart Creek threaten to further erode the cliffs, delivering the acidic coal waste material to the Hart Creek estuary. Any reclamation plan for the study site would therefore have to deal with stabilizing these cliffs. Figure 2-6 Undercut cliffs of the coal waste pile on the bank of Hart Creek; the creek threatens to further erode the cliffs during peak discharge events. Site Analysis Recompensing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 15 Beach Processes: The final geomorphic process to be discussed that is re-shaping the coal waste pile area involves the longshore drift process (Ritter, 1995). Prevailing winds set up a sediment transport system along the beaches that trends in a northerly direction (Figure 2-7). Beaches fully exposed to waves are eroding and areas that are protected from wave action are accreting sediment (Bauer, 1977). Figure 2-7 shows the locations along the study site where erosion caused by wave action is prevalent and where sediment is being deposited. Figure 2-7 The longshore drift process showing locations of beach erosion and sediment deposition. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 16 Coal Waste Pile Material - Physical and Chemical Characteristics Despite previous analyses, some of the physical and chemical characteristics of the coal waste pile material remained unresolved. In light of this, some elementary soil tests were carried out, including a texture analysis, moisture content analysis and metal concentration analysis. The texture analysis involved oven drying and sifting soil samples through appropriately sized sieves (clay <0.002mm; 0.002<silt <0.05mm; 0.05<sand<2mm) (Brady, 2002). The texture analysis results are given in Table A-7 and Table A-8 of Appendix A and indicate that the coal waste pile material was relatively homogeneous in texture ranging from sand to a sandy loam (Bridges, 1978). The texture analysis also indicates that there are sufficient fine particles in the material to retain significant moisture. This is an important consideration for the ability of the material to support vegetation. Moisture analysis was conducted to estimate the coal waste pile material's field capacity and available water for plants. The moisture analysis seems to support the generalization made through the texture analysis results that the moisture holding capacity of the soils is adequate to support vegetation. Tables A-2, A-3 and A-4 of Appendix A indicate moisture holding capacities for the coal waste pile material that resemble those of a coarse forest soil (Satterlund, 1972). Appendix B provides a synthesis of chemical analyses conducted for the coal waste pile material. Six soil grab samples were collected and preserved in a manner consistent with standard lab handling procedures (HMTRI, 1997) and as directed by the testing facility, the Pacific Environmental Science Centre in North Vancouver. Testing was conducted to gain a preliminary representation of the chemical constituents of the coal waste pile material. Out of the six samples tested, six were found to have arsenic levels above the guideline for parks under the British Columbia Contaminated Sites Regulation (BCCSR, 2003). Note that although the BCCSR guideline was exceeded, the arsenic levels found were still below the human health risk criteria used in NMD 1995. Also, two samples had copper levels above the BCCSR guidelines and one had a barium level above the BCCSR guideline. Relatively high levels of iron and aluminum were also measured in the soil samples (Alloway, 1990). At low soil pH, aluminum and iron in an oxidized form are toxic to plants (Brady, 2002). Figure 2-8 shows a collection of soil pH measurements that were made at the site (NDM, 1999 and Table B-3). There is a strong correlation between the areas of low pH and the areas with no v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r . A r e a s t h a t h a v e a H i g h e r pH a r e S h o w i n g S i g n s Of Figure 2-8 Coal waste pile acidity isopleth lines and pH v e g e t a t i o n e n c r o a c h m e n t . T h e measurement locations Site Analysis Recompensing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 17 c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l o w p H a n d l a c k o f v e g e t a t i o n i s a n i n d i c a t o r t ha t p o i n t s t o p H a s t h e p r i m a r y f a c t o r p r e v e n t i n g v e g e t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . It i s l i k e l y t ha t t h e l o w p H i s c a u s i n g a l u m i n u m a n d i r o n t o x i c i t y t o p l a n t r o o t s . T h e l e v e l o f a l u m i n u m a n d i r o n in t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e r a i s e s a n a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n . D e l i v e r y o f a l u m i n u m a n d i r o n t o r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s f r o m t h e s i t e i s a p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s i n c e i r o n a n d a l u m i n u m a r e d i r e c t l y t o x i c t o f i s h ( B r a d y , 2 0 0 2 ) . O n e w a t e r s a m p l e w a s t a k e n f r o m a s i d e c h a n n e l o f H a r t C r e e k b e l o w t h e c l i f f s a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e s . T h i s s a m p l e s h o w e d l e v e l s o f a l u m i n u m a n d i r o n t h a t e x c e e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r f r e s h w a t e r a q u a t i c l i fe u n d e r t h e B C C S R . It i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o n e s a m p l e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o b e c e r t a i n o f t h e c o m p l e t e s y s t e m o f d e l i v e r y o f m e t a l s t o t h e r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s . H o w e v e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s a m p l e w i l l b e v i e w e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f c o n c e r n a n d w i l l b e u s e d to b a s e d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s o n . M o r e t e s t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o c l a r i f y t h e l e v e l s o f m e t a l s l e a v i n g t h e s i t e . A s t u d y s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e d f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w a s t h e p r e s e n c e o f o r a n g e s t a i n i n g a t t h e b a s e o f s o m e o f t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e s l o p e s ( F i g u r e 2 - 9 ) . O n e p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s t a i n i n g i s t h e d e l i v e r y o f a c i d d r a i n a g e f r o m t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e m a t e r i a l t o t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t w h e r e F e S 0 4 i n t h e a c i d d r a i n a g e o x i d i z e s t o c a u s e t h e o r a n g e d e p o s i t s ( B r a d y , 2 0 0 2 ) . E a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f p e r c o l a t i o n r a t e s a n d r u n o f f f r o m t h e s p o i l s p i l e s u g g e s t s t h a t v e r y l i t t le m o i s t u r e is p e n e t r a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f a c i d d r a i n a g e c a u s e d b y r a i n w a t e r i n f i l t ra t i on . T h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e p r o p o s e d . F i r s t , a c i d d r a i n a g e c o u l d b e t h e r e s u l t o f w a t e r m i x i n g w i t h a c i d g e n e r a t i n g m a t e r i a l a t t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e a n d t r a n s p o r t i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l t o t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t . S e c o n d , t h e o r a n g e s t a i n i n g c o u l d b e c a u s e d b y b a c t e r i a t h a t n a t u r a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e s o x i d i z e d i r o n , c a u s i n g o r a n g e s t a i n i n g s i m i l a r t o t h e s t a i n i n g o b s e r v e d a t t h e b a s e o f t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e s l o p e s ( M i l l e r , 2 0 0 3 ; T r i b u t s c h , 2 0 0 1 ) . T h i r d , i n u n d a t i o n o f s a l t w a t e r c a u s e d b y c h a n g i n g t i d e l e v e l s , c o u l d b e r e s u l t i n g i n a c i d Figure 2-9 Orange staining at base of coal waste pile. Causes might include acid drainage from surface runoff, acid drainage from saltwater intrusion and/or natural bacterial staining. Figure 2-10 Saltwater intrusion at high tide Figure 2-11 As the tide lowers, water drains from coal waste pile potentially resulting in acid drainage Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 18 drainage from the base of the slopes as shown in Figure 2- and Figure 2-. Under time constraints of this project, conclusive determination of the staining was not possible. Using the acidic nature of the coal waste pile material, the presence of gullies indicating excessive surface erosion and the proximity of the staining to the base of the waste pile slopes as indicators, it will be assumed for the purposes of this project that delivery of acid drainage by way of surface erosion will need to be mitigated to remedy the orange staining. In summarizing findings for the coal waste pile material, physical and chemical characteristics are such that they could be made to support plant growth through fertilizer and lime applications. However, possible high metal concentrations, localized compaction and the potential for spontaneous combustion need to be addressed to fulfill reclamation of the site. More intensive analysis of the cause of orange staining at the foot of the coal waste pile slopes needs to be conducted, and could identify a need for ameliorative action. For the purposes of this project, it will be assumed as sufficient to minimize soil erosion, thereby reducing the potential for delivery of acid generating materials to the beach. Vegetation and Wildlife Baynes Sound has an internationally significant listing as an "Important Bird Area" (IBA) under the IBA program administered by BirdLife International (BirdLife, 2003). The Union Bay area in particular has been highlighted by the provincial government as a particularly valuable location for over-wintering water fowl (BCMSRM b, 2003). The Baynes Sound marine environment is sheltered from storm generated waves in the lee of Denman Island making it a highly suitable site for shellfish aquaculture (BCMSRM a, 2003). The estuary of Hart Creek has suffered at the hands of indiscriminating uses such as of off-road vehicle use and garbage dumping, but despite the negative impacts, wildlife still frequent the site (Sedgwick & Dahl, 2003). Certainly, in time and through reclamation, the estuary has the potential to be a biologically productive site and capable of supporting wildlife. As the site lies in the Coastal Douglas Fir (CDF) biogeoclimatic zone (Valentine, 1986), forests around Union Bay are dominated by Douglas Fir. Generally, stands are even aged, but vary from location to location in age class due to logging activity surrounding Union Bay. A preliminary inventory of vegetation and wildlife of the Coal Hills study site was compiled using the following strategy. First, the study site was divided into six habitat types by way of air photo interpretation and subsequent ground truthing (UBC, 2002). The criteria for assigning habitat types included vegetation density (Morrison et al., 1992), vertical stratification (Karr and Roth, 1971) and dominant vegetation type. The six habitat types are as follows (refer to Appendix E): 1. Oldfield, or meadow with pronounced horizontal patchiness of shrubs and surrounding trees (Roth, 1976; Benyus, 1989). 2. Mixed deciduous forest with stratified understory and some conifers. 3. Second growth coniferous forest, typical of the coastal Douglas fir biogeoclimatic zone. 4. Sparse vegetation, or areas highly distrurbed but able to support some vegetation. 5. No vegetation, or highly disrurbed areas not supporting vegetation. 6. Marine Foreshore as a generalization of beach and tidal areas. The marine environment was generalized as one habitat type and bird species assigned to it, but is in need of more detailed study. Bird assignments to this zone are used in this project as an indicator for the value of the marine foreshore zone. Secondly, bird surveys for the study site were available from the Comox Valley Naturalists Society. The surveys were used to assign birds to specific habitat types according to their preferred foraging and nesting locations (NGS, 1987; Martin, 1951). Thirdly, an inventory of vegetation was conducted at the study site on March 18th, 2003. As plants had not fully emerged from dormancy, identification was complicated and the plant lists are therefore expected to be incomplete. The plant and bird lists given for each habitat classification are shown in Appendix E and are used to provide an indication of vegetation and wildlife habitat associations. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 19 One of the more significant findings of the wildlife and vegetation inventory is the occurrence of the mixed deciduous habitat type in association with the oldfield habitat type (Benyus, 1989; Morrison et al., 1992). The mixed deciduous forest immediately to the south of the coal waste pile and the surrounding open fields where industrial shops and buildings were originally located, (oldfield) is likely a valuable wildlife habitat assemblage for a range of bird species due to the vegetation structure and composition. The oldfield polygons are lined with fruit trees, possibly originating from the apple cores and pits of various fruits eaten by workers on their lunch breaks at the turn of the century. These productive fruit trees, along with taller deciduous tress, grassy fields and fruiting shrubs commonly found in the region, provide a valuable diversity of food for a range of wildlife (Benyus, 1989). To add, the frequent occurrence of Sambucus cerulea (Blue Elderberry) on the study site adds significantly to the wildlife habitat value, as nectar from flowers provides food for insects and fruit provides ample food for birds. In general, the vegetation characteristics and habitat types existing on the study site, such as oldfield and mixed deciduous forest, indicate value of these areas to a variety of wildlife. There is room for improving these areas for wildlife use through enhancement of vegetation diversity and structure and through adding habitat types. Also, there are large areas of the site devoid of vegetation and with little or no habitat value. Restoration of ecological processes on these sites could result in a dramatic improvement of the study site for wildlife. 2.4 T y i n g it A l l T o g e t h e r - S u i t a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s Methodology The discussion given above paints a picture of complex processes and features for the Union Bay study site. One way of dealing with this complexity is to compare specific uses for the study site against a pre-determined set of criteria. This approach is used to indicate locations within a site that are most suitable for a given use. This form of analysis is referred to as a feasibility study or suitability analysis (Marsh 1998). The primary limitation of a suitability analysis is that the analysis is only as strong as the input information. Since the information presented above as indicators will be drawn upon for the suitability analysis, the results will also be indicators for the placement of specific uses. For the purposes of this project, three end uses were selected for analysis; commercial, residential and open space or park use. The following process was followed in conducting the suitability analysis: 1. Site observations were simplified into 12 criteria. Each criterion represents an issue or value on the study site that could impact upon the nature of development. The criteria are soil fire hazard, slope class, soil contamination, historical and special site features, wildlife habitat quality, ease of access to freeway, ease of access for community, view quality, marine servicing potential, sun exposure, wind exposure and noise pollution from the freeway. A rationale for each criterion is provided in Table C-4 in Appendix C. 2. Criteria were compared against each other in terms of their importance to commercial, residential or open space forms of development. The results of this comparison are shown in the crosswise comparison matrices (Salustri, 2002) of Appendix C (Tables C-1 to C-3). 3. For each criterion, a weighting was assigned, based on the number of times a given criterion was rated higher than another. For example, in Table C-1 for commercial suitability, slope class was considered more important than ten other criteria in the comparison matrix, so it ended up with a weighting score of ten. 4. ArcView geographical information system (GIS) themes were created for each criterion (Figures D-1 through D-12 in Appendix D). Each theme was classified into a spatially defined, qualitative ranking of importance. This resulted in the creation of zones, each given a numerical value ^ based on the zone's importance. For example, Figure D-5 in Appendix D shows the spatial distribution of wildlife habitat zones that are considered either unique (value = 3), average (value = 2), or poor (value = 1). 5. The 12 GIS themes were then draped one over the other using a weighted overlay process (Aronoff, 1995). Figure 2-12 illustrates an example of how the weighting and overlay process is applied. As is evident from Figure 2-12, an enormous data set is generated using this process and has not been included in this report for practical reasons. Similarly, the resulting GIS maps Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 20 have numerous, graphically precise polygons, the nature of which do not reflect the indefinite character of the input data. Therefore, output maps, presented as Figures 2-13 to 2-15 were simplified in their representation from the original GIS output maps to more closely reflect the indefinite nature of the input information. SPATIAL DATA NUMERICAL DATA GIS THEME 1 OVERLAY PROCESS GIS THEME 2 OUTPUT LAYER REPEAT OVERLAY PROCESS FOR ALL 12 THEMES VALUE WEIGHTING A 1 2 B 3 VALUE WEIGHTING .! C ; 1 5 0 2 ZONE COMBINATION SUM E B-C 11 F A-G 7 G D-B 16 H A-C 7 I D-B 16 J A-D 12 GIS THEME 3 Figure 2-12 Weighted GIS overlay process. Each spatial zone within a theme is given a numerical value which is multiplied by the theme weighting and then overlaid with the subsequent theme. Weighted values are summed and the process continues for all 12 themes (modified from Aronoff, 1995) Discussion of Results - Commercial Figure 2-13 shows the results of the suitability analysis for commercial development. From the diagram, the indication is that commercial development would best be located in proximity to the highway. Also, commercial development seems to be most appropriately situated around the northern and western edge of the bay, primarily due to the location's proximity to the community and its potential for serving as a marina site. Factors that limit commercial development elsewhere include accessibility from the community, the potential for spontaneous combustion of coal spoils, potential displacement of wildlife habitat and steep slopes. Discussion of Results - Residential The spatial configuration of lands suitable for residential development is largely influenced by the potential presence of metal contamination in the soil, view quality, steep slopes and coal spoil material fire hazard. Areas most suitable for residential development are those that have views, sun exposure and are a reasonable distance from the freeway. Figure 2-14 gives the results of the residential suitability analysis and indicates a concentration of lands suitable for residential development along the shoreline, as well as higher up on the slopes to the west of the study site where scenic views and good sun exposure are realized. Note that a 30 meter setback has been Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 21 indicated in Figure 2-14. Development within the Regional District of Comox/Strathcona is subject to a 15 meter development setback requirement. However, an argument will be presented in Section 3.1 that suggests the entire waterfront should be maintained as public open space. Therefore, the Regional District Requirement has been expanded to 30 meters to provide more flexibility in managing foreshore areas. Areas that lie within the 30 meter setback zone are therefore excluded from the residential suitability analysis. Discussion of Results - Open Space Some of the same areas that are rated highly for commercial and residential development are also rated highly for park use. This is not surprising since some of the same factors used to indicate suitable commercial and residential lands, such as sun exposure, views and soil contamination, have been used to indicate suitability for park use. However, the coal waste pile and the forested area immediately to the south show up in Figure 2-15 as having a high suitability for park use. This is largely due to the fact that habitat value, historical significance and view quality are weighted highly for park use and these areas contain most of the historically significant sites and good wildlife habitat. An indication of the open space suitability analysis that is worth noting is that the riparian corridor of Hart Creek does not show up as suitable for park or open space use. This is a consequence of the open space suitability being geared towards a more active park use. Generally, riparian areas are steep, sensitive and most suitably used as un-programmed open space. Site Analysis Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 23 3. Site Design As the community of Union Bay matures, it is important to consider the future shape of the community. Whyte (1968) suggests that in the growth of any city or town, the way the first components are designed and the initial settlers it attracts largely determines the character of the community's growth for generations to come. This observation appears accurate for Union Bay. The quaint, relaxed character of the town and the welcoming nature of the people are likely to remain. Still, taking care to preserve these traits is necessary in planning for the future. What is the community's vision in terms of its role in the region? Should Union Bay be a recreation and tourism destination, a retirement community and a growth centre, or should the town remain as it is? Is it desirable to allow the community to sprawl along the freeway, is a tighter form of development that creates a distinct, human-scaled atmosphere preferred or is no growth preferred? The Union Bay Local Area Plan (UBLAP) goes a long way to defining some of these issues (RDCS, 1998). However, in reading the plan, the future character and physical form of Union Bay remains ambiguous. Only generalized development zones are laid out that do not suggest what the community will look like or function like. This project will attempt to go one step further than the UBLAP for a portion of the community of Union Bay by providing a development proposal for the study site. The proposal will lay out one option for how the town could choose to grow in a specific area, and begins to paint a picture of what this growth could look like. It also attempts to deal with the dereliction of the study site and propose a plan for the site's reclamation. Before presenting details of the design proposal, a review of precedents for the design will be given. 3.1 Literature Review - Precedents Park Precedents In developing the design for the study site, several precedent projects have been referenced as inspiration. Some are relevant to the design of a park amenity while others are relevant to waterfront development. For parks, Peter Latz's work at Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord has already been introduced as having a relevant theoretical basis. The park itself also has many wonderful practical examples of how a derelict site can be reclaimed, without starting from scratch and without eliminating the memory contained in the landscape (Tate, 2001). Figure 3-1 shows how the remains of a coal bunker have been modified to allow people to experience the chamber in a new light. The massive character of the structure and indications of its use are retained, but a small intervention dramatically changes the manner in which people can interact with the site. Like Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord, Gasworks Park in Seattle, Washington is another example of a derelict site that was turned into a park amenity. The park (Figure 3-2) has attracted international attention as a cultural expression in the landscape, and still attracts visitors 28 years after its opening to the public (SPR, 2003). Some of the attraction of Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord and Gasworks Park likely lies in what Rose Macaulay (1953) F ' g u r e 3-* Doorway cut into a coal bunker refers to as the pleasure of ruins, or the pleasure w a " a t Landscaftspark Duisburg-Nord, Germany. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 24 Figure 3-2 Gasworks Park at Seattle, Washington State. The rusting remains of a gas manufacturing plant are retained as a park attraction. associated with exploring physical remains of the past. Clearly, these precedents provide a unique perspective on how the remains of Union Bay history could be retained, redefined and enjoyed. The suitability analysis outlined in Section 2.4 indicates a rationale for developing a park amenity on the coal waste piles. A precedent was explored for application to the coal waste pile area. In particular, Jens Jensen's design for Mahoney Park in Kenilworth, Illinois (Grese, 1992) uses intentionality in the layout of a trail system to create a sequence of spaces and carefully orchestrated views toward important locations within the park. The precedent is useful since one of the most valuable assets of the coal waste pile site is the dramatic near-views of the cliffs, and the distant-views of Denman Island and Comox. Using a carefully designed trail system with intentionally positioned vegetative screens enables design moves that gradually reveal views, conceal views until a dramatic point or concentrate views along a corridor. Section 3.4 will elaborate on the intentionality of views in the design for the coal waste pile. Waterfront Development Precedents Several design precedents were explored to provide background for the design of a community centre at the south end of the study site. To start, Seaside, Florida is a community (Bressi, 2002) that was developed along the ocean with specific design goals in mind. One of the principle goals was to retain the ocean waterfront as public open space and to proportion the community in such a way that it would be interconnected with a variety of pleasant five-minute walks (Davis, 2002). Seaside is considered a valuable design precedent, specifically with regards to these design principles. The design for the Union Bay study site attempts to retain public access to all portions of the waterfront and to establish a network of trails that not only provides recreational opportunities, but also generates a general sense that walking is a viable mode of transportation within the town. Retaining waterfront as public open space poses a political problem, since waterfront is highly desirable for development. Development along the waterfront can be argued as a best use for waterfront land since higher tax rates can be collected from residences along the waterfront, generating a net benefit to the community. However, the Granville Island waterfront in Vancouver, BC provides a local precedent of high density residential development close to the waterfront while retaining the Figure 3-3 Buildings bordering a waterfront path near Granville Island, BC are elevated slightly above path grade to establish a sense of privacy. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 25 waterfront for a highly valued, public walkway. As shown in Figure 3-3, private spaces in front of buildings are elevated slightly above the pedestrian walkway to give a feeling of privacy for building residents near the path system. From a taxation perspective, retaining the waterfront for public access potentially has dramatic payoffs. Since residents as far as ten blocks back from the walkway are within easy walking distance to the waterfront, property values, and corresponding tax rates are higher for the whole community, not just the elite who enjoy waterfront access. Clearly, the Granville Island waterfront walkway provides a design precedent for development along the shoreline. 3.2 A Vision for the Study Site The design proposal presented here represents a vision for the study site. There are two general components to the vision. First, a community centre with a new city hall, hotel, village market, marina and complex of residential development forms is proposed for the south end of the study site. Second, a park amenity with an interconnecting trail system, park centre/museum, diversion of Hart Creek and reclaimed coal waste pile is proposed for the bulk of remaining lands. Figure 3-4 shows the conceptual arrangement of interventions on the site. Each group of buildings or major site feature is conceptually linked back to the museum/park centre. Although not necessarily obvious on site, the concept gives structure and another layer of meaning to the design. Figure 3-5 and Figure 3-6 illustrate the physical layout of the vision. The plan will be broken into components, each of which will be explained in greater detail below. In essence, the design proposal incorporates the direction gained through site analysis work with the design sensibilities found in the precedents outlined above. The result is a vision intended to enhance a sense of community, provide amenities for people Figure 3-4 Conceptual site organization with the coal washer as the and clean up a derelict site. centre. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 26 proposed trail network runoff catchment system treatment ponds wetlands/habitat residential clusters commercial/residential and village market phasing option for commercial expansion museum/park centre hotel 10. chapel 11. boat launch 12. creek diversion 13. coal waste pile summit 14. forest core 100 m Figure 3-5 Layout of proposed site interventions. Notable features include clustering of residential and commercial development, the diversion of Hart Creek, the establishment of a park at the coal waste pile and the interlinking of features with a trail network. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, B C 27 condominium! i U i ! pedestrian bridge . existing community centra N A 100 m • salt marsh -treatment pond pathway waste pile summit playing field treatment pond treatment system - main park access path - Hart Creek diversion - museum/park centre -forested park core - greenway trail system retirement homes village market commercial buildings grand walkway chapel - waterfront walk - bus/trailer parking • boat launch Figure 3-6 The proposed master plan. The study site is transformed into a mixed commercial and residential development at the south, a residential development at the northwest, and a park at the coal waste pile. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 28 3.3 The New Town Centre Cluster Concept When compared to the existing population of Union Bay (650 people) and the build-out population proposed in the UBLAP for the whole of the 1200 acre rural settlement area (2403 people or 2 people per acre), a relatively aggressive plan is proposed that would accommodate nearly 190 dwelling units and a population of 400 people on a 100 acre site (4 people/acre) (Note that density calculations for this project were modeled after Condon, 1996). In spite of this density, a large portion of the study site has been retained as open space by clustering development in even higher density clusters. Figure 3-5 illustrates two primary development clusters; a residential cluster is located immediately to the west of the coal waste pile on the study site, and the second development cluster, or New Town Centre, is located at the south end of the study site, and includes residential and commercial forms of development. The layout of the New Town Centre is shown in more detail in Figure 3-7. As well, Figures 3-8 through 3-11 illustrate cross sections of components of the New Town Centre proposal. Cross section locations are shown in Figure 3-7. Cluster development is a long-standing concept originally introduced in the 1950's and 1960's as a strategy to conserve green space and aggregate development onto buildable sites (Whyte, 1964; CPC 1983). It is proposed here, primarily as a means of capitalizing on the most suitable development locations, as well as to conserve a forest core on the study site. The forest core (see Figure 3-5) is considered integral to the plan for three primary reasons: 1. As argued the forest core area is considered to contain some of the highest quality wildlife habitat; 2. Retaining the forest core is considered an important component of a high quality park amenity, as it forms a barrier (conceptually and physically) between the open coal waste pile area and the rest of the community; 3. The forest core contains remnants of history, including the coal washer foundation and shop foundations, the preservation of which are considered integral to the park proposal. Clustering development serves another useful purpose. From a design point of view, clustering focuses development in key areas resulting in more human-scaled spaces that enhance the feeling of community (Bressi, 2002). In simple terms, the clustering of services and homes results in a scale-reduction. Amenities are within walking distance from residences resulting in a reduction in reliance on automobiles. The theoretical result is greater interaction between neighbours and a more traditional community atmosphere (Fulton, 1996). For this reason, integration of residences and commercial space has been worked into the New Town Centre and residential units are kept in close proximity to the village market. One potential problem with the high density cluster concept is the fact that higher density forms of development in a rural community such as Union Bay would feel terribly out of place. Care would therefore have to be taken in detailing relief into building forms and in siting buildings within clusters to enhance visual and physical access for the public. Public Space and Housing Diversity Two additional considerations were made when designing the New Town Centre. First, as discussed in Section 3.1, retaining waterfront as public open space is a worthwhile venture. Due to the high amount of publicly accessible space in the proposal, the site is likely to retain a welcoming and hospitable feel. However, care would have to be exercised in detailing the transition spaces between public and private lands to retain a sense of privacy in dwelling units. Secondly, attention was given to provide a range and diversity of housing types in the plan. The housing forms range from high end row houses that might attract a discriminating buyer eager to invest in waterfront views, to condominium and apartment dwellings that might serve as retirement homes or rental housing. Figure 3-7 lists the diversity of housing forms. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 29 Figure 3-7 The New Town Centre development proposal. Commercial and residential development is clustered around a marina at the head of Union Bay. A diversity of housing types is provided and public access to the waterfront is maintained. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 30 3.4 Coal Hills Park Museum/Park Centre The physical form of the park proposal, or Coal Hills Park, is shown in Figure 3-13. The proposal is anchored by a museum/park centre beside Hart Creek and the remains of the former washer plant. The multi-purpose facility would function as the point of origin for park visitation and could be used to disseminate park interpretive materials, serve as a headquarters for special events and house historical artifacts specific to Union Bay. It was felt that a prime location for the museum/park centre would be proximal to the remnant washer foundation. Historically, as Figure 3-4 shows, the location of the coal washer plant represented the centre of the movement of coal materials on the site. Also, the foundation represents one of the most intriguing, remaining historical features on the site and could be reinterpreted in a variety of different ways. Figure 3-12 shows how the washer foundation could be reinterpreted as an attractive water feature. The possibilities do not stop there; it is conceivable that the washer foundation could serve as a fish hatchery or sewage treatment facility given the necessity for such programs and the creativity required to make it happen. Figure 3-15 demonstrates the integration of a pedestrian crossing over Hart Creek with the roof of the museum structure. Extending the elevated path along the side of the washer foundation would render the compartments of the washer foundation and the water feature visible. Figure 3-12 Reinterpretation of the washer foundation as a water feature. The feasibility for other uses could also be studied including a fish hatchery or sewage treatment facility. Trail System and Sequence of Park Spaces The proposed trail system for Coal Hills Park has been laid out with care and attention to sequencing spaces and controlling views. Figure 3-19 shows the primary view locations and how vegetation is used to control these views. For example, when approaching the coal waste pile from the west along the main access path (See Figure 3-13), an opportunity to turn to the left towards the cliffs on a secondary trail is encountered. Views of the cliffs are prevented from the main access path by establishing a dense thicket of vegetation along the north side of the path (Figure 3-14). This has the experiential affect of establishing a sense of surprise when the view of the cliffs is finally encountered. In addition to sequencing views along the path, vegetation is used to create a sequence of experientially distinct spaces. On the northwest facing slopes of the coal waste pile, for example, gullies are intended to be filled with shrubs and small trees as shown in Figure 3-16. This has the effect of enclosing a series of small meadow rooms or picnic alcoves on the slopes. When not occupied by park users, the alcoves would function as effective wildlife habitat since the vegetation structure of these areas reflects the oldfield habitat types discussed in Section 2-3. Additional spaces that have been designed with the intention of providing a unique recreational experience in the park include the coal waste pile trellis walk in Figure 3-17 and the fire circle as shown in Figure 3-18. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, B C 33 Figure 3-14 Sectional view looking east along the main park access path. The diverted stream channel lies on the right and a newly established treatment pond lies on the left. Dense vegetation on the left side of the path prevents views of the cliffs until a key point along the path. Figure 3-15 Sectional view looking east from the highway. An elevated bridge corssing takes pedestrians and cylclists from the former railway grade on the north side of Hart Creek over the museum and down a ramp alongside the washer foundation. Figure 3-16 Cross seciton of a treated gully. Original gully morphology is shown with a dotted line. Check dams are used in cooperation with vegetation to gradually infill the gullies. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 35 Figure 3-17 Trellis feature adjacent to playing field. The dovetail details of the trellis reflects the dovetailing that was used in construction historically, and is still evident in concrete remains on the site today. Figure 3-18 Coal hill summit feature. Modeled after Jens Jensen's council ring (Grese, 1992), the fire circle would be a fabulous place to enjoy scenic views, or to visit in the evening for a bonfire. The pit is circle by small trees and seating walls are constructed of slate/shale to shadow the sedimentary nature of coal deposits. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 36 Figure 3-19 Specific trail views form an important component of enhancing the experiential quality of the site. In addition to a sequence of views along the trail system, Figures 3-20 to 3-24 show a hierarchy of paths. The hierarchy ranges from a highly programmed path with a trellis, formal paving surface and seating steps on the down-hill side (Figure 3-20), to a less programmed and passive-use trail (Figure 3-24). All of the paths in the hierarchy are designed to bring a sense of management and refinement into the landscape. In contrast to the low maintenance character of the bulk of park space in the proposal, all of the pathways are bordered by a mown grass strip or hard edging treatment. The juxtaposition of rough, low-maintenance surroundings with a refined and well maintained trail system provides an aesthetically pleasing contrast, while at the same time lending to a low-cost park management strategy. An issue of liability exists on the coal waste pile in the areas surrounding the cliffs and deep gullies. In a park setting, these areas could pose a danger to children or other unsuspecting park users. Figure 3-16 shows a proposed solution to this liability issue where conjunctive use of board check dams and vegetation (Gray and Sotir, 1996) in gullies slowing the rate of water flow and cause deposition of sediment in the base of the gullies . The depth of the gullies could be regulated by the height of the check dams, resulting in a reduction of the hazard associated with the gullies. The cliffs adjacent to Hart Creek at the coal waste pile are considered a highly significant landscape feature the retention of which is proposed. The liability associated with retaining the cliffs could be mitigated by installing fences at the top of slopes for which precedents abound. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 37 french ' : playing drain fold Figure 3-20 Main access path along seating walls. Water collection system is shown to the left of the path. Figure 3-22 Path from coal hill summit to Langley (Union) Point. Clearing width is shown maintained at a minimum 7 meter width to provide a sightline to the point from the summit. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 38 Figure 3-23 Active recreation path with hard surface to accommodate cyclists. This treatment is proposed for the waterfront route and the tree-lined path to the chapel. Figure 3-24 A soft path surface limits use to passive forms of recreation. This treatment is proposed on secondary trails, such as the path from the cliffs to the coal hill summit. Site Reclamation Program Several issues surrounding the reclamation of the site need resolution. In particular, soil erosion vegetation growth processes, and delivery of contamination to the surrounding environment are three issues requiring intervention. As mentioned, some technical issues remain unclear on the site. Some indications of site processes exist, but assumptions will still be necessary in proposing a reclamation plan. Also, the plan is complicated by the precept of decomposition, or reinterpreting existing site features, set out in this project. A traditional method of reclaiming a site like the coal waste pile would be to dispose of the material off site or to bury contaminated material on site in an engineered cap of compacted clay and plant growing medium. The result of such actions at the Union Bay site would be the burial/removal of a strong sense of connection with the history of the site that currently exists. Therefore, a reclamation plan that avoids capping of the site is proposed. Since importing growing medium to the site is not considered a desirable alternative, it was necessary to explore the conditions limiting growth on the coal waste pile material so that a vegetation reclamation plan could be proposed. Three conditions seemed to be primarily responsible for limiting vegetation growth processes. First, acidity of the coal waste pile material is likely the primary plant growth limiting factor. Second, the xeric or dry condition of the site is likely to further prevent vegetation establishment. And third, repeated disturbance of the site by motocross users is also contributing to the problem. The third condition is resolved by way of a change in human behaviour. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 39 T h e f i rs t t w o c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e s o i l r e m e d i a t i o n . A p p l i c a t i o n s o f c r u s h e d l i m e s t o n e c o m b i n e d w i t h a s h a l l o w t i l l i ng o f t h e s o i l s u r f a c e to b r e a k u p i ts i m b r i c a t e d a n d c o m p a c t e d n a t u r e c o u l d b e e n o u g h to r e d u c e a c i d i t y a n d i n c r e a s e r a i n w a t e r i n f i l t r a t i on , p e r m i t t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v e g e t a t i o n . Ini t ial v e g e t a t i o n g r o w t h w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e t o b e s u p p o r t e d w i t h b i a n n u a l l i m e a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d a n n u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f e r t i l i z e r . T o t e s t t h i s r e c l a m a t i o n a p p r o a c h , t e s t p l o t s c o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t s p e c i e s a n d v a r y i n g a m o u n t s o f l i m e a n d f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n s . W i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f v e g e t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t , F i g u r e 3 -2 5 g i v e s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e a u n i q u e p a r k s e t t i n g . tidal marsh .shrub lawn •.' meadow ' , m , ^ / V ' [ fores t? W i t h t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v e g e t a t i o n , t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l r e c l a m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e i m p r o v e d . F i r s t , v e g e t a t i o n w o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e e r o s i o n r a t e s f r o m t h e s u r f a c e a n d c o u l d t h e r e b y c u r b d e l i v e r y o f c o n t a m i n a t e d m a t e r i a l s t o t h e r e c e i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . A l s o , p h y t o r e m e d a t i o n , o r t h e a b i l i t y o f p l a n t s t o a b s o r b c o n t a m i n a n t s f r o m s o i l a n d r e t a i n t h e m in t h e i r b i o m a s s , c o u l d b e u s e d to r e m e d i a t e m e t a l s l e v e l s i n t h e s o i l ( P o n g r a t z , 1 9 9 8 ; H i n c h m a n , 2 0 0 3 ) . L a s t l y , w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d s u p p l i e s a n d s h e l t e r . Figure 3-25 Vegetation structure for the Coal Hills Park Proposal. Maintaining meadow through bi-annual mowing would retain usable park spaces and oldfield habitat. T o f u r t h e r r e s o l v e t h e s o i l e r o s i o n p r o b l e m o n t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e , t w o a d d i t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s n e e d to b e a d d r e s s e d . F i r s t t h e s l o p e a n g l e t ha t c h a n n e l l e d w a t e r f l o w s a c r o s s t h e s i t e a t n e e d s to b e r e d u c e d . R e d u c i n g t h e s l o p e a n g l e o f a c h a n n e l s l o w s t h e r a t e o f f l o w a n d r e d u c e s t h e ab i l i t y o f w a t e r t o c a r r y s e d i m e n t . S e c o n d , l o n g s l o p e l e n g t h s i n c r e a s e s o i l e r o s i o n b y r e s u l t i n g in i n c r e a s e v o l u m e s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d w a t e r . R e d u c i n g s l o p e l e n g t h w o u l d a i d i n r e d u c i n g e r o s i o n . A s u r f a c e w a t e r a n d s h a l l o w s o i l - w a t e r c o l l e c t i o n s y s t e m i s e n v i s i o n e d f o r t h e c o a l w a s t e p i l e t h a t r e d u c e s c h a n n e l g r a d i e n t a n d c u t s s l o p e l e n g t h s d r a m a t i c a l l y . T h e s t r u c t u r e i s s h o w n in F i g u r e 3 - 2 0 a n d F i g u r e 3 - 2 1 a n d t h e c h a n g e i n d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3 - 2 6 . T h e c o l l e c t i o n s y s t e m r e d u c e s t h e g u l l y e r o s i o n p r o b l e m o n t h e s i t e b y d i v e r t i n g a n d c o l l e c t i n g s u r f a c e f l o w s i n to l o w g r a d i e n t , r o c k f i l l ed d r a i n a g e t r e n c h e s , o r f r e n c h d r a i n s . S l o p e l e n g t h s a r e s e g m e n t e d s i n c e t h e f r e n c h d r a i n s c u t a c r o s s t h e s l o p e s l a t e r a l l y a n d s p i r a l d o w n t h e h i l l . T h e f r e n c h d r a i n s e m p t y i n t o t w o t r e a t m e n t / r e t e n t i o n p o n d s w h e r e w a t e r i s s l o w e d , g i v i n g t i m e t o d r o p i ts s e d i m e n t l o a d a n d to c o m e i n c o n t a c t w i t h m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s a n d p l a n t s tha t c o u l d h e l p r e m o v e c o n t a m i n a n t s . T h e p o n d s c o u l d b e d e s i g n e d to f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r l y to s t o r m w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p o n d s , p r o v i d i n g a r e g u l a t e d l o w f l o w v o l u m e a n d m o r e c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y o f f r e s h w a t e r t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g e s t u a r y . Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 40 If further analyses of coal waste pile materials and receiving waters showed a metals contamination problem, it would be feasible to use the drainage structures to treat runoff to reduce metals concentrations. Crushed limestone could be used to fill the base of the French drains to reduce the acidity of the runoff. This would in turn reduce the ability of the water to carry dissolved metals. Figure 3-26 Proposed water collection and treatment system. Surface and shallow water flows are collected in subsurface galleries that deliver water from the site into two treatment ponds. A major design move that potentially resolves a soil erosion problem is the diversion of Hart Creek. Currently, the course that Hart Creek flows along is likely to result in further erosion of the cliffs shown in Figure 2-6. Diverting the channel to the proposed location as shown in Figure 3-13 eliminates the strong bend in the creek and reduced the potential for further erosion. To add, the diversion provides an opportunity to create a channel with improved spawning habitat for salmon (see Slaney and Zaldokas, 1997). Addressing soil erosion, vegetation establishment and limiting the potential delivery of contaminants to the receiving environment are three objectives that the reclamation plan addresses. Changing Over Time - An Experimental Approach The reclamation plan presented poses a significant problem in the development of a park amenity. Typically, parks are built in the same manner as other forms of development - quickly. The reclamation plan proposed above would require patience, testing and adjustments to potential localized failures in order to be successful in the long term. The plan does not represent a quick-fix to the problems encountered at the study site. For example, vegetation establishment could take several years to become self-sustaining as organic content in the soil builds and nitrogen-fixing plants are given time to build the condition of the soil. As such, a different approach to park design would be required that not only respects the existing features on the site, but is willing to give time for the site to evolve. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 41 Development Scenario/Phasing Option A simple sequence of development is proposed that would allow reclamation of the park to be completed in a timely fashion, while also providing a developer with a logical development plan to maximize returns. To start the redevelopment of the study site, a series of simple experiments could be established immediately to determine the feasibility of establishing vegetation on the coal waste pile area. Subsequently, issues surrounding property boundary adjustments, sewage treatment, zoning changes and other legal issues could be resolved. Shortly thereafter, physical development of the site could begin with the residential area to the north of the study site. It is likely that commercial development at the south end of the study site would follow, once a population base on the site was established through residential development that could help support the new commercial ventures. As various residential buildings were developed, the trail system could be sequentially built up and park areas refined. A final sequencing opportunity exists to the north of the village market area. The large open field immediately to the east of the freeway is retained in the proposal for its value as oldfield wildlife habitat. However, as oldfield habitat is created on the slopes of the coal waste pile in the proposed park scheme, this prime development location (indicated in Figure 3-7 as a phasing option area) could be used to further expand commercial or residential development. Design Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 42 4. Concluding Remarks Recomposing remnant industrial lands at Union Bay, BC has been presented as a vision of re-defining a piece of the landscape in order to re-integrate it into the surroundings. A proposal for this reintegration has been proposed in this report. The project goal was to propose a development plan for the study site that was sensitive to existing site characteristics and that brought life and meaning back to the site. Sensitivity to existing site characteristics has been displayed in various design interventions throughout the project. However, bringing life and meaning back to the site is more ambiguous to define and more subjective to assess. In theory, the proposed design could lead to a healthier local environment, well integrated with its surroundings. This could be verified through testing and experimentation. The design proposal could also result in the making of a human-scaled community, with an integrated trail system and enjoyable park spaces to explore. This could only be verified through assessing opinions. In ending, the proposal represents a collection of ideas and concepts, but filtered as one person's vision for the site. Therefore, the proposal should be viewed as preliminary in scope. As mentioned early in the report, site dereliction typically involves cultural and ecological problems that are sufficiently complex to require cooperation among teams of professionals to resolve. 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References Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 49 Appendix A: Soil Analysis Tables - Physical Characteristics Appendix A Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 50 J2 i i 75 o< O 5> c O CL C o "E n I O 3 •a c o o (0 o c < tf) o CO o E E 3 (0 o (0 u c o to co © CO CO O o (0 to o © © s CL o CO CO © 0 CO I— CO o o CD CO Tj © 4— CD C L CO CO i CD C O J C O XI cf o o CD CL E "O | s © XI CD i _ CD > CD o CD CL CD O © T3 Q ) C L e co CO CO ra_ c CD C o o 3 to o 2 a) 1 ro Q. CO c B c o o CD fc— -4—' to o CO Q ) I -C o ro o o © c © > CD C '2 >> CD g ro 1 "g ^ CD c ^ 2 .E CO CD CL O co Q. CD © "co CO CD c g CO o I LU CD O w c o ro < 3 ra CD > O CD O (0 w >. "3 c < £ 3 o o is w (0 * j § •£ « o •g 2 3 S O C <o .2 '11 ro £ o a; ro i CD X3 O E E co o >, "O c CO CO CD c CD C O O T3 O CO n cp !c j o CO © ro E CO CO co c © E © D CO co © E n g> ! c c 3 CO © fc-ro 8 "S © o c © CO © c © c o O c © E C O CO © CO fc-CD O o CO CO c < © fc-•s © X CL © c o O o ' c CO C D CO » >. (0 c £ 3 *^ X © H O (0 c © E £ 3 CO ta o S c © E £ 3 CO CO © c © c o o o E CO O) Figure A - l Soils Analyses Test Plot Location Map Appendix 1 Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 52 rf K" •4-1 c a> ** c o % H 5 '5. • 5 n . o if < a> 6 * h f 2 ,3 > at o s? o oi in oi N-t f r-CO CM oi CM oi cn i " -* oi oi 1*. CM oi oi co oi •st oi oq oq cn I-. r— oi oi O l oi oi 0> to j= in Q CO o CN O CO O 5 CN o CO o CM O CN O CM O CN o CM o s— o CM O o CM o CN o CO o CM O o CN O CM O CO o CM o CM o CO o CO o CM •sf CN CO CO CN CO oi CN in CM CO T— CD CO CO CO CM CN CO CD T— m <o CO CM CO CN ai CN 00 CO CM CO oi CN CM c i CM •sf CM 0) CM CM a> o i CM in CD CO CM f^ CD CO oi CN •sf 00 •sf CO m CM •sf CD •sf d CN •sf in CO CM CO CD d CN CD CO •sf CM •sf CM d i K E » o 3 Q (/} < £ CO a> CO CN cn CO CO CM CD •sf a i CN f -CM CO •sf CO CO CO CO CM CD iri oo CO CM CO CD CO CN co" CN CD T— CNJ CO CO a i 1^ CO CM s CO CM CO cq CM CO o CO CN CD a> o CM CN co in 5-m CM oi •sf CD 00 d s CO CN CO CO d CN CD CO CO CO CO CO CM CM r-cd d> a. E ro 0 ) CO CO CN CO CO JD CO CO •vf JD "sf CO w JD m CO CD JD CO CO h -JD CO 00 JD oo CO 0) JD a> CO O JD O co JD CO CM JD CN CO CO JD CO CO •sf JD •sf - S:5 a> g (/) a, t l i l f o CM CM CO o T~ oo o CO 1^ cn o •sT CO cn 00 00 CO f~ cn •st O l CO CO £« .. P CO in CD CM CO CO r--5 T -co a> O) iri CO a> o i o CO a> •sf T— CO o O) CN oo CO CN a i a> a> m -sf CO T— in CM c i 00 oo iri OJ a> h -iri r-CO m 00 a> CO T— CO o c i o o a i oo CM CD a i CO T— o CO CM in T— CO CO OO $ CO d CM r— o iri CN CO CO •sf CD 1^ m iri o "S = o o _ ( 0 m CN t-~ CD •sf oi 00 f~ 00 •sf CN CO m a> CO ^— r-o oo in •sf' CO 00 O oo oi 00 CO CM CD o CO a> 00 a> CN CO o |s-00 co CM d 00 CD i r i CN oo CO o T— CM CN t-~ CD CD CM r— •sf m d •sf CM d CM T— 00 •sf CO o T— CO CO cb •sf T— CO CN CO •sf CN o X— •sf 00 T— ai a. E a ( 0 CO CO CM CO CO JD CO ro •sf JD •sf CO m JD in CO CD JD CO CO r-JD CO oo JD 00 co O) JD G> ro o JD o ro JD ro CM X! CN ro CO JD CO ro •sf XI •sf *C' ': ' . 5 ' © f r f . ' . ' s ; ' '»S<*' *'• -ft." 9 i i i *, .;.«, a)v l i i f f l>» <N CO CO o CO I". CM in CO 1^ CO CO CO CO CM CM CO CM CO CO CO CO CO CO CM Csi CO 00 CM i«-CM oo CM CM CM CO CO o> CM Is. CM cn CM _ £ O O ' 7 CL «» J! f~ CO ai in CO CN CO CO •sf CN iri o a> CO O) m 00 r-<q 5) CO • t f c i N -o 00 CD CO CO CO T f O) o CO co CO oi 00 oo o i a> a> o c i o> a> Csi oo CO q T— CD CO CN CO m •sf" (s. CM in oi CD oo CD oi oo CD CO r-^  ao CN iri CO CD o 00 CO CO 00 •sf 1^ CO CO CM CD Is-' .. CO * ± 0 •= 1 | a. > oo o i •sf CN cf 1-CO CD oo CO o •sf' 00 w CO CO m oo CO CO m CM CM m co CO CD CO in ^— CO a> iri m 8 CN r--ai co in 00 CO i -~ 00 CO iri m CM CM CO CO T— CO t^ •sf CO in CO CO d CO CO CO CO N-•sf in ,— r--LO CO CO co o d CD CO oo 00 CD d CO CD CO iri m oo CO CO CO at QL E (S CO ro co CN CO CO JD CO CO •sf JD s t CO in JD in CO CO JD CO CO r-JD CO 00 JD 00 CO a> JD a> CO o JD O co JD CO CM JD CM CO CO JD CO CO •sf JD •sf a < -3-? c E 0 (0 (A a> 0) 0 0 -*—• CO CD 0 XI ro (0 (0 < TO ro ro ro 2 o t_ 0 CD CD CD 0 0 ~ * • TJ "O TJ TJ TJ CO CD 1 a> O o o O 0 O _> E E E E > E X •4 "to CJ) ' -> x a "V TT CM CM T f TT x— in O T— r-T— in T f o * 1" (0 0) 1-"Cf TJ 01 CD 0 at O CD GO O CO a : c •2; LI CD u 2 "CD > 2 a . E o o "CD > ro 0 > ro to o CL 0 TJ x o CD 0 n CL E o o 0 > CD TJ 0 O CO CL E o o >. CD O XJ i O ' A cb CO cb CO • ~ 0 a a> ;T Q_ o o (0 "D c CD CO 0 "O c ro CO CD TJ 0 o CD a TJ c CD CO 0 TJ" c CD CO Tl c ca CO 0 CO l _ 0 ID E c 0 TJ CD X c c E c TJ c 0 c l w IO • 4— TJ L>— TD 8 TJ 0 •c o u= TJ TJ 0 CD tr o 0 •c o CD-CO l _ 0 r o CO >» 0 O 0~ to O CO QL CO CO CD CO 0 CO c E c c O c c c 0 o re O TJ o 15 bi o E m IO m i>- in m O CO b in co CN T— d CO CM CM c c e -I, V CM E c P I LO cb m CO m CN CD m d CM O m x— CD c CO ro "to in CN T— c t 1 •)»• a> P E c p £ m cri m iri CM d in T— o CM CO c CO ra "to i i o » Q. r- CO CD o CO T f T -- (0 <u H CO c g s o o CL ' CO 0 < co LL 0 0 CO * CO o o CN CD 0 X "5 CO 'c O CQ E o m 0 x> •4—< CO E CO TJ 0 CL 0 co 0 ro *t— CL o I— CL CL co CO 0 2 c o ro 0 a. o m 3 f c» o I I < o e o • M i " ' CO c i t : o c-: 3 © t c $ CM % a E ra co CM CD 0) a E (0 CO tf) 3 2 (0 a a < a> ^ o 3 CC _• cu ft- > 5 ~ • I £ cc t g . . i i t o c 3 • <u •S- E iA cu — E. = o q ft- > 4S ^ I £ a: o E a < £ OJ (0 --' CN CO CQ CD o> LO LU CO CN T3 C CO CO OJ £ = "2 = 0 2? 0 CO x: c ~ © c 2> . T3 "O © © w (1) CJ © 1 CO = 2 CM 8 o CO co 2i CL CO 8 o © 3 c g jo > c I 8 © CO ° XI S 5 © I c — o CO » 8 .g 3 © o 2 £ E CO - ~ o CL co c « /— m CL ? 8.S r =5 "g p .£ -" » 3 T © •= < £ -g £ © © 3 v X L L H PS m o CO 3 OS O I OH i_f ,<» ®T X2 * Texture Class: I sandy loam I I loamy sand I I sandy loam I I loamy sand I I loamy sand I I sand | I loamy sand I I loamy sand 1 I loamy sand I I loamy sand 1 I loamy sand I I sand | I sand | I sand | 1 sand I I sand I I loamy sand I I sand | I sand | I sand I I sand | I sand | I sand | I sand | I loamy sand I | sand | w. •o i s . T— T~ o> cn ID r- o CO co o IO CO CO xt o •O CM CM • o Is. •sf f CO Clay: 3.97 is . CO CO I 2.99 | 2.91 1.44 1 1.15 I CO CM 1.41 1.77 2.22 0.91 i n 1.58 1.47 I 0.81 | 1.64 CN ! 0.68 | 0.87 152 1.45 I 0.59 | I 2.63 | [ 0.89 | Base: I 72.081 I 69.81 | 71.41 71.1 I 71.021 I 69.551 I 69.261 1 70.41 | I 69.521 I 69.881 I 70.331 I 69.02 | I 69.61 | I 69.691 I 69.581 I 68.92 | I 69.751 I 69.31 | I 68.791 I 68.98 | I 69.11 | I 69.631 I 69.56 | 68.7 I 70.74 | Ol CO I S cor &5 cn co O o T— co i n CO Co co cn co IO is . co co «» co i n CM CO co CO co CO IO Silt: 2.41 1.94 2.86 CM CO 2.71 1.48 1.35 2.07 1.51 2.03 181 1.01 1.61 1.54 1.38 0.88 1.37 0.99 1.09 1.23 1.34 CM 0.66 2.23 0.85 #100 Mesh: I 111.97 | I 111.5 I I 112.42 I 112.76 | I 112.27 ! I 111.05 i I 110.91 | I 111.63 | I 111.07 I I 111.59 | I 111.37 | I 110.57 I I 111.17 | 1111 I 110.94 | I 110.44 | I 110.93 | I 110.67 | I 110.55 I I 110.65 | I 110.79 | I 110.9 | I 110.76 I I 110.22 | I 111.79 | | 110.41 | s Co i>. T -CO co CO CO CO CO T~ CO co « t CO T-00 o cn r-00 o> CO |s-00 CM at CM 00 at CO CO cn IO o> CD CO CO CO i s . 00 CM at cn Is, r-cn Sand: I 20.6 | I 19.84| I 23.431 I 26.62 | I 27.79 | I 24.85 I I 13.19| I 18.87| 15.74 I 19.461 I 17.65| ! 17.93| I 20.651 I 23.891 [ 19.05] I 21.35| f 13.48| j 19.81 | I 39.91 | 40.341 17.721 20.241 17.75 15.44 | 18.871 17.03| #60 Mesh: I 134.621 I 133.861 I 137.451 I 140.641 I 141.81 I I 138.871 I 127.211 I 132.891 I 129.76| 1 133.481 1 131.671 I 131.951 I 134.671 I 137.911 1 133.071 I 135.371 1 127.5 | I 133.831 I 153.93| I 154.361 I 131.741 I 134.261 I 131.771 ! 129.461 ! 132.89] [ 131.05| Weight (-CFrag.): 1 27.04 I I 23.49 | I 29.63 | I 32.77 | I 33.43 | 1 27.78 I I 15.71 | I 23.28 | I 18.70 | I 23.29 | I 21.67 | I 19.89 | I 23.76 | I 26.99 | 1 21.94 I 1 23.09 I I 16.49 | I 22.17 | I 41.58 | 1 42.33 | I 20.00 | I 23.11 | I 20.40 | I 16.74 | I 23.77 | | 18.81 | Sample: CO CO CM CO CO x i CO CO Tf XI •st-CO m x> m CO CD XI CD CO IS. XI CO CO XI CO CO CD XI o> I 10a | I 10b I CO 1— XI CO CM X) CM CO CO XI CO CO *T X) •sf :<il i e i l l s k i * i f r-• f CM 1-CO CO CM CO CM CO r-CO CM IO I-<0J Is, i n 8 s 3 CO o CO co a CO co % CO CM i n CM co at IO co IO IO s Coarse Frag.: 1 20.84 I 1 20.8 I | 21.67 | I 16.11 I I 15.68 | I 12.86 | I 24.54 I I 25.65 | I 16.81 | 1 31.2 I I 30.33 | I 23.5 I 1 21.76 | ! 17.12 | I 37.13 | ! 27.58 I I 27.83 | j 30.94 | ! 14.39 | ! 14.46 I [ 31.89 | i 21.39 | i 29.15 | i 34.08 | t 29.49 I ! 28.212| #10 Mesh: I 156.43 | 1 156.39 I I 157.26 | I 151.7 I I 151.27 | I 148.45 | I 160.13 I I 161.24 | I 152.4 I I 166.79 | I 165.92 I I 159.09 | I 157.35 | ! 152.71 | I 172.72 | I 163.17 | ! 163.42 | i 166.53 | ! 149.98 | I 150.05 | i 167.48 | i 156.98 | I 164.74 | i 169.67 | i 165.08 | j 163.802| Diff.: I 0.06 | 0.01 I 0.04 | I-0.041 I 0.02 | o I 0.02 | I 0.04 | I 0.04 | I 0.03 | I -0.011 I 0.04 | o -0.02 I 0.04 | I 0.05 I o I 0.05 ] o I 0.03 I I 0.05 I 0.01 o I 0.05 | I 0.04 | | 0.04 | Sum of Masses: I 47.82 | I 44.28 I I 51.26 | I 48.92 | I 49.09 | I 40.64 | I 40.23 | I 48.89 | I 35.47 | I 54.46 | I 52.01 | I 43.35 | I 45.52 | I 44.13 | I 59.03 | I 50.62 I I 44.32 | I 53.06 | I 55.97 | I 56.76 | I 51.84 I I 44.49 | I 49.55 | I 50.77 | I 53.22 I | 46.982 | ^ 1 8 Seiving Weight: I 47.88 I I 44.29 | I 51.3 | I 48.88 | I 49.11 | I 40.64 I I 40.25 | I 48.93 | I 35.51 | I 54.49 | CM CO I 43.39 | [ 45.52 I I 44.11 | I 59.07 | I 50.67 | I 44.32 | I 53.11 | I 55.97 | I 56.79 I I 51.89 | I 44.5 I I 49.55 | I 50.82 I I 53.26 I | 47.02 | Sample: CO *— CO CM CO CO x i CO CO XI •<* X) i n CO CO XI CD CO Is-XI |s-CO CO XI CO CO at XI at I 10a | 1 10b I CO XI CO CM X) CM CO CO XI CO CO •st XI •st CO ainl 0 ainl Daily 0 IN 1 Daily R (mm): O 0 O 0 CN CM f- 0 T - 0 co •«* CO eo «N CN CO CO U) 00 co CN CO T— Daily O «s 1 Daily R (mm): X z"; CO o 0 UJ CO o iS 0 o CN 1 - . * T - c < 1 . < • MM CO 0 co 0 CO 0 CO 0 CO 0 CO 0 co 0 CO CO CO CO CO co CO CO CO CO CO co CO CO co Table 0 ,1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 I 0 1 0 1 0 jl_ 0 1 Table 4 3 Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO Table "5. CO Q Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-Mar-1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 Table Preci • CO • T T • in 1 CO 1 1 CO en 0 X— CN CO T f in CD 00 cn 0 CN CN CN CN co CN T T CN Total: f n t i' [Sum < X I <o l -,c in TO c ra (0 ta C L E o O o cq m o iS CO > c c o o B o 2 S 0 0 ) H « o 5 0) 25 CO I -"0 to c (0 E 3 _ J CO cu . . CO CO o ^ c o +3 c o o 10 «1= SjQ. CO CM t— o> 3 (U CD co o CO 73 .a I o 2 a E o O 3 a! Appendix B: Soil & Water Analysis Tables - Chemical Characteristics Appendix B Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 58 Figure B- l Soil and Water Sample Locations Appendix B Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 59 i i l i 1111 l i E I E I i i i i l i ' (B CU x: E O « C S. "So*1 3S ri 00 § 1 O 0. •o 8 8 8 1 t 8 in U CQ 2 A 3 , o t(0 to .2 E . i g i s&2 P S 9 E i i 1 1 11 8 i-§p 3 oi ml I i m I 6 co c E i .a VO V •a 5 O CJ CO tf n O c o in •c n Q. E o o 11 s» *Bi *di "9* cn "9i "Si "cn "CM "5I OO! "BI aJ ^ c3i c3i "M t5l a 2 3 10' • a> CO CP I— 11 CQ — s 8 Q. •am I Ha 9 E I « c oil SI n 5lO| 8 3 S s to O O O O « o °> a . c SI? i 1 * > > CB >. < -o -o f £ 5 ^ u to to 3 cd 33 55 a. co d |j to ™ 2 o I * JS T3 O CQ 3 .g o erf CQ Ci-CD C? O c o ^ .03 : DO CO inics nt*: CO 4) E> C CM co CO CM CO • t f CO CM CO X— CO cn CN CN CN CO CM o CO oo CM co co CO CO T— CO co ^— 00 CM o •tf co co co LO CO co co o co CN S O o *° I f as ' O IO to f -co •tf CO CO CO IO CO CN <o l O CO oo IO 3 T" IO o co co IO t o <o IO co CM co CM CO co CO co IO CO h . co 1"- CM CO t-~ o CO IO IO co #; Post Burn: h -cq •tf o CN co co CM co CO CO CO CM co •tf co CM co •tf CO CN co •tf CN CO co CN co CO co co CM CO 00 co co LO CO CN CD CM tf Post Burn: CM CM oi d CM co CM CO CM 1^ 00 co oci CN CN CN CM CO • t f CO cb oo CN 1— CM 00 CO CM LO co CO CO LO co co co cb co r e Burn: •tf cn CO CM CO o CM •tf LO LO h -co 00 • t f T— • t f CM oo CO CM co h~ •tf co •tf co CM h~ CN CO h~ • t f • t f CO 1^ -co LO co co r e Burn: CO CM to CM CN CM CM cb CM CM CO co x— CD CN co CO d co • t f CN ro CM co CO CO CO c i CM c i CM c i CO CO CN CM CM 00 co C) • t f od co •tf co co co a. Crucible Weiaht: • t f CM CO h -CO CD co CM CO oo •tf CO LO 00 CD LO co • t f • t f CM 00 CN CO 1^ tf-•tf co •tf cq CN co CM LO 00 LO oo • t f X— CM o CO Crucible Weiaht: cb Ci CM LO ^— cb T— oi T— cb CN cb LO Oi CN LO CM oS \— ob CO CM co cb to" cb CN 00 CO CN CO CN CM cb CM co CN ob CM cb CN Crucible ID: •tf CO CM CM CD CM CO CO CO CO o L3 TMB o CM oo •tf 19 TMB 13 TMB T— o> o CO BA co T— CM CM 00 o 0_ • t f o •tf oi impl co T— co CM co co n co co •tf • t f CO UO JO LO co co JO CO co r~ JO co oo .a co co co o co o £1 o co T— XI co CM - Q CM co co - Q co co •tf • t f TO CO co a) ~ > co co o -c O >. a> C N = O ~ O o CM C - CO >. CD 12 o co -o SB. "3 «- -a * J c . c £ CD C 8 jf8 § -ex" 8 ? 2» = co _ 8 c o _ O CO o co o r O Q. ^ CD .92 = to -e S Q) 0) - Q. g->> o a C ro !§ cu co o -t-< t_ ir-8 ° T3 CO c cu o £ n C -g >, O S = co co co o ca CO § •3 6 § * o 3 cr cu erf •1 o Crf » », c ^ "T* a - . * • 'a > CM CO CO CM o> CM CO CO CM 00 CM tf tf CO tf co o> CM co CM 00 CM CO CM CO CM 00 CM CD CM co •tf CO • t f CO CM CO oi CO CO CO co CM CO Table E Sample*: CO CO C N co co JO. co co •tf X I • t f ro L O n L O co C O X I C O ro J O 1^ co 00 X3 00 ro C O X3 C O CO o A O CO CO C N n C M ro C O J D co CO • t f J O • t f CO c g 8 o ^ ~ i" O CD ° - 0) 2 I E E ? X ro § a-= £ 8 » T— CN 2 CO CD 5. DO c [T CD 92 CD E o in, CD CO ro + CD " E CD a: 7 CQ Appendix C: Suitability Analysis - Pair-wise Comparison Tables Appendix C Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 63 m I ' 'S i ! E " , o SO 0! I**I I i i •Si©;!1 | § | i I 'O 'f, its* I P i i l i i S O ' * ' ; * * * : >' ; ;v -10.5 e -8.5 -7.5 -7.5 •O ri n I O tt O Wildlife Habitat quality to 8 h/wh 0 wh 1 wh 1 f f f Historical and special site features "6 ft 0 0 .c .c .c x JZ JZ Noise Pollution (freeway) •s To ft 0 0 eaf eas ? ms ft we 0 Sun Exposure •s •3 ft 0 0 eaf eas vq/se SUI 0 S 0 Wind Exposure to •3 ft 0 0 eaf eas r SUI 0 0 0 Marine Servicing Potential % oS ft 0 0 eaf eas w 0 0 0 0 Ease of Access for Services and communitv •s To ft 0 0 see 0 sea 0 0 0 0 Ease of Access to Freeway "S eaf 0 0 0 0 eaf 0 0 0 0 Slope Class 0 to 0 0 0 0 (0 0 0 0 0 View Quality \ 0 ft 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Soil Contamination sf/sc** 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Soil Fire hazard 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 BM Soil Fire Hazard (-) Slope Class (-) Soil Contamination (-) Historical and Special Site Features (-) Wildlife Habitat Quality (-) Ease of Access to Freeway (+) Ease of Access for Services and Community (+) View Quality (+) Marine Servicing Potential (+) Sun Exposure (+) Wind Exposure (-) Noise Pollution (freeway) (-) mm M n • A <o CO 0 T— tt a •5 I f W x IS i i eo 03 o 3 •s CA 1 .If CO ! oi * tl ? t o J5 | 1 ' 5-1 8 I 3 3 I II n .3 S» <u o co el-'s S E £ • E $ «> 8 i o s "2 U- a 5 ^ CO a. (/} E co a . a <5 Q. o UJ T3 a I 1 c6 E | | o o 1* "1 . _ CD g-H § a E * iS 2 ~ co " •2 o CQ CQ § 3 -o 5 erf erf S3? V O . i Ic c l ,Or. • — • -° I ^  ! 10.5 10.5 0> •0 -7.5 -5.5 •o •7 M -0.5 Soil Contaminaton o o O o o o o o o o sc/sf o Soil Fire Hazard o o O o o o o o o o o o Ease of Access to Freeway o o o W o w o o o o 1 1 Wind Exposure o o see 5" o 75 o msp o we we we Marine Servicing Potential o o eas* ? o o o o msp msp msp Sun Exposure o o eas W o o 8 8 8 8 Slope Class o o o W o o o o o o sf/sl "to Noise Pollution (freeway) o o eas vq/np o a. c & Q. c: o. c CL c CL C a c View Quality o o o o o o o o o o S" §" Ease of Access for Services and Community o o o eas o eas o o o see eas eas Wildlife Habitat Quality I o f wh f wh wh wh wh Historical and Special site Heatures o o X xz sz J= JZ sz x: sz J!Xt«# if a> o CO ' * -s >* cu a O Historical and Special Site Features (+) Wildlife Habitat Quality (+) Ease of Access for Services and Community (+) View Quality (+) Noise Pollution (freeway) (-) Slope Class (-) Sun Exposure (+) Marine Servicing Potential (+) Wind Exposure (+) Ease of Access to Freeway (+) Soil Fire Hazard (-) Soil Contamination (-) n Tf •o <o CO cn o CM 8 o .2 o g a 11 #1 P "2 1 ""I 8 .1 £ £ i ? •s ? 1 g S 8" CO c c n co ^ 1 1 l l 1 o CQ CQ § 3 1 c/j O 3 4il 1 ro TJ CO E £ o 00 TJ C CO 1 "8 1 I 1 o o ro c CD C •c o "E co 00 N CO CO co X O CD Q. ix. o o 00 CO c g co c £ ro c o O o oo 9> co CD LL © C O ro © Q L 00 TJ C ro s •c 2 CO X CO a co X © 9 co co 8 o < © CO CO LU c 3 E E o O TJ C ro CO © o © CO CO co © O O < © CO ro LU c © > O) CD c © O) ro © E E 8 ° © .2 3 ro ^ £ ro b Q-© .. i - CD S { £ S - $ © CD Is "2 co £ SP ro © co 8 5 ro c" 3 .£ a . ro a > c 3 E E o o TJ c ro © o E 'x p o co to" co c •CZ co E TJ © o 2 c ro .>. 1 a . >. "to •£ S t © §. X -ro TJ o £ 2 « I ' S 8 8 ro c © o rx O) c o © C O © c ro TJ c CO O) c 'to O c >. T : ro 3 O tt CO Q. C © E Q_ O © > © TJ O © = "° <o "co i— o £ E «2 CO o © 8 3 _ CO ••as. © CO 3 —~ 00 CO R'2 X © © E II £ 3 CO O Q. X LU c 3 CO oo .© •5 •> •s ro ro c o ro § £ TJ C ro 8" c © O) c CO 3 O sz c o >•! •c CD E CO c o 1 I 1 c © TJ 'to £ c ; o I o CO £1 (0 E c o to £ o £ CO © > to 00 ro Q-"5 ro & CO c 8 o ca E 1 1 00 .g s I I £ 3 00 o Q L X LU TJ C ro © c o o C L © CO o u Appendix D: Suitability Analysis - GIS Themes (Layers) Appendix D Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 68 Figure D-l Slope Classification Figure D-2 Soil Fire Hazard Figure D-3 Historical Features Figure D-4 Soil Contamination (NDM, 1995) Appendix D Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 69 Figure D-5 Wildlife Habitat Quality Figure D-6 Freeway Access Figure D-7 Scenic View Potential Figure D-8 Community Accessibility Appendix D Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 70 Figure D-9 Sun Exposure Figure D-10 Marine Service Potential Figure D-l 1 Freeway Noise Figure D-l2 Previaling Wind Exposure Appendix D Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 71 Appendix E: Wildlife Habitat Polygon Descriptions and Inventory Tables Appendix E Recomposing Remnant Industrial Lands: Union Bay, BC 72 (0 £ o L L i i c % 2 o TJ C CN LU Z O N E o !2 3#8 u , js g > © <D — JSZ CO . <D Q- C © © co to to 3 f i s l i e o 5 TJ to © TJ CO © x: © ** x: ° o t o r -2: o c > © co s c *-.2 TJ C C r> « O J < » © a co a to CO g £ CO O 4= o t - C CO ZJ O J © I to © M -C CO o © •55£ 15 o -«-< c o CJ) © o to T J c ro to © E o © cyj CJ) o . co £ i= TJ < CO tl) TJ t "O © ro a) to lo"* £ > co 8 = .= CO © b c c c . 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