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J. S. Bach : the ouverture in B minor, BWV 831 : a discussion of its origin and style : performance practice.. 2002

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/ . J . S. BACH: THE OUVERTURE IN B MINOR, BWV 831: A DISCUSSION OF ITS ORIGIN AND STYLE; PERFORMANCE PRACTICE ISSUES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE MODERN PIANO. by IWONA KAMINSKA B.M., F. Chopin Academy o f Mus i c , Warsaw, P o l a n d , 1992 M.M., U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a - L i n c o l n , 1998 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f M u s i c ; Piano Performance) We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 2002 © Iwona Kaminska, 2002 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital W i t h Friends, Mari Hahn Adrian Dyck Diederik van Dijk Chris Bowlby and John McMillan Tuesday, March 14,2000 Eight o 'c lock in the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 Memor ia l Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Fantasie in f minor, Op. 103, D. 940 (1828) Franz Schubert Allegro molto moderato-Largo-Allegro vivace-Tempo I (1797-1828) ? Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists Mother Goose, 5 Children's Pieces (ca. 1910) Maurice Ravel I Pavane of Sleeping Beauty in the Forest (1875-1937) II Tom Thumb ID Little Plain Jane, Empress of the Chinese Nodding Dolls IV Conversations of Beauty and the Beast V The Fairy Garden Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator -intermission- frora Liederkreis, Op. 39 (1840) Robert Schumann In der Fremde (1810-1856) Intermezzo Waldegespr&ch DieStille " 'V-r Mondnacht Aufeiner Burg Wehmut ImWalde Friihlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Piano Trio, Op. 121 a (ca. 1816) Ludwig van Beethoven Introduzione: Adagio assai-Thema: Allegretto (1770-1827) Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Program Notes Franz Schubert wrote much music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. Whi le Mozart wrote some o f his piano duets for playing tours he undertook with his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical rea- son. Lack ing the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he knew he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even known i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. Wi th these l imita- tions i n mind, it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects i n Schubert's piano music. One duet, the Grand Duo in C , was later orchestrated by Joseph Joachim. The Fan- tasie in f minor was written in that most productive and final year o f Schubert's al l too short life, 1828. The fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its polyphonic construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C and the last, great sonatas, this work is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the work is played i n a continuous f low creating a sense o f unity from four diss imi- lar sections. A l s o binding the work is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a counter subject in the closing fugue. Between 1908 and 1910, Ravel produced Ma mere Voye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based on the popular children's stories o f the same name. Dur ing these same years, Ravel saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding works o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that i n this same period i n his life, the composer produced works o f complete diversity. The Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection with fairy tales and the magical world o f children's imaginations. The idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince Charming, finding herself in a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques Rouche, Ravel orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and f o u r i n - terludes l inking the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Theatre bes Arts on the 28th o f January, 1912. "The cycle o f Eichendorff is for me, the most romantic and depicts much o f you ," wrote Robert Schumann in his letter to Clara from M a y 22, 1840. This year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point i n music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as w e l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. The Lieder o f Schumann are l ike portraits o f his creative genius and are the summa- tion o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and Heinr ich Heine, that o f Baron Joseph von Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic i n mean- ing. The poems themselves are not l inked together i n a cycl ic unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that Schumann shared wi th Clara and he wrote of, "s inking into complete meditation." The dra- matic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano Tr io , Op . 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v i o l i n and cello based on Wenzel M i i l l e r ' s aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I 'm Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. Mos t l ike ly unknown to us today, M u l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers i n V i - enna during the time o f Beethoven. If one could walk the streets o f Vienna around 1795, many townspeople could be heard whist l ing tunes from this opera. It was not > uncommon for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as ei- :i ther for a small ensemble or for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this work sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. He came back to it some ten years later and final published it i n 1824. Though the theme is light and humorous, much o f this work contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Bee- thoven's late works, the parts interact i n a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum o f the coda, it could be understood why the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history. Program notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby A special heartfelt thank you- My thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possi- ble: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable. My thanks to you all! Die Ahren wogten sachl, Es rauschien leis ' die Wdlder, So sternklar war die Nachl. I hid meine Seele spannte Weit Hire Flilgel aus. Flog durch die stillen Laiide, Als flOge sie nach Haus. vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen aufder Lauer Oben ist der alte Riller; Dnlben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Gilter. Eingewaclisen Bart und Haare, Und versleinerl Brusl und Krause, Sitzl er viele hunderl Jahre Ohen in der stillen Klause. IJraussen is/ es still undfriedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, Waldesvogel einsam singen In den lleren Fensterbogen. Fine ilochzeit fohrt da unlen Auf dem Rliein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen munter, Und die schdne Braut, die weinet. ix. Wehmitt lch kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frShlich sei, Doch Heimlich Tranen dringen. Da wird das Herz mir frei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen FrOhlingslufi, Der Schnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keiner filhlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das liefe leid. xi. Im Walde Es zog eine Hoclizeit den Berg entlang, lch hOrte die Vdgel schlagen. Da blitzten viel Reiter, das Waldhom ktang, Das war ein lustiges Jagen! Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhalll. Die Nachl bedecket die Runde, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschel der Wald. Und mich schauerl's im Herzensgrunde. xii. Frtihlingsnacht Uber'm Garten durch die Lufte Hort 'ich WandervOgel zieh n, Das bedeutet Frahlingsdufle, Unlen fdngt's schon an zu blilh 'n. Jauchzen mocht' ich, mdchte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als kOnnt's nicht seinl Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mil dem Mondesglanz herein. Gently swayed the ears of com. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And my soul spread Wide its wings, Arid flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home. In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Rnin showers down, And the woods rustle llrrough the iron bars. Willi his hair and beard grown together as one, I lis brcusl and his ruff turned to stone. He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still. All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine; Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps. Melancholy I can even sing at limes, As if I were happy, But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set free. Outside the nightingales hi Uie spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering. In the Woods A wedding party passed below the nuitmsfcps, I heard the birds singing. Many riders flashed by, the hom sounded - It was a merry hunt! Before I had time to think, The company enfolded in darkness. Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, And my heart is tilled with foreboding. Spring Night Over the garden through the breeze, I heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. 1 want to shout with joy, and weep- I can hardly believe it is tmel Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon. ;. In der Fremde Aus der Heimat hinter den Blitzen rot Da Kommen die Wolken her, Aber Voter und Mutter sind lange tot, Es kennt mich dort keiner mehr. Wie bald, ach wie bald kommt die stille Zeit, Da ruhe ich auch, und aber mir Rauschtdie schdne Waldeinsamkeit, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier. ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch undfrohlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, SchOnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwmget Und zu dir eilig zieht. Hi. Waldesgesprach 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt. Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schone Braut! ich flihr' dich heim!' "Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, Wohl irrt das Waldhorn her und hin, OJlieh'! Du weisst nichl, wer ich bin.' 'So reich geschmOckt ist Ross und Weib, So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kemt' ich dich - Got! steh' mir bei! Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein Sellout still mein Schloss tie/in den Rhein. Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!' iv. Die Stille Es wiess und rat es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wasst' er nur Einer, nurEiner, Kein Mensches sonst wissen soli! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm und verschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der H6h', Als meine Gedanken sind. Ich wUnscht \ ich war' ein VOglein, Und zOge aber das Meer, Wohl aber das Meer und weiter, Bis dass ich im Himmel war'! v. Mondnacht Es war, als halt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekilsst. Dass sie im Blatenschimmer Von ihm nur trdumen mass!'! Die Luftging durch die Felder, In Foreign Parts From beyond the lightning flashes, Clouds come from my homeland. Father and mother are long since dead, And no one here knows me any more. How soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more. In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you. Dialogue in the Woods 'Already it is late, already cold - Why do you ride alone through the woods? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, My heart is broken with grief. The straying hom sounds her and there. Ofly! You know not who I am!' 'In fine array are horse and bride, Of wondrous beauty her young form; I know you now - may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Already it is late, already cold - Nevermore will you leave these woods!' Tranquillity No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one - And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea - Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven! Moonlit Night It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today Wednesday, August 30,2000 Eight o'clock in the evening U B C Recital Hall 6361 Memorial Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Sonata m e minor, Op. 90(1814) Ludwdg van Beethoven i. Mit Lebhqftigkeit unddurchaus milEmpfindung undAusdruck (1770-1827) ii. Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbarvorgetragen Sonata in b minor, Op. 58 (1844) Frederic Chopin i. Allegro maestoso (1810-1849) ii. Scherzo: Molto vivace ; iii. Largo rv. Finale: Presto; non tanto -intermission- Sonata No. 6 in A Major, Op. 82 (1939-40) Sergei Prokofiev /. Allegro moderato (1891-1953) ii. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, Op. 81a sonata, titling each of the three movements, "The Departure," "TheAbsence*'and"The Return" respectively, refer- ring to the departure and return of Archduke Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive of the political changes brought on by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage of his art was beginning evolved. The sonata in e minor, Op. 90, is considered by many to be the first of his late-period piano sonatas. Form, which had been central in his revolutionary think- ing in the past, seemed less important than lyricism and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection of the times in which Beethoven lived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from all things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed in his last sonata, Op. I l l , written in 1822. Also a two- movement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual tran- scendence. From the end of the 18*-century to the end of World War I (1918) the forces of Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. During this time, Poland'no longer existed on any Euro- pean maps. The Polish language "was no longer the official language; it was banned from use in any schools or public offices. Many Polish artists, painters and poets chose an existence of artistic freedom in exile over living in a foreign land on native soil. During Napoleon's attempt to conquer Russia, many Polish patriots joined in his cause in hopes of freeing Poland during the campaign.. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt of freedom was the November uprising of 1831, which occurred while Chopin was abroad. This too was resulted in failure. It was for this cause that Chopin was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. Mickiewicz, Norwid and other Polish poets continued to support the cause of Polish liberation in their life in other countries. Chopin's music also was patriotically ' charged in such a way that Norwid described as, "cannons concealed among flow- ers." This demonstrates Chopin's predilection for writing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, while retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition of the sonata in b minor, Op. 58 that will be performed is taken from the new National Polish Edition, which was recently compiled by Chopin scholar, Jan Ekier, based on last corrections of Chopin. The Sonata No. 6 in A Major is the first of three sonatas by Prokofiev that are known as the "War Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, did not entitle the sonatas, "War Sonatas," but the character of these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had in mind. The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously in 1939- 1940. They are the most disturbing of the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection of the events of the region. During this moment, Russia was not yet involved in World War II against the Third Reich; however, on September 1st, 1939 the Nazis attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. As a result of the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East on September 17, 1939. The atmosphere in Eastern Europe was filled with rumours of war. Even though Russia was not yet directly involved in war with the Nazis, war had indeed begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written in four movements. De- spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, al l three sonatas contain ex tremely poetic and sensual s low movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 t h-century sonata. photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945 University of British Columbia Presents: A LECTURE RECITAL b y Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby French Overture in b minor, BWV831 by Johann Sebastian Bach. A Discussion of Style, Performance Practice Issues and Their Application to the Modern Piano. -program- Lecture -pause- Franzdsische Ouverture, BWV 831 Johann Sebastian Bach /. Overture ii. Courante iii. Gavotte I & II rv. Passepied I&II v. Sarabande vi. Bourreel&II vii. Gigue viii. 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CO co 5 5 CO 1/1 ^ g JS •a 17- 8 « §-. co co co - 1 3 3 c CL (J S 5. •a co o' co O S S 3 CL < rt ft 3 »^ 5 ' ^ 3 - - 3 CO fo CrB̂ ft CO 5 CL CO 3.- ^ ft s o § .? £ co S i rt oc o — l l o St1 rt i rt y - — c ^ 1 n c. n co — oc S.«< ft m Co 2 5 CL V: CO 1 c r. — co 3 °> CL rt rt £ ft = • ft 3 CL •a 0 ̂ cr 3 ^ CO CA 3 N -a 3 CO CO 3 I a * 17. LT. ft w;̂ rt q C/3 Co' co sr. S 2 Is- • rt — rt rt rt «3 | 3 ft ft © -• c n r. o g ~ c O Cd r . K> rr ? § rt C_ r.' 3 CL O. c o o —. -c —1 n n s Bra s o 3 3 5* v> o S e n if- e —-. 2 B K Abstract The French Overture, B W V 831, is rarely performed, being one of the most misunderstood keyboard works by J. S. Bach. Pianists' frequent criticism arises because the work fails to be measured in the same flamboyant and virtuosic style of the Partitas. It is often discarded for being too long and containing too many simplistic dances. However, J. S. Bach did not intend for this work to continue the compositional ideas from Clavierubung I, but rather to present an idiomatic keyboard version of the orchestral overture suite in the French manner. This genre came into being in Germanic lands at the beginning of the XVIIl t h-century. In many movements from B W V 831, Bach presented the most salient characteristics of French style, with which he was familiar from his early teenage years in Luneburg. During the XX t h-century, an explosive amount of research was devoted to the performance practice issues of early music. The existence of an earlier C minor version of the French Overture, B W V 831a, has been a particularly important puzzle piece in the controversial issue of over-dotting. Through an examination of contemporary treatises, current scholarly articles and comparative score reading, many suggestions regarding meter, tempo, phrasing, articulation, dynamics and affect are presented in this paper in general discussion; specific application to the particular problems within the movements of B W V 831 are also presented herein. The fact that this suite is often performed on the modern piano should not obstruct performers from seeking the most appropriate, historically informed interpretation. Furthermore, since the modern instrument is fully capable of presenting the core gestures of the style, the ideas within this discussion may contribute to a more enriching, meaningful performance of this work and like others. i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v i L i s t of Examples v i i Dedication • v i i i Acknowledgements i x PART I: STYLE 1 CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n 2 CHAPTER I I E a r l y Influences 4 CHAPTER I I I Emergence of the Overture Suite i n an O r c h e s t r a l S t y l e 8 CHAPTER IV O r c h e s t r a l Features of the French Overture, BWV 831 11 CHAPTER V Overture movement: S t y l e and Form 15 CHAPTER VI Dances 22 6.1 Courante 22 6.2 Gavottes I, I I 25 6.3 Passepieds I, I I 26 6.4 Sarabande 28 6.5 Bourrees I, I I 32 6.6 Gigue 33 6.7 Echo 34 PART I I : Performance P r a c t i c e Issues; General... 38 CHAPTER VII The Sources 39 CHAPTER V I I I Issues of Over-dotting 40 CHAPTER IX Meter and Tempo 49 CHAPTER X A r t i c u l a t i o n 55 CHAPTER XI Dynamics 60 CHAPTER XII A f f e c t 65 i i i PART I I I : APPLICATION 67 CHAPTER X I I I Ouverture 68 13.1 Meter and Tempo 68 13.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 70 13.3 Dynamics 72 13.4 A f f e c t 74 CHAPTER XIV Courante 7 6 14.1 Meter and Tempo 7 6 14.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 77 14.3 Dynamics 7 8 14.4 A f f e c t 79 CHAPTER XV Gavottes I, I I 80 15.1 Meter and Tempo 80 15.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 81 15.3 Dynamics 82 15.4 A f f e c t 83 CHAPTER XVI Passepieds I, I I 84 16.1 Meter and Tempo 8 4 16.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 85 16.3 Dynamics 8 6 16.4 A f f e c t 86 CHAPTER XVII Sarabande 8 9 17.1 Meter and Tempo 8 9 17.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 90 17.3 Dynamics 91 17.4 A f f e c t 93 CHAPTER XVIII Bourrees I, I I 95 18.1 Meter and Tempo 95 18.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 96 18.3 Dynamics 97 18.4 A f f e c t 98 CHAPTER XIX Gigue 99 19.1 Meter and Tempo 99 19.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 100 19.3 Dynamics 100 19.4 A f f e c t 101 iv CHAPTER XX Echo 103 20.1 Meter and Tempo 103 20.2 A r t i c u l a t i o n 103 20.3 Dynamics 104 20.4 A f f e c t 105 CHAPTER XXI Summary 10 6 CHAPTER XXII Conclusions 108 BIBLIOGRAPHY I l l V L I S T O F T A B L E S TABLE 1 O v e r t u r e : Formal Scheme 11 TABLE 2 O v e r t u r e : Descending c i r c l e o f 5ths P r o g r e s s i o n 17 TABLE 3 O v e r t u r e : A s c e n d i n g C i r c l e o f 5ths P r o g r e s s i o n 17 TABLE 4 O v e r t u r e - R e p r i s e : Descending C i r c l e o f 5ths P r o g r e s s i o n 19 TABLE 5 O v e r t u r e : R i t o r n e l l o / F u g a l Formal P l a n 20 TABLE 6 Sarabande: Harmonic P r o g r e s s i o n , Measures 1-4 30 v i L I S T O F E X A M P L E S EXAMPLE 1 B a d i n e r i e from t he O r c h e s t r a l S u i t e i n b minor, BWV 1067 13 EXAMPLE 2 Echo from t he French O v e r t u r e , BWV 831 13 EXAMPLE 3 Measure 13 from t he Opening Movement of the French O v e r t u r e , BWV 831 45 EXAMPLE 4 Measure 8, V a r i a t i o n 16 from the G o l d b e r g V a r i a t i o n s , BWV 988 45 EXAMPLE 5 The Basso C o n t i n u o from the Second Movement of t h e Cantata", "Lobe den H e r r e n " , BWV 69 52 EXAMPLE 6 Sarabande from t he French O v e r t u r e , BWV 831 90 v i i To my p a r e n t s , J o s e f K a m i n s k i and I r m i n a Kaminska, who were always d e d i c a t e d t o my m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and growth. A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s I w o u l d l ike to thank those w h o took an act ive part in d i rec t ing m y research project. These are i n d i v i d u a l s w h o went beyond the c a l l o f duty to p rov ide personal , c a r ing gu idance and reassurance at every step o f the w a y . F i r s t l y , a great thank-you goes to m y disser tat ion supervisor , D r . G r e g o r y Bu t l e r , w h o devoted not o n l y his unmatched k n o w l e d g e , but also his personal interest and engagement towards the c o m p l e t i o n o f this project. End les s words o f apprec ia t ion shou ld be said to m y supervisor , D r . H e n r i - P a u l S i c s i c , for his l imi t less pos i t ive support, p ianis t ic expert ise and indomi tab le spiri t throughout the entirety o f m y doc to ra l p rogram. ix Part One: Style 1 Introduction Clavierubung II by Johann Sebastian Bach comprises two large keyboard works: A Concerto after the Italian Taste, BWV 971, and an Overture after the French Manner, BWV 831. Both works were intended for a performance on a harpsichord with two manuals, which is often indicated in the score by the inclusion of forte and piano markings. There is no extant autograph manuscript of the Ouverture, BWV 831, which makes the printed version of Clavierubung II the most important source. This pedagogical work was first published in Leipzig around Easter, 1735.1 The first edition was prepared by four engravers under the supervision of Christoph Weigel Jr. and contains many errors; a second corrected edition appeared a year later in 1736. The Ouverture, BWV 831, exists also in an early version, BWV 831a in the key of C minor, and it is preserved in two extant copies, the first by Anna Magdalena Bach and a second by Johann Gottlieb Preller. The former is generally considered the more important one, for it includes corrections by Johann Sebastian. Preller's copy is less reliable since it lacks Bach's authorization. Aside from the key, the main difference between the two versions lies in the degree of dotting of the outer sections of the opening movement. It is important to note that the C minor version dates from around 1730, the same year of the newspaper announcement of Partita V, BWV 829, and it is possible the Ouverture is the Seventh Partita referred to in the same announcement.2 It is generally presumed that the Ouverture must have been composed around the same time as the Six Partitas. The C minor version of BWV 831 could not be included in Clavierubung I because this set already contained a C minor3 work as well as another composition opening with a free movement entitled "Ouverture.,"4 The organic ordering scheme of the set of Partitas with regard to chosen tonalities and style did not allow for any redundancies. The purpose of Clavierubung II was to present in the clearest possible manner the two dominant orchestral genres featuring the two leading national styles of the day. The German word, "(T&w/jg," in the 1 Christoph Wolff, Bach. Essays on His Life and Music (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1991), p. 204. 2 David Schulenberg, The Keyboard Works ofJ. S. Bach (New York : Schirmer Books, 1992), p. 420. 3 Partita, B W V 827. 4 Partita, B W V 828, first movement. 2 title implies a pedagogical function for the set and is often translated into English as "practice". More importantly, however, it should be understood more in terms of a lesson, resulting in a translation of the title as "Keyboard Lessons." The genres that are presented in the second part o f the series, a concerto and an ouverture, had already appeared previously in Bach's oeuvre. His fascination with the ritornello procedure and, particularly, the Vivaldian "modular" compositional approach led to his transcription of 21 foreign concerti for harpsichord and organ during the Weimar years o f 1713/1714 ( B W V 972-987 and 592-596). Through the expansion of the solo part in the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, B W V 1050, this instrument reached an unprecedented level of importance and emancipation. The Italian Concerto for solo harpsichord represents the culmination of this process and combines the traditional ritornello influences with the more current German galant features, such as regular phrasing and "sigh" figures. Similarly, the Ouverture is an unsurpassed achievement in its genre. Bach's authorship of the two early, pre-Weimar works, the Ouverture in F major, B W V 820, and the Ouverture in G minor, B W V 822, is often questioned and it is possible that they are transcriptions of unknown orchestral works. Without a doubt, the opening movement of Partita IV in D major, B W V 828, is the only other keyboard suite with clear implications of the overture style. In the light of the paucity of ouvertures for solo harpsichord, B W V 831 stands out as a particularly original and important work because of its large dimensions and clear representation of style, both in the overture movement as well as in following dances. In both of the works, which constitute this collection, B W V 971 and B W V 831, Bach elevated the role of harpsichord, making it a self-sufficient and highly expressive instrument. 3 Early Influences Johann Sebastian Bach was first exposed to French music and musicians as early as 1700. Having been forced to leave Ohrdruf (where he was not given any more hospitia5), Bach and his friend, Georg Erdmann, continued their education in St. Michael's School in Liineburg 6 . Several factors associated with this move influenced his musical development to a high degree. The entire city o f Liineburg with its court and schools was infiltrated with French art and culture. Already during the years, 1695-8, this city witnessed the completion of a new ducal castle on the city's market square, which happened to be close in proximity to St. Michael's School. Here, as well as in the entire area of Brunswick, Duke Georg Wilhelm and the duchess, Eleonore Desmier d'Olbreuse, promoted French music and culture.7 A s a result, a band of musicians was employed at the Liineburg court consisting primarily of French performers. Also, in the year 1656, a new school for young nobility was added to the old Latin one, which Bach was to attend forty-four years later. Despite the fact that the new institution had completely different faculty and that contact between the students of both schools was restricted, there were still opportunities for young musicians to meet and influence one another.8 One of the most important and influential figures in Bach's musical education was Georg Bohm, the organist o f St. John's church, the biggest church in Liineburg. It is not known whether Johann Sebastian obtained any official instruction from Bohm, but in 1775 C . P . E . Bach mentioned him as one of the most important influences on his father. Interestingly, Carl Philipp, probably in order to idealize the portrait of his father, did not refer to Bohm as a teacher but as a "Liineburg organist"9. Johann Sebastian must have developed a particular attachment to Bohm's suites and an Ouverture because they survived in the Moller Manuscript and the Andreas Bach Book 1 0 . It is currently believed that Johann Sebastian 5 A scholarship. 6 Christoph Wolff, Johann Sebastian Bach, The Learned Musician (New York : W . W . Norton and Company, 2000), p. 41. 7 Ibid., p. 57. 8 Ibid., p. 57. Students had neighbouring dormitories and participated in the joint choir. 9 Ibid., p. 60. 1 0 Ibid., p. 61. 4 compiled these manuscripts while living in his brother's house in Ohrdruf in 1702." The set represents the music that Bach was exposed to in Liineburg to a large degree and, aside from Bohm's Ouverture, one can also find works by French composers, such as Nicolas-Antoine Lebeque and Francois Dieupart. One of the keyboard pieces that young Bach must have become acquainted with while studying in Liineburg is Bohm's transcription of the orchestral suite for the clavier, the Ouverture in D major. The first movement displays the basic features of the genre such as the dotted opening section with a proper ending on the dominant, which leads to the faster, fugal middle part. A t the end o f the fugue, one can observe the return of the slower section with the pointed rhythm, which underlines the orchestral quality of the piece. One also notices the apparent avoidance of the dances typically associated with the keyboard suite in the remaining part of Bohm's Ouverture in D major, which includes an Air, a Rigaudon with Trio, a Rondeau, a Menuet, and a Chaconne. The above-mentioned sources, the Andreas Bach Book and the Moller Manuscript, also contain the Ouverture in F major, B W V 820, and the Ouverture in G minor, B W V 822. It is uncertain whether both pieces are original compositions by J . S. Bach, or merely transcriptions from other, unknown orchestral works, as was the practice. It is significant that one can find keyboard arrangements of orchestral music by Lul ly and Agostino Steffani in the Moller Manuscript as well as arrangements of early suites by Georg Philipp Telemann in the Andreas Bach Book. The early Ouverture in F major, B W V 820, has smaller dimensions and simpler texture than the Ouverture in G minor, B W V 822. Following David Schulenberg, the English word, "overture", will be used in the paper in reference to the opening movement, and the word, "ouverture", to the entire compositional compilation. 1 2 B W V 820 contains only five movements with the characteristic dominance of the opening overture part. The order of the cycle is interesting: Ouverture, Entree, Menuet and Trio, Bourree and 1 1 Ibid., p. 73. Christoph W o l f f suggests that Sebastian may have gotten the famous "Moonl igh t" manuscript back from Johann Christoph while staying with his brother in 1702 and in return, he left the compilation o f pieces composed or acquired during his stay in Liineburg. 1 2 Schulenberg, p. 30. 5 Gigue and resembles that of B WV 831, which, similarly, features a Bourree as a neighbouring movement to the Gigue. There is another common feature at the end of the opening movement In both cases the fugal section ends with a reprise (BWV 820: bb. 89-106, BWV 831: bb. 122-143). The similarity ends with this polyphonic part, for there is no return of the characteristic dotted section, which creates such a powerful effect in BWV 831. The closing dances in this early Ouverture, the Bourree and Gigue, resemble their later counterparts in BWV 831 with regard to the two-part texture and generally simple, unpretentious character. Another common feature of both Gigues is their non-imitative character. Also the Ouverture in G minor, BWV 822, features some characteristics that point to the later work, BWV 831. Again there is a reprise in the fugal section (mm. 104 ff.) and in the middle section of the fugue there is a progression that makes use of a circle of fifths going from a B-flat major-minor seventh chord in bar 69 to G-flat major in bar 76; also, there is a diatonic circle of fifths that starts in measure 97 on a B-flat sonority and modulates to G minor in measure 104. It is not uncommon for Bach to make the central sections of his early fugues the most harmonically active, but the fugal part of the later work, BWV 831 features the most adventurous passages in its central section, which also makes use of the circle of fifths (mm. 89-96). Like the Ouverture in B minor, BWV 831, the opening movement of the Ouverture in G minor, BVW 822, also ends with a reminiscence of the slow dotted section. The form and characteristically quick scales of the overture enhance the brilliant orchestral quality of the movement. Another similarity between BWV 822 and 831 lies in the fact that their Gigues clearly resemble canaries, the French version of this dance, which also occurs in the French Suite in C minor, BWV 813. Despite the fact that the imitation is rarely occurring in movements of this type, it is employed in BWV 822 as well as in the Gigue from BWV 813. The B sections of the Gigues from the early suite, BWV 822, as well as of the Gigue from BWV 831 are dominated by a sequential phrasing technique. Whether both early Ouvertures, BWV 820 and 822, are original compositions of Bach or are merely transcriptions, it is fascinating to observe how many of their features are present in the later work, BWV 831. The similarities between these pre-Weimar works and the ouverture-suite from Clavierubung II axe even more striking when one considers the period of approximately twenty-five years that separates 6 their composition and the fact that there is no similar keyboard suite that Bach composed during the intervening period. 7 Emergence of the Overture Suite in an Orchestral Style The opposition of French and Italian national styles was already a cliche by the 1730's. Every Partita from Clavierubung I exhibits features that are characteristic of both national styles. Clavierubung II, with its Concerto nach Italienischen Gusto and Ouverture nach franzosischer Art, represents an attempt to clarify arid purify these national characteristics. Both works, however, already represent the German version of the two styles o f the late 1720's and early 1730's. Orchestral overtures in the French style were developed and popularized in Germanic lands as a result of widespread admiration for the music of the Sun King , Louis X I V . The ballet suites o f French composers served mostly as intermezzi in operas; the appearance of the orchestral overture suite, written in imitation of such works, was invented and popularized by German composers, such as J . S. Kiisser and Telemann. Among the earliest works written in this genre were the Filnf Grosse Ballette nach der lustigen Franzdschischen Manier (1664) by J . C . Horn, Lust Music by Georg Bleyer (1670) and other works by J. S. Kiisser, J . C . F . Fischer and later, Handel, Bach and Telemann, from whom we have 135 extant overtures. The genre of the orchestral suite proper is thus representative of a German culture. A s Bach's student, Philipp David Krauter reported, such pieces were performed and assigned as a part o f regular composition projects during his studies in Weimar 1 3 . It is then reasonable to assume that similar pieces were also presented at other fashionable courts such as Cothen. Orchestral overtures were often transcribed for the keyboard (like the above-mentioned D major Ouverture by Georg Bohm) which eventually led to the to development of an original keyboard genre, the clavier-ouverture suite. The main idea of the orchestral suites was the inclusion of both free and stylized dances adhering to no particular formula, such as the one Germans inherited from Froberger: the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue. In the orchestral suites of Bach and his contemporaries, it was rare to find these traditional dances together. In addition, the allemande is not present in any of Bach's orchestral suites but is v associated with keyboard sets. The "French" quality is stressed by the inclusion of gavottes, passepieds, and bourrees and minuets, most often appearing in pairs. 1 3 Wolff, p. 136. 8 Starting around the 1720's, composers such as Telemann added a new feature to the orchestral suite: the use of a soloist in a concertante manner. A s a result, a hybrid genre came into existence, the concerted ouverture. In this type of piece, as the name suggests, one or more instruments are treated as a concertino. The use of the soloist in the concerted ouverture is much less virtuosic than it is in the concerto proper. J . S. Bach's four orchestral suites in C major, B W V 1066, B minor, B W V 1067, D major, B W V 1068, and D Major, B W V 1069, are representative of the new genre. O f these four, B W V 1066, 1068 and 1069 were most likely composed toward the end of the Cothen period. 1 4 B W V 1067, however, is now thought to have been written later since the autograph of flute and viola can be dated to the late 1730's. Joshua Rifkin, in his yet unpublished article, "The "B minor Flute Suite" deconstructed: New Light on Bach's Ouverture, B W V 1067" argues convincingly that B W V 1067 existed in an early A minor version. The author also suggests that the original concertante instrument was the violin and not the transverse flute (since the middle C's in the earlier A minor version are not playable on the Baroque flute). 1 5 It is known that around 1729-30, J . S. Bach copied such a composition in G minor by his cousin, Johann Bernhard Bach of Eisenach. This piece must have been of particular interest to Johann Sebastian for he rarely copied other composers' works. Rifkin points to many similarities between B W V 1067 and Bernhard Bach's work, such as the rhythmic patterns in the middle imitative section of the first movement. Both works make use of upbeats after the dotted section, leading to the fugal part. Also, the distinction between the harmonic progression of B W V 1067 and the three "Cothen Ouvertures" points to a different date o f origin for these works 1 6 . Rifkin also points out the close relationship of the Badinerie o f the B minor Suite to the Scherzo from the Partita in A minor, B W V 827. The presumed date of origin of B W V 1067 indicates a much later time than that o f the Cothen 1 4 Joshua Rifkin , "The ' B minor Flute Suite' Deconstructed: N e w Light on Bach 's B W V 1067." This article w i l l appear in Bach Perspectives 6. 1 5 Joshua Rifkin also excludes the possibility o f an oboe, because it would have to play a C-sharp in the A minor version, which is impossible on the Baroque oboe. 1 6 B W V 1067 is characteristic o f the harmonic changes that occur on every quarter-note beat, whereas the three other overtures have the obvious pace o f a half note. 9 Ouvertures, probably around 1731, after the publishing of Clavierubung I as a compilation. It is apparent, then, that Bach was actively engaged in the composition of ouvertures in the years around 1730. The C minor version of B W V 831 copied by Anna Magdalena Bach dates from the same period. Not surprisingly, the new genre of the concerted ouverture also found its outlet as an original keyboard composition. Bach now took a further step toward creating an original suite inspired by an orchestral genre, having been exposed from his early years to various clavier transcriptions of orchestral works. The close proximity between the composition of B W V 1067 and the first version o f B W V 831 explains many parallels and similarities between the two works. The transposition of the Ouverture, B W V 831, from C minor to B minor was not due to any special attachment to the key of B minor. It is widely believed that the new key was chosen in order to create the strongest possible contrast with the tonality of F major in the Concerto nach Italienishen Gusto, B W V 971. This tritone relationship between the two works, as well as the juxtaposition between the major and minor keys of Clavierubung II, help to underline the differences o f the two genres. It is also important that Bach's published works from 1735 do not repeat any tonalities from Clavierubung I. The differences between the C minor version, B W V 831a, and the B minor version, B W V 831, consist mostly o f alterations to the notation within the dotted sections of the overture. Since this issue is closely related to the performance problems of the piece, it will be presented later in this discourse in greater detail. Also, with the transposition to a lower key, Bach had to do some minor adjustments in places that used the low G o f the keyboard. 10 Orchestral Features of the French Overture, B W V 831 The French Overture, B W V 831, comprises the largest number of dance movements in all o f J . S. Bach's keyboard suites. A s expected, it opens with a movement in the overture style and is followed by ten dance movements: Courante, Gavotte I, Gavotte II, Passepied I, Passepied II, Sarabande, Bourree I, Bourree II, Gigue, and Echo. The expansive overture movement, as it does in the early keyboard suites, B W V 820 and 822, dominates B W V 831. The magnificent orchestral character is achieved by the movement's large proportions and by the framing of the fugal part between two equally lengthy dotted slow sections. O f Bach's earlier clavier works, only the Ouverture in G minor, B W V 822, has a similar structure, a fact cited by scholars in support o f its orchestral origin. The dotted sections of this early work are much shorter and of uneven length: the A section is 17 measures in length, while the B section is only 10 measures in length. In all of Bach's orchestral suites there is a return of the slow dotted part. However, just as in B W V 822, these reprises are shorter than the opening statements. The structure of the opening movement of B W V 831, presented below, shows how Bach achieves perfect symmetry within the movement where all three dotted sections are the same length: Table 1. Overture: Formal Scheme Section Number of measures A 20 B 123 A ' 20 B 123 A ' 20 One of the most striking orchestral features o f the overture movement from B W V 831 is the adaptation of the ritornello form in the fugal section. The ritornello and episode sections are clearly contrasted by the use of texture, register, musical material, and additional indications of forte and piano. Also, the solo part's non-virtuosic use of simple broken triad figurations in a two-part texture clearly points to the concerted ouverture type. The elements of solo-tutti writing returns in the last movement, the Echo, and is also emphasized by piano and forte indications, giving the entire piece an overall cyclic impression. 11 The pairing of popular dances, such as the gavotte, passepied, and bourree, was a common French ballroom practice. B W V 1066, often referred to as more "French" than the other three orchestral suites, features one more pair o f dances than B W V 831: Minuets I and / / . In B W V 831, the second of the pair of Gavottes contrasts with the first through the use of a much lower register, thinner texture as well as a less adventurous rhythm. Such a marked difference in register and attack density between the two dances clearly implies the use o f a distinctive solo instrument in the second Gavotte, such as a lute. One can observe a similar contrast between the pair o f Passepieds. The second one, written in a musette style, creates a much more intimate impression. Again, the thinner texture, more predictable rhythm and stepwise melodic motion are used to create enormous contrast with the wild character of the first Passepied. Perhaps one of the most striking characteristics of B W V 831 is the order of the movements which departs from the traditional German ordering of such dances and is as follows: courante, gavotte, passepied, sarabande, bourree, gigue and echo. In Partita IV, B W V 828, another keyboard work that opens with an overture style movement, the keyboard idiom is more obvious since it contains all the basic dances in traditional order: allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue. 1 7 The presence of the allemande in B W V 828 emphasizes the keyboard idiom of this work. Conversely, the lack of this dance is a feature of the orchestral suites and of B W V 831. A l l the orchestral suites lack allemandes and avoid a strong traditional dance order. Another similarity between B W V 831 and three of Bach's orchestral suites 1 8 is the conclusion of each of these sets with rare dances or even pieces without a dance association. B W V 1066 concludes with a pair of Passepieds, B W V 1067 with a Badineri, B W V 1069 with a Rejouissance and B W V 831 with an Echo. Another obvious similarity between the last movements of the Orchestral Suite, B W V 1067, and the Ouverture, B W V 831, is that both Echo and Badinerie display concerto elements and are written in the same 2/4 meter. The main motives o f both pieces use the characteristic rhythm of the dactylic figurae corta: 1 7 One o f the few irregularities in the form o f B W V 828 is the insertion o f an Aria after the Courante, which parallels the inclusion o f Gavottes in the same place in B W V 831. 1 8 With the exclusion o f Suite N o . 3, B W V 1068. 12 Example 1 Example 2 Badinerie E c h o J j m % m* >J> ^ • fin. 2 «. — «. H ' y i -V 1 h _ j i — ~~J~ »i • ' ^ ' Lr — r r Another similarity between the Ouverture, B W V 831, and the orchestral suites lies in the parallel dance types which appear in both. The bourree is included in B W V 831 as it is in all the orchestral suites. However, it is featured in only two of the English and two of the French Suites, and in none of the Partitas. A l l of the orchestral suites, with the exception of B W V 1067, also include gavottes which appear as the third dance in such cycles, just as in the case of B W V 831. The four-voice texture of the Sarabande from B W V 831 is not only very unique but also underscores the orchestral nature of the work. The lack of keyboard arpeggios on the strong beats of the Sarabande is surprising in a work for solo keyboard, and also underlines the orchestral approach. None of J. S. Bach's orchestral suites include more than one of the four traditional dances, and, moreover, two of them, B W V 1068 and B W V 1069, have none at all. However, in keeping with the 13 keyboard suites, B W V 831 includes three of the four traditional suite movements, the courante, sarabande and gigue. The Ouverture, B W V 831, then, displays a number of orchestral features, without losing the most necessary connection to the traditional solo keyboard genre. 14 Overture movement: Style and Form The majestic French overture took its origin from its intended function as processional music, necessarily o f a character and style appropriate for the entrance of the Sun King. Many generations of composers from Lul ly through Bach and Handel wrote compositions in this style reflecting the brilliance of royalty with the intention of arousing feelings of pride and supremacy. Johann Sebastian Bach contributed many ensemble and keyboard works using this genre. Besides the four Orchestral Suites, B W V 1066-1069, there are the overtures to Cantatas, B W V 97, 110 and 119, and the choral fantasy from the Cantata, B W V 61. His early fascination with the French overture is reflected by the presence of many such pieces in the early Moller and Anna Magdalena Bach Manuscripts. Aside from the early Ouvertures, B W V 820 and 822, which are of questionable authorship 1 9, the overture style is also present in the Fugue in D major from Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I, B W V 850, the Partita in D major, B W V 828, the Ouverture, B W V 831, the Praeludium, B W V 552/1, Variation 16 from the Goldberg Variations, and Contrapunctus 6 (in stile francese) from the Kunst der Fuge. The overtures comprises two sections, A and B , where contrast is achieved through the juxtaposition of a slow homophonic section, frequently in the meter of 2 (crossed) with a fast, imitative segment, often in a compound meter. Some overtures end with a return to the dotted section, as is the case with B W V 831, thus resulting in the formal scheme, A B A B A . However, many are written in a simple A B pattern. The portrayal o f royal pride and brilliance is attained in the opening section by an extremely florid homophonic texture, containing punctuated rhythms and fast scale-like passages. Pieces that exhibit frequent rhythmic dotting of varied degrees, tirades (fast scale-like passages) and homophonic texture in a meter of 2 2 0 are associated with the French overture style. A careful distinction should be made between the compositions in this complex, alia francese21 style, and those with little more than persistent dotting, such as the opening movement of the Partita in C minor, B W V 826. As David 1 9 It is still uncertain whether both pieces are original keyboard compositions by J . S. Bach or merely transcriptions from unknown orchestral works. 2 0 Sometimes it is in 4/4, as appearing in some o f Handel's overtures. Contrapunctus 6 from Kunst der Fuge. 15 F u l l e r points out in h is ar t ic le , " T h e Dot t ed S ty le i n B a c h , H a n d e l , and Scar la t t i " , such o p e n i n g movements c lose r d i s p l a y the I ta l ian s tyle , w h i c h can be seen, for example , i n m a n y in t roductory movements by C o r e l I i 2 2 . T h e exis tence o f t w o vers ions o f the Ouverture, B W V 831 , for decades has been a subject o f cont roversy . W h e t h e r the pr in ted v e r s i o n represented the same idea wr i t t en i n an i m p r o v e d and more precise nota t ion o r whether it presented an al tered m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n was the p r imary ques t ion . T h e ear ly ve r s ion i n C m i n o r ex is ted in a manuscr ip t b y A n n a M a g d a l e n a B a c h as w e l l as in a manuscr ip t b y Johann G o t t l i e b Pre l l e r . T h e later ve r s ion i n B m i n o r was p u b l i s h e d i n Clavierubung II i n 1735, and re- edi ted i n 1736. T h e purpose for the change o f k e y f rom C m i n o r to B m i n o r w a s to ach ieve the highest degree o f tonal contrast to the I ta l ian C o n c e r t o f rom the same set, enhanced b y the t r i tone re la t ionsh ip as w e l l as the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f a major and m i n o r mode . T h e more con t rovers ia l issue that is associa ted w i t h the exis tence o f the t w o vers ions cor responds to the sharpened rhythms o f the later pub l i ca t i on . M a n y scholars , such as M i c h a e l C o l l i n s , C h r i s t o p h W o l f f and J o h n O ' D o n e l l 2 3 be l i eve that the second v e r s i o n represents an i m p r o v e d notat ion o f the first and that "the rea l iza t ions o f the dot ted va lues are iden t i ca l in both v e r s i o n s . . . " 2 4 . A l s o , the exis tence o f the second and " i m p r o v e d " ( w i t h regard to notat ion) v e r s i o n o f B W V 831 is taken as a p r o o f o f B a c h ' s unders tanding o f the impor tance o f correct per formance p r a c t i c e 2 5 . F r e d e r i c N e u m a n n , o n the other hand, argued against this no t ion and be l i eved that the t w o vers ions represented t w o diverse m u s i c a l presentations, m a i n t a i n i n g that each shou ld be per formed exac t ly as w r i t t e n 2 6 . D a v i d Schu lenbe rg suggests that some o f the rhy thms m a y have been changed , w h i l e others were re-wri t ten in a more precise manne r . 2 7 1 1 David Fuller, "The Dotted Style in Bach, Handel, and Scarlatti," in Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays, ed. Peter Wil l iams (Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 99-117. 2 3 John O ' D o n e l l , "The French Style and the Overtures o f Bach ," EMI (1979), p. 190, 336. 2 4 Preface in Johann Sebastian Bach, Italienisches Konzert und Franzbsische Ouverture. Zweiter Teil der Clavierubung, ed. Walter Emery (Kassel, 1977), p. v. 2 5 George Stauffer, "Changing Issues o f Performance Practice," in The Cambridge Companion to Bach, ed. John Butt (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 203. 2 6 Frederic Neumann, "Rhythm in the Two Versions o f Bach 's French Overture, B W V 831," in Essays in Performance Practice (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982), p. 99. 2 7 Schulenberg, p. 305. 16 A s one can see in T a b l e 1 above, the fo rm o f the overture movemen t o f B W V 831 is perfec t ly symmet r i c a l . T h e c losure o f the m o v e m e n t w i t h a second dot ted sect ion o f the same length as the first is not a necessary requirement i m p o s e d b y fo rmal t r ad i t ion . T h e symmet ry here creates an ex t remely majest ic and power fu l impress ion . A l t h o u g h they are p rec i se ly o f the same length, the t w o dotted sect ions o f the overture are not iden t i ca l , but make use o f s i m i l a r r h y t h m i c and m o t i v i c gestures. T h e c o n c l u d i n g s l o w sec t ion su rp r i s ing ly int roduces a n e w progress ion a lmos t i m m e d i a t e l y i n measure 145. Here , a I I I 7 h a r m o n y in the second h a l f o f the measure is t ransformed into a secondary dominan t l e ad ing to the subdominant ( V 7 / / v ) . F r o m this po in t on , the l is tener is exposed to a c o m p l e t e l y different h a r m o n i c progress ion than that o f the o p e n i n g dotted sec t ion . T y p i c a l l y for any b inary structure, the s l o w dotted sec t ion compr i ses three l o n g phrases: phrase 1 (measures 1 - 5 1 ) , phrase 2 (measures 5-13 1 ) , and phrase 3 (measures 13 2 -20) . T h e o p e n i n g phrase is based o n a descend ing c i r c l e o f fifths progress ion: Table 2. Overture: Descending Circle of 5ths Progression Measure h - *2f »> 1 3 1 jr 3? ' j 4 r* - 5 'A G maj - C# h a l f - d i m 7 ! F# maj ' B m m ' ^ .1 Harmony ' D maj 7 H o w e v e r , the next sequential segment begins w i t h an ascend ing c i r c l e o f fifths pattern, w h i c h then cadences in measure 10: Table 3. Overture: Ascending Circle of 5ths Progression _ Measure .'6 \ ' \ 1 * 8 1 2 S3A 9-10 c ^ \ * - * \. - ; ̂  - % l Harmony l ) n u | ! A maj I m i n 1 B 7 I m i n / F * m a> i W^^gmSifSiSSM ^ilX^^Mff^sf^A M i U ^ ^ S S I ^ f t i ^ WSmfi^M^W^^ I^^P^^^^^-^l'^w^ ^M^^^^f^r^^f^f'm T h e f o l l o w i n g measures, 10-13, es tabl ish the new key o f F-sharp m i n o r . T h e new k e y is then c l ea r ly s tab i l i zed by means o f an exact repet i t ion o f the o p e n i n g m e l o d i c and h a r m o n i c progress ion f rom measures 1-5 but i n the key o f the m i n o r dominant . T h i s restatement o f the f a m i l i a r mater ia l helps to create an aura o f s tab i l i ty and majesty, w h i c h is essential to the character o f the F r e n c h overture and a lso 17 contributes to the symmetry of this three-phrase structure. The closing measures make use of strongly cadential material and conclude with an uplifting turn to the major dominant. This extensive and persistent use of the circle of fifths progression is the most striking harmonic device in the opening section. In the first phrase the descending circle of seventh chords serves to establish a dissonant and expressive harmonic language that effectively releases tension through each statement of the sequential unit. The second phrase, however, uses an ascending progression to heighten the tension and, with each step, brings the listener closer to the climactic arrival on the dominant in measure 10. When the new key of F-sharp minor is firmly established in measure 13, the same descending pattern as that o f the first phrase is restated. One should also note the perfectly arch-shaped contour of the opening phrase. It begins on F- sharp4 in the middle register and reaches through an octave to an early high point on the second beat of the second measure. This creates a heightened sense of grandeur, accomplished by exploring a large melodic range within a short period of time. The phrase ending is marked by a return to the original F - sharp pitch three measures after the peak. This reach upwards to high F-sharp 5 represents an urgent increase of tension while the following descent represents a very slow release of tension. It is the circle o f fifths pattern that helps to control the slow descent. This combination of effective melodic writing with the dissonant harmonic pattern creates an extremely captivating and powerful impression at the very beginning of the Ouverture. Also, in comparison with the Partita IV, B W V 828, the Ouverture, B W V 831, abounds in accented dissonances and frequent points o f imitation. A l l these characteristics point toward a composition on a much grander scale than previous ouvertures for solo keyboard. The concluding slow section of the first movement of B W V 831 commences with the quotation of the initial motive from measures 1-2. From this point on, however, it does not repeat any material from the opening section literally, but makes use of similar motivic gestures. One is surprised in the second half o f measure 145 by the use of the B 7 chord as the dominant of the subdominant and with it, the appearance of the new leading tone. This new pitch appears in the same measure and voice shortly after an appoggiatura on D on the strong beat o f the same bar. The key of E minor seems to dominate the 18 section from measures 145 to 151. A descending circle of fifths, progressing steadily every half measure is used in order to relax the build up of tension in measures 154 to 156: This is the only progression through a circle o f fifths in this section; its descending direction stresses the decrease of intensity that takes place in the ending section. Interestingly, the opening section of the Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, with which the Ouverture, B W V 831, shares several similarities, also makes clear use of a very similar circle o f fifths progression. Measures 4-8 are based on the following sonorities: F-sharp major, B major, E minor, A major and D major. This harmonic progression moves slowly, placing the main chords on the downbeats on longer note values. Extensive use of the circle of fifths progression is an integral part o f other overtures from the orchestral suites, such as in measures 4-7 of the slow closing section of the Orchestral Suite in C major, B W V 1066. However, the intensity that it creates in the Ouverture, B W V 831, is unprecedented. The middle part of the Ouverture, B W V 831, presents the perfect combination of ritornello form and fugue. In order to make these formal procedures even more clear, Bach suggests the use of both manuals of the harpsichord by the indications forte and piano. In the table below, one can see the alignment of the ritornello and fugal sections in the B section of B W V 831: Table 4. Overture-Reprise: Descending Circle of 5ths Progression 3-4 I) maj 156 1-2 19 Table 5: Overture: Ritornello/Fugal Formal Plan Ritornello/ R1 .~" l SI r V ' T t i ^ T j S2 P ^ R 3 ™ ^ S3 ^rf"R4~\ Solo Group i•• * ."1 ' > ,«{ . f <2^ Fugal . e x p o s i t i o n ; episode group entry episode group entry episode reprise Section j> ' C - J t " v '/I ' Measures ' 20-46 } 47-58 ' ' 5 9 - 7 6 ' 77-88 89-103 104-122 ' 123- l " ' , i  r V ^' \ V i ] i 3 1 Key Jb-j^-^d b - t o D + ' P + ' t o f#- 1 f # - t o A + r '• A+"to c - . . e - t o b - - b - • B y c o m p a r i s o n , the imi ta t ive m i d d l e part o f Partita IV, B W V 828 /1 , does not exh ib i t such a c lear fo rmal p lan ; the fugal and concer to - l ike features are m u c h less c l ea r ly de l inea ted and the m o v e m e n t explores w r i t i n g more i d ioma t i c to the keyboard . A l s o , because o f the m u c h looser treatment o f the r i to rne l lo procedure , B W V 828/1 more c l o s e l y resembles the preludes o f the E n g l i s h Sui tes N o . 2-6, B W V 807-811 , than the h i g h l y o rgan ized fugal sect ion o f the Ouverture, B W V 8 3 1 / 1 . T h e texture o f the B sect ion o f B W V 828/1 also does not help to c l ea r ly del ineate the f o r m . S ta r t ing i n measure 4 8 , the second r i to rne l lo is stated w i t h i n the same two-part w r i t i n g as the p rev ious so lo sec t ion . Id iomat ic keyboard w r i t i n g is present throughout the Partita, e spec i a l l y in measures 36 , 4 0 and 54 where the scalar f igurat ions encompass more than t w o octaves. T h e r i t o rne l lo o f the o p e n i n g movemen t o f the m i d d l e sec t ion o f the Ouverture presents the fugal subject in the meter o f 6/8, w h i c h is t y p i c a l for such sect ions. T h e j o y o u s and energet ic m o m e n t u m o f the gigue rhy thm creates enormous contrast w i t h the p reced ing process iona l segment. T h e ma in mo t ive , w h i c h starts w i t h an upbeat and explores large, we l l - a r t i cu la t ed leaps through an octave, contr ibutes to the festive character o f this sec t ion . T h e four fugal entries p roceed con t inuous ly , not i n a t rad i t iona l fugal order (al to, soprano, tenor, bass) but rather i n a descend ing manner s tar t ing f r o m the highes t v o i c e . E v e r y tutti and solo sect ion is c l ea r ly punctuated b y the use o f s t rong cadent ia l fo rmulas and strengthened b y the use o f hemiola. T h e first t w o so lo episodes are based on the same m e l o d i c mate r ia l . T h e th i rd is a lso based on m o t i v i c gestures f rom the p rev ious solos but it is en r i ched b y an add i t i ona l p o l y p h o n i c v o i c e w h i c h p lays a m u c h more act ive ro le than that o f basso con t inuo imi t a t ion . T h i s duet - l ike sec t ion , eight 20 measures in length, makes use of the melodic formulas of the fugal subject. In measure 112 however, it gives way to the main solo material. The piano sections are written in a contrastingly sparse three-voice texture. The main melodic idea is based on a broken chord figuration taken from idiomatic string writing and is placed above the continuo-like accompaniment. The melodic material of the solo sections is sparse and simple, similar to measures 55-62 of the Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, where the solo part is written in continuous eighth notes and accompanied by sparse, strongly articulated quarter notes. The contrast between solo and tutti is underlined by a sudden shift to the lower register during the first two episodes. The third ritornello constitutes the most dramatic, harmonically unstable and technically demanding part o f the overture. Surprisingly, Bach continues the melodic pattern from the solo in this middle tutti section: the right hand part in measure 89 draws from the melodic figure of the solo from measures 85 2 and 86 1. The harmonic progression that underlines the four statements of the motive is based upon an ascending circle o f fifths: in measure 89, A major; in measure 91, E minor; in measure 93, B minor and in measure 95, F-sharp minor. Similarly to the beginning of the fugue, the voices present the melodic gesture in descending order, from soprano to bass. In measures 91-93 three changes of manuals in the left hand contribute to the generally higher level o f difficulty. This ritornello does not give a complete statement of the fugal subject but instead the fugal entries are drawn on material taken from the solo section. This is balanced by the incorporation of the fugue subject in the last solo section (top voice, measures 104-107). The entire fugue closes with the reprise o f the first tutti, a clear reference to ritornello form and the orchestral suite which again creates a sense of balance and symmetry within the fugue itself. The schematic character of the middle section with its strongly articulated episodes and ritornellos, as well as with the use of the same musical material as the solo section, often serves against this work as the main criticism. When the entire fugue and the following dotted sections are repeated, they may contribute to the impression that the opening overture dominates the entirety of B W V 831. 21 Dances Courante There are seven different dance types in the Ouverture, B W V 831, of which three occur in pairs: Courante, Gavotte I and II, Passepied I and / / , Sarabande, Bourree I and / / , Gigue and Echo. Altogether the ten movements constitute a bigger part o f this suite, and, especially with the pairs being played altenativement, create an overwhelming impression. A s a group, the dances counterbalance the long, impressive overture movement. Bach contrasts the simplicity of the fast movements with the slower and extremely expressive Courante and Sarabande. Finally, the concluding Gigue with its fast scales and sharply dotted rhythms, as well as the Echo with its concerto-like writing give a cyclic impression of the entire suite. A s mentioned above, the suite does not contain an allemande and, instead, the first dance is a French Courante. In the majority of his French courantes, Bach's use of meter contributes to the elusive quality of the dance, resulting in some sections being clearly written in 6/4 or 3/2. Bach clarifies this division of 3/2 or 6/4 by the harmonic progression, appropriate beaming of notes and by other means of accentuation, such as with a mordent or an arpeggio. In the case of Partita IV, B W V 828, for example, the ambiguity of the beat structure in measure one is elucidated by the placement of a mordent above the pitch "b", suggesting a strong triple meter. In this work, one can find many problems of bar division throughout the intricate measures. It is also worth mentioning that, o f the entire set o f Six Partitas, only two include French courantes: Partita II, B W V 826, and Partita IV, B W V 828. The Courante from the Ouverture, B W V 831, is one of the few such works by Bach that is entirely written in the meter o f 3/2, making this movement metrically simpler than the one from B W V 828. A s one would expect to see in a courante written in the French style, the one from B W V 831 opens with a typical upbeat of an eighth note and abounds with the characteristic dotted quarter/eighth note rhythm. In comparison with those Courantes in the French style from B W V 826 and 828, this Courante exemplifies a much more persistent use of the characteristic rhythmic formula which occurs in almost every measure of the A section of the dance. In B W V 828 the short eighth note is often replaced 22 by flowing sixteenth notes introduced by a tie which tends to weaken this prominent rhythmic feature. In the case of that from B W V 828, the unifying and dominant rhythmic gesture appears to befigurae corta2*. In this light, Bach returns to the traditional rhythms in the Courante o f B W V 831, making this piece more suitable for an Ouverture nach Franzdsischer Art. Bach's understanding of the dance steps of a courante is exhibited by the unique rhythm of the bass part at the beginning of the piece (measures 1-3). The left hand's figuration does not follow any of the basic metric patterns but is written as a series o f hemiolas made clearly audible by the use of pedal points in the bass register. These rhythmic patterns crossing bar lines emphasize the distinctive steps of the dance. Bach repeats this left hand gesture in measures 20-21 but on the subdominant pitch, creating an appropriate subdominant preparation for the concluding cadential section. Like the other two Leipzig Courantes, B W V 831/2 has a predominantly three-voice texture. The polyphonic interplay between voices is more intriguing and subtle here than in the Courantes from Clavierubung I. The texture is also enriched by the inclusion of imitative moments, as in measure 4 between the appoggiaturas to F-sharp or in measures 8-9, where the last three eighth notes o f beat three in the soprano part are imitated in the following bar by the bass. In this respect, one can see a similarity with the Courante from Partita II, B W V 826, which already starts in the first two measures with imitative counterpoint. The degree of polyphonic intensity, however, seems to be much higher in B W V 831/2. This can be observed in measures 5-7, where the four-note gesture stressed with a slur is presented in different voices in contrary motion and in measure 6 where the entries occur one quarter note apart. B W V 831/2 comprises two sections of identical length. Each twelve-measure section can be divided into two phrases according to the strong cadential punctuation. The first phrase is four bars long and encompasses a range from B 3 to C-sharp 5. After the leap of a perfect fourth on the first beat o f the first measure, the melody progresses mostly in stepwise motion, reaching its highest note in measure 4. The following six-bar phrase is chromatic, containing extremely expressive leaps. The melody makes use of a higher register and an expanded range reaching high F-sharp 5 before descending to the initial pitch of 2 8 Afigurae corta comprises two sixteenth notes and an eighth note, or vice versa. 23 F-sharp 4. Exceptional tension is achieved in measures 6 and 7 by the more intense polyphonic interplay between voices enriched by chromatic alterations which contribute to the dissonant character of the work. For example, the A major sonority at the downbeat o f measure 6 is followed by an ascent o f eighth notes to the D-sharp placed on the important third beat o f the measure. A t the same time, the polyphonic melody moving in contrary motion in the bass part passes through the pitch o f G 2 . This is aligned with the accented D-sharp 5 in the soprano part and thus creates a tritone between the two voices. The downbeat of the next measure does not bring a satisfactory release of this tension, leading to another tritone between E 2 and A-sharp 2 , this time explored melodically in the bass part. At this moment on the third beat of measure 7, the melody reaches its peak on F-sharp 5, approached by an expressive leap of a perfect fourth. From this point on, the degree of intensity slowly decreases by a gradual descent to the original pitch of F-sharp 4. The second section of the Courante divides into two six-bar phrases. Beginning on C-sharp 4 , it arrives on an early high point, F-sharp 5, on the first measure of the second section. This high note is preceded by an affective octave leap upward. The remainder of the phrase, with its predominantly stepwise motion, brings a gradual relaxation of tension until the cadence in D major in measure 18. The last phrase, however, counteracts this temporary relief through a large upward leap o f a tenth, arriving on the peak, G 5 in measure 21. In measure 19, two pairs o f adjacent tritones are juxtaposed within the melody occurring within a half step of one another: the accented A-sharp 4 on the downbeat progresses to E 4 , after which the melody proceeds from D-sharp 4 to A 4 . The tension created by this extensive use of tritones is relieved by a consonant subdominant sonority in measure 20. It is here where the expressive ascent from E 4 to the peak, G 5 , takes place, contributing to the Ajfekt o f hopefulness that is often associated with this dance. 2 9 B W V 831/2 is the last o f Bach's courantes. Its unsurpassed quality is achieved by ingenious affective polyphonic writing in conjunction with the traditional rhythmic gestures of the French style. 2 9 Ernest C . Harriss, Johann Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister. A Revised Translation with Critical Commentary (Ann Arbor , Michigan: U M I Press, 1981), p. 462. 24 Gavottes I, II T h e gavotte became a very popu la r dance d u r i n g the 1720 ' s and 1730 ' s and , not su rp r i s ing ly , is frequently i n c l u d e d i n m a n y o f J . S. B a c h ' s suites. T h i s dance is associated w i t h the meter o f " C s l a s h " o r " 2 " , w h i c h defines the bas ic r h y t h m i c un i t as a h a l f note. A t y p i c a l late 17 t h - o r ea r ly 18 l h -century F r e n c h gavotte conta ined regular phrases w h i c h began w i t h an anacrus t ic h a l f note and finished w i t h a h a l f note d o w n b e a t . 3 0 B W V 822/3 offers a t y p i c a l example o f such a dance. Its predic table and regular me lod i e s domina te the entire p iece and make use o f t y p i c a l F r e n c h dot ted rhy thms o n the penul t imate beat o f each phrase. T h e Gavottes f rom the T h i r d E n g l i s h Sui te , B W V 808 , and the S i x t h E n g l i s h Sui te , B W V 8 1 1 , a l so e x e m p l i f y m a n y c o m m o n features o f this dance. Tha t o f B W V 808 c o m b i n e s F r e n c h regular i t ies a n d ornamenta t ion w i t h var ious I ta l ianisms, such as t r i ad ic mot ives and abundant leaps. B o t h suites con ta in a second Gavotte wr i t t en in a musette s tyle . A s might be expec ted , the Gavottes f r om the Fou r th , F i f t h , and S i x t h F r e n c h Sui tes , B W V 8 1 5 , 8 1 6 and 817 have a pred ic tab le phras ing and f l o w i n g character. T h e o n l y counterpart i n Clavierubung I is the movement , Tempo di gavotta, f rom Partita VI, B W V 830. Its c o m p l e x i t y and non-French nature, however , cause it to stand out as an a typ i ca l example . W i t h its frequent tr iplets and dotted rhythms, th is Gavotte is s t rongly in f luenced by an I ta l ian v i o l i n i s t i c s t y l e / 1 Perhaps the most s t r i k ing and i r regular feature o f this movemen t is the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f dup le and t r ip le beat d i v i s i o n w h i c h creates m a n y per formance p rob lems . B W V 831/3 then represents a return to a more t rad i t iona l f o rm a n d s tyle . C l e a r and ba lanced phrases, t y p i c a l me t r i c structure and consis tent dup le d i v i s i o n o f the beat m a y be observed w i t h i n this dance. T h e A sec t ion o f Gavotte I is e ight measures l o n g w h i l e the B sec t ion is doub l ed in length. T h e incorpora t ion o f sixteenth-note tirades enr iches the texture, a l though this is l a c k i n g in the gavottes from ear l ier c o m p i l a t i o n s . A t the end o f the first phrase, the tirades he lp to create increased m o m e n t u m towards the cadence . In the second part, however , these f igures are found w i t h i n more dissonant 3 0 Early French gavottes commenced on downbeats, which became a feature o f later Italian dances o f this type. J l Schulenberg, p. 295. The Tempo di Gavotta from the Partita, B W V 830, draws from a version o f the Sonata for V i o l i n in G major, B W V 1019a. The same version o f the sonata comprises a harpsichord movement that reappears as a Corrente in Partita VI, B W V 830. 25 sonorities, serving to create greater agitation towards the climax in measures 16-18. This section of the piece contains a surprising series of consecutive diminished chords, occurring on the upbeat o f measure 16 and the downbeat and upbeat o f measure 17. The harmonic tension of this section is magnified by the ascent o f the phrase. A further implication of the diminished harmonies may also by found outlined on the strong beats in measures 16 and 17. The four-note slurring stresses the violinistic character of the tirades and contributes to the orchestral qualities. The concluding segment, from measures 20 to 24, contains a surprising restatement of the opening upbeat motive an octave higher which reaches upward to the highest pitch of the movement. Gavotte I successfully contains unexpected harmonic, registral and textural elements within the simplicity o f traditional gavotte rhythm and phrasing. Unlike the paired Gavottes of the English Suites, the second Gavotte o f B W V 831 is not written in a musette style. The contrast between these two dances is achieved through the change to the relative major key, the shift to a lower overall register and by the suggested change of manuals. This distinct change of texture and colour brings to mind a solo instrument with a simple continuo accompaniment. The connection with the previous dance is achieved by a common rhythmic figure found in the opening. Regular phrasing, rhythmic uniformity and an abundance of stepwise passages all contribute to the traditional quality o f the dance. Gavotte II contains more ornaments and, in the right hand of measures 13-15, introduces written-out mordents emphasized by articulation marks. Despite the inclusion of some Italianate syncopation French simplicity seems to dominate throughout until the elegant ending gestures. Passepieds I, II The Passepied which follows embodies a much less common dance type. Originating in Brittany, the passepied belongs to a fast group of dances in triple meter. They are characteristically homophonic and containing an abundance of unusual offbeat accents, hemiolas and long phrases. Very few examples of such dances exist in Bach's compositional output. Besides the paired set in B W V 831, two Passepieds are included in the fifth English Suite, B W V 810, one in Partita K i n G major, B W V 829, and one in the first Orchestral Suite, B W V 1066. The pair from B W V 831 represents a masterful example of this dance type. Because of its near exact repetition of the initial material at the end of the movement, the structure 26 resembles rounded binary form. The only passepied by Bach that does not follow traditional form is that from the fifth English Suite which follows rondeau structure. The most striking characteristic o f Passepied I, B W V 831, is the powerful dissonance placed at the opening of the dance. This unexpected sonority is stressed by a trill which later recurs in measures 5, 8 and 25 as a distinguishing gesture. By comparison, the Passepied from B W V 829 opens with a similar rhythmic pattern and mordent on the downbeat but is far less dissonant. In B W V 831, however, the dissonant trill is added to the already dissonant C-sharp half-diminished seventh chord. Though less dissonant because of its position within a pure B major sonority, the opening o f the B section begins with a similar trill. A n unexpected offbeat accent is created by the placement of another trill on the diminished harmony in measure 20, serving to prepare for the return of the energetic opening motive three bars later. The highly dissonant nature of Passepied I from B W V 831 is a distinguishing trait from other dances of this type and, moreover, this movement is also the most rhythmically varied. Each bar of the opening four-bar phrase consists of different rhythmic patterns, whereas the Passepieds from the B W V 810 and B W V 829 are written in a uniform and flowing manner. Passepied I from B W V 809 is dominated by an even flow of sixteenth notes in a two-part polyphonic texture. Even though the Passepied in B W V 829 is similar in rhythm to B W V 831/4, its character is less explosive because it contains more stable patterns of sixteenth notes. Although the phrases of the Passepied in B W V 831 are divided into regular four-bar segments, especially apparent in the second section, the dance has a startling breathless quality. The forward momentum of the movement is achieved through varied rhythm between the voices. For example, an ascending scale in the middle voice immediately disturbs the release of tension, which occurs on the downbeat o f measure 16. Similar rhythmic agitation is created in measures 12, 17 and 20. The volatile character o f Passepied 1 is amplified in measures 5 and 6 by the hemiola over the chromatic ascent in the bass. Like the other movements o f B W V 831, the texture of Passepied I also exhibits elements of orchestral writing. The opening phrase is primarily in four parts, creating a contrast to the thinner texture of the middle part. Instrumental obligato writing appears in the low and middle voices of measures 16-17 27 and 20-24. The Passepieds of B W V 810 and B W V 829 represent a much more idiomatic keyboard technique and are fashioned in a thinner two or three voice texture. Passepied II presents a strong contrasting mode, character, texture, rhythm and register. Like Passepied II of BWV 810, this dance is written in a musette style. More rhythmic regularity is presented here with a clear oscillation of eighth notes and sixteenth notes from one measure to the next. Passepied II frequently draws comments regarding its unusual B major tonality; however, one should not forget that the original C major key was quite common, and that the B major key results only from the transposition of the entire suite. The first expansive orchestral Passepied differs from the thinner, three-part texture of Passepied II. The melodic parallel thirds in measures 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 17 and 21 emphasize the extremely narrow register o f the musette, creating a much more intimate character. Similarly to Gavotte II, the differentiation of register and texture suggests a soloistic approach rather than an orchestral one. The pedal point, characteristic o f musette style pieces, establishes the same harmony through measures 1 and 2. This results in a cancellation of the strong harmonic distinction between upbeat and downbeat, found in the sharply dissonant beginning of Passepied I. Through the use of a deceptive cadence in measure 4 as well as extensive use of hemiolas in measures 11-16, Bach creates an uninterrupted melodic flow. In the last phrase of Passepied II (measures 17-24), Bach quotes the melodic and rhythmic gestures from the first phrase of the same movement. It is built, however, on a different harmonic pattern. Again, a circle o f fifths progression is used in order to create a fluid line: measures 17- 19 are based on a C-sharp major seventh harmony, leading to F-sharp major and finally resolving to the tonic. The richly varied harmonic language, texture and register in Passepied I and / / create an enormous contrast, further strengthened through the suggestion of the rustic instrument, the musette. Sarabande The slow and ceremonious sarabande is present in Bach's suites from the earliest years o f his compositional career, occurring in such early works as the Suite in B-flat, B W V 821, the Suite in F minor, B W V 823, and the Partie in A major, B W V 832. Within his thirty years of experience, Bach composed 28 sarabandes in a variety of styles and forms. The English Suites exemplify the composer's innovative harmonic language, elaborated keyboard figurations and mastery of French and Italian embellishments. Homophonic textures are enriched by occasional polyphonic treatment, such as, for example, the first English Suite, B W V 806, where the main rhythmic motive is subjected to extended imitation in measures 25-30. Consecutive diminished chords are used in order to build up tension within phrases, such as in measures 13-15 of the Sarabande from the third English Suite, B W V 808. Chromaticism and invertible counterpoint often appear in the French Suites, for example, in the fourth French Suite in E-flat major, B W V 815 (measures 1-4). Without doubt, the Sarabandes in Clavierubung I present the highest degree of stylization and sophistication. Beginning with Partita I, B W V 825, one encounters intense lyrical writing that is strongly influenced by the Italianate melodic style. The traditional sarabande rhythm is often abandoned, as with the Sarabande from Partita II, B W V 826. In Partita III, B W V 827 and Partita VI, B W V 830, exuberant and florid keyboard figurations dominate the texture and character of the dances. The wide stylistic variety of the Sarabandes of Clavierubung I is also evident by the many different upbeat patterns with which they begin. In contrast with those in the Six Partitas, the Sarabande from Clavierubung II is written in a much more traditional rhythmic language. A s was common in many of Bach's sarabandes, this dance starts on the downbeat and clearly preserves the conventional dotted quarter/eighth note rhythmic gesture on beats 2 and 3. The mordent and dissonant harmonic sonorities stress the weight of the second beat, magnifying the profundity of this dance. The Sarabande from the Ouverture in B minor, B W V 831, distinguishes itself from other works of this type by the prevalence of strict four-part texture which strongly implies its orchestral nature. It lacks the flamboyant keyboard figurations that may otherwise be found in Sarabandes from the English Suites or Partitas. Because of the extremely reserved approach to ornamentation and lack of arpeggiation marks that are closely associated with idiomatic keyboard writing, the orchestral quality is further 29 emphasized. Only embellishments of a simple French manner are suggested, consisting of mordents, trills and highly expressive appoggiaturas. The four-part texture of this Sarabande is intensely polyphonic. The bass in measure two imitates the main melodic motive appearing in the soprano part in measure one. Present again in the bass in measure four, the motive is afterwards inverted and imitated by the soprano. This is followed by the next imitative entrance, occurring in the lowest voice in measure 6. Likewise, the B section contains imitation between soprano and bass voices in measures 13-14, and (in reverse order) in measures 20-21. Bach differentiates the less active voices with a completely independent contour and rhythm as well. In the first four measures o f the B section an increase in rhythmic activity occurs in the voices, contributing to clearer polyphony and overall flow. Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic of this Sarabande is the degree of simultaneous or adjacent dissonances. Table 6 below shows the progression from B minor to E minor in measures 2-3. The basic harmonic progression is shown in a table below: Table 6. Sarabande: Harmonic Progression, Measures 1-4 measure 4 measure 1 / II ' / 2° 7 V measure 2 i V measure 3 VI /v V This simple harmonic plan is obscured by the presence of strong accented dissonances and suspensions, delaying the resolution to G major until beat 2 o f measure 3. Within this progression, two specific dissonant combinations are extremely disconcerting. First is the occurrence on mm. 2/2 with the accented passing tones, F-sharp and D , which obfuscate the clear dominant sonority. The second instance is the D - sharp diminished triad immediately following on beat three. The presented harmonies also result in an adjacent cross-relation of pitches: the D in the soprano part is juxtaposed to D-sharp on beat three in the tenor. In the same measure, the A-sharp in the tenor conflicts with an A-natural in the alto on beat three. This premature instance of dissonance supports the intensity of the first phrase which reaches its highest note, F-sharp 5 (the second highest in the movement) on the mm. 2/3. 30 Measures 8-10 mark the presence of another intensely dissonant harmonic progression. The avoided cadence in A major in measure 8 is followed in the proceeding measure by a B major-minor seventh chord with a delayed root due to a suspension in the soprano. On beat two of this measure the chord changes its quality to a B minor-minor seventh. The progression eventually resolves to the expected dominant, F-sharp minor. Again, the passing tones and suspensions are responsible for the ambiguity of the harmonic rhythm. Despite its regular phrasing, the Sarabande is extremely flowing. Linear voice leading and the use of avoided cadences in measures 8 and 16 achieve forward motion in this dance. One of the remarkable melodic features is the arch-like shape; especially clear in the first and second phrase (mm. 1- 4 and 5-8). The expressive upward leap from F-sharp to C-sharp in the opening motive becomes a perfect fourth by inversion in the B section, providing a "subject and answer" quality. The same upward fifth motive is expanded into a more affective interval o f an octave found in the bass in measure 20 and the soprano in measure 21. In measures 22 and 26 the melodic progression outlines diminished chords which intensifies the expression of this section. Only one of Bach's orchestral suites, B W V 1067, features a Sarabande. B W V 831/4 closer resembles the Sarabande from B W V 1067 than any of its earlier keyboard counterparts. One common feature is the highly polyphonic texture. The melody, introduced in the first violin and flute parts o f B W V 1067/3, is imitated in canon in the bass part a measure later at the lower twelfth. This procedure dominates the entire movement. Although the use of dissonance in B W V 1067/3 is not as pronounced as in the Sarabande from B W V 831, one can still find an abundance of piquantly accented sonorities. Like the Sarabande from B W V 831, the dance from the Orchestral Suite also makes use of avoided cadences. In fact, only one strong cadence is used in each half o f the dance. Although B W V 831/4 does not develop the idiomatic keyboard writing o f the Sarabandes in the six Partitas, it does incorporate a unique approach to texture and contributes to the orchestral quality o f this Ouverture. While the Sarabandes in the Partitas explore a more Italianate vocal approach to the melody and texture, the Sarabande of B W V 831 indulges in the serious learned style. 31 Bourrees I, II Making use of all the traditional features of this joyous dance, Bourree I provides a much-needed relief from the sombre nature of the preceding Sarabande. Written in the traditional meter of "2" the movement is cast in a perfectly balanced binary form, each half comprised of twelve measures and opening with the characteristic quarter-note upbeat. The regular phrases are built from rhythmic patterns of four half-bar segments in simple two-part texture. Following a standard procedure, the harmony changes every beat in all but three measures. Forward movement here is propelled by the use of syncopation in one of the two voices (measures 4, 5 and 8). This Bourree is in all respects highly conventional. In contrast, Bourree II exhibits a few features not commonly associated with this dance. One feature, which is lacking in other bourrees by Bach, is the unusual three eighth-note opening upbeat. This flowing gesture might be more appropriate for prelude-like writing than for a fast, cheerful dance. Also, the frequent inclusion of four sixteenth note groups, for example in measures 5, 7, 17 and 18, is unique, lacking in the respective dances from Bach's earlier clavier sets. The harmonic progression here relies to a high degree on sequences, which further affirms the preludium style. In the second part o f Bourree II, sequential phrasing prevails throughout measures 13 to 18. Here, the first two-bar sequence is followed by a shorter one (one-bar long). This sequential compression brings a brief relaxation in measure 20 to the music following a cadence in A major. However, persistent sequential writing returns in measures 21 and 22. Perhaps used as a novelty for contrast against the textbook qualities o f Bourree I, this sequential technique is atypical. Very few of Bach's suites include these dance movements. Besides B W V 831, only two English Suites contain such representations: A major, B W V 806, and A minor, B W V 807, as well as two French Suites: G major, B W V 816, and E major, B W V 817. Similarly to the Ouverture, B W V 831, the Bourrees from the two English Suites appear in pairs, the second one set in a musette style. Interestingly, none of the Partitas contain this dance. However, all o f Bach's orchestral suites feature bourrees as well as the early clavier Ouvertures, B W V 820 and 822. Similarly to that o f B W V 831, the Bourree from the 32 Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, adheres very closely to the rhythmic traditions of this dance. Thus, Bach's bourrees are more closely associated with the orchestral genres with further allusions made by the sparse use of ornaments in both dances as well as the indication to change manuals in Bourree II. Certainly this straightforward character was more suitable for an orchestral-hybrid work than for a virtuosic, flamboyant clavier setting, as was prominent in the Partitas. Gisue The Gigue from B W V 831 originates from the French canarie which occurs in only one other suite by Bach, namely the French Suite in C Minor, B W V 813. Another similar example is found in the early Ouverture in G Minor, B W V 822, but, as mentioned before, this piece may have been a transcription of an unknown work. Gigues-canaries typically have an extremely fast tempo, persistent dotted rhythms, balanced phrase structures and transparent textures with little or no counterpoint. The Gigues from B W V 813 and 831 share many common characteristics. Both were originally written in C minor, commence with an upbeat figure and make consistent use of dotted rhythms. Moreover, both works are comparable in length; the Gigue from the French Suite, B W V 813, encompasses 84 bars of music written in 3/8 meter, while the dance from B W V 831 encompasses 49 measures written in 6/8. One trademark of the canarie, the balanced phrase structure is clearly present in the Gigue o f the French Overture. In the counterpart from the French Suite, the regular phrasing is apparent only at the beginning of its two binary halves. Here the regular segmentation is obscured by a strong downbeat impression in measure 8, which one might expect to be the concluding measure of a regular phrase. These overlapping motives help to create a longer, breathless phrase. In B W V 831/7, Bach presents the dance with traditional, clearly recognizable features. A simple texture, another common characteristic o f the French canarie, is also prevalent in the Gigues from the French Overture and the C-minor French Suite. The former is written entirely in two voices, while the latter has a texture expanding from two to three voices at the concluding cadence (measures 45 to 47). The simplicity o f this movement is emphasized by another typical trait o f the 33 C a n a r i e - i t s non- imi ta t ive character. E v e n the Gigue f rom the C - m i n o r F r e n c h Sui te conta ins several points o f imi ta t ion , most notably , those in measures 11-12 and 14-17 w h i c h contr ibute to the unpunctuated phras ing . H o w e v e r , the o n l y trace o f imi t a t ion in the Gigue o f the F r e n c h Over ture is found in measures 40 -43 , p ronounced by fast sca le - l ike f igurat ions . T h e ha rmon ic language o f th is Gigue re l ies h e a v i l y on sequences and suspensions seen i n the two-bar sequential segments o f measures 4-8 . In order to create more m o m e n t u m in the phrase, B a c h shortened the sequent ia l unit to one measure in the p roceed ing t w o bars. T h e same technique can be seen in the second part o f the dance where two-measure sequences are featured in measures 21-24 f o l l o w e d by shorter sequential uni ts thereafter. T h e m o m e n t u m that is thus ach ieved is strengthened i n the second part by frequent appearances o f tirades in measures 24-26, 36-37 and 40 -45 . T h e in terval be tween these faster m e l o d i c gestures seems to q u i c k e n towards the end o f the movement , genera t ing greater m o m e n t u m and tens ion . T h e c l i m a x on the d i m i n i s h e d c h o r d i n measure 46 is preceded b y an increase in r h y t h m i c ac t iv i ty , resu l t ing f rom a l o n g sca le - l ike f igure i n the bass in measure 2 5 . N o t su rp r i s ing ly , this c l i m a c t i c moment is a c c o m p a n i e d by a t h i c k e n i n g o f texture. T h e di f ference between the energetic endings o f the Gigue f rom the C - m i n o r F r e n c h Sui te and this dance l ies i n the rhy thm o f the fast tirades: in the latter they are incorpora ted w i t h i n a dot ted rhy thm, w h i c h increases tens ion and exci tement , w h i l e the former re l ieves tens ion in the dotted figures through the i n c l u s i o n o f 16 t h -notes. B y u t i l i z i n g the s imp le canar ie , B a c h emphas ized the F rench qua l i t i es o f the Over tu re . Desp i t e the use o f this uncompl i ca t ed and m o s t l y h o m o p h o n i c type o f gigue, the w o r k ends w i t h a power fu l c l i m a x that is a c c o m p l i s h e d by the add i t ion o f fast tirades, reminiscent o f an overture movemen t in F rench style. Echo L i k e the Orches t ra l Suites , B W V 1067 and 1069, w h i c h c o n c l u d e respec t ive ly w i t h a Badinerie and a Rejouissance, a character p iece takes the last p lace i n the Ouverture, B W V 831 . W r i t t e n i n 2/4 meter, the humorous Echo makes reference to the concer to . S i m i l a r l y to the fugal sect ions o f the overture, frequent d y n a m i c mark ings are found i n this movemen t w h i c h i m p l y q u i c k changes o f keyboa rd 34 manuals and c l e a r l y a l lude to the d i f ferent ia t ion o f solo and tutti sect ions. T h e so lo entrances are ex t remely brief , often compr i s ed o n l y o f a three-note inter ject ion, w i t h the excep t ion o f the four-measure segments be tween measures 13-17 and 45-48 . T h e concertante manner o f these q u i c k utterances is emphas ized b y a momenta ry facet i n other parts. D r a w i n g f rom the p r i n c i p a l m o t i v e o f the figurae corta, the t w o longer so lo i s t i c appearances o c c u r w i t h i n a reduc t ion o f texture and are c o m b i n e d w i t h the countersubject . Four-par t texture is prevalent w i t h i n the tutti sect ions, thus c rea t ing a s t rong contrast through j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h q u i c k so lo in terpola t ions . T h e Echo is constructed f rom a rounded b ina ry structure i n w h i c h the m e l o d i c return occurs i n the tenor i n measures 62-65 f o l l o w e d by a quota t ion f rom the last seven measures o f the first part, this t ime in the expected ton ic . T h i s f a m i l i a r return bears a re la t ionship w i t h the reprise o f the c o n c l u d i n g fugal tutti sect ion f rom the overture. A n o t h e r s ign i f ican t concer to - l ike feature is the second appearance o f the i n i t i a l theme i n the so lo part i n measures 13-16. A s migh t be expected in a concer ted overture, the m e l o d i c mater ia l is not v i r t uos i c and m a y have been insp i red b y a so lo flute o r v i o l i n . T h e f igura t ion o f the n e w countersubject , w h i c h accompanies the tenor part in measures 62-65 , c l e a r l y imitates i d i o m a t i c v i o l i n f igura t ion . H o w e v e r , a l l other so lo entrances m a y have been c o m p o s e d w i t h other soprano instruments i n m i n d . T h e j o y o u s and humorous character o f the Echo is made c lear by persistent appearances o f t w o c o m m o n types o f figurae corta. T h e m a i n four-bar phrase makes extens ive use o f the d a c t y l i c type whereas the b r i e f so lo i s t i c entrances u t i l i ze the contras t ing anapaestic f o rm o f the f igure. In measures 6- 8, one can observe a struggle between these t w o r h y t h m i c f igures further h igh l igh t ed b y forte and piano d y n a m i c contrasts. T h e so lo part features the d a c t y l i c f o rm offigurae corta o n l y t w i c e w h e n quo t ing the m a i n m e l o d i c m o t i v e f rom the in i t i a l tutti sections (measures 13-16 in the soprano and 45-48 i n the tenor) . T h e second sect ion o f the movemen t opens w i t h a series o f modu la t ions . In measure 35 the C - major sonor i ty stands out against the p reced ing A - m a j o r cho rd . T h e s tar t l ing qua l i t y o f this progress ion results f rom the cross re la t ion o f C-sharp , the th i rd o f the major t r iad , and the f o l l o w i n g p i t c h , C-na tura l 35 as the root of the proceeding chord. The modulation leads to E minor in measure 36/2. The next six bars lead to A major in measure 38, D major in 40 and eventually to the statement of the main theme in G major, again making use of the circle of fifths in a sequential presentation. Altogether, the listener hears five key changes within only ten measures of the piece. Although echo movements were featured in German and Dutch organ music from the early Baroque, they are rare in Bach's keyboard collections. The English and French Suites, as well as Clavierubung I all lack an echo. However, the early Suite in B-flat, B W V 821, includes an Echo?1 This movement from the early suite features regular echo-like measures indicated through alternations offorte and piano appearing frequently until bar 36. However, no such exact repetition of musical material occurs in B W V 831; the motives recur at different pitch levels and are often modified. Aside from the general references to orchestral writing in this Echo, specific parallels may be found to the last movement of the Orchestral Suite in B Minor, B W V 1067. The concluding piece of this orchestral work, the Badinerie, also makes extensive use of the dactylic type of figurae corta in its main motive and the anapaestic type elsewhere. Bach carefully chose a movement with strong concerto features to conclude the French Overture, highlighting the orchestral dimension of the work. An overall balance with the opening overture may also be perceived because of the usage of similar features, such as the presence of figures similar to the fast tirades from the slow portion of the overture as well as an evocative return to ritornello writing. The French Overture often draws criticism from performers because of its daunting length or because of the inclusion of too many simplistic dances. This is because the purpose of this work is misunderstood. Firstly, it is not simply another keyboard suite, or a "seventh" Partita. As discussed above, the work is an original keyboard composition reflecting the new German genre, the orchestral ouverture suite. The large balanced overture movement lacks any predecessors in the keyboard writing of Bach. The Gavottes, Passepieds, Bourrees and Gigue each embody the traditional features and 3 2 The Echo movement appears also in a Partita on O Gott du frommer Gott, B W V 767, and in the chorale, "Ich hab'mein' Sach'", B W V 1113, from Neumeister Chorales. 36 stereotypes, con t r ibu t ing to the pedagog ica l idea o f a p u b l i c a t i o n o f " K e y b o a r d L e s s o n s " . W i t h i n the i r ins t ruct ional nature, one can appreciate the ex tens ion o f ha rmon ic and r h y t h m i c i d i o m s as w e l l as the contrast and dramat ic contour . T h e s l o w Courante and Sarabande are masterpieces wi thou t precedents; they represent the peak o f affect ive w r i t i n g and the perfect c o m b i n a t i o n o f t rad i t iona l forms w i t h dissonant and innova t ive ha rmon ic language. 37 Part Two: Performance Practice Issues 38 The Sources The sources quoted in Part Two are chosen according to their pertinence to J. S. Bach, his family, students and geographical proximity. Unfortunately, the only primary sources by Bach that relate to performance practice issues are the following: original fingerings in a facsimile of the Applicatio, B W V 994, and the Praembulum, B W V 930. Important secondary sources from Bach's immediate circle are C. P. E. Bach's Versuch iiber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen, Prelude & Fughetta in C Major, B W V 870a33, and Johann Nicolaus Forkel's biography of the composer titled, Uber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke. Forkel's biography from 1802 is of key importance because it includes information from Bach's sons, Carl Philip Emanuel and Wilhelm Friedemann. Much valuable information may also be gathered from reports of Bach's students and "grand students"(students of the students), as well as other writers of the same generation who lived in geographical proximity such as Johann Joachim Quantz, Johann Mattheson, arid Friedrich Marpurg. This is an early version o f the Prelude and Fugue in C major, B W V 870, from Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, II. It appears in Vogler ' s manuscript, who studied with Bach in Le ipz ig in 1729. 39 Issues of Over-dotting T h e idea o f sharpening the dot ted rhy thm, o r the "ove r -do t t i ng" o f such rhythms i n F r e n c h overtures and sui te movements w a s presented as ea r ly as 1916 by A r n o l d D o l m e t s c h i n " T h e Interpretation o f the M u s i c o f the X V I I t h and X V I I I t h Cen tu r ies R e v e a l e d b y C o n t e m p o r a r y E v i d e n c e . " T h i s was la rge ly supported b y the m a i n G e r m a n sources f rom the m i d - 1 8 t h century i n c l u d i n g the treatises o f Q u a n t z and C . P. E . B a c h . O n e o f N e u m a n n ' s arguments against this ob l iga to ry over -dot t ing stated that a lack o f n o n - G e r m a n sources w o u l d not support this F r e n c h pract ice . In the ar t ic le , " T h e F r e n c h S ty le and the Over tures o f B a c h " 3 4 , J o h n O ' D o n e l l p r o v e d o therwise and quoted fragments f rom an E n g l i s h m a n , R o g e r N o r t h f rom 1728 as w e l l as numerous F r e n c h sources, i n c l u d i n g G i g a u l t , L ' A f f i l l a r d , M o n t e c l a i r and Hottettere, a l l o f w h o d i scussed L u l l y ' s " j e r k y " s t y l e . 3 5 It is not surpr i s ing , then, that the over -dot t ing technique was desc r ibed ex tens ive ly i n treatises by G e r m a n theorists such as C . P. E . B a c h and Quan tz . T h e re levance o f these sources shou ld not be understated; the authors reacted and descr ibed the style that had been present for m a n y decades i n G e r m a n Cour t s and in the w o r k s o f m a n y G e r m a n composers . Th roughou t h is tory , theorists and reporters o f ar t is t ic trends reported on pre-establ ished styles, w h i c h needed years to deve lop and c rys ta l l i ze . T h e opponents o f the "dot ted-s ty le" c r i t i c i z e the " l a te" p u b l i s h i n g date o f treatises by Q u a n t z and B a c h . H o w e v e r , these w o r k s descr ibed ideas o r forms that had been perfected and es tabl ished l o n g before the w r i t i n g was c o m p i l e d . E v e n though the concer ted ouverture came to exis tence through inf luences f rom F r e n c h m u s i c a l cul ture , it was l o n g deve loped and k n o w n as a pure ly G e r m a n phenomenon by the t ime o f C . P . E . B a c h ' s and Q u a n t z ' essays. Here is h o w Q u a n t z h i m s e l f desc r ibed i t : " . . . L u l l y p r o v i d e d g o o d m o d e l s for it [overture] ; but some G e r m a n composers , a m o n g others e spec ia l ly H a n d e l and T e l e m a n n , have far surpassed h i m . . . s i n c e the overture produces such a g o o d effect, however , it is a p i t y that it is no longer i n vogue in G e r m a n y . " 3 6 E v e n 3 4 John O 'Done l l , p. 336. 3 5 Ibid., p. 336. 3 6 Johann Joachim Quantz, On Playing the Flute. A Complete Translation with an Introduction and Notes by Edward R. Reilly (London: Faber and Faber, 1966), p. 316. 40 though the popu la r i t y o f the overture m a y have been d e c l i n i n g , as men t ioned b y Quan t z , composers such as H a n d e l were s t i l l c o m p o s i n g them w e l l in to the mid -18 th century. Bes ides Q u a n t z and C . P . E . B a c h , m a n y more G e r m a n sources f rom a round the m i d - l S " 1 century ment ioned the " j e rk ines s" o f overture-style compos i t i ons . In the ar t ic le , " A Recons ide ra t ion o f F r e n c h O v e r - D o t t i n g " , M i c h a e l C o l l i n s presents statements f rom Johann M a t t h e s o n and A d o l f Sche ibe , a m o n g others. O n e pa r t i cu la r ly i l l u m i n a t i n g fragment from S u l z e r ' s p u b l i s h i n g f rom 1775, the " A l l g e m e i n e T h e o r i e der S c h o n e n K i i n s t e " says: " A b o v e a l l [the ouverture] is u sua l ly a p iece o f ser ious but f ie ry character in 4/4 measure. T h e movement is stately, the beats are s l o w , but adorned w i t h m a n y s m a l l notes. T h e beats must be per formed w i t h f i re and proper de l ibe ra t ion so that the other vo ices i n strict o r free imi t a t ion can be supported. A l l g o o d masters have a l w a y s brought this imi ta t ion in to ouvertures, w i t h more or less art, a c c o r d i n g to the seriousness o f the occas ion for the ouverture. T h e m a i n notes are u sua l l y dotted, and in per formance the dots are h e l d longer than their va lue . A f t e r these m a i n notes f o l l o w a greater o r lesser number o f s m a l l ones that mus t be p l ayed w i t h the greatest speed and i n so far as poss ib le p l ayed staccato, w h i c h I admi t does not a lways a p p l y w h e n ten, t w e l v e o r more notes c o m e i n the space o f a c ro tche t . " 3 7 T h e impor tance o f th is source is l a rge ly due to the fact that it was wr i t t en b y a student o f K i r n b e r g e r w h o in turn was a student and supporter o f J . S. B a c h 3 8 . N o t o n l y is there an i n d i c a t i o n o f p ro longed dots, but a lso a s trong suggest ion o f staccato a r t i cu la t ion that shou ld be app l i ed to the fast scales o f a movement . In h is Versuch, Q u a n t z e x p l a i n e d the general conven t ion o f l engthening the dots o f 8 t h , 16 t h , and 3 2 n d notes in order to present the " a n i m a t i o n that these notes must exp res s" 3 9 . In chapter 17 o f the same source, the author speaks more s p e c i f i c a l l y about the per formance o f fast tirades w h e n they o c c u r after the dotted note: " T h e dotted note is p l ayed w i t h e m p h a s i s . . . A l l dot ted notes are treated i n the same manner i f t ime a l l o w s ; and i f three or more demisemiquaver s f o l l o w a dot o r rest, they are not a l w a y s p l a y e d w i t h their l i t e ra l va lue , e spec ia l ly i n s l o w pieces, but are executed at the ext reme and o f the t ime a l lo t ted to them, and w i t h the greatest poss ib l e speed, as is f requent ly the case i n overtures, entrees, and f u r i e s . " 4 0 Michael Col l ins , " A Reconsideration o f French Over-dotting," ML 50, N o . l (1969), p. 120. Ibid., p. 121. The author o f the article from Sulzer's publishing was J . A . P. Schulz. Quantz, p. 67. Ibid., p. 291. 41 A s i m i l a r desc r ip t ion o f the general ru le o f the lengthening o f dot ted notes can be found i n C . P . E . B a c h ' s treatise: "Because proper exactness is often l a c k i n g in the nota t ion o f dot ted notes, a general ru le o f performance has been es tabl ished w h i c h , however , suffers m a n y except ions . A c c o r d i n g to this ru le , the notes w h i c h f o l l o w the dots are to be p l ayed i n the most r ap id manner , and often they s h o u l d be. B u t somet imes notes in other parts, w i t h w h i c h these must enter, are so d i v i d e d that a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the rule is requi red . A g a i n , a suave affect, w h i c h w i l l not su rv ive the essent ia l ly defiant character o f dotted notes, ob l iges the per former s l i gh t ly to shorten the dotted note. H e n c e , i f one k i n d o f execu t ion is adopted as the bas ic p r i n c i p l e o f per formance , the other k inds w i l l be los t . " 4 1 C . P . E . B a c h ' s passage i l lumina tes m a n y important interpretat ional issues related to the p r o b l e m o f over-dot t ing . F i r s t , it ment ions the p r o b l e m o f inexact nota t ion w i t h regard to dotted rhy thms. T h i s t echn ica l i m p r e c i s i o n a l l o w e d not o n l y to over-dot , o r double-dot cer ta in passages but a lso to under-dot, depend ing on the s tyle and Affekt o f a m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n . D u e to this , it i s often be l i eved that J . S. B a c h rewrote the r h y t h m i c patterns o f the Ouverture, B W V 8 3 1 . In the above-ment ioned fragment, one can a lso f i n d a con f i rma t ion o f the appropriateness o f sharpened r h y t h m for the b o l d and pompous def iance o f a p iece such as this . H o w e v e r , perhaps the most important sentence is the last, in w h i c h the author c la r i f ies that such lengthening is not the o n l y pos s ib i l i t y , o therwise the per fo rmer ' s persona l preference w i l l be c o m p r o m i s e d . T h u s , it is important to remember that such interpretat ional manipu la t ions s h o u l d be a means to an end and must be subservient to the por t raya l o f a par t icular Affekt, and not resu l t ing f rom a mechan i ca l adaptat ion o f the idea. G r a h a m Pon t proves the m a n y poss ib le degrees o f do t t ing i n h is examina t ion o f B a t t i s h i l l ' s al terations i n H a n d e l ' s keyboard overtures. J . B a t t i s h i l l , w h o was b e l i e v e d to have k n o w n H a n d e l ' s performances f rom personal exper ience , made al terat ions and add i t iona l interpretat ive notes to the c o m p o s e r ' s overtures, w h i c h were set for ha rps ichord and organ and re issued in 1785. T h i s annotated manuscr ip t conta ins some important p ieces o f ev idence regard ing per formance pract ices o f F r e n c h overtures and a l l o w e d the author to present several conc lu s ions i n support o f m a n y poss ib le degrees o f the over-dot t ing . In 11 out o f 20 overtures, G . Pon t found mod i f i ca t i ons that c o n f i r m e d the idea o f sharpened 4 1 C . P. E . Bach, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, trans, and ed. W i l l i a m J . Mitchel l (New York , London: W . W . Norton & C o , 1949), p. 372. 4 2 rhythms. H o w e v e r , 7 o f the overtures were unaltered, even though they con ta in other changes. T h i s r h y t h m i c sharpening is further c o n f i r m e d b y the fact that H a n d e l h i m s e l f rewrote some rhy thms d u r i n g the t ranscr ip t ion f rom the orchest ra l m e d i u m to the keyboa rd . T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f more or less r h y t h m i c compress ion w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l overtures, such as those f rom Jephta, Berenice, and Serse, emphas ized a b road range o f poss ib i l i t i e s that c o u l d have been e m p l o y e d . F r o m B a t t i s h i l l ' s annotat ions it is a l so c lear that there was l i t t le r h y t h m i c cons i s tency w i t h i n the app l i ca t i on o f these al terat ions; m e a n i n g that va r ious degrees o f do t t ing m a y have been present s imul taneous ly o r i n immedia te success ion . A c o m p a r i s o n o f the C m i n o r and B m i n o r ve rs ions o f B a c h ' s Ouverture, B W V 831 , reveals that dotted quarter/eighth note combina t ions were sharpened b y subst i tu t ing the e ighth note w i t h a s ixteenth note. T h i s occurs i n the f o l l o w i n g measures: 3 (first h a l f in the soprano, second h a l f i n the al to) , 5 ( second half) , 6 ( second half) , 7 ( second half) , 9 (first half) , 10, 15 (the soprano i n the first half, second h a l f in the al to) and 18 (second half) . In these examples ( w i t h an excep t ion o f measures 9 and 10), B a c h emphas izes a sharp ar t icu la t ion o f the dotted rhy thm b y the i n c l u s i o n o f a 16 t h note rest before the short note. A temporary w e a k e n i n g o f tens ion exp la ins the l ack o f such a rest i n measures 9 and 10, i m p l i e d b y the s tepwise descend ing m o t i o n i n the soprano and the contrary, conjunct m o t i o n towards the m i d d l e register i n the bass. A m i s s i n g rest before the 16 t h notes does not suggest a comple te l ack o f a r t i cu la t ion w h i c h went hand i n hand w i t h the dotted rhythms, but perhaps a smal le r degree o f such punctua t ion . A s revea led in B a t t i s h i l l ' s cor rec t ions o f H a n d e l ' s overtures, these va r ious degrees o f do t t ing coex i s t ed w i t h i n m a n y other compos i t i ons i n this s tyle . M o r e t r o u b l i n g to e x p l a i n were al terat ions that i n v o l v e d the dotted quarter note t i ed to 16 t h notes, o c c u r r i n g i n measures 2 (soprano, second half) , 3 (bass), 4 (first beat soprano) , 6 (soprano, first beat), 8 (soprano, first beat), 11 (soprano, first beat), 12 (soprano first beat), 13 (soprano first beat), 14 (soprano second beat), 15 (bass), 16 (soprano first beat, bass second beat) and 17 (soprano first beat). T h e m a i n p r o b l e m arose f rom the fact that these gestures l a c k e d dots but instead had t ies. Therefore these areas cannot be subjected to over-dot t ing . F r e d e r i c N e u m a n n used this poin t against the idea o f r h y t h m i c equ iva lency between the t w o vers ions o f B W V 831 . John O ' D o n e l l e x p l a i n e d this matter i n his ar t ic le 43 about the F r e n c h s tyle , stating that the con t rac t ion o f three such 16 f f i notes after a t ie is poss ib le s i m p l y because it does not dis tort the bas ic rhy thm: " B u t the con t rac t ion o f three semiquavers does not d is turb the r h y t h m i c integr i ty o f any structural va lues , and synchron izes perfect ly w i t h the inequa l i za t ion o f the quave r s " 4 2 . C l o s e l y related to the issue o f over-dot t ing , the above-ment ioned notes inegales prac t ice was ex tens ive ly documented i n F r e n c h and G e r m a n sources. A s ear ly as 1695, G e o r g M u f f a t , w h o had s tudied for s i x years i n Pa r i s w i t h L u l l y , desc r ibed this inequa l i ty w i t h spec ia l reference to pieces i n the overture meter o f 2 : " a l l the di f ference [between a s l o w 2 i n the bar a n d an o r d i n a r y C w i t h four i n the bar] consis ts , i n that under the last, several quavers con t inued in success ion (here d r a w i n g o f four 8 t h notes) cannot be al ternately dot ted . . .drawing dotted 8 t h w i t h a 16 t h and another dotted 8 t h w i t h a 1 6 t h etc. for e legance in performance, l i k e the others; but shou ld be expressed s t r ic t ly the one equal to the other [because o f the four-square charac te r ] . " 4 3 Perhaps the most con fus ing po in t o f c o m p a r i s o n be tween both ve rs ions o f the Ouverture, B W V 831 , exists i n bars 11-12, where , i n the ear l ie r ve r s ion , B a c h combines the q u i c k upbeat f igures i n the left hand w h i l e sus ta in ing s imp le 16 t h note nota t ion i n the r ight hand . In the co r r e spond ing measures o f the B m i n o r ve r s ion , both r ight and left hand parts feature q u i c k 3 2 n d note upbeats. A s O ' D o n e l l exp la ins , the three 1 6 t h notes o f the r ight hand c o u l d eas i ly be unders tood and pe r fo rmed as faster upbeats s ince they d i d not alter the bas ic met r ic pulse and c o u l d eas i ly be synch ron i zed w i t h unequal 8 t h notes. T h e y were most l i k e l y wr i t t en as 3 2 n d notes i n order to create a d i s t i nc t i on f r o m the series o f con t inuous 16 t h notes i n measure 13 i n the left hand . T h e same author later points to the s i m i l a r i t y o f th is m e l o d i c l ine , cons i s t i ng o f eight 16 t h notes i n the left hand o f measure 13, w i t h an iden t ica l f igura t ion i n va r ia t ion N o . 16 o f the Goldberg Variations, w h i c h is seen b e l o w . T h e dots added above the notes were meant not o n l y as a r t i cu la t ion marks but a lso to w a r n against inequal i ty . O 'Done l l , p. 342. Robert Donnington, The Interpretation of Early Music (London: Faber & Faber, 1963), p. 456. 44 E x a m p l e 3 Important performance dec i s ions need to be made regard ing the a l ignment o f the short notes f o l l o w i n g dotted ones. In the example f rom his Versuch (chapter V , paragraph 21) , Q u a n t z c l ea r ly suggests that the ve r t i ca l synchron iza t ion o f the last, q u i c k upbeat f igures i n overture movements needed to be app l ied . Therefore , the o n l y over -do t t ing that m a y be made to the a l ready "do t ted" Overture f rom B W V 831 shou ld take p lace after the dotted-quarter notes, resu l t ing in the 8 t h -notes b e i n g sharpened to 16 t h -notes. In h is ar t ic le d i scuss ing the performance o f H a n d e l ' s overtures, G r a h a m Pon t revealed , however , that a c c o r d i n g to B a t t i s h i l l ' s annotat ions, such synch ron iza t ion o f upbeats was nei ther consistent nor ob l iga to ry . A s seen i n the overture to " A l e x a n d e r " , different upbeat f igures coex i s ted in the keyboard and orchestra l vers ions o f overture movements . T h e C m i n o r ve r s ion o f B W V 831 also ex is ted in a c o p y b e l o n g i n g to Johann G o t t l i e b Pre l le r . T h e s l o w overture o f this ve r s ion is c i t ed as an argument against those w h o be l i eve that both C m i n o r and B m i n o r vers ions are representations o f the same idea. T h e m a i n argument arises f rom the fact that m a n y o f the f igurat ions have ornaments o c c u r r i n g on the t h i rd o f four 16 t h notes w h i c h creates a m u c h more 45 flowing and a far less "jerky" impression. However, the manuscript of this version is not closely associated with the immediate circle of Bach and may just represent Preller's personal preference. Also, misunderstandings of the overture style, as seen in Preller's copy, may have led Bach to rewrite the Ouverture, B W V 831, in more precise manner44 for pedagogical purposes. An incredible amount of research and scholarly arguments support the notion that both versions represent an equivalent musical idea. It is important to realize that the "over-dotted" version was the one J. S. Bach decided to publish in his "Keyboard Lessons" which demonstrates his attempt to assert this particular manner of performance. The rhythms of the B minor version of B W V 831 are already "over- dotted", especially i f played at an adequate speed suggested by the meter of 2, and do not require additional prolongation of the dotted notes. However, the early C minor copy, B W V 831a, does not necessarily represent a substandard piece of music and may be chosen for a performance, as well. Pianists and harpsichordists are given much more straightforward performance indications in the later, printed version of the Ouverture, which Bach achieved through a more systematic, clear notation. When analyzing the music and making important performance decisions, one should avoid the mathematic and mechanical approach to the realization of rhythm in this style. The lively tempo, indicated by the typical overture meter of C (crossed), indicates a steady, half-bar pulse which is divided into a downbeat and upbeat. It is important to remember that the Baroque Era was a time of creativity and improvisation, which would make stale performances highly undesirable. The characteristic tirades could also be approached in several ways, ranging from an execution at their notated evenness, or with an improvisatory-like freedom; for example, starting slowly and accelerating towards the downbeat. As G. Pont points out in some of Handel's overtures, such as 77 Pastor Fido, the fast scales were written in accelerated rhythmic values, starting as 16 lh notes, then changing into 32 n d notes, etc.45. The flexibility and freedom within the steady beats can add the necessary vivaciousness to pieces of homogenous rhythmic patterns. In light of Baroque aesthetics, after all, a piece must be approached with personal 4 4 O 'Done l l , p. 343. 4 5 Graham Pont, "French Overtures at the Keyboard: ' H o w Handel Rendered the Playing o f Them, ' " Musicology 6 (1980), p. 40. 46 emot iona l engagement and, as C . P . E . B a c h suggested: " A m u s i c i a n cannot m o v e others unless he too is m o v e d . H e must o f necessi ty feel a l l o f the affects that he hopes to arouse in his audience, for the r evea l ing o f his o w n humour w i l l s t imulate a l i ke humour in the l i s tener . . . " 4 6 . T h e academic k n o w l e d g e o f performance pract ice shou ld not be used then to para lyse and l i m i t c rea t ive t h i n k i n g , but rather the contrary; it shou ld be a means to make consc ious art ist ic dec i s ions gu ided b y acqu i red k n o w l e d g e . A piece in an overture style has m u c h space for such dec i s ions , whether it is w i t h regard to adjustments to the degree o f do t t ing , the Affekt, the ove ra l l speed, the p r o b l e m o f v o i c e synchron iza t ion or a f l e x i b l e approach to tirades. T h e overture movemen t is not the o n l y one f rom B W V 831 that relates to the issue o f sharpened dotted rhythms. F o r the penul t imate movement o f the suite, B a c h chose a g igue based on a canar ie , w h i c h was a t y p i c a l F r e n c h dance. In this movement , the persistent do t t ing can a l so be approached i n a v i v a c i o u s manner that migh t benefit f rom c lear a r t icu la t ion . A c c o r d i n g to Quan tz , the speed o f this dance was so extreme that, s i m i l a r l y to the overture movement , the performer d i d not have enough t ime to a p p l y over-dot t ing: "the gigue and the Canarie have the same movement . I f wr i t t en i n 6/8, each bar has one [human] pulse bea t . . . In the Canarie, w h i c h consis ts a l w a y s o f dotted notes, the b o w i n g is short and sha rp . " 4 7 T h e suggested tempo o f pe r fo rming one measure o f 6/8 w i t h i n one human pulse is so fast that it leaves no r o o m for any over-dot t ing and demands ex t remely energetic and ar t icu la ted p l a y i n g . T o w a r d s the end o f the movement , there are m a n y fast tirades, w h i c h intensify the d r ive towards the f ina l cadence. T h e b r i l l i a n t performance o f such fast movements that i n c l u d e d sharp ly dotted rhythms and fast, sca le - l ike f igurat ions , is m u c h more c h a l l e n g i n g on the m o d e r n p i ano than on the harps ichord . T h e c o m p o s e r p rov ides a so lu t ion fo r better a r t i cu la t ion by the inser t ion o f a 1 6 t h note rest before the short upbeat whether a s ingle note o r a tirade. C . P . E . B a c h descr ibes the per formance o f such figures as f o l l o w s : " . . . i n r a p i d tempos p ro longed success ion o f dots are pe r fo rmed as rests, the apparent opposi te C . P . E . Bach, p. 152. Quantz, p. 291. 47 demand of the notation notwithstanding"48. The interpretation of the dot as a clear separation can be extremely helpful bn the modern piano since it serves as a means to articulate; both as a strong, energetic finger-articulation as well as a control for the flow of movement. We know that the tempi of 18th-century performances were significantly faster than those generally adopted today. As mentioned above the meter (2) of the overture suggests a clear division of the bar into a downbeat and an upbeat. The pendulum marking for the canarie also indicates a tempo that "pushes performers to the limit" 4 9. However, these lS^-century practices should be approached with extreme caution when performing Baroque repertoire on the piano. For the sake of clarity, which was of the utmost importance in the Baroque Era, the tempo should be adjusted on the modern piano so the slower attack and decay do not create muddy and unfocused articulation; otherwise the result may sound like an unwanted series of 20th-century style clusters. The heavier action of a piano and its slowly developing sound makes transparency an incredibly difficult task. The realisation of the typically fast tirades described by late-Baroque writers as being sharply articulated is even more problematic on the modern instrument. A particular threat to clarity is posed by the presence of tirades or consecutive 16 th notes in the bass register as in measures 15, 17, and 148. In measure 156 (the return of the dotted section) the busy, stepwise figuration in the right hand, i f compressed into a quick, half-measure beat, would also result in an extremely unclear sonority on the modern piano. Therefore, performance of such movements on the piano requires a tempo adjustment. The tempo depends not only on the particular performer's ability to cleanly articulate, but also on the particular piano and the conditions of the recital hall. 4 8 C . P. E . Bach, p. 157. 4 9 Betty Bang Mather, Dance Rhythms of the French Baroque: A Handbook for Performance (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), p. 223. 48 Meter and Tempo In the performance of Baroque music, it is crucial to understand the importance of the metric structure of a particular piece. The projection of note groupings is essential to correct phrasing which was subordinate to the meter. Many writers before and after Bach discussed this organization of notes, often referred to by different terminology, but essentially describing the same patterns. The "superior regard" was given to metrically strong notes, which came on the beat at all rhythmic levels of the meter. Such notes were called "intrinsically long" by German theorists, or by J . A . Scheibe as anschlagende and druchgehende (struck and passing), by Girolamo Diruta as nota buona and cattiva ("good" and "bad"). Many other writers, among them, Johann Gottfried Walther in his Musickalisches Lexicon (1732) and before him, Georg Muffat in the preface to his Florilegium Secundum (1698), described the same phenomenon. The essence of the metric scheme is clearly expressed by Muffat in following words: " O f all the notes found in any composition to be played, there are those that are good (nobiliores; edle, buone e principali, bonne, noble ou principales), and others that are bad (ignobiliores, seu viliores, schlechte, cattive, dvili; chetives ou viles). Good notes are those that seem naturally to give the ear a little repose. Such notes are longer, those that come on the beat or essential subdivisions of measure, those that have a dot after them, and (among equal small notes) those that are odd-numbered and are ordinary played down-bow. The bad notes are all the others, which like passing notes, do not satisfy the ear so well, and leave after them a desire to go on." 5 0 This grouping into pairs occurs on every level (sixteenth notes, eighth notes, quarter notes, etc). In addition, the barline signified the most prominent stress on the first and strongest beat. The second and fourth beats in common time were considered to be the weak ones; however, some weight was given to the third beat. The classification of four quarters in common time into strong, weak, medium-strong, weak beats is also applied to smaller note values, such as eighth notes in 3/2 meter. The articulation of the strong and weak notes then should be understood vertically, which is very different than more modern approaches to performance. This systematic organization of notes is particularly necessary and most obvious in dance movements. However, the same approach should be maintained in polyphonic textures. George Houle, Meter in Music, 1600-1800: Performance, Perception and Notation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987), p. 82. 49 A s i d e f rom numerous B a r o q u e treatises, s t rong me t r i ca l a r t i cu la t ion , pa r t i cu l a r ly o f downbeats , is evident f rom the sources that present f inger ings . O n e p r i m a r y source, J . S. B a c h ' s Applicatio, presents a f inge r ing i n w h i c h the longer f ingers cross ove r the shorter ones. T h e notes that i nev i t ab ly have i m p l i e d stress, b y f inger ings such as 3-4-3-4-3-4 for the ascend ing scale o f the r ight hand , f a l l o n m e t r i c a l l y s t rong beats, c rea t ing the impress ion o f two-note g roupings . It is important to observe that this ear ly f i nge r ing pattern, s t emming from the E n g l i s h V i r g i n a l i s t s , appears s t i l l to be func t iona l as late as the m i d d l e years o f B a c h ' s career. T h e Clavier-Buchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann c o n t a i n i n g the Applicatio and Praembulum dates f rom the 1720 ' s , the same decade that wi tnessed the first and separate pub l i ca t ions o f the Partitas. T h e o r i g i n a l f inger ings i n the Prelude and Fughetta i n C M a j o r , B W V 870, are more s ign i f ican t because o f the c o m p l e x texture o f the m u s i c . E v e n though the manuscr ip t o f these w o r k s is i n V o g l e r ' s hand, w h o was B a c h ' s student, the f inger ings are cons ide red to be re l i ab le because o f their s i m i l a r i t y to the f inger ings that have been preserved b y m a n y o f h is other students. These w o r k s date from the mature pe r iod o f B a c h ' s career ( 1 7 2 7 - 1 7 3 1 ) 5 1 ; therefore the pedagog ica l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the sources are ex t remely important . M a n y character is t ics o f B a c h ' s f i nge r ing prac t ice are revea led in B W V 870a , for example , the o b v i o u s re la t ion o f the s t rong f ingers to the s t rong beats. It is i m p o s s i b l e to descr ibe a l l such instances o f f i nge r ing patterns; but o f par t icu lar note is B a c h ' s avo idance o f f inger subst i tut ions resu l t ing i n the use o f the same f inger for t w o consecut ive notes. I f the m u s i c is pe r fo rmed w i t h the suggested f inger ing , c lear a r t i cu la t ion o f the downbeats is inev i tab le . E v e n i n the second measure, the use o f the fif th f inger o n the first beat is not necessary because this v o i c e can beg in w i t h the smoother m o t i o n o f the fourth f inger p l aced o n the same k e y at the end o f the p rev ious measure. T h e p lacement o f the fifth finger suggests that B a c h intended a s l i gh t ly more ar t icula ted downbeat . T h e consecu t ive use o f t w o fifth f ingers at the end o f measure 7 and at the b e g i n n i n g o f measure 8 a lso emphas izes the s t rong first beat and exempl i f i e s the avo idance o f finger subst i tu t ion w h i c h w o u l d result in a smoother a r t i cu la t ion o f the 5 1 Quentin Faulkner, J. S. Bach's Keyboard Technique: A Historical Introduction (St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1984), p. 13. 50 notes. T h e same ar t icu la t ion is i m p l i e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f measure 14 where the f i f th f inger is c l e a r l y used as a means o f s tressing the downbeat . T h i s a r t i cu la t ion must have been important ; o therwise the four th finger c o u l d eas i ly p l ay the note " e " on the first beat o f the soprano part i n measure 14. These eighteenth-century f inger ings c l ea r ly emphas ize the me t r i ca l o rgan iza t ion o f w o r k s f rom the pe r iod . H o w e v e r the ear ly to mid-e ighteenth century wi tnessed an e v o l u t i o n i n f i nge r ing patterns due to the popu la r i za t ion o f equal temperament and the resu l t ing exper imenta t ion w i t h more ch romat i c keys . It is not k n o w n if , o r to what degree, B a c h ' s f inge r ing f e l l in to l ine w i t h the more modern prac t ice . H o w e v e r , the impor tance o f s t ressing m e t r i c a l l y s t rong beats was c r u c i a l w e l l in to the mature p e r i o d o f his l i f e . A s i d e f r o m the systematic p a i r i n g o f notes, sources l i ke C . P . E . B a c h ' s Versuch indicate that groupings o f four notes was a l so poss ib le , r esu l t ing in the f inger ing 1-2-3-4. A s m a n y per formance dec i s ions at this t ime were governed b y personal taste, it w o u l d have been up to the per former to dec ide w h i c h g r o u p i n g was more appropria te for a par t icular t empo and Affekt. In fast t emp i the idea o f " s t rong and w e a k " beat a l terat ion was extended f rom the l eve l o f the beat to that o f the measure. A c c o r d i n g to J . P . K i r n b e r g e r , a series o f measures c o u l d be pe rce ived as an al ternat ion o f s t rong and weak measures, regardless o f wha t meter they were w r i t t e n . 5 2 S u c h " two-ba r " measures emphas ize the f l o w i n g qua l i t y o f m u s i c and are pa r t i cu la r ly useful i n movements u s ing fast t r ip le meter, such as passepieds, minuets o r canaries . T h e downbea t took the strongest stress i n t r ip le meter and its energy and a r t icu la t ion w o u l d be p ro longed through the second beat. U n l i k e the weak fourth beat i n 4/4 meter, the last beat o f a measure i n t r ip le t ime w o u l d i m p l y s ign i f i can t ly greater stress than the second beat and be unders tood as an upbeat. A c c o r d i n g to wr i te r s such as L o u l i e and M u f f a t , the speed o f the c o m p o s i t i o n related to the strength o f the upbeat. T h e f o l l o w i n g is a fragment from E t i enne L o u l i e 5 3 : " T h e measure [3 /1 , 3/2, 3/4, 3/8, 3/16, & 3] is g i v e n i n three w a y s : (1) t w o downs t rokes and one upst roke for s l o w tempos , (2) one downs t roke , 5 2 Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard, trans. Alf red Clayton (New Y o r k : Oxford University Press Inc., 1993), p. 21. 5 3 Houle, p. 87. 51 l as t ing t w o t imes , and one upstroke, for faster tempos, (3) one downs t roke , l as t ing three t imes , for ve ry fast t e m p o s . . . " D u r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s o f the pu l se indica ted by the meter were grouped a c c o r d i n g to the standard rule o f p a i r i n g o f good and bad notes. In c o m p o u n d meters, the ident i ty o f the first t w o notes as downbeat and the th i rd one as upbeat recurs w i t h each three note g roup . T h e downbeat-upbeat re la t ionship was app l i ed to the halves o f measures i n 6/8 meter, w h i l e a three-note g roup ing was a p p l i e d in 9/8 meter. J . S. B a c h often stressed the meter through the i n c l u s i o n o f a r t icu la t ion marks as i n the e x a m p l e f rom the basso con t inuo part o f the second movement f rom Lobe den Herren, B W V 6 9 : 5 4 E x a m p l e 5 S i m i l a r examples m a y be found in the V i o l i n o I part in the F i f t h B r a n d e n b u r g C o n c e r t o , B W V 1050/3 , o r in the V i o l a part o f the Four th Brandenbu rg C o n c e r t o , B W V 1049/3. The re is a defini te re la t ionship be tween meter a n d the app l i ca t i on o f r h y t h m i c a l tera t ion , o r inegalite. M a n y F r e n c h and G e r m a n wr i te rs desc r ibed this technique in w h i c h notes are per formed unequa l ly . W h e n d e c i d i n g on the app l i ca t i on o f notes inegales, the f o l l o w i n g cond i t i ons need to be taken into cons idera t ion : o n l y in passages i n conjunct m o t i o n and i n rhy thmic va lues w h i c h are subd iv i s ions o f the bas ic pulse m a y this occur . T h i s technique was a p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y to p ieces i n a moderate t empo. H o w e v e r it was a l so app l i ed in s l ower o r s l igh t ly faster t e m p i . In most cases, the first o f a pai r o f notes was g iven a stress w h i c h w o u l d corroborate the metr ic structure o f the p iece . T h e opposi te inequa l i ty , where the first note was the shorter o f t w o notes, is be l i eved to have been a rare occurrence . It was up to the performer to dec ide on the type and degree o f inequa l i ty w h i c h , depend ing o n the character o f the 3 4 G . Ritchie and George Stauffer, Organ Technique. Modern and Early (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 203. 52 piece , c o u l d range from ve ry s l ight and l i l t i n g to ve ry sharp and j o l t i n g . E v e n though the phenomenon o f inegalite is associa ted w i t h F r e n c h m u s i c , R o b e r t D o n i n g t o n suggested that it s h o u l d a lso be app l i ed to the m u s i c o f B a c h . 5 5 F rench wr i te rs d i d not agree upon two-note s lu r r ing as a necessary prerequis i te for i nd ica t ing the presence o f inegal i te . H o w e v e r , it is important to remember that s lurs ove r more than t w o notes o r dots (or dashes) meant a cance l l a t i on o f inequa l i ty . O n e o f the c r u c i a l elements associa ted w i t h meter is tempo. T h e performers o f the B a r o q u e E r a unders tood the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f speed that were inherent i n the t ime signature and often associated w i t h par t icu lar genres o r styles o f m u s i c . A s Johann Peter S p e r l i n g states, the "upper number shows the quant i ty or h o w m a n y notes are i n the measure. N e x t , the bo t tom number shows the qua l i t y o r wha t k i n d o f note makes up the number counted i n the measure . " 5 6 It w a s genera l ly unders tood then that the greater the denomina to r o f the signature, the faster the tempo o f the p iece . H o w e v e r , eve ryone agreed that t emp i migh t be m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the character and Affekt o f the c o m p o s i t i o n . A s K i r n b e r g e r wr i t es : " T h e tempo giusto, even i n the case o f dance movements , can be m o d i f i e d b y the character o f the movemen t c o n c e r n e d " 5 7 O n e shou ld not forget the necess i ty o f m a i n t a i n i n g a strict pulse w h i c h is documented b y m a n y wri ters and b y s u r v i v i n g organ barrels . H o w e v e r , f l e x i b i l i t y was necessary e spec i a l l y w i t h regard to the punctuat ion o f f o r m at par t icu lar p o i n t s - f o r instance, as i n the ends o f tutti o r solo sect ions i n r i t o rne l lo f o r m . W e k n o w that B a c h ' s t empi were ve ry fast. C . P . E . B a c h and J . S. B a c h ' s student, Johann F r i e d r i c h A g r i c o l a , both reported on the rap id i ty o f his t emp i : " [ J . S. B a c h ] was ve ry accurate i n h is conduc t ing and ve ry sure o f h is tempo, w h i c h he usua l ly made ve ry l i v e l y . " 3 8 It can be assumed then, that Robert Donington, p. 462. Donington gives several examples where Bach's notation suggests inegalite; one o f which is in the duet, "Domine Deus" from the Gloria o f the Mass in B minor, occurring in the dotted rhythms at the beginning. Inegalite can be applied later, when the theme returns in equal note values. 5 6 Quoted in Houle, p. 43. 5 7 Quoted in Badura-Skoda, p. 81. 5 8 Quoted in Donington, p. 384. 53 B a c h ' s t emp i were faster than usual even for h is contemporar ies , m a k i n g them seem even faster to modern ears. 54 Articulation Baroque keyboard articulation has been the subject of much research, debate and several dissertations. The issue is a complicated one even concerning the instruments Bach knew, played and for which he composed. However, answers to these issues become even more elusive and complex when it comes to the modern piano. The action and sound of the early piano with which J. S. Bach had the opportunity to experiment is as distant from the modern piano as those of the harpsichord and clavichord. Furthermore, although Bach approved of Silbermann's new pianoforte59 (after criticizing the earlier models for their heavy action), his keyboard works were written with organ, harpsichord or clavichord in mind. The importance of the harpsichord as a primary instrument is evident from his estate after his death which included seven harpsichords and a spinet. Whereas the action and the sound of the harpsichord is so vastly different from the modern Steinway, its clarity and brilliance may still serve to enlighten the modern performer, allowing her or him to consider similar qualities on the piano. In searching for insights into the articulation of Bach's music, it is extremely beneficial to survey contemporary treatises and reports on Bach's own performance. Even though this knowledge may not be directly applied to the modern piano, it may result in new technical solutions and original and thoughtful interpretations. Forkel, Bach's first biographer, presented C. P. E. Bach's detailed description of his father's technique.60 It includes indications as to the intended articulation. In a paragraph about "gliding" from one key to another, the author clarifies the purpose: "...so that the two tones are neither disjoined from each other nor blended together."61 There follows a passage which should act to motivate all keyboard performers: "The drawing back of the tips of the fingers and the rapid communication, thereby effected, of the force of one finger to that following it produces the highest degree of clearness in the expression of the single tones so that every passage performed in this manner sounds brilliant, rolling, and round, as if each tone were a pearl."6 2 5 9 Hans T. David and Arthur Mendel, eds., The Bach Reader. A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents (New York : W . W . Norton & Company Inc., 1972), p. 259. 6 0 Bach Reader, p. 307-308. 6 1 Ibid., p. 308. 6 2 Ibid., p. 308. 55 It is c lea r f r om these descr ip t ions that the notes, w h e n we l l - a r t i cu la ted , p roduced a transparent and b r i l l i an t effect. E v e n m i n i m a l exper imenta t ion w i t h the ha rps ichord ac t ion w i l l i l l umina te the subtle nuances o f a r t i cu la t ion that result f rom the technique o f " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the f inger t ips . C a r l P h i l i p p E m m a n u e l a l so desc r ibed this manner o f per formance: "The re are m a n y w h o p l a y s t i c k i l y , as i f they had g lue between the i r f ingers . T h e i r t ouch is le thargic , they h o l d notes too l o n g . Others , in an attempt to correct this , leave the keys too soon, as i f they burned. B o t h are w r o n g . M i d w a y between these extremes is best. Here again I speak i n general , for every k i n d o f touch has its u se . " 6 3 M a n y other wri ters o f the p e r i o d descr ibed the same type o f we l l - a r t i cu l a t ed touch w h i c h , as W i l h e l m M a r p u r g notes in his Anleitungzum Clavierspielen, is " . . . a l w a y s assumed, is never i n d i c a t e d " 6 4 . T h u s , such an approach to a r t i cu la t ion was dominan t i n late B a r o q u e performance . T h e resu l t ing sound o f such p l a y i n g w o u l d be s i m i l a r to that ach ieved b y p l a y i n g t w o consecut ive notes as connec ted as poss ib le w i t h o n l y one f inger . T h i s a lso indicates that the degree o f a r t i cu la t ion is dependent o n the i n t e rva l l i c span between notes, s ince it is o b v i o u s that it takes less t ime to p l a y an in te rva l o f a second w i t h one f inger than an octave. A s a result, s tepwise m o t i o n prompts the most adjunct a r t i cu la t ion ; yet , it does not mean a modern legato touch . These t echn ica l descr ip t ions and suggestions m a y be he lp fu l i n d e v e l o p i n g a par t icu lar p ian i s t i c approach to a r t i cu la t ion , a k i n d that w o u l d a i m toward the qual i t ies o f c l a r i t y and b r i l l i ance . It is o b v i o u s that the technique o f " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the f ingert ips appropria te o n the ha rps i chord is ex t remely d i f f i c u l t w h e n app l i ed to the heavy ac t ion o f the m o d e r n p iano. Perhaps the most important example is the aura l idea o f the " o r d i n a r y touch" , w h i c h migh t lead a p ianis t to search for more transparent w a y s o f present ing the major i ty o f B a r o q u e textures. P ian i s t s shou ld not be d i scouraged b y the na tura l ly mass ive sound o f S t e inway p ianos ; after a l l , the reverberat ion o f the impress ive G e r m a n churches d i d not prevent organists and other ensembles f rom f o l l o w i n g their " o r d i n a r y procedures" . C. P. E . Bach, p. 149. Faulkner, p. 39. 56 A h i g h l y ar t icula ted style does not exc lude or cont rad ic t the impor tance o f " s i n g i n g " w h i c h B a c h stressed in the preface to the Inven t ions . 6 5 T h e cantabile s tyle o f the B a r o q u e E r a was subservient to the proper d e l i v e r y o f w o r d s and the met r i ca l accentuat ion o f m u s i c . T h e dec l ama to ry a r t i cu la t ion o f inst rumental m u s i c was under l ined b y M a t t h e s o n : " . . . for, as w e have seen, ins t rumenta l m e l o d y differs f rom v o c a l p ieces m a i n l y in the fact that the former, w i thou t the a i d o f w o r d s and vo ices , tr ies to say ju s t as m u c h as the latter does w i t h w o r d s . . . " . 6 6 T h e " s i n g i n g " style that B a c h and m a n y o f h i s contemporar ies advoca ted shou ld not be confused w i t h roman t i c i zed legato p l a y i n g . E v e n in pe r fo rming the m u s i c o f the nineteenth century, one cannot succeed in c rea t ing a cantabile l ine b y l i n k i n g the pi tches a lone . It is the inner shaping , the c rea t ion , con t inu i ty , c u l m i n a t i o n and release o f tens ion that contr ibute to the s i n g i n g l ine . T h i s m a y ve ry w e l l i nc lude ar t icula ted and m e t r i c a l l y stressed notes. M a n y wr i te rs , i n c l u d i n g M a r p u r g , stressed the impor tance o f the c lear de l inea t ion o f B a r o q u e figuraes such as the figurae corta (its d a c t y l i c and anapaest ic types) , messanza, and suspiratio. M a n y keyboard f igura t ions make use o f the messanza figurae, w h i c h is charac te r ized b y three (or more , depend ing o n the bas ic g roup ing) s tepwise movements and one leap over a s ing le ha rmony as w e l l as two-note and four-note appoggiaturas. A stronger emphas i s o n the first notes o f such patterns is necessary for a c lea r de l inea t ion o f the figuraes that i n turn emphas ize the rhe to r ica l gestures o f the mus i c and c l a r i fy the larger units o f compos i t i ons . A s i d e f rom v a r y i n g the o rd ina ry touch , m u c h ev idence eludes to the re la t ion between d issonance and a " s l u r r e d " manner o f performance. T h e effective use o f ha rmon ic t ens ion and its r eso lu t ion was associated w i t h f inger legato w h i c h in tens i f ied accented s l ides upwards o r d o w n w a r d s . M u c h ev idence a lso reveals the assoc ia t ion o f so r rowfu l emot ions w i t h s lu r r ing , and affects o f ext reme j o y or anger w i t h a detached style . C . P . E . B a c h a l so elaborates o n this idea o f the departure f rom the no rma l m a n n e r , 6 7 r emark ing that more connected and sharp a r t i cu la t ion both have their use i n spec i f i c m u s i c a l contexts . 6 5 Bach Reader, p. 86. 6 6 Harriss, p. 427. 6 7 C . P. E . Bach, p. 149. 57 Thus , a performer must choose the most appropriate touch w i t h regard to the careful ana lys i s o f the m e l o d i c l ine and the affect ions that are e v o k e d i n a par t icular p iece or w i t h i n a sec t ion . R e l a t i v e l y f e w ar t icu la t ion marks , such as slurs and dots (or dashes), m a y be found i n B a c h ' s oeuvre , c o n f i r m i n g the no t ion that performers were w e l l versed in ex i s t i ng conven t ions . It is he lp fu l to remember that the s lu r was invented to substitute the l igature that ind ica ted l o n g me l i smas . S u c h re la t ion o f the s lur to these l o n g m e l o d i c decorat ions i m p l i e d a g r o u p i n g o f the notes and not a legato s tyle o f p l a y i n g ; me l i smas i n compos i t i ons o f the ear ly B a r o q u e pe r iod c a l l e d for some a r t i cu la t ion . It was cus tomary that such decorat ions were based o n a s ingle ha rmony , and c a l l e d for a s l ight emphas is o f the first note o f the g roup ing . B a c h ' s so lo c l a v i e r mus i c requires less s l u r r i ng ind ica t ions than h is so lo v i o l i n m u s i c , where it is necessary for i n d i c a t i n g b o w i n g . T h e impor tance o f appropria te s l u r r i ng in s t r ing m u s i c w a s magn i f i ed by the fact that the d i s t inc t ion be tween the u p - b o w and d o w n - b o w was m u c h stronger on pe r iod ins t ruments . 6 8 T h i s is pertinent because s lur r ings in B a c h ' s keyboa rd w o r k s h igh l i gh t v i o l i n i s t i c gestures. F o r example , s lur r ings that ar t iculate figurae appear in the entry o f the so lo organ part in B W V 3 5 / 1 6 9 as w e l l as in the ha rps i chord Conce r tos , B W V 1052 and 1 0 5 3 . 7 0 T h e organ part o f B W V 29/3 f rom 1731 represents iden t i ca l s lu r r ing to the v i o l i n part p reced ing it, and resembles the s lurs o f Gavotte II o f B W V 831 . T h e slurs that extend over the bas ic beat o f a measure, such as in the f irst movemen t o f the I ta l ian C o n c e r t o , B W V 971 ( m m . 69-70) , and i n the Courante ( m . 19) e l imina te the usual met r ic stresses b y es tab l i sh ing o n l y one s t rong emphas is o n the b e g i n n i n g o f the s lur . T h i s contr ibutes not o n l y to the f l o w o f the mus i c but adds m u c h var ie ty to the la te -Baroque palette o f a r t icu la t ion . It shou ld be r ecogn ized then, that s lu r r ing i n B a c h ' s m u s i c connotes m u c h more than the legato touch . It m a y ei ther corroborate the apparent metr ic structure, o r impose an a typ i ca l f igura t ion , thus it m a y project a different Affekt. Interpretive mark ings pe r ta in ing to a r t i cu la t ion are often c l a r i f i e d by the 6 8 The more articulated sound resulted mainly from two factors: the bow was heavier at the heel, while the gut strings had less tension. 6 9 Butt, p. 171. 7 0 Ibid., p. 172-3. 58 add i t ion o f dots p l aced over notes w i thou t s lurs so that there is not necessar i ly any assoc ia t ion be tween a dot and the modern staccato m a r k i n g ; the performer must dec ide on the degree o f a r t i cu la t ion , t ak ing into account the Affekt o f the w o r k and personal taste. A per formance o f B a c h ' s m u s i c on the modern p i ano m a y be en r i ched by m a n y nuances o f B a r o q u e a r t i cu la t ion . T h e c l a r i t y that so m a n y wi tnessed i n Johann Sebas t ian ' s performances m a y be a c c o m p l i s h e d o n the modern p i ano b y m a n y means o f a r t i cu la t ion , r ang ing from that remin iscen t o f the n o r m a l procedure , the m e d i u m non-legato through the extreme, w i t h var ious degrees o f f inger and a r m staccato. V a r i e t y o f touch m a y result from the app l i ca t i on o f different amounts o f energy and speed to par t icu lar notes, as w e l l as an " a i r y " separat ion between them. M e t r i c a l o rgan iza t ion necessitates a r t i cu la t ion on a bas ic l eve l ; however , other subtleties m a y a lso determine the degree o f a r t i cu la t ion , for example , the in t e rva l l i c content, h a r m o n i c structure and Affekt o f the m u s i c . T h e heaviness o f the ac t ion o f the p iano , one ' s personal t echn ica l capabi l i t i es and sens i t iv i ty m a y obstruct c l a r i t y w i t h i n the a r t i cu la t ion . A g a i n , s l ight t empo adjustments m a y he lp to p roduce the b r i l l i a n t and transparent sounds sought b y the performer . C a u t i o n is pa r t i cu la r ly important w h e n at tempting to imitate the " d r a w i n g " f inger technique that is often app l i ed o n the ha rps ichord . T h e substantial amount o f we igh t that a con t rac t ing f inger mus t a p p l y o n a modern p i ano m a y lead to va r ious hand injuries w h i c h are less l i k e l y to o c c u r w h i l e a r t i cu la t ing i n l i k e manner on the harps ichord , even w i t h a l l the stops b e i n g used. T h i s s trenuous technique m a y be poss ib le for some pianis ts , but it m i g h t be harmful for others. Hea l th i e r w a y s m a y be found to a c c o m p l i s h the des i red goa l . A large range o f dynamics s h o u l d a id i n the a r t i cu la t ion o f cer ta in f igures and a l ighter manner o f p l a y i n g m a y w i d e n the spectrum o f touch . 59 Dynamics Perhaps the most p rob lemat ic matter in the interpretat ion o f B a r o q u e m u s i c o n the m o d e r n p iano arises f rom the ins t rument ' s a b i l i t y to p roduce a w i d e range o f d y n a m i c s . I r o n i c a l l y , the number o f d y n a m i c mark ings i n B a c h ' s k e y b o a r d m u s i c is ex t r emely s m a l l and serves m o s t l y as a means o f de l inea t ing f o r m . T h e o n l y k e y b o a r d instrument that was capable o f d y n a m i c shad ing before the inven t ion o f pianofor te was the c l a v i c h o r d , reported b y F o r k e l to be B a c h ' s favour i te instrument: " H e l i k e d best to p l ay upon the c l a v i c h o r d ; the ha rps ichord , thought ce r t a in ly suscept ib le o f a v e r y great var ie ty o f express ion , had not sou l enough for h i m ; and the p i ano was i n h is l i f e t ime too m u c h i n its in fancy and s t i l l m u c h too coarse to satisfy h i m . H e therefore cons ide red the c l a v i c h o r d as the best instrument for study, and i n genera l , for pr ivate m u s i c a l entertainment. H e found i n the most convenien t for the express ion o f h is most ref ined thoughts, and d i d not be l i eve it poss ib le to p roduce f rom any ha rps ichord or p ianofor te such a var ie ty in the gradat ions o f tone as o n this instrument , w h i c h is , indeed , poor i n tone, but o n a s m a l l scale ex t r emely f l e x i b l e . " 7 1 T h e c l a v i c h o r d is capable o f m a n y d y n a m i c and c o l o u r i s t i c nuances w i t h i n its l i m i t e d v o l u m e and can a l so make use o f the unique express ive means o f a Bebung.12 T h e vast h i s t o r i ca l separat ion between the w o r l d o f the modern p iano and the del ica te c l a v i c h o r d is emphas ized i n the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s b y E . B o d k y : " Y e t even the art o f touch o f the greatest p iano v i r tuoso cannot compete w i t h the m u c h more ref ined shadings poss ib le o n the t i n y c l a v i c h o r d . . . " 7 3 Desp i t e this negat ive remark, F o r k e l ' s report on the impor tance o f express ive d y n a m i c gradat ions s h o u l d serve to encourage the per former to use the d y n a m i c resources o f any instrument. A s i d e f rom the ha rps ichord and organ, on w h i c h d y n a m i c gradat ions were l i m i t e d to the use o f different registrat ions, a l l other instrumental is ts and singers were capable o f changes i n v o l u m e w h i c h were a lways a p r i m a r y means o f express ion . B o d k y 7 4 a lso wa rns pianis ts against l ong , r oman t i c i zed crescendos that were first prac t iced b y the orchest ra i n M a n n h e i m , represent ing then a different h i s to r i ca l character is t ic . 7 1 Bach Reader, p. 309. 7 2 Forkel underestimated the importance o f harpsichord, because as many as seven such instruments were listed on Bach 's estate catalogue, while no clavichord was mentioned. 7 3 Erwin Bodky, The Interpretation of Bach's Keyboard Works (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960), p. 91. 7 4 Ibid., p. 94. 60 D y n a m i c shadings were for a v e r y l o n g t ime the mos t natural w a y o f c rea t ing m u s i c a l express ion , advocated b y the F lo ren t ine C a m e r a t a for the affect ive per formance o f any c o m p o s i t i o n . 7 5 A s D a v i d B o y d e n points out in h is a r t i c l e , 7 6 the inven t ion and deve lopment o f the for tepiano at the b e g i n n i n g o f the eighteenth-century was in f luenced b y the g r o w i n g need to create d y n a m i c contrast on a k e y b o a r d instrument. Subt le d y n a m i c shadings are he lp fu l in the shap ing o f me lod ie s , w h i c h shou ld s t i l l adhere to the above-ment ioned p r inc ip l e s o f i n t e rva l l i c content, meter, dec l ama t ion and ha rmony . A c c o r d i n g to Ma t theson , ins t rumental m e l o d y , e spec ia l ly w i t h i n dance movements , must observe such " g e o m e t r i c " progress ions even more than the v o c a l m e l o d y . 7 7 Severa l authors such as Q u a n t z and M a t t h e s o n d i scussed the impor tance o f a natural s i n g i n g l ine . C . P . E . B a c h expressed this i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " A b o v e a l l , lose no oppor tun i ty to hear art is t ic s ing ing . In so d o i n g , the keyboard i s t w i l l l ea rn to th ink in terms o f song. Indeed, it is a g o o d pract ice to s i n g instrumental me lod i e s i n order to reach an unders tanding o f their correct per formance . T h i s w a y o f l ea rn ing is o f far greater va lue than the read ing o f v o l u m i n o u s tomes or l i s t en ing to learned d i s c o u r s e s . " 7 8 A s a result o f such approach , the in tens i f ica t ion o f d y n a m i c s para l le l s the greater t ens ion generated b y ascend ing me lod ie s and v ice -versa . Q u a n t z c o n f i r m e d the need for more intense d y n a m i c s a c c o r d i n g to the notes, m o t i v i c content and d issonance: " T h e accompan i s t w i l l often encounter notes that require more emphasis than the others, and thus he must k n o w h o w to str ike them w i t h greater l ive l iness and force, and h o w to d i s t i ngu i sh them c l ea r ly f rom the other notes that do not require emphas is . T h e former i nc lude the l o n g notes in t e rming led a m o n g q u i c k e r ones, a lso the notes w i t h w h i c h a p r i n c i p a l subject enters, and above a l l the dissonances . A l o n g note, w h i c h m a y be struck w i t h its l o w e r octave, interrupts the l ive l iness o f the m e l o d y . T h e thema a lways requires an increase i n the strength o f the tone to make its entry c lear (•••) ." 7 9 7 5 Dav id Boyden, "Dynamics in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century M u s i c , " in Essays in Honour of Archibald T. Davison by His Associates (Cambridge: Harvard University, Department o f Music , 1957), p. 185-6. 7 6 i u ; A _ i oo Ibid., p. 188. 7 7 Harriss, p. 427. 7 8 Bach, p. 151-2. 7 9 Quantz, p. 254. 61 In the next paragraph, Q u a n t z indicates that h i g h l y dissonant sonor i t ies , augmented and d i m i n i s h e d intervals , decept ive cadences and c h r o m a t i c a l l y al tered notes require m u c h d y n a m i c va r i a t ion con t r ibu t ing to a r i che r in te rpre ta t ion . 8 0 Rober t M a r s h a l l , in h i s a r t ic le , " T e m p o and D y n a m i c s i n the B a c h sources: A R e v i e w o f the T e r m i n o l o g y " , discusses the ex i s t i ng d y n a m i c marks i n B a c h ' s oeuvre . 8 1 O n the bas is o f the d y n a m i c marks i n B a c h ' s scores , he d raws severa l important c o n c l u s i o n s . E s p e c i a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g is the preponderance o f softer d y n a m i c ind ica t ions , w h i c h exp lo re the m a n y shadings o f piano and pianissimo. H o w e v e r , B a c h never suggested a d y n a m i c louder than forte. A diminuendo effect is i m p l i e d i n the v i o l i n , v i o l a , t raverso and con t inuo parts i n measures 76-79 o f the f ina l chorus o f the 1736 ve r s ion o f the St. Matthew Passion b y the mark ings , piano-pp-pianissimo&1, where , i n accordance w i t h con tempora ry t e rmino logy , the pp meant piu piano and not pianissimo. A c lear diminuendo i s a l so apparent i n the v i o l a part o f the H a r p s i c h o r d C o n c e r t o i n D major , B W V 1054. Fur thermore , M a r s h a l l establishes B a c h ' s express ive use o f v e r y soft d y n a m i c s , d e s c r i b i n g them as "med i t a t i ve" o r " s o m b r e " . 8 3 E s p e c i a l l y s t r i k ing i n this regard is the cantata O heil'ges Geist-und Wasserbad, B W V 165, where the pianissimo d y n a m i c s i n the s t r ing parts o f the reci ta t ive , " I c h habe j a , m e i n Seelenbraut igehen" , i l l u m i n a t e the w o r d s " w h e n a l l strength is g o n e " . 8 4 M a r s h a l l ' s f ind ings encourage the exp lo ra t i on o f softer a n d more int imate c o l o u r shadings o n the m o d e r n p iano , appropria te i n con templa t ive and thoughtfu l c o m p o s i t i o n s . Te r r aced d y n a m i c s , as they have often been referred to, resulted from a punctua t ion o f f o r m w h i c h i n concer to movements w o u l d arise from the a l ternat ion between tutti and solo sect ions. In h is keyboa rd w o r k s , B a c h punctuated such large passages w i t h the ind ica t ions o f piano and forte. It is impor tant to rea l i ze , however , that the i n d i v i d u a l sect ions were not in tended to be pe r fo rmed mono tonous ly w i t h i n s ingle d y n a m i c leve l s . S i n c e orchest ra l instruments were capable o f p r o d u c i n g 8 0 Ibid., p. 254-5. 8 1 Robert L . Marshal l , "Tempo and Dynamic Indications in the Bach Sources: A Review o f the Terminology," in Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays, ed. Peter Wi l l i ams (Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 263. 8 2 Ibid., p. 263. 8 3 Ibid., p. 266. 8 4 "wenn alle Kraft vergehet". 62 crescendi and diminuendi, mus i c i ans na tura l ly created d y n a m i c shadings w i t h i n each l eve l o f the terrace. A l s o , forte and piano ind ica t ions i n r i to rne l lo movements were not necessa r i ly unders tood as representations o f extreme contrast. Q u a n t z exp l a ined it i n f o l l o w i n g words : " T h e For t e and P i a n o must never be u n d u l y exaggerated. T h e instruments mus t not be hand led w i t h more force than the i r cons t i tu t ion permits , s ince the ear w i l l be most d i sagreeably affected, e spec ia l ly in a s m a l l p lace . Y o u must a lways be able, i n case o f necessi ty , to express an add i t iona l F o r t i s s i m o or P i a n i s s i m o . " 8 5 In B a c h ' s organ and harps ichord output, forte and piano meant s i m p l y a change o f manuals w h i c h was a lways ca re fu l ly marked b y the c o m p o s e r . 8 6 T h i s manner o f i nd i ca t i on was used for p ieces that imi ta ted orchestra l s tyle, such as the organ w o r k , Prelude in E-f la t , B W V 5 5 2 / 1 , from Clavierubung III, wri t t en i n the style o f the F r e n c h overture. B a c h a lso ind ica ted d y n a m i c s in orchestra l -s tyle w o r k s for a double manua l ha rps ichord , n a m e l y the I ta l ian C o n c e r t o , B W V 9 7 1 , and the Ouverture, B W V 8 3 1 . S p e c i a l k inds o f " terraced d y n a m i c s " , w h i c h a l so appear in the second part o f B a c h ' s K e y b o a r d L e s s o n s , result from echo effects. T h i s technique is desc r ibed b y Q u a n t z i n the chapter, Of the Duties of Those Who Accompany a Concertante Part: " In the repet i t ion o f the same or o f s i m i l a r ideas cons i s t i ng o f h a l f o r w h o l e bars, whether at the same l e v e l or i n t ranspos i t ion , the repet i t ion o f the idea m a y be p l ayed somewhat more sof t ly than the first s tatement ." 8 7 A s Q u a n t z indicates , the repet i t ion o f the m o t i v e m a y be p l a y e d softer, but, s i m i l a r l y to r i to rne l lo d y n a m i c s , does not necessitate the use o f the extreme ends o f v o l u m e . W i t h i n larger sect ions, d y n a m i c s were suggested b y textura l changes. T h e increase o f vo i ce s w i t h i n a movemen t w o u l d na tura l ly resul t in a crescendo effect, and v i c e versa . T h e Prelude i n B - f l a t m i n o r , B W V 867, f rom Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I perfec t ly exempl i f i e s the role o f texture in crea t ing a d y n a m i c p l an : the c l i m a x is ach i eved b y the increase i n number o f vo i ce s from four at the commencemen t o f the piece , to n ine i n the c l i m a x i n measure 2 3 . In further examina t ion o f B a c h ' s dynamics , M a r s h a l l points to the c o m p o s e r ' s object ives to b r i n g out important mot ives and to c l e a r l y 8 5 Quantz, p. 274-5. 8 6 George Stauffer and Ernest May , J. S. Bach as Organist. His instruments, Music, and Performance Practices (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), p. 203-207. 8 7 Quantz, p. 277. 63 differentiate be tween so lo vo ices and accompan imen t . T h e al ternat ion o f poco forte w i t h piano i n the oboe part d u r i n g the first so lo sec t ion o f the cantata, Christen dtzet diesen Tag, B W V 63 , serves to d i s t i ngu i sh be tween the important m o t i v e and the later return to a pu re ly accompan imen ta l ro le . S u c h emphasis o f p rominen t mot ives and fugal subjects was d i scussed b y m a n y wr i te rs o f the era. 64 Affect In accordance w i t h the p rominen t rhe tor ica l art o f the B a r o q u e , the m a i n g o a l o f mus i c i ans was to de l ive r to l isteners the appropriate affects o f m u s i c a l w o r k s . In v o c a l compos i t i ons , the pass ions were interrelated w i t h the l y r i c s . Instrumental dance movemen t s were a l so assoc ia ted w i t h different affects. Performers were expected to recognize , ei ther through k n o w l e d g e o r m u s i c a l in tu i t ion , the va r ious passions expressed in a piece and to k n o w h o w to c o n v e y them c l e a r l y to the audience . 8 8 M a t h e s o n d iscussed such need for correct unders tanding o f the affects i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " M e a n w h i l e because the proper goa l o f a l l me lod ie s can be no th ing other than the sort o f d i v e r s i o n o f the hear ing th rough w h i c h the pass ions o f the soul are s t i r red: thus no one at a l l w i l l obta in this g o a l w h o is not a i m i n g at it, w h o feels no affect ion, indeed w h o scarce ly th inks at a l l o f a pass ion ; unless it is one w h i c h is i nvo lun t a r i l y felt d e e p l y . " 8 9 M a n y aspects o f interpretat ion, such as v o l u m e , tempo and a r t icu la t ion , mus t be chosen a c c o r d i n g to the emot ions o f par t icu lar w o r k s . In par t icular , d y n a m i c s , i n con junc t ion w i t h appropr ia te a r t i cu la t ion , are ex t remely he lp fu l in pro jec t ing the passions, as men t ioned b y C . P . E . B a c h : " T h e v o l u m e and t ime va lue o f ornaments must be de te rmined by the a f fec t . " 9 0 E a r l i e r in 1619, Prae tor ius men t ioned that v i o l i n i s t s used b o w i n g and d y n a m i c s to project different affects . 9 1 P a r t i c u l a r l y important was to recognize the impor tance o f d issonances w h i c h , as Q u a n t z wrote , " . . . s e rve as the means to va ry the express ion o f the different pas s ions . " 9 2 In a paragraph c o n c e r n i n g the unders tanding o f a p i e c e ' s true af fec t , 9 3 C . P . E . B a c h discusses the p o s s i b i l i t y to s l i gh t ly va ry the tempo: " Y e t cer ta in purposeful v io l a t i ons o f the beat are often e x c e p t i o n a l l y beaut i fu l . H o w e v e r , a d i s t inc t ion in their use must be observed: In so lo per formance and in ensembles made up o f o n l y a few unders tanding players , man ipu la t ions are pe rmis s ib l e w h i c h affect the t empo itself; here, the group w i l l be less apt to go astray than to become attentive to and adopt the c h a n g e . . . " Gregory Butler, "The Projection o f Affect in Baroque Dance M u s i c , " EM 12, N o . 2 (May , 1984), p. 201. Ibid., p. 425. Bach, p. 150. Badura-Skoda, p. 134. Quantz, p. 254. Bach, p. 150. 65 In h is ar t ic le , G r e g o r y B u t l e r presents ideas o f theorists, T h o m a s M a c e and Johann M a t t h e s o n , w h o corroborate the p o s s i b i l i t y to f luctuate the tempo w i t h i n a par t icu lar c o m p o s i t i o n . 9 4 T h e re la t ionsh ip between a r t i cu la t ion and Affekt is d i scussed b y m a n y wr i te rs o f the seventeenth- and eighteenth-centuries. A m o n g them, Q u a n t z g ives the f o l l o w i n g adv ice : " . . . F l a t t e r i n g passages i n the A d a g i o must not be at tacked too rude ly w i t h the stroke o f the tongue and b o w , and o n the other hand j o y f u l and d i s t ingu i shed ideas i n the A l l e g r o must not be dragged, s lurred, o r a t tacked too g e n t l y . " 9 5 In ana ly s ing the affect o f an ins t rumenta l w o r k , the aspects o f m e l o d i c d i r ec t i on , range, tessi tura, in te rva l l i c content and ha rmon ic progress ion need to be e x a m i n e d . M a t t h e s o n ' s Der vollkommene Capellmeister desc r ibed i n deta i l the pass ions o f several ins t rumenta l forms and dance types. O n e can a lso find explanat ions o f h o w par t icu lar affects are dep ic ted b y var ious m u s i c a l means . F o r example , the pass ion o f j o y , w h i c h depicts the expans ion o f the sou l , is heard i n large and expanded in tervals . C o n v e r s e l y , conjunct m e l o d i c m o t i o n is character is t ic o f sadness, represent ing a con t rac t ion o f the sou l . A m o n g other aspects, the d i rec t ion o f the m e l o d i c l ine can na tura l ly por t ray the affect o f hope and despair ; i.e. w i t h the former represent ing an e leva t ion and the latter, a depress ion o f the s o u l . 9 6 A mean ingfu l performance o f B a r o q u e mus i c requires k n o w l e d g e , imag ina t ion and in tu i t ion ; a l l o f these must contr ibute to the mos t express ive m u s i c a l d e l i v e r y o f affects. It s h o u l d be remembered that " W h e r e there is no pass ion , no affect to be found , there is a l so no v i r t u e . . . " 9 7 Butler, p. 203-207. Quantz, p. 125. Harriss, p. 104-5. Ibid., p. 104. 66 PART THREE: APPLICATION 67 Ouverture Meter and Tempo T h e tempo o f the overture has been the subject o f m u c h research. T h e most s igni f icant f ind ings o f the correct t empo made by John O ' D o n e l l and D a v i d F u l l e r resul ted in a range o f t emp i f rom M M = 5 7 to the h a l f note to M M = 7 2 to the quarter note i n the s l o w o p e n i n g . 9 8 T h e per formance o f the m o v e m e n t o n the modern p iano , however , creates other p rob lems and requires adjustments. A s w i t h any B a r o q u e c o m p o s i t i o n , the cons idera t ion o f the p ropor t ion suggested by the t ime signature shou ld be g iven utmost cons idera t ion . There is o n l y one extant statement b y J . S. B a c h about the meter c o m m o n l y associated w i t h the F r e n c h Over ture : "It must, however , be no t iced , that i n the present day one s ingle k i n d o f t ime is ind ica ted i n t w o ways , thus: C 2, the second w a y be ing used b y the F r e n c h i n pieces that are to be p l ayed q u i c k l y o r b r i s k l y , and the G e r m a n s adopt ing it f rom the F r e n c h . B u t the G e r m a n s and Italians abide for the most part b y the first method , and adopt a s l o w t i m e . . . " " T h e t ime signature o f the overture movemen t (crossed C ) indicates the c lear d i v i s i o n o f the measure into a downbea t and an upbeat. T h e r e l a t ive ly t h i c k texture o f the dotted part o f B W V 831 makes performance o f such movements at a h i s t o r i c a l l y accurate tempo d i f f i cu l t . T h e met ronome m a r k i n g o f 80 to a h a l f note in the dotted sec t ion might be rea l i s t ic i f it were pe r fo rmed on a harps ichord . H o w e v e r , per formance on the modern p i ano necessitates a tempo adjustment in order to project the b r i l l i a n c e and c l a r i t y o f the dotted rhy thms as w e l l as fast tirades. A l is tener s h o u l d c l ea r ly hear the h a l f note d i v i s i o n o f the bar w i t h the stronger emphasis on the downbeat . T h e s t rong pro jec t ion o f the first beat can be ach i eved b y a s l ight a r t i cu la t ion at the bar l ine , a f ee l ing o f resistance before the m a i n beat and b y creat ing a suspended impress ion on the p reced ing upbeat f igure . T h i s " su spens ion" arises f rom a necessary con t ro l o f t ime that shou ld be p rec i se ly observed i n order to create a nob le and serious m o o d . T h e degree o f a r t i cu la t ion at the bar l ine m a y v a r y a c c o r d i n g to its p lacement in a phrase and the i m p l i e d ha rmony . T h e damper pedal , a pu re ly p ian i s t i c resource, m a y be used w i t h ext reme con t ro l in order to 9 8 John O 'Done l l , "The French Style and the Overtures by Bach," EMI (1979), p. 190; David Fuller, G. F. Handel: Two Ornamented Organ Concertos, Op. 4 Nos. 2 and 5, as Played By an Early Barrel Organ (New Jersey: Hackensack, 1980). 9 9 Quoted in Donington, p. 385. 68 emphas ize the we igh t and impor tance o f this part o f the measure. T h e speed o f the o p e n i n g movemen t must be s l o w e r o n the p iano than o n harps ichord a n d sui table to the t echn ica l ab i l i t i e s o f the performer, the qual i t ies o f the par t icu lar instrument and the acoust ics o f the per formance space. In the left hand o f measure 13 o f B W V 831 , there is a passage c o m p r i s i n g eight s ixteenth notes i n conjunct m o t i o n . W h i l e the dots ove r a s i m i l a r passage i n measure 8 o f the s ixteenth va r ia t ion o f the Goldberg Variations suggest equal i ty , the absence o f such dots m a y i m p l y that these sixteenth notes c o u l d be per formed as inegales. T h e fugal sect ion i n 6/8 meter w o u l d n o r m a l l y have adhered to the pulse o f the o p e n i n g sec t ion , w i t h h a l f a measure o f the former o c c u p y i n g the same t ime as a measure o f the latter. H o w e v e r , the cons is tent ly shorter note values in the fugal sect ion g i v e the impress ion o f a faster tempo. A s the fugue starts w i t h an upbeat to the second h a l f o f measure 20 , a per former is g i v e n the d i f f i c u l t task o f p ro jec t ing the " r e a l " downbea t that occurs in measure 2 1 . E v e n though the ton ic h a r m o n y o f the o p e n i n g statement o f the subject supports the downbeat , the sudden fast m o t i o n w i t h an upbeat f igure i n measure 20 makes i t ve ry hard to c l e a r l y project the mos t important part o f the measure. A s i d e f r o m the c lear d i v i s i o n o f the measure into s t rong and w e a k parts, the c o m p o u n d meter o f 6/8 imp l i e s other nuances. T h e three e ighth notes o f each h a l f measure m a y be unders tood as weak and s t rong o n this l eve l o f s u b d i v i s i o n by t reat ing the first t w o as a downbea t and the th i rd one as an upbeat. T h i s d i s t inc t ive g r o u p i n g does not cont rad ic t the sharp a r t icu la t ion o f the e ighth notes inherent i n their d is junct in t e rva l l i c m o t i o n , w h i c h is ind ica ted w i t h staccato mark ings . O n e can project the downbea t and upbeat g r o u p i n g o n the modern p iano eas i ly b y means o f d y n a m i c in tens i f ica t ion on the more important beats (first and last e ighth notes) and the s l ight agogic stresses. A t the e ighth note l eve l , one s h o u l d have a c lea r unders tanding o f two-note groupings . T h e strength o f these me t r i ca l nuances m a y va ry a c c o r d i n g to the speed o f the movement ; the faster the speed, the less var ie ty there can be o n the smal ler -note l e v e l . T h e o n l y t empo al terat ions i n the fugal sec t ion o c c u r at the cadences c l o s i n g each r i to rne l lo and so lo sec t ion , where there are c l e a r l y aud ib le hemiolas in 69 a l l parts. T h i s r h y t h m i c dev ice shou ld be w e l l a r t icula ted because it denotes the c l i m a x o f each sec t ion and creates contrast w i t h i n the fast m o m e n t u m o f the movement . Articulation T h e strongest a r t i cu la t ion in the s l o w sections o f th is movemen t shou ld be app l i ed to the downbeats . These are a lso stressed b y frequent appoggiaturas (mm. 2 , 4, 7-8, 13-14, and 16-18). T h e intense character o f these dissonant gestures is projected b y a s lurred style o f per formance and m a y be emphas ized b y careful use o f the damper peda l . A l s o , in order to project the d i v i s i o n o f the measures into halves , there shou ld be a s l ight emphas is i n the m i d d l e o f the bar. T h e beats that are embe l l i shed b y t r i l l s are made to stand out, not o n l y b y the i r careful p lacement w i t h i n the phrase, but a lso b y e m p h a s i z i n g the first notes o f the t r i l l . T h e dissonant qua l i t y o f the ornament s tar t ing f rom the a u x i l i a r y note often ampl i f i e s the p re -ex i s t ing ha rmon ic tens ion ( m . 8, second beat) and needs to be stressed b y the performer . A different a r t i cu la t ion m a y serve to differentiate be tween the degrees o f dot t ing . W h e n pe r fo rming o n the m o d e r n p iano , it m a y be he lp fu l to exaggerate the i m p l i e d s i lence o f the dot. In the first measure, the r i s i n g m i n o r s ix th i n the soprano and the dot suggest a momenta ry s i lence . T h e resu l t ing interpretat ion o f this gesture is vas t ly different f rom any that migh t ar ise f rom an approach based o n later m u s i c a l s tyles. In some measures, B a c h c la r i f ies the a r t icu la t ion b y the inser t ion o f s ixteenth note rests w i t h i n the dotted rhy thm, and in so d o i n g indicates the strongest poss ib le a r t i cu la t ion . T h i s sharp, ar t icula ted do t t ing migh t be contrasted w i t h the l ighter a r t i cu la t ion i m p l i e d in places where the descend ing conjunct m e l o d y suggests a temporary r e l i e f o f accumula ted tens ion ( m . 9) . There are p laces i n the left hand ( m . 9, 13) where the per former may exper iment w i t h the o rd ina ry t ouch and conven t iona l note-groupings . W h e r e the dotted sect ion returns, B a c h under l ines the c lear stress o f the first note o f the measures b y e m p l o y i n g two-note s lur r ings i n the r ight hand f igura t ion . T h i s f igura t ion consis ts o f a figurae corta pattern, w h i c h m a y have been unders tood and ar t icula ted i n a var ie ty o f ways i f not spec i f i ed o therwise . T h e stresses resu l t ing f rom the s lur r ings create a m a r k e d emphas is , cont ras t ing w i t h the more stately dotted rhythms o f the measures f r aming this passage. 70 B a c h indicates the detached and j o y f u l character o f the fugue by the i n c l u s i o n o f dots ove r groups o f three e ighth notes. A c c o r d i n g to Quan t z , the same ar t icu la t ion shou ld be sustained i n a l l s i m i l a r e ighth note mot ives : " N o t e here i n pass ing that i f m a n y figures o f the same sort f o l l o w one another, and the b o w i n g o f o n l y the first is ind ica ted , the others must be p l a y e d in the same manner as l o n g as no other species o f notes appea r s . " 1 0 0 In such detached patterns, a per former m a y add a r t i cu la t ion to enhance the met r ic scheme o f t r ip le patterns. S u c h a d i s t i n c t i v e l y separated manner o f p l a y i n g consti tutes a c o m m o n part o f general p iano technique and is featured i n a var ie ty o f styles, i n c l u d i n g j a z z . T h e c i r c u l a r groups o f s ixteenth notes ove r a s ingle h a r m o n i c sonor i ty shou ld be stressed b y an emphas is o n the first o f the group. D e p e n d i n g o n tempo and personal taste, one m a y adhere to the c o n v e n t i o n o f s t rong-weak p a i r i n g in these fast f igurat ions . W h e n p e r f o r m i n g strenuous fast sect ions, such as the m i d d l e sec t ion o f the Overture, one shou ld keep i n m i n d the oft-noted c la r i ty o f B a c h ' s p l a y i n g . These fast f igurat ions c a l l for a re la t ive ly s t rong f inger a r t i cu la t ion remin iscen t o f the one that results f rom " d r a w i n g " the f inger t ips on a harps ichord . T h e fugal sect ion from the first movemen t o f the Overture is v e r y t ax ing , m o s t l y because o f its length and the cont inuous f igurat ions . S imul taneous use o f the a r m w i t h f inger staccato seems appropriate for m a n y passages where one hand is m o v i n g i n e ighth note r h y t h m w h i l e the other m o v i n g s imul taneous ly in s ixteenth notes. T h e so lo sect ions o f the r i t o rne l lo are va r i ed not o n l y b y their texture a n d o v e r a l l d y n a m i c l e v e l but a lso b y their i m p l i e d a r t icu la t ion . T h e slurs ove r the last f ive notes o f the s ixteenth note groups i n measures 47-48 and 77-78 suggest a different interpretat ion than migh t o therwise be expected . T h e f igurat ions cons is t o f arpeggiat ions d e v o i d o f conjunct m o t i o n . Therefore they m a y i m p l y a s t rongly ar t iculated touch and s l ight g r o u p i n g o f the first, th i rd , and fifth notes. T h e s lur , however , i m p l i e s a c lea r separat ion o f the first note o f the group f rom the f o l l o w i n g five. T h i s c l e a r l y indicates a v e r y detached performance o f the first, un-s lurred note, and the g r o u p i n g o f the f o l l o w i n g five into one gesture where o n l y the first w o u l d rece ive a s l ight emphas is . T h u s , a l l five notes shou ld sound as i f they were p l a y e d under one b o w . T h e r e m a i n i n g figurations i n each so lo sec t ion are unmarked a n d left to the per former to 1 0 0 Quantz, p. 217. • • 71 interpret according to conventional groupings and intervallic relationships. Also, bearing in mind that these represent the solo sections of an orchestral ritornello-form movement, important decisions should be made with regard to the eighth note accompaniment in the left hand. A performer might decide between various degrees of detached articulation in the left hand, ranging from a sonorous, strong staccato to a more finger-like "plucking" resembling a continuo realization. Dynamics . The dotted sections as well as the central portion's opening ritornello of the overture are representative of a full orchestral sound. Bach controlled the varying intensity of forte through a masterful choice of instrumentation, resulting in a louder sonority when such instruments as timpani were used. The large dimensions and rich texture of the Ouverture's slow opening imply a powerful forte. According to the natural shaping of the melodic lines and the harmonic structure, a performer should mould the phrases within the overall forte dynamic. For example, in the first phrase, the most intense touch would be appropriate in measure 4, in which several pitches explore the highest register with the underlying dominant sonority bringing the tension to its peak. The rapidly descending line in measure 5, including two expressive appoggiaturas, brings the resolution to the early climax. The slurred appoggiaturas call for two-note diminuendi. According to the contemporary treatises, chromatically altered notes should also be highlighted. Such an example may be seen in the next phrase, on the downbeat of measure 8. The accented D-sharp indicates a temporary shift to the key of E-minor and should be highlighted by a more intense dynamic. Because of its placement in the lower register, the return of the opening material in measures 13-17 in the new key of F-sharp minor may be performed softer than in its initial statement. The strong cadential progression in measures 17-20 that closes the opening movement includes a reach upward to high in the soprano with a simultaneous descent of the bass to B 1. By creating the largest span between the parts, reaching over three octaves, Bach signals the final cadence, which calls for a crescendo and returns to the full orchestral sonority. Already in the second measure of the last dotted section, a performer must make a special attempt to emphasise the chromatically altered second beat of the measure, D-sharp2. It is used as a leading tone 72 to E m i n o r w h i c h is es tabl ished i n the f o l l o w i n g four measures. Perhaps the mos t intense crescendo is suggested i n measures 150 and 151. A g a i n , the p i t ch , D- sha rp 2 , is used to modu la te to E m i n o r . T h i s t ime, however , it is in te rwoven into the r h y t h m i c a l l y persistent and cons i s ten t ly a scend ing m e l o d i c l ine , even tua l ly r each ing to the highest p i t c h o f the sec t ion , A 3 . A series o f staggered diminuendo levels m a y be app l i ed to descend ing sequences, such as measures 154 (second half) to 156. E a c h l eve l shou ld be enr i ched b y the express ive ly s lur red appoggiaturas, w h i c h necessitate the use o f two-note diminuendi. T h e final cadent ia l phrase i n measures 160 to 163 ca l l s for another s t rong d y n a m i c return to the assert ive orchest ra l forte. T h e r i t o rne l lo sect ion o f the overture movemen t is ve ry c l ea r ly ou t l i ned b y the use o f forte and piano mark ings . A c c o r d i n g the con tempora ry theorists, each statement o f the fugal subject s h o u l d be emphas ized d y n a m i c a l l y . T h e inner shap ing o f the f l o r i d figurations shou ld be subjected to the natural aspects o f " s i n g i n g " , where the d i r ec t ion o f the l ine suggests crescendi o r diminuendi. It is interest ing to note that the s t rong cadent ia l e n d i n g o f the first r i to rne l lo in measure 47 s t i l l necessitates the use o f forte on the first beat o f the measure. A per former must exerc ise s ign i f ican t con t ro l i n order not to w e a k e n this effect b y an t i c ipa t ing the i n c o m i n g contrast. B a c h c l ea r ly p l aced the piano m a r k i n g s on the second beat, thus asser t ing a f u l l sound on the downbeat . In this case, this fragment presents a greater cha l lenge on the modern p iano . A ha rps ichord p rov ides a so lu t ion through a change o f manua ls . A s M a r s h a l l proves , the piano i nd ica t ion suggests a change o f regis t ra t ion w h i c h does not necessar i ly mean a monumenta l di f ference i n v o l u m e . The re are three so lo sect ions in this r i t o rne l lo sec t ion and a per former m a y vary the d y n a m i c shadings o f each o f the sect ions. A s p e c t s such as register and p lacement w i t h i n a larger f o rm m a y be useful w h e n d e c i d i n g different l eve l s o f v o l u m e and c o l o u r for the three so lo sect ions. S i m i l a r l y to the pronouncement o f fugal subjects, the f a m i l i a r t r i ad ic m o t i v e o f the solo part (measure 47 and 48) shou ld a l so be brought out w h e n it reappears i n measures 51 , 52 and 53 or i n the f o l l o w i n g solo parts. A g a i n , a p ianis t s h o u l d care fu l ly f in i sh the solo sec t ion w i t h i n the chosen d y n a m i c 73 l eve l in measure 59 in order to more e f fec t ive ly s h o w the shift to the r i to rne l lo sec t ion on the second note o f the measure. T h e th i rd r i to rne l lo is the most adventurous and interest ing. T h e change o f texture from solo to f u l l tutti proceeds g radua l ly . F i r s t , the forte i nd i ca t i on occurs o n l y above the soprano part, whereas a l l other parts a c c o m p a n y w i t h i n the p rev ious dynamic / reg i s t ra t ion l e v e l . In each t w o measure group, a n e w part is added to the f u l l tutti sound: in measure 91 the al to is added, i n 93 , a tenor and f i n a l l y i n 9 5 , a bass. A l l n e w v o i c e entries shou ld be h igh l igh ted d y n a m i c a l l y , thus c rea t ing one o f the most p o w e r f u l c l i m a x e s o f the ritornello. T h e o p e n i n g o f the last solo sec t ion resembles an ins t rumenta l duet. T h e performer here is cha l l enged b y the presence o f important me lod ies i n t w o o f the p o l y p h o n i c parts. Whereas the al to returns to the f a m i l i a r t r i ad ic mo t ive f rom the p rev ious solo parts, the soprano makes use o f the ritornello gestures. In measure 112, the l o w e r v o i c e loses its so lo i s t i c qual i t ies a n d cont inues i n a pu re ly accompan imen ta l ro le , r e sembl ing i d i o m s o f basso con t inuo . A g a i n , the m a i n m o t i v e f rom the solo sec t ion appears in the soprano part and s h o u l d be emphas ized i n performance. Affect T h e m a i n affect o f the overture arises from its o r ig ins as a p rocess iona l for the entrance o f the k i n g . T h e mus i c shou ld evoke feel ings o f pr ide , supremacy and gene ros i ty . 1 0 1 A s a type o f m a r c h , the character shou ld a l so por t ray courage and fearlessness, e x c l u d i n g performances that are too fast o r unp red i c t ab l e . ' 0 2 T h e affects that are associated w i t h an overture movemen t thus require , above a l l , a steady, non-errat ic pulse and wel l - se t t l ed rhythms. A s mus i c designated to a c c o m p a n y the entrance o f h igher morta ls , the chosen tempo must not be too fast o r frivolous. A d y n a m i c offorte is appropria te for an overture style movement , not o n l y because o f its su i t ab i l i ty to character ize r o y a l power , but a l so because it represents an orchestra l tutti. In the case o f the o p e n i n g movemen t o f B W V 831 , the dense texture and large d imens ions create the impress ion o f a pa r t i cu la r ly r i ch orchest ra t ion w h i c h shou ld 1 0 1 Harriss, p. 467. 1 0 2 Ibid., p. 455. 74 encourage pianis ts to seek the most sonorous co lour s . T o e f fec t ive ly d e l i v e r the over ture ' s affects, a performer must choose a ve ry d i s t inc t ive , h i g h l y detached, never o v e r - l a p p i n g a r t i cu la t ion . P r ide and super ior i ty cannot be projected th rough an inar t iculate , hasty performance. B r i l l i a n c e shou ld or ig inate f rom the fast tirades and t r i l l s . T h e j o y o u s nature o f the m i d d l e fugal part is evident from the w i d e intervals o f the subject. 75 Courante Meter and Tempo T h e 3/2 meter o f the Courante indicates the d i v i s i o n o f quarter notes into three groups o f t w o . R e s u l t i n g f r o m the abundance o f e ighth note f igurat ions , one m a y perce ive a f l o w i n g nature i n this type o f dance. T h e courante is a c k n o w l e d g e d to be the s lowest o f a l l dances i n t r ip le meter because o f its s l o w basic pulse o f a h a l f note. A s is t y p i c a l o f t r ip le meter, the largest stress shou ld be g i v e n to the downbeat , thus crea t ing a s t rong f ee l ing o f a r r i v a l . T h e th i rd beat s h o u l d a lso be emphas i zed as l ead ing to the next s t rong a r r iva l o n the downbea t o f the f o l l o w i n g measure. In measures 1-3, as w e l l as i n measures 2 0 - 2 1 , the t r ip le meter i n the r ight hand is d is turbed by the hemiolas i n the left hand . These peda l poin ts are c l ea r ly audib le o n the harps ichord due to the i r p lacement i n the resonant bass register and thus shou ld be projected s t rongly o n a modern p iano . T h e character is t ic r h y t h m i c pattern o f the courante is a dotted quarter note p lus an e ighth note. T h i s t y p i c a l pattern ampl i f i e s the s t rong first and t h i rd beat groups i n a lmost every measure o f this Courante. A c c o r d i n g to Quan tz , one shou ld emphas ize this dot ted gesture by lengthening the longer n o t e . 1 0 3 T h e c lear p ro jec t ion o f the downbea t m a y be a c h i e v e d b y a s l ight de lay at the bar l ine for a c lea r a r t i cu la t ion , not o n l y b y d y n a m i c means a lone . T e c h n i q u e s such as the use o f upward or d o w n w a r d arpeggia t ion o f chords at v a r y i n g speeds m a y also be app l i ed . T h e degree and means o f a r t i cu la t ion m a y be v a r i e d depend ing o n phrase deve lopment and ha rmony . F o r example , the downbea t i n measure 4 cu lmina tes i n heightened tens ion, a c c u m u l a t i n g f rom the b e g i n n i n g o f the p iece and, therefore, shou ld be emphas ized more s t rongly than the downbeats o f measures 2 and 3. S i m i l a r l y , the o n l y s t rong internal cadence o f the second sec t ion i n measure 18 shou ld be made more p rominen t b y p r o l o n g i n g the p r eced ing upbeat and sonorous arpeggia t ion o f the f o l l o w i n g downbeat . These in ternal cadences are pa r t i cu la r ly important due to the i r regular ph ras ing o f a courante . A g a i n , one means to a d d emphas is and resonance on the m o d e r n p i ano is the use o f the damper peda l . H o w e v e r , as w i t h a l l B a r o q u e m u s i c , it s h o u l d be used w i t h cau t ion so that it does not obscure the o v e r a l l c l a r i ty and v o i c e l ead ing . 1 0 3 Quantz, p. 290. 76 C o n j u n c t e ighth note movemen t dominates the Courante, g i v i n g the per former the oppor tun i ty to use note inegales. M a n y wri ters s t rongly suggest s y n c h r o n i z i n g unequal e ighth notes w i t h the last notes o f dotted rhythms i n other vo i ce s . F o r example , in measure 3, the t w o last s ixteenth notes in the tenor shou ld be a l igned w i t h the last C-sharp i n the soprano. C o n s i d e r i n g the elegant and f l o w i n g character o f the courante, the long-short inequa l i ty w o u l d be more appropria te than the opposi te . O n e shou ld a l so cons ide r the abundant s lur s igns ove r four o r more notes as cance l la t ions o f inequa l i ty . Articulation A r t i c u l a t i o n in dance movements shou ld enhance i d ioma t i c r h y t h m i c patterns. T h u s , a l l the p rominen t dotted rhy thms o f the courante shou ld be emphas ized . A dis t inc t agog ic a r t i cu la t ion shou ld be made between the shortened e ighth note upbeat and the downbea t o f the first measure and in other s i m i l a r patterns. L i k e w i s e , a sharper manner o f a r t icu la t ion m a y under l ine the resonant hemio la s i n the bass ( in measures 1-2 and 20-21) w h i c h make use o f large intervals . T h e express ive q u a l i t y o f the u p w a r d leaps i n the m e l o d y ca l l s for a pa r t i cu la r ly detached touch at cer ta in points , such as p r i o r to the th i rd beat o f measure 7. E v e n more attention shou ld be g i v e n to the expanded v e r s i o n in the u p w a r d leap o f an octave before the th i rd beat o f measure 13. S t rong ar t icu la t ion m a y be ex t remely he lp fu l to depic t the d r ama i m p l i e d in the enlarged in te rva l l i c span in the ma in m e l o d i c mot ive . T h e c l i m a x o f the second sect ion occurs in measure 21 as a result o f arpeggia t ion, w h i c h reaches the highest note o f the movement , G \ T h i s evoca t ive gesture a lso requires a more detached and intense a r t icu la t ion . T h e abundance o f appoggiaturas requires a more express ive and s lur red performance. T h i s shou ld be pa r t i cu la r ly intense d u r i n g ch romat i c passages such as that w h i c h occurs o n the first and th i rd beats o f measure 4 . T h e performer s h o u l d take note o f the frequent synch ron iza t ion o f dissonant f igures and t r i l l s that start w i t h a u x i l i a r y notes on the strong met r ic beats o f the courante, seen here i n measures 1-2, 4-6, 10, 14-17, 19, 21-22 and 2 3 . There are m a n y oppor tuni t ies for s l u r r i n g w i t h i n notes inegales app l i cab le to the pervas ive conjunct m o t i o n i n eighth notes. In some cases, i n k e e p i n g w i t h s i m i l a r gestures in s t r ing p l a y i n g , B a c h speci f ies the a r t i cu la t ion o f four-note g roup ings , in w h i c h the first note takes a s l ight stress as, for example , in measure 6 (both hands) or measure 7 (left hand). T h e suggested 77 ar t icu la t ion is va r i ed b y the add i t ion o f a longer s lur that extends ove r t w o beats found in measure 22 i n the left hand. O n the last beat o f measure 21 i n the r ight hand there is a figurae corta pattern where the m e l o d i c contour resembles the f igura t ion from measure 156 o f the Overture. T h e s l u r r i ng o f the t w o fast notes suggested for that passage migh t as w e l l be app l i ed here. T h e intense character o f this dance offers m a n y oppor tuni t ies to exper iment w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f s lur red , detached and neutral a r t icu la t ions . L i k e the Sarabande, this m o v e m e n t offers an enormous range o f poss ib i l i t i e s to be exp lo red on the modern p iano . T h e range o f t ouch that is i m p l i e d i n this movemen t requires great con t ro l w i t h regard to t i m i n g , p roper we igh t to par t i cu la r notes, the speed o f the attack and the use o f the damper peda l . Dynamics T h e Courante g ives m a n y oppor tuni t ies for the use o f d y n a m i c nuances . In par t icular , the express ive appoggiaturas require a two-note diminuendo w i t h i n the phrases ' larger d y n a m i c levels . A per former shou ld observe the d i rec t ion o f the m u s i c a l l ines i n order to p l an the most "can tab i l e " shap ing o f the passages. T h e first phrase, w h i c h starts i n the m i d d l e register o f the keyboa rd , b r ings the oppor tun i ty to make a ve ry smooth crescendo in measure 4, in w h i c h a m e l o d i c l i ne ascends s tepwise towards the c l i m a x o n the downbea t o f the f o l l o w i n g measure. A h igher register and larger span between the soprano and bass occurs in the f o l l o w i n g phrase, thus i m p l y i n g a d y n a m i c in tens i f ica t ion . T h e c h r o m a t i c a l l y al tered notes and h i g h l y dissonant sonori t ies i n measures 6 and 7 create a c l i m a x in the first part o f the courante, w h i c h necessitates the use o f stronger d y n a m i c s , perhaps r each ing to a forte l e v e l . A decrease o f tens ion in the r e m a i n i n g part is evident from the s l o w l y descend ing m e l o d i c l ine . A s i d e f rom d y n a m i c s that are character is t ic o f the natural shap ing o f phrases, b r i e f moments o f imi ta t ion shou ld a lso be emphas ized . S u c h moments m a y be found i n the appoggiaturas i n measure 4 as w e l l as the three-note ascending fourth mot ive i n measure 8 (soprano) and 9 (bass). T h e second part o f the Courante begins i n a s ign i f i can t ly h igher register than the first and in the t h i rd beat reaches to F-sharp 0 . A l s o , the large span between the soprano and the bass suggests more intense dynamics . A f t e r this ear ly m e l o d i c peak, the phrases descend to the m i d d l e register, even tua l ly 78 res t ing on the D major sonor i ty i n measure 18. A c c o r d i n g to the ever- impor tant p r i nc ip l e s o f shap ing the l ine in accordance w i t h its contour , this sec t ion ca l l s for a s ign i f ican t decrease in d y n a m i c l e v e l . T h e most intense po in t o f the p iece occurs o n the last phrase in measures 20 -21 , where the m e l o d y reaches f rom E 4 to G 5 . T h e Courante o f B W V 831 g ives m a n y oppor tuni t ies for express ive , soft d y n a m i c levels w h i c h m a y en r i ch a performance on the modern p iano . Affect F o r M a t t h e s o n , the courante s h o u l d express "tender l o n g i n g " , 1 0 4 "sweet hopefulness" , " s o m e t h i n g hear ty" and a lso someth ing " c h e e r f u l " . 1 0 5 In this Courante, there are m a n y ascend ing passages that c l ea r ly reflect the aspect o f hope. A s i d e f rom the d i r ec t ion o f the m e l o d y and its in te rva l l i c content, the register and range a lso suggest the e leva t ion o f tens ion , and thus, d y n a m i c s . F o r example , the s tepwise ascending l ine i n measure 3, w h i c h encompasses the m i d d l e register f rom B 3 to C - sha rp 5 , i m p l i e s a crescendo w i t h i n softer d y n a m i c s . La ter , the more expans ive l ine f rom measures 5-7 proceeds i n ascending gestures reach ing F-sharp 5 . T h e s ign i f i can t ly larger tens ion o f this fragment is emphas ized b y imi ta t ive passages m o v i n g i n contrary m o t i o n i n the left hand , w h i c h extend the range between the hands to over three octaves in measure 7. In measures 20 -21 , a crescendo o f a w i d e r express ive range m a y be he lp fu l . T h e arpeggiated m e l o d y o f the r ight hand extends th rough a tenth and reaches the highest note o f the piece , G 5 . T h e impor tance o f this p i t ch is stressed b y the dissonant , m i n o r second appoggiatura. M a t t h e s o n s ing l ed out this s m a l l in terval as be ing pa r t i cu l a r ly express ive : " . . . T h e m u s i c a l emphas is is unusua l ly p rominen t in the ascending h a l f t o n e . " 1 0 6 Harriss, p. 425 Ibid., p. 462. Ibid., p. 428. 79 Gavottes I, II Meter and Tempo L i k e the o p e n i n g movemen t and the Bourrees, Gavottes I and II are wr i t t en i n the meter o f 2 , w h i c h " ind ica tes that the notes must be p l a y e d at t w i c e the i r regular [that is , meter o f C ] t e m p o . " 1 0 7 N o t a l l dances in the same meter share the same tempo, and, as Q u a n t z sugges t s , 1 0 8 the "Gavo t t e is more moderate i n tempo [than the R i g a u d o n ] " . A l s o , the c o m p l e x i t y o f the steps associa ted w i t h the gavotte requires a s l ower speed. U n l i k e the Courante, the phrase structure and rhy thm o f the Gavottes are h i g h l y predic table . A t y p i c a l gavotte o f the late Ba roque starts on the h a l f note upbeat and proceeds i n regular rhy thmic groupings o f eight h a l f notes. T h e beg inn ing o f such groupings s h o u l d be ar t icula ted at the same t ime as the m a i n d i v i s i o n o f the phrase into t w o ha lves . These across- the-barl ine g roup ings make the a r t i cu la t ion o f the downbeats qui te d i f f i cu l t . H o w e v e r , despite this i r regular i ty o f phras ing , the s t rong downbeats need to be ar t iculated i n order to ma in ta in the gavotte ident i ty . T h i s is pa r t i cu la r ly d i f f i cu l t at the first downbeat w h i c h B a c h weakens b y the t i ed bass note. A t the end o f first sec t ion i n measure 7, the accumula t ion o f tens ion is ach ieved b y the q u i c k e n i n g o f ha rmon ic rhy thm to four quarter notes per measure w h i c h , as a result, shou ld increase the number o f met r ic accents to four . M e a n s o f h i g h l i g h t i n g the meter and phras ing m a y range from s l ight and "e legant" delays o f the downbeats to stronger d y n a m i c accents in more dissonant sect ions, such as measures 16-18. Gavotte / / p r e s e n t s m e l o d i c mate r ia l i n conjunct e ighth note m o t i o n , g i v i n g a perfect oppor tun i ty to a p p l y inequal i ty . I f inegalite is e m p l o y e d , it then creates cons iderab le r h y t h m i c var ie ty w i t h i n groups o f s lur red notes or i n groups where o n l y the last three notes ( o f four) are connected , w h i c h o therwise migh t not be open to such al terat ion. A g a i n , i n order to project the nuances o f gavotte phras ing and rhy thm, a p ianis t shou ld exerc ise con t ro l so as to present a ve ry precise met r i ca l de l inea t ion . Ib id . , p. 2 9 0 . Ib id . , p. 2 9 1 . 80 Articulation T h e slurs in Gavotte I and / / are a lso h i g h l y character is t ic o f this dance . T h e y a c c o m p a n y the four-note appoggiaturas o n beat 2 o f measures 1, 5 and 9, as w e l l as the s ix teenth note tirades. A g a i n , s ingle b o w ar t i cu la t ion is i m p l i e d , in k e e p i n g w i t h the stress on the first note. T h i s stress is eas i ly r ea l i zed in performance not o n l y b y an increase o f f inger speed but a l so b y the s l ight separat ion o f the stressed notes f rom the p reced ing f igurat ions . T o project the regular phras ing o f the dance a s i m i l a r con t ro l o f agog ic placement shou ld mark the a r t i cu la t ion o f m e l o d i c segments. Perhaps the most effort migh t be app l i ed to set t ing the downbeat o f the p r i n c i p a l phrase ( m . 1), where the s t rong stress is weakened b y the t ied note in the bass. In measures 2, 3 and 12, the strong beats are under l ined b y the use o f mordents . In other places, however , it is up to the performer to project the i d ioma t i c r h y t h m . T h e t empo and f igurat ions o f the gavotte, even w h e n app l i ed to performance on the m o d e r n p iano , do not require strenuous finger a r t i cu la t ion . E v e n i f the " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the fingertips is a p p l i e d to the fast s ixteenth note tirades, the resu l t ing tens ion o f the hand m a y be re laxed d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g longer note. T h e s t rong beats o f Gavotte I can be eas i ly under l ined through a j u d i c i o u s use o f the damper pedal on the quarter note downbeats . O n e shou ld be pa r t i cu la r ly careful in places where dissonant ornaments a c c o m p a n y these s t rong beats. T h e express ive s lu r r ing appropria te to the appoggiaturas s h o u l d not obscure the a l l - impor tan t c l a r i ty . T h e l o w e r register o f Gavotte II and its f l o w i n g manner c a l l for a l ighter approach to a r t i cu la t ion on the modern p iano . T h i s movemen t is easy to ar t iculate on the more sonorous ha rps ichord but a performance on the p iano requires more focus. M u c h o f the s tepwise m o t i o n o f the right hand m a y be p l a y e d u s i n g inegalite, a l though a l igh t but energet ic finger-articulation i s r equ i red to preserve the t ransparency o f the texture. It m a y be bene f i c i a l for the ove ra l l presentat ion to c l ea r ly del ineate the left hand in w h i c h the d is junct quarter notes w o u l d have been p l a y e d ex t remely detache on a bass instrument. Pa r t i cu la r ly interest ing are the groups o f s lurred and dotted e ighth notes that contrast w i t h the rest o f the movement . A s ment ioned above, the dots are used in order to c l a r i fy the s lu r marks w h i c h in this case i m p l y the g r o u p i n g o f the last three notes. These mark ings , ex t remely rare in B a c h ' s k e y b o a r d 81 compos i t i ons , o c c u r i n measures 13-15 (r ight hand), 17-18 (left hand) and 20-22 (r ight hand) . T h i s a r t icu la t ion is j ux t aposed w i t h the regular four-note s lurs appear ing i n measures 18 and 19 o f the r ight hand. T h e sh i f t ing o f stresses between the first and second note o f the four-note groupings contr ibutes to the p layfulness o f the movement and requires q u i c k adjustments o f touch . T h e re l a t ive ly l o w tessi tura o f this movement , th in texture and the d y n a m i c m a r k i n g , piano, suggest the use o f a different manua l on the harps ichord , perhaps the use o f a b u f f o r lute stop. T h e m o d e r n p i ano offers no s i m i l a r so lu t ions . Therefore the performer must s t r ive for a d i s t i nc t i ve ly different co lou r . In such si tuat ions pianis ts often make use o f the una corda peda l , w h i c h , together w i t h c lea r a r t i cu la t ion , m a y success fu l ly he lp to capture the playfulness o f the dance. Dynamics Gavotte II bears a piano i nd i ca t ion , w h i c h t ac i t ly suggests the d y n a m i c o f forte for Gavotte I. A s ment ioned before, it is unders tood b y B a c h scholars that such mark ings suggest the change o f c o l o u r o f different registrat ions and not a dramat ic contrast o f v o l u m e . T h e t h i c k texture and the use o f a large range migh t encourage the performer to use the p i a n o ' s f u l l sonor i ty . R e g u l a r phras ing and infrequent use o f d issonance i n the first part o f the dance a l l o w s for a s t ra ightforward d y n a m i c p lan . H o w e v e r , the second part o f Gavotte / contains m a n y surpr i s ing persistent d issonant sonor i t ies , in tens i f ied b y an ascent to the h igher register. A n example o f this m a y be found i n measures 12-14, in w h i c h a l l the vo i ce s shift to the h igher octave. A f t e r a cadence i n F-sharp m i n o r in measure 16, b r i n g i n g w i t h it o n l y a t emporary release o f tens ion , a n e w dissonant progress ion proceeds. A g a i n it leads to the h igher register and makes extens ive use o f d i m i n i s h e d seventh chords (measures 16-18). A s a result o f this ascent, the o p e n i n g m o t i v e is restated i n measures 20-21 an octave higher , the entire movemen t c a d e n c i n g i n a more intense manner than it begins . A c c o r d i n g to these observat ions , a performer shou ld save the more sonorous forte for the second part o f the dance, thus start ing the p iece at a mezzo-forte l e v e l . T h e two-part texture o f the second Gavotte i m p l i e s the use o f more subdued d y n a m i c s . T h e bass l ine resembles a basso con t inuo part and shou ld be per fo rmed softer than w o u l d n o r m a l l y be appropriate for the accompaniment . H o w e v e r , the so lo part does not have to be per fo rmed s t r ic t ly piano. T h e 82 decrease i n d y n a m i c l eve l is inev i tab le w i t h the reduc t ion o f f u l l tutti to solo texture. B u t it does not mean that the so lo instrument is expec ted to p l a y at its lowes t d y n a m i c leve ls . T h e regular , arch-shaped phrases o f Gavotte II can be shaped i n a natural cantabile s tyle , w h i c h was a l w a y s advocated b y m a n y theorist and performers o f the E r a . Affect A c c o r d i n g to Ma t theson , this dance shou ld evoke feel ings o f j u b i l a t i o n . 1 0 9 T h e m e l o d i c l ine o f Gavotte I is abundant w i t h larger intervals , w h i c h corroborate the theor is t ' s suggested affect. S u c h passions can be por t rayed b y sharp, energetic a r t i cu la t ion that shou ld be pa r t i cu l a r ly b r i l l i an t i n passages con ta in ing tirades. A more intense type o f " j u b i l a t i o n " is suggested i n the second h a l f o f Gavotte I, i n measures 12-17, where the l is tener is exposed to m a n y dissonant sonori t ies and an ascent to h igher registers. L o u d e r d y n a m i c s and mas te r fu l ly ar t icula ted ornaments m a y benefit the effectiveness o f the interpretat ion o f these agitated phrases. W h e n c h o o s i n g the most appropria te tempo it is a l so important to r emember that " T h e s k i p p i n g nature is a true trait o f these gavottes; not the r u n n i n g . " 1 1 0 A hasty per formance m a y contr ibute to a less poignant a r t i cu la t ion and create the impres s ion o f a ve ry different affect. D e p e n d i n g o n the qua l i t y o f the par t icu lar p i ano and concer t venue , a per former shou ld s tr ive for the speed i n w h i c h c la r i ty , b r i l l i a n c e and j u b i l a n t p layfulness can be c l ea r ly presented. T h e m e l o d i c l ine o f the second Gavotte is more conjunct and the range o f vo i ce s m u c h smal ler . W i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l phrases, the d o m i n a t i n g intervals are seconds and thirds , a l l u d i n g to a m u c h more d i s c i p l i n e d affect. G e n e r a l l y softer d y n a m i c leve ls , as w e l l as a smal le r range o f crescendi and diminuendi, are more appropriate . T h e affect o f " j u b i l a t i o n " and the s k i p p i n g nature are apparent i n measures 13-15 and 17-22, where the compose r alternates more and less c o m m o n types o f a r t i cu la t ion . Ibid., p. 452. Ibid., p. 453. 83 Passepieds I, II Meter and Tempo I m p l i e d by the meter o f 3/8, a ve ry l i v e l y tempo is c o n f i r m e d b y p e n d u l u m ind ica t ions w h i c h suggested a speed o f a round M M = 9 0 per measure. Q u a n t z proposes a b r i sk t empo for this dance: " A passepied is p l a y e d a l i t t le more l i g h t l y , and s l igh t ly faster than the p r eced ing [the m e n u e t ] . " " 1 T h i s dance is d i s t ingu i shed f rom the s l o w e r menuet not o n l y b y its speed, but a lso b y its sudden accents and longer phrases. G i v e n the fast m o m e n t u m o f this dance, measures m a y be c o m b i n e d into pairs and g i v e n a downbeat and an upbeat treatment. T h i s g r o u p i n g is poss ib le in measures 1-4 o f the Passepied in w h i c h measures 1 and 3 are me t r i ca l l y s t rong. Interrupt ing this regular i ty , B a c h inc ludes hemio la s i n measures 5 and 6 o f the A sec t ion . T h e two-bar g r o u p i n g m a y be preserved in the B sec t ion o f the movement , w h i c h again is b roken up b y the appearance o f hemio las i n measures 29-30 . T h e dissonant t r i l l s on the downbeats i n measures 1, 5, 9, 25 and 29 shou ld be ex t r emely w e l l ar t icula ted. A g a i n , the damper peda l m a y be used in order to stress the impor tance o f this d i s t inc t ive , d issonant downbeat . A caut ious performer w i l l be careful not to obscure q u i c k passages w i t h excess ive peda l ing . D e p e n d i n g on the chosen tempo, one m a y attempt to p roduce c lear g roupings o f e ighth notes w i t h i n the downbea t and upbeat structure. I f the speed is not too fast, the g roup ing o f s ixteenth notes into s t rong-weak pairs shou ld a lso be projected. In add i t ion , i f the t empo taken is not too extreme, notes inegales m a y be app l i ed to the conjunct sixteenth note m o t i o n . T h e pro jec t ion o f met r ic nuances i n a fast t empo is ve ry d i f f i cu l t on the modern p iano and can be success fu l ly a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y through ex t remely precise a r t i cu la t ion . Interpret ing such a m o v e m e n t o n the modern p i ano requires a s t rong and energetic f inger technique for the fast and b r i l l i an t passages. H o w e v e r , the j u d i c i o u s use o f a rm we igh t m a y be he lp fu l i n p ro jec t ing the mos t dissonant downbeats . Passepied II presents a d i s t inc t contrast to its counterpart th rough a musette-like s tyle , texture, and its h o m o r h y t h m i c character. Whereas the nature o f the first dance requires agog ic accents, the second pastoral dance is less h a r m o n i c a l l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y ac t ive and, thus, demands less a r t i cu la t ion o f 1 1 1 Quantz, p. 291. 84 downbeat and upbeat. T h e subtle g r o u p i n g o f e ighth notes - t w o i n a downbea t p lus an upbeat o f one - contr ibutes to the colourfu lness o f this o therwise less adventurous sec t ion . T h i s rhy thmic g r o u p i n g alternates w i t h faster figurations a r i s i ng from the rea l i za t ion o f accented appoggiaturas. H o w e v e r , larger two-measure g roupings m a y s t i l l be preserved. A g a i n , the hemio la s i n bars 15 and 16 s ign i fy the end o f the sect ion and c a l l for a stronger d i s t inc t ion o f a r t i cu la t ion . W h i l e w o r k i n g on a subtle met r i c presentation i n Passepieds I and II, sens i t iv i ty to the ve r t i ca l a l ignment o f releases is requi red w h i c h br ings spec ia l cha l lenges i n measures where the left hand ho lds pedal notes. T h e n a r r o w range o f the keyboa rd and frequent pa ra l l e l movemen t o f thirds a l l o w s less a r m freedom and use o f we igh t , w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y make ve r t i ca l a r t i cu la t ion easier. Therefore one needs to exerc ise f inger and forearm con t ro l , m u c h in the manner o f ha rps ichord technique . Articulation There are fewer a r t i cu la t ion marks in this dance than i n the p rev ious movements . O n l y a f e w v i o l i n i s t i c s lurs appear i n measures 13 and 14 and are c l a r i f i e d b y dots. These mark ings indicate accents on the first notes o f each bar. T h e greater energy generated b y these added accents is re leased b y the appoggiatura o n the downbeat o f measure 16, c a l l i n g for a more s lurred interpretat ion. A s t rong a r t icu la t ion before s t rong beats m a y resul t in a s l ight de lay . A l s o , a rm we igh t helps to emphas ize the pa r t i cu la r ly dissonant sonor i t ies . T h e turbulent character o f the movemen t as w e l l as the ve ry fast t empo and g roup ing o f measures into segments result i n a stronger a r t i cu la t ion o f the important sonori t ies . T h e tempo shou ld be chosen a c c o r d i n g to the qua l i t i es o f the pa r t i cu la r instrument and venue. T h e degree o f met r i c g r o u p i n g w i t h i n smal le r note values is another d e c i s i o n to be made. T h e musette character o f Passepied II requires a less strenuous approach . T h e pe rvad ing conjunct m o t i o n a n d the consecu t ive ly pa i red appoggiaturas (measures 5-6, 17-18) lead to a c lose r contact be tween the f ingers and the keyboa rd . A l s o , the s l o w e r r h y t h m i c m o t i o n offers more r o o m for metr ic nuance, such as the g r o u p i n g o f e ighth notes into downbeats and upbeats. In a p iece o f such a l i m i t e d range and conjunct m e l o d i c m o t i o n , the performer s h o u l d be pa r t i cu la r ly attentive to the c l a r i t y o f 85 the texture. A l l the means o f a r t i cu la t ion shou ld be subordinated to c l a r i f y i n g m e l o d i c and r h y t h m i c patterns. Dynamics A g a i n , Passepieds I and / / m a y be per formed w i t h different registrat ions i n m i n d , p a r a l l e l i n g the different ins t rumenta l groups o f the orchestra . In the first dance, the r i c h texture and h i g h l y dissonant ha rmony c a l l for the use o f the p i a n o ' s r i ch and sonorous sound. A f t e r a courageous forte open ing , a b r i e f r e l i e f is brought in measure 4 by the i m p l i c a t i o n o f a diminuendo at the end o f the first phrase. H o w e v e r , the f o l l o w i n g phrase needs no decrease i n dynamics , but v ice -ve r sa , i m p l i e s an even stronger e n d i n g o n the dominant c h o r d in measure 8. In the second part o f Passepied 1 a per former m a y observe a th inner texture and less dissonant ha rmony . T h e decrease i n intensi ty para l le ls the descent o f the soprano f rom the f i f th to the l o w e r pi tches o f the four th octave, thus p r o v i d i n g the oppor tun i ty for a d y n a m i c re laxa t ion . H o w e v e r , f rom measure 16 the soprano l ine begins to ascend, the dissonant sonor i t ies o f measures 21 and 24 s i g n a l l i n g the return o f the o p e n i n g mater ia l . A sonorous forte shou ld be cons ide red for this passage because o f its t h i cke r texture and b o l d ha rmony . T h e dissonant t r i l l s on the downbeats in measures 1, 5, 9, 25 and 29 ought to be emphas ized b y the d y n a m i c contrast that is poss ib le o n the m o d e r n p iano . T h e second Passepied conta ins a su rp r i s ing ly p l a c i d ha rmon ic language and unusua l ly n a r r o w texture. P ian is t s here are g iven the oppor tun i ty to exp lo re softer d y n a m i c levels and two-note diminuendi c a l l e d for b y the series of appoggiaturas. T h e most s ign i f ican t crescendo is i m p l i e d in measures 9-12, where the soprano l ine ascends to the h igher registers w h i l e the l o w e r vo i ce s ex p an d the dis tance between the hands b y s tay ing i n the m i d d l e octaves. Affect M a t t h e s o n descr ibed the passepied as b e i n g "qui te c lose to f r i v o l i t y : for w i t h a l l its d isquie t and incons tancy, such a passepied has b y no means the zea l , pass ion or ardour w h i c h one comes across w i t h a vo la t i l e g i g u e . " " 2 La te r i n the same paragraph he adds that this k i n d o f dance " . . . does not have any th ing " 2 H a r r i s s , p. 460. 86 detestable or unpleasant about i t . . . " . 1 1 3 T h e affect o f f r i v o l i t y and p layfu lness is detectable i n the dance through dissonant t r i l l s p l aced on accented dotted eight notes. These harsh d issonances d i s t ingu i sh th is Passepied f rom m a n y other dances o f this type, c rea t ing a more passionate i m p r e s s i o n than the statement suggested b y Ma t the son . T h e temporary v i o l e n c e that arises f r o m the d i m i n i s h e d and augmented sonori t ies can be counterbalanced by l ight , sharp and p l a y f u l a r t i cu la t ion in the measures cons i s t i ng o f regular e ighth and sixteenth notes. T h e affect o f f r i v o l i t y and incons i s tency m a y be further presented in measures 13, 14 and 22 , where the last e ighth note is separated f rom the s lur red group o f s ixteenth notes. T h e humorous and f l i r ta t ious character o f these gestures is ev ident f rom the sudden leap u p w a r d after the descend ing mot ives . It is this con t inuous j ux t apos i t i on o f h i g h l y dissonant downbeats w i t h the p l ay fu l and elegant passages o f even eighth notes that contr ibutes to the incons i s tency o f th is dance. A s i d e f rom the ha rmony , the general d i r ec t ion o f the m e l o d i c l ines a l so contr ibutes to the var ious pass ions: the intense, zea lous passages, such as measures 1-2, 5-8, 25-26 and 29-31 exp lo re the upper range o f the dance, A - s h a r p 4 to F - sha rp 5 , and thus c a l l for louder d y n a m i c s . A diminuendo o c c u r r i n g i n measures 3-4 and 8-15 can portray the re laxa t ion o f the accumula ted tens ion , in w h i c h the m e l o d i c l ine descends to B 3 and D 4 . A n as ton i sh ing amount o f v a r y i n g passions are incorpora ted into this r e l a t ive ly short movement , m a k i n g for a correct performance o f this dance a ve ry d i f f i cu l t task. T h e second dance o f the pair is more representative o f the less passionate affects desc r ibed b y Mat theson . T h e consonant sonori t ies and na r row m e l o d i c range domina te : i n measures 1-8, it encompasses bare ly on octave f rom C - s h a r p 4 to C - sha rp 5 . In measures 17-24, the last phrase o f the dance explores the m i d d l e register and span f rom B 3 to C - s h a r p 5 . T y p i c a l l y , b ina ry movements often inc lude the most adventurous sect ion at the b e g i n n i n g o f the B part: the m e l o d i c l ine i n measures 9-16 exp lores the largest and highest range f rom D - s h a r p 4 to G - s h a r p 5 . T h e phraseo logy o f Passepied II differs w i t h its counterpart because o f the d o m i n a n c e o f s tepwise m o t i o n and a rch - l ike shap ing . A l l o f these aspects evoke more pleasant affects in this dance, descr ibed b y Ma t the son as a l i t t le inconstant but c h a r m i n g . " 4 1 1 3 Ibid., p. 460. 1 1 4 Ibid., p. 460. 87 A s a result, softer d y n a m i c s and a more moderate range o f crescendi and diminuendi shou ld be app l i ed . A l s o , nuances o f a r t i cu la t ion shou ld a v o i d a sharper staccato touch w h i c h migh t lead to a presentat ion o f quite different affects. 88 Sarabande Meter and Tempo T h e intense character o f this dance requires a s l o w tempo, w h i c h Q u a n t z presents as a t empo o f M M = 8 0 to the quarter n o t e . 1 1 5 T h e Sarabande features an emphas is o n the second beat, in t r ins ic to the i d ioma t i c s t rum o f the ear ly guitar . B a c h stresses this beat b y the use o f d issonant harmonies in tens i f ied b y the longer dotted quarter note. S u c h r h y t h m i c patterns are found i n measures 1, 5, 13 and 21 w h i c h s ign i f i can t ly m a r k the beg inn ings o f par t i cu la r phrases. In a l l these instances, the added ornaments stress second beats w h i l e in m a n y other measures second beats are emphas ized b y the dotted rhy thms a lone , strengthened every so often b y mordents . F o r example , see measures 4 (bass), 6 (bass), 7 (soprano) , 8 (al to) , 10 (soprano) and 16-17 (bass). In the B sect ion, the dotted quarter/eighth r h y t h m is expanded into a quarter and four s ixteenth notes w i t h the first s ixteenth t ied to the p reced ing quarter note. T h i s r h y t h m i c d i m i n u t i o n does not weaken the impress ion o f the extended second beat. A s i n the Courante, the short notes f o l l o w i n g the dotted quarter m a y be de layed . T h e downbea t o f the f o l l o w i n g measures m a y be stressed as w e l l , b r i n g i n g a temporary r e l i e f in intensi ty that is accumula ted i n the p ro longed , d issonant second beat. A pianis t m a y use a var ie ty o f means to project these r h y t h m i c patterns, r ang ing f rom agog ic accents to those b o r r o w e d f rom ha rps i chord technique such as a rpeggia t ion , added ornaments and p ro longed t r i l l s . O the r i d ioma t i c resources o f the modern p iano such as the use o f d y n a m i c s and the damper pedal m a y also be c a l l e d upon . T h e profundi ty and grandeur o f a l l o f B a c h ' s sarabandes requires con t ro l o f t empo and metr ic accentuat ion. T h e intensi ty m a y degenerate i f a per former surrenders to the "easy" f l o w o f me lod ie s . In order to prevent the interpretat ion from b e c o m i n g r h y t h m i c a l l y monotonous the performer m a y choose f rom a va r i e ty o f ar t icula t ions and d y n a m i c s ava i l ab le o n the modern p iano . S o m e measures m a y be projected i n groups o f t w o i n order to ach ieve v a r y i n g degrees o f met r ic stress. Quoted in Donington, p. 403. 89 Elabora te hemio la s o c c u r throughout the Sarabande. In measures 1-4 i n the t w o upper vo i ce s , there is an a l l u s i o n to the s lower meter o f 3 / 2 : " 6 E x a m p l e 6 Irm J. j J J j j ' j y 1 1 r r— i i •7 ; p g-I 1 I 1 A s i m i l a r r h y t h m appears in measures 6-7 and 18-19. H e r e a performer is respons ib le for the d i f f i cu l t task o f present ing both rhy thmic levels - the h e m i o l a in the r ight hand as w e l l as the t y p i c a l sarabande gestures i n other v o i c e s . It is a l so poss ib l e to app ly inegalite to the s ixteenth notes, to as f e w as t w o at a t ime . A ques t ionable s lur at the b e g i n n i n g o f the Sarabande m a y be found , ex tend ing over the bar l ine into the first beat o f the next bar. A s D a v i d Schu lenbe rg points out, this is p robab ly a result o f an eng rav ing error . S c h u l e n b e r g compares the i n i t i a l pattern f r o m measure 1 i n the soprano w i t h the ident ica l r h y t h m f rom the a r ia o f the St. Matthew Passion, " A c h , nun ist m e i n Jesus h i n " , B W V 2 4 4 / 3 0 1 1 7 , w h i c h features short slurs w i t h i n the measures. Articulation T h e h i g h l y express ive style o f the Sarabande, and its m e l o d i c nature leaves l i t t le oppor tun i ty for a s t rongly detached manner o f p l a y i n g . F o r conjunct m o t i o n the a r t i cu la t ion m a y range from the o rd ina ry manner to the more s lurred type, depend ing on the ac t i v i t y and h a r m o n i c sonor i ty . S u c h a r t i cu la t ion conveys the intense m e a n i n g o f m u s i c and a lso helps to project the met r i c character is t ics o f this dance. T h e extreme c h r o m a t i c i s m and dissonant appoggiaturas encountered in measure 7 o f the soprano part 1 1 6 Badura-Skoda, p. 37. 1 1 7 Schulenberg, p. 307. 90 ca l l s for a more s lurred s tyle . T h e m e l o d i c contour o f the soprano i n measure 11 (second and th i rd beat) suggests two-note groupings i m p l y i n g a s lur red interpretat ion. A s i m i l a r gesture occurs in measure 26 (first and second beats). H o w e v e r , here the in terval o f the second group is extended to a th i rd . A c c o r d i n g to c o m m o n prac t ice , s lu r r ing is appropria te to ch romat ic in tervals such as the m i n o r second, less t y p i c a l l y to the th i rd . T h e four-note appoggiaturas, w h i c h occu r in the soprano in measures 9 and 27 , m a y also benefit f rom a more connected style o f a r t i cu la t ion . E v e n though many performers a p p l y intense legato to a l l sarabande- l ike movements , the orchestra l features o f the Sarabande s h o u l d inf luence the interpretat ion. Toge the r w i t h the in t e rva l l i c content o f the me lod ie s , the orchestra l nature o f this movemen t ca l l s for more a r t i cu la t ion e spec i a l l y i n such places as beats one and t w o o f measure 1 i n the soprano part. A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t l y o f p e r f o r m i n g a w o r k o f such dense p o l y p h o n y and orchestra l features is the necessi ty to synchron ize a l l the vo i ce s ve r t i ca l ly , r ender ing the use o f the damper pedal p rob lemat ic . A more detached manner o f p l a y i n g shou ld be app l i ed to the ascend ing m o t i v e f rom the open ing measures w h i c h , i n the second h a l f o f the movement , is expanded to the octave ( m . 20 i n the bass, m . 21 i n the soprano) . T h e sect ions o f the Sarabande featur ing upward arpeggia t ion i n the m e l o d y ( m m . 6 and 22) require more p rominen t a r t i cu la t ion , t y p i c a l o f the more dec lamato ry style o f this movement . A s ment ioned before, s l u r r i ng over bar l ines most l i k e l y reflects mis takes i n engrav ing ; therefore the strong a r t icu la t ion o f the first beat s h o u l d not be a v o i d e d . H o w e v e r , l o n g s lurs i n the m i d d l e vo i ce s in measures 4 and 16 c a l l for o n l y one stress at beg inn ings . These slurs o c c u r at the end o f four-measure phrases and, w i t h their more f l o w i n g qua l i ty , he lp to create a temporary r e l i e f o f t ens ion . It is often d i f f i cu l t for pianis ts to refrain f rom the con t inuous a p p l i c a t i o n o f o v e r l a p p i n g legato, e spec ia l ly i n such s l o w movements as the sarabande. H o w e v e r , the express ive qua l i ty o f the in tense ly s lurred style shou ld be reserved for pa r t i cu la r ly meaningfu l moments in this dance. Dynamics A r i c h var ie ty o f d y n a m i c shad ing shou ld be he lp fu l in the per formance o f the p ro found Sarabande. T h e first four-bar phrase is arch-shaped, its peak f a l l i n g i n the m i d d l e register on the p i t c h , F - 91 sharp 5 . H i g h l y ch romat i c harmonies a c c o m p a n y the a scend ing m e l o d i c l ine and necessitate an express ive crescendo. S i m i l a r l y , the second phrase in measures 5-8 a lso c l i m a x e s i n the m i d d l e , this t ime o n the p i t ch , E 5 o f the soprano l ine . T h e p o l y p h o n i c character o f the p iece g ives m a n y oppor tuni t ies to h igh l i gh t the m a i n mot ives w h e n they appear in different vo i ce s . F o r example , the bass l ine o f measures 2 , 4 and 6 o f the first part make use o f the m a i n m e l o d i c gesture i n its no rma l o r inver ted f o r m . W i t h i n the l o n g crescendi and diminuendi, a p ianis t shou ld not miss any oppor tun i ty to en r i ch express ion through care fu l ly p lanned , two-note appoggiaturas. O n e such example can be found i n measure 11 in the soprano part, where the notes o n the second and th i rd beat m a y be grouped into two-note diminuendi. In the second sect ion o f the Sarabande, a w i d e r range o f d y n a m i c s m a y be used, w h i c h is made p l a i n through the larger intervals and different ranges that are exp lo r ed . T h e first phrase o f this sect ion makes use o f the highest register and even tua l ly rests on E 5 . Its ha rmon ic progress ion a lso suggests c rescendo- l ike qual i t ies in the m o d u l a t i o n f rom B m i n o r in measure 13 to E m i n o r in measures 15-16. T h e m o d u l a t i o n is emphas ized b y the ch romat i c m i n o r second ascent f rom D 5 to D - s h a r p 5 on the second beat o f measure 14, the l ead ing tone o f the n e w key. T h e second phrase o f the sec t ion , w h i c h centres o n the l o w e r p i t ch B 4 and has more d ia ton ic character and l o w e r range, br ings a t emporary release and, thus, a decrease in d y n a m i c l eve l to l o w e r shades o f mezzo forte/piano. F i n a l l y , measures 21-28 c a l l for the r ichest palette o f co lou r i s t i c and d y n a m i c shadings. A change in d y n a m i c s , perhaps a subito mp orp, w i l l emphas ize the unexpec ted ly l o w p i t ch o f B 3 , w h i c h makes use o f a su rp r i s ing one-octave dis tance from the p reced ing l o n g p i t ch o f B 4 i n measure 20 . In measure 2 1 , after the evoca t ive u p w a r d octave leap over a B dominant-seventh harmony , another su rp r i s ing express ive progress ion o f a m i n o r second between the pi tches, G 4 ( i n c l u d e d in the s ixteenth note appoggiatura on beat three) and G - s h a r p 4 (p laced on the downbeat o f the next measure), m a y be found . A g a i n , the e levated intensi ty and crescendo are stressed b y the fact that this ch romat ic shift d iver ts the p rogress ion e lsewhere . A more expans ive d y n a m i c crescendo may a c c o m p a n y beats t w o and three o f measure 22 , where the m e l o d y arpeggiates through a dissonant d i m i n i s h e d chord , f i l l i n g in the u p w a r d tr i tone leap. 92 T h e c l i m a x o f the sec t ion occurs i n measure 26 and requires a s k i l f u l gradat ion o f d y n a m i c s . It is approached first b y mos t ly s tepwise a scend ing m o t i o n in bars 24-25 , and aga in uses the tr i tone gesture between A - s h a r p 4 and E 5 , embe l l i shed b y a dissonant appoggiatura to A - s h a r p 4 . Affect Mat theson descr ibes sarabandes i n the f o l l o w i n g words : " T h i s has no other emo t ion to express but a m b i t i o n ; Y e t it differs f rom the above-ment ioned types i n the fact that the sarabande for d a n c i n g is stricter and yet m u c h more bombas t i c than the others; so that it permits no r u n n i n g notes, because Grandezza abhors such , and mainta ins its s e r iousness . " 1 1 8 T h e sombre grandeur affect o f the sarabande is projected th rough a s l o w tempo and a s t rong emphas is o f the p rominen t second beat. In instances where the character is t ic shor t - long rhy thm opens the phrase, the affect is heightened b y a l l r hy thmic , ornamenta l and h a r m o n i c means. In the Sarabande f rom B W V 8 3 1 , the affect o f a m b i t i o n 1 1 9 is represented b y the gesture o f the r i s i n g perfect fifth w h i c h is found later in the bass in measures 14 and 20 and i n soprano o f measure 2 1 , this t ime as a leap o f a perfect octave. A performer shou ld por t ray this d ramat ic leap by a l l means, such as the d y n a m i c in tens i f ica t ion on the second note o f each gesture, a de lay or p ro longa t ion o f the longer note o r by an added ornament . T h e " a m b i t i o u s " character radiates f rom the ascending , conjunct m o t i o n o f the soprano unt i l it reaches the peak, F -sharp 5 . T h i s aga in ca l l s for a more express ive touch , necessary a l so because it is t i ed w i t h the downbea t o f the next measure. W h e n the m a i n gesture is inver ted in measure 5 into a descend ing four th , its " a m b i t i o u s " character is i m m e d i a t e l y re-establ ished b y the ascend ing arpeggio in measure 6 and b y the gradual e leva t ion o f the phrase to a h igher register, c o m i n g to rest on C- sha rp 5 . T h e progress ion in measure 9 (D-sharp h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d seventh g o i n g into B m i n o r 6 ) is embe l l i shed b y m a n y pass ing tones w h i l e a c h r o m a t i c a l l y descend ing bass l i ne emphas izes its intensi ty . A g a i n , affects o f ext reme seriousness and profoundness are presented through dissonant v o i c e l ead ing , demand ing a great deal o f t empo con t ro l and c la r i ty from a performer . T h e first part o f the Sarabande Harriss, p. 461. Ibid., p. 461. 93 conc ludes w i t h t w o ex t remely mean ingfu l appoggiaturas that evoke affects o f n o b i l i t y and grandeur. A pianis t shou ld separate these t w o note gestures and shape the pi tches w i t h express ive diminuendi. T h e second part o f the Sarabande contains more r h y t h m i c agi ta t ion th rough the i n c l u s i o n o f m a n y s ixteenth note groups. T h e m o v i n g vo ices i n i t i a l l y exp lo re the highest range that is used i n this movement , from F - s h a r p 4 to F-sharp 5 , w i t h most notes l y i n g be tween C - s h a r p 5 a n d F - sha rp 5 . T h i s ac t ive , e m o t i o n a l l y heightened sect ion creates the oppor tun i ty to use not o n l y a w i d e r and louder d y n a m i c range, but a lso to accelerate s l igh t ly , as d i scussed b y m a n y theorists such as M a c e or C . P . E . B a c h . T h e express ive a scend ing m i n o r second i n measure 14 shou ld be d y n a m i c a l l y i l l u m i n a t e d , o c c u r r i n g be tween the t w o most p rominen t beats o f the bar. T h e second phrase, w h i c h is l o w e r in register and exp lores the fourth octave o f the modern p iano , br ings o p t i m i s m a m i d the ser ious nature o f the dance th rough its t emporary c l o s i n g i n G major i n measure 20 . A successful d e l i v e r y o f this profound- to- re laxed change o f affect may benefi t from adequate f l o w and use o f less intense d y n a m i c s . H o w e v e r , one shou ld a v o i d the tempta t ion to p lace and h o l d the second beat; a more s lur red a r t icu la t ion is a l so necessary to project the intensi ty o f the ch romat i c passages in measures 21-22 , 24-25 . T h e preponderance o f m i n o r second progress ions , b roken d i m i n i s h e d chords and o v e r a l l d issonant ha rmonies i m p l y not o n l y mere seriousness, but a l so immense pa in and struggle. T h r o u g h careful p lacement o f notes and p u l l i n g back the tempo, a per former m a y best d e l i v e r these p rofound emot ions o f the Sarabande. T h e c l i m a x i n measure 26 o n F - s h a r p 5 m a y benefi t f r om its f i na l prepara t ion th rough affect ive appoggiaturas o n beats one and two . A g a i n , s i m i l a r l y to the m e l o d i c soprano l ine f rom measure 2 , this F - sharp shou ld be care fu l ly g iven its proper emphas is and va lue , s ince it is t i ed to the downbeat o f the next measure. T h e s l ight de lay o f the ton ic sonor i ty on the first beat o f bar 27 can h igh l igh t the c l i m a x o f the prev ious measure, thus crea t ing an intense exper ience for both the per former and the audience. 94 Bourrees I, II Meter and Tempo Bourree I exh ib i t s m a n y character is t ics o f the t rad i t iona l F r e n c h cour t dance. T h e meter o f 2 suggests a c lear d i v i s i o n o f the bar into downbea t and upbeat. T h e sources a l l agree on a ve ry fast t empo, con f i rmed b y the F rench p e n d u l u m mark ings up to M M = 1 2 0 . 1 2 0 Quan tz , howeve r , suggests a s l o w e r speed o f a quarter no te=160 . 1 2 1 Johann M a t t h e s o n ment ions a faster speed and l ighter character w h e n he refers to the character o f the bourree as "more f l o w i n g , smooth , g l i d i n g , connec ted than that o f the gavo t t e . " 1 2 2 T h e regular ph ras ing consis ts o f four-beat segments, each beat e q u a l l i n g a h a l f note. H e r e , the per former shou ld art iculate c l ea r ly be tween the upbeat and the downbeat e spec i a l l y at the b e g i n n i n g o f each two-bar segment. T h i s regular meter contr ibutes to the " r e l axed , easy-go ing , and comfo r t ab l e " affect o f the p i e c e 1 2 3 and therefore one shou ld not premature ly c o n d e m n the dance for b e i n g too s i m p l i s t i c . S i n c e the dance is wr i t t en w i t h i n duple r h y t h m i c d i v i s i o n s on a l l l eve ls , the p a i r i n g o f notes into " g o o d " and " b a d " shou ld be observed , and may be unde r l ined by the use o f inequa l i ty in conjunct e ighth note f igura t ions such as those encountered in bass i n measures 4, 13, 14,16 and 17 and soprano i n measures 2 , 7-9, 14 and 19. A s w i t h any other v i v a c i o u s p iece from the eighteenth century per fo rmed o n the modern p iano , an appropriate t empo must be chosen i n cons idera t ion o f c l a r i ty . A g a i n , no f i x e d met ronome mark ings shou ld be g i v e n s ince the qua l i t y o f the p iano , its ac t ion , the technique o f the performer and the concer t ha l l a l l de termine wha t tempo s h o u l d be adopted. T h e faster the speed the less oppor tun i ty there is for inegalite, w h i c h contr ibutes to the r ichness o f the r h y t h m i c content. In measures 5 and 21-23 , there are slurs over three- and four-note groups i nd i ca t i ng an evenness o f execu t ion . A s opposed to Bourree I, Bourree II features less t rad i t iona l character is t ics . H o w e v e r it shou ld be treated m e t r i c a l l y the same. T h e d i v i s i o n o f phrases into four-beat segments is evident here as w e l l . 1 2 0 Mather, p. 218. 1 2 1 Donington, p. 403. 1 2 2 Harriss, p. 454. 1 2 3 Ibid., p. 454. 95 A l s o , the a t y p i c a l upbeat o f three e igh th notes shou ld be separated f rom the s t rong downbea t i n the first measure in order to present the true character o f the dance. T h e p re lude- l ike texture o f m u c h o f this Bourree makes the pro jec t ion o f the meter pa r t i cu la r ly d i f f i cu l t , e spec ia l ly i n measures 5-8, where the first note o f the second h a l f o f the measure m a y sound as though it were the c o n c l u d i n g note o f the downbeat . W h i l e agog ic punctua t ion before downbeats is easy to manage, there shou ld be a s l ight stress i n the m i d d l e o f the measure. B a c h b r ings back the i d ioma t i c r h y t h m i c patterns o f the bourree at the end o f each sect ion (measures 9-12, 23-28) as i f to c l a r i fy the ambigu i t i es o f the movement . T h i s c lea r h ie ra rchy o f s t rong and weak beats and measures shou ld a l so emphas ize this contrast . Articulation T h e t rad i t iona l style o f Bourree Icalls for a ve ry q u i c k tempo, the d i s t i n c t i v e l y sharp a r t i cu la t ion o f quarter notes con t r ibu t ing to its energetic and j o y f u l character. C o n j u n c t e igh th note m o t i o n g ives the oppor tun i ty to use notes inegales. H o w e v e r , i n such a fast t empo it m a y be l i m i t e d to c lear g roupings o f s trong and w e a k beats. S lurs i n the soprano o f measures 5 and 22 b r i n g o n a b r i e f r e laxa t ion o f the ar t icu la t ion and, aga in , are reminiscent o f a s i ng l e -bow gesture. A l l e ighth notes require a s t rong finger a r t icu la t ion . T h e s t rong beats m a y be stressed b y the use o f agog ic punctuat ions before each four-beat segment. T h e p a i r i n g o f notes contrasts w i t h the c o n c l u d i n g measures in the left hand (bars 21-23) where the four-note slurs i m p l y stresses o n l y o n the m a i n beats. A s l ight accent o n the first note o f these s lurs m a y be rea l i zed b y the use o f a rm weigh t , b r i n g i n g a temporary r e l axa t ion o f the p r e v a i l i n g finger- or iented a r t icu la t ion o f eighth notes. In Bourree / / t h e i n c l u s i o n o f d issonant appoggiaturas on the m a i n beats i n measures 1-2, 21-22 and 24 requires more var ie ty in t ouch and express ion . G r o u p i n g s o f s ixteenth notes on the downbeats o f " s t rong" measures consti tute a n e w character is t ic f igure i n Bourree II, in w h i c h the first note shou ld be emphas ized . In order to stress the character o f this p re lude- l ike dance the per former shou ld use a l l poss ib le techniques o f a r t i cu la t ion . O n l y spar ing use o f the damper pedal s h o u l d be made, perhaps o n l y b r i e f ly on the dissonant appoggiaturas and i n the c o n c l u d i n g measures o f each sec t ion at measures 12 and 96 28. T h e fast t empo o f this dance requires a we l l -a r t i cu la ted manner o f the per formance , w i t h energetic attacks and con t ro l l ed p lacement o f the m a i n beats in a l l the phrases. Dynamics S i m i l a r l y to the pairs o f Gavottes, the first Bourree i m p l i e s a louder range o f d y n a m i c s than the second, w h i c h bears the i nd i ca t i on o f a piano. A s w i t h m a n y other examples o f B a c h ' s use o f piano and forte ind ica t ions , they shou ld here be unders tood as po r t r ay ing the change o f ins t rumental t imbre and c o l o u r rather than s i m p l y a contrast o f v o l u m e . T h e m e l o d i c soprano l ine o f the first Bourree is c o m p o s e d m o s t l y o f rather sma l l in tervals . S u c h cons t ruc t ion contr ibutes to the f l o w i n g character o f the l ine and makes interpretation a s i m p l e task in accordance w i t h the ever- important rules o f s ing ing . T h e second part o f the dance opens w i t h more intensi ty on the dominan t sonor i ty and h igher register; therefore it suggests a p p l i c a t i o n o f more expans ive d y n a m i c levels than the o p e n i n g sec t ion . T h e second Bourree re l ies h e a v i l y o n sequent ia l techniques , w h i c h m a y be enhanced b y care fu l d y n a m i c p l ann ing . Interest ingly, a w i d e range o f the keyboard is used i n th is dance. T h e first four-bar phrase starts i n the m i d d l e register and is bu i l t f rom three sequent ia l statements that c o u l d represent three s l igh t ly different d y n a m i c leve ls . H o w e v e r , i n measure 4, the F-sharp major a rpeggio reaches to a su rp r i s ing ly h i g h register an octave higher , to E 5 and D 5 . In measure 5 a per former is again exposed to descend ing sequences, i m p l y i n g perhaps a decrease in in tensi ty and therefore, leve ls o f diminuendo. T h e last phrase o f the first sec t ion leads to the c l i m a x on the dominan t cho rd , w h i c h should be emphas i zed w i t h an appropriate crescendo. In a s i m i l a r manner, decreas ing d y n a m i c leve l s m a y be app l i ed to the descend ing passages i n measures, 12-16. F o l l o w i n g this , however , a large crescendo is i m p l i e d b y the series o f a scend ing sequences in measures 17-18 and 21 -22 , l ead ing to a c l i m a x in measure 24 . S u c h extensive and persistent use o f sequence creates an e x c i t i n g effect in the second Bourree w h i c h can eas i ly be projected th rough the use o f m a n y d y n a m i c leve ls . 97 Affect Mat theson descr ibes the true character o f a bourree as "contentment and pleasantness", b e i n g a lso somewhat "un t roub led or c a l m " . 1 2 4 T h e author is ve ry generous w i t h h is descr ip t ions o f this dance, a lso m e n t i o n i n g other character is t ics , such as p l ac id i t y , s lowness , compla i s ance and agreeableness. It is o b v i o u s f rom his descr ip t ions that no th ing too serious, t ragic o r p ro found needs to be presented in this movement . In order to present such easy-go ing affects, a p ianis t shou ld ar t iculate l i g h t l y and rather sharply and a v o i d ex t remely overt d y n a m i c s . T h e careful execu t ion o f two-note s lurs o c c u r r i n g in the soprano in measures 5, 2 1 , 22 and 23 o f Bourree II, as w e l l as the s lurs in the bass i n measures 21-24 , contr ibute to the playfulness o f the movement . In order to present the Bourree in accordance to such character is t ics as agreeableness and p l ac id i t y , a performer shou ld stress the dissonant appoggiaturas on the downbeats o f measures 1, 2, 2 1 , 22 and 24 o f the second Bourree v e r y tasteful ly, w i thou t monumen ta l d y n a m i c differences between the first and the second note. T h e more appropria te method o f u n d e r l i n i n g these gestures w o u l d result f rom the p ro longa t ion o f the dissonant note rather than accen t ing it too harsh ly . Ibid., p. 454. 98 G i g u e Meter and Tempo T h e F r e n c h ve r s ion o f the g igue is often referred to as a Canarie. M a n y wr i te rs stress the faster t empo o f this k i n d o f gigue, w h i c h is a l so co n f i r m ed b y F r e n c h p e n d u l u m m a r k i n g s 1 2 5 . Q u a n t z indicates a tempo o f M M = 1 6 0 to the dotted quarter, w h i c h , in the case o f the Gigue, represents h a l f a measure. T h e d i v i s i o n o f the measure into s t rong and weak halves is apparent f rom the 6/8 t ime signature and is easy to project g iven the persistent rhy thmic patterns o f the p iece . A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z , 1 2 6 the dotted rhy thms shou ld be over-dot ted w h i l e a l l the fast notes o f the tirades ought to be p l aced at the extreme end o f the beat. T h e sharp a r t i cu la t ion , t y p i c a l o f the canarie , shou ld be stronger on the downbeats w i t h even more emphas is g i v e n to the first beats o f larger phrase units. G r o u p i n g o f measures into pairs is ev ident f rom the b e g i n n i n g o f the movement , where the downbea t i n measure 1 co inc ides w i t h the highest p i t ch o f the m e l o d y ( B w i t h appoggiaturas), f rom w h i c h it descends into the " w e a k e r " measure. T h e sequential w r i t i n g , based on two-measure segments (measures 5- 6, 7- 8), emphas izes th is p a i r i n g as w e l l . T h e agi ta t ion towards the c l i m a c t i c cadences is ach ieved by the abandonment o f such two-measure groupings i n favour o f stresses on the downbeats o f each measure. T h i s is suggested b y the texture i n the c o n c l u d i n g phrase o f the first part, in measures 42-44 . T h e heavier ac t ion as w e l l as the s l o w l y d e v e l o p i n g sound o f the m o d e r n p iano requires a s l o w e r tempo than w o u l d be desireable on a ha rps ichord . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a faster f inger m o t i o n is needed i n order to a c c o m p l i s h a m a x i m a l l y v ibrant sound . A l l p ian is t ic means shou ld be a p p l i e d to the p ro jec t ion o f the meter in each bar and to under l ine the p a i r i n g o f measures when app l i cab le . D e p e n d i n g o n the des i red intensi ty, the agog ic accents m a y be a m p l i f i e d by d y n a m i c s and the thoughtfu l app l i ca t i on o f the damper pedal . Mather, p. 223. Quantz, p. 290. 99 Articulation T h i s type o f gigue, the canar ie , features an ex t remely fast t empo and sharp a r t icu la t ion . O n l y the downbeats require the use o f a rm weigh t to approximate the a r t i cu la t ion o f a v i o l i n ' s d o w n - b o w gesture. M a n y commenta tors such as Q u a n t z and M u f f a t descr ibe the ex t remely detached manner o f per formance o f the canarie , o b v i o u s f rom its persistent dotted rhythms. T h e sharpness o f f inger staccato contrasts w i t h the frequent appoggiaturas on the downbeats o f measures 1, 17, 28 , 29 , 30 and 32 , as w e l l as i n the m i d d l e o f bar 27 . These dissonant appoggiaturas present the o n l y s lurred e lements in this v i v a c i o u s type o f gigue. Just l i ke the s l o w sect ion o f the Overture, the fast tirades that l i e w i t h i n the dotted rhy thms i n measures 9-10, 24-26 , 36-37 and 40-44 shou ld a lso be p l a y e d w i t h the m a x i m u m ar t icu la t ion regardless o f the speed. T h e o n l y slurs that indicate an a r t icu la t ion out o f the o rd ina ry o c c u r i n the soprano part in measures 33 and 34 . O n l y the first note o f such a g r o u p i n g shou ld be stressed, e l i m i n a t i n g the n o r m a l a r t icu la t ion be tween the e ighth note and r e m a i n i n g group o f sixteenth notes. S u c h s lu r r i ng does not exc lude the c r i sp a r t icu la t ion o f s ixteenth notes w i t h i n the s lur and, thus, it does not indicate legato. T h e necessary a r t icu la t ion o f the Gigue re l ies not o n l y o n energetic f inger t ips but a lso on the projec t ion o f the s i lences indica ted by dots. A l s o , the s l o w e r quarter and e ighth note rhythms c a l l for a ve ry detached manner o f performance w h i c h shou ld be sharper than the o rd ina ry touch in order to emphas ize the character o f the p iece . A g a i n , on a modern p iano this ca l l s for t empo adjustments and exceed ing ly energetic f inger technique. T h e use o f pedal mus t be j u d i c i o u s and devoted to the pro jec t ion o f downbeats . In measures 28 , 30 and 32 the pedal s h o u l d not b l end the arpeggiated c h o r d in the left hand w i t h the dissonant appoggiaturas i n the r ight hand . Dynamics T h e Gigue f r om B W V 831 bears no d y n a m i c ind ica t ions , l e a v i n g the matter to the per former to dec ide on the v o l u m e l e v e l . M a n y appoggiaturas g ive the oppor tun i ty to a p p l y express ive diminuendi w i t h i n larger levels o f v o l u m e . T h e d i r ec t ion o f the first phrase, as w e l l as its h a r m o n i c p l an , suggest the app l i ca t ion o f a diminuendo i n the descend ing l ine o f the second measure, after w h i c h it turns into a crescendo towards the dominan t ha rmony o n the second beat o f measure 3 and arr ives o n the ton ic in 100 measure 4. B e g i n n i n g w i t h measure 5, a l o n g crescendo leads to the c l i m a x o f the first part o f the dance, o c c u r r i n g on measures 15 and 16. T h i s increase in intensi ty makes use o f two-bar ascending sequences in measures 5-8. These i n con junc t ion w i t h the r i s i n g m e l o d y and incorpora t ion o f fast tirades in measures 9 and 10 accumula te tens ion that is p ro longed th rough measure 16. H o w e v e r , th is is not an example o f a l o n g crescendo in the M a n n h e i m style; each o f the sequential phrases shou ld be rounded o f f w i t h elegant diminuendi. T h e second part o f the Gigue aga in commences w i t h express ive appoggiaturas r e q u i r i n g t w o - note diminuendi. S i m i l a r l y to the o p e n i n g phrase, the m e l o d i c l ine in measures 17 to 21 peaks ear ly in measure 18. F r o m this poin t on , the descend ing d i r ec t ion and consonant ha rmony i m p l y a decrescendo. F r o m measure 21 -24, a performer m a y use more intense d y n a m i c s for the ascend ing sequences. A sudden use o f b r i l l i an t tirades i n measures 24 to 26 entails more expans ive sonor i t ies , perhaps reach ing to the louder leve ls o f mezzo forte o r forte in measure 28 . In the f o l l o w i n g part o f this Gigue, a s i m i l a r approach o f d y n a m i c a l l y layered sequences shou ld predominate : measures 29-35 i n c l u d e a series o f a scend ing patterns w h i c h lead in measures 36 and 37 to a c l i m a x . H o w e v e r , the f ina l emo t iona l peak and inev i tab le increase in v o l u m e is ach ieved later through the accumula t i on o f f ive notes f o r m i n g a d i m i n i s h e d seventh cho rd on the downbea t o f measure 4 6 . A pianis t needs to keep in m i n d that the mos t v ibrant forte shou ld be saved for this moment . Affect " S o m e t h i n g fresh and l i v e l y " 1 2 7 is a c o m m o n feature for a l l types o f gigues . A c c o r d i n g to Ma t theson , this F r e n c h canarie s h o u l d have "eagerness and swif tness" and at the same t ime a l i t t le " s i m p l i c i t y " . 1 2 8 In order to project these affects, a per former shou ld a i m for a ve ry fast t empo as suggested b y other contemporary wr i te rs and F rench p e n d u l u m mark ings . "Freshness and l i v e l i n e s s " w o u l d be best depic ted b y sharp a r t i cu la t ion i n con junc t ion w i t h a separat ion o f the notes w h i c h shou ld arise f rom the correct unders tanding o f the dots. A pianis t shou ld exper iment w i t h l ighter d y n a m i c leve ls , 1 2 7 Harriss. p. 457. 1 2 8 Ibid., p. 457. 101 sav ing the most courageous forte for the c l i m a x i n measure 46 . S i m p l i c i t y w i t h i n this dance is ev ident f rom its t h in , p redominan t ly non- imi ta t ive texture. A per former shou ld not obscure it b y p l a y i n g too h e a v i l y o r s lurred. 102 Echo Meter and Tempo T h e s t rong-weak p a i r i n g o f measures is integral to the met r ic structure o f the Echo. T h i s g r o u p i n g m a y be preserved throughout the entire p iece , even w i t h i n the exchanges between tutti and solo (measures 22-25 and 54-61) . T h e texture and d y n a m i c s corroborate this approach b y the synch ron iza t ion o f the strong measures w i t h the tutti segments. In measures 5 8 - 6 1 where the suggested d ia logue between ins t rumental parts takes place , the l o u d tutti fa l ls o n l y o n downbeats o f " s t rong" measures. T h e me t r i ca l pattern o f one longer uni t made up o f t w o short measures i m p l i e s 4/4 meter th rough these two-measure groupings , the first beat be ing strong, the t h i rd somewhat s trong, and the second and four th beats weak . A s i d e f rom the s t rong downbeat , a per former shou ld make a s l ight separat ion before the th i rd beat ( second measure) . T h i s may require spec ia l attention f rom the pianis t , w h o m i g h t be more accus tomed to a smooth f l o w into the downbeat in most phrases. M e t r i c a l con t ro l is also necessary for the r ea l i za t ion o f the orchestra l s tyle that is e v o k e d i n the Echo. S i n c e most p ianis ts are conce rned m o s t l y w i t h the i n i t i a l c rea t ion o f a sound , i n us ing the damper peda l it is pa r t i cu la r ly important to be attentive not o n l y to the qua l i ty and dura t ion o f the sound but a lso to its precise po in t o f release. T h i s a l so relates to the con t ro l o f f inger releases i n the p o l y p h o n i c textures, as, for example , i n the second h a l f o f measure 3 where the quarter-note, B , in the al to shou ld be p rec i se ly h e l d and released at the same t ime as the entire ve r t i ca l sonor i ty . Articulation T h e dotted s tyle o f the Overture is evoked b y the use o f fast tirades and dotted rhythms i n the Gigue; the concer to style returns i n the c o n c l u d i n g Echo. T h i s movement makes extens ive use o f both d a c t y l i c and anapaest ic figurae corta. The re is no general ru le o f thumb for a r t i cu la t ing these me t r i ca l feet; the t w o sixteenth notes are often ind ica ted w i t h a s lur o r ar t icula ted staccato, w h i c h is pa r t i cu la r ly he lp fu l in organ performances . T h i s interpretat ion helps to project the c l a r i t y i n larger reverberant ha l l s and churches . T h u s , a p ianis t shou ld a lso choose to art iculate the figurae corta a c c o r d i n g to the acoust ic cond i t ions o f the venue and the par t i cu la r instrument. T h e fast t empo o f the m u s i c leaves l i t t le t ime for 103 staccato a r t icu la t ion to be app l i ed to a l l the notes but it m a y be poss ib le w h e n the entire piece is per formed at a s l o w e r pace. T h e different ve r s ion o f this figurae corta, w h i c h appears in b r i e f so lo i s t i c entries i n measures 5, 7, 37 and 39 , has iden t i ca l counterparts i n measures 5 and 21 in Bourree I. T h e f o l d i n g o f this f igure into one gesture i n the so lo sect ions suggested i n Bourree I c o u l d set up a contrast w i t h the more expans ive f igure that character izes the tutti sect ions. P a i r i n g on a l l levels o f r h y t h m i c structure establishes the me t r i ca l h ie ra rchy g o v e r n i n g the a r t i cu la t ion i n this concer to movement . T h e o n l y except ions are the sca le - l ike passages that appear i n measures 23 , 25 , 55 and 57 . Here the i m p l i c a t i o n o f the s lu r points to o n l y one met r i ca l stress, at the b e g i n n i n g o f the measure. It is often assumed that in places where B a c h ind ica ted o n l y the first o f a number o f groups in a par t icular sec t ion the performer shou ld cont inue the same execu t ion unt i l a different texture or pattern is ind ica ted . In this l ight , one can conc lude that a l l the so lo i s t i c scales w o u l d be ar t icula ted in the same w a y . O n the l eve l o f two-measure units the downbeats o f the " s t rong" measures, such as 1 , 3 , and so o n , m a y be enhanced by the use o f the damper pedal in add i t ion to the app l i ca t ion o f a rm weigh t . Dynamics A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z and m a n y other con temporary wr i ters , the echo effect can be used i n passages in w h i c h a mo t ive is repeated, whether on the same or a different p i t ch l e v e l . T h e repeti t ion o f the mot ive m a y be p layed s l igh t ly s l o w e r o r softer, but s i m i l a r l y to r i to rne l lo d y n a m i c s , this does not necessitate the extreme ends o f poss ib le v o l u m e . In the case o f the Echo, the so lo interjections o c c u r frequently w i t h i n fast rhythms, d e m a n d i n g a h igh degree o f con t ro l f rom a p ianis t . T h e forte-piano d y n a m i c s represent changes o f manuals o n a harps ichord , a lso i m p l y i n g that such shifts a l l o w s for s l igh t ly more t ime than it might o c c u r o n a s ingle keyboard . B y t a k i n g extra t i m e a pianis t m a y imitate the change o f the manuals and c l ea r ly present the p lanned c o l o u r and d y n a m i c changes. In measures 13- 16 a piano i n d i c a t i o n is p laced o n l y above the top v o i c e , suggest ing the commencemen t o f the so lo mater ia l . H o w e v e r , this impl i e s that the rest o f the parts shou ld be unders tood w i t h i n the tutti. In this s i tuat ion, the so lo part shou ld be d y n a m i c a l l y louder than the a c c o m p a n y i n g vo i ce s , s ince it carr ies the 104 m a i n m e l o d i c idea and is representative o f a so lo instrument . Therefore , the piano m a r k i n g bears a rather opposi te mean ing to the one genera l ly expected: it points to the d o m i n a t i n g v o i c e . A s i d e f rom the piano and forte ind ica t ions , the th ickness o f texture a lso a l ludes to the orchest ra l t imbres de l inea t ing sect ions w i t h i n concer to f o r m ; f u l l texture represent ing tutti, w h i l e the s ingle l ine marks so lo sect ions. Affect E c h o movements do not represent s ty l i zed dances per se and M a t t h e s o n d i d not descr ibe the i r affect. H o w e v e r , in a paragraph d i s cus s ing Sinfonias, the author s i m p l y advises t h a t " . . . the express ion o f the affects in such a s in fon ia w o u l d have to c o n f o r m to those pass ions w h i c h predominate i n the w o r k i t s e l f . " 1 2 9 T h e predominant figurae corta i n the E c h o movemen t is associa ted w i t h sp i r i ted and j o y f u l affections, r equ i r ing fast tempi and c r i sp a r t icu la t ion . Regard less o f h o w the m a i n r h y t h m i c mot ives are interpreted, whether staccato o r w i t h connec ted s ixteenth notes, they shou ld stand out in a performance. Con t ra s t ing and c o l o u r f u l d y n a m i c s m a y contr ibute to the affects o f this movement . Fee l ings o f p layfulness or j e s t i n g come to m i n d after a c o m p a r i s o n to other w o r k s o f J . S. B a c h , such as the Badinerie o f the Orchestral Suite in B - m i n o r , B W V 1067, and the Scherzo in A - m i n o r , B W V 827 . These w o r k s were wr i t ten app rox ima te ly in the same t imeframe and make use o f s i m i l a r meters and rhythms, c rea t ing s i m i l a r affects. A s the w o r d , Echo, refers to m a n y repet i t ions o f s m a l l sect ions in B W V 831 , the t i t le Badineri represents the G e r m a n s p e l l i n g o f the w o r d Battinerie and is exp l a ined by Joshua R i f k i n as the G a l l i c counterpart o f a Scherzo}2,0 In order to portray p layfu lness and humour , pianis ts shou ld a i m for immacu la t e ly c r i sp a r t i cu la t ion o f i n d i v i d u a l notes and a v i g o r o u s l y fast t empo w i t h large co lou r i s t i c var ie ty . Ibid., p. 467. Rifkin, p. 23. 105 Summary T h e pro jec t ion o f the bas ic meter and its nuances on different r h y t h m i c levels requires a great deal o f d i s c i p l i n e and con t ro l w h e n p layed o n the modern p iano . A l ack o f unders tanding o f these subtleties often leads to a mechan ica l approach to B a c h ' s m u s i c , i n w h i c h f e w downbeats are c lea r and the read ing m a y be domina ted b y l o n g - w i n d e d phras ing . N a t u r a l l y , the interpretat ion o f a par t icu lar performer shou ld be the result o f both a consc ious d e c i s i o n and, as stressed so often by B a c h ' s contemporar ies , personal taste. H o w e v e r , i n order to make a thoughtfu l d e c i s i o n , the per former must be aware o f the r i c h palette o f poss ib i l i t i e s offered i n B a r o q u e performance. T h e m o d e r n p iano creates m a n y interpretative p rob lems , but it a lso possesses many new means o f express ion w h i c h , w h e n app l i ed w i t h knowledge , technique and con t ro l , may contr ibute to a better presentat ion o f met r ic in t r icac ies . T h e express ive qua l i ty o f d y n a m i c s in B a c h ' s w o r k s on the modern p i a n o is left ent i re ly to the d i sc re t ion o f the performer. A pianis t shou ld be encouraged to exper iment w i t h the d y n a m i c and co lou r i s t i c poss ib i l i t i e s o f the instrument w h i c h , w h e n i n con junc t ion w i t h h i s t o r i ca l k n o w l e d g e , w i l l result i n a more meaningfu l performance o f mus i c f rom this era. O n e c o m m o n misunders tand ing is B a c h ' s use o f the mark ings , forte and piano, in r i to rne l lo movements and pa i red dances. A s M a r s h a l l indicates i n h i s ar t ic le , the keyboard w o r k s o f B a c h have a lmos t no d y n a m i c mark ings and i f they dp, these mark ings represent the fo rma l caesuras and ind ica t ions for regis trat ion changes. It is interest ing to not ice h o w the correct unders tanding o f the m e a n i n g o f such mark ings m a y e n r i c h performances , g i v i n g more oppor tuni t ies to exp lo re the different co lou r s o f the modern p iano w h i c h m a y be insp i red b y organ or harps ichord regis t ra t ion. T h o r o u g h the examina t ion o f p o l y p h o n i c l ines , texture, ha rmony and m e l o d i c structure, a performer is p rov ided a l l necessary in fo rmat ion to create a meaningfu l d y n a m i c interpretat ion. M a n y theorists o f the Ba roque stressed the impor tance o f affect ive m u s i c m a k i n g . In the search for the most mean ingfu l performance, a performer shou ld use theoret ical k n o w l e d g e and m u s i c a l in tu i t ion . H o w e v e r , this shou ld never result in a c o l d o r automat ic interpretat ion, and, as C . P . E . B a c h 106 sa id : " P l a y f rom the sou l , not l i ke a t ra ined b i r d . " 1 3 1 A p ian is t needs to incorporate the cerebra l aspect into a meaningfu l and emot iona l interpretat ion. Bach, p. 150. 107 C o n c l u s i o n s T h e twent ie th century was a t ime w h e n an enormous amount o f research was devoted to h i s t o r i c a l l y in formed performance pract ice . W i t h it came a r e v i v a l o f pe r iod instruments such as the harps ichord , for tepiano and t racker organs. A t the same t ime, in the pa ra l l e l w o r l d o f k e y b o a r d performance, concer t hal ls have reverberated w i t h va r ious , and often ques t ionab ly roman t i c i zed , interpretations o f J . S. B a c h ' s m u s i c . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , depend ing on whether the per former was a p ianis t o r harpsichordis t /organis t , this mus i c has been subjected to vas t ly d i v e r g i n g approaches w i t h regard to every aspect o f m u s i c a l interpretat ion. M a n y o r thodox performers w h o spec ia l i ze in B a r o q u e m u s i c assert that pianists shou ld not per form w o r k s b y J . S. B a c h and, b y ex tens ion , a l l m u s i c that was not intended for the p iano . O n the other side o f the fence, pianis ts tend to d is regard B a r o q u e performance prac t ice issues, b rush ing them aside w i t h the assert ion that s ince it is per formed on the modern p iano , it does not need to reflect any s ty l i s t i c features and can take advantage o f the p le thora o f poss ib i l i t i e s offered by a modern S te inway . Y e t pianists , as w e l l as a l l other instrumental is ts across the w o r l d , are requ i red f rom the earl iest days o f their m u s i c a l educat ion to pe r fo rm w o r k s f rom different s ty l i s t ic per iods , i n c l u d i n g B a r o q u e m u s i c . M o r e o v e r , m a n y schools , co l leges , univers i t ies and compet i t ions s p e c i f i c a l l y require w o r k s b y J . S. B a c h . I ron ica l ly , his mus i c has been made access ib le to general audiences to a large degree through p iano reci tals . B u t there seems to be i n c r e d i b l y vast areas o f disagreement a m o n g pianis ts w i t h regard to h o w the style o f B a r o q u e composers shou ld be presented. Interpretations range f rom ex t remely c o l d , objec t ive renderings ar t iculated throughout w i t h s trong staccatos to over-pedaled , over-s lur red phrases that are c loser i n style to the m u s i c o f R a c h m a n i n o v , resu l t ing in l o n g l ines that cross bar l ines . T h e p i ano repertoire is domina ted b y romant ic m u s i c . It is no wonde r , then, that character is t ics o f this style inf i l t ra ted the mus ic o f both ear l ier and later h i s to r i ca l eras. A s the emot iona l aspect o f m u s i c a l crea t ion and performance m a y be, to a h igh degree, s i m i l a r throughout the ages, its manner o f presentat ion v a r i e d acco rd ing to the par t icu lar s tyle, na t iona l i ty , ava i l ab le instruments and m a n y other con t r ibu t ing factors. 108 T h e per former has the unique r e spons ib i l i t y to acqui re the essential k n o w l e d g e o f a par t icu lar s tyle and/or compose r that w i l l enable her o r h i m to make a consc ious interpret ive d e c i s i o n . T h e fact that the mus i c is pe r fo rmed on a modern instrument u n k n o w n to B a c h s h o u l d not prevent the per former f rom searching for the most appropriate s ty l i s t i c interpretat ion. There is no reason w h y the k n o w l e d g e o f this style shou ld be more c o m m o n a m o n g harps ichordis ts and organists than a m o n g pianis ts . It is genera l ly expected f rom v o c a l ensembles that they project the correct dec l ama t ion o f the text o f a w o r k . Just because so m a n y o f these groups consis t en t i re ly o f female vo i ce s and, as such , are not cons ide red representative o f B a r o q u e performance prac t ice , this fact cannot be used as an excuse for less d i s t inc t d i c t i o n . M a n y o f the most important aspects o f Ba roque performance m a y be ach i eved on the modern p iano . A b o v e a l l , p ianis ts shou ld a i m for c l a r i ty w h i c h was not o n l y i d ioma t i c for the instruments and the style, but w a s a lso reported as the most s t r i k ing feature o f B a c h ' s c l a v i e r p l a y i n g . O n e o f the most d i f f i cu l t issues is a r t i cu la t ion , w h i c h forces the p ianis t to be ex t remely j u d i c i o u s w i t h the use o f pedal and requires con t inuous con t ro l o f t ransparency and ve r t i ca l releases. In mu l t i -movemen t w o r k s , such as the F rench Over ture , B W V 831 , one is exposed to a k a l e i d o s c o p i c range o f textures, dance types and affect ions w h i c h g ive the oppor tun i ty to use m a n y nuances o f touch , f r om a c lose legato to a ve ry sharp staccato and eve ry th ing i n between. T h u s , w i t h i n the s e e m i n g l y r i g i d met r ic rules, a r i c h spect rum o f a r t i cu la t ion and d y n a m i c s m a y resul t i n a ve ry sa t i s fy ing performance . A s i d e f rom the impor tance o f c l a r i ty , many referred to J . S. B a c h ' s so -ca l l ed "qu ie t " manner o f performance. Sche ibe descr ibed it in f o l l o w i n g words : " O n e is amazed at h is ab i l i t y and one can hard ly c o n c e i v e h o w it is poss ib l e for h i m to ach ieve such ag i l i ty , w i t h h is f ingers and w i t h h is feet, in the cross ings , extensions , and extreme j u m p s that he manages, w i thou t m i x i n g i n a s ingle w r o n g tone, or d i s p l a c i n g his b o d y b y any v io l en t m o v e m e n t . " 1 3 2 T h e desc r ip t ion above was an important part o f B a c h ' s performances and is corrobora ted b y another desc r ip t ion b y B i r n b a u m : Bach Reader, p. 238. 109 " . . . the quite spec ia l adroitness, even at the greatest speed, in b r i n g i n g out a l l the tones c l ea r ly and w i t h uninterrupted e v e n n e s s . . . " 1 3 3 C l e a r l y , the intensi ty and integr i ty o f B a c h ' s performances d i d not a l l o w for f lashy showmansh ip or any m u s i c a l d i s tor t ion . A l l the elements o f meter, dec lamat ion and a r t icu la t ion were integrated into a u n i f o r m exper ience . T h e modern pianis t is p r i v i l e g e d to have access to a great amount o f h i s t o r i ca l ev idence that has been gathered and re-evaluated i n the course o f the twent ie th century. O u t o f respect for a rguably the greatest compose r i n the h is tory o f Wes t e rn c i v i l i z a t i o n and i n search o f the mos t r ewa rd ing interpretat ion o f h is mus ic , the modern m u s i c i a n shou ld make every attempt to deepen her o r his k n o w l e d g e o f this compose r ' s s tyle . T h e final interpretat ion shou ld result f r o m a consc ious d e c i s i o n based on the aesthetics o f the Baroque E r a . Ib id . , p . 2 4 2 . 110 Bibliography B a c h , C . P . E . Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments. T rans la ted and edi ted b y W i l l i a m J . M i t c h e l l . N e w Y o r k & L o n d o n : W . W . 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" M L 50 N o . 1(1969) , 111-123. C y r , M a r y . Performing Baroque Music. Po r t l and , O r e g o n : A m a d e u s Press, 1992. D a v i d , H a n s T . and A r t h u r M e n d e l , eds. The Bach Reader. A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o m p a n y i n c . , 1972. D o n i n g t o n , Rober t . The Interpretation of Early Music. L o n d o n : Faber & Faber , 1963. . " A P r o b l e m o f Inequal i ty . " MQ 53 (1967) , 503-517 . . A Performer's Guide to Baroque Music. N e w Y o r k : C h a s . S c r i b n e r ' s Sons , 1973. . A Baroque Music: Style and Performance. N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n , 1982. Fe rguson , H o w a r d . Keyboard Interpretations. N e w Y o r k & L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Fau lkner , Q u e n t i n . J. S. Bach's Keyboard Technique: A Historical Introduction. St L o u i s : C o n c o r d i a P u b l i s h i n g House , 1984. F o r k e l , Johann N i c o l a u s . Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art and Work. L o n d o n : Cons tab le and C o m p a n y L t d . , 1920. F u l l e r , D a v i d . " D o t t i n g , the ' F r e n c h S t y l e ' and F rede r i ck N e u m a n n ' s C o u n t e r - R e f o r m a t i o n . " EM 5 (1977) , 517-543 . . " T h e ' D o t t e d s ty le ' i n B a c h , H a n d e l , and Sca r l a t t i . " In Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays. E d i t e d b y Peter W i l l i a m s , 99-117 . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1985. I l l . G. F. Handel: Two Ornamented Organ Concertos, Op. 4 Nos. 2 and 5, as Played By an Early Barrel Organ. N e w Jersey: Hackensack , 1980. G e i r i n g e r , K a r l . Johann Sebastian Bach. M i i n c h e n : V e r l a g C . H . B e c k , 1978. Har r i s s , Ernest C . Johann Mattheson's Der Vollommene Capellmeister. A Revised Translation with Critical Commentary\ A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , U M I Resea rch Press , 1981. H e f l i n g , Stephen E . Rhythmic Alteration in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century Music. Notes Inegales and Overdotting. N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1993. H e r r i n g , Hans . " D i e D y n a m i k in Johann Sebast ian B a c h s K l a v i e r m u s i k . " BJ3S (1949-50) , 68-80. H o u l e , George . Meter in Music, 1600-1800: Performance, Perception and Notation. B l o o m i n g t o n : Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1987. K e l l e r , H e r m a n n . Die Klavierwerke Bachs. L e i p z i g : E d i t i o n Peters, 1950. K i r b y , F . E . Music for Piano. A Short Story. Por t l and , O r e g o n : A m a d e u s Press, 1995. K i i s t e r , K o n r a d . Bach Handbuch. K a s s e l : Barenre i ter , 1999. Le tnanova , E l e n a . Piano Interpretation in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. A Study of Theory and Practice Using Original Documents. Jefferson, N o r t h C a r o l i n a and L o n d o n : M c F a r l a n d & C o m p a n y , Inc. , 1991. L i n d l e y , M a r k . " K e y b o a r d F inger ings and A r t i c u l a t i o n s . " In Performance Practice: Music after 1600, 86-203. E d i t e d b y H o w a r d M a y e r B r o w n and Stanley Sadie . N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o . , 1989. . " K e y b o a r d T e c h n i q u e and A r t i c u l a t i o n : E v i d e n c e for the Per fo rmance Prac t ices o f B a c h , H a n d e l , and Scar la t t i . " In Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays. E d i t e d b y Peter W i l l i a m s , 207-243 . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985. L i t t l e , M e r e d i t h , and N a t a l i e Jenne. Dance and the Music of J. S. Bach. B l o o m i n g t o n and Ind ianapol i s : Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1991. M a r s h a l l , Rober t L . " T e m p o and D y n a m i c Indicat ions in the B a c h Sources : A R e v i e w o f the T e r m i n o l o g y . " In Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays, E d i t e d b y Peter W i l l i a m s , 259 - 275 . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985. Ma the r , Be t ty B a n g . Dance Rhythms of the French Baroque: A Handbook for Performance. B l o o m i n g t o n : Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1987. M u f f a t , G e o r g . Florilegium Primum. A u g s b u r g , 1695. E n g l i s h t ranslat ion o f f o r e w o r d b y Ot to S t runk i n Source Readings in Music History. N e w Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1950, repr int 1965. . Auserlesene Instrumental-Music. Passau, 1701. E n g l i s h t ransla t ion o f fo reword by Ot to S t runk in Source Readings in Music History. N e w Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1950, repr int 1965. N e u m a n n , F rede r i c . Essays in Performance Practice. A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U M I Resea rch Press , 1982. 112 O ' D o n e l l , John . " T h e F r e n c h style and the Over tures o f B a c h " . EM, 7 (1979) , 190, 336 . Pa r ry , C h a r l e s H u b e r t Has t ings . Johann Sebastian Bach. N e w Y o r k & L o n d o n : G . P . Pu tnam ' s sons, 1909. Pont , G r a h a m . " R h y t h m i c A l t e r a t i o n and the M a j e s t i c . " Studies in Music 12 (1978) , 68-100 . . " F r e n c h Ouver tures at the K e y b o a r d : H o w H a n d e l Rendered the P l a y i n g o f T h e m . " Musicology 6 ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 29 -50 . Quan tz , Johann J o a c h i m . Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen; mit verschiedenen zur Befdrderung des guten Geschmackes in der praktischen Music, dienlichen Anmerkungen begleitet, und mit Exemplen erlautert. Berlin, 1752. English translation by Edward R. Reilly as On Playing the Flute. N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1966. R i f k i n , Joshua . " T h e ' B m i n o r F lu te Su i t e ' Decons t ruc ted : N e w L i g h t on B a c h ' s B W V 1067 ." It w i l l be pub l i shed i n Bach Perspectives VI. R i t c h i e , G , and G e o r g e Stauffer. Organ Technique. Modern and Early. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2000 . Sa in t -Lamber t , M i c h a e l de. Les Principes du Clavecin. Par is : 1702. E n g l i s h t rans la t ion by R e b e c c a H a r r i s - W a r r i c k as Principles of the Harpsichord. C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1984. . Schu lenberg , D a v i d . The Keyboard Works of J. S. Bach. N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1992. Stauffer, G e o r g e and Ernest M a y . J. S. Bach as Organist. His Instruments, Music, and Performance Practices. B l o o m i n g t o n : Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1986. Stauffer, George . " C h a n g i n g Issues o f Per fo rmance P rac t i ce . " The Cambridge Companion to Bach. E d i t e d b y J o h n But t . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1997. T a r u s k i n , R i c h a r d . Text and Act. Essays on Music and Performance. N e w Y o r k , O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1995. T u r k , D a n i e l G o t t l o b . Clavierschule, oder Anweisung zum Clavierspielen filr Lehrer und Lernende, mit kritischen Anmerkungen. L e i p z i g and H a l l e , 1789. E n g l i s h t rans la t ion b y R a y m o n d H . H a g g h as School of Clavier Playing. L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a Press , 1983. W o l f f , C h r i s t o p h . Bach. Essays on His Life and Music. C a m b r i d g e , Massachuse t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1991 . . Johann Sebastian Bach, The Learned Musician. N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n and C o m p a n y , 2000 . 113 In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today Wednesday, August 30,2000 Eight o 'c lock i n the evening U B C Recital H a l l 6361 Memor ia l Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Sonata i n e minor, Op. 90 (1814) Ludwig van Beethoven i. Mit Lebhaftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfmdung undAusdruck (1770-1827) ii. Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vorgetragen Sonata i n b minor, Op. 58 (1844) Frederic Chopin /. Allegro maestoso (1810-1849) II. Scherzo: Molto vivace iii. Largo iv. Finale: Presto, non tanto -intermission- Sonata N o . 6 in A Major, Op. 82 (1939-40) Sergei Prokofiev /. Allegro moderato (1891-1953) II. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, Op . 81a sonata, t i t l ing each o f the three movements, "The Departure," "The Absence" and " The Return" respectively, refer- ring to the departure and return o f Archduke Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive o f the polit ical changes brought on by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage o f his art was beginning evolved. The sonata in e minor, Op. 90, is considered by many to be the first o f his late-period piano sonatas. Form, which had been central i n his revolutionary think- ing in the past, seemed less important than lyr ic ism and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection o f the times in which Beethoven l ived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from all things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed in his last sonata, Op. I l l , written in 1822. A l s o a two- movement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual tran- scendence. From the end o f the lS^-century to the end o f W o r l d War I (1918) the forces o f Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. During this time, Poland no longer existed on any Euro- pean maps. The Pol ish language was no longer the official language; it was banned from use i n any schools or public offices. M a n y Pol ish artists, painters and poets chose an existence o f artistic freedom i n exile over l iv ing i n a foreign land on native soi l . Dur ing Napoleon's attempt to conquer Russia, many Pol ish patriots joined in his cause i n hopes o f freeing Poland during the campaign. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt o f freedom was the November uprising o f 1831, wh ich occurred while Chopin was abroad. This too was resulted in failure. It was for this cause that Chopin was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. M i c k i e w i c z , N o r w i d and other Pol ish poets continued to support the cause o f Pol ish liberation i n their life i n other countries. Chopin ' s music also was patriotically charged i n such a way that N o r w i d described as, "cannons concealed among flow- ers." This demonstrates Chopin ' s predilection for writ ing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, while retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition o f the sonata in b minor, Op. 58 that w i l l be performed is taken from the new National Pol ish Edit ion, which was recently compiled by Chopin scholar, Jan Ekier , based on last corrections o f Chopin . The Sonata N o . 6 in A Major is the first o f three sonatas by Prokofiev that are known as the " W a r Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, d id not entitle the sonatas, "War Sonatas," but the character o f these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had in mind. The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously in 1939- 1940. They are the most disturbing o f the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection o f the events o f the region. During this moment, Russia was not yet involved in Wor ld War II against the Third Reich; however, on September 1 s t, 1939 the Naz i s attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. A s a result o f the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East on September 17, 1939. The atmosphere i n Eastern Europe was filled wi th rumours o f war. Even though Russia was not yet directly involved in war with the Naz is , war had indeed begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written in four movements. De- spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, al l three sonatas contain ex- tremely poetic and sensual slow movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 th-century sonata. photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945 In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital Tuesday, March 14, 2000 Eight o 'c lock in the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 Memor ia l Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Fantasie in f minor, Op. 103, D . 940 (1828) Franz Schubert Al legro molto moderato-Largo-Allegro v ivace-Tempo I (1797-1828) Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists Mother Goose, 5 Chi ldren 's Pieces (ca. 1910) Maur ice Ravel I Pavane o f Sleeping Beauty i n the Forest (1875-1937) II T o m Thumb III Little P la in Jane, Empress o f the Chinese Nodding Do l l s I V Conversations o f Beauty and the Beast V The Fairy Garden Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator -intermission- from Liederkreis, Op. 39 (1840) Robert Schumann In der Fremde (1810-1856) Intermezzo Waldegesprach Die Stille Mondnacht Auf einer Burg Wehmut Im Walde Fruhlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Piano Tr io , Op. 121a (ca. 1816) L u d w i g van Beethoven Introduzione: Adagio assai-Thema: Allegretto (1770-1827) Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Die Ahren woglen sachl, Es rauschlen leis 'die Wfilder, So sternklar war die Nachl. Und nieine Seele spamite Weil Hire Flilgel aus. Flog durch die stillen Laiide, Als flOge sie nach Haus. vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen auf der Lauer Oben ist der alte Ritter; Drilben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Gitter. Eingewachsen Bart und Haare, Und versteinert Brust und Krause, Sitzt er viele hundert Jahre ()hen in der stillen Klause. Draussen ist es still undfriedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, WaldesvOgel einsam singen In den lleren P'ensterbogen. Fine llochzeit fahrt da unlen Auf dem Rliein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen mttnter, Und die schOne Braut, die weinet. ix. Wehmut Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frdhlich sei, Doch Heimlich Trdnen dringen, Da wird das Herz mir frei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen FrOhlingslufl, Der Sehnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keiner filhlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das tiefe leid. xi. Im Walde Es zog eine Hochzeit den Berg entlcnig, Ich hOrle die VOgel schlagen. Da blitzten vielReiter, das Waldhom klatig, Das war ein lustiges Jagen! Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhallt, Die Nacht bedecket die Runde, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschel der Wald, Undmich schauert's im Herzensgrunde. xii. Friihlingsnachl Uber'm Garten durch die Liifte HOrt 'ich WandervOgel zieh 'n. Das bedeutet Frilhlingsdufte, Unlen fangt's schon an zu blah >i. Jauchzen mocht' ich, mochte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als konnt's nicht sein! Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mit dem Mondesglanz herein. Gently swayed (lie ears of corn. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And iny soul spread Wide its wings, And flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home. In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Knin showers down. And the woods rustle through the iron bars. Willi his hair and beard grown together as one, His breast and his ruff turned to stone, He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still, All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine; Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps. Melancholy I can even sing at times, As if I were happy; But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set fiee. Outside the nightingales In the spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering. In the Woods A wedding party passed below the mounteiislurEs, I heard the birds singing. Many riders flashed by, the horn sounded - It was a merry hunt! Before I had time to think, The company enfolded in darkness. Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, And my heart is filled with foreboding. Spring Night Over the garden tlirough the breeze, 1 heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. I want to shout with joy, and weep - I can hardly believe it is true! Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon. /'. In der Fremde Aus der Heimat hinter den Blitzen rot Da Kommen die Wolken her, Aber Voter und Mutter sind lange tot, Es kennt mich dort keiner mehr. Wie bald, ach wie bald kommt die stille Zeit, Da ruhe ich auch, und ilber mir Rauscht die schdne Waldeinsamkeit, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier. ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch und frbhlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, SchOnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwinget Undzu dir eilig zieht. Hi. Waldesgesprach 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt, Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schdne Braut! ich filhr' dich heim!' 'Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, Wohl irrt das Waldhorn her und hin, OJlieh'! Du weisst nicht, wer ich bin.' 'So reich geschmOckt ist Ross und Weib, So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kenn' ich dich - Gott steh' mir bei! Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein Schaut still mein Schloss tie/in den Rhein. Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!' iv. Die Stille Es wiess und rat es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wttsst' er nur Einer, nur Einer, Kein Mensch es sonst wissen soil! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm und verschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der Hoh', Als meihe Gedanken sind. Ich wilnscht', ich war' ein VOglein, Und zdge ilber das Meer, Wohl iiber das Meer und weiter. Bis dass ich im Himmel war 7 v. Mondnacht Es war, als hatt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekusst, Dass sie im BlOtenschimmer Von ihm nur trdumen milsst'! Die Luft ging durch die Felder, In Foreign Parts From beyond the lightning flashes, Clouds come from my homeland. Father and mother are long since dead, And no one here knows me any more. Mow soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more. In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you. Dialogue in the Woods 'Already it is late, already cold - Why do you ride alone through the woods? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, My heart is broken with grief. The straying horn sounds her and there. Ofly! You know not who I am!' 'In fine array are horse and bride, Of wondrous beauty her young form; I know you now - may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Already it is late, already cold - Nevermore will you leave these woods!' Tranquillity No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one - And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea - Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven! Moonlit Night It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields Program Notes Franz Schubert wrote much music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. Whi l e Mozar t wrote some o f his piano duets for playing tours he undertook with his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical rea- son. Lack ing the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he knew he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even known i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. W i t h these l imita- tions in mind, it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects in Schubert's piano music. One duet, the Grand Duo in C, was later orchestrated by Joseph Joachim. The Fan- tasie in f minor was written in that most productive and final year o f Schubert's al l too short life, 1828. The fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its polyphonic construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C and the last, great sonatas, this work is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the work is played in a continuous f low creating a sense o f unity from four d iss imi- lar sections. A l s o binding the work is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a counter subject in the closing fugue. Between 1908 and 1910, Ravel produced Ma mere I'oye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based on the popular children's stories o f the same name. Dur ing these same years, Ravel saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding works o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that in this same period i n his life, the composer produced works o f complete diversity. The Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection with fairy tales and the magical wor ld o f children's imaginations. The idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince Charming, finding herself in a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques Rouche, Ravel orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and four in - terludes l inking the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Thdatre bes Arts on the 28th o f January, 1912. "The cycle o f Eichendorff is for me, the most romantic and depicts much o f you ," wrote Robert Schumann in his letter to Clara from M a y 22, 1840. This year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point in music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as we l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. The Lieder o f Schumann are l ike portraits o f his creative genius and are the summa- tion o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and Heinr ich Heine, that o f Baron Joseph von Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic in mean- ing. The poems themselves are not l inked together i n a cycl ic unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that Schumann shared with Clara and he wrote of, "s inking into complete meditation." The dra- matic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano Tr io , Op. 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v i o l i n and cello based on Wenzel MQlIer 's aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I 'm Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. Mos t l ikely unknown to us today, M u l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers in V i - enna during the time o f Beethoven. If one could walk the streets o f Vienna around 1795, many townspeople could be heard whist l ing tunes from this opera. It was not uncommon for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as e i - ther for a small ensemble or for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this work sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. H e came back to it some ten years later and final published it in 1824. Though the theme is light and humorous, much o f this work contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Bee- thoven's late works, the parts interact i n a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum Of the coda, it could be understood why the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history. Program notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby A special heartfelt thank you- My thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possi- ble: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable. My thanks to you all! In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today Wednesday, August 30 ,2000 Eight o 'c lock in the evening U B C Recital H a l l 6361 Memor ia l Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Sonata, i n e minor, Op. 90 (1814) L u d w i g van Beethoven i. Mit Lebhqftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfindung undAusdruck (1770-1827) ii. Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vqrgetragen Sonata in b minor, Op: 58 (1844) Frederic Chopin i. Allegro maestoso (1810-1849) ii. Scherzo: Molto vivace iii. Largo iv. Finale: Presto, non tanto -intermission- Sonata N o . 6 in A Major, Op . 82 (1939-40) Sergei Prokofiev /. Allegro moderato (1891-1953) ii. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, Op. 81a sonata, ti t l ing each o f the three movements, "The Departure," "The Absence" and " The Return" respectively, refer- ring to the departure and return o f Archduke Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive o f the poli t ical changes brought on by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage o f his art was begirining evolved. The sonata in e minor, Op . 90, is considered by many to be the first o f his late-period piano sonatas. Form, which had been central in his revolutionary think- ing in the past, seemed less important than lyr ic ism and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection o f the times in which Beethoven l ived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from al l things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed in his last sonata, Op. I l l , written in 1822. A l s o a two- movement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual tran- scendence. F rom the end o f the ^ - c e n t u r y to the end o f W o r l d War I (1918) the forces o f Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. During this time, Poland no longer existed on any Euro- pean maps. The Pol ish language was no longer the official language; it was banned from use i n any schools or public offices. M a n y Pol i sh artists, painters and poets chose an existence o f artistic freedom in exile over l iv ing i n a foreign land on native soi l . Dur ing Napoleon's attempt to conquer Russia, many Pol ish patriots joined in his cause i n hopes o f freeing Poland during the campaign. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt o f freedom was the November uprising o f 1831, which occurred while Chopin was abroad. This too was resulted in failure. It was for this cause that Chopin was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. M i c k i e w i c z , N o r w i d and other Pol i sh poets continued to support the cause o f Pol ish liberation i n their life i n other countries. Chopin ' s music also was patriotically charged in such a way that N o r w i d described as, "cannons concealed among flow- ers." This demonstrates Chopin ' s predilection for writing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, whi le retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition o f the sonata in b minor, Op . 58 that w i l l be performed is taken from the new National Pol i sh Edit ion, which was recently compiled by Chopin scholar, Jan Ekier , based on last corrections o f Chopin . The Sonata N o . 6 in A Major is the first o f three sonatas by Prokofiev that are known as the "War Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, d id not entitle the sonatas, "War Sonatas," but the character o f these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had i n mind. The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously in 1939- 1940. They are the most disturbing o f the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection o f the events o f the region. During this moment, Russia was not yet involved in Wor ld War II against the Third Reich; however, on September 1 s t, 1939 the Nazis attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. A s a result o f the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East on September 17, 1939. The atmosphere in Eastern Europe was filled wi th rumours o f war. Even though Russia was not yet directly involved in war wi th the Naz is , war had indeed begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written in four movements. De- spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, al l three sonatas contain ex tremely poetic and sensual s low movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 t h-century sonata. photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945 In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital Tuesday, March 14, 2000 Eight o 'c lock in the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 Memoria l Road This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of Brit- ish Columbia -program- Fantasie in f minor, Op. 103, D . 940 (1828) Franz Schubert Al legro molto moderato-Largo-Allegro v ivace-Tempo I (1797-1828) Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists Mother Goose, 5 Chi ldren 's Pieces (ca. 1910) Maurice Ravel I Pavane o f Sleeping Beauty i n the Forest (1875-1937) II T o m Thumb III Little Pla in Jane, Empress o f the Chinese Nodding Do l l s I V Conversations o f Beauty and the Beast V The Fairy Garden Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator -intermission- bom Liederkreis, Op. 39 (1840) Robert Schumann InderFremde (1810-1856) Intermezzo Waldegesprach Die Stille Mondnacht Auf einer Burg Wehmut ImWalde Fruhlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Piano Tr io , Op. 121a (ca. 1816) L u d w i g van Beethoven Introduzione: Adagio assai-Thema: Allegretto (1770-1827) Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano i. In der Fremde Aus der Ileimat liinter den Blilzen rot Da Komnien die Wolken her, Aber Vater und Mutter sind lange tot, Es kennt inich dort keiner mehr. Wie bald, ach wie bald komint die stille Zeit, Da ruhe ich audi, und ilber mir Rauscht die schOne Waldeinsamkeil, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier. ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab ' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch undfrohlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, Schdnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwinget Und zu dir eilig zieht. iii. Waldesgesprdch 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt, Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schbne Braut! ich jilhr' dich heim!' 'Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, Wohl irrt das Waldhom her und hin, O flieh'! Du weisst nicht, wer ich bin.' 'So reich geschmilckt ist Ross und Weib, So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kenn' ich dich - Gott steh' mir bei! Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein Sellout still mein Schloss lief in den Rliein. Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!' iv. Die Stille Es wiess und rdt es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wtlsst' er nur Einer, nur Einer, Kein Mensch es sonst wissen soil! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm undyerschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der Hoh', Als meine Gedanken sind. Ich wilnscht', ich wdr' ein Voglein, Und zOge ilber das Meer, Wohl ilber das Meer und weiter, Bis dass ich im Himmel wdr'! v. Mondnacht Es war, als hatt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekHsst, Dass sie im Blatenschimmer Von Hun nur trdumen milsst'! Die Luft ging durch die Felder, In Foreign Parts From beyond me lightning flashes, Clouds come from my homeland Father and mother are long since dead, And no one here knows me any more. How soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more. In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you. Dialogue in the Woods 'Already it is late, already cold - Why do you ride alone through the woods? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, My heart is broken with grief. The straying horn sounds her and there. 0 fly! You know not who I am!' 'in fine array are horse and bride, Of wondrous beauty her young form; 1 know you now — may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Already it is late, already cold - Nevermore will you leave these woods!' Tranquillity No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one - And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea - Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven! Moonlit Night It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields Die Ahren wogten sacht, Es rauschten leis ' die Walder, So stemklar war die Nacht. Und meine Seek spannte Weil Hire Flilgel aus, Flog durch die stillen Lande, Als floge sie nach Haus. vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen auf der Lauer Oben isl der alle Ritter; Drttben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Giller. Eingewachsen Bart und Haare, Und versteinert lirust und Krause, Sitzt er viele hundert Jahre Oben in der stillen Klause. Draussen ist es still und friedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, WaldesvOgel einsam singen In den lleren Fensterbogen. Eine Hochzeit faint da unten Aufdem Rhein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen munter, Und die schdne Braut, die weinet. ix. Wehmut Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frdhlich sei, Doch heimlich Tranen dringen, Da wird das Herz mir frei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen Frilhlingsluft, Der Sehnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keiner ftihlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das tiefe leid. xi. Im Walde Es zog eine Hochzeit den Berg entlang, Ich hOrte die VOgel schlagen, Da blitzten viel Reiter, das Waldhom klang, Das war ein tustiges Jagen! Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhallt, Die Nacht bedecket die Runde, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschet der Wald, Und mich schauert's im Herzensgrunde. xii. Friihlingsnacht Uber'm Garten durch die Litfte Hdrt 'ich Wandervogel zieh'«, Das bedeutet FrOhlingsdufte, Unten fOngt's schon an zu blah 'n. Jauchzen mOcht' ich, m&chte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als kOnnt's nicht sein! Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mit dem Mondesglanz herein. Gently swayed the ears of corn. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And my soul spread Wide its wings, And flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home. In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Rain showers down, And the woods rustic tlirough the iron burs. With his hair and beard grown together as one, I lis breast and his ruff turned to stone, He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still, All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine, Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps. Melancholy I can even sing at times, As if I were happy; But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set free. Outside the nightingales In the spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering. In the Woods A wedding party passed below the mourfahskpes, I heard the birds singing. Many riders flashed by, the horn sounded - It was a merry hunt! Before I had time to think, The company enfolded in darkness. Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, And my heart is filled with foreboding. Spring Night Over the garden through the breeze, I heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. I want to shout with joy, and weep - I can hardly believe it is true! Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon. Program Notes Franz Schubert wrote much music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. W h i l e Mozar t wrote some o f his piano duets for playing f tours he undertook wi th his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical rea- i son. Lack ing the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he knew he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even known i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. W i t h these l imita- tions in mind, it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects in Schubert's piano music. One duet, the Grand Duo in C, was later orchestrated by Joseph Joachim. The Fan- > tasie in f minor was written i n that most productive and final year o f Schubert's a l l too short life, 1828. The fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its polyphonic f construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C 1 and the last, great sonatas, this work is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the work is played in a continuous f low creating a sense o f unity from four d iss imi- [ lar sections. A l s o binding the work is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a I counter subject in the closing fugue. , Between 1908 and 1910, Ravel produced Ma mere I'oye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based on the I popular children's stories o f the same name. Dur ing these same years, Ravel saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding works o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that i n this same period in his life, the composer produced works o f complete diversity. The \< Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection j wi th fairy tales and the magical wor ld o f children's imaginations. The idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince ( Charming, finding herself in a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques Rouche, Ravel orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and four in - terludes l inking the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Theatre bes Arts on the 28th o f January, 1912. "The cycle o f Eichendorff is for me, the most romantic and depicts much o f you ," wrote Robert Schumann in his letter to Clara from M a y 22, 1840. This year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point in music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as we l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. The Lieder o f Schumann are l ike portraits o f his creative genius and are the summa- tion o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and Heinr ich Heine, that o f Baron Joseph von Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic i n mean- ing. The poems themselves are not l inked together in a cycl ic unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that Schumann shared with Clara and he wrote of, "s inking into complete meditation." The dra- matic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano Tr io , Op. 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v io l in and cello based on Wenzel M u l l e r ' s aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I 'm Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. Mos t l ikely unknown to us today, M i i l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers in V i - enna during the time o f Beethoven. If one could walk the streets o f Vienna around 1795, many townspeople could be heard whist l ing tunes from this opera. It was not uncommon for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as ei- ther for a small ensemble or for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this work sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. He came back to it some ten years later and final published it in 1824. Though the theme is light and humorous, much o f this work contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Bee- thoven's late works, the parts interact in a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum o f the coda, it could be understood why the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history. Program notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby A special heartfelt thank you- My thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possi- ble: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable. My thanks to you all! University of British Columbia Presents: A L E C T U R E R E C I T A L by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby French Overture in b minor, BWV831 by Johann Sebastian Bach. 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