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Sustainability comes to the mall : rethinking the Eastwood Towne Center Smar, Matt 2003

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SUSTAINABILITY COMES TO THE M A L L : RETHINKING THE EASTWOOD TOWNE CENTER by MATT SMAR B.Sc, McGill University, 1987 Graduate Diploma, Concordia University, 1991 M.Sc, McGill University, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Agricultural Sciences; Landscape Architecture Program) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY |)F BRITISH COLUMBIA June 2003 © Matt Smar, 2003  UBC  Rare Books and  Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation  Form  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver, Canada  Columbia  ABSTRACT The plans for a shopping mall under construction on a 192-acre site in Lansing Township, Ingham County, Michigan, United States were used as the basis of a design exploration into ways for improving the environmental and social sustainability of conventional malls. The exploration focused on four themes, specifically: Native plant materials; stormwater management^experiential qualities; and biodiversity. Literature on the use of these four themes to achieve sustainability goals was reviewed, and design precedents and projects that employed native plant materials, stormwater management, place experiential qualities, and biodiversity to improve environmental and social sustainability were examined. The literature on plant species native to the Ingham County area was researched to determine which species are suitable as landscape plant materials for shopping mall environments. A variety of interventions were proposed for managing stormwater runoff on the site, with an emphasis on soil infiltration as a management technique. Interventions were proposed to provide a pleasurable and comfortable experience for mall visitors, most notably summer shade for people and parked cars, ease of navigation and movement through the site for pedestrians and vehicles, and aesthetically pleasing plantings and architecture. Planted areas were designed to provide food and cover for wildlife common in the Ingham County area. The layout of the buildings and parking lots was designed to facilitate the future transformation of the shopping mall into a residential neighborhood, as a means of recycling developed land and limiting urban sprawl. Many of the interventions proposed were designed with the intention of revealing natural processes operating in the landscape, in the manner of the Eco-Revelatory design movement. This exploration demonstrated that it is possible to redesign a conventional shopping mall to make it a greater social asset to the community and less of an environmental liability.  n  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures  ii hi v vi  CHAPTER I: Overview  ".  1  Preamble: The Big Picture Statement of Intent: The Project Landscape Plant Materials and Sustainability Stormwater Management and Sustainability Experience of Place and Sustainability Biodiversity and Sustainability  1 1 2 4 5 7  CHAPTER II: Precedent Study and Literature Review Commercial Properties: Acquiring a Greenish Hue Nearby Nature Infiltration: The Next Wave Intentional Communities: Lessons for Commercial Landscapes Village Homes Coffee Creek Eco-Revelatory Design Harmony with Natural Forces Novelty Revelation as Explicit Objective Eco-Revelatory Design Precedents: Discussion Issues of Scale The Hand of the Designer Are Ecological Processes Ever "Finished"? What is Revealed? What is Understood? Lessons for the Eastwood Towne Center CHAPTER III: Context, Site, Program  11  • :  „ -  11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 18 18 19 20 21 22  Context Influences from the Natural Environment Demographic and Social Influences Influences from the Regulatory Environment Site Retail Program Shopping Center Program The Stores CHAPTER IV: The Design  22 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 27  Site Layout : Proximity to Major Traffic Arteries Compactness of Retail Realm Site Comprehension and Ease of Navigation Volumetric Space and the Human Scale iii  27 27 27 28 28  Volume of Traffic Past Stores Wetlands in the Retail Realm Impervious Surfaces The Developer's Proposal Layout Selection Undeveloped Land Circulation Vehicle Circulation Pedestrian Circulation Parking Parking Requirements Lot Design: A Green and Gray-Framework Lot Design and Stormwater Management Lot Design, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife Lot Design and Place Experience Central Green Central Green and Stormwater Management Central Green, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife Central Green and Place Experience Retail Realm Retail Realm and Stormwater Management Retail Realm, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife Retail Realm and Place Experience CHAPTER V: Conclusion  •>.  ,  Bibliography Appendix I  '.  28 28 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 36 36 38 39 39 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 ...46  :.  .....53  iv  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1. Native trees Table 2. Native shrubs Table 3. Native grasses Table 4. Native sedges and rushes Table 5. Native wildflowers  54 63 70 73 77  v  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. A shopping mall replaces field and forest in northern New Jersey Figure 2. A simple curb cut directs runoff to an infiltration area Figure 3. The barks of many trees native to the Midwest have pleasing textures, colors, and patterns Figure 4. A bur oak in a Midwestern savanna Figure 5. Yellow warblers are common summer residents of wet thickets in Michigan, and winter from Central Mexico to the Amazon Figure 6. A native bee pollinates stiff goldenrod Figure 7. A parking lot island designed to infiltrate runoff Figure 8. Windscoops on the roofs of desert houses Figure 9. Elevated wetlands Figure 10. Aerial view of the Portland stormwater garden Figure 11. Views of the stormwater garden at Wenk Associates headquarters Figure 12. Semi-circular wall at Portland stormwater garden Figure 13. Spiral Jetty Figure 14. A raptor roost complete with osprey nest Figure 15. Sun mask Figure 16. Michigan's climate is influenced by the Great Lakes Figure 17. Map of Lansing and surrounding area Figure 18. Map of site and surrounding area Figure 19. View across the site looking east Figure 20. Koi pond at Fashion Island, a lifestyle center in Newport Beach, California Figure 21. Developer's proposed site layout •. Figure 22. Examples of the five types of layouts.....;. Figure 23. Master plan for the Eastwood Towne Center revision Figure 24. Vehicle circulation Figure 25. Pedestrian circulation Figure 26. Saplings planted to shade the parking lot become mature trees of the new neighborhood Figure 27. Parking lot swale section Figure 28. Rough blazing star tolerates heat and drought and is an excellent mid-summer nectar source Figure 29. Shade cast by mature trees on the summer solstice at 10:00 A M , noon, and 3:00 PM Figure 30. Plan view of the central green Figure 31. In Michigan, flowering dogwood often grows under the canopy of oaks Figure 32. Brick storefronts in one of Lansing's older neighborhoods Figure 33. Retail realm storefront elevation Figure 34. Retail realm street section Figure 35. Switchgrass, big bluestem, prairie dock, Joe-Pye weed, orange coneflower, and Ohio spiderwort are excellent plant materials for rain gardens in the retail realm Figure 36. Eastern tailed blue, a common Lansing area butterfly  vi  2 5 7 8 9 10 13 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ....25 26 29 v. 30 ....31 32 33 35 36 37 -38 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 \  "Every architectural move is set in a landscape strategy. The eighteenth-century grid cities of the New World are a strategy of reason, for example. Norman England was constructed as a network of strong points, in a strategy of occupation. Our predominant landscape strategy now is the economic exploitation of the earth. Rents, farming, industrial development, infrastructure - this strategy is an amorphous thing, expressed in a series of coincidental collisions, in which we are simultaneously rewarded and deprived. But covered up by this blanket of commerce are a multitude of other strategies, many other ways to treat the surface of the earth ..."  Paul Shepheard, 1997. "The Cultivated Wilderness, Or, What is Landscape?" P. xiii. C H A P T E R I: O V E R V I E W Preamble: The Big Picture  Conceptually, ecosystems can be described as complex physical, chemical, and biological frameworks for capturing, assimilating, and dispersing the sun's energy. In plain language, this means that everything on earth - from bacteria to blue whales - is involved in an immense and complicated scheme to acquire and pass on energy. Photosynthetic plants are the foundation of this scheme. They use solar radiation to combine water and atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce vegetable matter, also known as primary production, the broad base of food chains. Practically all other life forms on the planet, the ones unable to use solar radiation to make their own food, are involved in a scramble for the energy contained in this primary production. Looking at the world in this way is relatively new to us, as the science of ecology is barely 100 years old. Yet it has had a profound influence on our concerns for the present and visions for the future. As one species among millions, we have disproportionate influence in food chain affairs. Not only do we directly consume a steadily growing proportion of the global primary production, our activities diminish it in other indirect ways. Deforestation, desertification, climate change, urbanization, urban sprawl, and other forms of development all act in concert to shrink the base of the global food chain upon which we and innumerable other species depend for survival. In the last half of the twentieth century we came to the bleak realization that we wield sufficient power to alter local ecosystems and perhaps the global ecosystem to our own detriment. Sustainability is a response to this realization. Simply stated, sustainability is about tempering our assault on local and global ecosystems, and adopting a role that favors the health of all life in perpetuity. By working for the life and health of the planet, we are working towards our own life and health. But the ruling North American relationship with the land could not be described as sustainable by any stretch of the imagination. Instead, our works bear witness to a very different relationship, one founded on preoccupation with quick economic gain and denial of long-term consequences. Statement of Intent: The Project  Shopping malls are only one of a multitude of examples of this destructive relationship, and one can levy a number of specific criticisms against them. Their vast expanses devoted to a single purpose reveal a mindset that views land as a cheap or almost disposable commodity, for when that single purpose fails, the expanse becomes socially useless and an environmental liability. This exploitative mindset doesn't factor in the real value of biodiversity and ecological processes in its short-sighted balance sheet. Rather, it obliterates ecosystems and disrupts natural processes as if they were a nuisance. Nor does this mindset put people and community before profits, since nurturing human health and wellbeing is an expense that yields little return for the stockholders.  1  Though this mindset is the one currently leaving the most obvious mark on the earth's surface, it is not the only one out there. What if a different mindset held sway, one that treated the landscape as finite and irreplaceable, ecosystems as having immense value, and people as our hope for a better future? What would the earth's surface begin to look like, then? My thesis is one such "What if?" exercise applied to a real site; a 192-acre parcel of land on the outskirts of Lansing, Michigan, soon to become a shopping mall christened the Eastwood Towne Center. The current plans for the Eastwood Towne Center evoke images of an exploitative mindset altering the face of the earth. The intent of this thesis is to redraw those plans with environmental Figure 1. A shopping mall replaces field andforest in northern New Jersey. sustainability in mind. I am focusing on four aspects of the design and program, specifically: Landscape plant materials; stormwater management; experience of place; and biodiversity. These are the four cornerstones of my sustainable revision. The attributes of these four cornerstones and their relationship to sustainability are treated in the following sections. Landscape Plant Materials and Sustainability  A stroll through an urban Michigan shopping district provides ample evidence that conventional commercial landscapes rely heavily on exotic ornamental plant materials. Bradford pears, forsythia, euonymus, hostas, and carpets of throw-away impatiens, petunias, and other annuals insist on regular inputs of water, fertilizer, pesticides, and maintenance, especially when planted in insufficient volumes of poor soil. Broad lawns surrounding corporate headquarters and business parks demand substantial labor, water, and chemicals for their support. Consequently, conventional commercial landscapes consume more environmental goods than they produce, and have no place in a sustainable vision of the future. Garden historians trace our tastes for exotic garden plants back to the Renaissance, when a burgeoning interest in the natural world, combined with material prosperity and a desire to display it, prompted rich merchants tofinanceexpeditions in search of new plants for their estates (Reichard and White, 2001). But among today's home gardeners there is a new interest and appreciation for native plant materials, and many nurseries cater to this market by specializing in products such as regionally native trees and shrubs, grasses, wildflowers, and wetland plants. Apparently, the current state of the commercial landscape is the result of limited knowledge and imagination on the part of landscapers and developers, since there are alternative associations of readily available native plants that are environmentally more desirable, economically more attractive, and experientially more appealing than conventional exotics (Wallace, 1996). Thoughtful landscaping can go a long way toward achieving sustainability goals. Perry (1995) offers the following set of objectives for guiding plant material selection and design with a view toward increasing environmental and economic benefits: 2  •  •  •  •  •  •  Increase productivity and standing mass ofplant materials: Plants sequester atmospheric carbon, take up or intercept gaseous and particulate air pollutants (McPherson and Nowak, 1993), and produce oxygen. The denser and more extensive the planted areas in the landscape, the greater the air quality benefits. Develop plant associations suited to site conditions: Plant selections should be compatible with the soil, moisture regime, and microclimate of the site to promote plant health. Additionally, the more diverse the plant selection, the more likely that it will adapt to changing site conditions and withstand pest problems. Select plant associations to minimize energy consumption: Operating trimmers, mowers, and service vehicles consumes electricity or fossil fuels. Appropriate plant selections reduce or eliminate the need for energy-intensive maintenance. Irrigation and chemical inputs embody indirect energy costs and are easy to eliminate by matching plant materials to site conditions. Finally, judiciously placed plantings shade buildings and cars in hot, sunny weather and shelter buildings from cold winds in the winter. This reduces the energy consumed by cooling and heating systems. Design to improve water conservation and management: As mentioned above, matching plant cultural requirements to site conditions reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental watering. Moreover, sites can be graded and designed in ways to both manage stormwater runoff and meet the moisture requirements of the plantings. Moderate the site microclimate: Trees shade and cool parking lots and other paved areas, providing a more pleasant atmosphere for pedestrians and curbing the summer "heat islands" that often develop over urban centers (Fazio, 1999). Further, keeping cars shaded and cool cuts down on the quantity of volatile air pollutants they emit even when they are not running (Scott et al., 1999). ' Program for wildlife and biodiversity: Using plant materials with food, shelter, and nesting values for wildlife provides habitat and improves the possibility that people and wildlife notably songbirds - can coexist in urban areas.  The various objectives are mutually compatible and a single, well considered planting design could conceivably accomplish all of them. Matching the cultural needs of the plants to the site conditions is fundamental from a sustainability perspective, and it would be difficult to achieve all of Perry's other objectives at a site without first meeting this objective. Using plant materials indigenous to the area offers a high probability that the plants will prosper on a site, particularly if it is a park, cemetery, or other large greenspace. However, conditions in highly developed urban environments are drastically different from ambient conditions prior to development. Parking lots are an extreme example, and plants in parking lot "islands" must cope with constricted root zones, poor soils, intense heat, and frequent summer drought. Ware (1994) sensibly suggests that the trees most likely to withstand the stresses of urban environments are those that endure similar stresses in their native habitats - "tough trees for tough situations." For reasons related to plant physiology, he proposes species from floodplains, swamps, savannas, and the Great Plains as candidates for urban plantings. None of these natural environments is on par with the typical shopping mall parking lot in terms of the severity and combination of inhospitable conditions. But this general approach has merit and by applying it to a catalog of Michigan ecosystems, it appears that there are natural analogs to the parking lot environment - the Great Lakes alvars. Alvar landscapes occur in two limited regions of the globe - the Great Lakes Basin and the Baltic Sea coast. Great Lakes alvars developed where advancing glaciers exposed and scraped bare dolomitic limestone bedrock several thousand years ago. Soils are very shallow or locally absent, and spring flooding, summer drought, and fire in certain areas deter most trees and shrubs from encroaching. Nevertheless, the various alvar ecosystems - pavements, grasslands, shrublands, and savannas - have distinctive plant communities adapted to varying degrees of drought during the summer, as well as 3  temperatures that can exceed 100° F at the soil surface (Reid, 1996; Stephenson and Herendeen, 1986). These plant communities are promising models for plant associations tolerant of parking lot conditions. Stormwater Management and Sustainability  Precipitation is one phase of the hydrologic cycle, in which water moves between the atmosphere, the land, and biota. The land and the life thaf lives upon it are compartments of the cycle, and depend on the free movement of water for their health. Water infiltrating into the soil sustains plants. Plant roots open channels through the soil that expedite water movement from the ground surface to the subsoil, and the leaves shelter the soil surface structure from the damaging impact of raindrops. Earthworms, ants, rodents, and other animals also excavate tunnels that aid infiltration. Bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that play a role in building the soil need this infiltrated water to survive and multiply. Water itself has a direct role in soil building, for example, as the medium for chemical reactions involved in weathering parent material. The health of aquatic ecosystems also depends on the movement of water through the land and vegetation. Much of the water infiltrating into the soil reaches the water table, which eventually discharges at low points in the landscape to feed wetlands, streams, and other surface waters. This subterranean reserve is a stable source for surface water bodies and sustains base flows when precipitation fails. The water slowly discharging from the earth is cooled from its long passage underground, and the cooler waters support high levels of dissolved oxygen necessary for aquatic life. The water also carries dissolved minerals which may have ecological consequences. For example, groundwater seeping from the sides of moraines in the Midwest often has calcium and magnesium bicarbonates in solution. The cool, mineral-rich seeps favor the establishment of a unique wetland type, the prairie fen (Michigan Natural Features Inventory, 1997). Finally, when precipitation exceeds the soil's infiltration rate, some of the water flows over the land as runoff. The soil's green covering of vegetation and brown coat of litter slows the runoff and reduces its erosive force, cleansing it before it flows into surface waters. A water molecule moves seamlessly between the atmosphere, land, vegetation, and surface waters without hindrance. These environmental compartments are bound together by the hydrologic cycle. To compromise the role of one component would disrupt the cycle, and the health and integrity of all compartments would suffer. Urbanization changes the relationship between land, vegetation, and water so that it no longer makes natural sense. Pavement blocks water from infiltrating into the soil and starves the local water table. Urban stream flows become more a function of sporadic bursts of runoff than steady inputs of groundwater. Life in the soil dwindles and soil building processes fade when concrete, asphalt, and other paving materials cut off water and oxygen. Precipitation now flows over the hard ground surface, acquiring heat, sediment, and dissolved pollutants as it goes. The vegetation and natural leaf litter that could slow and cleanse it are gone, and the polluted runoff runs unabated into rivers and streams. Aquatic ecosystems respond to a new diet of intense flashes of polluted, oxygen-poor water, alternating with periods of low, sluggish flow by becoming simpler and less stable, with a substantial representation of opportunistic exotics, such as carp. If sustainability is about fostering the health of all life in perpetuity, conventional stormwater management practices do not fully support this goal, since they are based on the premise that stormwater is a problem requiring human intervention. The sustainable solution, then, is simply to realize that rainfall is part of the hydrologic cycle, and the landscape can expertly manage all the stormwater it receives as long as we have faith in natural processes (Sauer and Andropogon Associates, 1998). For us North Americans, this sustainable approach toward stormwater management is far from being the predominant practice, mainly because our dependence on pavement borders on addiction. But we can 4  make long strides in this direction, and this is what my thesis project is partly about. Minimizing impervious surfaces, promoting infiltration to the full extent practical, taking advantage of the cleansing properties of soil and vegetation, and dampening the "flashiness" of stream flows are all possible now, and I intend to show how they could be applied at the Eastwood Towne Center. The Metropolitan Council, a unit of government coordinating the management of a seven-county area surrounding Minneapolis-St. Paul, has compiled a list of practices and strategies for managing stormwater runoff in various urban contexts (Metropolitan Council, 2001). These practices work on parking lots in east-central Minnesota's severe continental climate: • • • •  Design areas with pervious or semi-pervious surfaces for infrequent spillover parking. Promote shared parking for businesses with different periods of peak parking demand. Use vegetation to intercept precipitation. Herbaceous prairie species typically have deep and extensive root systems that expedite infiltration. Direct parking lot runoff over flat curbs or through curb cuts to planted parking islands and swales, where the runoff can infdtrate. Where the volume of runoff exceeds the infdtration capacity of vegetated swales and parking islands, detention facilities temporarily store the runoff and release it gradually to natural waterways. Extended detention facilities such as treatment wetlands and ponds serve the same purpose, but have the additional benefits of improving the quality of the collected water, providing wildlife habitat, and adding to the pleasure of the place experience (Ferguson, 1998). Experience of Place and Sustainability  Humans are no more immune to evolutionary processes than any other organism. Our physical form, physiology, Figure 2. A simple curb cut directs runoff to and psychology bear the marks of our ancestors' contests in an infiltration area. the game of "Survival of the Fittest." For the greater part of our evolution we participated in ecosystems as relatively minor players, and our ancestors managed to survive in environments beyond their control. Extensively manipulated environments - cities, urban areas - are very recent phenomena in the history of the human line. Consequently, from a physiological and psychological perspective we are probably well suited to surroundings and lifestyles different from those we make for ourselves in the contemporary Western World. An inkling of this comes from studies in the field of environmental psychology. A large body of research on the psychological dimensions of the human-nature relationship suggests that we have innate preferences for natural settings. In several studies using various techniques, people interviewed showed marked preferences for settings or scenes with a natural character over those with substantial signs of human engineering (Hartig, 1993). Other studies indicate measurable psychological or physiological responses to natural settings and scenes, among them restoration of temporarily impaired capacities to concentrate (Kaplan, 1995; Kaplan et al., 1998), and alleviation of different physiological measures of stress (Ulrich etal., cited in Hartig, 1993; Ulrich, 1981). The studies also point to preferences for certain qualities or characteristics of natural landscapes. On the basis of their research, Kaplan and coauthors (1998) claim that people respond positively to natural settings providing coherence, complexity, legibility, mystery, and extent. These characteristics may be explained simply in the following ways: 5  • • • • •  Coherence relates to order in the landscape, the division of space into easily recognized or understood areas or realms; Complexity refers to the richness of elements in the space, the variety of "things to look at" and appreciate; Legibility has to do with wayfinding and creating mental maps. A limited number of distinctive elements in the landscape aids in orientation and serve as anchor points for developing a sense of familiarity with the site; Mystery is expressed through the suggestion that the landscape holds more that is waiting to be revealed, if one were to explore a bit further; Extent is about cues in the landscape for transporting the mind to different worlds. A distant view or a small pond teeming with life can tempt the imagination toward thoughts of what it would be like to "be there."  According to the researchers, natural landscapes with these characteristics benefit the psyche by soothing mental fatigue and promoting a sense of wellbeing. If they are correct, then landscapes with trees, shrubs, and groundcovers arranged in a way that establishes coherence, complexity, legibility, mystery, and extent would have a beneficial effect on the individual and, by extension, support social sustainability objectives. ^ The findings of such environmental psychology studies add to the list of possible gains from "greening" the urban environment, but they do not strengthen the case for using native plants per se. The studies reveal only preferences for natural'settings, not for native vegetation or ecosystems. In fact, many people interviewed preferred scenes with tended or manicured vegetation over the more random or "unkempt" character of unrestrained nature. In a study of public responses to restored native ecosystems at a botanical garden, Schulhof (1989) found that the visitors' interest in and level of knowledge about ecology seemed to influence their reactions. Visitors lacking such interest or knowledge often had little appreciation for the restorations. As one visitor commented on a restoration exhibit, "It looked like a field ditch. I can see that along the side of the road" (Schulhof, 1989, p. 70). The argument for using native vegetation to further social sustainability objectives is best made on an intellectual level rather than a psychological one. Thayer (1994) criticizes development that fosters naive perceptions of the world through artifice, fantasy devices, and opaque technologies, while diverting attention from the degradation of nature. Most contemporary designed landscapes exemplify at least one of his criticisms. Exotic plant materials lie about the site's regional identity. Energy-consuming fountains or other features establish expectations of passive amusement. Stormwater management infrastructure ushers runoff into puzzling holes in the ground. For Thayer, the ability to position ourselves in the landscape and understand its workings is a key progression toward sustainability: "In a world where more and more of the technology controlling our lives is not only beyond our individual control but is also invisible and incomprehensible to the average person, the landscape serves not only as the foundation for our only genuinely 'tangible' reality, but as the only mechanism by which we can really know where we are - and how and why as well. It can be argued that as humans we have a right to know where we are, how we are connected, and how we are doing." (Thayer, 1994, p. 311) Native vegetation in the landscape strengthens our sense of grounding in the region, connects us to the evolutionary history of the region, and acts as a barometer of the region's health. As noted by Jens Jensen, the landscape architect famous for his work in defining an "American" garden style based on native ecosystems, "[The native landscape's] vegetation, its wild life are due to natural selection for fitness for thousands of years. It is fitting and it belongs. To destroy it is to destroy the real America" (quoted in Grese, 1992, p. 158). Beyond these functions, using native plant materials in design establishes a strong regional aesthetic. Michael Hough suggests that a regional aesthetic is important because appealing to aesthetic senses is one avenue to developing concern for the natural environment. 6  He maintains that"... for the general public, bringing aesthetic appreciation and natural history together is important for an understanding of places and for the development of a new and nonconsumptive attitude to the regional landscape" (Hough, 1990, p. 26). Thayer's call to reject incomprehensible technologies also pertains to stormwater management and sustainability. Conventional hardengineered stormwater infrastructure is an example of what he describes as opacity in the landscape, or landscapes "whose ecological connections and technological function remain obscure and Figure 3. The barks of many trees native to the Midwest have subtle and pleasing textures, colors, inaccessible" (Thayer, 1994, p. 140). To a and patterns. pedestrian in an urban landscape, runoff flows into a street level drain and disappears. Hidden from view is the underground network of concrete pipes that rushes the stormwater to its various discharge points, usually far from the eyes of the urban public. Also hidden is the effect of the polluted discharge on the river or stream that receives it. Thayer's remedy would be to make the stormwater management process transparent, so that its workings are an open and understandable system of vegetated swales, wetlands, and infiltration beds. The natural drainage system of Village Homes, a community in Davis, California, represents a successful prototype. Of course, where an open, understandable system is stressed or not working, the results are unsightly, disturbing, and prompt us to take action. This is a necessary feature of a transparent landscape, and directly relates to Thayer's principle of visual ecology. Just as the interplay between organism and environment is a fundamental concept in classical ecology, the visual ecology operating in transparent landscapes allows us to "assess the conditions affecting us and make cogent environmental decisions." (Thayer, 1994, p. 311) Biodiversity and Sustainability  Raven explains biodiversity in the following way: "At the simplest level, biodiversity is the sum total of all the plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms in the world, or in a particular area; all of their individual variation; and all of the interactions between them. It is the set of living organisms that make up the fabric of the planet Earth and allow it to function as it does, by capturing energy from the sun and using it to drive all of life's processes; by forming communities of organisms that have, through the several billion years of life's history on Earth, altered the nature of the atmosphere, the soil and water of our planet; and by making possible the sustainability of our planet through their life activities now." (Raven, 1994, p. 11) This passage makes it clear that we are indebted to other life on the planet for the air we breathe, the soil that nourishes our food, and the purity of the water we drink. Restated in a way that more directly relates to the theme of this thesis, our survival depends on us adopting a role and attitude that ensures the health of all life in perpetuity. A number of writers advance specific, human-centered arguments for preserving biodiversity, such as its importance in maintaining healthy ecosystems for our benefit, and its dollar value as a source of goods of economic and medical importance. Other writers distance themselves from an anthropocentric position and declare that all life possesses intrinsic value simply because it exists (The Nature Conservancy, 7  1994; Ehrenfeld, 1988). One of my premises is that preserving biodiversity is a requisite to achieving sustainability. This view encompasses both the biocentric and anthropocentric arguments. So, how is biodiversity preserved? In urban areas, it entails ensuring that sufficient and appropriate habitat exists for supporting the lifecycles of local fauna and flora. Determining what is sufficient and appropriate requires considerable knowledge of the area's natural history, and an orderly approach for evaluating habitat. Raedeke and Raedeke (1995) describe a three-tiered framework for assessing wildlife habitats at the urban landscape level. Alpha diversity concerns the physical characteristics of a given patch of habitat structure, size, shape, and special features with high wildlife value, such as water and standing dead trees. All else being equal, alpha diversity is generally higher in large patches than in small ones. Beta diversity relates to the species-richness at the junction of adjacent patches. These junctions or edges foster a high degree of habitat diversity because of the additive effects of two or more plant communities coming together. Gamma diversity is a measure of habitat heterogeneity across the landscape. Gamma diversity is high where there are a wide variety of habitat types in a region, individual habitat patches are large, and the patches are well connected. Regarding this last point, the Raedekes note that linking habitat patches with a network of corridors is widely recommended as a means of promoting gene flow between populations and maintaining species needing more habitat than any single patch could provide. Yet, they observe that definitive proof of corridor benefits seems to be lacking in the scientific literature. This observation is disputed by other researchers, however (for example, see Dramstad et ah, 1996). In terms of design, corridors between habitat patches may be either continuous or arranged as "stepping stones" of habitat. Continuous corridors are essential for certain taxa with limited mobility, such as reptiles and amphibians (PARC, 2002). Highly mobile, visually oriented species such as songbirds may use a series of stepping stones. In this configuration, each small patch must be within sight of its nearest neighbors to be effective (Dramstad etal., 1996). The Raedekes go on to discuss a number of constraints influencing wildlife habitat design in an urban context. Existing development and other conditions largely dictate the number of patches, patch size and shape, as well as opportunities for linking patches with corridors. Presence of understory vegetation, which contributes to structural diversity within a habitat patch, often conflicts with real or imagined human safety concerns. Corridors may draw dangerous wildlife species into urban areas - though the likelihood of this happening in southern Michigan is remote. The authors claim that park-like habitats with a limited understory but high aesthetic value will enjoy the greatest acceptance in an urban setting. A variety of natural ecosystems in regions of modest or limited rainfall have a park-like appearance. Prairies, oak and pine savannas, open woodlands, and other park-like ecosystems were historically dominant landscapes in many areas of the Midwest, including parts of Michigan. Groves offire-adaptedoaks - bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), white oak (Quercus alba), black oak (Quercus velutina), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) - would punctuate a sea of warm-season grasses and sunloving wildflowers. Periodic fires would keep dogwoods, 8  hazelnuts, sumacs, wild roses, and other shrubs from gaining an upper hand in the landscape. These parklike landscapes were the original habitats of many species of wildlife that now use the "savanna-like" landscapes of suburbia: Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), American robin (Turdus migratorius), gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), mourning dove (Zenaida macrourd), cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), woodchuck (Marmota monax), and others (Kline, 1997). The Raedekes finish by presenting a set of priorities guiding urban wildlife habitat design. The first priority is to protect or restore special habitats supporting high numbers of species, with the most pertinent example for this project being wetlands. The next priority is to maximize patch size, followed in order by designing for a variety of patch types, promoting alpha diversity - particularly understory vegetation - where human safety concerns allow and, lastly, linking patches with habitat corridors. The Raedekes lay out a useful framework for evaluating and designing wildlife habitat, but still the question remains of what is sufficient and appropriate habitat. One way to approach this question is to determine which ecosystems best support biological diversity. The Nature Conservancy's Great Lakes Program (1994) has identified a set of seven Great Lakes "biodiversity support systems," or the major habitat categories in the Great Lakes Basin, specifically, open lake, coastal shore, coastal marsh, lakeplain, tributaries/connecting channels, inland-terrestrial, and inland-wetland. These support systems were ranked by their relative significance using criteria including biodiversity significance, uniqueness, quality of existing habitat, and the provision of ecosystem services to other systems. Of the seven ecosystems, only two might be established at the Eastwood Towne Center - the inland-terrestrial and the inland-wetland, both of which were given a moderate ranking in terms of relative significance. The inland-terrestrial system provides important habitat for neotropical migratory birds, while inland wetlands are highly productive habitats used by a great number of species at some point during their lifecycles, including species that spend a major portion of their lives in uplands. A complementary approach is to determine which priority species could reasonably be attracted to the habitat appropriate for the site, and design to suit their needs. Priority species include those that are locally or globally rare or declining, and those that fill an important ecological niche or perform a crucial ecological service. Two broad groups of wildlife meet these criteria, specifically, neotropical migrant songbirds and native bees and other insect pollinators. Neotropical migrants are those birds that nest in the United States and Canada and winter in the New World tropics, including most warblers, flycatchers, vireos, thrushes, and other species that animate spring and summer woodlands. Conservation of neotropical migrants is of global concern since these birds play important ecological roles in both their summer and winter habitats as insect predators, as food for other predators, and as dispersers of pollen and seed. For example, experimental evidence indicates that their role as predators of leaf-eating insects alone exerts a strong influence on tree growth and the species composition of Midwestern forests (Marquis and Whelan, 1994). As a group, they are affected by habitat loss and fragmentation on their wintering grounds, along their migration Figure 5. Yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) are common routes, and on their summer ranges. Some summer residents of wet thickets in Michigan, and winter from Central Mexico to the Amazon.  9  species are in decline as a result (Bonney et ^ 1 9 9 5 . Terborgh 1989)  For reasons related to the interplay between habitat patch dimensions, nest predation, and cowbird parasitism (Rothstein, 2001; Pomeluzzi and Faaborg, 1999; Bonney et al., 1995), as well as the close proximity of development (Friesen et al., 1995), it is probably impractical or inadvisable to provide nesting habitat for neotropical migrants on the site of the Eastwood Towne Center. However, these birds would benefit from additional foraging opportunities during migration. For example, planting earlyleafing trees such as poplars, willows, and maples would feed the first generation of spring caterpillars which would, in turn, feed the first waves of neotropical migrants stopping over during their northward journey (Bonney et al., 1995).  Figure 6. A native bee pollinates stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida).  Bees, butterflies and moths, many true flies, and other insects pollinate flowering plants, allowing them to set seed. While many temperate grass and tree species are windpollinated, the majority of the remaining flowering plants in temperate regions rely on insects to pollinate them. Insectmediated pollination is essential for the success of many agricultural crops, and some estimates put the annual value of pollination services to U.S. agriculture at $20 billion to $40 billion per year. Pollinators other than the introduced honeybee may account for as much as $6.7 billion of the annual value (Kearns et al., 1998).  Insect pollinators are equally critical agents in natural ecosystems. Many researchers have identified disruptions of pollinator-plant relationships and declines of certain pollinators nearly worldwide, apparently due to factors such as habitat loss and fragmentation. These findings have led some ecologists to declare that we are on the brink of a "pollination crisis" (Buchmann and Nabhan, 1996). Providing habitat, including undisturbed ground and nectar sources throughout the growing season, is one means of boosting populations of bees and other pollinators. For example, willows and other early-season nectar sources are vitally important to bumblebee queens emerging from hibernation to start new colonies (Kearns and Thomson, 2001).  10  CHAPTER H: PRECEDENT STUDY AND LITERATURE REVIEW The cornerstones of my sustainable revision - landscape plant materials, stormwater management, experience of place, and biodiversity - have each been treated separately in the previous sections. But this separation exists only in an abstract sense, and solely for the ease of explanation and discussion. In reality, the four cornerstones are closely interlinked, and gains in sustainability in one area go hand in hand with gains in other areas. For example, one method of managing stormwater runoff from parking lots is to allow it to seep into the soil in tree islands that are specially designed as infiltration beds (Metropolitan Council, 2001). Channels through the soil made by the roots of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants in the beds accelerate infiltration, and transpiration through the leaves helps draw down the temporary excess of soil water. Plant materials most likely to thrive in these beds are those adapted to both periodic inundation, when roots may be under water for up to a couple of days during rainy weather, as well as the heat and drought typical of parking lots in the summer. The assortment of plant species able to withstand these conditions partly determines what types of wildlife might use the beds as sources of food and shelter. Finally, human visitors to the site would observe all parts functioning together - infiltration beds delivering runoff to the earth, vegetation sustained by the stormwater, birds and insects feeding and nectaring in a setting usually devoid of wildlife - and perhaps find interest and beauty in the composition. They would surely welcome the shade cast by the trees on a summer day, and hope to find a parking space in their shadow. In this one example, adopting a sustainable alternative to conventional runoff management yields additional benefits through supporting plantings, providing habitat, increasing the pleasure and comfort of the visitor experience, and reducing emissions of volatile pollutants from parked cars, rWith the potential for such benefits so readily realized from a technical standpoint, one might think that planners and developers would be eager to experiment with these innovative techniques. Yet, while these approaches are known to the development industry (for example, see Hilsenrath and Zachary, 1996), physical examples are uncommon. Skeptical lenders and municipal officials unwilling to deviate from the status quo are a couple of reasons for the scarcity of projects (Farnsworth, 1999; Zelov artd " Cbusineau, 1997). Existing precedents range from retail center projects that incorporate existing trees or other natural features within the designs, to corporate, institutional, and public building projects that have used "green" stormwater management practices and native plant materials with success. More significant are the attempts by a handful of developers to create entire communities based on sustainable principles. I discuss a small sample of such precedents below. Beyond the discussion of what sustainable measures are available is the question of design. Implementing sustainable practices goes a long way toward reaching a sustainable future, but society won't go the full distance unless people care enough about their environment to consciously look after it. The first challenge, I believe, is to encourage people to establish a strong connection with their environment. One way to do this is by providing the opportunity to see how the landscape works and understand why it matters, or to use Thayer's (1994) term, by making the landscape less opaque. Ecorevelatory design is a response to this challenge from the field of landscape architecture, and I examine the design movement in this section as well. Commercial Properties: Acquiring a Greenish Hue  By and large, the thousands of shopping centers and outlet malls in North America share a common lack of commitment to sustainability in their designs. Nevertheless, a few retail projects merit a brief mention for preserving existing shade trees or wetlands on site for the pleasure of their visitors. Although no retail centers appear to have taken the next step and experimented with creating or restoring ecosystems, this is a growing practice on corporate campuses. Finally, infiltration seems to be gradually gaining acceptance as a stormwater management technique among retail developers.  11  Nearby Nature Prime Retail, Incorporated is a real estate investment trust that builds, leases, and manages retail outlets throughout the United States. It is noteworthy for its efforts to preserve existing trees and other natural features during the site development process. For example, at Prime Outlets-Grove City, a company property near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the buildings and parking lots fit around a natural wetland preserved at the heart of the open-air shopping center. The facility design includes additional constructed wetlands. A wooden pedestrian bridge spans part of the preserved wetland, allowing shoppers an occasional glimpse of turtles, frogs, waterfowl, and other wildlife as they walkfromone part of the shopping center to another, and an interpretive sign explains the wetland preservation effort at the site (Clemson University, No date). Interpretation is an important component of habitat management in urban areas. Though a wetland in the middle of a shopping center has limited conservation value, its presence in a heavily visited urban context presents a powerful opportunity to educate the public about wetlands and promote concern for their protection (PARC, 2002). Prime Retail is among the more progressive retail developers for its commitment to incorporate existing natural features into its designs. However, a number of other companies own projects notable for the level of existing tree preservation, including Chelsea CGA Realty's Aurora Premium Outlets in Aurora, Ohio, and the Rouse Company's Mall of St. Matthew in Louisville, Kentucky. Apparently, the companies' tree preservation and planting efforts stem not so much from a sense of environmental stewardship as from a concern for the bottom line. Property managers at the facilities recognize that large, healthy trees help establish a pleasant environment, which attracts a strong customer base and promotes high.occupancy rates. Theyclaim that shade and aesthetic interest give retail centers with mature trees a competitive edge over their "treeless" counterparts (Clemson University, No date).' •'. These examples show that retail developers are grasping the connection between increased profits and the. way .-that green surroundings positively, affect customers.: But for evidence of interest in the specific useof native vegetation, we must focus our attention on corporate headquarters and campuses. Grounds maintenance costs for these facilities, sometimes set on hundreds of acres of property, are substantial when the landscaping relies on a conventional formula of mowed lawns, ornamental trees, and bedding annuals planted to depict the company logo. One source calculated that the annual landscape maintenance costs for conventional facilities in the eastern United States averaged approximately $3,700 per acre in 1996 (US dollars). In comparison, the estimated cost for maintaining established native vegetation at naturally-landscaped facilities in the same region came to $675 per acre (Wallace, 1996). :  The potential for dramatic savings in maintenance costs is one reason that DuPont, General Electric, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and other corporations have switched to native landscaping or ecosystem restoration at some of their facilities. Employee wellbeing is another reason, with many companies aware of the relationship between wellbeing, job satisfaction, and productivity. Not only does the presence of nearby nature have a salutary effect on employee mood, but employees take pride in observing that their company is doing something positive for local ecosystems (Wallace, 1996). Employees are often eager to add to corporate environmental efforts on the facility grounds. Wildlife habitat management is a popular activity, and the US-based nonprofit Wildlife Habitat Council reports that more than 280 facilities participate in its Corporate Habitat Certification/International Accreditation program (Wildlife Habitat Council, No date). Participants engage in habitat management and environmental education efforts rangingfromprairie restoration, to helping develop blight-resistant strains of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), to consolidating blocks offragmentedhabitat for neotropical migrant songbirds (Ryan and Johnson, 2002; Maslonek, 2002). Infiltration: The Next Wave Detention is now such a standard technique for managing stormwater that it is unnecessary to discuss precedents of the concept. It is widely accepted that properly designed and maintained detention basins 12  can dampen flood peaks and reduce flow velocity prior to discharge, as well as provide wildlife habitat and aesthetic interest. In the case of wet detention, it can also improve runoff quality. Consequently, it is a more sustainable management practice than the drain, pipe, and discharge process of the conventional urban storm sewer system. Yet, in systems that feature detention, the emphasis is still on surface flows; closing the loop of the hydrologic cycle through infiltration plays a minor part. Infiltration, then, is the next wave of sustainable stormwater management, addressing flooding and water quality concerns while at the same time replenishing the water table and sustaining stream base flows (Ferguson, 1998). Infiltration as a stormwater management technique is gaining a toehold in the commercial landscape, albeit at a relatively modest pace. At the Beltway Plaza Shopping Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a project to convert and expand the existing strip mall to an indoor mall triggered the need to upgrade the stormwater management system. After estimating the cost of installing conventional drain and pipe infrastructure to manage the increased runoff volume, the developer opted instead for an equally effective yet significantly cheaper alternative; a biofilter system that allows runoff to infiltrate into the soil. All runoff from the parking lots is directed through curb Figure 7. A parking lot island designed to infiltrate cuts into islands planted with trees, shrubs, and runoff. herbaceous plants. Three feet beneath the surface of the coarse-textured soil - below the root zone of the vegetation - perforated pipes drain away excess infiltrated runoff and convey it to the municipal storm sewer system. The mall property managers report that the costs of maintaining the system are comparable to maintenance costs for conventional stormwater infrastructure. Biofilter maintenance entails typical landscaping activities such as weeding, pruning, and replacing dead plants (Friends of the Rappahannock, No date). Intentional Communities: Lessons for Commercial Landscapes  A small handful of progressive developers and architects have made the most practical attempts to create sustainable and marketable living environments. From solar energy, to traffic calming, to ecosystem restoration, the variety of unconventional measures tried in these "intentional communities" make them de facto living laboratories of sustainability, yielding lessons to apply elsewhere. Two well publicized projects are considered here. Village Homes Village Homes in Davis, California, is the oldest and best known example of an intentional community. Started in 1973 by Michael and Judy Corbett, the couple wanted their subdivision to embody principles of social and environmental ecology. Government permitting agencies and banks that the Corbetts approached forfinancinggreeted their unfamiliar ideas with suspicion. It took three years to receive the approvals and loans, and construction began in 1976 (Zelov and Cousineau, 1997). Some of the most widely celebrated features of the residential development are directly applicable to commercial projects. Energy efficiency through microclimate moderation is one such feature. The eastwest streets and the south-facing orientation of the houses allow for passive solar heating in the winter months. Shade trees and wide eaves help keep homes cool in the summer. Additionally, streets in Village Homes are 20 to 26 feet wide, much narrower than the 44 to 52 foot wide streets in other Davis suburbs. It is possible to shade narrow streets such as these more completely with street trees, and the smaller  13  paved area contributes less to the urban heat island effect and sheds less stormwater runoff (Bainbridge, 2000-2001). The Corbetts also took care to make the narrow streets gently curving as a traffic calming measure. Yet in contrast to typical subdivisions, the streets are meant to be secondary routes of circulation, subordinate to a system of pedestrian and bike paths. Within Village Homes, it is often more convenient to reach a destination by walking or biking than by driving. The emphasis on foot-powered movement is physically healthier, permits more social interaction, minimizes automobile noise and pollution, and is safer (Bainbridge, 2000-2001; Zelov and Cousineau, 1997; Thayer, 1994). Another feature relevant to commercial landscapes is the above-ground stormwater management system. For the most part, stormwater runoff flows through curb cuts along the street into a system of vegetated swales. Check dams or weirs in the swales detain or slow the flow, giving the water more time to infiltrate. The swales and shallow detention ponds are wet for a sufficient portion of the winter rainy season to support wetland vegetation. The water and vegetation attract wildlife not commonly found in suburban yards, including muskrats, toads, waterfowl, and many other bird species. Farfrombeing an eyesore or an inconvenience, residents appreciate the open drainage system for its interest and beauty (Bainbridge, 2000-2001; Thayer, 1994). The naturalistic landscape, the opportunity for social interaction, and resulting strong sense of community make Village Homes prime real estate, and houses in the subdivision sell much faster, and at prices from $10 to $15 more per square foot (US dollars), than their counterparts in the surrounding suburbs (Bainbridge, 2000-2001). .Coffee Creek  A few miles,fromLake Michigan in northwestern Indiana, a 640-acre new community picks up where Village Homes left off. Coffee Creek is the product of collaboration between the developer, the Lake Erie Land Company, and a team of architects, planners, landscape ecologists, and others. The stated emphasis is on the relationship between the natural and built environments. In the words of the lead planner, architect William McDonough, the project strives to inspire visions of "a green world with connecting gray zones" (Farnsworth, 1999, p. 4). Like Village Homes, Coffee Creek features houses that take advantage of microenvironmental heating and cooling effects, narrow, curving streets, a trail system that favors pedestrians and cyclists over the automobile, and an above-ground stormwater management system relying on infiltration and detention. Yet this Midwestern counterpart goes further by promoting small-scale renewable energy technologies, mixing and balancing commercial and residential areas, using more sustainable construction materials, and treating wastewater in constructed wetlands (William McDonough and Partners, 2002). Another aspect that represents a significant and sophisticated advance in environmental design thinking is the importance given to ecosystem restoration. The project team dedicated fully 200 acres to a public open space called the Coffee Creek Conservation Area, focused on Coffee Creek and its tributaries. Prior to the project, much of the site was wetland that had been drained and filled decades previously to make way for agriculture. The tile drains installed beneath the farm fields discharged directly into the stream system. Consequently, intense discharges following storm events eroded the creek banks and blanketed the gravel creek bed with a thick layer offinesediment. The project involves rehabilitating and restoring the riparian ecosystem, including the floodplain and its associated wetlands, as well as the adjacent uplands. The goal is to minimize surface runoff into the creek and re-establish groundwater as the primary, stable source of stream flow. Of course, native vegetation plays a major role in the ecosystem restoration efforts. The project team considered this aspect of the development so important that is was designed and completed before they began construction on the first residential and commercial buildings (William McDonough and Partners, 2002; Mammoser, 2000; Farnsworth, 1999; Confluence Consulting, Inc., No date).  14  Eco-Revelatory Design  The precedents discussed above present examples of sustainable measures suitable for commercial landscapes. In effect, they comprise a menu of broad suggestions for improving the local environment. But after settling on the function and general form of a sustainable measure to implement, the challenge of its detailed design remains. Design decisions evolve under the influence of site and program. Where sustainability is an overarching objective, part of the program involves making it visible through explicit or subtle means. The crucial question then becomes, how can design help observers understand that they are in a landscape where values center on life in its myriad forms and processes? A landscape architecture design movement offers one answer to this question. Eco-revelatory design has been defined as "landscape architecture intended to reveal and interpret ecological phenomena, processes, and relationships" (Brown et al., 1998, p. xvi). Behind this rather dry definition is a movement urging us to learn about local, regional, and global ecosystems and behave like responsible participants in them. As stated by the editors of a Landscape Journal special issue on eco-revelatory design, it "can punctuate and enliven our environment and sensitize us to what is known about its interlocking complexities. And we may assume that if one is more aware of environmental phenomena and processes - if one is able to see and comprehend them - one is better able to appreciate, evaluate, and make wise decisions concerning them" (Brown etal., 1998, p. x). This idea parallels Thayer's concept of visual ecology. He contends that progress toward a sustainable future first requires us "to open up our landscapes to view, such that we may learn from them where we are, how we are doing, and what we need to do to make the world better" (Thayer, 1994, p. 311). How the landscape might open up to reveal its parts and workings is the subject of the remainder of this section, an examination of various forms of eco-revelatory design. Harmony with Natural Forces Designs may establish a clear and direct relationship between the observer and landscape processes without being ecorevelatory in intent. One set of such precedents comes from technologies that harness natural forces for human benefit. An ancient example from the desert of southern Pakistan uses the wind to cool the interiors of houses. In this region, windscoops on the roofs face into the southwest winds that blow across the desert in the summer, and direct cooling Figure 8. Windscoops on the roofs of desert houses. breezes into the rooms below. The predominant winter winds come from a different direction, and the windscoops are designed and positioned to prevent these cold winds from causing drafts in the houses. In Nova Scotia, the Annapolis Tidal Power Generating Station captures the energy inherent in tidal fluxes of as much as 18 feet to generate power. When the tide is rising, seawater flows through the open sluice gates of the station into a large reservoir. At high tide, the gates close, impounding the water in the reservoir until it is needed to generate electricity. In many places around the world the wind drives turbines to generate electricity. Wind farms are sited in open, elevated areas where the turbine structures stand as distinctivefigureson the horizon (Zeiher, 1996). These structures are functional. They are not built to comment on our relationship to nature or embody meaning beyond their use. Consequently, they might seem to be curious choices for precedents of eco15  revelatory design. But their purpose and utility transparently depend on forces so far beyond our domination that they symbolize a type of humility before immense nature. Through understanding these forces and using our ingenuity to take advantage of what they freely provide, we benefit by living in harmony with them, and that is what these structures convey. Novelty The eco-tourism industry trades in environmental novelty and new experience. Since novelty can be a potent means of heightening people's awareness, these precedents are worth examining for useful ideas. A prominent theme common to a number of eco-tourism experiences is the opportunity for a novel physical position or perspective in the landscape, a view into a world that is otherwise out of reach or out of sight. For example, many resorts incorporate treehouses or boardwalks through the forest canopy where visitors can observe flora and fauna normally never seen at ground level (Zeiher, 1996). Another example comes from a state-run fish hatchery in Oden, Michigan, where the redesign plans for the facility include a below-grade, glass-paneled chamber where the public will be able to view salmon and trout raised at the hatchery in a restored stream (Bennett, 1999). This last example is a land-locked cousin of the glass-bottomed boat tour. Whimsy or surprise is another form of novelty. When understanding the surprise requires exercising the observer's curiosity, the impression is all the more lasting. Elevated Wetlands along Toronto's Don River Parkway is a whimsical installation of public art that, tangential to the artist's original intentions, grew into a visually arresting and functional eco-revelatory design. The artist, Noel Harding, was commissioned by the Canadian Plastics Industry Association to create a public installation with recycled plastics. His initial notion was to bring plant materials into his long-standing preoccupation with form and the ideas they embody to "raise a silhouette of nature against the urban landscape" (Bennett, 2000, p. 75). Along the way, Harding grew intrigued with the possibilities of growing media made of recycled plastics, bioremediation, and solar energy. Ultimately, Elevated Wetlands is a system of hydroponic wetlands that treats water transported from the polluted Don River using a solar-powered pump, all supported by monumental forms with a friendly demeanor that people liken to polar bears, diapers, or molars. The result is amusing, interpretive, and thought-provoking, and has inspired interested and positive Figure 9. Elevated Wetlands. responses (Bennett, 2000). Novelty often makes experiences memorable. This is worth noting, especially if the designer's intention is to use the place experience as the vehicle for an attitude-molding lesson. But by definition, novelty soon wears off, and applying it successfully requires that the membership of the intended audience changes regularly, experiences the design infrequently, or that the design itself changes over a relatively short timespan. Revelation as Explicit Objective Landscape architecture presents us with a well-populated set of precedents - projects that purposely aim to reveal specific ecologies. Since these projects are eco-revelatory in intent, they deserve a more indepth discussion. I focus here on three diverse examples addressing stormwater in the landscape. They are: the stormwater garden at the Portland, Oregon, Bureau of Environmental Services Water Pollution Control Laboratory; the stormwater garden at the offices of Wenk Associates, Inc., a landscape architecture firm in Denver, Colorado; and a proposed project titled Urban Grass Waterways: Rethinking Stormwater Infrastructure in the Anacostia River Watershed. The last two examples are featured in the 16  1998 Landscape Journal special issue on eco-revelatory design. I focus on these three projects not for their quality, but for the ideas they introduce and the questions they bring to fore. The Portland stormwater garden sits on the Water Pollution Control Laboratory's six-acre facility on the banks of the Willamette River. The garden is designed to filter and cleanse stormwater runoff from a 50-acre neighborhood uphill from the site. It also serves as a demonstration project for the laboratory. The most distinctive elements of the design are a ripraplined, curvilinear concrete flume that is the entry point and channel for the stormwater discharged into a one-acre retention pond, and a large, semi-circular stone wall that sits in the lobe of the pond closest to the river. The flume is described Figure 10. Aerial view of the Portland stormwater garden. as an abstract reference to a glacial moraine or the curves of the river. The wall rises smoothly from a height of two feet at one end to eight feet at the other, and is intended as a marker for noting changes in pond level (Thompson, 1999). Wenk Associates, Inc.'s stormwater garden is small by comparison, occupying the site of a former 2,600 square-foot driveway adjacent to the firm's offices. Roof downspouts end just below the eaves. This allows stormwater from the eaves troughs to spray dramatically into ground-level "splash basins" before entering a distribution system that conveys it different garden areas doubling as infiltration beds. In some of the beds, the soil is mounded into furrows reminiscent of agricultural row crops, and the runoff is piped between the furrows to infiltrate. The planting design incorporates both native and exotic ornamental species, arranged so that each plant's water requirements match a zone of soil moisture in the infiltration garden (Wenk and Gregg, 1998). The Urban Grass Waterways project proposes to "green and soften" the hardengineered stormwater management system of Figure 11. Views of the stormwater garden at Wenk Associates headquarters. Bladensburg, Maryland. The current system offers little in the way of stormwater quality improvement, and is believed to contribute to siltation problems plaguing a local marina on the Anacostia River. The proposed design would replace the current pipes and channels with swales planted in native vegetation that both transport and filter 17  runoff, and form green corridors for public recreation and wildlife habitat. The proposal speaks of the grassed waterways as a multiuse civic infrastructure (Eades, 1998). Eco-Revelatory Design Precedents: Discussion  The three landscape architectural design precedents just described all strive to address stormwater management in a more sustainable manner. Yet they differ in their scope, management approach, intended audience, and other aspects. The process of critiquing these precedents yields a number of observations and questions, all fuel for discussion on the use of eco-revelatory design. Issues of Scale To begin with, the Portland and Denver stormwater gardens invite comment on issues of scale of site, of coarse-grained versus fine-grained design elements. The Denver site is of a very personal scale, allowing an observer to study the entire process of runoff generation, collection, distribution, and infdtration from a single vantage point. The comprehensive story compressed in the small area makes the design intelligible and thus, successful, lending weight to Patricia Philips' comments on the value of bringing the observer as close as possible to the "evolving process" (Philips, 1998). If the Portland stormwater garden is also successful, it is because the major design elements, the flume and the semi-circular stone wall, approach monumental land art in size and form and make a strong statement to match the grander scale. The Hand of the Designer The Denver and Bladensburg projects bring up the question of whether and when the hand of the designer should be obvious in the design. The Denver garden clearly signals the "joining of cultural forms and natural processes" to manage stormwater in an environmentally sensitive manner (Wenk and Gregg, 1998). In the Bladensburg proposal, it is not clear whether the purpose of the swales would be explicit or Figure 12. Semi-circular wall at Portland stormwater garden. disguised, as the planting scheme consists entirely of native plant materials. Robert Thayer, writing on the experience of sustainable landscapes, maintains that such landscapes shouldn't ignore "the fundamental addition of human use to the ecological equation." He adds that sustainable landscapes support ecological relationships that are usually subtle and difficult to discern, and he believes it important to give them "conspicuous expression and visible interpretation" (Thayer, 1989). Otherwise, the design runs the risk of becoming invisible to the general public (Philips, 1998). Celebrating the fruitful union of culture and nature is one reason for making eco-revelatory design interventions explicit. However, in the case of designs addressing stormwater in the landscape, there is a 18  darker side to this union that provides another motivation to do so. Urban stormwater runoff is invariably polluted. Grassy swales, wetlands, infiltration beds, and other "ecological treatments" remove or destroy many of the pollutants, a fact emphasized in glossy design journal articles discussing these projects. But the articles fail to mention that heavy metals and certain other stormwater pollutants are not removed by these measures. Instead, the environmentally persistent substances remain in pond sediments and plant tissues, two entry points to aquatic and terrestrial food chains. The small number of studies on this topic indicate that heavy metals accumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and other animals using detention ponds as habitat (Zielinski, 2000). Consequently, concealing the designs beneath a natural appearance might also hide a situation that warrants our close attention and concern. Are Ecological Processes Ever "Finished"? For all the talk of enabling ecological processes in the articles describing the three projects, there is something curiously static in the designs. In Portland, stormwater travels along a concrete flume into the retention pond. In Denver, the infiltration beds have carefully maintained furrows. In Bladensburg, the network of swales is fixed and unchanging. What of water as an agent of violent physical change, of erosion and deposition, riverbank scouring and delta building? What of rivers abandoning their beds during a flood, and cutting new channels? These designs seem to dwell on the notion of placid harmony. But to focus on that aspect of nature leaves it empty of dynamism, drama, unpredictability, and creativity, and makes it less likely to elicit our respect and admiration. James Corner imagines a different approach in proposing that"... a truly ecological landscape architecture might be less about the construction offinishedand complete works, and more about the design of'processes,' 'strategies,' 'agencies,' and 'scaffoldings' - catalytic frameworks that might enable a diversity of relationships to create, emerge, network, interconnect, and differentiate" (Corner, 1997, p. 102). The desired result of this approach would be "alternative forms of relationship and hybridization between people, place, material, and Earth" (p. 105). An inkling of what Corner is suggesting comes across in two examples of land art from the western United States. Robert Smithson's well-known Spiral Jetty is one of them. Spiral Jetty is a 1,500 foot-long stone and earth causeway that spirals out from the desolate shore of Great Salt Lake in Utah. Many visitors to the installation sense that it comments on the beginnings of life in the primordial shallows. But more important than deciphering the artist's intent, at least for the purposes of this thesis, is the fact that the jetty is a framework for the development Figure 13. Spiral Jetty. of diverse micro-environments that support life. The curves of the jetty enfold a gradient of water levels that establishes, in turn, gradients of water temperature, salinity, and other characteristics of aquatic environments. A type of reddish algae finds the conditions in the vicinity of the jetty conducive to its growth. Consequently, when the levels of Great Salt Lake fall within a certain range, the algae proliferates and colors the waters  19  around the jetty red (Bourdon, 1995). In this way, the installation visibly expresses the dynamism of the larger lake context through the medium of life itself. The other example comes from the works of Lynne Hull, a self-described "trans-species" artist. Simply stated, Hull's vocation is to make art that benefits wildlife. Her Lightning Raptor Roosts, erected in largely treeless areas of Wyoming's Red Desert, are public art works that also provide hawks and other raptors with perches for roosting and platforms for nesting. Hull intentionally constructs the roosts to appear skimpy and thin when first erected. When a pair of raptors builds a nest and raises their young on the platform integrated into the structure, the additional volume brings balance and completion to the composition (Hull, 1995). Obviously, the Great Salt Lake and Red Desert are a far cry from a crowded urban shopping mall. So how applicable are Corner's ideas to the densely populated environments in which many of us live? Vinayak Bharne writes of a "third nature" that is superceding the "second nature" of our sterile, sealed cities, buildings, and car interiors. Noting that coyotes now lurk in midtown New York City, peregrine Figure 14. A raptor roost complete with falcons nest on Boston skyscrapers, and self-sown osprey nest. vegetation claims hundreds of derelict acres in Detroit, Bharne suggests that these and countless other phenomena are the earliest advances of the third nature. In his view, "Abused nature is hitting back. The contemporary city is becoming increasingly earthlike, with wild animals and plants, adapting, mutating, and learning to survive in a new urban jungle" (Bharne, 2001, p. 25). Perhaps our cities leave enough room for ecology in its wild, spontaneous sense. The concept of a third nature also raises new possibilities for comprehending and reconfiguring our urban milieu. For example, Bharne writes: "Think about an intermediate technology that addresses the open spaces and tears of the present urban jungle, which when exposed like the structures in a building, can communicate a clearer understanding of the functions and forms of its integrated natural elements and processes - water systems that are designed in a way to utilize and express the entire water cycle, from the storage of rainwater to the complex techniques of its urban distributions" (p. 26). This passage calls to mind both Thayer's ideas of transparent landscapes and visual ecology, and the vision of Coffee Creek's William McDonough of a green world with connecting gray zones. What is Revealed? What is Understood? Finally, all three projects beg the question: What, if anything, is ultimately revealed by these designs? Landscape architects trained in design thinking may cue in to the intended meanings, but what about others? Marc Treib advances a frank and thoughtful opinion that eco-revelatory designers would do well to consider. His 1995 paper, titled "Must Landscapes Mean?: Approaches to Significance in Recent Landscape Architecture," traces the motley themes and devices landscape architects have employed over the past few decades to inoculate their designs with meaning. One of the challenges in conveying message, Treib explains, involves "landscape semantics." Does the designer share a common landscape 20  language with the intended audience? Do different members of the audience share the same language? If not, communication and the sharing of meaning become difficult indeed. Looking at the designs of a culture different from our own can illustrate this point. The masks and other ceremonial objects made by the First Nations of the Pacific Northwest Coast have a sophistication, elegance, and power obvious to all. Many of these objects are layered with meanings clear to the members of the designers' culture, and depict characters and stories that are part of the cultural fabric (MacNair et al, 1998). Yet these meanings are inaccessible to those unable to look at the objects with "Indian eyes." Observers who do not understand the designer's landscape language can still appreciate the beauty of a design, and Treib suggests that the sensual pleasure of a place is at least as important as the intended intellectual meaning. Further, he argues that pleasure may be an avenue to meaning, asking rhetorically, "Is there not a link between the senses and significance, or is meaning necessarily restricted to the rational faculties?" (Treib, 1995, p. 59). A pleasurable place, a place that satisfies the senses, is likely to be visited over and over. When this happens, it may reveal its message. In Treib's opinion, "Meaning accrues over time; like respect, it is earned, not granted" (p. 58). Lessons for the Eastwood Towne Center Lessons from the projects described above can inform the redesign of the Eastwood Towne Center. For example, merchants and shoppers respond positively to leafy shade and nearby nature in commercial retail developments, so much so that the response may translate into bigger profits. On corporate campuses, native landscaping and ecosystem restoration efforts prompt many of the people working there to take an active interest in their surroundings, and may awaken in them a sense of environmental stewardship. The success of intentional communities that de-emphasize the automobile as a mode of local transportation shows that people enjoy walking to their destinations when given the opportunity to take safe, convenient routes through pleasant surroundings. In these same communities, well-designed, open stormwater management systems that rely on natural processes for cycling water through the environment are also successful. Open water exerts a strong attraction on both people and wildlife, and residents begin to see stormwater not as a waste product, but as an environmental and experiential asset. Observations gleaned from the eco-revelatory design precedents are also instructive. Striking a balance between the scale of the design elements, the breadth of the observer's view, and the ecological process revealed is important for the design's success. Using a widely understood design language improves the odds that the audience will comprehend the design, and showing that the design is intentional expresses our ability to influence the environment for the better. Stormwater is a particularly potent medium for eco-revelatory design, since stormwater runoff is a ubiquitous and typically unwelcome consequence of conventional development, but it also sustains life and has a fascinating fluidity. At the Eastwood Towne Center, incorporating designs that fill or flood when it rains would remind us of the dynamism and power of water, and have the novelty of rapid and dramatic change as the water rises and falls.  21  C H A P T E R H I : CONTEXT, SITE, P R O G R A M  The discussion up to this point has been limited to examining possibilities in a hypothetical sense, specifically, generic measures for making commercial sites more sustainable, and considerations that influence the design of those measures. Now the discussion shifts from the potential to the actual, to elements that constitute a fundamental basis for all aspects of this project's design explorations, specifically, the local context, the site itself, and the project program. Context  Contextframesthe site and the design problem. It includes an assessment of the site's physical setting, but also encompasses influences from various areas of human experience. Climate, topography, natural features, the inhabitants, their activities, and their laws all weigh on design decisions. How the design responds to these influences determines how successfully the completed project merges with the local milieu. Influences from the Natural Environment  Near the heart of the continent yet virtually surrounded by oceans offreshwater, Lansing's climate varies with the force and direction of the wind. In periods of calm, Lansing's weather is continental and often marked by extremes, with hot temperatures in summer and severe cold in winter. Windsfromthe Great Lakes usher in semi-marine weather. Lake effect summer weather is cooler and winter weather milder (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992). On average, Lansing receives about 30 inches of precipitation annually, including about 39 inches of snow. Precipitation is well distributed throughout the year, though there is approximately one inch less per month in winter than in summer. The wettest months are June and July, and summer thunderstorms often yield heavy, intense rainfall (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992). The most turbulent weather occurs in spring and fall, when weather systems move rapidly through the area. Tornadoes develop in the Lansing area on occasion, but with less frequency than in the states to the south. Destructive thunder and wind storms are more common, and winds can have enough force to make windthrow an important consideration in planting design (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992). 0  200 M'des  ' Figure 16. Michigan's climate is influenced by the Great Lakes  Many lakes and streams are in the general area. J ^Ste™ county and join within Lansing city limits. A couple of miles south of the site, the Red Cedar River flows toward Lansingfromthe east, and merges into the Grand River flowing from the south. The Grand then flows west to enter Lake Michigan at Grand Haven. Several miles north of the site in Clinton County, the Looking Glass River flowsfromeast to west, and eventually merges with the Grand west of the site, in Ionia County. 1  T  22  w  o  m a  o r n v e r s  c r o s s  Glaciers last covered the entire state during the Wisconsinan Glaciation approximately 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, and Michigan's current topography is a product of glacial processes. The topography in and around Lansing consists of gently sloping ground moraines with occasional swampy depressions. Most of the forest that blanketed the land at the arrival of the first white settlers was beech (Fagus grandifolia) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) on the morainal uplands, with scattered basswood (Tilia americana), black maple (Acer nigrum), red oak (Quercus rubra), and white ash (Fraxinus americana). In the swampy depressions between moraines and in the broad river floodplains, the typical tree species were silver maple (Acer saccharinum), American elm (Ulmus americana), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and swamp white oak (Albert, 1995). Virtually all of the original forest in the area was cleared for agriculture decades ago. However, many second-growth forests remain as woodlots on private land, and public lands with examples of mature second-growth forest include Baker Figure 17. Map of Lansing and surrounding area. Woodlot, Sanford Natural Area, and Red Cedar Natural Area on the Michigan State University campus, Woldumar Nature Center on the west side of Lansing, and Dansville State Game Area south of Lansing near the City of Mason. Demographic and Social Influences Lansing, Michigan's State Capitol, sits in the northwest corner of Ingham County near the center of the state's Lower Peninsula. It is contiguous with the City of East Lansing, and the two cities are the economic and cultural center for a tri-county area encompassing Clinton, Eaton, and Ingham Counties. The combined populations of Lansing and East Lansing total more than 165,000 people, while the population of the greater tri-county area is almost 450,000. Since 1990, Ingham County's population has decreased slightly, while the populations of largely rural Clinton and Eaton Counties have each grown by close to 12 percent. State government is the single largest employer in the Lansing area. Michigan State University and General Motors Corporation are the second and third largest employers, respectively. But not far beyond the city limits in other parts of the tri-county area, many people earn their living by farming. Corn, soybeans, and winter wheat are the major crops in Ingham County, though St. John's, Michigan's "Mint City," is a 20-minute drive north of Lansing. Loss of prime farmland to developments such as the Eastwood Towne Center is an issue that concerns many people in Michigan. A mix of woodlots and agricultural land around Lansing and the rest of mid-Michigan creates ideal conditions for deer, turkeys, and many other types of wildlife. This, in turn, creates ideal conditions for hunters. Hunting and fishing are the most immediate ways many people in the Midwest relate to nature, and Michigan is no exception. The state Department of Natural resources (DNR) estimates that 760,000 hunters will be out to bag a deer in the 2001 season, afigureequal to one-twelfth of Michigan's population. Influences from the Regulatory Environment Commercial developments must conform to various ordinances, standards, and other formal requirements. The zoning of the site is classified as a "Planned Development Zone" in which large 23  residential, commercial, or mixed-use planned developments are permitted. Lansing Township, the local government with jurisdiction over the project site, established this zoning designation specifically for the Eastwood Towne Center "to encourage more imaginative and livable environments within the Township" by meeting a number of broad objectives, including: • • • • •  "To achieve integration of the proposed land use or uses with characteristics of the land and surrounding area;" "To promote the conservation of natural features and other resources, to the extent practical the natural landscape and topography of the site shall be preserved by the proposed development;" "To promote and enhance housing, employment, shopping, commercial, traffic circulation, and recreational opportunities for the people of the Township;" "To promote and ensure greater compatibility of design and use between neighboring properties and to coordinate architectural styles, building forms, structural relationships and transportation within developments;" and "To minimize the impacts that large-scale developments have on the public services and character of the community." (Lansing Charter Township Ordinance 31.154, Section 85-11)  Additional county and municipal requirements are particularly relevant to this project. For example, Lansing Township regulates the number of parking spaces serving commercial establishments. The Township also sets out minimum landscaping and tree planting standards for businesses. The Ingham County Drain Commissioner requires developers to capture and treat on-site runoff from all storms up to a certain size, specifically, the ten-year, 24-hour storm. Additionally, the drain commissioner specifies which county drains will receive the runoff from a given site. Site The project site is 192 acres of land in-Lansing Charter Township,lhgham County, Michigan. Its southern boundary is Lake Lansing Road, a major traffic arterial a few hundred yards from the northern limit of the City of Lansing. Lake Lansing Road is best suited to handle the volume of additional traffic generated by the Eastwood Towne Center, and the site's major traffic access will be on this road. The northern boundary is the InghamClinton County line. The eastern and western borders are US-127 and Wood Street, respectively, both of which are important routes between Lansing/East Lansing and the expanding population of Clinton County. Wood Street will have a secondary traffic access to the site. As is typical of the fringes of North American urban areas, the surroundings are a mix of developed and undeveloped land. To the north it is either undeveloped or vacant, to the east is a very broad right-of-way for US-127, and to the south and west the land is devoted to low density use. Homes on large lots, which back  onto undeveloped land, line the west side of Wood Street. On the south side of Lake Lansing Road is a strip of low density mixed use - a church, gas stations, offices for small businesses, a few single-family homes. South of this broad band of scattered mixed-use is a subdivision which appears to have been built in the 1970s. This is the only substantial block of residential development within walking distance of the site, and a single narrow street, Kerry Street, connects this neighborhood with Lake Lansing Road. The southwest quarter of the site encompasses a local high point, a broad ridge more than 900 feet above sea level. The terrain falls away from this ridge very gradually; approximately one half mile to the east, the change in elevation is in the neighborhood of 50 feet. The direction of the slope is advantageous from the perspective of stormwater management, since the county drain commissioner requires all or most of the runoff from the project to exit the site at the eastern border - downslope of the ridge - and flow into the Remey-Chandler Drain, a tributary of the Looking Glass River east of US-127.  Figure 19. View across the site looking east. The land has been cleared and graded.  Ten distinct soil types occur on the site, and vary in their suitability for specific uses. Broadly speaking, many areas in the eastern one-third of the site have fine-textured soils that are suitable for stormwater retention or detention facilities, while the remaining soils are more suited to infiltration. Certain soils in the western two-thirds of the site are most suited to the location of commercial buildings. All soils present will support forest cover of some type (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992). Retail Program  The paramount objective of any retail project is to promote profitable commercial activity, and this drives retail center design. In conventional mall projects, sustainability is not an objective, and it is unlikely to become important to developers and property management companies unless it can be shown that it adds to the bottom line. Interestingly, a recent trend in retail center design is laying the groundwork for making this demonstration. Shopping Center Program  The program of a retail center revolves around shopping, and the site design must accommodate everything involved in buying, selling, and attendant activities. From a retailer's point of view, the basic program involves delivery, receiving, and storage of stock, merchandise display, fitting rooms for clothing sales, checkout areas close to easily controlled entrances and exits to guard against shoplifting, offices, staff break rooms and bathrooms, trash disposal, and staff and customer parking. From a shopper's perspective, the basic program elements include clear and uncomplicated entry off the street and navigation within the site, a variety of stores within a reasonable walking distance of parking or public transit, a comfortable and safe environment, and places to sit, wait, and eat. Those are the elements of the basic program, yet today's consumers are looking for more than the basics. Entertainment is a popular draw, and famous megamalls like the Mall of America in Bloomington, 25  Minnesota, and the West Edmonton Mall represent exaggerated versions of this trend, with zoos, amusement parks, pools, skating rinks, and other draws joining more modest attractions such as cinemas. But at the same time, shoppers seem to be growing jaded by the conventional mall experience. The latest trend in retail development is the lifestyle center, a smaller, open-air version of the enclosed mall with an emphasis on higher-end stores. Ambiance and landscaping are critical ingredients, with many lifestyle centers patterned after European street markets or urban shopping districts. This new commercial goal of providing shoppers with a pleasurable outdoor place experience raises the possibility of incorporating elements of social and environmental sustainability into lifestyle center design. The Eastwood Towne Center will have a lifestyle center component, which will be Figure 20. Koipond at Fashion Island, a lifestyle center in Newport Beach, California.  one of the first to open in Michigan.  The Stores  Phase I of the Eastwood Towne Center comprises 16 buildings. Three of the four largest buildings will house big-box retail franchises, specifically, Lowe's, Wal-Mart, and Sam's Club, while the fourth will be an 18-screen cinema. The remaining 12 buildings will house smaller retail tenants, primarily national chains that are considered higher-end, such as Williams-Sonoma, Pottery Barn, The Gap, and Banana Republic, as well chains with broader appeal, such as Dick's Sporting Goods and DSW Shoe Warehouse.  26  CHAPTER IV: THE DESIGN The opportunity for a more sustainable solution is present at every scale of the design problem. Beginning the process with sustainability as a guiding principle helps insure that it will be well integrated into the final design. That way, the project is best positioned to reap the economic, environmental, and experiential benefits attendant to sustainable design. Site Layout  The first major step of the design process is selection of a site layout. This is a critical decision, as the arrangement and relation of the structures on the site dictate what interventions are appropriate in the subsequent stages of the design. The layout influences how stormwater is managed, how pedestrians and vehicles circulate, amount and type of wildlife habitat provided, and how well the development integrates with its surroundings. In terms of the shopping mall program, the layout is a significant factor in such visitor decisions as how many stores they will visit, and whether they will walk or drive between them. Arranging 16 buildings on a 192-acre site is an exercise in striking an optimal balance among factors related to both sustainable design and the shopping mall program. My approach was to review the literature on these influences, explore a range of potential layouts produced with these factors in mind, and compare the layouts using a set of criteria derivedfromthe literature review. A brief discussion of the criteria follows. Proximity to Major Traffic Arteries  Retail expert Robert Gibbs.of Gibbs Planning Group in Birmingham, Michigan, has produced a set of pointers on new urbanist.retail development. One of his tips is to place town centers as close as possible to high-traffic arterial.roads (Steuteville, 2001). By equating the Eastwood Towne Center to the center of a nascent town, criteria based on proximity of the retail realm to Lake Lansing Road become relevant to this exercise. Some factors to consider in gauging the project's potential "curb appeal" might include: :  • •  Distance between Lake Lansing Road and the nearest buildings; Length of buildingfrontageor number of buildings fronting on Lake Lansing Road.  Compactness of the Retail Realm  Mr. Gibbs also advises developers to consider that the typical shopper in a retail district is reluctant to walk more than 1,000 feet (Steuteville, 2001). This implies that the more clustered and compact the retail realm, the greater the likelihood that shoppers will walk between stores rather than drive their cars. Some measures of compactness might include: • •  Distance between the pair of buildings that are farthest apart; Number of stores accessible within a 1,000 foot walk.  Common sense suggests that Mr. Gibbs' advice also influences the provision of parking in relation to retail. A layout in which parking encircles a compact, clustered retail realm would minimize the distance a visitor would walk from the most distant corner of the parking lot to the stores. Possible criteria are: • •  Distance between the nethermost corner of the parking lot and the nearest store; Proportion of the retail realm perimeter bounded by parking.  27  Site Comprehension and Ease of Navigation Kaplan and coauthors (1998) claim that our sense of personal security is influenced by how readily we can make sense of our surroundings. Two qualities of landscapes determine how well we can "read" them, specifically, coherence and legibility. Coherence relates to the order of distinct areas or regions in the landscape. Legibility has to do with wayfinding and the creation of mental maps. A limited number of distinctive elements in the landscape aid in orientation and serve as mental signposts. Possible criteria would address features that enable visitors to quickly understand and navigate the site, such as: • • •  Proportion of the retail realm visible during the approach to the site; Proportion of the retail realm visible from any single vantage point within the realm; Presence of distinct landmarks to assist in wayfinding.  Volumetric Space and the Human Scale Condon (1988) argues that urban streets, courtyards, and other volumetric spaces, in which buildings or other structures bound and enclose a three-dimensional volume of space, are experientially more comforting and appealing than the ill-defined "cubist" spaces surrounding isolated buildings. The positive sense of enclosure is most pronounced where it emphasizes the human scale; generally, where the height of the enclosing structures relates to the width of the enclosed space by a ratio of between 1:2 and 1:3 (Condon et al., 2001). In addition to architectural volumetric space, mature trees can also contribute to the sense of enclosure, and a tree canopy "ceiling" over the space also accentuates the human scale. Possible criteria include: •  Length of volumetric street space;  •  Total area of volumetric space, including streets or plazas and courtyards.  Volume of Traffic Past'Stores  "'  .  - •  Layouts that encourage a substantial volume of vehicle and pedestrian traffic past all storefronts increase sales opportunities for retailers. Using stores with high daily sales volumes to draw pedestrians past lower volume stores is one way to achieve this. In the Eastwood Towne Center, with a mix of boutiques and big box retail, it is the big retailers that exert this draw and provide a wide range of goods for lowand middle-income families. Big box retailers cornered 65% of the retail market in 1998 (Steuteville, 2001). Wal-Mart alone reported more than $190 billion in net sales in 2001, as well as the rare achievement of making $1.1 billion in net sales on a single day-November 24 , 2000 (Wal-Mart webpage:, March 23, 2002). Consequently, one could argue that a layout encouraging movement between the big box stores and the boutiques would benefit the smaller retailers and prove popular with shoppers. Possible criteria would be applied to pedestrian and vehicle circulation patterns and might include: th  • •  Major circulation within the retail realm that accesses both big box and smaller retail; Pedestrian circulation that places smaller retail in the walking sequence between parking and big box stores.  Wetlands in the Retail Realm Wetlands in developed areas provide wildlife habitat, an aesthetically positive experience for people, and store and improve the quality of stormwater runoff. These benefits are of substantial practical importance to mall developers, since managing stormwater appropriately and providing adequate green space are crucial to gaining project approval from local governments.  28  Broadly speaking, the larger the wetland, the more bird species will be attracted (Wasilco and Winterstein, 1998), the greater the runoff storage and treatment capacity, and the more wetland/upland edge where people can experience its pleasing qualities. Wetlands may or may not have an open water component. In fact, many Midwestern wetland ecosystems do not have water above ground for most of the year, though they may be associated with lakes or streams. Notable examples are prairie fens, wet meadows, wet prairies, and floodplain forests (Michigan Natural Features Inventory, 1986). The opportunity for creating wetlands well integrated into the surrounding landscape hydrology is limited to those areas with hydric soils where the water table is within a few feet of the surface. Consequently, a criterion or set of criteria based on wetland area created within these soil types should be one of the points of comparison. Some aspects to consider are: • • •  Total area of wetlands on the site; Area of the largest wetland on site; Area of wetland within the retail realm.  Impervious Surfaces Ferguson (1998) notes that the health of stream and wetland ecosystems is inversely related to the percentage of impervious cover in the watershed. Consequently, any reductions in impervious cover on the site might lessen the severity of damage to aquatic ecosystems due to development. A logical criterion would be: •  Area of impervious surface on the site. The Developer's Proposal The layout criteria discussed above include criteria that gauge aspects of the economic success of the project as well as aspects of the project's sustainability. So how does the developer's proposal measure up? Surprisingly, as shown on the accompanying layout scheme, the proposal rates poorly even on criteria measuring the development's economic success: •  In terms of curb appeal, the two buildings closest to Lake Lansing Road are more than 200 feet from the roadway. The other buildings are more distant, and the farthest building is Figure 21. Developer's proposed site layout. The irregularly shaped, approximately a half-mile lightly shaded area corresponds to an area of hydric soils. drive into the site. Buildings are widely dispersed throughout the site, making very long walks - or more likely multiple short drives - mandatory for shoppers wishing to visit the boutiques and big box retail on the same trip. The scattered, far-flung nature of the layout is a barrier to site comprehension and ease of navigation, and the relative isolation of the individual buildings works against the establishment of a sense of volumetric space and comfortable enclosure. 29  • •  •  Big box retail stores are located beyond the periphery of the weakly clustered boutiques, and in some cases, next to secondary entrances to the site. This encourages visitors to Wal-Mart and the other large stores to bypass the boutiques entirely. One of the big box retail stores, most of the boutiques, and a substantial portion of the parking sit atop the area of hydric soils, which corresponds to the irregularly shaped, lightly shaded area in the layout scheme. Required green space and stormwater treatment facilities are inconvenient to access and far from both parking areas and the retail realm. Despite the separation between individual buildings, which tends to maximize parking adjacent to stores, parking lots are extensive. Additionally, the large distances between the scattered stores encourage shoppers to drive within the site, creating a demand for extra parking - and impervious surfaces.  Clearly, the developer's proposal leaves ample room for improvements in sustainability and profitability. Layout Selection With the groups of criteria in mind, I produced three dozen potential site layouts - a representative sample of layouts that might lead to good design. The layouts tended to cluster into five broad types of building configurations: Majority of buildings fronting on Lake Lansing Road, establishing a strong retail presence along a major traffic artery. This arrangement produces the greatest distances between one end of the retail realm and the other, far exceeding the 1,000 foot recommendation. It also stacks the parking from just behind the buildings deep into the site, making long walks between parking and retail unavoidable for a substantial number of visitors. Buildings standing singly or grouped in small blocks, maximizing parking immediately adjacent to the stores. Extensive parking lots are still required for this group of layouts, which have a widely dispersed quality that detracts from site legibility. Significant retail presence along Lake Lansing Road, with the remainder of the buildings lining a central parking court in the back. Despite the prominence given to the central parking court, these layouts are not exceptional in terms of parking convenience, and the walk between different areas of the retail realm can be quite long. Additionally, visitors have the opportunity to head directly to big box retail without passing smaller stores on the way. Buildings flanking an interior "Main Street" either on an east-west or north-south axis. These building arrangements compare favorably in terms of compactness and parking convenience, as well as the amount of architectural volumetric space. However, major vehicle circulation bypasses the smaller boutiques, and wetlands and/or open space are not well integrated with the retail realm. Buildings ringing a central green coinciding with an area of hydric soils. These configurations are comparable to the "Main Street" layouts in terms of compactness and parking convenience, though architectural volumetric space is minimal. However, the central green layouts rate highly in terms of major vehicle and pedestrian circulation routes that encompass both big box retail and boutiques, integration of wetlands/and or green space with the retail realm, and clarity of site organization from a visitor perspective.  30  Figure 23. Master plan for the Eastwood Towne Center revision.  0  200  500  1000 F e e t  Ultimately, I selected a central green arrangement as the final layout for the site master plan. In addition to the advantages explained above, this layout provides the greatest scope for rich recreational programming in the central green, such as a picnic area, playground, wildlife watching, walking trails, benches, and space for performances, special sales, fairs, exhibits, and other public events. Further, the curved vehicular circulation around the periphery of the green would calm traffic and enhance pedestrian safety, while still allowing for the car activity that enlivens the public realm. Undeveloped Land  One of the more remarkable aspects of the central green layout is the economical use of space and corresponding minimization of impervious surfaces. As shown in Figure 23, the area required for the buildings and parking in the first phase of the project, together with the area reserved for future development in the second phase, occupy slightly more than three-quarters of the site. In comparison, the developer's proposal has approximately 90% of the site occupied by first and second phase buildings and parking. This is a substantial difference for a 192-acre site. The undeveloped land will become prime real estate for future residential development as the city suburbs edge closer to the Eastwood Towne Center.  31  This would be a sustainable use for the land, as it would establish a residential neighborhood within walking distance of shops and potential employment. Until the need for medium to high density residential property arises, I propose managing the land as a natural area planted and maintained for wildlife. In the undeveloped areas on the west side of the site, native grasses and herbaceous plants adapted to the upland conditions should be established. Annual or biennial mowing or burning would help to maintain these plantings. The undeveloped land with hydric soils in the northeast corner of the site is an appropriate location for an oversized stormwater basin. This basin would receive overflow from the pond in the central green during storms that far exceed the pond's capacity. Planted with trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants characteristic of mid-Michigan floodplain forests, this area would become a magnet for wildlife. A small gravel lot near the basin is separate from mall traffic and is designed for summer through fall overnight use by people travelling in recreational vehicles (RVs). This supports the common practice among RV travelers of staying overnight in the parking lots of Wal-Mart and other large retailers (for example, see Circulation  Major vehicle and pedestrian circulation routes follow parallel paths in certain areas of the site, most notably in the retail realm. Throughout the site, pedestrian traffic is safely separated from vehicle traffic. Vehicle Circulation  The main vehicle access to the site is off Lake Lansing Road opposite Kerry Road, which leads directly into the residential neighborhood to the south. This principal access continues as the primary thoroughfare into the retail realm, with two lanes for each direction of traffic. Broad, central medians planted with broad-canopied trees and warm-season grasses serve as bioswales to capture, infiltrate, and convey road runoff. The treed medians establish volumetric space where the road runs adjacent to the shops. Additionally, the landscaped medians reduce the actual and perceived width of the street, effectively serving as traffic calming devices and enhancing pedestrian safety. The curved alignment of the main thoroughfare through the heart of the retail realm adds to this traffic calming effect (Congress for the New Urbanism, No date). This is the route followed by city busses serving the Eastwood Towne Center, with a bus shelter located in front of Wal-Mart - a convenient and comfortable venue for bus passengers. The main thoroughfare continues and joins a four-lane route running north-south through the parking area, connecting to Lake Lansing Road west of the main entrance. These two access roads, which together form a four-lane loop through the parking lots and retail realm, constitute the primary route of vehicle circulation through the site. A smaller, two-lane street detours off the main thoroughfare and around the south and west edges of the central green, providing vehicle access to the remainder of the retail realm. The relative narrowness of this street, the parking strips along the central green side of the street, and the pronounced bend with an obligatory stop at its midpoint represent three trafficcalming measures (Congress for the New Urbanism, No date). Narrow, two-lane streets lead off the primary route of vehicle circulation to the parking lots surrounding the retail realm. Some of these two-lane  streets, notably those connecting across the loop of primary circulation, would be expected to carry a substantial volume of traffic at times. Together with a two-lane access road off Wood Street, these twolane streets constitute secondary routes of vehicle circulation through the site. Pedestrian Circulation  Primary pedestrian circulation in the site forms a closed loop around the central green, where shoppers either stroll along the wide brick sidewalks in front of the stores, or on the brick and concrete walks edging the green. Crosswalks permit safe crossing at corners, as well as at certain points along the main thoroughfare through the retail realm. Parking lot walkways allow pedestrians safe and straightforward passage between the retail realm and their parked cars. Walkways leading directly into the retail realm constitute secondary routes of pedestrian circulation. Pedestrian circulation through the parking area is an important design feature since it emphasizes separation from vehicle traffic, which is not a feature of conventional parking lots. This will be addressed in the section on lot design to follow. Parking  Parking might be viewed as a necessary evil. Sufficient parking at retail centers is crucial to the economic success of the enterprise, yet environmentally and experientially, conventional parking lots leave much to be desired. Further, should the commercial venture fail, the parking lot turns into an environmental, social, and aesthetic liability. One of the biggest challenges of this project is to provide adequate parking at the site while mitigating the negative impacts of large parking lots. Parking Requirements  The broad expanses devoted to parking in urban and suburban areas come with a set of harmful consequences. As mentioned elsewhere in this thesis, parking lots produce massive volumes of polluted runoff and disrupt the hydrologic cycle, obliterate wildlife habitat, generate atmospheric heat islands, and provide an uncomfortable and unattractive visitor experience. The abundance of parking provided at retail centers is the product of various perspectives and concerns. Retailers want ample parking to accommodate the maximum likely number of visitors during rare instances of unusually high demand, typically coinciding with the weekends between American Thanksgiving and Christmas - the Christmas rush. Local jurisdictions ask for extra parking to eliminate the potential for parking spillover onto city streets, and to anticipate future uses of a building that might be associated with extraordinary parking demand. Further, local governments tend to require each site to meet parking supply requirements on an individual basis, even where shared parking between sites is logical. These concerns and attitudes lead to an oversupply of parking in urban and suburban areas (Willson, 1995). Developers have a more ambivalent stance towards parking. They must provide what their tenants want and what is required by the local jurisdictions that issue the development approvals. However, parking eats into the space available for buildings, the leasable space, which is the developers' source of profits. 33  Parking requirements built into municipal zoning codes generally conform to recommendations presented in Urban Land Institute (ULI) publications (Willson, 1995), such as Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers, produced in cooperation with the International Council of Shopping Centers. ULI develops parking recommendations based on national surveys of mall property managers, supplemented with detailed case studies. Its latest recommendations are for 4.0 to 4.5 parking spaces per 1,000 square feet of gross leasable area, depending on the size of the retail center. For centers the size of the Eastwood Towne Center, ULI recommends 4.5 spaces per 1,000 square feet. The organization also recommends uniform dimensions for all stalls, since the proportion of compact cars on the road diminished and new car models tended to increase in size during the 1990s (Walker Parking Consultants et al., 1999). Lansing Township, the local governmental jurisdiction for the Eastwood Towne Center, requires one parking space for every 150 square feet of useable floor space for most commercial mall properties, or a relatively generous 6.7 parking spaces per 1,000 square feet. However, Eastwood is in a special mixeduse zoning category called a "Planned Development Zone," in which the emphasis is on achieving "a higher quality development than could be achieved under conventional zoning" (Lansing Township Ordinance 31.154, Section 85-11.1.1). To this end, parking requirements in a Planned Development Zone are determined on a case by case basis. In this specific case, the developer provided approximately 3,700 parking spaces for roughly 900,000 square feet of leasable floor space, or 4.1 parking spaces per 1,000 square feet. This ratio is below the ULI optimum for a facility the size of Eastwood, but still within the recommended range for retail centers in general. Since it is in line with the sustainable objective of limiting impervious surfaces to the minimum area necessary, I used this ratio in my design as well, and supplied 3,700 parking spaces. . . . . . . Lot Design: A Green and Gray Framework As mentioned previously, opportunities for a more sustainable solution come at every stage and scale of the design problem. In designing parking lots, one of the most unsustainable land uses imaginable, the need to recognize and take advantage of these opportunities is especially acute. However, a few parameters were fixed, including parking stall dimensions measuring 9 feet wide by 18 feet deep, and 24foot wide vehicle lanes. Additionally, all stalls were oriented perpendicularly to the lanes, as this configuration is the most space-efficient. All of these standards are recommended by Dines (1998). The first opportunity for a sustainable intervention came at the beginning of the parking lot design process, in deciding how to lay out the lots. At this stage, I addressed the lack of versatility in conventional parking lot design; specifically, they are designed for nothing else but parking. Once the need for parking is made obsolete, for example, by an economic downturn that closes the commercial venture, then the lot becomes entirely useless. If the property is redeveloped for another use, the developer must start from zero since the abandoned lot offers nothing but a blank slate. My idea was to build flexibility into the parking areas so that they could be readied for a more valuable future use while still serving the parking needs of Eastwood Towne Center shoppers. The solution was to design the lots as a "green and gray"frameworkfor residential infill, a logical future for the mixed-use Planned Development Zone. As the Lansing and East Lansing suburbs creep and sprout closer to the Eastwood Towne Center, the development could become the nucleus for a true town center, with the cluster of retail buildings serving as the basis for a commercial and civic district, and the central green becoming a local park or commons. The parking lots, then, would be a prime location for a residential neighborhood. The first step in preparing the parking areas for their planned transformation was to organize the lots into a grid pattern of 700-foot by 320-foot rectangular blocks, with the long dimension aligned on an eastwest axis. I borrowed this pattern from the typical Midwestern street grid of Lansing's older neighborhoods. Organizing the lots in this way, and installing sidewalks along the long sides of the 34  blocks, accomplishes two objectives. First, it establishes a clear and straightforward system of vehicle and pedestrian circulation immediately recognizable to visitors familiar with the street grids of Midwestern cities. This is a wayfinding boon to shoppers who must navigate the site to find parking, walk from their parked cars to the stores, and relocate their cars when they are ready to leave. The second objective is to establish a street and block grid for future residential development that copies existing local grids, helping the new neighborhood to merge seamlessly into the larger urban fabric (Congress for the New Urbanism, 2001). The organizing principle of the street and sidewalk grid for the parking lots is the gray part of the green and gray framework.  Figure 26. Saplings planted to shade the parking lot become mature trees of the new neighborhood.  The swales, tree islands, and other planting areas incorporated into the parking lots are the green part of the framework. The vegetated planting areas are integral to the immediate project goals of capturing and infiltrating stormwater runoff, providing wildlife habitat, moderating the microclimate, and contributing to a pleasant environment for shoppers. How this is accomplished is the subject of the following sections But the planting areas are also situated and designed in such a way that future residential infill can be 35  inserted with minimal disturbance to the existing trees. Specifically, housing and backyards will replace the paved portions of the parking lots, while the swales and other planting areas on the sides of the lots will assume new roles as front yards. Trees in the tree islands in the middle of the lots also remain, and become backyard shade trees. This way, young trees planted to shade the newly constructed parking lots will grow to be the mature trees gracing the streets and yards of the brand new neighborhood. Lot Design and Stormwater Management  Dividing the parking lots into a grid of rectangular blocks makes stormwater management more convenient, since each block effectively serves as a watershed subunit. Precipitation falling on the pavement moves as sheet flow to the northern and southern perimeters of each block, where it runs into the vegetated swales. The swales capture and infiltrate the stormwater. Runoff volume in excess of the swale's storage and infiltration capacity flows into storm sewers that discharge into the pond in the central green. However, the swales are dimensioned to store and infiltrate at least the first flush of every storm, as well as CJO f$ 100% of the runoff 2f& £ from many storms smaller and more frequent than the design storm, up to the two-year, onehour storm (Huff and Angel, 1992). Where finetextured existing soils limit infiltration, the bottom of the swale is filled with coarse-textured soil over a system of drainage pipes surrounded by Figure 27. Parking lot swale section. Swale design in an area with fine-textured soils. gravel. Water that infiltrates to the depth of the pipes is conveyed to the pond in the central green. Precipitation also infiltrates into the tree islands in the middle of the block, subtracting from the volume of runoff flowing toward the swales. Repeating the block design throughout the area of the site devoted to parking ensures that all the runoff from these smaller storms infiltrates into the soil. Lot Design, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife  The selection of plant materials used in the parking lot presents different challenges. Trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants at the bottom of the swales must be able to withstand inundation with several inches of water for periods of up to two consecutive days during the growing season. Additionally, winter runoff may carry dissolved de-icing salts to the bottom of the swale, where they may remain until flushed out of the soil by spring rains. In most mid-Michigan winters, the need for de-icing salt application is low to moderate. Though winter salt injury is not a significant horticultural problem in the Lansing area, some of the plant materials used at the bottom of the swales should have at least a moderate tolerance to salty soils. Plants at the top of the swales and close to the pavement edge need to be heat and drought resistant. Plant materials on the sloping sides of the swales experience a more moderate growing environment, but should have extensive, fibrous root systems to protect the slopes from erosion. Appendix I lists plant species native to the Ingham County area that are suitable plant materials for the parking lot swales and 36  other areas of project site. The appendix also provides information on each species' value as a source of wildlife food, nectar, or shelter. Plant material selection for the tree islands is more problematic and limited since the plants must be adapted to summer heat and drought. Generally, the only water the tree islands will receive after an initial two or three year period of plant establishment is direct precipitation. Further, solar radiation incident on the dark asphalt paving is re-radiated as heat, creating a heat island in the vicinity of the parking lot. Such localized increases in air temperature are linked to a set of microclimatic atmospheric effects that increase the rate of transpiration of plants within the influence of the heat island. This subjects them to a greater risk of drought stress. Drought stress may depress tree growth and vigor, and predispose trees to certain diseases and insect infestations (Cregg and Dix, 2001). As discussed previously, species characteristic of Great Lakes alvar plant communities are excellent candidates for parking lot plant materials, due to the hot and dry summer conditions typical of alvar ecosystems. Some tree species characteristic of the various alvar environments, such as bur oak and shagbark hickory (Carya ovatd), are taprooted trees that are difficult to transplant as saplings. They are also slow growing, and would not provide substantial shade until a few decades after planting. However, swamp white oak and chinquapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) are alvar tree species with faster growth rates and without taproots. Shrubby cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa), creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis), fragrant sumac (Rhus aromatica), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), and other alvar shrubs and grasses possess ornamental qualities. Appendix I lists alvar species and other native species physiologically adapted to the heat and dry soils characteristic of parking lot islands. (Liatris aspera) tolerates heat and drought and is an excellent midsummer nectar source.  Providing sufficient soil volume in the tree islands is another way to reduce the chance of plant injury due to drought stress. Lindsey and Bassuk (1991) recommend providing two cubic feet of soil for every one square foot of area circumscribed by the tree's drip line. Broadly speaking, this works out to approximately 220 cubic feet of soil for a medium-sized tree. The smallest tree islands in the parking lot have an area of roughly 300 square feet, which is generally consistent with the Lansing Township requirements for the size of tree islands in parking lots. By this reasoning, providing a soil depth of three feet in these smallest islands could accommodate the equivalent of four medium-sized trees with a deep lateral root pattern. Of course, planting fewer trees further reduces the risk of drought stress. It is important to have large trees that cast a wide shadow in parking lots to moderate the microclimate, both in the interest of human comfort and to reduce emissions of volatile pollutants from parked cars (Scott et al., 1999). Trees with a broad, spreading canopy have the optimum form for shading large areas of the ground (Moffat et al, 1994). The soil volume in each parking lot swale is sufficient to support four or five large trees such as common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) or American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), which can quickly attain a height and spread of 75 feet or more. There are fewer choices for a large, fast-growing tree species that can thrive in the more restricted soil volume of the smallest tree island. Of the trees listed in Appendix I, green ash appears to be the best suited to these growing conditions, though other species such as black oak and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea) would do well in the larger islands. Green ash can reach a height of 50 feet and a spread of 30 feet at maturity (Hightshoe, 1988).  37  Lot Design and Place Experience Designing the parking lot as a green and gray framework for future residential infdl brings several positive qualities to the visitor place experience. As mentioned previously, the gray part of the framework is the residential block pattern defined by the parallel but separate system of roads and sidewalks. The Midwestern grid pattern with the regular repetition of similar blocks throughout the parking area brings coherence and legibility to the parking lot, both highly desirable characteristics of user-friendly landscapes. As in a residential neighborhood, separating the sidewalk from the roadway by a green strip - the infiltration swales - establishes a clear division between pedestrian and vehicle circulation. This promotes safety by allowing the common understanding of the rules of the road and pedestrian right of way to operate, something that is not easily achieved in conventional parking lots where pedestrians and vehicles share the same ambiguous space. Finally, by making the sidewalks five feet wide, there is ample room for shoppers pushing shopping carts to pass each other. The swales and tree islands, the green part of the framework, also add to visitor comfort and pleasure. As the planted trees grow and approach maturity, they will shade an increasing portion of the sidewalks and parking area. Figure 29 shows how the mature canopies of American sycamore or common hackberry in the swales and green ash in the tree islands will shade the lot at various times on the summer solstice, when the sun is at its highest above the horizon. At any daylight ; hour on the solstice, a given object casts less shade than at the same time on other days of the year. At 10 A M , 46% of the parking stalls are at -least 50% shaded. At noon, 40% of the stalls are : at least 50% shaded. Three hours later the percentage increases to more than 50%, during what is typically the hottest part of the day. This shading helps keep cars and their occupants cool, cuts down on emissions of volatile pollutants from parked vehicles, decreases the magnitude of the urban heat island effect, and reduces glare. The trees and other plant materials are also elements of beauty and visual interest, as are the birds, butterflies, bees, and other insects drawn to the plantings. But perhaps the most interesting feature of the parking lot landscape is the ecorevelatory aspect of its design. Treating the Figure 29. Shade cast by mature trees on the blocks as watershed subunits in function makes it possible to express them as small watersheds in summer solstice at 10:00 AM (top), noon (middle), form. This is most easily understood at the and 3:00PM (bottom). borders of the blocks, where runoff from the parking area flows through curb cuts, into culverts beneath the sidewalks, over limestone rubble at the outlet of the culverts, and into the swales. As pedestrians walk over the streams of runoff flowing through the culverts and notice the water level rise in the swales, flooding the wetland grasses and wildflowers, they might grasp the connection between land and water, and between water and the life sustained by it. These connections would be particularly clear and poignant when runoff carries cigarette butts, food wrappers, and other litter from the parking areas into the swales. The sight of trash floating in  38  the water and lodged among the plants might move observers to stop littering, which would be an example of Thayer's previously mentioned idea of visual ecology in action (Thayer, 1994) Central Green Thefive-acrecentral green is at the heart of the retail realm. Symbolically, placing public open space, stormwater management, and wildlife habitat at the center signals a social and environmental focus for the development and a new set of priorities in our approach to the land. Programmatically, the central green offers shoppers a park-like setting with a mix of shady and sunny environments where they can sit, eat at picnic tables or at the cafe/restaurant, stroll, watch wildlife, or watch their children dissipate energy in a play area. Central Green and Stormwater Management The native soils beneath the central green are well suited to the location of impoundments and reservoirs (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992), making stormwater management facilities an appropriate use for this part of the site. The presence of hydric soils eliminates the need for an impermeable pond liner, and permits free water movement between surface water and the water table. An hourglass-shaped wet detention pond spanned by a rustic bridge in the center of the green doubles as wetland habitat for wildlife and the aesthetic focus of walking trails around its perimeter. A split-rail fence separates the pond from the trails, serving as a psychological barrier while still permitting complete visual access. Pretreated stormwater runoff from the parking lots and shopping area is conveyed to the pond during precipitation events. An overflow pipe carries water in excess of the pond's capacity to the RemeyChandler Drain, as required by the Ingham County Drain Commissioner. During dry weather water supplied from an on-site well helps maintain the pond level. During very rare storm events that far exceed the design storm, an emergency spillway conveys overflow from the pond across the ring road and into a broad swale leading to the oversized basin in the natural area north of the retail realm. Central Green, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife Growing conditions in the central green vary from permanent open water to uplands, and favor a range of plant associations. However, the project program strongly influences the plant selection, and narrows the plant palette for certain parts of the green. For example, certain areas subject to heavy use, mainly picnic areas and a children's play area, are planted in turf. There is no shrub layer in these areas for security reasons, and the tree species used are fast-growing and able to withstand soil compaction, for example, American sycamore and silver maple (Cullina, 2002; Hightshoe, 1988). In other areas subject to less intense use, such as along the walking trails and within the protection of the split-rail fence, unmowed native grasses and wildflowers grow, as well as savanna-like scatterings of shrubs and trees less tolerant of soil compaction, such as black oak, scarlet oak, sassafras (Sassafras albidum), ironwood (Ostrya virginiand), flowering dogwood (Cornusflorida),and eastern redbud 39  (Cercis canadensis). The trees are grouped and arranged in a way that approximates their distribution in Michigan's native oak savannas and open oak woodlands. Path rush (Juncus tenuis), Ohio spiderwort (Tradescantia ohiensis), woodland sunflower (Helianthus divaricatus), Virginia wild rye (Elymus  virginicus), tufted hair grass, and other native grasses and forbs that tolerate partial shade form the ground layer where the canopy is most dense. Open and partly shaded parts of the savanna support Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans), big  bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), stiff  goldenrod, butterflyweed (Asclepias tuberosa), culver's  root (Veronicastrum virginicum), rough blazing star, black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirtd), and other sun-loving Figure 31. In Michigan, flowering dogwood often grows under the canopy of oaks.  grasses and forbs.  Despite the scarcity of shrubs in most of the central green, several species of birds may nest in the tree canopies, including eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus), American robin, blue jay, red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus), mourning dove, chipping sparrow (Spizellapasserina), and other suburban residents. Warblers and other spring migrants may also stop to forage in the tops of early-leafing trees, such as silver maple, where the first crop of spring caterpillars would be feeding on the new leaves. Wood duck (Aix sponsa) would likely be attracted to nest boxes set up in or near the pond, and red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and yellow warblers may nest in the shrubby willows and red-osier dogwood clumped on the shoreline. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and other nocturnal wildlife living in the natural area north of the retail realm could also make nightly, "after hours" use of the central green by following the broad swale that serves as an emergency spillway. This swale, planted with trees and other vegetative cover, is well suited for use as a wildlife corridor. One area where the shopping mall program does not influence plant selection is a large island in the pond supporting trees, shrubs, vines, and herbaceous vegetation typical of local floodplain forest habitats. The inaccessibility of the island renders irrelevant human safety and security concerns related to dense vegetation. Consequently, it is the only part of the site where all elements of structural diversity canopy, understory, shrub layer, and herbaceous ground layer - are allowed to achieve their fullest expression. In addition to providing quality wildlife habitat for neotropical migrants and other birds, reptiles, amphibians, and small mammals might also find refuge on the island. Central Green and Place Experience  Placing the green at the heart of the retail realm creates a prominent central organizing element, contributing to site coherence and strengthening legibility. The ring road circling the green minimizes the possibility of visitors becoming lost, since remaining on the road or the adjoining sidewalk eventually brings the visitor back to the initial point of entry. Further, the curve of the ring road is a traffic-calming measure, enhancing traffic safety for motorists and pedestrians. Brick and concrete pathways circling and cutting across the green offer visitors pleasant, alternative routes around the retail realm. Visitors who are not in a particular hurry or who want to keep away from 40  traffic may choose to stroll on the paths circling the green, while shoppers who are pressed for time might opt to take a shortcut over the pond bridge and across the green. The savanna style of plantings, with its emphasis on trees and herbaceous vegetation, features only a scattering of shrubs. The resulting park-like environment appeals to the public's sense of personal safety, since dense shrubbery is often linked in people's minds with crime and other security concerns. Visitors may also regard the central green as a destination, and retreat to its nearby nature when they tire of shopping. From a bench in leafy shade or warm sun, they can watch the activity in the retail realm from a distance, and observe without feeling observed. For those who want a temporary mental break from the hustle and bustle of the human world, the birds, butterflies, dragonflies, and other life close by offer an absorbing distraction. The island in the pond, inaccessible and cloaked with dense trees, shrubs, and vines, evokes two experientially desirable qualities of natural landscapes - mystery and the sense of extent suggested when another world is visible but just out of reach. Winter cold will curtail many people's desire to sit or stroll outdoors, yet customers of the cafe restaurant in the southwest corner of the central green may still look out over the winter woods and frozen pond, perhaps lit by the setting sun, and enjoy the natural scene. The green, with its pond and naturalistic plantings, is an engaging and appealing feature of the Eastwood Towne Center, and it may surprise and please visitors to find a pocket of nature in the middle of a shopping mall. For the visitor, the most delightful aspect would be something beyond the designer's control, specifically, the wildlife inhabitants. There is no doubt that showy or noisy insects like butterflies, dragonflies, cicadas, and katydids will colonize the green, and the more common wild birds will set up residence. Wood ducks, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) will use the pond to feed and perhaps breed, and squirrels, cottontails, and muskrats will eventually discover the green and settle in. Raccoons and opossums, attracted by food waste in the restaurant dumpsters, may find shelter among the vegetation. All of these creatures are common park or backyard animals in developed parts of Lansing, and their wanderings would inevitably encompass the green. These opportunists are the leading edge of Vinayak Bharne's advancing "third nature," finding and occupying ecological niches in gray-green suburbia (Bharne, 2001). Like birds of prey nesting on Lynne Hull's Lightning Raptor Roosts (Hull, 1995), they bring balance and a sense of completion to the central green composition. Retail Realm The stores are the programmatic and aesthetic backbone of the retail realm. Therefore, building design strongly influences the success of the project. Many of the buildings on site are large. Buildings housing the boutiques have facades approaching 100 feet in length, while the facades of the big box stores approach or exceed 500 feet. The treatment of these facades is crucial if the retail realm is to have the desirable sense of volumetric space and human scale. Building facade heights in the neighborhood of 30 feet would conform to the recommended heightwidth ratio for creating volumetric space in conjunction with the street trees or trees in the street median. Some stores, such as Wal-Mart and other big box retail, have facades this high even as single-floor buildings. Yet smaller boutiques require an additional story along the front to 41  achieve this ratio. Therefore, I added a second story to these buildings for lease to businesses that benefit from a retail center location, such as travel agents, real estate agents, insurance brokers, optometrists, dentists, lawyers, and other professional occupations. The building facade should present ample opportunity for window shopping to stimulate visitor interest and turn passers-by into customers. One recommended rule of thumb is to devote approximately 70% of the first story facade to display window area (Steuteville, 2001). Building entrances are another important locus of positive interaction and activity, though determining how many to provide per storefront is a matter of balancing conflicting considerations. Retailers have an interest in keeping customer entrances and exits to a minimum for reasons related to security surveillance and control of shoplifting. Yet, limiting entrances to one or two along a facade hundreds of feet long presents a barrier to convenient customer access. The solution I used is one proposed in the literature, specifically, providing several entrances to each large building, but limiting exits to one or two main, easily controlled access points (Steuteville, 2001).  Figure 33. Retail realm storefront elevation.  In keeping with the broad objectives of Lansing Township's Planned Development Zone designation, the style of the building exteriors should be harmonious with local architecture. Like many Midwestern cities, older buildings in Lansing are built of brick and stone, often with detailed patterns in the brickwork and other ornamentation. Portions of Washington Avenue, Lansing's downtown commercial strip, are paved with brick as well. Consequently, I used this material and general style of architecture for the buildings in the retail realm. Canvas awnings over the storefronts shade and shelter pedestrians from the elements and enhance the character of the retail realm, as do the cast iron and patterned glass sidewalk light fixtures copied from Lansing's older neighborhoods. Retail Realm and Stormwater Management In the retail realm, runoff is handled in different ways depending on its source. Runoff from roads and sidewalks often contains substantial quantities of sediments, dissolved salts, litter, and other pollutants. A Figure 34. Retail realm street section. Direction of runoffflow is towardlong, slow passage over the central green.  42  vegetated ground removes most of the contaminants in road runoff, and allows a substantial proportion of it to infiltrate into the soil. Consequently, roads and sidewalks in the retail realm slope at a 2% gradient toward the central green. Runoff enters the green as sheet flow and slowly travels overland toward the pond in the center. By the time the uninfiltrated runoff reaches the pond, its pollutant load has decreased substantially. Runoff from the building rooftops is less polluted in comparison, and requires little in the way of treatment. Since its source is close to and in plain view of shoppers walking by the buildings, rooftop I ' runoff management _ : - - ' l - ~ -j^ ":i-l£; L- :r — rri-v-— ^ offers an excellent opportunity for ecorevelatory design. In this case, roof runoff funnels through elaborately ornamented downspout leader boxes modeled after those used at the mansions of Lansing s automobile aristocracy in the early part of the 20 century. The downspouts feed into pipes that run beneath the sidewalk, which • has markedly different, easily-removed'pavers paralleling.the course, of the pipes beneath. The special pavers serve two purposes; to Figure 35. Switchgrass, big bluestem, prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum), Joevisually announce the Pye weed (Eupatorium maculatum), orange cornflower (Rudbeckia fulgida van sullivantii), and Ohio spiderwort are excellent plant materials for rain gardens inroute the of the runoff beneath the shoppers' retail realm. feet, and to facilitate pipe repair and maintenance without destroying the brick sidewalk. The pipes empty into rain gardens that hold the runoff until it infdtrates into the soil. Perforated pipes in a bed of gravel three feet beneath the coarse-textured soil surface capture excess infdtrated runoff and convey it to the pond in the central green. r  ?  th  Retail Realm, Native Vegetation, and Wildlife Space for plantings is limited in the retail realm, since this is where human activity is most concentrated and the need for unobstructed movement is greatest. Plant materials in the retail realm will have a special prominence because they are relatively uncommon, and will receive more notice and close inspection than plants in other parts of the site. Consequently, the aesthetic and sensual qualities of the plant materials are paramount among the selection criteria. Colorful flowers and berries, bright autumn foliage, striking leaf and bark texture, leaves and stalks that sway and rustle in the wind, are all qualities that please the senses of passers-by. Horticulturists have selectively bred many plant species native to the Lansing area to enhance their color or other ornamental traits, producing a wide range of cultivars. 'Forest Pansy' eastern redbud, 'Diablo' ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), 'Red Sprite' and other cultivars of Michigan holly (Ilex verticillata), 43  and dozens of cultivars of shrubby cinquefoil and flowering dogwood are among the wide assortment of woody plant cultivars available for native landscaping in Michigan. Cultivars of herbaceous Michigan natives include 'Goldsturm' orange coneflower - already a landscaping staple, various cultivars of marsh blazing star (Liatris spicata) and oxeye (Heliopsis helianthoides), 'Heavy Metal' and 'Shenandoah' switchgrass, and scores of others. Along with ironwood, American sycamore, butterflyweed, smooth aster {Aster laevis), Joe-Pye weed, and other natives with highly ornamental wild types, the cultivars broaden the range of desirable native plant materials suitable for commercial landscapes in general and the Eastwood Towne Center in particular. Few birds and mammals would tolerate the crowds of shoppers during business hours, though starlings, house sparrows, and gray squirrels would animate the sidewalks and plantings. However, these species are attracted more to litter and handouts than to native plants in the retail realm. But the plantings would draw butterflies, bees, and other pollinators, a class of wildlife that is seemingly tame and oblivious to the presence of people. While not as large and eye-catching as vertebrate wildlife, insects bring additional life, movement, interest, and in the case of butterflies, color to the retail realm. Further, pollinators play a Figure 36. Eastern tailed blue (Everes comyntas), a common crucial ecological role in nature, and it is Lansing area butterfly. important to sustain their numbers throughout the landscape. Retail Realm and Place Experience Standing shoulder to shoulder, the brick, stone, and glass storefronts form an attractive, warm-toned facade reminiscent of Lansing's older commercial districts. The continuous row of two-story buildings also creates a streetwall of human scale, establishing a comfortable sense of enclosure that makes the twelve-foot wide sidewalks in front of the buildings feel like an outdoor room where pausing to chat, sit, or window shop does not seem out of place. Native trees planted along the outer edge of the sidewalks spread their limbs in a vaulted ceiling, strengthening the sense of enclosure and dappling the brick pavement with welcome shade. Canvas awnings mounted above the storefronts offer shoppers more substantial shelter and subtly evoke the Main Streets of a bygone era. As in the parking area, visitors to the retail realm have the opportunity to observe the ecological processes and benefits of sustainable stormwater management up close. The elaborate downspouts affixed to the buildings capture attention because of their highly ornamental character and their ties to Lansing's historic architecture. Following the path of the roof runoff beneath their feet and into the thirsty bowls of the rain gardens at the edge of the sidewalk, visitors may see a different side of runoff, and regard it as a life-sustaining resource instead of a problematic by-product of development. In this way, the downspouts and rain gardens perform the same duty as Wenk and Associates' Denver stormwater gardens, and announce the "joining of cultural forms and natural processes" to manage stormwater in an environmentally sensitive manner (Wenk and Gregg, 1998).  44  CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION A shopping mall is a curious choice for a sustainable makeover, since it is both a product and perpetuator of an unsustainable attitude toward living in the community of fellow humans and other forms of life. The obvious sustainable solution to the problem of shopping centers is to not build them in the first place. Yet there is no political will to ban them. Most Americans, in a country where two-thirds of the economy is bolstered by consumer spending, do not want them to go away. The public wants more shopping malls in the future, not less. Perhaps the time is coming when the shopping mall will be an anachronism, and people will remember it as a symbol of outdated values and a destructive relationship with the land. But public understanding and attitudes will have to change before that time arrives. In the meantime, the social and environmental costs of mall mania continue to add up, and there is an immediate need for ways to lessen its impact. The interventions proposed here are examples of simple, workable improvements to the conventional approach toward retail center design. The environmental and social benefits they offer are real, and are measured in terms of hydrologic cycle health, gains in wildlife habitat, microclimate moderation and its attendant decreases in air pollution, and visitor comfort and pleasure. This design exploration also addresses the need for change in public understanding and attitudes, so that unsustainable land use may eventually fall out of fashion. The interventions have an intellectual dimension in that they disclose a different way of relating to the landscape, marked by a respect for natural processes. An observant visitor to the site might experience a shift in perspective and see that stormwater is an ecological asset rather than a liability, that wildlife can bring beauty and interest in the human environment, and that native plant materials express the distinct natural aesthetic of the region. These possibilities would reveal themselves slowly, over the course of repeated visits. Designing a place that appeals to the visitor's senses helps insure that those visits will happen. A deeper understanding of our role in local and global ecosystems can't be bought at the new, sustainable Eastwood Towne Center. 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Ellicott City, Maryland: Center for Watershed Protection. 2000. 742 pp.  52  APPENDIX I The plant species presented in the following tables are native to Ingham County or an adjacent county as documented in Michigan Flora, Parts I, II, and III (Voss, 1996; Voss, 1985; Voss, 19.72), and are suitable for use as landscape plant materials at the Eastwood Towne Center. Information provided for each species includes height and spread, ornamental qualities, value as food or cover for wildlife of the Lansing area, basic cultural needs in terms of soil moisture and sun exposure, and miscellaneous information such as tolerance to various soil textures, salt tolerance, and value for specific uses, for example, bank stabilization. Every species addressed here could be used in some part of the Central Green and the undeveloped areas, since the growing conditions encompassed by these areas of the site range from open water, to wet, shaded shoreline, to dry, sunny upland. Cultural needs, mature size, ornamental qualities, and other information should guide the exact placement of each species in the Central Green and the undeveloped areas. Where appropriate, the miscellaneous information provided in each species entry also includes suitability for use in more specific areas of the site. For example, many species with notable ornamental qualities are recommended for the Retail Realm, species tolerant of heat and • drought are recommended for planting in the Parking Lot islands, and species tolerant of salty soils should constitute a substantial portion of the Parking Lot swale plantings. The information provided in this appendix was taken from the following sources: Albert, 2001; Cullina, 2002; Cullina, 2000; Darke, 1999; Davidson, 1996; Delahaut and Hasselkus, 1999; Dirr, 1997; Henderson et al, 1999; Herman et al:, 2001; Hightshoe, 1988;.Martin et al, 1951; McCarron et al., 1998; Nielsen, 1999; Ohrel, 2000; Reznicek, 1980; Scott, 1986; Sternberg and Wilson, 1995; Thunhorst, 1993; United States Department of Agriculture, 2003; United States Department of Agriculture, 2002; Voss, 1996; Voss, 1985, and Voss, 1972. •  J  53  co  TJ  V)  to ro to «  0  i5  CD Di  re  0 g CO re .S_0 CO a. TJ  Q) O  <D +•»  2 _ S 2 ro >, b i 2 ro c o »  lw  .2 c  4-* 0  g 0  , o  IQ. 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