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Ethnomedicine of the Magical Papyri Eldor, Ole 2003

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ETHNOMEDICINE OF THE MAGICAL PAPYRI by OLE ELDOR B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 2002. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of C l a s s i c a l , Near Eastern, and R e l i g i o u s Studies Programme of Master of A r t s i n R e l i g i o u s Studies) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard Professor Dietmar Neufeld Professor Robert Daum THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY 2003 © Ole Yosef Eldor, 2003 ( t h i s o r i g i n a l copy i s p r i n t e d on a c i d f r e e paper) In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t Many aspects of the r e l a t i o n s among medicine and r e l i g i o u s ideas i n lat e a n t i q u i t y remain to be explored from a fresh perspective, p a r t i c u l a r l y regarding those ideas classed as s o - c a l l e d "magic." Much of the previous scholarship of these r e l a t i o n s was doubly-biased by the ethnocentrism of the Western biomedical model and a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t a l prejudice against p r i v a t e r i t u a l . The successful a p p l i c a t i o n by John P i l c h of anthropological concepts and models to the healings i n the New Testament showed an i d e a l way for s i m i l a r analyses to other texts from the same world. This study i s an attempt to apply P i l c h ' s method to the so- c a l l e d "Magical Papyri" and overcome these biases. In t h i s aim i t was successful by showing that these methods do bear out on the papyri. This study proved the f r u i t f u l n e s s of t h i s methodology by succeeding i n h i g h l i g h t i n g a serie s of symbolic healings among the r i t u a l s i n the corpus with aspects that under examination appear to have been a complex, powerful, and l i k e l y very e f f e c t i v e combination of therapy and r i t u a l that was the product of a carefully-developed t r a d i t i o n a l system. This work takes some f i r s t steps towards using the papyri to show how the medical system was r e l a t e d to the r e l i g i o u s system to which i t was attached i n l a t e antique Egyptian society. It shows that Egypt, perhaps unusually among t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , had a class of symbolic healers who operated i n the prof e s s i o n a l sector of the health care system; i t thus begins to account for aspects of the healing system or systems represented i n the papyri. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents L i s t of Tables and Figures I n t r o d u c t i o n A. Methodological Background Introducing Medical Anthropology Methodological Apparatus: D e f i n i n g Concepts and Models 7 Basic Terms and D e f i n i t i o n s 7 Value O r i e n t a t i o n 9 The Health Care System 10 Core C l i n i c a l Functions: 11 c u l t u r a l h i e r a r c h i e s of h e a l t h values 11 experience of i l l n e s s 11 c o g n i t i v e response 12 h e a l i n g a c t i v i t i e s 12 p o t e n t i a l outcome 13 Explanatory Models: L i s t of Five S t r u c t u r a l Questions 13 T r a n s a c t i o n 15 Symbolic Healing 16 Summary Model f o r Examining Symbolic Healing Systems 18 E f f i c a c y 19 B. A n a l y s i s of the Health Care System i n the Papyri 20 Background S c h o l a r s h i p and the State of the Question 20 D i s c l a i m e r : T e x t - C r i t i c a l Cautionary Reservations 24 Healing i n i t s C u l t u r a l Context 25 Reading the Papyri as Healing t e x t s i n C u l t u r a l Context 2 7 S e l e c t i n g Appropriate Test Cases from the Papyri 28 S e l e c t i o n L i s t 28 PDM x i v 554-669: Symbolic Healing S c r i p t s 29 Applying the Models and Concepts of Part A 31 The Value O r i e n t a t i o n Model 31 The Process of Healing i n PDM x i v 525-669 36 Kleinman's Schematic Model: 7-point summary 36 . E f f i c a c y i n the p a p y r i 56 The Element of Power i n the p a p y r i 5 7 C. Concluding D i s c u s s i o n , Questions and Challenges 5 8 Desiderata 58 Conclusions 59 Post S c r i p t : Thessalus the Magician 62 B i b l i o g r a p h y 64 Appendix: Overview of Healing Texts i n the Corpus 6 8 Table l : Subdisciplines of Medical Anthropology Table 2 : Value Orientation Chart Figure 1: The Health Care System 1 Introduction This i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Greek and Demotic Magical Papyri edited in a new c o l l e c t i o n by H. D. Betz. 1 The goals of t h i s study are to i s o l a t e and analyze medical r i t u a l s i n t h i s corpus using methods and concepts developed in the f i e l d s of medical and Mediterranean anthropology, i f possible to uncover the features of a "health care system," a f t e r the manner suc c e s s f u l l y modeled by John P i l c h i n his analysis of healing i n the New Testament. It i s earnestly hoped that t h i s study w i l l r a i s e new questions to contribute to ongoing research 2 into the complex r e l a t i o n s between medical and r e l i g i o u s ideas and r i t u a l s i n l a t e antiquity, among d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l , r e l i g i o u s , or so c i a l groups, as well as help to delineate more of the s o c i a l context of the users of the papyri r i t u a l s . 3 I w i l l follow the lead of the scholars who have been ceaselessly debating the status of "magic" as an in t e r p r e t i v e term and a l a b e l and w i l l only use i t with quotation marks.4 I w i l l endeavour everywhere to re f e r to the r i t u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s of these i n s t r u c t i o n s not as magicians but as r i t u a l i s t s , a neutral and d e s c r i p t i v e term, i f s l i g h t l y vague and evasive. "Magic" or "magician," i f used at a l l , i s meant to convey emic s e l f -understanding, and should never be taken to intend an e t i c i n t e r p r e t i v e meaning.5 To speak at a l l of r i t u a l requires d e f i n i t i o n , and t h i s study w i l l follow Evan M. Zuesse's Encyclopaedia of Religion a r t i c l e i n understanding " r i t u a l " as "those conscious and voluntary, r e p e t i t i o u s and s t y l i z e d symbolic bodily actions that are centred on cosmic structures and/or sacred presences. 1 Based on the previous collection of Preisendanz with additional materials, including the Demotic corpus. The writer apologizes in advance i f material referred to appears unduly mysterious; in order to follow, the reader should have a copy of Betz to consult the references and should be familiar with the material by pre-reading the whole at least once. 2 If only my own. 3 The provenance of these manuscripts can only be specified as the region of Thebes (Luxor-Karnak) in Upper Egypt, and the major part of them came to light over a century ago as they were probably hidden and preserved: through the efforts of a collector. 4 See especially Naomi Janowitz, Rebecca Lesses, Marvin Meyer, and Richard Smith, who a l l have published recent books, helpful to this study, describing what used to be known as magic in terms of ritual power. 5 Kenneth L. Pike coined the terms emic and etic to describe and distinguish respectively the subjective insider and outsider perspectives. These terms are derived from the words phonetic and phonemic in his 1969 article, "Language as Behaviour and Etic and Emic Standpoints for the Description of Behaviour." Pp. 114-31 in Social Psychology: Reading and Perspective. E. F. Borgatta, ed. Chicago: Rand-McNally. 2 (Verbal behaviour such as chant, song, and prayer are of course included i n the category of b o d i l y a c t i o n s . ) " 6 The s u b - f i e l d of r i t u a l theory 7 at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of r e l i g i o u s studies and anthropology provides concepts to interpret the s p e l l s of the papyri as r i t u a l s i n text form, or as s c r i p t s f o r t h e i r performance, 8 that are distinguishable on the basis of response, imitation, and embodiment from e t h i c a l acts (which are marked by decision and choice) . Naomi Janowitz and Rebecca Lesses both bring the t o o l s of r i t u a l theory to bear upon the (largely so-called "magical") textual materials they studied, basing t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l approaches to r i t u a l power p r i m a r i l y upon the work of Stanley J. Tambiah, Michael S i l v e r s t e i n , and Richard Parmentier, a l l noted anthropologists of r i t u a l . 9 As the present author r e l i e s on Janowitz and Lesses for h i s introduction to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r i t u a l texts, these scholars are the basis f o r the author's approach to r i t u a l i n the present study-as well. This study i s intended, while adhering c l o s e l y to the text, to look at the 'health care system' i n the world of the papyri as f a r as i t can be determined. Recognizing the challenges of dealing with a culture f a r removed from that of the contemporary West, t h i s writer i s t r y i n g to r e s i s t biomedical ethnocentrism10 {"medicocentrism"), by applying P i l c h ' s adaptations of models from medical anthropology 1 1 to these texts of l a t e antique Egypt as they have already been s u c c e s s f u l l y applied by him and by other b i b l i c a l scholars as well as by h i s t o r i a n s of a n t i q u i t y . 1 2 According to Peter Worsley 1 3 i n a discussion of non-western healthcare systems, what human beings worry most about are good fortune and misfortune, and health or well-being and sickness are only aspects of t h i s dichotomy. In fact, notes P i l c h , "outside the Western world, the concepts of health and 6 Evan M. Zuesse, "Ritual," Encyclopaedia of Religion V. 12, Pp. 405-422. 7 For an overview, see Ronald L. Grimes' article "Ritual Studies" in The Encyclopaedia of Religion, V. 12, Pp. 422-425. 8 The problem of distinguishing these two is unresolved. This author views the spells as scripts referring to the performance of real world embodied actions, and not as rituals-in-text alone. 9 For references to the work of these scholars, please refer to the bibliography. We will also discuss some of the background research to the study at hand in the section "The State of the Question" ahead in Part B. 10 And "temporocentrism," i f a more suitable coinage for such a concept does not already exist 11 Pilch, p. 2. 12 Ibid: For b i b l i c a l , see Pilch, 1991a and 1991b; For antiquity, see Shultenover. 13 Worsley, 1982. 3 sickness o r d i n a r i l y include much more than .bodily or phys i c a l h e a l t h . " 1 4 The papyri c l e a r l y convey such conceptions: the overwhelming majority of the purposive r i t u a l s r e f l e c t the basic truth that "everyone wants to know how to maintain good fortune and avoid misfortune." 1 5 According to P i l c h and Worsley, 1 6 since "at a high l e v e l of abstraction, misfortune including i l l n e s s i s commonly a t t r i b u t e d to some kind of offence against c u l t u r a l values and s o c i a l norms," i t i s "important to know well the c u l t u r a l values and s o c i a l norms of a society i n order to understand i t s concepts of i l l n e s s , health, and heal i n g . " 1 7 This recommendation applies to thi s study of the papyri of Greco-Roman Egypt. This study begins with a model developed with anthropological and s o c i o l o g i c a l data from P a l e s t i n i a n society of the period, which i n i t i a l l y w i l l be accepted as generally representative of l a t e antique East-Mediterranean culture. As we proceed, the background of secondary scholarship w i l l a s s i s t i n the assertion of Egyptian culture into the model molded i n i t i a l l y upon P a l e s t i n i a n culture. The major advantage of ethnomedical and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l research i s to force biomedical p r a c t i t i o n e r s (and scholars of established f i e l d s i n c l a s s i c s and b i b l i c a l studies!) out of narrow p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to expose them to aspects of human health often hidden by the s o c i a l space and role such p r a c t i t i o n e r s hold i n our modern Western cul t u r e . This thesis i s based upon the hope that medical anthropology can work the same e f f e c t for the s i m i l a r l y s p e c i a l i z e d r e l i g i o u s studies scholar; and e s p e c i a l l y f o r the researcher of private r i t u a l or "magic," which has also been adversely affected by the constraints and denigrations of both biomedically and r e l i g i o u s l y ethnocentric perspectives. In the t r a d i t i o n a l culture of the papyri i t i s not poss i b l e to separate medicine from the r e l i g i o u s system, as we are accustomed to r o u t i n e l y doing i n the West. This study chooses to view r e l i g i o n as "a c u l t u r a l l y adaptive response to a much wider range of s u f f e r i n g and misfortune, of which," (as the papyri themselves make c l e a r ) , "human sickness i s only a small p a r t . " 1 8 14 Ibid. 15 Ibid. p. 3; See for example PGM IV:2170-75, 1167; VII:496; XII 255; XIII: 800-806; PDM xiv:311-12, 325-56, 333, 386. 16 Worsley, 1982, p. 330 17 Ibid. 4 A . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l B a c k g r o u n d This work i s most i n s p i r e d and indebted to the pioneering e f f o r t s of John P i l c h to apply the conceptual and methodological i n s i g h t s of anthropology (medical and Mediterranean) to the New Testament (NT) healing pericopes. 1 9 E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s study intends to follow P i l c h ' s lead, and his recommendation, by applying to the medical material i n the corpus of the Greek Magical Papyri what he adopted and adapted as instruments applicable to an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the medical material i n the Gospels. 2 0 Both texts do contain s p e c i a l descriptions of i l l n e s s and healing practices, and i n many cases very s i m i l a r ones, for instance the descriptions of daimonic possessions and exorcisms. 2 1 The arguments P i l c h persuasively advanced for the value of t h i s type of examination apply equally to other la t e antique texts (examinations P i l c h openly c a l l s f o r ) . I t i s the opinion of this writer that the corpus of the so - c a l l e d "magical papyri" (henceforward simply r e f e r r e d to as the papyri or shorthand a f t e r Betz "PGM" or "PDM"22) represents an e s p e c i a l l y r i c h and p o t e n t i a l l y rewarding text on which to undertake P i l c h ' s desideratum. 18 Pilch, 2000, p. 35. 19 Indeed, I confess that owing to the constraints of time under which I had to operate, this study follows his example so closely that i t risks being somewhat facile. 20 The anthropological, cultural, and historical contexts of the papyri are very close to those of the Gospels: the East Mediterranean of the f i r s t centuries C.E. Even i f in actual fact the material of the corpus ranges over a longer period (1st C. B.C.E. to 6th C. C.E.), i t is internally consistent enough to view i t in general as belonging to "late antiquity," and moreover the majority of the corpus seems to date to the second-third centuries C.E., contemporaneous with the final Gospel redactions and touched by the expansion of Christianity. There are certainly important differences in the cultural and religious contexts of these two bodies of text. The NT is didactic, and edited over time from various compendia to a few harmonized editorial purposes, for the use of communities. On the other hand the papyri are practical instructions, mostly unedited and separate unrelated units having many different purposes, and had probably been composed by, and subsequently collected together for the use of, single individuals. 21 Moreover, the papyri show occasional acquaintance with some of the Gospel healings, and in places (especially exorcisms) bear a certain Christian stamp: PGM IV:1227-64,3007-86; LXXX III1-20; CXXVIII:1-11. 22 Papyrae Graecae Magicae, the Greek Magical Papyri, and Papyrae Demoticae Magicae, the Demotic Magical Papyri. 5 Introducing Medical Anthropology The d i s c i p l i n e of medical anthropology i s one of f i v e s u b - d i s c i p l i n e s of that f i e l d 2 3 and one of the most highly developed. 2 4 It i s also known as ethnomedicine by those seeking to further distance i t from Western medicocentrism. Others pr e f e r to reserve t h i s l a t t e r term f o r the study of healing r i t u a l s , and since t h i s i s a study of p r e c i s e l y these, we w i l l follow t h i s nomenclature. This d i s c i p l i n e aims at disentangling " c l o s e l y interwoven natural-environmental, human-biological, and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l threads forming the behavioral and conceptual network of human responses to the experience of i l l n e s s . " 2 5 These are the aims and ideals guiding the present study of the papyri. S p e c i a l t i e s i n topic and methodology have been developed i n t h i s d i s c i p l i n e with these aims i n focus. P i l c h presents a sample demonstrating the richness of medical anthropological sub- d i s c i p l i n e s as reproduced i n the following t a b l e : 2 6 Biomedical Studies Of Adaptation Ethnomedical Studies of Health and Healing S o c i a l Problems and Interventions Genetics and disease Culture-bound syndromes Mental health Medical ecology Folk therapies C l i n i c a l anthropology Evolution of diseases Healing roles Addictions Social epidemiology Medical pl u r a l i s m Family violence N u t r i t i o n Ethnopharmacology B i r t h i n g studies Demography Ethnoscience D i s a b i l i t i e s Paleopathology Midwifery Public health Stress and disease Shamanism International health Table 1. Sub-Disciplines of Medical Anthropology Based upon the author's reading of the text, the boldfaced sub-d i s c i p l i n e s indicate those for which the papyri demonstrate material that relates to or at least touches upon, while the underlined ones are those for which the material i s r i c h e s t and most f r u i t f u l to e s p e c i a l l y concentrate upon. . . 23 Pilch, 2000, p. 20, citing McElroy and Townsend, 1989, Pp. 13-17. 24 Ibid, p. 21. 25 Ibid, p. 21, citing Unshuld, 1988:179. 26 Ibid, p. 22, Table 2.1: Sub-fields of Medical Anthropology," cited from McElroy and Townsend 1989, 17.27 Ibid, p. 22, citing Kleinman, 1980: 18; 28. 6 The challenge of medical anthropology i s to overcome Western medicocentrism by l i b e r a t i n g i t s e l f from biomedical ideology i n order to take the therapies of other healing systems into account - v a r i o u s l y conceived as ancient, p r i m i t i v e , non-Western, folk, popular, and modern. 2 7 The papyri embody one (or even several) of such healing systems of a l t e r n a t i v e therapies, which have yet to be f u l l y accounted. Medical anthropology o f f e r s a fresh approach to studies such as t h i s , that intend to investigate and write about sickness and healing across cultures. Of the three ways that Kleinman, 2 8 the preeminent spokesman for the d i s c i p l i n e , l i s t s t h i s can be done, the best and most appropriate for t h i s study i s to "develop an evolving conceptual system centered upon the s o c i a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of sickness and healing." L u c k i l y for t h i s study, John P i l c h l a i d most of the groundwork i n t h i s way for i t i n h i s study of the Gospel healings, though ongoing modifications w i l l be required to f i t i t to the papyri. In t h i s enterprise of developing and advancing a p a r t i c u l a r ethnomedical paradigm, the task i s to construct an "autonomous t h e o r e t i c a l frame" maximally suited to the d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c u l t u r a l l y unique pattern of human experiences of health, sickness, and h e a l i n g . 2 9 The two equally important areas of healing to keep i n mind are efficacy and meaning. Both r e f e r to treatment outcome, but whereas the former term i s empirical and dear to the biomedical perspective, i t i s the l a t t e r that comprises the hermeneutic dimension of healing and i s of especial i n t e r e s t to medical anthropology. The papyri have t h e i r own pe c u l i a r ways of speaking about both e f f i c a c y and meaning. 28 Ibid, pp. 22-23, citing Kleinman, 1988. 29 Ibid. p. 23, (paraphr.) citing from Kleinman, 1980: 377. 7 Methodological Apparatus: Defining the Concepts and Models to Apply Basic Terms and D e f i n i t i o n s : 3 0 . R i t u a l : C o n s c i o u s a n d v o l u n t a r y , r e p e t i t i o u s a n d s t y l i z e d s y m b o l i c b o d i l y a c t i o n s t h a t a r e c e n t r e d o n c o s m i c s t r u c t u r e s a n d / o r s a c r e d p r e s e n c e s ; S u c h a c t i o n s i n c l u d e v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s u c h a s c h a n t , s o n g , a n d p r a y e r . 3 1 Health: "A s t a t e o f c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , a n d s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d n o t m e r e l y t h e a b s e n c e o f d i s e a s e o r i n f i r m i t y " ( W o r l d H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n ) . Sickness: A b l a n k e t t e r m u s e d t o l a b e l r e a l human e x p e r i e n c e s o f d i s e a s e a n d / o r i l l n e s s . Disease: A n e x p l a n a t o r y b i o m e d i c a l c o n c e p t d e s c r i b i n g a b n o r m a l i t i e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d / o r f u n c t i o n o f human o r g a n s a n d o r g a n s y s t e m s , i n c l u d i n g p a t h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s e v e n i f n o t c u l t u r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . O p e r a t e s b y a t t e m p t i n g t o c o r r e l a t e c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f s i g n s a n d symptoms f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x p l a n a t i o n , p r e d i c t i o n , a n d c o n t r o l - u s i n g t h e j a r g o n diagnoses, prognoses, a n d therapy - c o n c e p t s l e a d i n g i n t o t h e f i e l d o f p o w e r a n d p o l i t i c s . Illness: A n e x p l a n a t o r y c o n c e p t t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e human p e r c e p t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n s o c i a l l y d i s v a l u e d s t a t e s i n c l u d i n g b u t n o t l i m i t e d t o d i s e a s e . I t i s b o t h a p e r s o n a l a n d a s o c i a l r e a l i t y a n d t h u s i n l a r g e p a r t a c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t . C u l t u r e d i c t a t e s w h a t t o p e r c e i v e , v a l u e , a n d e x p r e s s , a n d t h e n how t o l i v e w i t h i l l n e s s . Curing: The a n t i c i p a t e d o u t c o m e r e l a t i v e t o disease. T h e a t t e m p t t o t a k e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f d i s o r d e r e d b i o l o g i c a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Healing: T h e a n t i c i p a t e d o u t c o m e r e l a t i v e t o illness. T h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l m e a n i n g f o r t h e l i f e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y s i c k n e s s . A n e x p a n d e d d e f i n i t i o n o f h e a l i n g h a s i t a s "a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h (a) d i s e a s e a n d c e r t a i n o t h e r w o r r i s o m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e made i n t o i l l n e s s (a c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e r e f o r e m e a n i n g f u l ) , a n d (b) t h e s u f f e r e r g a i n s a d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e r e d u c t i o n , o r e v e n t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s e n s o r y , a n d e x p e r i e n t i a l o p p r e s s i v e n e s s e n g e n d e r e d b y h i s m e d i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " 3 2 Placebo: A w h o l e s o m e m e a n i n g c r e a t e d b y t h e s i c k p e r s o n f r o m s e m a n t i c a n d s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s d u r i n g a p r o c e s s o f h e a l i n g . A n i n e r t o f i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n n o c u o u s i t e m p r e s c r i b e d more f o r t h e m e n t a l r e l i e f o f t h e p a t i e n t t h a n f o r 30 Many of these definitions are paraphrases from Pilch, p. 24. 31 Evan M. Zuesse, "Ritual," Encyclopaedia of Religion V. 12, Pp. 405-422. 32 Kleinman 1980: 265, cited in Pilch, pp. 13-14. 8 i t s actual e f f e c t on the disorder. The item i s e f f e c t i v e because of the patient's b e l i e f system. Nocebo: The opposite: a noxious meaning created by the s i c k person i n the same manner, during a f a i l u r e of health. An in e r t or i n t r i n s i c a l l y innocuous item that can and does cause r e a l damage.33 Medicocentrism: A species of ethnocentrism that chooses to view texts about sickness and healing from other cultures and times i n a Western biomedical perspective. Folk-Conceptual!zed Disorders o r C u l t u r e - B o u n d Syndromes: C u l t u r a l l y -constructed i l l n e s s e s unique to a society. Therapy: A treatment designed to bring about r e h a b i l i t a t i o n or s o c i a l readj ustment. Therapist: Anyone who i s recognized as capable of helping i n health misfortune. V a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n : A concept defined by Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck i n t h e i r model as a "generalized and organized conception, i n f l u e n c i n g behaviour, of nature, man's [sic] place i n i t , of man's r e l a t i o n to man, and of the desirable and non-desirable as they r e l a t e to human-environment and human-human relations... l i k e values, they vary on a continuum from the e x p l i c i t to the i m p l i c i t . " 3 4 T h e o r e t i c a l assumptions support t h i s model, and i t i s necessary to explain them. According to P i l c h : 3 5 1) There are only a l i m i t e d number of common human problems for which a l l peoples i n a l l places must f i n d a so l u t i o n . 2) Possible solutions are neither l i m i t l e s s nor random; there are three. 3) A l l solutions, including t h e i r variants and a l t e r n a t i v e s , are present i n varying degrees within the t o t a l c u l t u r a l structure of every society. Though one solu t i o n dominates, the other solutions are a lso a v a i l a b l e . With regard to the f i r s t assumption, f i v e common problems and th e i r range of solutions experienced i n each culture can be presented i n a table (below). With regard to the second assumption, the range of solutions a v a i l a b l e to each problem i n a given culture i s l i s t e d to the right of the problem. With regard 33 Pilch, 2000, p. 157. He also adds, "In some forms of witchcraft, sticking pins in a doll or an image of a person one wants to harm can indeed cause harm i f both people share that belief system." There are two spells in the papyri that describe how to do just this! (PGM IV:321-329, XXIVb:l-15). Moreover, an actual figure with pins was discovered from the period, and is reproduced on the cover of Magikar Hiera by Faraone and Obbink (1991. New York: Oxford U. Press). 34 Quoting Papajohn and Spiegel, in their report of c l i n i c a l applications of this model. 1975, p. .2 0. 35 Ibid, pp. 3-4. to the t h i r d assumption, while each culture s e l e c t s one of the three solutions as primary, the other two are also a v a i l a b l e as second and t h i r d choices e i t h e r for d i f f e r e n t circumstances or for d i f f e r e n t subgroups within the same culture. P r o b l e m Range o f So P r i n c i p a l Mode of B e i n g Human A c t i v i t y Interpersonal C o l l a t e r a l Relationships Time O r i e n t a t i o n Relationship of Be s u b j e c t Humans to Nature t o i t View of Human Nature M i x t u r e o f good and e v i l l u t i o n s B e i n g - i n - b e c o m i n g D o i n g L i n e a l I n d i v i d u a l L i v e i n harmony M a s t e r i t w i t h i t E v i l Good P r e s e n t P a s t T a b l e 2 . V a l u e O r i e n t a t i o n C h a r t These concepts are very useful i n comparative ethnomedicine. Our Western culture of healthcare faces the same personal problems as any other, but whereas we tend to emphasize the solutions i n the extreme right hand column, non-Western and ancient s o c i e t i e s l i k e the Hellenistic-Roman Egypt of the papyri generally tend more to the right hand and center columns f or t h e i r solution o r i e n t a t i o n s . 10 The Health Care System: This i s a scholarly construct describing a c o l l e c t i v e view and shared pattern of usage i n s o c i e t i e s . As these operate at a l o c a l l e v e l , the system w i l l be seen and used d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . A general s t r u c t u r a l model of a health care system proposed by Kleinman as useful f o r analyzing any society or culture looks l i k e t h i s : L o c a l H e a l t h C a r e System: I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e Boundary l i n e s Points of i n t e r a c t i o n , entrance, and ex i t Professional and f o l k sectors may or may not overlap i n p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l settings Points of int e r a c t i o n , entrance, and exit H e a l t h C a r e System F i g u r e 1 . : The H e a l t h C a r e System 36 From Kleinman 1980, p. 50; As adapted by Pilch, 1985, p. 144, and 2000, p. 26 11 Healing i s produced by the whole system and not just by the healer. 3 7 Investigators of healing must thus consider both micro and macro-analyses to look at how small-scale events within the three sectors of a healing system might r e l a t e to large-scale s o c i a l structure and process. 3 8 Deducing the b e l i e f s about the causes of i l l n e s s and how to treat i l l n e s s w i l l be a s s i s t e d by a consideration of the element of power and the search for knowledge of the chief sources of power i n a cultu r e : whether p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , mythological, r e l i g i o u s , technological, or others. 3 9 A concern for several sources of power i s evident i n the papyri (see below). Core C l i n i c a l Functions: These are f i v e major functions of health care systems that work together to construct and define health and i l l n e s s . 4 0 Together, they provide a "comprehensive basis f o r understanding healing and health care i n any given culture and allow for more appropriate cross-c u l t u r a l comparisons." 4 1 They need to be defined before looking at them i n the papyri: 1) Cultural h i e r a r c h i e s of h e a l t h values: A society organizes the health values, which i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r n a l i z e during s o c i a l i z a t i o n , into a hierarchy. It finds expression i n semantic illness networks, which tend to c l u s t e r a v a r i e t y of values, concepts, and experiences. The core values i n the Mediterranean world to attend to have been shown to include honour and shame, gender-based s o c i a l d i v i s i o n , c l i e n t - p a t r o n r e l a t i o n s , b e l i e f i n s p i r i t s , a ttitudes toward pain, and many other concepts and values. 4 2 The task at hand w i l l be helped by a search for semantic i l l n e s s networks i n the papyri to uncover these concepts and values and delineate t h e i r hierarchy. 2) Experience of i l l n e s s : Culture defines i l l n e s s , d i c t a t i n g "what to perceive, value, express, and how to l i v e with i l l n e s s , " while also playing "a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n symptom formation, as well as the various 37 Ibid, p. 26, citing Kleinman, 1980, p. 72. 38 Ibid, Op. Cit. 39 Ibid, citing the proposal of Glick, 1967. 40 Ibid, p. 27, citing Kleinman, 1978, p. 417. 41 Ibid, p. 29. 42 Ibid, 27, citing Pilch, 1992a and b; Murdock, 1980; Saler, 1977; Zborowski, 1969; Zola, 1966. 12 psycho-physiological processes in, and reactions to, i l l n e s s . " 4 3 The greatest c o n t r i b u t i o n of culture to the i l l n e s s experience i s the meaning given i t . Being that "the experience can be acknowledged and recognized as something s p e c i f i c that charts the i n i t i a l path toward and appropriate response," 4 4 the experience of i l l n e s s marks the f i r s t stage of healing. 3) Cognitive response: ordering i l l n e s s by means of l a b e l i n g , classifying, and explaining: General c r i t e r i a are established i n cultures for guiding therapeutic processes and for evaluating outcomes. "Structures of relevance" 4 5 are created to t h i s end: evaluating the experience as major or minor, important or n e g l i g i b l e . Determining a response involves knowing "the hierarchies of r e s o r t " : family, friends, the v i l l a g e , the h e r b a l i s t , the prophet, the p r o f e s s i o n a l , e t c . " 4 5 Some aspects of t h i s hierarchy are apparent i n the papyri; others are not. Based on the work of Mary Douglas (1970), (who showed that i l l n e s s and i t s consequences are disruptive social-communal events threatening e s s e n t i a l values, behavioural norms, and conceptions of order), the therapeutic process can be reconceived as an attempt to restore order "by placing the threat i n i t s proper framework, c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t on the s i c k person and that person's network, and making the entire experience personally and s o c i a l l y meaningful." 4 7 The aim here i s therefore to look for corresponding elements, and the material i s r i c h . As we w i l l see, the papyri do place threats into frameworks of meaning, e s p e c i a l l y by means of myth and exorcisms to control the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s . Further exploration requires one to investigate explanatory models d i f f e r i n g person to person. Cognitive responses to sickness and misfortune form the core of symbolic healing (see below). 4) Healing a c t i v i t i e s : As healing occurs across the e n t i r e system and i n each of these f i v e functions, "one must consider i n d i v i d u a l healing 43 Ibid. Pp. 27-28, citing Pilch, 1988b. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid. p. 28. 46 Ibid, citing Piliusk and Parks, 1986; Romariucci-Ross, 1969. 47 Ibid. p. 28. 13 practices within the t o t a l context of the system and indeed of s o c i e t y . " 4 8 Important as demonstrable e f f i c a c y may be, healing e n t a i l s much more than th a t . 4 9 There i s a range of strategies i n healing and preventive a c t i v i t i e s , from empirical remedies 5 0 and technological interventions to symbolic therapies l i k e the placebo. 5 1 5) P o t e n t i a l outcomes: managing cure or treatment f a i l u r e , recurrence or chronic i l l n e s s , permanent impairment, and death: Health care often overlaps with r e l i g i o n and other c u l t u r a l systems, e s p e c i a l l y as regards the noted point that "much of t r a d i t i o n a l health care i s dedicated to preparing f o r death and making the experience of dying meaningful." 5 2 We cannot ignore t h i s aspect of the papyri, with t h e i r emphasis on the underworld powers of death, and also t h e i r connection with a heritage of Egyptian p r i e s t l y embalming t r a d i t i o n s for a f t e r l i f e preparation. While P i l c h i s r i g h t to also note that, " i n the e n t i r e process, of course, constructing a meaningful l i f e i s equally important," 5 3 i t i s questionable whether the d i s t i n c t i o n s between l i f e and death that we use today can be applied to the Greco-Roman Egypt of the papyri. Explanatory Models: These are formally structured coherent accounts of r e a l i t y that attempt to understand i l l n e s s and treatment. A reading of the papyri to understand t h e i r healthcare system w i l l seek to locate instances of EMs i n the texts, keeping i n mind that they are t y p i c a l l y mutable, ambiguous or even contradictory and r a t i o n a l l y inconsistent (everyone, no matter t h e i r culture, has multiple b e l i e f systems to turn to i n a c r i s i s ) . EMs comprise notions about "an episode of sickness and i t s treatment that are employed by everyone involved i n the process (the sick person, family, friends, v i l l a g e healers)." A healing r i t u a l t y p i c a l of the papyri i s meant to be representative of one such episode, as a template for a t y p i c a l type encountered. But i n the papyri, the involved p a r t i e s are conspicuously absent, with the exception of the r i t u a l i s t - h e a l e r and the hypothetical p a t i e n t - c l i e n t . EMs are not i s o l a t e d from larger cognitive structures but are embedded i n them and 48 Ibid. 49 Ibid. Citing Frank, 1974. 50 Ibid. Citing Van der Geest and Whyte, 1988. 51 Ibid. Citing Moerman, 1983; and Dow, 1986. 52 Ibid. 14 anchored to the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l and s t r u c t u r a l arrangements that have been i d e n t i f i e d above as the health care system sectors and sub-sectors. Of great import to the medical anthropologist i s not only grasping and understanding the EMs but also observing the i n t e r a c t i o n (see T r a n s a c t i o n below) between sick persons and healers. This i n t e r a c t i o n i s the cent r a l component of health care. One can learn about such i n t e r a c t i o n by exploring and recording the EMs involved. This then, i s another goal to bear i n mind while reading the PGM. EMs are s t r u c t u r a l l y broken down in t o f i v e questions that they seek to explain r e l a t i v e to each i l l n e s s episode: 5 4 1. aetiology 2. time and onset of symptoms 3. pathophysiology 4. course of sickness, including the degree of s e v e r i t y and the type of sick r o l e 5. treatment "Whereas the healer's EM i s concerned with a l l f i v e questions, those of the family and sic k i n d i v i d u a l usually answer only s a l i e n t questions". In the papyri however, we only r e a l l y have access to the healer's perspective. Contrasting p r o f e s s i o n a l and lay EMs, we are t o l d that i t i s the l a t t e r that o r d i n a r i l y d i s c l o s e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a given health problem f or the patient and the family, along with t h e i r treatment g o a l s . 5 5 One of the goals of t h i s study i s to determine whether the r i t u a l i s t s of the papyri are professionals, l a y s p e c i a l i s t s , or f o l k t h e r a p i s t s . 5 6 To review a l l the information about the EMs of everyone involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r i l l n e s s episode would be desirable and he l p f u l to an investigator, but with the papyri t h i s i s just not possible. It i s necessary a l s o to r e a l i z e that " e f f i c a c y always involves both symptom reduction and r e s t o r a t i o n of meaning to l i f e . " 5 7 Yet, the papyri almost never recount actual episodes; rather they 53 I b i d . 28-29. 54 I b i d . p. 29, c i t i n g Kleinman 1980, p. 105. 55 I b i d . 56 Keeping i n mind that more than one type may be represented i n the corpus. 57 I b i d . 15 present templates for t y p i c a l or possible episodes, and hence they have only the one-sided perspective of the r i t u a l i s t . 5 8 Transaction: This r e f e r s to the i n t e r a c t i o n with the healer. Despite being one of the most c r i t i c a l aspects of our in v e s t i g a t i o n , t h i s i s also most d i f f i c u l t to extract from the r i t u a l s of the papyri. " A l l transactions between the sick person and the healer(s) should be considered hermeneutic," 5 9 the i n t e r a c t i o n i t s e l f being made up of symbolic and semiotic int e r p r e t a t i o n s in terms of "very p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t i v e schemata," 6 0 which are themselves established i n a p a r t i c u l a r healing transaction by the combined EMs of a l l actors. "The si c k person and the healer are best understood as engaging i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the context of the encounter, which i s i t s e l f symbolic, and of the symbolic forms that are manipulated by the other during the encounter. " 6 1 Not everything of t h i s comes through c l e a r l y i n the papyri, but t h i s l a s t aspect i s most r i c h l y attested: the r i t u a l s are themselves l a r g e l y such manipulations of symbolic forms by the r i t u a l i s t f o r the c l i e n t . The r i t u a l s are guides to how t h i s i s done, and are made up at times almost e n t i r e l y of symbols, which "include words, acts, events, and gestures." 6 2 The r i t u a l encounter t y p i c a l of the papyri " s p e l l s " i s recognizable as one d i s t i n c t kind of encounter, but the e f f o r t at hand i s to locate and define as fa r as possible another d i s t i n c t kind of encounter within that type: the healing encounter. S p e c i f i c healing encounters are "either a new form of i n t e r a c t i o n or a r e p e t i t i o n of a previously known form of encounter." For the most part, the encounters i n d i c a t e d i n the papyri are of the l a t t e r sort, simply because they are p r e s c r i p t i v e (and also often e x p l i c i t l y e m p i r i c a l ) : "for t h i s s i t u a t i o n , you do t h i s - because i t works." What medical anthropology most stresses about the healing encounter i s that i t "produces understanding rather than new knowledge or explanation." 6 3 58 They are not accounts with many characters as are the stories in the Gospels and Acts. This, may make the investigation easier, but perhaps also more d i f f i c u l t to argue from. 59 Ibid. Citing Good and Good, 1981; and citing Pilch, 1988b. If this is so, then this study is an hermeneutic of hermeneutics. 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid, p 30 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid. p. 31, citing Gaines, 1982, p. 244 16 Symbolic Healing: This concept includes r e l i g i o u s healing, shamanism, and Western psychotherapy among i t s v a r i a n t s . 6 4 The s p e c i a l t y of the symbolic healer i s i n mediating culture, and t h i s i s accomplished and understood by attending to the metaphorical structure of the given c u l t u r e . For healing, P i l c h puts the metaphorical structure of culture on the same l e v e l of decisiveness for health outcome as ph y s i o l o g i c a l or pharmacological elements, 6 5 which to many i n the biomedical paradigm w i l l sound extraordinary. There are four e s s e n t i a l processes comprising stages of symbolic healing and necessary for i t s accomplishment, which must be examined: Stage 1. Symbolic Bridge-. E s t a b l i s h i n g a l i n k between personal experience, s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and c u l t u r a l meanings. Systems of symbolic healing are a l l based on models of ex p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i t y termed the mythic world, which eit h e r derives from society's shared meaning or from i n i t i a t i o n into a p a r t i c u l a r system of healing operating as a subculture. The mythic world contains e x p e r i e n t i a l , rather than empirical, knowledge. 6 6 In constructing a symbolic bridge together, the healer and sick person reach agreement "to p a r t i c u l a r i z e a segment of the c u l t u r a l mythic world f o r use i n a p a r t i c u l a r case of symbolic h e a l i n g . " 6 7 The mythic world supplies the symbols necessary to connect the s o c i a l system to the self-system of the sick person. For example, the f i r s t formulaic r e c i t a t i o n i n a papyri healing often r e c a p i t u l a t e s a mythic event that r e l a t e s to the problem -such as the story of I s i s seeking to mend and resurrect the dismembered O s i r i s (VII: 1000-1005; xi v : 10). Stage 2. . R e l a t i n g t h e Sick Person t o the Mythic World: The healer endeavours to do t h i s by persuading the sick person that t h e i r i l l n e s s experience can be re l a t e d to some part of the mythic world, through an ac t i v a t i o n of symbolic connections. This a c t i v a t i o n i s often accomplished i n the papyri by the r e c i t a t i o n of words of power and secret names. In thi s stage the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the healing transaction are often i d e n t i f i e d with mythic d e i t i e s i n the papyri as d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the symbolic verbal reenactment (we s h a l l look at t h i s below). 64 Ibid. p. 32, citing Dow, 1986, p. 56; and Moerman, 1983; and Kleinman, 1988, p. 131. 65 Ibid. p. 32. 66 With regard to mental illness and consciousness states there is no way to t e l l difference. 17 Stage 3. Transactional Symbols: These are mediating symbols often employed by a healer as p a r t i c u l a r i z e d forms of the general meaning system. The healer uses them to guide the emotional reactions of the s i c k person undergoing therapeutic change. A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the healing process "share mutual experiences that name and shape the c l i n i c a l r e a l i t y , that i s , the i l l n e s s . " 6 8 From t h i s base, the healer can generalize the personal experience (the written " s p e l l s " are such generalizations) into the therapeutic meaning system (in our case embodied i n a "magical" handbook), and thereby enable the sick person to p a r t i c u l a r i z e personal experience out of such symbolic meaning. Stage 4. Confirmation: When the transformation of the p a r t i c u l a r i z e d symbolic meaning has taken place, the healer pronounces i t an accomplished fact by a symbolic act of confirmation. A common example from the papyri i s an exorcism followed by attaching a prophylactic amulet to keep the daimon from returning. "In anthropological terms, the healing i n t e r a c t i o n fosters t h i s transformation as a work of culture, the making over of psychophysiological process into meaningful experience and the a f f i r m a t i o n of success." 6 9 Kleinman has designed another comparative model to examine symbolic healing systems; the following o u t l i n e i s a key-point summary of i t . Following i t w i l l help t h i s study i n re-readings of the papyri materials, as i t s u c c i n c t l y organizes a l i s t of the many unknowns to watch f o r . P i l c h recommends i t for analyzing healing interactions i n the f i r s t century era Mediterranean world (with the standard constructive procedure of modifying and fine tuning i t appropriately): 67 Ibid, citing Dow, 1986, p. 61. 68 Ibid. p. 33. 69 Kleinman, 1988, p 134. Cited in Pilch, 2000, p. 33. Summary Model for Examining Symbolic Healing Systems: 1. Setting: folk, popular, or professional 2. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the int e r a c t a. Number of p a r t i c i p a n t s b. Time character: episodic c. Quality of r e l a t i o n s h i p : or dyadic 3. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the healer: a. Personality b. Training c. Type of p r a c t i c e 4. Idioms of communication: a. Mode: somatic, r e l i g i o u s , moral, s o c i a l b. Code: nonverbal, verbal, special semiotic system c. EM of a p a r t i c u l a r i l l n e s s episode - for example, shared, c o n f l i c t i n g , open, t a c i t , etc. d. Rhetorical devices f o r n a r r a t i z i n g i l l n e s s and negotiating treatment. e. Interpretation 5. C l i n i c a l r e a l i t y : sacred, secular, disease or i l l n e s s oriented, focus of treatment (sick person, family, e t c . ) , symbolic and /or instrumental interventions, etc. 6. Therapeutic stages and mechanisms: process, mechanisms of change catharsis, confession, a l t e r e d state of consciousness, etc.) 7. Extra-therapeutic aspects: s o c i a l control, p o l i t i c a l implications, etc. N . B . * I t may be u s e f u l t o mark o r s e p a r a t e t h i s page f o r r e f e r e n c e . i o n : or continuous, b r i e f or lengthy formal or informal, a u t h o r i t a r i a n 19 Efficacy: This i s "the perceived capacity of a given p r a c t i c e to a f f e c t sickness i n some desirable way,"70 but can mean a range of things "from t o t a l symptom reduction to some physical sign, l i k e fever, vomiting, or the l i k e , which can be interpreted as a required proximate e f f e c t i n d i c a t i n g that the ultimate a n t i c i p a t e d outcome i s on the way."71 Medical anthropology views curing as e f f i c a c i o u s when biomedical changes take place, but healing as ef f i c a c i o u s "when the people who seek i t say i t i s ; " 7 2 an etic/emic d i s t i n c t i o n . In evaluating e f f i c a c y i t i s c r u c i a l to understand the c u l t u r a l expectations and the b i o l o g i c a l outcomes at various stages of the therapeutic processes, because e f f i c a c y i s always a c u l t u r a l construct. 7 3 Healing i s e f f e c t i v e "when the bonds between the sic k i n d i v i d u a l and the group, weakened by disease, are strengthened, s o c i a l values reaffirmed, and the notion of so c i a l order no longer threatened by i l l n e s s and death." 7 4 But healing i s also e f f e c t i v e i f i t makes an in d i v i d u a l ' s experience of i l l n e s s meaningful, shares personal s u f f e r i n g , and transforms the marginal s i t u a t i o n of sickness by a re-incorporation of the i n d i v i d u a l into the s o c i a l body, whether i n health or even death. 70 Young, 1982, p. 277. 71 Etkin 1988, pp. 301-2, cited in Pilch, 2000, p. 34. 72 Pilch, 2000, p 34. 73 Ibid, citing Kleinman, 1974a, p. 210. 74 Ibid. 20 B. Analysis of the Healthcare System i n the Papyri Background Scholarship and the State of the Question In t h i s s e c t i o n I w i l l comment on the most r e l e v a n t background secondary s c h o l a r s h i p bearing upon t h i s study, ( l e a v i n g aside medical anthropology research which i s already being attended t o ) . I t f a l l s i n t o s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . For medical h i s t o r y s t u d i e s , there are those t r e a t i n g ancient Egyptian medicine, H e l l e n i s t i c medicine, or general s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e l i g i o n and medicine i n ancient s o c i e t i e s . Another body of s c h o l a r s h i p looks at the s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l changes ta k i n g place i n l a t e a n t i q u i t y , a subset of which concentrates on Egyptian h i s t o r y before and during the p e r i o d of the p a p y r i . Studies of Egyptian and Greek r e l i g i o n are r e q u i r e d to c o n t e x t u a l i z e the r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u i n t h i s time of r a p i d change and syncretism. L a s t l y , there are a few important studies that t r e a t aspects of the p a p y r i or of more general l a t e antique r i t u a l s of power. A l l of these are l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y . In the h i s t o r y of medicine, there are many books and s t u d i e s of Egyptian medicine, but a l l of them deal almost e n t i r e l y w i t h the pharaonic period. S t i l l , they are very u s e f u l i n r e v e a l i n g a major source of the p a p y r i i n the indigenous t r a d i t i o n to help c o n t e x t u a l i z e them. These works includ e e s s e n t i a l overviews such as La medicine Egyptienne au temps des Pharaons by A. P. Lega, which i n c l u d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n chapter IV, "Magie, R e l i g i o n , Medecine," (pp. 57-103); John F. Nunn's Ancient Egyptian Medicine i s a l s o good f o r h i s c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of healers and h i s d i s c u s s i o n s of the medical p a p y r i as "textbooks" and the per ankh "house of l i f e " as a "medical school", (p. 131). Of e s p e c i a l relevance i s chapter 5 "Magic and R e l i g i o n i n Medicine," (pp. 96-113) i n which he discusses the t h e r a p e u t i c value of magic (p. 97), and chapter 6 "The Healers," (pp. 113-136). Paul Ghaliounghui i s another a u t h o r i t y , whose The House of L i f e : Magic and Medical Science i n Ancient Egypt o f f e r s s i m i l a r l y e n l i g h t e n i n g d i s c u s s i o n s i n chapter 2, "Magic and Sacerdotal Medicine" (pp. 13-26) and chapter 6, "The Healers" (pp. 63-79). A l l of these and s i m i l a r works suggest that the p a p y r i were grounded i n ancient t r a d i t i o n s i n which healers were s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h sometimes m u l t i p l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p r a c t i c i n g m u l t i p l e types of medicine, c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wit h the p r i e s t h o o d or sometimes even p r i e s t s themselves, who passed t h e i r knowledge and careers on to t h e i r o f f s p r i n g . The debate, unresolved, among 21 these s c h o l a r s 7 5 between viewing the per ankh as a "medical school" or as a "scriptorium" i s most apposite to the s i m i l a r challenge to in t e r p r e t the precise o r i g i n a l context of the papyri. H e l l e n i s t i c medicine, which includes Greek and Roman Medicine, i s well-served by a long h i s t o r y of scholarship. General background works consulted i n the preparation of t h i s study include Benjamin Lee Gordon's Medicine Throughout Antiquity; James Sands E l l i o t t ' s Outlines of Greek and Roman Medicine; John Scarborough's Roman Medicine; E. D. P h i l l i p s ' Aspects of Greek medicine; and Ralph Jackson's Doctors and Diseases i n the Roman Empire. There are others, but each of the above include relevant chapters on the important role of the Alexandrian medical schools i n Ptolemaic Egypt and discussions of the r e l i g i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s and manifestations of the H e l l e n i s t i c medical t r a d i t i o n . These bear on t h i s study by demonstrating the close i n t e r e s t that H e l l e n i s t i c healers had with r i t u a l and symbolic healing techniques i n both t h e i r own and i n foreign cultures, e s p e c i a l l y but not only concerning healing c u l t s at temple sanctuaries. For Graeco-Egyptian r e l i g i o u s ideas i n Late Antiquity, Garth Fowden's The Egyptian Hermes: A H i s t o r i c a l Approach to the Late Pagan Mind i s t r u l y i n s p i r i n g i n i t s e f f o r t to explain the i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects of a long t r a d i t i o n of c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n . C. Jacq provides a s e n s i t i v e introduction to t r a d i t i o n a l Egyptian r e l i g i o n as "magic," and includes a chapter on medicine, i n his Egyptian Magic. Peter Brown's Making of Late A n t i q u i t y and Jonathan Z. Smith's Map i s not T e r r i t o r y are both valuable providers of general r e l i g i o u s c l i m a t i c information for the period and region i n general to which the present author i s indebted f o r awareness of major forces and trends'. Studies that treat aspects of the papyri or of more general late antique r i t u a l s of power or of "magic" include works l i k e Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World by Matthew W. Dickie, which discusses the place of "magicians" i n society; Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer have edited two co l l e c t i o n s of essays, Ancient Magic and R i t u a l Power and Magic and R i t u a l i n 75 Strouhal (1992) and Reeves (1992) both argue for a view that doctors received training in the'per ankh "house of l i f e , " suggesting that i t was a place analogous to both modern medical schools and to those of Greece and Alexandria. Gardiner, (1938), on the other hand, concluded that the per ankh was neither a school nor a university 22 the Ancient World, containing studies e s p e c i a l l y relevant to the one attempted here: i n the former volume Roy Kotansky examines "An Early C h r i s t i a n Gold Lamella for Headache" (pp. 37-46), Sarah l i e s Johnston examines " S a c r i f i c e i n the Greek Magical Papyri" (pp. 344-358), and Lynn R. LiDonnici i n "Beans, Fleawort, and the Blood of a Hamadryas Baboon: Recipe Ingredients i n Greco-Roman Magical Materials" (pp. 359-377), i d e n t i f i e s and c l a s s i f i e s many of the materia medica of the healing r i t u a l s . In the second volume, Roy Kotansky looks again at "Greek E x o r c i s t i c Amulets" (pp. 243-278), Leda Jean Ciraolo examines "Supernatural Assistants i n the Greek Magical Papyri" (pp. 279-296), and David Martinez focuses on the a f f l i c t i n g love r i t u a l s i n "'May she neither eat nor drink:' Love Magic and Vows of Abstinence" (pp. 335-360) . Peter Schafer and Hans G. Kippenberg edited Envisioning Magic, which contains useful essays on aspects of the papyri: H. D. Betz, "Jewish Magic i n the Greek Magical Papyri" (pp. 45-64), Richard Gordon's "Reporting the Marvellous: Private D i v i n a t i o n i n the Greek Magical Papyri" (pp. 64-92), F r i t z Graf's "How to Cope with a D i f f i c u l t L i f e : A View of Ancient Magic"(pp. 93-114), and e s p e c i a l l y David Frankfurter's "Ritual Expertise i n Roman Egypt and the Problem of the Category 'Magician'" (pp. 115-136), which looks at the PGM as a c o l l e c t i o n of d i s c r e t e text-books and argues for a contextual reconstruction of the magicians as p r i e s t s who functioned as l o c a l all-purpose r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s . Other works of t h i s type that were consulted i n the preparation of t h i s paper include: Magika Hiera, a c o l l e c t i o n of essays edited by Christopher Faraone and Dirk Obbink, which includes John Scarborough's look at the materia medica i n the papyri, "The Pharmacology of Sacred Plants , Herbs, and Roots" (pp. 138-174), and H. D. Betz's "Magic and Mystery i n the Greek Magical Papyri" (pp. 244-259). In another c o l l e c t i o n of essays, Magic and Divination i n the Ancient World, edited by Leda C i r a o l o and Jonathan Seidel, Anitra Bingham Kolenkow examines "Persons of Power and Their Communities" (pp. 137-144), i n an i n t e r e s t i n g attempt to recover the s o c i a l context of r i t u a l p r a c t i c e . Christopher Faraone's book Ancient Greek Love Magic examines the a f f l i c t i o n s p e l l s of the papyri. The World of Ancient Magic contains useful discussions of theory, and another h e l p f u l a r t i c l e contextualizing the r i t u a l i s t / s c r i b e by Matthew Dickie, "The Learned Magician and the C o l l e c t i o n and Transmission of Magical Lore" (pp. 163-194). Most h e l p f u l were the but r a t h er a s c r i p t o r i u m where books connected with r e l i g i o n and cognate matters were compiled. See John Nunn f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s debate. 23 aforementioned texts by Naomi Janowitz, Icons of Power, and Rebecca Lesses, Ritu a l Practices to Gain Power, both of which bring together r i t u a l theory to powerfully r e i n t e r p r e t l a t e antique r i t u a l acts from many r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n s . This foregoing material i s of assistance i n the reading of these texts, e s p e c i a l l y i n the ongoing e f f o r t to contextualize the magician-healers of the papyri- Several of the studies that discuss s o c i a l context look to the healing r o l e of the r i t u a l i s t as a powerful i n t e r p r e t i v e anchor. However, as can be seen; very few deal with the healing aspects of the papyri as the central topic of concern - these have rather a very l i m i t e d focus upon single aspects such as the materia medica/pharmacology. In sum, the state of the question i n respect of key ideas of t h i s paper sketches out features of the surrounding landscape, but has less than one would hope to o f f e r d i r e c t l y to the challenge of the question at hand. 7 6 And none of them apply medical anthropology to the text i n the manner attempted here. Secondary scholarship can situate the papyri i n a l a t e and d e c l i n i n g period of temple scribes holding on to what they can, of f o l k medical practice attached to ancient lineages of p r i e s t l y authority; i n an Egyptian society that i n t h i s period was l o s i n g i t s r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e i n the urban centres but r e t a i n i n g i t - f o r a time - i n the peripheral townships. In the larger world forces sweeping over the urban centres and surrounding areas, the s h i f t i n worldview and r e l i g i o u s outlook from " l o c a t i v e " temple t r a d i t i o n s was taking place as i t was i n the rest of Roman east to a "Utopian" and roo t l e s s r e l i g i o s i t y emphasizing the power of charismatic i n d i v i d u a l s . 7 7 In upper-Egypt, i t i s suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e that there was a more, gradual change that allowed the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n of the v i l l a g e r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t and healer to adjust to the changes coming, to become more mobile, and eventually to make the t r a n s i t i o n to the monastery. 7 8 76 Guy Stroumsa suggested this topic to me as a thesis because he thought i t to be understudied. 77 Concepts coined by J. Z. Smith. 78 Unfortunately I cannot include a reading of Egyptian Christian materials as well at this point, although the richness of what is available would probably give a great light to shine on the situation of the papyri which was so near in time and content to Coptic Christian r i t u a l papyri. 24 The importance i n H e l l e n i s t i c medical h i s t o r y of the Alexandrian medical schools i n Ptolemaic Egypt i s well-known, as i s the pe r s i s t e n t but ambiguous r e l i g i o u s i n t e r a c t i o n s and manifestations of the H e l l e n i s t i c medical t r a d i t i o n throughout l a t e antiquity, which allows us to speculate about contact i n Egypt between Greek physicians perhaps i n t e r e s t e d to learn from Egyptian r i t u a l healers, or vice versa. It i s also known that the papyri are grounded somehow i n an ancient c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n which healers could be q u a l i f i e d to prac t i c e several d i f f e r e n t types of medicine, even as p r i e s t s s p e c i a l i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t types of r i t u a l ; that healers were c l o s e l y associated with the priesthood or sometimes even p r i e s t s themselves; and that they passed t h e i r occupations on to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The in t e r e s t i n g unresolved debate whether the per ankh was a "medical school" or as a "scriptorium" shows that the acute problem of i n t e r p r e t i n g the papyri as products of a textual t r a d i t i o n or of a p r a c t i c a l healing t r a d i t i o n i s also a chronic problem. T e x t - C r i t i c a l Issues: Cautionary Reservations, a Disclaimer The papyri are not a u n i f i e d text but rather represent an assembled c o l l e c t i o n of fragments i n various stages of e d i t o r i a l r e d a c t i o n . 7 9 But the papyri are not merely l a t e l y assembled fragments of separate " s p e l l s " conceived as a s c h o l a r l y project; among them are whole "handbooks" which display at times patterns of c e r t a i n order and an e d i t o r i a l intention, p a r t i c u l a r l y where medical materials and healing are concerned. It i s even possible that most of the fragments come from such handbooks as w e l l . 8 0 Moreover, the Betz e d i t i o n i s a compendium of En g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s made by disparate scholars from the Homeric and Koine Greek, Demotic, and Coptic, 79 As a comparative aside, the papyri are not as unified a text as the NT or even the separate gospels are, but rather represent an assembled collection of fragments which could compare to an early stage in the well studied process of NT redaction (with appropriate reservations about imputing such an evolutionist theory on texts in general). 80 Furthermore, as such, the papyri are comparable in NT terms to the hypothetical pre-Gospel source materials (aretologies, parable books, and so on), which considerably lessens the distance between the texts as comparable entities. In fact, since the papyri are so 'unedited' and hence, immediate, they represent a snapshot of practice that we mostly lack for the earliest Christian textual strata, and lack almost absolutely in early rabbinic strata. As a neophyte, this writer is thankful that as such, the material to hand is not burdened with the same degree of c r i t i c a l problems faced by the scholar of Jewish magic trying to unravel the rabbinic texts. 25 and a few scraps of other languages. It i s unfortunately not a c r i t i c a l e d i t i o n with p a r a l l e l text i n the o r i g i n a l , and" gives very l i t t l e discussion to the p a r t i c u l a r word choices of the t r a n s l a t o r s , which cannot have been standardized to a l l the material, and do not often render number'or gender s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of pronouns. Although the w r i t e r i s not fluent i n any of these languages, a dic t i o n a r y and a grammar can go a long way to entering into the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of meaning that are unavailable when presented with English alone. Healing i n i t s c u l t u r a l context Appropriate therapies i n d i f f e r e n t cultures vary as the d e f i n i t i o n s of health and sickness vary. In contemporary western culture, the focus on disease drives therapy i n an a e t i o l o g i c a l d i r e c t i o n : toward a cure. Medical Anthropology t e l l s us that i n n o n - s c i e n t i f i c a l l y oriented cultures, therapies are rather symptomatic, (aimed at a l l e v i a t i n g or managing the symptoms). P i l c h describes how t h i s becomes a process of creating new meaning f o r the sufferer, (and that the healing a c t i v i t y of Jesus i n the NT was only of t h i s kind). In the papyri, we see i n d i c a t i o n s of symptomatic healing s i m i l a r to that of Jesus, 8 1 with s i m i l a r daimonic a e t i o l o g i a l t h e o r i e s , 8 2 but. some therapies also p o s s i b l y r e f l e c t a type of disease theory 8 3 (though not s t r i c t l y biomedical). In most cases, the therapy i s nameable as healing, but i n some i t must include curing also, as defined above. Those therapies i n the papyri that do not f i t the NT model re f e r sometimes to p h y s i c a l remedies and a f f l i c t i o n s and to empirical " t e s t i n g , " and maintain d i s t i n c t i o n s between the physical remedy (cure) and the 81 Take, for example, the many amulets that ask for fevers and headaches to be taken away, especially PGM XCIV: 39-60, "...to you I speak, pounding headache; don't throb, don't rage, don't shake the teeth, don't produce mucus, don't produce a 'black-out,' don't s t i r up convulsions. For i f there is throbbing, raging, shaking of teeth, producing of mucus, producings of 'black-out,' or stirrings of a convulsion..." See also PGM LXXXIII, LXXXVII-XCI, etc. 82 See amulet PGM LXXXIX:l-27 "I, Abrasax, shall deliver. Abrasax am I! ABRASAX ABRASICHOOU, help l i t t l e Sophia-Priskilla get hold of and do away with what comes to l i t t l e Sophia-Priskilla, whether i t is a shivering f i t - get hold of i t ! Whether a phantom - get hold of i t ! Whether a daimon - get hold of it!..." 83 Such disease theories include for example mechanical obstructions (PDM xiv:574-85; 620-26), contamination be a noxious substance, such as venom, pus, or poison (PDM xiv:554-62,563-74,585-93,594-620), or disordered organs (famously, the uterus, PGM VII .-260-71) . 26 production of meaning (healing) . 8 4 In fact, there seems to be at times i n the papyri at least a p r o t o - s c i e n t i f i c o r i e n t a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , and connected with aetiology, i s the fa c t that the papyri are not j u s t concerned with i l l n e s s i n r e l a t i o n to healing, but also i n r e l a t i o n to i n t e n t i o n a l l y a f f l i c t i n g i t : symptoms i n targeted i n d i v i d u a l s are produced by a v a r i e t y of techniques, both symbolic ones (e.g. sending daimons 8 5 or using " p i n - d o l l s " 8 S) and straightforwardly "biomedical" ones (e.g. poisoning 8 7). The f l i p side of placebo, we are i n the realm of nocebo (except where the poisons worked biochemically, which seems - with my l i m i t e d knowledge of toxicology - to be quite often 8 8) . This i s r i c h material almost t o t a l l y absent from the NT material P i l c h uses. It exposes an en t i r e set of explanatory models and symptomatology, and guides an en t i r e d i s t i n c t f i e l d of healing: the undoing of and defense from r i t u a l attacks coming from enemies. A e t i o l o g i c a l l y , such a system i s very s i m i l a r to the "witchcraft" so famously described by Evans-Pritchard i n h i s study of the Azande. 8 9 84 See PDM xiv:232 " i t has been tested nine times;" And also "tested" in xiv:711,1110 ; PGM 111:440; IV:160-62; 2450-55. 85 E.g. PGM 1:99, 213-4; IV:321-329, 1520-30 (esp.),1167 and ,2076. 86 For pin-dolls, see PGM IV:321-29; XXIVb:l-15. 87 PDM xiv:563-74,711-749,911-919. 88 In the potions for "evil sleep," the presence of potent herbs and poisons like mandrake, apple seeds, or narcotics like opium suggests strongly the induction of catalepsy or coma. See the appendix below. 89 Evans-Pritchard, Edward Evan, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1937. 27 Reading the Papyri as Healing Texts i n C u l t u r a l Context Modern i n t e r p r e t e r s have even more d i f f i c u l t y respecting "magicians" as healers than they do Jesus, but that has been changing. Just as ins i g h t s of modern medical anthropologists ( i n i t i a l l y intended to allow an understanding i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of other contemporary cultures) can and have been discovered as serviceable to b i b l i c a l scholars, so can they a s s i s t scholars of the PGM in a s i m i l a r enterprise. Such insights w i l l teach us that, as healers, the "magicians" need to be regarded as cultural mediators.90 The burden o b l i g a t i n g the scholar i s "to become enculturated into the Mediterranean world to properly understand and i n t e r p r e t ancient... t e x t s . " 5 1 From basic d e f i n i t i o n s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g that culture generally from our own, refine d d e f i n i t i o n s more suitable to the textual data of the papyri can be proposed, j u s t as they have been for the b i b l i c a l data. It i s a se n s i t i v e process of evolving and adapting the concepts, and of thereby developing more respectful i n t e r p r e t i v e s t r a t e g i e s . This i s the process that P i l c h advocates and which i s also "generally followed by other b i b l i c a l scholars who incorporate s o c i a l - s c i e n t i f i c insights into t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of b i b l i c a l t e x t s . " 9 2 There i s every reason to t r y i t with the PGM too. There are many categories for evaluating methods, and models vary i n t h e i r u t i l i t y . The challenge for the scholar i s to s e l e c t or develop a method best suited to the papyri text at hand and i t s l a t e antique Egyptian Mediterranean culture. 90 Pilch, p. 15 92 Ibxd! citing Hollenbach, 1982; Kazmierski, 1992; Neyrey, 1986b. 28 Selecting Appropriate Test Cases from the Papyri Embarrassed i n the face of the riches of relevant material i n the papyri, a study of t h i s s i z e sadly cannot address every r i t u a l r e l a t e d to i l l n e s s , nor even every case example of healing they provide. 9 3 Some accounts of symbolic healing ought to be selected as test cases for an analysis that w i l l be hopefully f r u i t f u l . They should be "representative," but i n a c o l l e c t i o n such as t h i s i t i s impossible not to be at l e a s t somewhat a r b i t r a r y i n one's choices of what to address. So, choosing a s e l e c t i o n of medical materials to attend more c l o s e l y to, hopefully with s u f f i c i e n t care and d e l i b e r a t i o n ; they are grouped into s i x types: 9 4 Most important groups in series: PDM xiv: 554-669: series of symbolic healing PDM xiv: 935-1227(end of papyrus): series of non-symbolic healing, plus materia medica dictionaries/reference handbooks. PGM XII: 1-343: "unique 8ch book of Moses:" (242-250;280;284;320) PGM XXa: 1-17: series; "patient" PGM XCIV: 1-18: series. Therapeutic Remedies-Amulets: PGM XVIIlb: 1-7 PGM XX: 1-4/4-12/13-19 PGM XXXIII: 1-25 PGM LXXXIII: 1-2 0 PGM LXXXVII: 1-11 PGM LXXXVIII: 1-19 PGM LXXXIX: 1-27 PGM XCV: 14-18 PGM CVI: 1-10 Prognostication and diagnosis PGM I: 42-195: assistant for diagnosis foreknowledge PGM I: 262-347: assistant for diagnosis foreknowledge (328-331) PGM III: 424-66: (460-65) invocation Healing God Invocations PGM VII: 628-42: (640) invocation PGM XVIIb: 1-23: Hermes prayer as source of power for a healer PDM x i i : 21-4 9: (esp.) invocation of Iymhotep to secure a remedy PDM xiv: 239-95: vessel divination invocation for healing PDM suppl.: 168-84: invocation of Iymhotep Other special spells informing on healing and sickness: PGM IV:1227-64,3007-86: healing exorcisms for a "patient" PGM VII: 191-214: series of amulet treatments PGM LXX: 26-51: against a f f l i c t i o n s caused by spells PDM xiv:239-95: vessel inquiry for "healing" and "saving" PDM xiv:1097-1103: symbolic healing of ophthalmia PDM xiv:1219-27: fever symbolic healing, mythic correspondence 93 See the appendices: I tried to look at them a l l . i s t i c a l " 94 For an attempt at a complete treatment of the entire corpus, see the s t a t i s t i c a l appendix. 29 Spells to produce a f f l i c t i o n s : PGM .IV:321-29; XXIVb:l-15: pin-dolls. PDM xiv:563-74,711-749,911-919: "evil sleep" poisons PGM IV:1520-30: sending daimon PGM IV:2076 sending daimon The foregoing' s e l e c t i o n i s s t i l l large, within the corpus as a whole, i t comprises a s e l e c t i o n of the most s a l i e n t h ealing-related materials to study more c l o s e l y and supply exemplary material. While i t w i l l form the wider focus upon which the o v e r a l l analysis w i l l p r i m a r i l y draw, i t i s impossible to tre a t i t a l l i n depth. A more r e s t r i c t e d s e l e c t i o n w i l l be the focus of d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and the core of t h i s paper: the most i n t e r e s t i n g series i n the papyri comprising a group of symbolic healing i n s t r u c t i o n s p e l l s (the f i r s t i n the l i s t above, highlighted i n bold: PDM x i v : 554-669: series of symbolic healing). From the perspective of ethnomedical research, these are absolute gems unto themselves. For the benefit of the reader to be able to r e f e r to them e a s i l y , here they are i n f u l l , r i g h t out of Betz, Pp. 226-229 PDM x i v 554-669: s e r i e s of symbolic healing s c r i p t s PDM xiv. 554-62 * [Spell] to be said to the bite of a dog: / "My mouth being f u l l of blood of a black dog, I spitting out the redness of a dog, I come from Alkhah. 0 this dog who is among the ten dogs which belongs to Anubis, the son of his body, extract your venom, remove your saliva from me also! If you do not extract your venom and remove your saliva, I shall take you up to the forecourt of [the temple of] Osiris, my watchtower (?). I w i l l do for 'you .../ according to the voice of Isis the magician, the lady of magic, who bewitches everything, who is never bewitched in her name of Isis, the magician." You [should] pound garlic with gum (?), put i t on the wound of the dog bite, and speak to i t daily until i t is well. * T r . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n o f G r i f f i t h and Thompson, Demotic Magical Papyrus, r e c t o , c o l . X I X / l - 9 . Words p r e c e d e d by ' a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e t e x t i n De m o t i c w i t h O l d C o p t i c g l o s s e s i n s e r t e d above. PDM xiv. 563-74 * [Spell] to be said in order to extract the venom from the heart of a man who has already been made to drink a potion or poison (?): "Hail, hail, IABLY, 0 golden cup of Osiris! / From you have drunk Isis, Osiris, and the great Agathodaimon. The three gods drank and after them I myself drank in order that you w i l l not let me get drunk, you will not let me l i s t , you w i l l not make me f a l l , you will not make me be thrown down, you will not make me be troubled of heart, you w i l l not make my mouth curse. May I be healed of a l l poison, pus, [and] venom. They shall be removed from my heart. When I drink you, may I vomit them up in her name of 'SARBITHA, the daughter of the Agathodaimon, for I am SABRA BRIATHA BRISARA. HER is my name. I am HORUS SHARON coming from receiving greetings. IAHO, 'the 'child, is my name, being my real name" [to be said] to a cup of wine. Add fresh rue; add i t to i t ; speak to i t seven times, and make the man drink i t at dawn before he has eaten. * T r . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n o f G r i f f i t h and Thompson, D e m o t i c Magical Papyrus, r e c t o , c o l . X I X/10-21. Words p r e c e d e d by a r e w r i t t e n i n t h e t e x t i n D e m o t i c w i t h O l d C o p t i c g l o s s e s i n s e r t e d above. PDM xiv. 574-85 * [Spell] to be said to the man, when a bone is stuck / in his throat: "you are SHLATE LATE BELATE the white crocodile, which is under the foam of the sea of flame whose belly is f u l l of bones of every drowned man. Hail, you should spit out this bone for me today, i t acting as a harpoon head, i t making a point, i t acting as a sack piercer, i t doing everything, without change, for I am a lion's forepart, I am a ram's horn, I am a panther's tooth. / G r i f f i n is my real name, for Osiris is he who is in my hand. The man named is the opener of my neck" (seven times). You should speak to a l i t t l e o i l , you should put the man's face up; you should put i t down in his mouth; you should move your finger and your thumb [to the] two sinews of his throat; you should make him swallow the o i l ; you should make him rise up suddenly; and you should eject the o i l which is in his throat immediately. / The bone comes up with the o i l . * T r . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , following t h e editions and translation of Griffith and Thompson, Demotic Magical Papyrus, recto, col. XIX/21-32. PDM xiv. 585-93 *Spell to be said to the bite of a dog: the fury of Amoun and Triphis: "I am this strong Arab SHLAMALA MALET secret one, the black, the dog which has bewitched this dog, he of these four bitch-pups, the wolf son of Wepwawet. 0 son of Anubis, seize by your teeth! Put down your secretion, your face being that / of Seth against Osiris, whom Isis bore [is the one] with whom you f i l l e d your mouth, NN whom NN bore [is the one] with whom you f i l l e d your mouth. Hear this speech of Horus, who stopped heat, who went to the primeval water, who established the earth; listen, 0 IAHO SABAHO ABIAHO by name!" You should cleanse the wound and grind salt with Nubian hematite. Apply [it] to i t . Another: You should grind rue with honey. Apply to i t and say i t also to a cup of water and make him drink i t . * T r . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , following t h e editions and translation of Griffith and Thompson, Demotic Magical Papyrus, r e c t o , col. XIX/32-40. PDM xiv. 594-620 *[Spell] to be said to the sting. / "I am the King's son, greatest and f i r s t , Anubis. My mother Sekhmet-Isis comes after me a l l the way to the land of Syria, to the h i l l of the mound of Heh, to the nome of these cannibals, saying 'Hurry, hurry! Quickly, quickly, my child, King's son, greatest and f i r s t , Anubis,' saying, 'Arise and come to Egypt, for your father Osiris is king of Egypt; he is ruler over the whole land; a l l the gods of Egypt are assembled to receive the crown from his hand.' / "At the moment of saying these [things] she jumped at me. My strength f e l l from me. She coiled and she came to me with a sting; I sat down and I wept. Isis, my mother, sat near me, saying to me, 'Do not weep, do not weep, my child, King's son, greatest and f i r s t , Anubis! Lick from the edges of the wound up to the limits of your / strength!' What you w i l l lick up, you should swallow i t . Do not spit i t out on the ground, for your tongue is the tongue of the Agathodaimon, your tongue is that of Atum!" You should l i c k i t with your tongue while i t is bleeding. Immediately afterwards, you should speak to a l i t t l e o i l and you should speak to i t seven times while putting i t on the sting daily. You should dye a strip of linen and put i t on i t . / [The spell] which you should say to the o i l to put i t on the sting daily: "Isis sat speaking to the o i l , ABARTAT, and lamenting to the true o i l , saying, 'You are praised. I am going to praise you, 0 o i l ; I am going to praise you. By the Agathodaimon you are praised. By me myself you are honored. I am going to praise you forever, 0 o i l , 0 vegetable o i l ' " (another [manuscript] says "true o i l " ) , "O sweat of the Agathodaimon, amulet of Geb. Isis is the one who / is speaking to the 31 o i l . 0 t r u e o i l , 0 d r o p o f r a i n , 0 w a t e r - d r a w i n g o f t h e p l a n e t J u p i t e r w h i c h c o m e s d o w n f r o m t h e s u n b a r k a t dawn, y o u s h o u l d d o t h e g o o d [ d e e d s ] o f t h e dew o f dawn w h i c h h e a v e n c a s t t o t h e g r o u n d u p o n e v e r y t r e e . Y o u s h o u l d h e a l t h e l i m b w h i c h i s p a r a l y z e d a n d y o u s h o u l d a c t a s r e m e d y f o r h i m who l i v e s , f o r I s h a l l e m p l o y y o u f o r t h e s t i n g o f t h e K i n g ' s s o n , g r e a t e s t a n d f i r s t , A n u b i s , my c h i l d , i n o r d e r t h a t y o u f i l l i t a n d make i t w e l l . F o r I s h a l l e m p l o y y o u f o r [ t h e ] s t i n g o f NN, whom NN b o r e , / i n o r d e r t h a t y o u f i l l i t a n d make i t w e l l ' " ( s e v e n t i m e s ) . *T r . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n o f G r i f f i t h and Thompson, D e m o t i c Magical Papyrus, recto, c o l . XX/1-27. PDM xiv. 620-26 * S p e l l t o b e s a i d t o b r i n g a b o n e o u t o f a t h r o a t : " I am h e w h o s e h e a d r e a c h e s t h e s k y w h i l e h i s f e e t r e a c h t h e p r i m e v a l w a t e r s , who a w a k e n e d t h i s c r o c o d i l e ... i n P i d j e m e i n T h e b e s , f o r I am *SA 'SIME. TAMAHO i s my c o r r e c t name, ' ANYG ANYG, f o r a h a w k ' s e g g i s w h a t i s i n my m o u t h , a n d i b i s e g g i s w h a t i s i n my b e l l y , s a y i n g , 'bone o f g o d , b o n e o f man, b o n e o f b i r d , b o n e o f f i s h , b o n e o f a n i m a l , b o n e o f e v e r y t h i n g , t h e r e b e i n g n o t h i n g b e s i d e s , f o r l e t t h a t w h i c h i s i n y o u r b e l l y come t o y o u r h e a r t ; l e t t h a t w h i c h i s i n y o u r h e a r t come t o my h a n d h e r e t o d a y , f o r I am h e who i s i n t h e s e v e n h e a v e n s , who i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e v e n s h r i n e s ; f o r I am h e who i s i n t h e s e v e n h e a v e n s , who i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s e v e n s h r i n e s , f o r I am t h e s o n o f t h e l i v i n g g o d ! " [ S a y i t ] t o a c u p o f w a t e r s e v e n t i m e s a n d make t h e woman d r i n k i t . *Tr . J a n e t H. J o h n s o n , f o l l o w i n g t h e e d i t i o n s and t r a n s l a t i o n o f G r i f f i t h and Thompson, D e m o t i c Magical Papyrus, r e c t o , c o l . XX/27-33. Application of the Models and Concepts Discussed i n part A. The Value Orientation Model 9 5 This model permits us to look at the way i n which p a r t i c u l a r value orientations influence how i l l n e s s e s are constructed i n a given society. This is generally as true of the Egyptian society of the papyri as the P a l e s t i n i a n one of the NT: "In the ancient Mediterranean world, we f i n d a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t perception of problems and solutions... primary value o r i e n t a t i o n preferences tend to emphasize a blend of the perspectives under the l e f t and the middle columns of the chart above" (please r e f e r back to p. 13) For f i r s t - c e n t u r y Palestine, these are: "being (spontaneity), c o l l a t e r a l r elationships, the present, subjugation to nature, and a view of human nature as a mixture of good and e v i l . " The world of the papyri i s only a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . The "key i n s i g h t " that t h i s model gives us to begin with i s "that Mediterranean culture would view health as a desirable state, while Western culture would view i t as a restored a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n . " 9 6 Going through the f i v e parts of the model with the PGM i n mind: 95 T h e m o d e l o f K l u c k h o h n a n d S t r o d t b e c k g i v e n a b o v e i n t h e m e t h o d o l o g y s e c t i o n . 96 I b i d , c i t i n g M c G o l d r i c k . 32 1. Human a c t i v i t y : Being-in-Becoming In common w i t h ancient Egyptian r e l i g i o n , there i s i n the p a p y r i an emphasis on being and becoming i n transformation; t h i s emerges i n the p a p y r i f o r c e f u l l y i n the r i t u a l s f o r i n i t i a t i o n and " i m m o r t a l i z a t i o n " (PGM IV: 771) as i n t h i s "Mithras L i t u r g y : " "0 lord, while being born again, I am passing away; while growing and having grown, / I am dying; while being born from a life-generating birth, I am passing on, released to death - as you have founded, as you have decreed, and have established the mystery." (PGM IV: 719-723) . What of doing? Doesn't the expensive performance of r i t u a l s demonstrate a commitment to doing? Of course i t does, but the r i t u a l i s t i s a s p e c i a l and l i m i n a l f i g u r e on the edge of s o c i e t y , and the r i t u a l doing i s o f t e n a l a s t r e s o r t , and i s u l t i m a t e l y o r i e n t e d toward the goal of being, and not of doing. Nevertheless, w i t h regard to human nature i t i s more a c t i o n that determines good and e v i l , and not being (see below). 2. Human r e l a t i o n s h i p s : This aspect seems to d i f f e r i n the papyri from the NT, f o r there i s l i t t l e evidence of c o l l a t e r a l or group goals i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s described. Rather than emphasizing cooperation, the m a j o r i t y of the s p e l l s emphasize competition and i n d i v i d u a l goals, as i s well-known. Even so, i t may be due to the nature of the genre (secret and i l l i c i t ) that there i s l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n of c o l l a t e r a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the p a p y r i , except that i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are i n f e r a b l e between the r i t u a l i s t and h i s / h e r c l i e n t and the l a t t e r and h i s / h e r enemies or wished-for l o v e r (and the s p i r i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s who had t h e i r own s o c i e t y ) . 3 . Temporal focus of l i f e : A p r e s e n t - o r i e n t a t i o n appears time and again i n the p a p y r i as i t does i n the NT. This i s most recognizable i n the urgency that present needs be met without delay: "...now, now; immediately, immediately; q u i c k l y , quickly..." (PGM IV:1590-95) . 9 7 There are many expressions of d e s i r e to know the f u t u r e i n the papyri (yet very i m p a t i e n t l y so!), but very few references to the past at a l l , aside from the mythic 'past,' which i s more p r o p e r l y outside of time and 97 Various versions of this formula and other expressions of immediacy appear ^ a i l types of materials throughout the entire corpus of the papyri: See PGM I:261; III_258, IV 153 1920-25, 2449-55; V: 185-195; VII:195,745,246-49,253-4,259,373,410,472,993, 33 thus ever-present. The few exceptions involve references to the past miraculous power displays of pharaoh Psammetichus, Jesus, and Appolonius of Tyana, and other famous "magicians." 9 8 Some s l i g h t i f vague future o r i e n t a t i o n i s apparent i n prayers f o r general well-being, and i n promises of s p e l l s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with attendant s p i r i t s or d i v i n a t i o n theophanies. But t h i s proves the u n r e l i a b l e and vague uncertainty of the future. There i s also some, perhaps resi d u a l , t r a d i t i o n a l focus on a f t e r l i f e . 9 9 Unlike i n the c u l t u r a l context of the NT, there seems to be much less need "to a f f i r m the past as a primary time value o r i e n t a t i o n " 1 0 0 i n the papyri. These r i t u a l i s t s were not so much e l i t e s l i k e the ancient p r i e s t s who "needed to know t h e i r pedigree." 1 0 1 If true that "the past legitimates important status i n the present, hence people of status keep a steady eye on the p a s t , " 1 0 2 then perhaps the r i t u a l i s t s of the papyri were not people of status or were otherwise unconcerned with i t ; s a t i s f i e d to be concerned instead with power, perhaps. 4. Relationships of Human Beings to Nature This aspect i s mixed. While on the one hand there are c l e a r expressions of being subject to nature, there are numerous expressions i n d i c a t i n g intentions to mastery of i t . Overall, i t i s a d e l i c a t e and dangerous harmony with nature that i s sought. There i s great concern with fear of v u l n e r a b i l i t y and protection from natural dangers, as shown for instance i n amulets against scorpions. But nature supplies the resources supplying many r i t u a l s : animals are used f o r t h e i r substances and parts i n charms and potions; 1 0 3 plants are harvested to the same end. 1 0 4 It i s not c l e a r where and how the natural and s p i r i t u a l worlds are distinguished, or even i f such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s t r u l y v a l i d i n t h i s VIII:53,63; X:50; XIC:10; XV:21; XXIIb:25-26; XVIIIb:7; XIXa:16,54; XXXII:19; XXXIIa:25; XXXVI:85,111,133; XXXVI:360; XLIII:27,11; PDM xiv:1122,1140. 98 PGM IV:154; XIa:l; XII:96,107,121,123,351. 99 E.g. PGM IV:10; LIX:1-15; XXI:16 . 100 Ibid, pp. 10 101 Ibid. 102 Ibid. 103 Re: Living and dead animal parts, e.g. PGM VII:652-60; XII:376-96; XXXVI:232,235; PDM:xiv:882 , 940 . 104 E.g. See plant-picking spells: PGM IV:286,2967-3006. 34 culture. On the one hand natural hazards are distinguished from s p i r i t u a l ones i n prayer l i t a n i e s and p r o p h y l a c t i c s , 1 0 5 while on the other the plants and animals of nature share i n divine powers and bear the forms of gods. 1 0 6 There are a few spectacular miraculous s p e l l s to master nature: including most daringly, a s p e l l (PGM XIII: 283) f o r r i d i n g c r o c o d i l e s across the N i l e ! But could the very miraculousness so o s t e n t a t i o u s l y demonstrating the power of the r i t u a l i s t show the non-mastery f e l t normally; the exceptions that prove the rule? Whatever the case, and i t i s complex, the view of nature i n the PGM d i f f e r s from the NT, showing some manipulation and mastery but harmony rather than submission. Natural forces i n the narrow confines of the N i l e sustained l i f e , but i n the vast desert of the threatening periphery were deadly. It generally seems that natural forces were a t t r i b u t e d with a s p i r i t u a l agency and power (useful and indeed e s s e n t i a l f o r the r i t u a l i s t ) above that of human society but subservient to the higher s p i r i t u a l beings and d e i t i e s . There i s o v e r a l l a great deal more i n t e r a c t i o n with nature i n the PGM than i n the NT, which may correspond with the theriomorphic and t h e r i o h i e r a t i c r e l i g i o u s heritage of Egypt as opposed to the I s r a e l i t e one. 5. Assessment of Human Nature In the papyri, ordinary human beings are seen to be capable of good and e v i l . Some of the s p e l l s ask unashamedly to accomplish e v i l and unjust things for egocentric ends. Such include "love" s p e l l s that include slanders and contain provisions f o r serious harm-doing, even k i l l i n g . 1 0 7 In other cases, le g a l disputes even between family members acknowledge the e v i l done and curse the doer. 1 0 8 There are s p e l l s that are also very (self) righteous and claim to goodness on behalf of the p e t i t i o n e r to the gods and ask f o r j u s t i c e . 1 0 9 The d i f f e r e n t d e i t i e s to whom the r i t u a l i s t and h i s c l i e n t appeal or even i d e n t i f y with can also be e i t h e r good, l i k e O s i r i s and Horus, or e v i l , 105 E.g. PGM IV:2170-6 . 106 E.g. PGM VII:780-85. 107 E.g. PGM IV:2622-2707 . 108 E.g. PGM LI:l-27; LVIII:1-14. 109 E.g. also PGM LI:l-27. 35 l i k e Seth-Typhon. 1 1 0 The o r i e n t a t i o n to alignment i s instrumental: good or e v i l p o t e n tials for a l l : something you do, not something you are. are In sum, the PGM idea of health emphasizes: 1) A state of being-in-becoming, not of active doing; 2) I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c human r e l a t i o n s h i p s , more than c o l l a t e r a l ones; 3) A present, and sometimes past, time or i e n t a t i o n , not a future one (exception: some t r a d i t i o n a l focus on a f t e r l i f e ) ; 4) An uneasy harmony with nature, including concern for protection from the feared uncontrollable factors i n tension with a t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s concern with the divine power of natural forces, and the desire by the r i t u a l i s t to use, manipulate, and master them; and 5) Human nature i s both good and bad, not neutral and correctable. 110 PDM xiv: 675-94 36 The Process of Symbolic Healing i n PDM x i v 525-669 The " s p e l l s " of t h i s s e r i e s are extraordinary. They c l e a r l y follow the four-stage processual model of symbolic healing previously outlined, i n c l e a r order supplying 1) a symbolic bridge from the personal experience to a symbolic r e a l i t y ; 2) a r e l a t i n g of the i l l n e s s experience to the mythic world; 3) transactional symbols p a r t i c u l a r i z e d from the mythic world to the personal therapeutic experience; and 4) an act or event of confirmation that the healing has been successful. Examining Healing i n the Papyri with Kleinman's Schematic Model (Please r e f e r to page 25 to view the outline) While going through the points i n Kleinman's summary, a l i s t intended to d i r e c t further inquiry into the symbolic healing process, especial and primary attention w i l l be paid to the above symbolic healings. However, the other medical selections and the o v e r a l l corpus w i l l also be given a secondary consideration. It i s hoped that t h i s w i l l contribute to the contextualization of PDM x i v 554-669 within the healing materials, and those i n turn within the text as a whole. 1. Setting: folk, popular, or professional The s e t t i n g of the s p e c i f i c selections above i s d e f i n i t e l y p rofessional. They were both professionals and symbolic healers. P i l c h t e l l s us that "most symbolic healing around the planet takes place i n the popular sector, that i s the non-professional, non-bureaucratic, s p e c i a l i s t - s e c t o r e s p e c i a l l y i n s o c i e t i e s that lack p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n " 1 1 1 But Egypt was unique, and had many professionals in the ancient and complex bureaucratic p r i e s t l y and governing establishments. P r i e s t s of the temples had engaged i n symbolic healing, but i n the l a t e Roman period they were becoming de-professionalized, unemployed, and f i n a l l y outlawed, thus forced into a f o l k disguise and subsumed there. The r i t u a l i s t s of the papyri seem not to be the t y p i c a l "ordinary folk, considered to be e s p e c i a l l y g i f t e d to h e a l . " 1 1 2 111 Pilch, Pp. 33-34. 112 Kleinman 1988, p. 117, cited in Pilch, Pp 33-34. 37 Even though i t may be true that "most healing (besides ours) i s not long-term, divorced from everyday l i f e encounters between par t i c i p a n t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y minded, secular, or oriented to the needs and rights of the i n d i v i d u a l v i s - a - v i s those of the family and community," that does not mean that the r i t u a l i s t s i n the papyri are t y p i c a l ; i n many of these respects they seem to have i n fact been exceptional: the p a r t i c i p a n t encounter does seem to have been divorced from everyday l i f e encounters and oriented to the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . But as i n nearly a l l cultures except the West, the therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the papyri i s au t h o r i t a r i a n ; these "magicians" r e f e r to themselves as prophets or even d i v i n e a u t h o r i t i e s t a l k i n g not only to, but also as, gods. Authoritarianism i s "what one would expect i n the so c i o - c e n t r i c or c o l l e c t i v i s t i c non-Western cultures as contrasted with egocentric or i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c healing Western c u l t u r e , " 1 1 3 but the s o c i a l perspective i n the papyri displays quite often an extreme i n d i v i d u a l i s t egocentrism! Can we say anything about t h e i r r e l a t i o n to other professionals or f o l k healing s p e c i a l i s t s i n the papyri? There are notable mentions of h e r b a l i s t s and p l a n t - s e l l e r s 1 1 4 as well as to "phy s i c i a n s " 1 1 5 i n the papyri that could be worth comparing. 1 1 6 With the degree of l i t e r a c y and time required there were probably not many types of people who could have used these s p e l l s . Some of the s p e l l s claim a "sacred scribe" as th e i r source, 1 1 7 or a " p r i e s t . " 1 1 8 Others i n the corpus claim to be "a prophet." 1 1 9 One caveat to remember i s that the s p e l l s comprising the papyri are not monolithic, not only having been c o l l e c t e d by d i f f e r e n t people, but probably having passed through many hands before reaching the current state of c o l l e c t i o n . This s i t u a t i o n makes i t very hard to say anything about the general users of the papyri - maybe there are nonesuch. 113 Pilch, Pp. 33-34. 114 PDM xiv:142 "the garland-seller/lupine-seller." 115 However, i t must be borne in mind that the "physician" of the ancient world is not the same as our modern physician. 116 There will be a post-scripted discussion of Thessalus the Magician that will return to these passages. 117 PGM 1:42 "The spell of Pnouthis, the sacred scribe..." 118 PDM xiv: 232 "Paysakh, priest of Cusae..." 119 PGM VII: 325 "For I am a prophet..." See also IV: 2455. 38 There i s a professionalism of techniques, such as p i l l - m a k i n g , 1 2 0 and of the jargon used: "a p r e s c r i p t i o n for...," "do the usual," "add the usual for what you want." 1 2 1 There are even a few hints of professional e t h i c s . 1 2 2 But i t i s the reference to "physicians" that are most i n t r i g u i n g . Why l a b e l some sources of the s p e l l s as physicians but c a l l the rest "magicians?" The editor seems to have meant e i t h e r to d i s t i n g u i s h these occupations or to describe the physician as a sub d i s c i p l i n e of "magic." A "physician from Oxyrrhynchus" (a "suburban" interzone between H e l l e n i c Alexandria and the Egyptian i n t e r i o r ) i s responsible for passing on two s p e l l s , PDM x i v 1-92 and 528-53, both vessel d i v i n a t i o n s and have l i t t l e to do d i r e c t l y with healing. A group of recipes (PGM XII:96-106) i s credited to a famous fourth century physician, Himerios. It seems to make the most sense to see physicians as a d i s t i n c t c l a s s of professional healers, o r i g i n a t i n g i n H e l l e n i s t i c culture, who were in t e r e s t e d i n r i t u a l s p e l l s and took part i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n and transmission. 1 2 3 This i s supported by no l e s s an H e l l e n i s t i c physician than Galen, who i s reported by Alexander T r a l l i a n u s (11.1) to have s a i d : 1 2 4 Some think that conjurations are fairytale inventions [maintained by] old wives. This was also my opinion in the past. On the basis of the evidence of my own eyes, I have gradually been convinced that they have power. I examined their usefulness relating to scorpion bites and to the case of a bone which stuck in the someone's throat and was coughed up by means of conjuring. The conjurations performed their own aim. The only way for Galen to have seen i t with h i s own eyes would have been by attending a t r a d i t i o n a l healing r i t u a l . Note e s p e c i a l l y that the healings he reports are the very ones we are examining from the papyri! 120 Pill-making: PGM IV:2894,2681,2691. 121 "Prescription:" PDM xiv:935,953,961,970, etc. "The usual:" PGM V:489; VI1:310,315,358,380,384,389,393,395,404,406,410,415,420,450,461,427,685,702; PGM X:42 . 122 PGM IV:851-55 = an oath to do no harm; 476 = a promise "not for gain but for instruction." 123 To compare more traditional upper-Egyptian culture, a good hypothesis might be that the professional healers there were not physicians, but the traditional r i t u a l i s t s who came to be called "magicians," but who were recognized as kin by some Hellenistic physicians. Supporting this is the impression that the Demotic material contains more of an explicitly medical nature than the Greek. 124 Quoted from V e l t r i , p77. 39 2 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n t e r a c t i o n : a. Number of p a r t i c i p a n t s In the symbolic healing selections highlighted, there are only the two p a r t i c i p a n t s : healer and patient. The mythic world has other characters, but these are symbolically t i e d to the two human characters and the i l l n e s s e n t i t y alone; no character r e f e r s to anything i n society beyond the p r i v a t e therapeutic r e l a t i o n s h i p . There were few human pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the majority of the r i t u a l s (in many only the r i t u a l i s t alone). To go by the texts, i n healing encounters i t was the r i t u a l i s t and the sick person by themselves. Quite often, a boy or youth was employed as a medium i n d i v i n a t i o n s , who may have been an apprentice-assistant of the r i t u a l i s t . When the sick person was bedridden, presumably his/her family would have been the ones to summon the r i t u a l i s t and would be on hand as observers, but they receive no mention as r i t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the papyri. On the other hand, a great many s p i r i t u a l beings are p e r s o n i f i e d and characterized i n the r i t u a l s , including gods, ghosts, daimons, and other s p i r i t s i ncluding the r i t u a l materials themselves (e.g. PGM LXI:l-38 has Myrrh addressed as a daimon of love a f f l i c t i o n ) . These non-human characters are addressed and interacted with as though they were human p a r t i c i p a n t s . b. Time character: episodic or continuous, b r i e f or lengthy In the symbolic healings of our concentration, the time duration seems to have been b r i e f . However, i t was also episodic, and p r o v i s i o n for d a i l y return v i s i t s as follow-ups to continue therapy and monitor progress i s e x p l i c i t l y recommended (PDM xiv:562, below). The r i t u a l process i n most healings seems l i k e l y to have occurred over a span of several minutes to an hour, not l o n g . 1 2 5 But the preparation "homework" for a r i t u a l would have been lengthy, and hence expensive: the r i t u a l i s t had to c o l l e c t the materials, often performing r i t u a l s f o r these c o l l e c t i o n s (in the case of herbs), or to prepare 125 Although longer than most doctor's v i s i t s today in the West. 40 ointments, potions, and powders, also r i t u a l l y done. 1 2 6 R i t u a l healings are sometimes episodic: as indicated there i s mention of return and repeat v i s i t s to check on the progress and to repeat r i t u a l attendance to c e r t a i n wounds d a i l y u n t i l healing i s complete: "You should pound g a r l i c with gum (?), put i t on the wound of the dog b i t e , and speak to i t d a i l y u n t i l i t i s w e l l . " 1 2 7 This would have meant that a good r i t u a l i s t would have had a busy schedule to manage, incl u d i n g rounds to patients' homes throughout the day. Many r i t u a l s are also time-specific, to draw on the s i g n i f i c a n c e or power of p a r t i c u l a r diurnal and c a l e n d r i c a l astrological/astronomical events. 1 2 8 This i s c l e a r l y an inheritance from ancient Egyptian r e l i g i o n . Thus, mornings at break of day are key times, and also the solar z e n i t h . 1 2 9 Seasonally too, the annual flood and i t s immediate cessation i s a potent time for gathering and concocting N i l e s i d e , 1 3 0 the s o l s t i c e s and equinoxes were s i g n i f i c a n t and u s e f u l , 1 3 1 among the key heavenly bodies were the sun, moon, and Ursa Major. 1 3 2 c. Quality of r e l a t i o n s h i p : formal or informal, a u t h o r i t a r i a n or dyadic The transactions i n the symbolic healings of note have a d e f i n i t e formal q u a l i t y that i s also very a u t h o r i t a r i a n and p a t e r n a l i s t i c . P r a c t i c a l evidence of the confident authoritarianism of the r i t u a l i s t as therapist i s apparent i n the d i r e c t manipulations of the patient's body, as for instance when removing a bone stuck i n the throat: You should speak to a l i t t l e o i l , you should put the man's face up,- you should put i t down in his mouth; you should move your finger and your thumb [to the] two sinews of his throat; you should make him swallow the o i l ; you should make him rise up suddenly; and you should eject the o i l which is in his throat immediately. / The bone comes up with the o i l . (PDM xiv:581-85). 126 PGM IV:286, 2967-3006. 127 PDM xiv:562. 128 PGM XCV:7-13; PDM xiv:237-8, 1005-14, suppl:184. 12 9 PGM IV:94; PDM lxi:30-41. 130 PGM IV:26-30. 131 PDM xiv:878. 132 PGM VI1:686-702; LVIII:15; PDM xiv:237,684,1005-14 , etc. 41 As mentioned, the r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on the papyri are formal, which makes sense given the formality of r i t u a l ! The same goes for the a u t h o r i t a r i a n q u a l i t y of the r i t u a l i s t as therapist, which i s held i n common with nearly a l l cultures except the West. They r e f e r to themselves as prophets or even speak with the divine authority of a god. Authoritarianism coexists i n the papyri with egocentric individualism because the r i t u a l i s t i s uniquely able to f u l f i l l p r ivate personal wishes for health as well as other benefits. There are a few places i n the papyri that r e f e r to the patient as a bedridden si c k person "the sick one took to bed," 1 3 3 or as a "demoniac," 1 3 4 and i n two rare cases as a " p a t i e n t : " 1 3 5 i n the f i r s t case a "demoniac" i s r e c e i v i n g an exorcism and i s completely passive and bedridden. But the second i s most fascinating, for i t gives a p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p expected by the healer: i t has a p r o v i s i o n i n case "the patient recovers [from 'bloody flux'] and shows ingratitude,-" and follows with a curse for pain! 133 PGM XII:351. 134 PGM XII:281. 135 PGM IV:1254 and XXIIa:5-6. 42 3. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the healer: a. Personality Those symbolic s p e l l s do not reveal the p e r s o n a l i t y of the healer. And generally, throughout the en t i r e corpus very l i t t l e of the personality of the p r a c t i t i o n e r s come across, perhaps due to the apparent formalism of the papyri. This s i t u a t i o n may r e f l e c t the professionalism of the c r a f t of the r i t u a l i s t - h e a l e r , or that of the scribe as an outcome of s c r i b a l conventions for symbolic s p e l l s . It i s d i f f i c u l t to be c e r t a i n and both may be possible. b. T r a i n i n g The symbolic s p e l l s on which we are concentrating are themselves our best evidence of healer t r a i n i n g . They are books meant for the study of the therapist i n a phase of p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g perhaps corresponding to "internship." Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n finds an echo i n John Nunn (p. 131) and other scholars of ancient Egyptian medicine who view the medical papyri as "textbooks" for education and p r a c t i c e . They have been composed by masters with experience and were obviously redacted into compilation by someone who had access to several written sources: In PDM x i v : 614 the scribe interrupts the s c r i p t i n mid quotation for an aside " "'...0 vegetable o i l ' " (another [manuscript] says "true oil"),..." Such e d i t i n g demonstrates the great care taken i n study and the added care to show i t , at least as a manifestation of s c r i b a l transmission. More generally, the t r a i n i n g of one of these practioners must have been lengthy, d i f f i c u l t , and expensive. Evidence pointing to t h i s includes the high degree of b i l i n g u a l and m u l t i l i n g u a l l i t e r a c y evinced: 1 3 6 they went to s c r i b a l school for Egyptian materials but also succeeded i n H e l l e n i s t i c paidea to be conversant with, not only the Greek language, but Homer and the myths. There i s a more than passing awareness shown of wider world cultures and t h e i r languages, including Jewish ("Hebraic," 1 3 7), Babylonian, Arab, 1 3 8 Nubian, 1 3 9 and Ethiopian. (But 136 PGM IV:94-153; XII:262-267; PDM xiv:451-58 - and see Betz n.352, p. 221. 137 PGM IV:3085. 138 PDM xiv:585. 43 no reference, or reverence, i s shown to the p o l i t i c a l l y dominant Roman culture or the L a t i n language). The f a m i l i a r i t y with Egyptian temple t r a d i t i o n s makes i t l i k e l y that the t r a i n i n g was based on an older t r a d i t i o n of p r i e s t l y and s c r i b a l education attached to the temples. Temples receive rare mention i n the papyri, sometimes metaphorically. 1 4 0 Such t r a i n i n g i s the " v e r t i c a l " tutelage of a p u p i l under a master with o f f i c e and t i t l e . We know that during the period the papyri flourished, these temples were being shut down and the dispossessed p r i e s t s pushed out of work by aggressive C h r i s t i a n monks. If i t did not already exist alongside i t , a new form of such " v e r t i c a l " educational upbringing could have been emerging or r i s i n g to prominence without the temples i n the form of a d i r e c t apprenticeship of the assistant by the r i t u a l i s t who employed him. We know from abundant examples i n the papyri that boys or young men who were v i r g i n s were used as mediums and v i s i o n a r i e s i n d i v i n a t i o n - o r a c l e s and theophanies. 1 4 1 The ancient medical papyri also i n d i c a t e inheritance of medical t r a i n i n g and o f f i c e . Although they are not r e f e r r e d to as d i s c i p l e s or successors, these assistants would have received quite an apprenticeship. And to speculate further, the easiest way to get such a boy was to employ a r e l a t i v e , and how better to provide for the future of the family than to pass on a career to a son or nephew? But i t i s also c l e a r that from references to the assemblage of s p e l l s that the t r a i n i n g was at least i n some cases no longer temple-based. 1 4 2 There are e d i t o r i a l notes i n the texts i n d i c a t i n g that a c e r t a i n s p e l l was received from another c o l l e c t o r , and one such (mentioned i n two separate spells) was s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as "a physician i n the nome Oxyrhynchus." 1 4 3 Education i n t h i s case was by peers, maybe a h o r i z o n t a l sharing analogous to a college of membership for continuing education, i f not merely an a s s o c i a t i o n of s c h o l a r l y antiquarians. 139 PDM lxi:95-99. 140 PGM VII:326; X:2; XII:401. 141 See PGM 1:86; 11:55; IV:88; V:45; VII:348; PDM xiv:1-92,177,475 - 88,750. 142 It i s possible that the r i t u a l i s t s returned to the derelict temples as powerful places to undertake rituals, as loyalists to the old order. 44 The a c q u i s i t i o n of a divinely-granted power to heal, discussed as a goal i n some of the r i t u a l s , granted q u a l i f i c a t i o n to a healer and should therefore be seen as a part of the t r a i n i n g process, the culmination of education 1 4 4. T y p i c a l l y , i n a divine autophany, the god grants s p e c i a l power and knowledge to the healer to make him of her uniquely q u a l i f i e d . For example, there are many invocations of the gods Thoth/Hermes and of Iymhotep/Asclepius, 1 4 5 some of which express a mysticism of i d e n t i t y , and there are s p e l l s to e s t a b l i s h s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a s s i s t a n t daimons that promise, as the l a s t i n a long l i s t of marvelous services: And he w i l l t e l l you about the i l l n e s s of a man, whether he w i l l l i v e or d i e , even on what day and at what hour of n i g h t . / And he w i l l a l s o give [you both] w i l d herbs and the power to cure, and you w i l l be [worshiped] as a god since you have a god as a f r i e n d . These things the mighty a s s i s t a n t w i l l perform competently." (PGM 1:187-191) Such invocations that e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s and acquire healing powers as divine g i f t s f i n d valuable comparison i n the autobiography of Thessalus the Magician. There, the same i s apparent as the major theme. For he i s also rewarded at the culmination of his education as a healer, when i n a r i t u a l produced by an aged p r i e s t of Thebes, Thessalus i s given a long-sought theophany of Asclepius (Iymhotep) himself who says to him, "the time i s coming soon when men w i l l honour you as a god when your accomplishments become known."146 143 PDM xiv:1,528. 144 This i s how Thessalus a l s o saw i t , (see ahead). 145 PGM IV:2967-3006; V:249; VII:628-42, 1-63; XVIIb:l-23; PDM x i i : 2 1 - 4 9 ; xiv:93-114; l x i : 6 3 - 7 8 ; suppl:168 - 84. 146 More on Thessalus again i n the f i n a l d i s c u s s i o n . 4 5 c. Type of p r a c t i c e As f o r our precious symbolic healing s c r i p t s , the p r a c t i c e was most l i k e l y l o c a l l y mobile. The acute nature of the conditions ( s t i l l bleeding: PDM xiv:607), and the immobility of the patient so s t r i c k e n makes i t l i k e l i e s t that the therapist was summoned to a house-call and was able to respond quickly. These healers would have had a bag of basic medications, tools and supplies such as bandages just l i k e the proverbial doctor's bag, with the possible addition of r i t u a l tools l i k e miniature a l t a r s , tripods, and incense. A range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s for therapeutic p r a c t i c e types i s suggested i n the papyri. Since many of the healing s p e l l s required attendance on a bedridden sick person, as above, the p r a c t i c e would have been l o c a l l y i t i n e r a n t : the house-call i n town or v i l l a g e . Other s p e l l s seem more l i k e l y to have required the c l i e n t to seek the professional, perhaps at an " o f f i c e " i n or near the temple or at the home of the r i t u a l i s t , where indeed many s p e l l s are prescribed to be done. 1 4 7 Other i n d i c a t i o n s suggest that the p r a c t i c e may have been even more mobile, on the order of itinerancy established by H e l l e n i s t i c physicians, and temporary rooms for r i t u a l use could be set up almost anywhere. 1 4 8 147 E.g. PGM 11:150 "your bedchamber;" IV:171 "the highest part of your house,-" VII:490 "your quarters;" VII:727 "in a ground floor room without light." 148 On this, see Jonathan Z. Smith "The Temple and the Magician," in his Map is not Territory. C.f. PDM xiv:283 "a dark storeroom;" PGM 11:50 "a bathhouse;" 111:617 "a deserted place;" 111:690, 700 "a solitary place... a pure and consecrated place." 46 4 . Idioms of communication: a. Mode: somatic, r e l i g i o u s , moral, s o c i a l For the therapists of the symbolic series, most of the communication proceeds i n a combined somatic and r e l i g i o u s idiom. There are only hints of the moral or of s o c i a l idioms, unlike i n many other healing s p e l l s i n the papyri. The somatic idiom describes the af f e c t e d organs and injured tissues of the body, e x p l i c i t about the mechanical physical problems of the condition: a bone stuck i n the throat, a b i t e -wound, and a poison potion i n the heart. The somatic idiom i s present in the mythic s c r i p t integrated with the r e l i g i o u s idiom, while i n the private i n s t r u c t i o n s to the healer that follow, somatic terms appear more nakedly i n the c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s for the p h y s i c a l treatment actions: apply the ointment to the wound, t i l t the head up and massage the throat, e t c . 1 4 9 The r e l i g i o u s idiom i s mythic, and describes events i n the s p i r i t u a l world that p r e c i p i t a t e d the accident (for instance the divine dog that bewitched the earthly dog to b i t e ) , as well as the mythic a f f l i c t i o n s of d e i t i e s and t h e i r treatments. Just as the mythic a f f l i c t i o n preceded the personal one, the mythic healings e s t a b l i s h the model for the therapy to take p l a c e . 1 5 0 There i s very l i t t l e moral discourse here or anywhere else i n the papyri, but p o s s i b l e though vague manifestations of that idiom are present i n the poison treatment in statement that the gods " w i l l not l e t me get drunk, ... you w i l l not l e t my mouth curse," 1 5 1 and maybe also i n the comparison of the s p i r i t u a l dog responsible for the b i t e with the ( e v i l and contentious) gods Seth and Apophis. 1 5 2 But these may better be c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to the s o c i a l idiom (references to "drunkenness" i n Philo and other ancient l i t e r a t u r e point arguably to more than a moral idiom). Otherwise, there i s hardly any s o c i a l idiom i n the symbolic healing r i t u a l s , with the exception of the kinship r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are mentioned with regard to the great mythic gods. 1 5 3 Unfortunately, without a deeper and broader s o c i o l o g i c a l or anthropological understanding of the s o c i e t y of the 149 PDM xiv:562,582-585,592-3 . 150 See PDM xiv:602-606. 151 PDM x i v : 565-568. 152 PDM x i v : 590. 153 PDM x i v 556, 570, 590, 595-600, etc. 47 PGM, of the kind provided by ethnographies for l i v i n g s o c i e t i e s , these categories of idiom are very l i m i t e d and a r b i t r a r y . (It i s to be hoped that t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y as tools as new anthropological information i s assimilated w i l l j u s t i f y t h e i r r e t e n t i o n ) . In d i f f e r e n t places i n the corpus, the PGM thera p i s t s use a l l of these modes to varying degrees. 1 5 4 Somatic modes of discourse p r e v a i l with respect to the sickness e n t i t y : i t i s nearly always located i n a s p e c i f i c b o dily l o c a l e or organ, with the exception of such general conditions as fever, madness, insomnia, and anorexia. The most voluminous exemplars come from the love s p e l l s outside the realm of healing r i t u a l s , a realm I re f e r to as r i t u a l s of affliction. There are many more symptoms and sickness conditions described i n a f f l i c t i o n s p e l l s than i n those intended to heal or prevent them. Religious modes of discourse, by which i s meant references to s p i r i t u a l and mythic e n t i t i e s , are also prevalent. The c l i n i c a l r e a l i t y most often has a s p i r i t u a l aspect, e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d as the antecedent underlying cause or as the ultimate r e a l i t y of the i l l n e s s , and sometimes as both at once. The simplest example given i s the invasion and possession of the body by daimons, sometimes under the compulsion of an enemy's adjuring r i t u a l s . The daimon i n the body may eith e r attack s p e c i f i c areas or cause general conditions. Ghosts and phantoms attack and cause t e r r o r . Deities also a f f l i c t misfortune i f they are convinced, even i f u n j u s t i f i a b l y , that a person i s g u i l t y of an i n f r a c t i o n against them. 1 5 5 In these s o - c a l l e d "slander s p e l l s , " l e g a l i s t i c parlance blends the re l i g i o u s and moral idioms. Prayers and charms to counteract malicious r i t u a l s such as these or to prevent misfortune and promote well-being sometimes appeal i n the moral idiom to the good character and righteousness of the p e t i t i o n e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n contrast to the opponent(s) upon whom i l l i s wished. 1 5 6 The s o c i a l idiom i s rarest, but clear i n the case of prayers for general good fortune, favour s p e l l s , and c e r t a i n love s p e l l s , where wishes are expressed for friends, wit, 154 Please see the summary in the Appendix below. 155 E.g. PGM IV:2622-2707 . 156 PGM LI:1-27; LVIII:1-14 48 charm, and grace i n the eyes of one or a l l i n s o c i e t y , 1 5 7 or else expressed negatively as turning the anger of another away, 1 5 8 or both together. 1 5 9 b. Code: nonverbal, verbal, s p e c i a l semiotic system In our symbolic series, the code of communication i s mostly verbal, including the s p e c i a l verbal semiotics of secret names to prove authority and power for adjuring. This i s not remarkable, but the i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the communication of t h i s s e r i e s regard the subject and the object of the speech: the healer speaks not as himself, but as a divine being or as the patient, and t a l k s not to the patient, but to the i l l n e s s c o n d i t i o n , 1 6 0 the s p i r i t s behind i t , and/or to the medication used to t r e a t . 1 6 1 There i s no nonverbal communication to speak of i n these examples., though such i s common elsewhere i n the 'papyri, (see below). In the papyri generally, we can f i n d examples of a l l sorts of codes of communication that represent d i f f e r e n t techniques of r i t u a l power manipulation. Nonverbal.types include the production of h i s s i n g and popping sounds 1 6 2 and the r e c i t a t i o n of vowels. Between nonverbal and verbal are the r e c i t a t i o n s of powerful but incomprehensible names. Verbal codes include the r e c i t a t i o n of myth and declarations of i d e n t i t y with mythic beings, as well as the u t t e r i n g of prayers and p e t i t i o n s , threats and commands (PGM XCIV:13-19; XX: 13-19 " f l e e , headache"), backed by the names of powerful s p i r i t u a l e n t i t i e s and d e i t i e s . Special semiotic systems, resorted to frequently i n amulets, include w r i t i n g with s i g i l s , 1 6 3 written vowel permutations 1 6 4 and "wing formations" of comprehensible or mysterious words, 1 6 5 f i g u r a t i v e drawings with or without l a b e l s , 1 6 6 box-tables, 1 6 7 writing i n c i r c l e s or s p i r a l s 157 PGM IV:469-70,833-4; VII:1017-26; XIV:309-34; XII:182-9; XXXV:l-42; XXXVI: 275-83, LXX:l-4, etc. 158 PGM XII:179-81; IV:831-32; VII:948-68; LXXIX; LXXX; XXXVI:1-34,161-77. 159 There is no sense of anxiety as in the NT of the ostracism faced by lepers. 160 PGM XX:13-19 XCIV:39-60; PGM XXXVI: 3 5-68,211-30. 161 PDM xiv:582,611-620. 162 PGM XIII:89,415 . 163 PGM XXVI; XXXVI; XLIX. 164 PGM XII:905-914 . 165 PGM CXXX; CXVI; CXX; XCI; LXXXVIII, etc. 166 PGM CXXIII; XXX. 167 PGM XCIV:39-60. 49 around p e r i p h e r i e s . 1 6 8 Direct actions interpretable as communicative codes include the actual engraving or w r i t i n g of text and images on papyrus or metal amulets and t h e i r placement upon the person, 1 6 9 an action, l i k e the writing of a p r e s c r i p t i o n i n biomedical culture, that signals the end of a therapeutic v i s i t and accomplishes the d i r e c t i v e of healing. c. EM of a p a r t i c u l a r i l l n e s s episode - for example, shared, c o n f l i c t i n g , open, t a c i t , etc. The explanatory models i n the papyri are those s o l e l y of the therapist; we are not informed well about the si c k person's. EMs tend to be d i v i s i b l e into open r e l i g i o u s ones shared with the c l i e n t -patient, and more t a c i t biomedical ones communicated p r i v a t e l y i n the inst r u c t i o n s of the s p e l l s . This i s apparent i n our symbolic therapies, for the s c r i p t e d sections r e l a t e the mythic dimension with the physical condition, but the pr i v a t e treatment i n s t r u c t i o n s f or the reading eyes of the healer discuss physical treatment alone 1 7 0 - there i s no mythic r e c i t a t i o n f o r the p r i v a t e use of the healer. The EMs of these p a r t i c u l a r i l l n e s s episodes show that a physical cause of the i l l n e s s i s recognized and understood, but i s not enough. The p h y s i c a l event i s also r e l a t e d to a divine event i n the mythic world i n a manner that i s somehow causally dependent and subordinated, but ambiguous i n i t s temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p ; that i s , i t i s l e f t uncertain as to.whether the presenting condition i s synchronous or subsequent 'to the div i n e event. For instance, the dog's b i t e i s a simple wound, and the s a l i v a of the l i v i n g dog i s viewed as a venom that causes i l l n e s s ; 1 7 1 while the dog who did the b i t i n g i s connected with a dog of Anubis i n the mythic world who bewitched the former dog to b i t e the patient and bears the ultimate blame and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 7 2 The treatment, consequently includes both a rebuke-threat-command to the s p i r i t u a l e n t i t y responsible to undo the damage,173 and a phy s i c a l cleaning and a n o i n t i n g 1 7 4 of the wound by the 168 PGM XVIIb:l-7. 169 PDM XIV:1103 for ophthalmia, text plus image of radiant eye - see n. 593, p. 247. 170 PDM XIV:562,574,582-5,593,607-10; PDM xiv: 557, 589. 171 This is often the case in the biomedical reality as well: rabies and other infections are common consequences of dog bite. 172 PDM xiv: 556, 587. 173 PDM XIV:559,589. 50 healer. They are always done i n t h i s order. The two l e v e l s of r e a l i t y are r e l a t e d and addressed together, but the d i s t i n c t i o n i s also maintained. Overall, the explanatory models i n the papyri, though demonstrating a s p i r i t u a l - p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n , appear to be shared and open, rather than c o n f l i c t i n g and t a c i t . There are i n t u i t i v e reasons, to think that these r i t u a l i s t - t h e r a p i s t s believed i n t h e i r conceptions of the i l l n e s s e n t i t y and the sources of t h e i r healing power as much as the patients they were t r y i n g to treat. I disagree with Betz's u n f a i r and unkind assessment that they were deceivers merely c a p i t a l i z i n g upon the desperate human desire to believe anything to a l l e v i a t e anxiety and hopelessness, 1 7 5 such a dynamic may operate i n part and i n every society and time, but i t cannot explain away the intense therapeutic re l a t i o n s h i p s discovered here. The explanatory models of the papyri show a whole spectrum of v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r aetiology, ranging from the f a m i l i a r daimons invading the body to the noxious r i t u a l s of enemies, the introduction of poisons into the body, the venom or s a l i v a from animal b i t e s and stings, the i n t r u s i o n of a foreign object, a disordered and unruly organ, the w i l l of divine forces e s p e c i a l l y i n accidents, and fate 174 PDM xiv:562,592-3,606. 175 I will quote the major part of this passage from Betz, with emphasis. "Introduction to the Greek Magical Papyri," p. x l v i i : "Why is magic so irrepressible and ineradicable, i f i t is also true that i t s claims never come true? Or do they? Do people never check up on the efficiency of the magicians? The answer appears to be that, in general, people are not interested in whether or not magicians' promises come true. People want to believe, so they simply ignore their suspicions that magic may a l l be deception and fraud. The enormous role deception plays in human l i f e is well known to us ... Magicians are those who have long ago explored these dimensions of the human mind. Rather than decrying the facts, they have exploited them. Magicians have known a l l along that people's religious need and expectations provide the greatest opportunity for the most effective of a l l deceptions. But instead of turning against religion, as the skeptics among the Greek and Roman philosophers did, the magicians made use of i t . After a l l , magic i s nothing but the art of making people believe that something is being done about those things in l i f e about which we a l l know that we ourselves can do nothing. Magic is the art of making people who practice i t feel better rather than worse, that provides the illusion of security to the insecure, the feeling of help to the helpless, and the comfort of hope to the hopeless. Of course, i t is a l l deception. But who can endure naked reality, especially when there is a way to avoid it? This is why magic has worked and continues to work, no matter what the evidence may be. Those whose lives depend on deception and delusion and those who provide them have formed a truly indissoluble symbiosis. Magic makes an unmanageable l i f e 51 i t s e l f . In many cases, a p l u r a l i t y of a e t i o l o g i e s are acknowledged i n an i n d i v i d u a l case: an enemy's malicious r i t u a l sends a daimon to enter the body and disorder i t s healthy functioning, or by slander i t angers a god against you, who sends an animal to b i t e or s t i n g you, and so on. This i n t e r c o n n e c t a b i l i t y of ae t i o l o g i e s enables a network of meaning to connect the s i c k person with many l e v e l s of r e a l i t y . Time expressions i n the EMs of the papyri are l i m i t e d to the fevers i n H e l l e n i c medical theories: d a i l y , nightly, t e r t i a n , semitertian, quartan, every-other-day, etc. Pathophysiology i s l i m i t e d i n the EMs to obstructing or penetrating objects or substances, and to the misbehaviour of disordered organs. There are d i s t i n c t i o n s between acute, chronic, and impairing conditions: demoniacs and gout are chronic, the fevered and love-struck are acute, b i t e s , stings, and gout are impairments, madness and epilepsy are not described, only named. Unlike c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y "medical" l i t e r a t u r e , such as the Hippocratic Corpus, the EMs do not describe much about the courses of sickness, though i n places they do acknowledge the degree of s e v e r i t y and the type of sick r o l e . The treatments of the EM vary on a range corresponding to the range of ae t i o l o g i e s , and include r i t u a l s to n u l l i f y enemies' s p e l l s , exorcisms of daimons, ointments, manipulations of the body, antidote potions or expectorants, prayers to gods, and the speech of myths and power names and commands and threats to empower many of the foregoing. d. Rhetorical devices f o r n a r r a t i z i n g i l l n e s s and negotiating treatment. One major r h e t o r i c a l device i s the symbolic d e s c r i p t i o n of mythic events i n v o l v i n g i l l n e s s . Another i s the f i r s t person address to nonhuman actors i n the process, including the ailment and the medicine, and within that, the use of f l a t t e r y - p r a i s e , threats, and commands, backed up with the force provided by sacred and secret names and sounds. Occasionally, the patient i s d i r e c t l y addressed but with a transformed mythic i d e n t i t y . 1 7 6 manageable for those who believe in i t , and a profession profitable for those who practice the art." 176 PDM xiv:574-80. 52 Semantic illness networks i n the papyri p e r t a i n to the r h e t o r i c of i l l n e s s . A l i s t of i l l n e s s semantics i s provided i n the appendix (see below). e. Interpretation The therapist i n t e r p r e t s the i l l n e s s as corresponding to a cosmic-divine event, which w i l l be engaged to include the p a r t i c u l a r microcosmic ailment i n i t s macrocosmic e f f o r t s at r e c t i f i c a t i o n . The patient becomes a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the myth through the condition, thereby achieving meaning and communion while being excused of i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 5. C l i n i c a l r e a l i t y : sacred or secular, disease-oriented or i l l n e s s oriented, focus of treatment (sick person, family, e t c . ) , symbolic and /or instrumental interventions, etc. The c l i n i c a l r e a l i t y of the i l l n e s s i n the symbolic healings has a both phy s i c a l and mythic r e a l i t i e s to i t , but the sacred/secular d i s t i n c t i o n i s not v a l i d f o r the r e l i g i o u s culture of the PGM i n late antique Egypt. A l l i l l n e s s r e a l i t i e s are sacred. It i s only weakly possible to s p e c u l a t i v e l y postulate that some i l l n e s s r e a l i t i e s are more "secular" than others, such as those caused by the phy s i c a l and r i t u a l machinations of human enemies, employing n a t u r a l l y harmful poisons or malevolent daimons to i n f l i c t sickness,- 1 7 7 while, on the other hand, accidents could be thus more sacred because no human r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be imputed, and so, as i n our symbolic examples, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s u l t i m a t e l y more strongly linked to mythic events i n a divine realm. 1 7 8 Accidents are not separable from the mythic realm, while the i l l intent of an enemy may be so. The focus of treatment i s always upon the sick person, but not necessarily them as a "person:" i n the s p e l l s the patient i s almost never spoken to and i s r a r e l y addressed by name except i n the t h i r d 177 PGM I V : 1 5 2 5 - 4 5 ; V I I : 3 8 8 - 9,429 - 3 5 , 6 4 5 - 5 0 ; X I I : 1 4 - 9 5 ; PDM x i v : 7 1 1 - 7 1 . 178 PDM x i v : 6 0 0 . 53 person, e s p e c i a l l y i n adjurations to s p i r i t u a l e n t i t i e s . 1 7 9 The focus i s r e a l l y more the condition i t s e l f , often e x p l i c i t l y r e f e r r e d to and addressed personally as an i n t r u s i v e a l i e n daimonic e n t i t y . 1 8 0 As f o r the family, they are even more peripheral, and seem to have no r o l e i n the treatment except as instruments to e s t a b l i s h the healing r e l a t i o n s h i p . Interventions of both the symbolic and instrumental sort are common i n the most medical s p e l l s . Some interventions are both symbolic and instrumental. For example, i n our symbolic s p e l l s , the r e s o r t i n g to an engagement with myth i s c l e a r l y symbolic, as we have seen; on the other hand i t i s c l e a r l y instrumental to cleanse wounds and use ointments or do manipulations when someone i s choking on a bone. But when the instrumental intervention i s a reenactment of a mythic event, i t becomes loaded with symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e as well, as i s for instance the l i c k i n g of the s t i n g wound i n PDM x i v : 607, which the healer does to clean the wound i n imita t i o n of the command of I s i s to Anubis to l i c k h i s own st i n g . In fact, i t can be seen that the a r t of symbolic healing i s to invest as f a r as possible the instrumental intervention with symbolic significance to augment the healing potential of the intervention. That i s why when administering antidotes, expectorants or remedies of any kind, the r i t u a l i s t takes the time to address that substance i t s e l f with words of power to load i t with symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e f or the patient - i t i s e x p l i c i t i n the i n s t r u c t i o n that such compounding and empowering be done i n the presence of the patient during the therapeutic i n t e r a c t i o n : 1 8 1 the patient has to see i t done! 6. Therapeutic stages and mechanisms: process, mechanisms of change (catharsis, confession, a l t e r e d state of consciousness, etc.) Our primary examples are quite straightforward with regard to therapeutic mechanisms. A f t e r the symbolic linkage through the mythic p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n , the f i n a l stage of therapeutic action i s engaged and brought to completion. There i s an element of catharsis ("vomit") i n 179 PDM x i v : 5 9 1 , 6 1 9 . 180 PGM I V : 1 5 2 5 - 4 5 ; V I I : 3 8 8 - 9 , 4 2 9 - 3 5 , 6 4 5 - 5 0 ; X I I : 1 4 - 9 5 . 181 PDM x i v : 5 6 2 , 5 7 4 , 5 8 7 , 5 9 2 - 3 , 6 2 6 . 54 the poison a n t i d o t e , 1 8 2 but as these conditions are very much physical and mechanical, the therapeutic aim i s to remove the foreign substance and to cleanse and heal the wound.183 There i s no confession. Nor i s an al t e r e d state of consciousness involved, unless we consider the shock and pain of the patient to be an ASC that could augment s u g g e s t i b i l i t y to the healer's performance. But there i s c l e a r l y not the same kind of "trance" production that i s e x p l i c i t l y described elsewhere i n the papyri with respect to a t t a i n i n g d i v i n a t i o n theophanies and oracular revelations, with which the papyri are replete 184 7 . Extra-therapeutic aspects: s o c i a l c ontrol, p o l i t i c a l implications, etc. Our primary symbolic examples are so self-contained as to be quite c l e a r of most any extra-therapeutic aspects. The one exception to explain i s why i n PDM xiv:626 s p e c i f i c mention i s made of a woman.for the bone-removing s p e l l while the previous s i m i l a r s p e l l d i d not. There are i n the broader corpus s i g n i f i c a n t extra-therapeutic gender issues with s o c i a l control implications. In the f i r s t d i r e c t i v e , the healer r e c i t e s the mythic s c r i p t and then performs a rather vigorous physical maneuver to expel the bone, 1 8 5 while i n the second where s p e c i f i c mention of a woman i s made, the healer only ends by o f f e r i n g her a r i t u a l l y empowered cup of water. 1 8 6 Perhaps i t can be ventured that i n the case of a female patient, who i t can be assumed was just as l i k e l y to present with a bone stuck i n her throat as a male i n h i s , the healer who was probably male was not s o c i a l l y permitted to take her head, neck, and body i n hand for physical manipulation. This hypothesis i s weakened to utter flimsiness when we consider the gynaecological and o b s t e t r i c remedies i n the corpus, 1 8 7 i f they are performed by a male r i t u a l i s t . Nearly a l l of them named i n various s p e l l s are men, and the only female exceptions describe enchantresses from whom the s p e l l derives (PGM XX:4-12, "the Syrian woman of Gadara,-" XX-.13-19, "Thessalian Philinna"). 182 PDM x i v : 5 8 9 . 183 PDM x i v : 5 6 3 , 5 8 5 , 5 8 9 , 6 2 0 184 PGM I V : 8 5 0 ; V I I : 5 5 0 . 185 PDM x i v : 5 8 1 - 5 8 5 . 186 PDM x i v : 6 2 6. 55 In the broader s e l e c t i o n from the corpus, gender issues are e x p l i c i t and c l e a r l y bear a heavy s i g n i f i c a n c e for someone. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n the "love" s p e l l s , which although c e r t a i n l y involving a l o t of sickness and a f f l i c t i o n , have nothing to do with healing i t . 1 8 8 As t h i s material goes, i n the papyri the i d e n t i t y of the r i t u a l i s t as male i s almost always c e r t a i n (PGM 1:194, "share these things with no one except your legitimate son"); such s o - c a l l e d love s p e l l s are described as useful to him personally as the performer or for a c l i e n t , also almost always male, with a couple of exceptions of note however: there are some female love s p e l l c l i e n t s targeting a male. 1 8 9 The l a t t e r s p e l l s are too few to generalize from, but they lack the e x p l i c i t s e x u a l i t y of the ones for the men. Obstetric and gynaecological material i s not elaborate, but well-attested i n the papyri unmixed with other elements. It i s placed i n series with some thought to organization by the scribe who wrote the 190 papyrus. One extra-therapeutic p o l i t i c a l implication i n the papyri i s the secrecy and possible recognition of the i l l e g a l i t y of some of the practices by the s c r i b a l e d i t o r s . 1 9 1 There are occasional exhortations to secrecy. Some of the materia medica d i c t i o n a r i e s are concerned with decoding ingredients from secret names i n s p e l l s and potions: herbs, minerals, and animal substances. 1 9 2 One such e x p l i c i t l y states that the code was devised to keep the common person ignorant for h i s or her own protection: Interpretations which the temple scribes employed, for the holy writings, in translation. Because of the curiosity of the masses they [i.e. the scribes] inscribed the names of the herbs and other things which they employed on the statues so that they [i.e. the masses], since they do not take precaution, / might not practice magic, [being prevented] by the consequences of their misunderstanding. (PGM XII:401-7) 187 PDM xiv:953-984 . 188 IV:323-30, 388-9, 1525-45, 2444,2735-4 0,293 0,2 943-66, 3273-4; VII:374-84, 645-50, 990-3; XV:636-9, and many more - see appendix. 189 PGM LXVIII:1-20; XV:1-21. 190 PDM xiv:953-984 . 191 PGM 1:194. 192 PGM XII:401-7; PDM xiv 1065-70. 56 Such a s i t u a t i o n may be best explained as trade secrecy i n a g u i l d type organization. The i l l e g a l i t y of "magic" i n the Roman period was, as also i n Jewish law, ambiguous with respect to healing: s p e l l s for r i t u a l s and amulets that were deemed to be therapeutic were often, but not always, excused from prosecution. 1 9 3 The e a r l y C h r i s t i a n churches c e r t a i n l y c a r r i e d on t h i s exemption, and developed t h e i r own corpus of r i t u a l material with a largely, though by no means ex c l u s i v e l y , therapeutic i n t e n t i o n . 1 9 4 E f f i c a c y i n the Papyri Because the papyri present the perspective of the r i t u a l i s t healers alone, e f f i c a c y , "the perceived capacity of a given p r a c t i c e to af f e c t sickness i n some desirable way,"195 i s defined i n t h e i r terms. It would be simplest to say that when a r i t u a l has been s u c c e s s f u l l y completed, i t has been e f f i c a c i o u s . Yet there are signs of concern with healing outcome i n some s p e l l s , i n s t r u c t i n g the healer to return and do d a i l y follow-ups u n t i l a wound i s healed. 1 9 6 Some healings such as the extraction of a bone are c l e a r l y e i t h e r e f f i c a c i o u s or not by means of a physical s i g n . 1 9 7 S i m i l a r l y , i n the poison-antidote, 1 9 8 i f the patient vomits and/or recovers and l i v e s , e f f i c a c y i s undeniable. Many other healings could be only temporary and i n need of constant r e p e t i t i o n and renewal, or perhaps they were even rather i n e f f e c t i v e upon the sickness. But even so, the r i t u a l s are e f f i c a c i o u s and worthwhile for these and a l l healings a l i k e , when looked at i n terms of the meaningfulness created f o r the sufferer by the r i t u a l connection through symbolic bridging to the myth world. For the healing r i t u a l s enable a sic k i n d i v i d u a l to share personal s u f f e r i n g with the very gods, and to understand t h e i r i l l n e s s as a s i g n i f i c a n t event r e l a t e d to greater general cosmic struggles. 193 Giussepe V e l t r i , "The Rabbis and Pliny the Elder: Jewish and Greco-Roman Attitudes toward magic and Empirical Knowledge," Poetics Today 19:1, Pp63-89: See esp. Pp.66, 68, 70, 82, a 84 Re: the Talmudic laws on "the ways of the Amorite" and Constantine's law against magic. 194 If this were a larger study this would be the place to introduce the Coptic ritual papyri recently published by Meyer and Smith (see Bibliography below). 195 See previous definition above in Methodology section. 196 PDM xiv:562. 197 PDM xiv:585. 198 PDM xiv:563-74. 57 The Element of Power i n the Papyri The p r i n c i p a l sources of power for healing i n the papyri are not d i s t i n c t from the other s p e l l s : e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s with s p i r i t u a l beings (daimons, ghosts, gods) who act as agents to carry out desired tasks. Preconditions f o r t h i s to work include p u r i t y , 1 9 9 the knowledge and use of secret names,200 and the correct praxis of speech or action with the r i t u a l l y required materials (e.g. a piece of the clothing of one who died v i o l e n t l y ) . 2 0 1 The r e l a t i o n s h i p may only i n rare and ambiguous cases be said to enable the transference of divine power to the r i t u a l i s t to possess personally. Usually i t i s c l e a r that the power i s superhuman and the r i t u a l i s t has to use superhuman tools -secret names and s p e c i a l r i t e s - to mobilize i t . There i s perforce a power i n the act of speaking and writing the potent names, f i g u r a t i v e descriptions, and divine myths and a t t r i b u t e s . In many healing s p e l l s there i s a sense that t h i s power can be transferred to a c a r r i e r substance which i s then administered externally or i n t e r n a l l y to the sick person to e f f e c t healing by t r a n s f e r r i n g the power to the body. Hence the recurrent formula "speak to the oil..." In terms of symbolic healing, the healer a c t i v a t e s symbolic connections f o r the patient by the r e c i t a t i o n of words of power and secret names. 199 PDM xiv:515-16,476; PDM 1:15 0,290-92. 200 PGM XXXVI:201. 201 Sacred plants, animals, or materials - such as the clothes of a prematurely or violently deceased person, see PGM CVII:12; LVIII:5-6. 58 C. Concluding Discussion: Questions and Challenges Desiderata Before concluding, the writer apologizes for a few more d e t a i l s : Due to l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space, i t i s impossible here to engage as deeply with the secondary scholarship bearing on the papyri as i t deserves; Secondly, i t would have also enriched t h i s work to have read and integrated more of the abundant medical h i s t o r y studies of Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Ancient Near Eastern medicine; T h i r d l y , given even more opportunity, a broader reading of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l h i s t o r y of Egypt i n e s p e c i a l l y the Ptolemaic H e l l e n i s t i c period would probably have added great value; F i n a l l y , research such as t h i s ought to be grounded i n a more thorough understanding of ancient Egyptian and Greek r e l i g i o n s and myths than the writer has at the time of w r i t i n g . In fact, there were a l o t of things I wanted to attempt to accomplish i n t h i s essay that insp i r e d me, but which I have had to lay aside i n somewhat r e l i e v e d disappointment: I would l i k e to have attempted more to a s s i s t i n f u r t h e r contextualizing magician-healers of the papyri, but the material I have uncovered i s s t i l l i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r that. With respect to a few s p e l l s i n the demotic corpus, I have been able to t e n t a t i v e l y speculate about a g u i l d of v i l l a g e professionals doing rounds about town and a v a i l a b l e on c a l l . This matches the picture presented by other s c h o l a r s . 2 0 2 I do not yet know what t h e i r r e l a t i o n i s to the i t i n e r a n t H e l l e n i s t i c medics or to the ubiquitous i t i n e r a n t holy men of Peter Brown's world. I wish I could o f f e r a comparison of the r e l a t i o n between s e t t l e d medical centers (both old temples and new schools) and medical i t i n e r a n t s with the r e l a t i o n between i t i n e r a n t holy men and s e t t l e d 2 0 2 David Frankfurter, "Ritual Expertise i n Roman Egypt and the Problem of the Category 'Magician'" (pp. 115-136 i n Schafer and Kippenberg, Envisioning magic), argues for a contextual reconstruction of the magicians as p r i e s t s who functioned as l o c a l all-purpose r i t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s . 59 r e l i g i o u s communities (both old temples or new monastic communities 2 0 3, Jewish and C h r i s t i a n ) , and even the r e l a t i o n between i t i n e r a n t philosophers and s e t t l e d philosophical schools. And I wish that I could explore the speculative idea that the Greek wandering medics were among the s i g n i f i c a n t c a t a l y s t s i n the H e l l e n i s t i c world for the s h i f t s from temple to mobile p r a c t i c e , the l o c a t i v e to Utopian worldview put forward so persuasively by Jonathan Z. Smith. These are a l l things that I wish I could do and explore, but not here, not now. Conclusions What I think I have done here and now i s to show f a i r l y well that the methodology of medical anthropology that John P i l c h assembled and adapted for his New Testament work i s remarkably well s u i t e d to the analysis of at least some of the medical material i n the papyri, and for a l l my inadequacy to the task, as far as I am aware I am the f i r s t to t r y i t . I think I found the best b i t s f or i t , but the rest i s s t i l l so r i c h that books could, should, and I am sure w i l l be written on i t . I also think I have done s u f f i c i e n t l y well to show that the papyri are not mere "deception" and "gobbledygook" as someone once said i n his introduction to the corpus. In ethnomedical terms, the texts preserve earnest, sincere, and i n many cases no doubt very e f f e c t i v e techniques to heal a great many conditions. Medical anthropological explanations and tools shine another kind of l i g h t on these r i t u a l s that exposes a d i f f e r e n t texture of shadows to delineate aspects of the culture that produced them. There i s more to the papyri than meets the either the biomedical, the c l a s s i c a l , or the r e l i g i o u s eye. From another view, perhaps studying the medical material i n the unique document of the papyri may also help medical anthropologists to further t h e i r explanations of how c u l t u r a l factors are r e l a t e d to the healing process, which i s an ongoing enterprise. The papyri do bear out "the 203 E.g. Qumran of the Dead Sea Scrolls and the "Essene" sect of Josephus; The Alexandrian "Therapeutae" of Philo. 60 best contemporary hypothesis ... that the sick person i n a s p e c i f i c context uses the semantic and symbolic resources a v a i l a b l e and creates meaning." I believe that both the r i t u a l i s t s and the H e l l e n i s t i c medics were i n the business of c o l l e c t i n g and sharing such resources to put them into p r a c t i c e , and the papyri comprise a record of that enterprise of professional development. P i l c h explained well how "healing b o i l s down to meaning and the transformation of experience. The change or transformation i s created by a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s who e f f e c t i v e l y enact c u l t u r a l l y authorized i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . " 2 0 4 In a time and place of rapid c u l t u r a l change, when there was less and less s t a b i l i t y to what was authorized, the editors of the papyri c o l l e c t e d anything that worked. The c o l l e c t i o n indicates the state of t h e i r world: native Egyptian myth j o s t l e s with Greek, Jewish and C h r i s t i a n elements share paper and ink with Nubian and Ethiopian, and languages are muddled together i n the mix. But a l l were regarded equally as sources of meaning and r i t u a l power to combine i n common cause for the promotion of well-being at the expense of misfortune, one person at a time. This study has shown that the papyri represent an e s p e c i a l l y r i c h and rewarding body of texts on which to undertake P i l c h ' s recommendation. We have only begun disentangling " c l o s e l y interwoven natural-environmental, human-biological, and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l threads forming the behavioral and conceptual network of human responses to the experience of i l l n e s s " 2 0 5 i n these texts. The foregoing exercise i n developing and modifying an evolving conceptual system to account for the s o c i a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s of sickness and healing, based on the work of so many others, has shown the v i a b i l i t y of pursuing a comprehensive basis for understanding healing and health care i n the culture of the papyri, which w i l l allow for more appropriate c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparisons. We have shown that the papyri have t h e i r own p e c u l i a r ways of speaking about both e f f i c a c y and meaning. The r i t u a l i s t healers of the 204 Pilch, 2000, p. 35. 205 Ibid, p. 21, citing Unshuld, 1988:179. 61 papyri were professionals, and t h e i r explanatory models d i s c l o s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of a given health problem and treatment goals for the patient. For them, e f f i c a c y involved both symptom reduction and r e s t o r a t i o n of meaning to l i f e . The professional healers of upper-Egyptian culture were not "physicians," but the t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l i s t s who came to be c a l l e d "magicians," but who were recognized as k i n by some H e l l e n i s t i c physicians. Supporting t h i s i s the impression that the Demotic material contains more of an e x p l i c i t l y medical nature than the Greek. The therapies i n the papyri do not f i t the NT model, for they re f e r sometimes to physical remedies and a f f l i c t i o n s and to empirical "testing," and maintain d i s t i n c t i o n s between the p h y s i c a l remedy (cure) and the production of meaning (healing). We have seen how the papyri place threats i n t o frameworks of meaning, e s p e c i a l l y by means of myth and exorcisms to control the disruptive e f f e c t s . This i s a therapeutic process attempting to restore order "by p l a c i n g the threat i n i t s proper framework, c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t on the s i c k person and that person's network, and making the e n t i r e experience personally and s o c i a l l y meaningful." 2 0 6 We have seen that there i s a range of s t r a t e g i e s i n the healing and preventive a c t i v i t i e s of the papyri from empirical remedies 2 0 7 and technological interventions to symbolic therapies l i k e the placebo. 2 0 8 The transactions i n the papyri between the sick person and the healer(s) are hermeneutics of symbolic and semiotic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n terms of very p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t i v e schemata. We t r i e d to understand the papyri healings to be an engagement of the sick person and the healer i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the context of t h e i r symbolic encounter and of the symbolic forms that are manipulated during the encounter. We examined the four e s s e n t i a l processes comprising stages of symbolic healing and necessary for i t s accomplishment. These insi g h t s have taught us that, as healers, the "magicians" need to be regarded as cultural mediators. We saw that there are systems of symbolic healing based on models of e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i t y i n the papyri. 206 Ibid. p. 28. 207 Ibid. Citing Van der Geest and Whyte, 1988. 208 Ibid. Citing Moerman, 1983; and Dow, 1986. 62 We have looked at how the r i t u a l s , made up of a r i c h a r r a y of symbols i n many modes, manipulate symbolic forms f o r the p a t i e n t . We concentrated upon l o c a t i n g and d e f i n i n g the h e a l i n g encounter as a p a r t i c u l a r type of r i t u a l encounter i n the l a r g e r corpus. These encounters repeat p r e v i o u s l y known forms of encounter, e s t a b l i s h e d i n the mythic world and c o d i f i e d i n handbooks. We have shown that these h e a l i n g encounters were both e m p i r i c a l and produced understanding r a t h e r than new knowledge or explanation. As Galen himself observed, the healings of the p a p y r i were e f f e c t i v e because they worked. They t r e a t e d the c o n d i t i o n , and a l s o made the i n d i v i d u a l experience of i l l n e s s meaningful, shared personal s u f f e r i n g , and transformed marginal s i t u a t i o n s of sickness by re-i n c o r p o r a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o the s o c i a l and mythic body: a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of h e a l i n g . Post S c r i p t : Thessalus the Magician There i s one t e x t that deserves mention at l e a s t b r i e f l y again: the autobiography of "Thessalus the Magician." The reason f o r t h i s i s that i t provides a unique witness to the p a p y r i l a c k i n g w i t h i n the corpus, and j u s t that aspect of concern to us. This paper was o r i g i n a l l y intended to i n c l u d e t h i s document i n the c e n t r a l argument. I t i s a statement of a p e r s o n a l i t y . Thessalus i s a Greek who came to A l e x a n d r i a to pursue an education i n medicine, but wanted to study r i t u a l and g a i n supernatural h e a l i n g powers. Many s c h o l a r s i d e n t i f y him with the famous p h y s i c i a n Thessalus of T r a l l e s . His s t o r y i s an account of h i s journey to Thebes, the source of our p a p y r i , where he found an o l d temple p r i e s t to produce a p r i v a t e theophanic i n v o c a t i o n of A s c l e p i u s (Iymhotep). Just such r i t u a l s are described i n our corpus with matching d e t a i l s , and f o r the same expressed purpose: PGM VI1:628-42; PDM xii:21-49,35-40; xiv:93-114; suppl:168 - 89. Some may view the account of Thessalus as a conversion to "magic," but he h i m s e l f presents i t as the f i n a l s u c c e s s f u l c ulmination of h i s medical education whereby he f i n a l l y learns the a r t of h e a l i n g from the god of h e a l i n g himself, who becomes h i s f r i e n d and i n s t r u c t o r . This i s an important text to study i n close comparison with the papyri i n any further work of t h i s kind. I regret that I can take i t no further , t h i s point. 64 Bibliography Betz, H. D., (Ed.). 1986. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the Demotic Texts. Chicago: The Un i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Ciraolo, Leda and Seidel, Jonathan (Eds.). 2002. Magic and Divination in the Ancient World. Leiden: B r i l l . Dickie, Matthew W. 2001. 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American Sociological Review 31:615-30. Zuesse, Evan M . "Ritual." Encyclopaedia of Religion V . 12, Pp. 405-422. 68 Appendix: S t a t i s t i c a l Overview of the Corpus The present goal i s to a r r i v e at the medical theory (or theories) in the world of the papyri. Thus the study cannot l i m i t i t s e l f to the healing s p e l l s alone, but must seek out and consider a l l of the r i t u a l s that r e f e r to or act on the body: including prayers for well-being, curses and aggressive love s p e l l s meant to a f f l i c t others, d i v i n a t i o n s or oracles for diagnostic and prognostic revelations, drug or potion preparations, and the l i k e . To that end, the papyri have been combed for a l l such references i n order to concentrate attention on them. The next stage i s a s t a t i s t i c a l examination to c l a s s i f y the separate s p e l l s into categories based on theme, context, method, and any other noticeable trope. This i s the search for patterns. It i s hoped that such an analysis, i f not uncovering something very valuable, w i l l at least be i n t e r e s t i n g and h e l p f u l i n r e f i n i n g research questions. Semantic I l l n e s s Network: Summary of conditions, a f f l i c t i o n s , ailments, s i c k n e s s e s / i l l n e s s e s described i n the p a p y r i 2 0 9 I n t e n t i o n a l l y A f f l i c t e d by R i t u a l Means: Love s p e l l s -heat/steaming/flaming/sweating/cooking i n h e a r t / l i v e r / n a v e l / b e l l y (typical love s p e l l among many IV:115-120) -send i n a daimon to burn guts/breast liver/breath/bones/marrow (daimonic love s p e l l IV:1530-31) -the same to burn/inflame brain and guts and suck out blood, daimon to enter "not by side or n a i l s or navel or frame but by 'soul' and remain in her" (IV:1520-30) -make i l l (daimon love IV:2076) -sickness, destroys, ...make her i l l , draw out her breath (love IV:2442, 2496) -cause sickness (love slander IV:2625) -insomnia, "sore d i s t r e s s e d with wakeful cares" (love IV:2735-40,2960; V:3274) -madness (love IV:2769) -"heaving of the sea...punishments" (V:3274) -burn her h e a r t / g u t s / l i v e r / s p i r i t / b o n e s (love VII:981-93) -causing insomnia (write a charm or conjure by lamp VI1:374-76,376-84) -s t r i k e her heart/belly/intestines/womb; burning heat to heart/lungs/liver/spleen/womb/large i n t e s t i n e / s m a l l i n t e s t i n e / r i b s / f l e s h / b o n e s / i n every limb/ i n the skin; insomnia/grief and a n x i e t y / a n o r e x i a / i n a b i l i t y to drink (daimon sent to disorder bodily systems = slander love s p e l l s , xiv:636-69 , 664 , 665-6) -cause madness, insomnia, withering (love xiv:1026-45) -take away the mind (love; female for male, XV:11) -cause her to swoon/sting the soul, heart, burn, inflame (love XIXa:51-53) -inflame, burn her heart and soul (love XXXIIa:l,6) 209 C o n d i t i o n o r s i t u a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d b y summary r e f e r e n c e t o t r e a t m e n t i n p a r e n t h e s e s 6 9 -wasting (by daimon Myrrh entering r i g h t side, sent i n love s p e l l XXXVI:333-60) inflamed l i v e r , s p i r i t , heart, soul (love LXXXIV:1-21) Other Spel l s of A f f l i c t i o n -Death and destruction (1:99, IV:1167.-) - causing "disease" (invocation of Apollo, 1:330) -cause psychological passions, bodily sufferings, i n c a p a c i t a t i n g i l l n e s s e s (XII:304-307) -causing a skin disease that does not heal (wash the man with l i z a r d o i l s xiv:389) -causing blindness (beer i n eyes xiv:391) -causing (1 curing) e v i l s l e e p / d e a t h / c h i l l s / f e v e r ( r e c i t a t i o n s p e l l to sun or poison mixtures with narcotic herbs xiv:675-94,706,711,716,724,727,737,911,917) -causing blindness (xiv:741-42) -cause menstrual haemorrhage (LXI1:100-104) -causing madness (xiv;1182-87) Not I n t e n t i o n a l l y A f f l i c t e d , Prophylactics or Healings -"my soul i s distressed, I am perplexed" (Re: daimonic attack, 1:213-214) ; -"semitertian fever" (diagnosis, 111:466) -calamity and te r r o r , "plagued by ghosts" (IV:1064,1079) -nonspecific daimonic possession (exorcism IV:1227-64) -daimonic possession (exorcism IV:3007-86; 3084: treat by blowing a i r from t i p s of feet to face) -Lovesickness, "throes of grievous love" (VI:13) -uterus movement (conjured by voces Magicae to return VII:260-71) -sickness, sufferings, daimons, phantasms (phylactery VII:579-90) -seeing phantoms (love VII:888) -smitten, a f f l i c t e d (phylactery r i n g against daimons XII:260) -demoniacs (ring power XII:281) -demoniac (exorcism with asphalt and s u l f u r i n h a l a t i o n and sacred name XIII:242) -erisepelas (skin disease cured with crocodile dung and sacred name XIII:245) -sprain or fracture (cured with name and earth and vinegar XIII:247) -resurrection of dead (by r e - i n s p i r a t i o n and conjuration by sacred name XIII:279-83) -scorpion s t i n g (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:193-6) -eye discharge (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:197-8) -migraine headache (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:199-201, 201-202) -coughs (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:203-5, 206-7) -breast hardening (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:208-9) -swollen t e s t i c l e s (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:209-10) -fever and shivering f i t s (speak to o i l and anointing from sacrum to feet VII:211-212) - d a i l y fever, n i g h t l y fever (amulet a p p l i c a t i o n healing VII:213-14) -dog b i t e saliva-venom healing (symbolic healing + cleansing and bandaging xiv:554-62;585-93) -poison i n heart; pus, venom antidote (symbolic healing + vomiting xiv:563-74) -bone stuck i n throat (removal symbolic healing and maneuver xiv:573-85,621-66) 70 -sting venom (by snake (?) l i c k and swallow venom out xiv:594-620) -watery ear discharge (clean and apply mixture with copper = a n t i b i o t i c xiv;935-39) -vaginal bleeding (to stop i t by drinking tonic xiv;953-55) (stop by herbal concoction administered i n sex xiv961-65) (stop by s a l t and o i l medication administered with a tampon in s e r t time duration s p e c i f i e d xiv:970-77) (fasting, tonic drink, and honey soaked rag i n s e r t xiv:978-80) (bath and honey i n s e r t xiv:981-84) - f e r t i l i t y / p r e g n a n c y test (urination on a plant xiv:956-60) -gouty foot (anoint with o i l concoction and breathe at him xiv:905-92)(poultice applied to pain spot xiv:993-1002)(amulet bound to the place xiv:1003-14) (wash and rub xiv:1021-23) -healing ophthalmia (ointment plus text and p i c t u r e amulet xiv:1097) -abortion (?) (xiv:1188-89, p. 249 + n. 614) -menstruation (fumigate xiv:1196-98) -fever, headache, body pain...fever of night, fever of midday, headache, "burning heat of the fevers of those below the brow to his feet, from the head (mythic d e i t y a f f l i c t e d xiv:1219-27, invocation to heal) -headache pain (amulet XVIIIa:l-4) (amulet XX:1-4) (amuletXX13-19) -shivering f i t , fever, d a i l y or intermittent, by night or by day, quartan (amulet XVIIIb:l-7) -inflammation (amulet XX:4-12) -bloody f l u x (amulet XXIIa:2-9)(amulet .LXIII:24-25)(amulet LXIII:26-28)(amulet LXV:l-4) -pain i n breasts and uterus (amulet XXIIa:9-10) -contraceptive (amulet XXIIa:11-14) -elephantiasis (amulet XXIIa:15-17) _every shivering f i t , t e r t i a n , quartan, quotidian, every-other-day fever, one by night, mild fever (amulet XXXIII:1-25) -ulcer of the head (prepared ointment lxi:43-48,49-57) -erection (ointment and decoction to reverse e f f e c t lxi:58-62) -fever with shivering f i t s , d a i l y , nightly, quartan, touching soul, body (amulet with b i b l i c a l verses LXXXIII:1-20) • -shivering f i t and fever, d a i l y fever, headache, n i g h t l y , quartan, semitertian, "grant him healing" (amulet and prayer LXXXVII:1-11) -fever (amulet LXXXVIII:1-19) -paediatric fevers of a l l kinds, caused by demons or phantoms (LXXXIX:1-27) -for poor eyesight (drying powder made with saffron XCIV:l-6) -tumors (amulet XCIV:27-35) -migraine headache (amulet XCIV:39-60) -epilepsy and seizures (amulet XCV:7-13)(amulet XCV:14-18) -lung disease (amulet XCV:14-18) -eye disease (amulet of l i z a r d eye put onto af f e c t e d eye XCVII:l-6) -shivering f i t and fever, d a i l y fever... t e r t i a n , quartan, quotidian, daily, or everyday (amulet CIV:1-8)(amulet CVI:1-10) -scorpion s t i n g (amulet CXII:l-5) (amulet CXIII:l-4) -inflammation of the uvula (amulet CXX:1-13) -death/darkness/mental i l l n e s s / g r i e f / f e a r / i l l n e s s / p o v e r t y / d i s t u r b a n c e ; rudeness/evil/the e v i l eye/debauchery/slavery/indecency/lamentation/troublesomeness/emptiness/ malignancy/bitterness/arrogance (phylactery with a l i t a n y (?) of two columns l i s t i n g ailments psychological, p h y s i c a l , and moral) -dangerous drugs (XXXVI:222) -contraception ("the only one i n the world"! herbal amulet XXXVI:300-32) 

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