UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Eschatology in Ming-Qing sectarian precious volumes (baojuan) and its daoist elements Sze, Tak Pui 2003

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-ubc_2003-0158.pdf [ 15.68MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0091039.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0091039-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0091039-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0091039-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0091039-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0091039-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0091039-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

ESCHATOLOGY UN MING-QING SECTARIAN PRECIOUS VOLUMES (BAOJUAN) AND ITS DAOIST ELEMENTS By TAK PUI SZE B. A , The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1997 ATHESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ASIAN STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 2003 ©TakPui Sze, 2003  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of fW</M  QljJdIL  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  yp HtkJfCk  DE-6 (2/88)  ;  >(TD^>  ABSTRACT The Ming-Qing era (1368-1912) was an important period in the history of Chinese popular religious sects. Modem scholars have paid attention to their development for a long time, and have conducted a lot of studies, some of which deal with the relationship of popular sects to Daoism. Few scholars focus on Daoist elements in sectarian eschatology although it is one of the important themes of sectarian teachings in the Ming and Qing. What are the contents of Daoist eschatology? Are there any similarities and differences between Daoist and sectarian views on the end of the world and collective suffering and salvation? What was the early development of sectarian eschatology? The intention of this thesis is to investigate these issues. This thesis is mainly based on textual studies; the two main kinds of primary sources are the Daoist texts of the Six Dynasties (220 A.D.-589) collected in the Daoist Canon (Daozang jMM), d precious a n  volumes (baojuan 'jtj^), the scriptures of popular sects. The Six-Dynasties period was a chaotic period after the collapse of the Han empire (206 B.C.-220 AD), a dynasty that had been one of golden ages of Chinese history. The scriptures composed during this period present us with contemporary understandings of collective sufferings and prophecies.  Baojuan literature  appeared in the mid-Ming,  and was devoted to sectarian doctrines and myths. From the discussions of this thesis, it can be concluded that the eschatological belief was not exclusive to the common people in China, and it was an indigenous tradition shared by ordinary sectarian members and literati Daoist believers. Although there are exceptions in early scriptures, in most Ming-Qing precious volumes the explanation of disasters and the expectation of a blissful age came from Daoist tradition. Buddhist tenninology and narratives about universal crises made a contribution to  ii  sectarian eschatology, but sectarian writers do not adopt many important Buddhist philosophical ideas. Compared with their Daoist counterparts, Buddhist borrowings are superficial.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  vi  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 1: DAOIST ESCHATOLOG1CAL BELIEFS DM THE SLX DYNASTIES (220A.D.-589)  16  Part I: The Taipingjing (The scripture of great peace and prosperity)  18  Part 11: General Eschatological Views in Daoism  22  a) Contemporary Understandings of Crises in the World in the Six Dynasties Period  22  b) Expectation of the Coming of Peaceful Era and Messiahs  32  c) The Idea of Seed People  40  Part III: Features of eschatology of different schools  50  a) Celestial Master Daoism  50  b) The Shangqing School  59  c) The Lingbao School  70  Conclusion  81  CHAPTER 2: COMPARISON OF THE ESCHATOLOGY OF DAOISM AND POPULAR SECTS  85  Part 1: Comparison of Some Features of Writings on Universal Disasters  86  a) Comparison of Daoist and Sectarian Scriptures  86  b) Comparison of Daoist and Sectarian Features to Buddhist Ones  103  Part 0: Comparison of Eschatological Teachings  109  a) Reasons for universal crises  109  i) Parallels and Differences in Daoist and Sectarian Explanations  109  ii) The Ideas of Purgatory and Mqfa  129  b) The Expectation of the Coming of a Peaceful Era and Messiahs  144  c) The Descriptions of Believers in Sectarian Eschatology  155  Conclusion  162 iv  CHAPTER 3: THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SECTARIAN ESCHATOLOGICAL BELIEFS: A STUDY OF THE ESCHATOLOGY OF THE HUANGJI BAO JUAN, LUO QING'S SCRIPTURES, AND THE KA1X1N FAY A 0  167  Part I: The Huangji baojuan  170  Part II: Luo Qing's Six Volumes in Five Books a) Luo Qing's Discussion of Disasters b) Contemporary Eschatological Beliefs of Other Sects Described in Luo Qing's Five Books in Six Volumes Part DT: Lanfeng's Kaixin fayao and his Eschatological Views Conclusion  179 179 191 195 207  CONCLUSION  213  APPENDIX A: THE TIAN CIJIUJIEJING AND THE SCRIPTURES OF THE FIVE ELDERS Part 1: The Tian cijiujie jing Part 11: The scriptures of the Five Elders  224 224 228  APPENDIX B: INTRODUCTION TO THE CONTENTS OF THE SHANGOING DAOJUN LIEU (FASC. 198)  HOUSHENG  237  APPENDIX C: THE PASSAGE ON THE LITTLE DISASTERS FROM THE YOGACMYABHUMl-SASTIiA (YUJ1A SHIDILUN IMM^Mm)  241  BIBLIOGRAPHY  242  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank my supervisor Professor Daniel L. Overmyer for guidance, encouragement, and patience. He has awakened my interest in the studies of Chinese popular sects and their scriptures, and generously lent me his books and copies of the scriptures. My thesis could not have been done without his help and suggestions. 1 would like to thank my committee members, Professors Nam-lin Hur and Jinhua Chen; they have showed tremendous patience in revising my thesis. 1 am also very grateful to the staff of the Asian Library at UBC for their kind assistance, and my friends for their warm support and encouragement. Finally, a debt of gratitude is owed to my parents and siblings, who have always let me know that they are on my side.  vi  INTRODUCTION The Ming-Qing era (1368-1912) was an important period in the history of Chinese popular sects. The title of Ming dynasty, Ming 1  S£j,  was related to the Han Shangtong's |$|JLla  title (d. 1355), the Da Mingwang B£j3E (the great king of light), and Zhu Yuanzheng ^ T C S | (1328-1398) was once the member of the Hongjun %TM- (Red army).  2  Although Zhu prohibited  all activities of popular sects after he founded the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), sectarian movements were never extinguished completely.  3  The mid Ming is regarded as the beginning of  the new development of Chinese popular sects. Unlike those in the late Yuan, which were active in Jiangxi '/XM in the south and Hebei Mit  in the north, from approximately the Zhengde TEW-  ' 1 shall take Daniel L. Ovennyer's definition of popular sects. "Popular religious sects proclaiming deliverance for all who respond have appeared in many cultures. They have usually been characterized by leaders claiming divine authority who initiate vernacular preaching, simplified rituals and scriptures, and systems of congregational organization." Daniel L. Overmyer, Folk Buddhist Religon: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1976), p. 1. The forces that rose up against the Yuan Dynasty are called the Hongjun because of the red turbans they worn; they were the members of the White Lotus Tradition (bailian jiao which is regarded as a synonym for popular religions. B. J. ter Haar has conducted a thorough research on the changes of contents of this term. He thinks that the contents of the term changed from the Song to the Ming; the believers of the bailian jiao in the Song and Yuan Dynasties were literati and officials, who practiced the recitation of Amitabha's name (Amituofo lEJSIK #fi) in gatherings of varied sizes. In the late Yuan mid the Ming, the term referred to magical techniques and was usually related to rebellions. Han Shangtong's grandfather was already one of the leaders of the White Lotus Tradition in the late Yuan; Han preached the imminent descent of Maitreya. Liu Futong f l j l i j i and other sect leaders proclaimed that Han was the eighth-generation descendant of the Song Emperor H u i z o n g ® ^ (reigned in 1101-1126) and therefore should be the lord of China. They rose up, and Han claimed to be the King of Light. After Han was killed, his son Han Liner $<S#.ni became the Xiao mingwang / J ^ I (the little king of light or junior king of light). He appealed to Zhang Yuanzheng for help, and he later died by drowning in 1366. It is commonly thought that there is Buddhist influence, especially Maitreya belief on the titles Da mingwang (the great king of light) and Xiao mingwang (the little king of light), but whether there is Manichaean influence is controversial. M a Xisha thinks that these two titles originated in a Manichaean text, the Da.Xiao mingwang chitxi jing ^ ; / J N H ^ 3 I I 1 ± 1 ' 1 S ^ 1 (The scripture on the descents of the Great and the Little Kings of Light). B. J. ter Haar, however, asserts that Buddhism had already provided abundant material in messianisni, and Han's title must be influenced by the myth of the Prince Moonlight (Yueguang tongzi j=j JtMrF), who is claimed to appear with Maitreya. B. J. ter Haar, The White Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992), pp. 114-170. Daniel L . Overmyer, Folk Buddhist Religon: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China, pp. 98-102. Ma Xisha MiMP & Han Bingfang ftH^f, Zhongguo minjian zurigjiao shi PM&\WM%iLXL (History of Chinese popular religions) (Shanghai: Reninin chubanshe, 1992), pp. 148-156. Tang Saier H'-gi^iL for example, rose up in Shandong [i|Jjt in the eighteenth year of the Yongle zkli< reign (1402); she claimed lo be fount \j\'jj±j. (the mother of Buddha). For the details of the prohibition, read Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zong/iao shi, pp. 156-157, and B. J. ter Haar, The White Lotus 'Teachings in Chinese Religious History, pp. 123-125. 2  l  3  1  reign (1506-1521), popular sects bloomed throughout China. Popular sects adopted various 4  names, but seldom called themselves bailion jiao EzlSI^ (the white lotus tradition) again. In 5  this period, Luo Qing's  (1443-1527) Wuwei jao MM$k (Nonactivism sect), which had the  teachings of popularized Chan Buddhism with a strong emphasis on the human mind, was formed, and many other sects followed. Besides, a new sectarian literature, baojuan jf^S 6  (precious volumes), and a new supreme sectarian goddess, Wusheng laomu fiS^JE^'S (the eternal venerable mother), appeared. The bianwen 'MSC (transformation texts) are one of the 7  antecedents of baojuan; both literatures are written in prose and seven-character verse. Precious volumes are devoted to sectarian myths of the creation by the Eternal Venerable Mother and sectarian secrets of returning to one's source and protecting one from misfortunes, which will be discussed in chapter two of this thesis. From the Zhangde reign of the Ming to the Kanxi reign (1662-1722) of the Qing, precious volumes, many of which were bound in the accordion (jingzhe MfJf, 'it- sutra folded) or palm-leaf (j'anqie ^£ti) style with large print like Buddhist  The members of popular sects in the south usually had dharma names {Joining ftS) that included the characters pu U (universality), jue g (awareness), miaotyp(wonderfulness), and dao 3'U (way). Those in the north did not. It is hard to distinguish the sects in the south that appeared in the mid-Ming and later from those in the north. The adoption of dhanna names also appeared among the believers in the north. Pu Wenqi ;fH>Ciffi, ed., Zhongguo minjian niinii zongjiao cidian ^ S i ^ P a l l i ^ ^ f & i ? ^ (A dictionary of Chinese popular secret'religions) (Chengdou: Xichuan cishu chubanshe, 1996), p. 9. Pu Wenqi, Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao 'PM^TB^^M f£ (Popular secret religions in China) (Taipei: Nantian shuju youxian gongsi, 1996), p. 37. 4  Pu Wenqi, Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao, p. 42. For the contents of Luo's teacliings, read Daniel L . Overmyer's "Wu-wei Sect Scripture by Lo Ch'ing" in his book Precious Volumes: An Introduction lo Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries (London: Harvard University, 1999), pp. 92-135. I shall discuss the eschatology described in Luo's scriptures in chapter 3 of this thesis. Daniel L. Overmyer. Folk Buddhist Religon: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China, p. 102. B. J. ter Haar, The While Lotus Teachings in Chinese Religious History, p. 140. Precious volumes are not exclusive to popular sects for spreading their teachings; some of them are written by ordinary people dealing with narrative stories and ethical exhortations. The Jiwu hen baojuan M'Sk^M^S (The precious volumes on the cruelty of a step mother), for example, discusses a step mother's mistreating her step children, which is one of the common themes of narrative baojuan. For more examples of this kind of baojuan, read Zeng Ziliang's ff^pJl "Baojuan zhi yanjiu J ^ ^ f i / f ^ (A study of precious volumes)", master thesis, National Chengchi University, 1975. pp. 78-81. The baojuan is reprinted in Fang Buhe 'JjtpfU, ed., Hexi baojuan zhenben jiaozhu yanjiu MWsM'-^M^iC'&W^L. (A collated and annotated study of the authentic versions of the precious volumes in Hexi) (Lanzhou: Lanzhou daxue chubanshe, 1992), pp. 165-208. 5  6  7  s  2  and Daoist scriptures, were published with the support of the donations of sectarian believers. The publication of some scriptures involved the court.  10  9  After the Kanxi reign, the state severely  suppressed popular sects, and confiscated and destroyed their scriptures. Some sectarian books were destroyed by the owners who were afraid of being caught. Therefore, precious volumes were reprinted and copied by hand frequently in order to maintain a steady supply, but few of them composed during this period are extant." As that with Buddhism, the relationship of Ming-Qing popular sects to Daoism was close and complex, and has attracted the attention of modern scholars for a long time. The alternative name of the Vast Yang sect (Hongyang jiao  'lAFJIIft) Hunyuan jiao  ivPjtMk (The sect  [established in] the chaotic prime), for example, contains the Daoist term hunyuan /JITC. The masters of the sect had contact with Daoist monasteries, and would be invited to carry out rituals when common people could not afford the ones by Daoist priests.  12  The scriptures and  confessions {chart |ij|) used by the sect were Daoist texts or were based on them. Therefore, Ma Xisha relates the Vast Yang sect to "the secularization of Daoism (daojiao de shi.su hua 'MM&l ty;{§l'b)". The appearance of Daoism in the Han Dynasty is viewed as the origin of Chinese n  The translations of the \enns jingzhe and fanqie are taken from Daniel L. Overmyer, Precious Volumes: An Introduction lo Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from Sixteenth lo Seventeenth Centuries, p. 51, and William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1982), p. 353, respectively. Some scriptures of the Hongyang jiao ^AP#fic (Vast yang sect), for example, were published by the Palace Printing Bureau because of support from some palace eunuchs. Che Xilmi J£LfJtfra, Zhongguo baojuan zongmu "£HJ$#|grl (A general bibliography of Chinese precious volumes) (Beijing: Beijing yanshan chubanshe, 2000), pp. 11-13. Susan Naquin, Millenarian Rebellion in China: the Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813 (New Haven: Yale University, 1976), p. 20. The Vast Yang sect was founded by Han Taihu $#.yfcfi)J in the twenty-second year of the Wanli MM reign (1594) in the Ming. For the background of the sect, read Pu Wenqi, ed., Zhongguo minjian mi mi zong/iao cidian, pp. 92-94. For the scriptures of the sect, read note 222. The Daoist term hunyuan refers to one vital force of chaotic prime (hunyuan yi qi iafft—%\) appearing before ihe yang and yin have divided. Zhang Zhizhe 3JI;z>1=3\ ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian IMM.'SCi(Dictionary of Daoist culture) (Shanghai: Jiangsu guji chubanshe, 1994), p. 138. M a Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zong/iao shi, p. 492-493. M a Xisha, Oingdai Baguajiao fniXAil^k (The Eight Trigrams sect in the Qing Dynasty) (Beijing: Zhongguo renniin daxue chubanshe, 1989), pp. 29-32. 9  10  11  12  13  sectarian tradition.  14  Ming-Qing sectarianism is also thought to be a vulgarized form of Daoism,  and the teachings and scriptures of popular sects can show common people's understanding of the religion. Even now popular sectarianism is often mixed up with Daoism, and this arouses 15  Daoist believers' annoyance.  16  Modern scholars have done much research on Daoist influence on sectarian doctrines, organization, and the ways of cultivation from various angles. We have learnt the close relationship of the sects such as the Yellow Heaven Way (Huangtian dao M ^ x l t or Huangtian dao M ^ j j t ; Imperial Heaven Dao) and Vast Yang sect to Daoism in M a Xisha's book about the Eight Trigrams sect (Bagua jiao A3?-rf$0.i published in 1989, where he explains the religious context in late Ming and early Qing, in which the Bagua jiao arose.  17  He thinks that the  appearance of diverse sects and the boom in sectarianism during this period resulted from the contemporary development of Daoism to a certain extent. There was a rapid increase in Daoist priests, but there had not been enough Daoist monasteries since the mid-Ming. Hence a lot of priests wandered around and carried out rituals for common people. They set up various sects and claimed to be their founders.  li!  Ma Xisha as well as Han Bingfang f j t f l t ^ j further the study  on the relationship between Daoism and sectarianism in their book Zhongguo minjian zongjiao  Pu Wenqi, Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao, pp. 4-7. Pu Wenqi, Minjian zongjiao yu jieshe K K S ^ H I e i i l r i (Popular sects and assembly) (Beijing: Guoji wenhua'cluiban gongshi, 1994), pp. 7-10. M a Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, pp. 1-16. Daniel L. Overmyer, Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries, p. 47. Okuzaki Hiroshi gHfiift§5], "Minzhong daojiao Jg^foJiffc (Popular Daoism)", trans. Zhu Yueli Daojiao j i l f t (Daoism), ed. Fukui Kojun f l ^ l O l l , Yamazaki Hiroshi liMfc, Kiimira Eiichi ?fc|>f3|—, & Sakai Tadao fij (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1992), vol.2, pp. 103-128. "' Hua Y i SjIfiK, "Daojiao yu mimi zongjiao yingjia qufen j!ifcff|$g^SfSJEOQlE:fr (Daoism should be distinguished from secret religions)", Zhongguo daojiao "PMtSM (Chinese Daoism) 4 (1989): 15. The Yellow Heaven way was founded by L i Bin (d. 1562) in the Jiajing U-iflf reign of the Ming (1522-1566), who had a dhanna name Pinning ^B£J. He was at first a farmer, and later served as a guard soldier. He and his wife were buried in a pagoda in Bitian si i f ^ f f (Green heaven temple) in Zhili Hlft, which became the centre of the worship of the sect. The Eight Trigrams sect was established by Liu Zuochen SpJIfejIS in Shandong, who was probably born in the early Tianqi ~fi^ reign (1621-1627) and died before the forty-fifth year of the Kanxi reign (1706). Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, pp. 93()T935. Pu Wenqi r%'f.if. cd.. Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao cidian, p. 173. Ma Xisha, Oingdai bagua jiao, pp. 9-44. 14  1 5  17  I s  4  shi ^ l i ^ J s ^ l ^ i f c . ^ (History of Chinese popular religions) published in 1992. This book is based on abundant sources and provides a thorough history of Chinese sectarianism.  19  Apart  from these two books, we can also learn Daoist influence on a number of sects in a series of articles written by Han Bingfang.  20  Modern scholars' studies often deal with Daoist impact on  general Chinese popular sectarianism, not on particular popular sects, in different perspectives. Noguchi Tetsuro Sly P i t i e d points out that the bureaucracy of deities created by popular sects and the magic arts practiced by their believers contain Daoist attributes.  21  The Daojiao yu  minjian zong/iao yanjiu lunji Mfjft^KPH^^f^liftfSlroft (A collection of research discourses on Daoism and popular religions) includes some articles which discuss Daoist influence on Chinese popular sects. Lai Chi Tim ^ / c T ^ (Li Zhitian), for example, focuses on the Six Dynasties, not the Ming-Qing era; however, the distinction between Six-Dynasties Tianshi Daoism (Tianshi dao ^ M x i ; Celestial Master Daoism) and popular worship he raises is still useful in knowing the features of popular sects in the Ming and Qing. He thinks that the belief in the Dao and following precepts were the two standards raised by the believers of Tianshi Daoism in order to  Ma Xisha Mj^MfP & Han BingfangfyQ^tfj,Zhongguo minjian zong/iao shi ^iSJ^Hr^ffrSt (History of Chinese popular religions) (Shanghai: Reiunin chubanshe, 1992). Wang Jianchuan I [ and Jiang Canteng iLffikW nave written a review of this book. Wang Jianchuan & Jiang Canteng, "Zhongguo minjian zongjiao yanjiu de lizuo ping Ma Xisha Han Bingfang zhu Zhongguo minjian zong/iao shi ^MSM^^L^i^ff^tji^—WMi^S^. If { ^ I S K F S I ^ f ^ > (A powerful book in the studies of Chinese popular religions: a review of the History of 19  Chinese popular religions written by Ma Xisha and Han Bingfang)", Ming Qingyilai minjian zongjiao de tansuo -  jinian Dai Xuanzhijiaoshou luanwenji WtUM^RfflMMW^ li£&M'£Z%ti%Ml%M (Researches on popular religions |established| since the Ming and Qing - a compilation of articles in memory of Professor Dai Xuanzlii), ed. Wang Jianchuan & Jiang Zhushan SWILL (Taipei: Shangding wenhua chubanshe, 1996), pp. 1-10 in an appendix. They are collected in Wang Ka ed., Zhongguo daojiao jichu zhishi ^SxiMS^^OlII (Elementary knowledge of Chinese Daoism) (Beijing: Zhongjiao wenhua chubanshe, 1999). They are also reprinted in Wang Ka, ed., Daojiao sanbai ti jJlf&HUfH (Three hundred topics about Daoism) (Shanghai: Shanghai gnji chubanshe, 2000). Noguchi Tetsuro If PlSBll', Feng Zuozhe WAfr^S trans. "Daojiao he miiizhong zongjiao jieshe jjtffcft]j^f-zj?|ft Ipljii (Daoism and popular religious sects)". Daojiao jltf^ (Daoism). ed. Fukui Kojun ^iJ|Jfl?)l[M. Yamazaki Hiroslu |JjlK12£, Kinuira Eiichi j j v f ^ , & Sakai Tadao ®-ff.'"£f^' (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe, 1992), vol.2, pp. 162-199. ;  1  2(J  21  ; ::  5  distinguish themselves from those of popular cults.  The article of Professor Daniel L.  Overmyer in the above book covers the influence of Quanzhen Daoism  (Complete  perfection Daoism) on precious volumes. He focuses his discussion on Quanzhen terminology and the practices of the cultivation of inner elixir found in baojuan ''' His studies are continued 2  in his book Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries published in 1999.  24  Ma Xisha's "Daojiao yu Qingdai Bagua jiao xltf^!^f  fit f t A*Mlfr (Daoism and the Eight Trigrams sect in the Qing)" is based on his book about the Eight Trigrams sect we mentioned above. In this article, he devotes a part to the sect members' cultivation of inner elixir and traces this to Daoism.  25  Eschatology is one of the important themes of sectarian teachings in the Ming and Qing. However, Buddhist elements in it, especially those borrowed from Maitreya belief usually attract modern scholars.  26  Few scholars pay attention to Daoist ones. Richard Shek and L i  Lai Chi Tim (Li Zhitian), "Liuchao Tianshi dao yu minjian zongjiao jisi Af^^SJliiMI^.KPa1^?&liifiE (SixDynasties Celestial Master Daoism and the rituals of popular cults)", Daojiao yu minjian zongjiao yanjiu lunji, ed. Li Zhitian (Hong Kong: Xuefeng wenhua shiye, 1999), pp. 11-39. Daniel L. Overmyer, "Quanzhen Daoist Influence on Sectarian "Precious Volumes" {Baojuan) from the Seventeenth Century", Daojiao yu minjian zongjiao yanjiu lunji. ed. Lai Chi Tim (Hong Kong: Xuefeng wenhua shiye, 1999), pp. 73-93. " Daniel L. Overmyer, Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries., pp. 47-50, pp. 195-200, & pp. 232-237. Ma Xisha, "Daojiao yu Qingdai Bagua jiao", Daojiao yu minjian zongjiao yanjiu lunji, ed. In Lai Chi Tim (Hong Kong: Xuefeng wenhua shiye, 1999), pp. 94-117. " Asai Motoi'$kPi-%\L,"Precious Scrolls and Folk Sectarianism of the Ming-Qing Period", pp. 55-78. Suzuki Chusei t p / f ^ l E , "Maitreya Beliefs in Folk Sects of the Ming and Qing Dynasties", pp. 79-116. Both articles are collected in the Millenarianism in.Asian History, ed. Ishii Yoneo (Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1993). Pu Wenqi, Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao, pp. 10-16, pp. 20-21, pp. 162-165. Daniel L. Overmyer, Folk Buddhist Religion: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China (London: Harvard University, 1976), pp. 150-161. I shall apply E. Ziircher's definition of the terms "messianism" and "eschatology". only the original meanings of which are used without elements from Christianity: "the complex of beliefs concerning a (usually violent) end of our world tlirough the action of superhuman powers and the expectation of a Savior whose nature is clearly defined as divine, or at least belonging to a superhuman level of existence." Apparently E. Ziircher applies them without distinguishing them from each other. Another term "millennium" is the one Sinology scholars often use, although Anna Seidel thinks the term "millennium" less appropriate than the one "messianism" because the former focuses on the concept of a future golden age of a thousand-year reign. However, in one of her articles, which was composed later, these two terms are interchangeable in her introduction to recent studies to millennium. The definition o f "millennium" adopted by Stephen R. Bokenkamp approximates to the above one applied by E. Ziircher. In the studies of universal destruction and a savior's advent in Chinese faiths, the above tliree terms are considered as synonyms. As shown in the following discussion of this thesis, the believers of eschatological faith did not only expect the end of corrupt world brought by supernatural power, but also the age of great peace ruled or inspected by 2 2  2 3  4  2  6  Fengmao ^MtS  have discussed the relationship between Daoist eschatology and its sectarian  counterpart. In his "Daoist Elements in Late Imperial Chinese Sectarianism", there is a section called "eschatological vision and messianism", in which Richard Shek quotes some passages from precious volumes and Daoist texts in order to show similarity between Daoist and sectarian eschatological accounts.  27  His discussion is not detailed and only few precious volumes and  Daoist texts are studied, but it is the first exploration of Daoist elements in sectarian eschatology.  28  L i Fengmao talks about the historical development of Daoist eschatology in Six  Dynasties and points out that Daoist eschatological tradition was continued in popular sects in late Ming. Like Shek, Li does not provide an investigation into many sectarian and Daoist texts, and he intends to display the similarities of Daoist and sectarian eschatological accounts, not the differences between them. L i ' s research is on the historical context while Shek bases his study 29  on textual material. What are the contents of Daoist eschatology? Are there any similarities and differences between Daoist and sectarian views on the end of the world and collective suffering and salvation? What was the early development of sectarian eschatology? Although the studies of  a deity immediately after the end. E. Ziircher, "'Prince Moonlight' - Messianism and Eschatology in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism", T'oung Pao 68 (1982): 1, note 2. Anna K. Seidel, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and L i Hung", History ofReligions 9 (1967):216. Anna Seidel, "Taoist Messianism", Nunien: International Review for the History of Religions 3 1 (1994): 161-162. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty". Asia Major 7 (1994):61-62, note 7. Richard Shek, "Daoist Elements in Late Imperial Chinese Sectarianism", Millenarianisni in Asian History, ed. Ishii Yoneo, pp. 125-130. The texts quoted in his discussion are Puming rulai wuwei leyi baojuan ^QftfyU^MMTWt$$%£ (The precious volume of the Tathagata Puming who thoroughly understands the meaning of Wuwei), Gufo tianzhen kaozheng longhua baojing c i j f ^ ^ K ^ l i E l i l i S ^ (Dragon-flower precious scripture verified by the Ancient Buddha Tianzhen), and Taishang dongyuan shenzhou jing J&JiMMfflfhM (The book of divine incantations of the depths of the abyss, [taught by] the Most High One). The first two are precious volumes composed in late Ming and early Qing respectively, and the last one is a Daoist text composed in the Six Dynasties. They are among the sources for this thesis. "'' Li Fengmao, "Jiujie yu dujie: Daojiao yu Mingmo minjian zongjiao de moshi xingge ^ij]^ifM.&]'• i M f ^ ^ ^ ^ J^PaJ^vl^^T^'titl'tlS (Salvation from kalpic [disasters] and survival in kalpic [disasters]: features related to the eschatology of Daoism and popular religions in late Ming)". In Lai Chi Tim, ed., Daojiao yu minjian zongjiao yanjiu lunji (Hong Kong: Xuefeng wenhua shiye, 1999), pp. 40-72. 2 7  2 8  1  7  Shek and Li affirm the Daoist influence, they do not tell us much about the answers to such questions. The purpose of this thesis therefore is to investigate these issues. 1 am going to divide this thesis into three chapters. The first chapter, "Daoist Eschatological beliefs in the Six Dynasties (220 A D . - 589)", is intended to provide a complete picture of Daoist eschatology of this period. The Six-Dynasties period was a chaotic period after the collapse of the Han empire (206 B.C. - 220 A.D.), a dynasty that was one of the golden ages of Chinese history. Daoism came into being, according to Anna Seidel, as "a messianic religion of salvation that succeeded, during a period of crisis, in pouring the religious foundations of the Chinese empire into new vessels."  3U  The scriptures composed during this period present us with  contemporary understanding of collective sufferings and prophecies. Therefore, the first chapter will be based on them and deals with three important themes in eschatology, which are contemporary understanding of crises in the world, the expectation of the coming of an era of peace and a messiah, and ideas about the salvation of an elect. Then we shall discuss the eschatological beliefs held by the contemporary Daoist schools. The aim of the second chapter, "Comparison of the eschatology of Daoism and popular sects", is to show how popular sects in the Ming-Qing era adopted and changed Daoist eschatological ideas. This chapter is devoted to the comparison between Daoism and sectarianism in the style of their apocalyptic accounts and in the three themes of chapter 1, noted above. Buddhist prophecies will be discussed here so that the role of Daoism can be manifested in contrast with that of Buddhism. One should, however, consult the research conduced by modern scholars for a complete picture of the relationship between Buddhism and Chinese sectarianism. ' 3  A n n a Seidel, " T a o i s m : The Unofficial H i g h Religion of China", 'I'aoisi Resources See note 26 for the researches.  7(1997):51.  Chapter three of this thesis, "The Early Development of Sectarian Eschatological Beliefs: An Study of the Eschatology in the Huang/i baojuan, Luo Qing's scripture, and the Kaixin f'ayao", deals with the eschatological contents of two earliest sectarian scriptures, the Huang/i baojuan and Luo Qing's books, and a commentary on Luo's books. The Foshuo Huang/i jieguo baojuan fi^I^Mfe^n^lrf?^ (The precious volumes, expounded by the Buddha, on the [karmic] results of [the teaching of] the Imperial Ultimate [period]) is the earliest precious volume discovered so far. Luo Qing is one of the influential masters in the history of Chinese sectarianism; his eschatological discussions contain many Buddhist borrowings. The Kaixin f'ayao [Ifl'L^rlc (The essence of dharma about opening the mind) is a continuation of Luo Qing's teachings with new ideas. The study of these scriptures can reveal the early contents and trends of sectarian eschatology. As shown above, I shall consult Daoist scriptures of the Six Dynasties for the picture of Daoist eschatology. Both political and social conditions were in disorder during this period. The following is a passage that tells us briefly how chaotic society was after the fall of the Han: .. Thereafter China fell into a period of division and chaos that lasted for more than 350 years... Brief and tenuous unity was achieved in A.D. 280 by a state called Western Jin, which tried once again to restore feudalism to China.... The Jin government then had to flee from Loyang, its original capital, to Nanjing (Nanking), where it lingered on for a few more decades before being overthrown. Thereafter China was divided along northsouth lines, with a series of short-lived native Chinese dynasties in the south with Nanjing as their capital, and an even more abysmal succession of barbarian dynasties in the north. China was a deeply divided and chaotic nation during this time, and the people of northern and southern China began to wonder if their once-great civilization would ever be unified again.... Life was hard in China during this period. National unity was lost, and the transportation and communication infrastructure of Han times fell into ruins. Money largely went out of circulation and the economy reverted to barter. (Transition from a monetarized economy to a barter system frequently entails a drastic drop in standard of living.) During this period, pastoral nomadic people first swept down into 9  China and ruled directly over portions of it. During the Han, the Xiongnu seldom if ever took territory away from China and ailed over it themselves; the Xiongnu and the pastoral nomads of their day were not sophisticated enough to learn the art and the science of efficiently governing a sedentary society....  32  Like Daoist scriptures during the Six Dynasties, sectarian ones were accompanied with the political and social troubles in the mid- and late Ming, although China was not divided into two parts during this period as it was during the Six Dynasties. People suffered from ineffective governance and economic hardship, which resulted from an unstable monetary system and therefore caused the rise of food prices and unemployment.  33  Daoist scriptures of the Six-  Dynasties and Ming-Qing precious volumes certainly are not distinctive material if we only consider the times of their appearance, because in each dynasty of the Chinese history, especially at the end of the empire, there were times of hardship and people led lives of unrest. Besides, precious volumes still existed in the early Qing although, compared with the late Ming, it was peaceful. As we shall find in the following discussion, both literatures were intertwined with the explanation of universal suffering and the quest for salvation. Daoist scriptures contain the descriptions of the horrible world disturbed by demons and natural disasters and the predictions of the future age of the messiah, Li Hong ^-'jA or Lord Lao. Only Daoist believers, or the moral, can survive and enjoy lives of plenty in his age. There is a brief summary of the doctrines written in precious volumes. Baojuan  teaching is proclaimed to be a new revelation of primordial taith, long  concealed but now available to all who believe, particularly those with the proper karmic affinity or destiny {you yuan ran). This revelation appears just before the chaos and destruction at the end of the kalpa or eon; the Buddha or the Mother has taken pity on wayward, suffering humans, and in the text has provided one last chance of deliverance.  The Xiongnu were ancient people. David C. Wright, The History of China (London: Greenwood Press, 2001), pp. 60-61. Ray Huang, "The Ming fiscal administration". The Cambrigdge History of China, ed. Denis Twitchett and Frederick W. Mote.(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), vol. 8, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part II, pp. 106-171.  3 :  3 3  io ;  Those with the proper belief and practice will survive to enjoy a transformed life in a new realm, free of all suffering. Those who miss the good news (xiaoxi) will be lost...  3 4  The Six-Dynasties Daoist texts and the Ming-Qing baojuan obviously are valuable sources for the study of Chinese eschatological beliefs because the flourishing of these apocalyptic literatures was rare in the history of Daoist and sectarianism. Hence, the Daoist texts composed in the Six Dynasties are included in the sources of scholars' studies of the picture of Daoist ideas of the messiah and universal destruction. The sectarian scriptures that have been discovered and the explorations of them are not as many as for their Daoist counterparts'; however, as mentioned above, L i Fengmao and Richard Shek have already noticed the similarity in the eschatological contents in the Six-Dynasties Daoist texts and in Ming-Qing baojuan. The Daoist eschatological ideas that we shall discuss in the following chapter survived the end of the chaotic Six Dynasties. The founding of the Tang Dynasty (618-907) is related to Daoist expectation of the messiah after a miserable age.  3?  The prediction of the duration of  suffering with the concepts yangjiu WvJ\ (yang nine) and bailiu Fi A (a hundred and six), which appear in our Daoist prophecies, were still used in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) although the length of the duration was different.  36  Two of our Daoist texts were collected in the Yunji qiqian  H ' ^ - t ' f J l (The bookcase of the clouds with the seven labels), which was presented to the Song court by Zhang Junfang  "/Jlftjif  (f 1008-1025).  37  This means that the apocalyptic texts were  " Daniel L. Overmyer, "Quanzhen Daoist Influence on Sectarian "Precious Volumes" {Baojuan) from the Seventeenth Century", p. 77. Stephen R. Bokenkamp. "Time alter Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty", pp. 59-88. Zhang Shinan 'Mffi.'i¥J (• 3^' cent.), Youhuanjiwen ffl§[ft&ts£\ (Kwonledge recorded when serving as an official away from home), punctuated by Zhang Maopeng ^IBSIIll (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1981), pp. 63-65. The Tai.shang zhutian lingshu chiming miaojing ^ J i f f ^ M e r f l ^ i ' J ^ M (The miraculous books of salvation in the numinous writing of the numerous heavens [spoken by) the Most High One, fasc. 26) and Taishang dongxuan lingbao chishu yujue miaojing ; f c _ h ' / | B j : £ S B # i f I f M ' J ^ l (Lingbao wonderful scripture on jade secrets in red writing, [which is taught by) the Most High One, a Dongxuan scripture, fasc. 178). For the Daoist eschatological books collected in the Yunji qiqian, read Li Fengmao, "Liuchao daojiao de zhongmo lun - moshi yangjiu bailiu yu jieyiin shuo 7\WMkffi&3km—T^tS * [ ^ . A H / N ^ ^ I I S (Daoist eschatology in the Six Dynasties - ideas about the end of the world, [the faith ofj yang six and hundred six, and doomed kalpas)". Chen Guying |5$SJJJS, ed., 37  1 1  considered to be important Daoist sources. Li Fengmao thinks that, being a Daoist encyclopedia, the Yuriji qiqian was possibly circulated more widely among non-Daoists than other Daoist texts were, and infers that Daoist eschatology was therefore spread among society. As mentioned 38  above, not only ordinary people, but many Daoist priests also joined popular sects.'  These  suggest that ordinary people could therefore gain access to Daoist scriptures and learn Daoist ideas, although we have not discovered any evidence to prove that our Six-Dynasties Daoist scriptures were spread among popular sects in the Ming-Qing period. As we shall find in 40  chapter one, the prophecies of universal misery and a peaceful age were not exclusive to Daoist aristocrats in the Six Dynasties, but they were also believed by common members. Anna Seidal discovered that in 1 1 12 a Li Hong led the masses and started a rebellion.  41  Although we cannot  find much Daoist eschatological literature by literati after the end of the Six Dynasties, this does not mean the extinction of the populace's hope for the messiah's arrival. Therefore, Michel Strickmann suggests that the Six-Dynasties eschatological beliefs made a contribution to Chinese tradition of apocalyptic movements  4 2  Some Japanese scholars think that there was a  stream of the millennial quests in China, which include the Yellow Turban Rebellion raised by  Daojiao wenhua yanjiu  (Studies on Daoist culture) (Shanghai: Shanghai guji chu vol. 9, p. 99. L i Fengmao, "Jiujie yu dujie: Daojiao yu Mingmo minjian zongjiao de moshi xingge", p. 54. Some Daoist priests, for example, entered Yizhu xiang jiao — ' J i i l ^ (One-incense sect) and became the disciples of Dong Jishang Ilcffr (or Dong Jishang jff+ifh 1619-1690), the founder of the sect. Some Daoist monasteries in Shandong and Zhili were occupied by the Daoist priests who had joined the sect. Ma Xisha, {' >W$~yCiYM\'ft} :  3 8  3 9  Oingdai baguajiao, p. 35. The scriptures of the Zhenkong jiao Mzc.%k (Void sect), for example, contain quotations from two Daoist texts, Gaoshangyudi xinyin jing (Sj Jii^'L^P^M (The scripture on the mental impression [given by| the Jade Emperor) and Taishang laojun shou chang qingjing niaojing ^Jb^^lftS scripture on constant calmness expounded by the Most High Lord Lao). Noguchi Tetsuro, Feng Zuozhe trans. "Daojiao he minzhong zongjiao jieshe", p. 176. A number of terms and concepts in the Yunji qiqian such as hunyuan if^jc (chaotic prime) and cycles of cosmic time including the three stages of past, present, and future can be found in precious volumes. Daniel L. Overmyer, "Ouanzhen Daoist Influence on Sectarian "Precious Volumes" (Baojuan) from the Seventeenth Century", p. 78. It is possible that some Daoist books on alchemy practices were 4,1  circulated among popular sects. See note 209. Anna K . Seidel, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoisl Messianism: Lao-tzu and L i Himg", pp. 244-245. Anna Seidel, "Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West 1950-1990", 41  Cahiers d' Extrenie-Asie 5 (  4 2  12  Great Peace Way (Taiping dao ^v-pilt) and Ming-Qing popular sects. ' In the context of the development of Chinese eschatology, we should not consider the Six Dynasties Daoist scriptures and Ming-Qing baojuan, two groups of religious texts that were composed in different periods, have no relation to other each. This thesis is mainly based on textual studies. The two main kinds of primary sources are the Daoist texts of the Six Dynasties, which are collected in the Daoist Canon (Daozang  xS^),  and precious volumes (baojuan), most of which were composed in the Ming and Qing. The present version of the Daozang is a collection of Daoist works compiled in the Ming by the order of the state. Many of the works were originally stored in the library of Shangqing zhengyi gong  Jl'/jf I E — S ' (The orthodox unity monastery of Grand Purity [Daoism]) in Jiangxi iJjftH. Similar collections of previous dynasties do not survive. The Daoist Canon therefore is an important source for our discussion of Daoism in the Six Dynasties.  44  The majority of the precious  volumes studied in this thesis are doctrinal scriptures of popular sects, many of which are collected in the Baojuan chuji Jf^Hj^JlJS ("Precious volumes", first collection) and the Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian  (The Scriptures and Literature  of Popular Religion in the Ming and Ching [Qing] Dynasties).  45  Some texts that cannot be found  in these books were generously provided to me by Professor Daniel L. Overmyer. Precious volumes can be divided into a few types. Sectarian baojuan belong to only one of them, but they can provide us with more abundant material for studying popular eschatological views than those  Mitsuishi Zenkichi £ 5 # p , L i Yuzheng ^SjSift trans., Zhongguo de qiannian wanguo ^S^T'-^-iEIII (The [movements for) a millennial state in China) (Shanghai: Shanghai sanlian shuju, 1997). L i Fengmao has discussed the views of Suzuki Chusei tpTfv^IE, Noguchi Tetsuro, and Asai Motoi i^PriftL- L i Fengmao, "Jiujie yu dujie: Daojiao yu Mingmo minjian zongjiao de moshi xingge", pp. 43-44. For an introductory discussion of the Daoist Canon, see Kristofer Schipper & Francisus Verellen, ed.. The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty. Manuscript, pp. 3-7. 45 Baojuan chuji ("Precious volumes", first collection), ed. Gao KeflFjnj, Song Jun 5f?ljl, Zhang Xishun and Pu Wenqi ifiXIE (Shanxi: shanxi renmin chubanshe, 1994). Wang Jianchuan ZE.MLJII & Lin Wenchuan # ^ ^ | , ed.. Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian Bj^fif K5fll?$felf l!?3tli§R (The Scriptures and Literature of Popular Religion in the Ming and Ching Dynasties) (Taipei: Shin Wen Feng Print Co.. 1999).  43  4 4  13  of the other types.  This thesis certainly cannot cover all Six-Dynasties Daoist texts and  sectarian baojuan, it seems at least impossible to include all precious volumes, because many of them have been lost and destroyed over the centuries and the collections of them have not been published until recent decades.  47  I make a selection of Daoist and sectarian scriptures according  to whether they are important to knowing the history of the Six-Dynasties Daoism and MingQing sectarianism, which modern scholars' studies can show us, and to whether they contain plentiful sources relevant to our topic. The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty Daozang tiyao  edited by Kristofer Schipper and Franciscus Verellen, the  xttlffiSl.lc (Abstracts of the Daozang) edited by Ren Jiyu, and Professor Daniel L.  Overmyer's Folk Buddhist Religon: Dissenting Sects in Late Traditional China provide introductary discussions of the contents of all the Daoist texts in the Daozang and many precious volumes; these books are important to the selection of material. A point that should be made here is that I consider the scriptures of the Five Elders (Wugong ;/!£•) and the Tian ci jiujie jing ^WbWMiM. (Scripture on [how to] save oneself from the kalpa, granted by Heaven) to be part of sectarian baojuan of the Ming-Qing era , though their authorship is unclear. Some modern 48  '"' Modern scholars divide precious volumes into different categories. Generally speaking, early texts dating from the fifteenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries focus on sectarian teachings; later texts are ethical in focus and narrative in form. Randall L. Nadeau, "Genre Classifications of Chinese Popular Religious Literature: Pao-chiiari\ Journal of Chinese Religions  2 1 (1993): 12 1 -128.  " There are some other collections of baojuan published before the Baojuan chuji and Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian. There is, for example, the Hexi baojuan zhenben jiaozhu yanjiu, ed. Fang Buhe JjtpfU- The Baojuan chuji and Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian, however, contain many sectarian baojuan whereas most of scriptures in other collections are narrative ones. They are reprinted in volume 10 of the Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian. It is said that the scriptures of the Five Elders are revealed by Wugong, namely the Wugong mojie jing E^JjcijJ-fM (The scripture of the Five Elders about the last kalpa), the Tiantai shan Wugongpusa ling/ing ^ o l J j H & l f f i i l f l ^ f (Efficacious scripture [preached by) Five-Elders Bodhisattvas on the Mount Tiantai; hereafter the "Tiantai shan ling/ing"), the Dasheng Wugong zhuanlian lu jiujie zhenjing JtWTL J^^W'$$($}Mf@L (Complete scripture on salvation from | the last] kalpa, [written inj heaven-changing pictures, [preached by| the Five Elders, Great Saints; hereafter the "Dasheng Wugong jing"), and the Wugong tiange miaojing E i ^ f S i ^ l l (Wonderful scripture from the Five Elders' heavenly pavilion ). A l l these texts have many alternative names, which can be found throughout the whole texts. The above-mentioned titles are those on the cover pages of the editions 1 read. They are called "five scriptures of the Five Elders (Wugong jing wuzhong S L I M E S ) " in the Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian, but two of them are different editions of the Wugong mojie jing. Wang Jianchuan & Lin Wenchuan, ed., Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian, vol. 1, pp. 3-5. The names of the Five Elders are as follows: the Venerable Zhi (Zhigong 4S  /  14  scholars do not consider them to be precious volumes and even think that the scriptures of the Five Elders were composed in the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368).  49  fi>£* or Zhigong M/f:, i.e. Baozhi HIS), Uie Venerable Lang (Langgong the Venerable Kaiig (Kanggong fig 4», the Venerable Bao (Baogong Wfi)- and the Venerable Hua (Huagong i^Cfk). Except for Huagong, whose background is not known, the other four are Buddhist monks of the time from the age of Three Kingdoms (220-280) to the Sui Dynasty (581-618). For information about the Five Elders, read Yu Songqing Ufuf^if, "Zhuantian tujing xintan (|53^KHS) (New exploration of the Scripture of Heaven-Changing Picture)", Minjian mimi zongjiao l jingjuan wenxian ^f^yi^mWMM t^c% (Studies of scriptures of popular secret religions) (Taipei: Lianjing chuban shiye gongsi, 1994), pp. 41-44. For the views of modern scholars and the reasons why I treat these books as baojuan of the Ming-Qing period, read Appendix A. 4 9  15  C H A P T E R 1: DAOIST E S C H A T O L O G I C A L BELIEFS IN THE SIX DYNASTIES (220 A. D. -589) As mentioned above, the miserable lives of both the populace and aristocrats helped cause the explosion of Daoist eschatological works during this period; therefore, we cannot ignore Daoist scriptures of this time in a study of Daoist eschatology. In her "Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West 1950-1990", Anna Seidel points out that Daoist eschatology played an important role in Chinese religious activities in the Six Dynasties. Not only did it transform some basic tenets of Buddhist eschatology, but the popular messianism in this period also contained more Daoist than Buddhist elements.  50  We can find plentiful sources of apocalyptic  works in Daoism in this period. Besides, although Buddhism began to widely spread throughout China then, its influence on Daoism was not great enough to alter Daoist messianism fundamentally and considerably.  51  Daoist works of this period therefore can provide us primary  doctrines of this indigenous religion in eschatology and messianic prophecy.  52  Hence, Daoist eschatology of the Six Dynasties has already aroused scholars' attention. Anna Seidel, for instance, has written a few articles on Chinese messianism with references to Daoist sources. In addition to the sources in Daoist scriptures, she also discusses Chinese prophecies (chert §f|) and political affairs in the Han and the Six Dynasties.  53  E. Zurcher has  made important studies of Buddho-Daoist messianism. He generalizes some Daoist themes in  The Daoist belief in the advent of a divine redeemer after the total destruction of a corrupt world influenced Cliinese Buddhist doctrines. For example, the future Buddha Maitreya was transformed into a savior who would descend to the world during cataclysms. For details, read Anna Seidel, "Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West 1950-1990", pp. 239 & 291, and the sources mentioned there. Read Erik Zurcher, "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism - a Survey of Scriptural Evidence", T'oung Pao 66(1980):85-147 and the discussion of Buddhist influence on the Daoist eschatology on pp. 63-65. L i Fengmao believes that Daoist eschatology after the Tang was based on that formed in the Six Dynasties without breakthroughs, but he has not given any discussion of this. Li Fengmao, "Liuchao daojiao de zhongmo lun - moshi yangjiu bailiu yu jieyun shuo, p. 83. Anna K. Seidel, "The linage of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung", History of Religions, 9(1967):216-247. Anna Seidel, "Taoist Messianism", Numen: International Review for the History for the History of Religions, 31(1994): 161-174. Anna Seidel, "Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments - Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha", Melanges Chinois el Bouddhiques [Michel Strickmann ed., Tan trie and Taoist Studies in 3 0  51  3 2  33  Honour ofR. A. Stein, vol. 2] 21 (1980):291-371.  16  eschatology and then discusses how they influence the image of Bodhisttva Yueguang (^fjfc "Prince Moonlight", Candraprabha-kumara), who becomes a messiah in Chinese Buddhism. Stephen Bokenkamp pays attention to the relation between Daoist apocalypses and the founding of the Tang Dynasty.  10  Unlike these publications, my study in this chapter will exclusively deal with the Daoist scriptures containing messianic beliefs that I can find in the Daozang which were written during the Six Dynasties period.  56  ilOSi (Daoist Canon), all of  I shall include the works that the scholars  do not much discuss so that a complete picture of Daoist eschatology can be shown.  57  We shall  discuss some ideas of the Taiping jing y f c ^ W (The scripture of great peace and prosperity). Then we shall go through three themes of eschatology: contemporary understanding of crises in the world, the expectation of the coming of an era of peace and the messiah Li Hong, and ideas about zhongmin HUs; (seed people). Next the Daoist texts will be divided into three groups of ^ E. Ziircher, "'Prince Moonlight' - Messianism and Eschatology in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism", pp. 1-75. E. Ziircher, "Eschatology and Messianism in Early Chinese Buddhism", Leyden Studies in Sinology, ed.W. L. Ideina (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981), p. 34-56. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty", pp. 59-89. For the dates the scriptures in the Daozang were produced, see Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The 55  3 6  Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature  in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, manuscript, and Ren Jiyu ed.  Daozang tiyao j j t j j ^ « t i l (Abstracts of the Daozang) (Peking: Zhongguo shehui kexue chu ban she, 1991). Many titles of the texts in the Daoist Canon have been translated into English by scholars in The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, therefore, most translations of the titles of Daoist texts will be taken from this book. I shall make some changes when the meanings of some terms of the original Chinese titles are not included in the scholars' translations or when their translations of some terms need to be standardized. For those that are not from the book, 1 shall provide the translations of the scholars' in notes after my own ones. The following Daoist texts are the sources the scholars usually study for Daoist messianism: Laojun bianhua wuji jing ^^W-itMi&aL (The scripture of the Limitless Transformations of the Lord Lao, fasc. 875), Zhengyi tianshi gao Zhao Sheng koujue IE—3^lafti a"S#F-• S& (Oral (secret) Instructions Zhao Sheng, by the One-and-Orthodox 37  Heavenly Master, fasc. 1003; hereafter "the Gao Zhao Sheng Koujue"),  Taishang dongyuan shenzhou jing  * I 7[5[  #W5xJI (The book of divine incantations of the depths of the abyss, [taught by] the Most High One, fasc. 170173: hereafter "the Shenzhoujing"). Laojun yinxong jie jing ^^'a'lSI^M (The book of the Hymnal Rules of the Lord Lao, fasc. 562), Shangqing housheng daojun lieji ff{m^3t'.MW9 \& (Shangqing annals of the Latter-Day l  Saint, fasc. 198; hereafter "the Daojun lieji"), Yuanzhi wulao chishu yupian zhenwen Honshu jing  TC^nE^^llBs  MMl>Cfil=i-kx. (The scripture on the real writs of the Five Ancients of the Primordial Begiiming, red writings in celestial script on jade tablets, fasc. 26; hereafter "the Zhenwen tianshu jing"), and Taishang lingbao tiandi yundu  ziran miaojing'j^flWM^^kMf^.'^ifS.'kP^.(Natural wonderful Lingbao scripture [spoken by] the Most High One  on the rotation and salvation of Heaven and Earth, fasc. 166; hereafter "the Ziran miaojing").  Hans-Hermann  Schmidt translates the Ziran miaojing as Lingbao scripture on the laws of movement of Heaven and Earth. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 257.  17  the three Daoist schools in the Six Dynasties, the Tianshi School ^fffijjt (Celestial Master Daoism), the Shangqing School Jh'/jf M  (Grand Purity School), and the Lingbao School  WLVM  (Sacred Jewel School) so that the differences among the apocalyptic writings of the above 58  schools can been clearly seen. Part I: The Taiping jing (The scripture of great peace and properity) Lt is worth mentioning some ideas in the Taiping jing that were inherited by the authors of the Daoist texts of the Six Dynasties.  59  Although a few versions with similar titles appeared  in the Later Han Dynasty and later, only one of them is available to us now. In Chinese history, they have been interpreted as prophecies and linked with rebellions.  60  L i Fengmao has discussed the Daoist eschatological views of the schools separately; the differences among them however are not obvious in his discussion. L i Fengmao, "Chuancheng yu duiying: liuchao daojing zhong moshi t r shuo de tichu yu yanbian iMyJ^'fiM '• 7^$&M.M P 5StS j IftGWti^frff!' (Inheritance and response: changing doctrines about the end of the world in Six-Dynasty Daoist scriptures)", Zhongguo wenzhe yanjiu jikan (cf K S ^ ' W ^ l t f f l ) 9(1996): 109-130. Li Fengmao, "Liuchao daojiao de dujiu guan - zhenjun zhongmin yu dushi T\ IIMIfcWJSilfci? --MM ' @i£I^BCt& (The View of Salvation in the Taoism of the Six Dynasties: Zhenjun (Messianic Eniperior), the Selected people, and Salvation)", Studies in Oriental Religions (Dongfan zongjiao yanjiu 10(1996): 138-160. L i Fengmao, "Liuchao daojiao de zhongmo lun - moshi yangjiu bailiu yu jieyun shuo", pp. 82-99. The first section (jiabu falS) comprises of segments of some Daoist texts composed in the Six Dynasties, and so it is considered to be added to the book later. Therefore, we shall not discuss it. Wang Ming, "Lun Taiping jing chao jiabu zhi wei m (Discussion on fabricated nature of the first section of the Transcript of the Taiping jing)" , Daojia he daojiao sixiang yanjiu jlf^?Qjl|fft©$SOT% (Studies of thoughts of philosophical school of Daoism and religion of Daoism) (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui hexue chubanshe, 1994), p. 201-214. "" The first one was presented to the Han Emperor Cheng Mf$Jt$ (32-7 B.C.) by Gan Zhongke "(ET!i&^j\ and was named the Tianguan li baoyuan taiping jing fflQjiJ&F-M (Sacred book on great peace and preservation of the primitive [status of society according toj the calendar of celestial officers). Wang Mang Ji'ff reinterpreted it when usurping the Han reign. The second one, the Taiping qing ling shu ^ ^ i f S l - (Book of great peace | written in) green (with the message about| leadership), was presented to the Han Emperor Shun §!JHJi;ri¥ (A.D. 126-145) by Gong Chong and was later utilized by Zhang Jue ?J|)% the leader of the rebellion of the Yellow Turban. The present version collected in the Daoist Canon is that obtained by Zhou Zhixiang Jf];fc[lli in the Chen Dynasty. Anna Seidel, "Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments - Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha", Melanges Chinois et s  3  5 9  Bouddhiques  (Michel Strickmann ed., Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour o/R. A. Stein), vol. 2, 21(1980):291-  371. Max Kaltenmark, "The Ideology of the T'ai-p'ing ching". Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion,  Holmes Welch & Anna Seidel (London: Yale University, 1979), p. 19-52. 18  ed.  The author of the Taiping jing holds the firm belief that the natural world correlates with human behavior. This can be traced back to Dong Zhongshu China in the Yijing - | y ^ (Book of changes).  m, ^±^x,  Hr and the ancient tradition of  61  uwrnmi, trnm;, m^m,  ±mmx,  When the government of an emperor is not in order, floods and droughts arise abnormally, and robbers appear repeatedly. [If] the emperor [does not improve his government in order to erase the disasters,] but inflicts tortures and punishments [on the people] hastily instead, or increases generous benefit for them [for tempting them into submitting to him instead], and he links these together (i.e. regards these two ways as the solutions to chaos), and does not understand [his improper government as the true reason for chaos]. The people will all lament above to Heaven. The governing of magistrates in counties is in irregularity and disorder. The four seasons do not come on time. Myriad things (i.e. plants) lose [their growing season and therefore] are damaged. [People's laments] above move Heaven, [which makes] the Three Lights (san gtiang ELjt, i.e. the sun, the moon, and stars) revolve suddenly in disorder [and their orbits] alter frequently. Many stars revolve rowdily. However, [the emperor's] acting in accord with the Supreme Dao can save people. 1 know that the will of Heaven does not deceive you. Once the might of Heaven is expressed, it cannot be stopped. When Heaven is offended, it makes people die early.  62  Although the authors of Daoist books do not lay the same emphasis on the importance of emperors' government as does the Taiping jing, they continue to hold the belief that human moral behavior will bring the harmony of natural phenomena. Therefore, their writings contain detailed depictions of human depravity, and calamities brought by Heaven as punishments.  63  Anna Seidel, "Taoism: The Unofficial High Religion of China", Taoist Resources 7(1997):44-45. Anna Seidel, "Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments - Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha", p. 303. Wang Ming 3EH/j ed.. Taiping jing hejiao ^ C ^ I l a K (Combined and proofread I version of] the Taiping jing) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1960), p. 23. . 1 shall discuss this point in part 1 01  6 2  1,3  19  The author of the Taiping jing divides history into three antiquities (sangu E L 15): high antiquity (shanggu J i " ^ ) , middle antiquity (zhonggu 4-  1  c&X  a n  d lower antiquity (xiagu  which are the ages of the remote past, recent past, and present time, respectively.  64  ~ F ~ E L T ) ,  He shows  obvious nostalgia for the past, and thinks that there were not any natural disasters in that period. The age of high antiquity is the time of great peace, in which the emperors of great peace (taiping zhi jun  yfc^^l^j)  govern with non-intervention (wuwei 4 S ^ ) . They rule in accord  with the will of Heaven (tianxin X>ls)- People in the period never encounter sickness and calamities, and gain long lives. In the period of zhonggu, humans start to become depraved. In the age o{ xiagu, people's corruption became more severe.  63  In the book, the author comments  extensively on the behavior of people in the xiagu age by comparing them with people in the other two periods. Here is one example, in which he remarks on funerals held in the three ages:  ±-^zxmm,  toSffriE,  mm^m^m, xomm,  it, mmm, mmmmmmzm, mstm^m,  mm, ^±• M, ^mm,  r t t w m e m n m m m ,  • ^-&wm$& m%.n&m, &$>mm  mM.nmmn.rn,  n m m m ,  mmm, mmsm, m^Bm, mm^n, tiysmmm, k  People in high antiquity arranged funerals only in order to express their feeling (i.e. sorrow). The expenditure on burying [the dead] did not exceed that spent by them when they were alive. People were simple and seldom got sick. In middle antiquity, the reason [for doing this] gradually lost its rules (i.e. people's lives gradually went beyond all reason). [People] degenerated into becoming luxurious. They exhausted their money in spending on implements for funerals. Therefore, [offerings for] worship became abundant, and ghosts and spirits multiplied. People got sick frequently [because] these ghosts caused harm. They could not be stopped. [People in] lower antiquity worship these (lit. la ftk) ghosts more numerously and therefore promote iheyin (|$J| i.e. harmful force). They serve (i.e. worship) ghosts and spirits, and they cause harm to the living. Officials take control of monarchical power. Women usurp [the authority over] families  M  Ou ~£j here means stages.  ''^ M a x Kaltenmark, "The Ideology o f the T'ai-p'ing ching", pp. 22-23.  20  tt*  [instead of husbands]. Rebellions of soldiers rise suddenly. The unrighteous and the wicked form cliques. Flattery prospers day by day. Decrees of government are to no effect. Monarchical mandates (lit. monarchical path f l j l t ) cannot be carried out. A l l these [misfortunes] result from [people's] boosting the>7« more than t h e ^ a ^ (f^§ i.e. auspicious force). The Dao of Heaven hates [their behavior] and causes these disasters. Why are you not careful in [holding funerals]?  66  Although the three periods of history are seldom juxtaposed in our Daoist works, the contrast between the past and the present is important material for them. Revealing the methods of establishing the era of great peace is the purpose of the author of the Taiping jing in writing it. Only people in the high antiquity of the three ages enjoy the state of taiping and obtain harmony of human world and natural world. The ideal state, however, does not exist in the remote past only, but will also come in the near future.  67  When Heaven is going to cause rain, it certainly gives first wind and clouds so as to make people know the coming of the rain [in advance].... Now the qi of great peace should come. [Heaven] is afraid that people will do evil and confuse heavenly rule, so it makes people aware of it (i.e. the <//').  68  The author thinks that people in the past were sincere and acted in accordance to the will of Heaven, so there was no need for composing books (wenshu SCi=i)- (Chapter 48) People should now "[compose] articles full of [the messages about] original beginning [of the world] and correct words "H' ^SC^f-TCJE^" because "the present [is the time that] the qi of great peace is going to come  ^7"#y^ P*UELS", the z  wording of which is similar to that quoted above.  69  Perhaps because the expectation of the peace in the future exist in the book and one of its  Wang Ming, ed., Taiping jing hejiao, pp. 52-53. Max Kaltenniark, "The Ideology of the T'ai-p 'ing ching", pp. 23-24. Wang Ming, ed., Taiping jing hejiao, p. 41. Wang Ming, ed., Taiping jing hejiao, p. 155. 21  versions is related to the rebellion of Yellow Turbans, the book is thought to contain revolutionary ideas.  70  Part I I : General Eschatological Views in Daoism a) Contemporary Understandings of Crises in the World in the Six Dynasties Period Like the author of the Taiping jing, those of Daoist scriptures of this period show nostalgia for the past and condemn the society of the contemporary world, but they simply divide time into two stages: the present and the past, unlike what we find in the Taiping jing  11  In the  past, people were moral and behaved in accordance with their social status; therefore, Heaven and Earth remained peaceful without any disaster. The Niiqing gui hi 'tKM^W (The code of Nuqing for [controlling] demons, fasc.563), a text of the Celestial Master Daoism, says the following at the beginning of the first chapter:  The [code] says that when Heaven and Earth were just born, the primeval vital force (yuanqi JXM\) evil (lit. xian  circulated. Ten thousand gods spread qi; there were no ugly, traitorous, = yao /$;?), wicked, and unrighteous ghosts. Males were filial and  females were chaste. Emperors behaved righteously and officials were loyal. The six unities (liuhe 7\1=r) [were joint together] as one whole (i.e. the universe remained 72  peaceful); there were no calamities . [However,] from the first year of the Heavenly Emperor's (Tianhuang 3*cll) [reign], [people] have multiplied hundreds of skills (i.e.  " L i Fengmao, "Liuchao daojiao de dujiu guan - zhenjun zhongmin yu duslvi", pp. 139-141. Li's view that the book is the source of Daoist revolutionary beliefs is controversial. One should be reminded that there are not many the passages about the coming peace in the book. Besides, it is thought to be a sacred book presented by Daoist masters to emperors, not to rebels. See note 60 and Sediel's article mentioned there. The terms for the three antiquities are seldom used in the Daoist works of this period. The one "xiagu" appear in the Santian ncijic. jing H^F^jfPp/M (The scripture of explanations of the essentials of the Three Heavens, fasc. 876), but the other two do not. The six unities either mean the sun, the moon, and the four directions, or mean the universe. 7  71  7 2  22  ways of trickery) (zhuansheng baiqiao $$^|f. Fj 3-5), and do not believe in the Great Dao. The qi of traitorousness, slaughter, and epidemics in five directions gradually flourishes. Tigers, wolves, and ten thousand [savage] animals receive qi and grow up. Hundreds of kinds of worms, snakes, and demons multiply quickly day by day. (la) All the three schools hold the view that the age of depravity is present or is coming. In that time, cataclysms will be everywhere and numerous people will die; therefore, they should follow the methods mentioned in their scriptures for salvation. The belief in the interaction between the universe and human affairs in the Taiping jing continues in the Daoist texts written in the Six Dynasties and is part of the foundation of their eschatology. "Moshi (the end of the world  TJclit)"  here results from three causes.  74  Misbehavior,  disbelief to the Dao, and exhaustion of the duration of the universe bring natural disasters. Chapter 6 of the Niiqing gnihi begins with the following words said by the Celestial Master;  mw^m,  mm^m, z m - ^ m , 'jimrnm, m&Am&m.imm& •  In recent times the yin and theyang are not in harmony. Floods and droughts come out of season. Cataclysms and misfortunes are often seen. All these are caused by the loss of reason in human affairs, (la) Then the master recounts how the Dao is disbelieved in the present, which will see the end of the world. His criticism is based on Confucian values; people are criticized for not acting in accordance with their social roles. They are competitive and do not obey Heaven and Earth. They do not respect their teachers. The noble and the humble do not separate, and neither do the Zhuansheng should be translated into "multiply", instead of "be reborn", because the whole sentence zhuansheng baiqiao accuses people of creating hundreds ways of trickery, and it is not related to human rebirth. Zhuan here means "increase by double or more". Luo Zhufeng j^ttiH, ed., Hanyu da cidian MM'XfflrM (Great Chinese dictionary) (Hong Kong: Sanlian shudian & Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 1987), vol.9, p. 1314. "* The term moshi is commonly applied in the Daoist texts in this period such as the Chisong zi zhang li ^&-f-s$M (The petition almanac of Chisong zi (Master Chisong), fasc. 335-336), chapter 3, 30a, the Taishang dongzhen zhihui shangpin dajie ;fcJiP3Jti^l§Jlon;^t£ (Dongzhen great niles [belonging to| the superior class of wisdom [told to) the most high [Lord Lao|, fasc. 77; hereafter "the Shangpin dajie"), 15b, and the Niiqing guilu, chapter 6, la. Hans73  Hermann Schmidt translates the Shangpin dajie as Great superior rules of wisdom.  The Shangpin dajie is a  collection of Lingbao precepts taught to the Lord Lao by the Yuanzhi tianzun jt^ad^M- (Heavenly Honorable One of the Primal Beghmmg), and should belong to the category of Daoist texts Dongxuan P j£ (The cavern of mystery) like other Lingbao scriptures, instead of Dongzhen p]jj[ (The cavern of perfection, i.e. Shangqing school). Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 239. Ren Jiyn, ed. Daozang tiyao, p. 130.  23  virtuous and the evil. The wise have hidden away. Loyal people do not hold office. Righteousness and virtue no longer exists. Besides the above scripture, judging human behavior by Confucian morality can be found in other Daoist texts. ln addition to misbehavior, humans' disbelieving Daoism, and so not having right faith (zhengfa JJESc), is thought to be responsible for the chaotic state in the present. In the Taiji zhenren jiaofu jiao lingbao zhaijie weiyi zhu jing yaojue X^MMX$^.§kMW MM^imB^ 7  #S3cl&  (Instructions from all the scriptures for the ritual of the Lingbao retreat, expounded by the Zhenren (perfect man) of the Great Bourne, fasc. 295; hereafter "the Zhujing yaojue"), the Perfect Man of the Great Ultimate condemns severely the people who follow heretical faiths, i.e. non-Daoism, and do not believe in the Dao, after he gives the detailed instructions about Lingbao zhaijie (fasts and retreats Mf$L) and an account of its divine power. Such people attack T  Daoist doctrines, and declare Daoist scriptures and skills at cultivation as false. They have faith in practices of shamanism (wushu AEf'tf), and in the fabrications stated in miscellaneous nonDaoist books (zashu ^tH),  and indulge themselves with worldly enjoyments. (15a-15b) Later in  the text the author of the scripture criticizes the people for not really understanding Daoism and not taking right paths.  x,  8ffe?±<L>, r&mxm,  »m'm&  •  [I] observe that nowadays among the people in this world whose behavior accords with the Dao, there are few who want to hold the zhaijie, read (lit. zhuan  revolve) [Daoist]  scriptures, search for wise teachers (mingshi B^falfi), receive [instructions in] reciting [the scriptures], ask respectfully [the teacher's] meanings and principles [stated in the scriptures], believe them, and practice them. Most of them are fond of luxury and are superficial. [Desire for] beautiful sounds and sights occupy their minds; their aspirations  24  lack great refinement. They are fond of learning magic of the Small Vehicle (xiaocheng /jS5|t).  75  (17b-18a)  The author continues by saying that people will laugh at and attack those who aim at immortality (xiandao  flllxS) and  universal salvation (lujiyiqie renmin H^if—^JAJS;)- People who do not  have such aims "can neither dissolve disasters nor remove misfortunes as our group (i.e. Lingbao believers) can do  (f^U^^M^t^^^tki^^" • The author does not mention clearly the  contents of xiaocheng, so we cannot be sure if his comments are for followers of shamanism or for non-Lingbao devotees. doctrines {zhengfa  76  Since the Great Dao (daidao TvM) does not spread and right  JElik) do not  prosper, evil spirits arise and claim to be orthodox deities. (18a)  The Sanlian neijie jing, a text of Celestial Master Daoism, is another example of how the rise of non-Daoism is linked with contemporary misfortunes. A lot of passages in it deal with the mixing of three different religions, the Great Dao of Non-intervention (wuwei dadao ^MiX i.e. Daoism), Buddhism (Fodao \WM), and the Great Dao of Purity and Simplicity (Qingyue dadao /W^"JAM) The work results in Celestial Master Daoism's competition with Buddhism in the Age of South-North Dynasties (Nanhei chao ^~\\M\)- It was written by a Daoist master with the surname Xu f|£ during the Liu Song Dynasty  (420-479). Both in the south and north 77  Daoism taced the ever-growing popularity of Buddhism.  Therefore, during the Northern Wei  "Xiaocheng" here does not mean Hinayana here, but mean coarse practices, of which no further explanation or examples are given in the scripture. " The devotees of Lingbao Daoism regarded the practices with the goal of personal cultivation, not of saving others, as xiaocheng, and people could only be earthy divinities (clixian hjjflJj) by using them. The Lingbao belief was aimed at saving others, so its devotees could be celestial divinities (lianxian 3^f|i|). Hu Fuchen ^ ^ J T K , Weijin shenxian daojiao - Baopuzi neipi an yanjiu |;t#?${|ljjit£&- - (tS^i"!*!^'} (Immortality Daoism in the Wei and Jin Dynasties - studies on the Inner Chapters Book by Master Baopu) (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1989), p. 61. In order to resist Buddhism, Daoism devoted attention to spreading its own scriptures for lower-class society such as the Laozi bianhuajing ^'-f-ftHttM (The scripture on transformations of Laozi), the Laozixianger zhu ^-ffiMM &. (Xianger's commentary on the Daode jing (The scripture of Dao and virtue)), and the Taiping jing. Celestial Master Daoism also absorbed Buddhist ideas in its regulations and rituals. Anna Seidel, "Imperial Treasures and Taoist Sacraments - Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha", p. 38. Hu Fuchen, Weijin shenxian daojiao - Baopuzi neipian yanjiu, pp. 53-54. Julian F. Pas, Historical Dictionary of Taoism (London: The Scarecrow Press, 1998), p. 20. 75  7  77  Dynasty (386-535), which was about the same period as the Liu Song Dynasty, persecution of Buddhism (miefo  was carried out in 446. In the scripture, the faiths mentioned above are  claimed to be established by the Lord Lao according to different features of regions. The vital force of the yang (ycmg qi  |i?§|ji,) in China is pure and hence people there believe in Daoism.  Buddhism is depreciated in this work and is regarded as a teaching suitable only to the eightyone regions in the West (huguo bashiyi yu $^WlJ\~~\~'—i^c, i.e. India), where the vital force of the yin {yinqi  |$HHi) is dense.  Severe precepts are necessary for restraining theyinqi. The Qingyue  dadao, of which the contents are uncertain, is appropriate to the Chu  (the present Hubei and  northern Hunan) and Yue M (a part of modern Zhejiang and Jiangsu) because the vital force of the ycmg and the yin there are thin. (Chapter 1, 3a) Although the author thinks the confusion of the three faiths was the reason of decay of the Han Empire, he mainly criticizes Buddhism. In this scripture, the history during the time of the Emperor Ming (Q£jT^r) of the Later Han Dynasty is mentioned. The emperor dreamt of Buddha and then sent ambassadors to India for asking for Buddhist scriptures. After that time Buddhism spread in China. After the story of the emperor, the author says:  The three ways (i.e. faiths) mingle with each other and therefore people [from different regions] mix with each other. [The faiths of] the inner region (China) and outer regions (India) are confused with each other. Each one values his own [faith at will]. Or they believe in heresies, discard true [faith], and worship ghosts and [wicked] deities. Human affairs (renshi AS) force (lianqi AIR,)  below transgress [the proprieties] and are improper; Heavenly vital above is in disorder. They make Heavenly vital force chaotic and  turbid. People lose their original genuineness [in nature]. (Chapter 1, 15b) The Daoist masters in this period thought that a confusing intermixture of orthodox Daoism and heresies, or people's weak faith in Daoism, was one of the reflections of people's depraved 26  conduct. This, together with other ways of misbehavior, is within the sphere of human affairs. Hence, the condemnation of people's not following the zhengfa is sometimes mixed with that of people's corruption. For example, in the Santian neijie jing, intermarriage among other races is regarded as a reflection of confusion of faiths, and therefore humans and ghosts intermingle with each other (rengui jiaocuo A j ^ 3 £ $ e ) - (Chapter 1, 5a) As the result of human degeneracy in morality and faith, misfortunes are caused to exterminate the evil and separate them from the virtuous. Disasters are interpreted as a means of supporting morality. In the "Yuanshi wulao rang dajie hungshui zhao jiaolong shuiguan duzai zhenwen yujue  TU^S^^^J^^XSsKtl^Jc'gJgi^JA^ZEl^  (Jade secrets of perfect  characters, [taught by] the Five Elders of Primal Beginning for removing the deluges of the great kalpa and summoning flood dragons and water divinities to deliver [people] from disasters)" collected in the Taishang dongxuan lingbao chishu yujue miaojing A - t . / | 5 j 3 l M S ^ 4 3 £ | ^ : f e l ' \ ^ :  (Lingbao wonderful scripture on jade secrets in red writing, [which is taught by] the Most High One, a Dongxuan scripture, fasc. 178; hereafter "the Yujue miaojing") contains a spell devoted to 78  various deities, an account of its miraculous efficacy during floods, and instructions to apply it. Ln the passage stating the power of the spell, the Dao, i.e. Lord Lao, says the following:  xm~xij]^x, m?mtii,  i  i  i  -  »  During the interchange of great Heavenly and Earthly kalpas, deluges appear in the four directions for removing the corrupt and getting rid of the cruel; therefore among ten thousand people (i.e. the corrupt and the cruel) not one remains [in the world]. (Chapter 1, 19b) In the spell, the message is mentioned again after the description of the universal destruction.  l x  Hans-Hennaiui Sclunidt translates the title as the Lingbao scripture of the jade instructions on the red writing. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed.. The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 232.  27  [The purpose of calamities] is to discard the wicked and leave behind the virtuous [so that] purity (i.e. moral people) and turbidity (i.e. corrupt people) are separated from each other forever. (Chapter 1, 20a) In the age of great peace, all evil ones will be wiped out and only virtuous people, or Daoist devotees, will remain.  79  Therefore, in the eschatological views of the Six Dynasties, miseries are  dividers between the present age of coraiption and the future era of great peace. They are regarded as sieves separating righteous humans from immoral ones. The above views on the causes of disorders can be found in the tradition of the Taiping jing; they originate in the ancient Chinese belief that humans and nature, or Heaven, Earth and humans, are interrelated. The third reason is different from the above two, but it has an important role in the Daoist eschatology of the Six Dynasties, ln addition to the sins of humans, the emergence of calamities is considered to be the result of exhaustion of the age of the world, which is a stage of a universal cycle. The Taishang laojun zhong jing A A . A  l§ (The  middle scripture [given by] the Most High Lord Lao, fasc. 839) is composed of fifty-five chapters introducing divinities in two volumes.  80  Under the entry for the fifty-second god, there  is a description of the cosmic cycle of prosperity and famine:  mxmz^mxiim-^n,  A A - M - A M ;  -isA-^-m-xn,  H W A H - ^ -  AM: E H i E S ^ - A A ^ A - A I A =.-TAF3g|I§!AA#; M A A F I E A Atlt/fA A«AAIiM@AiA--tlA£ ° HHAAUggAiiii-A^, ftUmn, iifui, xmm®, ^mmmm--\i, xitmnm, M I A «  -  im  The virtuous people or Daoist devotees are called "seed people (zhongmin flUx; or zhongren MA)"; we shall discuss this term later. "The disorders should not be long. Sons of wolves (i.e. wicked people) should be removed. The reign of the Dao {Daoyun >\'\y\[) should proper. The age of great peace will come soon. At present | the evil] should be expelled, and the moral seed people {zhongren) should be left.'ffiFf-'MUfe• TMMMM• A^flffifi, ! i l A E B # S A " " {Niiqing gui UL chapter 6, la-lb) 7 y  !  The contents of the text do nol indicate which school, among Celestial Master Daoism, Lingbao Daoism, and Shangqing Daoism, it belongs to. Kristofer Schipper believes that it is a scripture written in the Later Han Dynasty. Ren Jiyu and Wang Kit, however, view it as a work produced in the Wei or Jin Dynasties. Kristofer Schipper &  Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 97. Ren Jiyu ed. Daozang tiyao. p. 924. Wang Ka ;£-|r. "Taishang laojun zhong jing''. Zhonghua da cidian cpfj§j||fjj  /xWf^i (Great dictionary of Chinese Daoism), ed. Hu Fuchen (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chu ban she, 1995), p. 343. This text was treated as the middle chapter {zhongjing) and the Daode jing as the first and last chapters by the members of the Shangqing school. Kristofer Schipper translates the title as Laozi's book of the Center. 28  Therefore, in the meeting of Heaven and Earth, there is a [stage of] minor prosperity (xiaogui /hilt) every forty-five years. There is a [stage of] minor famine every ninety years. There is a [stage of] great prosperity every one hundred and eighty years. There is a [stage of] great famine every three hundred and sixty years. The wise and saints have a small gathering every five hundred and one thousand years respectively.  81  In three  thousand and six hundred years, there is great assembly for saints. In eighteen thousand, perfected ones emerge once for reigning a short time (yi xiao chuzhi —/huLV/a); in thirtysix thousand years, Ultimate Immortals (zhiji shenren S-fsIlUlA) emerge to reign. In thirty-six million years, there is a great merger between Heaven and Earth. [During that period,] the primal vital force (yuanqi fcMd will be in a primordial state (mingxing y|| •/$)  8 2  form.  The chaotic state (lit. menghong 83  = hongmeng 0fM) [returns to] its original ;  Humans will become [the same as] myriad things and not know (i.e. distinguish  between) [the four directions of] the east, the west, the south, and the north. Humans will become animals; animals will become humans. (Chapter 2, 16b) The duration of the cosmos varies in different scriptures. The Dongxuan lingbao benxiang yundu jieqi jing  PJ^fiS^tSiSitSj^lS  (Lingbao scripture on the origin and the appearance  of the cosmic cycles and kalpa periods, a Dongxuan scripture, fasc. 165; hereafter "the Yundu jieqi jing") contains another list of years. During the period from the creation of Heaven and Earth to their devastation, there are three primal ones (sanyuan H j c ) , nine misfortunes (jiu e JI |iJE), great disasters, and small disasters.  84  During each period of yuan- there are nine misfortunes,  which consist of three cataclysms (sanzai Ei.^j<.) and six calamities (liuhai AH') Even in the liuhai, there are three small disasters (san xiao zai H/J\t£c) During the serious cataclysms, half of people die; during small disasters, they suffer from expensive grain. In the description of above teachings, the author emphasizes frequently that the stages of cosmic cycle and the  The first xiao /\\ is omilled because it is meaningless. Mingxing is [he yuanqi before the formation of Heaven and Earth. Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 74. * Hongmeng is the chaotic state before forming of the universe. Zhang Zhizhe, Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 64. Sanyuan is composed of three jiazi (sixty years); won here is a unit of time. sl  s 2  3  M  29  mentioned disasters are doomed and unavoidable by adding the sentences "it cannot be altered (yi H?)  aJH>", "it cannot be changed (duo Sp) ^ HJS|:", "they [misfortunes] cannot be refused  (que g[l) sf~a]fflZ_", and "[calamities] cannot be prevented (rang ijff)  o j i f i i ^ " . (12a-13b) By  stating in detail the amount of years in all three stages of three yuan and listing years of intervals between each disaster, the author gives a vivid picture of serious universal suffering caused by imminent cyclical misfortunes, and his advice urging people to convert to Daoism therefore sounds convincing. However, not every scripture with the idea of cyclical crises contains long lists of time of universal prosperity and devastation. Sometimes only the term "yang/iu (yang nine I H A ) " is mentioned. In a calendar formed in the Han Dynasty for calculating normal and disaster years, 'yang/iu" is originally short for nine years of drought. One yuan (yiyuan — T C X a cycle of an age, is composed of 4,617 years, in which there are fweyang disasters (yange WaftL, ie. drought) and four yin disasters (yine |5J|Jr2, i.e. flood). Nine years of drought will appear after the first 106 years in a yuan, and this period of disaster is called "yang/iu". ' Other disasters that are named "yin nine (yinjiu |H7L)", "yang seven (yangqi firb')'\ and so on follow the yang/iu, but only the term "yang nine" becomes a synonym of cyclical crises in the Daoist works in the Six Dynasties. Sometimes it is applied with the term "bailiu E T A (hundred and six)", which originally means a period of one hundred and six normal years before the yang nine.  mm&&±, mmmm,  i  «  ,  WM%ZM •  Only by learning the Dao for seeking survival, understanding thoroughly the destiny [of miseries], and saving [oneself from] the apex [of destruction of the world], one can attain long life and [survive] the destiny of the yang nine. (Taishang lingbao tiandi yundu ziran miaojing  AJlfiHAiriiaSlt l i l ^ ^ W  [The natural wonderful Lingbao scripture  Stephen Bokenkamp has made a table of years of droughts and floods. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty" Asia Major, 7(1994):66. Hu Fuchen, Wei/in 8 5  shenxian daojiao - Baopuzi neipian yanjiu, p. 749.  30  [spoken by] the Most High One on the rotation and salvation of Heaven and Earth], fasc. 166; hereafter "the Ziran miaojing", 1 b)  Mifmni A A A A  xm&m±mm,  i  S A ^ A A H A A ^ A A ^ A  [The magic symbol should be written in] the old format of the Ziwei (purple profundity 'MWO Upper Palace of Mysterious Metropolis in red writing on white silk, and should be worn so that one can go through [without harm] the interchange of great misfortunes of the great yang nine and the great hundred and six. (Ynanzhi wulao chishu yupian zhenwen Honshu jing ^ J i p S ^ ^ f ^ B s l f e ^ - A A ^ S [The scripture on the real writs of the Five Ancients of the Primordial Beginning, red writings in celestial script on jade tablets], fasc. 26; hereafter "the Zhenwen lianshu jing", chapter 2, 3b-4a,) The authors of our Daoist works do not think that the idea of cyclical crises of the universe contradicts their attack on human mistakes. Condemnations of human misconduct and people's faith in non-Daoism sometimes are mingled with accounts of doomed destruction of the world. The authors hold these views on the causes of contemporary disorders at the same time. In the Chisong zi zhang li, for example, there are different petitions presented by Daoist masters on behalf of followers with various requests. The one for asking to remove the sufferings of the dead starts with an attack on the impure world, in which the way to heaven is blocked, and with a reference to difficulties in obeying Daoist precepts. The petition then says, "In addition, at present the yangjiu is encountered. The destiny [of miseries] is imminent; [humans] will be expelled.  jJQflllAlilA, MfSlil^  ° "(Chapter 6, 14b) Two petitions for praying for repelling  harmful forces on behalf of officials and of families whose members recently die contain the following comments on contemporary people: People in the end of this period of terminal vulgarity (mosu A f § ) do not cultivate diligently and establish merits for returning above the generous favor of the Lord Lao. Most ways of their behavior violate morals; the records of their sin can be piled as high as a mountain. The current world (shishi BAlit) is hypocritical and  31  corrupt; humans and ghosts mutually resort to cunning. The merits of mundane people (lit. flesh people |^| A rouren) are few. Therefore the calamities cannot be prevented.  86  b) Expectation of the Coming of Peaceful Era and Messiahs The relationship between the expectations of messiahs, especially Li Hong S ^ A ,  m  Daoist texts and the rebels who rose up under the names of the messiahs in the Six Dynasties is a topic which has drawn the attention of scholars.  87  The apocalyptic messages in Daoist works  concerning the advent of the peaceful reign ruled by the messiah Li Hong and contemporary rebellions, of which the leaders claimed to be the masters of the new reigns, show that messianism and the pursuit of an everlasting ideal world were beliefs held by both the upper and lower classes in the Six Dynasties.  88  In Daoist texts, the title of the messiah Holy Ruler (Sheng jun  is integrally  associated with expectation of the age of great peace. Living in the peaceful world, greeting the Holy Ruler (or the Ruler of Great Peace [Taiping jun A P^a]X and being seed people are three z  inseparable blessings promised to devotees if they follow the doctrines in the scriptures; being qualified to obtain them means that one can survive the imminent or present misfortunes and obtain immortality in the ideal world governed by the Holy Ruler.  *" m§^f&mB. m&nm* r  ±$BJ§«.  wn%m< mmm»,  (Chapter 6. isa-isb)  mjmtum:  r  I ^ A J ^ i . M A ' l I - i c " (Chapter 6. 22b) *' Tang Yongtong igffl}^. "'Yaozei' L i Hong '$M,' ~^?jL\ ("Evil enemy' L i Hong)", under "Kangfu zliaji size -fS^LlfiMM'J (Four items of reading notes |written after| recovery)". Tang Yongtong xueshu lunwen ji ifjfflfl^lptytj I w X I H (Collection of Tang Yongtong's academic discourses) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1983), p. 209-314. Tang Zhangru BMM, "Shiji yu daojing zhong suqjian de L i Hong ^ f § ! £ [ j i $ M | J f f M L W A ^ ([The image of| L i Hong seen in historical books and Daoist scriptures), Weijin nanbei chao shilun shiyi ~MWW!:\h~$]$llmrfciM (Supplementary amplifications of discourses on history of the Wei, Jin. and South-North Dynasties), Beijing, Zhonghua shuju, 1983, pp. 208-214. Wang Ming, "'Nongmin qiyi suocheng de L i Hong he mile H J ^ S f S ^ j f M W ^ 3Af O'jfll/j ([The incarnations of] L i Hong and Maitreya proclaimed to be by rebels in peasant uprisings)", Daojia he daojiao sixiangyanjiu (Beijing: Zhongguo sliehui hexue chubanshe), p. 373-380. (:  :l  3  s s  Anna Seidel, "Taoist Messianism", Nunten: International  (1994):161-174.  32  Review for the History for the History of Religions,  31  ^mmmm^iii&mm^,  mmw, st^¥, mmmm,  ?y.mm  Please make the official (the Daoist master who carries out rituals) be able to receive the kindness [of Heaven so that] the three calamities (sanzai  EL/Jl), the nine disasters (jiue  JTX), the evil world, and the hard years can pass me by.  [Please make] myriad people  89  fi  convert to and respect [the Dao], see the peaceful [world], welcome respectfully the Holy Ruler, and be the seed people forever. (Chisong zi zhang li, chapter 4, 23a) The Zhenwen Honshu jing says that the people who wear the magic symbols in the scripture can come through catastrophes, as shown in above quotation. Floods, fires, and various poisons cannot do them harm. "They can see the time of Great Peace and become the seed people of the Holy Ruler. f#.MLA P, z  MSBM^B.^  ° " (Chapter 2, 4a) The sentences with references to the  promises of being seed people, greeting the Holy Ruler, and experiencing the peaceful age can be found throughout in the scripture. The Shangqing sanyuan yujian sanyuan bujing Ji'/lf H7C  ZE^Ir.JC^If. (Shangqing scripture of jade examinations of the three original ones [i.e. Heaven, Earth, and humans] , spread by the three [goddesses] original ones (i.e. the three sister 90  goddesses: the Original Lords of White Purity, Yellow Purity, and Purple Purity jE3^7G3j§' ~ M  M7G^=i  "  ^ ^ T G f l ) , fasc. 179; hereafter "the  Sanyuan bujing"),  a Shangqing work probably  written in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, includes similar sentences. ' The followers who possess and 9  apply the magic symbols of the Xiayuan T ;~C (the lower original one) and of the Zhongyuan  Sanzai are tliree kinds of calamities. Tliree great calamities (da sanzai j\EL*j<.) are storms, floods, and fires. Tliree little calamities (xiao sanzai/hH-ic) are famines, epidemics, and warfare. Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 83. 1 cannot find the contents of Ihe jiue. Zhongyuan (Earth) here means mountains; xiayuan (humans) here means immortals. Krislofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 167. Both Isabelle Robinet and Wang Ka believe that the scripture was probably written in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua da cidian, p. 240. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., 77K? Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, pp. 167-168. Isabelle Robinet explains the title of the text, but does not mention the translation of the whole title. Jian $j? here means the examination of the sacred writings about Heaven, Earth, and immortals. (2a-3a) 8 9  M  91  TC (the middle original one) are guaranteed to be able to greet the Holy Ruler in the Shangqing Palace (Shangqing gong  _h'/Ws)  in the age of great peace. (19b & 20b)  Except for the Shangqing housheng daojun lieji _h'/jf f^IiMSAJ/TS (Shangqing annals of the Latter-Day Saint, fasc. 198; hereafter "the Daojun lieji"), a biography of the Holy Ruler about his birth and his cultivation, our Daoist works do not contain detailed descriptions of him. The authors of some books simply write his name and the year he comes, but these two items vary in different scriptures. The Holy Ruler is thought to be Li Hong ^jE^fA or Li Zhi 5 p V a ; his given name is usually mentioned in the split characters kon • and gong n  or san JEr. and tai  Except for that in the Gao Zhao Sheng koiijue, which is the end of the year of Metal Horse  (3a), the coming time of the age of peace is proclaimed the renchen iE&Jj? year, the 29 year of lh  sixty-year cycle formed by the Heavenly Stems and the Earthly Branches (ganzhi -| A) :  The Holy Emperor (Shengdi  ^M/%')  has already set out to reign; his time will begin in the  renchen year. (Ziran miaojing, 6b) Although Tao Hongjing  Pi^AiS mentions the  Dongxuan lingbao zhenling weiye tu  surname of the Holy Emperor only in his  /[BK  fill'A  fulfil  (Lingbao table of the ranks and  achievements of perfect spirits, a Dongzhen scripture, fasc. 73; hereafter "the Weiye lu"), he 9T  ranks him among other Daoist divinities: "  1,2  The name L i Zhi is found in the Niiqing guiliu and the Ziran miaojing.  the Laojun bianhua 9 3  The name L i Hong can be discovered in  wuji jing and the Shenzhou jing.  lsabelle Robinet translates the title as Table of degrees and functions of the spirits,  Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature  113.  34  Kristofer Schipper &  in the Daozang  of the Ming Dynasty, p.  The family name of the Lord Emperor of Imperial Palace of Great Ultimate is L i ; he is the Master of Great Peace (Taiping zhu A ^ i ) in the renchen year.  94  and will descend and [spread] teachings  (8a)  In the Shenzhou jing, the year of renchen of the contemporary sixty-year cycle is highlighted:  The Dao says that since this renchen year there will be certainly a Perfect Ruler, and [the advent of] the Perfect Ruler is not far away. (Chapter 9, 2b) The information about the Holy Ruler in the Daoist works usually is his name and the time he comes only, i.e. the arrival time of the age of great peace; this is very different from the Daojun lieji, the contents of which will be mentioned briefly in the next part about the features of Shangqing eschatology and appendix B .  9 5  Unlike those of the misfortunes at the end of the world, the accounts of the era of great peace are scarce in our Daoist texts. Only three of them contain detailed depictions of how the world will be in the ideal age: the Daojun lieji, the Laojunyinsong jie jing, and the Shenzhou jing. Among them, that in the Shenzhou jing is the most detailed. The Dao says in this text that in the reign of the Holy Ruler people in the world are blissful; they can live for three thousand years. Heaven and Earth are changed; the sun and the moon are rearranged and so they are brighter than ever. (10b) People live happily and morally.  In addition to the Lord Emperor of Imperial Palace above, il is strange that there is another divinity called the Yousheng jinque dichen housheng xuanyuan daojun ^^Ml^Jt^'iM (Mysterious Original Lord Dao of Latter|-Heaven) Saint |vvho is] the Emperor Chen H (Morning) of Imperial Palace of Righl|-Heaven] Saint) in the Weiye tu. "He should descend and be born during the destiny of renchen.'-X~)W>SM\~\"-\:.(5a);" he occupies the right position of the second rank (dier youwei Wh—'izlitL) in the hierarchy of deities. The former one holds the central position of the third rank (disan zhongwei zfe—.tyiiL). Both entries seem lo be of the Holy Emperor. Jinque should be interpreted as imperial palaces instead of golden imperial gates, its literal meaning. It means either dwellings of immortals or deities in heavens or imperial palaces of emperors in earth. Luo Zhufeng, ed., lianyu da cidian, vol.11, p. 1191. My translation of the text is based on Stephen R. Bokenkamp's. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, Early Daoist Scriptures, (Berkeley: University of California, 1999), p. 339-362. 9 3  35  The Perfect Ruler descends to the world and rules with non-intervention. There are no warfare, torture, and imprisonment. The Sage (i.e. the Perfect Ruler) governs the world; people enjoy lives of plenty and happiness. They are not greedy for wealth.... Daoist masters become ministers. Males and females are chaste and pure without licentious minds. They are tall and [therefore their appearances] are no longer the same [as those in the present]. At that time (lit. jin  the Daoist masters are not aware of their own  differences: their forms are dignified and large. They are one zhang ( 5 ^ , a unit of length, 1 zhang =31/3 metres) and three feet tall. The Perfect Ruler is one zhang and six feet tall and his face is lustrous. Among people, no one is pretty or ugly [because they all are pretty]. It is never boring to look at them (lit. liaoliao 7'7'=jhijhi A A?). (Chapter 1, 1 Ob-1 la)  Rare and legendary animals such as phoenixes and white cranes become livestock, and common livestock like horses and cattle will no longer exist. (11 a) In order to obtain bliss in the age of great peace, people should convert to the teachings of the Shenzhou jing. Although the Holy Ruler is described as the master of age of great peace in the future, he does not take the role of the ailer of the world, as said in the other two texts. Instead he is the supervisor of the rulers he appoints, and he designates immortals to the appropriate transcendental positions in bureaucracy of deities and assigns them to control the world. In the Daojun lieji, we read:  mmmnmmfM>p,  wmumm,  mmim,  wmmm,  Then the Holy Ruler will evaluate their (immortality learner; xuexian zhe  mmm,  &jk\^\%)  thoughtlessness or their subtlety again. Those who can be made officials for filling vacancies in bureaucracy will be promoted to transcendental earls or will be designated as dukes. They will assist the Holy [Ruler] in teaching people, and will arrange the vital force and spread inner Dao (de 1%). Or some of them will be granted control of a county or will be entrusted with government of a country.... The Holy Ruler will arrange 36  [promotion] and appoint people [to appropriate positions] according to their talent. They will be made high feudal lords and low feudal lords. All will have their official ranks so that they will be able to govern the seed people. Every feudal lord will be granted an audience with the Holy Ruler each year in Grand Purity [Heaven] {Shangqing _t /jf ) and %  will receive orders from him. The Holy Ruler will descend so as to visit them once in five years. He will inspect [the lives of] seed people and judge the rule of immortals. (4b-5b) Although Kou Qianzhi'MMtZ(365-448) denies Li Hong to be the form manifested by the Lord Lao (Laojun ^ f l " ) in his Laojun yinsong jie jing, and criticizes the rebels for claiming to be Li Hong and the incarnation of the Lord Lao, the image of the Lord Lao in his work is influenced by messianic prophecy spread in the Six Dynasties.  96  ±zm, mmmmmw, mwx:&, mxim, m^zmm^r- • nm'\ . x^-i-h^v-j, u&m±pat&°%fe&*k&, mmxz%&, mzm, :  z  The seat of my government is on Mount Kunlun jH^lf (legendary dwelling of immortals).... Heaven, Earth, people, spirits, and deities all are ordered by me. Why do 1 still want to be a master of a city? I am not willing to do so. When I should come out and reveal [my true] form is the appropriate [time] to change diligently Heaven and Earth and destroy all antiquated doctrines in scriptures. [I shall] also give new orthodox mandates [to Daoist masters]. Those who should attain immortality will be granted efficacious medicines for ascending to immortal [lives], coining through the [calamities in the] world, and accompanying me on my sides. The evil will become moral. The ages of those who meet me will be extended. If the rulers of countries, Heaven's sons, make merits by governing their people [properly], 1 shall then make them serve (lit. fu {X-fii Hlx?) the countries (she jfi= sheji  i\d'Mt)  as before. If they rule people inappropriately, [I  96 Kou Qianzhi was a famous Daoist priest of the Celestial Master Daoism in the early Northern Wei Dynasty. He claimed to be appointed as the Celestial Master by the Lord Lao in the second year of Shenrui reign (415). In the first year of Shiguangfaitreign (424), he suggested to the Emperor Wu the reformation of the Celestial Master Daoism. He absorbed Confucian percepts and abandoned the hereditary appointment to Dao officials (daoguan iW ll"). The Tianshi Daoism reformed by Kou is called the Northern Celestial Master Daoism (Bei tianshi dao ."ItASiP  jj|). Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 191. Hu Fuchen. ed., Zhonghua da vidian, p. 85.  37  shall make] enligntened saints replace them and comfort people. After 1 settle them down, 1 shall ascend to and completely hide in my residence in Mount Kunlun again. (5a5b) Although Kou Qianzhi condemns the belief that Li Hong is the messiah, he does not deny messianic apocalypse. As we are told in the above quotation, the Lord Lao will come to the world and will be the messiah one day. He will not transform himself into Li Hong or Liu Ju §lj IjS when he comes.  97  The expectation of the messiah and the perfect age can still be discovered.  As shown in both above quotations from the two scriptures, the Holy Ruler and the Lord Lao, in the picture of the future ideal age, will not aile the world directly, but will only appoint appropriate immortals as rulers. The relevant depiction in the Shenzhou jing is too simple. We cannot judge by it if the text contains the same idea.  98  We should notice that in the prophecies in the Six Dynasties the messiah Li Hong has an obvious role in the ideal world in the future, but he does not necessarily perform the tasks of salvation in the present world. In the Daojun lieji, a text dedicated to him, the Holy Ruler is a savior who gives a sacred message (the text) to people who have potential as immortals and orders twenty-four Perfect Men (zhenren Ji'A), under Wang Yuanyou's zEiWHf supervision, to spread teachings in the world. (6b-8a) However, in the other scriptures, other deities such as the Lord Lao and the Yuanshi tianzun are saviors who reveal valuable message that can deliver people from disasters. People who convert to Daoist teachings, which are usually not spoken by the Holy Ruler, can undergo calamities without being harmed. The Yujue miaojing, for example, is said to be true writings (zhenwen  revealed to the Lord Lao by the Yuanshi tianzun.  Liu Ju and Li Hong were the names usually adopted by the rebels in the Six Dynasties. The rebels who took the name Liu Ju, or Liu Ni ^iJJt, did not claim themselves to be the incarnations of the Lord Lao, but the descendants of the royal family of the Han Dynasty. The prophecy that "the Liu will prosper (i.e.take sovereignty) again, and the L i will assist them $ J ^ S I I ° )" circulated in the Late Han and Six Dynasties. Wang K a ed., Zhonggao daojiao jiclni zhishi ^MM^kWs^kUfM (Elementary knowledge of Chinese Daoism) (Beijing: Zhongjiao wenhua chubanshe, 1999), p. 23-24. "Deities (.sheiiren ftp A ) will enforce | heavenly | law; immortals (xianren f|i|A) will be their assistants. Wkfia ffi. f l i j A f H £ " " (Chapter 9. 2b) 9 1  9 8  38  People who would like to be released from miseries such as floods, disorderly rotation of constellations, and harm caused by ghosts and demons need to apply the sacred scripts dedicated to the Five Elders of Primal Beginning, i.e. the Five Rulers of Five Directions. Then various deities of five directions will appear and drive away disasters and harmful forces. The Zhenwen tianshi  jing  is described as a revealed text given by the Yuanshi tianzun to the Lord Lao.  •^Ef,  mimm, wmm,  mmm, mmxm, mwmx*  [The Yuanshi tianzun] summons and orders the Five Emperors to analyze and establish the^w and the yang, to predict and estimate kalpa assembling (jiehui ijj'm), to change and correct sources of rivers, to examine and record [the list of people who will be] delivered by Heaven, and to choose seed people. (Chapter 1, 6a-6b) ln the scriptures, the Five Rulers play prominent role in salvation. The "perfect writing (zhenwen  composed in seal characters (zhiianwen  ||'>C) and released by the Rulers are  thought to be efficacious in driving away suffering of great kalpas and little kalpas. During every period in which a kind of vital forces managed by each of the Five Rulers operates (lit. yunguan  ;HPJ; operate gate), one Emperor will be in power (yongshi j ^ l j l ) and descend in order  to teach and transform people (jiaohua  ^Jcffc)- A certain number of people will be delivered and  will be appointed for filling vacancies for immortal official positions (yi hn xianguan \^XWi\h^i) in each age of the Five Rulers. Misfortunes have to be removed by the sacred writing of the Rulers in correspondence with the time in which they happen. More examples can be found in other texts. As shown above, in the sphere of salvation in Daoist eschatology in the Six Dynasties, the Holy Ruler does not have conspicuous role. Although he is thought to be the master of the era of great peace in the future, he is seldom linked with the contemporary work of redeeming humans. Unlike the Holy Ruler, the Lord Lao is usually regarded as a savior revealing doctrines and methods of redemption in Daoist messianic prophecies, although there is a popular tradition in the Six Dynasties that Li Hong is an incarnation of the Lord Lao. However, 39  in the Laojun yinsong jie jing, the Lord Lao is in charge of tasks of salvation in both contemporary and future ages: appointing Kou Qianzhi as the new Celestial Master, ordering him to spread teachings, and being the master of the future ideal world. We can infer that the work of salvation in the eschatology in the Six Dynasties can be divided into two parts: guaranteeing people peaceful lives forever and delivering them from contemporary sufferings by spreading the teachings. As shown in the scriptures, the latter is not the exclusive work of the Holy Ruler, and is mostly done by other deities. Ruling in the age of Great Peace is thought to be charged by the Holy Ruler. The purpose of the scriptures is to exhort corrupt humans to lead virtuous lives or convert to Daoist beliefs, and eventually free humans from suffering; therefore, divine revelation of religious practices to believers becomes the important theme of these scriptures. The advent of the future peaceful world is an attraction for followers. Perhaps this is the reason why there are not as many descriptions of the future harmonious age as they are statements about the importance of devotion and various religious practices. One has to meet requirements in religious cultivation before one can live in the era of great peace, and salvation has to be completed in the present world before Li Hong or the Lord Lao can do his work in the future world!  99  c) The Idea of Seed People Although the concept of zhongmin is essential in Daoist eschatology in the Six Dynasties and this term is often applied in the texts, the definition of the term zhongmin is never given in them. The authors seem to have assumed that their readers already know this term and do not  Therefore, in eschatological beliefs in the Six Dynasties, Li Hong or the Lord Lao is not the only one who takes on messianic tasks; other deities also take part in the Daoist scheme of eschatological salvation. From this point of view, they can be regarded as messiahs too. Besides, the belief that divided duties of salvation are carried out by different deities (or people) was not held by the rebels in the Six Dynasties; hence a number of them carried out rebellions under the name of Li Hong or the Lord Lao. This can be considered as one of the criteria for distinguishing the beliefs of the rebels and that of the Daoist believers of upper society, but it certainly needs more research to confirm.  40  raise questions about it.'  00  Modern scholars take their definition from the Daoist texts and think  that the term refers to the elect who can survive the catastrophes of world destruction and repopulate a new world.  101  As mentioned before, being seed people is inseparable from enjoying lives in the age of great peace and greeting the Holy Ruler in the Daoist messianic prophecy; they all are the promises given to believers who follow Daoist doctrines. We can infer that "seed people" are the identity given to the people who qualify for coming through the destaictive misfortunes and enjoying lives in the age of great peace forever. The definition above showing what zhongmin are is vague; we cannot judge from it whether zhongmin are transcendental beings or whether they are only humans who enjoy long lives in the perfect world. From the ways the term is used in the Daoist texts, it is shown that the authors of the Six Dynasties period do not share common answers to this question. Zhongmin are sometimes regarded as immortals. The Dongzhen taishang shang huangmin ji dingzhen yu hi PJSAJlJlMJ^If'AE^ii^' (Precious register on which are fixed the [names  of] the Zhenren of the Population record of the Most High Supreme Sovereign, a Dongzhen scripture, fasc. 103 1; hereafter "the Dingzhen yuhr), a Shingqing text, includes the exhortations of the Lord Lao of Great Supremacy (Taishang daojun AJljJtf!'), parts of which are as follows:  '"" There is a passage about the definition of seed people in the first chapter of the version Taiping jing edited by Wang Ming: "Only those who accumulate |the merits of] virtues can avoid it (destruction of the world) and forever be the seed people. The intelligence and knowledge of the seed people still vary and are poor without general sameness [in their level|. It is still necessary [for them) to have masters and rulers (shijun |=jifif!j). [If] nilers are holy and masters are bright, transformation by [right] teaching will not die. |The people] accumulate |the accomplishments in| their cultivation and become saints; therefore they are called seed people. Seed people are a group |of humans who] are holy and wise and attain immortality. H § ^ # # ^ . ^ . . 3kMM& " WMHwfc, l a J ^ l M  *.  wmm*mmw. mti^jt, mmf&m. mm&  *am. mw^itzmm • -  Ming ed., Taiping jing hejiao, pp. 1-2. Chapter 1 is taken from the Taiping jingchao A p-;fM# (Transcript of the 'Taiping jing, fasc. 746-755) edited by Luqiu Fangyuan |a]Jx7"j;ii! of the late Tang Dynasty. As shown in the later discussion, ideas about seed people vary in different works. It is difficult to judge if these words were composed in the Six Dynasties. "" E. Zurcher, '"'Prince Moonlight' - Messianism and Eschatology in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism", p. 5, z  note 10. Terry F. Kleeman, Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a-Chinese Millennial  Kingdom  (Honolulu:  University of Hawaii, 1998), p. 73. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "'Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty", p.69. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, Early Daoist Scripture, p. 157. 41  w  a n g  AM§f§, tmmm,  ^wmm,  xmm,  mmmx°  Besides, parental love and consideration make them (Daoist learners) talented and outstanding. They follow masters in learning knowledge so that [they can have] wisdom and supernatural power. They can also attain immortality and holiness and be seed people (zhongren HI A) of the Dao. (lb) ASJAJWJ,  nm'h®,  immx,  aist,  AH AM °  M%<m,  ^ I / A A  A A ^ A  wmm  When great kalpas do not yet circulate, at this time little kalpas [appear]. Both the status and the reputation of those who are remiss in [accumulating] merits will degenerate. Then they will certainly lose this writing and will not be worthy of immortality. [People who make] progress in [gaining] merits and concentrate on [refining their] virtue can attain the writing without loss. [They are] guaranteed to be seed people without regression and decrease [in their status and reputation]. ( 5 b ) The scripture tells us that seed people are on the Registration Record of Imperial People Written on White Bamboo Slips and Green Rolls (Baijian qinglu huangmin jilu  EzlffiWISIlKlf Wk)-  (6a)  "Seed people" here obviously is synonymous with immortals. The term with such an interpretation can be found in the Lingbao text, the Zhenwen Honshu jing.  mm^zMr, Aftfinms, ^#jyt£, mzwM-x^, mmrnm^, ^es ±m^m±:g°t)M*m, s m r m , mmm\h, mmm, mn*5m° [Jade Magic Symbol of Three Original [Ones] from Five Elders of the Primordial Beginning ("Yuanzhi wulao sanyuan yufu  A^A/AAAA-BAA') and Lingbao Jade  Pieces ("Lingbao yupian MMA)M")] will save the bodies of Daoist learners. People with their names written in gold and recorded in Constellations of Mysterious Metropolis can all see this writing. If they wear it, they can avoid great misfortunes and be seed people of the Holy Ruler. They will all ascend to heaven during daytime (hairi shengtian Erl B A A ) and will have audiences above [with the Holy Ruler] in High Palace of Mysterious Metropolis (Xuandu shanggong  Afil'A'S)  Those with insufficient merits  will immediately attain liberation from their bodies (shijie AfW) and will turn into immortals in their next lives (lit. zhuanlnn'W^wturning wheels). They will make  42  progress or regress according to their fates, and form karmic affinities with the Perfect One (i.e. unite with the Dao) [sooner or later]. (Chapter 2, 17b) As shown above, zhongmin include both upper immortals, who can ascend to heaven with both spirits and bodies, and lower immortals, whose incomplete purification will be carried on after rebirth in the Palace of Red Fire or in the Court of Liquid Fire.  102  In the future ideal world of messianic prophecies in some Daoist texts, seed people are important members of the social hierarchy. They are either candidates for divine officials or the subjects of divine bureaucracy. In the Daojun lieji, seed people simply are the virtuous, not Daoist learners; therefore, they do not hold any divine positions.  mmxm^x,  #&;i#EJi«j£,  m^mmm, mmmmim *  [During the year of renchen,] the wicked will have already been destroyed in fires and floods; the moral will remain and become seed people. Beginners in [Daoist] learning will be transcendental messengers (xianshi {lilili); the people who have attained the Dao will be transcendental officials (xianguan flilTti) (4b) The way the author uses the term indicates that he sticks to the meaning of character "min (js; the populace)" of the term "zhongmin". Unlike that in the Daojun lieji, the term "seed people" in the Dongxuan lingbao ziran jiutian shengshen zhangjing  iil^TLA^^^^  (Lingbao Stanzas of the life spirits of the nine heavens, which is formed naturally and a Dongxuan scripture, fasc. 165; hereafter "the Jiutian shengshen zhangjing") is used when referring to qualified candidates for divine office:  103  xmmw, M W , mum, m^mx, x^mx mm A ,  ^mm,  wfcnft > g # B ^ ^ s ± M 7 c ^ , ^7ciiiH'tit#ji--i-iz5iMA • mmm. S T O , mxm^'f, mw&ffi, -nm^%, mw$m, *mMX, mt^rnn m^mm, ftommmimELmm, -mm®, &J±.±:XH, mxmAu^  Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, trans. Phyllis Brook (Stanford: Standford University, 1997), p. 127-138. Hu Fuchen. ed., Zhonghua Daojiao da cidian, p.608. Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 727. The translation of the title Kristofer Schipper provides, which is the Stanzas of the life spirits of the nine heavens, does not include the meanings of the whole Chinese title. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed.. The Taoist 102  1113  Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature  in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 235.  43  The day of great doom will come; destiny (i.e. age) [of the world] will end in the jiashen year (Ep E^i, the 2 T year of the sixty-year cycle). Deluges will remove abominations; the l  sky will overflow with violent disasters. The Three Officers (Heaven, Earth, and Water Officers) will wield pens; they will evaluate seed people and distinguish them [from the vicious]. Merits and sins will be examined and estimated; the moral and the evil will certainly be separated. From the years of the Chiming (Crimson Brightness A^) reign to the first year of the reign of the High Sovereign (Shanghuang J i l l )  1 0 4  , there should be  two hundred and forty thousand people who receive deliverance according to the Yuanyang yugui ([Register of] original yang in jade cabinet ftWj^LW)-  From the years  of the Kaihaung (Beginning of empire [Mil) to the year of jiashen, various Heavens will elect and rank [divine officials]. The transcendental offices lay idle and are abandoned; the officials are insufficient. Their official duties are unstable and confused. [Appropriate] people should be selected to hold all [positions]. [The merits of] one's three [ancestral] generations should be estimated twice according to the Yuanyang luij (Jade calendar of original yang A[i§31JlJ). One hundred of those who are commended by the [deities in] the Three Regions (sonjie Hfr-)'  05  and recommended by the Five  Emperors with guarantees [of their good behavior] due to their efforts to accumulate [accomplishments of] virtues and accomplish merits and whose names are [written] on [the rolls in] heaven will be elected to fill the positions. In addition, a hundred and twenty thousand people will be recommended for filling [vacancies for] supplementary officials. (5b) In addition to the numbers of seed people appointed, the author of the scripture states the standards for choosing them. People are judged by their participation in religious activities and their attributes or some causes indicating their predestined acquisition of immortality. The author makes a long list of these criteria. Those who have registered in heaven, have special  " Chiming and Kaihuang, which appear later in the text, are names of Daoist fabricated reigns. The High Sovereign is the Celestial Emperor (Tiandi 'filfi). Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 108 & p. 277. Sanjie has different sets of meanings: 1) the Non-Limitless Realm (Wuji jie iW&ffi-), the Realm of Great Ultimate (Taiji jie ^ 1 ^ ) . and the Present Realm (Xianshi jie JflLt^ -); 2) the Heaven Realm (Tianjie 5 ^ ^ ) , the Earth Realm (Dijie i f e ^ ) , and the Water Realm (Shuijie 7JC??-); 3) the Realm of Desire (Yujie g ^ ^ ) , the Realm of Form (Sejie fe^). and the Realm of the Formless (Wuse jie M'&ffi)Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 94. M  11,5  1  44  bones and forms that are the same as those of immortals, or have nirvana causation (miedu yinyuan  MMH^I) when being reborn can be seed  people.  106  Those who have gained merits by  taking part in the following Daoist practices can also be the elect: holding earnest affection for the Three Precious Ones (sanbao  H'iSf), worshiping them, accumulating merits by holding fasts  and obeying precepts, contributing money in constructing Daoist halls, helping the poor and all beings, and building up merits for the Three Masters (sanshi Hfjffj)-  107  (5b-6a) The Three  Officers will "all record the seed [people's] names in advance (-^^iS-^S)"- (6a) Apart from the living, the dead in the Nine Offices of Dimness (Jiuyou zhifu Al^Afft') will be selected to be zhongmin.  1 0 8  Deliverance is not limited to the living; therefore, the author says that the  period after calamities is the time when "the living and the dead will join up; the virtuous and the evil will be separated. A.^E^W, i l ^ A A ! ° " (6a) "People's merits and sins will be evaluated fairly [by various deities] so that [the decisions on] their being alive and dead will be without bias. JA^ l AH^A.^b$M% ° " From the description of the standards, we can see how z  ;  the requirements for adepts are set by the author; these are what people should do to survive in the overwhelming calamities, ln the Daojun lieji, moral conduct is necessary for being seed people; in the Jiulian shengshen zhangjing, the emphasis is placed on one's religious cultivation. The selection of the seed people is limited to the Daoist adepts. Ln Daoist eschatology in the Six Dynasties, the requirements for obtaining deliverance, as shown above, are not fixed.  ""' Miedu {nirvana: extinction of reincarnation and escape from suffering) and yinyuan (causes) both are Buddhist terms. William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms (London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.. Ltd.. 1982), pp. 206 & 405. Sanbao are the deified forms of three elements that generate myriad beings. They are the Lord Tianbao ^ J f (Heavenly Preciousness), the Lord Lingbao MM (Spiritual Preciousness), and the Lord Shenbao ffiit (Divine Preciousness). The Shengshen zhangjing gives detailed information on them and how they form myriad beings. Sanshi are tliree Lingbao teachers, namely the master of Lingbao scriptures {jing 4f), the master of registers (ji f§), and the master of redemption (du •'(>;). They are regarded as three forms of the Lord Lao's transformation. Zhang Iu7  Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 873.  "  IS  The Jiuyou zhifu is the dwelling of spirits, which is divided into nine offices of eight directions and the center.  Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua  daojiao da cidian, p.489.  45  The interpretation and application of the term seed people not only vary in different scriptures of different schools, but are also inconsistent in the works of the same schools. Daoist theocracy first appeared during the time of Zhang Ling divided into twenty-four districts (zhi  'jMWi  (34-156). His territory was  parishes), which were ailed by libationers (jijiu I K M ) .  They functioned like local officials. In 215 CE, Zhang's son, Zhang Lu ^JlUr, surrendered to Cao Cao Hfijsl and ended the theocratic state. The situation of Zhang Lu and several tens of thousands of believers after they were moved to Changan and the areas surrounding it is not known, but the parishes decayed and were accompanied with the ever-declining authority of Celestial Master Daoism.  109  The Laojun yinsong jie jing and the "Dadao jialing jie  j\MM-73f$L  (Orders and precepts for families of great Dao)", collected in the Zhengyi fawen tianshi jiaqjie kejing  J£—\fk~$CXW%J0i-\Wk  (Classified scriptures on doctrines and precepts, [given by] the  celestial master, [which is] mandate writing of orthodox-unity, fasc. 563; hereafter "the Jiaqjie kejing'''),  were composed in the same historical context with similar purpose, which was to  reestablish regulations for restricting the people of the parishes and the officials of the theocracy.  110  However, the way the term zhongmin is applied in one of them is not totally the  same as that in the other. Kou Qianzhi applies the term "seed people" to the elect among both libationers and the Subjects of Dao (Daomin  I  Mix:)  m  his Laojun yinsong jie jing.  (the Lord Lao) shall order below the deities of earth perfect officers (ludi zhenguan zhi  shen  i.'i^lM-'^Z.W) within the nine prefectures  and four seas to transcribe (lit. teng Iff  "' For the history and religious practices of Celestial Master Daoism, read the following materials: Terry F. 9  Kleeman, Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom, pp. 61-80. Julian F. Pas, Historical Dictionary of Taoism, pp. 16-20 & pp. 155-158. Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, pp. 53-  77. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, Early Daoist Scripture, pp. 149-135. " " Stephen R. Bokenkamp has translated the "Dadao jialing jie" in his Early Daoist Scripture (pp. 165-185). Kristofer Schipper does nol provide a translation of the title in his introduction to [he Jiaqjie kejing. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature  Dynasty, pp. 126-127.  46  in the Daozang of the Ming  = teng Jjfjf) registers of households and report [to me the list of] the libationers and the subjects of the Dao who make merits by obeying rules. Some who should be seed people among them will then be chosen (lit. jian flj = jian ftM)\ their names will be recorded in the Wenchang gong (Palace of Literary Prosperity 3^i=i)- (4a) Unlike Kou Qiaftzhi, the author of the "Dadao jialing jie" restricts his usage of the term zhongmin to the reformed former people of the parishes (xin gum in f/fi!&.K), a group classified to contrast with the former people (gumin ilj&J3c), who disobey precepts and are totally depraved.  111  The admonishments in the text are composed for two groups of readers, male and  female officers of various ranks (zhuzhi nannu guan itilirSJ^^'B'),  a n  d the reformed former  people of the parishes. The former are asked to stop increasing posts in officialdom of Tianshi Daoism at will. (17a-18b) The latter are requested to follow Confucian morals; they are promised that all disasters they encounter will be removed and they will be seed people in the future age. The passages, in which the term is used, are listed as follows:  If the reformed former people [of the parishes] see the [present corrupt] world and know [it is time to] change, they can then change their minds. [If people] do good deeds and practice righteousness, they can turn moral and can see the age of the great peace [soon]. They can be saved and can be freed from misfortunes and difficulties, and can be the seed people of the later age. (15a) ;;iiy-#,  xmmM, smmm, i  ^ - ^ ,  m^mm,  From the present, the seventh day of the first month in the second year of the Zhengyuan Period (JEjt Orthodox Prime 255 CE), the reformed former people [of the parishes] I do not translate "xiri gumin" into "the prior and the new families" as Stephen R. Bokenkamp does in his Early Daoist Scriptures (p. 173), and interpret it as a term for one whole group of people instead because the author of the text makes a remarkable contrast in comments on the gumin and the xiri gumin. Gumin are criticized severely in the text, and xin gumin are those on whom he sets hope that they will obey morality. Besides, Bokenkamp's translation may give readers an indication that there were still new households joining the Celestial Master Daoism in the Wei Dynasty, the time when the text was produced, but we do not have evidence to prove it. 111  47  ^  including all males, females, the old, and those in prime of life should expand their duties (shi Ijf) and obey morality. They should act in accord with [the following] important words: officers should be loyal; sons should carry out filial responsibilities. Husbands should be trustworthy; wives should be chaste. Elder brothers should be respectful; younger brothers should be obedient. Do not be of two minds [about obeying these principles]. [If they have done so,] they then can be virtuous and obtain [the status of] seed people. [If any] seed people are involved in troubles, [they] should use their strength to help [each other]. (16b-17a)  Only if all households transform themselves and each other [by using the values of] loyalty and filial responsibility.. and do the good deeds [I teach] today, will misfortunes disappear and diseases not exist, and will they be the seed people of the later age.... My teachings should be spread now so that all reformed former people [of the parishes] are made to understand my wish and not to be heartless to each other. (18b-19b) Unlike Kou Qianzhi, the author uses the term only when referring to the moral ordinary Daoist believers, but not to the holders of positions in the hierarchy of Celestial Master Daoism. The above discussion shows the diversity of interpretation of the character min (people j^;) in Daoist eschatology of the Six Dynasties. Only two of our Daoist texts give us hints in understanding the meaning of character "zhong (seed HI)". In a depiction of the creation of the world in the "Dadao jialing jie", we can find the following passage:  m, #Afm&  wm- mxni, m^m^°mnvo, ?mmmiz • wu  The great Dao is that one which envelops and embraces Heaven and Earth, is [closely] related to and nourishes all living beings, and controls and manages the myriad organisms. It has no form or image, and is in a state of turbid chaos. It naturally gives birth to myriad species (or seeds § | zhong). [They are so many] that humans cannot name them [all].... The Book of Changes (Yijing  l?!/^!)  says that Heaven and Earth exist,  and then there are the myriad things. The myriad things exist and then there are males 48  and females. Males and females exist and then there are husbands and wives. Husbands and wives exist and then there are fathers and sons. The purpose of [the existence of] fathers and sons is to continue (xi  = xi  hundreds generations (or ordinary people)  and cause various kinds of the populace (or seeds of families, i.e. descendants f|t$4 zhorigxirig) not to become extinct. (12a-12b) The meaning above does not appear in the author's exhortation to the ordinary members of the Celestial Master Daoism, as shown in the last paragraph. It is used to describe the members of parishes, without suggesting that they are responsible for reproducing humans. The Yundu jieqi jing also contains a passage explaining the character zhong.  $mm-  m^mmmtn,  r  mmm,  nmu  j  Yanming  i^|iJ asks, " . . . A l l E  living beings have the nature of the Dao (daoxing  ii'14)-  Although they have the nature, they do not have actual [attainment of the Dao]. When the destiny (i.e. age) [of the world] is destroyed and is exhausted, how will [the beings embracing] the nature be [in the end]?" [The Lingbao tianjun (WXXM-  Heavenly Lord  of Lingbao)] answers, "[The process ot] destruction will end and the doom will finish. All beings with kindness to all living beings and determined minds in maintaining ritual grounds and performing Daoist rituals (daochang jjtijj) will acquire the Dao during this last kalpa, in which time is complete (i.e. ends). Only seeds (zhongzi Wrf) will be able to float [in the floods] and remain alive. They will be able to drift and will not die in the end. What is the reason [why they do not die]? They are valued because they are seeds (zhong). The seeds of all myriad species therefore have to remain and will not universally ascend [to heaven]." (14a) This idea about the nature of the Dao within every being obviously comes from Buddhism. Although we cannot know the whole picture of the original usage of the term "zhongmin" from the above fragments, a part of it can be inferred. Zhong contains the meaning of propagation of species, as shown in the above passages, but this meaning is seldom emphasized in the Daoist texts. The original content of zhongmin may have little connection with salvation. It may only 49  include a group of humans used as germs for reproduction after universal calamities. Their existence is not due to their devotion or virtues, and they can only stay in the mundane world and wait for recreation of the world. In Daoist messianic apocalypses in the Six Dynasties, zhongmin becomes the identity given to the people who can escape the distress of world-wide destruction and can enjoy lives in the age of great peace as the reward for their support of Daoism or being virtuous; the original function of seed people in continuing human generations is rarely mentioned. Perhaps propagation is not significant to the people who can enjoy longevity in the ideal world!  Part ID: Features of eschatology of different schools a) Celestial Master Daoism In our texts from Tianshi Daoism, we can find that the development of this sect in the Six Dynasties deeply influenced its eschatology. In this period, the school underwent great transformation in its hierarchy and doctrines. In addition to resisting Buddhism and popular cults, it had to renew its restraints on its followers, who had been undisciplined since Zhang Lu submitted to Cao Cao. Hence, a number of Tianshi messianic texts directly reflect the crises the sect encountered and its response. The texts of the sect are not only sources of Daoist eschatology, but also provide abundant material for research on its history in this chaotic age. In the following, we shall discuss how the history of the sect affects the picture of the present world and the revelation of future Utopia in our Tianshi works, and how the relation between the school and popular cults influences the eschatological views of the school. The Shangqing and Lingbao texts do not mirror contemporary history as much as the Tianshi texts do. Because the above crises did not carry the same significance to the Shangqing and Lingbao as to the Tianshi, or they did not endanger their authority as much as that of the Tianshi, the features of Tianshi  50  eschatology we are going to discuss do not become parts of the prophecies of the other two traditions. The authors of our Tianshi scriptures view the establishment of the school in the Han Dynasty as the salvation activity of the Lord Lao in delivering humans from distress resulting from their corruption and their faith in heresies. Unfortunately, salvation schemes such as bestowing sacred books and appointing Zhang Daoling as the Celestial Master did not work. Failure in salvation attempts results in severe condemnation of the believers' weak faith and misbehavior, which becomes one of the major parts of accounts of the depraved world in these books. Hence, the revelation of the texts is because the attempts of salvation in the past failed. The "Dadao jialing jie" contains fabricated elements in its account of the Tianshi history. The age beginning from the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi M'ni') is regarded as Lower Antiquity, which is full of worldly desires and spiritual impurity. The disorders emerging in every period are thought to result from disbelief in the Dao. Therefore, the Dao appears several times in order to reveal doctrines to sages. The author then states various historical and legendary affairs and declares them to have been done by the Lord Lao for saving humans from cosmic devastation: granting the Taiping jing to Gan Ji "pjif in the late Zhou, composing the Five-thousandcharacter Writing (Wuqian wen S^f^C, ' e Da ode jing), bestowing it on Yin X i T ^ U , giving the Huangshi zhi shu M^^lSr (Book of [revered M r ] Yellow Stones) to Zhang Liang 5§Jl;, and assigning Zhang Daoling to be Celestial Master, forming a new image of the Newly Appeared Lord Lao (Xinchu Laojun fjfuhi^S), and establishing twenty-four parishes. (13a- 14b) Unfortunately, these attempts were not successful. Therefore, the uprising of the Yellow Turbans and various misfortunes claimed many lives. (14b-15a) The "Yangping zhi lil^/n (Parish of Yangping)", collected in XheJiaojie kejing, is composed of the advice to libationers  51  and people of the parish (zhimin  /ai?c) given by a Celestial Master."  2  We are told that the  purpose of the Tianshi belief is to lead the people with potential to become immortals to ascend to heaven and be delivered (shengdu AH?)-  However, the believers are refractory and do not  distinguish between right and wrong. (20b) Then we can read the following:  w&x±%mmnAm,  m=sw,  wmm,  TAA?#- •  mmwmmmxm  I (the Celestial Master) follow the Lord Lao of the Grand Supreme in traveling around the remotest places in the eight directions (baji A H O and touring regularly in the mundane world to order to select and find the seed people, but cannot find one [after the search is] completed. Among you, the populace, there is none who should be the seeds of humans (renzhong A 8 0 - (20b) The terminology and expressions here are common in Daoist eschatology. The Celestial Master continues the text by criticizing various forms of misconduct by his followers and the libationers. Both are told that they occupy themselves in fulfilling different worldly desires, and that their behavior is not in accord with the Dao. The libationers also spread teachings in their own ways. Therefore he warns that, often libationers and the office holders, three or four will be punished and die in the coming three years. (21a-22b) From this description, we can know that the Celestial Master has lost control of the whole parish. In the Tianshi dao eschatological texts, attacks on the members' depravity are often mixed with embellished hagiographies of Laozi, who devotes himself to salvation. In addition to the picture of the present world, the prediction of the future Utopian age in the Tianshi texts is influenced by the school's historical context. The Laojun yinsong jie jing was written by Kou Qianzhi in face of the uprisings, of which some leaders claimed to be Li Hong, the incarnation of Laozi. He clearly points out that the new age of the messiah, the Lord Lao,  " The parish of Yangping, localed al the present Sichuan, was ruled by Zhang Daoling and his descendants. Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidiaru p. 1678.  52  has not yet come.  113  Then he denies that Li Hong or any mundane person has the forms taken by  the Lord Lao, and confirms that the latter's true form will be shown when he appears in the world as a master of future age.  114  nn, asAMML, MR.mn.nm,  #JAI§A,  $mmm, mmm, mm A  [Some people] however say that the Lord Lao should reign and Li Hong should appear. Among the treacherous people who sweep away the world, many claim to be Li Hong. [This rumor] appears every year. Among the people [who claim to be L i Hong], there are some who are skilled in communication with ghosts and spirits. People see them [communicate with ghosts and spirits] daytime and will be bewildered and misled. Myriad people speak the language of ghosts and spirits (i.e. become spirit mediums); innocent ordinary people believe in their words. [These wicked ones] deceive others with multitudinous [ways]. They claim to be officials and set up titles [of their own reigns]; they assemble innumerable people [in order to rise up] and destroy and disturb agriculture (lit. indi Aftii lands). There are rather many people who claim to be Liu Ju; those who declare themselves to be Li Hong are also many. (4b) Kou Qianzhi continues this by saying that Laozi disdains ruling the mundane world, as mentioned above. (5a-5b) Then he lists every auspicious sign and deity that appears when the Lord Lao descends to the world. By exaggerated depiction of them, Kou emphasizes again that the age of the Lord Lao has not come yet and the present age that is full of deceptions and treacheries certainly is not the right time. (5b-6a) As mentioned above, Kou does not deny the advent of the messiah. The idea of denying Li Hong as the messiah or as an incarnation of Laozi does not affect the other Daoist eschatological texts in the Six Dynasties. In the Sanlian neijie jing, a Tianshi text written in the Liu Song Dynasty, about the same time as the Northern Wei Dynasty (425-45 1), it is said that Laozi comes to the world and becomes the teachers of  113  "My (Lord Lao) tune has not come yet; I (lit. body) should not. be seen in the world. Hrifc5|5M.  TJiSJLJNft  ffi: * " (3a) For the numbers of the uprisings and their historical records, read Tang Yongtong's "'Yaozei' L i Hong" & Wang Ming's "Nongmin qiyi suocheng de li hong he mile". 114  53  emperors in different reigns in various images. Among them, Laozi once becomes Li Hong with the byname Jiu Yang fiWa- (Chapter 1, 3a-3b) The Laojun bianhua wuji jing, another Tianshi text probably produced in the late Six Dynasties, contains a similar idea." The text tells us that 3  in the Former Han Dynasty Laozi takes "mu zi (X~t~, the split characters for Li ^ ) " as his surname and "kou gong ( P ^ , the split characters for Hong ^/A)" as his taboo name. It also says that Laozi in this incarnation assists the Three Celestial Masters in establishing twenty-four parishes in Shu Hi prefecture (the present Sichuan). (2a) The original identity of the Holy Ruler is seldom discussed. The members of the Tianshi school are promised that they can return to their native parishes (benzhi * (a) in the future ideal age; this promise cannot be found in the Shangqing and Lingbao :  texts. The Niiqing gui I iu writes:  n/xa •» xrx^,  xrm^^mu^immxxB^  mm*-<t\ •  Among the scattered people (sanmin f&JS:) in the world, those who are filially responsible, obedient, loyal, and trustworthy can write the names of ghosts of the sixty days....  116  Ghosts dare not then disturb them. They will be sent back to their own  parishes when the world is in peace. (Chapter 1, 9a)  mmrnm, nmxx, %mmm,ffijwwmmmm, mMx,  mm*  [During the age of great peace] libationers will receive registers and [their names] will be listed in entries in heaven. Their accomplishments will be made public and returned, and they will be ranked as immortals.... People who find pleasure in doing good deeds can become moral people. During that time they will be able to return to their native places and settle down in the country. (Chapter 6, lb) In his reformation of the Tianshi school, Kou Qianzhi proposed discarding the names of twentyfour parishes in writing memorials (biaozhang i^^S), which can be traced back to the Tianshi 115  "  b  Ren Jiyu, ed., Daozang liyao, p. 943. In lunar calendar, every sixty days designated with the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches form a cycle.  54  theocracy in Sichuan; the memorials guarantee the believers will be able to return to their native parishes in the time of great peace. (Laojun yinsong jie ////£•, 19b-20a) We do not know the format of these old memorials is, but we can be certain from Kou's remarks that in the Age of Southern Empires and Northern Empires the ordinary members of the school commonly longed for returning to their native lands. Therefore, in the prophecies of future Utopia structured by the school, they are promised that they can do so. It is very likely that they are those who accompanied Zhang Daoling to Changan from Sichuan. Not having the members who had experienced migration, the authors of Shangqing and Lingbao Daoism do not mention this item in their messianic promises. The relation between Celestial Master Daoism and popular cults (wu M.) was complicated in the Han and Six Dynasties: on one hand, the former battled against the latter and considered the latter evil and excessive (yinsi ^JjiE); on the other hand the former absorbed some elements of the latter.  In the Tianshi eschatological picture, we can discover that the deities worshipped  in the popular cults become devastating forces. They are blamed for all sicknesses and calamities. However, they have been brought under control. They become subordinates of gods in the divine hierarchy and they are responsible for carrying out missions given by gods at the end of the world. The Celestial Masters have authority to dispatch ghosts after they have been granted orthodox teachings and power from the Lord Lao. The Gao Zhao Sheng koujue tells us that,  •^Axmi, i%yxxm,fe, mmm  HASM  i$.x±%mmu,  H:£IE  -mmzm,-xumt,wmmm'hA, %%M&, mMm±#, mm~-tm  ism,  « A T °  ' Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, pp. 62-65. Rolf A. Stein, "Religious Taoism and Popular Religion from the Second to Seventh Centuries", Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion, ed. Holmes Welch & Anna Seidel (London: Yale University, 1979), p. 53-81. 11  55  Today all the Nine Heavens (jiu tian A A ) are established (i.e. prosper); they make [the stale qi of] the Six Heavens (Hu tian f\A)  appear and reign [the world]; it spreads  throughout the world.... The Three Heavens (san tian A A ) are extremely annoyed....  118  They made the Lord Lao of Grand Superiority vanish in the world. He  also established the Way of Orthodox Unity of [resting on] the Authority of the Pledge (Zhengyi mengwei zhi dao  J£—SISSlAxS)- The Supreme High [Laozi] established  conversion [by Daoist teachings] and disregarded my being a mediocre person of unimportance and of humble status. He taught me perfect doctrines, [designated] me as the master of myriad ghosts, and made me establish twenty-four parishes in accord with the qi of the twenty-four parishes.... The orders of superior officers (?) are severe. They order that the stale qi of the Six Heavens should be released. Myriad ghosts of the Three Officers repel [the wicked of] the world with great weapons, serious illnesses, tigers, wolves, snakes, hui (Jllfe, a kind of poisonous snake), and a myriad toxic [animals], (la-lb) The author of the Niiqing guitu regards all the spirits of all beings, which include mountains, tigers, and spirits of humans with untimely and sudden death as ghosts (gui Jt,); they are the objects of worship in popular cults." The mediums of popular cults are also viewed as deviant 9  forces.  120  In the text, they are subordinates of the Celestial Master Zhang Daoling, and are  totally kept under restraint by him.  mWMk, ! A i P ! A ° [After] the Celestial Master kowtowed, he dared to succeed to the way of the Ancient Emperor (the Yellow Emperor?) for restricting people and controlling ghosts. Now he applies the qi of Orthodox Unity of [resting on] the Authority of the Pledge (Zhengyi mengwei zhi qi JT£—MMAIti) and the Niiqing gui Iin to order devils (xie 5f|S), monsters  " Jiutian are spirits worshipped by shamans. Zhang Zhizhe. ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian. p. 82. The law Zhang Daoling received from the Lord Lao in A.D. 165 was regarded as that of the Three Heavens, representing goodness; the qi of the Six Heavens were stale and evil. It was associated with the popular cults and was responsible for the decadence of the world. The Master and his successors had responsibility of repelling this stale qi. Rolf A. Stein, "Religious Taoism and Popular Religion from the Second to Seventh Centuries", p. 59. Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: s  Growth of a Religion, p. 55.  '  1 9  These spirits embrace dead generals.  They are called "the ghosts of sorcerers and unjust spirit mediums (lit. daoshi j'Jtdr, the term of daoshi here does not mean Daoist masters, but only means the practitioners of popular culls). S^ipT- JBJIi A5&" (Chapter 4, lb) 1211  56  (mei !H), demons (yao $A), and the ones with untimely deaths' to assist the Dao in 21  aiding transformation [of people to goodness]. (Chapter 4, la) In the eschatology of the Tianshi school, people are persuaded to convert to its teaching with the threat of these harmful forces and are motivated by the desire to attain the identity of "seed people". Chapter 6 of the scripture begins with the Celestial Master's criticism of human misbehavior and statement of advantage of conversion. Then it continues with the following passage: ^ i t i i ,  wmm^-mmmm.,  ^ T T A T ,  mz^n^m. • %  [The Celestial Master] now orders the five masters [of five directions] to lead myriad ghosts and scatter them throughout the world in order to kill and destroy the ferocious *  and the wicked.  •  122  *  123  Those who are killed should not claim to be treated unjustly.  If  other people discover [that the ferocious and the wicked are killed], they should not save them rashly. If ghosts impose [punishments] on the virtuous recklessly, mistakenly, and presumptuously, the masters will release, help, and protect them. If the ghosts do not go away, [the masters] will severely detain and punish them. (Chapter 6, 2a) Although the ghosts do not have high rank, they bring people great threats. Nearly every creature and thing can turn to a harmful spirit. However, from the view of the Tianshi school, the popular cults are still thought to be rivals instead of complements. At the end of chapter 5, the text provides fourteen codes, six of which are for banning popular cults.  ^mm&tm. ° ~xn-m mn ^mmo^iE • ^nmmmk r^m i  Do not worship stale qi (gnqi  t&Mt)', do not point at ghosts and call them gods....  Do  not be of two minds about [learning the Dao and believe] unjust [faiths].... Do not recklessly spread teachings about ghosts (guijiao J/UiO- Do not communicate with Literally, it is a character with "dai ~^'" on Ihe left and "yang ={-'•" on the right, the meaning of which I cannot find. Perhaps it is a misprint for "yao W The masters of the five directions are responsible for spreading various sicknesses such as heart diseases and carbiuicles. (2a-2b) Literally, the character is kuang and the term dwngkuang should be translated into "give arrogant tones of voice". But it seems that kuang is a misprint for wang £E (injustice). 121  122  123  57  ghosts and join up with them.... Do not take part in vulgar [faiths] and [think that they] overpower the true [teachings] (i.e. Daoism). (Chapter 5, 4b) The elements of popular cults are absorbed in the Tianshi eschatology probably because people fear the disasters ghosts bring more than the punishments gods impose, as the text says!  The Heavenly Way uses ghosts for assisting gods in spreading qi; humans are afraid of ghosts but do not revere gods. [The former] deceive [humans] and use the names of the latter; they appoint themselves to the positions they name.. In [minds of people in] the mundane world, ghosts count (lit. cun ^ ) but gods are not respected (lit. wu ffi do not exist). [Humans' wild] interpretations [of ghost worship] are various. (Chapter 1, 8b-9a) In a prominent Lingbao text, the Lingbao wuliang duren shangpin miaojing M W ^ S S S A - h r S n lA'W (Wondrous scripture of the upper chapters on limitless salvation, a Lingbao [scripture], fasc. 1; hereafter "the Shangpin miaojing"), there is a list of names of the demon kings of the five directions.  124  (1 Oa) Unlike the five masters in the Niiqing hui hi, as cited above, the five  kings in this Lingbao work are responsible for "severely controlling the Divine Elder of Northern Fengdou (Beifeng shengong  AiCTA,  i.e. the minister of purgatory)  are ordered to drive away all inauspicious [beings].  HSIAIPWA"  "They  op ef-ffjAlA (10a) They apparently do  not spread calamities so as to purify the human world. Shangqing Daoism also maintains a similar attitude towards the gods of popular cults.  12:>  These two schools were not as closely  related to popular cults as the Tianshi school was in the Six Dynasties; hence, their scriptures  The entire scripture consists of sixty-one chapters {Juan which are compiled in fascicles 1 to 13 of the Daoist Canon; except for the first one, the remaining chapters were not composed until after the Tang. Therefore, 1 shall not discuss them. Michel Strickmann, "The Longest Taoist Scripture", History of Religions, 17(1978): 332. Stephen R. Bokenkamp has translated the one in faxcicle 87, which is nearly identical to chapter 1. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, Early Daoist Scriptures, pp. 405-432. John Lagerway does not provide a translation of the title in his introduction to the text. My translation is based on Stephen R. Bokenkamp's. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus 124  Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 229-230. 1 2 5  Michel Strickmann, "On the Alchemy of T'ao Hung-ching". Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion,  Holmes Welch & Anna Seidel (London: Yale University. 1979). p. 180-181.  58  ed.  written in this time do not include such descriptions of destruction, in which the spirits of popular cults are ordered to drive away the depraved.  b) The Shangqing School The Daojun lieji and the Shangqing sanlian zhengfa jing  Ji'/ff JEAIE&W (Shangqing  scripture on orthodox doctrines of the three heavens), collected in the Yunji qiqian Wk%X^-Wk (The bookcase of the clouds with the seven labels) (1004-1007) of the Song Dynasty, are the materials discussed when modern scholars study the apocalyptic notions of the Shangqing school in the Six Dynasties.  126  Although the Shangqing sanlian zhengfa jing provides abundant sources  of the notions of great kalpas (dajie  ASl) and intermediate kalpas (xiaojie /Jvz^j), we are not  certain of the time of its publication and therefore the text will not be mentioned here.  127  In  addition to the Daojun lieji, the scope of our discussion will include some other Shangqing texts. One will be disappointed to find that the Shangqing texts, except for the Daojun lieji, do not contain elaborate depictions of universal ruin as do the writings of the other two schools. In the  " Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, pp. 160-161. Anna K. Seidel, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung", pp. 243-244. Anna Seidel, "Taoist Messianism", pp. 171-172. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Time after Time: Taoist Apocalyptic History and the Founding of T'ang Dynasty", pp. 6871. ' The text, which contains detailed description of universal ruin, is very much unlike other Shangqing texts. Tins feature of the texts will be shown in the following discussion. Hence, Ihe Shangqing Sanlian Zhengfa jing was probably not composed in the Six Dynasties. The same can be said about a fragment quoted in chapter 3 of the Yunji qiqian. The book contains a list of various paradises, one of which is the "Heaven of Chosen People (zhongmin lian SU^A)"• Anna K. Seidel thinks thai its emergence slows the change of Daoist notion about the Utopia; the rebels' perfect state becomes a heaven. It is accessible only to those who transcend their earthly lives as immortals and it is governed by Ihe Holy Ruler as emperor. Anna K. Seidel. "The Image of Ihe Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and L i Hung", pp. 243-244. Zhang Junfang, the author of the Yunji qiqian, neither mentions the title of the text from which the fragment comes nor the lime it is produced. I camiot be sure if it is written in the Six Dynasties; the idea of Ihe heaven does not appear in the Shangqing texts I read. The notions of various heavens (Thirty-six Heavens JE.+/sA or Thirty-two Heavens JE+Z.'.A) might have been formed in the late Six Dynasties. The Shangpin miaojing contains the names of the Thirty-two Heavens (chapter 1, 8a-9b), but they are not annotated by Yan Dong f § ) $ of fifth century. They could have been added lo the scripture during the mid-sixth century. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 230. Among the heavens in ihe text, there is none named zhongmin tian; therefore, the idea of this heaven might have been formed after Ihe Six Dynasties. b  I 2  59  Shangqing texts 1 have read, there are only a few sentences directly related to eschatology. Here is the longest passage I can find:  )tn^.m, S ^ A A , A A M A B^M, A-SJ-BA mmzm, wjmm, &mmx, « A S ^ , a-S'fim, mmnm, W ^ A M I , nm^m, mmn, M&im, ^AIJ?A, m i A « t , # « A , ummx, ^^m°mm^mmm^m, - A H M A ^ A xm-^mx, ^ A A A ? S , The Dingzhen yulu (Jade register of unchangeable perfection I E I I A I ^ ) , [a piece of] natural writing, was created in the non-beginning time and ends in the endless time [of the universe]. Once great kalpas pass (lit. gai 3£), [adepts] will obtain the perfection of the Dao. [If they] accumulate merits and pile up virtues, [they will certainly be able to] wear this scripture [at their waists as a talisman] (i.e. Dingzhen yulu). Then their names will be written [in the Register] and their bodies will receive the qi [of the Register]. [This scripture] is really true, so it should not be destroyed. During the time when great kalpas have not finished, there are intermediate kalpas. People who are lazy in [accumulating merits] will regress in bodily [purification] and reputation. They will certainly lose this text and are not worthy to be immortals. Those who make progress in [accumulating] merits and perforin excellence in virtue can keep the text without loss. They are guaranteed to be seed people. They do not regress [in doing merits and virtue]. Since (lit. ruo 3^) their merits and wisdom vary in degree, there will be an extra [quota of] one hundred and twenty thousand people after [the original one of] two hundred and forty thousand people is set. In total, there are three hundred and sixty thousand people. All  * The Shangqing texts are: Huangtian shangqingjinque dijun lingshu ziwen shangqing M . A A f s s f e l i ^ ^ f q f i l l r ^ l >C Jh#M (High scripture [written in] efficacious books and purple script on the Lord Emperor of Shangqing Imperial Palace [dwelling in| the imperial heaven, fasc. 342; hereafter "the Ziwen shangqing"). Sanyuan yujian sanyuan bujing, Dongzhen taishang shenhu yimven W'\%~J^.ilWfM^>C (Secret scripture of the divine tiger |taught by] the Most High One, a Dongzhen scripture, fasc. 1031; hereafter "the Shenhu yimven"), Shangqing danjing daojingyindi bashu jing Jifs A^jMIWffitliiyVlilillS (The Shangqing scripture of the Dao essence of cinnarbar effulgence [containing] the eight methods for hiding in the earth, fasc. 1039; hereafter "the Yindi bashu jing"), Dingzhen yulu, Sanyuan bujing, Dongzhen taishang shenhu yujing p] Jte^Jilffl^Bs^M (Jade scripture of divine tiger [taught by) the Most High One, a Dongzhen scripture, fasc. 1031; hereafter "the Shenhu yujing"). Jing -ft is the name of eight spirits (bajing A i f i ; Eight Effulgences) dwelling in bodies of adepts. For an introduction to the eight spirits, read Michel Strickmann, "On the Alchemy of T'ao Hung-ching", pp. 173-174. Isabelle Robinet translates the Ziwen ,2  shangqing  into Marvelous scripture in purple characters of the Lord Emperor of the Golden Gate and does not  provide the translation of the Shenhu yujing.  Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A  Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, pp. 159-160. pp. 195-196.  60  are the ones who will have completed [their cultivation] in a kalpa.  129  People whose  merits and virtues are scanty cannot enter this group of three hundred and sixty thousand people and have to wait for a later kalpa. (Dingzhenyii/n, 5a-5b) The Shangqing texts do not provide statements of cosmic misfortunes, and the authors do not persuade their readers to carry out the practices in the texts by amplifying forthcoming universal destruction. Sentences about messianic prediction can still be found, but they are much less than those in the Tianshi and Lingbao works. However, Shangqing texts still enrich the Daoist eschatology in the Six Dynasties with their accounts of the Holy Ruler. The authors of the texts usually state long lines of transmission of scriptures by various gods so as to show that the existence of the texts can be traced back to revered sources in ancient times.  130  Among them, the Holy Ruler can be found. He receives  magic symbols or sacred writing from the Heavenly Emperor of Grand Subtlety (Taiwei tiandi A ' i ^ A ' r f ? or Taiwei dijun A'f^'iWS'), or the Lord Lao, directly or indirectly, and teaches it to the Green Lad Lord (Qingtong jun W l S f i ) - ' ' In the lines of the transmission mentioned in the 3  texts, we can learn about the Holy Emperor.  %mmmn, tmmm, mi»um. miiim., mkxm , mm m  A A , iituH'B', mmm  The Great Lord Dao of High Superiority (i.e. the Lord Lao) says, "The virtue of Li Shanyuan ^|J_|#jfj  133  is in harmony with that of seven sages (qisheng -b'§= ?) (i.e. is  highly commended as the sages) and is the Master of Imperial Palace. He takes responsibility for [granting] audiences [to the transcendental beings] in the Ten Heavens  ~ Kalpa here means a period from the creation of the cosmos to its ruin, unlike great kalpas and intermediate kalpas, which are mentioned earlier and mean disasters. The same can be said about other Shangqing texts. Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, p. 126. J  13(1  131  Ziwen shangqing,  la-lb. Shenhuyinwen,  4b. Yincli bash u jing. chapter 2. la-lb.  The original character in the version 1 read is mie #Jc without the three dot strokes on the left. It is a misprint for wei 1 3 3  This is one of the Holy Emperor's bynames. Daojun lieji. la. 61  (Shitian A'A)'  34  and dealing with [the affairs of] the myriad people. He fixes the  zhongyuan cj^jc (medieval prime)  135  according to mysterious principles (xuanji 5Cf$t) . 136  He establishes the_y/>/ and the yang so as to harmonize [myriad beings in] the beginning [of the world]. He chooses Perfect [Men] and promotes prominent ones; he enfeoffes rivers and can summon [the creatures in] the sea. He judges and is responsible for [decisions about] life and death; he controls heavenly might. [He is in charge of] destroying (lit. guo mie  the former character means cutting off left ears of enemies  during warfare) the Six Heavens. He takes overall responsibility to punish the Three Officers, and can punish and catch the Northern Emperor [of Fengdu]...." (Shenhu yinwen, 4b) After introducing the Holy Emperor, the author continues by stating that the Lord Lao and the Emperor of Taiwei teach him divine power and the Perfect Magic Symbol of the Golden Tiger (jinhu zhenfu #J>%S^T[) for destroying demons and leading gods. (5a) In the picture of the transmission of magic or sacred message, the Holy Emperor is described as the one granted power by high gods, and is ranked among the deities transmitting sacred message to followers in mundane world. The picture of Shangqing eschatology is not complete if our studies do not include the Daojun lieji. The work is dedicated to the Holy Emperor with elaborate embellishments and flowery expressions. His image is fully formed; it is very much unlike the vague ones in other Daoist texts, which only mention that his name and the time of his age will arrive. We shall discover that the purpose of the whole text is to demonstrate the path to immortality, and the author devotes his main attention to the process of how one can turn into an immortal by diligent  The author gives no explanation of what Ten Heavens are. It is likely that the shitian are ten cavern-heavens (dongtian PR) located at ten mountains, which are regarded as dwellings of immortals. Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 1199. Tao Hongjing WtihMc. divides the other world into seven levels. The sixth one is cavern-heavens in which terrestrial immortals and postulants for perfection dwell. Michel Strickmann, "On the Alchemy of T'ao Hung-ching", p. 180. The meaiung of zhongyuan here is uncertain. It may refer to the earth since the Three Primes (sanyuan H T C ) are interpreted as Heaven. Earth, and Water. The term should be interpreted as a natural object because it should be correspond to the [cnn yinyang (yin and yang) in the next sentence. Zhang Zhizhe, ed.. Daojiao wen hua cidian, p. 88. 1 3 4  I 3 >  1 3 0  62  cultivation with single-mindedness. The description of the Holy Emperor's role in the future world, as quoted in the above discussion, is to display the role of remarkable glory he gains in reward for his cultivation. From this point of view, we can then understand why the author writes in detail the process of the Holy Emperor's cultivation, which includes using various Shangqing practices and receiving a number of scriptures of the school from high deities, and why he highlights the Emperor's single-mindedness in penetrating the truth.  137  After the author  shows the prominent role of the Holy Emperor in the future world on 6a, he writes in a tone of explanation:  A / A A  mmx^zxm,  ^AMIEAA  A A A K A  s * x • njbmm-zm, mn&m, aAhjt^iA  mv^mmn, xwmm°  A ^ A I S  It is because the Holy Ruler has undergone all difficulties and sufferings when he studied the Dao. He received [teachings from] masters [after] he endured great sufferings. He experienced keen pain of hunger and cold, and went through obstacles of floods and fires. He gave up (lit. xie ''Mj = she ^ ?) his personal sentiment towards his f i v e close relations (wuc/iri i l l l )  1 3 8  He repeatedly received serious trials from heavenly sovereigns, and  [the results of all of which] showed that his mind was firm and his righteousness [could enable him to assume celestial] duties. [He understood] that the time of birth and death were certainly fixed; [only by attainment of immortality one could transcend them] Myriad demons could not violate his [inner] spirit; one thousand monsters could not bewilder his perfect [nature]. He (lit. er f;f) was absolutely sincere and [his comprehension of] the mystery [of the Dao] was unimpeded. Potent gods united with and responded to him. Therefore, the High Sovereign (Tianhuang A M ) told him [holy] secrets, and the Heavenly Honorable One (Tianjun A H O taught him the Dao. (6a)  139  We can find, for example, the Daclong zhenjing APJK'IS (The perfect scripture of great cavern), the Shangqing ±?W^ft9SS#^X (The efficacious writing written in purple characters of Shangqing imperial palace), and the Taishang yinshu yfc_l:J8tt (The hidden writing |taught by | the Most High [Lord Lao|). For more, read Ren Jiyu, ed., Daozang liyao, p. 327. 1 cannot find the meaning of wuqin. It should be a synonym of within jj.imu which means four kinds of relationship between monarchs and officers, fathers and sons, husbands and wives, elder brothers and younger brothers, and the relation among friends. The description of how the Holy Ruler devoted himself to studying the Dao can also be found on 2a. 137  jinque lingshu ziwen  138  1 3 9  63  The process of his attainment of Dao "cannot be recorded in detail on documents of bamboo slips with brushes in ink. W^M-WflM^fiW^Wl.  ° " The author hence now "writes one  thousandth [of the story of his cultivation] and, sketchily and briefly notes his traces in order to transmit them to [those with immortal] bones and marks, those who should attain immortality, ffi WXftZ-—,  BWflM^Uft'SNfA 'MllllZ-f  0  " The names of people who see this scripture  will be reported to the deities in the Heaven of Grand Purity, and they will be promoted to ministers (qing  (6a-6b) This section can be considered the main propose of the work;  therefore, the author not only states the names of the Emperor's representative, who is responsible for spreading the text, and of his subordinates, but he also mentions the sacred texts containing divine secrets and the physical marks that can show if people are destined for immortality. These contents occupy the text from p. 6b until the last page. The final goals of religious practice, which are complete liberation from worldly limitations and absolute freedom in the other world with a glorious position in it, are also promoted in the text.'  40  Although the Holy Emperor is granted [the right to] govern the populace and take care of myriad living things below, he [travels] freely the Golden Imperial Palace on his own. 141  He locates his palace and office at the [Region of] Shangqing (Grand Purity), and settles his body in the Great Void (Taixu AJlS)  1 4 2  He travels unrestrainedly to the Five Cities  (Wucheng S M ) ' ; he examines and manages the Ten Heavens [so people in] hundreds 43  of regions [experience] peace. (5b)  mmmtmm, Tmm±, &&mm&M, nm±m, mmxm, mmm,  l 4 u  For the other world existence Daoist adepts longed for in the Six Dynasties, see Hu Fuchen, Weijin shenxian  daojiao - Baopuzi neipian yanjiu, pp. 124-130.  "Gu A1T is omitted here because the character is meaningless. ~ Taixu means either the primordial state of qi or the vast universe. Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidian, p.  141  I4  450. Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua cidian. p. 85. 143  Wucheng are the cities established by the Yellow Emperor in Kunlan for receiving immortals. Hu Fuchen, ed.,  Zhonghua  daojiao da cidian, p. 1588.  64  We can conclude that the author bases this text on the myth of this future master spread in the Six Dynasties, and makes Li Hong an example in order to demonstrate how a human becomes a transcendental being.  144  His reign in the future  rewards for diligent practice. Holding  positions  Utopia  and his transcendental liberation are  in the divine bureaucracy in the future world  becomes attraction for converting to the Shangqing tradition. It seems that the longing for immortality overrides the concern for universal calamities in the text. Escape from the destruction of the world becomes subordinate to transforming from an ordinary human into a transcendental being. Although the accounts of eschatology in the Shangqing tradition are much less detailed than those of other two schools, it would be unconvincing for us to assert that eschatology in the Six Dynasties did not deeply affect the members of the school, mainly aristocrats, or that it did not stimulate their concern as much as that of the members of other schools.  145  The Zhengao Man  (Declarations by perfect men, fasc. 637-640) complied by Tao Hongjing contains messages given by the Lady Wei ( S t A A or Wei Huachuan WlWW-)  a n  d the gods of the Shangqing to  Yang X i £ § i i . The first eighteen chapters of the version collected in the Daozang are considered to have been written in the Jin Dynasty.  146  Chapter 6, which is entitled "Fuzhu xu  jftfft (Prolegomena on the ingestion of atractylis)", tells us of the aristocrats' pursuit of immortality under the pressure of imminent misfortunes.  147  In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, transcendental beings were no longer regarded as superhumen, but ordinary men who attained longevity tlirough their cultivation. Hu Fuchen. Weijin shenxian daojiao - Baopuzi neipian yanjiu, pp. 136-138. ~ Both the Shangqing and Lingbao Daoism were composed of southern aristocrats: therefore, the former played an important role in the formation of the latter. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Sources of the Ling-pao Scriptures", Melanges Chinois el Bouddhiques, 1980(21) (Michel Strickmann ed.. Tan trie and Taoist Studies in Honour ofR. A. Stein, vol. 2). pp. 442-449. Michel Strickmann. "On the Alchemy of T a o Hung-ching", p. 187-188. Chen Guofu Daozangyuanliu kao'jWlWlfiM^(Examination of origins and developments of the Daozang) (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1963), vol. 1, p7. The translation of the title is taken from Michel Strickmann, "On the Alchemy of T'ao Hung-ching", p. 154. ]4  1 4 6  147  65  mftmm,  iti,  mmmu, immt,  During only a very short time  (danqing  mmmm^mm,  mmm  J3 bW), the vital force of slaughter has covered the  sky, and a vicious vapor has destroyed the landscape. Evil demons turbulently appear; a hundred kinds of sicknesses are mixed and imminent. [People suffer from] chills and arthritis  (kuanjie  ! f l # p  =  kuanjie  Iff fp), or they suffer from infectious tumors and various  diseases. [Misfortunes] unexpectedly gather. Those who are sick accidentally come and gather every day. [If one ingests] the qi of atractylis (zhu j|t), [one can] diminish and stop nutrition for ghosts yinhuo 'WJX  (guijin  5iL$! ). [If one] gives up mundane life 9  (tuyin  mundane lives), [one can] suppress and reduce evil restraints  BjFJl!; yin  (xiejie  =  3jj-|5fij5).  [Ingestion of atractylis] can strengthen inner [organs], nourish souls, benefit blood, promote (lit. .sheng A.) [suppleness of] minds, drive away demons, lead [to people's attainment of] perfection, safeguard essences, and protect lives. Eating the food [made of atractylis] can make [a state of] suppleness and flexibility spread [throughout bodies], advance circulation  (rongshu  Hfjf)?), and [cause] nimbleness. [If one] ingests the pills  and powder [made of atractylis], one can recover from and remove hundreds of diseases, and one's five organs longevity  (wuzang  S/fl) will contain fluid  (changyuan shijiu -MiM^X  (hanye "a"^).  changshangjiushi  =  148  [The path to]  -JIA.^Xli.) therefore is clearer.  People.in ancient time call it (atractylis) "Crimson [Substance] of Mountain Essence (Shanjing zhi chi |_L|IFI51#)"  ffi)"'  49  The  or "Mountain-ginger Essence  Taishang daoxian ming  (Shorn iang zhi jing  LLjlIA  XXWr-i\\\¥i\ (Inscription about leading to  immortality [taught by] the Most High One) says, "If you want longevity, you should ingest the Seeds of Mountain Essence  (Shanjing zhizi  |X|ffi'A~F')- If you want to be so  light and soar [above], you should ingest Mountain Ginger (Shanjiang | _ L | M ) T h e s e  s  The meaning of hanye is not clear here; ye may mean yuye  (jade fluid), fluid of kidneys.  There is a kind of food in Daoist dietetics called "shanjing bing |l|ff i# (mountain-essence cake)", the ingredient of which is atractylis. Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidian, p. 920. 1 cannot find any information about the Taishang daoxian min: it is probably lost now. 1 4 9  150  66  are the atractylis we are talking about. I do not mean that all other things are not as good as (jian /J^) atractylis in benefiting [bodies]. Besides, the use of the qi of atractylis is necessary in the present. There are many diseases during the last kalpa; we should ingest and manage (yu fl|]) [the qi]. Although the Dao can complete one's internal [organs], one still needs to worry about accidents outside [of one's body], [Being judged] outwardly, one's appearance may [show that one is] energetic, but one may suffer from faults resulting in untimely death. Zhang Chan ?3M- was partial toward [perfection of appearance only, but his inner frailty] caused him death. ' Why do we not learn our 13  lessons? [Ingesting] atractylis can also lead to longevity and everlasting existence. Besides, it can remove the unjust sicknesses spread by myriads of demons. I find that since hermits living in mountains and forests ingest [atractylis in] this way, they can live for a thousand and eight hundred years. Their lives can be as long as the Five Mountains.  152  (3b-4b)  This passage shows that the pursuit of immortality is motivated by the fear of disasters happening in the last age. Michel Strickmann thinks that the Shangqing members believed this eschatology because they were limited in promotion to office after the Jin government was firmly established in the south. When the northerners held the positions with the real power, the southerners could come to prominence only in religious movements and learning and technological expertise, especially in the Riles (Liji jfillcl), the Yijing. portents, and calendars.  153  Shangqing followers commonly had the expectation of being reborn in the reign of the Holy Ruler. The fragments revealed by the Lord Wang of the Western City (Xicheng wangjun f§Jjj£  3r.fl) and the Lady of Purple Beginning (Ziyuan furen  ^SJCAA)  in chapter 6 of the Zhengao  Zhang Chan should be a Daoist who died from unsuccessful alchemy in the Jin Dynasty or before, but 1 cannot find any information about him. 151  1 5 2  The five mountains (wuyue  EIR) are Taishan # [ ± | , Huashan 5jl|_L|. Hengshan f£r|±|, Hengshan [H|l|, and  Songshan SJUJ. Michel Strickmann, "On the Alchemy of T'ao Hung-ching". p. 186-187. 1 5 3  67  contain references to the aspiration to be born in his reign.'  34  Both are about the difficulty in  studying the Dao. Here is the one told by the Lady of Purple Beginning:  K <^ii-w- mmmtmm- mmmmim- m^mm- nwmmm^ There are five difficulties in the world. It is difficult to benefit others when one is poor. It is difficult to study the Dao when one is rich. It is difficult to control one's own life and not to die. It is difficult to obtain and read cavern scriptures (dongjing  /|B]|M)  1 5 5  It is  difficult to be born in and meet the world of the Latter[-day] Holy [Ruler] in the year of renchen. (8a)  The one revealed by the Lord Wang contains similar ideas. In a sequence of difficulties that one will encounter in the world, being alive in the age of great peace during the renchen year is considered to be most valuable and most difficult to attain.  Although one encounters a just ruler and is born in a family who studies the Dao, it is difficult for one to be kind and generous. Although one's good mind appears, it is difficult for one to believe in the Dao and inner virtue and [to pursue] longevity. Although one believes in the Dao and inner virtue and [pursues] longevity, it is difficult for one to encounter the destiny of great peace in the renchen year. Why do we not prompt [each other to pursue immortality so that we can live in the age of great peace]? (6b-7a)  The wish is also clearly expressed in the Daojun lieji. That is why the author of that text encourages believers in Shangqing cultivation by saying repeatedly that they can be promoted to be divine officers in the age of the Holy Ruler.  The Lord Wang is Wang Yuanyou EEjUJlg, the disciple of the Lord of Green Lad. See the Daojun lieji. I cannot find any information about the Lady of Purple Beginning. Cavern scriptures (dorigjing) possibly mean the Daoisl texts of the three categories. Lu Xiujing lUgfl^ff divided Daoist scriptures into the Three Caverns (sandong HPJ) in the fifth century, each of which represented one of the leading schools of Daoism at that time. The Cavern of Perfection (dongzhen) contains Ihe Shangqing scriptures; the Cavern of Mystery (dongxuan) contains the Lingbao texts. The Cavern of Spirit contains the talismans and explanations of the Three Sovereigns (sanhuang H J | ) , to which the Tianshi texts belong. Livia Kohn, The Taoist Experience: an Anthology (New York: State University of New York, 1993), p. 65-66. 134  153  68  Facing crises in the last age, Shangqing followers were prone to seek personal salvation, withdraw from mundane world, and lead the lives of recluses. This attitude is shown in the following fragment.  The Perfect Man of Grand Mystery (Taixu zhenren XfSiMX)  says, "Bestowing rice on a  hundred ordinary people is not as good as bestowing rice on a moral person. Bestowing rice on a thousand moral people is not as good as bestowing rice on a Daoist student." People who dwell in mountains and forests (i.e. hermits) frugally should pay more attention to this principle. (Zhengao, chapter 6, 8a) Chapter 14 of the Zhengao contains introductions of a number of recluses. For example, Ping Zhongjie Song  zpjrpffj,  a Daoist learner, led the life of a recluse and became a disciple of the Lord  on Mount Gang MlU because the north fell to barbarian tribes. (9a) 7  Daoist students in the famous Five Mountains amount to several millions.... Besides, people who have lived in these famous Five Mountains for a long time are also innumerable. There are also several thousands of people who are divine officers and rule famous mountains. (10a-10b) These recluses are much different from the believers of other two schools. As we have discussed above, the purpose of a number of Tianshi texts in the Six Dynasties is to urge sect members to lead lives of virtue and to restore the authority of Celestial Masters. The Lingbao tradition insisted the universal salvation and attacked those in pursuit of personal salvation. They could only attain immortality of a lower rank. The Shangqing school emphasized technical and mystical practices carried out on an individual basis. The participation of the believer in salvation was completely private, without the intervention of any other humans.'  36  This attitude  Isabelle Robinet, Taoism: Growth of a Religion, pp. 130. 153-155. Hu Fuchen, Weijin shenxian daojiao Baopuzi neipian yanjiu, p. 61. 150  69  may be the reason why Shangqing eschatology does not include much exhortation to people asking them to convert to the school, and nor much explanation of universal aiin. The eschatology of the school is directly addressed to the methods of escaping cosmic misfortunes, not to the reasons for disorders in the last kalpa, which were already common in the Six Dynasties.  c) The Lingbao School Like the Tianshi school, the Lingbao school provides abundant sources for the Six-Dynasty eschatology. We can discover that some notable characteristics of the Lingbao eschatological scriptures distinguish them from those of other two schools. Unlike those of the Tianshi, which are mingled with accounts of the historical context of the school, the Lingbao messianic predictions contain a lot of fabrications about the past. Buddhism and the theory of five phases.  157  Besides, there is strong influence from  158  The Lingbao scriptures contain many eschatological descriptions like those of the Tianshi tradition. They are, however, distinctive because the origins of the scriptures are usually emphasized and related to the remote past. This feature makes the Lingbao messianic prophecies unique in style. It can be generally concluded that the Tianshi eschatology is mingled with accounts of its history, although the latter is often exaggerated and mixed with some imaginary elements, as shown in the discussion above. Therefore, the Tianshi texts are often used as sources for studies of the history of the school. In their scriptures, comments are made on the contemporary world; corruption exists in the present age in contrast with the moral world in the past. Our Lingbao texts, however, contain numerous myths and embellishments that  " do '* on  I shall include the Tianshi and Lingbao tradition only when talking this point because the Shangqing scriptures not provide much material on eschatology, as 1 mentioned above. 1 mainJy consult the works of Erik Ziirch and Stephen R. Bokenkamp in my discussion of the Buddhist influence the Lingbao scriptures. Erik Ziircher. "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism - a Survey of Scriptural Evidence", T'oung Pao 66 (1980):85-I47. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Sources of the Ling-pao Scriptures", pp. 434-486. 5  70  exaggerate the origin of the texts, which are traced back to the formation of the cosmos and have existed since then. For instance, the author of the Jiulian shengshen zhangjing says:  ivx^mi^Mm^zm,  AAI^IA  mmt$:>  m&-&nmm.n&,  Amis  The Jiulian shangshen zhang A A A-f^ijE (Stanzas of the life spirits of the nine heavens) is the qi of flying mystery (feixuan zhiqi  fft AAHO  [coming from] the Three Caverns  (sandong A p ] ) . The three [qi] combine and form music; they produce efficacious writing [that is the Jiutian shangshen zhang]. [The text] is mingled with hidden rhyme of a hundred divinities and their secret names; it produces qi and generates the forms of [the myriad things]. (2b-3a) The Three Caverns here are the Great Cavern (dadong~J\W\),Cavernous Mystery (dongxuan j£), and Cavernous Spirit (dongshen /|BJ|$). The meanings of these terms are not given in the -  text, but they are connected to the three qi (the personified forms: Tianbao jun ^ R A i [Heavenly Precious Lord], Lingbao jun  S I R S [Spiritual Precious Lord], and Shenbao jun ^9  A' [Divine Precious Lord]) that generate the universe; ' (la-lb) Some Lingbao texts are ] 9  thought to exist or to have been produced during the ages of high deities. For example, the Yundu jieqi jing is considered to have been written by the Heavenly Honorable One of Lingbao (Lingbao tianjun "MMJKM-) during the first year of Chiming (Crimson Brightness). (lb-2b) The texts are traced back to the formation of the universe or the time of supreme deities so that they can be dignified and thought to embody great power. This style influences the contents of the Lingbao eschatology. In order to exaggerate the divine might of the texts, the authors often link them with a legendary age in which people can enjoy peace and happiness. In the Yundu jieqi jing, we read:  ' The author just mentions. "The Tianbao jun is a venerable deity of the Great Cavern... The Lingbao jun is a venerable deity of the Cavernous Mystery.... The Shenbao is a venerable deity of the Cavernous Spirit A i H ^ # , m*mZ&nMUB-H. WlffiZZWrttJHf. iJPW^W ' " . ( l a - l b ) The three caverns may be the names of dwellings of these divinities. IM  71  A # t r s : &t±mtcmm, m^mm, wm^x-% °  xmxm&m^,  ^n^Mmjt^mtx^m  wxmn^B, w i , wMmmx, mtc^-mx m%&, i m ^ T k j f ^ , xmmu, ^Xummmmt n^xxxmm&, m&m&x£±Kmwg*, mkx^mu, ^mim, mmm, m&mi, m^mm, ^mm, mumi, mmm, x^m, m^mm, m^mt:, f i ^ ^ E , x^Amm« The Heavenly Honorable One of Lingbao tells [Yanming], "Males and females in this land are innocent and live long without early death. I wrote the Natural Writing of Heavenly Scenes and Great Chaos {tianjing dahun ziran wenzi XmX^^^^C^-)  in  this land in the first year of Chiming, refined the characters with fire, and [formed] the  //Itfff^K'/ii})of the Nation of Forms and Characters (Zixing guo ^-^§11).  Water Pool of Flowing Essence {liu jing shuichi  Therefore, there are people Males and females [there]  go to the fire pool ( Hit /ing shuichi?) every three years, bathe their bodies, immediately drink the water [of the pool, and hence make their] bellies [full of the water]. The water regulates [their bodies once every] three years; therefore, human lives can be so long (three hundred and sixty thousand years old).... From the present on, heavenly destiny should be imminent and the perfect writing should be returned to the palaces of Taimang (Great Awn  XEE), Shang/ing (High Capital _b.A), and Ziwei (Purple Profundity).  After this, human lives will shorten and the compete (i.e. appear in a hurry).  161  five  160  impurities {wuzhuo A/So) will rush to  Various wicked [thoughts] and unorthodox teachings  will rush to disturb [people]. Emperors will be greedy and cruel; warfare will be recklessly stirred up. The qi of epidemics will circulate and help them (ghosts?) to threaten and abuse [people]. People will be sick and [the bodies of] dead [people] will be disorderly scattered. No matter whether one is male or female, one's birth and death will be decided by destiny and will not be judged by the order of the Dao...." (lb-2a)  "'" I cannot find the meanings of Taimang and Shang/ing,  but Ihey should be the names of constellations, like the  Zeiwei. 161  Wuzhuo  iMfSM)'-  are five kinds weaknesses of humans and hindrances they encounter: 1) impurity of worry (fannao  impurity of views (j'ianzhuo  WJMY  humans distinguish between things and cling to their own views, or they hold  heretical views; 3) impurity of life (mingzhuo (shengsi  zhuo  humans have the shortcomings of wrong desire [tan ft), hate (chen Hilt), and ignorance (chi $p); 2)  zhuo  zE^'cM):  afifSi)'. humans' lifespan is limited; 4) impurity of birth and death  everyone has to experience birth and death; 5) impurity of destiny (shiyun  every one has to endure calamities during the last age.  Hu Fuchen, ed. Zhonghua  daojiao  da cidian,  zhuo  Zhongguo daojiao xiehui cp M}M.%kWjl§' (Association of Chinese Daoism) & Suzliou daojiao xiehui (Association of Suzliou Daoism), ed., Daojiao  da cidian  B^j|l'/!§):  p. 472.  M')'\tM$%.Wj1i  )Wft.7K%fc!& (Great Daoist dictionary) (Beijing: Huaxia  chubanshe, 1994), p. 223.  72  The existence of rare scenes and animals in the land is also due to the divine power of the sacred text. (2a) It is striking that a very similar story can be found in the Taishang zhu tian lingshu duming miaojing A J i f f A l l l l SopjAA? (The miraculous books of salvation in the numinous writing of the numerous heavens [spoken by] the Most High One, fasc. 26; hereafter "the Duming miaojing").  For this text, however, there are five imaginary lands instead of one.  162  163  People in these lands can also enjoy longevity and happy lives until the Heavenly Honorable One of Primal Beginning leaves, and the perfect writing created in the remote past is hidden.  164  mk%&, n&wm, sut-ns, dimwm, mmm.^., mi&M±, •B&mn. mmum, K£J\M, mmm, mmm, ~^mm, ^mmtc, After I leave, the perfect writing will be hidden. The doom that every one has to go through will be imminent; the five impurities will rush to compete. A myriad devils will arrive at the same time. [People] desire to [be reborn in] the coming lives. Being alive in it (i.e. the time of doom), one has to resign oneself to experiencing sins, passing through the five paths (wudao EiM), and [enduring] lasting sufferings of the eight difficulties (hanan Aft)-'  6?  People will also cruelly harm each other; worry presses on them. They  Most high miraculous bo salvation in the numinous writing of the numerous heavens. Taoist (.'anon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang " My translation of the title is based on Ursula-Angelika Cedziclf s, which is >2  Although the emperors of the lands are called the Lord Emperors of Five Elders (Wulao dijun H ^ ^ H i , 10a) and four of them are located in four directions, il is nol clearly mentioned if the remaining one is the land of the center. (la-3a) Besides, the other four lands are introduced in dialogue between the Heavenly Honorable One of Primal Beginning and the four emperors of the four directions, whose images are formed according to the notion of five phases. The description of the remaining one, however, is made by the Heavenly Honorable One and the Lord Dao of Grand Supremacy, who does not belong to the five emperors of five phases. In addition to the contents of the stories of the two texts, some details of descriptions of imagined lands are similar. In the there are trees in the eastern land, which will produce spiritual music of c tones PJ^S"If) when being blown by the wind. Besides, when phoenixes in nine col people will kowtow and bow to the direction from which the songs come (lit. ifis i=j- worship songs). (3b) In the southern land, if people visit the Fire-refinement Pool 'Xi%Z_:$±)every tliree years in order to r their bodies, they will not then be old. (5a) In the we can also find divine trees and phoenix Natural Writing of Heavenly Scenes and Great Chaos is carved on the former, and the latter can produce unusual songs. When people hear the songs, they will look in the direction of the songs and worship the phoenixes er li H Ei"|fljipf:)- (la) There is a fire pool; after people bathe in it. they can enjoy longevity, as shown in above quotation. (lb-2a) "° The term originate in a Buddhist term (A";j|)- which means the six paths of sentient existences. in Daoism are five ways of transmigration which one arrives according to one's karma: Heavenly realm A i l ) , human realm A J I ) , purgatory realm JfyffiM), hungry-ghost and animal realm l!r5ljjl)- The realm |!5Jf|-f | f i g 1 6 4  Duming miaojing. (dongzhang lingyin  liyin (huolian zhichi Yundu jieqi jing.  (wangyin  wudao liudao Wudao (tiandao (rendao (diyu dao (chusheng dao asura (axiuluo dao 73  will neither see [orthodox] scriptures and teachings nor meet sacred writing; their birth and death will be decided by fate. They are much to be pitied! (2a) In the both texts, we are told that due to his compassion, the supreme god produces sacred texts. People who practice and recite the text will be delivered from calamites.  166  Although such an  account cannot be found in other two Lingbao scriptures, the Taishang dongxuan lingbao zhenwenyaqjie shangjing A_h'/|5j$x'IISKA^fj?J:'-ll (The supreme scripture with essential explanations [which is written in] perfect writing [and spoken by] the Most High One, a Dongzhen scripture of the Lingbao school, fasc. 167; hereafter "the Yaojie shangjing") and the Shangpin miaojing, they contain the similar notion that the universe is maintained by a hallowed text.  167  Heaven and earth can exist long and do not fall because [the Heavenly Honorable One of] Primal Beginning orders the Five Elders of High Perfection (Wulao shangzhen S ^ J L I I ) to put the Lingbao perfect writing in the caverns of the Five Mountains and seal them in order to pacify deities and appease (zhen fit = zhenfu i$MW) spirits and to control and order [gods of] sources of rivers. Therefore, flooding springs will not arise and great calamities will not occur. (Yaojie shangjing, la-lb)  mmmm, mmsm, Ttm^rn, mmum, imim, j\wmx, mmm [The reign of] Chiming begins (lit. kailn  pj[ff|  = extend boundary); the destiny revolves  [in its] natural [course and the end of the world does not come]. [It is because the Heavenly Honorable One of] Primal Beginning stabilizes [it]. [He] elaborates and writes here. Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidian. p. 471. Banan is also taken from Buddhism and means eight difficult conditions lo learn the Dao. Unlike those in Buddhism, the eight conditions have varied meanings. For details, read Hu Fuchen, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidian. p. 474. In order to highlight the divine power of the texl, the authors of both scriptures tell us first that its existence maintains longevity and people's blissful lives, and it will be hidden with the supreme deity. Then they write that die same text will be bestowed by the supreme deity and appear again in order to save people from the cornipt world of the future. "'' My translation is based on Ursula-Angelika Cedzich's, which is Supreme scripture with essential explanations on the most high Lingbao writs. Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, p. 251. 166  74  five pieces of red texts in jade characters (chishn yuzhi T/J^ffBs^),  [which is] dragon  writing, mighty in all the eight [directions]. It can protect [the world] and control kalpic destiny, and can make heaven long exist... (Shangpin miaojing, 1 Ob-1 la) We can infer some general differences between the eschatology of the Lingbao and that of the Tianshi traditions.  168  The texts of both these schools contain descriptions of a corrupt age and  misfortunes people encounter, and the contents of these themes in their scriptures are similar. However, as shown above, Lingbao eschatological narrative is provided with completely imaginary context, whereas the Tianshi eschatology contains the history of the school, which is usually embellished with fictitious accounts. This is probably because the Lingbao Daoism was newly established in the Six Dynasties and lacked a history of its tradition as did Tianshi Daoism. In addition, misbehavior, accompanied with universal catastrophes, is claimed to happen in the future instead of already existing in the present, as we find in Tianshi scriptures. The contemporary age in the Lingbao scriptures does not impress readers with human immorality and evil as much as it does in the Tianshi works. Besides, human corruption in the Lingbao scriptures originates in the departure of supreme deities and divine scriptures. Viewing from this angle, we can infer that humans do not bear full responsibility for causing cosmic disasters! Buddhist influence in messianic prophecy of the school is another feature of the Lingbao eschatology. Although we can find Buddhist borrowings in the scriptures of other two schools, they do not appear so frequently than they do in the Lingbao works. Lingbao Daoism was exposed to strong Buddhist influence in its formative age. It came into being as a reaction against the other major southern Daoist movement, that of the Shangqing revelations.  169  In our  " We can find exceptions in Lingbao works. For example, the author of the Ziran miaojing does not mention that the creation and ruin of the universe are produced by supreme deity. Erik Zurcher has made a good point in explaining why the impact of Buddhism on Shangqing scriptures is less noticeable. He thinks that Shangqing Daoism was the reaction of the southern aristocracy against the invaders of the northern aristocrats and their ideology, which included Buddhism. However, he does not mention why the Tianshi tradition contains little Buddlust influence. The school was active in the north until it migrated to the south with the imperial house and many official families after Luoyang was captured in 31 ICE. The north was the region where Buddhism and the Tianshi Daoism were active, but it is strange thai the former did not much affect the latter. I w  75  Lingbao works, we can find a lot of Buddhist terminology and read that some of scriptures are revealed in sermons given by the Yuanshi tianzun in assemblies of various gods and immortals. This is reminiscent of Mahayana sutras, which usually contain a stereotyped opening and closing formula.  170  In the sutras, the audience is large and is composed of bodhisttvas, supernatural  beings of all classes, kings, and religious leaders. Sermons begin with a question of a person from the audience, and take the form of a dialogue. The whole texts are full of embellishing features such as miraculous happenings of all kinds and extreme numbers. They also include some versified portions (gdthds fH). After sermons, the authors usually state the immediate effects obtained by some people. We can find some of these features in the Lingbao works. For example, the Dinning miaojing is thought to most resemble Buddhist texts among Lingbao scriptures produced in the age of southern and northern empires.  171  It begins with a sermon  given by the Yuanshi tianzun (Heavenly Honorable One of Primal Beginning) to the Great Sages of various heavens in the House of Long Happiness (Changle she  ft^^).  A part of the text is  written in dialogue between the Heavenly Honorable One and various gods such as the Most High Lord of the Dao (Taishang daojun  AJhiUlll') and the  Emperors of the Four Directions.  The closing sentences resemble those found in Buddhist sutras. many Buddhist terms such as sushi yinynan existences), ji/e  ?g1Ji"H^  (utmost bliss), and shifang  173  172  In the whole text, there are  (causes accumulated from former  (ten directions). In addition, the  Most of the Daoist works Erik Zurcher studied for his "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism - a Survey of Scriptural Evidence" belong to the Lingbao tradition, (pp. 144-147) The opening formula is usually "Thus I have heard ( i l l j a i j - j i l i r j ) " . The closing formula is not standardized but it usually tells us that the audience rejoiced after listening to the sermon and left. For details, read Erik Ziircher's work, pp. 99-100 & note 16. Erik Zurcher, "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism - a Survey of Scriptural Evidence", p. 101. The first part (la-9b) concerns reasons why people in the lands of the Emperors and the Most High Lord of the Dao can enjoy happiness and longevity, and the questions of the Heavenly Honorable One to these deities. The second part (10a-19b) is composed of a sermon of the Heavenly Honorable One on miracles the text brings, a narrative of his saving believers, and petitions addressed to the deities. ' ' "The Most High Lord of ihe Dao. the great sages from ten directions, and the honorable gods of ultimate perfection bowed [to the Heavenly Honorable One| at the same time, received |his| instruct ions, and left. A J l j j f 1711  171  1 7 2  3  m - -tuxm < MX#M-it#?rgT/  -  "0%) 76  descriptions of the lands presided over by the five deities are influenced by those of Amitabha's world.  174  The borrowings from Buddhism in Lingbao eschatology are superficial. They just polish the scriptures and do not play an important role in forming Daoist attitude towards cosmic ruin and salvation. For example, the term sushi yinyuan in the Duming miaojing is not interpreted as karmic causes accumulated from one's former existences, but is used to describe the kindness of the Heavenly Honorable One in granting the Lingbao zhenwen ffiUH^C (Perfect writ of Lingbao) to support people's happy lives. (2a-4a) The idea that the scripture is a sacred object is not taken from Buddhism.  175  recite the petitions in it.  The depictions of the lands are enriched by that of the Amitabha's  176  In order to avoid misfortunes, one should value the scripture and  world, but they are formed mainly according to the traditional five-phase theory. Therefore, we can find the Fire-refinement Pool (huolian zhi chi A M A f t i i 5a), the Jade-Section Golden Pool (yuzhang jinzhang BsipN^'/t!} 6b), and the Cold Pool (hanchi Ijsj'fe 8b) in the southern, western, and northern lands accordingly, the Trees of Green Forest (qinglin zhi shu W'iAAlai 3b) in the eastern land, and other ornaments based on the five phases. The space concept of Buddhism shifang is not as prominent as the notion of five phases, which we shall discuss next, and the author uses it only when referring to the innumerable audience which gathers for listening to the Heavenly Honorable One's sermon. The most noticeable impact from Buddhism in Lingbao eschatology is found in expression; therefore, messianic prophecies of the Lingbao are often revealed in dialogue between supreme deities and other gods or Daoist learners. However, the Lingbao views on causes of universal disasters and the paths to salvation are still in accord with the Daoist tradition and doctrines of other Daoist schools.  Stephen R. Bokenkamp. "Sources of the Ling-pao Scriptures", pp. 472-473. " Erik Ziircher. "Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism - a Survey of Scriptural Evidence", p. 105. ' Tins idea can also be found in other Lingbao works such as the Shangpin miaojing and the Ziran miaojing.  171  I7  17l  77  One piece of evidence that demonstrates the predominant influence of Chinese native tradition on Lingbao eschatology is the common adoption of Five-Emperor faith in our Lingbao scriptures, which originates in the five-phases concept. Stephen R. Bokenkamp points out that the Han five-phases concept deeply influences Lingbao scriptures. This can be traced in the Taishang lingbao wufu xu  A J l f i J I A^'j?'  (The preface of the five Lingbao talismans [spoken  by] the Most High One, fasc. 183), which is viewed as the ancestor of Lingbao works.  177  Although the entire work does not exclusively deal with incantations dedicated to the Five Emperors, we can still read in it methods of cultivation and religious practices formed with the basis of the cult for them.'  78  In our Lingbao scriptures, a great deal of religious rituals and  cultivation practices dedicated to the Emperors is recorded and considered to be able to deliver people during the time of universal destruction. The Five Emperors are neither thought to be the monarchs of the future world, as 1 mentioned above, nor described as messengers who bring the prophecy of the universal end, but they are usually associated with salvation carried out in the present age. The religious practices dedicated to them are revealed by the supreme deity, Yuanzhi tianzun or Lingbao tianzun. In some Lingbao works, the whole world and heaven are  Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Sources of the Ling-pao Scriptures", p. 454. Although the whole text is entitled "preface (zu only the section from la to 1 lb is preface. Ren Jiyu, ed., Daozang liyao, p. 288. Although the Lingbao tradition arose only a few decades later than the Shangqing and the concept of Five Phases has long history, it is unknown why the latter is not influenced so strongly by the concept as was former. For example, we can find methods of ingesting ihe qi of five directions (chapter 1. 11 b- 14b), the talismans given by the Emperors for leading lives of recluses (chapter 3. 8b-1 Ib). and meditation on the Emperors (chapter 1, 16b18b). An account of images of Five Emperors is also given on 14b in chapter I. Stephen R. Bokenkamp thinks that the cult for the Emperors and thefive-phasenotion'affecting the Lingbao works is those fully developed in the Han dynasty. However, one will discover that thefive-phaseconcept in our Lingbao scriptures does not strictly adhere lo the one developed in Ihe Han. Except for the Taishang lingbao wufu xu. no mention of the five historical monarchs (Yellow Emperor MIP . Zhuanxu iiffiJi. Emperor Ku riu#, Emperor Yao and Emperor Shun and linking them with the Emperors can be found in our texts. Besides, the authors of the texts pay no attention to the sequence of five phases in theory of reciprocal production or reciprocal destruction, which is used by Han scholars in order to claim the Han Empire's orthodox role in continuing the reign of the Zhou Dynasty. Confucians after Dong Zhongshu Sf^PifT' generally thought that the Han Dynasty continued government of the Zhou, not the Qin. The Duming miaojing is one of the examples showing that the Five-phase concept in the Lingbao works is primitive. See endnote 3 on p. 60. Qian Mu f^||§, "Ping Gu Jiegang wiide zhongshi shuo xia de zhengzhi he lishi' MWiMM^W(^WC\ ^MSBW^^(Comment on Gu Jiegang's 'Politics and History under Doctrines of FiveVirtue | Cycle of) Beginnings and Ends')". Gushi hian rirT.stf.f? (Debates on ancient history), ed. Gu Jiegang (Hong Kong: Taiping shuju, 1963), vol. 5. pp. 617-630. Stephen R. Bokenkamp, "Sources ofthe Ling-pao Scriptures", pp. 452-454. 178  :  :  78  divided into the spheres of the five directions governed by the Five Emperors, who are subordinates of the supreme god. Worship and practices for them and their inferiors can protect believers from all disasters; therefore, incantations or sacred texts of the five directions coexist with the same importance, and believers need to recite them all. For example, in the Yaojie shangjing, the divine incantations for the Five Heavens can bring one the same blessing, enable one to attain immortality, and drive away evil forces and misfortunes. (6a-7a) In some Lingbao scriptures, the five-phases cosmology enriches the description of misfortunes. Disasters are described according to directions, seasons, and elements of the five phases. In chapter 2 of the Zhenwen Honshu jing, we read five successive periods of time in which the Five Emperors rule and their qi dominate. During the period of the East Emperor, nine primal ones (jiuyuan JXJC) in the Nine Qi of Green Heaven (Jiuqi qingtian 7lHif=f;/v) operate. The qi interchange with each other; one measure (yidu —-f§i) consists of twelve times of interchange. After three thousand and three hundred measures and nine thousand and nine hundred measures, intermediate disasters of bailiu and great disasters of bailiu appear accordingly.  179  Green qi  prospers and yellow qi is eroded. During the former, harvests are good but people surfer hunger; during the latter, grains are destroyed. Mention of harvests is made here because plants are a substance similar to wood, the element of the east. Depictions of phenomena of calamities created on the basis of elements of other three directions can also be found in the accounts of the periods of other Emperors. For example, during the little yangjiu and little bailiu in the time of South Emperor, fire emerges in soil and even gold and jade are burned. During the great yangjiu and great bailiu, fire disappears, and floods come. (4b-7b) Believers therefore should recite appropriate sacred texts and apply the incantations for five directions in which misfortunes happen. The "Zhenwen chishu yujue M'SCtlMSzEf,k (Five pieces of the perfect writing in red  l 7 y  For explanations of the  bailiu and yangjiu,  see pp. 3 0 - 3 2 of this thesis.  79  script about jade knack)" in the Yujue miaojing are used for asking the deities of directions to control floods and demons in their spheres. (Chapter 1, 8a-16a) ln another set of sacred secrets, lights have to be lit and silk fabrics with an incantation (18a-18b) written on them have to be burned; the quantity of them needs to accord with the direction in which misfortunes appear. For instance, we can read the following for disasters happening in the east:  fi^mii,  mmfim, ^xxm, ^tusm,  mmm-h-\-R, tiBtim •  m^m-m-ft.».WA,  If [calamities in] the east, [one need to] light nine lamps, or ninety lamps, or nine hundred lamps, and use a golden dragon of one Hang pj| (an unit of weight) [and station it in the east]. If disasters appear in the east, use nine-foot green silk fabric [and burn it for] nine days and nights. (18b) The "Yuanshi wulao zhenling qiuxian rangzai chishu yujue T t ^ n E ^ t i l f f i ^ f l M S . ^ (Jade secret [written in] red writing and [spoken by] the five elders of primal beginning on subduing spirits, requesting immortality, and preventing misfortunes)" includes instructions to apply the "Chishu zhenwen ^ ^ S J (Perfect writing written in red script)" for the five directions.  Believers have to write the appropriate perfect script and put it in the correct  direction if disasters appear in a certain direction and in certain time. For example, we read the following for repressing disasters in the east:  m±MjjRm~R^ Ji, <  m, wm&m, -iicx  nmmm^m,  # A « W 5 ± ,  mmxiin,  [If] there are misfortunes in the east of the nation or in the three months of the spring and one wants to soothe [people] and repress [misfortunes] in eastern villages, one should write [the perfect script for the east] in red on a green rock and [make it] garrison the east (i.e. place it in the east) for nine days. The misfortunes will naturally be destroyed. The  The "Chishu zhenwen" for Five Emperors mentioned in (he instructions are not included; they should not be the incantation called the "Lingbao bawei zhence WMJK^WM (Lingbao divine essay of might in eight |directions|)", which is placed prior to il, because the latter is only written in one paragraph and is not addressed to the Emperors separately. All sacred texts that have the characters "yujue zEWk (jade secret)" in their titles and are stated in the same chapter of the scripture contain incantations chanted by believers. 18U  80  fierce and the traitorous will naturally disappear. Good people will [emerge] in this direction. (Chapter 1, 26b) One should note that the five-phase notion in our Lingbao works is diverse without becoming rigid. Although five heavens ruled by the five deities are mentioned in the Duming miaojing (la-9b), we can only find four texts for the four directions in the "Zhutian lingshu duming pinzhang I f A f f i t t S o p p p ^ (Essay composed of chapters about salvation, written in efficacious script of various heavens)" at the end of the scripture. (15b-18b) Only Thirty-two Heavens of four directions and Thirty-two Emperors appear in the Shangpin miaojing, but there is no mention of heavens of the center. (Chapter 1, 7b-10b) Due to the deep influence of the five-phase concept on the Lingbao works, rituals and religious practices for preventing and removing calamities became varied and complicated. This feature is worth our attention when we study Lingbao eschatology.  Conclusion Abundant works about universal miseries and messianic prophecy in Daoist tradition in the Six Dynasties were brought into being because of the contemporary context of chaotic society and potential disunity. We can summarize from above discussion the following features of Daoist eschatology in this period. The authors' focus is laid on religious practices, for both universal salvation and personal deliverance; these practices should be carried out in the present world instead of in an ideal Utopia in the future; therefore, the accounts of the present are much more diverse than those of the future. Discussions of religious practices, criteria forjudging if one should be saved, and deities whom one should worship for salvation vary in different scriptures. Since the Daoist authors are eager to persuade people to be aware of universal ruin, they make various explanations of misfortunes, which do not completely harmonize with each other. Periodic destruction of the cosmos, departure of holy scriptures, and human corruption are thought to be 81  reasons for calamities in some Daoist scriptures although the existence of the first two implies that the universal destruction is destined and denies the importance of human causes. Exhortations about morality are not convincing if the first two also appear. Although the narrations of a future Utopia are much fewer and are still vague, their contents are consistent among different Daoist schools. Kou Qianzhi denies that Li Hong will be the master of future age, but he does not reject the messianic apocalypse. Besides, views about Li Hong as the messiah do not only appear in Tianshi Daoism, some members of which were ordinary people, but they were also held by the aristocrats of the Lingbao and the Shangqing. Therefore, we can conclude that Daoism in the Six Dynasties formed its own tradition in eschatology and it was widely accepted by different classes of society among different schools.  181  As shown in the above discussion, expressions in the Six-Dynasty eschatology vary in different schools. Ln the Tianshi Daoism, messianic predictions are usually mingled with exhortations of Celestial Masters and the Lord Lao to the members of the school. Shangqing writers do not provide much description of universal ruin, but desire for immortality and religious practices with this purpose that they focus in the texts can be regarded as reflections of their worry about contemporary crises and of their hope to withdraw from the mundane world. Lingbao eschatology is often expressed in revelations from supreme deities to their subordinates, and is influenced by Buddhism and five-phases theory. However, one cannot find distinct differences in the eschatological views held by different schools. This feature will be more noticeable when we look at the Shenzhou jing * , which is viewed as a text of the Daoism of the ]  2  The use of the term zhongmin and the mention of t he messiah Li Hong become (lie criteria forjudging the dates of Daoist works. One reason why Wang Ming thinks that the first chapter of the present version of the Taiping jing was added later is the use of the term zhongmin in the chapter. This term was created after the Han. Wang Ming, 'Lun taiping jing chao jiabu zlii wei". p. 213. Whether there is a mention of Li Hong in chapter 1 and 5 in the Shenzhou jing becomes an important key to judging the date they were written. Ofuchi N in ji considers them to be composed before the Liu Song Dynasty because only these two chapters in the present version of the Daozang do not contain references to L i Hong, but Christine Mollier finds they do contain in the Dunhuang manuscripts. John Lagerway, "Early Taoist Apocalypse", Cahiecs d' Exlrerue-Asie 6 (1991 -1992):214. E. Ziircher, Anna K. Seidel, and Li Feng-mao have studied this scripture in their articles when discussing Daoist apocalyptic works. E. Ziircher. "Eschatology and Messianism in Early Chinese Buddhism". Leyden Studies in m  82  Li Family (Lijia Dao ^$&yM.), the teachings of which circulated in the Jiangnan region in the Six 183  Dynasties. " From this scripture, we can discover that the eschatological beliefs held by this popular Daoist sect are consistent with those of the above three schools. Like other eschatological texts of the three schools, the Shenzhou jing also includes repeated exhortation about morality, and reference to the advent of the messiah Li Hong and the imminent elimination of the corrupt by demons and ghosts. The Lord Lao promises in this scripture that he will send various deities to the mundane world and order them to protect humans from disasters (Chapter 7, 3a-3b); the Holy Ruler also dispatches Wang Yuanyou and twenty-four Perfect Men to the world for spreading sacred messages in the Daojun lieji, as mentioned above. The number of people who will attain immortality is mentioned in the Shenzhou jing (Chapter 3, 8b, & Chapter 4, 9b), just like what we find in other Daoist works. The Shenzhou jing does not provide unique elements of Daoist explanations of cosmic destruction and salvation. The distinction between it and other Daoist eschatological works does not appear in its contents, but is in its close relation to popular cults and its simple expression. For example, like those in the Tianshi tradition, in the Shenzhou jing, spirits who are worshipped in popular cults are viewed as subordinates of the Lord Lao and are ordered to eliminate the wicked. However, Nii Wa /£c#|aj and Zhu Rong WlWk are thought to belong to the Great Ghosts of Five Supernatural Powers (Wutong dagui SMAJ^L) who are composed of emperors and prime ministers since the time of Fu X i f A i l (Chapter 7, 5b6a). Zhu Rong is regarded as one of the Five Emperors in Daoism, and Nil Wa is never thought Sinology, ed. W. L. Idema (Leiden: E. J. Brill. 1981), p. 36. E. Ziircher. "'Prince Moonlight' - Messianism and Eschatology in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism". T'oung Pao 1982(68). p. 3. Anna K . Seidel, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and L i Hung", pp.237-240. L i Fengmao "The View of Spirit World arid its Subjugation in the Tung-yuan shen-chou jing (Dongyuan shenzhou jing) ( (Pi?jf WrulM) Qftffi tit&RMffltxMy, Studies in Oriental Religions M~ft%%&Wft 2 (1991):113-155. L i Fengmao, "Chuancheng yu duiying: liuchao daojing zhong moshi shuo de tichu yu yanbian". pp. 109-113. The Lijia Dao is thought to be a sect of Tianshi Daoism, the founder of which is L i Babai (Babai means eight hundred years, the length of his age). The Changli H^IJ and Pinggang zp-fsj parishes among Zhang Daoling's twenty-four parishes are the places where it is said that L i cultivated and attained immortality respectively. For details, read Anna K. Seidel, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and L i Hung", pp. 183  230-233, & Wang Ka 3rr\^. ed., Zhonggao  daojiao jichu zhishi, pp. 21-24.  83  to be a harmful force.'  84  The messianic predictions and condemnations of human dissoluteness  in the Shemhou jing are in accord with what we find in other Daoist eschatological scriptures, although it comes from a Daoist sect that is closely related to some popular movements in the Six Dynasties. " Christine Mollier therefore thinks that it "comprises all the characteristics of apocalyptical drama".  180  From the above studies, we can conclude that not only did Daoist schools provide much eschatological literature in the Six Dynasties, but they also formed a general tradition of interpretation of universal crises and expectation of a future Utopia.  The wutong dagui are not the Wutong shen (Five deities of supernatural powers Ejill'P), which consist of five spirits. Beliefs about the Wutong shen were formed in the Yuan and Song Dynasties. According to the Shenzhou jing, there are thirty-nine thousand spirits in the wutong dagui. The members of the wutong dagui mentioned are not emperors and prime ministers as the texl says; Nii Wa and Zhu Rong are a legendary creator of the world and the deity of the south respectively. It is said thai Wang Jian 3E9H, Bai Qi |=||E, and Chu Kuang 3e£E (original name was Lu Tong Hjjl) belong lo them, but the first two were the generals of the Qi Dynasty and the last one was a recluse in the Chu state in the Warring States period. The prophecies of the sect that either Li Tuo 3j£J|$£ or Li Hong would be the messiah stimulated some popular activities. For example, a person called L i Kuan claimed to be Li Babai and established a reputation by faith healing in the easl of the Changjiang River JS.7X.. Anita K. Seidel. "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung", p. 232. Wang Ka, ed., Zhonggao daojiao ji chu zhislti, pp. 22-23. 1 8 4  1 8 5  Her introduction to the scripture can be found in Kristofer Schipper & Franciscus Verellen, ed., The Taoist Canon: A Study of Taoist Literature in the Daozang of the Ming Dynasty, manuscript, pp. 288-291. 1 8 0  84  C H A P T E R 2: COMPARISON OF THE E S C H A T O L O G Y OF DAOISM A N D P O P U L A R SECTS We shall compare the Daoist beliefs, which we have studied in last chapter, with sectarian ones in eschatology. This chapter will first focus on the style of Daoist and sectarian writing on universal disasters. Then 1 shall discuss the following three themes in baojuan, the relevant contents of which in Daoism have been gone through in chapter one: popular sects' understanding of crises of the world, their expectation of the peaceful age and the messiah, and the descriptions of believers. Our materials for this chapter are precious volumes composed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.  187  The discussion of these themes can show how sectarian writers  absorb Daoist elements in their scriptures and how they change these elements. The differences between the two religions in eschatology are as important as the parallels between them because the popular sects in the Ming and Qing Dynasties do not merely copy Daoist and Buddhist ideas in their scriptures, but use them as parts of their own teachings. Besides the sectarian beliefs, I shall examine some Buddhist concepts. There are a lot of borrowings from Buddhism and Daoism in sectarian writings. These two religions have provided abundant notions and terms for them. Some Daoist elements of the sectarian eschatology can hardly be discussed unless they are compared with Buddhist counterparts. I shall mainly consult the Fayuan zhulin Daoshi  f]x9&^W (Exquisite forests  xiii!: of the Tang (?-683) and the Fozu  in dharma gardens) by  tongji #ii|'i|i|ft|if, (An integrated record about the  Buddha and Patriarchs) by Zhipan ,i>^t of the Southern Song (cf. 1265-74).  188  These two books  contain many quotations from Buddhist scriptures. The Fayuan zhulin, for example, is compiled  U 7  Mosl precious volumes appearing in this thesis have been studied or introduced in Daniel Overmyer's Precious  Volumes: An Introduction  to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.  I shall  take the translations of the titles of them from this book, and shall mention in notes which pages the precious volumes can be found in il. Mingfu B£j|g, Zhongguo foxue retiming cidian p|isHi)i5ip A-'Sifl.iMi (Dictionary of Chinese Buddhism names) i (Taipei, Fangzhou chubanshe, 1974), p. 1 & p. 146. Ciyi W\a, ed.. Foguang da cidian (Great dictionary [published by| the Buddha's Light [International Association!) (Taipei: Foguang wenhua shiye youxian gongsi, 1988), vol.6, p. 5622. 1 8 8  c  i $jjfcXM$Q  85  from the sources of more than four hundred Buddhist scriptures. Some of them are lost at 189  present.  These books provide much material for contemporary Buddhist dictionaries in the  definitions of many Buddhist terms and are two important reference books in Buddhism. Part I: Comparison of Some Features of Writings on Universal Disasters a) Comparison of Daoist and Sectarian Scriptures We shall first examine the Daoist concept of time applied in precious volumes. As said in chapter one, in Daoism history is divided into linear periods. In the Taiping jing, we can read a great deal of depictions of the remote past, recent past, and present. Daoist writers in the Six Dynasties simply considered the past to be one stage instead of two. They did not place an emphasis on the future age as much as on the past and present, but they generally believed that great peace was coming in the near future. In precious volumes, time is also divided into three stages, in each of which the world is governed by a Buddha. The preface of the Huangji jindan jiulian zhengxin guizhen huanxiang baojuan ^^^.j^-flMJEiB^.MMM'K^  (The precious  volume of the golden elixir and nine[-petaled] lotus of the Imperial Ultimate period [that leads to] rectifying belief, reverting to the real, and returning to [our] true home; hereafter "the Jiulian book"), reprinted in 1523, tells us that the Ancient Buddha (Gufo £'{#;) created the predestined kaplas of three primes (sanyuanjie.su the universe.  190  Tzjti'MJiQ,  in  which the three Buddhas are in control of  In Chapter 10, we read about the length of the three Buddhas' reigns. The time  For the introduction to the two books, read Ciyi, ed.. Foguang da cidian. vol. 3. pp. 2654-2655 & vol.4, p. 3376. The authorship of the scripture is unknown although it is a hagiography of the author, who claims to be an incantation of Maitreya. It neither mentions directly nor implies Ihe name of the author: hence, modem scholars have different views on the authorship. For details, read Lian Lichang jSHttS, "Jiulian jing kao -if (A study of the Jiulian scripture)". Minjian zongjiao i^lal^f^ (Popular Religion) 2(Dec 1996): 113-120. One of the reasons why it is not easy to determine its authorship is thai the scripture was very popular in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it circulated among many popular seels such as the Dong dacheng jiao Jft AfH?& (Eastern Mahayana Sect) and the Jinchuang jiao sfei|!if& (Golden Pennant Sect, or Jintong jiao Golden Hall Sect). Many popular sectarian concepts can be found in the scripture. Pu Wenqi JdrJjiiEi thinks that the Gufo tianzhen kaozheng longhua baojing 'Sfi&AJ^^tiEfil^Si'^ (Dragon-flower precious scripture verified by the Ancient Buddha 1 9 0  Tianzhen; hereafter, "the Longhua jing") is based on it. Pu Wenqi. ed.. Zhongguo  86  minjian mirni zongjiao cidian <=p  of the Buddha of the Past, the Lamplighter Buddha (Randeng fo if&'Mi^X lasts for 108,000 years and is called the Jiyan jie #f|r£7J (Utmost Dignity kalpa).  191  The Buddha of the Present,  Sakyamuni, is in charge of the world for 27,000 years. The Buddha of the Future, Maitreya, will rule the world for 97,200 years, and his time is called the Xingxiu jie MuHSj (Constellation kalpa). Apart from the three-stages division in history, the Daoist concept .sanyuan ELft (three primes) is adopted in precious volumes. Yuan is a Daoist unit of time, which is composed of sixty years (jiazi), and three yuan (.sanyuan) lasts for 180 years. Sanyuan sometimes is interpreted as the three stages of time from the creation of the universe to the end. As I mentioned in last chapter, the Yundu jieqi jing tells us that in each period of yuan there are nine misfortunes (jiu e), which consist of three cataclysms (sanzai) and six calamities (liuhai). Yuan here is an immense length of a unit of time. The first period and the second one of the upper yuan (shangyuan JiTC), for example, is composed of 9,9810,000 and 88,640,000 years respectively. (12b)  192  The division of history into three Buddhas' stages is one of the most  remarkable characteristics of baojuan contents; therefore, modern scholars discuss it in their  lil.&F^&^r<#fc@M£ ( A dictionary of Chinese popular secret religions) (Chengdou: Sichuan dianshu chubanshe, 1996), p. 100. It is hence difficult to know which sect the Jiulian jing came from. For the discussion of the scripture, read Daniel Overmyer, "The Chiu-lien pao-chuan". Precious Volumes: An Introduction  lo Chinese  Sectarian Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, pp. 136-177. and M a Xisha Mf& & & Han :  Bingfang f$^75. Zhongguo  minjian zongjiao shi ^i^F^zrSffc (History of Chinese popular religions) (Shanghai: Renmin chubanshe. 1992), pp. 610-634. The two editions of the scripture are reprinted in Wang Jianchuan £EfUI| & Lin Wanchuan WM\%, ed., Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian H^jfjf . K P a j ^ f ^ S ^ i SC.M. (The Scripture and Literature of Popular Religion in the Ming and Ching Dynasties) (Taipei: Shin Wen Feng Print Co., 1999). vol. 4 & 5.  The Lamplighter Buddha is also called DTpamkara (Dingguang fo ^fcfilli or f&ttyb, Lamp-light Buddha) in Buddhism. He is usually called Randeng fo instead of Dingguang fo in precious volumes, so 1 shall use the first name for the Buddha. Lamps with legs are called ding $|; those without legs are called deng j|g. Ding Fubao T ^ i ft, ed., Foxue da cidian (A great Buddhist dictionary) (Taipei: Shihua yinshua qiye youxian gongsi, 1989), vol. 1. p. 1265c. There is a quotation from the History of the Jin (Jinshu # d ) in the Daojiao wenhua cidian. Il is said that the universe begins in the upper yu an and end in the lower yuan (xiayuan f-'ft). Zhang Zhizhe, ed., Daojiao wenhua 191  1 9 2  cidian, p. 272.  87  studies of the doctrines of popular sects.  193  The concept sanyuan can also be found in precious  volumes. In the Jili zhenyan f U S I S j H (True words on secret truth), for example, the three yuan periods are the three stages of the duration of the universe. Jiazi here is represented as symbolic animals (shengxiao ziEF=t) instead of sixty years. In the time of upper yuan, there are six symbolic animals only, which are the rat, ox, hare, sheep, horse, and cock. In the time of middle yuan {zhongyuan cj^TC), there are six more symbolic animals that are the dragon, tiger, snake, monkey, dog, and p i g '  9 4  (p.930)  Although most sectarian writers divide history into linear stages in their books as Daoist writers do, they do not hold nostalgia for the past like the latter. There is little depiction of the past in baojuan. Compared with that of the present and future, the picture of the past is less detailed and seems less important to the believers of popular sects. The past ruled by the Lamplighter Buddha is usually juxtaposed with the present and the future ages ruled by the other two Buddhas; the writers of baojuan, however, seldom comment on this period. Many baojuan express obvious disgust at the present age because of human immorality and frequent calamities in this age, and long for the arrival of future peaceful age. The picture of the miserable present is usually in sharp contrast to that of the pleasant future instead of to that of the past. In the Pujing rulai yaodi baojuan sW tU Miwi§fcM%i: l  7  (The precious volume of the Tathagata Pujing who  [holds] the key [to revealing the truth]; hereafter "the Pujing baojuan"), the author says that the past is peaceful, but, unlike Daoist writers, he does not mention that he prefers that the world to  Susan Naquin, Millenarian Rebellion in China: ihe Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813, p. 10-12. Zhuang Jifa, "Run bayue—minjian mimi zongjiao de mojie yuyan |M]y V^l — &T$M&^%kffi3^ij]fM.1i (The leap eighth month—the prophecy of the last kalpa [circulated amongl popular secret religions)". Historical Monthly (Lishi yuekan Jl^i^JTIJ) 87 (1995, Sept):61-64. ' The Jili zhenyan is collected in Wang Jianchuan & Lin Wanchuan, ed.. Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian, vol. 1, pp. 929-944. I cannot find it in either Che Xilun's !|i§§fifi? Zhongguo baojuan zongmu c p | j i | ; f § # $ | |=] (A general bibliography of Chinese precious volumes (Beijing: Beijing yanshan chubanshe. 2000) or Pu Wenqi's Zhongguo minjian mimi zongjiao cidian. It is circulated in the Golden Pennant Sect, which is thought to have been set up by Wang Zuotang zEOi'SL of Zhili f i ' l t (the present Hebei / n f ; | t ) . The sect spread to Fujuan and Taiwan in the early Qing. Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, pp. 634-640. 193  ] M  88  return to its ancient state.  In chapter 23, he gives the following description of the three  195  periods:  mmrrnm^, immmmm, A @ A T * T J § # , mm mmm, m ^ r r e ^ t , j\x-mmm, =wmmm?m, -sj^sxm #, A®m%mm$;, —\-j\mmn, * ^ A A A + - , m K I I T O ,fcmmmmm,mm^mum smmmmm, m%m mmitn-, wmx^mnn, m^mm^, xmuommm, t + t ^ x i ^a, WT±%m^, mm.±mm-:t, mmmom^x =mmm±LAtfii,  The three apexes revolve and establish human relations. The Non-Ultimate [of the three apexes] has set up the Green Yang Assembly (Qingyang hui  ftPJ§H"); the one who  manifested oneself, transformed oneself, and controlled teachings was the Lamplighter [Buddha]. The Grand Ultimate sets up the Red Yang Assemble (Hongyang hui %LWbik)He transforms himself into Sakyamuni and becomes the honorable one who is in charge of teachings. The Imperial Ultimate will set up the White Yang Assemble (Baiyang hui fifihlr)- Maitreya will be honored in [his] eighty-one kalpas. The three Buddhas [reign the world] in turn; there are changes [in each period]. A kalpa originally consists of a hundred of beginnings of spring (// baichun JL2'J=|#  =  a hundred years?). [The duration  of] the Lamplighter Buddha's age in which he [ruled the world] in the past is nine kalpas The present period, composed of eighteen kalpas, operates now. The future [consists of] nine nine [kalpas], which is eighty-one kalpas. In [total] a hundred and eight kalpas (lit. yibai bashi — H A H ; -  a  hundred and eighty), the three non-being stages are established.  The Lamplighter [Buddha's age] originally is the Formless Kalpa (Wuxiang Jie  M^UHl)-  ' The Pujing baojuan is a text of the Yellow Heaven Way (Huangtian dao S I ' A j i i ) written by the patriarch Zheng Guang Myt, with an alternative name Pujing i=fj!]f, or possibly with his disciples. Pujing was a disciple of Puming llpH/J, the founder of the sect. Ma Xisha thinks that the scripture was composed in the reign of Wanli MM of the Ming (1573-1620). It contains the accounts of the lives ofthe patriarchs of the sect such as Pu Ming and his wife Pu t o  Guang l=fTTJ. The Pujing baojuan is collected in Wang Jianchuan & Lin Wanchuan, ed., Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian, vol. 4, and Gao Ke, Song Jun, Zhang Xishun, and Pu Wenqi, ed., Baojuan chuji, vol. 5.  It was reprinted by the Nine Diagrams Way (Jiugong dao A'SiM) in the twenty-first year ofthe Republic China 1 (1932); its title had been changed to Yaodifo baojuan lifSlffMI ^ (The precious volume of the Buddha [who Holds] the Key) and it was punctuated. This is the edition collected in the Baojuan chuji. Che Xilun, Zhongguo baojuan zongmu, p. 354. The character yao ifn means locks. The one di Jf; means the instrument for unfastening, and is the same as shi jib. The term yaodi is a synonym foryaoshi -Itulb (key): therefore the Pujing baojuan is also called Pujing rulaiyaoshi baojuan i=pPif # [I Afflict 8? In Daoist inner alchemy, yaoshi refers to the qi. In popular sectarianism, yaoshi means the cultivation of inner alchemy. The Pujing baojuan was compared to the tongtian yaoshi j j | A i ^ f t (the key to extraordinary power) because it contains many accounts of this practice. Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, pp. 425-428, pp. 436-437. & p. 633. Pu Wenqi, Zhongguo mimi zongjiao. pp. 218-219. Pu Wenqi. ed.. Zhongguo minjian zongjiao cidian, p. 373.  89  minjian  The Dignity Kalpa (Zhuangyan jie )\±Wc&}) [is the period] in which Sakyamuni is honorable. Besides, Maitreya establishes the Constellation Kalpa.... At present the moon and the sun revolve back and forth between the east and the west; in the past they ascended from [all directions] the west, the south, the east, and the north. People had human minds with beastlike faces and horns on their heads. They could live for thousands years without birth and death. [At present] people have human faces but beastly minds; they have only a short time. People aged seventy are few, [and they have to] enter samsara again. [Sakyamuni] left behind birth, oldness, illness, death, and suffering.  Thievery and robbery happen during the time of the Honorable Sakyamuni.  196  [In the future, people] will have Buddhalike faces and minds without having youth and old age.... (Chapter 23, volume 2, pp. 130-13 1) History in this scripture is described as a linear process; the author does not mention that the world should return to its ancient state. Although the sectarian writers generally think that the present age is full of suffering and corruption, they do not usually blame them on the master of this period, Sakyamuni. There are however two exceptions. The Gufo danglai xiasheng mile  r*^?WitfttJBIffi^ (The precious  chushi baojuan  volume concerning Maitreya's  I add the subject Sakyamuni because the whole sentence is common in baojuan. I have mentioned it in one of my unpublished papers " A Study of Some Ming Sectarian Ideas in Three Sectarian Scriptures". Here is the relevant passage: In addition to those listed in the Appendix A. there are some sentences in the Jiulian jing, which are the same as or similar to some the expressions in other precious volumes. l %  pumw®&toi ®± :  gT^mim  c  mtkttm&mmm  mtmmm *  The original body of the Buddha Amitabha was exactly an appearance of the Lord Lao (Laojun).... [He) left (lit, li tf.) behind (i.e. bequeath) [teachings about! metal, wood, water, fire, and earth, [the five phrases, and held] a Green Yang Great Assembly.... The Celestial Buddha (Tianfo A H f J l i ) selected the Lives-Protection Boddhisattva, the master Sakyamuni of teaching, to descend to the Indian palace, |located in] the city of imperial home, and to be born under Ihe right side of the Holy Mother Move's )|ilf[) chest.... |Sakyamuni| left behind I teachings about I birth, oldness. illness, death, and suffering.... The Master Kong Rutong was exactly the Honorable Buddha Maitreya.... [He] left behind | the teachings about! humanity, righteousness, ritual propriety, wisdom and trustworthiness. (Ding/it: baojuan JE$J;§y& I Scripture for establishing the kalpas|) The underlined part can be found in chapter 7 of [he Jiulian jing. What is surprising is that these expressions also exist in chapter 13 of the Hunyuan hongyang fo rulai wuji piaogao zu linfan jing  M7£$kWbi$PU^MMffliMffliWi  RJS (The scripture of the descent to Ihe ordinary [world | of Piaogao. the Patriarch of the Limitless, the Chaotic Origin Vast Yang Buddha Tathagata) and in the Xiao.shi zhenkong baojuan MWM?E9l%£ (The precious volumes on [teaching of the Patriarch] Zhenkong). All these scriptures were published in Ihe Ming and early Qing period. These authors might have read the Jiulian jing, or these expressions were familiar to the popular sects in the Ming. Birth, oldness, illness, death, and suffering here in the Pujing baojuan obviously refer to the abominations that declared to be left behind by Saykyamuni, not the teachings about them, which is what the author of the Ding/ie baojuan means. " A Study of Some Ming Sectarian Ideas in Three Sectarian Scriptures", unpublished, pp. 35-36.  90  appearing out of the West, the Ancient Buddha who is about to descend for rebirth; hereafter, "the Mile chushi baqj-uari") and the Mile xiasheng jing M$I~T(The  scripture on the descent  of Maitreya) are two examples well demonstrating how sectarian writers contrast the corrupted present with the peaceful future and with a past age that is no longer significant in sectarian teachings.  197  The Lamplighter Buddha does not take an important role. The author of the Mile  xiasheng jing tells us in chapter 1 that Sakyamuni and Maitreya have been brothers for three lives. They study together the Great Way and have attained perfect awareness and supreme Buddha wisdom (sambodhi). They hence discuss which of them will rule the world and deliver humans first. We are told that Sakyamuni is the younger brother of Maitreya, but the Lamplighter Buddha is not mentioned. The author of the Mile chushi baojuan borrows the content and wording of the story about Sakyamuni and Maitreya, except for adding the role of the Lamplighter Buddha. He is also the brother of the other two Buddhas and has finished governing the world.  m, &wmm,  -HMS,  WMMM, xmmi*  The Mile chushi baojuan is Ihe lexl o f Ihe Yuandun jiao |M|it|if£ (Religion of complete and instantaneous enlightenment). Although there is a print date. Ihe bingshen JJS year of the Wanli reign (1616), in the preface of the scripture, Chi Xilun considers il as a Qing text. Daniel Overmyer says Ihe same, because we can read the tenn Qing mo :(n^f~ (the end of the Qing) in chapter 9. This book therefore must have been composed in the late nineteenth century. Che Xilun, ed.. Zhongguo baojuan zongmu. p. 185. Daniel Overmyer, "The Chiu-lien pao197  chiian". Precious  Volumes: An Introduction  to Chinese Sectarian  Scriptures  from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth  Centuries, p. 402, note 6. For the discussion of Ihe scripture, read Daniel Overmyers book, pp. 276-280. The complete edition can be found in the Baojuan chuji (vol. 19), and the incomplete one is collected in the Ming Qing minjian zong/iao jingjuan  wenxian (vol. 7). There are two editions of the Mile xiasheng jing, which are collected in  the Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian. vol. 7. The first one collected in the book contains a composition date, which is the 23th day of the first month in the ninth year of the Kangxi Jjf EE reign (1662) in the preface. (7b, p. 188) On the cover page of the first edition, a reprint year. Ihe thirty-first year oflhe Guangxu ytn^ reign (1905), can be found. These two editions do not contain completely Ihe same wording. For example, we can find two titles, the Mile zunjing (The honorable scripture of Maitreya) and the Mile xiasheng jing. in both editions. The first one tells us an alternative title of the scripture, Foshou Mile shi In zun zhenjingty\M§MiWl^\fyM-M$k (Complete scripture expounded by Ihe Buddha concerning Maitreya, who is the honorable Buddha Stone) (preface). The title in Ihe second o n e however is the Foshou Mile gufo zunjingfy^lM®)15W$$%!L(The honorable scripture expounded by the Buddha concerning Maitreya, who is the Ancient Buddha). The scripture includes a mention of the sudden emergence of it in the Wangs 3Elj?jf± Shansi (preface, lb, p. 207); therefore, M a Xisha thinks that il was composed by Wang Sen IEM (1542-1619). Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, p. 627-628.  91  It is generally heard that the Ancient Lamplighter Buddha, the world-honored Maitreya, and Sakyamuni were given birth by one mother. Since the first beginning [of the world] [these] ancient Buddhas of three periods have been blood brothers and have been studying the Great Way together. They have attained together the perfect wisdom and have completed all the ten titles (shi hao  [of a Buddha]; they are of the same body  (?) for myriads of [kalpas and have] the accomplishment of great merits.  198  (Chapter 1)  Then the text tells us that, after the Lamplighter Buddha has finished ruling the world, the three Buddhas discuss which one among Sakyamuni and Maitreya is going to deliver humans next. Both texts then deal with the varied ways of human misbehavior, which are caused by Sakyamuni's fault in stealing Maitreya's flower; the Lamplighter Buddha is not mentioned again.  199  So we see the past does not assume the same importance in precious volumes as it does  in Daoist works; it is no longer insisted that we should return to this period. Although sectarian writers have adopted the Daoist term yuan in their scriptures, they interpret sanyuan in a way different from what we find in Daoism. They seldom equate the three yuan ages with the tliree ages of the three Buddhas. They also usually show strong fear of the coming of the sixty years (jiazi) of the lower yuan (xiayuan jiazi ~F7C' |-'"F') The term xiayuan E  jiazi is regarded as a synonym for the age full of miseries or the end of the world. Hence, the The ten titles of a Buddha are: 1) Tathagata (Rulai iil'pJfi.: the one who has taken the absolute way of cause and effect and attained the perfect wisdom); Arhat (Yinggongfl£iP<:worthy of worship); Samyak-samuddha (Zhengpianzhi JEMfcO; completely enlightened); Vidyacarana-sainpauna (Minxingzu H^ff/cl.; the unexcelled universal enlightenment of the Buddha based upon the discipline, meditation, and wisdom regarded as feet); Sugata (Shanshi well departed); Lokavid (Shijianjie |it|1IIF#; knower of the world); Anuttara (Wushangshi |K_hdr; the peerless nobleman); Purusa-damya-srathi (Diaoyu zhangfu .fifflli'A- lo tame and control as a master does a wild elephant or horse, or as the Buddha brings the passions of men under control); Sasta deva-manusyanam (Tiaiirenshi A A B ' l i ; teacher of devas and men); Buddha-lokanatha (Foshizun #[;fti;^r; the World-honored one). William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, .4 Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, pp. 52, 143, 165, 192, 210, 225, 263, 369, 377, & 457. Both texts contain the same criticism on Sakyamuni, who is blamed solely for the corruption of the present world. Besides, they have similar expressions in the background about Sakyamuni and Maitreya. In the Mile xiasheng jing, we read "At that moment, the honored Buddha Maitreya and the Buddha Sakyamuni had been blood brothers for tliree lives. They had been studying together the Greal Way and attained together perfect awareness. They got supreme Buddha wisdom and completed all ten titles of |a Buddha): the whole bodies |of them had been shining (?)) for myriads [of kalpas (?)|. Since the [past | three lives they have the accomplishment of great merits. "fliH^^jfl/j^: 9 S  1 9 9  ^mmm^)mEMm.mmM<  wmmt,  I L L M , -HMJIS, W # , E « * 7\ii}$l$L" (chapter 1) The language is similar to that of the above quotation. Besides, 1 cannot find similar condemnation of Sakyamuni in other sectarian books; therefore Ihe author of the Mile chushi baojtta must have consulted the Mile xiasheng  jing.  92  .  description of sanyuan usually is confusing. The Jili zhenyan, for instance, does not contain a parallel in the account of the lower yuan after the author of the text tells us what symbolic animals there are in the first and second yuan, as mentioned above. smallpox deities (doushen  200  In this period, there are  and Five Great Monsters (Wu damo S A M ) , who are sent by  Heaven and are responsible for punishing immoral people, (pp.930 & 935) The lower yuan is always viewed as the age of the end of kalpa (mojie  %<jif]),  and is connected with detailed  prophecy of calamities happening during this period, ln some precious volumes, only xiayuan is mentioned. In chapter 18 "Populace in the end of kalpa (Mojie zhongsheng  ASJAS-C-SI)"  of the  Longhua jing, the Eternal Mother tells Gong Chang A JS;, the writer ofthe scripture, that "the disastrous kalpa of the xiayuan jiazi has come.  A A'.tASJ^IJT' ° " ° ' (40b) The book then 2  deals with what and when misfortunes are going to happen in detail. The extreme anxiety caused by the imminent lower yuan can be found in most precious volumes in the Ming and Qing period. There is another similarity in the concept of time in Daoist and sectarian eschatology; the calendar of the heavenly stems and the earthly branches (Iiangan dizhi X pi&>0 z  is used for  designating years and days in prophecy. It is said that the Holy Ruler Li Hong will come in the renchen year, as mentioned in last chapter. The ten chapters ofthe Shenzhou jing tells us many years marked with Iiangan dizhi, in which there will be varied calamities. In precious volumes, "  He mentions that there are eighteen symbolic animals in the lower yuan, but does not tell us what they are. ? Gong Chang (the split-characters of the surname Zhang M) was the leader of Yuandun jiao H i l i l ^ x (Religion of complete and instantaneous enlightenment). The Longhua jing was printed in early Qing period (the ninth year of Shunzhi I j i ' / p reign, 1652). Richard Shek thinks the Longhua jing to be the most doctrinally developed texts on the Eternal Mother religion in the Ming and Qing. The Eternal Mother cult reached its mature form by early Qing when the Longhua jing was published. Thereafter, partly because of governmental vigilance and partly because of the loss of creative momentum, few new sectarian texts were composed. The Eternal Mother belief came to be encapsulated by the eight-character chant of "Zhenkongjiaxiang, wushengfumu M-'SL^M < l!'/;£l:.5C® (Nature Land of Tme Emptiness, the Eternal Venerable Parent)'". Richard Shek, 'Eternal Mother Religion: Its Role in Late Imperial Cliinese History". Proceedings on the Second International Conference on Sinology (Taipei: Academia Sinica, 1989), pp. 485-486. For the discussion of the scripture, read Daniel Overmyer. Precious Volumes: An Introduction 2UI  to Chinese Sectarian  Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,  pp. 248-271. For the explanation of  the alchemy practices stated in it, read Ma Xisha & Han Bingfang, Zhongguo minjian zongjiao shi, pp. 875-883.  93  the timetables showing the arrival ofthe last kalpa and the savior are also written with the heavenly stems and the earthly branches. Baojuan writers do not use Iiangan dizhi only, but they also indicate years with the symbolic animals and the colors corresponding with the five phases (wuxing S ? T ) -  m  chapter 6 ofthe Mile xiasheng jing, there is a prophecy of a series of  disorders.  m  - A  W W A A  o  mM^m • nmwM » jxrmm • t-xim wmmi ° -immt - ^nit • M B I M A • fiimiA • • M A A » a^r °  th  In the black horse and sheep years (i.e. the renwu A A and guiwei -31A years, the 19'  and 20 year of sixty-year cycle), grass-[roots] bandits will appear, ln the green monkey th  and cock years (i.e. the jiashen EpA=l andyiyou Z A I years, the 2 A and 22 years), the nd  world will be full of noise of fighting . In the red dog and red pig years (i.e. the hingxu 202  A E ? and dinghai AJ A years, the 23 and 24 years), grass-[roots] bandits will rise. The ui  lh  south and the north of the River will be (lit. you W) the places in where victims [of disorders are found]. It will be difficult to ward off (lit. dang # = dang JU) [these] sufferings, ln the yellow rat and yellow ox years (i.e. the wuzi JJcA and jichou c^^i years, the 25 and 26 years), [people] will fight and conflict with each other. They will lh  th  rise up, and banditry will then appear. When the white tiger comes down from heaven and the white hare descends to the world (i.e. the gengyin lHjif and xinmao A5P years, the 27 and 28 years, will come), great armies will stir up disturbance. They will lh  lh  appear in the east ofthe city (Dongcheng M-^fk) (?)• They will first seize the left of the River (the east ofthe lower reaches of the Changjiang River, i.e. the Jiangdong AJfC), and they then will take the right ofthe River (i.e. the west ofthe lower reaches of the River, i.e. the present Jiangxi £['.]!§).  203  When the black snack becomes the dragon, [the  Literally it is the character formed from combination ofthe characters men H with ql S . It may be a misprint for hong pf|. Luo Zhufeng, ed. Hanyu da cidian, vol. X pp. 916-917. For the location of Jiangdong, read note 457 in Appendix A. 2(12  2113  94  •  chaotic state] will gradually become obvious. Common people will die and [the population of] people will be reduced by half...  2 0 4  The author of the scripture then keeps on exaggerating the horror of misfortunes by writing the schedule of disorders with the colors and the symbolic animals. He also points out the time in the same way in which the messiah will descend and the peaceful age will come. Some writers use either the earthly branches or symbolic animals only, without the heavenly stems or the colors. Here is a passage from the third volume of the Wugong tiange miaojing (Wonderful scripture from the Five Elders' heavenly pavilion): '^ 20  mmmw^, xmmzxm%, immnm^m, ^mnmmuiu ° mm±LS. x^mxi-m. ^mmMxm At that moment when people encounter these A" Wi and mao fj[J (the third and fourth earthly branch) years, a long fire snake (htiodao chengshe AiJtJliK) (?) slaughters [people]. The bones [of the dead] will be laid in all directions throughout wild fields. Regardless whether they are noble or humble [when they are alive,] [they all will be dead] and their bones piled up will be as high as a mountain. If the beginning of the summer (lixia A Z J J , the sixth or seventh day of the fifth month in Chinese calendar) meets the jiaxn EppJc (the 1 1 year of the sixty-year) (i.e. during the beginnings of the summer in th  the ji axu year), it will be the year again in which epidemic [will happen] and people will die. [People] who have such sufferings will find it unbearable to put them into words... How many calamities will there be in the Jiangnan /JAif (the south of the River, i.e. a region in the lower Changjiang valley) during the tiger and hare years? [There are so many that people who] have died [of calamities] have no coffins. Rouge-and-powder women (i.e. beauties) [will be hurt and] become red-blood faced. Jewelry, gold, and jade "" The order of the black snack and the black dragon should be exchanged because the former corresponds to the guiji f l l j f J year (the 30 year of sixty-year cycle), and the latter corresponds to the renchen i f f year (the 29 year). The black dragon year should come before the black snack year. The scripture consists of three fascicle (Juan ^ ) , Ihe first two of which contain several pages only. The third one is longest and has thirteen pages. At the end of the scripture, there are Five-Elders magic pictures. We can raid "the Great Nation of the Qing (Da qingguo A"fitIS)" Ihe preface; therefore it should be treated as a Qing baojuan. It is collected in volume 10 of the Ming Qing minjian zong/iao jingjuan wenxian. There is no reference to it in Che Xilun's Zhongguo baojuan zongmu. 4  Ul  th  2115  95  will turn into dust. Although there are farms and gardens, no one will receive them. Southern grain storehouses and northern warehouses will turn into duct... The last kalpa will come during the summer and the autumn ofthe shen Ef) (the ninth earthly branch) and you M (the tenth earthly branch) years. Seedlings of cereal crops will be ripe and no one will reap them.... The prophecies stated in Daoist scriptures and baojuan with heavenly stems and earthly branches can come true at any sixty-year cycle; they never become outdated and ineffectual although the scriptures were written long time ago. The horror of universal disasters and the longing for the arrival of the messiah, both of which are brought by the predictions, are renewed every time when a new sixty-year cycle starts. Those predictions in baojuan in which the years of earthly branches or symbolic animals are used only have the same effect. The terror and joy caused by the revelation of forthcoming disasters and the messiah's descent respectively, however, are stronger. The cycle of earthly branches or symbolic animals consist of twelve years only and repeat more frequently than the jiazi cycle, a new one of which starts every sixty years only. In the same volume ofthe Wugong liange miaojing, we can find the following passage:  During the xu \& and hai A years (the tenth and eleventh earthly branches), warfare will appear. Vicious people will kill each other, form feuds, and commit sins. During thexw, hai, zi -f, chou zBcyin Ji?, mao  chen jf§, and .sv EL years (the first to the sixth, the  tenth, and eleventh earthly branches), white bones will fill wild fields. What makes people more anxious will be that humans will be extinct at that time.... Eight years of the twelve-year cycle have been mentioned. It is foretold that people will encounter disasters almost every year. The adoption ofthe earthly-branch or symbolic-animal calendar can bring baojuan readers' stronger pressure to convert to sectarian teachings. In short, marking the time with the symbols in cyclic calendars in the prediction of the arrival of disasters and the messiah is one ofthe common features of Daoist and sectarian eschatology. Prophecies 96  can therefore be always effectual. The readers of baojuan and Daoist scriptures are threatened with the cyclic schedules of universal sufferings, which restart in every sixty years. Their hope for the coming ofthe messiah will be maintained all the time because the predictions about him will not be outdated. The difference between baojuan and Daoist scriptures is that in some baojuan the cyclic calendar adopted is shortened and repeats more frequently. We shall now discuss how Daoist and baojuan writers describe universal crises. At the end ofthe Laojun hianhua wuji jing, the author comments that people do not act properly according to their status. Then he gives an account of the miserable world:  wwz^mmm, M^iiHt, x^nmsm^t, mmm±mms., mxm m^mm, m^mmumm, mm^^n, mm&mxn, mwmn^m m, mmrnmtm  The currents from hundreds of rivers will run into marshy cities. It will be difficult to resist the force [of the currents] when they are really coming. Fire will lose its brightness and the sun will have no light. Granted control ofthe Qi territory 0, [the feudal lord will r  claim to] be the emperor of the region (i.e. he will rise up).  206  People of Qi will lament  for injury to their bodies [from which they will suffer in the revolt]. Sheep raised [in farms] will turn to tigers, and rats will turn to wolves. People will change their surnames and zi A (names given at the age of twenty); their normal [lives] will be changed [during warfare]. They will cross famous rivers (mingshui AiA?) in the west and experience walking on fire. [The ways] back to valleys in forests will be full of poisonous frost, which will kill hundreds of plants and make leaves wither and yellow.... (7b-8a) The Shenzhou jing contains lengthy repetitious warnings of disasters, many of which are caused by varied demons and monsters. Among the Six-Dynasties Daoist texts 1 have read, the descriptions of misfortunes in this scripture are most abundant. Here is a passage from chapter 8:  mm^u^mmmzm, W H ^ m s f e , %&XM, M H S , mmm, &&&m • ^^m^^fi^mmn., n&xm, A A I S A , rm^m, mm A A , A A A I J I , m-ftvim., /sm&, m&nm, mrm^* AtH 2U  i l l ' S A A A , ^.Tim:  mmi^, xmm  A & A l i , A f l Aft,  " Qi is a region including the north ofthe present Shandong  97  AJAATIA  |i|jf[ and the southeast of Hebei 7 IA B  ±im  Dao says, "From the present to the gengchen  HIJK  year (the 17" year of the sixty-year  cycle), there will be 36,000 vicious ghosts. Their names are Tianchi A/til (Heavenly Pond), and they have 30,000 attendants. They will often travel in the mundane world and unjustly kill the moral and good. During the renwu year, there will also be 3,900 redheaded ghosts whose names are Datou A P i (Big head). They will descend [to the mundane world] and slaughter people. Wars [in different places] will arise by turns. [People] in the world will say that they will not able to stay long in such world. There will be disasters and revolts in all four directions. All people in six foreign tribes in the east (yi ^ ) will die. Daoist magic skills will prosper [because people want to learn them in order to escape the sufferings]; vulgar sects (i.e. popular cults) will decline [because they are not effective in avoiding the disasters]. In the jiashen  £|3E|3  year (the 21 year), st  all people will have died...." Dao says, "When the renwu 3:;-p year (the 19 year) th  comes, the world will be in disorder (youyou  and common people will worry.  207  Six foreign tribes in the east will invade [China] by turns. People will be anxious. Men and women will rush away. In Shuhan Hj/H (the present Sichuan |Z9JI|), flood will be raging (=haohao '/•'/§). °* People will suddenly die...." (3a) 2  After the overstatement of these misfortunes, the author tells readers that they need to believe in the teachings in the scripture in order to escape sufferings. We can conclude some features of Daoist prediction of universal crises from the above two quotations. 1) The timetables of crises is designated with heavenly stems and earthly branches of the sixty cycle, instead of being marked clearly with exact years, as stated above. 2) It is said that calamities will happen at present or in the near future. 3) Daoist writers specify in their predictions where disasters will happen with the geographical names of China. 4) It is predicted that varied disasters will appear by turns or together during a very short time. The writers do not devote detailed discussion to one disaster. Instead they usually mention various disasters at the same time. We can conclude that the crises they mention are very diverse, but they describe them chaotically. Hence, the  2 l  l  " Luo Zhufeng, ed. Hanyu da cidian, vol. 7, p. 532. Luo Zhufeng, ed. Hanyu da cidian, vol. 5, p. 1215.  m  98  Chisong zi zhang li contains a great deal of petitions presented by Daoist masters on the behalf of followers for driving away various harmful forces. Ghosts are blamed for causing people quarrels (koushe  lawsuits (guanshi TlJ'fll), sicknesses resulting in sudden death (baocu Jj|  2£), and punishment and imprisonment (xingyu MWO in the Shenzhou jing. People who are involved in these troubles should convert to Daoist teachings. (Chapter 6, 5a & 9a) Among the four features of Daoist prediction listed above, in addition to the first characteristics that we have discussed above, all other three can also be found in sectarian eschatology. The Mile Fo shuo Dizang Shiwang baojuan fi^jf^|-Jftitkijii~l"'5ER^ (The precious volume preached by Maitreya on Dizang  italic  and the Ten Kings; hereafter "the  Dizang Shiwang'baojuan") tells us that "Now it is the last kalpa; the Literate Buddha Sakyamuni returned home in the gengshen IffiWMfStM^WiWi ° " -  2119  209  year of the Wanli MM reign (=1620)  JM^ETICSJ °  WiMX.  (6a, p.32) The Eternal Mother orders Maitreya to descend  The translation is taken from Daniel Overmyer's Precious Volumes: An Introduction  to Chinese  Sectarian  Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, pp. 343. For the discussion of this Huangtian d a o ^ A i f i  (Yellow Heaven Way) text, read Daniel Overmyer's Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, pp. 343-346. The edition ofthe scripture I read is collected in the Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan wenxian. (vol.7) It tells us that it was produced in the third year of the Chongzheng IJ^IM (1630) and reprinted in the thirteenth year of the Guangxu regin (1940). An elevenpage booklet is attached to this edition. On the first page ofthe booklet we can read the first line "[The purpose of this booklet! attached to (the Dizang Shiwang baojuan] is to remedy the inadequacies of xhe.Jinxian zhenglun -jfe-j ]Isfifii (Demonstration and discussion on golden elixir) and the Hui ruing jingshu l l ' n p l M l i (Scripture on (cultivating! clever lives). This makes those who have the will to be diligent |in alchemy cultivation! obtain the skills and the methods of starting making up the ingredients (diaoyao f?Hlil, i.e. mixing the essence [jing the qi, and the spirit [shen ^ q ) and of the xiaozhou tian /JNJW] A (the process of transforming the essence into the qi). \tf~-\fa\]&i\kWi.m&.M p n l f I t ^ T ^ ' S ^ l S • i£%J&W&T^MMR'bffl%2.#)fe1& • " The second sentence is written in small print. The booklet is divided inlo two parts, the first of which is entitled the "Weixian shuo faWxM (Explanation of the danger [of taking alchemy practices])" and the second of which is called the "Hon weixian shou (Postscript to the "Explanation ofthe danger")". At the end of the booklet, we can read "|This booklet! was written .by Huayang ?jip§ on the fifth days before the Dragon Boal Festival in the fourth year ofthe Jiaqing MS reign (1799) in the Renshou Temple (Renshou si HM^f) TOEtfPMntiE 0 ^ P S W M L l C C I i ^ " and "[The blocks of this booklet! were engraved in the twenty-fifth year ofthe Guangxu reign (1899) in the Jingxin Nunnery (Jingxin an W'OMj i " U»e east of Shan $J (=the Shan river $Jg§ in the Zhejiang f f £ C ) M&~~r~WM'Mi&<b^M". The Jinxian zhenglun and the /jitiming jing, which does not contain the character shu in the title, are written by Liu Huayang |Jjpij£-|if;, a Daoist master of the Qing (1736-?). Zhang Zhizhe says in the entry for [he Jinxian zhenglun in his Daojiao wenhua cidian that the final chapter of this Daoisl book is "Hou weixian shou". The title is exactly the same as what we find in the booklet; therefore it is possible that it was compiled from Liu's two books. If so, we can conclude that some Daoist books on alchemy practices were revealed and circulated among the popular sects in 2  99  immediately to the world because the three calamities are about to arise. The depictions of various disasters, which will be inflicted on the evil, can be found throughout the entire scripture. Here is one of them:  mrmxmm —mi£W± wmm m^Jim•mmm.m mm ° nmrni • frmwm ° Bmmfn ° W£n&'X& ° B ' s j n i s - • %L%.mm °  M  H  I  A  ^  •  °  °  [Sinners] have committed monstrous serious sins; therefore the Three Departments (saricao HW) and the Six Boards (Liubu A'pfj) record every item of the sins on their books. ' They drop auspiciousness and blessings down to the moral, and drop disasters 2 0  and calamities down to the evil. [The evil] will encounter plagues, malaria, diarrhea, paralysis [j'englan  MM.  -fenglan  JIUH?), the poison of furuncle  (dingdu ffi$),  leprosy  and tuberculosis (malao ^jH), or [other] incurable, lasting illnesses. Or they will encounter warfare, fire, robbery, lawsuits (gitansi  'g'WJ),  or quarrels (koushe P i l f ) . They  will suffer from vicious disasters and fierce difficulties, or abnormal accidents and unexpected misfortunes. They will have been afflicted with various kinds of vicious hardship year after year.... (volume 2, 37a, p.77) The above list of varied sicknesses is reminiscent of that found in the Shenzhou jing. Besides, like Daoist writers, the author.of the Dizang Shiwang baojuan ranks lawsuits and quarrels as disasters appearing during the period of the transition to Maitreya's age. The whole chapter 18 the Qing. Zhang Zhizhe, ed.. Daojiao wenhua cidian, p. 789, p. 754, & p. 504. Zhongguo daojiao xiehui & Suzhou daojiao xiehui, ed., Daojiao da cidian, 216. " Using the character cao to refer lo Ihe celestial government is a popular tradition, which existed since the Han. Cao is a direct borrowing from the lilies of Han governmental organizations. In the Taiping jing, we find Department of Fate (mingcao pp W ) . Department of Longevity (shoucao f#1t')- Department of Good Deeds (sharicao # W ) . and Department of Evil Deeds (Ecao ^SW)- The Three Departments {sancao) in the above quotation from the Dizang Shiwang baojuan should mean the departments of celestial government. This is consistent with the ancient Chinese tradition. 1 cannot find what these Three Departments are. In the Pervading Unity Way (Yiguan dao — J f f i l i ) , the sancao means three regions: heavenly regions, human regions, and earthly regions. The objects of salvation claimed by the seel are ihe beings in these three regions (universal salvation of the three regions; sancao pudu Ei.WMfM)- In addition to the Dizang Shiwang baojuan. the term sancao can be found in the Jiulian baojuan. It refers to the celestial officers who are responsible for overseeing people's will to take religious cultivation. From these two texts, we can infer thai the sancao (the Three Departments) can be equated to the Three Officers (sanguan H i t ' ) , the popular deities in Daoism and popular culture, and the term sancao possibly is the other name of sanguan. The later groups of deities are also responsible for overseeing human behavior. Y u Ying-shih ^ £ E I # . " ' 0 Soul, Come Back!" A Study in the Changing Conceptions of the Soul and Afterlife in Pre21  Buddhist China.' Harvard Journal of Asian Studies, 47( 1987):382-383. L i Shiyu ~&\&fm, Xianzai Huabei mimi  zongjiao J H & i j i M ( S e c r e t religions in contemporary north China) (Taipei: Guting shuwu, 1975), p. 57. Wang Ka, ed., Zhongguo daojiao jichu zhishi, pp. 267-268.  100  of the Longhua jing deals with the Eternal Mother's prediction of the coming disasters at the end of kalpa and her revelation to the imperial-womb children (huangtai emit  M@pfE?iC) of how  to  escape them. She tells Gong Chang that the calamities have come in the jiazi of the lower yuan (xiayuan jiazi).  In the xinsi  year (the 18 of the sixty-year cycle), there will be famines, th  droughts, and floods, and there will be no harvests. In Shandong, people will eat humans, and wives and husbands will separate and so will sons and fathers. In the northern Zhili ilEfi;, people will die of famine. Not every mention of universal crises contains all the four features; some baojuan authors do not write the years and places in which the misfortunes are going to appear. However, like Daoist writers of the Six Dynasties, they think that diverse disasters will come at the same time at the end of kalpa. Holding the same views, these two groups of authors interpret the Buddhist terms sanzai  />c (three calamities) and banan AMI (eight difficulties)  EL  in the same way. These two terms are  borrowed in Daoist texts and precious volumes. In Buddhism, sanzai refers to fire, water, and wind, and banan means the eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his Dharma ". Both terms are however used as the collective nouns that refer to a group of disasters, 2  and are often juxtaposed with other various disasters in our texts. The meaning of the term banan  is distorted and no longer related to difficulties in learning teachings. In prophecies in  Daoist texts of Six Dynasties and precious volumes, the terms sometimes simply refer to the simultaneous disasters in the profane world. The "Petition for Removing Three Calamities (Que sanzai zhang §PH/Jc$)" of the Chisong zi zhang li are not used for getting rid of three calamities only, but also other misfortunes, which include "public and private quarrels, floods, fires, tigers, wolves, worms, snacks and all various sufferings happening to the bodies (i.e. the The eight conditions: in the hells; as hungry ghosts, as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy): as deaf blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A  211  Dictionary  of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 41.  101  believers).  ^7^kf^^^-^)W\Uf(±M"•  (Chapter 3, 17b) The Heavenly Master can  also use it for dissolving the danger of nine disasters {Jive flftV) appearing in a period of'yuan (i.e. five droughts and four floods)  212  and hundreds of illnesses (baibing T^js?). (18a-18b) The  author in the Jiulian jing says that the three calamities (sanzai) come to the world during the time of transition between the Buddhas' ages. In addition to fires, floods, and winds, there are also other sufferings mentioned. The term sanzai simply is used for describing the world full of various crises, ln the Daoist scriptures written in the Six Dynasties, the term hanan refers to various misfortunes, not to eight difficult circumstances of learning the Dao.  213  Therefore, in the  Chisong zi zhang li, it is juxtaposed with the other terms with similar meaning such as wuzai Jx jjl (five disasters), liuhai 7 \ ! f (six kinds of harm), and shiku  (ten sufferings).  214  This  usage can also be found in precious volumes. In the Jili zhenyan, for example, the term is interpreted as eight misfortunes, including warfare, starvation, and imprisonment, (p.935) Eight misfortunes (banan) are also juxtaposed in the Dizang Shiwang baojuan, but they are written in seven-character verse.  213  (volume 1, 8b, p.33) Like the Daoist writers in the Six Dynasties,  baojuan writers think that various natural disasters and misfortunes would come to the world at the same time at the end of the world. This is why they interpret the Buddhist terms sanzai and banan in the same way.  For disasters appearing a cycle in Daoism, read pp. 24-28 of chapter 1. The meaning ofthe term banan was probably changed later. In the dictionaries of Daoist terms I read, it has the meaning similar to that ofthe counterpart in Buddhism.  2 1 2  2 1 3  "  M  Chisong zi zhang li. chapter 6, 5b & 8a.  The eight misfortunes are as follows: 1) the demon kings will kill mankind; 2) wolves and tigers will be everywhere on mountains; 3) there will be thunder: 4) monsters will eat humans; 5) black smoke and wind will arise, 6) There will be thunder in immortals' dwellings (i.e. immortals" dwellings will not be peaceful); 7) flying knives will drop from heaven; 8) monkey and lion monsters will be released. 2 1 3  102  b) Comparison of Daoist and Sectarian Features to Buddhist Ones  No one can deny Buddhist influence on precious volumes, especially in baojuan writers' adoption of the term kalpa (Jie  a Buddhist unit of time. In sectarian writings, the length of  Buddhas' reigns is measured with kalpas, and the present is described as mojie Xij] (the end of kalpa). Besides, the character/Ve appears more frequently than yuan, and therefore Buddhist concept of time in precious volumes attracts modern scholars more than the Daoist term does.  216  The Buddhist expression "guo xian weilcti JJIIJJIT^^ (the past, the present, and the future)", viewed as the three Buddha's ages, is often applied in baojuan. All these give readers an impression that Buddhist influence overwhelms that of Daoism in the views on time. Nevertheless, in Buddhism, it is seen that the entire cosmos passes through an ongoing series of cycles, instead of a linear process, which can be found in Daoism and teachings of popular sects in China. Jan Nattier has introduced Buddhist concept of time in her Once Upon a Future Time: Studies in a Buddhist Prophecy of Decline. She begins chapter 2 by these remarks: The Buddhist religious tradition - indeed, Indian religious thought in general - is often described as lacking a true sense of history. Because the Indian view of time is cyclic rather than linear, so it is argued, no single historical event is decisive, no turning point unrepeatable, and no progress or decline in human culture truly significant. In short, the Buddhists, like the Hindus, simply have no interest in history. The contribution of Buddhism to human thought is thus not to be sought primarily in the realm of the historical, but in its perception of a reality transcending time, or of an unchanging pattern of flux. '  2 7  2 1 0  Susan Naquin, for example, discusses (he concept of kalpa in writings of White Lotus religions, without  mentioning Daoist influence. Susan Naquin, Millenarian  Rebellion in China: the Eight Trigrams Uprising  of1813  (New Haven: Yale University, 1976), p. 11 Jan Nattier. Once Upon a Future Time: Studies in a Buddhist Prophecy of Decline (Berkeley: Asian Humanities, Jan Natti 1991), p. 5.  2 1 7  103  Chapter 30 of the Fozu tongji tells us the processes ofthe past, the present, and the future, and deals with the present in detail.  218  The whole period of cosmic time undergoes four kalpas:  Vivaria kalpa (chengjie f$J$]; the formation kalpa), Vivarta-siddha kalpa (zhujie fi^TJ; the  existence kalpa), Samvarta kalpa (huaijie iM'ij)', the destruction kalpa), and Samvarta-siddha kalpa (kongjie  the end.  219  'iEifj; the annihilation kalpa). They are four stages ofthe formation of worlds to  In each above kalpic cosmic period, there are twenty little kalpas (xiaojie /Jv^fj; Skt.  Antara-kalpa). The Vivarta-siddha Kalpa starts with diminution kalpa (jianjie \j$;kf]) and ends with increment kalpa (zengjie l^ifj), during which people's ages decrease from unlimited number to ten, and increase from ten to 80,000 respectively. The other eighteen are kalpas of increment and diminution (zengjian jie iflMijj), during which people's ages increase from ten to 80,000, and then decrease from 80, 000 to ten.  220  During the existence kalpa, humans experience  the cyclic increase and decrease in age and the three little disasters (xiao sanzai /JNHJAC.; illness, warfare, and famine), which appear repeatedly in turn, and the Dharma often thousand Buddhas prospers and vanishes sequentially. Ln the present, Bhadrakalpa (xianjie Wij]; the Sage Kalpa), the first Buddha is Krakucchanda (AJe)'^ Juliusun) and the fourth Buddha is Sakyamuni, who is followed by Maitreya. In the destruction kalpa, the three great calamities (dasan zai TC —•' jij; winds, floods, and fires) ruin gradually the sentient beings (sattva; youqing ^ f f f ) and finally the vessel world (qishijie §stM."Fr)- ' Then the universe is vacant for twenty little kalpas. Another 22  new cycle of cosmic development will start again after this. In Buddhist cosmology, the  The Fozu tongji does not tell us every detail ofthe whole process from cosmic formation to the destruction. For example, it does not discuss much about Vivaria kalpa. Therefore, we have to consult other sources for our discussion. William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, .-1 Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms., p. 224 & p. 237. 2 1 s  2 1 9  2 2 u  Ciyi, ed., Foguang da cidian, vol. 3. p. 2812.  221  Qishijie is the world as a vessel containing countries and peoples, i.e. the material world. William Edward  Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 446.  104  universe undergoes a series of unlimited cyclic stages, which are measured in an immense time scale.  222  We can discover that, compared with those in Buddhim, the notions about time and historical development shown in Daoist texts of the Six Dynasties and precious volumes of the Ming-Qing period are much simpler. In Buddhism, the "guo xian wei/ai" are considered as three ages among unlimited cyclic ages only. In precious volumes, they represent all cosmic time. It is said that the universe linearly goes through three stages only. The reduction is formed according to Daoist notions about time. The time in precious volumes is measured with kalpa as it is in Buddhism, but the cosmic time is much shortened. In the preface of the Jiulian baojuan, the guarantee that "one will achieve Buddha position in the future eighty-one kalpas, accompany the golden lotus (i.e. the Ancient Buddha), and not be reborn below [in the mundane world] ['H 5|<iAH—ififtli^iil-,  fflf-l-iz^SAT^fe  ° ]" is made to the believers of the scripture. Eight-one  kalpas, the length of the reign of Maitreya, is represented as eternity by the writer, but this obviously cannot be found in Buddhism. Daoist notions about time therefore are important in the formation of the concept of time in baojuan, although this literature is ornamented with many Buddhist terms. We should examine the features of Buddhist descriptions of universal disasters before we can understand thoroughly the importance of above-mentioned Daoist features in baojuan. The Fayuan zhulin tells us that, during the existence kalpa, the three little disasters appear in the world in turn. The order of the arrival of the disasters is different in various Buddhist  Some illustrations are used in Buddhism for showing how immeasurably long a kalpa is. The length of a kalpa, for example, is as long as a mustard-seed kalpa (jiezi jie TfEii)])- which lasts for the time it would take to empty a city 100 yojanas (about 9 miles) square, by extracting a seed once every century Or it is as long as a rock-wiping kalpa (J'ushi jie W&'$S), which lasts for the time it would take to wear away an immense rock by nibbing it with a deva-gannent (i.e. the garment of divine being, which is extremely light) once in a hundred years. William Edward 2 2 2  Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p. 147. p. 197, p. 260, &, p. 280. Y i m —#0 (1351-1425), Sanzhao fashu H i S S ® (Numbers |related to| the Dharma in Tripitaka) (Taipei: Ciyun shanzhuang,  1995), p. 247. Ciyi. ed.. Foguang da cidian. vol. 3, pp. 281 1-2812.  105  scriptures.  ' According to the Lishi apilan lun (Discourse on the surpassing law of the  establishment of the world AEf/iHf^ffilro), during the mid ninth kalpa, the illness kalpa (jiyi jie  ^JsStJ; lit. epidemic  disease kalpa) first appears and people suffer from various diseases.  224  Humans do not have orthodox faith (zhengfa IE SO- They are attached to desire and hold evil views; therefore, their bad karma increases and their age is reduced to ten only. Great countries are deserted, and few people live in small counties with great distance from each other. No one makes donation of remedies (tangyao  jfjljl)  and food. Numerous people die of illness in one  night; their bodies are not buried and their white bones cover the earth. During the seven days at the end of the kalpa, almost all people die, except ten thousand people who do good deeds. Various good devas (shan guishen Ijfjil.i'-ifi) protect them and regard them as the future seeds of humans (danglai renzhong #.5|<;A8I)  225  After the seven days, great epidemic vanishes and all  vicious ghosts go away. Their joyful minds arise when these people meet each other. They do good deeds and have moral minds. Therefore, the longest life span of humans becomes 20,000. Their good karma enables them to be reborn in the good states of existence after death. They are reincarnated in heavens as devas, and then as humans. After that, they return to heavens.  226  The  The Dlrghagama (Chang ahan jing iftpsj'a'M), the long agamas, for example, discusses the warfare kalpa, and then the famine kalpa and Ihe disease kalpa. Fayuan zhulin, Taisho Tripiiaka, vol.53, no.2122:270a. The Fozu tongji discusses the famine kalpa first, and then the disease and Ihe warfare kalpas. Taisho Tripiiaka, vol.49, no.2035:299b-299c. The Lishi apilan lun is translated by Di Zhen and is collected in volume 32 of the Taisho Tripiiaka. It deals with Buddhist cosmology, which includes the discussion of the origin of Sumeruvada (yM'ffil-U)- Ciyi, ed., Foguang da cidian, vol. 3. p. 2 147. Abhidharma (Apilan p5JH5£ or Api daiuo RjJij|t)§f) is translated as surpassing law (shengfa Wii). incomparable law (wubi fa ffitt/i). comparing the law (duifa or directional law (xiangfa [£] /£), which shows cause and effect. Il is the discourse (sastras). which discusses Buddhist philosophy or metaphysics and is defined as the law or truth which goes beyond or behind the law. William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, p288. Ren Jiyu {iMfSj., ed., Zong/iao da cidian ^^CkM ffli (Great dictionary of religions) (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 1998), p. 21. Good devas are the eight spirits who protect Buddhism. William Edward Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary  2 2 3  2 2 4  2 2 3  of Chinese Buddhist  Terms, p. 369.  Taisho Tripiiaka, vol.53, no.2122:270a-270c. There are three good states of existences (shandao #3'Jt): heaven state, the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life: human stale, the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; asura (titanic demons; axiulou H ^ l i ) state, the inferior class of goodness. William Edward  22b  Soothill & Lewis Hodous, A Dictionary  of Chinese Buddhist  106  Terms, p. 62 & p. 285.  warfare kalpa (daobing jie ZJJ?<Kl) will arise after the disease kalpa, and is followed by the famine kalpa (jijin jie f l i l i S j ) - The accounts of these two kalpas in the Discourse surpassing  law of the establishment  of the world  on the  are similar to that of the disease kalpa. The  illness, the disastrous force that kills almost all humans, replaces by warfare during the warfare kalpa; it replaces by famine during the famine kalpa.  At the end of each little disaster, humans  227  will finally enjoy blessed lives, long life spans, and good reincarnations, all of which are caused by their good karma, after the disaster disappears and they lead moral lives. All descriptions of the little disasters have the same pattern. So, the order of the advent ofthe three great calamities during the destruction kalpa is standardized in our Buddhist scriptures. Fire will come up seven times after and before the flood. Flood will arise seven times before and after the wind. During the kalpa, the first ofthe four dhyana heavens (chuchen  tian  A/WAl) will be destroyed after fire  arises seven times. Then there will be a flood; after that there will be seven fires. After every seven fires, there will be a flood. After a flood appears seven times, the second dhyana heaven (erchen tian dhyana  HipipA) will be destroyed, and there will be seven fires and then a wind. The third  heaven (sanchen tian  EL^TK)  will be ruined by the wind. There are 64 great calamities  in total (56 fires, 7 floods, and 1 wind) in the destruction kalpa.  228  We shall learn that Buddhist accounts do not carry any features of the description of universal crises that we find in Daoist texts and precious volumes. We certainly cannot expect that Buddhist scriptures contain heavenly stems and earthly branches and Chinese place names. Unlike Daoist texts and precious volumes, Buddhist scriptures do not clearly say that the three great calamities and the three little disasters come to the world right now or in near future. We  227  Taisho Tripitaka, vol.53. no.2122:270c-271b.  ~  Fayuan zhulin,  2X  Taisho Tripitaka.  vol.53, no.2122:275b-275c. Fozu tongji. Taisho Tripitaka.  vol.49.  no.2035:299b-299c. Ciyi, ed., Foguang da cidian, vol. 1, pp. 554-555 & vol. 3. pp. 2813. Only Hie fourth dhyana heaven (sichen tian E i j i l p A ) among the four dhyana heavens will remain after the destruction kalpa, but it will vanish when the heaven destiny of it (tianming AnfT) ends. The fourth dhyana heaven cannot stay forever because of impermanence (wuchang fffi^f).  Fayuan zhulin, Taisho Tripitaka,  107  vol.53, no.2122:275c.  can read in Buddhist scriptures that some special situations will happen during critical times. The Fozu tongji, for example, reads:  mmvm M S - A H I - A A AH » A A t S S A - M ¥ ° A S [When humans' ages] decrease to thirty, [the world] has seen the age of degeneration of the Buddha-law (mqfa TA/J;) for 3 100 years. People are three feet tall only. At that time, the famine disaster appears.... [When humans' ages] decrease to twenty, [the world] has seen the age of degeneration ofthe Buddha-law for 4,100 years. People are two feet tall only. At that time, the disease disaster appears.... [When humans' ages] decrease to ten, [the world] has seen the age of degeneration ofthe Buddha-law for 5 100 years. People are one foot tall only. Females marry when they are five-month old only. At that time, the warfare disaster occurs.... These situations cause readers to infer that the disasters are still far away.  229  The end of the  world, accompanied with the three great calamities, occurs even later and after immeasurable time in Buddhist predictions. Buddhist apocalypses therefore do not impress readers with the huge horror of imminent misfortunes as the predictions in Daoism and precious volumes do. Besides, compared with those of Daoism and sectarian writings, the accounts of universal disasters in Buddhist sutras are well-organized and standardized. The three little disasters come up in the world one by one although their order is different in various Buddhist texts. The sequence of the arrival of the great calamities is the same in Buddhist texts; the fire arises first, and the floor and the wind then come up separately. In Daoist texts and precious volumes, it is said that the little disasters and great calamities appear together at the same time. The writers of For example, according (o the Do piposh o lun 7\tiLWk &l\n (Abhidluirriianiahdvibhasa-saslra: an abbreviation of A pi damo da piposha lun p5JJ^,:i||§AJ^IS^Ira), llie three little disasters come up when humans can live ten years only. The Da piposha lun is translated by Xuanzang and is collected in volume 217 of the Taisho Tripitaka. Ciyi, ed., Foguang da cidian, vol. 3, p. 2812 & p. 3642. Ren Jiyu, ed.. Zongjiao da cidian, p. 151. Because Buddhist scriptures also contain the accounts of the situations appearing when Maitreya descends, Buddhists and modem scholars think that, according to Maitreya canons, Maitreya does not come at present, but in the remote : future. Chen Hua WM, "Zhongguo lishi shang de Mile weilai jiushizlui ^[IIM.^ J l l M f $J ^M^WkWi. ([The image of) Maitreya, the future master and savior, in Chinese history)". Lishi yuekan JH^]=j | lj (Historical Monthly). 86:58(1995). Jan Nattier. "The Meanings ofthe Maitreya Myth. A Typological Analysis", Maitreya, the Future Buddha, ed. Alan Sponberg & Helen Hardacre (Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1988), p. 24. 2 2 9  :  ; :  108  them do not separate them into two groups of misfortunes coming up in different cosmic periods, as Buddhist writers do. Apart from the misfortunes described in Buddhist texts, many other disasters are created and declared to appear in the present or in the near future, as we mentioned above. Daoist and baojuan pictures do not cany any patterns of disasters as Buddhism ones do. It is astonishing that Daoist and baojuan writers have written much about various disasters, but the sorts of disasters in Buddhist predictions are relatively few. Obviously, the Daoist mode of the description of misfortunes is greatly different from that of Buddhism. What makes baojuan writers adopt the indigenous mode instead of the foreign one? I cannot provide a complete answer to this question here, because this would involve the study of baojuan writers' knowledge of these two religions, and the availability of their canonical texts circulated among the popular sects.  2,0  Studying these two topics is outside the  scope of this thesis. If we do not take them into account, we shall learn that, by selecting Daoist pattern of narrative about the critical time instead of Buddhist one, baojuan writers can magnify the horror of the imminent destructions. By specifying the places and time of diverse disasters with the Chinese calendar and place names, the writers can horrify their readers and make them aware that converting to their sects immediately is the only way of escaping the universal aiin.  Part O: Comparison of Eschatological Teachings  a) Reasons for universal crises In this part, 1 shall first examine the reasons baojuan writers provide for the end of the world, which are similar to those found in Daoist works. Then I shall discuss some new elements of sectarian eschatology, which can distinguish the explanations of universal miseries  It is not easy to study the whole picture of the Daoist and Buddhist texts circulated among the sects in the Ming and Qing from precious volumes only. Lo Qing quotes a large number of earlier books and tracts in his writings, but later baojuan writers do not quote other sources, except for a few who imitate Lo by citing him or the materials he quotes. Daniel Overmyer, "The Chin-lien pao-chiian". Precious Volumes: An Introduction to Chinese Sectarian 1M>  Scriptures from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, p. 5.  109  in baojuan from that in Daoist tradition. As shown below, the ideas of hell and mofa A/A (degeneration of the Buddha-law) are closely related to the accounts of the causes of disasters; therefore our final focus in this part is laid on how they are treated in Buddhist eschatology and how they are borrowed and changed in Daoist and sectarian texts.  i) Parallels and Differences in Daoist and Sectarian Explanations Like the Daoist texts of the Six Dynasties, precious volumes contain many accounts of human misbehavior; human immorality is considered to be one of the causes of universal crises. As stated in chapter one, Daoist writers' criticisms of human corruption are based on Confucian values; the same can be said of sectarian writers' criticisms. We are told in baojuan that people at present do not act in accord with their status. ' There is a passage written in verse (ge f[X) 23  called " A song about the Mahasattva [Guanyin fflilf]'s advice to people in the world  IX" in the  Tianci jiujie jing  All7$J£Sj>W (The scripture on [how to] save oneself from the kalpa,  granted by Heaven) and a part of it deals with people's lust for wealth:  m^mimn A  AdrWjt±t  232  mnnmrnmrn ° nmmm&k • •n&M&snmiE « mm  •• A J ? ! A > A A A L !  o  l);(mnii'jX  "  Common people act recklessly.... Rich [people] are greedy for wealth and [therefore] harm the poor and the humble. The poor and the humble are greedy for wealth and [therefore] act against their consciences. Officials and seniors are greedy for wealth and [therefore] are not incorruptible and upright. Official servants (chaiyi Iffx) are greedy for wealth and [therefore] harm moral people. Country officers (xiangzhang  are  greedy for wealth and [therefore] harm their fellow villagers. Bandits are greedy for wealth and [therefore] robbery prospers. Bullies are greedy for wealth and [therefore] 2 3 1  The Mile chushi baojuan contains the most detailed socially oriented criticism among sectarian boajuan.  been discussed in Daniel Overmyer's Precious Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, 2 3 2  Volumes: An Introduction  to Chinese Sectarian  It has  Scriptures from the  pp. 276-280.  The Tianci jiujie jing is collected in Ihe Ming Qing minjian zongjiao jingjuan  page, there is a reprint day. ihe gengzi | | f i - year of the Guangxu reign (1900). :  1 10  wenxian. (vol. 10) On the cover  harm moral people. Scholars are greedy for wealth and [therefore] kill others [by writing libels about others] with their pens [and making them be imprisoned]. They [all] do not obey the law and do not act in accord to right principles. All are greedy for wealth and therefore behave against their consciences. (2b-3a, pp.467-468) Like Daoist writers in the Six Dynasties, baojuan writers think that the present is the age of corruption and people do not behave according to Confucian values. Sectarian writers declare their teachings of their sects to be "right doctrines (zhengfa  JElik)",  or "right way (zhengdao IEXS)", as Daoist writers do. The author of the Dizang Shiwang baojuan repeatedly urges people to "convert to the right way and become the disciples of the Imperial Apex (i.e. Yellow Heaven Way) The Vast Yang sect (Hongyang jiao  [MxIEii,  YfM^M^Xf' ° " (volume 2, 9a, p.63)  ^kWMX) is described as the "Right-Teaching School of the  Vast Yang (Hongyang zhengjiao men  '^AfillEf&H)" in their scriptures.  233  Human's disbelief to  their own sects is as serious as the transgresstion of Confucian ethic, and both cause universal miseries. We can read the following in the Mile chttshi baojuan ofthe Yuandun sect:  vmmx^mmMm, A I # I H I A ,  &  K  wm^wmx, mm-^xwi^-^im^  A  ,  x^mm, Afmf.ii, xmm^.T •  It is regrettable that confused living beings drink and eat flesh, and do not reform their minds. The minds of all the living in the world are extremely evil; they do not believe the right way (i.e. Yuandun sect). Heaven orders demon kings to descend to [the mundane] region, and collect and remove the wicked in China. All disasters [such as] diseases, warfare, floods, fires, and winds will come to the world. (Chapter 2, 10a, p.3 1 9)  Hongyang wudao mingxin jing ^L^§M. M'Utf^. (The Vast Yang scripture on awakening lo the Way and enlightening and the mind; hereafter "the Wudao mingxin jing&