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J. S. Bach : the ouverture in B minor, BWV 831 : a discussion of its origin and style : performance practice.. Kaminska, Iwona 2002

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/  . J . S. BACH: THE OUVERTURE IN B MINOR, BWV 831: A DISCUSSION OF ITS ORIGIN AND STYLE; PERFORMANCE PRACTICE ISSUES AND THEIR A P P L I C A T I O N TO THE MODERN PIANO. by IWONA B.M.,  KAMINSKA  F. C h o p i n Academy o f M u s i c , Warsaw, P o l a n d , M.M., U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a - L i n c o l n , 1998  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Music; Piano  Performance)  We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October  2002  © Iwona K a m i n s k a ,  2002  1992  OF  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by his or her representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  W i t h Friends,  Mari Hahn Adrian Dyck Diederik van Dijk Chris Bowlby and  John McMillan  Tuesday, M a r c h 14,2000 Eight o ' c l o c k i n the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 M e m o r i a l R o a d  This recital is in partialfulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the Univers ish Columbia  -program-  Fantasie in f minor, Op. 103, D. 940 (1828) Franz Schubert Allegro molto moderato-Largo-Allegro vivace-Tempo I (1797-1828) ? Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists  Mother Goose, 5 Children's Pieces (ca. 1910) I Pavane of Sleeping Beauty in the Forest II ID IV V  Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)  Tom Thumb Little Plain Jane, Empress of the Chinese Nodding Dolls Conversations of Beauty and the Beast The Fairy Garden Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator  -intermission-  frora Liederkreis, Op. 39 (1840) In der Fremde Intermezzo Waldegespr&ch  Robert Schumann (1810-1856)  DieStille "'V-r Mondnacht Aufeiner Burg Wehmut ImWalde Friihlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano  Piano Trio, Op. 121 a (ca. 1816) Introduzione: Adagio assai-Thema: Allegretto Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano  Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Program Notes Franz Schubert wrote m u c h music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. W h i l e M o z a r t wrote some o f his piano duets for playing tours he undertook w i t h his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical reason. L a c k i n g the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he k n e w he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even k n o w n i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. W i t h these l i m i t a tions i n m i n d , it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects i n Schubert's piano music. O n e duet, the Grand Duo in C , was later orchestrated by Joseph J o a c h i m . T h e Fantasie in f minor was written i n that most productive and final year o f Schubert's a l l too short life, 1828. The fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its polyphonic construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C and the last, great sonatas, this w o r k is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the w o r k is played i n a continuous f l o w creating a sense o f unity from four d i s s i m i lar sections. A l s o binding the w o r k is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a counter subject i n the closing fugue. Between 1908 and 1910, R a v e l produced Ma mere Voye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based o n the popular children's stories o f the same name. D u r i n g these same years, R a v e l saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding works o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that i n this same period i n his life, the composer produced w o r k s o f complete diversity. T h e Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection w i t h fairy tales and the magical w o r l d o f children's imaginations. T h e idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince C h a r m i n g , finding herself i n a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques R o u c h e , R a v e l orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and f o u r i n terludes l i n k i n g the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Theatre bes Arts o n the 28th o f January, 1912. " T h e cycle o f Eichendorff is for m e , the most romantic and depicts m u c h o f y o u , " wrote Robert Schumann i n his letter to C l a r a from M a y 22, 1840. T h i s year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point i n music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as w e l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. T h e Lieder o f Schumann are like portraits o f his creative genius and are the summation o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and H e i n r i c h Heine, that o f B a r o n Joseph v o n Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic i n meaning. T h e poems themselves are not linked together i n a cyclic unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that S c h u m a n n shared w i t h C l a r a and he wrote of, " s i n k i n g into complete meditation." T h e dramatic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano T r i o , O p . 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v i o l i n and cello based o n W e n z e l M i i l l e r ' s aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I ' m  Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. M o s t l i k e l y u n k n o w n to us today, M u l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers i n V i enna during the time o f Beethoven. I f one c o u l d w a l k the streets o f V i e n n a around 1795, many townspeople could be heard whistling tunes from this opera. It was not > u n c o m m o n for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as e i - i ther for a small ensemble o r for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this w o r k sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. H e came back to it some ten years later and final published it i n 1824. T h o u g h the theme is light and humorous, much o f this w o r k contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Beethoven's late works, the parts interact i n a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum o f the coda, it c o u l d be understood w h y the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history. :  Program  notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby  and Chris  Bowlby  A special heartfelt thank youMy thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possible: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable. My thanks to you all!  Die Ahren wogten sachl, Es rauschien leis ' die Wdlder, So sternklar war die Nachl. I hid meine Seele spannte Weit Hire Flilgel aus. Flog durch die stillen Laiide, Als flOge sie nach Haus.  Gently swayed the ears of com. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And my soul spread Wide its wings, Arid flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home.  vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen aufder Lauer Oben ist der alte Riller; Dnlben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Gilter. Eingewaclisen Bart und Haare, Und versleinerl Brusl und Krause, Sitzl er viele hunderl Jahre Ohen in der stillen Klause. IJraussen is/ es still undfriedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, Waldesvogel einsam singen In den lleren Fensterbogen. Fine ilochzeitfohrtda unlen Auf dem Rliein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen munter, Und die schdne Braut, die weinet.  In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Rnin showers down, And the woods rustle llrrough the iron bars. Willi his hair and beard grown together as one, I lis brcusl and his ruff turned to stone. He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still. All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine; Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps.  ix. Wehmitt lch kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frShlich sei, Doch Heimlich Tranen dringen. Da wird das Herz mir frei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen FrOhlingslufi, Der Schnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keinerfilhlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das liefe leid.  xi. Im Walde Es zog eine Hoclizeit den Berg entlang, lch hOrte die Vdgel schlagen. Da blitzten viel Reiter, das Waldhom ktang, Das war ein lustiges Jagen! Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhalll. Die Nachl bedecket die Runde, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschel der Wald. Und mich schauerl's im Herzensgrunde.  xii. Frtihlingsnacht Uber'm Garten durch die Lufte Hort 'ich WandervOgel zieh n, Das bedeutet Frahlingsdufle, Unlen fdngt's schon an zu blilh 'n. Jauchzen mocht' ich, mdchte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als kOnnt's nicht seinl Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mil dem Mondesglanz herein.  Melancholy I can even sing at limes, As if I were happy, But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set free. Outside the nightingales hi Uie spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering.  In the Woods A wedding party passed below the nuitmsfcps, I heard the birds singing. Manyridersflashedby, the hom sounded It was a merry hunt! Before I had time to think, The company enfolded in darkness. Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, And my heart is tilled with foreboding.  Spring Night Over the garden through the breeze, I heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. 1 want to shout with joy, and weepI can hardly believe it is tmel Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon.  ;. In der Fremde Aus der Heimat hinter den Blitzen rot Da Kommen die Wolken her, Aber Voter und Mutter sind lange tot, Es kennt mich dort keiner mehr. Wie bald, ach wie bald kommt die stille Zeit,  In Foreign Parts  Da ruhe ich auch, und aber mir Rauschtdie schdne Waldeinsamkeit, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier.  From beyond the lightning flashes, Clouds comefrommy homeland. Father and mother are long since dead, And no one here knows me any more. How soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more.  ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch undfrohlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, SchOnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwmget Und zu dir eilig zieht.  In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you.  Hi. Waldesgesprach 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt. Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schone Braut! ich flihr' dich heim!' "Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, Wohl irrt das Waldhorn her und hin, OJlieh'! Du weisst nichl, wer ich bin.' 'So reich geschmOckt ist Ross und Weib, So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kemt' ich dich - Got! steh' mir bei! Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein Sellout still mein Schloss tie/in den Rhein. Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!'  iv. Die Stille  Dialogue in the Woods 'Already it is late, already cold Why do you ride alone through the woods? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, My heart is broken with grief. The straying hom sounds her and there. Ofly! You know not who I am!' 'In fine array are horse and bride, Of wondrous beauty her young form; I know you now - may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Already it is late, already cold Nevermore will you leave these woods!'  Tranquillity  Es wiess und rat es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wasst' er nur Einer, nurEiner, Kein Mensches sonst wissen soli! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm und verschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der H6h', Als meine Gedanken sind. Ich wUnscht \ ich war' ein VOglein, Und zOge aber das Meer, Wohl aber das Meer und weiter, Bis dass ich im Himmel war'!  No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven!  v. Mondnacht Es war, als halt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekilsst. Dass sie im Blatenschimmer Von ihm nur trdumen mass!'! Die Luftging durch die Felder,  Moonlit Night It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today  Wednesday, August 30,2000 Eight o'clock in the evening U B C Recital Hall 6361 Memorial Road  This recital is in partialfulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the Univer ish Columbia  -program-  Sonata m e minor, Op. 90(1814) Ludwdg van Beethoven i. Mit Lebhqftigkeit unddurchaus milEmpfindung undAusdruck (1770-1827) ii. Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbarvorgetragen  Sonata in b minor, Op. 58 (1844) i. Allegro maestoso ii. Scherzo: Molto vivace iii. Largo rv. Finale: Presto; non tanto  Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) ;  -intermission-  Sonata No. 6 in A Major, Op. 82 (1939-40) /. Allegro moderato ii. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace  Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)  Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, Op. 81a sonata, titling each of the three movements, "The Departure," "TheAbsence*'and"The Return" respectively, referring to the departure and return of Archduke Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive of the political changes brought on by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage of his art was beginning evolved. The sonata in e minor, Op. 90, is considered by many to be the first of his late-period piano sonatas. Form, which had been central in his revolutionary thinking in the past, seemed less important than lyricism and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection of the times in which Beethoven lived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from all things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed in his last sonata, Op. I l l , written in 1822. Also a twomovement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual transcendence. From the end of the 18*-century to the end of World War I (1918) the forces of Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. During this time, Poland'no longer existed on any European maps. The Polish language "was no longer the official language; it was banned from use in any schools or public offices. Many Polish artists, painters and poets chose an existence of artistic freedom in exile over living in a foreign land on native soil. During Napoleon's attempt to conquer Russia, many Polish patriots joined in his cause in hopes of freeing Poland during the campaign.. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt of freedom was the November uprising of 1831, which occurred while Chopin was abroad. This too was resulted in failure. It was for this cause that Chopin was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. Mickiewicz, Norwid and other Polish poets continued to support the cause of Polish liberation in their life in other countries. Chopin's music also was patriotically ' charged in such a way that Norwid described as, "cannons concealed among flowers." This demonstrates Chopin's predilection for writing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, while retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition of the sonata in b minor, Op. 58 that will be performed is taken from the new National Polish Edition, which was recently compiled by Chopin scholar, Jan Ekier, based on last corrections of Chopin. The Sonata No. 6 in A Major is the first of three sonatas by Prokofiev that are known as the "War Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, did not entitle the sonatas, "War Sonatas," but the character of these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had in mind. The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously in 19391940. They are the most disturbing of the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection of the events of the region. During this moment, Russia was not yet involved in World War II against the Third Reich; however, on September 1 , 1939 the Nazis attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. As a result of the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East on September 17, 1939. The atmosphere in Eastern Europe was filled with rumours of war. Even though Russia was not yet directly involved in war with the Nazis, war had indeed st  begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written i n four movements. D e spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, all three sonatas contain ex tremely poetic and sensual slow movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 -century sonata. th  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945  University of British Columbia Presents:  A LECTURE RECITAL  by  Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby  French Overture in b minor, BWV831 by Johann Sebastian Bach. A Discussion of Style, Performance Practice Issues and Their Application to the Modern Piano. -programLecture  -pauseFranzdsische Ouverture, B W V 831 /. Overture ii. Courante iii. Gavotte I & II rv. Passepied I&II v. Sarabande vi. Bourreel&II vii. Gigue viii. Echo  Johann Sebastian Bach  Sunday, June 30,2002 at 3:00 pm Gessler Hall UBC School of Music, Room 116 Admission free  This recital is presented in partialfulfillment of the DMA degree.  OS  g.  i  I  c o -1  CO  a. oo wi 5'  c 00  i. 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K>  §  rr  -  c — 1 n n  s  3 5*  v> o  S  e —-. 2 B K  Abstract The French Overture, B W V 831, is rarely performed, being one of the most misunderstood keyboard works by J. S. Bach. Pianists' frequent criticism arises because the work fails to be measured in the same flamboyant and virtuosic style of the Partitas. It is often discarded for being too long and containing too many simplistic dances.  However, J. S. Bach did not intend for this work to continue the  compositional ideas from Clavierubung I, but rather to present an idiomatic keyboard version of the orchestral overture suite in the French manner. This genre came into being in Germanic lands at the beginning of the XVIIl -century. In many movements from B W V 831, Bach presented the most salient th  characteristics of French style, with which he was familiar from his early teenage years in Luneburg. During the XX -century, an explosive amount of research was devoted to the performance th  practice issues of early music. The existence of an earlier C minor version of the French Overture, B W V 831a, has been a particularly important puzzle piece in the controversial issue of over-dotting. Through an examination of contemporary treatises, current scholarly articles and comparative score reading, many suggestions regarding meter, tempo, phrasing, articulation, dynamics and affect are presented in this paper in general discussion; specific application to the particular problems within the movements of B W V 831 are also presented herein. The fact that this suite is often performed on the modern piano should not obstruct performers from seeking the most appropriate, historically informed interpretation. Furthermore, since the modern instrument is fully capable of presenting the core gestures of the style, the ideas within this discussion may contribute to a more enriching, meaningful performance of this work and like others.  ii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t o f Examples  v i i  Dedication  •  Acknowledgements  viii ix  PART I :  STYLE  1  CHAPTER I  Introduction  2  CHAPTER I I  Early Influences  4  CHAPTER I I I  Emergence o f t h e O v e r t u r e S u i t e i n an O r c h e s t r a l S t y l e  8  CHAPTER IV  O r c h e s t r a l Features of the French O v e r t u r e , BWV 831 S t y l e and Form  11  CHAPTER V  O v e r t u r e movement:  CHAPTER VI  Dances  22  6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7  22 25 26 28 32 33 34  Courante Gavottes I , I I Passepieds I , I I Sarabande Bourrees I , I I Gigue Echo  PART I I : Performance  15  P r a c t i c e I s s u e s ; G e n e r a l . . . 38  CHAPTER V I I  The Sources  39  CHAPTER V I I I  Issues of Over-dotting  40  CHAPTER IX  Meter and Tempo  49  CHAPTER X  Articulation  55  CHAPTER XI  Dynamics  60  CHAPTER X I I  Affect  65 iii  PART I I I : CHAPTER X I I I  CHAPTER XIV  CHAPTER XV  CHAPTER XVI  CHAPTER XVII  CHAPTER X V I I I  CHAPTER XIX  APPLICATION  67  Ouverture  68  13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4  68 70 72 74  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Courante  76  14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4  76 77 78 79  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Gavottes I , I I  80  15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4  80 81 82 83  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Passepieds I , I I  84  16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4  84 85 86 86  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Sarabande  89  17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4  89 90 91 93  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Bourrees I , I I  95  18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4  95 96 97 98  Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  Gigue 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4  99 Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect iv  99 100 100 101  CHAPTER XX  Echo 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4  103 Meter and Tempo Articulation Dynamics Affect  103 103 104 105  CHAPTER XXI  Summary  10 6  CHAPTER X X I I  Conclusions  108  BIBLIOGRAPHY  I l l  V  LIST  TABLE 1  Overture:  TABLE 2  Overture: Descending Progression  TABLE 3  TABLE 4  Formal  OF  TABLES  Scheme  Overture: Ascending Progression  11  c i r c l e o f 5ths 17 Circle  of 5ths 17  Overture-Reprise: Descending of 5ths P r o g r e s s i o n Ritornello/Fugal  Circle  TABLE 5  Overture:  TABLE 6  Sarabande: Harmonic P r o g r e s s i o n , M e a s u r e s 1-4  vi  Formal  19 Plan  20  30  LIST  EXAMPLE 1  OF  EXAMPLES  B a d i n e r i e from t h e O r c h e s t r a l i n b m i n o r , BWV 1067  Suite 13  EXAMPLE 2  E c h o f r o m t h e F r e n c h O v e r t u r e , BWV  EXAMPLE 3  M e a s u r e 13 f r o m t h e O p e n i n g Movement o f t h e F r e n c h O v e r t u r e , BWV 831  45  M e a s u r e 8, V a r i a t i o n V a r i a t i o n s , BWV 988  45  EXAMPLE 4  EXAMPLE 5  EXAMPLE 6  831  13  16 f r o m t h e G o l d b e r g  The B a s s o C o n t i n u o f r o m t h e S e c o n d Movement o f t h e Cantata", "Lobe d e n H e r r e n " , BWV 69  52  Sarabande  90  f r o m t h e F r e n c h O v e r t u r e , BWV  vii  831  who  To my p a r e n t s , J o s e f K a m i n s k i and I r m i n a K a m i n s k a , were a l w a y s d e d i c a t e d t o my m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and g r o w t h .  Acknowledgments I w o u l d l i k e to t h a n k those w h o t o o k an a c t i v e part i n d i r e c t i n g m y research project.  T h e s e are  i n d i v i d u a l s w h o w e n t b e y o n d the c a l l o f d u t y to p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l , c a r i n g g u i d a n c e a n d reassurance at e v e r y step o f the w a y .  F i r s t l y , a great  thank-you  goes to m y d i s s e r t a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r , D r . G r e g o r y B u t l e r ,  w h o d e v o t e d not o n l y h i s u n m a t c h e d k n o w l e d g e , but a l s o h i s p e r s o n a l interest a n d e n g a g e m e n t t o w a r d s the c o m p l e t i o n o f this project.  E n d l e s s w o r d s o f a p p r e c i a t i o n s h o u l d be s a i d to m y s u p e r v i s o r , D r . H e n r i -  P a u l S i c s i c , f o r h i s l i m i t l e s s p o s i t i v e support, p i a n i s t i c expertise a n d i n d o m i t a b l e spirit t h r o u g h o u t entirety o f m y d o c t o r a l p r o g r a m .  ix  the  Part One: Style  1  Introduction Clavierubung II by Johann Sebastian Bach comprises two large keyboard works: A Concerto  after the Italian Taste, BWV 971, and an Overture after the French Manner, BWV 831. Both works were intended for a performance on a harpsichord with two manuals, which is often indicated in the score by the inclusion of forte and piano markings. There is no extant autograph manuscript of the Ouverture, BWV 831, which makes the printed version of Clavierubung II the most important source. This pedagogical work was first published in Leipzig around Easter, 1735. The first edition was 1  prepared by four engravers under the supervision of Christoph Weigel Jr. and contains many errors; a second corrected edition appeared a year later in 1736. The Ouverture, BWV 831, exists also in an early version, BWV 831a in the key of C minor, and it is preserved in two extant copies, the first by Anna Magdalena Bach and a second by Johann Gottlieb Preller. The former is generally considered the more important one, for it includes corrections by Johann Sebastian. Preller's copy is less reliable since it lacks Bach's authorization. Aside from the key, the main difference between the two versions lies in the degree of dotting of the outer sections of the opening movement. It is important to note that the C minor version dates from around 1730, the same year of the newspaper announcement of Partita V, BWV 829, and it is possible the Ouverture is the Seventh Partita referred to in the same announcement.  2  It is generally  presumed that the Ouverture must have been composed around the same time as the Six Partitas. The C minor version of BWV 831 could not be included in Clavierubung I because this set already contained a C minor work as well as another composition opening with a free movement entitled "Ouverture.," The 3  4  organic ordering scheme of the set of Partitas with regard to chosen tonalities and style did not allow for any redundancies. The purpose of Clavierubung II was to present in the clearest possible manner the two dominant orchestral genres featuring the two leading national styles of the day. The German word, "(T&w/jg," in the Christoph Wolff, 1991), p. 204.  1  Bach. Essays on His Life and Music (Cambridge, The Keyboard Works ofJ. S. Bach (New  2  D a v i d Schulenberg,  3  Partita, B W V 827.  4  Partita, B W V 828, first movement.  2  Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,  Y o r k : Schirmer Books, 1992), p. 420.  title implies a pedagogical function for the set and is often translated into English as "practice".  More  importantly, however, it should be understood more in terms o f a lesson, resulting in a translation o f the title as "Keyboard Lessons." The genres that are presented in the second part o f the series, a concerto and an ouverture, had already appeared previously in Bach's oeuvre.  H i s fascination with the ritornello  procedure and, particularly, the Vivaldian "modular" compositional approach led to his transcription o f 21 foreign concerti for harpsichord and organ during the Weimar years o f 1713/1714 ( B W V 972-987 and 592-596).  Through the expansion o f the solo part in the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, B W V 1050, this  instrument reached an unprecedented level o f importance and emancipation.  The Italian Concerto for  solo harpsichord represents the culmination o f this process and combines the traditional ritornello influences with the more current German Similarly, the  Ouverture  two early, pre-Weimar works, the  galant features,  such as regular phrasing and "sigh" figures.  is an unsurpassed achievement in its genre.  Ouverture  in F major, B W V 820, and the  Bach's authorship o f the  Ouverture  in G minor, B W V  822, is often questioned and it is possible that they are transcriptions o f unknown orchestral works. Without a doubt, the opening movement o f  Partita IV in  suite with clear implications o f the overture style.  D major, B W V 828, is the only other keyboard  In the light o f the paucity o f ouvertures for solo  harpsichord, B W V 831 stands out as a particularly original and important work because o f its large dimensions and clear representation o f style, both in the overture movement as well as in following dances.  In both o f the works, which constitute this collection, B W V 971 and B W V 831, Bach elevated  the role o f harpsichord, making it a self-sufficient and highly expressive instrument.  3  Early Influences Johann Sebastian Bach was first exposed to French music and musicians as early as Having been forced to leave Ohrdruf (where he was not given any more  hospitia ), 5  1700.  Bach and his friend,  Georg Erdmann, continued their education in St. Michael's School in Liineburg . 6  associated with this move influenced his musical development to a high degree.  Several factors  The entire city o f  Liineburg with its court and schools was infiltrated with French art and culture. Already during the years, 1695-8, this city witnessed the completion o f a new ducal castle on the city's market square, which happened to be close in proximity to St. Michael's School.  Here, as well as in the entire area o f  Brunswick, D u k e G e o r g Wilhelm and the duchess, Eleonore Desmier d'Olbreuse, promoted French music and culture. A s a result, a band o f musicians was employed at the Liineburg court consisting primarily o f 7  French performers. A l s o , in the year 1656, a new school for young nobility was added to the old Latin one, which B a c h was to attend forty-four years later.  Despite the fact that the new institution had  completely different faculty and that contact between the students o f both schools was restricted, there were still opportunities for young musicians to meet and influence one another.  8  One o f the most important and influential figures in Bach's musical education was Georg B o h m , the organist o f St. John's church, the biggest church in Liineburg.  It is not known whether Johann  Sebastian obtained any official instruction from B o h m , but in 1775 C . P . E . B a c h mentioned him as one o f the most important influences on his father. Interestingly, Carl Philipp, probably in order to idealize the portrait o f his father, did not refer to B o h m as a teacher but as a "Liineburg organist" . Johann Sebastian 9  must have developed a particular attachment to B o h m ' s suites and an the M o l l e r Manuscript and the Andreas Bach B o o k . 10  5  It is currently believed that Johann Sebastian  Johann Sebastian Bach, The Learned Musician ( N e w  Y o r k : W . W . Norton and Company, 2000),  7  8  9  1 0  because they survived in  A scholarship.  Christoph Wolff, p. 4 1 . Ibid., p. 57. 6  Ouverture  Ibid., p. 57. Students had neighbouring dormitories and participated in the joint choir. Ibid., p. 60. Ibid., p. 6 1 .  4  compiled these manuscripts while living in his brother's house in Ohrdruf in 1702." T h e set represents the music that B a c h was exposed to in Liineburg to a large degree and, aside from Bohm's  Ouverture,  one  can also find works by French composers, such as Nicolas-Antoine Lebeque and Francois Dieupart. One o f the keyboard pieces that young Bach must have become acquainted with while studying in Liineburg is B o h m ' s transcription o f the orchestral suite for the clavier, the  Ouverture  in D major.  The  first movement displays the basic features o f the genre such as the dotted opening section with a proper ending on the dominant, which leads to the faster, fugal middle part. A t the end o f the fugue, one can observe the return o f the slower section with the pointed rhythm, which underlines the orchestral quality o f the piece.  One also notices the apparent avoidance o f the dances typically associated with the  keyboard suite in the remaining part o f Bohm's with  Trio, a Rondeau,  a  Menuet,  and a  Ouverture  in D major, which includes an  Air, a Rigaudon  Chaconne.  The above-mentioned sources, the Andreas B a c h Book and the M o l l e r Manuscript, also contain the  Ouverture  in F major, B W V 820, and the  Ouverture  in G minor, B W V 822.  It is uncertain whether  both pieces are original compositions by J . S. Bach, or merely transcriptions from other, unknown orchestral works, as was the practice.  It is significant that one can find keyboard arrangements o f  orchestral music by L u l l y and Agostino Steffani in the M o l l e r Manuscript as well as arrangements o f early suites by Georg Philipp Telemann in the Andreas B a c h B o o k . The early  Ouverture  Ouverture  in F major, B W V 820, has smaller dimensions and simpler texture than the  in G minor, B W V 822.  Following D a v i d Schulenberg, the English word, "overture", will be  used in the paper in reference to the opening movement, compositional compilation. BWV  and the word, "ouverture", to the entire  12  820 contains only five movements with the characteristic dominance o f the opening  overture part. T h e order o f the cycle is interesting:  Ouverture, Entree, Menuet and Trio, Bourree  Ibid., p. 73. Christoph W o l f f suggests that Sebastian may have gotten the famous " M o o n l i g h t " manuscript back from Johann Christoph while staying with his brother in 1702 and in return, he left the compilation o f pieces composed or acquired during his stay in Liineburg. Schulenberg, p. 30. 1 1  1 2  5  and  Gigue and resembles that of B WV 831, which, similarly, features a Bourree as a neighbouring movement to the Gigue. There is another common feature at the end of the opening movement In both cases the fugal section ends with a reprise (BWV 820: bb. 89-106, BWV 831: bb. 122-143). The similarity ends with this polyphonic part, for there is no return of the characteristic dotted section, which creates such a powerful effect in BWV 831. The closing dances in this early Ouverture, the Bourree and Gigue, resemble their later counterparts in BWV 831 with regard to the two-part texture and generally simple, unpretentious character. Another common feature of both Gigues is their non-imitative character. Also the Ouverture in G minor, BWV 822, features some characteristics that point to the later work, BWV 831. Again there is a reprise in the fugal section (mm. 104 ff.) and in the middle section of the fugue there is a progression that makes use of a circle of fifths going from a B-flat major-minor seventh chord in bar 69 to G-flat major in bar 76; also, there is a diatonic circle of fifths that starts in measure 97 on a B-flat sonority and modulates to G minor in measure 104. It is not uncommon for Bach to make the central sections of his early fugues the most harmonically active, but the fugal part of the later work, BWV 831 features the most adventurous passages in its central section, which also makes use of the circle of fifths (mm. 89-96). Like the Ouverture in B minor, BWV 831, the opening movement of the Ouverture in G minor, BVW 822, also ends with a reminiscence of the slow dotted section. The form and characteristically quick scales of the overture enhance the brilliant orchestral quality of the movement. Another similarity between BWV 822 and 831 lies in the fact that their Gigues clearly resemble canaries, the French version of this dance, which also occurs in the French Suite in C minor, BWV 813. Despite the fact that the imitation is rarely occurring in movements of this type, it is employed in BWV 822 as well as in the Gigue from BWV 813. The B sections of the Gigues from the early suite, BWV 822, as well as of the Gigue from BWV 831 are dominated by a sequential phrasing technique. Whether both early Ouvertures, BWV 820 and 822, are original compositions of Bach or are merely transcriptions, it is fascinating to observe how many of their features are present in the later work, BWV 831. The similarities between these pre-Weimar works and the ouverture-suite from Clavierubung II axe even more striking when one considers the period of approximately twenty-five years that separates  6  their composition and the fact that there is no similar keyboard suite that Bach composed during the intervening period.  7  Emergence of the Overture Suite in an Orchestral Style The opposition o f French and Italian national styles was already a Partita from  Clavierubung I exhibits  II,  Concerto nach Italienischen Gusto  with its  cliche by  the 1730's.  features that are characteristic o f both national styles. and  Every  Clavierubung  Ouverture nach franzosischer Art,  represents an  attempt to clarify arid purify these national characteristics. Both works, however, already represent the German version o f the two styles o f the late 1720's and early 1730's. Orchestral overtures in the French style were developed and popularized in Germanic lands as a result o f widespread admiration for the music o f the Sun K i n g , Louis X I V . T h e ballet suites o f French composers served mostly as intermezzi in operas; the appearance o f the orchestral overture suite, written in imitation o f such works, was invented and popularized by German composers, such as J . S. Kiisser and Telemann.  A m o n g the earliest works written in this genre were the  lustigen Franzdschischen Manier (1664)  by J . C . Horn,  Filnf Grosse Ballette nach der  Lust Music by  Georg Bleyer (1670) and other  works by J . S. Kiisser, J . C . F . Fischer and later, Handel, Bach and Telemann, from whom we have 135 extant overtures. The genre o f the orchestral suite proper is thus representative o f a German culture. A s Bach's student, Philipp David Krauter reported, such pieces were performed and assigned as a part o f regular composition projects during his studies in W e i m a r . It is then reasonable to assume that similar 13  pieces were also presented at other fashionable courts such as Cothen. Orchestral overtures were often transcribed for the keyboard (like the above-mentioned D major  Ouverture  by Georg Bohm) which  eventually led to the to development o f an original keyboard genre, the clavier-ouverture suite. The main idea o f the orchestral suites was the inclusion o f both free and stylized dances adhering to no particular formula, such as the one Germans inherited from Froberger: the allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.  In the orchestral suites o f Bach and his contemporaries, it was rare to find these  traditional dances together. In addition, the allemande is not present in any o f Bach's orchestral suites but i s associated with keyboard sets. v  T h e "French" quality is stressed by the inclusion o f gavottes,  passepieds, and bourrees and minuets, most often appearing in pairs. 1 3  Wolff, p. 136.  8  Starting around the 1720's, composers such as Telemann added a new feature to the orchestral suite: the use o f a soloist in a  concertante  manner. A s a result, a hybrid genre came into existence, the  concerted ouverture. In this type o f piece, as the name suggests, one or more instruments are treated as a  concertino.  The use o f the soloist in the concerted ouverture is much less virtuosic than it is in the  concerto proper. J . S. Bach's four orchestral suites in C major, B W V 1066, B minor, B W V 1067, D major, B W V 1068, and D Major, B W V 1069, are representative o f the new genre. O f these four, B W V 1066, 1068 and 1069 were most likely composed toward the end o f the Cothen period.  14  B W V 1067,  however, is now thought to have been written later since the autograph o f flute and viola can be dated to the late 1730's. Joshua Rifkin, in his yet unpublished article, "The " B minor Flute Suite" deconstructed: N e w Light on Bach's  Ouverture,  B W V 1067" argues convincingly that B W V  minor version. The author also suggests that the original  concertante  1067 existed in an early A  instrument was the violin and not  the transverse flute (since the middle C ' s in the earlier A minor version are not playable on the Baroque flute).  15  It is known that around 1729-30, J . S. Bach copied such a composition in G minor by his cousin,  Johann Bernhard B a c h o f Eisenach. T h i s piece must have been o f particular interest to Johann Sebastian for he rarely copied other composers' works. Rifkin points to many similarities between B W V 1067 and Bernhard Bach's work, such as the rhythmic patterns in the middle imitative section o f the first movement. Both works make use o f upbeats after the dotted section, leading to the fugal part. A l s o , the distinction between the harmonic progression o f B W V 1067 and the three  Ouvertures"  points to a different date o f origin for these works .  relationship o f the The  16  Badinerie  o f the B minor Suite to the  presumed date o f origin o f B W V 1067  Scherzo  "Cothen  Rifkin also points out the close  from the Partita in A minor, B W V  827.  indicates a much later time than that o f the Cothen  Joshua Rifkin, " T h e ' B minor Flute Suite' Deconstructed: N e w Light on B a c h ' s B W V 1067." This article w i l l appear in Bach Perspectives 6. 1 4  Joshua Rifkin also excludes the possibility o f an oboe, because it w o u l d have to play a C-sharp in the A minor version, which is impossible on the Baroque oboe. B W V 1067 is characteristic o f the harmonic changes that occur on every quarter-note beat, whereas the three other overtures have the obvious pace o f a h a l f note. 1 5  1 6  9  Ouvertures, probably around 1731, after the publishing o f  Clavierubung I as  a compilation. It is apparent,  then, that Bach was actively engaged in the composition o f ouvertures in the years around 1730. The C minor version o f B W V 831 copied by A n n a Magdalena Bach dates from the same period. N o t surprisingly, the new genre o f the concerted ouverture also found its outlet as an original keyboard composition.  Bach now took a further step toward creating an original suite inspired by an orchestral  genre, having been exposed from his early years to various clavier transcriptions o f orchestral works. The close proximity between the composition o f B W V 1067 and the first version o f B W V 831 explains many parallels and similarities between the two works. The transposition o f the  Ouverture,  B W V 831, from  C minor to B minor was not due to any  special attachment to the key o f B minor. It is widely believed that the new key was chosen in order to create the strongest possible contrast with the tonality o f F major in the B W V 971.  Concerto nach Italienishen Gusto,  This tritone relationship between the two works, as well as the juxtaposition between the  major and minor keys o f  Clavierubung II,  help to underline the differences o f the two genres.  important that Bach's published works from 1735 do not repeat any tonalities from  It is also  Clavierubung I.  The differences between the C minor version, B W V 831a, and the B minor version, B W V 831, consist mostly o f alterations to the notation within the dotted sections o f the overture. Since this issue is closely related to the performance problems o f the piece, it will be presented later in this discourse in greater detail.  A l s o , with the transposition to a lower key, Bach had to do some minor adjustments in  places that used the low G o f the keyboard.  10  Orchestral Features of the French Overture, B W V 831 The French Overture, B W V 831, comprises the largest number o f dance movements in all o f J. S. Bach's keyboard suites. A s expected, it opens with a movement in the overture style and is followed by ten dance movements:  Bourree II, Gigue,  Courante, Gavotte I, Gavotte II, Passepied I, Passepied II, Sarabande, Bourree I,  and  Echo.  The expansive overture movement, as it does in the early keyboard suites,  B W V 820 and 822, dominates B W V 831.  The magnificent orchestral character is achieved by the  movement's large proportions and by the framing o f the fugal part between two equally lengthy dotted slow sections. O f Bach's earlier clavier works, only the  Ouverture  in G minor, B W V 822, has a similar  structure, a fact cited by scholars in support o f its orchestral origin. The dotted sections o f this early work are much shorter and o f uneven length: the A section is 17 measures in length, while the B section is only 10 measures in length.  In all o f Bach's orchestral suites there is a return o f the slow dotted part.  However, just as in B W V 822, these reprises are shorter than the opening statements. The structure o f the opening movement o f B W V 831, presented below, shows how Bach achieves perfect symmetry within the movement where all three dotted sections are the same length:  Table 1. Overture: Formal Scheme Section  A  B  A'  B  A'  Number of measures  20  123  20  123  20  One o f the most striking orchestral features o f the overture movement from B W V 831 is the adaptation o f the ritornello form in the fugal section.  The ritornello and episode sections are clearly  contrasted by the use o f texture, register, musical material, and additional indications o fforte and piano. A l s o , the solo part's non-virtuosic use o f simple broken triad figurations in a two-part texture clearly points to the concerted ouverture type. the  Echo,  The elements o f  solo-tutti  writing returns in the last movement,  and is also emphasized by piano and forte indications, giving the entire piece an overall cyclic  impression.  11  The pairing o f popular dances, such as the gavotte, passepied, and bourree, was a common French ballroom practice. B W V 1066, often referred to as more "French" than the other three orchestral suites, features one more pair o f dances than B W V 831: of  Gavottes  Minuets I and / / .  In B W V 831, the second of the pair  contrasts with the first through the use o f a much lower register, thinner texture as well as a  less adventurous rhythm. Such a marked difference in register and attack density between the two dances clearly implies the use o f a distinctive solo instrument in the second observe a similar contrast between the pair o f creates a much more intimate impression.  Passepieds. The  Gavotte,  such as a lute.  O n e can  second one, written in a musette style,  Again, the thinner texture, more predictable rhythm and  stepwise melodic motion are used to create enormous contrast with the wild character o f the first  Passepied. Perhaps one o f the most striking characteristics o f B W V 831 is the order o f the movements which departs from the traditional German ordering o f such dances and is as follows: passepied, sarabande, bourree, gigue and echo.  In  Partita IV,  courante, gavotte,  B W V 828, another keyboard work that  opens with an overture style movement, the keyboard idiom is more obvious since it contains all the basic dances in traditional order: allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue.  17  T h e presence o f the allemande  in B W V 828 emphasizes the keyboard idiom o f this work. Conversely, the lack o f this dance is a feature o f the orchestral suites and o f B W V 831.  A l l the orchestral suites lack allemandes and avoid a strong  traditional dance order. Another similarity between B W V 831 and three o f Bach's orchestral suites  18  is  the conclusion o f each o f these sets with rare dances or even pieces without a dance association. B W V 1066 concludes with a pair o f and B W V 831 with an  Echo.  Suite, B W V 1067, and the  Passepieds,  B W V 1067 with a  Badineri,  B W V 1069 with a  Rejouissance  Another obvious similarity between the last movements o f the Orchestral  Ouverture,  B W V 831, is that both  elements and are written in the same 2/4 meter.  Echo and Badinerie display  concerto  The main motives o f both pieces use the characteristic  rhythm of the dactylicfiguraecorta:  One o f the few irregularities in the form o f B W V 828 is the insertion o f an parallels the inclusion o f Gavottes in the same place i n B W V 8 3 1 . W i t h the exclusion o f Suite N o . 3, B W V 1068. 1 7  1 8  12  Aria  after the  Courante,  which  Example 1  Badinerie  Example 2  Echo  2  • fin.»i ~~J~  >J> ^ •  «. '  ^  —  J j -V  H ' y  «.'  m% 1  i  Lr  —  _ji  m*  h  r r  —  Another similarity between the Ouverture, B W V 831, and the orchestral suites lies in the parallel dance types which appear in both. The bourree is included in B W V 831 as it is in all the orchestral suites. However, it is featured in only two of the English and two of the French Suites, and in none of the Partitas. A l l of the orchestral suites, with the exception of B W V 1067, also include gavottes which appear as the third dance in such cycles, just as in the case of B W V 831. The four-voice texture of the Sarabande from B W V 831 is not only very unique but also underscores the orchestral nature of the work. The lack of keyboard arpeggios on the strong beats of the Sarabande is surprising in a work for solo keyboard, and also underlines the orchestral approach. None of J. S. Bach's orchestral suites include more than one of the four traditional dances, and, moreover, two of them, B W V 1068 and B W V 1069, have none at all. However, in keeping with the  13  keyboard suites, B W V 831 includes three o f the four traditional suite movements, the courante, sarabande and gigue. The  Ouverture,  B W V 831, then, displays a number o f orchestral features, without losing the  most necessary connection to the traditional solo keyboard genre.  14  Overture movement: Style and Form The majestic French overture took its origin from its intended function as processional music, necessarily o f a character and style appropriate for the entrance o f the Sun K i n g .  M a n y generations o f  composers from L u l l y through Bach and Handel wrote compositions in this style reflecting the brilliance of royalty with the intention o f arousing feelings o f pride and supremacy. contributed many ensemble and keyboard works using this genre.  Johann Sebastian Bach  Besides the four Orchestral Suites,  B W V 1066-1069, there are the overtures to Cantatas, B W V 97, 110 and 119, and the choral fantasy from the  Cantata,  B W V 61.  His early fascination with the French overture is reflected by the presence o f  many such pieces in the early M o l l e r and A n n a Magdalena Bach Manuscripts. Aside from the early  Ouvertures, in the  19  Fugue  828, the and  B W V 820 and 822, which are o f questionable authorship , the overture style is also present in D major from  Ouverture,  Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I,  B W V 831, the  Praeludium, B W V  552/1,  B W V 850, the  Variation  Partita in  16 from the  D major, B W V  Goldberg Variations,  Contrapunctus 6 (in stilefrancese)fromthe Kunst der Fuge. The  overtures comprises two sections,  A and B , where contrast is achieved through the  juxtaposition o f a slow homophonic section, frequently in the meter o f 2 (crossed) with a fast, imitative segment, often in a compound meter.  Some overtures end with a return to the dotted section, as is the  case with B W V 831, thus resulting in the formal scheme, A B A B A .  However, many are written in a  simple A B pattern. The portrayal o f royal pride and brilliance is attained in the opening section by an extremely florid homophonic texture, containing punctuated rhythms and fast scale-like passages. that exhibit  frequent  rhythmic dotting o f varied degrees,  homophonic texture in a meter o f 2  2 0  tirades (fast  scale-like  Pieces  passages) and  are associated with the French overture style. A careful distinction  should be made between the compositions in this complex,  aliafrancese  than persistent dotting, such as the opening movement o f the  21  Partita  style, and those with little more  in C minor, B W V 826.  A s David  It is still uncertain whether both pieces are original keyboard compositions by J . S. B a c h or merely transcriptions from unknown orchestral works. Sometimes it is in 4/4, as appearing i n some o f Handel's overtures. 1 9  2 0  Contrapunctus 6 from Kunst der Fuge.  15  F u l l e r points out in his article, " T h e movements  Dotted Style in B a c h , Handel, and Scarlatti", such  c l o s e r d i s p l a y the I t a l i a n s t y l e , w h i c h c a n be seen, f o r e x a m p l e , i n m a n y  opening  introductory  movements by Corel I i . 2 2  T h e e x i s t e n c e o f t w o v e r s i o n s o f the controversy.  Ouverture,  B W V 8 3 1 , f o r d e c a d e s has been a subject o f  W h e t h e r the p r i n t e d v e r s i o n represented the s a m e i d e a w r i t t e n i n a n i m p r o v e d a n d m o r e  p r e c i s e n o t a t i o n o r w h e t h e r it p r e s e n t e d a n a l t e r e d m u s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n w a s the p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n .  The  e a r l y v e r s i o n i n C m i n o r e x i s t e d i n a m a n u s c r i p t b y A n n a M a g d a l e n a B a c h as w e l l as i n a m a n u s c r i p t b y J o h a n n G o t t l i e b P r e l l e r . T h e later v e r s i o n i n B m i n o r w a s p u b l i s h e d i n  Clavierubung II  i n 1 7 3 5 , a n d re-  e d i t e d i n 1736. T h e p u r p o s e f o r the c h a n g e o f k e y f r o m C m i n o r t o B m i n o r w a s to a c h i e v e the h i g h e s t d e g r e e o f t o n a l contrast to the I t a l i a n C o n c e r t o f r o m the s a m e set, e n h a n c e d b y the t r i t o n e r e l a t i o n s h i p as w e l l as the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f a m a j o r a n d m i n o r m o d e . T h e m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e that is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e x i s t e n c e o f the t w o v e r s i o n s c o r r e s p o n d s to the s h a r p e n e d r h y t h m s o f the later p u b l i c a t i o n . s c h o l a r s , s u c h as M i c h a e l C o l l i n s , C h r i s t o p h W o l f f a n d J o h n O ' D o n e l l  2 3  Many  b e l i e v e that the s e c o n d v e r s i o n  represents a n i m p r o v e d n o t a t i o n o f the first a n d that "the r e a l i z a t i o n s o f the d o t t e d v a l u e s are i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h v e r s i o n s . . . " . A l s o , the e x i s t e n c e o f the s e c o n d a n d " i m p r o v e d " ( w i t h r e g a r d to n o t a t i o n ) v e r s i o n o f 2 4  BWV  831  practice . 25  is t a k e n as a p r o o f o f B a c h ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the i m p o r t a n c e  o f correct  performance  F r e d e r i c N e u m a n n , o n the o t h e r h a n d , a r g u e d against t h i s n o t i o n a n d b e l i e v e d that the t w o  v e r s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t w o d i v e r s e m u s i c a l presentations,  m a i n t a i n i n g that e a c h s h o u l d be  performed  e x a c t l y as w r i t t e n . D a v i d S c h u l e n b e r g suggests that s o m e o f the r h y t h m s m a y h a v e been c h a n g e d , w h i l e 2 6  others w e r e r e - w r i t t e n i n a m o r e p r e c i s e m a n n e r .  27  D a v i d Fuller, "The Dotted Style in Bach, Handel, and Scarlatti," i n Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary ed. Peter W i l l i a m s (Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 99-117. John O ' D o n e l l , " T h e French Style and the Overtures o f B a c h , " EMI (1979), p. 190, 336. Preface in Johann Sebastian Bach, Italienisches Konzert und Franzbsische Ouverture. Zweiter Teil der Clavierubung, ed. Walter Emery (Kassel, 1977), p. v. 1 1  Essays,  2 3  2 4  George Stauffer, "Changing Issues o f Performance Practice," in The Cambridge Companion to Bach, ed. John Butt (Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 203. Frederic Neumann, "Rhythm in the T w o Versions o f B a c h ' s French Overture, B W V 8 3 1 , " in Essays in  2 5  2 6  Performance Practice ( A n n Arbor, Michigan, 1982), p. 99. 2 7  Schulenberg, p. 305.  16  A s o n e c a n see i n T a b l e 1 a b o v e , the f o r m o f the o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t o f B W V 8 3 1 i s p e r f e c t l y s y m m e t r i c a l . T h e c l o s u r e o f the m o v e m e n t w i t h a s e c o n d d o t t e d s e c t i o n o f t h e s a m e length as t h e first i s not a n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t i m p o s e d b y f o r m a l t r a d i t i o n . majestic and powerful impression.  T h e s y m m e t r y here creates a n e x t r e m e l y  A l t h o u g h t h e y are p r e c i s e l y o f the s a m e l e n g t h , the t w o dotted  s e c t i o n s o f the o v e r t u r e are n o t i d e n t i c a l , b u t m a k e use o f s i m i l a r r h y t h m i c a n d m o t i v i c gestures. T h e c o n c l u d i n g s l o w section surprisingly introduces a n e w progression almost immediately i n measure 145. H e r e , a I I I h a r m o n y i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f the m e a s u r e is t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s e c o n d a r y d o m i n a n t l e a d i n g 7  to t h e s u b d o m i n a n t ( V / / v ) . F r o m t h i s p o i n t o n , the l i s t e n e r i s e x p o s e d t o a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t h a r m o n i c 7  p r o g r e s s i o n t h a n that o f the o p e n i n g d o t t e d s e c t i o n . T y p i c a l l y f o r a n y b i n a r y structure, the s l o w dotted s e c t i o n c o m p r i s e s t h r e e l o n g phrases: p h r a s e 1 ( m e a s u r e s 1 - 5 ) , phrase 2 ( m e a s u r e s 5 - 1 3 ) , a n d p h r a s e 3 ( m e a s u r e s 1 3 - 2 0 ) . 1  1  T h e o p e n i n g p h r a s e is  2  b a s e d o n a d e s c e n d i n g c i r c l e o f fifths p r o g r e s s i o n :  Table 2. Overture: Descending Circle of 5ths Progression Measure  h -  Harmony  '  *2  »> 1  f  D maj  7  3  1  G maj  jr  3? '  - C# half-dim  ^ H o w e v e r , the next sequential segment  j 7  !  4 F # maj  r  '  * -  'A  5  B mm  '  .1  b e g i n s w i t h a n a s c e n d i n g c i r c l e o f fifths pattern, w h i c h t h e n  c a d e n c e s i n m e a s u r e 10:  Table 3. Overture: Ascending Circle of 5ths Progression Measure  .'6 \ ' \  Harmony  l)nu| !  c  1  * 8  ^\  W^^gmSifSiSSM  S  1 2  9-10  3A  * - * \. - ; ^ A maj  WSmfi^M^W^^ T h e f o l l o w i n g measures,  _  I min  ^ilX^^Mff^sf^A  1  I^^P^^^^^-^l'^w^  10-13, e s t a b l i s h the n e w k e y o f F - s h a r p m i n o r .  B  7  %  l  I min/F*ma>i  MiU^^SSI^fti^  ^M^^^^f^r^^f^f'm  T h e n e w k e y i s then c l e a r l y  s t a b i l i z e d b y m e a n s o f a n e x a c t r e p e t i t i o n o f the o p e n i n g m e l o d i c a n d h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m m e a s u r e s 1-5 b u t i n the k e y o f the m i n o r d o m i n a n t .  T h i s restatement o f the f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l h e l p s t o  create a n a u r a o f s t a b i l i t y a n d majesty, w h i c h is e s s e n t i a l t o the c h a r a c t e r o f the F r e n c h o v e r t u r e a n d a l s o  17  contributes to the symmetry o f this three-phrase structure.  The closing measures make use o f strongly  cadential material and conclude with an uplifting turn to the major dominant.  This extensive and  persistent use o f the circle o f fifths progression is the most striking harmonic device in the opening section.  In the first phrase the descending circle o f seventh chords serves to establish a dissonant and  expressive harmonic language that effectively releases tension through each statement o f the sequential unit. The second phrase, however, uses an ascending progression to heighten the tension and, with each step, brings the listener closer to the climactic arrival on the dominant in measure 10. When the new key o f F-sharp minor is firmly established in measure 13, the same descending pattern as that o f the first phrase is restated. One should also note the perfectly arch-shaped contour o f the opening phrase.  It begins on F -  sharp in the middle register and reaches through an octave to an early high point on the second beat o f 4  the second measure.  This creates a heightened sense o f grandeur, accomplished by exploring a large  melodic range within a short period o f time. The phrase ending is marked by a return to the original F sharp pitch three measures after the peak.  This reach upwards to high F-sharp represents an urgent 5  increase o f tension while the following descent represents a very slow release o f tension. It is the circle o f fifths pattern that helps to control the slow descent. This combination o f effective melodic writing with the dissonant harmonic pattern creates an extremely captivating and powerful impression at the very beginning o f the  Ouverture. A l s o ,  in comparison with the  Partita IV,  831, abounds in accented dissonances and frequent points o f imitation.  B W V 828, the  Ouverture,  BWV  A l l these characteristics point  toward a composition on a much grander scale than previous ouvertures for solo keyboard. The concluding slow section o f the first movement o f B W V 831 commences with the quotation o f the initial motive from measures 1-2. F r o m this point on, however, it does not repeat any material from the opening section literally, but makes use o f similar motivic gestures. One is surprised in the second half o f measure 145 by the use o f the B  7  chord as the dominant o f the subdominant and with it, the  appearance o f the new leading tone. This new pitch appears in the same measure and voice shortly after an  appoggiatura  on D on the strong beat o f the same bar. The key o f E minor seems to dominate the  18  section from measures 145 to 151. A descending circle o f fifths, progressing steadily every half measure is used in order to relax the build up o f tension in measures 154 to 156:  Table 4. Overture-Reprise: Descending Circle of 5ths Progression 3-4  156  1-2  I) maj  This is the only progression through a circle o f fifths in this section; its descending direction stresses the decrease o f intensity that takes place in the ending section. Interestingly, the opening section o f the Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, with which the  Ouverture,  B W V 831, shares several similarities, also makes clear use o f a very similar circle o f fifths  progression.  Measures 4-8 are based on the following sonorities:  F-sharp major, B major, E minor, A  major and D major. This harmonic progression moves slowly, placing the main chords on the downbeats on longer note values.  Extensive use o f the circle o f fifths progression is an integral part o f other  overtures from the orchestral suites, such as in measures 4-7 o f the slow closing section o f the Orchestral Suite in C major, B W V 1066.  However, the intensity that it creates in the  Ouverture,  B W V 831, is  unprecedented. The middle part o f the and fugue.  Ouverture,  B W V 831, presents the perfect combination o f ritornello form  In order to make these formal procedures even more clear, B a c h suggests the use o f both  manuals o f the harpsichord by the indications  forte  and  piano.  In the table below, one can see the  alignment o f the ritornello and fugal sections in the B section o f B W V 831:  19  Table 5: Overture: Ritornello/Fugal Formal Plan  R1.~"l  Ritornello/ Solo Group  i•• *  . exposition;  Section  j>  l  Key  'C -  J  ' 20-46  }  "  '>  ."1  Fugal  Measures  rV'Tti^Tj  SI  ' ,  episode  47-58  i  Jb-j^-^d b - t o D +  '  S3  ^rf"R4~\  . episode  f  group entry  episode  <2^ reprise  '/I  v  ' ' r  P^R3™^  ,«{  g r o u p entry  t"  S2  59-76'  77-88  V ^' \ P + ' t o f#-  B y c o m p a r i s o n , the i m i t a t i v e m i d d l e part o f  89-103  ' 104-122  V 1 f#-toA+  Partita IV,  '  i  r '• A + " t o c - . .  e-tob-  123]  i  3 1  -b- •  B W V 828/1, does not exhibit such a clear  f o r m a l p l a n ; the f u g a l a n d c o n c e r t o - l i k e features are m u c h less c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d a n d the m o v e m e n t e x p l o r e s w r i t i n g m o r e i d i o m a t i c to the k e y b o a r d .  A l s o , b e c a u s e o f the m u c h l o o s e r treatment o f the  r i t o r n e l l o p r o c e d u r e , B W V 828/1 m o r e c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s the p r e l u d e s o f the E n g l i s h S u i t e s N o . 2 - 6 , B W V 8 0 7 - 8 1 1 , t h a n the h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d f u g a l s e c t i o n o f the  Ouverture,  B W V 8 3 1 / 1 . T h e texture o f the  B s e c t i o n o f B W V 8 2 8 / 1 a l s o d o e s n o t h e l p t o c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e the f o r m .  S t a r t i n g i n m e a s u r e 4 8 , the  s e c o n d r i t o r n e l l o is stated w i t h i n the s a m e t w o - p a r t w r i t i n g as the p r e v i o u s s o l o s e c t i o n . k e y b o a r d w r i t i n g is present t h r o u g h o u t the  Partita, e s p e c i a l l y  Idiomatic  i n m e a s u r e s 3 6 , 4 0 a n d 5 4 w h e r e the s c a l a r  f i g u r a t i o n s e n c o m p a s s m o r e than t w o o c t a v e s . T h e r i t o r n e l l o o f the o p e n i n g m o v e m e n t o f the m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f the  Ouverture  presents the f u g a l  subject i n the meter o f 6/8, w h i c h is t y p i c a l f o r s u c h s e c t i o n s . T h e j o y o u s a n d e n e r g e t i c m o m e n t u m o f the g i g u e r h y t h m creates e n o r m o u s contrast w i t h the p r e c e d i n g p r o c e s s i o n a l s e g m e n t .  The main motive,  w h i c h starts w i t h a n upbeat a n d e x p l o r e s large, w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d leaps t h r o u g h a n o c t a v e , c o n t r i b u t e s t o the festive c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s s e c t i o n .  T h e f o u r f u g a l entries p r o c e e d c o n t i n u o u s l y , not i n a t r a d i t i o n a l f u g a l  o r d e r (alto, s o p r a n o , tenor, b a s s ) b u t rather i n a d e s c e n d i n g m a n n e r s t a r t i n g f r o m t h e h i g h e s t v o i c e . E v e r y  tutti a n d solo use o f  s e c t i o n is c l e a r l y p u n c t u a t e d b y the u s e o f s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l f o r m u l a s a n d strengthened b y the  hemiola.  T h e first t w o s o l o e p i s o d e s are based o n the s a m e m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l . T h e t h i r d is a l s o  based o n m o t i v i c gestures f r o m the p r e v i o u s s o l o s but it is e n r i c h e d b y a n a d d i t i o n a l p o l y p h o n i c v o i c e w h i c h p l a y s a m u c h m o r e a c t i v e r o l e t h a n that o f b a s s o c o n t i n u o i m i t a t i o n . T h i s d u e t - l i k e s e c t i o n , e i g h t  20  measures in length, makes use o f the melodic formulas o f the fugal subject.  In measure 112 however, it  gives way to the main solo material. The  piano sections  are written in a contrastingly sparse three-voice texture.  The main melodic  idea is based on a broken chord figuration taken from idiomatic string writing and is placed above the continuo-like accompaniment. The melodic material o f the solo sections is sparse and simple, similar to measures 55-62 o f the Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, where the solo part is written in continuous eighth notes and accompanied by sparse, strongly articulated quarter notes. between  solo and tutti is  underlined by a sudden shift to the lower register during the first two episodes.  The third ritornello constitutes the demanding part o f the overture. middle  tutti  section:  most dramatic, harmonically unstable  and technically  Surprisingly, B a c h continues the melodic pattern from the  solo  the right hand part in measure 89 draws from the melodic figure o f the  measures 85 and 86 . 2  The contrast  1  in this  solo  from  The harmonic progression that underlines the four statements o f the motive is  based upon an ascending circle o f fifths: in measure 89, A major; in measure 91, E minor; in measure 93, B minor and in measure 95, F-sharp minor. Similarly to the beginning o f the fugue, the voices present the melodic gesture in descending order, from soprano to bass.  In measures 91-93 three changes o f manuals  in the left hand contribute to the generally higher level o f difficulty.  This ritornello does not give a  complete statement o f the fugal subject but instead the fugal entries are drawn on material taken from the  solo  section. This is balanced by the incorporation o f the fugue subject in the last solo section (top voice,  measures 104-107). The entire fugue closes with the reprise o f the first tutti, a clear reference to ritornello form and the orchestral suite which again creates a sense o f balance and symmetry within the fugue itself. The schematic  character o f the middle section  with its strongly articulated episodes and  ritornellos, as well as with the use o f the same musical material as the  solo  section, often serves against  this work as the main criticism. When the entire fugue and the following dotted sections are repeated, they may contribute to the impression that the opening overture dominates the entirety o f B W V 831.  21  Dances Courante There are seven different dance types in the  Courante, Gavotte I and II, Passepied I and  //,  Ouverture,  B W V 831, o f which three occur in pairs:  Sarabande, Bourree I and / / , Gigue and Echo.  Altogether  the ten movements constitute a bigger part o f this suite, and, especially with the pairs being played  altenativement,  create an overwhelming impression.  impressive overture movement. extremely expressive  A s a group, the dances counterbalance the long,  Bach contrasts the simplicity o f the fast movements with the slower and  Courante  and  sharply dotted rhythms, as well as the  Sarabande. Echo  Finally, the concluding  Gigue  with its fast scales and  with its concerto-like writing give a cyclic impression o f the  entire suite. A s mentioned above, the suite does not contain an allemande and, instead, the first dance is a French  Courante. In the  majority o f his French courantes, Bach's use o f meter contributes to the elusive  quality o f the dance, resulting in some sections being clearly written in 6/4 or 3/2.  Bach clarifies this  division o f 3/2 or 6/4 by the harmonic progression, appropriate beaming o f notes and by other means o f accentuation, such as with a mordent or an arpeggio. In the case o f  Partita IV,  B W V 828, for example,  the ambiguity o f the beat structure in measure one is elucidated by the placement o f a mordent above the pitch "b", suggesting a strong triple meter. throughout the intricate measures. two include French courantes:  Ouverture,  In this work, one can find many problems o f bar division  It is also worth mentioning that, o f the entire set o f Six Partitas, only  Partita II,  B W V 826, and  Partita IV,  B W V 828.  The  Courante  from the  B W V 831, is one o f the few such works by Bach that is entirely written in the meter o f 3/2,  making this movement metrically simpler than the one from B W V 828. A s one would expect to see in a courante written in the French style, the one from B W V 831 opens with a typical upbeat o f an eighth note and abounds with the characteristic dotted quarter/eighth note rhythm.  Courante  In comparison with those  Courantes  in the French style from B W V 826 and 828, this  exemplifies a much more persistent use o f the characteristic rhythmic formula which occurs in  almost every measure o f the A section o f the dance. In B W V 828 the short eighth note is often replaced  22  by flowing sixteenth notes introduced by a tie which tends to weaken this prominent rhythmic feature. In the case o f that from B W V 828, the unifying and dominant rhythmic gesture appears to In this light, Bach returns to the traditional rhythms in the suitable for an  Courante o f  befigurae corta *. 2  B W V 831, making this piece more  Ouverture nach Franzdsischer Art.  Bach's understanding o f the dance steps o f a courante is exhibited by the unique rhythm o f the bass part at the beginning o f the piece (measures 1-3).  The left hand's figuration does not follow any o f  the basic metric patterns but is written as a series o f hemiolas made clearly audible by the use o f pedal points in the bass register. These rhythmic patterns crossing bar lines emphasize the distinctive steps o f the dance. Bach repeats this left hand gesture in measures 20-21 but on the subdominant pitch, creating an appropriate subdominant preparation for the concluding cadential section. L i k e the other two Leipzig  Courantes,  B W V 831/2 has a predominantly three-voice texture. The  polyphonic interplay between voices is more intriguing and subtle here than in the  Clavierubung I. between the  Courantes  from  The texture is also enriched by the inclusion o f imitative moments, as in measure 4  appoggiaturas  to F-sharp or in measures 8-9, where the last three eighth notes o f beat three  in the soprano part are imitated in the following bar by the bass. In this respect, one can see a similarity with the  Courante from Partita II,  counterpoint.  B W V 826, which already starts in the first two measures with imitative  The degree o f polyphonic intensity, however, seems to be much higher in B W V 831/2.  This can be observed in measures 5-7, where the four-note gesture stressed with a slur is presented in different voices in contrary motion and in measure 6 where the entries occur one quarter note apart. B W V 831/2 comprises two sections o f identical length.  Each twelve-measure section can be  divided into two phrases according to the strong cadential punctuation. The first phrase is four bars long and encompasses a range from B to C-sharp . After the leap o f a perfect fourth on the first beat o f the 3  5  first measure, the melody progresses mostly in stepwise motion, reaching its highest note in measure 4. The following six-bar phrase is chromatic, containing extremely expressive leaps. The melody makes use o f a higher register and an expanded range reaching high F-sharp before descending to the initial pitch o f 5  2 8  Afigurae corta comprises two sixteenth notes and an eighth note, or vice versa.  23  F-sharp . Exceptional tension is achieved in measures 6 and 7 by the more intense polyphonic interplay 4  between voices enriched by chromatic alterations which contribute to the dissonant character o f the work. For example, the A major sonority at the downbeat o f measure 6 is followed by an ascent o f eighth notes to the D-sharp placed on the important third beat o f the measure.  A t the same time, the polyphonic  melody moving in contrary motion in the bass part passes through the pitch o f G . This is aligned with 2  the accented D-sharp  5  in the soprano part and thus creates a tritone between the two voices.  The  downbeat o f the next measure does not bring a satisfactory release o f this tension, leading to another tritone between E and A-sharp , this time explored melodically in the bass part. A t this moment on the 2  2  third beat o f measure 7, the melody reaches its peak on F-sharp , approached by an expressive leap o f a 5  perfect fourth.  F r o m this point on, the degree o f intensity slowly decreases by a gradual descent to the  original pitch o f F-sharp . 4  The second section o f the  Courante  divides into two six-bar phrases. Beginning on C-sharp , it 4  arrives on an early high point, F-sharp , on the first measure o f the second section. 5  preceded by an affective octave leap upward.  This high note is  The remainder o f the phrase, with its predominantly  stepwise motion, brings a gradual relaxation o f tension until the cadence in D major in measure 18. The last phrase, however, counteracts this temporary relief through a large upward leap o f a tenth, arriving on the peak, G in measure 21. 5  In measure 19, two pairs o f adjacent tritones are juxtaposed within the  melody occurring within a half step o f one another: the accented A-sharp on the downbeat progresses to 4  E , after which the melody proceeds from D-sharp to A . T h e tension created by this extensive use o f 4  4  4  tritones is relieved by a consonant subdominant sonority in measure 20. It is here where the expressive ascent from E  4  to the peak, G , takes place, contributing to the 5  associated with this dance.  Ajfekt o f  hopefulness that is often  29  B W V 831/2 is the last o f Bach's courantes.  Its unsurpassed quality is achieved by ingenious  affective polyphonic writing in conjunction with the traditional rhythmic gestures o f the French style.  2 9  Ernest C . Harriss,  Commentary ( A n n  Johann Mattheson's Der vollkommene Capellmeister. A Revised Translation with Critical A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U M I Press, 1981), p. 462.  24  Gavottes I, II T h e gavotte b e c a m e a v e r y p o p u l a r d a n c e d u r i n g the 1 7 2 0 ' s a n d 1 7 3 0 ' s a n d , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , is f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d i n m a n y o f J . S. B a c h ' s suites. T h i s d a n c e is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m e t e r o f " C s l a s h " o r " 2 " , w h i c h d e f i n e s the b a s i c r h y t h m i c u n i t as a h a l f note. A t y p i c a l late 1 7 - o r e a r l y 1 8 - c e n t u r y F r e n c h th  lh  gavotte c o n t a i n e d r e g u l a r phrases w h i c h b e g a n w i t h a n a n a c r u s t i c h a l f note a n d finished w i t h a h a l f note downbeat.  30  B W V 8 2 2 / 3 offers a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e o f s u c h a d a n c e .  Its p r e d i c t a b l e a n d r e g u l a r m e l o d i e s  d o m i n a t e the entire p i e c e a n d m a k e use o f t y p i c a l F r e n c h d o t t e d r h y t h m s o n the p e n u l t i m a t e beat o f e a c h phrase.  The  Gavottes  f r o m the T h i r d E n g l i s h S u i t e , B W V 8 0 8 , a n d the S i x t h E n g l i s h S u i t e , B W V 8 1 1 ,  a l s o e x e m p l i f y m a n y c o m m o n features o f t h i s d a n c e . T h a t o f B W V 8 0 8 c o m b i n e s F r e n c h r e g u l a r i t i e s a n d o r n a m e n t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s I t a l i a n i s m s , s u c h as t r i a d i c m o t i v e s a n d a b u n d a n t l e a p s . B o t h suites c o n t a i n a second  Gavotte w r i t t e n  i n a musette s t y l e . A s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , the  Gavottes  f r o m the F o u r t h , F i f t h , a n d  Sixth F r e n c h Suites, B W V 8 1 5 , 8 1 6 and 817 have a predictable phrasing and f l o w i n g character. T h e o n l y counterpart i n  Clavierubung I  Tempo di gavotta,  is the m o v e m e n t ,  from  Partita VI, B  c o m p l e x i t y a n d n o n - F r e n c h nature, h o w e v e r , cause it to stand out as a n a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e . frequent t r i p l e t s a n d d o t t e d r h y t h m s , t h i s  Gavotte  W V 830.  Its  W i t h its  is s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d b y a n I t a l i a n v i o l i n i s t i c s t y l e /  1  P e r h a p s the m o s t s t r i k i n g a n d i r r e g u l a r feature o f t h i s m o v e m e n t is the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f d u p l e a n d t r i p l e beat d i v i s i o n w h i c h creates m a n y p e r f o r m a n c e p r o b l e m s . B W V 8 3 1 / 3 t h e n represents a r e t u r n to a m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a n d s t y l e .  Clear and balanced  phrases, t y p i c a l m e t r i c structure a n d c o n s i s t e n t d u p l e d i v i s i o n o f the beat m a y be o b s e r v e d w i t h i n this dance.  T h e A section o f  Gavotte I  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f sixteenth-note earlier compilations. t o w a r d s the c a d e n c e .  is e i g h t m e a s u r e s l o n g w h i l e the B s e c t i o n is d o u b l e d i n l e n g t h .  tirades  e n r i c h e s the t e x t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h i s is l a c k i n g i n the gavottes  A t the e n d o f the first phrase, the  tirades h e l p  The from  to create i n c r e a s e d m o m e n t u m  In the s e c o n d part, h o w e v e r , these f i g u r e s are f o u n d w i t h i n m o r e  dissonant  Early French gavottes commenced on downbeats, which became a feature o f later Italian dances o f this type. Schulenberg, p. 295. The Tempo di Gavotta from the Partita, B W V 830, draws from a version o f the Sonata for V i o l i n in G major, B W V 1019a. The same version o f the sonata comprises a harpsichord movement that reappears 3 0  J l  as a Corrente in Partita VI, B W V 830.  25  sonorities, serving to create greater agitation towards the climax in measures 16-18. This section o f the piece contains a surprising series o f consecutive diminished chords, occurring on the upbeat o f measure 16 and the downbeat and upbeat o f measure 17. The harmonic tension o f this section is magnified by the ascent o f the phrase. A further implication o f the diminished harmonies may also by found outlined on the strong beats in measures 16 and 17.  tirades  The four-note slurring stresses the violinistic character o f the  and contributes to the orchestral qualities.  The concluding segment, from measures 20 to 24,  contains a surprising restatement o f the opening upbeat motive an octave higher which reaches upward to the highest pitch o f the movement.  Gavotte I  successfully contains unexpected harmonic, registral and  textural elements within the simplicity o f traditional gavotte rhythm and phrasing. Unlike the paired in a  musette  Gavottes  o f the English Suites, the second  Gavotte  o f B W V 831 is not written  style. The contrast between these two dances is achieved through the change to the relative  major key, the shift to a lower overall register and by the suggested change o f manuals.  This distinct  change o f texture and colour brings to mind a solo instrument with a simple continuo accompaniment. The connection with the previous dance is achieved by a common rhythmic figure found in the opening. Regular phrasing, rhythmic uniformity and an abundance o f stepwise passages all contribute to the traditional quality o f the dance.  Gavotte II contains  more ornaments and, in the right hand o f measures  13-15, introduces written-out mordents emphasized by articulation marks. Despite the inclusion o f some Italianate syncopation French simplicity seems to dominate throughout until the elegant ending gestures.  Passepieds I, II The  Passepied which  follows embodies a much less common dance type. Originating in Brittany,  the passepied belongs to a fast group o f dances in triple meter. They are characteristically homophonic and containing an abundance o f unusual offbeat accents, hemiolas and long phrases. V e r y few examples o f such dances exist in Bach's compositional output. Besides the paired set in B W V 831, two are included in the fifth English Suite, B W V 810, one in  Partita  Passepieds  K i n G major, B W V 829, and one in the  first Orchestral Suite, B W V 1066. The pair from B W V 831 represents a masterful example o f this dance type. Because o f its near exact repetition o f the initial material at the end o f the movement, the structure  26  resembles rounded binary form. The only passepied by Bach that does not follow traditional form is that from the fifth English Suite which follows rondeau structure. The most striking characteristic o f  Passepied I,  B W V 831, is the powerful dissonance placed at  the opening o f the dance. This unexpected sonority is stressed by a trill which later recurs in measures 5, 8 and 25 as a distinguishing gesture.  B y comparison, the  Passepied  from B W V 829 opens with a similar  rhythmic pattern and mordent on the downbeat but is far less dissonant.  In B W V 831, however, the  dissonant trill is added to the already dissonant C-sharp half-diminished seventh chord.  Though less  dissonant because o f its position within a pure B major sonority, the opening o f the B section begins with a similar trill. A n unexpected offbeat accent is created by the placement o f another trill on the diminished harmony in measure 20, serving to prepare for the return o f the energetic opening motive three bars later. The highly dissonant nature o f  Passepied I  from B W V 831 is a distinguishing trait from other  dances o f this type and, moreover, this movement is also the most rhythmically varied. E a c h bar o f the opening four-bar phrase consists o f different rhythmic patterns, whereas the 810 and B W V 829 are written in a uniform and flowing manner.  Passepieds  Passepied I  from B W V 809  dominated by an even flow o f sixteenth notes in a two-part polyphonic texture.  Passepied  from the B W V is  Even though the  in B W V 829 is similar in rhythm to B W V 831/4, its character is less explosive because it  contains more stable patterns o f sixteenth notes. Although the phrases o f the  Passepied  in B W V 831 are  divided into regular four-bar segments, especially apparent in the second section, the dance has a startling breathless quality. T h e forward momentum o f the movement is achieved through varied rhythm between the voices.  F o r example, an ascending scale in the middle voice immediately disturbs the release o f  tension, which occurs on the downbeat o f measure 16. Similar rhythmic agitation is created in measures 12, 17 and 20. T h e volatile character o f  Passepied 1 is  amplified in measures 5 and 6 by the hemiola over  the chromatic ascent in the bass. L i k e the other movements o f B W V 831, the texture o f  Passepied I  also exhibits elements o f  orchestral writing. The opening phrase is primarily in four parts, creating a contrast to the thinner texture o f the middle part. Instrumental obligato writing appears in the low and middle voices o f measures 16-17  27  and 20-24.  The  Passepieds  o f B W V 810 and B W V 829 represent a much more idiomatic keyboard  technique and are fashioned in a thinner two or three voice texture.  Passepied II  presents a strong contrasting mode, character, texture, rhythm and register.  Passepied II of BWV  810, this dance is written in a  musette  Like  style. More rhythmic regularity is presented  here with a clear oscillation o f eighth notes and sixteenth notes from one measure to the next.  Passepied  II frequently draws comments regarding its unusual B major tonality; however, one should not forget that the original C major key was quite common, and that the B major key results only from the transposition o f the entire suite. T h e first expansive orchestral  Passepied II.  Passepied differs  from the thinner, three-part texture o f  The melodic parallel thirds in measures 1-2, 5-6, 9-10, 17 and 21 emphasize the extremely  narrow register o f the musette, creating a much more intimate character.  Similarly to  Gavotte II,  the  differentiation o f register and texture suggests a soloistic approach rather than an orchestral one. The pedal point, characteristic o f musette style pieces, establishes the same harmony through measures 1 and 2.  This results in a cancellation o f the strong harmonic distinction between upbeat and  downbeat, found in the sharply dissonant beginning o f cadence  in measure 4 as well as extensive use o f  uninterrupted melodic flow. In the last phrase o f  Passepied I.  hemiolas  Through the use o f a deceptive  in measures  Passepied II (measures  and rhythmic gestures from the first phrase o f the same movement.  11-16, Bach creates an  17-24), Bach quotes the melodic  It is built, however, on a different  harmonic pattern. Again, a circle o f fifths progression is used in order to create a fluid line: measures 1719 are based on a C-sharp major seventh harmony, leading to F-sharp major and finally resolving to the tonic. The richly varied harmonic language, texture and register in  Passepied I  and / / create an  enormous contrast, further strengthened through the suggestion o f the rustic instrument, the  musette.  Sarabande The slow and ceremonious sarabande is present in Bach's suites from the earliest years o f his compositional career, occurring in such early works as the B W V 823, and the  Partie  in A major, B W V 832.  Suite  in B-flat, B W V 821, the  Suite  in F minor,  Within his thirty years o f experience, Bach composed  28  sarabandes in a variety o f styles and forms.  The English Suites exemplify the composer's innovative  harmonic language, elaborated keyboard figurations and mastery o f French and Italian embellishments. Homophonic textures are enriched by occasional polyphonic treatment, such as, for example, the first English Suite, B W V 806, where the main rhythmic motive is subjected to extended imitation in measures 25-30.  Consecutive diminished chords are used in order to build up tension within phrases, such as in  measures 13-15 o f the  Sarabande  from the third English Suite, B W V 808.  Chromaticism and invertible  counterpoint often appear in the French Suites, for example, in the fourth French Suite in E-flat major, B W V 815 (measures 1-4). Without doubt, the  Sarabandes  sophistication. Beginning with  in  Partita I, B W V  influenced by the Italianate melodic style. the  Clavierubung I  SarabandefromPartita II,  present the highest degree o f stylization and  825, one encounters intense lyrical writing that is strongly  The traditional sarabande rhythm is often abandoned, as with  B W V 826. In  Partita III,  B W V 827 and  Partita VI,  and florid keyboard figurations dominate the texture and character o f the dances. variety o f the  Sarabandes  of  Clavierubung I  B W V 830, exuberant The wide stylistic  is also evident by the many different upbeat patterns with  which they begin. In contrast with those in the Six Partitas, the much more traditional rhythmic language.  Sarabande from Clavierubung II  is written in a  A s was common in many o f Bach's sarabandes, this dance  starts on the downbeat and clearly preserves the conventional dotted quarter/eighth note rhythmic gesture on beats 2 and 3.  T h e mordent and dissonant harmonic sonorities stress the weight o f the second beat,  magnifying the profundity o f this dance. The  Sarabandefromthe Ouverture  in B minor, B W V 831, distinguishes itself from other works  o f this type by the prevalence o f strict four-part texture which strongly implies its orchestral nature. It lacks the flamboyant keyboard figurations that may otherwise be found in  Sarabandesfromthe  English  Suites or Partitas. Because o f the extremely reserved approach to ornamentation and lack o f arpeggiation marks that are closely associated with idiomatic keyboard writing, the orchestral quality is further  29  emphasized.  O n l y embellishments o f a simple French manner are suggested, consisting o f mordents,  trills and highly expressive  appoggiaturas.  The four-part texture o f this  Sarabande  is intensely polyphonic.  T h e bass in measure two  imitates the main melodic motive appearing in the soprano part in measure one. Present again in the bass in measure four, the motive is afterwards inverted and imitated by the soprano. This is followed by the next imitative entrance, occurring in the lowest voice in measure 6.  Likewise, the B section contains  imitation between soprano and bass voices in measures 13-14, and (in reverse order) in measures 20-21. Bach differentiates the less active voices with a completely independent contour and rhythm as well. In the first four measures o f the B section an increase in rhythmic activity occurs in the voices, contributing to clearer polyphony and overall flow. Perhaps the most remarkable characteristic o f this adjacent dissonances.  Sarabande  is the degree o f simultaneous or  Table 6 below shows the progression from B minor to E minor in measures 2-3.  The basic harmonic progression is shown in a table below:  Table 6. Sarabande: Harmonic Progression, Measures 1-4 measure 1 /  II ' / 2 °  7  V  measure 2  measure 3  i  VI  V  /v  measure 4 V  This simple harmonic plan is obscured by the presence o f strong accented dissonances and suspensions, delaying the resolution to G major until beat 2 o f measure 3.  Within this progression, two specific  dissonant combinations are extremely disconcerting. First is the occurrence on mm. 2/2 with the accented passing tones, F-sharp and D , which obfuscate the clear dominant sonority. T h e second instance is the D sharp diminished triad immediately following on beat three.  T h e presented harmonies also result in an  adjacent cross-relation o f pitches: the D in the soprano part is juxtaposed to D-sharp on beat three in the tenor. In the same measure, the A-sharp in the tenor conflicts with an A-natural in the alto on beat three. This premature instance o f dissonance supports the intensity o f the first phrase which reaches its highest note, F-sharp (the second highest in the movement) on the mm. 2/3. 5  30  Measures 8-10 mark the presence o f another intensely dissonant harmonic progression.  The  avoided cadence in A major in measure 8 is followed in the proceeding measure by a B major-minor seventh chord with a delayed root due to a suspension in the soprano. O n beat two o f this measure the chord changes its quality to a B minor-minor seventh. expected dominant, F-sharp minor.  The progression eventually resolves to the  Again, the passing tones and suspensions are responsible for the  ambiguity o f the harmonic rhythm. Despite its regular phrasing, the  Sarabande  is extremely flowing. Linear voice leading and the  use o f avoided cadences in measures 8 and 16 achieve forward motion in this dance.  One o f the  remarkable melodic features is the arch-like shape; especially clear in the first and second phrase (mm. 14 and 5-8). The expressive upward leap from F-sharp to C-sharp in the opening motive becomes a perfect fourth by inversion in the B section, providing a "subject and answer" quality. T h e same upward fifth motive is expanded into a more affective interval o f an octave found in the bass in measure 20 and the soprano in measure 21. In measures 22 and 26 the melodic progression outlines diminished chords which intensifies the expression o f this section. Only one o f Bach's orchestral suites, B W V 1067, features a resembles the  Sarabande  Sarabande.  B W V 831/4 closer  from B W V 1067 than any o f its earlier keyboard counterparts. One common  feature is the highly polyphonic texture.  T h e melody, introduced in the first violin and flute parts o f  B W V 1067/3, is imitated in canon in the bass part a measure later at the lower twelfth. This procedure dominates the entire movement. Although the use o f dissonance in B W V 1067/3 is not as pronounced as in the the  Sarabande  Sarabande  from B W V 831, one can still find an abundance o f piquantly accented sonorities. L i k e  from B W V 831, the dance from the Orchestral Suite also makes use o f avoided cadences.  In fact, only one strong cadence is used in each half o f the dance. Although B W V 831/4 does not develop the idiomatic keyboard writing o f the  Sarabandes  in the  six Partitas, it does incorporate a unique approach to texture and contributes to the orchestral quality o f this  Ouverture.  While the  melody and texture, the  Sarabandes  Sarabande  in the Partitas explore a more Italianate vocal approach to the  o f B W V 831 indulges in the serious learned style.  31  Bourrees I, II Making use o f all the traditional features o f this joyous dance, relief from the sombre nature o f the preceding  Sarabande.  Bourree I  provides a much-needed  Written in the traditional meter o f "2" the  movement is cast in a perfectly balanced binary form, each half comprised o f twelve measures and opening with the characteristic quarter-note upbeat. The regular phrases are built from rhythmic patterns o f four half-bar segments in simple two-part texture. changes every beat in all but three measures.  Following a standard procedure, the harmony  Forward movement here is propelled by the use o f  syncopation in one o f the two voices (measures 4, 5 and 8).  This  Bourree  is in all respects highly  conventional. In contrast,  Bourree II  exhibits a few features not commonly associated with this dance.  One  feature, which is lacking in other bourrees by Bach, is the unusual three eighth-note opening upbeat. This flowing gesture might be more appropriate for prelude-like writing than for a fast, cheerful dance.  Also,  the frequent inclusion o f four sixteenth note groups, for example in measures 5, 7, 17 and 18, is unique, lacking in the respective dances from Bach's earlier clavier sets. The harmonic progression here relies to a high degree on sequences, which further affirms the  preludium  style.  In the second part o f  Bourree II,  sequential phrasing prevails throughout measures 13 to 18. Here, the first two-bar sequence is followed by a shorter one (one-bar long).  This sequential compression brings a brief relaxation in measure 20 to  the music following a cadence in A major. However, persistent sequential writing returns in measures 21 and 22.  Perhaps used as a novelty for contrast against the textbook qualities o f  Bourree I, this  sequential  technique is atypical. V e r y few o f Bach's suites include these dance movements.  Besides B W V 831, only two English  Suites contain such representations: A major, B W V 806, and A minor, B W V 807, as well as two French Suites:  Bourrees  G major, B W V 816, and E major, B W V 817.  Similarly to the  from the two English Suites appear in pairs, the second one set in a  Ouverture, musette  B W V 831, the  style.  Interestingly,  none o f the Partitas contain this dance. However, all o f Bach's orchestral suites feature bourrees as well as the early clavier  Ouvertures, B W V 820  and 822.  Similarly to that o f B W V 831, the  32  Bourree  from the  Orchestral Suite in B minor, B W V 1067, adheres very closely to the rhythmic traditions o f this dance. Thus, Bach's bourrees are more closely associated with the orchestral genres with further allusions made by the sparse use o f ornaments in both dances as well as the indication to change manuals in  Bourree II.  Certainly this straightforward character was more suitable for an orchestral-hybrid work than for a virtuosic, flamboyant clavier setting, as was prominent in the Partitas.  Gisue The  Gigue from  B W V 831 originates from the French canarie which occurs in only one other  suite by Bach, namely the French Suite in C Minor, B W V 813. Another similar example is found in the early  Ouverture  in G Minor, B W V 822,  transcription o f an unknown work.  but, as mentioned before, this piece may have been a  Gigues-canaries typically have an extremely fast tempo, persistent  dotted rhythms, balanced phrase structures and transparent textures with little or no counterpoint. The  Gigues  from B W V 813 and 831 share many common characteristics. Both were originally  written in C minor, commence with an upbeat figure and make consistent use o f dotted rhythms. Moreover, both works are comparable in length; the  Gigue  from the French  Suite, B W V 813,  encompasses 84 bars o f music written in 3/8 meter, while the dance from B W V 831 encompasses 49 measures written in 6/8. One trademark o f the canarie, the balanced phrase structure is clearly present in the  Gigue  o f the  French Overture. In the counterpart from the French Suite, the regular phrasing is apparent only at the beginning o f its two binary halves.  Here the regular segmentation is obscured by a strong downbeat  impression in measure 8, which one might expect to be the concluding measure o f a regular phrase. These overlapping motives help to create a longer, breathless phrase. In B W V 831/7, Bach presents the dance with traditional, clearly recognizable features. A simple texture, another common characteristic o f the French canarie, is also prevalent in the  Gigues  from the French Overture and the C-minor French Suite.  The former is written entirely in two  voices, while the latter has a texture expanding from two to three voices at the concluding cadence (measures 45 to 47).  The simplicity o f this movement is emphasized by another typical trait o f the  33  C a n a r i e - i t s non-imitative character. points  o f imitation, most  E v e n the  notably, those  Gigue f r o m  i n measures  the C - m i n o r F r e n c h S u i t e c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l  11-12  and  u n p u n c t u a t e d p h r a s i n g . H o w e v e r , the o n l y trace o f i m i t a t i o n i n the  14-17 w h i c h  Gigue o f  contribute  to  the  the F r e n c h O v e r t u r e is f o u n d  i n measures 4 0 - 4 3 , p r o n o u n c e d b y fast s c a l e - l i k e f i g u r a t i o n s . T h e h a r m o n i c language o f t h i s  Gigue  t w o - b a r s e q u e n t i a l segments o f m e a s u r e s 4 - 8 .  r e l i e s h e a v i l y o n sequences a n d s u s p e n s i o n s seen i n the In o r d e r to create m o r e m o m e n t u m i n the phrase, B a c h  s h o r t e n e d the s e q u e n t i a l unit to o n e m e a s u r e i n the p r o c e e d i n g t w o bars. T h e s a m e t e c h n i q u e c a n be seen i n the s e c o n d part o f the d a n c e w h e r e t w o - m e a s u r e s e q u e n c e s are featured i n m e a s u r e s 2 1 - 2 4 f o l l o w e d b y shorter s e q u e n t i a l u n i t s thereafter. b y frequent a p p e a r a n c e s o f  T h e m o m e n t u m that is t h u s a c h i e v e d is s t r e n g t h e n e d i n the s e c o n d part  tirades  i n m e a s u r e s 2 4 - 2 6 , 3 6 - 3 7 a n d 4 0 - 4 5 . T h e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n these faster  m e l o d i c gestures s e e m s to q u i c k e n t o w a r d s the e n d o f the m o v e m e n t , g e n e r a t i n g greater m o m e n t u m a n d tension.  T h e c l i m a x o n the d i m i n i s h e d c h o r d i n m e a s u r e 4 6 is p r e c e d e d b y a n i n c r e a s e i n r h y t h m i c  a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l o n g s c a l e - l i k e f i g u r e i n the bass i n m e a s u r e 2 5 . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , this c l i m a c t i c m o m e n t is a c c o m p a n i e d b y a t h i c k e n i n g o f texture.  Gigue  T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the e n e r g e t i c e n d i n g s o f the  f r o m the C - m i n o r F r e n c h S u i t e a n d t h i s d a n c e l i e s i n the r h y t h m o f the fast  tirades: i n  the latter  t h e y are i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n a d o t t e d r h y t h m , w h i c h increases t e n s i o n a n d e x c i t e m e n t , w h i l e the f o r m e r r e l i e v e s t e n s i o n i n the d o t t e d f i g u r e s t h r o u g h the i n c l u s i o n o f 1 6 - n o t e s . th  B y u t i l i z i n g the s i m p l e c a n a r i e , B a c h e m p h a s i z e d the F r e n c h q u a l i t i e s o f the O v e r t u r e .  Despite  the use o f t h i s u n c o m p l i c a t e d a n d m o s t l y h o m o p h o n i c t y p e o f g i g u e , the w o r k e n d s w i t h a p o w e r f u l c l i m a x that is a c c o m p l i s h e d b y the a d d i t i o n o f fast  tirades,  reminiscent o f an overture movement in  French style.  Echo L i k e the O r c h e s t r a l S u i t e s , B W V 1 0 6 7 a n d 1069, w h i c h c o n c l u d e r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h a and a  Rejouissance,  meter, the h u m o r o u s  a c h a r a c t e r p i e c e takes the last p l a c e i n the  Echo  m a k e s reference to the c o n c e r t o .  Ouverture,  B W V 831.  Badinerie  W r i t t e n i n 2/4  S i m i l a r l y t o the f u g a l s e c t i o n s o f the  o v e r t u r e , frequent d y n a m i c m a r k i n g s are f o u n d i n this m o v e m e n t w h i c h i m p l y q u i c k c h a n g e s o f k e y b o a r d  34  m a n u a l s a n d c l e a r l y a l l u d e to the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f  solo a n d tutti  sections.  T h e s o l o entrances are  e x t r e m e l y brief, often c o m p r i s e d o n l y o f a three-note i n t e r j e c t i o n , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the f o u r - m e a s u r e s e g m e n t s b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s 13-17 a n d 4 5 - 4 8 . emphasized by a momentary  facet i n  The  concertante  m a n n e r o f these q u i c k utterances is  o t h e r parts. D r a w i n g f r o m the p r i n c i p a l m o t i v e o f the  figurae corta,  the t w o l o n g e r s o l o i s t i c a p p e a r a n c e s o c c u r w i t h i n a r e d u c t i o n o f texture a n d are c o m b i n e d w i t h countersubject.  F o u r - p a r t texture is p r e v a l e n t w i t h i n the  tutti  the  s e c t i o n s , t h u s c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g contrast  through juxtaposition with quick solo interpolations. The  Echo  is c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m a r o u n d e d b i n a r y structure i n w h i c h the m e l o d i c return o c c u r s i n the  t e n o r i n m e a s u r e s 6 2 - 6 5 f o l l o w e d b y a q u o t a t i o n f r o m the last s e v e n m e a s u r e s o f the first part, t h i s t i m e i n the e x p e c t e d t o n i c . T h i s f a m i l i a r return bears a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the r e p r i s e o f the c o n c l u d i n g f u g a l  tutti  s e c t i o n f r o m the o v e r t u r e . A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r t o - l i k e feature is the s e c o n d a p p e a r a n c e o f the i n i t i a l t h e m e i n the s o l o part i n m e a s u r e s 13-16.  A s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d i n a c o n c e r t e d o v e r t u r e , the m e l o d i c  m a t e r i a l is n o t v i r t u o s i c a n d m a y h a v e b e e n i n s p i r e d b y a s o l o flute o r v i o l i n .  T h e f i g u r a t i o n o f the n e w  c o u n t e r s u b j e c t , w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s the t e n o r part i n m e a s u r e s 6 2 - 6 5 , c l e a r l y i m i t a t e s i d i o m a t i c v i o l i n f i g u r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , a l l other s o l o e n t r a n c e s m a y h a v e b e e n c o m p o s e d w i t h o t h e r s o p r a n o i n s t r u m e n t s i n mind. T h e j o y o u s a n d h u m o r o u s c h a r a c t e r o f the c o m m o n types o f  figurae corta.  Echo is  m a d e c l e a r b y persistent a p p e a r a n c e s o f t w o  T h e m a i n f o u r - b a r p h r a s e m a k e s e x t e n s i v e use o f the d a c t y l i c t y p e  w h e r e a s the b r i e f s o l o i s t i c e n t r a n c e s u t i l i z e the c o n t r a s t i n g anapaestic f o r m o f the f i g u r e . I n m e a s u r e s 68, o n e c a n o b s e r v e a struggle b e t w e e n these t w o r h y t h m i c f i g u r e s further h i g h l i g h t e d b y d y n a m i c contrasts.  T h e s o l o part features the d a c t y l i c f o r m  m a i n m e l o d i c m o t i v e f r o m the i n i t i a l  tutti  offigurae corta  forte a n d piano  o n l y t w i c e w h e n q u o t i n g the  s e c t i o n s ( m e a s u r e s 13-16 i n the s o p r a n o a n d 4 5 - 4 8 i n the  tenor). T h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f the m o v e m e n t o p e n s w i t h a series o f m o d u l a t i o n s .  In m e a s u r e 35 the C -  m a j o r s o n o r i t y stands out against the p r e c e d i n g A - m a j o r c h o r d . T h e s t a r t l i n g q u a l i t y o f t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n results f r o m the c r o s s r e l a t i o n o f C - s h a r p , the t h i r d o f the m a j o r t r i a d , a n d the f o l l o w i n g p i t c h , C - n a t u r a l  35  as the root of the proceeding chord. The modulation leads to E minor in measure 36/2. The next six bars lead to A major in measure 38, D major in 40 and eventually to the statement of the main theme in G major, again making use of the circle of fifths in a sequential presentation. Altogether, the listener hears five key changes within only ten measures of the piece. Although echo movements were featured in German and Dutch organ music from the early Baroque, they are rare in Bach's keyboard collections. The English and French Suites, as well as Clavierubung I all lack an echo. However, the early Suite in B-flat, B W V 821, includes an Echo? This 1  movement from the early suite features regular echo-like measures indicated through alternations offorte and piano appearing frequently until bar 36. However, no such exact repetition of musical material occurs in B W V 831; the motives recur at different pitch levels and are often modified. Aside from the general references to orchestral writing in this Echo, specific parallels may be found to the last movement of the Orchestral Suite in B Minor, B W V 1067. The concluding piece of this orchestral work, the Badinerie, also makes extensive use of the dactylic type offiguraecorta in its main motive and the anapaestic type elsewhere.  Bach carefully chose a movement with strong concerto  features to conclude the French Overture, highlighting the orchestral dimension of the work. An overall balance with the opening overture may also be perceived because of the usage of similar features, such as the presence of figures similar to the fast tirades from the slow portion of the overture as well as an evocative return to ritornello writing. The French Overture often draws criticism from performers because of its daunting length or because of the inclusion of too many simplistic dances. This is because the purpose of this work is misunderstood. Firstly, it is not simply another keyboard suite, or a "seventh" Partita. As discussed above, the work is an original keyboard composition reflecting the new German genre, the orchestral ouverture suite. The large balanced overture movement lacks any predecessors in the keyboard writing of Bach.  The Gavottes, Passepieds, Bourrees and Gigue each embody the traditional features and  The Echo movement appears also in a Partita on O Gott du frommer hab'mein' Sach'", B W V 1113, from Neumeister Chorales. 3 2  36  Gott,  B W V 767, and in the chorale, "Ich  stereotypes, c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p e d a g o g i c a l i d e a o f a p u b l i c a t i o n o f " K e y b o a r d L e s s o n s " .  W i t h i n their  i n s t r u c t i o n a l nature, o n e c a n a p p r e c i a t e the e x t e n s i o n o f h a r m o n i c a n d r h y t h m i c i d i o m s as w e l l as the contrast a n d d r a m a t i c c o n t o u r .  The slow  Courante  and  Sarabande  t h e y represent the p e a k o f a f f e c t i v e w r i t i n g a n d the perfect dissonant and innovative harmonic language.  37  are m a s t e r p i e c e s w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t s ;  combination o f traditional forms w i t h  Part Two: Performance Practice Issues  38  The Sources The sources quoted in Part Two are chosen according to their pertinence to J. S. Bach, his family, students and geographical proximity. Unfortunately, the only primary sources by Bach that relate to performance practice issues are the following: original fingerings in a facsimile of the Applicatio, B W V 994, and the Praembulum, B W V 930. Important secondary sources from Bach's immediate circle are C. P. E. Bach's Versuch iiber die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen, Prelude & Fughetta in C Major, B W V 870a , and Johann Nicolaus Forkel's biography of the composer titled, Uber Johann Sebastian Bachs 33  Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke. Forkel's biography from 1802 is of key importance because it includes information from Bach's sons, Carl Philip Emanuel and Wilhelm Friedemann.  Much valuable  information may also be gathered from reports of Bach's students and "grand students"(students of the students), as well as other writers of the same generation who lived in geographical proximity such as Johann Joachim Quantz, Johann Mattheson, arid Friedrich Marpurg.  This is an early version o f the Prelude and Fugue in C major, B W V 870, from It appears in V o g l e r ' s manuscript, who studied with B a c h in L e i p z i g in 1729.  39  Das Wohltemperierte Klavier, II.  Issues of Over-dotting T h e i d e a o f s h a r p e n i n g the d o t t e d r h y t h m , o r the " o v e r - d o t t i n g " o f s u c h r h y t h m s i n F r e n c h overtures  and  suite  movements  was  Interpretation o f the M u s i c o f the X V I I  p r e s e n t e d as t h  and X V I I I  t h  e a r l y as  1916  by A r n o l d  in  "The  Centuries Revealed by Contemporary Evidence."  T h i s w a s l a r g e l y s u p p o r t e d b y the m a i n G e r m a n sources f r o m the m i d - 1 8 o f Q u a n t z a n d C . P. E . B a c h .  Dolmetsch  t h  c e n t u r y i n c l u d i n g the treatises  O n e o f N e u m a n n ' s a r g u m e n t s against t h i s o b l i g a t o r y o v e r - d o t t i n g stated  that a l a c k o f n o n - G e r m a n sources w o u l d not s u p p o r t t h i s F r e n c h p r a c t i c e .  I n the a r t i c l e , " T h e F r e n c h  S t y l e a n d the O v e r t u r e s o f B a c h " , J o h n O ' D o n e l l p r o v e d o t h e r w i s e a n d q u o t e d fragments 3 4  from an  E n g l i s h m a n , R o g e r N o r t h f r o m 1728 as w e l l as n u m e r o u s F r e n c h s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g G i g a u l t , L ' A f f i l l a r d , M o n t e c l a i r a n d Hottettere, a l l o f w h o d i s c u s s e d L u l l y ' s " j e r k y " s t y l e .  35  It is n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , that the  o v e r - d o t t i n g t e c h n i q u e w a s d e s c r i b e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n treatises b y G e r m a n theorists s u c h as C . P. E . B a c h a n d Q u a n t z . T h e r e l e v a n c e o f these s o u r c e s s h o u l d not be u n d e r s t a t e d ; the a u t h o r s reacted a n d d e s c r i b e d the s t y l e that h a d b e e n present f o r m a n y d e c a d e s i n G e r m a n C o u r t s a n d i n the w o r k s o f m a n y G e r m a n composers.  T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , t h e o r i s t s a n d reporters o f a r t i s t i c t r e n d s r e p o r t e d o n  pre-established  s t y l e s , w h i c h n e e d e d y e a r s to d e v e l o p a n d c r y s t a l l i z e . T h e o p p o n e n t s o f the " d o t t e d - s t y l e " c r i t i c i z e the " l a t e " p u b l i s h i n g date o f treatises b y Q u a n t z a n d B a c h .  H o w e v e r , these w o r k s d e s c r i b e d ideas o r f o r m s  that h a d b e e n p e r f e c t e d a n d e s t a b l i s h e d l o n g before the w r i t i n g w a s c o m p i l e d . E v e n t h o u g h the c o n c e r t e d o u v e r t u r e c a m e to e x i s t e n c e t h r o u g h i n f l u e n c e s f r o m F r e n c h m u s i c a l c u l t u r e , it w a s l o n g d e v e l o p e d a n d k n o w n as a p u r e l y G e r m a n p h e n o m e n o n b y the t i m e o f C . P . E . B a c h ' s a n d Q u a n t z ' essays. Q u a n t z h i m s e l f described it:  H e r e is h o w  " . . . L u l l y p r o v i d e d g o o d m o d e l s f o r it [ o v e r t u r e ] ; but s o m e  German  c o m p o s e r s , a m o n g others e s p e c i a l l y H a n d e l a n d T e l e m a n n , h a v e far s u r p a s s e d h i m . . . s i n c e the o v e r t u r e p r o d u c e s s u c h a g o o d effect, h o w e v e r , it is a p i t y that it is n o l o n g e r i n v o g u e i n G e r m a n y . "  John O ' D o n e l l , p. 336. Ibid., p. 336. Johann Joachim Quantz, On Playing the Flute. A Complete Edward R. Reilly (London: Faber and Faber, 1966), p. 316.  3 6  Even  3 4  3 5  3 6  40  Translation with an Introduction and Notes by  t h o u g h the p o p u l a r i t y o f the o v e r t u r e m a y h a v e b e e n d e c l i n i n g , as m e n t i o n e d b y Q u a n t z , c o m p o s e r s s u c h as H a n d e l w e r e s t i l l c o m p o s i n g t h e m w e l l i n t o the m i d - 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . B e s i d e s Q u a n t z a n d C . P . E . B a c h , m a n y m o r e G e r m a n s o u r c e s f r o m a r o u n d the m i d - l S "  1  century  m e n t i o n e d the " j e r k i n e s s " o f o v e r t u r e - s t y l e c o m p o s i t i o n s . In the a r t i c l e , " A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f F r e n c h O v e r - D o t t i n g " , M i c h a e l C o l l i n s presents statements f r o m J o h a n n M a t t h e s o n a n d A d o l f S c h e i b e , a m o n g others.  O n e particularly i l l u m i n a t i n g fragment  from  S u l z e r ' s p u b l i s h i n g f r o m 1 7 7 5 , the " A l l g e m e i n e  T h e o r i e der S c h o n e n K i i n s t e " says: " A b o v e a l l [the  ouverture]  is u s u a l l y a p i e c e o f s e r i o u s but f i e r y c h a r a c t e r i n 4 / 4 m e a s u r e .  m o v e m e n t is stately, the beats are s l o w , but a d o r n e d w i t h m a n y s m a l l notes.  The  T h e beats m u s t be  p e r f o r m e d w i t h f i r e a n d p r o p e r d e l i b e r a t i o n so that the other v o i c e s i n strict o r free i m i t a t i o n c a n be supported.  A l l g o o d masters h a v e a l w a y s b r o u g h t t h i s i m i t a t i o n i n t o  art, a c c o r d i n g to the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the o c c a s i o n f o r the  ouverture.  ouvertures,  w i t h m o r e o r less  T h e m a i n notes are u s u a l l y d o t t e d ,  a n d i n p e r f o r m a n c e the dots are h e l d l o n g e r than t h e i r v a l u e . A f t e r these m a i n notes f o l l o w a greater o r lesser n u m b e r o f s m a l l ones that m u s t be p l a y e d w i t h the greatest s p e e d a n d i n so far as p o s s i b l e p l a y e d staccato, w h i c h I a d m i t d o e s not a l w a y s a p p l y w h e n ten, t w e l v e o r m o r e notes c o m e i n the space o f a c r o t c h e t . "  37  T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s s o u r c e is l a r g e l y d u e to the fact that it w a s w r i t t e n b y a student o f K i r n b e r g e r w h o i n t u r n w a s a student a n d s u p p o r t e r o f J . S. B a c h . N o t o n l y is there a n i n d i c a t i o n o f p r o l o n g e d dots, b u t 3 8  a l s o a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n o f staccato a r t i c u l a t i o n that s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to the fast s c a l e s o f a m o v e m e n t . In h i s 32  n d  Versuch,  Q u a n t z e x p l a i n e d the g e n e r a l c o n v e n t i o n o f l e n g t h e n i n g the d o t s o f 8 , 1 6 , a n d th  notes i n o r d e r t o present the " a n i m a t i o n that these notes m u s t e x p r e s s " . 39  s o u r c e , the a u t h o r s p e a k s m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y a b o u t the p e r f o r m a n c e o f fast  th  In c h a p t e r 17 o f the s a m e  tirades  w h e n t h e y o c c u r after  the d o t t e d note: " T h e d o t t e d n o t e is p l a y e d w i t h e m p h a s i s . . . A l l d o t t e d notes are treated i n the s a m e m a n n e r i f t i m e a l l o w s ; a n d i f three o r m o r e d e m i s e m i q u a v e r s f o l l o w a d o t o r rest, t h e y are not a l w a y s p l a y e d w i t h t h e i r l i t e r a l v a l u e , e s p e c i a l l y i n s l o w p i e c e s , but are e x e c u t e d at the e x t r e m e a n d o f the t i m e a l l o t t e d to t h e m , a n d w i t h the greatest p o s s i b l e speed, as is f r e q u e n t l y the case i n o v e r t u r e s , entrees, a n d furies."  40  M i c h a e l Collins, " A Reconsideration o f French Over-dotting," ML 50, N o . l (1969), p. 120. Ibid., p. 121. The author o f the article from Sulzer's publishing was J . A . P. Schulz. Quantz, p. 67. Ibid., p. 291.  41  A s i m i l a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the g e n e r a l r u l e o f the l e n g t h e n i n g o f d o t t e d notes c a n be f o u n d i n C . P . E . B a c h ' s treatise: " B e c a u s e proper exactness  is often  l a c k i n g i n the n o t a t i o n o f d o t t e d notes, a g e n e r a l r u l e o f  p e r f o r m a n c e has been e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h , h o w e v e r , suffers m a n y e x c e p t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g to this r u l e , the notes w h i c h f o l l o w the dots are to be p l a y e d i n the m o s t r a p i d m a n n e r , a n d often t h e y s h o u l d be. B u t s o m e t i m e s notes i n other parts, w i t h w h i c h these m u s t enter, are s o d i v i d e d that a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the r u l e is r e q u i r e d . A g a i n , a s u a v e affect, w h i c h w i l l not s u r v i v e the e s s e n t i a l l y defiant c h a r a c t e r o f dotted notes, o b l i g e s the p e r f o r m e r s l i g h t l y to shorten the d o t t e d note.  H e n c e , i f one k i n d o f  e x e c u t i o n is a d o p t e d as the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f p e r f o r m a n c e , the other k i n d s w i l l be l o s t . "  41  C . P . E . B a c h ' s passage i l l u m i n a t e s m a n y i m p o r t a n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l issues r e l a t e d to the p r o b l e m o f over-dotting.  F i r s t , it m e n t i o n s the p r o b l e m o f i n e x a c t n o t a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d to dotted r h y t h m s .  This  t e c h n i c a l i m p r e c i s i o n a l l o w e d not o n l y to o v e r - d o t , o r d o u b l e - d o t c e r t a i n passages b u t a l s o to under-dot, d e p e n d i n g o n the s t y l e a n d  Affekt  o f a musical composition.  B a c h r e w r o t e the r h y t h m i c patterns o f the can  Ouverture,  a l s o f i n d a c o n f i r m a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  D u e to t h i s , it i s often b e l i e v e d that J . S.  B W V 8 3 1 . In the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d fragment, o n e o f s h a r p e n e d r h y t h m f o r the b o l d a n d  pompous  d e f i a n c e o f a p i e c e s u c h as t h i s . H o w e v e r , p e r h a p s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t s e n t e n c e is the last, i n w h i c h the a u t h o r c l a r i f i e s that s u c h l e n g t h e n i n g is not the o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y , o t h e r w i s e the p e r f o r m e r ' s preference  will  be  compromised.  Thus,  it is i m p o r t a n t  to  remember  that  such  personal  interpretational  m a n i p u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be a m e a n s to a n e n d a n d m u s t be s u b s e r v i e n t to the p o r t r a y a l o f a p a r t i c u l a r Affekt, a n d not r e s u l t i n g f r o m a m e c h a n i c a l a d a p t a t i o n o f the i d e a . G r a h a m P o n t p r o v e s the m a n y p o s s i b l e degrees o f d o t t i n g i n h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f B a t t i s h i l l ' s alterations i n H a n d e l ' s k e y b o a r d o v e r t u r e s . performances  J . B a t t i s h i l l , w h o w a s b e l i e v e d to h a v e k n o w n H a n d e l ' s  f r o m personal experience, made alterations  and additional interpretative  c o m p o s e r ' s o v e r t u r e s , w h i c h w e r e set f o r h a r p s i c h o r d a n d o r g a n a n d r e i s s u e d i n 1 7 8 5 . manuscript contains some important pieces o f evidence regarding performance  notes to  the  T h i s annotated  practices o f French  o v e r t u r e s a n d a l l o w e d the a u t h o r to p r e s e n t s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s i n s u p p o r t o f m a n y p o s s i b l e degrees o f the o v e r - d o t t i n g . I n 11 out o f 2 0 o v e r t u r e s , G . P o n t f o u n d m o d i f i c a t i o n s that c o n f i r m e d the i d e a o f s h a r p e n e d  C . P. E . B a c h , Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, trans, and ed. W i l l i a m J . M i t c h e l l ( N e w Y o r k , L o n d o n : W . W . Norton & C o , 1949), p. 372.  4 1  42  rhythms.  H o w e v e r , 7 o f the o v e r t u r e s w e r e u n a l t e r e d , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y c o n t a i n o t h e r c h a n g e s .  This  r h y t h m i c s h a r p e n i n g is further c o n f i r m e d b y the fact that H a n d e l h i m s e l f r e w r o t e s o m e r h y t h m s d u r i n g the t r a n s c r i p t i o n f r o m the o r c h e s t r a l m e d i u m to the k e y b o a r d . T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f m o r e o r less r h y t h m i c c o m p r e s s i o n w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l o v e r t u r e s , s u c h as t h o s e f r o m  Jephta, Berenice,  and  Serse, e m p h a s i z e d  a  b r o a d range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s that c o u l d h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d . F r o m B a t t i s h i l l ' s a n n o t a t i o n s it is a l s o c l e a r that there w a s l i t t l e r h y t h m i c c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f these a l t e r a t i o n s ; m e a n i n g that v a r i o u s degrees o f d o t t i n g m a y h a v e b e e n present s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r i n i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n o f the C m i n o r a n d B m i n o r v e r s i o n s o f B a c h ' s  Ouverture,  B W V 8 3 1 , r e v e a l s that  dotted q u a r t e r / e i g h t h n o t e c o m b i n a t i o n s w e r e s h a r p e n e d b y s u b s t i t u t i n g the e i g h t h note w i t h a s i x t e e n t h note.  T h i s o c c u r s i n the f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e s :  3 (first h a l f i n the s o p r a n o , s e c o n d h a l f i n the a l t o ) , 5  ( s e c o n d h a l f ) , 6 ( s e c o n d h a l f ) , 7 ( s e c o n d h a l f ) , 9 (first h a l f ) , 10, 15 (the s o p r a n o i n the first half, s e c o n d h a l f i n the a l t o ) a n d 18 ( s e c o n d h a l f ) . In these e x a m p l e s ( w i t h a n e x c e p t i o n o f m e a s u r e s 9 a n d 10), B a c h e m p h a s i z e s a sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the d o t t e d r h y t h m b y the i n c l u s i o n o f a 1 6  th  note rest before the short  note. A t e m p o r a r y w e a k e n i n g o f t e n s i o n e x p l a i n s the l a c k o f s u c h a rest i n m e a s u r e s 9 a n d 10, i m p l i e d b y the s t e p w i s e d e s c e n d i n g m o t i o n i n the s o p r a n o a n d the c o n t r a r y , c o n j u n c t m o t i o n t o w a r d s the m i d d l e register i n the bass.  A m i s s i n g rest before the 1 6  th  notes d o e s not suggest a c o m p l e t e l a c k o f a r t i c u l a t i o n  w h i c h w e n t h a n d i n h a n d w i t h the d o t t e d r h y t h m s , but p e r h a p s a s m a l l e r d e g r e e o f s u c h p u n c t u a t i o n .  As  r e v e a l e d i n B a t t i s h i l l ' s c o r r e c t i o n s o f H a n d e l ' s overtures, these v a r i o u s degrees o f d o t t i n g c o e x i s t e d w i t h i n m a n y other c o m p o s i t i o n s i n t h i s s t y l e . M o r e t r o u b l i n g to e x p l a i n w e r e a l t e r a t i o n s that i n v o l v e d the dotted q u a r t e r n o t e t i e d to 1 6  th  notes,  o c c u r r i n g i n m e a s u r e s 2 ( s o p r a n o , s e c o n d h a l f ) , 3 (bass), 4 (first beat s o p r a n o ) , 6 ( s o p r a n o , first beat), 8 ( s o p r a n o , first beat), 11 ( s o p r a n o , first beat), 12 ( s o p r a n o first beat), 13 ( s o p r a n o first beat), 14 ( s o p r a n o s e c o n d beat), 15 (bass), 16 ( s o p r a n o first beat, bass s e c o n d beat) a n d 17 ( s o p r a n o first beat). p r o b l e m arose f r o m the fact that these gestures l a c k e d dots but i n s t e a d h a d t i e s . c a n n o t be s u b j e c t e d to o v e r - d o t t i n g .  The main  T h e r e f o r e these areas  F r e d e r i c N e u m a n n u s e d this p o i n t a g a i n s t the i d e a o f r h y t h m i c  e q u i v a l e n c y b e t w e e n the t w o v e r s i o n s o f B W V 8 3 1 . J o h n O ' D o n e l l e x p l a i n e d t h i s matter i n h i s a r t i c l e  43  about the F r e n c h s t y l e , stating that the c o n t r a c t i o n o f three s u c h 16  ffi  n o t e s after a t i e is p o s s i b l e s i m p l y  b e c a u s e it d o e s not d i s t o r t the b a s i c r h y t h m : " B u t the c o n t r a c t i o n o f three s e m i q u a v e r s d o e s not d i s t u r b the r h y t h m i c i n t e g r i t y o f a n y s t r u c t u r a l v a l u e s , a n d s y n c h r o n i z e s p e r f e c t l y w i t h the i n e q u a l i z a t i o n o f the quavers" .  C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the issue o f o v e r - d o t t i n g , the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d  42  extensively documented i n F r e n c h and G e r m a n sources.  notes inegales  practice was  A s e a r l y as 1 6 9 5 , G e o r g M u f f a t , w h o h a d  s t u d i e d f o r s i x y e a r s i n P a r i s w i t h L u l l y , d e s c r i b e d t h i s i n e q u a l i t y w i t h s p e c i a l reference to p i e c e s i n the o v e r t u r e m e t e r o f 2 : " a l l the d i f f e r e n c e [ b e t w e e n a s l o w 2 i n the bar a n d a n o r d i n a r y C w i t h f o u r i n the bar] c o n s i s t s , i n that u n d e r the last, s e v e r a l q u a v e r s c o n t i n u e d i n s u c c e s s i o n (here d r a w i n g o f f o u r 8 notes) c a n n o t be a l t e r n a t e l y d o t t e d . . . d r a w i n g d o t t e d 8  th  with a 16  th  and another dotted 8  th  with a 16  th  th  etc.  f o r e l e g a n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e , l i k e the others; but s h o u l d b e e x p r e s s e d s t r i c t l y the o n e e q u a l to the o t h e r [because o f the f o u r - s q u a r e c h a r a c t e r ] . "  43  P e r h a p s the m o s t c o n f u s i n g p o i n t o f c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n b o t h v e r s i o n s o f the  Ouverture,  B W V  8 3 1 , e x i s t s i n bars 11-12, w h e r e , i n the e a r l i e r v e r s i o n , B a c h c o m b i n e s the q u i c k upbeat figures i n the left hand while sustaining simple 16  th  n o t e n o t a t i o n i n the r i g h t h a n d . I n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e a s u r e s o f the B  m i n o r v e r s i o n , b o t h r i g h t a n d left h a n d parts feature q u i c k 3 2 three 1 6  th  n d  note upbeats. A s O ' D o n e l l e x p l a i n s , the  n o t e s o f the r i g h t h a n d c o u l d e a s i l y b e u n d e r s t o o d a n d p e r f o r m e d as faster upbeats s i n c e t h e y  d i d n o t alter the b a s i c m e t r i c p u l s e a n d c o u l d e a s i l y be s y n c h r o n i z e d w i t h u n e q u a l 8 m o s t l i k e l y w r i t t e n as 3 2  n d  th  notes.  They were  notes i n o r d e r to create a d i s t i n c t i o n f r o m the series o f c o n t i n u o u s 1 6  th  notes i n  m e a s u r e 13 i n the left h a n d . T h e s a m e a u t h o r later p o i n t s to the s i m i l a r i t y o f t h i s m e l o d i c l i n e , c o n s i s t i n g o f eight 16  th  notes i n the left h a n d o f m e a s u r e 13, w i t h a n i d e n t i c a l f i g u r a t i o n i n v a r i a t i o n N o . 16 o f the  Goldberg Variations,  w h i c h is seen b e l o w .  T h e dots a d d e d a b o v e the notes w e r e m e a n t not o n l y as  a r t i c u l a t i o n m a r k s b u t a l s o to w a r n a g a i n s t i n e q u a l i t y .  O ' D o n e l l , p. 342. Robert Donnington,  The Interpretation ofEarly Music (London:  44  Faber & Faber, 1963), p. 456.  Example 3  I m p o r t a n t p e r f o r m a n c e d e c i s i o n s n e e d to be m a d e r e g a r d i n g the a l i g n m e n t o f the short notes f o l l o w i n g d o t t e d ones.  In the e x a m p l e f r o m h i s  Versuch  (chapter V , p a r a g r a p h 2 1 ) , Q u a n t z c l e a r l y  suggests that the v e r t i c a l s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f the last, q u i c k upbeat figures i n o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t s n e e d e d to be a p p l i e d . T h e r e f o r e , the o n l y o v e r - d o t t i n g that m a y be m a d e to the a l r e a d y " d o t t e d "  Overture  from  B W V 831 s h o u l d take p l a c e after the dotted-quarter notes, r e s u l t i n g i n the 8 - n o t e s b e i n g s h a r p e n e d to th  16 -notes. th  however,  In h i s a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g the p e r f o r m a n c e that a c c o r d i n g to  B a t t i s h i l l ' s annotations,  o f H a n d e l ' s overtures, G r a h a m Pont revealed, such  s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f upbeats w a s  neither  c o n s i s t e n t n o r o b l i g a t o r y . A s seen i n the o v e r t u r e to " A l e x a n d e r " , d i f f e r e n t u p b e a t figures c o e x i s t e d i n the k e y b o a r d a n d o r c h e s t r a l v e r s i o n s o f o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t s . T h e C m i n o r v e r s i o n o f B W V 831 a l s o e x i s t e d i n a c o p y b e l o n g i n g t o J o h a n n G o t t l i e b P r e l l e r . T h e s l o w o v e r t u r e o f t h i s v e r s i o n is c i t e d as a n a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t those w h o b e l i e v e that b o t h C m i n o r a n d B m i n o r v e r s i o n s are representations o f the s a m e i d e a . T h e m a i n a r g u m e n t arises f r o m the fact that m a n y o f the f i g u r a t i o n s h a v e o r n a m e n t s o c c u r r i n g o n the t h i r d o f f o u r 1 6  45  th  notes w h i c h creates a m u c h m o r e  flowing and a far less "jerky" impression. However, the manuscript of this version is not closely associated with the immediate circle of Bach and may just represent Preller's personal preference. Also, misunderstandings of the overture style, as seen in Preller's copy, may have led Bach to rewrite the Ouverture, B W V 831, in more precise manner for pedagogical purposes. 44  An incredible amount of research and scholarly arguments support the notion that both versions represent an equivalent musical idea. It is important to realize that the "over-dotted" version was the one J. S. Bach decided to publish in his "Keyboard Lessons" which demonstrates his attempt to assert this particular manner of performance. The rhythms of the B minor version of B W V 831 are already "overdotted", especially i f played at an adequate speed suggested by the meter of 2, and do not require additional prolongation of the dotted notes. However, the early C minor copy, B W V 831a, does not necessarily represent a substandard piece of music and may be chosen for a performance, as well. Pianists and harpsichordists are given much more straightforward performance indications in the later, printed version of the Ouverture, which Bach achieved through a more systematic, clear notation. When analyzing the music and making important performance decisions, one should avoid the mathematic and mechanical approach to the realization of rhythm in this style.  The lively tempo,  indicated by the typical overture meter of C (crossed), indicates a steady, half-bar pulse which is divided into a downbeat and upbeat. It is important to remember that the Baroque Era was a time of creativity and improvisation, which would make stale performances highly undesirable. The characteristic tirades could also be approached in several ways, ranging from an execution at their notated evenness, or with an improvisatory-like freedom; for example, starting slowly and accelerating towards the downbeat. As G. Pont points out in some of Handel's overtures, such as 77 Pastor Fido, the fast scales were written in accelerated rhythmic values, starting as 16 notes, then changing into 32 notes, etc. . The flexibility lh  nd  45  and freedom within the steady beats can add the necessary vivaciousness to pieces of homogenous rhythmic patterns. In light of Baroque aesthetics, after all, a piece must be approached with personal O ' D o n e l l , p. 343. Graham Pont, "French Overtures at the Keyboard: ' H o w Handel Rendered the P l a y i n g o f T h e m , ' " (1980), p. 40.  4 4  4 5  46  Musicology 6  e m o t i o n a l e n g a g e m e n t a n d , as C . P . E . B a c h suggested: " A m u s i c i a n c a n n o t m o v e others u n l e s s he t o o is moved.  H e m u s t o f n e c e s s i t y feel a l l o f the affects that he h o p e s to a r o u s e i n h i s a u d i e n c e , f o r the  r e v e a l i n g o f h i s o w n h u m o u r w i l l s t i m u l a t e a l i k e h u m o u r i n the l i s t e n e r . . . "  4 6  . The academic knowledge  o f p e r f o r m a n c e p r a c t i c e s h o u l d n o t be u s e d t h e n to p a r a l y s e a n d l i m i t c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g , but rather the c o n t r a r y ; it s h o u l d be a m e a n s to m a k e c o n s c i o u s a r t i s t i c d e c i s i o n s g u i d e d b y a c q u i r e d k n o w l e d g e .  A  p i e c e i n a n o v e r t u r e style has m u c h space f o r s u c h d e c i s i o n s , w h e t h e r it is w i t h r e g a r d to adjustments to the degree o f d o t t i n g , the a p p r o a c h to  Affekt,  the o v e r a l l speed, the p r o b l e m o f v o i c e s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o r a f l e x i b l e  tirades.  T h e o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t is n o t the o n l y o n e f r o m B W V 831 that relates t o the issue o f s h a r p e n e d dotted rhythms.  F o r the p e n u l t i m a t e m o v e m e n t o f the suite, B a c h c h o s e a g i g u e based o n a c a n a r i e ,  w h i c h was a typical F r e n c h dance.  In t h i s m o v e m e n t , the persistent d o t t i n g c a n a l s o be a p p r o a c h e d i n a  v i v a c i o u s m a n n e r that m i g h t benefit f r o m c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z , the s p e e d o f t h i s d a n c e w a s so e x t r e m e that, s i m i l a r l y to the o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t , the p e r f o r m e r d i d not h a v e e n o u g h t i m e to a p p l y over-dotting:  "the  gigue  a n d the  [human] p u l s e b e a t . . . I n the sharp."  47  Canarie  h a v e the s a m e m o v e m e n t .  Canarie, w h i c h  I f w r i t t e n i n 6/8, e a c h b a r has o n e  c o n s i s t s a l w a y s o f dotted notes, the b o w i n g is short a n d  T h e s u g g e s t e d t e m p o o f p e r f o r m i n g o n e m e a s u r e o f 6/8 w i t h i n o n e h u m a n p u l s e is so fast that it  leaves n o r o o m f o r a n y o v e r - d o t t i n g a n d d e m a n d s e x t r e m e l y e n e r g e t i c a n d a r t i c u l a t e d p l a y i n g . the e n d o f the m o v e m e n t , there are m a n y fast  tirades,  Towards  w h i c h i n t e n s i f y the d r i v e t o w a r d s the f i n a l c a d e n c e .  T h e b r i l l i a n t p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u c h fast m o v e m e n t s that i n c l u d e d s h a r p l y d o t t e d r h y t h m s a n d fast, s c a l e - l i k e f i g u r a t i o n s , is m u c h m o r e c h a l l e n g i n g o n the m o d e r n p i a n o than o n the h a r p s i c h o r d . c o m p o s e r p r o v i d e s a s o l u t i o n f o r better a r t i c u l a t i o n b y the i n s e r t i o n o f a 1 6 upbeat w h e t h e r a s i n g l e note o r a follows:  tirade.  t h  The  note rest before the s h o r t  C . P . E . B a c h d e s c r i b e s the p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u c h f i g u r e s as  " . . . i n r a p i d t e m p o s p r o l o n g e d s u c c e s s i o n o f dots are p e r f o r m e d as rests, the apparent o p p o s i t e  C . P . E . B a c h , p. 152. Quantz, p. 291.  47  demand of the notation notwithstanding" . The interpretation of the dot as a clear separation can be 48  extremely helpful bn the modern piano since it serves as a means to articulate; both as a strong, energetic finger-articulation as well as a control for the flow of movement. We know that the tempi of 18 -century performances were significantly faster than those th  generally adopted today. As mentioned above the meter (2) of the overture suggests a clear division of the bar into a downbeat and an upbeat. The pendulum marking for the canarie also indicates a tempo that "pushes performers to the limit" . 49  However, these lS^-century practices should be approached with  extreme caution when performing Baroque repertoire on the piano. For the sake of clarity, which was of the utmost importance in the Baroque Era, the tempo should be adjusted on the modern piano so the slower attack and decay do not create muddy and unfocused articulation; otherwise the result may sound like an unwanted series of 20 -century style clusters. The heavier action of a piano and its slowly th  developing sound makes transparency an incredibly difficult task. The realisation of the typically fast tirades described by late-Baroque writers as being sharply articulated is even more problematic on the modern instrument. A particular threat to clarity is posed by the presence of tirades or consecutive 16 notes in the bass register as in measures 15, 17, and 148. In measure 156 (the return of the dotted section) the busy, stepwise figuration in the right hand, i f compressed into a quick, half-measure beat, would also result in an extremely unclear sonority on the modern piano. Therefore, performance of such movements on the piano requires a tempo adjustment.  The tempo depends not only on the particular performer's  ability to cleanly articulate, but also on the particular piano and the conditions of the recital hall.  4 8  C . P. E . Bach, p. 157.  Betty Bang Mather, Dance Rhythms of the French Baroque: Indiana University Press, 1987), p. 223.  4 9  48  A Handbook for Performance  (Bloomington:  th  Meter and Tempo In the performance o f Baroque music, it is crucial to understand the importance o f the metric structure o f a particular piece. The projection o f note groupings is essential to correct phrasing which was subordinate to the meter. M a n y writers before and after Bach discussed this organization o f notes, often referred to by different terminology, but essentially describing the same patterns. The "superior regard" was given to metrically strong notes, which came on the beat at all rhythmic levels o f the meter. notes were called "intrinsically long" by German theorists, or by J . A . Scheibe as  druchgehende  (struck and passing), by Girolamo Diruta as  nota buona  M a n y other writers, among them, Johann Gottfried Walther in his before him, Georg Muffat in the preface to his  and  anschlagende  cattiva  and  ("good" and "bad").  Musickalisches Lexicon  Florilegium Secundum  Such  (1732) and  (1698), described the same  phenomenon. The essence o f the metric scheme is clearly expressed by Muffat in following words:  (nobiliores; edle, buone e principali, bonne, noble ou principales), and others that are bad (ignobiliores, seu viliores, schlechte, cattive, dvili; chetives ou viles). G o o d notes are those that seem naturally to give " O f all the notes found in any composition to be played, there are those that are good  the ear a little repose.  Such notes are longer, those that come on the beat or essential subdivisions o f  measure, those that have a dot after them, and (among equal small notes) those that are odd-numbered and are ordinary played down-bow. The bad notes are all the others, which like passing notes, do not satisfy the ear so well, and leave after them a desire to go o n . "  50  This grouping into pairs occurs on every level (sixteenth notes, eighth notes, quarter notes, etc). In addition, the barline signified the most prominent stress on the first and strongest beat. T h e second and fourth beats in common time were considered to be the weak ones; however, some weight was given to the third beat.  T h e classification o f four quarters in common time into strong, weak, medium-strong,  weak beats is also applied to smaller note values, such as eighth notes in 3/2 meter. The articulation o f the strong and weak notes then should be understood vertically, which is very different than more modern approaches to performance.  This systematic organization o f notes is particularly necessary and most  obvious in dance movements.  However, the same approach should be maintained in polyphonic textures.  George Houle, Meter in Music, 1600-1800: Performance, University Press, 1987), p. 82.  49  Perception  and Notation (Bloomington: Indiana  A s i d e f r o m n u m e r o u s B a r o q u e treatises, s t r o n g m e t r i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f d o w n b e a t s , is e v i d e n t f r o m the s o u r c e s that present f i n g e r i n g s . O n e p r i m a r y s o u r c e , J . S. B a c h ' s f i n g e r i n g i n w h i c h the l o n g e r fingers c r o s s o v e r the shorter o n e s .  Applicatio,  presents a  T h e notes that i n e v i t a b l y h a v e i m p l i e d  stress, b y f i n g e r i n g s s u c h as 3-4-3-4-3-4 f o r the a s c e n d i n g s c a l e o f the r i g h t h a n d , f a l l o n m e t r i c a l l y s t r o n g beats, c r e a t i n g the i m p r e s s i o n o f t w o - n o t e g r o u p i n g s .  It is i m p o r t a n t to o b s e r v e that t h i s e a r l y f i n g e r i n g  pattern, s t e m m i n g from the E n g l i s h V i r g i n a l i s t s , appears s t i l l t o be f u n c t i o n a l as late as the m i d d l e y e a r s o f B a c h ' s career.  Praembulum  The  Clavier-Buchlein vor Wilhelm Friedemann  c o n t a i n i n g the  Applicatio  and  dates f r o m the 1 7 2 0 ' s , the s a m e d e c a d e that w i t n e s s e d the first a n d separate p u b l i c a t i o n s o f  the Partitas. T h e o r i g i n a l f i n g e r i n g s i n the  Prelude and Fughetta  i n C M a j o r , B W V 8 7 0 , are m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t  b e c a u s e o f the c o m p l e x t e x t u r e o f the m u s i c . E v e n t h o u g h the m a n u s c r i p t o f these w o r k s is i n V o g l e r ' s h a n d , w h o w a s B a c h ' s student, the f i n g e r i n g s are c o n s i d e r e d to be r e l i a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y to the f i n g e r i n g s that h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d b y m a n y o f h i s o t h e r students. T h e s e w o r k s date from the m a t u r e p e r i o d o f B a c h ' s career extremely important.  (1727-1731) ; 51  therefore  the  pedagogical  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the  sources  are  M a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f B a c h ' s f i n g e r i n g p r a c t i c e are r e v e a l e d i n B W V 8 7 0 a , f o r  e x a m p l e , the o b v i o u s r e l a t i o n o f the s t r o n g f i n g e r s to the s t r o n g beats. It is i m p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e a l l s u c h instances o f f i n g e r i n g patterns; but o f p a r t i c u l a r n o t e is B a c h ' s a v o i d a n c e o f f i n g e r s u b s t i t u t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n the use o f the s a m e f i n g e r f o r t w o c o n s e c u t i v e notes.  I f the m u s i c is p e r f o r m e d w i t h the  f i n g e r i n g , c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the d o w n b e a t s is i n e v i t a b l e .  suggested  E v e n i n the s e c o n d m e a s u r e , the use o f the  fifth f i n g e r o n the first beat is not n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e this v o i c e c a n b e g i n w i t h the s m o o t h e r m o t i o n o f the f o u r t h f i n g e r p l a c e d o n the same k e y at the e n d o f the p r e v i o u s m e a s u r e . T h e p l a c e m e n t o f the suggests that B a c h i n t e n d e d a s l i g h t l y m o r e a r t i c u l a t e d d o w n b e a t .  fifth  T h e c o n s e c u t i v e use o f t w o  finger fifth  fingers at the e n d o f m e a s u r e 7 a n d at the b e g i n n i n g o f m e a s u r e 8 a l s o e m p h a s i z e s the s t r o n g first beat a n d e x e m p l i f i e s the a v o i d a n c e o f finger s u b s t i t u t i o n w h i c h w o u l d result i n a s m o o t h e r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the  Quentin Faulkner, J. S. House, 1984), p. 13.  5 1  Bach's Keyboard Technique: A Historical Introduction (St  50  Louis: Concordia Publishing  notes.  T h e s a m e a r t i c u l a t i o n is i m p l i e d at the b e g i n n i n g o f m e a s u r e 14 w h e r e the fifth f i n g e r is c l e a r l y  u s e d as a m e a n s o f s t r e s s i n g the d o w n b e a t .  T h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t ; o t h e r w i s e the  f o u r t h finger c o u l d e a s i l y p l a y the note " e " o n the first beat o f the s o p r a n o part i n m e a s u r e 14. T h e s e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y f i n g e r i n g s c l e a r l y e m p h a s i z e the m e t r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w o r k s f r o m the p e r i o d . H o w e v e r the e a r l y to m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t n e s s e d a n e v o l u t i o n i n f i n g e r i n g patterns d u e to the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f e q u a l t e m p e r a m e n t a n d the r e s u l t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h m o r e c h r o m a t i c k e y s . It is n o t k n o w n i f , o r to w h a t degree, B a c h ' s f i n g e r i n g f e l l i n t o l i n e w i t h the m o r e m o d e r n p r a c t i c e . H o w e v e r , the i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r e s s i n g m e t r i c a l l y s t r o n g beats w a s c r u c i a l w e l l i n t o the m a t u r e p e r i o d o f his life. A s i d e f r o m the s y s t e m a t i c p a i r i n g o f notes, s o u r c e s l i k e C . P . E . B a c h ' s g r o u p i n g s o f f o u r notes w a s a l s o p o s s i b l e , r e s u l t i n g i n the f i n g e r i n g 1-2-3-4.  Versuch  i n d i c a t e that  A s many performance  d e c i s i o n s at t h i s t i m e w e r e g o v e r n e d b y p e r s o n a l taste, it w o u l d h a v e b e e n u p t o the p e r f o r m e r to d e c i d e w h i c h grouping was more appropriate for a particular tempo and  Affekt.  In fast t e m p i the i d e a o f " s t r o n g a n d w e a k " beat a l t e r a t i o n w a s e x t e n d e d f r o m the l e v e l o f the beat to that o f the m e a s u r e .  A c c o r d i n g to J . P . K i r n b e r g e r , a series o f m e a s u r e s c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d as a n  alternation o f strong and w e a k measures, regardless o f what meter they w e r e w r i t t e n .  5 2  Such "two-bar"  m e a s u r e s e m p h a s i z e the f l o w i n g q u a l i t y o f m u s i c a n d are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n m o v e m e n t s u s i n g fast t r i p l e meter, s u c h as p a s s e p i e d s , m i n u e t s o r c a n a r i e s . T h e d o w n b e a t t o o k the strongest stress i n t r i p l e m e t e r a n d its e n e r g y a n d a r t i c u l a t i o n w o u l d be p r o l o n g e d t h r o u g h the s e c o n d beat. U n l i k e the w e a k f o u r t h beat i n 4 / 4 meter, the last beat o f a m e a s u r e i n t r i p l e t i m e w o u l d i m p l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater stress than the s e c o n d beat a n d b e u n d e r s t o o d as a n upbeat. A c c o r d i n g to w r i t e r s s u c h as L o u l i e a n d M u f f a t , the speed o f the c o m p o s i t i o n r e l a t e d to the strength o f the upbeat.  T h e f o l l o w i n g is a f r a g m e n t from E t i e n n e L o u l i e :  is g i v e n i n three w a y s :  5 3  (1) t w o d o w n s t r o k e s a n d o n e u p s t r o k e f o r s l o w t e m p o s , (2) o n e d o w n s t r o k e ,  Paul Badura-Skoda, Interpreting Bach Press Inc., 1993), p. 2 1 . Houle, p. 87.  5 2  " T h e m e a s u r e [ 3 / 1 , 3 / 2 , 3/4, 3/8, 3 / 1 6 , & 3]  at the Keyboard, trans.  5 3  51  A l f r e d Clayton ( N e w Y o r k : Oxford University  l a s t i n g t w o t i m e s , a n d one u p s t r o k e , f o r faster t e m p o s , (3) o n e d o w n s t r o k e , l a s t i n g three t i m e s , f o r v e r y fast t e m p o s . . . " D u r a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s o f the p u l s e i n d i c a t e d b y the m e t e r w e r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g to the s t a n d a r d r u l e o f p a i r i n g o f g o o d a n d b a d notes. downbeat  In c o m p o u n d meters, the i d e n t i t y o f the first t w o notes as  a n d the t h i r d o n e as u p b e a t recurs w i t h e a c h three note g r o u p .  The  downbeat-upbeat  r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s a p p l i e d to the h a l v e s o f m e a s u r e s i n 6/8 meter, w h i l e a three-note g r o u p i n g w a s a p p l i e d i n 9/8 meter. J . S. B a c h often stressed the m e t e r t h r o u g h the i n c l u s i o n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n m a r k s as i n the e x a m p l e f r o m the b a s s o c o n t i n u o part o f the s e c o n d m o v e m e n t f r o m  Lobe den Herren,  B W V 69:  5 4  Example 5  S i m i l a r e x a m p l e s m a y be f o u n d i n the V i o l i n o I part i n the F i f t h B r a n d e n b u r g C o n c e r t o , B W V 1 0 5 0 / 3 , o r i n the V i o l a part o f the F o u r t h B r a n d e n b u r g C o n c e r t o , B W V 1 0 4 9 / 3 . T h e r e is a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n meter a n d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f r h y t h m i c a l t e r a t i o n , o r  inegalite.  M a n y F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n w r i t e r s d e s c r i b e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h notes are  u n e q u a l l y . W h e n d e c i d i n g o n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f  notes inegales,  performed  the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s n e e d to be t a k e n  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n : o n l y i n passages i n c o n j u n c t m o t i o n a n d i n r h y t h m i c v a l u e s w h i c h are s u b d i v i s i o n s o f the b a s i c p u l s e m a y t h i s o c c u r .  T h i s t e c h n i q u e w a s a p p l i e d p r i m a r i l y to p i e c e s i n a m o d e r a t e  tempo.  H o w e v e r it w a s a l s o a p p l i e d i n s l o w e r o r s l i g h t l y faster t e m p i . I n m o s t cases, the first o f a p a i r o f notes w a s g i v e n a stress w h i c h w o u l d c o r r o b o r a t e the m e t r i c structure o f the p i e c e .  T h e opposite inequality,  w h e r e the first n o t e w a s the shorter o f t w o notes, is b e l i e v e d to h a v e b e e n a rare o c c u r r e n c e . It w a s up to the p e r f o r m e r to d e c i d e o n the t y p e a n d degree o f i n e q u a l i t y w h i c h , d e p e n d i n g o n the c h a r a c t e r o f the  3 4  G . Ritchie and George Stauffer,  Organ Technique. Modern and Early (Oxford  52  University Press, 2000), p. 203.  p i e c e , c o u l d r a n g e from v e r y s l i g h t a n d l i l t i n g to v e r y sharp a n d j o l t i n g . E v e n t h o u g h the p h e n o m e n o n o f  inegalite  is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h F r e n c h m u s i c , R o b e r t D o n i n g t o n suggested that it s h o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o  the m u s i c o f B a c h .  5 5  F r e n c h w r i t e r s d i d n o t agree u p o n t w o - n o t e s l u r r i n g as a n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r  i n d i c a t i n g the p r e s e n c e o f i n e g a l i t e . H o w e v e r , it is i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that s l u r s o v e r m o r e t h a n t w o notes o r dots ( o r dashes) m e a n t a c a n c e l l a t i o n o f i n e q u a l i t y . O n e o f the c r u c i a l e l e m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e t e r is t e m p o . T h e p e r f o r m e r s o f the B a r o q u e E r a u n d e r s t o o d the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s p e e d that w e r e inherent i n the t i m e s i g n a t u r e a n d often a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r genres o r s t y l e s o f m u s i c .  A s J o h a n n P e t e r S p e r l i n g states, the " u p p e r n u m b e r s h o w s the  q u a n t i t y o r h o w m a n y notes are i n the m e a s u r e . N e x t , the b o t t o m n u m b e r s h o w s the q u a l i t y o r w h a t k i n d o f note m a k e s up the n u m b e r c o u n t e d i n the m e a s u r e . "  56  It w a s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e n that the greater  the d e n o m i n a t o r o f the signature, the faster the t e m p o o f the p i e c e . H o w e v e r , e v e r y o n e a g r e e d that t e m p i m i g h t be m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the c h a r a c t e r a n d tempo  giusto,  concerned"  Affekt o f  the c o m p o s i t i o n . A s K i r n b e r g e r w r i t e s : " T h e  e v e n i n the case o f d a n c e m o v e m e n t s , c a n be m o d i f i e d b y the c h a r a c t e r o f the m o v e m e n t  5 7  O n e s h o u l d n o t forget the n e c e s s i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g a strict p u l s e w h i c h is d o c u m e n t e d b y m a n y w r i t e r s a n d b y s u r v i v i n g o r g a n b a r r e l s . H o w e v e r , f l e x i b i l i t y w a s n e c e s s a r y e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d to the p u n c t u a t i o n o f f o r m at p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s - f o r i n s t a n c e , as i n the e n d s o f  tutti  or  solo  sections i n ritornello  form. W e k n o w that B a c h ' s t e m p i w e r e v e r y fast.  C . P . E . B a c h a n d J . S . B a c h ' s student, J o h a n n  F r i e d r i c h A g r i c o l a , b o t h r e p o r t e d o n the r a p i d i t y o f h i s t e m p i :  " [ J . S. B a c h ] w a s v e r y a c c u r a t e i n h i s  c o n d u c t i n g a n d v e r y sure o f h i s t e m p o , w h i c h he u s u a l l y m a d e v e r y l i v e l y . "  3 8  It c a n be a s s u m e d t h e n , that  Robert Donington, p. 462. Donington gives several examples where Bach's notation suggests inegalite; one o f which is in the duet, " D o m i n e Deus" from the Gloria o f the Mass in B minor, occurring in the dotted rhythms at the beginning. Inegalite can be applied later, when the theme returns in equal note values. Quoted in Houle, p. 43. Quoted in Badura-Skoda, p. 81. Quoted in Donington, p. 384. 5 6  5 7  5 8  53  B a c h ' s t e m p i w e r e faster than u s u a l e v e n f o r h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , m a k i n g t h e m s e e m e v e n faster to m o d e r n ears.  54  Articulation Baroque keyboard articulation has been the subject of much research, debate and several dissertations. The issue is a complicated one even concerning the instruments Bach knew, played and for which he composed. However, answers to these issues become even more elusive and complex when it comes to the modern piano. The action and sound of the early piano with which J. S. Bach had the opportunity to experiment is as distant from the modern piano as those of the harpsichord and clavichord. Furthermore, although Bach approved of Silbermann's new pianoforte  59  (after criticizing the earlier  models for their heavy action), his keyboard works were written with organ, harpsichord or clavichord in mind. The importance of the harpsichord as a primary instrument is evident from his estate after his death which included seven harpsichords and a spinet. Whereas the action and the sound of the harpsichord is so vastly different from the modern Steinway, its clarity and brilliance may still serve to enlighten the modern performer, allowing her or him to consider similar qualities on the piano. In searching for insights into the articulation of Bach's music, it is extremely beneficial to survey contemporary treatises and reports on Bach's own performance. Even though this knowledge may not be directly applied to the modern piano, it may result in new technical solutions and original and thoughtful interpretations. Forkel, Bach's first biographer, presented C. P. E . Bach's detailed description of his father's technique.  60  It includes indications as to the intended articulation. In a paragraph about "gliding" from  one key to another, the author clarifies the purpose: "...so that the two tones are neither disjoined from each other nor blended together."  61  There follows a passage which should act to motivate all keyboard  performers: "The drawing back of the tips of the fingers and the rapid communication, thereby effected, of the force of one finger to that following it produces the highest degree of clearness in the expression of the single tones so that every passage performed in this manner sounds brilliant, rolling, and round, as if each tone were a pearl." 62  5 9  Hans T. D a v i d and Arthur Mendel, eds., The Bach Reader. A Life ofJohann W . W . N o r t o n & Company Inc., 1972), p. 259. Bach Reader, p. 307-308. Ibid., p. 308. Ibid., p. 308.  Documents ( N e w Y o r k : 6 0  6 1  6 2  55  Sebastian Bach in Letters and  It is c l e a r f r o m these d e s c r i p t i o n s that the notes, w h e n w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d , p r o d u c e d a t r a n s p a r e n t a n d b r i l l i a n t effect.  E v e n m i n i m a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h the h a r p s i c h o r d a c t i o n w i l l i l l u m i n a t e the s u b t l e  n u a n c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n that result f r o m the t e c h n i q u e o f " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the f i n g e r t i p s .  Carl Philipp  E m m a n u e l also described this manner o f performance: " T h e r e are m a n y w h o p l a y s t i c k i l y , as i f t h e y h a d g l u e b e t w e e n t h e i r f i n g e r s .  T h e i r t o u c h is  l e t h a r g i c , t h e y h o l d notes t o o l o n g . O t h e r s , i n a n attempt to c o r r e c t t h i s , l e a v e the k e y s t o o s o o n , as i f they burned.  B o t h are w r o n g .  M i d w a y b e t w e e n these e x t r e m e s is best.  g e n e r a l , f o r e v e r y k i n d o f t o u c h has its u s e . "  H e r e again I speak i n  63  M a n y o t h e r w r i t e r s o f the p e r i o d d e s c r i b e d the s a m e t y p e o f w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d t o u c h w h i c h , as W i l h e l m M a r p u r g notes i n h i s  Anleitungzum Clavierspielen,  is " . . . a l w a y s a s s u m e d , is n e v e r i n d i c a t e d " . 6 4  T h u s , s u c h a n a p p r o a c h to a r t i c u l a t i o n w a s d o m i n a n t i n late B a r o q u e p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e r e s u l t i n g s o u n d o f s u c h p l a y i n g w o u l d be s i m i l a r to that a c h i e v e d b y p l a y i n g t w o c o n s e c u t i v e notes as c o n n e c t e d as p o s s i b l e w i t h o n l y one finger.  T h i s a l s o i n d i c a t e s that the degree o f a r t i c u l a t i o n is d e p e n d e n t o n the i n t e r v a l l i c  span b e t w e e n notes, s i n c e it is o b v i o u s that it takes less t i m e to p l a y a n i n t e r v a l o f a s e c o n d w i t h o n e f i n g e r than a n o c t a v e . A s a result, s t e p w i s e m o t i o n p r o m p t s the m o s t adjunct a r t i c u l a t i o n ; yet, it d o e s not mean a modern legato touch. T h e s e t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s m a y be h e l p f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p i a n i s t i c a p p r o a c h to a r t i c u l a t i o n , a k i n d that w o u l d a i m t o w a r d the q u a l i t i e s o f c l a r i t y a n d b r i l l i a n c e . It is o b v i o u s that the t e c h n i q u e o f " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the f i n g e r t i p s a p p r o p r i a t e o n the h a r p s i c h o r d is e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t w h e n a p p l i e d to the h e a v y a c t i o n o f the m o d e r n p i a n o . P e r h a p s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t e x a m p l e is the a u r a l i d e a o f the " o r d i n a r y t o u c h " , w h i c h m i g h t l e a d a p i a n i s t to s e a r c h f o r m o r e t r a n s p a r e n t w a y s o f p r e s e n t i n g the m a j o r i t y o f B a r o q u e textures.  P i a n i s t s s h o u l d not be d i s c o u r a g e d b y the n a t u r a l l y m a s s i v e s o u n d o f  S t e i n w a y p i a n o s ; after a l l , the r e v e r b e r a t i o n o f the i m p r e s s i v e G e r m a n c h u r c h e s d i d n o t p r e v e n t o r g a n i s t s a n d other e n s e m b l e s f r o m f o l l o w i n g t h e i r " o r d i n a r y p r o c e d u r e s " .  C. P. E . Bach, p. 149. Faulkner, p. 39.  56  A h i g h l y a r t i c u l a t e d s t y l e d o e s n o t e x c l u d e o r c o n t r a d i c t the i m p o r t a n c e o f " s i n g i n g " w h i c h B a c h stressed i n the p r e f a c e to the I n v e n t i o n s .  The  65  cantabile  s t y l e o f the B a r o q u e E r a w a s s u b s e r v i e n t to the  p r o p e r d e l i v e r y o f w o r d s a n d the m e t r i c a l a c c e n t u a t i o n o f m u s i c .  The declamatory articulation o f  i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c w a s u n d e r l i n e d b y M a t t h e s o n : " . . . for, as w e h a v e seen, i n s t r u m e n t a l m e l o d y d i f f e r s f r o m v o c a l p i e c e s m a i n l y i n the fact that the f o r m e r , w i t h o u t the a i d o f w o r d s a n d v o i c e s , tries to say j u s t as m u c h as the latter d o e s w i t h w o r d s . . . " .  6 6  T h e " s i n g i n g " style that B a c h a n d m a n y o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a d v o c a t e d s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h r o m a n t i c i z e d legato p l a y i n g . E v e n i n p e r f o r m i n g the m u s i c o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , o n e c a n n o t succeed in creating a  cantabile  l i n e b y l i n k i n g the p i t c h e s a l o n e .  It is the i n n e r s h a p i n g , the c r e a t i o n ,  c o n t i n u i t y , c u l m i n a t i o n a n d release o f t e n s i o n that c o n t r i b u t e to the s i n g i n g l i n e .  This may very well  i n c l u d e a r t i c u l a t e d a n d m e t r i c a l l y stressed notes. M a n y w r i t e r s , i n c l u d i n g M a r p u r g , stressed the i m p o r t a n c e o f the c l e a r d e l i n e a t i o n o f B a r o q u e  figuraes  s u c h as the  figurae corta (its  d a c t y l i c and anapaestic types),  k e y b o a r d f i g u r a t i o n s m a k e use o f the  messanza figurae,  messanza,  and  suspiratio.  Many  w h i c h is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y three ( o r m o r e ,  d e p e n d i n g o n the b a s i c g r o u p i n g ) s t e p w i s e m o v e m e n t s a n d o n e l e a p o v e r a s i n g l e h a r m o n y as w e l l as t w o - n o t e a n d four-note  appoggiaturas.  n e c e s s a r y f o r a c l e a r d e l i n e a t i o n o f the  A stronger e m p h a s i s o n the first notes o f s u c h patterns is  figuraes that  i n t u r n e m p h a s i z e the r h e t o r i c a l gestures o f the m u s i c  a n d c l a r i f y the l a r g e r units o f c o m p o s i t i o n s . A s i d e f r o m v a r y i n g the o r d i n a r y t o u c h , m u c h e v i d e n c e e l u d e s to the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n d i s s o n a n c e and a "slurred" manner o f performance.  T h e e f f e c t i v e use o f h a r m o n i c t e n s i o n a n d its r e s o l u t i o n w a s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i n g e r legato w h i c h i n t e n s i f i e d a c c e n t e d s l i d e s u p w a r d s o r d o w n w a r d s .  M u c h evidence  a l s o r e v e a l s the a s s o c i a t i o n o f s o r r o w f u l e m o t i o n s w i t h s l u r r i n g , a n d affects o f e x t r e m e j o y o r a n g e r w i t h a detached style.  C . P . E . B a c h a l s o elaborates o n t h i s i d e a o f the d e p a r t u r e f r o m the n o r m a l m a n n e r ,  67  r e m a r k i n g that m o r e c o n n e c t e d a n d sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n b o t h h a v e t h e i r use i n s p e c i f i c m u s i c a l c o n t e x t s .  6 5  6 6  6 7  Bach Reader, p. 86. Harriss, p. 427. C . P. E . Bach, p. 149.  57  T h u s , a p e r f o r m e r m u s t c h o o s e the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t o u c h w i t h r e g a r d to the c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the m e l o d i c l i n e a n d the a f f e c t i o n s that are e v o k e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o r w i t h i n a s e c t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y f e w a r t i c u l a t i o n m a r k s , s u c h as slurs a n d dots ( o r dashes), m a y be f o u n d i n B a c h ' s o e u v r e , c o n f i r m i n g the n o t i o n that p e r f o r m e r s w e r e w e l l v e r s e d i n e x i s t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s .  It is h e l p f u l to  r e m e m b e r that the s l u r w a s i n v e n t e d to substitute the l i g a t u r e that i n d i c a t e d l o n g m e l i s m a s . S u c h r e l a t i o n o f the s l u r to these l o n g m e l o d i c d e c o r a t i o n s i m p l i e d a g r o u p i n g o f the notes a n d not a legato s t y l e o f p l a y i n g ; m e l i s m a s i n c o m p o s i t i o n s o f the e a r l y B a r o q u e p e r i o d c a l l e d f o r s o m e a r t i c u l a t i o n .  It w a s  c u s t o m a r y that s u c h d e c o r a t i o n s w e r e b a s e d o n a s i n g l e h a r m o n y , a n d c a l l e d f o r a s l i g h t e m p h a s i s o f the first note o f the g r o u p i n g . B a c h ' s s o l o c l a v i e r m u s i c r e q u i r e s less s l u r r i n g i n d i c a t i o n s than h i s s o l o v i o l i n m u s i c , w h e r e it is necessary for i n d i c a t i n g b o w i n g . T h e importance o f appropriate s l u r r i n g in string m u s i c w a s m a g n i f i e d b y the fact that the d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n instruments.  68  the u p - b o w a n d d o w n - b o w w a s m u c h stronger o n p e r i o d  T h i s is pertinent b e c a u s e s l u r r i n g s i n B a c h ' s k e y b o a r d w o r k s h i g h l i g h t v i o l i n i s t i c gestures.  F o r e x a m p l e , s l u r r i n g s that a r t i c u l a t e  figurae a p p e a r  i n the e n t r y o f the s o l o o r g a n part i n B W V 3 5 / 1  w e l l as i n the h a r p s i c h o r d C o n c e r t o s , B W V 1 0 5 2 a n d 1 0 5 3 .  7 0  as  T h e o r g a n part o f B W V 2 9 / 3 f r o m 1731  represents i d e n t i c a l s l u r r i n g to the v i o l i n part p r e c e d i n g it, a n d r e s e m b l e s the s l u r s o f 831.  6 9  Gavotte II o f  BWV  T h e s l u r s that e x t e n d o v e r the b a s i c beat o f a m e a s u r e , s u c h as i n the f i r s t m o v e m e n t o f the I t a l i a n  C o n c e r t o , B W V 971 ( m m . 6 9 - 7 0 ) , a n d i n the  Courante  ( m . 19) e l i m i n a t e the u s u a l m e t r i c stresses b y  e s t a b l i s h i n g o n l y o n e s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o n the b e g i n n i n g o f the s l u r . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s n o t o n l y to the f l o w o f the m u s i c b u t a d d s m u c h v a r i e t y to the l a t e - B a r o q u e palette o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . It s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h e n , that s l u r r i n g i n B a c h ' s m u s i c c o n n o t e s m u c h m o r e t h a n the legato touch.  It m a y e i t h e r c o r r o b o r a t e the a p p a r e n t m e t r i c structure, o r i m p o s e an a t y p i c a l f i g u r a t i o n , thus it  m a y project a d i f f e r e n t  Affekt. Interpretive  m a r k i n g s p e r t a i n i n g to a r t i c u l a t i o n are often c l a r i f i e d b y the  The more articulated sound resulted mainly from two factors: the b o w was heavier at the heel, while the gut strings had less tension. Butt, p. 171. Ibid., p. 172-3.  6 8  6 9  7 0  58  a d d i t i o n o f dots p l a c e d o v e r notes w i t h o u t s l u r s so that there is n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n y a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n a d o t a n d the m o d e r n staccato m a r k i n g ; the p e r f o r m e r m u s t d e c i d e o n the d e g r e e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t the  Affekt o f  the w o r k a n d p e r s o n a l taste.  A p e r f o r m a n c e o f B a c h ' s m u s i c o n the m o d e r n p i a n o m a y be e n r i c h e d b y m a n y n u a n c e s o f Baroque articulation.  T h e c l a r i t y that so m a n y w i t n e s s e d i n J o h a n n S e b a s t i a n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s m a y be  a c c o m p l i s h e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o b y m a n y m e a n s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , r a n g i n g from that r e m i n i s c e n t o f the n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e , the m e d i u m n o n - l e g a t o t h r o u g h the e x t r e m e , w i t h v a r i o u s degrees o f f i n g e r a n d a r m staccato.  V a r i e t y o f t o u c h m a y result from the a p p l i c a t i o n o f different a m o u n t s o f e n e r g y a n d s p e e d to  p a r t i c u l a r notes, as w e l l as an " a i r y " s e p a r a t i o n  between them.  M e t r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n necessitates  a r t i c u l a t i o n o n a b a s i c l e v e l ; h o w e v e r , o t h e r subtleties m a y a l s o d e t e r m i n e the d e g r e e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , the i n t e r v a l l i c content, h a r m o n i c structure a n d o f the  Affekt o f  the m u s i c . T h e h e a v i n e s s o f the a c t i o n  piano, o n e ' s personal technical capabilities and sensitivity m a y obstruct  articulation.  A g a i n , s l i g h t t e m p o adjustments  clarity within  the  m a y h e l p to p r o d u c e the b r i l l i a n t a n d transparent s o u n d s  s o u g h t b y the p e r f o r m e r . C a u t i o n is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t w h e n a t t e m p t i n g to i m i t a t e the " d r a w i n g " f i n g e r t e c h n i q u e that is often a p p l i e d o n the h a r p s i c h o r d . T h e s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t o f w e i g h t that a c o n t r a c t i n g f i n g e r m u s t a p p l y o n a m o d e r n p i a n o m a y l e a d to v a r i o u s h a n d i n j u r i e s w h i c h are less l i k e l y to o c c u r w h i l e a r t i c u l a t i n g i n l i k e m a n n e r o n the h a r p s i c h o r d , e v e n w i t h a l l the stops b e i n g u s e d . p o s s i b l e f o r s o m e p i a n i s t s , but it m i g h t be h a r m f u l f o r others.  T h i s s t r e n u o u s t e c h n i q u e m a y be H e a l t h i e r w a y s m a y be f o u n d  to  a c c o m p l i s h the d e s i r e d g o a l . A large r a n g e o f d y n a m i c s s h o u l d a i d i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n f i g u r e s a n d a l i g h t e r m a n n e r o f p l a y i n g m a y w i d e n the s p e c t r u m o f t o u c h .  59  Dynamics P e r h a p s the m o s t p r o b l e m a t i c matter i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B a r o q u e m u s i c o n the m o d e r n p i a n o arises f r o m the i n s t r u m e n t ' s a b i l i t y to p r o d u c e a w i d e r a n g e o f d y n a m i c s .  I r o n i c a l l y , the n u m b e r o f  d y n a m i c m a r k i n g s i n B a c h ' s k e y b o a r d m u s i c is e x t r e m e l y s m a l l a n d serves m o s t l y as a m e a n s o f delineating form.  T h e o n l y k e y b o a r d i n s t r u m e n t that w a s c a p a b l e o f d y n a m i c s h a d i n g before  the  i n v e n t i o n o f p i a n o f o r t e w a s the c l a v i c h o r d , r e p o r t e d b y F o r k e l to be B a c h ' s f a v o u r i t e i n s t r u m e n t : " H e l i k e d best to p l a y u p o n the c l a v i c h o r d ; the h a r p s i c h o r d , t h o u g h t c e r t a i n l y s u s c e p t i b l e o f a v e r y great v a r i e t y o f e x p r e s s i o n , h a d n o t s o u l e n o u g h f o r h i m ; a n d the p i a n o w a s i n h i s l i f e t i m e t o o m u c h i n its i n f a n c y a n d s t i l l m u c h t o o c o a r s e to satisfy h i m . H e therefore c o n s i d e r e d the c l a v i c h o r d as the best i n s t r u m e n t for study, a n d i n g e n e r a l , f o r p r i v a t e m u s i c a l entertainment.  H e f o u n d i n the m o s t  c o n v e n i e n t f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s m o s t r e f i n e d t h o u g h t s , a n d d i d not b e l i e v e it p o s s i b l e to p r o d u c e f r o m a n y h a r p s i c h o r d o r p i a n o f o r t e s u c h a v a r i e t y i n the g r a d a t i o n s o f t o n e as o n t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , w h i c h i s , i n d e e d , p o o r i n tone, but o n a s m a l l s c a l e e x t r e m e l y f l e x i b l e . "  7 1  T h e c l a v i c h o r d is c a p a b l e o f m a n y d y n a m i c a n d c o l o u r i s t i c n u a n c e s w i t h i n its l i m i t e d v o l u m e a n d c a n a l s o m a k e use o f the u n i q u e e x p r e s s i v e m e a n s o f a  Bebung.  12  T h e vast h i s t o r i c a l separation between  the w o r l d o f the m o d e r n p i a n o a n d the d e l i c a t e c l a v i c h o r d is e m p h a s i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s b y E . Bodky:  " Y e t e v e n the art o f t o u c h o f the greatest p i a n o v i r t u o s o c a n n o t c o m p e t e w i t h the m u c h m o r e  r e f i n e d s h a d i n g s p o s s i b l e o n the t i n y c l a v i c h o r d . . . "  7 3  D e s p i t e t h i s n e g a t i v e r e m a r k , F o r k e l ' s report o n the  i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p r e s s i v e d y n a m i c g r a d a t i o n s s h o u l d serve t o e n c o u r a g e the p e r f o r m e r to use the d y n a m i c r e s o u r c e s o f a n y instrument.  A s i d e f r o m the h a r p s i c h o r d a n d o r g a n , o n w h i c h d y n a m i c g r a d a t i o n s w e r e  l i m i t e d to the use o f different r e g i s t r a t i o n s , a l l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a n d s i n g e r s w e r e c a p a b l e o f c h a n g e s in v o l u m e w h i c h were always a primary means o f expression. B o d k y romanticized  crescendos  7 4  also w a r n s pianists against long,  that w e r e first p r a c t i c e d b y the o r c h e s t r a i n M a n n h e i m , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e n a  different h i s t o r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  7 1  Bach Reader, p. 309.  F o r k e l underestimated the importance o f harpsichord, because as many as seven such instruments were listed on B a c h ' s estate catalogue, while no clavichord was mentioned. E r w i n B o d k y , The Interpretation of Bach's Keyboard Works (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960), p. 91. Ibid., p. 94. 7 2  7 3  7 4  60  D y n a m i c s h a d i n g s w e r e f o r a v e r y l o n g t i m e the m o s t n a t u r a l w a y o f c r e a t i n g m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n , a d v o c a t e d b y the F l o r e n t i n e C a m e r a t a f o r the a f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n y c o m p o s i t i o n . B o y d e n points out in his article, eighteenth-century  76  7 5  A s David  the i n v e n t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f the f o r t e p i a n o at the b e g i n n i n g o f the  w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y the g r o w i n g n e e d to create d y n a m i c contrast o n a k e y b o a r d  instrument. S u b t l e d y n a m i c s h a d i n g s are h e l p f u l i n the s h a p i n g o f m e l o d i e s , w h i c h s h o u l d s t i l l a d h e r e to the above-mentioned  p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e r v a l l i c content,  meter,  declamation and harmony.  According  to  Mattheson, instrumental m e l o d y , especially w i t h i n dance movements, must observe such " g e o m e t r i c " progressions  e v e n m o r e than the v o c a l m e l o d y .  7 7  S e v e r a l a u t h o r s s u c h as Q u a n t z a n d  Mattheson  d i s c u s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e o f a n a t u r a l s i n g i n g l i n e . C . P . E . B a c h e x p r e s s e d t h i s i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " A b o v e a l l , l o s e n o o p p o r t u n i t y to h e a r a r t i s t i c s i n g i n g .  In so d o i n g , the k e y b o a r d i s t w i l l l e a r n to  t h i n k i n t e r m s o f s o n g . Indeed, it is a g o o d p r a c t i c e to s i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l m e l o d i e s i n o r d e r to r e a c h a n understanding o f their correct performance.  T h i s w a y o f l e a r n i n g is o f far greater v a l u e t h a n the  r e a d i n g o f v o l u m i n o u s t o m e s o r l i s t e n i n g to l e a r n e d d i s c o u r s e s . "  78  A s a result o f s u c h a p p r o a c h , the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f d y n a m i c s p a r a l l e l s the greater t e n s i o n g e n e r a t e d b y ascending melodies and vice-versa. Q u a n t z c o n f i r m e d the n e e d f o r m o r e intense d y n a m i c s a c c o r d i n g to the notes, m o t i v i c c o n t e n t a n d dissonance: " T h e a c c o m p a n i s t w i l l often e n c o u n t e r notes that r e q u i r e m o r e e m p h a s i s t h a n the others, a n d t h u s he m u s t k n o w h o w to s t r i k e t h e m w i t h greater l i v e l i n e s s a n d f o r c e , a n d h o w to d i s t i n g u i s h t h e m c l e a r l y f r o m the o t h e r notes that d o not r e q u i r e e m p h a s i s .  T h e f o r m e r i n c l u d e the l o n g notes i n t e r m i n g l e d  a m o n g q u i c k e r ones, a l s o the notes w i t h w h i c h a p r i n c i p a l subject dissonances. melody. (•••)."  7 5  The  thema  a l w a y s r e q u i r e s a n increase i n the strength o f the t o n e to m a k e its e n t r y c l e a r  79  D a v i d B o y d e n , "Dynamics i n Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century M u s i c , " in Essays in Honour ofArchibald T. Harvard University, Department o f M u s i c , 1957), p. 185-6. iIbid., u ; A p. _ i188. oo Harriss, p. 427. B a c h , p. 151-2. Quantz, p. 254.  Davison by His Associates (Cambridge: 7 6  7 7  7 8  7 9  enters, a n d a b o v e a l l the  A l o n g note, w h i c h m a y be s t r u c k w i t h its l o w e r o c t a v e , interrupts the l i v e l i n e s s o f the  61  I n the n e x t p a r a g r a p h , Q u a n t z i n d i c a t e s that h i g h l y d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s , a u g m e n t e d a n d d i m i n i s h e d intervals,  deceptive  cadences  and  c o n t r i b u t i n g to a r i c h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  c h r o m a t i c a l l y altered  notes  require  much  dynamic  variation  80  R o b e r t M a r s h a l l , i n h i s a r t i c l e , " T e m p o a n d D y n a m i c s i n the B a c h s o u r c e s : A R e v i e w o f the T e r m i n o l o g y " , d i s c u s s e s the e x i s t i n g d y n a m i c m a r k s i n B a c h ' s o e u v r e . marks  i n B a c h ' s s c o r e s , he d r a w s  O n the b a s i s o f the d y n a m i c  81  several important conclusions.  E s p e c i a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g is  p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f softer d y n a m i c i n d i c a t i o n s , w h i c h e x p l o r e the m a n y s h a d i n g s o f H o w e v e r , B a c h n e v e r suggested a d y n a m i c l o u d e r t h a n  forte.  A  diminuendo  the  piano a n d pianissimo. effect is i m p l i e d i n the  v i o l i n , v i o l a , t r a v e r s o a n d c o n t i n u o parts i n m e a s u r e s 7 6 - 7 9 o f the f i n a l c h o r u s o f the 1736 v e r s i o n o f the  St. Matthew Passion t e r m i n o l o g y , the  pp  b y the m a r k i n g s ,  piano-pp-pianissimo ,  m e a n t piu piano a n d not  &1  pianissimo. A  clear  part o f the H a r p s i c h o r d C o n c e r t o i n D m a j o r , B W V 1 0 5 4 .  where, in accordance with contemporary  diminuendo  i s a l s o a p p a r e n t i n the v i o l a  Furthermore, M a r s h a l l establishes B a c h ' s  e x p r e s s i v e use o f v e r y soft d y n a m i c s , d e s c r i b i n g t h e m as " m e d i t a t i v e " o r " s o m b r e " . i n t h i s r e g a r d is the cantata  O heil'ges Geist-und Wasserbad,  BWV  Especially striking  8 3  165, w h e r e the  pianissimo  dynamics  i n the s t r i n g parts o f the r e c i t a t i v e , " I c h h a b e j a , m e i n S e e l e n b r a u t i g e h e n " , i l l u m i n a t e the w o r d s " w h e n a l l strength is g o n e " .  8 4  M a r s h a l l ' s f i n d i n g s e n c o u r a g e the e x p l o r a t i o n o f softer a n d m o r e i n t i m a t e c o l o u r  s h a d i n g s o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , a p p r o p r i a t e i n c o n t e m p l a t i v e a n d t h o u g h t f u l c o m p o s i t i o n s . T e r r a c e d d y n a m i c s , as t h e y h a v e often b e e n r e f e r r e d t o , r e s u l t e d w h i c h i n c o n c e r t o m o v e m e n t s w o u l d a r i s e from the a l t e r n a t i o n b e t w e e n  from  tutti  and  k e y b o a r d w o r k s , B a c h p u n c t u a t e d s u c h large passages w i t h the i n d i c a t i o n s o f important  to  realize, however,  that the  individual  monotonously within single dynamic levels.  8 0  sections  were  not  a punctuation o f form  solo  sections.  piano a n d forte.  intended  to  be  In his It is  performed  S i n c e orchestral instruments were capable o f p r o d u c i n g  Ibid., p. 254-5.  Robert L . Marshall, "Tempo and D y n a m i c Indications in the B a c h Sources: A Review o f the Terminology," in Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays, ed. Peter W i l l i a m s (Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 2 6 3 . Ibid., p. 263. Ibid., p. 266. "wenn alle Kraft vergehet". 8 1  8 2  8 3  8 4  62  crescendi Also,  and  forte  diminuendi, piano  and  m u s i c i a n s n a t u r a l l y created d y n a m i c s h a d i n g s w i t h i n e a c h l e v e l o f the terrace.  indications  in  ritornello movements  were  not  necessarily  understood  as  representations o f e x t r e m e contrast. Q u a n t z e x p l a i n e d it i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " T h e Forte and P i a n o must never be u n d u l y exaggerated.  T h e i n s t r u m e n t s m u s t n o t be h a n d l e d w i t h  m o r e f o r c e t h a n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n p e r m i t s , s i n c e the ear w i l l be m o s t d i s a g r e e a b l y affected, e s p e c i a l l y i n a s m a l l p l a c e . Y o u m u s t a l w a y s b e a b l e , i n case o f n e c e s s i t y , to e x p r e s s a n a d d i t i o n a l F o r t i s s i m o o r Pianissimo."  8 5  In B a c h ' s o r g a n a n d h a r p s i c h o r d output,  forte a n d piano m e a n t  w a s a l w a y s c a r e f u l l y m a r k e d b y the c o m p o s e r .  8 6  i m i t a t e d o r c h e s t r a l s t y l e , s u c h as the o r g a n w o r k , w r i t t e n i n the s t y l e o f the F r e n c h o v e r t u r e .  s i m p l y a change o f manuals w h i c h  T h i s m a n n e r o f i n d i c a t i o n w a s u s e d f o r p i e c e s that  Prelude  i n E - f l a t , B W V 5 5 2 / 1 , from  Clavierubung III,  B a c h also indicated d y n a m i c s in orchestral-style w o r k s for a  d o u b l e m a n u a l h a r p s i c h o r d , n a m e l y the I t a l i a n C o n c e r t o , B W V 9 7 1 , a n d the  Ouverture,  B W V 831.  S p e c i a l k i n d s o f " t e r r a c e d d y n a m i c s " , w h i c h a l s o a p p e a r i n the s e c o n d part o f B a c h ' s K e y b o a r d L e s s o n s , result from e c h o effects.  T h i s t e c h n i q u e is d e s c r i b e d b y Q u a n t z i n the chapter,  Who Accompany a Concertante Part:  Of the Duties of Those  " I n the r e p e t i t i o n o f the s a m e o r o f s i m i l a r ideas c o n s i s t i n g o f h a l f  o r w h o l e bars, w h e t h e r at the s a m e l e v e l o r i n t r a n s p o s i t i o n , the r e p e t i t i o n o f the i d e a m a y be p l a y e d s o m e w h a t m o r e s o f t l y t h a n the first s t a t e m e n t . "  87  A s Q u a n t z i n d i c a t e s , the r e p e t i t i o n o f the m o t i v e m a y  be p l a y e d softer, but, s i m i l a r l y to r i t o r n e l l o d y n a m i c s , d o e s not necessitate the use o f the e x t r e m e e n d s o f volume. W i t h i n l a r g e r s e c t i o n s , d y n a m i c s w e r e suggested b y t e x t u r a l c h a n g e s . w i t h i n a movement w o u l d naturally result in a minor, B W V 867, from creating a dynamic plan:  crescendo  T h e increase o f v o i c e s  effect, a n d v i c e v e r s a .  Das Wohltemperierte Klavier I  The  Prelude  in B-flat  p e r f e c t l y e x e m p l i f i e s the r o l e o f texture i n  the c l i m a x is a c h i e v e d b y the i n c r e a s e i n n u m b e r o f v o i c e s from f o u r at the  c o m m e n c e m e n t o f the p i e c e , to n i n e i n the c l i m a x i n m e a s u r e 2 3 .  I n further e x a m i n a t i o n o f B a c h ' s  d y n a m i c s , M a r s h a l l p o i n t s to the c o m p o s e r ' s o b j e c t i v e s to b r i n g out i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e s a n d t o c l e a r l y  8 5  Quantz, p. 274-5.  George Stauffer and Ernest M a y , J. S. Bach as Organist. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), p. 203-207. Quantz, p. 277. 8 6  8 7  63  His instruments, Music, and Performance Practices  poco forte w i t h piano i n  differentiate b e t w e e n s o l o v o i c e s a n d a c c o m p a n i m e n t .  T h e alternation o f  o b o e part d u r i n g the first s o l o s e c t i o n o f the cantata,  Christen dtzet diesen Tag, B  W V 6 3 , serves t o  d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n the i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e a n d the later return to a p u r e l y a c c o m p a n i m e n t a l r o l e . e m p h a s i s o f p r o m i n e n t m o t i v e s a n d f u g a l subjects w a s d i s c u s s e d b y m a n y w r i t e r s o f the era.  64  the  Such  Affect In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the p r o m i n e n t r h e t o r i c a l art o f the B a r o q u e , the m a i n g o a l o f m u s i c i a n s w a s to d e l i v e r to listeners the a p p r o p r i a t e affects o f m u s i c a l w o r k s . i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h the l y r i c s .  In v o c a l c o m p o s i t i o n s , the p a s s i o n s w e r e  I n s t r u m e n t a l d a n c e m o v e m e n t s w e r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t affects.  P e r f o r m e r s w e r e e x p e c t e d to r e c o g n i z e , e i t h e r t h r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o r m u s i c a l i n t u i t i o n , the p a s s i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n a p i e c e a n d to k n o w h o w to c o n v e y t h e m c l e a r l y to the a u d i e n c e .  8 8  various  Matheson  d i s c u s s e d s u c h n e e d f o r c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the affects i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " M e a n w h i l e b e c a u s e the p r o p e r g o a l o f a l l m e l o d i e s c a n be n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n the sort o f d i v e r s i o n o f the h e a r i n g t h r o u g h w h i c h the p a s s i o n s o f the s o u l are s t i r r e d : thus n o o n e at a l l w i l l o b t a i n t h i s g o a l w h o is not a i m i n g at it, w h o feels n o a f f e c t i o n , i n d e e d w h o s c a r c e l y t h i n k s at a l l o f a p a s s i o n ; u n l e s s it is o n e w h i c h is i n v o l u n t a r i l y felt d e e p l y . "  8 9  M a n y aspects o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s u c h as v o l u m e , t e m p o a n d a r t i c u l a t i o n , m u s t be c h o s e n a c c o r d i n g t o the e m o t i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r w o r k s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , d y n a m i c s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e a r t i c u l a t i o n , are e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l i n p r o j e c t i n g the value o f ornaments  passions,  as m e n t i o n e d b y C . P . E . B a c h :  m u s t be d e t e r m i n e d b y the a f f e c t . "  "The volume and time  E a r l i e r i n 1 6 1 9 , P r a e t o r i u s m e n t i o n e d that  90  v i o l i n i s t s u s e d b o w i n g a n d d y n a m i c s to project d i f f e r e n t  affects.  91  Particularly important was  to  r e c o g n i z e the i m p o r t a n c e o f d i s s o n a n c e s w h i c h , as Q u a n t z w r o t e , " . . . s e r v e as the m e a n s to v a r y the e x p r e s s i o n o f the different p a s s i o n s . "  92  In a p a r a g r a p h c o n c e r n i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a p i e c e ' s true a f f e c t ,  93  C . P . E . B a c h d i s c u s s e s the  p o s s i b i l i t y to s l i g h t l y v a r y the t e m p o : "Yet  certain purposeful  v i o l a t i o n s o f the  d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e i r use m u s t be o b s e r v e d : few  beat are  often  exceptionally beautiful.  However, a  In s o l o p e r f o r m a n c e a n d i n e n s e m b l e s m a d e u p o f o n l y a  u n d e r s t a n d i n g p l a y e r s , m a n i p u l a t i o n s are p e r m i s s i b l e w h i c h affect the t e m p o itself; here, the  g r o u p w i l l be less apt to g o astray t h a n to b e c o m e attentive to a n d a d o p t the c h a n g e . . . "  Gregory Butler, "The Projection o f Affect in Baroque Dance M u s i c , " EM 12, N o . 2 ( M a y , 1984), p. 2 0 1 . Ibid., p. 425. Bach, p. 150. Badura-Skoda, p. 134. Quantz, p. 254. B a c h , p. 150.  65  In h i s a r t i c l e , G r e g o r y B u t l e r presents ideas o f theorists, T h o m a s M a c e a n d J o h a n n M a t t h e s o n , w h o c o r r o b o r a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y to fluctuate the t e m p o w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e relationship between articulation and and eighteenth-centuries.  Affekt  9 4  is d i s c u s s e d b y m a n y w r i t e r s o f the  seventeenth-  A m o n g t h e m , Q u a n t z g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g a d v i c e :  " . . . F l a t t e r i n g passages i n the A d a g i o m u s t not be a t t a c k e d t o o r u d e l y w i t h the s t r o k e o f the t o n g u e a n d b o w , a n d o n the other h a n d j o y f u l a n d d i s t i n g u i s h e d ideas i n the A l l e g r o m u s t not be d r a g g e d , slurred, or attacked too g e n t l y . "  9 5  In a n a l y s i n g the affect o f a n i n s t r u m e n t a l w o r k , the aspects o f m e l o d i c d i r e c t i o n , range, t e s s i t u r a , i n t e r v a l l i c c o n t e n t a n d h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n n e e d to be e x a m i n e d .  Capellmeister  Mattheson's  Der vollkommene  d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l the p a s s i o n s o f s e v e r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l f o r m s a n d d a n c e t y p e s .  a l s o find e x p l a n a t i o n s o f h o w p a r t i c u l a r affects are d e p i c t e d b y v a r i o u s m u s i c a l m e a n s .  One can  F o r e x a m p l e , the  p a s s i o n o f j o y , w h i c h d e p i c t s the e x p a n s i o n o f the s o u l , is h e a r d i n large a n d e x p a n d e d  intervals.  C o n v e r s e l y , c o n j u n c t m e l o d i c m o t i o n is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f sadness, r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o n t r a c t i o n o f the s o u l . A m o n g other aspects, the d i r e c t i o n o f the m e l o d i c l i n e c a n n a t u r a l l y p o r t r a y the affect o f h o p e a n d d e s p a i r ; i.e. w i t h the f o r m e r r e p r e s e n t i n g a n e l e v a t i o n a n d the latter, a d e p r e s s i o n o f the s o u l .  9 6  A meaningful performance o f Baroque music requires knowledge, imagination and intuition; a l l o f these m u s t c o n t r i b u t e to the m o s t e x p r e s s i v e m u s i c a l d e l i v e r y o f affects. " W h e r e there is n o p a s s i o n , n o affect to be f o u n d , there is a l s o n o v i r t u e . . . "  Butler, p. 203-207. Quantz, p. 125. Harriss, p. 104-5. Ibid., p. 104.  66  It s h o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d that 9 7  PART THREE: APPLICATION  67  Ouverture Meter and Tempo T h e t e m p o o f the o v e r t u r e has b e e n the subject o f m u c h r e s e a r c h .  T h e most significant findings  o f the c o r r e c t t e m p o m a d e b y J o h n O ' D o n e l l a n d D a v i d F u l l e r r e s u l t e d i n a r a n g e o f t e m p i f r o m M M = 5 7 to the h a l f note to M M = 7 2 to the quarter note i n the s l o w o p e n i n g .  T h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f the m o v e m e n t  9 8  o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , h o w e v e r , creates o t h e r p r o b l e m s a n d r e q u i r e s adjustments. A s w i t h a n y B a r o q u e c o m p o s i t i o n , the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the p r o p o r t i o n suggested b y the t i m e signature s h o u l d be g i v e n u t m o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e r e is o n l y o n e extant statement b y J . S. B a c h a b o u t the m e t e r c o m m o n l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the F r e n c h O v e r t u r e : "It must, h o w e v e r , be n o t i c e d , that i n the present d a y o n e s i n g l e k i n d o f t i m e is i n d i c a t e d i n t w o w a y s , thus: C 2 , the s e c o n d w a y b e i n g u s e d b y the F r e n c h i n p i e c e s that are to be p l a y e d q u i c k l y o r b r i s k l y , a n d the G e r m a n s a d o p t i n g it f r o m the F r e n c h . B u t the G e r m a n s a n d Italians a b i d e f o r the m o s t part b y the first m e t h o d , a n d a d o p t a s l o w t i m e . . . " " T h e t i m e signature o f the o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t ( c r o s s e d C ) i n d i c a t e s the c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f the m e a s u r e i n t o a d o w n b e a t a n d an upbeat.  T h e r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k t e x t u r e o f the d o t t e d part o f B W V  m a k e s p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u c h m o v e m e n t s at a h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e t e m p o d i f f i c u l t .  The  831  metronome  m a r k i n g o f 8 0 to a h a l f note i n the d o t t e d s e c t i o n m i g h t be r e a l i s t i c i f it w e r e p e r f o r m e d o n a h a r p s i c h o r d . H o w e v e r , p e r f o r m a n c e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o necessitates a t e m p o adjustment b r i l l i a n c e a n d c l a r i t y o f the d o t t e d r h y t h m s as w e l l as fast  tirades. A  i n o r d e r to p r o j e c t  the  l i s t e n e r s h o u l d c l e a r l y hear the h a l f  note d i v i s i o n o f the b a r w i t h the s t r o n g e r e m p h a s i s o n the d o w n b e a t .  T h e s t r o n g p r o j e c t i o n o f the  first  beat c a n be a c h i e v e d b y a s l i g h t a r t i c u l a t i o n at the b a r l i n e , a f e e l i n g o f r e s i s t a n c e before the m a i n beat a n d b y c r e a t i n g a s u s p e n d e d i m p r e s s i o n o n the p r e c e d i n g upbeat f i g u r e .  T h i s " s u s p e n s i o n " arises f r o m a  n e c e s s a r y c o n t r o l o f t i m e that s h o u l d be p r e c i s e l y o b s e r v e d i n o r d e r to create a n o b l e a n d s e r i o u s m o o d . T h e degree o f a r t i c u l a t i o n at the b a r l i n e m a y v a r y a c c o r d i n g to its p l a c e m e n t i n a phrase a n d the i m p l i e d harmony.  T h e d a m p e r p e d a l , a p u r e l y p i a n i s t i c r e s o u r c e , m a y be u s e d w i t h e x t r e m e c o n t r o l i n o r d e r to  John O ' D o n e l l , "The French Style and the Overtures by B a c h , " EMI (1979), p. 190; D a v i d Fuller, G. F. Handel: Two Ornamented Organ Concertos, Op. 4 Nos. 2 and 5, as Played By an Early Barrel Organ ( N e w Jersey: Hackensack, 1980). Quoted in Donington, p. 385. 9 8  9 9  68  e m p h a s i z e the w e i g h t a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s part o f the m e a s u r e . T h e s p e e d o f the o p e n i n g m o v e m e n t m u s t be s l o w e r o n the p i a n o t h a n o n h a r p s i c h o r d a n d s u i t a b l e to the t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s o f the p e r f o r m e r , the q u a l i t i e s o f the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t a n d the a c o u s t i c s o f the p e r f o r m a n c e s p a c e . In the left h a n d o f m e a s u r e 13 o f B W V 8 3 1 , there is a passage c o m p r i s i n g e i g h t s i x t e e n t h notes i n conjunct motion.  W h i l e the dots o v e r a s i m i l a r passage i n m e a s u r e 8 o f the s i x t e e n t h v a r i a t i o n o f the  Goldberg Variations  suggest e q u a l i t y , the absence o f s u c h dots m a y i m p l y that these s i x t e e n t h notes  c o u l d be p e r f o r m e d as  inegales.  T h e f u g a l s e c t i o n i n 6/8 meter w o u l d n o r m a l l y h a v e a d h e r e d to the p u l s e o f the o p e n i n g s e c t i o n , w i t h h a l f a m e a s u r e o f the f o r m e r o c c u p y i n g the s a m e t i m e as a m e a s u r e o f the latter.  H o w e v e r , the  c o n s i s t e n t l y shorter note v a l u e s i n the f u g a l s e c t i o n g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n o f a faster t e m p o . A s the fugue starts w i t h an upbeat to the s e c o n d h a l f o f m e a s u r e 2 0 , a p e r f o r m e r is g i v e n the d i f f i c u l t task o f p r o j e c t i n g the " r e a l " d o w n b e a t that o c c u r s i n m e a s u r e 2 1 . E v e n t h o u g h the t o n i c h a r m o n y o f the o p e n i n g statement o f the s u b j e c t s u p p o r t s the d o w n b e a t , the s u d d e n fast m o t i o n w i t h a n upbeat f i g u r e i n m e a s u r e 2 0 m a k e s i t v e r y h a r d to c l e a r l y p r o j e c t the m o s t i m p o r t a n t part o f the m e a s u r e .  A s i d e f r o m the c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f the  m e a s u r e i n t o s t r o n g a n d w e a k parts, the c o m p o u n d m e t e r o f 6/8 i m p l i e s other n u a n c e s .  T h e three e i g h t h  notes o f e a c h h a l f m e a s u r e m a y be u n d e r s t o o d as w e a k a n d s t r o n g o n t h i s l e v e l o f s u b d i v i s i o n b y t r e a t i n g the first t w o as a d o w n b e a t a n d the t h i r d o n e as an upbeat.  T h i s d i s t i n c t i v e g r o u p i n g does n o t c o n t r a d i c t  the sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the e i g h t h notes i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r d i s j u n c t i n t e r v a l l i c m o t i o n , w h i c h is i n d i c a t e d w i t h staccato m a r k i n g s . O n e c a n p r o j e c t the d o w n b e a t a n d upbeat g r o u p i n g o n the m o d e r n p i a n o e a s i l y b y m e a n s o f d y n a m i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o n the m o r e i m p o r t a n t beats (first a n d last e i g h t h notes) a n d the s l i g h t a g o g i c stresses. A t the e i g h t h note l e v e l , o n e s h o u l d h a v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t w o - n o t e g r o u p i n g s .  The  strength o f these m e t r i c a l n u a n c e s m a y v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the s p e e d o f the m o v e m e n t ; the faster the speed, the less v a r i e t y t h e r e c a n be o n the s m a l l e r - n o t e l e v e l .  T h e o n l y t e m p o a l t e r a t i o n s i n the f u g a l s e c t i o n  o c c u r at the c a d e n c e s c l o s i n g e a c h r i t o r n e l l o a n d s o l o s e c t i o n , w h e r e there are c l e a r l y a u d i b l e  69  hemiolas  in  a l l parts.  T h i s r h y t h m i c d e v i c e s h o u l d be w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d b e c a u s e it d e n o t e s the c l i m a x o f e a c h s e c t i o n  a n d creates contrast w i t h i n the fast m o m e n t u m o f the m o v e m e n t .  Articulation T h e strongest downbeats.  a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the s l o w s e c t i o n s o f t h i s m o v e m e n t s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to  T h e s e are a l s o stressed b y frequent  appoggiaturas (mm.  the  2 , 4 , 7-8, 13-14, a n d 16-18).  The  intense c h a r a c t e r o f these d i s s o n a n t gestures is p r o j e c t e d b y a s l u r r e d s t y l e o f p e r f o r m a n c e a n d m a y be e m p h a s i z e d b y c a r e f u l use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l . A l s o , i n o r d e r to p r o j e c t the d i v i s i o n o f the m e a s u r e s i n t o h a l v e s , there s h o u l d be a s l i g h t e m p h a s i s i n the m i d d l e o f the bar. T h e beats that are e m b e l l i s h e d b y t r i l l s are m a d e to stand out, not o n l y b y t h e i r c a r e f u l p l a c e m e n t w i t h i n the phrase, but a l s o b y e m p h a s i z i n g the first notes o f the t r i l l .  T h e d i s s o n a n t q u a l i t y o f the o r n a m e n t s t a r t i n g f r o m the a u x i l i a r y note  often  a m p l i f i e s the p r e - e x i s t i n g h a r m o n i c t e n s i o n ( m . 8, s e c o n d beat) a n d n e e d s to be stressed b y the p e r f o r m e r . A  different a r t i c u l a t i o n m a y serve to differentiate  b e t w e e n the d e g r e e s o f d o t t i n g .  p e r f o r m i n g o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , it m a y be h e l p f u l to exaggerate the i m p l i e d s i l e n c e o f the dot.  When In the  first m e a s u r e , the r i s i n g m i n o r s i x t h i n the s o p r a n o a n d the d o t suggest a m o m e n t a r y s i l e n c e .  The  r e s u l t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f this gesture is v a s t l y different f r o m a n y that m i g h t a r i s e f r o m an a p p r o a c h b a s e d o n later m u s i c a l s t y l e s . In s o m e m e a s u r e s , B a c h c l a r i f i e s the a r t i c u l a t i o n b y the i n s e r t i o n o f s i x t e e n t h note rests w i t h i n the d o t t e d r h y t h m , a n d i n so d o i n g i n d i c a t e s the strongest p o s s i b l e a r t i c u l a t i o n . T h i s sharp, a r t i c u l a t e d d o t t i n g m i g h t be c o n t r a s t e d  with  the  lighter articulation i m p l i e d  in places where  the  d e s c e n d i n g c o n j u n c t m e l o d y suggests a t e m p o r a r y r e l i e f o f a c c u m u l a t e d t e n s i o n ( m . 9 ) . T h e r e are p l a c e s i n the left h a n d ( m . 9, 13) w h e r e the p e r f o r m e r m a y e x p e r i m e n t w i t h the o r d i n a r y t o u c h a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l note-groupings.  W h e r e the d o t t e d s e c t i o n returns, B a c h u n d e r l i n e s the c l e a r stress o f the first note o f the  measures b y e m p l o y i n g t w o - n o t e s l u r r i n g s i n the r i g h t h a n d f i g u r a t i o n .  figurae corta pattern,  T h i s figuration consists o f a  w h i c h m a y h a v e b e e n u n d e r s t o o d a n d a r t i c u l a t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s i f not  s p e c i f i e d o t h e r w i s e . T h e stresses r e s u l t i n g f r o m the s l u r r i n g s create a m a r k e d e m p h a s i s , c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the m o r e stately d o t t e d r h y t h m s o f the m e a s u r e s f r a m i n g t h i s passage.  70  B a c h i n d i c a t e s the d e t a c h e d a n d j o y f u l c h a r a c t e r o f the fugue b y the i n c l u s i o n o f dots o v e r g r o u p s o f three e i g h t h notes. A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z , the s a m e a r t i c u l a t i o n s h o u l d be s u s t a i n e d i n a l l s i m i l a r e i g h t h note m o t i v e s :  " N o t e here i n p a s s i n g that i f m a n y figures o f the s a m e sort f o l l o w o n e another, a n d the  b o w i n g o f o n l y the first is i n d i c a t e d , the o t h e r s m u s t be p l a y e d i n the s a m e m a n n e r as l o n g as n o o t h e r s p e c i e s o f notes a p p e a r s . "  100  I n s u c h d e t a c h e d patterns, a p e r f o r m e r m a y a d d a r t i c u l a t i o n to e n h a n c e the  m e t r i c s c h e m e o f t r i p l e patterns. S u c h a d i s t i n c t i v e l y separated m a n n e r o f p l a y i n g constitutes a c o m m o n part o f g e n e r a l p i a n o t e c h n i q u e a n d is featured i n a v a r i e t y o f styles, i n c l u d i n g j a z z . T h e c i r c u l a r g r o u p s o f s i x t e e n t h notes o v e r a s i n g l e h a r m o n i c s o n o r i t y s h o u l d be stressed b y an e m p h a s i s o n the first o f the g r o u p . D e p e n d i n g o n t e m p o a n d p e r s o n a l taste, o n e m a y a d h e r e to the c o n v e n t i o n o f s t r o n g - w e a k p a i r i n g i n these fast f i g u r a t i o n s .  Overture,  W h e n p e r f o r m i n g strenuous fast s e c t i o n s , s u c h as the m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f the  o n e s h o u l d k e e p i n m i n d the oft-noted c l a r i t y o f B a c h ' s p l a y i n g . T h e s e fast f i g u r a t i o n s c a l l f o r  a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g f i n g e r a r t i c u l a t i o n r e m i n i s c e n t o f the o n e that results f r o m " d r a w i n g " the f i n g e r t i p s o n a h a r p s i c h o r d . T h e f u g a l s e c t i o n from the first m o v e m e n t o f the its length a n d the c o n t i n u o u s f i g u r a t i o n s .  Overture  is v e r y t a x i n g , m o s t l y b e c a u s e o f  S i m u l t a n e o u s use o f the a r m w i t h f i n g e r s t a c c a t o s e e m s  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m a n y passages w h e r e o n e h a n d is m o v i n g i n e i g h t h note r h y t h m w h i l e the o t h e r m o v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n s i x t e e n t h notes. T h e s o l o s e c t i o n s o f the r i t o r n e l l o are v a r i e d not o n l y b y t h e i r t e x t u r e a n d o v e r a l l d y n a m i c l e v e l but a l s o b y t h e i r i m p l i e d a r t i c u l a t i o n .  T h e slurs o v e r the last f i v e notes o f the s i x t e e n t h n o t e g r o u p s i n  m e a s u r e s 4 7 - 4 8 a n d 7 7 - 7 8 suggest a d i f f e r e n t interpretation than m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be e x p e c t e d . figurations consist o f arpeggiations d e v o i d o f conjunct motion.  The  Therefore they m a y i m p l y a strongly  a r t i c u l a t e d t o u c h a n d s l i g h t g r o u p i n g o f the first, t h i r d , a n d fifth notes. T h e s l u r , h o w e v e r , i m p l i e s a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n o f the first note o f the g r o u p f r o m the f o l l o w i n g  five.  T h i s clearly indicates a very detached  p e r f o r m a n c e o f the first, u n - s l u r r e d note, a n d the g r o u p i n g o f the f o l l o w i n g five i n t o o n e gesture w h e r e o n l y the first w o u l d r e c e i v e a s l i g h t e m p h a s i s . under one b o w . T h e r e m a i n i n g 1 0 0  figurations  T h u s , a l l five notes s h o u l d s o u n d as i f t h e y w e r e p l a y e d  i n e a c h s o l o s e c t i o n are u n m a r k e d a n d left to the p e r f o r m e r to  Quantz, p. 217.  ••  71  interpret according to conventional groupings and intervallic relationships. Also, bearing in mind that these represent the solo sections of an orchestral ritornello-form movement, important decisions should be made with regard to the eighth note accompaniment in the left hand. A performer might decide between various degrees of detached articulation in the left hand, ranging from a sonorous, strong staccato to a more finger-like "plucking" resembling a continuo realization.  Dynamics . The dotted sections as well as the central portion's opening ritornello of the overture are representative of a full orchestral sound. Bach controlled the varying intensity of forte through a masterful choice of instrumentation, resulting in a louder sonority when such instruments as timpani were used. The large dimensions and rich texture of the Ouverture's slow opening imply a powerful forte. According to the natural shaping of the melodic lines and the harmonic structure, a performer should mould the phrases within the overall forte dynamic. For example, in the first phrase, the most intense touch would be appropriate in measure 4, in which several pitches explore the highest register with the underlying dominant sonority bringing the tension to its peak. The rapidly descending line in measure 5, including two expressive appoggiaturas, brings the resolution to the early climax.  The slurred  appoggiaturas call for two-note diminuendi. According to the contemporary treatises, chromatically altered notes should also be highlighted. Such an example may be seen in the next phrase, on the downbeat of measure 8. The accented D-sharp indicates a temporary shift to the key of E-minor and should be highlighted by a more intense dynamic. Because of its placement in the lower register, the return of the opening material in measures 13-17 in the new key of F-sharp minor may be performed softer than in its initial statement. The strong cadential progression in measures 17-20 that closes the opening movement includes a reach upward to high  in the soprano with a simultaneous descent of the  bass to B . By creating the largest span between the parts, reaching over three octaves, Bach signals the 1  final cadence, which calls for a crescendo and returns to the full orchestral sonority. Already in the second measure of the last dotted section, a performer must make a special attempt to emphasise the chromatically altered second beat of the measure, D-sharp . It is used as a leading tone 2  72  to E m i n o r w h i c h is e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f o l l o w i n g f o u r m e a s u r e s . suggested i n m e a s u r e s 150 a n d 1 5 1 .  P e r h a p s the m o s t intense  crescendo  A g a i n , the p i t c h , D - s h a r p , is u s e d to m o d u l a t e to E m i n o r . 2  is  This  t i m e , h o w e v e r , it is i n t e r w o v e n i n t o the r h y t h m i c a l l y persistent a n d c o n s i s t e n t l y a s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e , e v e n t u a l l y r e a c h i n g to the h i g h e s t p i t c h o f the s e c t i o n , A . A series o f staggered 3  diminuendo  be a p p l i e d to d e s c e n d i n g sequences, s u c h as m e a s u r e s 154 ( s e c o n d h a l f ) to 1 5 6 . e n r i c h e d b y the e x p r e s s i v e l y s l u r r e d  appoggiaturas,  levels m a y  E a c h l e v e l s h o u l d be  w h i c h necessitate the use o f t w o - n o t e  diminuendi.  T h e final c a d e n t i a l phrase i n m e a s u r e s 160 to 163 c a l l s f o r a n o t h e r s t r o n g d y n a m i c return to the a s s e r t i v e o r c h e s t r a l forte. T h e r i t o r n e l l o s e c t i o n o f the o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t is v e r y c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d b y the use o f  piano  markings.  forte  and  A c c o r d i n g the c o n t e m p o r a r y theorists, e a c h statement o f the f u g a l subject s h o u l d be  e m p h a s i z e d d y n a m i c a l l y . T h e i n n e r s h a p i n g o f the f l o r i d  figurations  aspects o f " s i n g i n g " , w h e r e the d i r e c t i o n o f the l i n e suggests  s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d to the n a t u r a l  crescendi  or  diminuendi.  It is i n t e r e s t i n g t o  note that the s t r o n g c a d e n t i a l e n d i n g o f the first r i t o r n e l l o i n m e a s u r e 4 7 s t i l l n e c e s s i t a t e s the use o fforte o n the first beat o f the m e a s u r e .  A p e r f o r m e r m u s t e x e r c i s e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r o l i n o r d e r not to w e a k e n t h i s  effect b y a n t i c i p a t i n g the i n c o m i n g contrast.  B a c h c l e a r l y p l a c e d the  piano m a r k i n g s  o n the s e c o n d beat,  t h u s a s s e r t i n g a f u l l s o u n d o n the d o w n b e a t . I n t h i s case, t h i s fragment presents a greater c h a l l e n g e o n the modern piano. A harpsichord provides a solution through a change o f manuals. A s M a r s h a l l p r o v e s , the  piano  i n d i c a t i o n suggests a c h a n g e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n w h i c h d o e s not  necessarily mean a monumental difference in v o l u m e .  T h e r e are three s o l o s e c t i o n s i n this r i t o r n e l l o  s e c t i o n a n d a p e r f o r m e r m a y v a r y the d y n a m i c s h a d i n g s o f e a c h o f the s e c t i o n s . A s p e c t s s u c h as register a n d p l a c e m e n t w i t h i n a larger f o r m m a y be u s e f u l w h e n d e c i d i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f v o l u m e a n d c o l o u r f o r the three s o l o s e c t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y to the p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f fugal subjects, the f a m i l i a r t r i a d i c m o t i v e o f the  solo part  ( m e a s u r e 4 7 a n d 4 8 ) s h o u l d a l s o be b r o u g h t out w h e n it reappears i n m e a s u r e s 5 1 , 5 2 a n d 53 o r i n the following  solo  parts.  A g a i n , a p i a n i s t s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y f i n i s h the  73  solo  s e c t i o n w i t h i n the c h o s e n d y n a m i c  l e v e l i n m e a s u r e 5 9 i n o r d e r to m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y s h o w the shift to the r i t o r n e l l o s e c t i o n o n the s e c o n d note o f the m e a s u r e . T h e t h i r d r i t o r n e l l o is the m o s t a d v e n t u r o u s a n d i n t e r e s t i n g . T h e c h a n g e o f texture from full  tutti  p r o c e e d s g r a d u a l l y . F i r s t , the  forte i n d i c a t i o n o c c u r s  solo  to  o n l y a b o v e the s o p r a n o part, w h e r e a s a l l  other parts a c c o m p a n y w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s d y n a m i c / r e g i s t r a t i o n l e v e l . I n e a c h t w o m e a s u r e g r o u p , a n e w part is a d d e d to the f u l l bass.  tutti  sound:  i n m e a s u r e 91 the a l t o is a d d e d , i n 9 3 , a t e n o r a n d f i n a l l y i n 9 5 , a  A l l n e w v o i c e entries s h o u l d be h i g h l i g h t e d d y n a m i c a l l y , t h u s c r e a t i n g o n e o f the m o s t p o w e r f u l  c l i m a x e s o f the  ritornello.  T h e o p e n i n g o f the last  solo s e c t i o n  r e s e m b l e s a n i n s t r u m e n t a l duet.  T h e p e r f o r m e r here is  c h a l l e n g e d b y the presence o f i m p o r t a n t m e l o d i e s i n t w o o f the p o l y p h o n i c parts. returns to the f a m i l i a r t r i a d i c m o t i v e f r o m the p r e v i o u s gestures.  In measure  solo  W h e r e a s the a l t o  parts, the s o p r a n o m a k e s use o f the  ritornello  112, the l o w e r v o i c e loses its s o l o i s t i c q u a l i t i e s a n d c o n t i n u e s i n a p u r e l y  a c c o m p a n i m e n t a l r o l e , r e s e m b l i n g i d i o m s o f basso c o n t i n u o .  A g a i n , the m a i n m o t i v e f r o m the  solo  s e c t i o n appears i n the s o p r a n o part a n d s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e .  Affect T h e m a i n affect o f the o v e r t u r e arises from its o r i g i n s as a p r o c e s s i o n a l f o r the entrance o f the king.  The music should evoke feelings o f pride, supremacy and generosity.  c h a r a c t e r s h o u l d a l s o p o r t r a y c o u r a g e a n d fearlessness, unpredictable.'  02  101  A s a t y p e o f m a r c h , the  e x c l u d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s that are t o o fast o r  T h e affects that are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n o v e r t u r e m o v e m e n t t h u s r e q u i r e , a b o v e a l l , a  steady, n o n - e r r a t i c p u l s e a n d w e l l - s e t t l e d r h y t h m s .  A s m u s i c d e s i g n a t e d to a c c o m p a n y the entrance o f  h i g h e r m o r t a l s , the c h o s e n t e m p o m u s t not be t o o fast o r  frivolous.  A dynamic  offorte  is a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  a n o v e r t u r e s t y l e m o v e m e n t , not o n l y b e c a u s e o f its s u i t a b i l i t y to c h a r a c t e r i z e r o y a l p o w e r , but a l s o because it represents a n o r c h e s t r a l  tutti.  In the case o f the o p e n i n g m o v e m e n t o f B W V 8 3 1 , the d e n s e  t e x t u r e a n d large d i m e n s i o n s create the i m p r e s s i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y r i c h o r c h e s t r a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d  1 0 1  1 0 2  Harriss, p. 467. Ibid., p. 455.  74  e n c o u r a g e p i a n i s t s to seek the m o s t s o n o r o u s c o l o u r s .  T o e f f e c t i v e l y d e l i v e r the o v e r t u r e ' s affects,  performer must choose a very distinctive, h i g h l y detached, never over-lapping articulation. s u p e r i o r i t y c a n n o t be p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h a n i n a r t i c u l a t e , hasty p e r f o r m a n c e . f r o m the fast  tirades  and trills.  a  Pride and  B r i l l i a n c e should originate  T h e j o y o u s nature o f the m i d d l e f u g a l part is e v i d e n t from the w i d e  i n t e r v a l s o f the subject.  75  Courante Meter and Tempo T h e 3/2 m e t e r o f the  Courante  i n d i c a t e s the d i v i s i o n o f quarter notes i n t o three g r o u p s o f t w o .  R e s u l t i n g f r o m the a b u n d a n c e o f e i g h t h n o t e f i g u r a t i o n s , o n e m a y p e r c e i v e a f l o w i n g nature i n this t y p e o f dance.  T h e c o u r a n t e is a c k n o w l e d g e d t o be the s l o w e s t o f a l l d a n c e s i n t r i p l e m e t e r b e c a u s e o f its s l o w  b a s i c p u l s e o f a h a l f note. A s is t y p i c a l o f t r i p l e meter, the largest stress s h o u l d be g i v e n to the d o w n b e a t , t h u s c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g f e e l i n g o f a r r i v a l . T h e t h i r d beat s h o u l d a l s o be e m p h a s i z e d as l e a d i n g to the n e x t s t r o n g a r r i v a l o n the d o w n b e a t o f the f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e . the t r i p l e m e t e r i n the r i g h t h a n d is d i s t u r b e d b y the  In m e a s u r e s 1-3, as w e l l as i n m e a s u r e s 2 0 - 2 1 ,  hemiolas  i n the left h a n d .  T h e s e p e d a l p o i n t s are  c l e a r l y a u d i b l e o n the h a r p s i c h o r d d u e t o t h e i r p l a c e m e n t i n the r e s o n a n t bass register a n d t h u s s h o u l d be projected strongly o n a modern piano. quarter note p l u s a n e i g h t h note. almost every measure o f this  T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r h y t h m i c pattern o f the c o u r a n t e is a dotted  T h i s t y p i c a l pattern a m p l i f i e s the s t r o n g first a n d t h i r d beat g r o u p s i n  Courante. A c c o r d i n g  b y l e n g t h e n i n g the l o n g e r n o t e .  103  to Q u a n t z , o n e s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h i s d o t t e d gesture  T h e c l e a r p r o j e c t i o n o f the d o w n b e a t m a y be a c h i e v e d b y a s l i g h t d e l a y  at the b a r l i n e f o r a c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n , n o t o n l y b y d y n a m i c m e a n s a l o n e .  T e c h n i q u e s s u c h as the use o f  u p w a r d o r d o w n w a r d a r p e g g i a t i o n o f c h o r d s at v a r y i n g speeds m a y a l s o be a p p l i e d . m e a n s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n m a y be v a r i e d d e p e n d i n g o n phrase d e v e l o p m e n t a n d h a r m o n y .  T h e degree and F o r e x a m p l e , the  d o w n b e a t i n m e a s u r e 4 c u l m i n a t e s i n h e i g h t e n e d t e n s i o n , a c c u m u l a t i n g f r o m the b e g i n n i n g o f the p i e c e a n d , therefore, s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d m o r e s t r o n g l y than the d o w n b e a t s o f m e a s u r e s 2 a n d 3.  Similarly,  the o n l y s t r o n g i n t e r n a l c a d e n c e o f the s e c o n d s e c t i o n i n m e a s u r e 18 s h o u l d be m a d e m o r e p r o m i n e n t b y p r o l o n g i n g the p r e c e d i n g upbeat a n d s o n o r o u s a r p e g g i a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g d o w n b e a t . c a d e n c e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t due to the i r r e g u l a r p h r a s i n g o f a c o u r a n t e .  These internal  A g a i n , o n e m e a n s to a d d  e m p h a s i s a n d r e s o n a n c e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o is the use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l .  H o w e v e r , as w i t h a l l  B a r o q u e m u s i c , it s h o u l d be u s e d w i t h c a u t i o n so that it d o e s n o t o b s c u r e the o v e r a l l c l a r i t y a n d v o i c e leading.  1 0 3  Quantz, p. 290.  76  C o n j u n c t e i g h t h n o t e m o v e m e n t d o m i n a t e s the use  note inegales. M a n y  Courante,  g i v i n g the p e r f o r m e r the o p p o r t u n i t y to  w r i t e r s s t r o n g l y suggest s y n c h r o n i z i n g u n e q u a l e i g h t h notes w i t h the last notes  o f dotted r h y t h m s i n other v o i c e s .  F o r e x a m p l e , i n m e a s u r e 3, the t w o last s i x t e e n t h notes i n the t e n o r  s h o u l d be a l i g n e d w i t h the last C - s h a r p i n the s o p r a n o .  C o n s i d e r i n g the e l e g a n t a n d f l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r o f  the c o u r a n t e , the l o n g - s h o r t i n e q u a l i t y w o u l d be m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e t h a n the o p p o s i t e .  O n e should also  c o n s i d e r the a b u n d a n t s l u r s i g n s o v e r f o u r o r m o r e notes as c a n c e l l a t i o n s o f i n e q u a l i t y .  Articulation A r t i c u l a t i o n i n d a n c e m o v e m e n t s s h o u l d e n h a n c e i d i o m a t i c r h y t h m i c patterns.  T h u s , a l l the  p r o m i n e n t dotted r h y t h m s o f the c o u r a n t e s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d . A d i s t i n c t a g o g i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s h o u l d be m a d e b e t w e e n the s h o r t e n e d e i g h t h note u p b e a t a n d the d o w n b e a t o f the first m e a s u r e a n d i n o t h e r s i m i l a r patterns. L i k e w i s e , a sharper m a n n e r o f a r t i c u l a t i o n m a y u n d e r l i n e the r e s o n a n t h e m i o l a s i n the bass ( i n m e a s u r e s 1-2 a n d 2 0 - 2 1 ) w h i c h m a k e use o f large i n t e r v a l s . T h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f the u p w a r d l e a p s i n the m e l o d y c a l l s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r l y d e t a c h e d t o u c h at c e r t a i n p o i n t s , s u c h as p r i o r to the t h i r d beat o f m e a s u r e 7. E v e n m o r e attention s h o u l d be g i v e n to the e x p a n d e d v e r s i o n i n the u p w a r d l e a p o f a n o c t a v e before the t h i r d beat o f m e a s u r e 13.  S t r o n g a r t i c u l a t i o n m a y be e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l to d e p i c t the d r a m a  i m p l i e d i n the e n l a r g e d i n t e r v a l l i c s p a n i n the m a i n m e l o d i c m o t i v e .  T h e c l i m a x o f the s e c o n d s e c t i o n  o c c u r s i n m e a s u r e 21 as a result o f a r p e g g i a t i o n , w h i c h r e a c h e s the h i g h e s t n o t e o f the m o v e m e n t , G \ T h i s e v o c a t i v e gesture a l s o r e q u i r e s a m o r e d e t a c h e d a n d intense a r t i c u l a t i o n . T h e abundance o f  appoggiaturas  requires a more expressive and slurred performance.  This  s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y intense d u r i n g c h r o m a t i c passages s u c h as that w h i c h o c c u r s o n the first a n d t h i r d beats o f m e a s u r e 4 . T h e p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d t a k e note o f the frequent s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f d i s s o n a n t figures a n d t r i l l s that start w i t h a u x i l i a r y notes o n the s t r o n g m e t r i c beats o f the c o u r a n t e , seen here i n m e a s u r e s 1-2, 4 - 6 , 10, 14-17, 19, 2 1 - 2 2 a n d 2 3 .  T h e r e are m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s l u r r i n g w i t h i n  a p p l i c a b l e to the p e r v a s i v e c o n j u n c t m o t i o n i n e i g h t h notes.  notes inegales  In s o m e cases, i n k e e p i n g w i t h s i m i l a r  gestures i n s t r i n g p l a y i n g , B a c h s p e c i f i e s the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f four-note g r o u p i n g s , i n w h i c h the first note t a k e s a s l i g h t stress as, f o r e x a m p l e , i n m e a s u r e 6 ( b o t h h a n d s ) o r m e a s u r e 7 (left h a n d ) .  77  T h e suggested  a r t i c u l a t i o n is v a r i e d b y the a d d i t i o n o f a l o n g e r s l u r that e x t e n d s o v e r t w o beats f o u n d i n m e a s u r e 2 2 i n the left h a n d . O n the last beat o f m e a s u r e 21 i n the r i g h t h a n d there is a m e l o d i c c o n t o u r r e s e m b l e s the f i g u r a t i o n from m e a s u r e 156 o f the  figurae corta  Overture.  pattern w h e r e the  T h e s l u r r i n g o f the t w o fast  notes suggested f o r that passage m i g h t as w e l l be a p p l i e d here. T h e intense c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s d a n c e offers m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s to e x p e r i m e n t w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f slurred, detached and neutral articulations.  L i k e the  Sarabande,  range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s to be e x p l o r e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o .  t h i s m o v e m e n t offers an e n o r m o u s  T h e range o f t o u c h that is i m p l i e d i n t h i s  m o v e m e n t r e q u i r e s great c o n t r o l w i t h r e g a r d t o t i m i n g , p r o p e r w e i g h t t o p a r t i c u l a r notes, the s p e e d o f the attack a n d the use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l .  Dynamics The expressive  Courante  g i v e s m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the use o f d y n a m i c n u a n c e s .  appoggiaturas  require a two-note  diminuendo  In p a r t i c u l a r , the  w i t h i n the p h r a s e s ' l a r g e r d y n a m i c l e v e l s .  p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d o b s e r v e the d i r e c t i o n o f the m u s i c a l l i n e s i n o r d e r to p l a n the m o s t " c a n t a b i l e " s h a p i n g o f the passages.  T h e first phrase, w h i c h starts i n the m i d d l e register o f the k e y b o a r d , b r i n g s the  o p p o r t u n i t y to m a k e a v e r y s m o o t h  crescendo  in measure 4, in w h i c h a m e l o d i c line ascends stepwise  t o w a r d s the c l i m a x o n the d o w n b e a t o f the f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e .  A h i g h e r r e g i s t e r a n d larger s p a n b e t w e e n  the s o p r a n o a n d bass o c c u r s i n the f o l l o w i n g phrase, t h u s i m p l y i n g a d y n a m i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n .  The  c h r o m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d notes a n d h i g h l y d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s i n measures 6 a n d 7 create a c l i m a x i n the first part o f the c o u r a n t e , w h i c h necessitates the use o f stronger d y n a m i c s , p e r h a p s r e a c h i n g to a forte l e v e l .  A  decrease o f t e n s i o n i n the r e m a i n i n g part is e v i d e n t from the s l o w l y d e s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e . A s i d e f r o m d y n a m i c s that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the natural s h a p i n g o f phrases, b r i e f m o m e n t s o f i m i t a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be e m p h a s i z e d . S u c h m o m e n t s m a y be f o u n d i n the  appoggiaturas  i n m e a s u r e 4 as w e l l as the three-note  a s c e n d i n g f o u r t h m o t i v e i n m e a s u r e 8 ( s o p r a n o ) a n d 9 (bass). T h e s e c o n d part o f the t h i r d beat reaches to F - s h a r p . 0  Courante  b e g i n s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e g i s t e r than the first a n d i n  the  A l s o , the large s p a n b e t w e e n the s o p r a n o a n d the bass suggests m o r e  intense d y n a m i c s . A f t e r t h i s e a r l y m e l o d i c peak, the p h r a s e s d e s c e n d to the m i d d l e register, e v e n t u a l l y  78  A  r e s t i n g o n the D m a j o r s o n o r i t y i n m e a s u r e 18. A c c o r d i n g to the e v e r - i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s o f s h a p i n g the l i n e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h its c o n t o u r , t h i s s e c t i o n c a l l s f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n d y n a m i c l e v e l .  The  m o s t intense p o i n t o f the p i e c e o c c u r s o n the last phrase i n m e a s u r e s 2 0 - 2 1 , w h e r e the m e l o d y reaches f r o m E to G . T h e 4  5  Courante  o f B W V 831 g i v e s m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p r e s s i v e , soft d y n a m i c l e v e l s  w h i c h m a y e n r i c h a p e r f o r m a n c e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o .  Affect F o r M a t t h e s o n , the c o u r a n t e s h o u l d e x p r e s s " t e n d e r l o n g i n g " , hearty" and also something " c h e e r f u l " . c l e a r l y reflect the a s p e c t o f h o p e .  1 0 5  In t h i s  Courante,  1 0 4  "sweet hopefulness", "something  there are m a n y a s c e n d i n g passages that  A s i d e f r o m the d i r e c t i o n o f the m e l o d y a n d its i n t e r v a l l i c content, the  r e g i s t e r a n d range a l s o suggest the e l e v a t i o n o f t e n s i o n , a n d thus, d y n a m i c s . a s c e n d i n g l i n e i n m e a s u r e 3, w h i c h e n c o m p a s s e s  crescendo w i t h i n  softer d y n a m i c s .  F o r e x a m p l e , the s t e p w i s e  the m i d d l e register f r o m B  3  to C - s h a r p , i m p l i e s a 5  L a t e r , the m o r e e x p a n s i v e l i n e f r o m m e a s u r e s 5-7 p r o c e e d s  in  a s c e n d i n g gestures r e a c h i n g F - s h a r p . T h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r t e n s i o n o f t h i s f r a g m e n t is e m p h a s i z e d b y 5  i m i t a t i v e passages m o v i n g i n c o n t r a r y m o t i o n i n the left h a n d , w h i c h e x t e n d the r a n g e b e t w e e n the h a n d s t o o v e r three o c t a v e s i n m e a s u r e 7. In m e a s u r e s 2 0 - 2 1 , a  crescendo  o f a w i d e r e x p r e s s i v e r a n g e m a y be  h e l p f u l . T h e a r p e g g i a t e d m e l o d y o f the r i g h t h a n d e x t e n d s t h r o u g h a tenth a n d r e a c h e s the h i g h e s t note o f the p i e c e , G . 5  T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s p i t c h is stressed b y the d i s s o n a n t , m i n o r s e c o n d  M a t t h e s o n s i n g l e d o u t this s m a l l i n t e r v a l as b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p r e s s i v e : u n u s u a l l y p r o m i n e n t i n the a s c e n d i n g h a l f t o n e . "  1 0 6  Harriss, p. 425 Ibid., p. 462. Ibid., p. 428.  79  appoggiatura.  " . . . T h e m u s i c a l e m p h a s i s is  Gavottes I, II Meter and Tempo L i k e the o p e n i n g m o v e m e n t a n d the  Bourrees, Gavottes I  and  II  are w r i t t e n i n the m e t e r o f 2 ,  w h i c h " i n d i c a t e s that the notes m u s t be p l a y e d at t w i c e t h e i r r e g u l a r [that i s , m e t e r o f C ] t e m p o . " a l l d a n c e s i n the s a m e m e t e r share the s a m e t e m p o , a n d , as Q u a n t z s u g g e s t s ,  108  1 0 7  Not  the " G a v o t t e is m o r e  m o d e r a t e i n t e m p o [than the R i g a u d o n ] " . A l s o , the c o m p l e x i t y o f the steps a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the g a v o t t e r e q u i r e s a s l o w e r speed. predictable.  U n l i k e the  Courante,  the phrase structure a n d r h y t h m o f the  Gavottes  are h i g h l y  A t y p i c a l gavotte o f the late B a r o q u e starts o n the h a l f n o t e u p b e a t a n d p r o c e e d s i n r e g u l a r  r h y t h m i c g r o u p i n g s o f e i g h t h a l f notes.  T h e b e g i n n i n g o f s u c h g r o u p i n g s s h o u l d be a r t i c u l a t e d at the  s a m e t i m e as the m a i n d i v i s i o n o f the p h r a s e i n t o t w o h a l v e s . the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the d o w n b e a t s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t .  These across-the-barline groupings make  H o w e v e r , despite t h i s i r r e g u l a r i t y o f p h r a s i n g , the s t r o n g  d o w n b e a t s n e e d to be a r t i c u l a t e d i n o r d e r to m a i n t a i n the g a v o t t e i d e n t i t y . T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t at the first d o w n b e a t w h i c h B a c h w e a k e n s b y the t i e d bass note. A t the e n d o f first s e c t i o n i n m e a s u r e 7, the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t e n s i o n is a c h i e v e d b y the q u i c k e n i n g o f h a r m o n i c r h y t h m to f o u r quarter notes p e r m e a s u r e w h i c h , as a result, s h o u l d i n c r e a s e the n u m b e r o f m e t r i c a c c e n t s to f o u r . M e a n s o f h i g h l i g h t i n g the m e t e r a n d p h r a s i n g m a y r a n g e from s l i g h t a n d " e l e g a n t " d e l a y s o f the d o w n b e a t s to stronger d y n a m i c a c c e n t s i n m o r e d i s s o n a n t s e c t i o n s , s u c h as m e a s u r e s 1 6 - 1 8 .  Gavotte  / / p r e s e n t s melodic material in  c o n j u n c t e i g h t h n o t e m o t i o n , g i v i n g a perfect o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p l y i n e q u a l i t y . I f  inegalite  is e m p l o y e d , it  t h e n creates c o n s i d e r a b l e r h y t h m i c v a r i e t y w i t h i n g r o u p s o f s l u r r e d notes o r i n g r o u p s w h e r e o n l y the last three notes ( o f f o u r ) are c o n n e c t e d , w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m i g h t not be o p e n to s u c h a l t e r a t i o n . A g a i n , i n o r d e r to project the n u a n c e s o f gavotte p h r a s i n g a n d r h y t h m , a p i a n i s t s h o u l d e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l so as to present a very precise metrical delineation.  Ibid., p.  290.  Ibid., p.  291.  80  Articulation T h e slurs in four-note  Gavotte I  appoggiaturas  a n d / / are a l s o h i g h l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s d a n c e .  T h e y a c c o m p a n y the  o n beat 2 o f m e a s u r e s 1, 5 a n d 9, as w e l l as the s i x t e e n t h note  tirades.  Again,  s i n g l e b o w a r t i c u l a t i o n is i m p l i e d , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the stress o n the first note. T h i s stress is e a s i l y r e a l i z e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e not o n l y b y an i n c r e a s e o f f i n g e r s p e e d but a l s o b y the s l i g h t s e p a r a t i o n o f the stressed notes f r o m the p r e c e d i n g f i g u r a t i o n s .  T o p r o j e c t the r e g u l a r p h r a s i n g o f the d a n c e a s i m i l a r c o n t r o l o f  a g o g i c p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d m a r k the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f m e l o d i c segments.  P e r h a p s the m o s t effort m i g h t be  a p p l i e d to s e t t i n g the d o w n b e a t o f the p r i n c i p a l phrase ( m . 1), w h e r e the s t r o n g stress is w e a k e n e d b y the t i e d note i n the bass.  In measures 2 , 3 a n d 12, the s t r o n g beats are u n d e r l i n e d b y the use o f m o r d e n t s .  o t h e r p l a c e s , h o w e v e r , it is up to the p e r f o r m e r to p r o j e c t the i d i o m a t i c r h y t h m .  T h e tempo  In and  f i g u r a t i o n s o f the gavotte, e v e n w h e n a p p l i e d to p e r f o r m a n c e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , d o not r e q u i r e s t r e n u o u s finger a r t i c u l a t i o n . E v e n i f the " d r a w i n g b a c k " o f the note  tirades,  fingertips  is a p p l i e d t o the fast s i x t e e n t h  the r e s u l t i n g t e n s i o n o f the h a n d m a y be r e l a x e d d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g l o n g e r note.  s t r o n g beats o f  Gavotte I  The  c a n be e a s i l y u n d e r l i n e d t h r o u g h a j u d i c i o u s use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l o n the  quarter note d o w n b e a t s .  O n e s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y c a r e f u l i n p l a c e s w h e r e d i s s o n a n t  a c c o m p a n y these s t r o n g beats.  T h e e x p r e s s i v e s l u r r i n g a p p r o p r i a t e to the  appoggiaturas  ornaments should not  o b s c u r e the a l l - i m p o r t a n t c l a r i t y . T h e l o w e r register o f o n the m o d e r n p i a n o .  Gavotte II a n d  its f l o w i n g m a n n e r c a l l f o r a l i g h t e r a p p r o a c h to a r t i c u l a t i o n  T h i s m o v e m e n t is easy to a r t i c u l a t e o n the m o r e s o n o r o u s h a r p s i c h o r d but a  p e r f o r m a n c e o n the p i a n o r e q u i r e s m o r e f o c u s . played using  inegalite,  M u c h o f the s t e p w i s e m o t i o n o f the right h a n d m a y be  although a light but energetic  t r a n s p a r e n c y o f the texture.  finger-articulation  is required to preserve  the  It m a y be b e n e f i c i a l f o r the o v e r a l l p r e s e n t a t i o n t o c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e the left  h a n d i n w h i c h the d i s j u n c t quarter notes w o u l d h a v e b e e n p l a y e d e x t r e m e l y  detache  o n a bass i n s t r u m e n t .  P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g are the g r o u p s o f s l u r r e d a n d d o t t e d e i g h t h notes that c o n t r a s t w i t h the rest o f the movement.  A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , the d o t s are u s e d i n o r d e r to c l a r i f y the s l u r m a r k s w h i c h i n t h i s case  i m p l y the g r o u p i n g o f the  last three notes.  T h e s e m a r k i n g s , e x t r e m e l y rare  81  in B a c h ' s keyboard  compositions, o c c u r i n measures  13-15 ( r i g h t h a n d ) , 17-18 (left h a n d ) a n d 2 0 - 2 2 ( r i g h t h a n d ) .  This  a r t i c u l a t i o n is j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the r e g u l a r f o u r - n o t e s l u r s a p p e a r i n g i n m e a s u r e s 18 a n d 19 o f the r i g h t h a n d . T h e s h i f t i n g o f stresses b e t w e e n the first a n d s e c o n d note o f the f o u r - n o t e g r o u p i n g s c o n t r i b u t e s to the p l a y f u l n e s s o f the m o v e m e n t a n d r e q u i r e s q u i c k adjustments o f t o u c h . T h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w t e s s i t u r a o f t h i s m o v e m e n t , t h i n texture a n d the d y n a m i c m a r k i n g ,  piano,  h a r p s i c h o r d , p e r h a p s the use o f a b u f f o r lute stop.  suggest the use o f a different m a n u a l o n the  T h e m o d e r n p i a n o offers n o s i m i l a r s o l u t i o n s .  T h e r e f o r e the p e r f o r m e r m u s t s t r i v e f o r a d i s t i n c t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r . In s u c h s i t u a t i o n s p i a n i s t s often m a k e use o f the  una corda p e d a l , w h i c h ,  together w i t h c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n , m a y s u c c e s s f u l l y h e l p to c a p t u r e  the p l a y f u l n e s s o f the d a n c e .  Dynamics Gavotte II  bears a  piano i n d i c a t i o n ,  w h i c h t a c i t l y suggests the d y n a m i c o f  forte f o r Gavotte I.  A s m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e , it is u n d e r s t o o d b y B a c h s c h o l a r s that s u c h m a r k i n g s suggest the c h a n g e o f c o l o u r o f different r e g i s t r a t i o n s a n d not a d r a m a t i c contrast o f v o l u m e . T h e t h i c k t e x t u r e a n d the use o f a large range m i g h t e n c o u r a g e the p e r f o r m e r to use the p i a n o ' s f u l l s o n o r i t y . R e g u l a r p h r a s i n g a n d infrequent use o f d i s s o n a n c e i n the first part o f the d a n c e a l l o w s f o r a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d d y n a m i c p l a n . H o w e v e r , the s e c o n d part o f  Gavotte /  c o n t a i n s m a n y s u r p r i s i n g persistent d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s , i n t e n s i f i e d b y a n ascent  t o the h i g h e r register. A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s m a y be f o u n d i n m e a s u r e s 12-14, i n w h i c h a l l the v o i c e s shift to the h i g h e r o c t a v e . A f t e r a c a d e n c e i n F - s h a r p m i n o r i n m e a s u r e 16, b r i n g i n g w i t h it o n l y a t e m p o r a r y release o f t e n s i o n , a n e w d i s s o n a n t p r o g r e s s i o n p r o c e e d s . A g a i n it leads to the h i g h e r register a n d m a k e s e x t e n s i v e use o f d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h c h o r d s (measures  16-18).  A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s ascent, the o p e n i n g  m o t i v e is restated i n m e a s u r e s 20-21 a n o c t a v e h i g h e r , the entire m o v e m e n t c a d e n c i n g i n a m o r e intense m a n n e r than it b e g i n s . A c c o r d i n g to these o b s e r v a t i o n s , a p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d save the m o r e s o n o r o u s forte f o r the s e c o n d part o f the d a n c e , t h u s s t a r t i n g the p i e c e at a T h e t w o - p a r t texture o f the s e c o n d  Gavotte  mezzo-forte  level.  i m p l i e s the use o f m o r e s u b d u e d d y n a m i c s . T h e bass  l i n e r e s e m b l e s a b a s s o c o n t i n u o part a n d s h o u l d be p e r f o r m e d softer than w o u l d n o r m a l l y be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the a c c o m p a n i m e n t .  H o w e v e r , the s o l o part does n o t h a v e to be p e r f o r m e d s t r i c t l y  82  piano.  The  decrease i n d y n a m i c l e v e l is i n e v i t a b l e w i t h the r e d u c t i o n o f f u l l  tutti  to  solo  texture.  B u t it d o e s n o t  m e a n that the s o l o i n s t r u m e n t is e x p e c t e d to p l a y at its l o w e s t d y n a m i c l e v e l s . T h e r e g u l a r , a r c h - s h a p e d  Gavotte II  phrases o f  c a n be s h a p e d i n a n a t u r a l  cantabile  style, w h i c h was a l w a y s advocated b y many  theorist a n d p e r f o r m e r s o f the E r a .  Affect A c c o r d i n g to M a t t h e s o n , t h i s d a n c e s h o u l d e v o k e f e e l i n g s o f j u b i l a t i o n .  Gavotte I  1 0 9  T h e m e l o d i c line o f  is a b u n d a n t w i t h l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s , w h i c h c o r r o b o r a t e the t h e o r i s t ' s suggested affect.  Such  p a s s i o n s c a n be p o r t r a y e d b y sharp, e n e r g e t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n that s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y b r i l l i a n t i n p a s s a g e s containing  tirades.  A m o r e intense t y p e o f " j u b i l a t i o n " i s suggested i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f  Gavotte I,  in  measures  12-17, w h e r e the l i s t e n e r is e x p o s e d to m a n y d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s a n d a n ascent to h i g h e r  registers.  L o u d e r d y n a m i c s a n d m a s t e r f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d o r n a m e n t s m a y benefit the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these agitated phrases. W h e n c h o o s i n g the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p o it is a l s o i m p o r t a n t to r e m e m b e r that " T h e s k i p p i n g nature is a true trait o f these gavottes; n o t the r u n n i n g . "  1 1 0  A h a s t y p e r f o r m a n c e m a y c o n t r i b u t e to a less  p o i g n a n t a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d create the i m p r e s s i o n o f a v e r y d i f f e r e n t affect. D e p e n d i n g o n the q u a l i t y o f the p a r t i c u l a r p i a n o a n d c o n c e r t v e n u e , a p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d s t r i v e f o r the s p e e d i n w h i c h c l a r i t y , b r i l l i a n c e a n d j u b i l a n t p l a y f u l n e s s c a n be c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d . T h e m e l o d i c l i n e o f the s e c o n d  Gavotte  is m o r e c o n j u n c t a n d the r a n g e o f v o i c e s m u c h s m a l l e r .  W i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l phrases, the d o m i n a t i n g i n t e r v a l s are s e c o n d s a n d t h i r d s , a l l u d i n g to a m u c h m o r e d i s c i p l i n e d affect.  diminuendi,  G e n e r a l l y softer  are m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e .  d y n a m i c l e v e l s , as w e l l as a s m a l l e r r a n g e o f  crescendi  and  T h e affect o f " j u b i l a t i o n " a n d the s k i p p i n g nature are apparent i n  m e a s u r e s 13-15 a n d 1 7 - 2 2 , w h e r e the c o m p o s e r alternates m o r e a n d less c o m m o n t y p e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n .  Ibid., p. 452. Ibid., p. 453.  83  Passepieds I, II Meter and Tempo I m p l i e d b y the m e t e r o f 3/8, a v e r y l i v e l y t e m p o is c o n f i r m e d b y p e n d u l u m i n d i c a t i o n s w h i c h suggested a s p e e d o f a r o u n d M M = 9 0 p e r m e a s u r e .  Q u a n t z proposes a brisk tempo for this dance:  p a s s e p i e d is p l a y e d a l i t t l e m o r e l i g h t l y , a n d s l i g h t l y faster t h a n the p r e c e d i n g [the m e n u e t ] . " "  1  "A This  d a n c e is d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m the s l o w e r m e n u e t n o t o n l y b y its s p e e d , but a l s o b y its s u d d e n a c c e n t s a n d l o n g e r phrases. G i v e n the fast m o m e n t u m o f t h i s d a n c e , m e a s u r e s m a y be c o m b i n e d i n t o p a i r s a n d g i v e n a d o w n b e a t a n d a n upbeat treatment. T h i s g r o u p i n g is p o s s i b l e i n m e a s u r e s 1-4 o f the  Passepied i n  which  m e a s u r e s 1 a n d 3 are m e t r i c a l l y s t r o n g . I n t e r r u p t i n g t h i s r e g u l a r i t y , B a c h i n c l u d e s h e m i o l a s i n m e a s u r e s 5 a n d 6 o f the A s e c t i o n . T h e t w o - b a r g r o u p i n g m a y be p r e s e r v e d i n the B s e c t i o n o f the m o v e m e n t , w h i c h a g a i n is b r o k e n u p b y the a p p e a r a n c e  o f hemiolas in measures 29-30.  T h e d i s s o n a n t t r i l l s o n the  d o w n b e a t s i n m e a s u r e s 1, 5, 9, 25 a n d 2 9 s h o u l d be e x t r e m e l y w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d . A g a i n , the d a m p e r p e d a l m a y be u s e d i n o r d e r to stress the i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e , d i s s o n a n t d o w n b e a t . p e r f o r m e r w i l l be c a r e f u l not to o b s c u r e q u i c k passages w i t h e x c e s s i v e p e d a l i n g .  A cautious  D e p e n d i n g o n the  c h o s e n t e m p o , o n e m a y attempt to p r o d u c e c l e a r g r o u p i n g s o f e i g h t h notes w i t h i n the d o w n b e a t a n d upbeat structure. I f the s p e e d is n o t t o o fast, the g r o u p i n g o f s i x t e e n t h notes i n t o s t r o n g - w e a k p a i r s s h o u l d a l s o be p r o j e c t e d . In a d d i t i o n , i f the t e m p o t a k e n is not t o o e x t r e m e ,  notes inegales  m a y be a p p l i e d to the  c o n j u n c t s i x t e e n t h note m o t i o n . T h e p r o j e c t i o n o f m e t r i c n u a n c e s i n a fast t e m p o is v e r y d i f f i c u l t o n the m o d e r n p i a n o a n d c a n be successfully a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y through extremely precise articulation. Interpreting such a m o v e m e n t o n the m o d e r n p i a n o r e q u i r e s a s t r o n g a n d e n e r g e t i c f i n g e r t e c h n i q u e f o r the fast a n d b r i l l i a n t  passages.  H o w e v e r , the j u d i c i o u s use o f a r m w e i g h t m a y be h e l p f u l i n p r o j e c t i n g the m o s t d i s s o n a n t d o w n b e a t s .  Passepied II  presents a d i s t i n c t contrast to its c o u n t e r p a r t t h r o u g h a  musette-like  s t y l e , texture,  a n d its h o m o r h y t h m i c character. W h e r e a s the nature o f the first d a n c e r e q u i r e s a g o g i c accents, the s e c o n d p a s t o r a l d a n c e is less h a r m o n i c a l l y a n d r h y t h m i c a l l y a c t i v e a n d , thus, d e m a n d s less a r t i c u l a t i o n o f 1 1 1  Quantz, p. 2 9 1 .  84  d o w n b e a t a n d upbeat. T h e subtle g r o u p i n g o f e i g h t h notes - t w o i n a d o w n b e a t p l u s a n upbeat o f o n e c o n t r i b u t e s to the c o l o u r f u l n e s s o f this o t h e r w i s e less a d v e n t u r o u s alternates w i t h faster  figurations  section.  a r i s i n g from the r e a l i z a t i o n o f a c c e n t e d  t w o - m e a s u r e g r o u p i n g s m a y s t i l l be p r e s e r v e d .  -  This rhythmic grouping  appoggiaturas.  H o w e v e r , larger  A g a i n , the h e m i o l a s i n bars 15 a n d 16 s i g n i f y the e n d o f  the s e c t i o n a n d c a l l f o r a stronger d i s t i n c t i o n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . W h i l e w o r k i n g o n a subtle m e t r i c presentation i n  Passepieds I  and  II,  s e n s i t i v i t y to the v e r t i c a l  a l i g n m e n t o f releases is r e q u i r e d w h i c h b r i n g s s p e c i a l c h a l l e n g e s i n m e a s u r e s w h e r e the left h a n d h o l d s p e d a l notes. T h e n a r r o w r a n g e o f the k e y b o a r d a n d frequent p a r a l l e l m o v e m e n t o f t h i r d s a l l o w s less a r m f r e e d o m a n d use o f w e i g h t , w h i c h w o u l d n o r m a l l y m a k e v e r t i c a l a r t i c u l a t i o n easier.  Therefore one needs  to e x e r c i s e f i n g e r a n d f o r e a r m c o n t r o l , m u c h i n the m a n n e r o f h a r p s i c h o r d t e c h n i q u e .  Articulation T h e r e are f e w e r a r t i c u l a t i o n m a r k s i n t h i s d a n c e t h a n i n the p r e v i o u s m o v e m e n t s .  O n l y a few  v i o l i n i s t i c s l u r s a p p e a r i n m e a s u r e s 13 a n d 14 a n d are c l a r i f i e d b y dots. T h e s e m a r k i n g s i n d i c a t e a c c e n t s o n the first notes o f e a c h bar. T h e greater e n e r g y g e n e r a t e d b y these a d d e d a c c e n t s is r e l e a s e d b y the  appoggiatura  o n the d o w n b e a t o f m e a s u r e 16, c a l l i n g f o r a m o r e s l u r r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  A s t r o n g a r t i c u l a t i o n before s t r o n g beats m a y r e s u l t i n a s l i g h t d e l a y . A l s o , a r m w e i g h t h e l p s to e m p h a s i z e the p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s .  T h e t u r b u l e n t c h a r a c t e r o f the m o v e m e n t as w e l l as the  v e r y fast t e m p o a n d g r o u p i n g o f m e a s u r e s i n t o s e g m e n t s result i n a stronger a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n t s o n o r i t i e s . T h e t e m p o s h o u l d be c h o s e n a c c o r d i n g to the q u a l i t i e s o f the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t a n d v e n u e . T h e degree o f m e t r i c g r o u p i n g w i t h i n s m a l l e r note v a l u e s is a n o t h e r d e c i s i o n to be m a d e . T h e musette character  of  Passepied II  requires  a less s t r e n u o u s a p p r o a c h .  The  pervading  c o n j u n c t m o t i o n a n d the c o n s e c u t i v e l y p a i r e d  appoggiaturas  c o n t a c t b e t w e e n the f i n g e r s a n d the k e y b o a r d .  A l s o , the s l o w e r r h y t h m i c m o t i o n offers m o r e r o o m f o r  ( m e a s u r e s 5-6, 17-18) l e a d to a c l o s e r  m e t r i c n u a n c e , s u c h as the g r o u p i n g o f e i g h t h notes i n t o d o w n b e a t s a n d upbeats.  In a p i e c e o f s u c h a  l i m i t e d range a n d c o n j u n c t m e l o d i c m o t i o n , the p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y attentive to the c l a r i t y o f  85  the texture.  A l l the m e a n s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n s h o u l d be s u b o r d i n a t e d to c l a r i f y i n g m e l o d i c a n d r h y t h m i c  patterns.  Dynamics Again,  Passepieds I a n d  / / m a y be p e r f o r m e d w i t h different r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n m i n d , p a r a l l e l i n g the  different i n s t r u m e n t a l g r o u p s o f the o r c h e s t r a .  In the first d a n c e , the r i c h t e x t u r e a n d h i g h l y d i s s o n a n t  h a r m o n y c a l l f o r the use o f the p i a n o ' s r i c h a n d s o n o r o u s s o u n d . A f t e r a c o u r a g e o u s r e l i e f is b r o u g h t i n m e a s u r e 4 b y the i m p l i c a t i o n o f a  diminuendo  forte o p e n i n g ,  a brief  at the e n d o f the first phrase. H o w e v e r ,  the f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e n e e d s n o d e c r e a s e i n d y n a m i c s , b u t v i c e - v e r s a , i m p l i e s a n e v e n s t r o n g e r e n d i n g o n the d o m i n a n t c h o r d i n measure 8.  In the s e c o n d part o f  texture a n d less d i s s o n a n t h a r m o n y .  Passepied 1 a  performer may observe a thinner  T h e decrease i n i n t e n s i t y p a r a l l e l s the d e s c e n t o f the s o p r a n o f r o m  the fifth to the l o w e r p i t c h e s o f the f o u r t h o c t a v e , thus p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d y n a m i c r e l a x a t i o n . H o w e v e r , f r o m m e a s u r e 16 the s o p r a n o l i n e b e g i n s to a s c e n d , the d i s s o n a n t s o n o r i t i e s o f measures 21 a n d 2 4 s i g n a l l i n g the return o f the o p e n i n g m a t e r i a l . A s o n o r o u s  forte s h o u l d  be c o n s i d e r e d f o r this p a s s a g e  because o f its t h i c k e r texture a n d b o l d h a r m o n y . T h e d i s s o n a n t t r i l l s o n the d o w n b e a t s i n measures 1, 5, 9, 25 a n d 2 9 o u g h t to be e m p h a s i z e d b y the d y n a m i c contrast that is p o s s i b l e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o . The second  Passepied  contains a surprisingly placid harmonic language and unusually n a r r o w  texture. P i a n i s t s here are g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e softer d y n a m i c l e v e l s a n d t w o - n o t e c a l l e d f o r b y the series  of appoggiaturas.  T h e most significant  crescendo  diminuendi  is i m p l i e d i n m e a s u r e s 9 - 1 2 ,  w h e r e the s o p r a n o l i n e ascends to the h i g h e r registers w h i l e the l o w e r v o i c e s e x p a n d the d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n the h a n d s b y s t a y i n g i n the m i d d l e o c t a v e s .  Affect M a t t h e s o n d e s c r i b e d the p a s s e p i e d as b e i n g " q u i t e c l o s e to f r i v o l i t y :  f o r w i t h a l l its d i s q u i e t a n d  i n c o n s t a n c y , s u c h a p a s s e p i e d has b y n o m e a n s the z e a l , p a s s i o n o r a r d o u r w h i c h o n e c o m e s a c r o s s w i t h a volatile g i g u e . " "  2  L a t e r i n the s a m e p a r a g r a p h he adds that t h i s k i n d o f d a n c e " . . . d o e s not h a v e a n y t h i n g  " H a r r i s s , p. 460. 2  86  detestable o r u n p l e a s a n t a b o u t i t . . . " .  1 1 3  T h e affect o f f r i v o l i t y a n d p l a y f u l n e s s is detectable i n the d a n c e  t h r o u g h d i s s o n a n t t r i l l s p l a c e d o n a c c e n t e d d o t t e d e i g h t notes.  Passepied f r o m  These harsh dissonances distinguish this  m a n y other d a n c e s o f t h i s t y p e , c r e a t i n g a m o r e p a s s i o n a t e i m p r e s s i o n t h a n the statement  suggested b y M a t t h e s o n .  T h e t e m p o r a r y v i o l e n c e that arises f r o m the d i m i n i s h e d a n d  augmented  s o n o r i t i e s c a n be c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d b y l i g h t , sharp a n d p l a y f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the m e a s u r e s c o n s i s t i n g o f r e g u l a r e i g h t h a n d s i x t e e n t h notes.  T h e affect o f f r i v o l i t y a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c y m a y be further p r e s e n t e d i n  m e a s u r e s 13, 14 a n d 2 2 , w h e r e the last e i g h t h note is separated f r o m the s l u r r e d g r o u p o f s i x t e e n t h notes. T h e h u m o r o u s a n d f l i r t a t i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f these gestures is e v i d e n t f r o m the s u d d e n leap u p w a r d after the d e s c e n d i n g m o t i v e s . It is t h i s c o n t i n u o u s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f h i g h l y d i s s o n a n t d o w n b e a t s w i t h the p l a y f u l a n d elegant passages o f e v e n e i g h t h notes that c o n t r i b u t e s to the i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h i s d a n c e . A s i d e f r o m the h a r m o n y , the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f the m e l o d i c l i n e s a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the v a r i o u s p a s s i o n s : intense, z e a l o u s passages, s u c h as m e a s u r e s  1-2, 5-8, 2 5 - 2 6 a n d 29-31 e x p l o r e the u p p e r range o f the  d a n c e , A - s h a r p to F - s h a r p , a n d t h u s c a l l f o r l o u d e r d y n a m i c s . A 4  the  5  diminuendo  o c c u r r i n g i n m e a s u r e s 3-4  a n d 8-15 c a n p o r t r a y the r e l a x a t i o n o f the a c c u m u l a t e d t e n s i o n , i n w h i c h the m e l o d i c l i n e d e s c e n d s to B  3  a n d D . A n a s t o n i s h i n g a m o u n t o f v a r y i n g p a s s i o n s are i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h i s r e l a t i v e l y short m o v e m e n t , 4  m a k i n g for a c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s d a n c e a v e r y d i f f i c u l t task. T h e s e c o n d d a n c e o f the p a i r is m o r e representative o f the less p a s s i o n a t e affects d e s c r i b e d b y Mattheson.  T h e consonant  s o n o r i t i e s a n d n a r r o w m e l o d i c range  dominate:  i n measures  1-8,  it  e n c o m p a s s e s b a r e l y o n o c t a v e f r o m C - s h a r p to C - s h a r p . In m e a s u r e s 17-24, the last phrase o f the d a n c e 4  e x p l o r e s the m i d d l e register a n d s p a n f r o m B  5  3  to C - s h a r p . T y p i c a l l y , b i n a r y m o v e m e n t s often i n c l u d e 5  the m o s t a d v e n t u r o u s s e c t i o n at the b e g i n n i n g o f the B part:  the m e l o d i c l i n e i n m e a s u r e s 9-16 e x p l o r e s  the largest a n d h i g h e s t range f r o m D - s h a r p to G - s h a r p . T h e p h r a s e o l o g y o f 4  5  Passepied II d i f f e r s  c o u n t e r p a r t because o f the d o m i n a n c e o f s t e p w i s e m o t i o n a n d a r c h - l i k e s h a p i n g .  w i t h its  A l l o f these aspects  e v o k e m o r e pleasant affects i n t h i s d a n c e , d e s c r i b e d b y M a t t h e s o n as a little i n c o n s t a n t but c h a r m i n g . "  1 1 3  1 1 4  Ibid., p. 460. Ibid., p. 460.  87  4  A s a result, softer d y n a m i c s a n d a m o r e m o d e r a t e r a n g e o f  crescendi  and  diminuendi  s h o u l d be a p p l i e d .  A l s o , n u a n c e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n s h o u l d a v o i d a sharper staccato t o u c h w h i c h m i g h t l e a d to a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f q u i t e d i f f e r e n t affects.  88  Sarabande Meter and Tempo T h e intense c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s d a n c e r e q u i r e s a s l o w t e m p o , w h i c h Q u a n t z presents as a t e m p o o f M M = 8 0 to the quarter n o t e .  115  The  Sarabande  features a n e m p h a s i s o n the s e c o n d beat, i n t r i n s i c to the  i d i o m a t i c s t r u m o f the e a r l y guitar. B a c h stresses this beat b y the use o f d i s s o n a n t h a r m o n i e s i n t e n s i f i e d b y the l o n g e r d o t t e d quarter note.  S u c h r h y t h m i c patterns are f o u n d i n m e a s u r e s 1, 5, 13 a n d 21 w h i c h  s i g n i f i c a n t l y m a r k the b e g i n n i n g s o f p a r t i c u l a r phrases. I n a l l these i n s t a n c e s , the a d d e d o r n a m e n t s stress s e c o n d beats w h i l e i n m a n y o t h e r m e a s u r e s s e c o n d beats are e m p h a s i z e d b y the d o t t e d r h y t h m s a l o n e , strengthened e v e r y s o often b y m o r d e n t s .  F o r e x a m p l e , see m e a s u r e s 4 (bass), 6 (bass), 7 ( s o p r a n o ) , 8  ( a l t o ) , 10 ( s o p r a n o ) a n d 16-17 (bass). I n the B s e c t i o n , the d o t t e d q u a r t e r / e i g h t h r h y t h m is e x p a n d e d i n t o a quarter a n d f o u r s i x t e e n t h notes w i t h the first s i x t e e n t h t i e d to the p r e c e d i n g quarter note. T h i s r h y t h m i c d i m i n u t i o n d o e s not w e a k e n the i m p r e s s i o n o f the e x t e n d e d s e c o n d beat. A s i n the notes f o l l o w i n g the d o t t e d quarter m a y be d e l a y e d .  Courante,  the short  T h e d o w n b e a t o f the f o l l o w i n g m e a s u r e s m a y be  stressed as w e l l , b r i n g i n g a t e m p o r a r y r e l i e f i n i n t e n s i t y that is a c c u m u l a t e d i n the p r o l o n g e d , d i s s o n a n t s e c o n d beat. A p i a n i s t m a y use a v a r i e t y o f m e a n s to p r o j e c t these r h y t h m i c patterns, r a n g i n g f r o m a g o g i c a c c e n t s to those b o r r o w e d f r o m h a r p s i c h o r d t e c h n i q u e s u c h as a r p e g g i a t i o n , a d d e d o r n a m e n t s prolonged trills.  and  O t h e r i d i o m a t i c r e s o u r c e s o f the m o d e r n p i a n o s u c h as the use o f d y n a m i c s a n d the  d a m p e r p e d a l m a y a l s o be c a l l e d u p o n . T h e p r o f u n d i t y a n d g r a n d e u r o f a l l o f B a c h ' s s a r a b a n d e s r e q u i r e s c o n t r o l o f t e m p o a n d m e t r i c a c c e n t u a t i o n . T h e i n t e n s i t y m a y degenerate i f a p e r f o r m e r surrenders to the " e a s y " f l o w o f m e l o d i e s . In o r d e r to p r e v e n t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from b e c o m i n g r h y t h m i c a l l y m o n o t o n o u s the p e r f o r m e r m a y c h o o s e f r o m a v a r i e t y o f a r t i c u l a t i o n s a n d d y n a m i c s a v a i l a b l e o n the m o d e r n p i a n o . S o m e measures m a y be p r o j e c t e d i n g r o u p s o f t w o i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e v a r y i n g degrees o f m e t r i c stress.  Quoted in Donington, p. 403.  89  E l a b o r a t e h e m i o l a s o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t the there is an a l l u s i o n to the s l o w e r meter o f 3 / 2 : "  Sarabande. In  m e a s u r e s 1-4 i n the t w o u p p e r v o i c e s ,  6  Example 6  Irm y  1  1  j  J.  J J j  j'j  r r— ii I  1  I  A s i m i l a r r h y t h m appears i n m e a s u r e s 6-7 a n d 18-19.  •7 ;  p  1  H e r e a p e r f o r m e r is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i f f i c u l t  t a s k o f p r e s e n t i n g b o t h r h y t h m i c l e v e l s - the h e m i o l a i n the r i g h t h a n d as w e l l as the t y p i c a l gestures i n o t h e r v o i c e s . It is a l s o p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y  g-  inegalite  sarabande  t o the s i x t e e n t h notes, t o as f e w as t w o at a  time. A q u e s t i o n a b l e s l u r at the b e g i n n i n g o f the i n t o the first beat o f the n e x t bar. engraving error.  Sarabande  m a y be f o u n d , e x t e n d i n g o v e r the b a r l i n e  A s D a v i d S c h u l e n b e r g p o i n t s out, t h i s is p r o b a b l y a result o f a n  S c h u l e n b e r g c o m p a r e s the i n i t i a l pattern f r o m m e a s u r e 1 i n the s o p r a n o w i t h  i d e n t i c a l r h y t h m f r o m the a r i a o f the  St. Matthew Passion,  the  " A c h , n u n ist m e i n J e s u s h i n " , B W V 2 4 4 / 3 0  1 1 7  w h i c h features short slurs w i t h i n the measures.  Articulation T h e h i g h l y e x p r e s s i v e s t y l e o f the  Sarabande,  a n d its m e l o d i c nature leaves l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  a s t r o n g l y d e t a c h e d m a n n e r o f p l a y i n g . F o r c o n j u n c t m o t i o n the a r t i c u l a t i o n m a y r a n g e from the o r d i n a r y m a n n e r to the m o r e s l u r r e d t y p e , d e p e n d i n g o n the a c t i v i t y a n d h a r m o n i c s o n o r i t y .  Such articulation  c o n v e y s the intense m e a n i n g o f m u s i c a n d a l s o h e l p s to p r o j e c t the m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s d a n c e . T h e extreme c h r o m a t i c i s m and dissonant  1 1 6  1 1 7  appoggiaturas  Badura-Skoda, p. 37. Schulenberg, p. 307.  90  e n c o u n t e r e d i n m e a s u r e 7 o f the s o p r a n o part  ,  c a l l s f o r a m o r e s l u r r e d s t y l e . T h e m e l o d i c c o n t o u r o f the s o p r a n o i n m e a s u r e 11 ( s e c o n d a n d t h i r d beat) suggests t w o - n o t e g r o u p i n g s i m p l y i n g a s l u r r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  A s i m i l a r gesture o c c u r s i n m e a s u r e 2 6  (first a n d s e c o n d beats). H o w e v e r , here the i n t e r v a l o f the s e c o n d g r o u p is e x t e n d e d t o a t h i r d . A c c o r d i n g t o c o m m o n p r a c t i c e , s l u r r i n g is a p p r o p r i a t e to c h r o m a t i c i n t e r v a l s s u c h as the m i n o r s e c o n d , less t y p i c a l l y to the t h i r d . T h e f o u r - n o t e  appoggiaturas,  w h i c h o c c u r i n the s o p r a n o i n m e a s u r e s 9 a n d 2 7 , m a y a l s o  benefit f r o m a m o r e c o n n e c t e d s t y l e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . Even  though  many performers  o r c h e s t r a l features o f the  Sarabande  a p p l y intense  legato to  a l l sarabande-like  s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  movements,  the  T o g e t h e r w i t h the i n t e r v a l l i c  c o n t e n t o f the m e l o d i e s , the o r c h e s t r a l nature o f t h i s m o v e m e n t c a l l s f o r m o r e a r t i c u l a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n s u c h p l a c e s as beats o n e a n d t w o o f m e a s u r e 1 i n the s o p r a n o part. w o r k o f s u c h d e n s e p o l y p h o n y a n d o r c h e s t r a l features  Another difficultly o f performing a  is the n e c e s s i t y to s y n c h r o n i z e a l l the v o i c e s  v e r t i c a l l y , r e n d e r i n g the use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l p r o b l e m a t i c . A m o r e d e t a c h e d m a n n e r o f p l a y i n g s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to the a s c e n d i n g m o t i v e f r o m the o p e n i n g m e a s u r e s  w h i c h , i n the  m o v e m e n t , is e x p a n d e d to the o c t a v e ( m . 2 0 i n the bass, m . 21 i n the s o p r a n o ) .  Sarabande f e a t u r i n g  s e c o n d h a l f o f the T h e s e c t i o n s o f the  u p w a r d a r p e g g i a t i o n i n the m e l o d y ( m m . 6 a n d 2 2 ) r e q u i r e m o r e  prominent  a r t i c u l a t i o n , t y p i c a l o f the m o r e d e c l a m a t o r y s t y l e o f this m o v e m e n t . A s m e n t i o n e d before, s l u r r i n g o v e r b a r l i n e s m o s t l i k e l y reflects m i s t a k e s i n e n g r a v i n g ; therefore the s t r o n g a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the first beat s h o u l d not be a v o i d e d . H o w e v e r , l o n g s l u r s i n the m i d d l e v o i c e s i n measures 4 a n d 16 c a l l f o r o n l y o n e stress at b e g i n n i n g s .  T h e s e s l u r s o c c u r at the e n d o f f o u r - m e a s u r e  phrases a n d , w i t h t h e i r m o r e f l o w i n g q u a l i t y , h e l p to create a t e m p o r a r y r e l i e f o f t e n s i o n . It is often d i f f i c u l t f o r p i a n i s t s to r e f r a i n f r o m the c o n t i n u o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f o v e r l a p p i n g legato, e s p e c i a l l y i n s u c h s l o w m o v e m e n t s as the sarabande.  H o w e v e r , the e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f the i n t e n s e l y  s l u r r e d s t y l e s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y m e a n i n g f u l m o m e n t s i n t h i s d a n c e .  Dynamics A  r i c h v a r i e t y o f d y n a m i c s h a d i n g s h o u l d be h e l p f u l  Sarabande.  i n the p e r f o r m a n c e  o f the  profound  T h e first f o u r - b a r p h r a s e is a r c h - s h a p e d , its p e a k f a l l i n g i n the m i d d l e register o n the p i t c h , F -  91  s h a r p . H i g h l y c h r o m a t i c h a r m o n i e s a c c o m p a n y the a s c e n d i n g m e l o d i c l i n e a n d necessitate a n e x p r e s s i v e 5  crescendo.  S i m i l a r l y , the s e c o n d phrase i n m e a s u r e s 5-8 a l s o c l i m a x e s i n the m i d d l e , this t i m e o n the  p i t c h , E o f the s o p r a n o l i n e . T h e p o l y p h o n i c c h a r a c t e r o f the p i e c e g i v e s m a n y o p p o r t u n i t i e s to h i g h l i g h t 5  the m a i n m o t i v e s w h e n t h e y a p p e a r i n d i f f e r e n t v o i c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , the bass l i n e o f m e a s u r e s 2 , 4 a n d 6 o f the first part m a k e use o f the m a i n m e l o d i c gesture i n its n o r m a l o r i n v e r t e d f o r m .  crescendi a n d diminuendi, carefully planned, two-note  W i t h i n the l o n g  a p i a n i s t s h o u l d not m i s s a n y o p p o r t u n i t y to e n r i c h e x p r e s s i o n  appoggiaturas.  O n e s u c h e x a m p l e c a n be f o u n d i n m e a s u r e 11 i n the s o p r a n o  part, w h e r e the notes o n the s e c o n d a n d t h i r d beat m a y be g r o u p e d i n t o t w o - n o t e In the s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f the  through  Sarabande,  diminuendi.  a w i d e r r a n g e o f d y n a m i c s m a y be u s e d , w h i c h is m a d e  p l a i n t h r o u g h the larger i n t e r v a l s a n d different ranges that are e x p l o r e d . T h e first phrase o f this s e c t i o n m a k e s use o f the h i g h e s t register a n d e v e n t u a l l y rests o n E . 5  Its h a r m o n i c p r o g r e s s i o n a l s o suggests  c r e s c e n d o - l i k e q u a l i t i e s i n the m o d u l a t i o n f r o m B m i n o r i n m e a s u r e 13 to E m i n o r i n m e a s u r e s 15-16. T h e m o d u l a t i o n is e m p h a s i z e d b y the c h r o m a t i c m i n o r s e c o n d ascent f r o m D  5  to D - s h a r p o n the s e c o n d 5  beat o f m e a s u r e 14, the l e a d i n g t o n e o f the n e w k e y . T h e s e c o n d phrase o f the s e c t i o n , w h i c h centres o n the l o w e r p i t c h B a n d has m o r e d i a t o n i c c h a r a c t e r a n d l o w e r range, b r i n g s a t e m p o r a r y release a n d , thus, 4  a decrease i n d y n a m i c l e v e l to l o w e r shades o f  mezzo forte/piano.  F i n a l l y , m e a s u r e s 2 1 - 2 8 c a l l f o r the  r i c h e s t palette o f c o l o u r i s t i c a n d d y n a m i c s h a d i n g s . A c h a n g e i n d y n a m i c s , p e r h a p s a  subito mp orp,  e m p h a s i z e the u n e x p e c t e d l y l o w p i t c h o f B , w h i c h m a k e s use o f a s u r p r i s i n g o n e - o c t a v e d i s t a n c e 3  the p r e c e d i n g l o n g p i t c h o f B  4  will  from  i n m e a s u r e 2 0 . I n m e a s u r e 2 1 , after the e v o c a t i v e u p w a r d o c t a v e leap o v e r  a B d o m i n a n t - s e v e n t h h a r m o n y , a n o t h e r s u r p r i s i n g e x p r e s s i v e p r o g r e s s i o n o f a m i n o r s e c o n d b e t w e e n the pitches, G  4  ( i n c l u d e d i n the s i x t e e n t h n o t e  appoggiatura  d o w n b e a t o f the n e x t measure), m a y be f o u n d .  o n beat three) a n d G - s h a r p  A g a i n , the e l e v a t e d i n t e n s i t y a n d  b y the fact that this c h r o m a t i c shift d i v e r t s the p r o g r e s s i o n e l s e w h e r e .  4  ( p l a c e d o n the  crescendo  are stressed  A more expansive dynamic  c r e s c e n d o m a y a c c o m p a n y beats t w o a n d three o f m e a s u r e 2 2 , w h e r e the m e l o d y arpeggiates t h r o u g h a d i s s o n a n t d i m i n i s h e d c h o r d , f i l l i n g i n the u p w a r d tritone leap.  92  T h e c l i m a x o f the s e c t i o n o c c u r s i n m e a s u r e 2 6 a n d r e q u i r e s a s k i l f u l g r a d a t i o n o f d y n a m i c s . It is a p p r o a c h e d first b y m o s t l y s t e p w i s e a s c e n d i n g m o t i o n i n bars 2 4 - 2 5 , a n d a g a i n uses the t r i t o n e gesture between A - s h a r p and E , embellished by a dissonant 4  5  appoggiatura to  A-sharp . 4  Affect M a t t h e s o n d e s c r i b e s s a r a b a n d e s i n the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " T h i s has n o o t h e r e m o t i o n to e x p r e s s but a m b i t i o n ; Y e t it d i f f e r s f r o m the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d t y p e s i n the fact that the sarabande f o r d a n c i n g is stricter a n d y e t m u c h m o r e b o m b a s t i c than the others; so that it p e r m i t s n o r u n n i n g notes, b e c a u s e  Grandezza a b h o r s  s u c h , a n d m a i n t a i n s its s e r i o u s n e s s . "  118  T h e s o m b r e g r a n d e u r affect o f the sarabande is p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h a s l o w t e m p o a n d a s t r o n g e m p h a s i s o f the p r o m i n e n t s e c o n d beat. In instances w h e r e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s h o r t - l o n g r h y t h m o p e n s the phrase, the affect is h e i g h t e n e d b y a l l r h y t h m i c , o r n a m e n t a l a n d h a r m o n i c m e a n s . I n the  Sarabande  f r o m B W V 8 3 1 , the affect o f a m b i t i o n  1 1 9  is represented b y the gesture o f the  r i s i n g perfect fifth w h i c h is f o u n d later i n the bass i n m e a s u r e s 14 a n d 2 0 a n d i n s o p r a n o o f m e a s u r e 2 1 , t h i s t i m e as a leap o f a perfect o c t a v e . A p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d p o r t r a y t h i s d r a m a t i c l e a p b y a l l m e a n s , s u c h as the d y n a m i c i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o n the s e c o n d note o f e a c h gesture, a d e l a y o r p r o l o n g a t i o n o f the l o n g e r note o r b y a n a d d e d o r n a m e n t .  T h e " a m b i t i o u s " c h a r a c t e r radiates f r o m the a s c e n d i n g , c o n j u n c t m o t i o n  o f the s o p r a n o u n t i l it reaches the peak, F - s h a r p . T h i s a g a i n c a l l s f o r a m o r e e x p r e s s i v e t o u c h , n e c e s s a r y 5  a l s o because it is t i e d w i t h the d o w n b e a t o f the n e x t m e a s u r e . measure  W h e n the m a i n gesture is i n v e r t e d i n  5 i n t o a d e s c e n d i n g f o u r t h , its " a m b i t i o u s " c h a r a c t e r is i m m e d i a t e l y r e - e s t a b l i s h e d b y the  a s c e n d i n g a r p e g g i o i n measure 6 a n d b y the g r a d u a l e l e v a t i o n o f the phrase to a h i g h e r register, c o m i n g to rest o n C - s h a r p . T h e p r o g r e s s i o n i n m e a s u r e 9 ( D - s h a r p h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h g o i n g i n t o B m i n o r ) is 5  6  e m b e l l i s h e d b y m a n y p a s s i n g t o n e s w h i l e a c h r o m a t i c a l l y d e s c e n d i n g bass l i n e e m p h a s i z e s its i n t e n s i t y . A g a i n , affects o f e x t r e m e s e r i o u s n e s s a n d p r o f o u n d n e s s are p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h d i s s o n a n t v o i c e l e a d i n g , d e m a n d i n g a great d e a l o f t e m p o c o n t r o l a n d c l a r i t y from a p e r f o r m e r .  Harriss, p. 4 6 1 . Ibid., p. 4 6 1 .  93  T h e first part o f the  Sarabande  appoggiaturas  concludes with two extremely meaningful  that e v o k e affects o f n o b i l i t y a n d g r a n d e u r .  p i a n i s t s h o u l d separate these t w o note gestures a n d shape the p i t c h e s w i t h e x p r e s s i v e T h e s e c o n d part o f the m a n y s i x t e e n t h note g r o u p s .  Sarabande  A  diminuendi.  c o n t a i n s m o r e r h y t h m i c a g i t a t i o n t h r o u g h the i n c l u s i o n o f  T h e m o v i n g v o i c e s i n i t i a l l y e x p l o r e the h i g h e s t range that is u s e d i n t h i s  m o v e m e n t , from F - s h a r p to F - s h a r p , w i t h m o s t notes l y i n g b e t w e e n C - s h a r p a n d F - s h a r p . T h i s a c t i v e , 4  5  5  5  e m o t i o n a l l y h e i g h t e n e d s e c t i o n creates the o p p o r t u n i t y to use not o n l y a w i d e r a n d l o u d e r d y n a m i c range, but a l s o to a c c e l e r a t e s l i g h t l y , as d i s c u s s e d b y m a n y theorists s u c h as M a c e o r C . P . E .  Bach.  The  e x p r e s s i v e a s c e n d i n g m i n o r s e c o n d i n m e a s u r e 14 s h o u l d be d y n a m i c a l l y i l l u m i n a t e d , o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n the t w o m o s t p r o m i n e n t beats o f the bar.  T h e s e c o n d p h r a s e , w h i c h is l o w e r i n register a n d e x p l o r e s the  f o u r t h o c t a v e o f the m o d e r n p i a n o , b r i n g s o p t i m i s m a m i d the s e r i o u s nature o f the d a n c e t h r o u g h its temporary c l o s i n g i n G major in measure 20. A successful delivery o f this profound-to-relaxed change o f affect m a y b e n e f i t from adequate f l o w a n d use o f less intense d y n a m i c s . H o w e v e r , o n e s h o u l d a v o i d the t e m p t a t i o n to p l a c e a n d h o l d the s e c o n d beat; a m o r e s l u r r e d a r t i c u l a t i o n is a l s o n e c e s s a r y to p r o j e c t the i n t e n s i t y o f the c h r o m a t i c passages i n measures 2 1 - 2 2 , 2 4 - 2 5 . progressions,  broken  diminished chords  and  overall  seriousness, but a l s o i m m e n s e p a i n a n d s t r u g g l e .  T h e preponderance o f m i n o r second  dissonant  harmonies  appoggiaturas o n  5  not  only  mere  T h r o u g h c a r e f u l p l a c e m e n t o f notes a n d p u l l i n g b a c k  the t e m p o , a p e r f o r m e r m a y best d e l i v e r these p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n s o f the T h e c l i m a x i n measure 26 o n F - s h a r p  imply  Sarabande.  m a y b e n e f i t f r o m its f i n a l p r e p a r a t i o n t h r o u g h a f f e c t i v e  beats o n e a n d t w o . A g a i n , s i m i l a r l y to the m e l o d i c s o p r a n o l i n e f r o m m e a s u r e 2 , t h i s F -  sharp s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y g i v e n its p r o p e r e m p h a s i s a n d v a l u e , s i n c e it is t i e d to the d o w n b e a t o f the n e x t measure.  T h e s l i g h t d e l a y o f the t o n i c s o n o r i t y o n the first beat o f bar 2 7 c a n h i g h l i g h t the c l i m a x o f the  p r e v i o u s m e a s u r e , t h u s c r e a t i n g an intense e x p e r i e n c e f o r b o t h the p e r f o r m e r a n d the a u d i e n c e .  94  Bourrees I, II Meter and Tempo Bourree I  e x h i b i t s m a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h c o u r t d a n c e .  T h e meter o f 2  suggests a c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f the bar i n t o d o w n b e a t a n d upbeat. T h e s o u r c e s a l l agree o n a v e r y fast t e m p o , c o n f i r m e d b y the F r e n c h p e n d u l u m m a r k i n g s up to M M = 1 2 0 . s p e e d o f a quarter n o t e = 1 6 0 .  121  1 2 0  Q u a n t z , h o w e v e r , suggests a s l o w e r  J o h a n n M a t t h e s o n m e n t i o n s a faster speed a n d l i g h t e r c h a r a c t e r w h e n he  refers to the c h a r a c t e r o f the b o u r r e e as " m o r e f l o w i n g , s m o o t h , g l i d i n g , c o n n e c t e d than that o f the gavotte."  122  T h e r e g u l a r p h r a s i n g c o n s i s t s o f four-beat segments, e a c h beat e q u a l l i n g a h a l f note.  H e r e , the  p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d a r t i c u l a t e c l e a r l y b e t w e e n the upbeat a n d the d o w n b e a t e s p e c i a l l y at the b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h t w o - b a r segment. affect  o f the p i e c e  simplistic.  1 2 3  T h i s r e g u l a r m e t e r c o n t r i b u t e s to the " r e l a x e d , e a s y - g o i n g , a n d c o m f o r t a b l e " a n d therefore  o n e s h o u l d not p r e m a t u r e l y  c o n d e m n the d a n c e  for b e i n g too  S i n c e the d a n c e is w r i t t e n w i t h i n d u p l e r h y t h m i c d i v i s i o n s o n a l l l e v e l s , the p a i r i n g o f notes  i n t o " g o o d " a n d " b a d " s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d , a n d m a y be u n d e r l i n e d b y the use o f i n e q u a l i t y i n c o n j u n c t e i g h t h note f i g u r a t i o n s s u c h as t h o s e e n c o u n t e r e d i n bass i n m e a s u r e s 4 , 13, 14,16 a n d 17 a n d s o p r a n o i n m e a s u r e s 2 , 7-9, 14 a n d 19. A s w i t h a n y other v i v a c i o u s p i e c e from the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y p e r f o r m e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , a n a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p o m u s t be c h o s e n i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c l a r i t y .  A g a i n , no fixed  m e t r o n o m e m a r k i n g s s h o u l d be g i v e n s i n c e the q u a l i t y o f the p i a n o , its a c t i o n , the t e c h n i q u e o f the p e r f o r m e r a n d the c o n c e r t h a l l a l l d e t e r m i n e w h a t t e m p o s h o u l d be a d o p t e d . o p p o r t u n i t y there is f o r  inegalite,  T h e faster the s p e e d the less  w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s to the r i c h n e s s o f the r h y t h m i c content.  In m e a s u r e s  5 a n d 2 1 - 2 3 , there are slurs o v e r three- a n d four-note g r o u p s i n d i c a t i n g a n e v e n n e s s o f e x e c u t i o n . A s opposed to  Bourree I, Bourree II  be treated m e t r i c a l l y the same.  1 2 0  1 2 1  1 2 2  1 2 3  features less t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  H o w e v e r it s h o u l d  T h e d i v i s i o n o f phrases i n t o four-beat s e g m e n t s is e v i d e n t here as w e l l .  Mather, p. 218. Donington, p. 4 0 3 . Harriss, p. 454. Ibid., p. 454.  95  A l s o , the a t y p i c a l upbeat o f three e i g h t h notes s h o u l d be separated f r o m the s t r o n g d o w n b e a t i n the m e a s u r e i n o r d e r t o present the true c h a r a c t e r o f the d a n c e .  Bourree first  first  T h e p r e l u d e - l i k e texture o f m u c h o f t h i s  m a k e s the p r o j e c t i o n o f the m e t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t , e s p e c i a l l y i n m e a s u r e s 5-8, w h e r e the  note o f the s e c o n d h a l f o f the m e a s u r e m a y s o u n d as t h o u g h it w e r e the c o n c l u d i n g note o f the  d o w n b e a t . W h i l e a g o g i c p u n c t u a t i o n b e f o r e d o w n b e a t s is easy to m a n a g e , there s h o u l d be a s l i g h t stress i n the m i d d l e o f the m e a s u r e . B a c h b r i n g s b a c k the i d i o m a t i c r h y t h m i c patterns o f the bourree at the e n d o f e a c h s e c t i o n ( m e a s u r e s 9 - 1 2 , 2 3 - 2 8 ) as i f to c l a r i f y the a m b i g u i t i e s o f the m o v e m e n t .  This clear  h i e r a r c h y o f s t r o n g a n d w e a k beats a n d m e a s u r e s s h o u l d a l s o e m p h a s i z e this contrast.  Articulation T h e t r a d i t i o n a l style o f  Bourree Icalls  for a v e r y q u i c k t e m p o , the d i s t i n c t i v e l y sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n  o f quarter notes c o n t r i b u t i n g to its e n e r g e t i c a n d j o y f u l character. C o n j u n c t e i g h t h note m o t i o n g i v e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to use  notes inegales.  s t r o n g a n d w e a k beats.  H o w e v e r , i n s u c h a fast t e m p o it m a y be l i m i t e d to c l e a r g r o u p i n g s o f  S l u r s i n the s o p r a n o o f m e a s u r e s 5 a n d 2 2 b r i n g o n a b r i e f r e l a x a t i o n o f the  a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d , a g a i n , are r e m i n i s c e n t o f a s i n g l e - b o w gesture. articulation.  A l l e i g h t h notes r e q u i r e a s t r o n g  finger  T h e s t r o n g beats m a y be stressed b y the use o f a g o g i c p u n c t u a t i o n s before e a c h four-beat  segment. T h e p a i r i n g o f notes contrasts w i t h the c o n c l u d i n g m e a s u r e s i n the left h a n d (bars 2 1 - 2 3 ) w h e r e the four-note slurs i m p l y stresses o n l y o n the m a i n beats. A s l i g h t a c c e n t o n the first note o f these s l u r s m a y be r e a l i z e d b y the use o f a r m w e i g h t , b r i n g i n g a t e m p o r a r y r e l a x a t i o n o f the p r e v a i l i n g  finger-  o r i e n t e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f e i g h t h notes. In  Bourree  / / t h e inclusion o f dissonant  appoggiaturas  o n the m a i n beats i n m e a s u r e s 1-2, 2 1 - 2 2  a n d 24 r e q u i r e s m o r e v a r i e t y i n t o u c h a n d e x p r e s s i o n . G r o u p i n g s o f s i x t e e n t h notes o n the d o w n b e a t s o f " s t r o n g " measures constitute a n e w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f i g u r e i n emphasized.  Bourree II,  i n w h i c h the first note s h o u l d be  In o r d e r to stress the c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s p r e l u d e - l i k e d a n c e the p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d use a l l  p o s s i b l e t e c h n i q u e s o f a r t i c u l a t i o n . O n l y s p a r i n g use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l s h o u l d be m a d e , perhaps o n l y b r i e f l y o n the d i s s o n a n t  appoggiaturas a n d  i n the c o n c l u d i n g m e a s u r e s o f e a c h s e c t i o n at m e a s u r e s 12 a n d  96  28.  T h e fast t e m p o o f this d a n c e r e q u i r e s a w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d m a n n e r o f the p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h e n e r g e t i c  attacks a n d c o n t r o l l e d p l a c e m e n t o f the m a i n beats i n a l l the phrases.  Dynamics S i m i l a r l y to the p a i r s o f  Gavottes,  s e c o n d , w h i c h bears the i n d i c a t i o n o f a  forte  the first  piano.  Bourree  i m p l i e s a l o u d e r r a n g e o f d y n a m i c s than the  A s w i t h m a n y other e x a m p l e s o f B a c h ' s use o f  piano a n d  i n d i c a t i o n s , t h e y s h o u l d here be u n d e r s t o o d as p o r t r a y i n g the c h a n g e o f i n s t r u m e n t a l t i m b r e a n d  c o l o u r rather t h a n s i m p l y a contrast o f v o l u m e .  T h e m e l o d i c s o p r a n o l i n e o f the first  Bourree is  c o m p o s e d m o s t l y o f rather s m a l l i n t e r v a l s . S u c h c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s to the f l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r o f the l i n e a n d m a k e s interpretation a s i m p l e task i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the e v e r - i m p o r t a n t r u l e s o f s i n g i n g . T h e s e c o n d part o f the d a n c e opens w i t h m o r e i n t e n s i t y o n the d o m i n a n t s o n o r i t y a n d h i g h e r register; therefore it suggests a p p l i c a t i o n o f m o r e e x p a n s i v e d y n a m i c l e v e l s t h a n the o p e n i n g s e c t i o n . T h e second  Bourree  r e l i e s h e a v i l y o n s e q u e n t i a l t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h m a y be e n h a n c e d b y c a r e f u l  d y n a m i c p l a n n i n g . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a w i d e range o f the k e y b o a r d is u s e d i n t h i s d a n c e .  T h e first f o u r - b a r  phrase starts i n the m i d d l e register a n d is b u i l t f r o m three s e q u e n t i a l statements that c o u l d represent three s l i g h t l y different d y n a m i c l e v e l s .  H o w e v e r , i n m e a s u r e 4 , the F - s h a r p m a j o r a r p e g g i o reaches to a  s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h register a n o c t a v e h i g h e r , to E  5  a n d D . In m e a s u r e 5 a p e r f o r m e r is a g a i n e x p o s e d to 5  d e s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s , i m p l y i n g perhaps a decrease i n i n t e n s i t y a n d therefore, l e v e l s o f  diminuendo.  The  last phrase o f the first s e c t i o n leads to the c l i m a x o n the d o m i n a n t c h o r d , w h i c h s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d w i t h an appropriate  crescendo.  In a s i m i l a r m a n n e r , d e c r e a s i n g d y n a m i c l e v e l s m a y be a p p l i e d to the  d e s c e n d i n g passages i n m e a s u r e s , 1 2 - 1 6 . series o f a s c e n d i n g sequences i n measures  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , h o w e v e r , a large  crescendo  is i m p l i e d b y the  17-18 a n d 2 1 - 2 2 , l e a d i n g to a c l i m a x i n m e a s u r e 2 4 .  e x t e n s i v e a n d persistent use o f s e q u e n c e creates an e x c i t i n g effect i n the s e c o n d be p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h the use o f m a n y d y n a m i c l e v e l s .  97  Bourree w h i c h  Such  can easily  Affect M a t t h e s o n d e s c r i b e s the true c h a r a c t e r o f a b o u r r e e as " c o n t e n t m e n t a n d p l e a s a n t n e s s " , b e i n g a l s o somewhat "untroubled or c a l m " .  1 2 4  T h e a u t h o r is v e r y g e n e r o u s w i t h h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h i s d a n c e , a l s o  m e n t i o n i n g other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as p l a c i d i t y , s l o w n e s s , c o m p l a i s a n c e a n d agreeableness.  It is  o b v i o u s f r o m h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s that n o t h i n g t o o s e r i o u s , t r a g i c o r p r o f o u n d n e e d s to be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s movement.  In o r d e r to present s u c h e a s y - g o i n g affects, a p i a n i s t s h o u l d a r t i c u l a t e l i g h t l y a n d rather  sharply and a v o i d extremely overt d y n a m i c s . s o p r a n o i n m e a s u r e s 5, 2 1 , 2 2 a n d 23 o f  T h e c a r e f u l e x e c u t i o n o f t w o - n o t e s l u r s o c c u r r i n g i n the  Bourree II,  c o n t r i b u t e to the p l a y f u l n e s s o f the m o v e m e n t .  as w e l l as the s l u r s i n the bass i n m e a s u r e s 2 1 - 2 4 ,  In o r d e r to present the  Bourree  i n a c c o r d a n c e to s u c h  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as agreeableness a n d p l a c i d i t y , a p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d stress the d i s s o n a n t the d o w n b e a t s o f measures 1, 2 , 2 1 , 2 2 a n d 2 4 o f the s e c o n d  Bourree v e r y t a s t e f u l l y ,  appoggiaturas  without monumental  d y n a m i c d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n the first a n d the s e c o n d note. T h e m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d o f u n d e r l i n i n g these gestures w o u l d result f r o m the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f the d i s s o n a n t note rather t h a n a c c e n t i n g it t o o harshly.  Ibid., p. 454.  98  on  Gigue  Meter and Tempo T h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n o f the g i g u e is often referred to as a Canarie.  M a n y w r i t e r s stress the faster  t e m p o o f this k i n d o f g i g u e , w h i c h is a l s o c o n f i r m e d b y F r e n c h p e n d u l u m m a r k i n g s t e m p o o f M M = 1 6 0 to the d o t t e d quarter, w h i c h , i n the case o f the  Gigue,  1 2 5  . Q u a n t z indicates a  represents h a l f a m e a s u r e .  The  d i v i s i o n o f the m e a s u r e i n t o s t r o n g a n d w e a k h a l v e s is apparent f r o m the 6/8 t i m e signature a n d is easy to p r o j e c t g i v e n the persistent r h y t h m i c patterns o f the p i e c e . s h o u l d be o v e r - d o t t e d w h i l e a l l the fast notes o f the  tirades  A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z ,  1 2 6  the d o t t e d r h y t h m s  o u g h t to be p l a c e d at the e x t r e m e e n d o f the  beat. T h e sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n , t y p i c a l o f the c a n a r i e , s h o u l d be s t r o n g e r o n the d o w n b e a t s w i t h e v e n m o r e e m p h a s i s g i v e n to the first beats o f l a r g e r phrase units. G r o u p i n g o f m e a s u r e s i n t o p a i r s is e v i d e n t f r o m the b e g i n n i n g o f the m o v e m e n t , w h e r e the d o w n b e a t i n m e a s u r e 1 c o i n c i d e s w i t h the h i g h e s t p i t c h o f the melody (B with  appoggiaturas),  f r o m w h i c h it d e s c e n d s i n t o the " w e a k e r " m e a s u r e .  T h e sequential  w r i t i n g , b a s e d o n t w o - m e a s u r e segments (measures 5- 6, 7- 8), e m p h a s i z e s t h i s p a i r i n g as w e l l .  The  a g i t a t i o n t o w a r d s the c l i m a c t i c c a d e n c e s is a c h i e v e d b y the a b a n d o n m e n t o f s u c h t w o - m e a s u r e g r o u p i n g s i n f a v o u r o f stresses o n the d o w n b e a t s  o f each measure.  T h i s is suggested  b y the t e x t u r e i n the  c o n c l u d i n g phrase o f the first part, i n m e a s u r e s 4 2 - 4 4 . T h e h e a v i e r a c t i o n as w e l l as the s l o w l y d e v e l o p i n g s o u n d o f the m o d e r n p i a n o r e q u i r e s a s l o w e r t e m p o than w o u l d be d e s i r e a b l e o n a h a r p s i c h o r d . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a faster f i n g e r m o t i o n is n e e d e d i n o r d e r to a c c o m p l i s h a m a x i m a l l y v i b r a n t s o u n d . A l l p i a n i s t i c m e a n s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d to the p r o j e c t i o n o f the m e t e r i n e a c h bar a n d to u n d e r l i n e the p a i r i n g o f m e a s u r e s w h e n a p p l i c a b l e . D e p e n d i n g o n the d e s i r e d i n t e n s i t y , the a g o g i c a c c e n t s m a y be a m p l i f i e d b y d y n a m i c s a n d the t h o u g h t f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f the d a m p e r pedal.  Mather, p. 223. Quantz, p. 290.  99  Articulation T h i s t y p e o f g i g u e , the c a n a r i e , features a n e x t r e m e l y fast t e m p o a n d sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n . O n l y the d o w n b e a t s r e q u i r e t h e use o f a r m w e i g h t t o a p p r o x i m a t e the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a v i o l i n ' s d o w n - b o w gesture. M a n y c o m m e n t a t o r s s u c h as Q u a n t z a n d M u f f a t d e s c r i b e t h e e x t r e m e l y d e t a c h e d m a n n e r o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f the c a n a r i e , o b v i o u s f r o m its persistent dotted r h y t h m s . T h e sharpness o f f i n g e r staccato contrasts w i t h the frequent appoggiaturas  o n the d o w n b e a t s o f m e a s u r e s 1, 17, 2 8 , 2 9 , 3 0 a n d 3 2 , as w e l l as i n the  m i d d l e o f b a r 2 7 . T h e s e d i s s o n a n t appoggiaturas  present the o n l y s l u r r e d e l e m e n t s i n t h i s v i v a c i o u s t y p e  o f g i g u e . Just l i k e the s l o w s e c t i o n o f t h e Overture, the fast tirades that l i e w i t h i n the dotted r h y t h m s i n m e a s u r e s 9 - 1 0 , 2 4 - 2 6 , 3 6 - 3 7 a n d 4 0 - 4 4 s h o u l d a l s o be p l a y e d w i t h the m a x i m u m a r t i c u l a t i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f the s p e e d .  T h e o n l y slurs that i n d i c a t e a n a r t i c u l a t i o n o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y o c c u r i n the s o p r a n o part i n  m e a s u r e s 33 a n d 3 4 . O n l y the first note o f s u c h a g r o u p i n g s h o u l d be stressed, e l i m i n a t i n g the n o r m a l a r t i c u l a t i o n b e t w e e n the e i g h t h note a n d r e m a i n i n g g r o u p o f s i x t e e n t h notes.  S u c h s l u r r i n g does not  e x c l u d e the c r i s p a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s i x t e e n t h notes w i t h i n the s l u r a n d , thus, it d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e legato. T h e n e c e s s a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e Gigue r e l i e s n o t o n l y o n energetic f i n g e r t i p s b u t a l s o o n t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f the s i l e n c e s i n d i c a t e d b y dots. very detached  manner o f performance  e m p h a s i z e the c h a r a c t e r o f the p i e c e .  A l s o , the s l o w e r quarter a n d e i g h t h note r h y t h m s c a l l f o r a  w h i c h s h o u l d be sharper t h a n the o r d i n a r y t o u c h i n o r d e r t o A g a i n , o n a m o d e r n p i a n o t h i s c a l l s f o r t e m p o adjustments a n d  e x c e e d i n g l y e n e r g e t i c f i n g e r t e c h n i q u e . T h e use o f p e d a l m u s t be j u d i c i o u s a n d d e v o t e d t o the p r o j e c t i o n o f downbeats.  In m e a s u r e s 2 8 , 3 0 a n d 3 2 the p e d a l s h o u l d n o t b l e n d the a r p e g g i a t e d c h o r d i n the left  h a n d w i t h the d i s s o n a n t appoggiaturas  i n the right hand.  Dynamics T h e Gigue f r o m B W V 831 bears n o d y n a m i c i n d i c a t i o n s , l e a v i n g the matter t o the p e r f o r m e r t o d e c i d e o n the v o l u m e l e v e l .  M a n y appoggiaturas  g i v e the o p p o r t u n i t y to a p p l y e x p r e s s i v e  diminuendi  w i t h i n larger l e v e l s o f v o l u m e . T h e d i r e c t i o n o f the first phrase, as w e l l as its h a r m o n i c p l a n , suggest the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a diminuendo crescendo  i n the d e s c e n d i n g l i n e o f t h e s e c o n d m e a s u r e , after w h i c h it turns i n t o a  t o w a r d s the d o m i n a n t h a r m o n y o n t h e s e c o n d beat o f m e a s u r e 3 a n d a r r i v e s o n the t o n i c i n  100  m e a s u r e 4 . B e g i n n i n g w i t h m e a s u r e 5, a l o n g  crescendo  leads to the c l i m a x o f the first part o f the d a n c e ,  o c c u r r i n g o n measures 15 a n d 16. T h i s i n c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y m a k e s use o f t w o - b a r a s c e n d i n g sequences i n m e a s u r e s 5-8. T h e s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r i s i n g m e l o d y a n d i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f fast  tirades  in measures  9 a n d 10 a c c u m u l a t e t e n s i o n that is p r o l o n g e d t h r o u g h m e a s u r e 16. H o w e v e r , t h i s is not an e x a m p l e o f a long  crescendo  i n the M a n n h e i m s t y l e ; e a c h o f the s e q u e n t i a l p h r a s e s s h o u l d be r o u n d e d o f f w i t h elegant  diminuendi. T h e s e c o n d part o f the note  diminuendi.  Gigue  again commences w i t h expressive  appoggiaturas  requiring two-  S i m i l a r l y to the o p e n i n g phrase, the m e l o d i c l i n e i n m e a s u r e s 17 to 21 p e a k s e a r l y i n  m e a s u r e 18. F r o m t h i s p o i n t o n , the d e s c e n d i n g d i r e c t i o n a n d c o n s o n a n t h a r m o n y i m p l y a  decrescendo.  F r o m m e a s u r e 21 - 2 4 , a p e r f o r m e r m a y use m o r e intense d y n a m i c s for the a s c e n d i n g s e q u e n c e s . use o f b r i l l i a n t  tirades  louder levels o f  mezzo forte o r forte i n m e a s u r e  A sudden  i n measures 2 4 to 2 6 e n t a i l s m o r e e x p a n s i v e s o n o r i t i e s , perhaps r e a c h i n g to the 2 8 . In the f o l l o w i n g part o f t h i s  o f d y n a m i c a l l y l a y e r e d sequences s h o u l d p r e d o m i n a t e :  Gigue,  a similar approach  m e a s u r e s 2 9 - 3 5 i n c l u d e a series o f a s c e n d i n g  patterns w h i c h l e a d i n measures 3 6 a n d 3 7 to a c l i m a x . H o w e v e r , the f i n a l e m o t i o n a l p e a k a n d i n e v i t a b l e increase i n v o l u m e is a c h i e v e d later t h r o u g h the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f f i v e notes f o r m i n g a d i m i n i s h e d s e v e n t h c h o r d o n the d o w n b e a t o f m e a s u r e 4 6 . A p i a n i s t n e e d s to k e e p i n m i n d that the m o s t v i b r a n t forte s h o u l d be s a v e d f o r t h i s m o m e n t .  Affect "Something  fresh  and l i v e l y "  1 2 7  is a c o m m o n feature f o r a l l types o f g i g u e s .  A c c o r d i n g to  M a t t h e s o n , t h i s F r e n c h c a n a r i e s h o u l d h a v e "eagerness a n d s w i f t n e s s " a n d at the same t i m e a l i t t l e "simplicity".  1 2 8  In o r d e r to p r o j e c t these affects, a p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d a i m f o r a v e r y fast t e m p o  suggested b y other c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s a n d F r e n c h p e n d u l u m m a r k i n g s .  as  "Freshness and liveliness"  w o u l d be best d e p i c t e d b y sharp a r t i c u l a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s e p a r a t i o n o f the notes w h i c h s h o u l d arise f r o m the c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the dots. A p i a n i s t s h o u l d e x p e r i m e n t w i t h l i g h t e r d y n a m i c l e v e l s ,  1 2 7  1 2 8  Harriss. p. 457. Ibid., p. 457.  101  s a v i n g the m o s t c o u r a g e o u s  forte f o r  the c l i m a x i n m e a s u r e 4 6 .  f r o m its t h i n , p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - i m i t a t i v e texture.  S i m p l i c i t y w i t h i n this d a n c e is e v i d e n t  A p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d not o b s c u r e it b y p l a y i n g t o o  heavily or slurred.  102  Echo  Meter and Tempo T h e s t r o n g - w e a k p a i r i n g o f m e a s u r e s is i n t e g r a l t o the m e t r i c structure  Echo.  o f the  This  tutti a n d solo  g r o u p i n g m a y be p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h o u t the entire p i e c e , e v e n w i t h i n the e x c h a n g e s b e t w e e n  ( m e a s u r e s 2 2 - 2 5 a n d 5 4 - 6 1 ) . T h e texture a n d d y n a m i c s c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s a p p r o a c h b y the s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n o f the s t r o n g m e a s u r e s w i t h the  tutti segments.  i n s t r u m e n t a l parts t a k e s p l a c e , the l o u d  tutti  In m e a s u r e s 5 8 - 6 1 w h e r e the suggested d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n  falls o n l y o n downbeats o f " s t r o n g " measures.  The metrical  pattern o f o n e l o n g e r u n i t m a d e up o f t w o short m e a s u r e s i m p l i e s 4 / 4 m e t e r t h r o u g h these t w o - m e a s u r e g r o u p i n g s , the first beat b e i n g s t r o n g , the t h i r d s o m e w h a t s t r o n g , a n d the s e c o n d a n d f o u r t h beats w e a k . A s i d e f r o m the s t r o n g d o w n b e a t , a p e r f o r m e r s h o u l d m a k e a s l i g h t s e p a r a t i o n before the t h i r d beat (second measure).  T h i s m a y r e q u i r e s p e c i a l attention f r o m the p i a n i s t , w h o m i g h t be m o r e a c c u s t o m e d to  a s m o o t h f l o w i n t o the d o w n b e a t i n m o s t phrases. M e t r i c a l c o n t r o l is a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the o r c h e s t r a l s t y l e that is e v o k e d i n the  Echo.  S i n c e m o s t p i a n i s t s are c o n c e r n e d m o s t l y w i t h the i n i t i a l c r e a t i o n o f a s o u n d , i n u s i n g the d a m p e r  p e d a l it is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t to be attentive not o n l y to the q u a l i t y a n d d u r a t i o n o f the s o u n d but a l s o to its p r e c i s e p o i n t o f release. T h i s a l s o relates to the c o n t r o l o f f i n g e r releases i n the p o l y p h o n i c textures, as, f o r e x a m p l e , i n the s e c o n d h a l f o f m e a s u r e 3 w h e r e the quarter-note, B , i n the a l t o s h o u l d be p r e c i s e l y h e l d a n d r e l e a s e d at the same t i m e as the entire v e r t i c a l s o n o r i t y .  Articulation T h e d o t t e d s t y l e o f the  Gigue;  Overture  is e v o k e d b y the use o f fast  the c o n c e r t o style returns i n the c o n c l u d i n g  dactylic and anapaestic  figurae corta.  Echo.  tirades  a n d dotted r h y t h m s i n the  T h i s m o v e m e n t m a k e s e x t e n s i v e use o f b o t h  T h e r e is n o g e n e r a l r u l e o f t h u m b f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g these m e t r i c a l  feet; the t w o s i x t e e n t h notes are often i n d i c a t e d w i t h a s l u r o r a r t i c u l a t e d staccato, w h i c h is p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful in organ performances.  T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h e l p s to p r o j e c t the c l a r i t y i n l a r g e r reverberant h a l l s  a n d c h u r c h e s . T h u s , a p i a n i s t s h o u l d a l s o c h o o s e to a r t i c u l a t e the c o n d i t i o n s o f the v e n u e a n d the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u m e n t .  103  figurae corta a c c o r d i n g  to the a c o u s t i c  T h e fast t e m p o o f the m u s i c leaves l i t t l e t i m e f o r  staccato a r t i c u l a t i o n to be a p p l i e d to a l l the notes but it m a y be p o s s i b l e w h e n the entire p i e c e is p e r f o r m e d at a s l o w e r pace.  T h e d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n o f this  figurae corta,  w h i c h appears i n b r i e f s o l o i s t i c  entries i n m e a s u r e s 5, 7, 3 7 a n d 3 9 , has i d e n t i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s i n m e a s u r e s 5 a n d 21 i n f o l d i n g o f this f i g u r e i n t o one gesture i n the s o l o s e c t i o n s suggested i n w i t h the m o r e e x p a n s i v e f i g u r e that c h a r a c t e r i z e s the  tutti  m e a s u r e s 2 3 , 2 5 , 55 a n d 5 7 . b e g i n n i n g o f the m e a s u r e . number o f groups  The  c o u l d set up a contrast  sections.  P a i r i n g o n a l l l e v e l s o f r h y t h m i c structure e s t a b l i s h e s a r t i c u l a t i o n i n this c o n c e r t o m o v e m e n t .  Bourree I  Bourree I.  the m e t r i c a l h i e r a r c h y g o v e r n i n g  the  T h e o n l y e x c e p t i o n s are the s c a l e - l i k e passages that a p p e a r i n  H e r e the i m p l i c a t i o n o f the s l u r p o i n t s to o n l y o n e m e t r i c a l stress, at the  It is often a s s u m e d that i n p l a c e s w h e r e B a c h i n d i c a t e d o n l y the first o f a  i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n the p e r f o r m e r  s h o u l d c o n t i n u e the s a m e e x e c u t i o n u n t i l a  different t e x t u r e o r pattern is i n d i c a t e d . In t h i s l i g h t , o n e c a n c o n c l u d e that a l l the s o l o i s t i c scales w o u l d be a r t i c u l a t e d i n the s a m e w a y .  O n the l e v e l o f t w o - m e a s u r e  u n i t s the d o w n b e a t s  o f the  "strong"  m e a s u r e s , s u c h as 1 , 3 , a n d so o n , m a y be e n h a n c e d b y the use o f the d a m p e r p e d a l i n a d d i t i o n to the application o f arm weight.  Dynamics A c c o r d i n g to Q u a n t z a n d m a n y o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y  w r i t e r s , the e c h o effect c a n be used i n  passages i n w h i c h a m o t i v e is repeated, w h e t h e r o n the s a m e o r a different p i t c h l e v e l . T h e r e p e t i t i o n o f the m o t i v e m a y be p l a y e d s l i g h t l y s l o w e r o r softer, but s i m i l a r l y to r i t o r n e l l o d y n a m i c s , this d o e s not necessitate the e x t r e m e ends o f p o s s i b l e v o l u m e .  In the c a s e o f the  Echo, the  s o l o interjections o c c u r  f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n fast r h y t h m s , d e m a n d i n g a h i g h degree o f c o n t r o l f r o m a p i a n i s t .  The  forte-piano  d y n a m i c s represent c h a n g e s o f m a n u a l s o n a h a r p s i c h o r d , a l s o i m p l y i n g that s u c h shifts a l l o w s for s l i g h t l y m o r e t i m e than it m i g h t o c c u r o n a s i n g l e k e y b o a r d .  B y t a k i n g extra t i m e a pianist m a y imitate  the c h a n g e o f the m a n u a l s a n d c l e a r l y present the p l a n n e d c o l o u r a n d d y n a m i c c h a n g e s . 16 a  piano  material.  In m e a s u r e s 13-  i n d i c a t i o n is p l a c e d o n l y a b o v e the t o p v o i c e , s u g g e s t i n g the c o m m e n c e m e n t  H o w e v e r , t h i s i m p l i e s that the rest o f the parts s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h i n the  o f the s o l o  tutti. In  this  s i t u a t i o n , the s o l o part s h o u l d be d y n a m i c a l l y l o u d e r than the a c c o m p a n y i n g v o i c e s , s i n c e it c a r r i e s the  104  m a i n m e l o d i c i d e a a n d is representative o f a s o l o i n s t r u m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , the  piano m a r k i n g bears  a rather  o p p o s i t e m e a n i n g to the o n e g e n e r a l l y e x p e c t e d : it p o i n t s to the d o m i n a t i n g v o i c e . A s i d e f r o m the and  forte i n d i c a t i o n s ,  piano  the t h i c k n e s s o f t e x t u r e a l s o a l l u d e s to the o r c h e s t r a l t i m b r e s d e l i n e a t i n g s e c t i o n s  w i t h i n c o n c e r t o f o r m ; f u l l texture r e p r e s e n t i n g  tutti,  w h i l e the s i n g l e l i n e m a r k s s o l o s e c t i o n s .  Affect E c h o m o v e m e n t s d o not r e p r e s e n t s t y l i z e d d a n c e s p e r se a n d M a t t h e s o n d i d not d e s c r i b e t h e i r affect. H o w e v e r , i n a p a r a g r a p h d i s c u s s i n g  Sinfonias, the  a u t h o r s i m p l y a d v i s e s t h a t " . . . the e x p r e s s i o n o f  the affects i n s u c h a s i n f o n i a w o u l d h a v e to c o n f o r m to t h o s e p a s s i o n s w h i c h p r e d o m i n a t e i n the w o r k itself."  1 2 9  T h e predominant  a f f e c t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g fast  figurae corta i n  tempi  the E c h o m o v e m e n t is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s p i r i t e d a n d j o y f u l  a n d c r i s p a r t i c u l a t i o n . R e g a r d l e s s o f h o w the m a i n r h y t h m i c m o t i v e s are  interpreted, w h e t h e r staccato o r w i t h c o n n e c t e d s i x t e e n t h notes, t h e y s h o u l d stand out i n a p e r f o r m a n c e . Contrasting and colourful  d y n a m i c s m a y c o n t r i b u t e to the affects  o f this movement.  Feelings o f  p l a y f u l n e s s o r j e s t i n g c o m e to m i n d after a c o m p a r i s o n to o t h e r w o r k s o f J . S. B a c h , s u c h as the o f the  Orchestral Suite  i n B - m i n o r , B W V 1 0 6 7 , a n d the  Scherzo  in A - m i n o r , B W V 827.  Badinerie These works  w e r e w r i t t e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n the s a m e t i m e f r a m e a n d m a k e use o f s i m i l a r meters a n d r h y t h m s , c r e a t i n g s i m i l a r affects.  Badineri  A s the w o r d ,  Echo, refers  to m a n y r e p e t i t i o n s o f s m a l l s e c t i o n s i n B W V 8 3 1 , the t i t l e  represents the G e r m a n s p e l l i n g o f the w o r d  G a l l i c counterpart o f a  Scherzo}  2,0  Battinerie  a n d is e x p l a i n e d b y J o s h u a R i f k i n as the  In o r d e r to p o r t r a y p l a y f u l n e s s a n d h u m o u r , p i a n i s t s s h o u l d a i m f o r  i m m a c u l a t e l y c r i s p a r t i c u l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l notes a n d a v i g o r o u s l y fast t e m p o w i t h large c o l o u r i s t i c variety.  Ibid., p. 467. Rifkin, p. 23.  105  Summary T h e p r o j e c t i o n o f the b a s i c m e t e r a n d its n u a n c e s o n different r h y t h m i c l e v e l s r e q u i r e s a great d e a l o f d i s c i p l i n e a n d c o n t r o l w h e n p l a y e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o .  A l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f these  subtleties often l e a d s to a m e c h a n i c a l a p p r o a c h to B a c h ' s m u s i c , i n w h i c h f e w d o w n b e a t s are c l e a r a n d the r e a d i n g m a y be d o m i n a t e d b y l o n g - w i n d e d p h r a s i n g . performer  N a t u r a l l y , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r  s h o u l d be the result o f b o t h a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n a n d , as stressed so often  by  Bach's  c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , p e r s o n a l taste. H o w e v e r , i n o r d e r t o m a k e a t h o u g h t f u l d e c i s i o n , the p e r f o r m e r m u s t be a w a r e o f the r i c h palette o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d i n B a r o q u e p e r f o r m a n c e .  T h e m o d e r n p i a n o creates m a n y  interpretative p r o b l e m s , but it a l s o possesses m a n y n e w m e a n s o f e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h , w h e n a p p l i e d w i t h k n o w l e d g e , t e c h n i q u e a n d c o n t r o l , m a y c o n t r i b u t e to a better p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m e t r i c i n t r i c a c i e s . T h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f d y n a m i c s i n B a c h ' s w o r k s o n the m o d e r n p i a n o is left e n t i r e l y to the d i s c r e t i o n o f the p e r f o r m e r .  A p i a n i s t s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d  to e x p e r i m e n t  w i t h the d y n a m i c a n d  c o l o u r i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h , w h e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s t o r i c a l k n o w l e d g e , w i l l result i n a m o r e m e a n i n g f u l p e r f o r m a n c e o f m u s i c f r o m t h i s era. B a c h ' s use o f the m a r k i n g s ,  forte a n d piano,  One c o m m o n misunderstanding  in ritornello movements and paired dances.  is  A s Marshall  i n d i c a t e s i n h i s a r t i c l e , the k e y b o a r d w o r k s o f B a c h h a v e a l m o s t n o d y n a m i c m a r k i n g s a n d i f t h e y d p , these m a r k i n g s represent the f o r m a l c a e s u r a s a n d i n d i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n c h a n g e s .  It is i n t e r e s t i n g to  n o t i c e h o w the c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the m e a n i n g o f s u c h m a r k i n g s m a y e n r i c h p e r f o r m a n c e s , g i v i n g m o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s to e x p l o r e the different c o l o u r s o f the m o d e r n p i a n o w h i c h m a y be i n s p i r e d b y o r g a n o r h a r p s i c h o r d r e g i s t r a t i o n . T h o r o u g h the e x a m i n a t i o n o f p o l y p h o n i c l i n e s , t e x t u r e , h a r m o n y a n d m e l o d i c structure, a p e r f o r m e r is p r o v i d e d a l l n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n to create a m e a n i n g f u l d y n a m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . M a n y t h e o r i s t s o f the B a r o q u e stressed the i m p o r t a n c e o f a f f e c t i v e m u s i c m a k i n g . In the s e a r c h f o r the m o s t m e a n i n g f u l intuition.  performance,  a performer  s h o u l d use t h e o r e t i c a l  k n o w l e d g e and  musical  H o w e v e r , t h i s s h o u l d n e v e r result i n a c o l d o r a u t o m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n d , as C . P . E . B a c h  106  said:  " P l a y f r o m the s o u l , n o t l i k e a t r a i n e d b i r d . "  1 3 1  into a meaningful and emotional interpretation.  Bach, p. 150.  107  A p i a n i s t n e e d s t o i n c o r p o r a t e the c e r e b r a l a s p e c t  Conclusions T h e twentieth  century was a time w h e n an enormous  historically informed performance practice. harpsichord, fortepiano performance,  concert  o f research  was devoted  to  W i t h it c a m e a r e v i v a l o f p e r i o d i n s t r u m e n t s s u c h as the  and t r a c k e r o r g a n s . halls have  amount  reverberated  A t the with  s a m e t i m e , i n the p a r a l l e l w o r l d o f k e y b o a r d various, and  often  questionably  romanticized,  interpretations o f J . S. B a c h ' s m u s i c . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , d e p e n d i n g o n w h e t h e r the p e r f o r m e r w a s a p i a n i s t o r h a r p s i c h o r d i s t / o r g a n i s t , this m u s i c has b e e n s u b j e c t e d to v a s t l y d i v e r g i n g a p p r o a c h e s w i t h r e g a r d to e v e r y aspect o f m u s i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  M a n y o r t h o d o x p e r f o r m e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e i n B a r o q u e m u s i c assert that  p i a n i s t s s h o u l d not p e r f o r m w o r k s b y J . S. B a c h a n d , b y e x t e n s i o n , a l l m u s i c that w a s not i n t e n d e d f o r the piano.  O n the other side o f the f e n c e , p i a n i s t s t e n d to d i s r e g a r d B a r o q u e p e r f o r m a n c e p r a c t i c e issues,  b r u s h i n g t h e m a s i d e w i t h the a s s e r t i o n that s i n c e it is p e r f o r m e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o , it d o e s not n e e d to reflect a n y s t y l i s t i c features a n d c a n t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f the p l e t h o r a o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f e r e d b y a m o d e r n Steinway. Y e t p i a n i s t s , as w e l l as a l l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s a c r o s s the w o r l d , are r e q u i r e d f r o m the e a r l i e s t d a y s o f t h e i r m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to p e r f o r m w o r k s f r o m different s t y l i s t i c p e r i o d s , i n c l u d i n g B a r o q u e music.  M o r e o v e r , many schools, colleges, universities and competitions specifically require w o r k s b y J .  S. B a c h .  I r o n i c a l l y , h i s m u s i c has b e e n m a d e a c c e s s i b l e to g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e s to a large degree t h r o u g h  p i a n o r e c i t a l s . B u t there seems to be i n c r e d i b l y vast areas o f d i s a g r e e m e n t a m o n g p i a n i s t s w i t h r e g a r d to h o w the s t y l e o f B a r o q u e c o m p o s e r s s h o u l d be presented.  Interpretations  range f r o m e x t r e m e l y c o l d ,  o b j e c t i v e r e n d e r i n g s a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t w i t h s t r o n g staccatos to o v e r - p e d a l e d , o v e r - s l u r r e d phrases that are c l o s e r i n s t y l e to the m u s i c o f R a c h m a n i n o v , r e s u l t i n g i n l o n g l i n e s that c r o s s b a r l i n e s . T h e p i a n o repertoire is d o m i n a t e d b y r o m a n t i c m u s i c . It is n o w o n d e r , then, that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f this style i n f i l t r a t e d the m u s i c o f b o t h e a r l i e r a n d later h i s t o r i c a l eras.  A s the e m o t i o n a l aspect o f  m u s i c a l c r e a t i o n a n d p e r f o r m a n c e m a y be, to a h i g h degree, s i m i l a r t h r o u g h o u t the ages, its m a n n e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e , n a t i o n a l i t y , a v a i l a b l e i n s t r u m e n t s a n d m a n y o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g factors.  108  T h e p e r f o r m e r has the u n i q u e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a c q u i r e the e s s e n t i a l k n o w l e d g e o f a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e a n d / o r c o m p o s e r that w i l l e n a b l e h e r o r h i m to m a k e a c o n s c i o u s i n t e r p r e t i v e d e c i s i o n . T h e fact that the m u s i c is p e r f o r m e d o n a m o d e r n i n s t r u m e n t u n k n o w n to B a c h s h o u l d not p r e v e n t the p e r f o r m e r f r o m s e a r c h i n g f o r the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e s t y l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  T h e r e is n o reason w h y the k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s  style s h o u l d be m o r e c o m m o n a m o n g h a r p s i c h o r d i s t s a n d o r g a n i s t s than a m o n g p i a n i s t s .  It is g e n e r a l l y  e x p e c t e d f r o m v o c a l e n s e m b l e s that t h e y p r o j e c t the c o r r e c t d e c l a m a t i o n o f the text o f a w o r k . J u s t b e c a u s e so m a n y o f these g r o u p s c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y o f f e m a l e v o i c e s a n d , as s u c h , are not c o n s i d e r e d representative o f B a r o q u e p e r f o r m a n c e p r a c t i c e , this fact c a n n o t be u s e d as a n e x c u s e f o r less d i s t i n c t diction. M a n y o f the m o s t i m p o r t a n t aspects o f B a r o q u e p e r f o r m a n c e m a y be a c h i e v e d o n the m o d e r n p i a n o . A b o v e a l l , p i a n i s t s s h o u l d a i m f o r c l a r i t y w h i c h w a s n o t o n l y i d i o m a t i c f o r the i n s t r u m e n t s a n d the s t y l e , but w a s a l s o r e p o r t e d as the m o s t s t r i k i n g feature o f B a c h ' s c l a v i e r p l a y i n g .  O n e o f the m o s t  d i f f i c u l t issues is a r t i c u l a t i o n , w h i c h forces the p i a n i s t to be e x t r e m e l y j u d i c i o u s w i t h the use o f p e d a l a n d r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u o u s c o n t r o l o f t r a n s p a r e n c y a n d v e r t i c a l releases.  In m u l t i - m o v e m e n t w o r k s , s u c h as the  F r e n c h O v e r t u r e , B W V 8 3 1 , o n e is e x p o s e d to a k a l e i d o s c o p i c r a n g e o f textures, d a n c e types  and  a f f e c t i o n s w h i c h g i v e the o p p o r t u n i t y to use m a n y n u a n c e s o f t o u c h , f r o m a c l o s e legato to a v e r y sharp staccato a n d e v e r y t h i n g i n b e t w e e n .  T h u s , w i t h i n the s e e m i n g l y r i g i d m e t r i c r u l e s , a r i c h s p e c t r u m o f  articulation and d y n a m i c s m a y result i n a very satisfying performance. A s i d e f r o m the i m p o r t a n c e o f c l a r i t y , m a n y referred to J . S. B a c h ' s s o - c a l l e d " q u i e t " m a n n e r o f performance.  S c h e i b e d e s c r i b e d it i n f o l l o w i n g w o r d s :  " O n e is a m a z e d at h i s a b i l i t y a n d o n e c a n h a r d l y c o n c e i v e h o w it is p o s s i b l e f o r h i m to a c h i e v e s u c h a g i l i t y , w i t h h i s f i n g e r s a n d w i t h h i s feet, i n the c r o s s i n g s , e x t e n s i o n s , a n d e x t r e m e j u m p s that he manages, w i t h o u t m i x i n g i n a s i n g l e w r o n g tone, o r d i s p l a c i n g h i s b o d y b y a n y v i o l e n t m o v e m e n t . "  1 3 2  T h e d e s c r i p t i o n a b o v e w a s a n i m p o r t a n t part o f B a c h ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d is c o r r o b o r a t e d b y another d e s c r i p t i o n b y B i r n b a u m :  Bach Reader, p. 238.  109  " . . . t h e q u i t e s p e c i a l a d r o i t n e s s , e v e n at the greatest s p e e d , i n b r i n g i n g o u t a l l the tones c l e a r l y a n d with uninterrupted e v e n n e s s . . . "  1 3 3  C l e a r l y , the i n t e n s i t y a n d i n t e g r i t y o f B a c h ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s d i d n o t a l l o w f o r f l a s h y s h o w m a n s h i p o r a n y m u s i c a l d i s t o r t i o n . A l l the e l e m e n t s o f meter, d e c l a m a t i o n a n d a r t i c u l a t i o n w e r e integrated into a u n i f o r m experience. T h e m o d e r n p i a n i s t is p r i v i l e g e d to h a v e access to a great a m o u n t o f h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e that has b e e n gathered a n d r e - e v a l u a t e d i n the c o u r s e o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  O u t o f respect f o r a r g u a b l y the  greatest c o m p o s e r i n the h i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n a n d i n s e a r c h o f the m o s t r e w a r d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s m u s i c , the m o d e r n m u s i c i a n s h o u l d m a k e e v e r y attempt to d e e p e n h e r o r h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s c o m p o s e r ' s s t y l e . T h e final i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d result f r o m a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n b a s e d o n the aesthetics o f the B a r o q u e E r a .  Ibid., p.  242.  110  Bibliography Bach, C . P. E .  Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments.  Translated and edited  by  W i l l i a m J . M i t c h e l l . N e w Y o r k & L o n d o n : W . W . N o r t o n & C o m p a n y , 1949. Badura-Skoda, Paul.  Interpreting Bach at the Keyboard.  Translated by A l f r e d Clayton.  N e w York:  O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Inc., 1 9 9 3 . Bodky, Erwin.  The Interpretation of Bach's Keyboard Works. C a m b r i d g e :  H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press,  1960. Boyden, David.  " D y n a m i c s in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century  Archibald T. Davison by His Associates,  185-193.  Music."  In Essays in Honour of  Cambridge: Harvard University, Department  o f M u s i c , 1957. Butler, Gregory.  " T h e P r o j e c t i o n o f A f f e c t i n B a r o q u e D a n c e M u s i c . " EM  12, N o . 2 ( M a y , 1984), 2 0 1 -  207. Butt, John.  Bach Interpretation: Articulation Marks in Primary Sources of J. S. Bach.  Cambridge  U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 9 0 . C o l l i n s , M i c h a e l . " A Reconsideration o f F r e n c h O v e r d o t t i n g . " M L 50 N o . 1(1969), 111-123. Cyr, Mary.  Performing Baroque Music.  D a v i d , H a n s T . a n d A r t h u r M e n d e l , eds.  and Documents. Donington, Robert.  P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n : A m a d e u s Press, 1 9 9 2 .  The Bach Reader. A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters  N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o m p a n y i n c . , 1972.  The Interpretation of Early Music.  L o n d o n : Faber & Faber, 1963.  . " A P r o b l e m o f I n e q u a l i t y . " MQ 53 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 5 0 3 - 5 1 7 .  . A Performer's Guide to Baroque Music.  N e w Y o r k : C h a s . Scribner's Sons, 1973.  . A Baroque Music: Style and Performance. N e w  Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n , 1982.  Ferguson, H o w a r d .  Keyboard Interpretations.  Faulkner, Quentin.  J. S. Bach's Keyboard Technique: A Historical Introduction. St  N e w Y o r k & L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 7 5 . Louis:  Concordia  P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1984. Forkel, Johann N i c o l a u s .  Johann Sebastian Bach: His Life, Art and Work.  London:  Constable  and  C o m p a n y L t d . , 1920. Fuller, David.  " D o t t i n g , the ' F r e n c h S t y l e ' a n d F r e d e r i c k N e u m a n n ' s  Counter-Reformation."  EM  5  (1977), 517-543. . " T h e ' D o t t e d style' in B a c h , H a n d e l , and Scarlatti."  Essays. E d i t e d  In  Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary  b y Peter W i l l i a m s , 99-117. C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985.  Ill  . G. F. Handel: Two Ornamented Organ Concertos, Op. 4 Nos. 2 and 5, as Played By an Early Barrel Organ. N e w J e r s e y : H a c k e n s a c k , 1980. Geiringer, K a r l .  Johann Sebastian Bach.  M i i n c h e n : V e r l a g C . H . Beck, 1978.  Johann Mattheson's Der Vollommene Capellmeister. A Revised Translation with Critical Commentary\ A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , U M I R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 .  Harriss, Ernest C .  Rhythmic Alteration in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century Music. Notes Inegales and Overdotting. N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1 9 9 3 .  Hefling, Stephen E .  Herring, Hans. " D i e D y n a m i k in Johann  S e b a s t i a n B a c h s K l a v i e r m u s i k . " BJ3S  (1949-50), 68-80.  Meter in Music, 1600-1800: Performance, Perception and Notation.  Houle, George.  Bloomington:  I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 8 7 .  Die Klavierwerke Bachs. L e i p z i g :  Keller, Hermann. Kirby, F. E.  Music for Piano. A Short Story.  Kiister, Konrad.  Bach Handbuch. K a s s e l :  E d i t i o n Peters, 1 9 5 0 .  Portland, O r e g o n : A m a d e u s Press, 1995.  Barenreiter, 1999.  Piano Interpretation in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. A Study of Theory and Practice Using Original Documents. J e f f e r s o n , N o r t h C a r o l i n a a n d L o n d o n :  Letnanova, Elena.  M c F a r l a n d & C o m p a n y , Inc., 1 9 9 1 . Lindley, Mark.  " K e y b o a r d Fingerings and Articulations."  In  Performance Practice: Music after 1600,  86-203. Edited by H o w a r d M a y e r B r o w n and Stanley Sadie. N e w Y o r k : W . W . N o r t o n & C o . , 1989. .  "Keyboard  Technique and Articulation:  Handel, and Scarlatti."  In  E v i d e n c e f o r the P e r f o r m a n c e P r a c t i c e s o f B a c h ,  Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays.  E d i t e d b y Peter  W i l l i a m s , 2 0 7 - 2 4 3 . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 8 5 . Little, M e r e d i t h , and N a t a l i e Jenne.  Dance and the Music of J. S. Bach.  Bloomington and Indianapolis:  Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1991. Marshall,  Robert L .  " T e m p o and  T e r m i n o l o g y . " In  D y n a m i c Indications  i n the B a c h  Sources:  Bach, Handel, Scarlatti: Tercentenary Essays,  A Review  o f the  E d i t e d b y Peter W i l l i a m s , 2 5 9 -  275. C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985. Mather,  Betty  Bang.  Bloomington:  Dance Rhythms of the French Baroque: A Handbook for Performance. I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987.  Florilegium Primum. A u g s b u r g , 1 6 9 5 . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f f o r e w o r d Source Readings in Music History. N e w Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1950, r e p r i n t 1 9 6 5 .  Muffat, Georg.  . Auserlesene Instrumental-Music. P a s s a u , 1 7 0 1 . in Source Readings in Music History. N e w Y o r k : Neumann, Frederic.  Essays in Performance Practice. 112  by Otto Strunk in  E n g l i s h translation o f foreword by Otto Strunk N o r t o n , 1950, r e p r i n t 1 9 6 5 .  A n n A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U M I Research Press, 1982.  O ' D o n e l l , J o h n . " T h e F r e n c h style a n d the O v e r t u r e s o f B a c h " . EM, Parry, Charles Hubert Hastings.  Johann Sebastian Bach.  7 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 190, 3 3 6 .  N e w York & London:  G . P . P u t n a m ' s sons,  1909. P o n t , G r a h a m . " R h y t h m i c A l t e r a t i o n a n d the M a j e s t i c . " . " F r e n c h O u v e r t u r e s at the K e y b o a r d :  Studies in Music 12  (1978), 68-100.  H o w H a n d e l R e n d e r e d the P l a y i n g o f T h e m . "  Musicology  6(1980), 29-50.  Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote traversiere zu spielen; mit verschiedenen zur Befdrderung des guten Geschmackes in der praktischen Music, dienlichen Anmerkungen begleitet, und mit Exemplen erlautert. Berlin, 1752. English translation by Edward R. Reilly as On Playing the Flute. N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 .  Quantz, Johann Joachim.  R i f k i n , Joshua. " T h e ' B minor Flute Suite' Deconstructed: published in  N e w L i g h t o n B a c h ' s B W V 1 0 6 7 . " It w i l l b e  Bach Perspectives VI.  R i t c h i e , G , a n d G e o r g e Stauffer.  Organ Technique. Modern and Early.  O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 2 0 0 0 .  Les Principes du Clavecin. P a r i s : 1 7 0 2 . E n g l i s h Principles of the Harpsichord. C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y  S a i n t - L a m b e r t , M i c h a e l de. H a r r i s - W a r r i c k as  The Keyboard Works of J. S. Bach.  Schulenberg, D a v i d .  Stauffer, G e o r g e a n d E r n e s t M a y .  Practices. Stauffer, G e o r g e .  Bloomington:  translation by R e b e c c a P r e s s , 1984.  .  N e w Y o r k : S c h i r m e r B o o k s , 1992.  J. S. Bach as Organist. His Instruments, Music, and Performance  I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986.  " C h a n g i n g Issues o f P e r f o r m a n c e  Practice."  The Cambridge Companion to Bach.  E d i t e d b y John Butt. C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1997.  Text and Act. Essays on Music and Performance.  Taruskin, Richard.  N e w York, Oxford:  Oxford  U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 9 5 .  Clavierschule, oder Anweisung zum Clavierspielen filr Lehrer und Lernende, mit kritischen Anmerkungen. L e i p z i g a n d H a l l e , 1 7 8 9 . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b y R a y m o n d H . H a g g h as School of Clavier Playing. L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 .  Turk, Daniel Gottlob.  Wolff, Christoph.  Bach. Essays on His Life and Music.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Harvard University  Press, 1991.  . Johann Sebastian Bach, The Learned Musician. 2000.  113  New York:  W . W . N o r t o n and C o m p a n y ,  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today  Wednesday, August 3 0 , 2 0 0 0 Eight o ' c l o c k i n the evening U B C Recital H a l l 6361 M e m o r i a l R o a d  This recital is in partialfulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the Univer ish Columbia  -program-  Sonata i n i. ii.  e minor, Op. 90 (1814)  L u d w i g van Beethoven  Mit Lebhaftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfmdung undAusdruck Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vorgetragen  Sonata i n b minor, Op. 58 (1844)  /. Allegro maestoso II. Scherzo: Molto vivace iii. Largo iv. Finale: Presto, non tanto  (1770-182  Frederic C h o p i n (1810-1849)  -intermission-  Sonata N o . 6 in A Major, Op. 82 (1939-40) /. Allegro moderato II. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace  Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)  Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, O p . 81a sonata, titling each o f the three movements, "The Departure," "The Absence" and " The Return" respectively, referring to the departure and return o f A r c h d u k e Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive o f the political changes brought o n by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage o f his art was beginning evolved. The sonata i n e minor, O p . 90, is considered by many to be the first o f his late-period piano sonatas. F o r m , w h i c h had been central i n his revolutionary thinking i n the past, seemed less important than lyricism and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection o f the times in w h i c h Beethoven lived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from all things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed i n his last sonata, O p . I l l , written i n 1822. A l s o a twomovement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual transcendence. F r o m the end o f the lS^-century to the end o f W o r l d W a r I (1918) the forces o f Germany, the Austro-Hungarian E m p i r e and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. D u r i n g this time, Poland no longer existed on any E u r o pean maps. The P o l i s h language was no longer the official language; it was banned from use i n any schools or public offices. M a n y P o l i s h artists, painters and poets chose an existence o f artistic freedom i n exile over l i v i n g i n a foreign land on native soil. D u r i n g N a p o l e o n ' s attempt to conquer Russia, many P o l i s h patriots j o i n e d i n his cause i n hopes o f freeing P o l a n d during the campaign. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt o f freedom was the N o v e m b e r uprising o f 1831, w h i c h occurred w h i l e C h o p i n was abroad. T h i s too was resulted i n failure. It was for this cause that C h o p i n was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. M i c k i e w i c z , N o r w i d and other P o l i s h poets continued to support the cause o f Polish liberation i n their life i n other countries. C h o p i n ' s music also was patriotically charged i n such a way that N o r w i d described as, "cannons concealed among flowers." T h i s demonstrates C h o p i n ' s predilection for writing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, while retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition o f the sonata i n b minor, O p . 58 that w i l l be performed is taken from the new National P o l i s h Edition, w h i c h was recently compiled by C h o p i n scholar, Jan E k i e r , based on last corrections o f C h o p i n . The Sonata N o . 6 i n A M a j o r is the first o f three sonatas by Prokofiev that are k n o w n as the " W a r Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, d i d not entitle the sonatas, " W a r Sonatas," but the character o f these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had i n m i n d . The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously i n 19391940. They are the most disturbing o f the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection o f the events o f the region. D u r i n g this moment, Russia was not yet involved i n W o r l d W a r II against the T h i r d R e i c h ; however, on September 1 , 1939 the N a z i s attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. A s a result o f the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East on September 17, 1939. T h e atmosphere i n Eastern Europe was filled w i t h rumours o f war. E v e n though R u s s i a was not yet directly i n v o l v e d i n war w i t h the N a z i s , war had indeed st  begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written in four movements. D e spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, all three sonatas contain extremely poetic and sensual slow movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 -century sonata. th  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  Tuesday, M a r c h 14, 2000 Eight o ' c l o c k i n the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 M e m o r i a l R o a d  This recital is in partial fulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University of British Columbia  -program-  Fantasie i n f minor, O p . 103, D . 940 (1828) A l l e g r o molto m o d e r a t o - L a r g o - A l l e g r o v i v a c e - T e m p o I  Franz Schubert (1797-1828)  Mother I II III IV V  Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)  Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists  Goose, 5 C h i l d r e n ' s Pieces (ca. 1910) Pavane o f Sleeping Beauty i n the Forest T o m Thumb Little P l a i n Jane, Empress o f the Chinese N o d d i n g D o l l s Conversations o f Beauty and the Beast The Fairy Garden  Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator -intermissionLiederkreis, O p . 39 (1840) In der Fremde Intermezzo Waldegesprach Die Stille Mondnacht Auf einer Burg Wehmut Im Walde Fruhlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano  from  Piano T r i o , O p . 121a (ca. 1816) Introduzione: A d a g i o assai-Thema: Allegretto  Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano  Robert Schumann (1810-1856)  L u d w i g van Beethoven (1770-1827)  Die Ahren woglen sachl, Es rauschlen leis 'die Wfilder, So sternklar war die Nachl. Und nieine Seele spamite Weil Hire Flilgel aus. Flog durch die stillen Laiide, Als flOge sie nach Haus.  Gently swayed (lie ears of corn. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And iny soul spread Wide its wings, And flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home.  vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen auf der Lauer Oben ist der alte Ritter; Drilben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Gitter. Eingewachsen Bart und Haare, Und versteinert Brust und Krause, Sitzt er viele hundert Jahre ()hen in der stillen Klause. Draussen ist es still undfriedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, WaldesvOgel einsam singen In den lleren P'ensterbogen. Fine llochzeit fahrt da unlen Auf dem Rliein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen mttnter, Und die schOne Braut, die weinet.  In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Knin showers down. And the woods rustle through the iron bars. Willi his hair and beard grown together as one, His breast and his ruff turned to stone, He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still, All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine; Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps.  ix. Wehmut Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frdhlich sei, Doch Heimlich Trdnen dringen, Da wird das Herz mirfrei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen FrOhlingslufl, Der Sehnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keiner filhlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das tiefe leid.  I can even sing at times, As if I were happy; But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set fiee. Outside the nightingales In the spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering.  Melancholy  In the Woods xi. Im Walde A wedding party passed below the mounteiislurEs, Es zog eine Hochzeit den Berg entlcnig, I heard the birds singing. Ich hOrle die VOgel schlagen. Many riders flashed by, the horn sounded Da blitzten vielReiter, das Waldhom klatig, It was a merry hunt! Das war ein lustiges Jagen! Before I had time to think, Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhallt, The company enfolded in darkness. Die Nacht bedecket die Runde, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschel der Wald,Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, And my heart is filled with foreboding. Undmich schauert's im Herzensgrunde. xii. Friihlingsnachl Uber'm Garten durch die Liifte HOrt 'ich WandervOgel zieh 'n. Das bedeutet Frilhlingsdufte, Unlen fangt's schon an zu blah >i. Jauchzen mocht' ich, mochte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als konnt's nicht sein! Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mit dem Mondesglanz herein.  Spring Night Over the garden tlirough the breeze, 1 heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. I want to shout with joy, and weep I can hardly believe it is true! Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon.  /'. In der Fremde In Foreign Parts Aus der Heimat hinter den Blitzen rot From beyond the lightning flashes, Da Kommen die Wolken her, Clouds come from my homeland. Aber Voter und Mutter sind lange tot, Father and mother are long since dead, Es kennt mich dort keiner mehr. And no one here knows me any more. Wie bald, ach wie bald kommt die stilleMow Zeit, soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet Da ruhe ich auch, und ilber mir Rauscht die schdne Waldeinsamkeit, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier.  time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more.  ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch undfrbhlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, SchOnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwinget Undzu dir eilig zieht.  In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you.  Dialogue in the Woods Hi. Waldesgesprach 'Already it is late, already cold 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt, Why do youridealone through the woods? Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schdne Braut! ich filhr' dich heim!' You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, 'Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, My heart is broken with grief. The straying horn sounds her and there. Wohl irrt das Waldhorn her und hin, OJlieh'! Du weisst nicht, wer ich bin.' Ofly! You know not who I am!' 'In fine array are horse and bride, 'So reich geschmOckt ist Ross und Weib, Of wondrous beauty her young form; So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kenn' ich dich - Gott steh' mir bei!I know you now - may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Schaut still mein Schloss tie/in den Rhein. Already it is late, already cold Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Nevermore will you leave these woods!' Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!'  iv. Die Stille Es wiess und rat es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wttsst' er nur Einer, nur Einer, Kein Mensch es sonst wissen soil! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm und verschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der Hoh', Als meihe Gedanken sind. Ich wilnscht', ich war' ein VOglein, Und zdge ilber das Meer, Wohl iiber das Meer und weiter. Bis dass ich im Himmel war 7  No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven!  v. Mondnacht Es war, als hatt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekusst, Dass sie im BlOtenschimmer Von ihm nur trdumen milsst'! Die Luft ging durch die Felder,  It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields  Tranquillity  Moonlit Night  Program Notes Franz Schubert wrote m u c h music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. W h i l e M o z a r t wrote some o f his piano duets for playing tours he undertook w i t h his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical reason. L a c k i n g the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he k n e w he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even k n o w n i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. W i t h these limitations i n m i n d , it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects i n Schubert's piano music. O n e duet, the Grand Duo in C, was later orchestrated by Joseph Joachim. The Fantasie in f minor was written i n that most productive and final year o f Schubert's a l l too short life, 1828. T h e fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its polyphonic construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C and the last, great sonatas, this w o r k is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the w o r k is played i n a continuous f l o w creating a sense o f unity from four d i s s i m i lar sections. A l s o binding the w o r k is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a counter subject i n the closing fugue. Between 1908 and 1910, R a v e l produced Ma mere I'oye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based o n the popular children's stories o f the same name. D u r i n g these same years, R a v e l saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding w o r k s o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that i n this same period i n his life, the composer produced w o r k s o f complete diversity. T h e Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection w i t h fairy tales and the magical w o r l d o f children's imaginations. The idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince C h a r m i n g , finding herself i n a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques Rouche, R a v e l orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and four i n terludes l i n k i n g the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Thdatre bes A r t s on the 28th o f January, 1912. " T h e cycle o f Eichendorff is for me, the most romantic and depicts m u c h o f y o u , " wrote Robert Schumann i n his letter to C l a r a from M a y 22, 1840. T h i s year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point i n music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as w e l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. The Lieder o f Schumann are like portraits o f his creative genius and are the summation o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and H e i n r i c h Heine, that o f B a r o n Joseph v o n Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic i n meaning. The poems themselves are not linked together i n a c y c l i c unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that S c h u m a n n shared w i t h C l a r a and he wrote of, " s i n k i n g into complete meditation." T h e dramatic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano T r i o , O p . 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v i o l i n and cello based o n W e n z e l MQlIer's aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I ' m  Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. M o s t likely u n k n o w n to us today, M u l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers i n V i enna during the time o f Beethoven. I f one could w a l k the streets o f V i e n n a around 1795, many townspeople c o u l d be heard whistling tunes from this opera. It was not u n c o m m o n for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as e i ther for a small ensemble or for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this w o r k sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. H e came back to it some ten years later and final published it i n 1824. T h o u g h the theme is light and humorous, much o f this w o r k contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Beethoven's late works, the parts interact i n a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum Of the coda, it could be understood w h y the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history. Program  notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby  and Chris  Bowlby  A special heartfelt thank youMy thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possible: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable.  My thanks to you all!  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, today  Wednesday, August 3 0 , 2 0 0 0 Eight o ' c l o c k i n the evening U B C Recital H a l l 6361 M e m o r i a l R o a d  This recital is in partialfulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the Univer ish Columbia  -program-  Sonata, i n e minor, O p . 90 (1814) L u d w i g van Beethoven i. Mit Lebhqftigkeit und durchaus mit Empfindung undAusdruck (1770-1 ii. Nicht zu geschwind und sehr singbar vqrgetragen  Sonata i n b minor, O p : 58 (1844)  i. ii. iii. iv.  Allegro maestoso Scherzo: Molto vivace Largo Finale: Presto, non tanto  Frederic C h o p i n (1810-1849)  -intermission-  Sonata N o . 6 i n A Major, O p . 82 (1939-40) /. Allegro moderato ii. Allegretto iii. Tempo di valzer lentissimo iv. Vivace  Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)  Program Notes In 1810, Beethoven completed his, O p . 81a sonata, titling each o f the three movements, "The Departure," "The Absence" and " The Return" respectively, referring to the departure and return o f A r c h d u k e Rudolf, his great friend and patron. Wars had wracked Europe for many years and Beethoven was apprehensive o f the political changes brought o n by Napoleon. In many ways, however, his music was equally detached from worldly concerns. A new stage o f his art was begirining evolved. The sonata i n e minor, O p . 90, is considered by many to be the first o f his late-period piano sonatas. F o r m , w h i c h had been central i n his revolutionary thinking i n the past, seemed less important than l y r i c i s m and poetic inspiration by this time. The first movement is marked by despair and tragedy, perhaps a reflection o f the times i n w h i c h Beethoven lived. The last movement, however, delves into a deeper spiritual side that is removed from a l l things earthly. A similar emotional journey was later developed i n his last sonata, O p . I l l , written i n 1822. A l s o a twomovement work, this sonata ascends from a tragic existence into a spiritual transcendence. F r o m the end o f the ^ - c e n t u r y to the end o f W o r l d W a r I (1918) the forces o f Germany, the Austro-Hungarian E m p i r e and the Russians had divided and were occupying Poland. D u r i n g this time, Poland no longer existed o n any European maps. The P o l i s h language was no longer the official language; it was banned from use i n any schools or p u b l i c offices. M a n y P o l i s h artists, painters and poets chose an existence o f artistic freedom i n exile over l i v i n g i n a foreign land on native soil. D u r i n g N a p o l e o n ' s attempt to conquer Russia, many P o l i s h patriots j o i n e d i n his cause i n hopes o f freeing Poland during the campaign. However, the attempt was a failure. The next attempt o f freedom was the N o v e m b e r uprising o f 1831, w h i c h occurred w h i l e C h o p i n was abroad. This too was resulted i n failure. It was for this cause that C h o p i n was inspired to write his immortal "Revolutionary" etude. M i c k i e w i c z , N o r w i d and other P o l i s h poets continued to support the cause o f P o l i s h liberation i n their life i n other countries. C h o p i n ' s music also was patriotically charged i n such a way that N o r w i d described as, "cannons concealed among flowers." This demonstrates C h o p i n ' s predilection for writing beautiful phrases and figurations for the piano, w h i l e retaining a strong emotional or patriotic message. The edition o f the sonata i n b minor, O p . 58 that w i l l be performed is taken from the new National P o l i s h Edition, w h i c h was recently compiled by C h o p i n scholar, Jan Ekier, based o n last corrections o f C h o p i n . The Sonata N o . 6 i n A Major is the first o f three sonatas by Prokofiev that are k n o w n as the " W a r Sonatas." Prokofiev, himself, d i d not entitle the sonatas, " W a r Sonatas," but the character o f these works effectively displays what Prokofiev had i n m i n d . The sixth and seventh sonatas were written simultaneously i n 19391940. They are the most disturbing o f the nine piano sonatas, perhaps a reflection o f the events o f the region. D u r i n g this moment, Russia was not yet involved i n W o r l d W a r II against the T h i r d R e i c h ; however, o n September 1 , 1939 the N a z i s attacked Poland, and had occupied Czechoslovakia. A s a result o f the Ribentropp/Molotov pact, the Russians consequently invaded Poland from the East o n September 17, 1939. The atmosphere i n Eastern Europe was filled w i t h rumours o f war. E v e n though Russia was not yet directly involved i n war w i t h the N a z i s , war had indeed st  begun. O f the three war sonatas, this is the only written in four movements. D e spite the dominating feeling o f anxiety and turbulence, all three sonatas contain ex tremely poetic and sensual slow movements. The piano sonatas o f Prokofiev are considered pinnacles o f 20 -century sonata. th  photograph taken from Warsaw, Poland, 1945  In Recital Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, pianist In a doctoral degree recital  Tuesday, M a r c h 14, 2000 Eight o ' c l o c k in the evening at the U B C Recital H a l l 6361 M e m o r i a l Road  This recital is in partialfulfilment of the doctor of musical arts degree program at the University o ish Columbia  -program-  Fantasie i n f minor, O p . 103, D . 940 (1828) A l l e g r o molto m o d e r a t o - L a r g o - A l l e g r o v i v a c e - T e m p o I  Franz Schubert (1797-1828)  Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists Mother I II III IV V  Goose, 5 C h i l d r e n ' s Pieces (ca. 1910) Pavane o f Sleeping Beauty i n the Forest T o m Thumb Little P l a i n Jane, Empress o f the Chinese N o d d i n g D o l l s Conversations o f Beauty and the Beast The Fairy Garden  M a u r i c e Ravel (1875-1937)  Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby, pianists John McMillan, narrator -intermissionbom Liederkreis, O p . 39 (1840) InderFremde Intermezzo Waldegesprach Die Stille Mondnacht Auf einer Burg Wehmut ImWalde Fruhlingsnacht Mari Hahn, soprano Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano Piano T r i o , O p . 121a (ca. 1816) Introduzione: A d a g i o assai-Thema: Allegretto  Adrian Dyck, violin Diederik van Dijk, violoncello Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby, piano  Robert Schumann (1810-1856)  L u d w i g van Beethoven (1770-1827)  i. In der Fremde Aus der Ileimat liinter den Blilzen rot Da Komnien die Wolken her, Aber Vater und Mutter sind lange tot, Es kennt inich dort keiner mehr. Wie bald, ach wie bald komint die stille Zeit,  In Foreign Parts  Da ruhe ich audi, und ilber mir Rauscht die schOne Waldeinsamkeil, Und keiner kennt mich mehr hier.  From beyond me lightning flashes, Clouds come from my homeland Father and mother are long since dead, And no one here knows me any more. How soon, oh, how soon will come that quiet time When I too shall rest! And over me In lovely solitude, the woods will rustle, And no one here will know me any more.  ii. Intermezzo Dein Bildnis wunderselig Hab ' ich im Herzensgrund, Das sieht so frisch undfrohlich Mich an zu jeder Stund'. Mein Herz still in sich singet Ein altes, Schdnes Lied, Das in die Luft sich schwinget Und zu dir eilig zieht.  In wondrous joy your image I hold deep in my heart. It looks at me, so happy and bright, Every hour of the day. Softly my heart sings to itself An old and lovely song, That soars into the air And swiftly flies to you. Dialogue in the Woods 'Already it is late, already cold Why do you ride alone through the woods? The way through the wood is long, you are alone. You lovely bride, I will carry you come!' 'Great is the guile and cunning of men, My heart is broken with grief. The straying horn sounds her and there.  iii. Waldesgesprdch 'Es ist schon spat, es ist schon kalt, Was reit 'st du einsam durch den Wald? Der Wald ist long, du bist allein, Du schbne Braut! ich jilhr' dich heim!' 'Gross ist der Manner Trug und List, Vor Schmerz mein Herz gebrochen ist, Wohl irrt das Waldhom her und hin, O flieh'! Du weisst nicht, wer ich bin.' 'So reich geschmilckt ist Ross und Weib, So wunderschOn der junge Leib; Jetzt kenn' ich dich - Gott steh' mir bei! Du bist die Hexe Lorelei.' 'Du kennst mich wohl, von hohem Stein Sellout still mein Schloss lief in den Rliein. Es ist schon spdt, es ist schon kalt, Kommst nimmermehr aus diesem Wald!'  0 fly! You know not who I am!' 'in fine array are horse and bride, Of wondrous beauty her young form; 1 know you now — may God protect me! You are the siren, Lorelei!' ' You know me indeed - from a high rock My castle looks still and deep into the Rhine. Already it is late, already cold Nevermore will you leave these woods!'  iv. Die Stille Es wiess und rdt es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl ist, so wohl! Ach, wtlsst' er nur Einer, nur Einer, Kein Mensch es sonst wissen soil! So still ist's nicht draussen im Schnee, So stumm undyerschwiegen sind Die Sterne nicht in der Hoh', Als meine Gedanken sind. Ich wilnscht', ich wdr' ein Voglein, Und zOge ilber das Meer, Wohl ilber das Meer und weiter, Bis dass ich im Himmel wdr'!  No one knows, no one can guess How happy I am, how happy! Ah, if one only knew, only the one And no one else at all! The snow outside is not as still, And secret and silent The stars in their heights are, But not as silent and still as my thoughts. I wish I were a little bird And went over the sea Indeed over the sea and further Until I were in heaven!  v. Mondnacht Es war, als hatt' der Himmel Die Erde still gekHsst, Dass sie im Blatenschimmer Von Hun nur trdumen milsst'! Die Luft ging durch die Felder,  It was as if heaven Had softly kissed the earth, And earth in blossoming splendour Could only dream of heaven. A breeze passing over the fields  Tranquillity  Moonlit Night  Die Ahren wogten sacht, Es rauschten leis ' die Walder, So stemklar war die Nacht. Und meine Seek spannte Weil Hire Flilgel aus, Flog durch die stillen Lande, Als floge sie nach Haus.  Gently swayed the ears of corn. The woods softly rustled, And the night was bright with stars. And my soul spread Wide its wings, And flew over the silent land, As if it were flying home.  vii. Auf einer Burg Eingeschlafen aufder Lauer Oben isl der alle Ritter; Drttben gehen Regenschauer, Und der Wald rauscht durch das Giller. Eingewachsen Bart und Haare, Und versteinert lirust und Krause, Sitzt er viele hundert Jahre Oben in der stillen Klause. Draussen ist es still und friedlich, Alle sind ins Talgezogen, WaldesvOgel einsam singen In den lleren Fensterbogen. Eine Hochzeit faint da unten Aufdem Rhein im Sonnenscheine, Musikanten spielen munter, Und die schdne Braut, die weinet.  In a Castle Up there keeping watch, The old knight has fallen asleep; Rain showers down, And the woods rustic tlirough the iron burs. With his hair and beard grown together as one, I lis breast and his ruff turned to stone, He has sat for hundreds of years Up in his silent cell. Outside it is peaceful and still, All the people gone to the valley; And solitary woodland birds sing In the empty window arches. A wedding party sails below On the sunlit Rhine, Musicians are playing merrily, And the lovely bride weeps.  ix. Wehmut Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frdhlich sei, Doch heimlich Tranen dringen, Da wird das Herz mir frei. Es lassen Nachtigallen, Spielt draussen Frilhlingsluft, Der Sehnsucht Lied erschallen Aus Hires Kerkers Gruft. Da lauschen alle Herzen, Und alles ist erfreut, Doch keiner ftihlt die Schmerzen, Im Lied das tiefe leid.  I can even sing at times, As if I were happy; But secretly my tears well up, And my heart is set free. Outside the nightingales In the spring breeze Sing out their yearning songs From their deep prison. Then all hearts listen And are made glad, But no one feels the grief In the song of deep suffering.  Melancholy  xi. Im Walde In the Woods Es zog eine Hochzeit den Berg entlang, A wedding party passed below the mourfahskpes, I heard the birds singing. Ich hOrte die VOgel schlagen, Manyridersflashedby, the horn sounded Da blitzten viel Reiter, das Waldhom klang, It was a merry hunt! Das war ein tustiges Jagen! Before I had time to think, Und eh' ich's gedacht, war alles verhallt, The company enfolded in darkness. Die Nacht bedecket die Runde, Now only the woods rustle on the mountains, Nur von den Bergen noch rauschet der Wald, Und mich schauert's im Herzensgrunde. And my heart is filled with foreboding. xii. Friihlingsnacht Uber'm Garten durch die Litfte Hdrt 'ich Wandervogel zieh'«, Das bedeutet FrOhlingsdufte, Unten fOngt's schon an zu blah 'n. Jauchzen mOcht' ich, m&chte weinen, Ist mir's doch, als kOnnt's nicht sein! Alte Wunder wieder scheinen Mit dem Mondesglanz herein.  Spring Night Over the garden through the breeze, I heard the birds of passage flying, Heralding of spring's fragrance; Below already it begins to bloom. I want to shout with joy, and weep I can hardly believe it is true! Old miracles appear again In the shining splendour of the moon.  Program Notes  f i  > f 1  [ I , I  \< j  (  Franz Schubert wrote m u c h music for four-hands, the most familiar being the Military March in D. W h i l e M o z a r t wrote some o f his piano duets for p l a y i n g tours he undertook w i t h his sister, Schubert composed his for a more practical reason. L a c k i n g the influence and money to hire an orchestra, he k n e w he and his friends could play chamber music at one o f the many Schubertiads. It is not even k n o w n i f Schubert ever heard one o f his symphonies performed. W i t h these limitations i n m i n d , it is not surprising to hear orchestral effects i n Schubert's piano music. O n e duet, the Grand Duo in C, was later orchestrated by Joseph Joachim. T h e Fantasie in f minor was written i n that most productive and final year o f Schubert's a l l too short life, 1828. The fantasie is different from earlier duets, by its p o l y p h o n i c construction and use o f fugue. Written at the same time as the String Quintet in C and the last, great sonatas, this w o r k is emotional and dramatic. In four movements, the w o r k is played i n a continuous f l o w creating a sense o f unity from four d i s s i m i lar sections. A l s o binding the w o r k is the reappearance o f the opening theme as a counter subject i n the closing fugue. Between 1908 and 1910, R a v e l produced Ma mere I'oye, or Mother Goose for children o f close friends, a suite o f five movements for piano duet based o n the popular children's stories o f the same name. D u r i n g these same years, R a v e l saw the death o f his father and wrote Gaspard de la nuit, one o f his most serious and most technically demanding w o r k s o f the piano repertoire. It is peculiar that i n this same period i n his life, the composer produced w o r k s o f complete diversity. T h e Mother Goose Suite shows the composer's flair for story-telling and his connection w i t h fairy tales and the magical w o r l d o f children's imaginations. T h e idea serving as the framework for the suite was the story o f Sleeping Beauty, where the separate movements are as dreams. In the final movement, she awakes to the kiss o f Prince C h a r m i n g , finding herself i n a magic garden. A t the request o f Jacques Rouche, R a v e l orchestrated and rewrote the suite into a ballet, adding a prelude and four i n terludes l i n k i n g the re-ordered movements together. The orchestrated version was first performed at the Theatre bes A r t s o n the 28th o f January, 1912. "The cycle o f Eichendorff is for me, the most romantic and depicts m u c h o f y o u , " wrote Robert Schumann i n his letter to C l a r a from M a y 22, 1840. T h i s year, often referred to as the "year o f song," was a remarkable point i n music history. Schumann was not only a master o f melody and counterpoint but also, himself, was familiar with literature, being a writer as w e l l , and had a deeply poetic imagination. The Lieder o f Schumann are like portraits o f his creative genius and are the summation o f a true romantic art. In contrast with the poetry o f Jean Paul and H e i n r i c h Heine, that o f B a r o n Joseph v o n Eichendorff is perhaps the most romantic i n meaning. The poems themselves are not linked together i n a c y c l i c unifying theme but are separate miniatures. Liederkreis represents the deep happiness that S c h u m a n n shared w i t h C l a r a and he wrote of, " s i n k i n g into complete meditation." T h e dramatic centre o f the cycle is Mondnacht, where one may come to awareness o f his life o f suffering to come. The Piano T r i o , O p . 121a, by Beethoven, is a set o f ten variations for piano, v i o l i n and cello based o n W e n z e l M u l l e r ' s aria "Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu" ( I ' m  Cockatoo, the tailor-man) from his opera, Die Schwestern von Prag. M o s t likely u n k n o w n to us today, M i i l l e r was one o f the most popular opera composers i n V i enna during the time o f Beethoven. I f one c o u l d w a l k the streets o f V i e n n a around 1795, many townspeople c o u l d be heard whistling tunes from this opera. It was not u n c o m m o n for composers to set popular themes o f operas to variation, often as e i ther for a small ensemble or for piano solo. Beethoven first sketched this w o r k sometime between 1803 and 1806 but set it aside. H e came back to it some ten years later and final published it i n 1824. Though the theme is light and humorous, much o f this w o r k contains a grave and deeply personal style. L i k e many o f Beethoven's late works, the parts interact i n a highly contrapuntal manner. A serious introduction counterbalances the carefree nature o f the theme. After ten variations and the increasing momentum o f the coda, it c o u l d be understood w h y the variations o f Beethoven are some o f the most celebrated i n history.  Program notes by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby and Chris Bowlby  A special heartfelt thank youM y thanks goes out to all the musicians who made this recital possible: to Mari Hahn, whose voice helped me to better understand the meaning of Schumann's Lieder, to Adrian Dyck and Diederik van Dijk, whose natural musical ability was both a joy and an inspiration to behold, to my husband, Chris Bowlby for always being there and to John McMillan who, with his charisma, added a special something to make it memorable. My thanks to you all!  University of British Columbia Presents:  A L E C T U R E R E C I T A L by Iwona Kaminska-Bowlby  French Overture in b minor, BWV831 by Johann Sebastian Bach. A Discussion of Style, Performance Practice Issues and Their Application to the Modern Piano. -programLecture  -pauseFranzdsische Ouverture, B W V 831 /*. Overture ii. Courante Hi. Gavotte I & II iv. Passepied I & II v. Sarabande vi. Bourree I & II vii. Gigue viii. Echo  Johann Sebastian Bach  Sunday, June 30,2002 at 3:00 pm Gessler Hall UBC School of Music, Room 116 Admission free  This recital is presented in partialfulfillment of the DMA degree.  1  • 83 —i 2 'o u u 0  m © o  s  CJ 0 o'cl  o o o T3 CO C  an 3  m  < a  o  c  *c c u  U  s o  3  C/2  u  & Cj_ ua  "a. CJ  "3 +3 "3 u  I  C g ccc  4)  sa 2  cj ••rp cj CJ .M 2 "S u N 1- U 2 3 « T3 -a -<r cj CQ 3 -So Si cE o 5 CJ *- cfl •= r- « CJ &  5 £  es . 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