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Acadia Park : design for a healthy community Sharif, Dorsai 2003

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ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY by DORSAI SHARIF B.Sc, The University Tehran, 1989 M.Sc, The University of Tehran, 1992 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Landscape Architecture) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2003 © Dorsai Sharif, 2003 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head of my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date IQ. JrPoJ Abstract The overall goals of this poject was to enhance ecological, social and economic aspects of life in "Acadia Park", a residential neighborhood on University of British Columbia Campus. Different alternatives were explored based on major criteria. The results were design proposals ranging from efficient development patterns, better street connectivity, community core framework, and natural drainage systems. Each of them contributes to one of the three bases of sustainability. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF Table of contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables v List of Figures vi Acknowledgements ix Thesis Introduction 1 Acadia park Introduction 2 Project Goals - Projevt Objectives 3 Theoritical Orientation 4 Project Limitations 5 Site History 6 Site Context 7 Site Character 8 Topography and Drainage 11 O C P - C C P • • 12 Framework 13 Design Options (Concept Plans) 14 Evaluation Criteria 16 Selective Plan 17 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF Proposed Site Plan 18 Street Typology . 22 Housing Typology 24 Parking Analysis 25 Density Analysis 26 Proposed Drainage/Topography 27 Proposed urban Stream 28 Proposed Community Heart 32 Summary 37 Bibliography 3 8 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF List of Tables Tablel 16 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF List of Figures Figure 1 - UBC Campus 2 Figure 2 - Acadia Park 5 Figure 3 - UBC Aerial Photo 7 Figure 4 - UBC Campus/Acadia Park 9 Figure 5 - South View 10 Figure 6 -West View 10 Figure 7 - North View 10 Figure 8 - East View 10 Figure 9 - Existing Topography 11 Figure 10 - South View. . 12 Figure 11 - Existing Plan 14 Figure 12 - Planl 14 Figure 13 - Plan2 14 Figure 14 - Plan3 15 Figure 15 - Plan4 15 Figure 16 - Plan5 17 Figure 17 - Example of a Local Street 19 Figure 18 - Spaces Between Buildings 19 Figure 19 - Master Plan 20 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF List of Figures-Figure 20 - Section A-A 21 Figure 21 - Section B-B 21 Figure 22 - Street Typel 22 Figure 23 - Street Type2 22 Figure 24 - Street Type3 22 Figure 25 - Street Type4 22 Figure 26 - Street Type5 23 Figure 27 - Street Type6 23 Figure 28 - Street Typology 23 Figure 29 - High-Rise Apartment (14 Storey) 24 Figure 30 - Low-Rise Apartment (2-4 Storey) 24 Figure 31 - High-Rise Apart ment (6-storey) 24 Figure 32 - Row Houses 24 Figure 33 - Existing Parking Space 25 Figure 34 - Proposed Parking Space 25 Figure 35 - Existing Density 26 Figure 36 - Proposed Density 26 Figure 37 - Proposed Drainage and Topography 27 Figure 38 - Proposed Swale Section 28 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF List of Figures-Figure 39 - Stream Bed 28 Figure 40 - Proposed Culvert 28 Figure 41 - Timber Bridge Plan 29 Figure 42 - Timber Bridge Section 29 Figure 43 - Under Drain 29 Figure 44 - Section of Stream Passing Along the Road 29 Figure 45 - Stream Plan 30 Figure 46 - Stream Topography 30 Figure 47 - Existing Road Next to The Woods 31 Figure 48 - Proposed stream next to The woods 31 Figure 49 - Proposed Community Heart 33 Figure 50 - Section A-A 34 Figure 51 - Section B-B 34 Figure 52 - Section C-C 34 Figure 53 - Proposed Plaza 35 Figure 54 - Proposed Community Gardens 35 Figure 55 - Existing Road (Fairview) 36 Figure 56 - Proposed Corner Cafe 36 vii i ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF Acknowledgements What I have benefited from this exercise is owed largely to the guidance of Don Luymes, whose value as a teacher and as a mentor can not be exaggerated. Thank you Don for the encouragement that I always felt to be sincere. I am also grateful to Patrick Condon and Freda Pagani for the insight they contributed generously and enthusiastically to this project. I would also like to thank my family,, my husband Saeed, and my sister Haleh for their love and support. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY DORSAI SHARIF Thesis Introduction The University of British Columbia (UBC) has a long history of campus planning to support its mandate as a leading academic institution. UBC, with its diversity of academic research, residential and cultural activities, is an important local, provincial and international resource. Today, the 402 hectare campus serves 32,000 students, and houses 7300 student and 1400 permanent residents. University residential areas should play a critical role in heightening their residents' sense of community. They should be places that inspire and enrich the lives of those who have come to learn, work and live at the university. A well- designed residential neighborhood will be a desirable place to be. A resident should feel that they belong in the place. This project will examine the Acadia Housing area, an existing residential site at UBC. In order to create a residential place that gives rise to an enriching community experience, it will redesign part of its external environment to enhance the economic, social and ecological aspects of this urban landscape. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLATHESIS - DORSAI SHARIF "Acadia Park" Introduction Acadia Park is a year round student family neighborhood for families with one or more children, and for couples, and is located on the east side of UBC campus. The site is located close to the UBC shopping area and the new market-priced housing on campus. Its west boundary is adjacent to the core educational area of the UBC campus. Acadia Park with 1800 residents including students, faculty and staff is the setting for different types of housing. The buildings were built in different phases due to the history of the site, which was once a camp site. Figure 1 - U B C Campus Source: http://www.maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index.php ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Project Goals The goals of this design project include: 1. To redesign the neighborhood to enhance the ecological function of the site. 2. To redesign the structure of the neighborhood to enhance its diversity and social life. 3. To redesign the site to enhance economic viability. Project Objectives These broad goals are supported by a number of more specific objectives. These include: 1 .a To increase the vegetative cover on the site 1 .b To connect habitat fragments across the site 1 .c To increase the capacity of the site to infiltrate stormwater 1 .d To create a new urban stream by managing stormwater run-off on the surface of the ground 2.a To increase opportunities for informal community interaction in public spaces 2.b To provide opportunities for cultural and community activities in public open spaces 2.c To increase the density and diversity of housing types and tenures 2. d To redesign selected community open spaces and facilities (play areas, community gardens, pathways, etc.) 3. a To reduce infrastructure and development costs by utilizing natural drainage systems 3.b To effectively use urban land through selective densification 3.c To maintain many of the existing buildings but changing the floor plans due to new road locations ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Theoretical Orientation The theoritical orientation of this project is to make landscape-community a place to live, to enhance it visually and to enframe newest directions in the design of socially and ecologically responsible communities. Creating a sense of place by designing the nature of landscape, as well as the nature of community as place is the ultimate direction of the design. Since the heart of the "New Urbanism" movement is in the design of neighborhoods, to make areas more livable, more vibrant, and more people-oriented, adopting some of the principles of the "New Urbanism" will be the guiding ideal throughout the design. These principles are: • A prominent and identifiable center for each ommunity • A connected street network, which disperses traffic by providing a variety of pedestrian and vehicular routes to any destination • Parking on the street and to the side and rear of shops and workplaces • Relatively narrow streets shaded by rows of trees • A variety of dwelling types • Small playgrounds near every dwelling • Suitable environment for pedestrians and bicycles • A well-defined outdoor room created by buildings facing towards streets • Sites for community meetings, education, religious or cultural activities • Proximity to shops, schools and offices A Landscape Taxonomy based on methodical examination of several hundred colleges and university campuses in the world has been adopted. This taxonomy is useful in evaluating existing campus designs and proposing improvements (Dober, Campus design). The principle components in this taxonomy are: • Periphery • Boundaries • Gateways • Ceremonial open spaces • Active recreation open spaces • Passive recreation open spaces • Gardens and arboretums • Building settings • Vehicular circulation routes • Pedestrian circulation routes • Campus crossroads ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Project limitations The courts are the oldest sect ion of the site and the area containing them provides the most appropriate zone for new infill development. Its natural sett ing h a s a lso a potential for ecological development. Hence the focus of the project has been limited to the area including the community core, apartment buildings and court clusters. The physical boundar ies of the project are: • A c a d i a R o a d on the East • Osoyoos Crescent on the South • Fairview A v e n u e on the North • Wesbrook Mall on the West a. z 5.' O r •a ' A C A D I A ROAD* Me l f aUn* : ' " * I? •'9 ' u BJ Malfa Road c ... • O t fRsarkeaLan* rt. Tennis C r e s * «5- I. * R e vet s t o k e C t aaa »r» Q a a: .Sir I 3 Ac ad i3 Pa rk Residence Acadia Park LarnT (- J Crescent Fainriew Crescent BJ { 3 « a • f " •a LL Housing °$OYDOS CR&S .era:, #§ O is-n i [ fESBROOK MAIL <~— Police! (RCMP) Fire Figure 2 - Acadia Park Source: http://www.maps.ubc.ca/PROD/index.php ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF Site History The first housing on UBC campus was built by the Department of National Defense in 1941. The residential huts were called the Point Grey Relief Camp or Forestry Camp, and was used for soldiers taking special military courses. Once World War II ended there was still a need for housing on campus, as veterans returned to classes and civilian life. In the summer of 1944 these temporary buildings were repaired and re-equipped, then sold to UBC for $1. Two back-to-back attached huts were renovated to form a single house for UBC president. He lived in this house from 1944-1950, and the street "President's Row" earned its name from his tenancy. The president N.A.M. MacKenzie organized to provide housing for returning veterans interested in continuing their education. The first civilian student tenants moved onto campus in 1945.The military huts were renamed "Acadia Camp". The first students in family housing were mostly married men. During the British Empire Games, in the summer of 1954, the huts were renamed Empire Village and used as accommodation for athletes. With the construction of new student residences, the remaining huts were adapted for other uses, such as social events, study huts, and, since 1968, for daycare centers. In the late 1950s the university started to renovate campus housing. The houses along President's Row were built in 1959 and still stand to this day. UBC started demolishing the old army huts in 1967, with the last hut surviving until 1989. In 1967 UBC built the Acadia high-rise tower, and two years later (1969) started building 175 two- and three-bedroom town houses known as Courts. Occasionally these older buildings are called Phase I housing. Phase II and III houses were built when UBC won a contract to provide accommodations for Vancouver's Expo '86. With the government money, UBC Housing built Fairview Crescent (currently used for single students), and plowed the resulting revenues into the surrounding townhouses on streets like Yalta, Parkes, and Melfa Lane (1988). In 1989 Phase III houses were built and this marked the end of the student housing plan in 1982 and included demolishing some old World War II army huts. The Fairview/Acadia Commons Block was also completed in 1989, which serves as the administrative centre for the 531 families in Acadia Park (Family Housing) and the 782 single student residents of Fairview Crescent. Its well-used facilities include a large activity room, lounge space and exercise gym. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Site Context The Acadia Park site sits between University Boulevard on the North, 16th Ave on the South, and Wesbrook Mall on the West. These arterial roads surround the site, provide access to transit. They are also the main entrances into the site from outside University. University Village on the North (along University Boulevard) provides shops, restaurants and other commercial services to residents of the neighborhood. Other amenities include daycare centers on the South (along Osoyoos Crescent) and a secondary school on the east (along Acadia Road). Pacific Spirit Regional Park (a major frosted park of 763 hectare) on the east provides a green edge and the neighborhood park, which serves communities in the whole area. Market-priced housing is next to the site (such as Hampton Place to the south) and more Market-priced housing will be developed in the future. Figure 3 - U B C Aerial Photo Source: U B C Records Management, 2003 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Site Character Housing This residential area at UBC is the setting of different types of self- contained student housing for students (individuals, couples and families), faculty and staff. It consists of: • Acadia Park High-rise (for couples) with 100 one-bedroom units • Five court clusters of 2 and 3 bedroom units with 160 two-bedroom units and 15 three-bedroom units of two story town-houses • Old brick row houses on President's Row • New townhouses of 235 units of 1 -2-3 and 4 bedroom units • 4 apartments accommodating faculty and staff • Fairview Crescent, including 186 four, five and six bedroom townhouses providing accommodation for single students (774 senior students) Community Services Different services provided to the community are: • Childcare centers situated on the southern edge of the site • Parking lots on the surface • Community gardens close to the playing fields • Community center (Commons Block) consisting of an information desk, a gathering place for the community and a fitness room • Preschool located next to central playground • Coffee shop (Beanery) hiding in the Fairview residence complex Open space • Woods including mature species of conifers and deciduous trees and shrubs • Playing fields sitting next to Commons block • Playgrounds, consisting of one central and several scattered ones to children up to 7 years old ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF Figure 4 - U B C Campus/Acadia Park Source: U B C Records Management, 2003 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Topography and Drainage The topography of the site is almost flat with a slight s lope from the centre towards both South and North. S l o p e s range from 0% to 13%. T h e campus has a ded icated storm drainage sys tem, wh ich captures sur face runoff and d ischarges it to the ocean through the spiral dra inage tunnel located at North C a m p u s . The south d ischarges to Booming Ground C reek and to the Fraser River. S ince September, 2001 U B C Utilities has establ ished an ongoing monitoring program to measure the vo lume and quality of stormwater runoff from every major d ischarge. Figure 9 - Existing Topography ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF UBC Official Community Plan T h e Official Community Plan for Part of Electoral area 'A' (OCP) is a powerful document that gu ides all development, land use, and transportation activities on the U B C C a m p u s and parts of Paci f ic Spirit Park until 2021 and beyond. The changing needs of U B C have prompted the desire for municipal-style planning to recogn ize regional objectives, to provide a pol icy framework for housing and other non-institutional development, and to ensure that development is considerate of its sett ing and neighbors. Th is O C P was prepared through a consultat ive process that involved the G V R D , U B C , interest groups from both on and off campus, and the general public. Adop ted in 1997, the O C P today is an official legal document that will guide all future development and decis ion making -towards the goal of creating a unique and susta inable university community. T h e Official Communi ty P lan ( O C P ) des ignates eight local a reas for development , which compr ise areas of signif icant non-institutional development a long with a reas of spec ia l sensitivity. Comprehensive Community Plan T h e function of the Comprehens ive Communi ty P lan ( C C P ) is to fulfill, in part, the O C P requirement of local a rea planning. T h e Eas t C a m p u s local a rea (the area lying between Wesbrook Mal l and the A c a d i a Park neighborhood) is one of the eight local a reas for development. Acadia Road 16tti Avenue Fraser Rivet Pacific Spirit Recjonal Park, UBC Paiks * 1 Green Edges O O O Greenway H Fields, Stadium. Botanical Garden HI UBC Core •I Commercial Centre School Bio-sciences Research UBC Support Community Centre Future Mousing Future Housing Reserve Existing Housing Figure 10 - South View Source: http://www.ocp.ubc.ca/ocp/ scheduleA_mid.html Land use The A c a d i a Park res idence is not directly ment ioned in O C P or C C P but can be cons idered under the title of Existing Housing Areas. Th is designat ion is for the cont inued use of exist ing housing areas. Th is inc ludes the exist ing staff and student housing in such a reas as Acad ia , Totem, Vanier, and Thunderbird and the market housing a rea of Hampton P lace . Redeve lopment and infill will be permitted in these a reas at a floor s p a c e ratio of 1.0 net a rea un less otherwise def ined through the area planning p rocess . ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 12 Framework People studying for a period of time make the transient layers of the community, while people working there who might experience it for a longer time, make the permanent layers. These two layers are the main residents of Acadia park. Major part of the research for this project has been focused on people's ideas, needs and concerns. Main ideas have been explored through interviews and friendly talks. A documentary film has been developed based on interviews with residents, Acadia Park Life Manager, Director of Housing and Conferences, and Campus Architect and Landscape Architect. Along with the above study, personal observation, which is my own experience as a student living in the same area, was the main conductive components for the design. Through some literature review and site analysis, specific oppurtunities and constrains were assessed. The results of this assessment provided the framework in which the final design would take place. The following principles provide the basis for the whole redesigning: 1. Connecting the habitat fragments 2. Creating a strong core (a heart) for the neighborhood 3. Designing green and linked streets 4. Increasing density by infill development 5. Reducing surface runoff ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF Design Options (Concept Plans) Based on the defined framework, different conceptual alternatives were developed. Each of these utilizes one or more principles as a base for the plan. PLAN 1 The principles considered in this plan are: • Connected streets • Infill development This plan features some adjustments to the road network, but basically keeps it in its existing configuration. Infill occures on the green edge and within some of the dispersed woods on the site. PLAN 2 The principles considered in this plan are: • Increased density: • Neighborhood core • Grid system of streets In this plan there are major changes to the courts' configuration. Replacing demolished courts by more houses with communal spaces, grid streets provide better connectivity to the surrounding neighborhood. The area obtained in the centre of the site is an ideal location for the community heart. Figure 11 - Existing Plan Figure 12 - Planl Figure 13 - Plan2 14 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF PLAN 3 The main principle considered in this plan is: • Connected green fragments This plan prioritizes the open space and integrates pieces of green on the site to create a connected green corridor. Figure 14 - Plan3 PLAN 4 The principles considered in this plan are: • Connected green fragments • Neighborhood core • Connected streets • Reduced surface runoff This plan combines the major principles discussed above. Some of the courts are demolished while the plan keeps the rest and offers on-street parking for them. This provides an opportunity for a major east - west road to run through the site and increase the connectivity. Figure 15 - Plan4 • T O W N H O U S E S • LOW RISE APARTMENTS • HIGHRISE APARTMENTS 15 ACADIAPARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF Evaluation Criteria These alternatives were judged by series of criteria, which have direct relation to the project objectives. The evaluation criteria shown in Tablel are as followed: • Increasing density • Reducing co-efficient of runoff by reducing parking surfaces onsite • Strengthening the community core by a concentration of amenities • Reinforcing the existing green corridor • Maximizing linkages (connectivity) • Increasing the diversity of housing types With an emphasis on increasing density and increasing diversity of housing types, Planl scored two Highs, three Mediums, and one Low. Plan2 scored high in all criteria except for reinforcing the existing green corridor. Emphasizing the green corridor, Plan3 scored low in the rest of the criteria. Plan4 scored medium in increasing density and increasing diversity of housing types, but high in other sections. The results show that the plans that fulfilled the criteria best were Plan2 and Plan4. Although Plan2 seems to have higher score, it has not addressed the very critical issue of a continuous green corridor. So this low score will eventually disqualify Plan2 and results in choosing Plan4 as the preferred choice. However, since Plan4 does not score highly in all criteria, a final plan (Plan5) was developed, to combine the best parts of all the plans. INCREASING REDUCING CO-EFF STRENGHTNING THE REINFORCING THE MAXIMIZING INCREASING DIVERSITY DENSITY OF RUNOFF BY COMMUNITY CORE EXISTING LINKAGAES OF HOUSING TYPES REDUCING PARKING BY CONCENTRATION GREEN CORRIDOR (CONNECTIVITY) SURFACE ONSITE OF AMENITIES PLAN 1 H M M L M H PLAN 2 H H H L H M PLAN 3 L L L H L L PLAN 4 M H H H H M Table l - Evaluat ion sheet ACADIAPARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Selective Plan (Plan5) Addressing factors of increasing density and diversity, Plan5 is a blended option, which combines the following factors: • The advantages of introducing a grid system • Keeping and connecting fragments of the green corridor • Maintenance of the existing physical plan • Infill development • Reducing the parking surfaces • T O W N H O U S E S • L O W RISE A P A R T M E N T S • HIGHRISE A P A R T M E N T S Figure 16 - Plan5 > r ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 17 Proposed Site Plan To achieve the most appropriate and lively design option for Acadia Park, and to meet the principles for the Comprehensive Community Plan, a number of changes have to be made. 1. Connected streets make walking, bicycling, and using the bus more feasible by significantly reducing trip distances and increasing the number of safe and pleasant routes for such travelers. A road network provides multiple locations for neighborhood access by a variety of modes, along with multiple routes between two points on the road. As a result these changes are proposed: • Faiview Avenue is relocated and aligned with Thunderbird Boulevard, considered as Gate11, one of the entrances to the campus (intersection with traffic light). • Acadia Park Lane is turned into a vehicle access road, connecting Osoyoos Crescent to Fairview Avenue. • Agronomy Road is extended to Western Parkway and across Wesbrook Mall into the Acadia neighborhood. • The road access west of Berwick centre is extended all the way through the site to the east. • Fairview Ave coming from Acadia road on the east is accessible to vehicles until it reaches the plaza next to the Commons Block. It extends to the Fairview Crescent but just provides access to emergency and other service vehicles. 2. Higher density "New Urbanist" development reduces trip lengths; and makes bicycling, transit, and walking more viable. People living in high-density areas are much more likely to walk than those living in low-density areas. In this regard the following removal and infill development are suggested in the Master Plan: • Melfa Court and Oyama Court are removed. • Berwick Preschool is removed. • The floor plans of those townhouses in courts facing new streets, are flipped around to facilitate accessing these units from the streets. • Infill happens along a new central east-west road, to provide a strong urban form with limited setbacks and an urban facade with multiple entry points into the buildings. 3. Mixed housing types provide the neighborhood with a mixed income environment, since the mixed types provide a range of housing affordability. Hence diversity of housing types are proposed: • A new high-rise is located close to the existing Acadia high-rise. • Townhouses and apartments of different types are built all over the site. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF 4. The existing Parking lots in courts are turned into courtyards, offering the neighborhoods play areas in front of the buildings. While they still provide access to emergency vehicles, asphalt is replaced with concrete rounds laid on gravel to facilitate percolation. This helps to reduce surface runoff on the site. On-street and underground parking are offered as substitutes. 5. Core areas of natural landscape, including selected stands of existing forest areas on the site are protected and connected. Thus: • Continuous multi-use, people oriented green corridor extend through the whole site to promote linkages between the various uses, destinations, and adjacent green edges (i.e. Pacific Spirit Park). • One pod of Salmo court building including 6 units is removed to give way to the green corridor. • Green edges are kept, to provide a natural edge to roadways and a sense of community in a forest setting. 6. Pocket play areas are designated to provide play spaces convenient to each set of buildings. 7. An identifiable heart or focal point is created in the area next to Commons Block and different paths connect the core to surrounding open spaces and residential buildings. 8. An urban stream is located on the green edge to the south to manage the runoff on the surface and direct it to detention and infiltration areas. Figure 17 - Example of a Local Street - S p a c e s Between Buildings ACADIAPARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 19 Street Typology The roads in Acadia Park are classified under the "Neighborhood Road" category. In this project, rearranging roads is proposed to ensure that pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles can move more safely and efficiently. On-Street parking buffers pedestrians from vehicle travel, narrows the street in order to slow traffic to a safer, more livable speed, and provides convenient parking locations for nearby services. Streets and lanes are considered as an extension of the open space by ensuring that they have ample landscaping in the form of swales and row tree plantings. Six types of local streets are proposed integrating open space and circulation system. These types are color coded in relation to the master plan. Street Typel has 13.35 meter right of way with swales and on-street parkings on both sides. The central Acadia Park Lane is of this type. Street Type2 has 14.20-15 meter right of way with a swale on one side and vegetation buffer on the other side (next to stream). The street next to the woods and daycare centres (south part of Osoyoos Crescent) is of this type. Street Type3 has 15.05 meter right of way and the new east-west road on the site is of this type. Street Type4 has 17.0 meter right of way and west part of Osoyoos Crescent is of this type. Figure 22 - Street Typel V 6.0 Pervious Parking 1.85 I 1.8 I 1.7 14.20-15m Pervious Parking Figure 23 - Street Type2 1.8 1.8 6.0 1.85 4, 1.8 1.8 Swale 15.05m Pervious Parking Figure 24 - Street Type3 Figure 25 - Street Type4 ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 22 Street Type5 has 18.35 meter right of way with on-street parking in front of the buildings on one side. The road between the plaza and apartment buildings is of this type. Street Type6 has 20.15 meter right of way with on-street parking at the back of the buildings. Acadia Road on the east part of the site is of this type. Figure shows different types of streets on the site. Each color refers to a specific section (Street Type) which was discussed earlier. Figure 26 - Street Type5 6.0 Pervious Parking 20 .15m Pervious Parking Swale Figure 27 - Street Type6 F * f c ill ( J, \\ \ n r< > '^-"ip^  - r' v r ? Ii 1 j 1.1 "7; $5fc 1*1 7 \ H V if f Figure 28 - Street Typology ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 23 Housing Typology Housing will be primarily street-oriented, with a network of streets that emphasizes through routes, and public pedestrian linkages. It will cover a broad spectrum of physical forms, to ensure that diversity as well as density is considered in the design. Typical building forms according to the principles of the CCP are as follows: • Row Houses (Townhouses) - Stacked Row Houses with 2 to 3 Storey and 1.0 FSR • Low-Rise Apartments with 2 to 4 Storey and 0.9-1 FSR • High-Rise apartments with 6 to18 Storey and 2.4 FSR The architecture of the building types shown in this page are just samples of the existing buildings on the site. Figure 31 - High-Rise Apart ment (6-storey) Figure 29 - High-Rise Apartment (14 Storey) Figure 30 - Low-Rise Apartment(2-4 Storey) Figure 32 - Row Houses ACADIAPARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Parking Analysis Off-street surface parking is minimized and underground parking as well as on-street parking is proposed. The existing parking on the site includes: Surface parking Under ground parking On-street parking Total parking 491 83 260 834 Figure 33 - Existing Parking Space With eliminating surface parking of the courts, there is a need for a parking substitute. Hence, on-street parking is provided to serve both existing and new townhouses under three storeys. Underground parking is proposed for buildings of four storeys and up and also for high-rise apartments. The proposed parking plan is as follow: • Surface parking 52 • Underground parking 631 • On-street parking for existing units 277 • On-street parking for others 89 • On-street parking for new units 174 • Total on-street parking 540 • Total parking 1223 Figure 34 - Proposed Parking Space As a result, 4380m of streets provide parking for 620 cars, which covers the need for the whole site. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Density Analysis In order to provide compact and pedestrian-friendly neighborhood character, density is increased by removing some of the old units in courts, placing new buildings along roads and infill development on the other areas of the site. The existing density plan includes: • Townhouses in courts 175 • Townhouses in new phase 235 I* Low rise apartments 289 • High-rise apartments 80 • Total units 779 Figure 35 - Existing Density The proposed density plan is as follows: • Demolished townhouses in courts 61 • Added townhouses 72 Added low rise apartments 102 f Added High-rise apartments (6 storey) 348 • Added High-rise apartments (15 storey) 80 • Total added units • Total units Figure 36 - Proposed Density Proposed Drainage / Topography The campus is currently served by a system of gravity storm sewers and open ditches. There are four main catchment areas. The north catchment area discharges through a GVRD-owned vertical spiral drain and tunnel to the foreshore. The rest, discharges through three outfalls to open channels. This project considers natural drainage techniques as an alternative to conventional stormwater collection. The topography is adjusted so that street corridors collect and transport stormwater in open swales (Street Types 1-6). Ideally most of this stormwater will be infiltrated into subsoil; however, stormwater from very large storms will be transported and stored into a retention pond located at the southwest of the site. Swales, (shallow, grassy channels) are located on both sides of roads to collect the runoff from the street. Stormwater gradually infiltrates to the level of the water table after filtering through the grass and soil. Excess water travels in the swales, along the network of streets to a holding pond where additional infiltration, evaporation, and transpiration can occur. The shoulders of streets are finished with crushed stone so that runoff can infiltrate through the gravel into the soil. In other areas, where it is desirable to encourage groundwater recharge, pervious surfaces are provided. V ' ( j _ 1 . ' r \ . v ,..J; J ( ' ' - 'V Figure 37- Proposed Drainage and Topography ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 27 Proposed Urban Stream A new urban stream, another design element intended to manage the precipitation runoff on the surface, is located on the south next to the forest edge. It collects the stormwater from the site by adjusting the contours. In the woods, stormwater is discharged through underdrains connecting to the stream. The stream will not be running all the year round, but provides a pleasant edge next to the daycare centers. It widens where enough space in the woods allows for it. Trails paved with bark mulch replace the street sidewalk along the stream. Wooden bridges connect trails on both side of the stream. Culverts allow water to pass under the roads and not be blocked. An on-site retention pond is created in the woods next to Fire Station, for peak flow reductions and to slow infiltration into the soil. It will be located where topography allows and where it is more suitable for trees to be removed. The overflow will be discharged to drains connected to existing sewer system. Figure 39 - Stream Bed Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course 2.5cm Asphalt Concrete Base Course 5cm Hardcore 15cm Course Aggregate 15cm Gravel Compact soil Concrete Culvert Figure 40 - Proposed Culvert ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Figure 41 - Timber Bridge Plan Timber Concrete Foundation Hardcore Figure 42 - Timber Bridge Section A * i ' j j -.4. .•' | ' Wood* --.^  wal* Storm Drain Outlet Stream C h a r m « l l B o u W w G r o u p e d O v e r ' p i Figure 43 - Under Drain Figure 44 - Section of Stream Passing A long the Road -/•ft * V i H I ACADIAPARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF 29 Figure 47 - Existing Road Next to The Woods Proposed Community Heart In order to make the neighborhood more distinct, memorable and dignified, a revision to the area surrounding the Commons Block is advised. The idea is to incorporate a variety of activities and uses to make the place more of a centre of focus and to encourage community interaction. Having the existing community centre, community gardens and open fields on that site is the rationals for selecting this area. 3. Playground The area left after removing Melfa Court, is allocated to a central play area. It consists of adventure playgrounds, a play hill, rocks and boulders, a shallow pool, and water play fountains. There are open paved areas for older children to run around and seats for people to seat and watch kids playing. Programming 1. Plaza The existing parking lot serving the high rise is redesigned as plaza. In order to create a sense of place and define the plaza as a separate place, it is paved with coloured round concrete and is furnished with planters and seats. This would be a place to meet, walk, read, eat and socialize. 4. Community gardens Due to the increase in density, there is a need to add to the existing, successful community plots. A new design allows for more gardens and storage sheds. Several shaded routes going through the community gardens connect the new central road to the play area. 2. Stairs Changes of level can have important visual, functional, and psychological consequences. For most observers, a plaza that includes some modest but observable changes in level is preferable aesthetically to one that is absolutely flat (Cooper Marcus, People Places). Several stairs take people down to a place to sit and look at water, have lunch or watch performances. Part of the stairs widen to a stage for occasional concerts and performances. A small berm creates a sense of separation from vehicular traffic. 5. Corner cafe The area created by realignment of Fairview Crescent, is proposed for relocating a corner cafe, which already exists but is hiding in the Fairview residence. This will create a social space for the community to meet and socialize. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Figure 55 - Existing Road (Fairview) Summary Fundamental steps should be taken in order to create a sense of place, a sense of community, and a sense of belonging to this residential area on UBC's campus. This project is partly enframed as the newest directions in the design of socially, ecologically and economically responsible communities. The design proposals address the main goals of the UBC Official Community Plan, such as protecting and maintaining the "Green Zone" and increasing density and diversity range of housing types. The plan also addressed the real concerns of people living in the neighborhood (who were talked to and been interviewed), such as parking lots in front of houses, play areas, natural surroundings, connectivity and etc. The principles of the framework, allow for further steps and designs towards the enhancement of the place in the future. ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Bibliography 1993. "Permaculture in practice" Landscape Design. 223:14-18. Acadia Camp Householders'Association fonds. URL: http://www. library, ubc.ca/archives/u arch/acha. htm I (18 September 2003). Alexander, Christopher, and Sara Ishikawa, 1977. A pattern language : towns, buildings, construction. New York : Oxford University Press. Calkins, Meg," Assignment: Eco-Friendly Campuses", Landscape Architecture Magazine, July 2002: 40-43, 90-91. Calthorpe, Peter, and William B. Fulton, 2001. The Regional City: planning for the end ofspraw\. Washington, DC : Island Press. Condon, Patrick M..2002. Sustainable Urban Landscapes: Site Design Manual for BC Communities. University of British Columbia. Cooper Marcus, Clare and Wendy Sarkissian.1986. Housing as if People Mattered: Site design guidelines for medium-density family housing. University of California Press. Cooper Marcus, Clare, " Looking back at Village Homes" Landscape Architecture, Vol. 90, No.7 (July 2000): 128,125. Cooper Marcus, Clare. 1998. People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Spaces. New York : J. Wiley. Corbett Judy, and Michael Corbett. 2000. Designing sustainable communities: Learning from Village Homes. Washington, DC: Island Press. Corbett, Michael. 1981. A better Place to Live: New Design for tomorrow's communities. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press. Dober, Richard P..1992. Campus Design. John Wiley & Sons. Girling, Cynthia, and Kenneth I. Helphand.1994. Yard, street, park: the design of suburban open space. New York : J. Wiley. Gould, Kevin. 2000.A History of Acadia Park. Acadia Tenants Association at UBC. www.vcn.bc.ca/acadia/archive/2000Apri.pdf. o o ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY - MLA THESIS - DORSAI SHARIF Katz, P. 1994. The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Official Community Plan and Planning Principles. URL. http://www.ocp.ubc.ca/ocp/ (6 October 2003) The Sheltair Group Inc.. April 18,1998. Visions, Tools and Targets: Environmentally Sustainable Development Guidelines for Southeast False Creek. City of Vancouver Print Shop. Steuteville, Robert. The New Urbanism: an alternative to modern,automobile-oriented planning and development. URL: http://www.newurbannews.com/AboutNewUrbanism.html (20 July 2003). Taecker, Matt," Designing sustainable communities, Learning from Village Homes" Journal of American Planning Association, Vol.68, No. 2 (spring 2002): 217-219. Van Der Ryn, Sim, and Stuart Cowan.1996. Ecological Design. Washington, D.C. ; Covelo, California : Island Press. Van Der Ryn,Sim and Peter Calthorpe.1986. Sustainable communities : a new design synthesis for cities, suburbs, and towns. San Francisco : Sierra Club Books. UBC Buildings and Facilities: Chronological Index. URL: http://www.librarv.ubc.ca/archives/chrono.html (5 October 2003). UBC Utilities. URL: http://www.utilities.ubc.ca (17 September 2003). ACADIA PARK: DESIGN FOR A HEALTHY COMMUNITY MLA THESIS DORSAI SHARIF 


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