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A comparative reliability analysis of computer-generated bitemark overlays McNamee, Anne H. 2003-10-24

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A COMPARATIVE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF COMPUTER-GENERATED BITEMARK OVERLAYS by Anne H. McNamee, DDS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Oral Biological and Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry (j^^^tp€ison of Supervisory Committee The University of British Columbia April 2003 © Anne H. McNamee, 2003 UBC Rare Books and Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form Page 1 of 1 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of (ygdWfc JfvJjL^ JOfa\ faplpglflJ ^J^1^ The University of British Columbia T^-CMAr"^ ^ U Vancouver, Canada Date http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html 4/24/2003 ABSTRACT Bitemark evidence is routinely accepted in the judicial system, but with recent United States court rulings such as Daubert and Kubmo an emphasis has been placed on establishing the validity and reliability of current scientific techniques. The current study compares the reliability of two popular methods used to produce computer-generated bitemark overlays. Images of twelve dental casts were sent to thirty examiners. Examiners were instructed to produce an overlay for each cast image based on the instructions provided for the two techniques. After the overlays were submitted, measurements of the area of the biting edge and the x-y coordinate of each tooth's position were obtained. The reliability assessment of the measurements was performed using an analysis of variance and calculation of reliability coefficients. The analysis of variance results showed that the forensic experience level of the examiner and the cast variations all contribute to a significant effect in the variances seen for the area for both techniques. The inter- and mtira-examiner reliability coefficients are low. The results for the positional measurements showed the forensic experience level of the examiner contributes no significant differences to the variances. The differences are seen within the cast variations. The inter- and intra-examiner 11 reliability coefficients are exceptionally high. It was concluded that both techniques were reliable methods to produce bitemark overlays to assess tooth position. TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract n List of Tables •ix List of Figures x List of Abbreviations Acknowledgements Funding ^ Quotation CHAPTER ONE-INTRODUCTION Section One -Forensic Odontology andBitemarks 1.1 FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY 3 1.2 BITEMARKS 5 1.2.1 Recognition1.2.1.1 Physical Characteristics 6 1.2.1.1.1 Gross Characteristics 8 1.2.1.1.2 Class Characteristics .9 1.2.1.1.3 Individual Characteristics 11 1.2.1.2 Variable Features 13 1.2.1.2.1 Biting Forces 4 1.2.1.2.2 Location 6 1.2.1.2.3 Human Skin as a Substrate 17 1.2.1.3 Forensic Significance of Bitemarks 8 1.2.1.3.1 Value as Evidence 9 1.2.1.3.1.1 Physical Evidence 11.2.1.3.1.2 Biological Evidence 21 1.2.1.3.1.3 Psychological Evidence1.2.1.3.2 Collection of Evidence 2 1.2.1.3.2.1 ABFO Guidelines 23 1.2.1.3.2.2 Victim Evidence Collection 24 1.2.1.3.2.3 Suspect Evidence Collection. 9 1.2.1.3.3 Bitemark Evidence in Court 32 1.2.1.3.4 Bitemark Evidence Adrnissibility Standards 3iv Section Two — Bitemark Analysis Techniques and Methods 1.3 THEORY OF BITEMARK COMPARISONS 36 1.3.1 Uniqueness of the Human Dentition 31.3.2 Comparison Methods 39 1.3.2.1 Metric Comparisons 40 1.3.2.2 Physical Comparisons 1 1.4 BITEMARK OVERLAYS 3 1.4.1 Hand-Traced from Stone Casts 44 1.4.2 Hand-Traced from Wax Impressions 5 1.4.3 Hand-Traced from Xerographic Methods 41.4.4 The Radiopaque Impression Method .46 1.4.5 Computer-Based Overlays 47 1.4.6 Comparison of Overlay Techniques 48 Section Three — Computers and Digital Imaging in Bitemark Analysis 1.5 COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL IMAGING 51 1.5.1 Computer Applications in Forensic Odontology. 51.5.1.1 Techniques in Digital Identification of Human Remains 52 1.5.1.2 Techniques in Digital Bitemark Analysis 53 1.5.1.2.1 Correction of Photographic Distortion 4 CHAFER TWO - STA TEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2.1 Statement of the Problem 60 v CHAPTER THREE - MA TERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROTOCOLS 62 3.1.1 Examiner Groups 63.1.2 Cast Selection 3 3.1.3 Cast Preparation3.1.4 Study Package 5 3.1.4.1 Study Questionnaire. 63.1.4.2 Technique A 6 3.1.4.3 Technique B 7 3.1.4.4 Follow-up Questionnaire .' 68 3.2 MEASUREMENT OF AREA AND POSITION 63.3 ASSESSMENT METHODS 72 3.3.1 Reliability 73.3.2 Relkbility Tests 4 3.3.3 ReHability Model 7 3.3.3.1 Calculation of Expected Mean Squares and Variances 78 CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS 4.1 INTER-EXAMINER AND INTRA-EXAMINER RELIABILITY 82 4.1.1 Diplomates 83 4.1.2 Forensic Dentists 84 4.1.3 Dental Students 85 4.1.4 Cumulative Reliability Analysis 86 4.1.5 Area 87 4.1.6 Position 88 4.2 EXAMINER OVERLAY EXAMPLES 90 VI CHAPTER FIVE - DISCUSSION 5.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 93 5.1.1 Examiner Selection5.1.2 Cast Selection 96 5.1.3 Materials and Instructions 97 5.1.4 Imaging Programs 8 5.2 EXPERIMENTAL DATA 9 5.2.1 Reliability. 95.2.1.1 Area.5.2.1.1.1 Technique A 100 5.2.1.1.2 Technique B 1 5.2.1.1.3 Cumulative Reliability Analysis 102 5.2.1.2 Position 103 5.2.1.2.1 Technique A5.2.1.2.2 Technique B 4 5.2.1.2.3 Cumulative Reliability Analysis 105 5.3 INDIVIDUAL EXAMINER PREFERENCES 106 5.4 COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUE A AND B 9 CHAPTER SIX- CONCLUSIONS 6.1 CONCLUSIONS Ill 6.2 FUTURE DIRECTIONS 112 REFERENCES REFERENCES 115 vii APPENDICES Appendix A: Study Cast Images 123 Appendix B: Study Questionnaire 130 Appendix C: Technique A Instructions and Example. 132 Appendix D: Technique B Instructions and Example 141 Appendix E: Follow-up Questionnaire 148 Appendix F: Examiner Data Reports 150 viii LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Anatomical distribution of bitemark locations found in 101 U.S. cases 16 2. Northwestern University Dental School's bitemark classification system 20 3. ABFO guidelines for victim and suspect evidence collection 24 4. United States Scientific Evidence Admissibility Standards 33 5. ABFO guidelines for bitemark analysis 39 6. Degrees of certainty describing the link between bitemark and suspect 43 7. 1996 listing of computer uses in forensic dentistry 51 8. Categories of off-angle distortion found in bitemark photographs 55 9. A typical SAS printout for an analysis of variance 76 10. Calculations for the expected mean squares 79 11. Diplomate reliability analysis for Technique A 83 12. Diplomate reliability analysis for Technique B13. Dentist reliability analysis for Technique A 84 14. Dentist reliability analysis for Technique B15. Student reliability analysis for Technique A 85 16. Student reliability analysis for Technique B17. Cumulative reliability analysis for Technique A 86 18. Cumulative reliability analysis for Technique B19. Area ANOVA results for Technique A 87 20. Area ANOVA results for Technique B21. X-Position ANOVA results for Technique A 88 22. X-Position ANOVA results for Technique B23. Y-Position ANOVA results for Technique A 89 24. Y-Position ANOVA results for Technique Brx LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. A human bitemark 7 2. Human bitemark illustrating gross characteristics 9 3. Human bitemark illustrating class characteristics 11 4. Simulated bitemark illustrating individual characteristic 13 5. Difference between striated and static bite injuries 15 6. ABFO No. 2 reference scale 26 7. Examples of bitemark photographs using alternative lighting sources 27 8. Excision of a bitemark site 29 9. Clinical examination of a bitemark suspect 31 10. Suspect's dental cast and sample wax bite 2 11. Examples of five common overlay techniques 48 12. Overlay production using computer imaging contrast conversion methods..57 13. Example of an original and modified cast image used to assess intra-examiner reliability 64 14. Technique A overlay production steps 66 15. Technique B overlay production steps 7 16. Original and converted overlay example for Technique A 69 17. Original and converted overlay example for Technique B 70 18. Overlay data acquisition using Scion Image® 71 19. Converted solid-volume overlay produced by a single click on a tooth and the original overlay 90 20. Comparison of hollow-volume overlays produced using Technique B 91 x LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AAFS American Academy of Forensic Science ABFO American Board of Forensic Odontology ASFO American Society of Forensic Odontology UV Ultraviolet Light IR Infrared Light ANOVA Analysis of Variance DABFO Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic Odontology SAS Statistical Analysis Software MS Mean Squares DF Degrees of Freedom R Reliability Coefficient xi A CKNO WLED GEMENTS I wish to thank the many individuals who continue to support and encourage my unending quest for knowledge. I am grateful for the special relationships I have developed over the years, and for all who have contributed their own unique impression upon my life. With sincere gratitude I would like to acknowledge: My parents, Paul and Wendy McNamee, whose support has transcended emotional and financial boundaries and who have taught me the true power of my potential; My family, who consistendy offered encouragement and would always lend assistance and direction in times of need; My friends, namely Melanie White and Diane Fairley, who were always able to help maintain my balance between work and play; My boyfriend, Joseph Stuccio, whose pride in me and endless support always gave me the strength needed to continue the task at hand; My colleague, Dr. Iain Pretty, who helped forge a collaborative research effort and would offer professional advice; My committee members, Drs. Doug Waterfield, Don Brunette, David Lowe, and Pierre Dow who have always challenged me to excel beyond my expectations; Finally, my research supervisor and friend, Dr. David Sweet, whose selfless and giving nature has allowed me the opportunity to explore and learn forensic dentistry from the best and who always made me feel like Vancouver, BC wasn't that far from home after all. xii FUNDING This research has been generously funded by grants and support from following organizations: American Board of Forensic Odontology American Society of Forensic Odontology University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry Research Grant Bureau of Legal Dentistry Laboratory xui "You can lead a jury to the truth but you can't make them believe it. Physical evidence cannot be intimidated. It does not forget. It doesn't get excited at the moment something is happening -like people do. It sits there and waits to be detected, preserved, evaluated, and explained. This is what physical evidence is all about. In the course of the trial, defense and prosecuting attorneys may He, witnesses may lie, the defendant certainly will Ue. Even the judge may lie. Only the evidence never lies." H.L. MacDonelL 1984 XIV Chapter One - Introduction Chapter One Introduction i Chapter One - Introduction Section One Forensic Odontology and Bitemarks Chapter One - Introduction 1.1 FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY From infancy to old age, the teeth serve a multitude of functions. Each tooth provides a unique contribution from the mechanical digestion of food to the proper phonetic enunciations. In addition to the functionality of daily routines, teeth play a significant role in the identification of individuals. Most often utilized in a medico-legal context, identifying individuals based upon their dental uniqueness is the foundation upon which the discipline of forensic odontology is established. Forensic odontology can be thought of as the interdisciplinary approach between dentistry and the criminal and civil justice system. The terms "forensic odontology" and "forensic dentistry" are interchangeable. Forensic dentistry encompasses a diverse range of subjects, which include comparative dental identification, mass disaster management, human abuse and neglect, dental jurisprudence issues, and bitemark analysis (1). The beginriings of forensic dentistry date back nine hundred years to England where King William secured the authenticity of royal documents by affixing to them a piece of wax that bore his bite impression (2). The acceptance of an individual's dental uniqueness continued to prove advantageous throughout the years. In 1775, Paul Revere as a silversmith and dentist, constructed a silver and ivory bridge to replace missing 3 Chapter One - Introduction teeth for Dr. Joseph Warren. It was the distinctive nature and manufacturing of this bridge that ultimately led to the identification of Warren's body following the Battle of Bunker Hill (3). Additionally, the unique teeth impressions that are left behind after an individual bites an object or person are noted in several historical cases. One case involving bitemark testimony was discovered to have taken place as far back as 1870. The case of Ohio v. Robinson involved a murder in which a bitemark was found on the victim's arm (4). Although compelling bitemark evidence was presented and accepted by the judge, the accused was acquitted of the charges due to reasonable doubt brought forth by the defense of a possible alternative perpetrator. However, this case helped forge an introduction to forensic dental evidence and the eventual acceptance widiin the legal system. Today, a variety of organizations exist that are dedicated to the development and advancement of forensic odontology. In North America, these include the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS), which has a prominent odontology section, the American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO), which aids in the development of g^delines and standards as well as oversees voluntary certification examinations of specialty status, and the American Society of Forensic Odontology (ASFO), whose members include a variety of professionals that engage in and expand the causes of forensic dentistry (5). It is through these organizations that forensic dentistry continues to thrive and progress as a science. 4 Chapter One - Introduction As with any discipline, a continued commitment to improving and advancing the domain is critical. This is accomplished through research, evaluation, and critical review of current and emerging techniques. With technologies advancing and evidentiary laws continually challenged, forensic dentistry is not without controversy. The most contentious issue involves human bitemarks. Whether the focus is on bitemark detection or dynamics, the methodologies used in analysis, or the evidentiary value of an injury, the topic of bitemarks continues to fuel heated debates. 1.2 BITEMARKS The term bitemark refers to "a physical alteration in a medium caused by the contact of teeth" (6). These marks can be left on objects, food, or skin and produced by humans or animals. Widiin the context of this Introduction, the term bitemark will refer to a human bitemark left on human skin, as is most often the circumstance in actual forensic casework. 1.2.1 Recognition The first step in forensic casework is the recognition of a patterned injury found on the skin as a human bitemark. Often the first individual to recognize a 5 Chapter One - Introduction patterned injury on a deceased victim is an individual other than a forensic odontologist, such as a police officer or medical examiner. In the case of a living victim, a sexual assault examiner or emergency room personnel may initially recognize the patterned injury. Although skilled in their own respective disciplines, unfortunately without proper teaming in bitemark recognition many bitemarks go undetected each year due to the inability of the first responders to recognize the injury as a bitemark. Proper instruction of auxiliary personnel and greater availability of forensic dental consultations are, thus, essential in facilitating more accurate and complete recognition of bite injuries. 1.2.1.1 Physical Characteristics When a hard object contacts a softer object and leaves an impression, this is a toolmark. Forensic toolmark analysis includes a vast array of different investigations of such impressions, such as ballistic matching, tire track identification, and the identification of specific knives to particular crimes. The science of bitemark analysis may be thought of as another form of a toolmark investigation. In this case, the tooth or teeth act as the harder object and leave their corresponding impression on the skin. When an analysis follows this approach, levels of distinguishing characteristics can begin to be documented. These characteristics are divided into gross, class, and individual characteristics. 6 Figure 1. A human bitemark Chapter One - Introduction Figure 1 illustrates a typical human bitemark. According to the ABFO Guidelines and Standards (6), the descnption of the prototypical human bitemark is as follows: "...a circular or oval patterned injury consisting of two opposing (facing) symmetrical, U-shaped arches separated at their bases by open spaces, holloaing the periphery of the arches, are a series of individual abrasions, contusions and/'or lacerations reflecting the si-^e, shape, arrangement and distribution of the class characteristics of the contacting surfaces of the human dentition." 7 Chapter One - Introduction Using this definition as a reference, an explanation of the appearance of bitemarks will be described with respect to the different levels of toolmark characteristics. 1.2.1.1.1 Gross Characteristics Gross characteristics are used to identify the general source of the tool (7). A common example is a footwear impression found in the sand. An initial assessment of the gross characteristics could reveal that the impression came from a shoe. For example, it is determined to be from a running shoe rather than a woman's heel. The scope of the search to find the shoe that made the imprint may now be narrowed to all running shoes. All other shoes can be excluded as the cause. This same concept may be applied in bitemark recognition. When first assessing a patterned injury the question "Is this a bitemark?" must be answered. In Figure 2, a typical bitemark will have a circular or elliptical pattern with a diameter of 2.5 - 4.0 cm, exhibiting several small lacerations (shown by the yellow arrows), and often show a central area of bruising (6,7). These are the gross characteristics that will support the conclusion that the injury is a bitemark and not from some other source. 8 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 2. Human bitemark illustrating gross characteristics 1.2.1.1.2 Class Characteristics Class characteristics are measurable features of a toolmark that indicate a restricted origin (7). Continuing with the shoe print example, if it can be determined that the mark came from a size ten men's Reebok® running shoe, then the population of running shoes that could have caused this impression has been immediately reduced. This may now redirect the investigation to consider 9 Chapter One - Introduction the dimensions, specific tread markings, and distinct features that Reebok® places wiliiin the sole of its size ten men's running shoes. In bitemark analysis typical class characteristics are the shape, location, number, and dimensions of the teeth (6,7). For instance, a human bitemark can be distinguished from an animal bitemark based on the placement of the teeth in each arch and whether the teeth involved follow the normal biological formula for the human dentition. The biological formula is defined as teeth per quadrant. This translates to two incisors, one canine, two premolars, and three molars in humans. In human bitemarks, the biting edges of the anterior teeth are the portion of the dentition most often seen in the bite injury. Therefore, the focus is predominandy on the incisors and canines with the occasional marking of the premolars. Figure 3 depicts a bitemark showing some typical class characteristics. The blue circle highlights two cusp marks typically seen in a maxillary premolar, the yellow circle highlights the rectangular tooth mark seen in maxillary incisors, and the green circle highlights the rectangular tooth mark seen in mandibular incisors. 10 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 3. Human bitemark illustrating class characteristics Furthermore, an adult human bitemark would have a measurable difference in width when compared to a child's bitemark. The typical inter canine distances for adults and children have been published and may be used as references (8). 1.2.1.1.3 Individual Characteristics Individual or accidental characteristics are imperfections or irregularities present in the toolrnark that are caused by use, misuse, or damage to the tool (7). The worn edge of the sole and a cut or nick in a specific portion of the sole would demonstrate individual characteristics that could differentiate John Smith's size 11 Chapter One - Introduction ten Reebok® running shoe from all other mnning shoes of the same make and size. In bitemark analysis, it is these individual characteristics that make it possible to distinguish one biter from another. Examples of individual characteristics include the specific dimensions, rotations, fractures, attritional wear patterns, and spacing of the teeth (6,7). These features form the foundation upon which each person's dental uniqueness is based. The more prominent the individual characteristics are recorded in a bite injury, the greater the chance of identifying the biter. Figure 4 illustrates a bitemark with individual characteristics (9). Each coloured arrow indicates an area where the teeth are crowded or overlapped resulting in a distinct pattern of tooth marks. 12 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 4. Simulated bitemark illustrating individual charactenstics 1 "1 . 1 1 h 1 1 1.2.1.2 Variable Features Advocates and opponents of bitemark evidence begin to disagree on the limits of the possible evidentiary value of the evidence. Biting is a dynamic process. The results of an inflicted bite will depend upon a variety of factors. Three critical factors include: a) the biting forces involved, b) location of the bitemark injury, and c) the response of human skin to biting injuries. 13 Chapter One - Introduction 1.2.1.2.1 Biting Forces A bitemark results when teeth come together with force upon the skin. The degree of force can influence the resulting patterned injury. Research into the mechanical forces in biting began in 1974 by Barbenel and Evans, and questions on the dynamics of biting remain unanswered. This early study showed that in addition to a biting force produced by the teeth, a combined sucking and tongue thmsting force also exists which produces a central ecchymosis (10). The outcome is also affected by the manner and extent to which the sucking force is applied. If the skin is held in place by the contact of the teeth and a sucking action is applied afterwards, the injury would appear differendy than if the suction had been applied before the bite was made. In either case, a distincdy different injury occurs (10). In addition to the amount of force and suction applied, the bitemark can give clues as to how it was inflicted. A static mark occurs when individual teeth marks leave a distinct impression in the skin. In this case, little movement is involved at the time of the bite. Conversely, if the teeth appear to have been dragged across the skin resulting in scratches or abrasions, this can be classified as a striated mark. A striated mark indicates the victim or suspect was moving during the 14 Chapter One - Introduction biting. Figure 5 illustrates the difference in appearance between striated and static marks. Figure 5. Difference between striated (yellow arrows) and static (blue arrows) bite injuries. Jakobsen and Keiser-Nielson described in depth the implications of how the evidence left behind when a bite injury occurs could reveal how the bite was originally inflicted. For example, factors such as skin thickness when gripped within the teeth, the stretching of the skin's surface, and the position of the body may uniquely define a bitemark injury (11). Finally, forces from the injury cause changes to occur within the skin as healing begins. Leakage of blood cells and serum into the dermal regions can cause either bruising or blistering subsequently to occur and this may change the colour or distention of the tissue (12). Not only will this affect the appearance of the 15 Chapter One - Introduction injury', but also the dimensional changes that may occur as the injury changes with time. Soon after a bite is inflicted on the skin, the area will become edematous and stiffer than the surrounding tissues (10). This change can lead to a distorted appearance and only after the tissues are resorbed over a period of days will this effect be reduced. ITierefore, proper evidence collection should include immediate photographic documentation and additional documentation of changes that occur over consecutive days. 1.2.1.2.2 Location Bitemarks often occur in the most heinous crimes and in almost all anatomical locations. Notable trends exist in the location where bitemarks are found. Table 1 shows the anatomical locations of bitemarks and their frequency of occurrence in a representative sample of 101 United States cases (13). Table 1. Anatomical distribution of bitemark locations found in 101 U.S. cases Anatomical Percentaj re of bites Location Females Males Abdomen 2.8 0.0 Arms 13.0 63.6 Back 7.5 9.1 Breast 40.0 0.0 Face or Head 6.6 0.0 Foot 0.0 0.0 Genitals 6.6 0.0 Hands or Fingers 3.8 18.2 Legs 7.5 0.0 Neck 6.6 0.0 Shoulder 0.0 9.1 16 Chapter One - Introduction Two studies note that when a victim is found with a bitemark, a high probability exists that additional bitemarks will also be found (13,14). Pretty and Sweet (13) citied over 70% of bitemark cases that involved injury to the breast also had additional bitemarks to the genitalia, neck, face, and head. This evidence supports the need for a thorough examination of the victim for multiple injuries. Interestingly, proper investigation also searches for injuries on the perpetrator's body. Table 1 shows that males are most likely to be bitten on their arms, hands, and shoulders. These wounds usually result from the victim's attempt to fend off the attack. It is believed that a greater number of defensive bites are actually inflicted on aggressors than attack bites on victims, and a call for all suspects to be examined immediately upon apprehension for tooth marks is recommended (11). 1.2.1.2.3 Human Skin as a Substrate Paramount to the quality of the bite evidence is the ability of the underlying skin to record the bite injury. Skin is a poor substrate to register an impressed mark (15). The highly visco-elastic nature of skin allows stretching to occur during the biting process or when the evidence is collected (16). Furthermore, each anatomical location exhibits varying underlying musculature curvature, and 17 Chapter One - Introduction adherence of the skin to the underlying tissue, which can alter the skin's response (16,17). Research into this challenging issue has been limited because of the ethical concerns with the generation of bitemarks on living victims. DeVore attempted to analyze differences by utilizing a printing mould of concentric circles and inked simulated bitemarks on varying locations of a volunteer's body while photographically documenting the evidence. When the participant changed positions and the injuries were re-photographed, the sites showed significant differences (18). This same type of experiment was undertaken within the analysis of an actual case. In this instance, the victim's own skin was used as a template as well as an anatomically similar volunteer. It was concluded that using a substrate similar in consistency and elasticity to the substrate the bitemark was found on is crucial to the successful duplication of the wound pattern for comparison (19). 1.2.1.3 Forensic Significance of Bitemarks Taking into consideration all of the variables involved in bitemark analysis, it is the individual odontologist and the legal system that determine the forensic 18 Chapter One - Introduction significance of the evidence based upon the quality of the bitemark, the collection of the evidence, and current evidentiary admissibility standards. 1.2.1.3.1 Value of Evidence Each case presents its own unique set of elements. Indication of a bitemark injury may provide a lead towards other potential evidence. For example, it may establish a timeline of repeated abuse (20), link a suspect to a victim or crime scene (21,22,23), or even exemplify the violent nature of an act (24,25). The odontologist determines evidential value and then chooses the appropriate analysis method. Bitemark evidence may be analyzed with physical, biological, and psychological components. 1.2.1.3.1.1 Physical Evidence The recognition of a patterned injury on the skin is considered physical evidence of a crime. Witriin a legal context, physical evidence is an example of circumstantial evidence. Physical evidence and its presence not only provides useful information to the investigators, but directs the focus of the investigation as well. As each bitemark is unique in appearance, a classification system was developed by the Northwestern University Dental School in Chicago, IL to help 19 Chapter One - Introduction distinguish the degrees of injury. This classification is shown in Table 2. If more than one class of injury is present in the same bitemark, the overall classification is based upon the most severe damage recorded. Table 2. Northwestern University Dental School's bitemark classification system Bitemark Classification Physical Description Class I Erythema Class II Contusion Class III Abrasion Class IV Laceration Class V Avulsion Advancing this classification, Sheasby and MacDonald have attempted to establish a classification based upon the probable distortion found in bite injuries (26). Primary distortion includes any distortion that may occur at the time of biting. This takes into account the dynamics involved at the time of biting and also the underlying tissue effects that have been previously discussed. Secondary distortion involves the distortion that occurs from the time the bite wTas inflicted to the time it had been examined. I lere, variables such as time-related effects, postural differences, and photographic distortion may be important considerations (26). 20 Chapter One - Introduction Physical evidence provides the means to complete comparisons between a suspect and the bite injury. Two specific comparisons, "metric" and "pattern association" will be discussed further in a subsequent section. 1.2.1.3.1.2 Biological Evidence The admissibility of DNA evidence has underscored the importance of also collecting saliva that is deposited during the bite. With sophisticated techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction a small amount of saliva is all that is necessary to yield a DNA profile of a saliva contributor. Salivary evidence can be collected from skin, foodstuff, or other objects that may have been bitten at the crime scene to identify the biter. Retrieval of DNA evidence from bitemarks has also successfully linked suspects to their crime scenes (27,28). The double swab technique, developed by Sweet, is the preferred technique for the collection of salivary DNA evidence (29). 1.2.1.3.1.3 Psychological Evidence The use of criminal profiling to attempt to identify violent offenders is widely used. The desire to understand motivations behind deviant behaviours is applicable to bite attacks. Few researchers have explored the notion that there 21 Chapter One - Introduction are characteristics that are common to all biters, and a review of the literature drew attention to the need to investigate this area further (30). Limited studies were conducted by Walter, a psychologist, who categorizes biters into three distinct groups: 1) anger-impulsive biters, 2) sadistic biters, and 3) ego-cannibalistic biters (31,32). Case reports of convicted offenders who bite include results of psychological testing that show greater tendencies toward oral sadistic behaviours (33). Injury assessment has shown that different types of bites exhibit variations, which may provide insight into the biter's state of mind. Variations may exist as quick or haphazard bites as though made in self-defense. In contrast, a sadist bites his victims slowly and intentionally, and renders well-defined tooth marks (34). It should be cautioned that an odontologist who begins to testify in court about the psychological nature of the suspect is opening up the door for criticism by commenting upon subject matters beyond their training and expertise'. 1.2.1.3.2 Collection of Evidence An evidence collection protocol is essential to any crime scene investigation. Without a specific protocol, the chance of introducing error and affecting the analysis is high. For bitemark casework, the collection of the physical evidence is 22 Chapter One - Introduction the primary focus. Two studies determined that a significant number of victim photographs and suspect exemplars were collected by individuals other than the investigating odontologist (35,36). This deviates from the suggested guidelines for bitemark evidence collection. 1.2.1.3.2.1 American Board of Forensic Odontology Guidelines Listed in Table 3 is a compilation of the ABFO guidelines for victim and suspect evidence collection (6). The ABFO recommends these guidelines be used in conjunction with additional methods of documentation as required. Deviation from these generally accepted guidelines requires justification and accountability. 23 Chapter One - Introduction Table 3. ABFO guidelines for victim and suspect evidence collection VICTIM EVIDENCE GUIDELINES SUSPECT EVIDENCE GUIDELINES • Photography Orientation and close-up photographs should be obtained with and without the presence of a scale placed adjacent to the bitemark. The scale must be positioned within the same plane as the bitemark and should include a linear and circular reference to aid in eliminating possible distortion. The film resolution should be high quality with proper color balance. Serial photographs are recommended in living victims. • Clinical Examination Extraoral examination should include recording hard tissue factors that may influence biting dynamics such as TMJ and muscle tone. Measurements of maximum mouth opening should be obtained. Intraoral examination should include documentation of tongue size and function, the periodontal condition and mobility of the teeth and a full dental history. • Salivary Swabbing Saliva swabs should be collected in circumstances in which the bite site area has not been altered from the time when the bite was inflicted. • Photography Extraoral and intraoral photographs should be taken including frontal views, lateral views and occlusal views. • Impressions Impressions of the bite site area should be taken when there is sufficient surface detail which may yield beneficial information. The material used must meet the American Dental Association specifications and suitable support should be included for proper support and reproducibility of the body site contour. • Impressions At least two dental impressions should be taken of each arch using recommended American Dental Association specifications and properly prepared. The interocclusal record should be recorded. • Tissue Samples Tissue samples should be retained if it appears they may yield useful information. • Study Cast and Bites Master casts should be prepared with American Dental Associations approved Type II dental stone. Additional casts should be fabricated for special studies. Sample bites should be made in an appropriate material simulating the bite. 1.2.1.3.2.2 Victim Evidence Collection A critical investigation of bite injuries begins with proper photographic documentation. A review of forensic photography protocols urges examiners to maintain records of the why, where, how, when, and under what circumstances 24 Chapter One - Introduction the photograph was taken as well as an awareness of the rules, procedures, and laws regarding photographic evidence according to the jurisdiction of the local court (37). The ABFO recommends that the photographs should be taken by conventional film photography, utilizing off-angle lighting and containing a rigid reference scale (6). Given that a part of the analysis is based upon a metric comparison, the importance of a proper reference scale cannot be overstated. The possibility of introducing perspective distortion in bitemark photographs is extremely high if a proper scale is not used and the angle of the camera to the substrate is not controlled (38). The presence of a scale is also very important to produce enlargements of the bitemark at known sizes. For example, life-size (100%), 200% or 300%. The ABFO developed an L-shaped reference scale that has widespread use in the documentation of forensic evidence. Figure 6 illustrates the various features that make up the ABFO No. 2 reference scale. These features include the rigid design for horizontal and vertical measurements, three circles located in the corners to aid in rectification of angular distortion, and the 18% gray areas for proper colour matching of exposure. 25 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 6. ABFO No. 2 reference scale A study analyzing the ABFO No. 2 ruler showed an overall accuracy to +/- 0.01 mm or 1% for the major centimeter graduations (39). Additionally, three considerations are necessary when the scale is placed adjacent to the bitemark and then photographed (39): "•••(1) the required portion of the bitemark and the entire widths of the legs of the scale should be well within the camera's fields of view, (2) the film plane should be closely parallel to the plane of the scale and (3) the camera should be firmly mounted, not only to facilitate meeting the above conditions, but also to avoid any camera movement during exposure and between successive exposures." Additional photographic studies (40,41) supported these recommendations. 26 Chapter One - Introduction In addition to conventional film techniques, odontologists have explored the possibilities of using alternative lighting sources. The use of ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light are well accepted in forensic science, and show the most promise in the capture of a bitemark image. Wright, in 1998, proposed the use of colour, black and white, UV, and IR photography to obtain the most evidentiary' value from a bite injury (42,43). I lc concluded that by using these four photographic techniques, the injury can be captured in three distinct planes of reference: highlighted surface detail (UV), detail below the surface of the skin (IR), and detail readily seen with the eye captured in both black and white and colour (43). Figure 7 demonstrates the differences obtained using UV and IR photographic techniques on the same bitemark injury (43). Figure 7. Examples of bitemark photographs using alternative lighting sources An impression of the bite site proves useful when there are distinct indentations left within the injury or there has been disruption of the skin's surface integrity. 27 Chapter One - Introduction The most common method to obtain a bite site impression includes a highly accurate dental impression material such as vinyl polysiloxane supplemented with a rigid backing (35). The backing is molded to the surface curvature of the skin and the orientation with respect to the position on the body is noted. This impression is used to produce a stone cast of the bite site for diree-dimensional analysis. At this time, an impression of the victim's teeth may also be obtained if the bite occurred in a location that is accessible to the victim's mouth. This will be helpful in determining if the bite was self-inflicted. The last item of victim evidence is exclusive to the deceased individual. This is the excision of the bite site. Several authors have developed techniques that are advocated for the excision and preservation of excised tissue (44,45). Figure 8 shows the steps involved in the collection of the tissue from one such technique. 28 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 8. Excision of a bitemark site • r 9 A study by Rothwell examined the distortion of the preserved skin and concluded there is significant contraction and expansion in various bitemark specimens (15). Although controversial, some odontologists routinely excise the bite injury for use in transillumination analysis, histological studies, and tissue preservation. 1.2.1.3.2.3 Suspect Evidence Collection Collection of evidence from a suspect needs to follow established legal guidelines. It is usually necessary to acquire a warrant for all procedures, and the procedures must be accomplished within a specified timeframe. At issue may be the cooperation of the suspect. If so, specific protocols will help expedite the process. 29 Chapter One - Introduction A thorough dental examination of the suspect is the first step in the collection of the evidence (6). In addition, information about any dental treatments that were received by the suspect after the alleged bite attack are noted. Photographic records are collected and should include: extraoral photographs of the full frontal view of the face and intraoral photographs to document the front, left, and right views of the teeth, the teeth in centric occlusion, and the maxillary and mandibular occlusal views. The clinical examination collects data that is utilized in the odontologist's assessment of a suspect's ability to bite. For example, data on the maximum vertical opening, Temporomandibular joint function, tongue size, and periodontal status is helpful and will tell a great deal about an individual's biting behaviour (6). Figure 9 shows the documentation of a clinical examination of a suspect. 30 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 9. Clinical examination of a bitemark suspect Collection of the dental impressions from each suspect are critical to the analysis and requires highly accurate methods. The ABFO recommends that two impressions be taken of each dental arch using impression materials approved by the American Dental Association (6). The impressions are used to produce stone dental casts, which facilitate comparisons to the injury. Additionally, the suspect is asked to bite into dental wax to provide a record of the interocclusal relationship (6). Figure 10 illustrates acceptable master dental casts and sample wax bite. 31 Chapter One - Introduction Figure 10. Suspect's dental cast and sample wax bite 1.2.1.3.3 Bitemark Evidence in Court The goal of evidence collection is the generation of data, which becomes the basis for conclusions. An early case involving the use of bitemark evidence to convict a suspect occurred in 1906 in England where two men were arrested for burglary7. One of the suspects had bitten a piece of cheese at the crime scene and this pattern in the cheese matched the tooth marks of one of the suspects (46). Although the suspect ultimately confessed, this case was the first to admit bitemark evidence into the courtroom. 1.2.1.3.4 Bitemark Evidence Admissibility Standards Acceptance of evidence by the courts requires that standards of admissibility be followed. Throughout the years, the court's use of scientific evidence has fallen 32 Chapter One - Introduction under scrutiny and specific doctrines against which the evidence is evaluated for acceptance have changed. Evidentiary challenges have been fought based on the Federal Rules of Evidence and the Frye1, Dauber?, and Kuhmom standards, (47) which are summarized in Table 4. Table 4. United States Scientific Evidence Admissibility Standards Frye Standard ' (1923) Expert testimony be supported by scientific principles or evidence generally accepted by the relevant scientific or professional community. Federal Rules of Evidence 702 (1991 Amendment) "If scientific, technical, or other specialized knowledge will assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence or to determine a fact in issue, a witness qualified as an expert by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education, may testify thereto in the form of an opinion or otherwise". Daubert Standard (1993) Defines a four-prong test for determining the "evidentiary reliability" of a scientific theory or technique: 1) Whether it "can be (and has been) tested"? 2) Whether it has been "subjected to peer review and publication"? 3) What is its "known or potential rate of error"? 4) Its "widespread acceptance" which "can be an important factor in ruling particular evidence admissibility". Kuhmo Standard (1999) A trial judge must determine whether proposed expert testimony that "reflects scientific, technical or other specialized knowledge" has a "reliable basis in the knowledge and experience of [the relevant] discipline". ' From Fryev. United States, 293 F. 1013, 1014, D.C. Cir. (1923) • From Daubert v. Merrett Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579 (1993) • From Kuhmo Tire Co. v. Carmichael, 526 U.S. 137 (1999) 33 Chapter One - Introduction Most cases involving bitemark evidence have met these standards. An extensive Hsting of bitemark evidentiary issues may be found in a collection of comprehensive review articles (48-53). Although most challenges by the accused to bitemark admissibility have been denied, the forensic dental community cannot assume that this will always be so. An adversarial legal system will continue to encourage the discrediting or disapproval of scientific testimony. A primary objective of any discipline subjected to judicial scrutiny should be the active research and support of the foundations and theories that uphold it. Bitemark analysis and forensic odontologists continue to try and meet this challenge. 34 Section Two Chapter One - Introduction Bitemark Analysis Techniques 35 Chapter One - Introduction 1.3 THEORY OF BITEMARK COMPARISONS After evidence has been collected and a probative value established, bitemark analysis may begin. To understand the different approaches used in analysis the theory behind bitemark comparisons will be detailed. This theory is based upon the notion of each individual's dental uniqueness. The foundation of bitemark analysis lies in the following two premises: 1) each individual's dentition is presumed to be unique, and 2) this presumed uniqueness is accurately recorded in the characteristics of the injury on the skin (54). 1.3.1 Uniqueness of the Human Dentition Dental uniqueness, especially the morphological and restorative traits and characteristics of the teeth, has been acknowledged by the legal community as an acceptable means in the positive identification of human remains. The ability to compare antemortem and postmortem radiographs of deceased individuals is widely accepted. This uniqueness is based upon differences in dental anatomy, restorative work, pathological conditions, and other distinguishing features that are distinctive to each dentition. 36 Chapter One - Introduction Though rarely contested for comparative identification, this uniqueness is not transferable to bitemark comparisons. The qualities that are represented in a bitemark show the three-dimensional characteristics of the teeth. These characteristics may be able to include or exclude an individual as having been the cause of a bite but authors caution odontologists in making a positive identification of an individual with the same degree of certainty as a comparative identification of found remains until further study of the uniqueness of the arrangement of the anterior teeth is completed (55). Several researchers have attempted to establish statistical evidence of the uniqueness of the dentition. These studies have included examining the frequency of dental characteristics in a population of dental casts (56), the dental uniqueness of bitemarks found in monozygotic twins (57), and an analysis of sample test bites collected across the United States (58). But the studies provided limited preliminary results based upon the population samples. Further research is needed to extrapolate the generalization of anterior dental uniqueness among all individuals. Despite the lack of solid statistical support, dental uniqueness is still generally accepted in bitemark analysis. Most dentists anecdotally report never seeing two patients that exhibit the same anterior dental pattern during long clinical careers. 37 Chapter One - Introduction However, there are case reports that caution against the reliance upon single unique features to establish a bitemark identification. One case involved two suspects whose dental characteristics appeared dissimilar in the beginning, but only after the comparisons were applied to the bitemark did the similarities become apparent (59). Other authors contend that in an attack involving a limited number of people whose names are known, identification may be based on a single unique feature. However, in an open population of suspects, a single feature may not be extraordinary enough to establish an identification of the biter (60,61). Opinion on the uniqueness of the human dentition will continue to fuel debate. Odontologists should be familiar with its shortcomings. Bowers echoed this sentiment in a web-based essay describing arguments behind the individuality of human teeth (55): "Individual dental characteristics are reported to be features that are unique to an individual variation within a defined group. The presence of worn, fractured or restored teeth is valued as unique features. If a bitemark possesses the reflection of such a feature(s), the degree of confidence in a match increases. The odontological literature is silent regarding the frequency of these traits. It is actually counter-intuitive to assume enamel chips, fractures, and dental restorations are ALWAYS inherently unique. The shape of the human teeth is quite constant in nature and their changes over time are based on common events. The chance of more than one person having a crooked front tooth is quite large. That is why orthodontists have such large practices." 38 Chapter One - Introduction 1.3.2 Comparison Methods Bitemark analysis is a complex process that can take on several forms. The ABFO surveyed the most popular analytical methods and presented these in the ABFO Bitemark Guidelines and Standards (6). These procedures are listed in Table 5. Table 5. ABFO guidelines for bitemark analysis Methods of Comparing Bitemark Evidence Generation of Overlays 1. Acetate tracing directly from models of suspect 2. Acetate tracing indirect from photocopy of model with scale 3. X-ray film overlay created from Radiopaque material applied to the wax bite 4. Life-sized or greater photos of model printed on acetate film Test Bite Media 1. Wax exemplars (aluwax, baseplate wax, etc.) 2. Styrofoam 3. Volunteer's skin 4. Alternative methods (fruit, clay, etc.) Comparison Techniques 1. Acetate tracings to life-size photos of wound 2. Working study model of teeth to life-size photo of wound 3. Working study model of impression of wound or to actual victim 4. Acetate overlays of teeth compared to greater than life-size photo of wound Technical Aids Employed for Analysis Transillumination of tissue, Computer enhancement and/or digitization of mark or teeth, Stereomicroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Videotape, Caliper utilization for measurement In a critical review of the scientific basis for bitemark analysis, attention was directed to the variety of techniques found in the literature (16). Occasions in 39 Chapter One - Introduction which competing expert witnesses utilize identical techniques are rare and, therefore, the weight of the evidence may shift to the techniques rather than the experts' conclusions. Most methods that are used incorporate both metric and non-metric components. Metric analysis is a comparison using the physical measurements of class and individual characteristics located within the bitemark and the suspect's teeth. Non-metric analysis, or pattern association, is the associative comparison of the class and individual characteristics located within the bitemark and suspect's teeth especially tooth position, diastemata between teeth, dental rotation, etc. (7). An overview of these two types of comparison methods is described below. 1.3.2.1 Metric Comparisons The specific dimensions of a dental arch can be an important factor to immediately include or exclude a suspect. The basic arrangement of human teeth follows general developmental lines but variations between individuals exist. The measurements of significance are the mesial-distal width, buccal-Ungual width, and rotational angle of each tooth. Numerous studies have examined the differences in human teeth measurements (62-66) based upon different population groups and noticeable differences have 40 Chapter One - Introduction been seen. Most measurements are manually obtained by using an instrument such as a caliper. The possibility of introducing human and instrumental error is relatively high. A study on the reliability of human odontometric data showed a high inter-observer error component and a greater discrepancy in the mesial-distal dimension than in the buccal-lingual dimension (67). New metric comparison methods are emerging that may reduce this error and enable the use of computer software programs. These techniques will be discussed in a subsequent section. It is important to note the lirnitations of the evidence under examination. Often, an investigator is faced with the task of comparing absolute measurements obtained from a suspect's cast to vague or diffuse injuries depicted in a day-old bite or photograph. A positive identification should not be based exclusively on a metric analysis without a supplemental physical comparison. 1.3.2.2 Physical Comparisons The most common method of bitemark analysis is the physical comparison or association of the suspect's teeth to the bite injury. This involves matching the pattern of an outline of the suspect's anterior teeth to an identically-sized photographic image of the bitemark. The examination includes the 41 Chapter One - Introduction documentation of any consistencies and inconsistencies demonstrated between the two patterns. A rrririimum number of concordant points needed for a positive identification of bitemarks has not been established. The debate focuses around the idea that some experts consider a formal identification is established only if a minimum number of corresponding characteristics with no unexplained non-conformity is put into evidence (68). Other experts contend the identification is a matter of judgment based upon the evaluation of the contributions to individuality on a quantitative and a qualitative level (68). Differences in subjective interpretations of patterns exist amongst odontologists. The ABFO has developed a list of acceptable terms used to describe the link between a bitemark and a suspect. These recommendations are listed in Table 6. The opinion rendered by the odontologist is based upon a personal threshold that is arrived at after comprehensive examination, consideration of all variables, and determination of the degree of concordance. 42 Chapter One - Introduction Table 6. Degrees of certainty describing the link between bitemark and suspect Potential Conclusions Term Connotation Positive Identification virtual certainty; no reasonable or practical possibility that someone else did it Probable Identification more likely than not Possible Identification could be; can't be ruled out Negative Identification not the biter Insufficient Evidence insufficient quality of evidence to make any statement of relationship to the biter The reliability of using these categorical conclusions was assessed during the 1999 ABFO Bitemark Workshop (69). Examiners were asked to draw conclusions based upon how certain they were that different suspects had made specific bitemarks. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed an accuracy score of 0.86, which the authors concluded was less than optimal accuracy due to the legal context in which bitemarks are found. With a need to be able to defend procedures and techniques in a court of law, a conservative approach was recommended when examining bitemark evidence. 1.4 BITEMARK OVERLAYS The physical comparison of the suspect to the bite is achieved by producing a transparent bitemark overlay. This aids in visualizing the biting edges of the teeth while they are compared to the bitemark photograph. An overlay contains outlines of the perimeters of the suspect's anterior teeth that would most likely be 43 Chapter One - Introduction seen in a resvilting bitemark. This outline produces what is referred to as a hollow-volume overlay. That is, an outline that is transparent outside and inside me contours of the teeth of interest. (See Figure 10.) Numerous techniques have been developed to produce bitemark overlays. The most common methods are described below. 1.4.1 Hand-Traced from Stone Casts The most simplistic overlay technique involves a hand-traced representation of the suspect's teeth. This method, originally described by Luntz and Luntz (70), produces a life-size representation of the suspect's teeth by securing a sheet of clear film over a cast of the suspect's teeth and tracing the perimeter of the anterior teeth with a fine-tipped marker. These representations of the teeth were subsequendy direcdy compared to a life-size photograph of the bite injury. This method is quick and economical, but highly subjective in the depiction of the biting edges, accuracy of the actual biting edges recorded on the film, and the stability of the transparency sheet. 44 Chapter One - Introduction 1.4.2 Hand-Traced from Wax Impressions Luntz and Luntz also described another hand tracing method by integrating a step in which the stone casts are indented into a wax wafer (70). By creating an impression of the biting edges into softened wax, the configuration of a likely bite pattern is recorded. A sheet of clear film is positioned on top of the wax impression, and the perimeter of the indented tooth markings is traced with a fine-tipped marker. This may be directiy compared to a life-size photograph. The main critique of this method is the subjectivity in the creation of the wax impression through the amount of pressure applied to the dental casts. Different forces significantiy alter the depth that the teeth impress into the wax. These differences in depth penetration produce impressions in the wax whose dimensions may be significantiy different than the dimensions of the teeth at the biting edges. The previously described subjectivity of the depiction of the biting edges and the stability of the transparent sheet are also a problem with this technique. 1.4.3 Hand-Traced from Xerographic Methods In 1991, Dailey published a technique for the production of overlays using a photocopier (71). Initially, the photocopier is calibrated to ensure 100% image 45 Chapter One - Introduction output. Upper and lower dental casts are placed on the glass of the copier and weighted to ensure maximal incisal contact with the glass. An ABFO No. 2 scale is positioned next to the casts and photocopied at 100% magnification. The photocopied image is then placed face down on a light box. The illumination allows the examiner to visualize and trace the outlines of the incisal edges on the back of the photocopy. This eliminates unwanted background images and focuses the attention on the teeth of interest. This tracing is then inserted into the photocopy machine and printed out on a transparency film to produce an overlay. A margin of error exists that is inherent in the continued reproduction of the images. Using photocopies of photocopies to produce an image is questionable. Additionally, examiner subjectivity is still present in the tracing of the incisal edges. 1.4.4 The Radiopaque Impression Method Published in 1996, Naru and Dykes presented a new spin on the previous wax impression method (72). Dental casts are impressed into a softened piece of wax to record the biting surfaces. Radiopaque powder, such as amalgam or BaS04, is mixed with alcohol to produce a solution. This mixture is carefully placed in the hollow indentations of the tooth marks and left for five minutes to facilitate alcohol evaporation. Occlusal radiographic film is placed under the wax wafer 46 Chapter One - Introduction and a radiographic image is exposed and developed. The film will show radiopacities where the tooth marks are positioned. A computer or photocopier is programmed to reverse the image and produce an inverted representation of the pattern. 1.4.5 Computer-Generated Overlays In 1998, Sweet endeavoured to reduce examiner subjectivity in the production of overlays by developing a technique using a computer, scanner, and imaging software program (54). Dental casts are placed on the glass platen of a flatbed scanner along with an ABFO No. 2 scale. The image is scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. Using the Magic Wand Tool, the biting edges of the teeth are objectively selected and pasted into a new layer. The Magic Wand Tool selects portions of an image based on the similarities of adjacent pixel values. By removing the background layer containing dental structures not related to the biting edges, the images of the teeth recorded in the new layer can be printed on a clear sheet and used for an overlay. 47 Chapter One - Introduction 1.4.6 Comparison of Overlay Techniques Several studies have evaluated the accuracy of various overlay production methods. In 1998 Sweet and Bowers compared the five most common overlay methods described above (73). Examples of the overlays produced by each method are shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. Examples of five common overlay techniques Hand Drawn - Casts o o o \ Hand Drawn - Xerox Hand Dravvn - Wax © Radiopaque Method 0 ^ Computer Method 48 Chapter One - Introduction Data was collected for the area and relative rotation from each tooth present on the 150 sets of overlays studied. Results of a multivariate analysis of variance showed significant differences between the techniques for both area and rotation. The computer-based production method was the most accurate and most objective, and was used as a gold standard to compare the accuracy of the other methods. Hand-traced methods were determined to be inaccurate and subjective. Another study examined differences in examiner expertise with the reproducibility in the production of overlays using manual and digital methods (72). Four examiners were selected; an odontologist, a dental nurse, a dental surgeon, and a layman. Results demonstrated how subjectivity, perception, and manual ability can influence variations among the examiners for the hand drawings. The digital method was less sensitive to these factors. Although not completely objective, the use of computers is forging the way toward less subjectivity in the comparisons of bitemarks. With advancements in computer technology and imaging, a movement is underway to integrate the numerous digital applications that are beneficial in a forensic investigation to bitemark comparisons. 49 Section Three Chapter One - Introduction Computers and Digital Imaging in Bitemark Analysis Chapter One - Introduction 1.5 COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL IMAGING Computers are rapidly becoming an essential element of everyday life. Their low cost, availability, and ease-of-use make the digital manipulation of information easier than it has been before. Forensic odontology investigations have followed similar trends and have begun to take advantage of computers and other digital resources. 1.5.1 Computer Applications in Forensic Odontology In 1996, Rawson reviewed the most likely uses for computers in forensic dentistry and are listed in Table 7 (74). Table 7. 1996 listing of computer uses in forensic dentistry Uses for Computers in Forensic Dentistry 1) Writing and processing documents 2) Searching for missing people and handling antemortem and postmortem records relating to mass disasters 3) Reviewing charts and managing records 4) Researching and handling data such as literature reviews 5) Radiographic images 6) Taking digital photographs and enhancing and comparing images Although this list provides a general overview, the uses for computers have continued to expand. The applications related to the identification of human remains, analysis of evidence, and web use in research and casework has seen vast 51 Chapter One - Introduction improvements. A few significant areas of focus relating to the identification of human remains and bitemark analysis are discussed below. 1.5.1.1 Techniques in Digital Identification of Remains Two computer programs are used in mass disaster identifications. CAPMI (Computer-Assisted Post-Mortem Identification), was developed by the United States Army Institute of Dental Research and is DOS-based (75). WinID was developed by Dr. James McGivney and is made available free of charge to all interested parties, including the largest response team in North America, the United States Public Health Services Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team (75). Several other computer applications for disaster response teams have been developed in Europe, Canada, and Australia. The use of these programs significandy reduces the time involved by narrowing the list of potential individuals that most likely match the remains. Additionally, computers have proven to be useful in identifying specific sets of remains. Computer imaging programs have been used to compare dental restorations and structures in antemortem and postmortem radiographs (76,77), distinguish different types of restorative materials (78), and to estimate the age of adult teeth (79). 52 Chapter One - Introduction 1.5.1.2 Techniques in Digital Bitemark Analysis In 1995, Nambiar et al developed SCIP, an interactive shape analysis computer program (80). This program is useful in measuring the locations and positional relationships between two shapes. It is based on a "least squares" method, which finds the common location and orientation of two shapes to compare their similarities and differences. This information is used to calculate a sirnilarity index. Nambiar tested this program by experimenting with bitemarks from known suspects on flat wax surfaces, foodstuff, and human skin (80,81). The authors concluded that a similarity index of 2.0 or less could identify a biter. Some studies have focused on the differences in accuracy between manual measurements versus computer measurements (82,83). In both instances, it was shown that scanning three-dimensional models into two-dimensional images produces measurements that are at least as accurate as those produced by other techniques. McGivney and Barsley developed a method for the mathematical documentation of bitemarks (84). In this method the centroid of each mark is determined and used as a point of reference for defining the mark. Lines are then used to connect each point around the arch. The lengths of these lines and the angles 53 Chapter One - Introduction formed between adjacent lines are recorded and used to describe the bitemark. The authors suggest that these lengths and angles may yield information to distinguish identifiable physical characteristics in the biter. For example, large lengths may indicate large teeth or interdental spacings, whereas shorter lengths may signify small or overlapping teeth. The authors warn that applying this method to poorly-defined bitemarks may prove inconclusive. Further research is necessary. The most critical factor in bitemark analysis is the quality of the injury photograph as it is this evidence that is used in the direct comparison to a suspect's teeth. Therefore, photographic elements such as lighting exposure, focus, resolution, and angle are crucial in obtaining a high-quality end product. Sadly, many bitemark photographs fall short of expectations. Odontologists have developed specialized techniques to attempt to address this shortfall. 1.5.1.2.1 Correction of Photographic Distortion Distortion associated with bitemark photographs is a direct result of improperly aHgning the camera to the injury when the image is captured. Bowers (85) classified four types of distortion found in bitemark photographs, which are summarized in Table 8. 54 Chapter One - Introduction Table 8. Categones of off-angle distortion found in bitemark photographs Distortion Type Definition Entire scale and evidence on the I same plane, the camera is not properly aligned II Entire scale and evidence are not parallel III Portion of scale is off plane rv Scale is bent, curved or skewed A study examining the use of Adobe Photoshop® to correct these distortions was completed by Johansen and Bowers (85). The results showed that Type I distortion can be reliably corrected using Adobe Photoshop®. The authors further concluded that Type III and IV distortion, which are subsets of the category of distortion found in Type I, are amenable to digital rectification methods. But in Type II distortions, the distortion is caused by the misalignment of the original evidence and scale. This situation would require the bitemark to be re-photographed. In addition to problems with distortion, bitemark images may exhibit a poor visual quality. Digital enhancement techniques have been developed to improve the features captured in the photograph. In 2001, Karazalus and Palmback described the application of a computer program called Lucis®, a Differential Hysterisis Processing technique, to use in forensic cases (86). The principle 55 Chapter One - Introduction behind Lucis® is the ability to work with hundreds of levels of contrast rather that the limited levels seen by the human eye. Lucis® selects a contrast range that can suppress distracting fine background details and visually enhance the critical portions of the image. The authors report that Lucis® is an image enhancement program and not an image restoration method. This software has opened the door to future applications to improve the quality of photographic evidence. Adobe Photoshop® is a popular method used to select the biting surfaces of anterior teeth and produce an overlay (9,54). In 2001, Pretty and Sweet examined the effectiveness of the use of bitemark overlays produced using Photoshop® (87). A series of simulated bitemarks were created on pig-skin, overlays were produced representing possible suspects and distributed to examiners for case analysis. The examiners were selected to represent three different groups based upon previous bitemark experience. The effectiveness of overlays for physical comparison was measured by examining the sensitivity and specificity of the examiners' conclusions with a forced decision model. These results were then analyzed as a single variable of accuracy using receiver operator characteristics analysis. The mean area under the curve for the groups was 80.7%, which means the examiners were able to correctly identify the biter eight out of ten times. Interestingly, the study also showed that experience had little impact on the 56 Chapter One - Introduction effectiveness of the use of overlays. This study established error rates for the use of overlays and laid a foundation for further investigation. Overlays are also produced using software programs that analyze the tone contrast found in scanned cast images. Using tone-line imaging, it has been suggested that artistic ability, knowledge of dental anatomy, and personal bias do not influence the result producing a more objective analysis (88). Nam and Dykes developed a technique that enables an overlay to be created by mverting the tonal elements within the cast image to produce an outline of the original biting edges (72, 89). Figure 12 illustrates a few steps involved in the production of an overlay using this technique. Figure 12. Overlay production using computer imaging contrast conversion methods 57 Chapter One - Introduction These two methods are the most popular for the production of computer-generated overlays. They are used widely in North America and Europe, respectively. In the current study, we will compare the results of each technique to evaluate their comparative reliability. 58 Chapter Two Chapter Two — Statement of the Problem Statement of the Problem 59 Chapter Two — Statement of the Probkm 2.1 Statement of the Problem Courts have recently taken an aggressive approach toward the scientific foundation of expert testimony. The validity and reliability of scientific techniques used in the courtroom have brought many previously accepted methods of forensic investigation under closer inspection. Significant cases such as Daubert and Kuhmo have demonstrated that scientific evidence must meet a minimum level of judicial scrutiny before testimony is accepted. The current study aims to compare the reliability of two different methods to produce computer-generated bitemark overlays. Questions must be answered on how often one examiner would produce an overlay identical to another examiner and on how examiners would produce consistent overlays using the two different techniques. While researchers have examined different computer methods individually, there has never been a direct comparison of one leading technique to the other. This study will focus on the production of overlays by using a) Adobe Photoshop® Magic Wand Tool, and b) Adobe Photoshop® Inversion Tool, the techniques popular in North America (Sweet and Bowers) and Europe (Naru and Dykes). By evaluating the inter- and intra-exarniner reliability of the two techniques, the scientific foundation of bitemark analysis will be furthered. 60 Chapter Three - Materials' and Methods Chapter Three Materials and Methods 61 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PROTOCOLS Participants were asked to produce hollow-volume overlays using two different computer techniques. The overlays were collected and measurements of the area and x- and y- positions were obtained for each of the six upper and six lower anterior teeth. These measurements were evaluated using analysis of variance and calculations of reliability coefficients. 3.1.1 Examiner Groups The following groups were selected to address this issue: • Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology with extensive bitemark experience • Forensic Dentists with limited bitemark experience • 2nd Year Dental Students Ten examiners were recruited in each group based upon their ability to meet the established criteria: access to a computer with version Adobe Photoshop® v5.0 or higher, capability to save digital images to either a Zip disk or CD-ROM, and willingness to volunteer their time to the study. A total of thirty examiners received the study materials. 62 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1.2 Cast Selection The dental casts were selected to be representative of a typical range of the variations found in the human dentition. Six casts were chosen that exhibited assorted levels of difficulty based upon tooth placement and rotation. The casts were stratified as follows: two casts had perfect alignments, two casts showed moderate levels of crowding, and two casts had buccal-lingual inversions. 3.1.3 Cast Preparation Digital images of the casts were obtained by scanning to high-quality JPEG format using the method described by Johansen (9). An ABFO No. 2 scale was included in each image. The final images were confirmed to be life-size and were saved in a Photoshop Document (PSD) file format at a resolution of 150 pixels/inch. The casts were labeled A through F and can be found in Appendix A. In order to evaluate mtra-examiner reliability, it was necessary that some of the casts would need to be examined more than once. To accomplish this, all cast images were duplicated and altered at the occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth to mislead the examiners into diinking the casts were different. Figure 13 illustrates an example of an original and modified cast. 63 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Figure 13. Example of an original and modified cast image used to assess mtra-exarriiner reliability To control for the potential for the examiners to improve their skills with each successive overlay, the order the casts were to be completed was randomized. Each examiner was placed into one of ten participant groups and the cast order was randomized within these groups. Each of the six original casts were duplicated and modified resulting in twelve casts images that were distributed to the examiners. The casts were labeled Cases 1 through 12 dependent upon which randomization group the examiner was placed in. Each examiner would create an overlay for each case twice allowing for calculations of mtra-examiner reliability without the need for a washout period to elapse between examinations. 64 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1.4 Study Package Each examiner received a package mcluding the following: o Instructions o Questionnaire o CD-ROM labeled "Study CD" containing the twelve cast images labeled Cases 1-12 o CD-ROM or Zip Disk labeled "Blank CD or "Blank Disk" to submit their overlays o Pre-addressed envelope for the return of the materials A pilot study was completed to assess the comprehensibility of the instructional booklets. Three independent examiners were given a cast image and asked to follow the instructions to create an overlay using each technique. The resulting overlays and examiners' comments were evaluated to determine if the instructions were adequate. The study booklets were modified accordingly. 3.1.4.1 Study Questionnaire A questionnaire was developed to gauge experience levels for each examiner. A copy of the questionnaire can be found in Appendix B. The questionnaire focused on two areas: computer and bitemark experience. 65 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1.4.2 Technique A Technique A is the well-known, peer-reviewed method routinely used in North America. Appendix C contains the complete instructions provided to the participants and an example showing the main steps involved to produce an overlay using Technique A for the maxillary anterior teeth. The main feature in Technique A is the use of the Magic Wand Tool. The Magic Wand cursor is placed over the biting edge of each tooth and the area is selected. The area selected will include all adjacent pixel tones of similar values based upon the tolerance setting of the Magic Wand Tool. This will create an outline of the perimeters of the biting surface of each tooth. The perimeter is then defined by stroking a solid black line around the selected area to produce the overlay. Figure 14 summarizes the process involved. Figure 14. Technique A overlay production steps Open image in Photoshop® Zoom-in to magnify the incisal edges of the anterior teeth Select the incisal edges using the Magic Wand Tool u Copy the selected areas into a new layer called 'Overlay' Clear the center noise and stroke the perimeter of the teeth on the inside with 2 pixel black line Deselect the background image of the cast and save the overlay 66 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1.4.3 Technique B Technique B is used predominately in Europe and is based on previously published methods (72, 89) that focus on different contrast levels found in the cast image. Appendix D contains the complete instructions provided to the participants and an example showing the main steps involved to produce an overlay using Technique B for the maxillary anterior teeth. The main feature in Technique B is the use of the Glowing Edges filter. This filter objectively selects and highlights the edges of the cast and teeth. The contrast of the image is then inverted and the unwanted areas are erased until only an outline of the incisal edges of the anterior teeth remain. Figure 15 summarizes the process involved. Figure 15. Technique B overlay production steps Open the image in Photoshop® Zoom-in to magnify the incisal edges of the anterior teeth JJ Select Filter > Stylize > Glowing Edges Select Image > Adjust > Invert u Erase unwanted areas until you are left with an outline of the incisal edges of the anterior teeth w Continue to erase separating the individual anterior teeth and save the overlay 67 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.1.4.4 Follow-up Questionnaire After the overlays were returned by the examiners, a follow-up questionnaire was used to collect additional data. Appendix E contains the questionnaire. Three questions were asked: 1) Which technique did you prefer for the production of a bitemark overlay? Why? 2) What was the average time it took you to produce an overlay using Technique A? Technique B? 3) For both techniques, when you focused on the anterior teeth was the entire arch/cast visible or did you zoom-in on the teeth to get a closer look at the incisal edges? 3.2 MEASUREMENT OF AREA AND POSITION The renderings of the biting edges of the teeth recorded on the overlays by the examiners were converted to black using Adobe Photoshop®. The area (square mm) and position (x-coordinate, y-coordinate) of the black regions were calculated using Scion Image®. A description of these stages is explained below. The overlay was opened in Adobe Photoshop®. The tolerance setting of the Magic Wand Tool was adjusted to 18. The entire overlay was selected and then inverted so that only the biting edges remain selected. A new file was created with a standard width and height of 14 centimeters each with a resolution of 150 68 Chapter Three - Materials' and Methods pixels/inch in a grayscale mode on a white background. The selected images of the teeth were pasted into this new file. The selection was Filled using 100% opacity black and normal blending. The image was Deselected and the layers were merged and flattened. The final product was saved as an uncompressed TIFF image. Figures 16 and 17 illustrate one of the examiner's original hollow-volume overlays and the converted solid-volume overlays for each technique. Figure 16. Original and converted overlay example for Technique A 69 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Figure 17. Original and converted overlay example for Technique B r \ • * I I * ° * 9 f • » \ 3^ If two teeth were found adjoined, a one-pixel wide break was created using the eraser tool at the normal anatomical separation between the teeth. This was necessary to differentiate each tooth. Each converted overlay was opened in Scion Image® and the following preferences were set: a) area measurements in niillimeters, b) x-y centroid position, and c) activation of the wand auto-measure tool. Each measurement was recorded in a spreadsheet. Figure 18 shows a sample image of an overlay analysis. Appendix F contains the complete data set for each examiner with the follow examiner group codes: D = Diplomates, F = Forensic Dentists and S = Dental Students. The Universal Tooth Numbering System (#1-32) was used to identify the specific teeth. 70 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Measurements of area, x-coordinate, and y-coordinate were collected for each tooth on each converted overlay. This resulted in 36 data points for each case. A total of 432 data points were collected for each examiner for each technique. 71 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.3 ASSESSMENT METHODS 3.3.1 Reliability Reliability is defined as the extent to which a method of measurement performs consistendy (90). Often, reliability assessments focus on the premise of reproducibility. The principle aim of a reliability analysis is to determine the degree of agreement between examiners when using a particular rating scheme or technique. Ratings can be qualitative or quantitative measurements. The type of rating measured will determine the most appropriate reliability test for the final analysis. Reliability assessments may follow two different approaches commonly seen in clinical and laboratory settings. In a clinical setting, it is common to examine observer agreement regarding the presence or absence of a particular sign or symptom (91). The outcome of this type of assessment is highly dependent upon the detail of the rating scale. For example, ten examiners may be asked to evaluate an individual's dental anxiety. One scale may have the examiner rate anxiety levels as simply the presence or absence of anxiety. A different scale may have the examiner rate the individual's anxiety on a scale of 1-10 with 1 as low anxiety and 10 as high anxiety. It is evident that when there are more categories included, there is a lower chance of perfect agreement between the examiners. 72 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Therefore, a more appropriate term for this type of assessment is the degree of association between the examiners (91). An analysis based upon this approach will allow trends to show significance without demanding perfect agreement as a means of reproducibility. In the laboratory setting, cases are assessed where there is an inestimable number of possible rating responses. This assessment typically involves an estimation of the precision of a technique by measuring samples and determining the variability of individual measurements (91). Precision is defined as how close repeated measurements of the same quantity are to each other (90). In this case, the reproducibility of the scores is determined by the amount of error in an individual assessment. Variability is measured by evaluating the standard deviation of the individual values around the calculated mean (91). Although this type of assessment is expressed as distinct numerical values, it is not sufficient to conclude a technique is reliable based solely upon insignificant differences in the means. Consequendy, reliability assessments should focus both upon the observers' error rates and the association between the ratings designated to the individuals by different observers (91). 73 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.3.2 Reliability Tests To determine the variance due to different factors, a technique called analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used. This approach involves dividing the various factors into categories to determine the individual effects. The variability due to the samples is calculated by the difference between the score obtained and the mean sample score. This difference is squared and added together to produce the sum of squares (91). The variability due to observers is calculated the same way using the observer scores. The calculation of the random error involves determining how much each individual score deviates from its expected value (91). Once these values have been established, the total variance of the scores can be broken down into the three components. The mean square is obtained by dividing the sum of squares by the degree of freedom (DF) (90). The degree of freedom is determined by subtracting one from the number of samples or observers involved for that component. 74 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods The components of variance (a2) can then be estimated by relating the mean squares using the equations below (90). ^sample = mean square samples — mean square error number of observers ^observer = mean square observers — mean square error number of samples a2error = mean square error Finally, this information may be used to estimate the reliability of the measurements. The reliability coefficient (R) is used to quantify the magnitude of effect. The intraclass correlation coefficient equation is shown below (90). R = 2 sample 2 , _2 + n2 sample observer ei R values will range between zero and one. A coefficient close to one indicates excellent reliability whereas a value close to zero indicates poor reliability (90). An analysis of variance is commonly employed when comparing the effects of different factors between different groups of examiners. To understand the results, an overview of a typical SAS printout for an analysis of variance design is displayed in Table 9. 75 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Table 9. A typical SAS printout for an analysis of variance SOURCE DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr >F Model/Treatment 3 712.586 237.529 3.77 0.028 Error 19 1196.631 62.981 Corrected Total 22 1909.217 From Mendenhall, 1979 The objective of an analysis of variance is to locate important independent variables in a study and determine how they interact and affect the response (92). Of particular interest to the impact of different vanables is the calculation of the F value. This value is calculated by dividing the mean square error into the mean square for the treatment (92). This F value can then be compared to a table of critical F Values to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the treatment means. For the purposes of this study, the computer automatically compares this value and determines a probability of observing a value of F as large or larger than the calculated F value, given the null hypothesis is true. In the example shown in Table 9, the probability' of 0.028 translates to a 2.8% chance of having no significant difference between the treatment means. Therefore, the smaller the p value the more significant effect will be seen and the null hypothesis is rejected. A limitation of using p values is that if an investigator calculates a small p value and rejects the null hypothesis, they have littie idea of how big or small the effect could be in the population. Supplemental analyses, which focus on the effect size are recommended. 76 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods Up until this point the focus has been on exaniining the differences between unique observers, which is an evaluation of the inter-examiner reUability. Technique assessments often also include an examination of the intra-examiner rehability. This is accomplished through repeated measurements of the same sample at different times by the same observer. The data can be collected and analyzed using the same methods as the inter-examiner assessment. 3.3.3 Reliability Model Assessing the reliability of the production of computer-generated bitemark overlays is multi-faceted. The influences of several independent variables involved have the potential to affect the final results significandy. A statistical model was needed that could incorporate these various factors and measure the size of their effects. Alan Donald, Ph.D., a statistical consultant, was employed to develop and apply a suitable model to assess the reliability for the parameters of the study. An analysis of variance was required to assess the effect of the following factors: forensic experience, examiners, casts, teeth, and random error. 77 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods 3.3.3.1 Calculation of Expected Mean Squares and Variances One of the values obtained in an analysis of variance is the mean squares of different factors. The mean squares provide an estimate of the effect sizes and variance of the factors involved in the ANOVA. The mean square is not a direct estimate of the variance for that factor. Rather, the composition of the mean square depends upon the relationship between the factors and whether they are fixed or random. For this study, Technique A and Technique B are considered fixed factors. If the experiment were replicated, the identical techniques would be employed. Therefore, technique was not a factor in the analysis. Additionally, the experience level of the examiner groups is considered a fixed factor. The remaining factors; examiners, casts, teeth, and error are considered random factors. The selection of these factors are based on a representative sample taken from a larger population. A repeat of the experiment with different participants or dental casts may yield different results. An analysis was performed on each examiner group independently and as a cumulative assessment. The three outcome measures that have been obtained for each tooth are: 1) area in square millimeters, 2) x-coordinate of the centroid position, and 3) y-78 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods coordinate of the centroid position. All of the outcome measures were analyzed indepcndendy. The statistical model for the collected data is as follows: y = p. + A, + By + Q + Dl(k) + e„m y - any of the three outcome measures A - experience; fixed; levels; a = 3; index /; effect is §A B - examiners, nested in experience; random; levels; b = 8; indexj, variance is CTB C- casts; random; levels; c = 6; index k, variance is CTC D - teeth, nested in casts; random; levels; d = 12; index 4 variance is a2D 8 - error; random; levels, n = 2; index m; variance is <T£ A table was created to illustrate the calculations involved in deteimining the expected mean squares based upon the data collected. See Table 10. Table 10. Calculations for the expected mean squares 79 Chapter Three - Materials and Methods The variances are calculated by using the expected mean square calculations and the observed mean square (MS) values obtained in the ANOVA analysis. The estimates of the variances are as follows: o2p= MSB - MSE 144 cry= MSC-MSD 576 cry = MSP - MSE 48 o^g = MSE With the estimates of variance determined, the next ifiing to consider is how to apply these results into an assessment of reliability. A measurement of reliability was calculated using the following equation: G2 c + <J2D R = a2 B + + a2D + a2£ A reliability coefficient was determined for each outcome measure, for each group of observers, and for each technique under investigation. The results were then compared. 80 Chapter Four - Results Chapter Four Results 81 Chapter Four - Results 4.1 INTER-EXAMINER AND INTRA-EXAMINER RELIABILITY A SAS PROC GLM program was used to perform the ANOVAs. The observed mean squares from the ANOVAs were put into a Quattro-Pro spreadsheet to calculate the reliability coefficients. The results for reliability are displayed in Tables 11 through 18 for each examiner group and a cumulative total. The ANOVA analysis for the area, x-position, and y-position are displayed in Tables 19 through 24. 82 Chapter Four - Results 4.1.1 Diplomates Table 11. Diplomate rehability analysis for Technique A Outcome Variable Mean Variance Reliability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Rater 1028.966 7.116 Inter-examiner = Area Cast 167.478 0.200 0.421 Tooth 128.985 7.793 Intra-examiner = Error 4.294 4.294 0.651 Rater 37.934 0.205 Inter-examiner = X-position Cast 886.306 (MK )(1 0.952 Tooth 2754.057 171.605 Intra-examiner = Error 8.337 8.337 0.953 Rater 6.348 0.012 Inter-examiner = Y-position Cast 101.728 0.1)1 HI 0.997 Tooth 23474.970 1466.892 Intra-examiner = Error 4.691 4.691 0.997 Table 12. Diplomate reliability analysis for Technique B Outcome Variable Mean Variance Reliability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Rater 779.796 5.346 Inter-examiner = Area Cast 263.466 0.000 0.510 Tooth 265.461 15.967 Intra-examiner = Error 9.986 9.986 0.615 Rater 35.801 0.222 Inter-examiner = X-position Cast 246.633 0.000 0.973 Tooth 2353.284 146.837 Intra-examiner = Error 3.899 3.899 0.974 Rater 61.223 0.411 Inter-examiner = Y-position Cast 17079.060 0.000 0.998 Tooth 22933.370 1433.211 Intra-examiner — Error 1.991 1.991 0.999 83 Chapter Four - Results 4.1.2 Forensic Dentists Table 13. Dentist reliability analysis for Technique A Outcome Measured Variable Factor Mean Square Variance Estimate Rehability Coefficient Area Rater 1785.346 12.344 Inter-examiner — 0.260 Intra-examiner = 0.478 Cast 176.781 0.319 Tooth 115.601 6.743 Error 7.713 7.713 X-position Rater 40.118 0.211 Inter-examiner = 0.942 Intra-examiner = 0.943 Cast 767.004 0.000 Tooth 2583.731 160.878 Error 9.681 9.681 Y-position Rater 8.660 i).()23 Inter-examiner = 0.9% Intra-examiner — 0.996 Cast 80.800 0.000 Tooth 23379.780 1460.906 Error 5.283 5.283 Table 14. Dentist reliability analysis for Technique B Outcome Variable Mean Variance Rehability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Rater 1823.307 12551 Inter-examiner = Area Cast 239.393 0.00(1 0.349 Tooth 262.178 15.381 Intra-examiner = Error 16.081 16.081 0.489 Rater 18.093 0.071 Inter-examiner — X-position (last 181.305 o.ooc 0.949 Tooth 2367.079 147.447 Intra-examiner = Error 7.931 7.931 0.949 Rater 52.998 0.266 Inter-examiner = Y-position Cast 17435.390 0.000 0.990 Tooth 22745.370 1420.664 Intra-examiner = Error 14.754 14.754 0.990 84 Chapter Four - Results 4.1.3 Dental Students Table 15. Student reliability analysis for Technique A Outcome Variable Mean Variance Reliability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Rater 316.858 2.161 Inter-examiner = Area Cast 308.816 1.198 0.423 Tooth 78.709 4.563 Intra-examiner = Error 5.699 5.699 0.503 Rater 44.032 0.238 Inter-examiner = X-position Cast 679.397 o.ooc 0.940 Tooth 2537.232 157.963 Intra-examiner = Error 9.831 9.831 0.941 Rater 11.464 0.042 Inter-examiner = Y-position Cast 58.522 0.000 0.996 Tooth 23270.850 1454.088 Intra-examiner = Error 5.438 5.438 0.9% Table 16. Student reliability analysis for Technique B Outcome Variable Mean Variance Reliability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Rater 407.564 2.764 Inter-examiner = Area Cast 304.400 0.456 0.522 Tooth 216.815 12.955 Intra-examiner = 1 Lrror 9.536 9.536 0.584 Rater 2.038 O.OOC Inter-examiner = X-position Cast 209.753 O.OOC 0.968 Tooth 2354.097 146.831 Intra-examiner = Error 4.808 4.808 0.968 Rater 14.802 0.022 Inter-examiner = Y-position Cast 17141.110 0.000 0.992 Tooth 22802.640 1424.436 Intra-examiner = Error 11.671 11.671 0.992 85 Chapter Your - Results 4.1.4 Cumulative Reliability Analysis Table 17. Cumulative reliability analysis for Technique A Outcome Measured Variable Factor Mean Square Variance Estimate Reliability-Coefficient Area Status 580.283 Inter-examiner — 0.327 Intra-examiner = 0.527 Rater 1043.724 ~.2U6 Cast 614.899 0.539 Tooth 304.685 6.221 Error 6.075 6.075 X-position Status 14.018 Inter-examiner — 0.946 Intra-examiner = 0.947 Rater 40.661 0.219 Cast 2317.895 0.01 H Tooth 7864.347 163.650 Error 9.135 9.135 Y-position Status 8.538 Inter-examiner -0.997 Intra-examiner = 0.997 Rater 8.824 0.026 Cast 236.620 0.000 Tooth 70119.320 1460.71-1 Error 5.050 5.050 Table 18. Cumulative reliability analysis for Technique B Outcome Variable Mean Variance Reliability Measured Factor Square Estimate Coefficient Status 2794.373 Inter-examiner = 0.437 Intra-examiner = 0.550 Rater KX13.556 6.886 Area Cast 747.478 0.057 Tooth 714.652 14.638 Error 12.041 12.041 Status 7.642 Inter-examiner — 0.964 Intra-examiner = 0.964 Rater 18.643 0.092 X-position Cast 621.701 0.000 Tooth 7069.326 147.164 Error 5.436 5.436 Status 16.989 Inter-examiner -0.993 Intra-examiner = 0.993 Rater 43.008 0.233 Y-position Cast 51609.060 0.000 Tooth 68465.860 1426.175 Error 9.446 9.446 86 Chapter Four - Results 4.1.5 Area Table 19. Area ANOVA results for Technique A Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr> F Status 2 1160.566 580.283 95.52 <0.0001 Observer (Status) 21 21918.196 1043.724 171.81 <0.0001 Cast 5 3074.495 614.899 101.22 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 20109.208 304.685 50.16 <0.0001 Table 20. Area ANOVA results for Technique B Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr> F Status 2 5588.747 2794.373 232.08 <0.0001 Observer (Status) 21 21074.677 1003.556 83.35 <0.0001 Cast 5 3737.388 747.478 62.08 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 47167.056 714.652 59.35 <0.0001 87 Chapter Four - Results 4.1.6 Position Table 21. X-Position ANOVA results for Technique A Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Status 2 28.0367 14.018 1.53 0.2157 Observer (Status) 21 853.883 40.661 4.45 <0.0001 Cast 5 11589.475 2317.895 253.74 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 519046.890 7864.347 860.91 <0.0001 Table 22. X-Position ANOVA results for Technique B Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Status 2 15.284 7.642 1.41 0.2453 Observer (Status) 21 391.523 18.6439 3.43 <0.0001 Cast 5 3108.507 621.7014 114.36 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 466575.485 7069.3255 1300.41 <0.0001 88 Chapter Your - Results Table 23. Y-Position ANOVA results for Technique A Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Status 2 17.077 8.538 1.69 0.1845 Observer (Status) 21 185.302 8.824 1.75 0.0187 Cast 5 1183.102 236.620 46.85 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 4627875.096 70119.320 13884.8 <0.0001 Table 24. Y-Position ANOVA results for Technique B Source DF Sum of Squares Mean Square F Value Pr > F Status 2 33.978 16.989 1.80 0.1657 Observer (Status) 21 903.165 43.008 4.55 <0.0001 Cast 5 258045.290 51609.058 5463.87 <0.0001 Tooth (Cast) 66 4518747.050 68465.864 7248.51 <0.0001 89 Chapter Four - Resu/ts 4.2 EXAMINER OVERLAY EXAMPLES Figures 19 and 20 are examples of the different types of overlays produced by the examiners. Figure 19. Converted solid-volume overlay produced by a single click on a tooth (arrow) and the original overlay Close-up of original overlay 90 Chapter Four - Results Figure 20. Comparison of two hollow-volume overlays produced using Technique B I 4 . m M L- a I r i i. @ • • • tn? r~?, B Close-up view of maxillary arch 91 Chapter Five - Discussion Chapter Five Discussion 92 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A.R. Feinstein once stated, "To advance the art and science of forensic odontology, the equipment an odontologist needs most to improve is himself/herself' (6). Although poignant about the biased nature of man, the techniques used to study and advance forensic dentistry requires proper investigation. All experimental designs should follow a sound, scientific methodology. These requirements usually include defining a problem, developing a hypothesis and prediction, and collecting and evaluating data (6). Therefore, a discussion on the experimental design used for this study is appropriate for a complete analysis of the findings. 5.1.1 Examiner Selection Forensic dentistry encompasses a diverse range of topics. Without a mandatory licensing board, a forensic dentist can purport to be an expert based on accumulated experience and not necessarily training. It is not uncommon, therefore, to have an experienced forensic dentist who is skilled in one area of interest but lacking practice in another. The overwhelming majority of a forensic dentist's time is spent on comparative identifications of found remains and not bitemark analyses. Nonetheless, forensic dentists are being called upon to analyze bite injuries despite a lack of bitemark experience. Differences in the levels of 93 Chapter Five - Discussion experience amongst examiners who are analyzing bitemark overlays is a key issue for investigation. In a previous study (100), three examiner groups were also chosen to represent differing levels of bitemark experience. These groups consisted of 1) Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology (DABFO), 2) forensic dentists from the ASFO, and 3) general dental practitioners. The study's conclusions showed no significant differences between the three groups suggesting that experience and training in bitemark analysis have no affect on the success of using overlays to identify biters correctiy. The current study focuses on having the examiners produce the overlays, rather than the use of an overlay to analyze a bitemark. Diplomates of the ABFO are certified specialists who have successfully passed the certification examination. They represent the group with the highest level of training and experience in bitemark injuries. The second group of forensic dentists in the current study were selected from members of the ASFO. These examiners have experience in comparative identifications and minor to moderate experience in bitemark analysis. The final group represented examiners with limited dental knowledge and no forensic experience. They were 2nd year dental students recruited from the University of British Columbia, Faculty of Dentistry. 94 Chapter Five - Discussion Recruitment of examiners to participate in this study was a challenge due to the time commitment. Most of those in the first two groups maintain full-time clinical practices and also have additional forensic casework. It was anticipated that the time commitment for each participant would be approximately two to four hours, and this was determined to be the maximum, reasonable time requested of the participants. After having committed to the project, a few examiners decided they no longer had the available time and withdrew from the study. Furthermore, some examiners revealed, after the fact, that they lacked the version of Adobe Photoshop® necessary to complete the project and were forced to withdraw. The deadline allocated for each participant to complete the study was six weeks. Most of the data was not received until more than twelve weeks had passed. The overall response was an 80% return rate. The end result was eight Diplomates, eight forensic dentists, and eight students. In future studies, it would be beneficial to collect data and information like this in a workshop or symposium. A controlled environment, standardization of computer software and hardware, and immediate acquisition of the results would eliminate some of the obstacles that were encountered in the collection of this data. 95 Chapter Fine - Discussion 5.1.2 Cast Selection Every individual has a presumed dental uniqueness that is exhibited in the shape, size, position, and anatomical variations found within the teeth and corresponding alveolar structures. Therefore, the selection of the casts used for this study had to reflect a degree of dental uniqueness found in the population. Cast selection was taken from an actual bitemark case in which the odontologist was given six different dental casts to compare to one bitemark. There were different degrees of difficulty randomly shown in each cast. Six casts were selected so as to allow examiners time to perform their analyses within the allotted timeframe. To increase compliance, both inter- and intra-examiner studies were completed simultaneously in one session. Some examiners commented that they noticed a few cast images were duplicates but appreciated being able to complete the study in one setting. The analysis of variance showed that all casts and individual teeth contribute to significant variations of the means. Therefore, the specific degree of difficulty associated with each cast had no significant effect on the results. 96 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.1.3 Materials and Instructions When using examiners in a research study, a clear explanation of methods must be defined. A step-wise instruction manual was provided in the study package containing the protocol to be followed. This enabled examiners to read and visualize exactiy what should be appearing on their computer screen. Exarriiners commented on how helpful this aspect of the study was. The step-by-step instructions and the supplemental figures assisted examiner adherence to the protocols. Lasdy, after the initial assessment of the first submitted overlays, a concern surfaced about the magnification used to visualize the biting surfaces of the teeth. The instructions stated and also showed that the entire arch was visible for demonstrative purposes. In actuality, an analysis would include zooming-in to a level of magnification that would allow better visualization of each tooth. To assess if each examiner had magnified the cast image, a follow-up response was sent out. The overwhelrriing response was that the exarriiners zoomed-in for further clarification. This confirmed consistency in examiner techniques. 97 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.1.4 Imaging Programs The use of Adobe Photoshop® and Scion Image® provided a reliable method for the collection and measurement of the data. Of greatest concern was the potential for introducing measurement error during the conversion of the hollow-volume overlays to solid-volume overlays. To address this, two independent examinations were completed. The first test was performed to assess the potential for instrument error by looking at the reproducibility of the measurements obtained from Scion Image®. In this case, a random sample of 10% of the solid-volume overlays was measured twice. The two sets of measurements were compared and no differences were noted. (Data not shown) The second test was performed to assess the potential for observer error in the production of the solid-volume overlays. The author was responsible for creating the solid-volume overlays. To test consistency in the author's protocol used, a random sample of 10% of the original hollow-volume overlays were converted to solid-volume overlays twice. Measurements were obtained and compared to the first set of data. There were no differences noted in the x- and y-coordinates and only a negligible difference was seen in the area measurements. (Data not shown) Thus, the use of the computer programs was acceptable. 98 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.2 EXPERIMENTAL DATA Each examiner group was analyzed separately followed by a cumulative assessment for each technique. 5.2.1 Reliability The reliability of the production of computer-generated overlays using Technique A and Technique B was assessed by ANOVA and the calculation of a reliability coefficient. 5.2.1.1 Area The area selected for the biting surfaces of the teeth was measured. This characteristic is an important consideration in bitemark analysis because the specific dimensions of a suspect's teeth confines the dimensions that a resulting bite injury would display. There is an inherent variability found witfiin the area produced by teeth in a bitemark. The marks left by a set of teeth may vary in dimension due to the depth of penetration into the skin and the length of the teeth involved, and the response of the skin to the force of the injury as depicted through abrasion or bruising, etc. 99 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.2.1.1.1 Technique A The reHabikty coefficients obtained for the area measurements in Technique A were considerably lower than expected. The inter-examiner values were as follows: Diplomates = 0.412, forensic dentists = 0.260, and dental students = 0.423. These values fell well below an acceptable range of reliability. The intra-examiner values were only slightly better with Diplomates = 0.651, forensic dentists = 0.480, and dental students = 0.503. The unfavourable results can be explained with a closer examination of some of the overlays submitted. It was apparent that for some novice examiners, and some experienced examiners with limited computer practice, there was a tendency to produce and overlay by simply single clicking the Magic Wand Tool on the biting surface of each tooth. If the selection was in an area of different contrast levels of pixels than the majority of the remaining biting surface, such as a chip or worn edge of a tooth, the Magic Wand tool would limit the liighlighted area to that specific region. An example of a resulting solid-volume overlay produced using this single click method is shown in Figure 18 of the results section. Instances of single clicking were found in all levels of examiners suggesting that this was not a result of lack of knowledge regarding bitemarks, but rather lack of 100 Chapter Five - Discussion experience with the use of Adobe Photoshop®. In addition, the instructions for Technique A should be more clear as to the likelihood of having to select multiple clicks for each individual tooth. Having the examiners print out the overlays to use in an actual bitemark comparison could eliminate the occurrence of this type of mishap. The absence of the image of the teeth would clearly demonstrate to the examiner if the overlay captured the elements intended. An overlay printed on a transparency film could be direcdy compared to a bite injury and the examiner could evaluate the applicability of the overlay they produced. 5.2.1.1.2 Technique B The reliability coefficients calculated for Technique B were sHghdy greater for all three examiner groups. The inter-examiner values were as follows: Diplomates = 0.510, forensic dentists = 0.394, and dental students = 0.522. The mtra-examiner values were as follows: Diplomates = 0.615, forensic dentists = 0.489, and dental students = 0.584. Again, these values fall beneath an acceptable reliability level. While Technique A involved selecting areas to include in an overlay, Technique B focused on removing unwanted areas to result in an overlay. An overwhelming majority of participants commented on the tedious task of erasing the unnecessary portions. The lack of control of the mouse, inability to differentiate 101 Chapter Five - Discussion the tooth surface from the cast surface in a contrast-inverted image, and the fickle nature of the Eraser tool were criticism of this technique. An interesting factor noticed with the overlays received from Technique B was the attention to detail, or lack there of, to define the individual perimeters of the teeth. While some examiners clearly defined each individual tooth, others simply followed the curvature of the teeth to produce a general outline of the arch. Figure 19 in the results section illustrates some differences in the overlays received. This factor may have contributed to the extreme variability found within the area of each tooth. By not erasing the excess "noise" around the perimeters of each tooth, a substantial amount of additional area becomes included in the overlay. 5.2.1.1.3 Cumulative Reliability Analysis The overall inter-examiner reliability coefficient found for Technique A was 0.337 and for Technique B was 0.437. The mtra-examiner reliability coefficients were calculated to be 0.527 for Technique A and 0.550 for Technique B. These values indicate a less than adequate measure of reliability. 102 Chapter Five - Discussion The analysis of variance calculations indicate that all four variables analyzed for their contribution to the effect size, (experience, examiner, cast, and tooth) resulted in a p value of <0.0001 for both techniques. This suggests that each variable had a significant effect on the differences in the means, thus eliminating the chance the differences were caused by random error alone. 5.2.1.2 Position The position of the tooth in each overlay was measured. This measurement is a valuable factor in bitemark analysis as an unexplainable inconsistency in tooth position can irnmediately exclude a suspect from having caused a bite injury. 5.2.1.2.1 Technique A The reliability coefficients calculated for all examiner groups were exceptionally high with near perfect agreement in some cases. The inter-examiner reliability coefficients for x-position and y-position, respectively, were: Diplomates = 0.952 and 0.997, forensic dentists = 0.942 and 0.996, and dental students = 0.940 and 0.996. The intra-examiner reliability coefficients were equally impressive: Diplomates = 0.953 and 0.997, forensic dentists = 0.943 and 0.996, and dental students = 0.941 and 0.996. 103 Chapter Fine - Discussion These results indicate a high degree of inter- and intra-examiner reliability and demonstrate the objective advantage of using computers to determine positional data. Of additional interest is the fact that there were no significant differences in the values obtained for each examiner group seen in the ANOVA results. This suggests that previous bitemark experience is not a significant factor in the production of an overlay. 5.2.1.2.2 Technique B The reliability coefficients for Technique B were equally remarkable. The inter-examiner reliability coefficients for x-position and y-position, respectively, were: Diplomates = 0.973 and 0.998, forensic dentists = 0.949 and 0.990, and dental students = 0.968 and 0.992. The mtta-examiner reliability coefficients were: Diplomates = 0.974 and 0.999, forensic dentists = 0.949 and 0.990, and dental students = 0.968 and 0.992. The positional reproducibility by all examiner groups strengthens the notion that computer-generated bitemark overlays can be consistently and objectively produced. 104 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.2.1.2.3 Cumulative Reliability Analysis The overall inter-examiner reliability coefficients calculated for Technique A for the x- and y- position was 0.946 and 0.997 and for Technique B was 0.964 and 0.993. The intra-examiner reliability coefficients were calculated to be 0.947 and 0.997 for Technique A and 0.964 and 0.993 for Technique B. These results confirmed a high degree of reliability for both techniques in the assessment of the positional data. The analysis of variance results for Technique A indicated that for the x-position, the examiner, cast, and tooth all had a p value <0.0001, translating to a significant effect on the differences in the means. However, the experience factor had a larger p value of 0.2157. This value implies that experience level was responsible for less of a significant effect in the means than the other factors. This same trend was noted for Technique B with the experience factor having a p value of 0.2453. The analysis of variance results for Technique A for the y-position showed that the cast and tooth had significant effects on the differences in the means with both factors having a p value of <0.0001. The effects of the experience level and observer had a lesser effect with p values of 0.1845 and 0.0187, respectively. These results support the notion that the forensic experience level of the 105 Chapter Five - Discussion examiners has less of an effect on the differences than the cast and the teeth. Similarly, Technique B showed the experience level to have less of an effect than the other factors with a p value of 0.1657. 5.3 INDIVIDUAL EXAMINER PREFERENCES The examiners were asked their opinions of the two techniques under investigation. The opinions of each technique will be discussed separately. The overwhelming majority of participants preferred Technique A. Comments in support highlighted many of the practical advantages of this technique. The most often cited comment was the ability to accurately and clearly interpret the cast image. With a true representation of the cast visible, examiners said they had more control in selecting the biting surfaces based on their interpretation of the anatomy of the teeth. The average time required to complete an overlay using Technique A was faster than using Technique B. Criticisms of Technique A centered on the fastidious nature of the Magic Wand Tool. Novices in the production of computer-generated overlays remarked on the difficulties experienced in selecting the biting edges. One participant commented, "I would try to highlight small areas, but the Magic Wand would not allow the area I wanted to be highlighted, instead lughughting large areas around 106 Chapter Five - Discussion the teeth as well." This problem can be resolved by adjusting the Tolerance setting of the Magic Wand Tool. The initial tolerance setting was 18. Further in the instructions was the following disclaimer: Please note: the "Tolerance" setting may need to be reduced if unwanted areas are being selected. This can be done at your discretion at any time until you have achieved the outline of all maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth that you believe are most likely to leave an imprint while biting. Examiners unfamiliar with Adobe Photoshop® may not be aware of the significance of adjusting the tolerance level of the Magic Wand Tool or even have the knowledge to be able to modify the settings. Clarification of this step should be included in any further studies. One examiner commented that the ability to adjust the tolerance settings introduces examiner subjectivity into the experimental design. This step was intentionally included for that fact. Critics of the use of overlays remark that examiners introduce a personal bias in their selection of the biting edges. One of the aims of this study was to show that even with a subjective preference setting, computer-generated overlays are a reliable and reproducible method. The results showed this for tooth position. 107 Chapter Five - Discussion Most participants found Technique B to be more subjective than Technique A. The greatest complaint was the loss of the true image of the cast after the contrast inversions. One comment said: "Technique B is very two-dimensional and nearly impossible to develop any appreciation of the depth in the teeth. It seems quite subjective as the operator subtracts what he or she doesn't "like". The subtraction itself is a problem in two major ways. I) the operator may not notice an inadvertent slip of the mouse since the evidence of the slip by definition is erased, and 2) the cumulative erasures reduces the number of available landmarks upon one might (should) base the decision on what to further keep and what to erase." This sentiment was mentioned by most of the participants. The few exarriiners who preferred Technique B to Technique A felt that the Eraser Tool was easier for them to control than the Magic Wand Tool. Technique A is more commonly used in North America and because all the examiners reside in North America, this may be a contributing factor. However, the partiality towards Technique A was seen in the group of dental students as well, who would have no previous farriiliarity with any established techniques. 108 Chapter Five - Discussion 5.4 COMPARISON OF TECHNIQUE A AND B The reliability assessment of Technique A and Technique B produced similar results. Both techniques scored low for the area measurements and extremely high for the positional measurements. Both techniques are reliable methods to produce bitemark overlays to assess tooth position. 109 Chapter Six - Conclusions Chapter Six Conclusions 110 Chapter Six - Conclusions 6.1 CONCLUSIONS • Recruitment of experienced forensic dentists to participate in research using specific software programs is difficult. • The number of cases included is dependant upon the maximum time available to examiners. • The inter- and intra-examiner reliability coefficients are low for the comparison of area measurements for both Technique A and Technique B in all examiner groups. • Analysis of variance shows that experience level, examiner, cast, and tooth differences all contribute to a significant effect in the differences of the means for tooth area measurements. • The inter- and intra-examiner reliability coefficients are exceptionally high for the comparison of positional measurements for both Technique A and Technique B in all examiner groups. • Analysis of variance shows that experience level does not have a significant effect in the differences of the means for tooth position measurements, whereas the examiner, cast, and tooth differences do contribute to a significant effect. • Most examiners preferred Technique A to Technique B • Technique A and Technique B are reliable methods to produce bitemark overlays to assess tooth position. Ill Chapter Six - Conclusions 6.2 FUTURE DIRECTIONS Future research in the area of computer-generated bitemark overlays could take several directions. While investigators have studied the reliability of the use and production of bitemark overlays, the next step is to test the external validity of bitemark overlays. This would include having examiners both produce and utilize their original overlays in a simulated bitemark comparison. By applying these techniques in a mock forensic investigation, the applicability of the overall reliability of computer-generated bitemark overlays could be established. Additional studies comparing overlays should assess the differences in tooth rotation. In bitemark comparisons, the positional measurements and degree of rotation of each tooth play a critical role in the inclusion or exclusion of a suspect. Further to this, the depth to which a tooth impresses the skin seen in a bitemark is variable. Therefore, studies evaluating the differences seen in the area and positional measurements produced by the same cast with different degrees of penetration is encouraged. As with any study that involves outside examiners to follow a specified technique, the importance of the training tools, such as directions and instructions, cannot be over-emphasized. Future overlay studies should include a quantitative test of the instructions prior to assessing the technique. 112 Chapter Six - Conclusions Further, studies regarding the effects of different scanning procedures could provide insight as to the best way to obtain cast images. Examining different variables such as scanning resolutions, placement of the casts, and different dental stone materials may aid in standardizing optimal procedures. Finally, as computer software programs continue to be modified and upgraded from previous versions, the changes in the features should continue to be examined for potential benefits. 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Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1989. 92. Mendenhall W. Introduction to Probability and Statistics. 5th Edition, North Scituate, MA; Duxbury Press, 1979. 122 Appendix A Appendix A Study Cast Images 123 Appendix A. CASTA 124 Appendix A CAST B 125 Appendix A Appendix A CAST D 127 Appendix A CASTE 128 Appendix A CAST F 129 Appendix B Appendix B Study Questionnaire 130 Appendix B Bitemark Study Questionnaire Participant Code Please circle the appropriate responses: 1. Research study group DABFO Forensic Dentist Dental Student Basic Computer Assessment 2. I use computers: everyday weekly monthly seldom never 3. I routinely use computers for: (circle all the apply) internet/email word processing/spreadsheet use photo imaging programs 4. I am familiar with and have used Adobe Photoshop®. yes no 5. If you answered yes to #4, I use Adobe Photoshop® for: (circle all that apply) Personal photographs Graphic design elements/Web site design Bitemark case analysis Bitemark Assessment 6. The number of bitemark cases I have been involved in is: 0 1-3 4-7 7-10 more than 10 7. I am familiar with the use of computer generated overlays for bitemark analysis: yes no 8. I have experience with the production of computer generated overlays for bite mark analysis: yes no 9. If you answered yes to #8, how many overlays have you produced in your career: 1-3 4-7 7-10 more than 10 10. I have received specialized training in the production of computer generated ovedays: (through CE courses, symposiums, workshops, etc.) yes no 11. I use the following software in the production of computer generated ovedays: Adobe Photoshop® 5.0 Adobe Photoshop® 6.0 Adobe Photoshop® 7.0 Other 131 Appendix C Appendix C Technique A Instructions and Example Appendix C Technique A Instructions 1. Open up the image in Adobe Photoshop®. (The following are for illustrative purposes only and are not life size.) 2. From the Menu Bar, select View > Zoom In, until you are at a magnification in which you can comfortably see the incisal edges of the anterior teeth. 3. From the Toolbox, select the Magic Wand tool. If you have trouble locating the Magic Wand icon, simply hold your cursor over each icon and the title of the icon will be displayed. 4. Before we begin, make sure that in the menu on the top, Anti-Aliased is unchecked and Contiguous is checked and our initial Tolerance setting is 18. To create an overlay, you will be selecting the biting edges of the twelve anterior teeth. The biting edges of the teeth are selected using the Magic Wand Tool. 133 Appendix C 5. Position the Magic Wand tool over each tooth's biting edge to select it. An outline of "marching ants" should appear. 6. To add to the selected area of the tooth or to continue to outline the remaining biting edges, the Shift key must be held down while clicking on additional areas. Select all biting edges for the twelve anterior teeth. 7. If you make a selection that you do not want to include in your final outline, simply click Ctrl +Z or (Command +Z for the Mac) and Photoshop will step back one step to the previous selection. Please note: the "Tolerance" setting may need to be reduced if unwanted areas are being selected. This can be done at your discretion at any time until you have achieved the outline of all maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth that you believe are most likely to leave an imprint while biting. Your figure should look similar to the one below. Creating a New Layer in Photoshop 8. From the Menu Bar, select Layer > New > Layer. This will open a pop up window. The default title of the new layer is 'Layer 1'. Rename this layer 'Overlay'. Click OK. 134 Appendix C In the Layers Palette, the new layer called Overlay is now positioned above the 'Background' layer. This layer is highlighted and shows a paint brush in the second column, which indicates that it is the active layer you are working in. See Figure below. Layers ~~ , —,—-(Normal [*J Opacity: |1Q0^ |±| Lock: r a r # r * ra Highlighted Active Layer Overlay ij*yj3j-Dj_gaLBi \/A 9. Click on the 'Background' layer so that it becomes the active layer you are working in. 10. From the Menu Bar, select Edit > Copy. 11. Click on the 'Overlay' layer to now activate that layer. 12. From the Menu Bar, select Edit > Paste. The biting edges of the casts that you selected are now pasted into the 'Overlay' layer. 13. From the Menu Bar, select Select > Reselect. An outline of "marching ants" should reappear. 135 Appendix C 14. From the Menu Bar, select Edit > Clear to remove the noise from inside the marching ants. Creating a Hollow Volume Overlay 15. We want to outline the biting edges at the position of the "marching ants" to create a hollow volume of the teeth. From the Menu Bar, select Edit > Stroke. A pop-up window will appear. Choose a stroke with the following values: Width = 2, Color = Black, Location = Inside, Blending = Normal and 100%. Click OK. These two last steps have a) cleared the center area resulting in a hollow volume of the teeth and b) outlined the biting edges with a solid line 2 pixels wide. 16. From the Menu Bar, select Select > Deselect to remove the marching ants. See Figure below. 136 Appendix C Saving the Overlay 17. Create a new folder on your desktop labeled "Technique A". Do this by minimizing all your active windows, Right-Click in a blank area on your desktop and selecting New > Folder. 18. Bring Photoshop® back into view. Go to the Menu Bar, select File > Save As and save the current file in the new folder Technique A. 19. Once you have completed all the overlays for both techniques, save them to the CD-ROM. See the instructions for this following the instructions for Technique B. 137 Appendix C Technique A Example 1) Open image in Photoshop® aflsH;:}J3|Adobe Photoshop s ^Lao | ^'Mi'i'PM 2) Zoom-in to magnify the incisal edges of the anterior teeth 138 Appendix C 3) Select the incisal edges using the Magic Wand Tool 4) Copy the selected areas into a new layer called 'Overlay' £U3ict«.r«r»i ao<*. asm mm aaa •M£M»M~ gBStaitj |g|A*uibe PhoKnhon jgJMiaottfr PamaPont ;A 139 Appendix C 5) Clear the center noise and stroke the perimeter of the teeth on the inside with a 2 pixel black line 6) Deselect background image of casts and save the overlay 140 Appendix D Appendix D Technique B Instructions and Example Appendix D Technique B Instructions 1. Open up the image in Adobe Photoshop®. Selecting- the Edges 2. From the Menu Bar, select Filter > Stylize > Glowing Edges. Accept the default settings of Edge width =2, Edge Brightness = 6, Edge Smoothness = 5. Your image should now look similar to the figure below. 3. From the Menu Bar, select Image > Adjust > Invert. 142 Appendix D 4. Now define the perimeters of the biting edges of the teeth. From the Menu Bar, select View > Zoom In. Repeat the Zoom In step until you are at a magnification in which you can see the incisal edges of the upper and lower anterior teeth. Your image should appear similar to the one shown below. Removing- Unwanted Areas 5. From the Toolbox, select the Eraser Tool. 6. To remove large, unwanted areas, use an Eraser size such as 19. To select an Eraser size, simply look under the main Menu Bar, at the Eraser Options Bar. Enter the new size in the box. Choose a large size to remove the posterior regions of the casts, and then select a smaller number (like 3 or 5) to remove around the perimeter of the anterior biting edge surfaces. 7. To erase an area, hold the Eraser tool over an area and depress the mouse button. Continue holding the button as you sweep over the areas to erase. Continue erasing the unwanted areas until you are left with an 143 Appendix D outline of the biting edges of all six upper and lower anterior teeth. See Figure below. •OOMJ %tr. 4*,TM/JMU r <3K*w4»m*> *• —* W' UM W. M. — W » WWim tpH.1. Saving the Overlay 8. Create a new folder on your desktop labeled "Technique B". Save the overlay you just produced in this new folder. 9. You have now completed the first image. Once you have completed all the overlays for both techniques, save them to the CD-ROM. 144 Appendix D Technique B Example 1) Open image in Photoshop® I II I ^TZEi ; £Se Edit Image lajw- Setect fillet • H«w.- Muvim Be|P-:: •: 2) Zoom-in to magnify the incisal edges of the anterior teeth 145 Appendix D 3) Select Filter > Stylize > Glowing Edges 4) Select Image > Adjust > Invert iM :i*t Iwase Im' i«- tMp 146 Appendix D 5) Erase unwanted areas until you are left with an outline of the incisal edges of the anterior teeth 6) Continue to erase separating the individual anterior teeth and save the overlay 147 Appendix E Appendix E Follow-up Questionnaire 148 Appendix F AppendixF Examiner Data Reports 150 Appendix F Area Data Report - Dl Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 7.89 3.21 4.99 5.08 6.14 7.14 3.07 3.35 9.98 7.17 6.88 7.14 7 6.65 8.26 11.35 11.35 9.29 9.43 15.05 15.28 7.28 6.37 10.58 8.37 8 14.14 14.39 14.77 13.96 12.87 13.10 17.75 17.55 10.55 11.38 18.35 17.12 9 10.75 10.55 15.54 12.62 18.01 18.18 15.37 15.77 11.78 9.52 17.26 15.86 10 8.17 8.92 8.32 8.95 7.48 8.63 15.83 16.17 4.04 4.01 10.95 11.15 11 8.72 8.34 7.94 8.72 5.48 6.34 10.35 11.24 5.28 8.32 11.56 7.77 22 9.29 8.20 2.92 5.33 9.81 9.84 14.51 7.00 6.45 4.39 8.00 15.00 23 8.49 7.89 7.57 4.42 7.83 8.89 8.26 7.63 6.85 6.14 8.95 9.49 24 7.94 7.20 9.03 9.15 9.29 9.29 7.63 7.37 5.28 5.65 7.40 7.63 25 6.77 6.39 8.29 7.48 8.14 8.29 8.06 7.63 5.22 5.42 7.46 8.46 26 6.74 6.51 6.54 5.94 9.63 7.97 9.06 8.52 6.42 8.49 8.14 9.18 27 14.31 10.98 7.43 4.33 3.04 8.09 7.94 4.22 9.95 9.18 8.29 6.19 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 16.17 16.40 15.00 17.66 19.27 19.18 7.80 5.33 19.81 18.18 17.89 19.61 7 16.29 15.51 19.24 19.87 14.94 15.77 24.54 23.17 13.28 13.65 15.17 15.31 8 21.53 22.05 22.51 22.11 19.56 20.90 26.38 21.16 17.41 19.56 16.34 18.15 9 15.86 17.41 21.53 22.42 27.96 27.70 23.25 20.42 17.95 18.72 17.55 17.55 10 17.29 18.44 18.12 18.61 13.42 13.39 24.34 23.97 8.37 9.52 18.47 15.71 11 13.42 15.68 14.31 19.84 17.09 17.63 19.33 18.04 22.14 23.86 19.84 23.74 22 15.68 16.97 22.48 19.73 14.16 19.21 14.16 17.38 15.14 20.59 22.42 24.49 23 27.93 15.25 11.58 11.90 16.29 15.25 14.54 14.45 13.16 14.80 13.65 12.67 24 12.39 12.33 13.36 14.68 17.06 18.06 11.7 11.76 12.22 11.76 11.01 11.61 25 11.64 11.27 13.42 14.68 13.85 13.13 13.28 13.91 13.48 13.08 13.13 12.87 26 15.91 16.60 12.67 13.22 14.91 14.11 13.91 13.22 15.60 15.23 14.22 16.54 27 12.13 18.29 15.83 19.15 16.46 18.47 18.49 18.21 16.75 16.43 19.13 18.52 151 Appendix F Position Data Kcpnn - 1)1 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast_ L^L 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5264 38.45 5293 3826 5269 46.69 5270 46.18 51.72 44.91 51.86 45.05 50.73 37.38 50.79 36.98 54.58 39.37 53.84 39.69 50.24 2810 50.43 26.10 7 58.40 3296 5847 3290 60.13 4218 60.13 41.67 57.67 40.60 57.91 40.51 55.87 37.75 56.33 37.76 61.13 37.19 61.24 37.27 56.56 2271 56.84 20.53 8 66.37 29.36 6627 29.40 65.54 37.56 65.79 37.09 64.93 34.09 64.93 34.10 64.11 34.15 64.50 34.17 66.07 33.60 66.43 33.71 64.93 1827 64.78 16.13 9 75.27 29.44 75.17 29.45 74.23 37.57 73.71 36.99 73.54 34.71 73.70 34.73 7207 33.03 7238 33.02 74.29 33.26 74.02 33.14 74.55 1808 74.69 15.94 10 8259 33.83 8237 33.74 79.33 4229 79.39 41.75 81.60 3893 81.80 38.90 80.32 35.83 80.68 35.84 80.70 36.18 80.80 36.26 8240 21.84 8254 19.81 11 87.91 40.18 87.79 40.04 86.88 47.25 86.59 .46.38 87.80 43.36 87.89 43.30 87.53 3817 87.73 38.19 86.16 39.81 86.26 40.33 8814 26.95 89.00 25.20 22 80.73 104.82 80.59 104.83 85.34 100.38 85.02 99.87 87.05 9894 87.22 98% 85.78 103.78 85.63 104.19 85.71 100.47 85.05 101.45 81.96 116.28 8268 113.18 23 75.56 10855 75.48 10849 81.22 99.72 80.96 9894 81.98 101.71 8235 101.54 79.92 106.52 80.33 106.48 80.01 103.84 79.77 103.97 76.13 118.50 76.09 116.44 24 69.55 110.27 69.09 110.32 75.62 101.90 75.48 101.34 76.45 104.97 76.64 104.97 74.29 107.36 74.75 107.43 74.51 106.13 74.34 106.08 70.26 120.51 70.41 118.46 25 64.09 109.51 64.03 109.51 69.85 101.54 69.80 101.08 71.73 103.71 71.88 103.69 68.51 107.61 69.03 107.61 69.30 106.19 69.31 106.24 64.16 120.06 64.24 118.08 26 57.58 107.82 57.33 107.74 64.97 98.35 65.13 9818 65.58 103.33 65.92 103.27 6293 106.51 63.34 106.59 63.90 104.20 64.12 104.10 5809 117.74 58.34 115.69 27 5229 103.34 5226 103.62 59.59 95.99 59.81 95.26 59.93 101.58 60.24 101.73 57.11 105.48 58.16 106.04 5813 101.43 5810 101.47 51.99 115.42 51.95 113.22 TechniqueB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.47 20.17 36.11 2299 34.75 3250 34.75 3284 31.57 29.41 30.65 29.47 3211 17.58 31.33 16.85 35.07 48.10 35.36 47.64 34.24 14.60 34.07 15.05 7 4219 14.58 4221 17.25 4263 27.62 4249 27.75 37.92 24.25 36.67 24.70 37.33 18.05 37.12 17.63 4295 44.61 43,11 44.69 41.12 878 41.03 883 8 50.05 10.86 50.00 13.69 47.84 23.16 47.59 23.13 44.60 17.95 43.47 1824 45.62 14.30 45.20 13.72 47.69 41.01 47.89 41.06 49.02 3.92 49.24 3.98 9 59.38 10.97 59.26 13.70 56.64 23.15 56.71 23.18 54.28 1885 52% 1883 53.63 13.22 53.73 1254 55.88 40.61 55.% 40.68 5889 3.71 58.91 3.68 10 66.37 1507 66.39 17.81 6214 27.81 6203 27.78 61.53 2268 60.70 2293 61.71 15.98 61.56 15.65 6252 43.80 6249 43.75 67.40 ai5 67.45 7.98 11 71.70 21.99 71.65 24.28 69.55 3296 69.89 33.12 68.17 27.47 67.07 27.66 69.41 1878 69.71 18.73 67.80 47.57 6805 47.42 73.73 13.35 73.81 13.74 22 64.80 86.29 64.64 89.12 68.10 84.91 68.03 85.69 67.36 8287 65.78 8210 66.70 83.86 66.76 83.54 66.% 10819 67.41 107.80 67.94 100.32 67.90 100.09 23 56.71 90.77 59.55 9271 63.25 84.85 63.40 85.06 6233 85.46 61.29 85.62 61.30 86.58 61.21 86.28 61.23 111.57 61.51 111.34 60.97 103.% 60.75 104.07 24 53.41 91.69 53.21 94.20 57.82 87.39 57.93 87.43 56.60 89.00 55.67 89.13 55.79 87.44 55.44 87.07 55.98 113.47 56.14 113.50 54.87 106.28 54.% 10633 25 47.84 90.89 47.67 93.57 5218 87.05 5215 87.09 51.95 87.60 50.83 87.79 50.15 87.75 49.80 87.46 50.47 113.46 50.77 113.38 4886 105.67 48.87 105.69 26 41.66 89.44 41.63 9236 47.28 83.90 47.38 84.07 45.63 86.95 44.51 87.08 44.33 86.69 44.19 86.35 45.01 111.53 45.09 111.18 4275 103.25 4243 103.12 27 36.66 84.80 36.42 87.00 41.57 8215 4222 8229 39.93 85.18 38.83 84.79 38.66 85.44 38.42 85.23 39.41 10873 39.49 10873 35.89 99.59 35.40 98.69 152 Appendix F Area Data Report -1)2 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 1.98 2.06 4.96 5.42 4.22 4.22 0.00 0.00 2.90 3.41 6.11 5.82 7 1.46 1.66 7.63 7.63 4.73 4.42 4.36 5.36 5.62 5.39 3.81 3.35 8 3.41 3.50 6.19 5.22 5.79 9.86 3.13 4.07 5.02 6.08 2.98 4.62 9 3.56 3.33 6.34 6.54 3.33 3.53 4.87 3.38 8.17 7.80 5.22 6.31 10 3.44 3.35 8.00 8.09 2.55 1.72 3.07 3.10 2.52 3.15 2.87 4.65 11 2.06 4.39 7.34 7.46 5.48 5.53 5.02 6.05 3.44 4.30 4.73 5.08 22 10.47 2.75 0.95 2.18 4.42 4.22 4.56 4.59 1.41 1.38 1.66 1.66 23 4.01 3.50 2.75 2.92 6.31 4.96 2.70 3.64 1.75 1.55 4.50 6.51 24 6.16 3.35 5.13 6.16 7.68 8.97 5.02 3.99 3.38 3.33 6.57 6.59 25 5.94 5.45 6.59 6.59 4.24 4.24 7.28 6.39 4.24 4.24 7.00 7.05 26 3.38 3.53 0.23 2.52 4.01 1.38 5.28 5.28 3.78 4.24 1.92 5.65 27 0.77 0.77 2.09 1.84 2.61 2.61 3.99 3.90 4.76 3.81 3.58 3.56 Technique It Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 6.59 6.02 7.51 8.46 5.96 4.24 0.00 0.00 6.82 7.63 6.68 5.91 7 10.52 11.56 18.92 15.60 10.15 7.57 12.33 19.41 9.09 11.10 4.99 3.38 8 21.19 18.24 18.29 13.10 17.55 11.96 23.25 21.42 12.87 15.66 7.28 6.42 9 17.41 11.3 13.59 14.45 25.95 11.61 16.89 18.70 11.56 12.76 7.80 7.51 10 16.69 10.27 13.71 13.39 14.31 11.10 20.07 19.50 6.14 6.28 7.37 5.85 11 8.49 8.66 12.44 11.01 14.05 8.11 12.04 11.07 4.27 4.01 12.24 10.55 22 6.80 5.99 6.08 4.44 8.06 6.14 6.14 5.99 7.03 5.71 3.56 4.82 23 13.19 11.84 9.09 5.82 15.48 9.52 11.93 11.96 9.78 7.20 9.89 7.11 24 13.22 11.44 13.79 12.24 17.26 13.85 10.21 10.29 8.46 6.82 9.66 7.14 25 11.18 9.89 12.59 9.06 13.28 11.53 10.87 11.07 9.09 8.52 9.78 8.49 26 12.73 8.69 4.87 4.96 12.70 10.29 10.21 11.67 8.34 7.57 9.63 5.82 27 3.15 6.68 8.29 9.98 4.82 4.44 5.45 4.99 9.12 12.30 7.17 4.65 153 Appendix F Pcisiiinn Daia Report - D2 Technit uc A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5253 37.75 5255 37.73 5286 46.70 5291 46.64 51.84 44.73 51.84 44.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.68 40.15 53.67 40.20 50.29 28.79 50.28 28.85 7 59.27 31.45 59.32 31.48 60.36 4209 60.36 4209 58.11 40.07 58.11 40.07 54.10 37.20 54.02 37.22 61.20 37.47 61.18 37.50 57.06 2291 57.14 2292 8 67.54 29.11 67.24 29.13 65.13 37.30 64.90 37.26 64.69 33.74 64.59 34.09 6244 33.54 6255 33.56 66.95 33.60 66.85 33.63 6262 18.36 64.64 18.35 9 74.33 28.87 74.38 28.86 73.59 37.41 73.57 37.41 73.68 35.07 73.69 3508 71.93 3217 71.78 3212 73.62 33.35 73.65 33.34 74.83 1818 74.80 1827 10 81.21 3263 81.18 3261 79.50 4227 79.50 4227 81.34 38.35 81.49 38.13 78.37 35.08 78.32 35.08 80.76 36.14 80.92 36.22 8279 2212 8233 2219 11 87.54 38.85 87.40 39.36 86.89 46.97 86.86 4695 87.80 43.36 87.80 43.35 86.54 3800 86.39 38.00 86.26 39.26 8625 39.65 89.46 27.96 89.41 28.06 22 79.88 104.63 79.50 105.69 85.52 99.99 85.41 100.33 87.01 99.12 87.00 99.09 83.37 104.65 83.36 104.66 84.92 101.97 84.91 101.97 8289 116.85 8289 116.85 23 73.46 109.12 73.39 109.17 80.85 99.57 80.86 99.58 82.05 101.84 8214 101.77 78.88 106.78 78.95 106.78 80.22 104.11 80.31 104.10 76.11 119.32 76.20 119.24 24 68.29 110.17 67.67 110.17 76.21 101.96 76.14 101.94 76.47 105.02 76.45 104.97 7278 107.27 7292 107.33 74.62 106.11 74.63 106.12 70.39 121.13 70.37 121.14 25 63.35 109.38 63.25 109.36 70.02 101.61 70.02 101.61 71.89 104.00 71.89 104.00 67.22 107.46 67.48 107.47 69.59 106.22 69.61 10622 64.31 120.68 64.35 120.68 26 56.77 107.89 56.70 107.83 66.72 99.82 65.70 99.29 65.88 103.54 66.84 104.15 61.35 106.65 61.36 106.65 64.41 104.16 64.50 104.19 59.97 119.08 58.50 118.53 27 51.87 103.67 51.87 103.67 59.96 97.32 59.92 97.28 59.87 101.52 59.87 101.52 56.29 105.90 56.28 105.89 58.96 10203 59.08 10215 51.88 115.99 51.87 115.99 Technic ue B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.28 2210 37.13 2221 35.22 3235 28.35 31.06 31.76 28.94 31.93 28.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.05 47.77 34.46 47.71 33.30 14.21 33.64 13.49 7 4237 17.11 4222 17.30 4276 27.7 35.92 26.55 38.43 23.92 38.22 24.34 37.34 17.60 34.78 17.44 4263 44.84 4201 44.80 40.14 an 40.49 7.42 8 50.09 1359 50.26 13.65 47.97 23.09 40.63 21.62 44.92 17.85 44.53 17.87 45.49 14.27 4279 13.80 47.55 41.03 47.19 41.09 47.75 159 48.12 291 9 59.68 13.72 59.64 13.52 56.33 2292 49.34 21.72 53.96 18.61 53.26 18.26 53.99 13.09 50.90 1271 55.17 40.76 54.91 40.68 57.76 3.49 58.01 282 10 66.43 17.95 66.52 17.81 61.86 27.81 55.07 26.64 61.76 2283 61.81 2295 61.76 16.00 59.08 15.46 6239 43.81 61.76 43.72 65.75 7.53 65.99 686 11 7200 2396 7201 23.91 69.49 3268 6249 31.55 67.83 2697 67.99 27.27 68.76 18.21 66.10 17.68 67.48 46.29 66.82 46.26 71.28 1299 71.77 1235 22 64.24 90.19 64.13 90.21 67.72 86.46 60.82 85.07 67.12 83.00 67.19 8293 66.21 85.08 63.52 84.51 66.77 108.73 66.00 108.77 65.17 10262 65.74 101.49 23 59.41 92.86 59.43 9270 63.58 84.74 56.57 83.81 6235 85.41 6230 85.78 61.35 86.68 58.61 86.13 61.17 111.43 60.98 111.45 59.29 104.43 59.59 10380 24 53.30 94.47 53.27 94.52 58.00 87.43 50.91 86.28 56.74 88.92 56.61 89.05 55.77 87.61 5298 87.03 55.97 113.69 55.16 113.65 53.40 106.44 53.73 105.74 25 47.80 93.68 47.95 93.76 5221 87.31 45.31 85.88 51.99 87.65 51.98 87.76 50.11 87.86 47.42 8728 50.55 113.42 49.70 11133 47.25 105.96 47.77 105.29 26 41.54 9208 41.51 91.98 47.89 84.76 41.09 8374 45.60 8691 45.77 87.21 43.95 86.92 41.58 86.20 44.85 111.30 43.97 111.15 41.49 103.64 41.51 103.06 27 37.38 8(5.25 3656 88.78 4203 81.34 35.01 80.6 40.03 85.12 40.01 85.37 39.01 85.81 36.46 85.45 39.57 10883 38.70 108.68 35.17 101.19 35.81 100.97 154 Appendix F Area Data Report - 1)3 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 3.64 3.99 7.71 7.68 6.22 7.51 6.51 4.47 8.95 7.11 8.11 7.31 7 9.69 8.60 13.53 12.65 11.33 10.15 9.12 17.23 8.92 10.47 12.07 10.04 8 12.47 10.70 15.68 15.74 14.14 14.45 20.19 20.10 15.37 12.01 13.36 14.77 9 10.04 12.10 14.97 14.42 21.30 20.07 18.95 15.68 13.19 12.24 13.13 13.08 10 9.03 10.44 11.21 10.92 8.23 9.58 17.95 17.92 5.48 6.22 10.49 6.97 11 10.84 6.71 9.86 8.14 7.80 8.11 10.84 8.32 10.06 7.23 12.56 8.52 22 4.16 4.24 8.52 10.29 10.75 5.85 4.47 5.91 6.57 5.08 7.05 5.30 23 10.58 10.24 6.19 7.28 10.38 10.18 11.44 11.93 8.77 4.99 7.43 7.25 24 8.06 7.77 11.15 9.43 12.50 11.70 9.38 9.41 7.46 5.30 7.31 7.89 25 7.86 8.00 9.86 9.41 9.38 9.52 9.89 10.09 7.11 5.62 7.80 8.03 26 9.12 8.89 9.00 8.97 12.19 9.66 10.81 10.52 10.81 6.71 6.74 9.72 27 5.71 5.19 10.12 8.54 16.72 4.87 6.19 6.11 11.33 10.35 7.74 6.62 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.55 3.27 6.54 4.73 7.11 4.65 4.47 9.29 4.07 1.75 6.39 4.93 7 10.78 10.27 16.37 10.87 14.91 10.52 21.51 12.96 10.27 5.99 13.99 10.67 8 16.89 12.85 20.19 14.16 19.67 17.35 24.03 16.66 16.72 11.01 19.78 14.25 9 11.99 13.76 14.91 12.76 24.40 13.16 21.94 11.56 14.65 IM 17.98 11.50 10 12.70 10.95 12.85 10.29 12.99 5.02 22.57 15.37. 7.89 5.28 15.37 10.29 11 6.22 5.65 7.48 6.59 12.67 4.42 9.29 9.23 4.47 3.30 12.39 8.66 22 4.39 2.95 4.22 3.15 6.25 3.15 7.57 3.67 6.68 8.66 2.70 2.06 23 12.73 11.87 11.58 4.16 13.85 7.20 13.36 7.86 9.12 5.19 9.46 7.46 24 10.75 9.75 11.84 7.40 13.79 7.57 10.49 6.11 8.66 6.22 9.35 7.94 25 8.95 8.69 10.67 6.34 12.22 5.16 11.01 5.76 8.40 4.90 10.04 7.31 26 10.72 10.29 5.36 2.29 12.07 7.28 12.82 7.11 10.47 5.10 9.32 3.78 27 3.70 2.49 2.84 2.87 3.93 2.87 4.62 2.87 11.96 3.53 4.44 2.35 155 Appendix F Position Data Report - D3 Technic [ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.09 37.88 5295 37.88 5299 46.72 5298 46.71 51.90 44.84 5215 44.65 51.09 37.87 51.18 37.71 54.27 39.99 53.94 40.04 50.43 29.10 50.48 28.80 7 58.29 3291 5850 3271 60.47 4226 60.44 4227 57.69 40.83 57.87 40.62 55.68 37.47 55.86 37.73 61.50 37.50 61.36 37.36 56.96 23.50 56.85 23.33 8 65.78 29.18 65.84 29.22 65.89 37.79 65.94 37.79 64.53 34.24 64.% 34.08 64.18 34.17 64.33 34.01 66.83 34.04 66.53 33.86 64.62 1868 64.59 18.72 9 75.25 29.37 74.94 29.42 73.96 37.70 73.87 37.68 73.56 34.99 73.71 34.85 7211 33.12 7234 3284 74.22 33.54 73.91 33.55 74.82 1847 74.63 18.47 10 82.16 33.59 8201 33.75 79.52 4238 79.54 4243 81.53 3891 81.76 3891 80.48 35.86 80.48 35.69 80.98 36.38 80.70 36.39 8289 2249 8288 2236 11 87.54 40.03 87.63 39.58 86.85 47.10 86.81 46.92 87.71 43.48 87.87 43.31 88.07 3845 87.86 37.97 86.12 39.23 86.29 40.01 88.55 27.61 89.18 27.86 22 79.96 105.87 79.79 105.87 85.20 100.42 85.18 100.43 87.05 99.18 . 87.16 99.21 84.86 104.68 84.89 104.67 85.54 101.30 85.31 101.60 8262 116.75 8248 116.81 23 75.30 10846 75.13 10848 81.13 99.77 81.12 99.82 8201 101.87 8215 101.76 80.03 106.66 79.99 106.44 80.36 104.03 79.80 104.32 76.48 119.31 76.31 119.21 24 6890 110.38 6854 110.35 75.60 10210 75.92 10216 76.46 105.24 76.67 104.99 74.27 107.44 74.37 107.25 74.66 10625 74.60 106.28 70.65 121.22 70.49 121.19 25 63.71 109.54 63.45 109.53 69.89 101.78 69.87 101.76 71.78 103.90 71.94 103.74 68.67 107.61 6878 107.51 69.51 10631' 69.50 106.35 64.55 120.72 64.47 120.66 26 57.23 107.83 57.07 107.87 65.14 98.85 65.17 98.84 65.78 103.58 65.61 103.24 6293 106.60 63.03 106.46 64.32 104.20 64.11 104.20 5875 118.55 5845 118.28 27 5238 104.17 5226 104.24 59.88 96.65 59.55 96.33 60.02 101.21 60.14 101.66 57.8 106.11 57.84 105.97 58.45 101.64 58.25 101.49 5239 115.98 5207 115.83 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.20 2230 37.01 2229 35.38 3228 35.40 3259 31.54 29.40 31.77 29.26 30.18 20.90 29.85 2201 35.72 46.% 35.76 47.06 33.78 13.47 34.01 15.42 7 4244 17.23 4230 17.20 4293 27.66 43.07 27.80 37.% 24.55 38.05 24.44 37.40 20.08 36.97 20.06 4263 45.18 4259 45.26 39.86 844 40.18 10.15 8 50.23 13.74 49.63 13.34 48.02 23.18 48.30 23.24 44.54 1814 44.41 1830 45.61 1651 45.67 16.32 48.07 41.24 4814 41.39 4811 3.58 48.17 5.53 9 60.11 13.73 59.42 13.71 56.44 23.01 56.51 23.04 53.87 1874 53.97 19.00 53.76 15.38 53.58 15.35 55.59 40.91 55.49 41.04 57.97 3.27 58.05 5.05 10 66.42 17.91 66.50 1805 6204 27.85 6222 27.90 61.68 2292 6200 23.09 6200 1825 61.88 18.10 6268 43.98 6269 44.06 66.67 7.58 66.93 9.54 11 7229 23.94 7222 24.10 69.72 33.00 69.73 3274 67.87 27.11 68.13 27.69 69.61 20.75 68.77 20.26 67.66 46.45 67.80 46.39 71.75 1228 7208 14.40 22 65.10 8803 65.09 8824 68.12 86.45 68.10 86.50 67.29 83.20 67.36 83.24 66.10 87.25 66.18 86.97 67.33 10868 67.12 109.11 66.48 101.34 66.66 103.27 23 59.71 9271 59.65 9274 63.95 85.44 63.69 85.16 6224 85.74 6234 86.07 61.36 8882 61.15 88.68 61.92 111.67 61.47 111.83 59.77 103.77 59.93 105.88 24 53.50 94.54 53.49 94.55 58.10 87.46 58.44 87.52 56.74 89.03 56.91 89.06 55.87 89.72 55.51 89.83 56.20 113.73 56.23 113.91 53.98 105.73 54.01 107.74 25 47.99 93.67 47.91 93.66 5248 87.31 5248 87.48 51.% 87.89 5225 8809 50.13 90.07 50.40 89.91 51.13 113.90 51.12 114.03 47.81 105.30 48.06 107.35 26 41.49 9210 41.43 9204 48.29 84.72 48.43 85.17 45.72 87.14 46.15 87.56 44.49 8887 43.80 89.08 45.46 111.71 45.63 11212 4204 103.04 41.97 105.38 27 36.53 8824 37.23 89.17 41.79 80.47 4252 8295 39.95 85.41 39.99 85.45 39.17 8822 38.85 87.99 39.83 109.16 40.68 109.99 35.07 99.96 35.52 10273 156 Appendix F Area Data Report - 1)4 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 1.75 1.55 4.27 4.96 4.04 3.24 0.00 0.00 3.30 2.04 5.82 3.99 7 4.42 3.96 9.98 11.93 4.42 3.30 12.56 12.53 5.19 4.85 8.86 6.31 8 13.16 11.30 6.68 12.59 9.26 10.41 15.40 11.93 9.26 6.88 14.65 12.59 9 8.60 7.11 10.98 11.56 18.12 15.20 13.53 10.21 7.28 7.83 14.82 12.62 10 7.14 6.31 7.46 7.89 5.45 5.13 9.12 10.27 2.70 2.38 12.04 3.93 11 5.53 4.96 7.08 8.20 5.48 4.01 6.11 4.90 3.33 2.06 10.49 7.11 22 1.92 6.77 4.04 1.12 3.93 3.35 4.42 3.70 2.47 1.26 4.44 3.53 23 7.31 6.48 1.78 2.52 6.45 4.90 9.23 6.85 3.10 3.07 6.19 5.68 24 5.16 4.39 7.05 6.37 7.57 7.71 6.62 4.96 2.38 2.21 6.94 6.16 25 5.19 4.73 6.91 4.42 4.33 3.73 6.59 6.57 4.24 3.81 7.34 6.65 26 5.33 2.84 4.62 5.13 6.59 4.19 5.96 4.42 3.21 2.52 5.85 4.44 27 1.18 1.81 2.98 1.63 2.49 1.49 3.90 2.32 1.66 1.29 4.22 3.10 TechniqueB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.02 6.28 8.54 8.66 8.06 9.23 0.00 0.00 7.05 8.95 7.97 7.28 7 9.15 10.78 19.13 11.87 14.16 12.16 19.64 16.89 9.92 11.30 17.46 13.48 8 19.3 17.92 21.56 21.28 17.69 17.12 24.80 24.37 16.69 19.24 28.82 33.32 9 14.82 13.48 21.79 16.00 20.85 19.67 20.04 20.50 13.99 14.16 27.96 33.15 10 15.31 15.60 17.75 16.26 13.59 11.76 18.72 18.35 8.49 10.52 25.29 19.30 11 11.90 8.83 11.27 11.35 11.70 8.86 10.18 6.54 4.99 4.13 18.21 14.82 22 7.60 6.14 3.44 6.19 9.23 6.16 7.43 7.97 8.97 9.61 6.31 9.23 23 11.38 14.51 6.11 4.62 13.36 9.95 14.45 17.06 9.15 11.7 6.57 8.60 24 11.67 10.78 13.56 9.49 16.72 13.59 10.67 13.51 10.09 11.61 10.58 7.91 25 10.64 10.92 10.58 14.97 13.28 10.44 11.15 12.33 11.96 10.35 12.67 11.24 26 14.16 10.92 11.30 11.58 13.19 13.71 13.05 15.23 14.34 15.40 14.19 12.87 27 3.84 5.65 8.32 8.83 4.90 4.99 8.69 7.57 12.59 15.63 10.35 6.71 157 Appendix F Podium Dai.i Report -1)1 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5275 37.90 5287 38.15 5279 46.94 5286 47.04 51.84 44.89 51.87 44.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5181 40.10 5198 39.46 50.28 2885 49.90 28.82 7 57% 3292 58.26 33.00 60.50 4229 60.57 4239 58.11 40.24 58.07 40.30 5442 37.75 54.52 37.75 61.17 37.67 61.01 37.70 56.80 2135 56.55 23.32 8 65.72 29.39 65.65 29.67 65.45 37.52 66.10 37.95 64.14 34.07 64.78 34.17 6115 34.18 63.63 34.07 66.47 3181 6667 33.87 64.64 18.84 64.88 18.82 9 75.CK 29.47 7520 29.61 73.98 37.64 74.06 37.77 73.53 34.91 73.47 34.82 71.07 3109 70.52 33.15 715 33.53 73.50 33.47 74.75 18.72 74.48 I860 10 81.% 33.87 8203 33.89 79.31 4238 79.46 4261 81.67 39.07 81.76 39.01 78.72 35.61 79.38 35.85 81.01 36.49 80.99 36.57 8241 2269 8222 2205 11 87.48 39.63 87.66 39.77 86.89 47.16 86.84 47.29 87.80 4153 87.87 4147 86.55 5U16 86.66 38.02 86.24 39.43 85.98 38.99 8847 27.73 88.97 27.89 22 79.72 105.96 80.37 104.75 85.13 100.75 85.37 100.61 87.00 99.25 87.04 99.28 83.52 104.83 83.45 104.63 85.51 101.23 85.94 100.99 8231 116.84 8251 116.82 23 7505 10843 75.15 108.64 80.56 99.77 80.86 99.91 8211 101.95 8219 101.85 78.69 106.65 78.69 106.26 79.61 104.38 79.81 104.27 7616 119.35 7619 119.16 24 68.47 110.36 6860 110.47 75.72 10206 75.7 10207 76.49 105.20 76.56 105.12 7298 107.45 7294 107.14 74.42 106.29 74.18 10627 70.35 121.22 7027 121.17 25 63.46 109.54 63.58 109.70 69.99 101.73 69.94 101.81 71.85 104.17 7201 104.13 67.48 107.62 67.43 107.45 69.41 106.29 69.34 10638 64.33 120.76 64.37 120.65 26 56.81 107.78 5673 107.90 65.43 98.96 65.13 9a86 65.28 103.30 65.49 103.37 61.32 106.68 61.46 106.57 64.28 104.22 64.07 104.29 58.42 118.54 58.05 118.38 27 5208 10348 51.87 103.84 59.52 96.57 59.64 97.06 59.86 101.69 59.71 101.58 56.45 106.06 56.13 105.29 57.84 101.62 57.71 101.52 51.71 115.88 51.80 116.01 Technic ucB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.73 2252 37.08 22.27 35.36 3220 35.32 3219 31.40 29.17 31.66 29.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.78 48.02 35.36 47.99 33.65 13.11 33.84 13.46 7 4240 17.12 4225 17.22 4287 27.71 4299 27.93 37.72 24.72 37.76 24.87 37.30 19.96 37.52 20.14 4244 45.45 4109 44.99 39.% 8.23 39.70 9.00 8 49.85 1175 50-18 13.60 48.43 2327 47.91 23.17 44.60 18.06 44.89 18.17 45.43 1643 45.43 16.42 48.03 41.37 48.21 41.16 47.98 4.47 48.19 4.28 9 59.54 13.88 5888 13.79 56.78 23.15 56.10 23.07 53.84 1&53 53.79 19.02 53.59 15.20 53.17 15.38 55.34 40.91 55.53 40.86 57.72 4.09 57.92 4.02 10 66.37 17.99 66.27 18.01 6222 27.90 6224 27.80 61.58 2288 61.75 2284 6205 1829 61.59 18.16 6253 4396 6258 43.% 66.12 7.63 65.% 7.58 11 7201 24.21 71.91 24.02 69.72 3295 69.50 3271 67.84 27.52 68.18 27.80 69.30 20.61 69.02 20.70 67.70 46.51 67.66 46.28 7210 11.98 71.91 1232 22 64.11 90.45 6179 90.52 69.61 84.35 67.88 8642 67.01 8149 67.03 8357 66.12 87.32 65.89 87.19 66.79 10&81 66.73 109.25 66.22 100.66 65.83 100.93 23 59.38 9302 59.48 9279 63.89 84.99 6268 85.59 6215 85.77 6215 85.96 61.32 8890 61.19 88.68 61.15 111.52 61.60 111.59 60.09 103.77 59.80 104.11 24 53.15 94.65 52% 94.57 58.25 87.48 58.65 87.56 56.59 89.20 56.65 89.15 55.76 89.68 55.71 89.60 55.53 113.47 56.09 11170 53.63 105.29 53.60 106.03 25 47.59 9392 47.74 9367 5227 87.22 5254 87.49 51.87 87.86 51.85 87.95 50.23 89.98 50.11 89.62 50.44 11163 50.99 11164 47.72 104.72 47.81 105.29 26 41.45 91.92 41.32 91.94 46.96 84.51 47.62 84.43 45.48 87.11 45.47 8721 44.36 89.06 44.13 88.62 45.21 111.43 45.25 111.15 41.62 102.42 41.68 10298 27 3663 8658 3644 87.72 4264 8237 41.91 81.60 39.97 8567 40.10 85.42 39.10 88.38 38.84 87.86 39.87 109.13 39.42 108.63 35.50 100.07 34.86 100.23 158 Appendix F Area Data Report - D5 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.68 9.49 9.43 7.46 9.09 9.03 0.00 18.12 9.20 9.20 6.85 9.55 7 10.58 6.88 13.53 13.10 11.35 10.58 17.26 16.92 8.92 9.43 13.39 10.55 8 15.89 16.17 16.75 15.94 14.54 15.71 20.39 19.53 13.13 15.46 15.66 17.75 9 12.39 12.13 17.43 13.76 20.16 20.16 18.27 17.58 12.56 12.62 16.09 16.83 10 10.75 10.64 10.75 10.98 8.69 8.23 17.03 18.15 5.42 5.25 9.86 11.78 11 7.11 10.95 10.44 10.81 8.43 9.03 13.59 13.51 6.14 7.31 11.56 12.33 22 11.30 12.24 4.76 8.32 12.42 6.51 12.47 15.66 5.42 6.16 13.02 19.07 23 10.32 10.52 6.28 7.77 11.56 10.01 7.37 6.42 6.48 7.05 7.83 7.46 24 8.95 9.06 9.69 11.33 11.53 11.58 8.43 7.66 6.48 5.56 7.25 7.77 25 7.91 8.11 9.98 9.35 5.56 9.58 9.46 4.70 6.02 5.94 8.00 ,8.46 26 7.05 8.26 6.28 5.45 8.92 8.11 10.78 7.28 6.22 5.48 9.72 10.01 27 2.98 13.65 7.63 3.61 6.57 5.02 6.37 6.85 9.78 10.01 13.82 6.82 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.33 6.11 9.84 6.11 10.87 9.86 17.32 23.46 10.38 7.83 8.06 13.99 7 13.73 11.73 13.99 15.05 17.03 13.65 19.04 25.32 13.45 14.60 16.00 18.81 8 19.10 20.47 19.13 20.16 26.49 23.17 25.52 23.46 15.20 16.54 18.81 32.95 9 16.11 12.16 21.85 21.42 24.97 22.60 23.25 23.28 15.80 17.95 14.97 34.01 10 15.66 12.53 17.38 14.19 14.65 11.93 19.64 24.40 7.00 7.14 16.03 17.63 11 11.04 9.06 11.81 6.31 16.40 12.87 14.11 14.62 3.13 4.44 15.46 13.51 22 6.97 10.06 11.10 12.39 8.00 5.53 7.40 7.83 7.66 7.00 5.10 6.74 23 15.54 17.00 12.33 9.84 11.13 12.96 13.76 11.15 9.41 7.14 10.72 13.10 24 11.38 10.84 11.15 13.30 12.47 16.03 11.41 12.47 8.52 10.44 10.72 10.24 25 8.63 10.90 10.55 11.10 12.85 12.39 11.56 11.9 8.95 10.70 10.04 11.93 26 11.96 10.35 7.20 7.60 12.16 10.21 11.41 11.93 10.55 10.38 11.84 12.39 27 4.79 7.25 8.32 8.97 5.13 4.82 11.96 9.66 10.49 13.91 7.14 7.23 159 AppendixF Position D.u.i Report -1)^ Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 52.85 37.84 53.84 3801 5288 47.00 5293 46.76 51.73 45.39 51.76 45.35 0.00 0.00 50.94 39.12 54.41 39.75 54.27 39.93 50.43 2888 50.65 28.95 7 58.30 3281 58.64 3294 60.64 4209 60.40 4226 57.86 40.83 57.81 40.83 56.90 37.91 57.38 38.21 61.50 37.50 61.54 37.42 56.64 23.74 57.06 23.34 8 65.95 29.39 66.64 29.39 66.19 37.67 66.01 37.81 64.96 34.26 64.% 34.32 65.33 34.19 65.94 34.38 66.67 33.88 66.80 34.05 64.65 1892 65.40 18.95 9 74.56 29.46 75.72 29.50 74.55 37.61 73.87 37.65 73.56 34.91 73.57 34.91 73.19 3308 73.71 33.25 74.03 33.58 74.01 33.63 74.81 1879 74.72 18.66 10 81.83 33.77 8258 33.90 79.64 4222 79.55 4243 81.73 38.98 81.81 39.09 81.48 35.85 8201 36.03 81.06 36.46 80.99 36.37 8275 2253 8284 2257 11 87.46 39.60 87.95 39.99 86.92 46.87 87.00 47.51 87.82 43.44 88.08 43.75 88.69 3838 89.06 38.47 86.40 39.31 8645 40.05 8841 27.72 88.58 27.63 22 80.06 104.75 80.73 104.75 85.42 100.52 85.18 100.42 87.19 99.12 87.18 99.35 86.70 103.86 87.40 103.86 8564 101.40 85.38 101.42 8299 11573 8295 11581 23 75.05 10844 75.67 10845 81.27 99.61 81.20 99.83 8234 101.78 8214 101.93 80.97 106.27 81.71 106.45 80.01 104.24 80.01 104.27 76.27 119.29 76.46 119.31 24 6880 110.32 69.31 110.30 76.02 10200 75.56 10209 76.65 105.15 76.67 105.16 75.50 107.36 75.84 107.60 74.55 106.18 74.59 10621 70.49 121.22 70.62 121.20 25 63.41 109.53 64.03 109.53 70.04 101.60 69.78 101.74 71.90 104.23 71.92 103.91 69.78 107.64 69.% 107.77 69.64 106.33 69.88 106.47 64.40 120.72 64.53 120.73 26 56.74 107.84 57.61 107.93 65.26 98.66 64.80 9846 66.13 103.53 65.85 103.41 64.09 106.61 64.39 107.00 64.46 104.29 64.58 104.35 5851 118.39 5868 118.36 27 5248 103.19 5225 103.53 59.90 96.62 59.90 97.42 60.12 101.98 60.17 101.87 58.85 106.14 59.53 106.41 5840 101.46 5862 101.64 51.61 114.63 5229 11593 Technic] ueB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.02 2221 37.17 2218 36.05 31.93 35.46 3237 31.72 29.04 31.28 29.19 30.29 20.83 29.91 21.18 35.26 48.04 34.87 47.88 3379 13.53 34.62 1298 7 4263 1685 4269 17.17 4269 27.70 4243 27.87 37.84 24.24 37.99 24.39 37.26 19.96 37.37 20.03 43.01 44.92 4500 44.75 39.83 848 39.74 &82 8 50.17 1361 50.26 1372 48.56 23.14 48.20 23.11 44.60 1854 44.47 1837 45.47 1650 45.14 16.51 47.63 41.20 47.97 41.11 4809 549 48.38 4.24 9 59.42 13.65 59.37 13.44 56.95 23.16 56.% 23.19 53.93 1899 53.91 19.04 53.82 15.30 53.33 15.28 55.74 40.89 5554 41.03 57.67 3.64 57.82 4.05 10 66.63 1808 66.54 1804 6245 27.80 6237 2800 61.60 23.06 61.94 2277 6211 1816 61.42 17.97 6294 44.18 6292 43.98 66.41 7.44 66.47 7.61 11 71.94 24.46 71.83 24.14 69.84 33.51 70.01 3295 67.85 27.45 67.79 27.11 68.83 20.30 68.31 20.14 67.80 46.52 67.75 46.42 7208 1220 71.78 1227 22 63.90 90.35 64.61 90.44 67.91 86.90 67.43 86.12 67.20 83.13 67.23 83.33 67.65 8812 65.98 8726 66.92 10893 66.72 109.24 66.13 100.89 65.77 101.36 23 59.09 9264 59.26 9282 64.23 85.03 63.30 84.78 6227 85.60 6234 85.79 61.62 88.90 60.95 88.55 61.40 111.54 61.88 111.47 59.85 103.64 60.13 10149 24 5299 94.38 53.38 94.49 58.20 87.59 58.20 87.43 56.30 89.19 56.78 89.08 55.86 89.85 55.42 89.44 56.45 113.98 56.60 11578 53.89 10572 53.93 10570 25 47.50 93.65 47.71 93.59 5234 86.97 5235 86.95 5201 87.81 51.64 87.77 49.87 90.02 50.09 89.68 51.45 113.87 51.11 11593 47.63 105.24 47.87 10521 26 41.40 91.78 41.46 91.92 48.17 84.65 48.47 84.64 45.46 87.20 45.73 87.42 44.27 88.87 43.93 88.72 46.00 111.39 4567 111.67 4222 10289 4217 10287 27 37.66 8827 37.47 87.77 4236 83.10 4259 83.28 40.02 85.50 39.94 85.61 39.46 8878 39.24 88.70 40.51 109.32 39.78 109.04 3553 100.95 35.62 101.03 160 AppendixF Area Data Report - 1)6 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 1.89 2.18 4.13 4.82 3.07 3.81 0.00 0.00 3.73 3.96 4.90 4.90 7 4.24 4.36 9.86 10.04 4.42 4.59 13.79 13.02 5.33 5.53 7.34 7.17 8 13.30 10.70 11.04 10.41 11.67 11.7 12.19 13.42 9.49 9.66 14.51 14.37 9 8.17 8.40 10.98 12.13 15.57 16.03 11.35 12.47 7.63 7.94 12.30 12.30 10 6.97 6.19 7.46 7.43 5.45 5.53 12.16 13.16 2.55 2.78 10.95 10.92 11 8.06 5.33 7.17 7.46 5.85 5.30 9.12 6.71 3.93 3.93 11.04 10.95 22 2.92 7.37 2.35 4.01 3.41 3.38 4.82 3.99 2.78 2.41 3.93 3.84 23 7.17 7.23 3.96 3.90 5.48 5.73 6.25 6.80 3.01 3.33 6.59 6.57 24 5.13 3.56 6.16 7.57 7.43 8.52 5.68 5.79 3.67 3.70 6.91 6.91 25 5.13 5.22 5.51 6.68 3.87 4.33 6.94 6.80 4.27 4.33 7.23 7.23 26 4.27 3.84 6.82 3.58 3.78 3.64 5.62 5.94 3.76 3.38 5.42 5.25 27 2.32 3.01 5.22 6.05 1.89 2.49 3.87 3.38 5.71 3.96 5.56 5.45 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.68 6.14 7.46 10.35 10.84 10.67 25.61 0.00 13.02 10.81 8.83 9.32 7 12.47 11.84 16.34 20.10 12.47 14.05 19.24 20.36 14.65 15.68 17.09 14.77 8 18.70 19.76 19.61 23.74 22.82 19.70 25.29 24.72 19.50 18.29 20.04 21.53 9 15.03 17.81 22.97 23.23 22.80 24.49 22.45 20.65 15.20 17.84 20.07 21.59 10 11.76 13.62 17.89 15.08 13.22 11.24 22.25 21.56 8.43 8.34 17.52 17.29 11 13.53 8.69 11.70 10.49 14.28 12.99 21.99 15.83 16.80 7.17 12.73 12.16 22 10.49 8.26 22.16 11.18 6.39 6.22 21.59 6.74 15.71 9.12 6.37 7.68 23 13.02 13.68 12.24 7.66 10.64 13.22 14.80 11.93 13.85 11.50 9.32 9.00 24 12.36 11.58 13.42 12.90 11.81 14.65 12.44 10.32 9.32 10.52 10.12 8.43 25 10.70 12.13 12.62 12.22 11.47 12.04 10.98 11.33 10.87 10.49 10.75 9.72 26 9.32 9.49 15.03 7.17 13.10 1285 13.79 13.99 14.05 12.30 11.15 8.20 27 4.30 6.91 19.61 15.48 5.30 4.56 18.09 6.11 16.77 14.39 6.19 7.37 161 Appendix F Position Data Report - D6 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 52.84 3811 5277 3809 5275 46.96 5284 46.89 51.82 44.83 51.86 44.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.79 40.21 5176 40.23 50.09 28.98 50.09 28.98 7 58.10 33.07 5818 3283 60.54 4226 60.54 4227 58.11 40.24 58.17 40.17 54.20 37.86 54.23 37.65 61.18 37.67 61.2 37.65 56.81 2138 56.89 23.34 8 6590 29.55 6S76 29.34 65.81 37.79 65.62 37.72 64.67 34.22 64.74 34.25 63.12 34.28 6249 34.02 66.37 33.79 66.41 33.82 64.38 ia90 64.39 1859 9 7530 29.64 75.21 29.47 73.89 37.63 74.13 37.65 7156 34.84 73.56 34.84 70.43 33.25 70.37 33.01 73.59 33.48 7168 33.48 74.39 1859 74.39 18.59 10 8213 34.04 8208 3171 79.30 4239 79.36 4242 81.70 38.97 81.63 39.02 79.13 36.10 79.09 35.87 80.78 36.32 80.91 36.40 8245 2269 8246 2269 11 87.41 40.29 87.64 39.71 86.98 47.33 86.95 47.27 87.77 4153 87.84 4156 85.78 38.15 86.43 38.18 86.27 39.82 86.26 39.79 8827 27.72 88.29 27.72 22 79.82 106.04 80.36 104.64 85.31 100.78 85.12 100.75 87.02 99.26 87.03 99.26 83.26 104.36 83.11 104.66 85.37 101.48 85.23 101.65 8244 117.02 8243 117.05 23 7524 10859 75.24 108.43 81.09 99.79 81.02 99.78 8206 10203 8210 101.98 78.61 106.54 78.48 106.33 79.59 104.39 79.85 104.32 7621 119.35 7619 119.35 24 6865 110.48 67.93 110.32 75.68 10229 75.73 10207 76.48 105.21 76.49 105.15 7264 107.41 7264 107.23 74.62 106.26 74.50 106.25 70.34 121.24 70.34 121.24 25 6361 109.7 63.62 109.55 69.85 101.70 69.99 101.75 71.88 104.19 71.99 104.15 67.11 107.62 67.18 107.45 69.56 106.38 69.52 10635 64.37 120.75 64.37 120.75 26 56.74 107.82 56.77 107.78 65.11 99.14 65.06 98.61 65.60 10153 65.60 103.55 61.09 106.73 61.23 106.58 64.00 104.17 64.14 104.18 58.46 118.6 5849 118.62 27 5242 104.41 5233 104.25 60.25 97.76 59.56 96.15 59.74 101.57 59.88 101.70 56.06 106.02 55.99 105.7 58.12 101.47 58.85 10219 5204 115.94 5203 115.96 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.14 22,25 37.13 2224 35.40 3226 35.29 3226 31.52 29.35 31.90 29.05 30.12 21.72 0.00 0.00 35.19 47.83 35.22 47.94 34.18 15.36 34.35 1526 7 4223 17-46 4236 17.33 4259 27.64 4200 27.91 37.91 24.68 37.98 24.43 37.02 20.22 37.44 19.86 43.19 44.62 43.15 44.75 40.24 10.38 39.72 10.50 8 50.10 13.53 50.19 13.64 48.35 23.15 47.70 23.07 44.25 ia32 44.56 18.20 45.42 1648 45.44 16.33 48.02 41.17 47.66 41.20 48.18 153 48.08 560 9 5892 13.64 59.25 13.70 56.95 23.18 56.74 2116 53.47 18.73 53.79 18.76 54.16 15.30 53.62 15.09 56.34 40.76 55.87 40.94 58.34 5.28 58.18 5.33 10 66.47 18.07 66.34 17.84 6202 27.80 6217 27.87 61.78 2287 61.73 23.06 61.69 18.13 61.72 18.07 6285 44.25 6293 43.98 66.37 9.71 66.55 9.68 11 71.82 24.56 7202 2187 69.69 3254 69.58 3256 67.82 27.18 67.99 27.43 69.28 21.08 68.65 20.39 67.81 46.43 67.82 47.08 7211 14.49 71.92 14.34 22 64.47 89.68 64.09 90.11 68.35 85.77 67.62 86.34 67.12 8111 67.36 8106 67.54 8621 65.94 87.01 67.29 108.85 6634 109.17 66.01 10111 66.04 10110 23 59.49 9267 59.45 9272 64.13 85.13 6126 85.15 6240 85.85 6217 85.74 61.44 88.84 61.20 88.70 61.17 111.74 61.39 111.53 60.05 105.66 59.95 105.80 24 5327 94.37 5153 94.39 58.16 87.26 58.20 87.53 56.89 88.78 56.54 89.10 55.67 89.68 55.29 89.55 56.45 11175 56.11 1117 5197 107.73 53.83 107.76 25 47.85 93.58 47.90 9145 5244 87.04 5232 87.20 51.87 87.83 51.75 87.77 50.23 89.77 50.01 89.71 51.02 11170 50.76 11158 48.18 107.23 48.05 107.30 26 41.42 91.87 41.68 9211 47.49 84.20 48.11 85.02 45.70 87.09 45.76 87.26 44.34 88.88 44.28 88.63 45.46 111.44 45.35 111.57 41.96 104.94 4204 104.99 27 37.28 87.52 37.36 87.88 4221 8219 4222 81.75 40.05 85.44 40.11 8556 38.53 87.92 38.93 88.03 39.66 108.9 39.69 109.21 35.39 10214 35.69 10227 162 AppendixF Area Daia Report - 1)7 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 3.78 1.78 4.87 4.13 2.9 2.52 0.00 0.00 3.87 2.09 3.93 4.53 7 4.10 5.16 9.61 8.97 6.39 5.94 8.63 11.81 3.81 4.13 7.23 6.11 8 8.69 10.01 9.98 9.46 8.80 8.00 11.13 12.1 8.11 7.40 7.14 10.41 9 7.43 8.14 11.78 9.89 9.63 9.52 13.08 11.27 6.45 7.17 5.13 7.48 10 6.14 5.10 7.74 5.22 4.85 6.74 11.93 9.41 2.58 3.33 4.36 7.60 11 4.96 4.70 7.43 6.51 4.01 4.30 3.35 3.99 2.04 1.95 5.88 6.91 22 4.50 5.22 2.41 4.36 4.76 2.61 1.95 2.47 3.24 2.81 3.18 3.61 23 7.94 6.51 2.75 3.73 7.14 6.25 7.17 5.91 4.65 4.70 6.14 6.34 24 3.99 4.22 5.68 6.19 7.17 7.17 4.42 4.07 3.70 4.19 5.88 6.65 25 3.44 4.5 5.94 5.85 6.82 6.97 4.76 5.53 3.64 3.90 6.39 5.71 26 5.30 5.42 4.07 5.28 6.82 6.59 6.02 5.48 5.42 6.34 7.54 6.59 27 5.48 3.96 5.33 4.67 2.44 2.47 2.52 1.95 3.47 2.52 3.30 4.19 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 7.71 8.66 10.78 11.81 14.19 10.75 18.49 13.30 10.32 12.24 8.97 10.41 7 15.34 13.48 18.67 18.44 14.77 14.82 19.58 25.00 11.76 12.79 15.89 12.65 8 20.33 20.22 22.45 21.25 19.15 19.87 26.58 27.33 17.66 21.28 16.00 18.95 9 16.34 16.14 22.14 22.11 26.09 29.56 25.23 21.76 16.77 15.20 18.90 19.15 10 14.77 16.26 17.61 19.70 15.05 14.02 26.52 24.29 9.72 9.58 15.97 18.06 11 8.57 13.33 13.85 14.68 11.96 14.14 14.68 14.54 9.09 8.54 14.60 13.59 22 4.59 17.78 9.29 5.48 6.59 6.08 7.48 9.72 7.43 13.08 4.76 8.83 23 13.42 14.31 16.43 20.44 13.99 15.63 13.76 16.14 14.97 13.56 10.49 11.33 24 12.82 13.02 12.82 14.37 15.14 17.09 11.73 12.82 12.04 12.50 11.76 12.53 25 10.01 12.47 8.86 13.42 12.87 15.28 10.12 12.13 12.13 12.16 11.76 12.19 26 11.33 14.11 12.42 9.09 13.19 15.05 8.46 13.25 16.14 16.60 13.13 13.68 27 6.74 9.32 5.71 19.30 3.41 5.28 13.42 8.80 14.05 16.52 9.66 11.18 163 Appendix F Position Daia Report - D7 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 52.20 38.68 5254 38.47 50.48 46.88 5280 46.60 51.85 44.64 51.59 45.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.89 40.02 54.01 39.53 50.07 2883 50.16 28.84 7 5a45 33.10 58.10 3107 58.25 4225 60.65 41.95 57.46 40.58 57.92 40.44 54.17 37.93 54.66 37.75 61.25 37.82 60.98 37.74 5628 23.80 56.77 2329 8 66.25 29.57 65.76 29.52 63.30 37.74 65.82 37.36 64.78 3194 64.90 34.16 63.48 34.48 63.44 34.25 66.82 33.91 66.37 33.79 64.10 18.50 64.18 18.72 9 75.44 29.43 75.08 29.60 71.74 37.67 74.41 37.32 73.75 34.46 73.59 34.58 70.62 3123 71.22 33.03 74.12 33.42 73.85 33.35 74.95 1817 75.19 18.38 10 8201 33.25 81.90 3171 77.08 4243 79.52 4215 81.42 38.75 81.82 39.36 79.24 36.21 79.48 36.10 81.58 36.79 81.16 36.74 8107 2247 8264 2246 11 88.17 39.65 87.68 39.85 84.66 47.43 87.17 47.58 87.87 4130 87.86 4151 87.03 38.41 86.84 38.19 86.28 39.00 85.99 38.97 89.24 27.96 89.13 27.88 22 80.93 104.88 80.42 104.85 83.11 100.60 86.02 99.12 87.19 98.59 87.13 9889 83.68 104.17 83.77 103.75 85.62 101.25 85.61 100.89 8291 116.41 8281 116.40 23 75.56 10842 75.34 10&56 78.76 99.63 81.10 99.46 81.88 101.75 81.99 101.90 78.75 106.69 78.73 106.47 80.24 104.30 79.98 104.23 7635 119.32 7632 119.25 24 69.17 110.38 68.55 110.40 73.19 101.96 75.68 101.79 76.63 104.88 76.48 105.18 73.00 107.58 7276 107.36 74.89 106.46 74.38 106.26 70.28 121.29 70.21 121.16 25 64.21 109.88 6158 109.67 67.68 101.77 70.02 101.45 71.85 10171 71.65 103.86 67.56 107.56 67.67 107.48 69.49 10631 69.39 106.40 64.44 120.74 64.00 120.53 26 57.32 107.82 57.26 10802 6286 98.80 64.99 98.41 65.62 10115 65.61 103.49 61.54 106.60 61.82 106.72 64.10 104.09 64.12 104.32 5ai9 118.37 58.51 118.43 27 5291 10128 5273 103.76 57.29 95.73 59.86 95.94 59.89 101.50 59.99 101.75 56.23 105.72 56.13 105.48 58.94 10201 58.21 101.52 5223 115.78 51.78 115.52 Technic] ucB Tooth # • Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.25 21.88 37.11 21.94 35.22 31.52 35.09 31.59 31.88 2868 3219 28.47 30.55 20.45 30.08 20.27 35.03 47.44 34.90 47.72 3168 1132 33.88 1110 7 4210 17.13 4219 17.28 4248 27.16 4249 27.07 37.88 24.16 37.78 24.22 37.56 19.96 37.30 20.02 43.27 44.43 4137 44.49 39.54 asi 39.68 8.34 8 50.18 1138 50.30 1168 47.92 2265 48.16 2271 44.50 18.08 44.59 1814 45.41 1653 45.26 16.38 47.97 41.08 4ai9 41.07 47.93 135 48.48 150 9 59.54 1160 59.32 1169 56.90 2266 57.08 2265 54.22 18.69 54.08 1891 53.72 15.44 53.35 15.26 55.80 40.75 55.69 40.73 5804 122 58.11 120 10 66.45 17.92 66.46 17.81 6221 27.25 6251 27.23 61.79 2100 6200 23.05 61.82 18.06 61.44 18.02 6288 4181 6280 44.01 66.52 7.53 66.26 7.56 11 7202 2188 7208 24.49 69.34 31.19 69.59 31.91 68.13 27.29 67.63 26.83 69.31 20.54 68.43 20.13 67.96 47.01 6800 47.16 7233 1235 71.83 11.89 22 64.30 90.15 64.78 89.31 67.97 86.64 67.83 85.57 67.38 8100 67.12 83.53 65.92 87.39 65.50 86.91 67.83 109.49 66.82 109.06 66.28 100.92 64.97 101.52 23 59.26 9272 59.24 9293 63.85 84.83 63.74 85.14 6233 85.63 62.21 85.70 61.51 8876 60.91 88.34 61.68 111.53 61.28 111.79 59.80 103.76 59.99 10172 24 53.11 94.25 53.38 94.48 58.20 86.86 58.18 8686 56.77 89.11 56.72 89.13 55.78 89.53 55.48 89.48 56.01 113.67 55.99 113.62 5193 105.79 54.07 105.82 25 47.76 93.44 47.96 93.61 5266 86.59 5251 86.68 5204 87.68 51.84 87.86 50.32 89.50 50.20 89.62 50.91 113.73 50.86 11170 47.87 105.20 47.72 105.18 26 41.39 91.68 41.51 9208 47.84 83.70 48.23 84.16 45.76 87.23 45.68 87.05 44.70 88.45 44.17 88.46 45.75 111.45 45.35 111.25 41.64 10286 41.67 10291 27 37.39 87.74 37.25 87.99 41.93 8233 41.98 81.47 39.92 85.49 39.87 85.39 39.18 88.54 38.91 88.19 39.18 108.66 39.46 10891 35.44 100.57 35.86 100.66 164 Appendix F Area Data Report - D8 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.99 6.14 9.43 10.49 7.51 9.78 0.00 0.00 13.82 13.68 8.29 9.75 7 10.27 12.73 17.98 16.86 8.95 9.98 13.71 13.73 12.56 12.56 13.22 10.61 8 14.14 15.20 14.02 17.61 16.20 14.65 25.26 25.81 14.88 18.12 19.30 10.98 9 11.50 15.91 17.41 17.55 25.86 28.01 23.17 23.37 17.03 17.15 19.38 10.49 10 12.82 9.98 14.25 14.77 11.21 11.99 22.97 24.06 9.15 8.17 7.57 9.03 11 13.76 10.15 15.77 12.44 10.18 10.38 13.51 16.66 10.01 10.04 14.60 9.98 22 14.85 6.42 8.80 8.80 8.17 8.43 7.89 7.83 9.32 9.29 8.06 4.53 23 14.48 15.23 9.55 9.58 12.07 13.16 9.95 10.01 7.94 8.46 9.61 9.32 24 9.98 11.38 13.39 14.74 14.42 14.34 13.28 11.76 8.97 8.83 9.20 8.97 25 10.84 11.10 12.01 12.16 8.40 9.18 12.99 13.08 9.03 9.46 9.66 9.78 26 10.04 12.30 10.67 9.49 8.54 9.26 11.70 11.47 9.84 10.06 11.99 8.95 27 8.14 9.58 5.71 9.84 5.76 5.94 9.12 8.37 9.23 10.44 8.89 5.91 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 4.22 7.51 8.06 8.86 14.60 7.94 7.11 0.00 8.11 '7.05 15.05 7.14 7 12.85 13.73 18.35 15.31 13.91 12.62 23.77 22.34 15.14 13.08 15.17 6.11 8 20.07 20.90 19.64 17.86 19.99 18.84 26.21 24.72 13.79 16.69 20.30 8.17 9 16.37 17.32 19.76 20.93 25.38 25.78 22.34 22.91 15.80 15.66 19.90 7.97 10 13.45 15.25 16.03 14.68 13.82 11.93 24.00 23.11 7.48 7.43 17.63 6.94 11 9.98 9.52 14.31 13.13 14.25 8.46 16.17 15.05 8.34 7.11 17.72 12.07 22 6.59 3.81 3.84 5.85 7.74 7.34 8.00 8.03 6.51 5.85 18.24 1.58 23 14.62 13.56 11.70 8.52 15.00 14.22 15.66 14.62 13.10 10.24 11.99 8.14 24 12.50 13.56 14.14 11.96 17.12 13.28 13.25 13.16 12.39 11.64 12.16 7.86 25 10.47 12.30 13.48 12.56 13.82 13.68 14.34 13.25 10.44 9.69 12.82 8.26 26 12.65 13.22 4.73 4.87 12.90 14.54 15.05 15.08 13.82 15.97 13.42 5.99 27 5.59 16.72 7.00 11.44 4.96 4.99 10.72 12.01 16.32 15.91 18.35 5.10 165 AppendixF Position Dai.i Report - DS Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5298 37.87 53.15 37.87 5296 46.58 53.14 4647 51.87 44.86 5215 44.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 .0.00 54.42 39.79 54.42 39.77 50.33 28.85 50.46 28.83 7 58.21 3294 58.58 3276 60.48 4206 60.43 4212 58.15 40.25 58.30 40.24 54.14 37.46 53.99 37.45 61.56 37.37 61.56 37.37 5671 2148 56.78 2334 8 65.65 29.35 65.85 29.32 65.46 37.38 65.65 37.50 65.33 34.24 65.31 34.06 6263 34.19 6252 34.20 66.71 33.71 6669 33.83 64.47 18.86 64.69 18.44 9 74.77 29.18 74.97 29.35 73.87 37.43 73.90 37.43 73.64 34.92 73.73 35.00 70.81 3303 70.73 33.01 74.25 33.48 74.24 33.47 74.79 1877 74.84 18.32 10 8202 3361 81.84 33.07 79.55 4231 79.55 4229 81.68 39.03 81.79 39.02 78.92 35.85 78.70 35.84 81.17 36.45 80.95 36.29 8122 2253 8273 2241 11 87.45 40.03 87.78 39.63 86.48 46.83 86.81 46.92 87.71 43.47 87.85 43.45 86.19 38.18 85.94 38.24 86.42 40.01 8642 40.01 88.36 27.69 89.00 27.90 22 80.22 104.74 80.01 105.88 85.20 100.39 85.20 100.39 86.96 99.32 87.16 99.31 83.34 104.80 83.18 104.79 85.25 101.72 85.40 101.61 8226 116.86 8243 117.11 23 74.94 10853 75.10 10852 81.08 99.61 81.10 99.60 8208 101.90 8221 101.93 78.78 106.83 78.61 106.83 79.68 104.42 79.66 104.40 7626 119.32 76.26 119.22 24 68.88 110.43 68.94 110.37 75.72 101.94 75.59 101.96 76.44 105.15 76.57 105.16 7298 107.49 7281 107.44 74.79 106.24 74.83 106.26 70.39 121.23 70.41 121.13 25 63.56 109.49 63.77 109.45 69.98 101.68 69.86 101.70 71.79 104.19 71.99 104.13 67.29 107.63 67.10 107.62 69.81 10643 69.77 10643 64.31 120.74 64.31 120.66 26 57.10 107.99 57.29 107.84 65.30 98.93 65.36 99.00 65.85 103.71 65.93 103.62 61.31 106.74 61.13 106.75 64.54 104.27 64.49 104.29 58.38 118.37 5847 118.49 27 5223 104.13 5241 104.12 59.97 97.29 59.70 9657 59.95 101.80 60.13 101.81 56.38 106.20 56.17 106.13 59.04 10216 59.00 10206 5202 115.93 51.96 116.01 Technic ue B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.03 19.63 37.44 19.34 35.25 3209 33.23 31.17 31.88 28.71 28.46 2S25 3239 17.63 0.00 0.00 35.18 47.85 35.31 43.96 3197 1128 33.81 13.49 7 4237 14.45 4235 14.61 4277 27.54 41.13 26.62 37.95 24.46 35.12 20.30 37.46 17.97 37.16 18.28 43.18 44.43 4290 41.19 39.95 8.34 40.07 7.84 8 50.29 10.82 50.40 11.00 48.35 23.04 46.32 2209 44.79 17.97 4201 13.87 45.62 14.38 45.63 14.65 48.00 41.26 47.82 37.28 48.12 161 48.41 298 9 59.50 10.92 59.57 11.06 56.26 23.01 54.82 21.95 53.85 1868 50.65 14.43 53.69 13.20 53.39 13.60 55.41 40.82 55.29 37.12 5802 126 58.54 290 10 66.44 15.22 6646 15.34 6218 27.91 59.93 26.62 61.84 2285 58.66 18.78 61.77 16.03 61.72 16.41 6255 43.86 6269 40.09 6643 7.61 66.40 7.00 11 7209 21.18 7209 21.33 69.53 3246 67.42 31.60 68.09 27.18 65.11 23.38 68.72 18.27 68.35 18.47 67.74 47.10 67.80 43.55 7216 1231 71.85 1223 22 64.07 87.44 64.91 88.12 67.64 86.04 65.63 85.16 67.20 83.08 64.06 78.75 66.06 85.19 65.89 85.38 67.45 109.50 67.46 105.59 6690 100.35 66.29 101.45 23 59.44 89.92 59.42 90.07 64.09 84.99 61.70 83.93 6231 85.59 59.33 81.38 61.30 86.59 61.16 87.00 61.89 111.62 61.81 107.76 59.95 103.66 59.72 103.82 24 53.14 91.54 53.23 91.76 58.06 87.37 56.12 8634 56.71 89.04 53.74 84.73 55.70 87.49 55.60 87.87 56.00 11145 5608 109.79 54.02 105.85 53.99 10172 25 47.78 90.78 47.85 91.01 5230 87.23 50.24 86.04 51.96 87.65 48.89 8358 50.17 87.81 50.11 88.06 50.89 113.56 51.12 109.85 47.84 105.18 47.87 105.26 26 41.46 89.16 41.52 89.41 48.29 84.89 46.19 8373 45.85 87.10 4268 8283 44.35 8678 44.20 87.05 45.09 111.27 45.38 107.39 41.59 10286 41.69 103.04 27 37.67 84.75 3689 83.17 43.15 83.14 40.08 81.06 40.00 85.27 36.91 81.18 39.50 8646 39.19 86.92 39.37 108.83 39.48 104.97 34.94 99.41 35.60 100.70 166 Appendix F Area Data Report - Fl Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.61 1.98 5.08 4.70 3.33 4.22 0.00 0.00 3.18 2.67 5.33 6.02 7 3.70 4.10 7.63 9.66 4.90 4.73 8.14 3.73 5.62 5.39 0.92 3.58 8 5.59 6.22 9.18 9.18 7.23 6.11 4.47 4.50 4.13 9.98 2.49 5.13 9 3.33 4.76 9.66 5.39 10.24 16.57 2.84 3.58 8.77 9.12 6.45 6.37 10 3.96 4.24 5.94 5.48 4.65 5.05 12.50 1.84 3.15 3.15 2.55 2.84 11 7.17 4.73 7.17 5.71 5.48 5.53 9.09 7.00 4.50 4.50 8.00 6.80 22 1.92 2.44 3.07 4.65 4.39 3.93 4.27 4.24 1.75 0.80 2.32 1.66 23 3.38 3.44 0.03 0.37 5.76 3.33 3.67 2.90 0.63 1.84 6.22 6.42 24 5.19 4.01 7.11 3.04 8.97 7.37 6.74 5.99 3.44 3.78 6.74 6.62 25 5.22 5.10 7.14 7.00 2.72 2.67 6.88 7.25 3.93 4.33 7.08 7.08 26 3.81 4.27 9.58 3.01 3.53 2.24 4.30 5.82 2.55 2.52 5.65 5.71 27 0.80 1.43 11.13 1.69 2.61 2.61 3.73 2.87 4.16 0.69 6.39 3.56 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 9.43 9.38 9.58 10.27 11.50 12.27 15.14 15.66 11.24 20.99 13.05 12.27 7 13.65 16.49 18.81 22.48 13.48 13.96 19.44 19.99 12.13 15.28 13.16 17.55 8 20.90 20.93 20.87 19.84 19.56 20.44 26.15 23.46 15.00 18.01 21.59 17.12 9 16.32 20.01 20.01 19.93 21.42 22.42 22.60 21.02 15.28 15.60 24.29 17.55 10 15.14 18.67 19.81 21.45 15.91 14.45 22.11 24.11 7.11 8.89 16.97 12.27 11 9.78 12.44 14.60 12.79 14.05 12.30 13.71 16.97 12.19 15.28 13.79 10.87 22 9.89 8.43 11.18 11.18 7.31 6.19 9.89 9.75 11.61 12.99 6.34 18.44 23 13.13 12.76 9.29 10.29 11.18 12.50 15.46 15.00 11.38 13.25 12.44 11.10 24 9.55 12.65 14.88 13.62 15.08 13.76 12.73 11.21 10.64 12.70 11.38 12.24 25 11.41 11.07 12.59 13.02 11.38 9.75 12.44 12.65 12.07 12.65 11.78 12.01 26 11.33 12.82 11.99 14.11 14.74 15.03 14.22 12.27 14.57 17.23 13.42 15.71 27 8.97 8.89 9.03 10.21 6.31 7.31 12.82 15.63 16.34 17.98 14.82 14.25 167 Appendix F Position Data Report - Fl Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5277 37.89 5270 37.92 5287 46.69 5284 46.88 51.83 44.72 51.84 44.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.70 40.30 53.88 39.38 50.34 2896 50.30 28.87 7 58-04 3285 57.72 33.13 60.36 4209 60.52 4227 58.12 40.06 58.11 40.24 54.70 36.91 54.04 37.25 61.20 37.64 60.84 37.67 56.71 2282 57.13 2292 8 65.42 29.27 65.91 29.29 65.39 37.42 65.39 37.59 64.86 33.79 64.69 33,91 61.60 33.60 6248 33.60 67.00 33.76 66.35 33.97 6276 1840 64.55 18.43 9 74.55 29.03 74.49 29.11 73.75 37.41 73.33 37.49 74.56 34.86 73.58 34.80 71.00 3211 71.83 3211 73.62 33.51 73.05 33.81 75.00 1829 74.75 18.27 10 81.47 3295 81.66 33.24 79.62 4242 79.72 4264 81.51 3859 81.66 3887 77.95 35.62 78.85 35.17 80.92 36.39 80.58 36.39 8279 2217 8276 2220 11 87.37 39.90 87.55 39.56 86.90 46.99 86.84 46.96 87.80 43.36 87.80 43.52 85.27 37.95 86.31 37.95 86.27 39.89 85.93 39.89 87.78 27.37 89.16 27.98 22 79.72 105.96 79.69 105.87 85.25 100.52 85.14 100.65 87.01 99.12 87.00 99.25 8248 104.65 83.33 104.64 84.84 10217 84.62 10211 8270 117.09 8289 116.85 23 73.60 109.34 73.70 109.21 81.28 98.89 80.12 99.50 8210 101.81 81.10 10273 78.48 106.81 78.91 106.78 79.14 104.58 7847 104.62 7631 119.34 76.19 119.25 24 6832 110.34 6821 110.36 75.92 101.98 76.32 10211 76.45 104.97 76.45 105.21 71.97 107.28 7283 107.27 74.64 106.28 74.34 106.28 70.49 121.24 70.35 121.14 25 63.55 109.57 63.55 109.57 69.95 101.62 70.00 101.78 7200 104.10 71.97 104.27 66.41 107.46 67.25 107.46 69.80 106.51 69.22 106.37 64.48 120.74 64.32 120.66 26 56.78 107.90 56.66 107.75 65.33 98.96 65.43 99.28 65.93 103.61 66.19 103.97 60.62 106.71 61.25 106.61 64.44 104.34 65.11 104.69 5865 118.61 5849 11854 27 5203 103.84 5249 103.97 59.94 96.61 59.99 97.51 59.87 101.52 59.87 101.69 55.40 105.87 55.98 105.32 59.17 10233 57.8 101.92 5217 115.90 51.87 115.99 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 ' 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.82 2237 37.01 2243 35.14 3217 35.42 3207 31.39 29.02 31.60 29.05 29.49 21.33 29.20 21.08 35.56 46.97 35.53 47.48 3591 1546 33.95 1356 7 4222 17.24 4233 17.19 43.00 27.65 4261 27.59 37.85 24.24 37.85 24.42 37.37 20.00 37.14 19.68 4277 45.00 4242 44.64 39.58 8.42 39.84 860 8 50.25 13.69 49.97 13.56 48.18 23.11 48.20 23.06 44.57 1814 44.52 1816 45.48 1650 44.90 16.11 48.54 41.33 4810 41.26 4835 4.09 48.61 3.61 9 59.47 13.64 5876 13.33 57.02 23.05 56.79 23.05 53.48 ia54 53.92 1849 53.78 1533 53.84 15.02 56.27 40.74 56.01 40.68 57.98 4.20 57.72 129 10 66.37 1803 66.23 17.74 6238 27.93 6255 27.95 61.80 2299 61.75 2299 61.84 18.02 61.66 17.95 6234 43.58 6262 43.81 66.35 7.49 66.96 7.57 11 7230 24.17 71.84 24.08 69.77 3264 69.50 3268 68.11 27.47 67.99 27.11 69.18 20.39 68.43 20.33 67.40 46.13 67.81 46.41 7221 1216 7265 1217 22 64.30 90.24 64.03 90.14 67.63 87.21 67.74 86.38 67.08 83.13 67.33 8282 65.87 87.25 65.82 86.88 67.29 109.12 66.88 109.13 6583 101.12 66.34 100.76 23 59.24 9266 5892 9291 63.48 84.76 63.49 84.58 6220 85.80 6247 85.82 61.24 88.64 61.27 88.69 60.73 111.84 61.49 111.59 60.15 103.52 59.91 103.70 24 53.91 94.46 53.14 94.40 58.13 87.45 58.22 87.33 56.75 8889 56.76 8899 55.74 89.70 55.60 89.39 56.35 113.81 56.27 113.54 53.85 10576 54.04 10585 25 47.93 9357 47.62 93.52 5242 87.01 5241 86.92 51.91 87.93 51.83 8807 50.25 89.76 49.99 89.69 50.82 113.72 50.82 11568 47.67 105.12 47.74 10523 26 41.25 91.89 41.51 9223 47.57 83.58 47.72 84.29 45.60 87.11 45.70 87.23 44.39 8878 44.22 88.51 45.45 111.58 45.44 111.77 41.73 10282 41.36 10267 27 36.84 8817 37.13 87.77 4236 8213 4209 81.58 39.97 85.2G 40.53 8609 39.14 8880 38.63 88.57 39.29 10885 39.53 10899 34.93 99.52 34.42 99.29 168 Appendix F Area Data Report - 12 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 17.35 5.56 18.72 18.95 15.94 7.91 8.40 6.05 11.78 12.56 12.24 16.40 7 11.53 10.98 18.52 20.62 9.26 9.92 23.14 20.44 12.24 11.24 11.27 12.30 8 19.18 15.60 19.33 23.05 14.34 20.39 23.05 24.54 16.77 12.47 18.72 20.39 9 16.26 16.14 16.89 21.42 25.52 25.15 23.46 23.51 19.87 19.64 18.75 20.99 10 13.65 14.65 13.53 14.16 13.19 11.81 23.40 23.43 9.41 10.24 12.59 12.73 11 17.46 8.86 17.46 16.57 9.32 10.18 16.14 17.98 13.28 9.15 13.48 14.08 22 7.17 14.39 5.59 12.59 16.46 12.04 16.23 17.52 19.47 16.66 12.01 12.24 23 12.39 16.32 9.06 9.63 14.48 13.28 11.33 15.31 9.15 7.91 7.31 11.35 24 10.38 10.61 13.36 14.37 14.80 14.68 11.64 12.65 8.80 8.20 10.58 9.15 25 11.10 10.64 11.21 11.27 12.87 13.30 12.42 12.50 8.20 9.12 9.78 9.32 26 12.56 12.79 15.60 14.74 10.78 14.45 13.28 13.91 8.80 9.92 8.46 8.43 27 17.00 15.68 16.06 15.66 16.77 18.29 13.25 24.23 12.90 12.67 7.97 11.21 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 9.98 22.85 17.00 20.99 22.34 21.05 18.18 29.16 22.82 21.76 22.37 20.53 7 16.46 21.19 22.74 23.08 14.45 13.48 27.61 23.11 15.60 15.51 21.51 19.04 8 20.56 27.87 26.81 25.52 21.73 24.92 28.27 26.90 25.18 23.40 22.8 20.85 9 19.13 22.05 25.32 22.14 30.31 29.33 26.61 25.09 16.80 19.58 21.13 19.56 10 18.52 13.85 19.04 20.24 14.60 14.14 26.09 23.51 8.63 9.32 19.24 18.67 11 17.63 17.86 19.27 20.47 17.20 16.75 21.59 17.55 32.14 24.32 15.63 15.43 22 5.73 15.60 11.73 26.61 17.23 8.29 8.69 27.15 12.65 13.05 1.43 14.74 23 15.51 17.06 11.67 12.85 17.72 13.94 14.82 14.80 15.34 18.09 10.35 10.15 24 9.23 12.70 14.82 13.68 18.84 15.68 15.71 14.94 13.28 12.30 10.52 10.49 25 9.52 11.73 15.11 12.90 18.04 12.10 19.5 13.33 13.02 13.51 12.13 12.01 26 13.39 12.04 13.56 19.13 20.99 15.46 15.11 14.71 18.61 17.84 12.70 11.70 27 6.71 0.00 17.23 21.25 30.51 17.66 22.25 22.57 17.29 18.01 7.20 5.99 169 Appendix F Position Data Report - 12 Technique A • IB lllli^ 111111 Sit lllli Cast A Cast B Cast C CastD CastE CastF Tooth # 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.06 3858 53.45 37.88 54.08 46.23 54.08 46.39 53.36 44.63 51.95 44.80 51.22 37.51 50.94 37.86 54.83 37.85 54.15 39.62 50.89 2878 51.28 28.90 7 58.68 3285 58.83 3282 59.95 4222 60.12 4226 58.44- 40.04 58.23 40.10 56.52 37.87 55.74 37.76 61.82 35.76 61.19 37.49 56.91 23.36 57.08 23.42 8 6631 29.32 66.29 29.33 65.93 37.64 65.57 37.75 64.69 33.98 64.40 34.32 64.80 34.20 64.03 34.18 67.26 3218 66.58 33.72 64.64 18.83 64.90 18.93 9 75.32 29.45 75.50 29.45 73.93 37.42 74.35 37.69 73.69 34.87 73.59 34.86 7288 33.04 7211 33.03 75.17 31.80 74.48 33.49 74.81 1873 75.13 1884 10 8250 33.73 8249 33.69 79.53 4233 79.69 4251 81.70 39.01 81.55 38.92 80.85 35.80 80.26 35.81 80.69 34.42 80.20 36.22 8272 2253 8289 2254 11 87.69 39.96 88.20 39.58 86.36 46.83 86.46 47.04 87.95 43.51 87.71 43.47 87.72 38.05 87.42 38.30 86.41 37.52 86.09 39.99 8852 27.74 88.45 27.67 22 80.30 105.98 80.72 104.76 85.34 100.44 85.14 100.46 87.15 9890 87.12 99.10 86.68 103.47 85.40 103.92 86.14 98.45 85.45 100.10 8290 115.74 83.07 115.75 23 75.34 10863 75.06 10850 81.08 99.58 81.25 99.57 8241 101.69 8200 101.81 80.69 106.59 79.78 106.57 80.29 10261 79.29 104.40 7657 118.74 76.55 119.06 24 69.28 110.32 69.35 110.39 75.72 101.94 75.51 10210 76.63 105.16 76.46 105.14 75.20 107.37 74.35 107.38 75.14 104.57 74.20 10612 70.84 120.98 70.68 121.14 25 64.09 109.43 63.97 109.49 70.12 101.73 69.96 101.81 71.81 103.86 71.92 103.77 69.27 107.61 68.70 107.55 70.03 104.66 69.47 10641 64.50 120.62 64.59 120.65 26 57.86 107.96 57.77 107.89 65.23 98.87 65.15 9891 65.88 103.37 65.58 103.28 63.56 106.53 6296 106.53 64.52 10241 63.95 104.15 5860 118.49 5880 118.48 27 5249 103.67 5235 103.63 59.80 96.49 59.86 96.70 60.25 101.41 60.08 101.38 58.19 105.90 57.19 104.71 5861 99.65 57% 101.37 5222 115.90 5215 115.24 1 echnique B Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF Tooth # 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.63 2201 36.41 23.65 34.76 3280 35.02 3297 3210 29.11 3228 29.14 29.49 19.67 29.83 21.09 35.30 47.60 35.30 48.05 33.66 14.18 33.69 11.83 7 4228 17.29 4265 17.19 4216 27.89 4215 27.92 38.07 24.28 37.98 24.52 37.04 1836 37.20 19.28 4202 44.72 4218 44.93 4040 868 40.14 6.44 8 50.44 13.68 50.16 13.44 47.23 23.45 47.09 23.37 44.44 1810 44.39 18.48 45.47 14.43 45.35 15.64 47.17 41.17 47.55 41.12 4800 3.85 48.35 1.44 9 59.12 13.75 5880 13.43 56.95 23.38 56.70 23.16 54.06 1885 53.57 18.96 53.87 13.34 53.65 14.63 56.01 40.83 55.60 40.% 57.69 3.50 57.76 1.19 10 66.34 17.88 66.42 17.84 6234 27.84 6234 27.93 61.78 2286 61.64 2294 61.69 15.94 61.78 17.33 6209 43.53 6240 43.63 66.35 7.71 66.23 539 11 7214 24.37 71.85 24.16 69.51 3234 69.62 3262 67.69 27.04 68.16 27.57 69.37 19.07 68.87 19.80 67.10 47.47 67.84 47.21 7200 1221 71.82 9.87 22 63.86 90.49 64.80 89.22 68.59 86.43 68.32 85.07 68.21 8299 67.10 83.40 66.17 85.00 67.52 85.45 67.24 108.49 67.07 109.07 64.44 10291 66.90 9848 23 59.08 9276 59.05 9279 63.63 84.80 63.79 85.15 6276 84.98 6239 85.70 61.35 8656 61.10 87.92 60.87 111.15 61.00 111.32 59.84 103.71 59.82 101.55 24 5244 94.11 53.20 94.52 58.00 87.42 58.11 87.36 57.00 8890 56.63 89.08 55.71 87.71 55.40 89.00 56.04 113.42 56.19 113.47 53.89 105.68 53.82 10553 25 47.74 93.75 47.87 93.58 5219 87.18 5233 87.25 51.85 87.86 51.73 87.81 50.01 88.07 49.% 89.09 50.53 113.45 50.58 113.33 4779 105.14 47.82 10292 26 41.45 91.93 41.69 91.98 47.26 84.09 47.11 83.62 45.44 86.95 45.63 87.11 44.30 86.68 44.25 87.94 45.03 111.45 45.26 111.50 41.74 10291 41.72 100.70 27 37.33 87.83 0.00 O.OO 41.65 8213 41.65 81.61 39.43 84.71 39.78 85.58 3862 85.96 38.40 87.32 39.45 10882 39.65 1088 34.87 100.42 37.16 99.02 170 AppendixF Area Daia Report - I'3 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 7.86 7.89 4.56 5.25 4.22 6.80 0.00 0.00 10.67 10.87 5.71 6.45 7 7.08 7.31 11.33 10.21 8.57 8.17 14.71 14.77 5.62 5.91 10.67 9.55 8 12.30 16.29 14.31 11.58 12.44 12.10 17.35 17.43 7.71 10.52 17.92 ' 11.33 9 9.15 9.18 13.94 11.27 18.18 16.60 13.82 13.02 12.16 11.41 17.15 15.11 10 7.25 7.43 8.14 7.74 7.83 6.45 15.51 15.60 4.85 3.64 10.52 12.59 11 9.46 9.41 8.20 9.20 5.48 6.16 8.97 8.95 9.75 6.42 11.76 10.06 22 8.17 9.00 8.89 6.80 9.84 9.69 11.67 12.99 3.78 4.99 15.31 6.45 23 8.54 7.37 4.70 3.84 5.42 7.20 7.91 5.42 4.65 5.82 6.54 6.94 24 5.68 5.71 8.54 7.94 9.32 8.00 7.25 7.11 5.13 4.19 7.03 6.85 25 6.02 5.39 8.03 7.57 7.60 7.57 8.69 7.20 4.85 4.93 7.71 7.60 26 5.85 5.96 9.69 6.94 7.97 6.94 8.00 7.77 6.34 5.10 9.29 9.35 27 6.31 8.95 12.36 11.07 2.38 9.06 4.22 4.53 7.66 8.34 5.99 7.74 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 15.83 8.83 14.48 9.84 11.76 10.12 0.00 0.00 11.90 6.19 13.94 8.17 7 12.04 9.63 19.38 18.44 17.61 15.97 21.99 21.96 13.10 13.62 16.37 11.67 8 19.76 15.66 23.57 23.97 19.99 21.25 27.56 26.52 19.44 16.80 21.22 19.44 9 17.66 17.29 23.40 21.39 24.8 25.41 22.97 21.08 15.20 15.05 21.22 19.81 10 17.52 11.41 19.04 14.85 12.62 10.41 21.02 16.95 8.26 8.52 15.71 15.20 11 18.52 9.09 11.35 14.91 13.10 13.71 16.89 10.24 5.85 6.62 14.51 15.54 22 9.49 10.44 24.83 6.74 7.74 8.23 9.78 5.94 11.84 8.17 6.54 6.25 23 15.68 15.97 14.62 12.36 14.88 10.35 13.82 13.30 12.39 15.48 8.11 9.06 24 9.63 12.76 15.25 13.65 14.08 17.81 10.44 12.82 9.98 11.76 8.97 8.89 25 8.63 12.3 15.51 11.76 11.73 14.05 9.15 12.87 10.49 10.47 7.48 10.95 26 10.38 13.42 13.48 7.48 12.22 13.05 13.91 12.22 10.61 12.33 10.18 10.04 27 15.05 10.70 19.81 6.34 5.51 6.59 15.89 6.91 13.59 16.69 9.72 7.11 171 Appendix F Position DMA Report -1 3 Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5277 3868 5322 38.65 5282 46.90 5288 4682 51.84 44.90 51.81 45.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.51 39.46 55.01 39.45 50.28 2878 50.34 28.86 7 5867 3309 59.05 3298 60.54 4224 60.52 4228 57.73 40.71 57.88 40.75 54.33 37.68 54.21 37.82 61.03 37.64 61.41 37.60 56.71 23.41 56.79 23.41 8 66.97 29.48 67.24 29.50 65.81 37.75 65.89 37.80 64.85 34.24 64.82 34.28 6264 3198 6262 34.15 67.21 34.02 66.71 33.80 65.06 1892 64.60 18.97 9 7190 29.63 75.77 29.65 74.19 37.69 73.85 37.61 73.53 34.90 73.68 34.96 70.39 3100 70.52 33.15 74.36 33.47 74.25 33.51 74.70 18.74 74.73 18.73 10 8278 33.99 8268 34.07 79.49 4245 79.47 4247 81.60 39.04 81.91 39.01 78.83 35.67 78.82 35.82 80.25 36.17 81.29 36.49 8258 2249 83.07 2297 11 88.03 40.19 87.88 40.21 86.84 47.12 86.77 47.10 87.80 4153 87.90 43.48 86.25 38.16 85.91 38.13 86.11 39.99 8623 39.37 88.36 27.64 88.50 27.72 22 80.93 104.99 80.73 105.11 85.20 100.34 85.16 10049 87.05 99.13 87.23 99.11 84.03 103.71 84.21 103.76 84.96 101.77 85.37 101.70 8280 115.90 8225 116.84 23 75.59 108.81 75.70 10880 81.02 99.82 81.14 99.63 8246 101.71 8213 101.93 78.30 106.32 78.59 106.42 79.38 104.40 79.93 104.43 7621 119.35 76.16 119.33 24 6927 110.56 69.03 110.60 75.71 10208 75.81 10209 76.45 105.15 76.65 105.18 7274 107.26 7273 107.40 74.40 10633 74.76 10628 70.33 121.23 70.39 121.23 25 64.41 109.70 64.15 109.87 69.81 101.64 69.92 101.67 71.83 103.88 7202 10188 67.09 107.58 67.12 107.62 69.31 10633 69.74 10643 64.27 120.72 64.24 120.72 26 57.64 107.95 57.42 108.03 65.10 99.06 65.08 99.19 65.55 10153 65.63 103.54 61.30 106.46 61.28 106.63 64.01 104.52 64.63 104.30 58.43 118.37 5842 118.36 27 5271 104.30 5240 104.07 59.% 96.79 59.94 96.78 59.87 101.72 60.49 10203 56.08 105.84 56.24 106.21 5837 101.76 58.38 101.60 51.97 115.93 5214 115.94 & Technic ue B Too* # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.36 2280 37.10 2227 35.30 3205 33.10 3247 31.73 28.98 31.48 29.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.95 47.82 35.46 46.67 34.11 13.45 3163 1156 7 4246 1687 4228 1664 4229 27.87 40.66 27.74 38.01 24.13 37.98 24.38 37.32 19.60 37.05 19.31 43.05 44.75 43.3 44.38 40.08 840 40.04 607 8 50.55 1375 50.40 13.75 47.72 23.22 45.87 23.25 44.73 17.97 44.45 18.21 45.55 15.90 45.16 15.88 47.88 41.02 48.05 40.99 48.59 167 48.70 1.55 9 59.41 13.72 5899 13.51 56.65 23.23 54.84 23.12 54.08 1851 53.94 18.70 53.78 14.51 54.06 14.46 56.09 40.55 56.39 40.66 57.61 3.56 57.67 1.34 10 6644 17.61 65.94 17.85 6231 27.99 60.12 27.99 61.74 2274 6211 2283 61.47 17.12 61.79 16.95 6252 4186 6257 43.82 6660 7.54 66.27 5.36 11 7209 24.23 7262 23.73 69.74 31.81 67.52 3281 67.97 27.23 68.14 27.69 69.33 19.88 68.76 19.62 67.45 46.32 67.93 46.24 7242 1238 7204 1026 22 64.24 90.42 64.34 90.26 68.45 85.36 65.71 86.24 67.15 8294 67.45 8137 66.71 8617 65.79 86.13 66.99 109.05 6674 1089 65.59 101.45 66.04 99.14 23 59.46 9284 59.49 93.00 63.60 85.46 61.70 85.23 6234 85.52 61.70 8622 61.04 87.61 61.07 87.86 61.31 111.51 61.27 111.46 59.83 103.88 59.70 101.69 24 5285 94.54 5328 94.39 58.05 87.40 55.99 87.40 56.74 89.02 56.67 89.13 55.30 88.62 55.56 8833 56.02 11146 56.17 11152 5167 105.81 53.98 10154 25 48.05 93.7 47.66 93.60 5211 87.11 50.32 87.14 51.82 87.67 51.70 87.89 49.97 8861 49.90 89.31' 50.70 11162 51.02 11158 47.78 105.27 47.81 103.11 26 41.74 9203 41.66 9203 47.34 83.90 45.95 84.41 45.73 86.84 45.% 87.33 44.00 88.11 44.90 88.01 45.57 11209 44.99 111.42 4200 10295 41.88 100.79 27 36.44 8801 3697 8a41 4207 8216 40.32 8273 39.98 85.40 40.41 85.48 38.47 87.42 39.12 87.7 40.44 109.40 39.59 10873 35.79 100.82 35.56 98.91 172 Appendix F Area Data Report - 1'4 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 4.96 4.96 4.85 4.85 8.32 16.92 7.11 7.74 12.16 0.60 5.51 8.00 7 10.55 9.32 9.35 12.07 13.08 10.81 23.11 20.85 11.27 12.67 13.51 11.24 8 22.42 21.62 12.76 12.36 17.35 17.03 23.83 24.29 13.91 8.97 19.13 16.97 9 15.51 13.33 10.64 9.92 25.18 25.43 20.85 23.00 15.83 16.83 14.39 21.42 10 13.91 10.92 7.91 8.00 9.69 9.84 22.77 23.83 5.39 7.97 14.82 11.93 11 12.93 8.95 11.07 8.20 10.35 9.89 12.24 12.22 9.12 9.03 13.22 11.15 22 7.40 13.76 7.03 2.90 8.83 8.26 8.57 7.74 6.25 7.80 7.34 8.14 23 13.68 13.33 2.81 4.33 11.27 10.78 9.72 10.75 7.83 6.91 7.77 9.09 24 7.66 10.29 8.89 7.48 12.65 13.30 11.87 11.35 8.69 8.57 9.49 9.26 25 10.67 10.61 7.23 7.43 11.67 12.10 11.93 12.67 9.89 8.52 9.98 9.35 26 10.81 10.75 6.51 8.43 10.98 8.60 13.33 11.58 7.28 7.46 11.61 7.48 27 8.49 8.80 10.21 11.76 5.82 6.82 16.29 5.85 9.06 10.41 5.16 5.42 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 31.25 15.80 14.45 23.80 20.59 20.82 45.99 28.73 22.85 25.03 18.52 25.46 7 24.63 13.96 22.77 25.61 20.79 19.90 29.71 20.67 19.61 26.81 19.47 23.05 8 34.29 31.08 24.43 34.81 26.12 22.22 45.45 31.60 28.13 28.24 21.59 45.65 9 32.11 26.12 24.26 36.82 31.37 27.33 36.85 31.23 21.53 21.48 23.43 47.11 10 23.51 18.55 19.33 29.39 16.14 13.71 32.40 27.21 8.37 16.20 16.03 25.98 11 13.08 20.70 24.29 21.16 23.11 17.92 23.14 23.63 11.30 26.64 17.49 24.20 22 12.24 15.97 10.81 24.66 8.14 15.05 23.89 16.92 17.75 17.03 23.97 24.11 23 22.68 17.20 24.40 21.08 19.93 16.97 17.52 16.83 14.71 18.98 13.05 30.22 24 21.36 16.43 21.33 22.19 19.44 18.90 20.13 19.18 13.22 13.94 10.06 24.46 25 19.73 13.42 21.59 20.73 15.14 14.31 18.61 19.50 12.30 13.05 12.42 22.48 26 22.16 14.94 23.40 23.05 13.99 19.21 20.65 18.44 18.27 19.07 15.54 23.66 27 25.75 29.56 25.09 25.46 16.37 18.98 23.28 20.10 21.10 17.78 26.35 24.92 173 Appendix F Position Data Report - F4 Technic Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.11 3839 53.11 3805 5285 46.88 5285 4671 51.93 44.82 53.09 44.81 51.22 37.82 51.25 37.85 54.35 39.87 5334 40.13 49.93 2870 50.37 28.86 7 58.12 33.28 58.60 3287 60.52 4226 59.98 4216 57.53 40.88 58.10 40.52 56.20 37.87 56.09 38.07 61.53 37.49 61.09 37.15 5658 23.35 56.56 23.60 8 66.42 29.95 6697 29.54 66.14 37.79 66.05 37.61 65.11 34.26 64.47 34.15 64.47 34.18 64.35 34.19 66.59 33.66 65.10 33.50 64.44 18.85 64.19 19.04 9 74.37 29.55 75.45 29.55 73.57 37.77 73.74 37.41 73.61 34.90 73.72 34.90 7252 33.11 7250 33.04 74.26 33.42 7336 33.50 74.73 ia89 74.65 18.90 10 8214 34.23 8224 34.22 79.47 4243 79.50 4227 81.79 38.97 81.97 3R97 80.61 35.84 80.57 35.84 81.42 36.47 80.30 36.32 8242 2256 8266 2248 11 87.64 40.51 87.85 39.75 86.48 46.99 86.84 4695 87.69 43.45 87.88 43.46 87.% 3816 87.% 38.16 86.43 40.00 85.75 39.97 8826 27.57 88.83 27.80 22 80.07 10633 80.39 104.8 85.17 100.48 85.28 100.52 86.98 99.35 87.14 99.33 85.10 104.80 85.03 104.8 85.54 101.64 84.72 101.74 8228 116.67 8228 11676 23 7521 109.04 75.20 108.69 80.60 99.71 80.95 99.55 8205 101.96 8234 101.92 80.38 106.34 79.85 106.52 79.63 104.40 79.28 104.35 7621 119.21 7625 119.23 24 69.43 111.07 6897 110.52 75.63 10207 75.95 101.97 76.42 105.26 76.67 105.19 74.63 107.46 74.51 107.43 74.84 10631 74.12 10640 70.53 121.07 70.33 121.16 25 64.18 110.12 63.68 109.67 69.94 101.72 69.72 101.56 71.64 103.95 71.86 103.90 68.90 107.64 68.% 107.65 69.64 106.37 69.28 106.53 64.34 120.60 64.24 120.65 26 57.20 10840 57.19 10805 65.25 99.27 64.91 9878 65.09 103.2 65.79 103.55 63.11 106.60 6298 106.51 64.14 10429 63.83 104.33 5a32 118.21 5846 118.57 27 5242 104.62 5246 10424 59.91 96.75 59.% 9664 59.94 101.81 60.24 101.90 57.54 105.26 57.68 105.55 59.02 10216 5836 10226 51.86 115.97 51.94 116.03 Technique B Too* # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 3692 24.42 35.96 23.11 35.51 31.87 36.11 3222 3227 2873 3244 28.94 30.67 2251 30.45 21.06 36.18 47.15 35.% 47.40 34.06 13.41 34.14 13.91 7 4287 17.50 4252 17.31 4225 28.25 4215 28.12 37.84 23.82 37.62 24.49 37.74 20.42 36.93 19.96 4201 45.31 41.36 43.81 39.87 a73 40.02 8.93 8 49.74 14.32 50.34 13.34 48.06 23.30 47.30 23.79 44.59 1847 44.05 18.38 45.26 17.04 45.15 16.44 47.52 41.56 47.77 41.36 4806 3.68 48.25 4.86 9 5883 14.42 5890 13.60 57.42 23.31 57.28 23.% 53.95 19.07 54.35 18.98 54.03 15.92 53.91 15.51 56.39 41.05 55.94 40.97 5828 3.53 58.15 4.69 10 65.68 17.79 6602 17.69 6284 28.01 6245 2856 61.77 23.09 61.% 2298 61.68 1849 61.72 18.08 6241 43.76 61.93 44.06 6663 7.56 66.30 &19 11 7235 24.67 71.80 24.32 69.66 3266 68.78 31.71 67.41 27.40 67.51 27.11 68.95 21.05 68.53 20.87 67.03 45.70 67.08 47.08 7265 1264 71.84 1281 22 64.41 90.47 64.61 89.38 67.36 86.03 68.47 8605 66.19 84.83 66.68 83.96 67.19 8662 66.40 86.66 67.16 108.78 6679 10897 6608 100.60 66.25 100.18 23 59.25 9293 58.87 9260 63.75 86.01 63.46 85.72 6229 85.22 6235 85.47 61.46 8896 61.18 88.69 61.50 111.61 61.40 111.34 59.77 103.55 59.84 10229 24 5315 94.25 53.07 94.20 58.23 88.04 58.20 88.06 56.58 89.30 56.63 89.16 56.14 90.09 55.66 90.00 56.18 11361 56.28 113.57 53.80 105.67 53.78 104.81 25 47.30 9374 47.48 93.51 5218 87.59 5222 87.52 51.% 87.74 51.98 87.78 50.04 90.29 49.74 90.03 50.86 11368 50.82 113.60 47.95 105.18 47.98 104.14 26 41.53 9250 41.41 9204 46.94 85.01 47.20 84.90 45.53 87.11 45.48 87.13 44.36 89.29 44.28 8853 45.52 111.72 45.37 111.63 41.66 10276 41.92 10218 27 3654 87.33 3615 8653 4252 8217 4218 8231 41.08 85.60 40.75 8630 38.66 88.10 38.42 88.29 39.74 108.85 39.71 109.05 35.07 9884 35.32 99.23 174 AppendixF Area Data Report - F5 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 9.15 4.59 10.92 11.15 12.73 12.73 5.79 0.00 10.32 12.70 8.95 8.75 7 7.17 9.58 22.16 14.80 11.27 11.87 19.07 30.8 10.15 10.55 10.95 17.03 8 18.75 17.09 13.51 15.14 12.30 15.05 10.01 18.21 15.46 13.99 16.69 15.89 9 15.60 12.90 13.96 14.51 21.48 22.97 20.19 20.50 21.94 13.08 15.37 14.60 10 7.83 12.93 15.14 11.30 7.46 10.49 19.70 18.18 8.29 5.48 13.94 9.46 11 15.23 . 10.29 13.39 12.96 11.10 9.00 14.28 11.07 8.52 9.18 13.05 30.60 22 19.87 10.90 5.79 9.92 10.44 6.71 16.06 13.85 9.46 8.80 7.43 4.33 23 9.43 9.66 11.41 9.58 9.58 9.92 12.50 11.93 5.28 5.25 7.86 8.34 24 9.95 11.27 16.43 11.38 12.36 12.36 12.16 7.05 6.31 6.85 7.80 8.00 25 9.98 11.44 12.79 10.75 9.35 8.29 12.01 12.19 6.97 7.46 8.60 9.12 26 7.51 8.34 11.35 6.05 6.39 5.39 7.97 7.43 7.37 8.20 7.54 7.11 27 11.64 7.00 14.82 12.01 9.03 29.82 6.14 8.72 7.17 10.44 8.14 15.14 1 ccnnique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 20.85 26.41 21.53 14.28 17.03 21.51 18.04 17.86 24.00 20.67 18.35 15.89 7 22.51 21.85 24.43 21.76 18.12 18.84 28.70 20.56 15.94 16.80 16.95 15.31 8 28.16 28.44 28.24 25.23 21.68 23.34 32.49 28.19 22.19 26.32 34.49 33.09 9 23.89 24.54 32.43 26.18 28.82 27.70 31.34 26.61 11.27 19.24 36.82 39.14 10 29.51 22.31 25.26 19.56 14.85 15.28 25.58 23.11 11.04 12.67 22.22 24.23 11 22.68 23.43 20.22 12.56 19.96 19.73 19.76 19.27 7.40 9.18 18.12 19.81 22 7.11 6.62 17.03 32.75 29.88 28.04 14.28 21.02 18.87 12.62 13.71 15.34 23 17.09 8.23 17.26 23.48 18.58 18.15 12.47 17.72 15.66 15.00 14.42 14.16 24 3.33 13.88 14.85 23.43 18.98 17.69 16.86 17.72 12.47 12.07 13.62 12.22 25 7.05 11.73 18.61 18.49 14.68 13.73 12.24 16.49 13.94 12.65 12.39 12.42 26 17.69 17.29 21.30 17.61 14.82 15.77 16.09 16.72 16.92 18.70 12.62 14.19 27 22.51 18.24 27.27 20.36 36.65 24.14 20.10 24.83 19.44 21.33 16.63 18.58 175 Appendix F Position D.u.i Report - 15 Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.69 38.51 53.15 37.86 53.65 45.90 53.66 46.23 5280 44.82 5280 44.82 50.93 37.54 0.00 0.00 54.18 39.86 54.42 39.79 50.60 2887 50.08 28.87 7 5877 3311 5854 3273 61.53 41.59 60.53 4204 57.89 40.57 57.82 40.65 55.69 37.57 54.86 38.88 61.39 37.38 61.48 37.30 56.84 23.47 56.19 24.12 8 66.42 29.92 662 29.39 65.74 37.18 65.66 37.53 65.36 34.12 64.79 34.23 63.31 33.51 6287 34.03 66.48 33.93 6672 33.92 64.66 1886 64.19 1882 9 74.48 29.68 74.% 29.38 73.88 37.14 73.86 37.51 73.58 34.% 73.55 35.02 7213 3278 70.87 3298 74.09 34.14 73.88 33.61 74.55 18.82 73.87 18.72 10 8202 33.65 8204 3367 79.39 41.74 79.55 4226 81.62 39.63 81.56 39.08 80.25 35.53 79.04 35.73 80.49 36.45 80.81 36.38 8242 2271 8235 2250 11 87.55 40.43 87.64 39.94 86.48 46.48 86.50 4680 87.13 43.32 87.63 4345 87.35 37.95 86.12 38.02 86.30 40.14 8626 40.12 8843 27.72 87.36 28.74 22 80.05 104.62 80.41 104.87 85.19 100.11 85.19 10026 87.07 99.15 87.02 99.34 85.63 103.41 84.16 103.68 8516 101.56 84.98 101.67 8237 116.86 8210 116.99 23 75.95 10876 7574 10&31 81.17 99.60 81.18 99.72 8205 101.98 8206 101.98 79.85 106.38 78.58 106.56 79.46 104.44 80.74 104.28 76.28 119.30 7582 119.29 24 69.56 110.79 69.71 110.24 75.97 101.87 75.74 101.95 76.50 10516 76.50 10516 74.39 107.23 7287 107.30 74.59 10628 7459 10627 70.49 121.20 70.08 12121 25 63.97 110.09 63.27 109.64 69.% 101.49 69.87 101.65 71.83 104.06 71.84 104.11 68.54 107.57 67.27 107.58 69.33 10629 69.34 10629 64.39 120.73 63.90 120.72 26 57.37 10846 57.19 107.98 65.17 98.58 65.33 99.05 65.85 103.72 65.94 103.78 6240 105.95 61.48 106.15 64.14 104.22 64.12 104.25 5861 118.55 5804 118.56 27 5232 104.26 5237 104.15 59.97 %.23 59.92 9662 60.06 101.92 60.69 100.08 57.64 105.78 56.39 106.03 58.84 10217 58.42 101.66 5215 115% 51.36 114.97 Technic nc B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 35.25 23.72 3585 2292 34.63 33.32 34.28 33.18 31.73 29.05 31.45 29.68 30.15 20.49 30.14 20.29 35.57 47.32 3581 47.60 3518 14.12 33.73 13.41 7 4229 17.51 4248 17.10 4206 28.09 4214 27.% 37.61 24.26 37.59 24.24 37.59 19.55 37.28 19.28 4206 44.80 4242 44.88 39.84 8.57 39.70 855 8 49.69 13.97 5029 1346 47.38 23.52 47.49 23.38 44.17 1813 43.% 1846 45.56 1601 45.37 15.86 47.15 41.15 47.49 41.23 48.39 4.30 47.94 4.25 9 59.13 14.55 59.15 13.78 57.17 23.73 57.22 23.41 54.56 1&92 54.05 19.09 54.15 14.87 53.94 14.64 56.53 40.38 5665 40.82 58.61 4.28 58.38 4.33 10 66.01 1865 66.01 18.20 6247 28.28 6251 28.01 61.73 2290 61.72 23.05 61.% 17.46 61.65 17.47 6228 43.93 6230 43.99 6671 817 66.34 802 11 71.20 24.53 71.58 24.07 69.27 3242 69.31 31.50 67.45 27.32 67.37 27.35 69.54 20.24 69.20 20.09 66.78 45.01 67.19 45.26 7237 1259 7209 1271 22 64.58 90.97 64.52 90.20 67.98 86.44 67.60 84.64 6584 81.83 65.59 81.92 67.27 86.37 66.75 85.56 66.92 108.55 6690 109.32 6680 101.11 66.69 101.05 23 5856 93.53 59.76 9283 63.32 85.27 63.41 8608 6222 8561 6240 8616 61.74 8840 61.25 8827 61.34 111.56 61.33 111.65 60.41 103.36 59.91 103.59 24 5276 9568 53.10 94.77 57.76 87.52 58.16 88.11 56.56 88.90 56.69 89.11 56.48 89.44 55.79 8928 56.19 113.51 5620 113.51 54.12 105.68 53.95 10584 25 47.04 94.77 47.44 9377 51.98 87.49 5231 87.66 51.94 87.67 51.95 87.91 49.93 89.11 49.77 89.28 50.44 113.40 50.81 11553 47.71 105.19 47.66 10518 26 41.34 9246 41.33 9216 47.21 84.33 47.54 84.65 4571 87.12 4528 87.17 43.91 8860 44.12 8820 44.97 111.50 4515 111.42 41.47 10282 41.52 10276 27 3592 87.42 3605 87.90 41.61 81.87 4251 8233 40.21 84.63 4236 84.54 38.18 8675 38.07 86.55 39.43 10870 39.55 10844 34.93 99.68 34.92 99.49 176 Appendix ¥ Area Data Report - lYi Technique A Tooth # Cast A Cast B Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.06 2.81 4.96 5.65 5.91 5.02 0.00 0.00 2.72 2.67 6.28 5.96 7 3.67 3.99 10.01 12.79 4.82 6.22 9.84 14.05 6.39 5.82 3.61 8.11 8 7.66 9.92 6.62 13.48 6.22 12.76 2.12 17.06 6.97 12.73 5.71 15.23 9 3.10 9.26 12.01 13.88 16.09 18.92 12.62 15.25 9.23 8.06 6.88 15.91 10 3.61 7.68 7.80 7.68 3.10 9.15 2.70 16.26 3.50 2.92 4.27 10.24 11 5.48 6.22 10.15 7.00 5.79 5.45 7.23 6.54 5.76 4.13 7.23 8.40 22 8.34 10.44 3.47 5.79 4.13 4.62 4.19 4.62 1.41 2.81 1.75 4.27 23 5.05 7.68 4.27 4.44 5.76 6.45 2.58 9.38 2.87 2.75 6.51 8.60 24 5.82 6.45 3.04 10.21 9.03 9.26 5.96 6.45 4.85 4.13 6.62 7.03 25 6.39 5.51 7.03 9.75 4.30 8.63 7.08 7.60 4.99 4.62 7.03 7.57 26 5.53 4.44 3.53 6.08 3.18 8.92 3.90 7.97 4.87 3.61 5.62 9.09 27 4.16 2.87 2.15 2.29 3.01 3.01 3.78 3.76 5.10 4.39 3.76 5.10 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 4.76 4.65 9.61 9.35 5.51 9.12 0.00 0.00 9.43 9.72 11.53 11.53 7 9.61 12.13 21.45 17.49 12.10 13.76 21.73 22.14 20.62 10.35 17.72 12.33 8 20.01 19.87 21.79 22.48 19.73 16.20 26.09 26.15 16.14 16.34 21.51 18.92 9 15.43 17.23 21.25 22.08 25.92 24.23 21.79 23.05 16.34 13.94 20.01 18.95 10 13.82 17.55 20.24 18.12 12.93 13.56 25.29 23.57 8.77 7.37 17.75 14.94 11 8.92 8.20 14.42 14.71 11.30 9.09 12.70 9.78 3.30 3.58 15.23 14.80 22 6.97 3.76 4.39 6.48 5.73 8.06 8.63 4.62 9.92 4.24 8.06 11.70 23 14.60 13.91 9.46 11.70 13.91 13.71 15.25 12.76 10.58 7.83 11.27 9.86 24 10.70 13.59 14.28 14.48 15.77 15.46 11.90 11.84 10.78 10.90 10.55 9.75 25 11.47 11.41 12.27 14.37 14.11 12.53 12.39 11.87 12.13 10.29 12.76 12.53 26 13.13 12.22 10.47 9.72 13.71 13.56 14.80 14.28 17.35 12.27 13.33 11.64 27 4.10 3.27 3.27 4.01 3.47 5.16 12.93 5.48 17.38 13.36 12.16 6.94 177 AppendixF Position T)al;i Report - Hi Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.05 37.90 5293 37.90 5286 46.87 52% 46.62 5208 44.88 5209 44.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.89 39.37 53.88 39.38 50.31 2888 50.31 28.80 7 5874 3249 5850 3255 60.48 4226 60.45 4205 58.30 4022 58.29 40.27 54.38 3800 54.45 37.80 60.93 37.56 60.90 37.59 57.12 2294 56.84 2323 8 67.28 29.29 65.87 29.16 65.15 37.49 65.68 37.53 64.90 33.90 65.28 34.25 63.46 33.55 6289 34.19 66.38 33.77 66.29 33.99 64.66 18.44 64.71 1859 9 74.87 29.03 75.13 29.45 73.91 37.68 74.03 37.50 73.71 34.77 73.63 34.93 70.82 33.01 70.74 33.01 73.39 33.53 73.33 33.51 74.90 1&31 74.67 18.66 10 81.94 33.10 8205 3379 79.47 4246 79.48 4230 81.55 38.60 81.79 39.08 78.28 35.27 78.99 35.84 80.61 36.40 80.53 36.36 8218 2213 8257 2246 11 87.84 39.60 87.62 39.63 86.59 47.03 86.98 47.19 87.95 43.52 87.98 43.53 86.09 3811 86.38 38.16 85.96 40.06 85.91 39.79 89.08 27.98 88.89 2730 22 80.41 104.88 80.22 104.8 85.18 100.73 85.21 100.33 87.17 99.27 87.18 99.27 83.16 104.82 83.36 104.82 84.58 10214 84.56 101.99 8290 116.83 8246 116.92 23 75.46 10836 75.16 108.47 80.99 99.79 81.04 99.61 8227 101.98 82.23 101.98 78.70 106.95 78.45 106.61 78.94 104.49 79.39 104.40 76.20 119.24 7620 119.19 24 6879 110.37 68.67 110.32 76.32 10211 75.67 10200 76.62 105.14 76-62 105.14 7267 107.45 7281 107.44 74.20 106.28 74.28 106.28 70.36 121.14 70.35 121.23 25 63.82 109.54 63.67 109.54 69.98 101.75 69.86 101.65 7209 104.17 71.95 103.93 67.12 107.63 67.24 107.62 69.20 106.37 69.08 106.29 64.34 120.67 64.38 120.75 26 57.05 107.77 56.72 107.68 65.59 99.38 65.38 99.07 65.03 10299 65.78 103.49 61.00 106.47 61.37 106.58 64.09 104.33 63.91 104.30 5849 118.55 5843 118.38 27 52.42 104.16 5236 104.20 59.95 97.49 60.01 97.36 60.09 101.73 60.09 101.73 56.10 106.06 56.26 106.05 58.69 10223 58.82 10231 51.91 116.00 51.93 115.92 Technic ue B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.48 19.16 37.06 2220 3276 30.72 3262 30.94 31.46 2882 31.51 29.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.03 47.78 35.17 47.81 34.23 1512 34.29 10.87 7 4210 14.55 4246 17.05 39.97 26.59 40.29 26.43 37.99 24.54 37.88 24.47 37.39 17.68 36.91 17.70 40.45 43.26 4287 44.91 39.89 862 39.54 646 8 50.29 10.77 50.05 13.56 45.34 21.93 45.40 21.98 44.55 18.14 45.17 1802 45.47 14.14 45.35 13.99 47.70 41.08 47.98 40.94 47.80 574 48.34 1.47 9 59.52 10.88 59.38 13.73 54.06 21.97 54.20 2202 54.19 1878 53.99 1880 53.61 1298 53.49 1282 55.65 40.71 55.87 40.56 5807 3.39 58.05 1.26 10 6645 15.14 66.47 17.76 60.18 26.84 59.75 26.63 61.77 2293 61.79 2299 61.76 15-81 61.69 15.68 6259 43.79 6250 4558 66.31 7.56 66.58 544 11 7209 21.11 7224 23.89 67.11 31.81 66.64 30.79 67.88 27.00 68.02 27.58 69.04 17.94 68.90 17.92 67.61 46.34 67.72 46.52 71% 1219 7203 10.11 22 63.95 87.52 64.34 90.19 65.31 84.59 64.83 85.18 67.31 83.12 67.18 83.13 66.11 84.78 66.03 84.60 66.60 109.29 66.43 109.56 6591 101.94 67.47 97.88 23 59.45 89.89 59.53 9273 61.15 83.85 60.89 83.72 6236 85.65 6228 85.73 61.38 86.42 61.40 86.32 61.58 111.76 61.95 111.52 59.99 103.66 59.95 101.71 24 5347 91.70 53.21 94.47 55.59 86.24 55.46 86-25 56.55 89.18 56.78 89.10 55.77 87.20 55.58 8722 56.09 113.74 56.22 11557 5584 105.78 53.88 10171 25 47.88 90.75 47.83 93.64 49.83 85.97 49.64 85.97 51.89 87.81 5208 87.70 50.17 87.46 50.13 87.37 50.55 113.58 50.99 11559 47.90 10518 47.90 10117 26 41.56 89.19 41.65 91.98 45.01 8273 44.58 8275 45.67 87.20 45.67 87.00 44.30 86.44 43.89 86.43 45.28 111.65 4563 111.55 41.92 10289 41.70 100.84 27 37.89 85.69 37.32 89.17 40.89 8276 39.78 81.74 40.00 85.30 39.95 85.36 39.20 86.35 38.92 85.48 39.75 109.02 39.65 108.79 3585 100.59 35.74 98.73 178 Appendix F Area Data Report - F7 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 1.78 1.84 4.96 4.85 3.44 6.42 3.18 7.11 4.04 4.42 5.16 5.13 7 3.87 4.01 8.83 5.30 4.39 4.19 3.15 3.56 5.39 5.62 10.61 6.65 8 8.29 9.09 4.90 4.44 7.91 7.00 3.99 10.98 5.85 9.38 13.36 12.85 9 5.62 5.79 10.81 9.61 14.14 15.48 13.73 14.60 7.68 8.83 13.99 6.22 10 7.23 7.08 7.91 7.74 5.39 5.96 4.30 14.31 2.21 2.72 10.61 9.38 11 4.76 5.16 9.95 7.08 5.28 5.79 6.22 9.09 5.30 4.27 6.39 7.57 22 5.53 7.60 3.47 2.18 9.15 5.94 10.84 3.41 5.42 2.90 3.99 5.13 23 6.42 6.39 4.76 3.01 5.39 5.65 5.56 4.33 2.90 2.67 6.74 5.88 24 4.36 4.36 5.91 6.16 7.40 7.40 6.71 5.25 2.55 2.52 6.80 6.51 25 3.35 4.70 8.20 6.02 4.22 3.90 6.08 6.97 3.53 4.01 7.11 7.05 26 2.75 3.35 2.72 6.28 2.92 2.70 5.96 4.87 3.90 2.67 6.51 5.19 27 1.43 2.92 2.04 11.24 2.35 2.38 3.90 3.24 6.14 5.62 6.54 5.45 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 15.23 11.35 16.77 10.27 17.12 14.22 12.65 15.83 13.08 14.22 14.16 13.19 7 16.95 18.06 21.48 18.75 13.30 13.79 21.02 21.62 13.59 16.32 14.19 17.03 8 22.39 27.96 23.05 20.53 20.56 20.90 28.39 25.41 22.51 23.86 30.05 18.75 9 17.32 20.70 22.68 20.82 29.19 26.47 23.57 23.86 22.91 21.08 29.22 21.45 10 17.89 16.43 18.21 16.26 13.25 14.42 24.26 26.32 7.89 10.61 23.00 19.35 11 10.92 9.09 17.58 10.92 15.20 14.60 14.16 15.57 13.10 13.65 16.86 12.99 22 9.92 10.78 20.65 9.23 13.25 10.27 11.76 . 9.78 12.33 15.14 14.39 10.75 23 12.85 12.50 21.53 12.04 10.95 13.79 15.25 12.65 15.46 14.45 13.25 12.44 24 16.37 14.60 22.19 14.88 16.29 15.80 11.99 12.39 13.08 12.76 11.07 10.78 25 13.85 12.07 20.44 15.37 12.96 13.59 10.01 8.86 14.74 12.39 12.87 10.81 26 15.63 17.63 21.10 13.76 14.71 15.40 14.25 12.42 17.61 18.95 13.05 12.10 27 9.41 11.56 25.63 11.41 7.11 18.78 16.54 13.96 12.44 20.19 15.71 11.93 179 Appendix F Position D.ii.i Ri-poif - 17 Technic uc A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5283 3809 5299 38.11 5286 46.70 5285 4688 51.83 44.84 51.66 4545 51.76 37.56 51.48 37.86 53.% 39.85 53.88 40.13 50.03 29.05 50.31 28.% 7 5835 3284 58.39 3296 60.39 4212 60.13 4222 58.09 40.26 58.29 40.24 56.37 37.53 56.17 37.47 61.01 37.67 61.20 37.64 5655 2167 56.79 2355 8 65.74 29.27 65.87 29.27 64.83 37.26 64.84 37.42 64.28 34.25 64.03 34.03 65.11 33.73 64.35 34.06 65.53 33.66 6637 33.78 64.47 1887 64.49 18.73 9 7537 29.56 75.11 29.58 73.73 37.47 73.69 37.61 73.62 35.03 73.66 34.78 73.30 3107 7274 33.08 73.42 33.51 73.66 33.54 74.53 1866 74.95 18.28 10 8213 34.06 8230 34.04 79.47 4227 79.42 4242 81.68 3894 81.93 39.05 81.12 3538 81.13 35.84 80.76 36.38 81.04 36.53 8259 2273 8274 2254 11 87.42 40.13 87.86 39.77 86.60 46.85 87.00 47.38 87.84 43.55 87.95 4352 88.92 3816 88.26 38.15 86.26 40.11 8623 39.69 89.23 27.99 88.97 27.87 22 80.44 104.40 80.46 104.88 85.18 100.56 85.46 100.27 87.05 99.15 87.43 98.79 86.75 103.81 85.55 104.84 8561 101.49 85.26 101.69 8244 116.90 8253 116.69 23 7517 108.67 75.36 10866 81.04 99.65 80.85 99.76 8204 10201 8227 101.98 80.94 106.45 80.74 106.47 79.90 104.25 80.41 104.11 7621 119.24 7634 119.27 24 6845 110.52 6862 110.52 75.47 10201 76.14 10211 7648 10521 76.64 10521 75.27 107.39 75.02 107.44 74.33 10628 74.38 10625 70.32 121.13 70.47 121.14 25 63.19 109.88 63.79 109.74 69.89 101.62 70.05 101.73 71.79 103.79 71.97 104.19 70.09 107.63 69.49 107.62 69.68 10652 69.62 10640 64.30 120.66 64.40 120.66 26 57.29 108.38 56.80 107.79 65.10 98.23 64.76 99.06 ' 65.58 103.41 65.64 103.38 63.69 106.68 63.46 106.80 64.34 104.32 64.03 104.22 58.55 118.46 58.62 118.52 27 5232 104.10 5232 104.34 59.93 97.30 59.95 9680 59.86 101.71 60.02 101.69 58.82 106.06 58.30 105.75 58.20 101.68 58.68 101.92 5204 115.86 5200 115.65 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.46 2268 36.65 2247 35.25 3217 35.17 31.73 31.63 29.04 31.98 28.65 29.42 20.19 29.42 20.14 35.13 46.85 34.95 47.68 34.14 1118 3191 13.16 7 4254 17.11 4211 17.38 4201 27.88 41.76 27.8 37.87 23.88 37.82 24.54 37.08 19.35 37.40 19.12 4296 44.63 4291 44.73 39.87 834 40.02 8.44 8 50.07 13.70 50.13 13.19 47.38 23.21 47.69 2305 44.67 1800 44.75 1822 45.35 1574 45.35 1568 47.60 41.07 47.66 41.02 47.89 4.11 47.92 151 9 59.23 13.82 5893 1331 56.97 23.22 56.73 23.08 54.28 1885 54.08 1895 53.73 14.52 53.89 14.43 56.00 40.85 5640 40.74 58.12 181 58.47 147 10 66.26 17.78 66.19 17.51 6251 27.85 6253 27.96 61.71 2277 61.52 2279 61.78 17.28 61.61 17.38 61.59 43.31 61.97 43.59 66.41 7.98 66.51 7.75 11 71.43 23.97 71.87 23.51 69.54 3227 69.07 3235 67.82 27.02 67.66 27.04 69.02 19.54 68.57 19.57 66.96 45.61 67.32 45.83 7203 1230 71.71 1200 22 64.63 90.24 64.69 89.82 67.88 86.07 67.21 85.85 66.73 8381 66.57 8577 66.45 8584 66.03 86X15 66.82 109.22 67.08 10&82 6646 101.07 65.82 101.77 23 59.19 9285 59.38 9287 63.29 86.34 63.77 85.26 6214 8568 6226 8572 61.27 87.96 61.07 87.75 61.30 111.63 61.61 111.59 59.61 103.63 59.71 103.65 24 53.39 94.28 53.36 94.46 58.05 88.11 57.97 87.42 56.48 89.13 56.52 89.24 55.56 8875 55.52 88.74 55.93 11142 56.03 113.39 53.89 105.75 53.82 105.75 25 47.62 9365 47.95 9365 5214 87.64 5212 87.05 51.93 87.65 51.95 87.96 50.23 8879 49.65 88.73 50.31 11527 50.92 113.53 47.74 10517 47.49 10529 26 41.64 9215 41.79 9212 47.51 85.02 47.46 84.11 45.55 87.09 45.35 87.10 44.32 87.94 44.18 87.81 44.85 111.41 4537 111.53 41.48 1028 41.56 10292 27 37.18 87.80 37.24 88.26 4204 8275 4232 81.55 40.84 8562 39.26 85.46 38.59 87.49 38.24 86.70 40.20 109.46 39.58 10863 35.01 99.78 34.84 100.02 180 AppendixF Area Data Report - F8 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.67 5.79 4.65 4.96 5.91 3.76 0.00 0.00 5.68 3.18 6.31 6.54 7 2.67 1.55 9.95 9.66 2.92 0.49 4.24 10.35 5.59 5.94 4.67 10.27 8 1.23 3.01 4.90 7.03 8.00 5.91 3.13 2.12 6.88 6.94 3.73 9.29 9 2.04 2.06 9.61 8.77 16.11 16.52 2.87 5.30 7.89 6.62 5.16 6.82 10 4.62 3.70 3.18 7.91 1.81 4.99 4.22 2.64 2.52 2.44 2.47 2.87 11 6.37 3.78 8.11 7.34 5.28 5.79 5.48 7.74 4.59 4.30 5.19 9.32 22 3.30 2.41 1.84 2.35 3.64 4.01 4.01 4.07 1.41 2.04 1.63 16.77 23 3.27 3.30 3.33 3.84 5.56 5.73 2.58 2.72 2.87 2.78 6.71 6.02 24 5.05 2.47 6.42 4.99 3.13 7.37 5.71 6.37 3.04 3.13 5.91 6.57 25 5.42 2.47 3.44 4.67 3.76 4.59 6.74 1.89 4.36 4.70 6.19 7.00 26 3.70 3.56 0.63 0.34 1.98 2.24 4.30 5.76 2.95 3.67 1.92 1.92 27 3.53 3.13 1.98 1.84 2.38 2.38 3.38 2.70 4.82 4.16 3.18 3.56 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 6.08 8.77 6.48 6.42 7.00 10.15 0.00 0.00 11.96 7.71 8.46 8.77 7 8.09 9.38 8.86 19.18 7.20 13.05 18.58 11.04 13.76 15.20 10.52 16.95 8 20.5 19.70 12.76 21.76 7.83 18.84 13.08 7.97 19.61 19.73 13.76 14.22 9 15.66 15.97 14.65 21.16 19.67 24.49 21.28 15.68 17.69 17.41 14.11 12.53 10 14.39 14.54 17.15 17.72 10.98 12.85 16.14 10.67 8.11 5.91 6.97 13.05 11 12.73 8.77 12.22 10.06 8.43 11.27 13.59 13.71 4.59 5.22 13.53 16.54 22 7.40 8.54 4.04' 3.33 4.96 9.23 7.28 3.50 13.62 9.12 10.58 13.08 23 14.82 18.55 8.11 0.00 11.99 12.90 14.62 7.91 12.76 8.40 10.72 14.45 24 10.38 14.48 12.24 12.96 14.31 15.8 9.75 2.98 11.15 10.67 11.47 11.87 25 11.53 12.10 12.44 12.30 10.41 10.67 11.96 8.72 15.34 11.47 13.13 12.82 26 11.58 12.36 7.05 5.30 13.30 15.25 12.13 8.54 14.37 13.10 5.73 14.34 27 4.42 6.97 7.57 10.58 5.25 5.13 11.04 5.36 18.61 13.96 7.48 16.2 181 Appendix F Position Daia Rc] wrt - F8 Technic ue A Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF Tooth # 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.10 37.56 53.34 37.85 5283 46.89 5286 46.87 53.49 44.32 51.85 44.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.21 39.95 5194 39.61 50.32 28.79 50.36 28.85 7 57.27 33.10 59.79 31.63 60.49 4225 60.52 4227 57.14 40.84 59.00 40.77 54.28 37.20 54.12 37.67 61.37 37.64 61.07 37.59 5669 23.52 56.68 23.48 8 6523 29.55 67.95 29.27 64.83 37.43 65.19 37.50 64.44 34.02 64.70 3190 6261 3154 61.74 34.16 66.68 33.71 6635 34.09 6107 1834 64.43 18.99 9 77.67 29.72 7282 29.04 73.70 37.60 73.59 37.58 73.06 34.% 73.52 34.85 7200 3211 71.80 3239 73.83 33.50 74.18 34.05 74.84 1818 74.90 18.31 10 82.65 34.35 8221 33.46 79.95 4281 79.46 4245 81.08 3838 81.63 3885 78.69 3519 78.49 35.27 80.93 36.30 80.53 36.26 8281 2210 8277 2221 11 87.78 39.31 87.95 39.40 86.82 47.11 86.89 47.14 87.33 43.55 87.78 4152 86.64 38.02 86.22 38.12 86.44 39.92 8608 39.82 89.39 27.98 88.28 27.70 22 80.04 105.48 80.02 105.88 85.44 100.46 85.40 100.47 86.51 99.27 87.00 99.25 83.49 104.65 83.33 104.81 8509 10214 84.67 10214 8289 116.83 8271 115.77 23 7393 109.01 73.89 109.35 80.97 99.76 80.96 99.79 81.66 101.94 8208 10200 79.04 106.78 78.85 106.94 79.50 104.40 79.10 104.50 7620 119.23 7624 119.27 24 68.64 110.01 69.74 110.63 75.61 10225 76.23 10213 74.90 105.80 76.45 105.21 73.01 107.27 7285 107.45 74.75 10628 74.50 10628 70.40 121.15 70.39 121.13 25 63.89 10921 6292 109.76 70.39 10233 70.13 101.75 71.39 104.21 71.87 104.14 67.43 107.45 67.26 108.05 69.69 106.35 69.30 106.32 64.28 120.68 64.31 120.68 26 5698 107.42 57.00 107.78 66.73 100.42 66.73 100.03 65.78 104.04 66.19 10197 61.64 10671 61.19 106.76 64.10 104.20 64.43 104.41 59.97 119.08 59.97 119.08 27 5242 103.87 5238 104.21 59.93 97.44 59.92 97.45 59.36 101.72 59.85 101.69 56.39 105.86 56.18 106.00 59.23 10226 59.00 10233 51.86 11601 51.87 115.99 §i Technique B Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF Tooth # 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 3686 2208 36.93 2218 35.32 3239 3515 3238 31.50 29.14 31.58 29.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.29 47.56 34.91 47.39 33.95 11.33 33.96 11.36 7 4275 17.12 4229 17.09 4247 27.47 4268 27.67 38.26 23.84 37.67 24.37 37.62 19.38 37.97 18.% 4266 44.86 4269 44.38 39.99 666 39.77 6.78 8 50.12 1365 50.47 13.47 47.72 2280 48.14 23.19 46.88 1831 44.74 18.09 46.76 1521 46.98 15.98 47.55 40.99 47.51 40.94 48.16 234 49.31 1.58 9 59.52 1370 59.52 13.78 56.08 2294 56.50 23.15 54.18 1850 53.81 1866 53.73 14.36 53.04 14.85 55.47 40.54 5539 40.50 5843 224 58.05 1.38 10 6627 17.95 66.34 17.58 61.80 27.85 61.99 27.82 61.71 2277 61.80 2291 6216 17.66 6215 17.66 6249 41% 6278 43.76 66.08 5.33 66.15 5.40 11 71.71 24.70 71.93 24.03 69.27 3276 69.40 3237 68.18 27.16 68.16 27.48 68.44 19.34 68.38 19.45 67.46 46.36 67.48 46.14 71.75 9.69 7226 10.56 22 64.03 90.28 64.21 90.33 67.53 86.60 67.67 8579 67.22 8249 66.84 83.82 65.68 8618 66.34 86.34 66.43 10865 6659 108.42 6670 97.75 66.% 97.78 23 59.45 9269 59.07 9268 63.37 84.87 0.00 0.00 6220 85.65 6206 8602 61.51 88.17 60.95 87.84 61.04 111.07 60.74 111.07 59.83 101.23 59.93 101.68 24 5238 94.43 53.16 94.43 58.10 87.47 57.94 87.3 56.62 88.78 56.63 89.05 55.76 8876 56.17 89.11 55.45 113.41 5554 11134 54.06 103.43 54.14 101% 25 47.73 93.63 47.67 93.66 5236 87.15 5220 87.32 5217 87.70 51.98 87.82 50.17 88.85 50.03 89.06 50.17 113.22 50.66 113.48 47.77 10272 47.85 10132 26 41.61 9208 41.61 9206 48.14 84.85 48.09 84.84 45.66 87.09 45.52 87.13 44.24 87.88 44.70 87.97 44.62 111.11 45.27 111.01 40.61 100.31 41.69 100.88 27 37.64 88.08 37.56 8810 4252 81.46 4217 81.45 39.86 8539 39.85 8521 39.10 8800 39.19 87.68 39.36 10843 39.23 10830 3541 9828 34.74 97.39 182 Appendix F Area Daia Report - SJ lllllli Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.38 5.28 5.42 4.96 4.62 4.44 25.58 5.28 6.59 2.35 5.88 12.53 7 4.10 4.13 10.24 9.72 4.42 4.90 2.47 4.07 5.88 5.30 3.78 5.05 8 4.67 3.30 4.7 7.34 9.23 5.16 0.86 3.78 7.91 4.33 10.21 4.13 9 2.58 7.71 8.89 10.58 16.54 3.81 15.37 1.95 8.06 6.48 9.81 6.65 10 4.50 4.50 7.05 7.68 5.45 5.05 13.76 15.97 2.38 2.35 4.36 3.21 11 7.17 4.73 7.11 8.06 6.05 5.85 7.74 6.05 4.19 4.87 10.52 10.47 22 2.84 4.85 15.20 3.27 3.87 4.62 3.93 3.41 1.41 3.47 5.42 14.94 23 3.41 3.41 3.87 4.13 5.56 1.84 3.58 3.53 0.86 1.58 3.78 6.22 24 5.13 6.05 3.61 3.33 8.97 9.03 6.05 3.99 1.63 1.55 6.65 7.05 25 5.45 5.45 6.59 4.67 2.21 2.35 7.31 6.14 3.84 4.33 7.08 7.31 26 1.06 3.81 1.92 2.49 3.13 3.53 3.73 3.33 1.75 4.04 4.96 5.62 27 1.32 3.30 1.69 1.61 2.64 2.38 3.96 3.61 4.13 4.82 5.65 3.47 liiniifll mSSmm Technique 1J illlii 81IIS Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 13.02 13.62 6.65 13.59 9.06 9.86 17.58 17.23 7.31 15.14 4.01 7.48 7 12.93 20.10 16.17 20.24 8.52 11.15 17.89 19.47 10.49 15.17 15.23 12.07 8 15.83 19.18 20.79 21.65 17.06 18.04 22.57 24.43 14.45 21.22 18.95 15.20 9 15.83 15.37 21.65 22.71 22.39 23.34 15.08 19.47 14.14 20.19 16.69 15.46 10 15.25 9.15 15.40 19.41 10.75 10.29 23.46 20.76 6.82 8.43 8.72 12.19 11 5.68 5.85 8.32 9.63 11.93 9.89 16.11 12.62 3.04 15.89 4.42 6.28 22 13.82 7.57 5.59 3.18 4.16 2.90 7.46 9.89 6.54 12.53 4.07 10.84 23 16.54 16.00 10.67 14.42 13.59 12.87 13.76 13.56 8.72 13.53 9.38 11.04 24 11.41 9.78 13.36 13.19 14.88 13.25 12.27 11.30 9.95 12.04 8.37 11.10 25 10.61 10.32 11.38 12.22 13.28 9.41 10.06 12.65 8.86 14.37 8.46 12.07 26 14.14 13.68 12.01 12.07 8.83 4.87 14.39 14.54 10.72 16.95 11.38 14.14 27 12.87 14.51 8.66 19.01 3.70 2.41 17.69 20.04 12.56 15.63 5.88 12.22 183 Appendix F Position Data Report - SI Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5277 37.88 53.30 37.86 5291 46.81 52.86 47.04 51.93 44.79 51.87 44.69 51.61 39.56 51.32 37.79 54.65 38.89 53.83 39.48 50.28 2869 51.93 29.03 7 57.85 33.02 57.99 33.18 60.47 4227 60.50 4243 58.11 40.24 58.12 40.06 59.06 38.81 55.85 37.18 61.07 37.59 60.82 37.69 57.06 2281 56.79 23.63 8 67.27 29.27 67.78 29.95 66.53 38.10 64.86 37.66 64.60 34.28 64.73 3377 65.84 34.28 6278 33.56 66.21 33% 6661 33.74 64.60 1887 63.37 18.51 9 74.89 29.05 74.59 29.30 73.59 37.59 73.76 37.75 73.55 34.88 74.08 34.44 73.77 33.02 74.57 31.85 74.20 33.98 74.58 33.07 74.46 1875 7515 18.30 10 8232 34.65 8266 34.65 79.09 4228 79.46 4262 81.67 39.07 81.69 39.03 81.97 35.84 80.65 35.66 80.50 36.23 80.32 36.21 8225 2206 8297 2218 11 87.37 39.90 87.89 39.56 86.90 47.16 86.84 47.29 87.76 4350 87.79 43.35 89.29 3812 88.08 38.00 86.08 39.83 8591 39.87 8848 27.55 88.82 27.73 22 79.67 105.86 80.35 105.11 85.53 99.70 8521 100.87 87.01 99.25 87.01 99.11 86.37 104.82 85.04 104.68 84.75 10214 84.70 101.58 8217 116.59 8513 115.89 23 73.68 109.21 74.02 109.21 80.96 99.78 81.00 99.% 8217 101.94 83.27 100.93 81.97 106.94 80.63 106.78 79.69 103.80 7884 104.52 7640 118.76 7649 119.35 24 6821 110.33 68.78 110.34 76.37 10206 75.20 101.98 76.44 105.15 76.45 104.97 75.85 107.44 74.61 107.33 73.57 10604 7371 10626 70.43 120.94 70.66 121.23 25 63.44 109.53 63.78 109.53 70.02 101.78 70.13 101.92 73.08 103.% 71.34 103.25 70.27 107.63 69.22 107.47 69.61 10650 69.19 10636 64.35 120.51 64.58 120.74 26 5629 107.21 57.12 107.90 65.41 99.10 65.71 99.63 64.84 10294 65.93 103.61 64.51 106.32 63.20 106.11 64.84 104.55 6195 104.29 5825 117.83 5866 118.55 27 5228 104.14 5237 104.19 59.99 97.51 59.% 97.67 59.88 101.70 59.85 101.52 59.33 106.06 57.91 105.85 58.44 10212 58.72 10226 5212 115.70 5218 116.09 Technic ucB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 3631 23.24 3691 2232 35.45 31.07 35.21 3201 31.07 29.33 3234 2843 29.97 20.34 29.87 20.22 34.64 45.73 35.11 46.17 33.51 10.29 33.47 11.59 7 4259 17.34 4255 17.37 41.99 27.78 4206 27.89 38.15 24.27 38.07 24.42 37.41 1899 37.54 19.02 4278 44.80 4270 44.65 39.92 622 39.91 6.48 8 50.25 13.77 50.34 13.82 47.78 23.07 47.97 2318 44.71 17.79 44.59 1820 4565 1554 45.54 1563 47.58 40.92 47.31 41.00 4839 1.31 48.50 1.60 9 59.37 13.77 59.06 1383 56.88 23.13 56.63 2320 53.90 1854 53.58 1877 54.10 14.03 53.16 14.71 5629 40.58 5571 40.81 57.78 1.05 58.17 1.40 10 66.32 17.68 66.26 1819 61.98 27.98 6291 28.11 61.84 2283 61.99 2293 61.77 17.49 61.72 17.36 6248 43.63 6276 43.89 6687 505 66.50 5.58 11 7217 23.55 71.36 24.03 69.47 33.17 69.33 3281 67.68 2686 68.07 27.49 68.86 19.64 68.28 19.42 67.45 46.16 67.84 46.25 7256 9.15 7225 9.77 22 64.16 8842 64.34 90.38 67.60 84.% 67.74 8655 67.31 8369 67.09 83.17 65.76 8650 66.19 8680 66.75 109.49 6675 109.18 6595 100.04 65.94 100.03 23 59.11 9272 59.24 9262 63.42 85.66 63.63 85.01 6225 85.59 6231 8580 61.36 87.96 60.89 87.73 61.30 111.69 61.13 111.49 59.71 101.58 60.06 101.87 24 53.19 94.39 53.26 94.32 57.86 87.31 57.82 87.30 56.75 88.77 56.73 89.25 55.69 88.78 55.51 88.74 56.02 113.63 5629 11152 5188 103.51 53.89 104.08 25 47.88 9361 47.75 93.65 51.95 87.05 5220 87.00 51.74 87.60 5206 87.95 50.24 8881 50.00 89.01 50.48 113.87 50.47 11134 47.87 103.01 47.95 10146 26 41.32 91.98 41.49 9202 47.45 84.35 47.57 84.32 45.47 8660 45.95 87.09 44.36 87.95 44.17 88.02 45.28 11200 4500 111.46 41.77 100.61 41.68 101.10 27 3667 8626 3634 87.03 4294 83.72 4216 8248 39.84 84.94 40.03 8525 38.42 8652 38.25 86.63 39.45 109.18 39.69 10898 34.05 97.40 35.19 98.52 184 Appendix F Area Daia Report - S2 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 7.31 4.70 4.50 6.74 5.42 4.70 10.81 11.35 5.25 6.34 7.34 10.04 7 4.76 5.85 11.01 9.46 7.31 5.22 8.77 12.93 5.19 4.85 10.49 11.99 8 16.09 7.20 10.52 9.26 9.26 11.01 16.75 5.62 9.09 8.23 9.81 9.20 9 6.62 6.22 8.57 10.47 8.77 8.54 13.10 9.00 7.89 9.00 13.96 5.51 10 7.86 5.65 8.11 7.28 5.42 6.42 10.90 7.68 2.78 2.72 8.97 7.40 11 6.77 8.20 9.63 7.08 6.88 6.77 6.80 8.43 7.08 5.13 7.74 9.98 22 11.04 8.00 5.96 7.89 8.49 11.15 11.41 9.92 4.39 4.62 17.35 15.54 23 7.60 6.39 3.07 3.41 5.88 5.42 6.82 4.79 3.64 4.30 4.76 7.11 24 3.81 4.30 7.77 7.20 7.17 7.74 5.10 3.96 2.27 2.38 6.34 4.85 25 5.82 4.04 5.79 6.59 4.13 6.59 5.79 2.01 2.95 3.53 6.80 5.79 26 5.10 3.90 4.42 6.59 5.65 4.62 4.27 4.50 2.67 3.73 5.48 8.72 27 3.93 9.63 4.24 12.07 5.45 8.69 6.71 3.56 3.67 5.73 13.16 10.29 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 12.30 16.57 12.67 12.5 15.77 11.47 16.00 15.2 14.08 18.35 11.64 14.68 7 14.34 16.34 19.38 21.71 14.77 13.19 22.82 19.93 22.88 14.82 15.68 13.99 8 20.56 24.11 24.23 22.91 21.08 19.33 26.44 23.48 21.65 24.75 33.32 19.87 9 16.66 26.32 23.51 23.60 24.00 25.35 22.91 21.08 17.66 17.46 34.58 19.35 10 17.00 17.84 19.38 16.97 13.99 16.20 21.94 19.07 8.97 7.71 13.56 15.91 11 12.47 11.41 19.21 16.26 9.95 8.97 15.34 12.59 17.00 14.62 13.28 14.74 22 9.89 7.31 15.74 17.69 27.07 10.90 14.31 7.63 10.38 10.64 11.84 18.47 23 13.76 13.71 11.24 17.81 16.09 10.06 12.24 13.05 15.94 14.91 11.96 12.76 24 7.74 9.86 15.89 17.15 15.57 16.77 10.24 10.81 11.58 13.05 10.18 11.56 25 9.72 10.29 12.73 16.14 13.76 11.73 11.30 13.10 11.61 15.63 9.84 12.33 26 10.70 16.75 11.41 16.09 15.03 15.97 12.36 15.11 16.26 17.32 12.22 13.02 27 9.35 17.55 20.59 20.07 35.56 15.20 15.80 14.37 16.86 16.95 12.42 15.89 185 Appendix F Position D;ii:i Iti-pnrl - S2 Technic uc A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5279 38.94 5256 38.56 5283 46.89 5292 46.52 51.78 45.17 51.85 45-04 51.27 3829 51.37 38.32 53.80 39.89 54.41 39.36 50.17 29.69 50.03 29.80 7 58.79 3107 5877 33.01 59.90 4227 60.62 4224 57.78 40.85 57.62 40.91 57.98 37.03 57.17 37.77 61.00 37.67 61.01 37.70 56.99 2186 56.56 24.40 8 67.58 29.61 6605 29.41 65.83 37.80 65.31 37.65 64.78 34.15 64.77 34.28 65.71 33.95 64.82 34.03 66.18 33.78 6626 33.89 64.76 19.07 64.71 19.13 9 75.51 29.72 76.08 29.53 73.59 37.59 73.83 37.59 73.65 34.87 73.74 34.94 73.24 3292 73.08 33.22 73.58 33.45 73.99 33.39 74.88 18.75 75.47 18.37 10 8276 34.19 8243 33.87 79.79 4256 79.59 4242 81.80 39.04 81.71 38.96 81.74 35.70 8218 36.06 80.77 36.40 80.76 36.41 8111 2273 83.18 2266 11 88.20 40.34 87.90 40.29 86.53 46.97 86.99 47.35 87.47 43.33 87.57 4308 89.50 3823 88.95 37.97 86.13 39.90 85.82 39.10 89.28 2803 89.06 2732 22 80.86 105.12 8081 104.74 85.20 100.52 85.17 100.46 87.22 99.21 87.10 9834 87.11 103.68 87.01 10177 85.56 100.86 85.92 100.61 8115 115.94 8138 116.00 23 75.87 108.79 75.98 10844 80.79 99.78 81.12 99.83 8218 101.98 8220 10204 81.52 106.36 81.63 106.23 79.70 104.33 79.57 104.31 76.66 119.47 76.80 119.37 24 6864 110.66 6888 110.45 75.75 1021 75.79 10212 76.71 105.18 76.73 105.13 75.71 107.28 75.25 107.16 74.12 10629 74.24 106.29 70.84 121.31 71.08 121.27 25 64.41 109.86 64.36 109.66 70.04 101.71 70.08 101.82 7217 104.12 71.94 103.92 70.29 107.5 70.27 107.47 69.44 106.39 69.65 106.51 64.74 120.83 64.89 120.86 26 57.56 10809 57.20 107.81 65.19 98.74 65.05 99.11 65.39 103.24 65.63 103.32 64.33 106.71 64.26 106.69 63.95 104.27 64.15 104.23 5898 118.72 58.75 118.36 27 5270 104.23 5205 103.55 59.33 96.17 60.04 96.88 59.63 100.76 60.24 101.73 58.25 104.48 59.16 105.90 5893 10231 58.27 101.63 51.95 114.84 5217 114.61 Technic ucB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.97 2268 36.05 2289 34.88 3243 35.11 31.97 31.88 2885 31.49 2890 29.96 1865 29.79 20.44 34.51 46.95 34.02 47.35 34.11 11.46 33.28 13.76 7 4273 17.07 41.97 17.48 4218 27.71 41.92 27.82 37.80 24.24 37.71 24.40 37.22 1802 37.64 18.98 40.22 43.24 40.61 44.96 40.16 656 39.87 837 8 49.66 13.66 49.86 13.59 47.68 23.24 47.57 23.17 44.50 1807 44.34 18.12 45.48 14.36 45.50 15.65 46.74 40.99 45.63 41.16 4a38 261 48.09 3.60 9 59.46 13.65 58.60 13.68 56.95 23.24 56.76 23.25 53.58 1855 53.90 18.74 53.54 1118 53.34 14.50 55.28 40.65 54.44 40.74 57.88 238 57.63 3.20 10 66.15 17.85 6610 17.59 6274 28.12 6271 2803 61.35 2264 61.54 2296 61.90 16.11 61.54 17.21 61.46 43.59 61.01 43.64 66.25 5.71 66.15 7.49 11 7215 24.14 7221 2208 69.55 3248 69.35 31.92 67.81 26.60 67.92 26.74 69.14 1832 69.14 19.56 67.50 47.07 66.22 46.08 7223 10.63 7235 1228 22 64.65 90.24 64.86 90.38 67.84 86.66 68.23 86.12 67.47 81.24 68.40 8212 66.60 84.21 66.85 86.93 66.79 109.07 65.29 109.44 66.00 99.50 66.51 100.87 23 59.43 9273 59.54 93.03 63.81 84.93 63.37 85.66 6233 85.43 61.76 86.34 61.14 86.45 61.22 88.10 60.68 111.56 59.68 111.67 59.91 101.70 59.% 10151 24 54.36 94.60 53.47 94.48 57.83 87.61 58.24 8800 56.57 8888 56.72 89.11 55.92 87.36 55.65 88.99 55.33 113.53 54.73 11144 5186 104.01 53.% 10581 25 47.88 93.74 4806 93.65 5233 87.36 5246 87.52 51.88 87.58 5207 87.68 50.28 87.55 49.87 89.12 49.99 113.60 4889 1112 4807 103.29 47.94 10520 26 41.55 9219 41.10 9245 47.61 84.3 47.43 84.55 45.66 87.17 45.73 87.21 44.53 8659 44.21 88.12 44.65 111.72 4137 111.37 41.82 101.08 41.62 10278 27 36.10 88.39 36.05 87.43 4219 8207 4213 8240 40.77 83.20 40.11 8613 38.95 86.52 38.74 87.82 39.00 109.09 3811 10884 35.31 9865 35.58 100.06 186 Appendix F Area Data Report - S3 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.95 2.67 4.99 5.22 7.23 5.96 0.00 0.00 5.96 6.39 5.96 7.14 7 5.94 5.28 12.44 12.39 5.48 8.80 14.74 15.20 5.82 5.65 9.49 8.92 8 8.92 12.13 12.99 13.48 11.81 12.30 17.95 17.95 12.44 11.01 13.48 12.30 9 8.57 8.75 13.51 14.22 17.43 16.72 16.46 15.43 13.08 10.98 13.08 13.88 10 8.20 9.29 8.06 8.03 8.20 8.00 15.74 16.23 3.21 3.30 9.81 10.52 11 7.17 6.59 7.34 8.20 6.34 5.65 5.96 7.20 4.90 4.90 8.37 7.48 22 10.41 8.75 4.82 4.47 4.44 4.65 12.33 4.82 5.39 3.87 5.85 5.71 23 7.77 8.03 4.42 4.90 6.65 6.14 6.22 6.28 3.76 2.98 7.00 6.71 24 6.57 7.03 8.54 7.71 9.06 9.09 7.48 7.51 3.61 4.16 6.91 7.00 25 5.79 5.91 7.40 7.05 8.26 8.06 7.68 7.97 4.50 5.16 7.54 7.60 26 6.77 6.02 6.19 5.33 6.02 7.17 8.66 8.86 4.16 4.13 6.91 7.05 27 4.96 4.36 6.71 7.17 2.61 8.06 4.36 8.09 7.97 4.87 6.08 7.08 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 8.95 15.20 8.00 14.82 13.59 12.76 13.88 17.84 9.98 14.91 11.33 18.01 7 12.67 13.85 18.06 19.99 13.28 14.74 21.51 24.66 13.68 12.10 17.06 17.26 8 20.04 19.76 21.51 22.16 17.92 20.30 25.86 26.52 16.17 17.69 18.35 18.41 9 15.71 15.89 20.82 22.51 25.29 26.90 22.45 22.39 13.79 15.25 18.32 18.12 10 13.59 14.05 15.43 17.55 12.44 13.19 23.83 23.46 7.25 9.55 15.94 14.62 11 7.25 12.59 10.32 14.14 15.28 14.28 17.52 18.06 7.31 10.81 14.60 14.14 22 5.79 15.05 5.62 21.39 13.68 11.41 12.16 19.21 16.26 12.70 17.98 7.40 23 12.53 14.82 8.20 12.22 12.36 12.07 13.65 14.68 10.72 8.75 12.50 10.09 24 11.35 12.47 13.53 13.88 14.37 14.48 12.76 11.56 11.10 10.78 10.81 9.75 25 11.15 12.30 12.90 12.90 8.46 8.60 12.65 12.22 9.89 9.69 11.70 9.95 26 13.56 13.28 11.56 9.46 13.05 11.47 14.28 13.68 13.71 11.47 11.87 10.87 27 9.92 16.83 5.68 15.40 15.71 13.71 12.96 20.93 15.80 15.14 16.63 8.20 187 Appendix F Position Data Report - S3 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 .X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.11 37.88 53.10 38.07 5286 46.86 5288 4683 51.92 4514 5210 44.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.25 39.86 54.26 39.8 50.31 28.80 50.43 2881 7 58.28 3285 5842 3298 60.47 4222 60.53 4222 58.28 40.20 57.89 40.72 54.55 37.86 54.65 37.76 61.41 37.59 61.36 37.67 5678 2130 56.81 2327 8 66.63 29.37 66.24 29.45 66.16 37.81 66.04 37.78 64.99 34.21 64.99 34.23 6298 34.17 6278 34.15 66.67 33.90 6667 33.85 64.49 18.66 64.18 18.63 9 75.27 29.39 75.48 29.63 74.28 37.66 74.30 37.69 73.69 34.91 73.76 34.83 71.00 33.05 70.72 33.02 73.91 33.75 74.36 33.42 74.55 18.47 74.50 18.50 10 8224 3185 8217 34.01 79.48 4246 79.49 4246 81.79 39.03 81.80 39.05 79.14 3584 78.96 3583 81.04 36.35 81.04 36.36 8261 2245 8258 2249 11 87.71 39.90 87.77 39.86 86.89 47.14 86.84 47.12 87.89 4147 87.98 4153 86.58 38.17 86.26 38.12 86.42 39.90 8641 39.71 8889 27.80 89.03 2758 22 80.39 104.79 80.40 105.01 85.20 100.58 85.16 100.65 87.17 99.30 87.18 99.28 84.40 103.86 83.35 104.85 8542 101.43 8525 101.82 8230 11684 8231 116.84 23 75.28 10844 75.23 10869 81.05 99.78 81.03 99.81 8226 101.96 8221 10200 79.12 106.65 78.98 106.70 80.09 104.31 79.50 104.47 7623 119.33 76.21 119.34 24 69.13 110.34 69.01 110.47 75.71 10208 75.77 10205 76.62 10514 76.61 105.14 7290 107.41 7291 107.42 74.8 10629 74.77 10628 70.36 121.23 70.34 121.23 25 6387 109.55 6178 109.70 69.99 101.77 69.98 101.76 71.99 10192 71.91 103.87 67.39 107.63 67.23 107.64 69.76 10638 69.64 10638 64.34 120.75 64.34 120.74 26 57.40 107.91 57.16 107.97 65.24 98.88 65.64 99.25 65.64 103.4 65.55 103.37 61.59 106.57 61.42 106.59 64.53 104.32 64.58 104.34 58.50 118.60 58.48 118.53 27 5229 10174 5239 104.31 59.61 96.38 59.72 9654 60.04 101.69 60.24 101.89 56.43 106.03 56.19 105.97 58.52 101.58 59.31 10233 51.92 11590 5204 115.93 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.34 19.39 3614 2115 35.10 31.10 35.35 30.92 31.52 29.12 3231 28.60 30.82 17.99 30.39 19.88 34.46 47.53 3529 47.47 34.12 11.13 33.46 1152 7 4229 14.72 4233 1721 4276 26.47 4222 26.54 37.93 24.45 37.88 24.43 37.43 17.81 37.36 19.31 4248 44.51 4112 44.60 39.80 660 39.73 679 8 50.06 11.16 50.07 13.69 47.68 21.94 47.77 21.97 44.71 17.85 44.98 18.16 45.62 14.31 45.50 1574 47.15 41.00 47.72 40.98 48.06 1.46 48.18 1.46 9 59.52 11.20 59.59 1172 56.49 21.92 56.73 21.99 53.79 1857 53.96 1890 53.68 13.12 53.46 14.55 5519 40.47 55.57 40.61 57.80 1.19 58.04 1.20 10 66.30 15.24 6630 17.78 61.97 26.63 6215 26.76 61.63 2267 61.68 2290 61.75 1601 61.60 1729 61.99 43.68 6243 43.70 6634 543 66.37 541 11 7217 21.22 71.97 24.26 69.39 31.56 69.32 31.48 68.16 27.40 68.21 27.61 68.90 1842 68.86 19.87 67.17 47.01 67.64 46.07 7200 10.14 71.81 1021 22 64.05 87.59 64.57 89.05 67.67 85.24 68.03 84.04 67.58 8267 67.42 8269 66.34 84.49 67.05 8511 66.81 108.39 67.40 107.98 6650 98.49 65.64 99.36 23 59.45 90.16 59.39 9279 63.71 83.72 63.42 8182 6252 8557 6242 8573 61.32 8654 61.20 87.90 60.80 111.43 61.52 110.49 60.02 101.48 59.79 101.68 24 53.15 91.91 5132 94.52 57.92 86.12 57.97 8619 56.66 88.75 56.70 8895 55.76 87.49 55.59 88.73 5546 11356 5645 11163 5582 10165 53.90 10172 25 47.68 91.00 47.62 93.64 5213 85.85 5221 8596 5205 87.88 5219 8804 50.19 87.66 49.91 88.98 50.37 113.65 51.10 11177 47.79 103.04 47.83 10122 26 41.45 89.58 41.46 9201 47.36 8279 47.73 8113 45.40 8687 45.47 87.04 44.29 8662 44.05 88.01 44.82 111.40 4554 111.46 41.60 100.79 41.88 100.92 27 37.23 84.38 35.95 87.34 4223 81.45 4230 81.06 39.73 8501 39.80 8524 38.65 8596 38.24 86.63 38.92 108.78 39.64 10868 34.86 97.44 35.80 98.52 188 Appendix F Area Data Repori - S4 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 ' 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.49 2.67 5.30 4.85 4.39 5.16 2.98 4.04 5.68 5.71 6.02 5.82 7 3.99 4.16 9.72 8.09 4.93 4.90 4.01 4.59 5.62 5.53 9.52 7.97 8 4.19 4.39 12.79 8.03 12.42 7.74 17.06 16.54 5.73 6.37 15.80 10.78 9 3.33 8.80 13.53 11.73 16.75 16.54 12.93 14.82 8.00 7.89 9.78 9.43 10 4.53 8.06 5.94 7.83 5.48 5.39 14.68 9.72 2.47 3.10 5.25 4.96 11 6.08 7.11 8.20 8.83 5.13 5.79 7.14 11.15 4.10 4.76 11.47 6.80 22 3.44 3.44 8.03 4.65 3.73 3.93 4.56 3.87 2.95 3.58 3.93 16.77 23 7.08 6.25 4.76 3.64 6.22 5.76 5.76 5.94 3.04 2.09 6.91 6.88 24 5.08 5.76 8.60 6.91 8.97 7.91 6.37 5.25 2.55 2.95 7.00 6.71 25 5.53 5.45 7.66 6.88 6.39 4.47 7.31 7.28 4.24 3.93 7.60 7.34 26 3.53 3.87 9.61 6.11 5.71 3.07 7.66 7.71 3.81 2.98 7.80 4.76 27 3.50 3.07 11.87 9.81 2.95 2.61 2.98 4.13 5.39 5.30 3.44 3.56 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 4.01 10.92 14.54 7.46 8.72 7.08 6.08 0.00 7.48 0.00 10.18 7.83 7 11.47 14.37 17.35 18.15 12.96 11.67 20.44 22.22 13.59 12.85 16.46 18.01 8 17.69 18.67 18.35 23.43 19.53 17.75 27.41 25.32 17.89 17.32 18.32 17.58 9 16.66 20.24 20.19 21.88 25.06 22.68 22.51 23.28 17.09 15.68 18.61 18.58 10 15.31 13.65 17.18 17.03 11.61 10.87 22.37 23.11 8.09 7.23 17.15 18.24 11 7.74 11.96 10.32 10.52 8.43 9.98 15.43 15.05 7.46 6.42 15.43 14.65 22 5.88 11.07 6.91 3.56 5.19 6.31 4.85 6.62 16.89 18.75 13.28 9.63 23 14.62 14.14 10.06 8.72 14.74 13.65 12.85 16.32 16.00 15.74 11.21 10.52 24 12.59 11.90 10.21 14.14 16.00 15.71 11.87 13.28 12.24 11.90 10.06 11.07 25 11.73 10.98 11.04 13.16 12.87 12.76 12.27 13.45 13.42 11.15 12.16 11.30 26 14.48 10.29 9.75 12.22 13.33 13.16 13.62 14.71 16.69 14.88 12.44 11.56 27 11.24 14.60 13.82 6.42 2.95 3.96 12.85 13.30 16.86 16.72 9.86 8.23 189 AppendixF Position Diiui Report - S4 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5292 38.11 5293 37.90 5289 46.82 5285 46.71 51.86 44.87 51.49 45.59 51.02 37.88 51.13 37.84 54.21 39.95 54.03 39.% 50.30 2870 50.28 28.68 7 58.12 33.08 57.68 3319 60.50 4226 60.36 4211 58.11 40.22 58.29 40.23 54.85 37.63 54.93 37.68 61.37 37.64 61.20 37.65 56.80 23.24 56.76 23.17 8 66.56 29.44 65.36 29.37 65.99 37.73 65.36 37.39 64.71 34.31 64.93 34.03 64.18 34.15 64.38 34.17 66.69 33.67 66.48 33.68 64.67 1876 64.48 18-83 9 74.89 29.03 75.06 29.43 74.28 37.66 73.90 37.49 73.57 34.83 73.69 34.87 7232 33.00 7231 33.00 73.83 33.51 73-66 33.50 74.59 1888 74.38 18.72 10 8264 34.61 8208 33.89 79.62 4259 79.47 4228 81.65 38.94 81.65 39.21 80.31 35.84 80.03 35.74 80.90 36.28 80.89 36.36 8269 2219 8270 2229 11 87.81 39.63 8752 39.97 86.84 47.12 86.50 46.97 87.85 43.56 87.95 43.52 88.09 3847 87.54 38.18 86.42 39.78 86.25 39.92 8836 27.56 89.16 27.81 22 80.04 105.83 79.87 105.83 85.17 100.45 85.14 100.48 87.01 99.28 87.17 99.25 84.72 104.82 84.85 104.81 85.58 101.58 85-89 100.46 8245 116.85 8271 115.61 23 75.48 10834 75.31 10832 81.06 99.81 80.97 99.60 8208 101.97 8227 101.98 80.20 106.49 79.90 106.56 80.24 104.29 79.83 104.37 76.24 119.16 76.21 119.06 24 6865 110.31 6873 110.38 75.70 10208 75.68 10206 76.50 105.12 76.66 105.18 74.20 107.45 74.49 107.40 74.65 106.29 74.58 106.29 70.35 121.06 70.39 120.% 25 63.85 109.54 63.59 109.53 69.98 101.71 69.91 101.55 71.78 103.94 7208 104.15 68.58 10763 68.75 107.63 69.70 106.36 69.80 106.51 64.33 120.58 64.32 120.49 26 56.98 107.8 5694 107.88 65.15 99.08 65.13 99.06 65.74 103.44 66.16 103.83 6281 106.64 63.03 106.63 64.62 104.34 63.91 104.19 5820 11822 5832 117.86 27 5242 104.21 5230 104.28 59.95 96.81 59.91 96.59 59.92 101.72 60.04 101.69 57.59 106.04 57.86 106.12 5881 101.89 5881 10205 51.88 115.92 51.87 115.82 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.33 2230 36.42 24.18 36.08 31.54 35.24 3236 31.84 29.03 31.71 29.39 3260 19.19 0.00 0.00 34.99 47.70 0.00 0.00 34.09 13.29 33.94 13.50 7 4235 17.41 4222 17.27 4260 27.68 4237 27.80 37.97 24.37 38.00 24.69 37.48 19.12 37.15 19.27 43.20 44.33 43.37 44.42 39.78 857 39.71 874 8 5024 13.68 50.25 13.67 48.10 23.2 47.89 23.21 44.56 17.98 44.94 1802 45.50 15.67 45.44 15.73 47.81 40.99 4822 41.05 4825 3.47 48.18 3.45 9 59.45 13.78 5899 14.18 56.63 23.11 56.56 23.18 53.73 18.62 53.58 1856 53.64 14.53 53.43 14.58 55.51 40.72 55.66 40.69 5802 3.30 57.87 3.29 10 66.36 17.91 66.44 17.99 6226 27.86 6240 27.88 61.64 2265 61.93 2291 61.88 17.34 61.70 17.35 6259 43.83 6248 43.66 66.53 7.63 66.36 7.66 11 7207 24.05 71.76 24.90 69.53 3235 69.47 3276 68.04 27.42 67.99 27.53 68.63 19.52 68.43 19.50 67.70 47.19 67.90 47.00 71.83 1209 71.93 1208 22 63.98 90.42 64.73 89.90 68.67 85.31 67.86 86.33 67.21 8290 67.07 83.23 66.31 86.82 65.83 86.50 67.38 10829 67.42 10801 66.25 100.54 66.52 100.13 23 59.33 9280 59.51 9280 63.78 85.61 63.56 85.00 6229 85.63 6221 85.64 61.62 8812 61.22 88.17 61.11 111.50 61.00 111.58 59.94 103.64 5976 103-72 24 53.28 94.36 53.34 94.37 58.39 87.64 57.89 87.37 56.74 89.05 56.71 89.15 55.72 88.86 55.45 88.96 56.01 113.52 56.08 113.51 53.75 105.72 53.87 105.75 25 47.82 93.64 47.82 9353 5246 87.55 5218 87.16 51.90 87.54 51.90 87.71 50.12 89.06 50.01 89.11 50.33 113.34 50.85 113.46 47.85 105.17 47.92 105-19 26 41.46 9205 41.37 9201 47.70 84.99 47.44 84.16 45.59 86.86 45.54 87.03 44.51 87.94 44.20 88.11 45.00 111.54 45.08 111.19 41.58 10286 41.90 10284 27 36.01 87.86 36.81 85.85 4243 8268 4288 83.27 40.00 85.20 39.99 85.34 39.25 87.80 39.04 88.08 39.50 1089 39.34 10880 35.50 100.60 35.61 100.50 190 Appendix F Area Data Report - S5 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E Cast F 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.29 2.84 4.99 5.42 6.54 7.37 0.00 0.00 6.42 5.33 10.92 7.23 7 4.36 3.15 9.81 7.63 5.94 5.42 4.70 14.94 6.11 5.82 9.78 9.38 8 5.82 8.75 10.29 8.11 12.67 12.24 16.83 17.09 11.90 6.62 17.78 14.85 9 6.85 4.27 12.42 13.56 18.01 18.18 15.43 16.46 15.63 9.98 16.83 15.54 10 4.39 4.13 8.32 8.29 8.57 7.51 16.34 15.40 4.36 3.44 5.68 12.19 11 8.34 8.46 9.15 7.25 5.13 5.85 11.01 11.15 5.91 4.47 11.90 12.04 22 3.24 3.04 3.24 3.27 4.10 4.01 4.10 11.15 3.38 3.64 5.56 8.03 23 8.34 8.06 2.92 4.13 5.30 6.45 3.61 9.38 5.42 3.01 6.91 6.74 24 5.82 6.08 6.37 6.97 7.63 10.06 8.14 7.71 4.73 '3.70 6.74 6.65 25 5.94 5.73 4.67 6.94 4.44 8.17 7.40 7.68 4.65 5.05 7.48 7.08 26 4.16 4.07 2.98 3.13 3.81 7.05 8.69 8.09 5.65 3.78 9.03 5.82 27 4.36 4.59 3.24 3.76 2.98 7.51 5.42 8.00 8.00 4.65 6.54 6.88 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 8.72 9.15 6.22 6.45 14.74 6.45 0.00 0.00 5.48 8.29 5.85 5.71 7 10.95 13.10 19.33 16.83 13.19 16.83 21.62 25.29 10.55 12.10 10.47 6.59 8 18.29 17.15 21.05 18.72 20.07 18.72 26.95 25.20 11.93 16.17 18.95 8.23 9 16.52 12.04 22.77 20.90 23.11 20.90 22.91 22.80 15.28 15.37 18.67 10.70 10 14.19 14.65 19.78 14.34 12.99 14.42 19.84 22.91 9.55 8.46 12.79 7.68 11 8.49 10.61 8.43 10.72 12.82 10.72 13.45 12.93 7.05 8.57 12.62 11.93 22 6.57 6.65 3.87 7.57 6.22 7.57 16.03 6.34 12.47 9.26 7.97 1.92 23 14.31 14.91 10.78 10.29 13.82 10.21 12.22 12.04 12.82 11.70 9.58 7.43 24 15.20 13.45 14.16 14.65 15.51 14.8 12.79 12.10 11.35 10.92 10.78 8.63 25 10.98 9.61 13.08 13.05 12.62 13.02 13.48 12.07 10.44 11.44 11.47 10.75 26 14.02 11.78 11.61 4.76 13.25 4.76 14.57 14.71 16.52 13.56 12.22 10.24 27 5.10 5.39 13.85 7.48 3.93 7.48 11.15 9.38 15.54 15.97 5.82 6.57 191 Appendix F Position D.U.i Repoil - S3 Technique A Toodi # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 53.05 37.91 5110 37.89 5286 46.86 5291 4681 51.68 4540 51.90 45.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.20 39.47 54.13 39.69 51.10 2888 50.41 28.98 7 58.59 3265 58.84 3239 60.51 4226 60.36 4226 58.23 40.45 58.36 40.10 53.89 37.37 54.25 37.84 61.10 37.56 61.24 37.59 57.07 23.47 56.78 23.62 8 65.66 29.30 6602 29.28 65.66 37.64 65.50 37.61 6512 34.26 64.94 34.27 6270 34.18 6267 34.15 66.40 33.93 66.65 33.75 6530 19.08 64.54 18.89 9 75.25 29.32 74.91 29.10 74.15 37.63 74.12 37.67 7570 34.89 73.72 34.90 70.55 3102 70.66 33.06 73.92 33.84 74.08 33.41 74.88 1886 74.62 18.79 10 8203 33.22 8201 3120 79.50 4245 79.50 4245 81.80 39.08 81.79 39.02 78.80 3584 78.80 35.87 80.00 36.07 81.00 36.43 8297 2245 8242 2274 11 87.62 40.04 87.60 40.07 86.93 47.33 86.% 47.29 88.02 4156 87.% 4152 85.88 38.19 85.84 38.18 86.27 40.50 8624 39.92 8870 27.78 88.37 27.78 22 80.05 10580 80.02 10586 85.15 100.82 85.23 100.77 87.15 99.30 87.17 99.25 83.16 104.80 84.00 103.89 84.86 101.88 8517 101.74 8265 116.93 8295 115.81 23 75.22 10851 7529 10849 80.83 99.76 81.00 99.79 8214 10208 8228 101.94 78.69 106.92 78.30 106.62 79.58 104.50 79.30 104.50 7651 119.40 7621 119.40 24 6876 110.36 68.80 110.32 76.04 10217 76.05 10220 76.67 10520 76.61 105.24 7268 107.43 7265 107.41 74.46 106.37 74.63 10628 70.73 121.30 70.34 121.31 25 63.87 109.51 63.79 109.55 70.13 101.75 69.99 101.90 7224 104.14 71.94 103.89 67.05 107.63 67.06 107.63 69.30 10633 69.53 10640 64.63 120.84 64.32 120.83 26 57.19 107.95 57.20 107.97 65.41 99.26 65.54 99.34 65.88 10160 65.51 10135 61.25 106.57 61.27 106.62 64.24 104.48 64.47 104.36 5873 118.50 5849 118.69 27 5239 104.14 5238 104.15 59.64 %.88 59.38 %.37 60.19 101.91 60.23 101.89 56.38 106.31 56.03 105.97 58.22 101.61 59.22 10234 5231 116.03 5208 116.05 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.20 2210 37.58 2272 35.17 3261 35.46 3264 31.46 29.23 35.46 3264 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.47 47.95 35.13 47.75 3193 1146 33.67 1357 7 4262 17.12 4214 17.28 4256 27.72 4294 27.76 38.18 24.32 4294 27.76 37.51 19.96 37.10 20.21 4295 45.24 4295 4506 40.62 7.79 40.47 7.50 8 50.23 1557 50.25 1184 48.04 23.11 48.49 2111 44.24 1820 48.49 2111 45.44 16.49 45.45 1636 48.45 41.44 48.10 41.23 47.96 3.54 48.21 292 9 59.42 1582 59.58 14.17 56.% 23.19 56.93 2111 53.78 I860 56.93 23.11 53.73 1530 53.43 15.17 55.89 40.87 55.73 40.75 5821 136 58.14 284 10 6637 17.90 6588 17.72 6242 27.99 6229 28.04 61.71 2299 6229 28.03 6210 1830 61.61 18.04 6257 43.83 6271 43.% 6662 7.34 66.43 694 11 71.98 24.00 7205 24.36 69.60 3251 69.65 3295 68.09 27.28 69.65 3295 68.62 20.16 68.49 20.07 67.64 47.34 67.78 47.52 7234 1213 71.94 1244 22 64.37 90.42 64.33 90.38 68.10 86.56 67.41 86.66 67.15 8137 67.41 8666 66.76 86.24 66.03 87.63 67.07 10&74 67.09 109.60 67.08 100.33 66.13 10159 23 59.39 9277 59.64 9275 63.33 85.29 63.57 8503 6212 8567 6160 8502 61.23 8876 61.54 88.74 61.24 111.83 61.56 111.65 60.07 103.59 60.06 10189 24 5321 94.28 5127 94.51 58.15 87.50 58.28 87.37 5681 89.19 58.24 87.38 55.70 89.75 55.73 89.68 56.13 11174 56.34 11173 5181 105.73 53.86 10573 25 47.79 9162 47.72 9165 5226 86.92 5248 87.16 5205 87.79 5247 87.15 50.18 90.00 49.93" 89.89 51.03 11190 50.95 11385 47.74 105.25 48.00 10512 26 41.66 9207 41.33 91.95 47.52 84.17 48.24 84.86 45.27 8690 48.24 84.86 44.47 88.96 4427 88.67 45.55 111.29 45.60 11214 41.73 10282 41.87 10295 27 37.55 88.17 37.60 87.78 4257 81.% 41.% 8213 40.00 8583 41.% 8213 39.32 8885 39.22 8821 39.49 10890 39.79 109.27 3602 100.82 35.47 100.70 192 Appendix F Area Data Report - S6 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 2.67 2.38 5.45 4.96 4.85 4.01 4.04 2.32 5.30 4.47 5.42 6.51 7 4.13 3.99 8.09 10.58 4.39 4.59 4.53 4.85 5.62 5.39 3.61 3.87 8 3.13 5.96 6.82 5.42 6.51 8.72 3.99 3.30 7.00 6.08 5.36 4.82 9 4.36 5.45 • 8.57 10.04 16.34 16.54 4.87 3.15 9.12 8.40 6.42 6.65 10 2.92 3.87 7.68 7.89 4.99 5.65 3.07 5.05 2.52 3.10 5.85 5.88 11 6.08 8.43 7.34 5.94 5.13 5.79 7.03 7.20 4.10 4.76 11.78 10.49 22 3.04 2.98 16.32 4.56 3.93 3.73 3.93 4.27 5.22 4.33 3.87 9.06 23 4.56 6.71 4.96 2.92 4.93 5.76 2.70 3.87 2.12 2.90 6.16 6.28 24 3.35 6.05 3.21 7.28 8.95 8.00 4.65 5.76 3.47 3.44 6.57 7.03 25 3.53 5.68 7.08 7.03 4.19 4.85 2.70 5.51 4.79 4.79 7.08 7.51 26 3.38 3.87 9.15 3.47 2.15 3.50 3.73 5.08 3.41 3.50 5.73 5.36 27 2.27 2.81 11.35 4.01 2.95 2.35 4.07 4.33 4.79 5.36 6.71 6.28 Technique FJ Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 26.70 23.97 15.23 15.20 17.15 17.09 28.56 26.64 17.52 18.24 11.38 15.71 7 14.54 18.06 21.99 22.51 13.22 16.32 22.37 25.00 18.44 18.15 18.55 19.96 8 21.13 21.42 24.09 25.58 20.10 22.48 26.44 27.41 21.88 21.94 20.39 22.39 9 17.61 16.60 23.28 23.71 27.90 26.09 23.77 24.80 20.27 18.12 17.38 22.77 10 15.57 15.57 20.04 18.81 13.22 13.96 23.48 25.81 9.26 8.43 18.01 17.06 11 12.73 18.90 17.92 17.18 13.91 12.73 18.01 18.15 25.26 21.53 15.37 14.97 22 12.70 5.96 26.87 19.18 16.66 14.60 26.04 10.06 19.35 13.51 19.10 11.18 23 14.42 16.57 17.66 18.21 14.71 15.60 14.68 15.31 17.38 16.14 10.75 10.81 24 13.53 12.04 14.42 14.19 16.54 17.38 12.22 12.99 12.96 12.67 11.21 10.55 25 12.39 11.44 14.05 15.86 13.48 14.25 13.48 12.85 14.57 13.45 12.04 12.10 26 13.02 11.99 17.15 16.34 14.39 15.17 13.76 15.28 17.75 18.01 13.76 13.30 27 12.87 8.77 18.64 19.33 17.63 15.91 21.25 12.59 16.49 17.78 17.12 10.27 193 Appendix F Position Data Report - S6 1eel ink Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5293 37.90 53.11 37.88 5291 46.81 5286 46.87 5208 44.82 51.87 44.88 51.14 3803 50.89 37.74 53.97 39.69 53.83 40.22 50.18 2893 50.35 28.85 7 57.82 33.18 5867 3255 60.36 4228 60.52 4226 58.28 40.24 58.08 40.25 55.63 37.53 55.98 36.91 61.03 37.64 61.18 37.67 57.12 2294 57.07 2299 8 67.80 29.27 65.87 29.32 65.19 37.49 65.12 37.54 64.86 33.91 65.04 34.10 64.10 33.90 63.55 33.55 66.50 33.76 66.85 33.80 64.67 1843 64.49 18.38 9 74.76 29.11 75.74 29.41 73.58 37.59 73.74 37.58 73.72 34.79 73.55 34.87 73.45 3251 73.05 3211 73.54 33.53 73-60 33.52 74.77 1827 74.82 1850 10 81.39 3262 81.82 3294 79.46 4245 79.46 4244 81.81 3885 81.66 3893 79.90 35.42 79.71 35.21 80.59 36.30 80.89 36.36 8277 2243 8271 2241 11 87.64 39.63 87.63 40.03 86.89 47.14 86.84 46.% 88.02 43.56 87.78 43.52 87.84 3830 87.45 37.95 86.08 39.78 86.25 39.92 8831 27.68 88.47 27.73 22 79.85 105.86 80.03 105.84 85.55 99.66 85.16 100.64 87.17 99.25 87.01 99.28 84.85 104.98 84.51 104.65 85.51 100.79 85.81 100.57 8248 116.92 8276 115.91 23 75.74 108.20 75.26 10851 81.12 99.81 80.86 99.75 8229 101.96 8210 101.98 80.40 107.12 80.16 106.73 79.70 104.35 79-34 104.49 76.23 119.27 76.18 119.34 24 6801 110.34 6889 110.38 76.37 10209 76.00 10214 76.62 105.14 76.48 105.18 74.34 107.62 74.01 107.26 74.39 106.28 74.27 10617 70.38 121.13 70.35 121.23 25 64.32 109.47 63.90 109.54 69.90 101.66 69.97 101.79 7205 104.18 7201 104.10 68.49 107.82 6872 107.43 69.40 106.43 69.53 106.39 64.36 120.68 64.36 120.74 26 57.11 10806 57.11 107.88 65.13 99.04 65.60 99.38 66.37 103.99 65.34 103.37 6299 106.49 6256 106.67 64.60 104.46 63.94 104.17 5848 118.49 5850 11862 27 5242 104.20 5242 103.85 59.94 96.79 59.77 %95 60.09 101.72 59.86 101.71 57.83 106.23 57.52 105.87 5863 10202 5879 10204 5205 115.87 5205 115.94 Technique B Tooth # Last A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 36.21 24.35 36.42 23.71 3232 31.33 35.28 3214 31.68 29.05 31.53 29.29 30.10 19.72 29.98 21.10 35.28 47.32 35.72 47.10 3287 14.23 33.97 13.27 7 4227 17.45 4259 17.32 39.59 26.72 4203 27.95 37.73 24.56 37.87 24.56 37.36 17.95 37.23 19.40 4255 44.44 4273 44.47 39.87 876 40.00 867 8 50.26 1362 50.09 13.66 44.95 2211 47.37 23.37 44.60 18.00 44.50 1837 45.45 14.33 45.37 15.71 47.46 41.07 47.78 41.02 4826 3.61 4849 577 9 59.58 13.76 59.56 13.80 54.34 2206 56.95 23.29 54.08 1865 53.87 1883 53.68 1322 53.60 14.63 55.48 40.88 56.02 40.69 5817 123 57.60 551 10 66.30 17.69 66.35 17.86 60.00 26.75 6249 27.93 61.84 2280 61.65 2289 61.74 1601 61.59 17.40 6226 43.69 6262 43.78 66.12 7.53 66.35 7.55 11 71.79 2294 71.40 23.68 67.17 31.31 69.66 3236 68.21 27.25 67.80 27.02 69.35 1863 69.00 19.91 66.67 46.69 66.56 46.34 71.88 1212 7202 1225 22 64.84 89.93 63.91 90.46 65.83 84.23 68.06' 86.28 67.69 8270 66.60 83.18 67.52 84.23 65.85 8628 67.42 108.13 66.91 109.00 6669 100.39 6599 101.57 23 59.32 9286 59.18 9282 61.00 84.34 63.46 85.59 6233 85.46 6233 85.54 61.34 8664 61.15 87.95 61.01 111.42 61.25 111.48 60.01 10168 60.03 10570 24 53.51 94.43 53.22 94.47 55.49 86.22 57.% 87.37 56.66 8893 56.69 89.12 55.69 87.43 55.45 88.83 55.% 113.42 56.28 113.49 54.02 105.68 53.90 10574 25 47.76 93.51 47.76 93.62 49.73 85.98 5232 87.23 51.88 87.62 5200 87.71 50.21 87.6 50.09 89.01 50.27 113.27 50.67 11144 47.99 105.18 47.97 10519 26 41.42 91.87 41.41 91.87 44.85 83.22 47.39 84.40 45.52 86.84 45.57 87.10 44.35 86.66 44.15 8803 44.73 111.39 4521 111.48 41.88 10278 41.65 10275 27 36.32 8812 37.17 87.23 39.74 81.12 4211 8216 40.20 85.93 41.00 85.37 38.45 85.66 39.15 88.11 39.36 10&81 39.63 ioa78 34-80 99.34 3543 100.53 194 Appendix F Area Daia Report - S7 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 5.19 2.55 4.50 4.85 , 5.36 6.08 0.00 0.00 5.10 5.71 6.02 7.60 7 3.18 4.50 10.90 11.27 4.73 4.36 10.06 12.99 5.19 6.74 3.35 8.83 8 9.18 8.63 7.08 8.26 11.38 6.54 15.34 10.18 6.31 6.74 5.51 12.10 9 5.68 5.45 12.90 10.58 15.28 5.65 14.65 11.78 7.80 8.95 6.82 6.65 10 5.65 5.94 8.23 7.89 5.39 5.73 15.91 4.67 2.87 3.33 8.75 5.73 11 5.51 5.39 9.49 9.98 5.48 5.08 6.94 7.37 4.67 3.99 10.81 5.08 22 7.48 2.35 2.21 2.44 3.93 4.65 12.19 11.53 4.59 3.64 15.48 3.76 23 6.31 6.97 3.13 4.42 5.62 6.02 7.20 8.17 3.53 3.18 6.85 6.82 24 5.36 3.67 8.26 7.23 6.80 8.00 6.65 6.82 3.84 2.70 6.77 6.51 25 5.13 4.27 7.28 7.00 3.84 4.04 7.51 7.74 4.30 4.53 7.46 7.05 26 3.53 2.58 5.88 2.61 3.58 2.47 7.94 8.43 3.07 3.64 5.68 5.79 27 3.99 2.29 2.41 2.09 3.27 2.95 8.80 3.78 6.85 6.39 9.29 6.34 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 16.34 14.14 14.94 15.25 19.35 17.49 0.00 22.88 15.46 17.46 10.87 16.32 7 16.29 14.48 17.46 18.98 15.40 14.31 21.05 27.07 14.19 9.29 15.11 18.09 8 22.77 18.75 22.28 21.99 23.31 20.99 26.24 23.51 18.12 19.04 18.78 19.61 9 18.18 17.20 22.16 22.48 29.56 26.41 21.96 23.54 16.09 16.32 18.01 19.35 10 15.00 16.14 17.18 17.75 14.42 12.01 23.25 17.78 7.48 8.46 17.95 17.43 11 8.32 11.93 16.06 14.82 17.95 16.32 16.77 13.51 14.14 16.63 15.20 15.60 22 12.33 8.40 8.46 11.56 20.10 9.95 9.92 13.85 17.26 16.63 14.02 18.81 23 15.37 14.14 9.78 10.41 17.98 12.73 14.54 11,27 11.18 14.22 9.72 11.96 24 14.54 12.96 9.15 14.11 17.63 15.86 8.80 12.50 11.15 12.01 10.49 10.21 25 12.16 9.98 12.50 13.91 14.22 13.48 11.30 13.88 12.99 14.34 11.73 12.13 26 17.00 12.73 11.90 15.77 16.29 11.99 12.99 20.65 15.28 17.81 12.36 13.45 27 14.14 10.84 20.13 15.74 15.37 10.78 20.99 22.88 16.80 16.46 15.48 14.11 195 Appendix F Position KYpori - S7 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5228 3852 5276 38.29 5283 46.89 5268 47.22 51.69 4529 51.87 4514 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.96 39.74 54.26 39.83 50.30 28.87 50.52 28.83 7 58.15 33.21 5834 3289 60.58 4219 60.39 4257 58.28 40.24 58.28 40.23 54.23 37.93 54.32 37.78 61.00 37.67 61.45 37.52 57.16 2292 56.80 23.35 8 66.24 29.18 6625 29.36 65.09 37.47 65.33 37.94 65.00 34.20 64.88 33.91 6289 34.02 63.07 34.22 66.48 33.76 6674 33.73 64.63 1844 64.37 18.80 9 75.96 29.41 75.66 29.58 74.05 37.68 73.59 37.92 73.66 34.99 73.29 34.26 70.22 3294 70.27 33.07 73.42 33.51 73.87 33.54 74.90 1831 74.82 1830 10 8239 33.61 8211 33.86 79.57 4243 79.30 4278 81.85 38.91 81.89 39.05 78.62 35.65 79.14 35.54 80.82 36.47 81.20 36.45 8264 2246 8274 2241 11 8800 39.64 87.68 39.76 86.62 47.00 86.43 47.36 87.97 4353 88.04 4358 86.37 38.27 86.17 37.% 86.06 39.70 8642 39.76 88.43 27.74 89.41 28.06 22 80.59 104.74 80.07 105.90 85.37 100.55 8521 100.84 87.17 99.25 87.20 99.34 83.93 103.66 84.23 103.69 8590 100.43 8535 101.62 8279 11593 8251 116.92 23 75.42 10854 75.24 10859 80.87 99.77 80.88 100.12 8218 10204 8220 10201 78.40 106.39 78.49 106.30 79.82 104.27 80.33 104.27 7623 119.34 7622 119.23 24 69.00 110.38 68.32 110.46 75.66 10210 75.84 10248 76.57 10527 76.65 105.18 7249 107.27 7281 107.28 74.31 10622 74.65 10618 70.39 121.24 70.42 121.13 25 63.99 109.54 63.68 109.72 69.92 101.74 69.79 10212 7212 104.21 7208 104.19 66.92 107.46 67.22 107.46 69.40 10639 69.66 10634 64.34 120.75 64.34 120.68 26 57.17 107.78 5667 107.86 65.28 98.92 65.02 99.34 66.10 103.77 66.28 103.91 61.07 106.45 61.49 106.43 64.50 104.42 64.76 104.39 5841 118.55 5850 118.54 27 5248 103.87 5212 104.10 59.71 97.14 59.79 97.83 60.13 101.79 60.09 101.72 55.43 105.18 56.27 10589 5838 101.73 5875 101.76 51.28 114.94 5202 11584 Technic ucB Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 3625 23.19 36.33 2280 34.82 3251 34.86 3254 31.68 29.26 31.66 29.31 0.00 0.00 37.07 19.36 35.03 47.67 35.21 47.87 33.1 11.56 33.24 1226 7 4244 17.28 4250 17.17 4263 27.69 4258 27.71 37.91 24.27 37.84 24.54 37.43 17.85 45.34 15.67 43.13 44.46 4293 44.93 39.95 633 40.08 680 8 49.85 1364 50.24 1365 47.82 23.14 47.79 2515 44.43 1822 44.55 1822 45.55 14.32 53.44 14.61 48.05 41.05 4806 41.04 4810 1.47 48.29 1.85 9 59.46 13.73 59.54 13.73 56.74 23.17 56.66 2518 54.33 1886 53.75 1875 5569 1318 61.61 17.33 55.40 40.63 55.68 40.74 57.95 1.18 57.75 1.52 10 6629 17.83 6651 17.75 6207 27.78 6211 27.82 61.70 2283 61.64 2288 61.86 1593 69.02 19.92 6255 43.64 6255 43.67 6620 548 66.46 591 11 7221 23.69 7218 23.70 69.60 3248 69.36 3247 67.75 27.13 68.30 27.85 69.32 18.52 66.35 85.54 68.18 46.92 68.18 46.85 7271 10.47 71.91 10.46 22 64.83 89.93 64.95 90.01 68.45 85.42 68.19 8560 67.66 8270 67.50 8295 66.71 8429 60.99 87.85 67.21 10&46 67.33 10856 6671 9882 66.72 98.87 23 59.55 9269 59.45 9281 63.35 84.75 63.2 84.91 6230 8542 62.17 8573 61.57 8668 55.43 88.67 61.50 111.58 61.43 111.68 59.79 101.7 59.75 101.94 24 53.20 94.57 5327 94.39 57.82 87.02 57.84 87.37 56.71 88.89 56.78 89.12 55.88 87.16 50.02 88.99 56.08 11555 56.18 11348 5398 103.65 53.81 104.02 25 47.89 93.46 47.82 9366 5220 86.83 5216 87.12 5200 87.59 51.95 87.76 50.17 87.54 44.34 87.89 50.64 1154 50.53 113.33 47.95 103.18 47.% 103.45 26 41.64 9212 41.71 9219 47.51 83.94 47.32 84.30 45.55 8692 45.82 87.14 44.60 8653 38.43 87.14 44.98 111.21 44.95 111.41 41.62 100.68 41.78 101.02 27 3685 87.63 3658 87.49 41.% 8205 4227 8239 40.24 8578 39.73 84.67 38.61 8588 37.07 19.36 39.48 10892 39.48 10878 34.88 97.63 3529 98.14 196 Appendix F Area Data Report - S8 Technique A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 8.26 8.11 10.09 11.76 11.47 10.78 0.00 0.00 8.80 10.58 9.84 11.76 7 7.66 8.69 12.65 14.37 9.43 9.12 15.05 15.40 5.79 5.62 9.09 9.46 8 14.11 13.79 14.88 14.71 12.99 12.53 17.23 17.75 12.04 12.56 14.39 18.35 9 9.29 9.72 14.91 13.65 18.92 18.78 14.62 16.63 12.13 14.11 14.77 16.11 10 8.77 8.75 9.69 9.63 8.09 8.77 14.68 16.17 4.07 4.13 9.81 10.64 11 11.01 10.27 11.81 13.39 15.57 11.78 14.42 13.91 9.15 11.35 15.28 13.39 22 9.00 8.89 3.18 11.04 9.84 9.86 12.30 13.08 8.60 7.71 13.82 16.11 23 8.23 8.23 5.62 10.24 8.23 8.14 8.72 9.69 5.73 5.71 8.83 9.00 24 6.25 7.00 8.86 9.20 9.41 9.12 7.03 7.94 4.30 4.59 8.20 7.37 25 6.19 5.62 9.29 8.34 8.26 8.14 7.66 8.09 4.70 4.76 7.34 8.43 26 5.85 6.11 9.43 9.09 8.34 8.26 6.94 9.00 6.51 5.51 9.09 9.23 27 9.95 6.14 11.76 10.29 7.57 10.41 9.35 9.49 7.63 8.32 13.39 11.87 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD Cast E CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 12.53 11.67 13.59 12.19 12.30 15.91 12.30 0.00 13.28 9.95 12.65 16.06 7 13.19 11.87 17.66 17.15 13.05 13.33 19.21 19.73 12.56 11.33 15.89 13.76 8 20.87 20.19 19.56 21.36 19.04 19.13 26.38 25.66 18.87 13.68 17.52 17.72 9 15.77 15.83 21.91 21.45 23.83 24.37 21.82 20.93 15.14 12.04 18.41 17.46 10 13.91 14.25 17.03 18.92 14.65 13.56 22.82 23.43 8.40 8.49 15.97 16.63 11 12.67 12.87 11.76 10.06 16.54 15.28 17.58 15.60 20.27 12.33 10.32 14.60 22 11.01 8.17 11.90 8.57 10.84 9.18 12.33 10.29 12.62 12.30 9.03 7.97 23 12.99 13.48 10.87 10.55 15.34 11.58 14.74 13.82 11.76 10.58 10.18 9.78 24 11.76 10.98 13.16 12.85 15.68 13.62 11.96 11.61 11.35 7.31 10.09 9.46 25 10.67 10.75 13.08 12.24 13.96 11.10 11.30 12.30 10.47 9.18 12.24 11.33 26 12.70 11.90 6.65 6.85 14.22 1244 14.45 13.99 12.85 9.18 12.50 11.64 27 15.51 10.70 9.18 9.15 11.18 9.15 10.35 7.83 16.60 12.93 9.95 8.43 197 Appendix F rWi.,11 Usu.1 Report-SS Technic ue A Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 5268 3848 527 3812 53.88 46.02 53.84 46.44 5291 44.76 5266 44.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.12 39.52 54.52 39.47 50.65 2858 50.82 2882 7 5894 3275 5860 3266 60.07 41.98 60.27 4212 57.98 40.64 57.93 40.68 54.07 37.82 54.05 37.83 60.92 37.61 60.87 37.64 56.43 2130 56.74 23.39 8 66.46 29.39 66.14 29.00 65.72 37.42 65.86 37.58 64.94 34.27 65.01 34.24 6248 34.17 6247 34.17 66.13 33.86 66.27 33.92 64.11 1871 64.95 19.03 9 75.43 29.42 75.66 29.12 74.27 37.39 74.26 37.51 73.71 34.94 73.69 34.96 70.44 33.00 70.50 33.07 73.84 33.50 73,30 33.89 74.15 1856 74.52 18.79 10 8262 33.92 8246 33.49 79.92 4222 79.% 4226 81.72 3898 81.78 39.06 78.62 35.84 78.63 35.83 80.79 36.60 80.93 36.71 8221 2246 8253 2261 11 87.76 40.00 87.84 39.67 86.42 46.67 86.28 46.61 86.65 4329 86.95 43.14 86.04 3878 86.03 38.70 85.71 39.59 86.03 39.94 8818 27.92 88.59 28.00 22 80.73 104.81 80.73 104.44 85.28 100.31 85.48 99.% 87.22 99.11 87.22 99.30 83.90 103.86 83.78 103.93 85.50 101.29 85.30 100.78 8244 115.84 8268 115.92 23 75.53 10851 75.56 10817 81.25 99.27 81.33 99.80 8217 101.85 8214 10204 7822 106.48 78.05 106.57 79.44 104.15 79.79 104.10 7S89 119.14 76.17 119.17 24 69.19 110.36 69.43 109.99 75.64 101.78 75.82 101.89 76.66 105.13 76.61 105.14 7242 107.42 7250 107.4 74.09 106.18 74.14 106.30 70.10 121.10 70.43 121.17 25 64.12 109.52 64.13 109.21 69.96 101.58 69.94 101.48 71.92 103.88 71.95 103.89 66.90 107.62 66.90 107.62 69.13 106.32 69.13 106.33 6195 12074 64.35 120.70 26 57.47 107.77 57.41 107.35 65.13 98.73 65.35 98.76 65.62 103.32 65.88 103.46 60.99 106.75 61.13 106.57 64.11 104.13 63.89 104.17 5806 118.37 5836 118.39 27 5218 103.53 5297 103.56 59.96 96.47 60.10 96.60 60.24 101.90 60.22 101.70 55.65 105.56 55.66 105.56 5801 101.56 57.94 101.47 51.30 114.94 51.45 114.67 Technique B Tooth # Cast A CastB Cast C CastD CastE CastF 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y X Y 6 37.30 1885 36.48 2255 34.73 31.56 34.76 3241 3208 2822 31.81 29.02 30.61 1801 0.00 0.00 35.15 47.02 35.56 46.48 3148 1133 33.35 11.75 7 4284 14.23 4244 17.25 4266 26.49 4243 27.76 38.15 24.10 38.00 24.54 37.36 17.95 37.69 19.04 4273 44.79 43.10 44.53 4028 825 40.50 6.01 8 50.10 10.94 50.13 13.63 48.09 2204 47.95 23.15 44.90 17.93 44.72 18.10 45.61 14.36 45.42 15.61 47.83 41.03 47.68 40.88 4803 3.44 48.05 1.42 9 59.15 11.05 59.40 13.72 56.73 21.98 56.71 23.14 53.71 1845 53.86 1878 53.68 13.17 53.63 14.39 55.33 40.69 56.16 40.39 57.87 115 57.97 1.16 10 66.35 15.24 66.35 17.92 6210 26.60 6219 27.% 61.70 2285 61.65 2294 61.73 16.10 61.77 17.42 6216 43.50 6257 43.67 66.59 7.57 66.44 5.57 11 71.96 21.45 7200 23.74 69.80 30.73 70.05 31.% 67.73 27.02 67.% 2735 69.22 1856 69.15 19.82 65.90 46.20 6807 46.19 7239 11.83 73.29 10% 22 64.83 87.37 64.80 90.48 69.01 85.17 68.43 86.82 6833 83.03 67.92 84.15 67.76 85.17 67.79 86.60 67.31 10851 67.61 ioao5 66.49 101.33 66.13 99.71 23 59.55 90.07 59.49 9273 63.63 83.87 63.76 85.18 6221 85.44 6217 85.79 61.53 86.71 61.31 88.00 61.32 111.45 61.63 111.40 59.86 103.73 59.90 101.66 24 53.22 91.89 53.09 94.63 58.04 86.40 58.01 87.35 56.77 8879 56.64 89.01 55.82 87.47 55.40 88.76 55.95 113.54 56.34 11159 5189 105.70 53.74 10170 25 47.82 91.09 47.89 93.68 5221 86.17 5227 87.31 51.95 87.61 51.90 87.92 50.12 87.6 49.97 89.16 50.89 113.72 51.01 113.68 47.83 105.18 47.79 103.25 26 41.36 89.34 41.37 9207 48.31 83.71 48.24 84.77 45.16 86.55 45.46 8714 44.09 86.64 44.28 88.20 45.55 111.61 45.51 111.37 41.60 10283 41.76 100.84 27 35.79 84.800 36.10 88.46 4217 81.99 41.33 8270 39.06 85.79 39.53 8629 38.64 86.33 38.91 88.46 39.58 108.90 39.53 10867 35.10 100.41 35.06 98.51 198 

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