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Social knowledge : applying a conceptual model of adult romantic relationships to dating in adolescence Siguenza, Rene M. 2003

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Social Knowledge: Applying a Conceptual Model of Adult Romantic Relationships to Dating in Adolescence  By  Rene M Siguenza B. A., The University of British Columbia, 1997  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Social Work and Family Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 2003 c Rene M. Siguenza, 2003  U B C Rare Books and Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form  Page 1 o f 1  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  http://Avww.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html  03/04/2003  11  Abstract This study assesses whether an adult model of romantic sexual relationships is applicable to adolescence. The study of social knowledge in adulthood has revealed that the ways in which individuals know someone prior to dating them can have an effect on the subsequent dating and sexual relationship. Tests of the association between social knowledge and patterns of sexual behaviours in adolescence were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings indicate that adolescent dating and sexual behaviour patterns vary according to age and sex of the respondent. Results suggest that older female adolescents, in contrast to younger female and male adolescents, engage in patterns of dating and sexual behaviours that resemble adult romantic relationships. Romantic relationships among male adolescents are less influenced by social knowledge of a dating partner. Implications of the study and the need for more research on dating and sexual behaviour during the transitional period from adolescence to adulthood are discussed along with directions for future research.  iii Table of Contents Abstract Table of Contents  ii iii  List of Figures  v  List of Tables  vi  Acknowledgements Introduction  vii 1  Hypothesis 1  18  Hypothesis 2  18  Hypothesis 3  18  Methods  19  Design  19  Sample  20  Measures  22  Social Domain  22  Extent Knowledge  23  Embeddedness  23  Type of Relationship  24  Time to Sexual Intercourse (Dependent Variable)  25  First Intercourse Experience (Respondent)  26  Age at First Intercourse Experience (Respondent)  27  Age  28  Sex  28  iv Results  28 Hypothesis 1  29  Hypothesis 2  30  Hypothesis 3  33  Post Hoc Analysis  41  Discussion  48  References  56  Appendix 1  63  Appendix 2  64  Appendix 3  65  Appendix 4  68  V  List of Figures Figure 1. Social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships  17  Figure 2. Female early adolescent romantic relationships  49  Figure 3. Social knowledge in late adolescent female romantic relationships  49  vi List of Tables Table 1. Demographics  21  Table 2. Embeddedness index by had sex  24  Table 3. Time to first sexual intercourse by relationship type  30  Table 4. Correlations social knowledge variables by time to intercourse  32  Table 5. Regression analysis - Females' first romantic relationship  34  Table 6. Regression analysis - Females' second romantic relationship  36  Table 7. Regression analysis - Females' first casually dating relationship  37  Table 8. Regression analysis - Males' first romantic relationship  38  Table 9. Regression analysis - Males' second romantic relationship  39  Table 10. Regression analysis - Males' first casually dating relationship  40  Table 11. Regression analysis - Females' 13-14 first romantic  42  Table 12. Regression analysis - Females' 17-18 first romantic  43  Table 13. Regression analysis - Females' 15-16 second romantic  45  Table 14. Regression analysis - Males' 1 7 - 1 8 first romantic  47  Vll  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank those people who have accompanied me on the journey through grad school. It has been a long and winding path, and I have taken the opportunity to learn about all of the pursuits and passions that make for a full and rewarding life. I would like to thank my mother, brothers, and particularly my father's weekly fishing stories for encouraging me to go on and supporting me in my decisions. My close friends had to hear my stresses and strains; I thank them for their patience. In order of how many times they had to hear the word 'thesis': Barclay, Sean, Dao, Jemima, Jeffrey, Gary, Carlie, Steven, Martin, and Yolanda. Thank you for all of your support and thoughts. I would like to make a special acknowledgement to Dr. Sheila Marshall for taking the time to understand, challenge, and support me through the turbulent times of graduate school. I really appreciate all that you have done. I would also like to thank Dr. James White for encouraging me to get into the program and for helping me to get through it. Thank you to Dr. Brian O'Neill for your insights and efforts. I thank all of you for the profound changes that you have made in my season of grad school years at UBC.  1 For the majority of individuals, adolescence is a time period that encompasses initial forays into romantic relationships as well as the discovery and entry into dyadic sexual behaviours (Miller & Benson, 1999). Redefining interpersonal relationships in adolescence through changing relationships with peers and parents (Brown, 1999), and internal pressures from self-discovery (Shulman & Seiffge-Krenke, 2001) results in adolescence being a crucial period for the development and emergence of relational skills and behaviours (Furman & Wehner, 1997; Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997; Shulman & Scharf, 2000). This transformation of social interactions suggests that the developments of sexual and intimate relationship skills are central tasks for adolescents. Dyadic heterosexual romantic relationships are embedded in a social context and this notion is frequently overlooked in investigations of adolescent dyadic relationships (Bearman & Bruckner 2001). Frameworks for young adult relationships suggest that romantic relationships are derived from close personal ties to social networks (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994). The purpose of this investigation is to ascertain whether these same patterns are evident in adolescence, the period prior to young adulthood. The rationale for such an investigation is to discern whether relationships in adolescence are similar to young adulthood indicating a continuous developmental pattern or whether there are distinct differences between the two periods pointing to discontinuous development. In order to examine the role of social knowledge in adolescence, this study employs a model of adult romantic relationships in an attempt to account for variance in types of adolescent heterosexual dating relationships and the timing of sexual intercourse. The model is used to investigate how prior social knowledge of a potential dating partner can influence both the type of relationship  2 engaged in with that dating partner and the duration o f time that the partners wait before engaging in sexual intercourse. Research findings (Parks & Eggert, 1991; Christopher & Cate, 1988; Christopher & Roosa, 1991) suggest that social factors influence dating and the formation o f intimate relationships in adulthood. Analysis o f data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (Laumann et al., 1994) indicates that long-term relationships are much more likely to result from introductions through people that the couple knows very well. In other words, the degree o f social knowledge prior to introduction is positively associated with the transition to a marital union. Thus, adults who meet in a bar with no prior social knowledge o f one another are highly unlikely to form long-term relationships, or to continue the relationship for more than a year. A t the furthest end o f the continuum o f social knowledge, people intending to engage in casual sex or very short-term sexual relationships during their college years more often deliberately pursue these liaisons with complete strangers (Herold, Maticka-Tyndale, & Mewhinney, 1998). However, adults introduced to each other through family members or close friends have a very high degree o f social knowledge and these introductions have the greatest likelihood o f resulting in long-term cohabitation or marital unions (Laumann et al., 1994). Due to multiple meanings assigned to the construct o f social knowledge and numerous operational definitions, a working definition is needed to provide clarification. Social knowledge, for the purpose o f this study, is defined as the extent o f familiarity that one person has o f another person. This definition both follows and builds upon the contributions o f Laumann et al. (1994) in understanding the impact o f social introductions to a dating partner on subsequent romantic relationships in adulthood.  3 Social knowledge is dependent upon factors such as social networks which are composed of the people defining each individual's social world (Baxter & Widenman, 1993; Sprecher & Felmlee, 2000) including kin and friends (Milardo, Johnson, & Huston, 1983), and the place and manner in which people are brought together for the initial introduction (Laumann et al., 1994). For example, a person may be less familiar with, or be less socially knowledgeable about a potential dating partner that they meet for the first time at a volleyball game, but might be more familiar with, or hold a greater amount of social knowledge about a friend of their best friend who goes to a neighbouring school. Thus, the social relationships that connect people through ways of knowing each other underlie the event of meeting someone and these networks have an impact on the nature and type of intimate relationship engaged in during adulthood. Connecting the literature on social knowledge in adult romantic relationships to those that occur in adolescence is hampered by a number of fundamental differences separating adulthood and adolescent dating relationships (Furman & Wehner, 1997; Shulman & Scharf, 2000). Chief among these differences is the issue that adult romantic relationships frequently have the normative expectation of high interpersonal compatibility and building towards longer-term stable intimate relationships (Brown, Feiring, & Furman, 1999). The impact of prior social knowledge on intimate relationships during adolescence is less clear because it is a time during which normative dating expectations consist of varying degrees of short-term relationships (Miller & Benson, 1999). Most research on romantic and casual dating relationships has been derived from samples of adults and thus does not translate easily to adolescents (Brown et al., 1999; Seiffge-Krenke et al., 2001). To clarify potential confusion caused by the application of  4  dating and relationship literature concepts developed for an adult population to the adolescent period, a number of definitions are offered for this study. Within this study, and as is consistent with the literature (Brown, et al. 1999), the term intimate relationship will be used interchangeably with the term romantic relationship. Romantic relationships, as defined in a manner outlined by Brown et al. (1999), are composed of "differing levels of emotional and dyadic sexual involvement, commitment, and attraction of some type often sexual in nature (p. 3)." Romantic relationships differ from that of casual dating relationships primarily due to a much lower level of commitment to the relationship among those whom are casually dating. Low levels of commitment and emotional intimacy typify a casual dating relationship. In some instances a casual dating relationship will be an initial stage of dating and the dating couple may decide to move to a more committed dating relationship such as a romantic relationship. Companionship and high levels of interpersonal conflict characterize adolescent romantic relationships, whereas the initial romantic relationships in young adulthood are marked by greater degrees of emotional intimacy and commitment (Shulman & SeiffgeKrenke, 2001). After the initial romantic relationship and experimentation with sexual intercourse, adolescent romantic relationships are frequently short-term in duration, are engaged in for fun or peer acceptance, and take place between individuals in a social environment that is particularly watchful of or attuned to individual and peer actions (Graber, et al., 1999; Miller & Benson, 1999). Thus adolescents typically meet and date others whom they have social knowledge of, or those whom they know through social connections (Traeen & Lewin, 1992; Brown, 1999; Shulman & Scharf, 2000).  5  The role that prior social knowledge has on the dating relationships of adolescents has not yet been tested. The contexts in which adolescents know of each other may affect whether the relationship develops into one that is casual or romantic. Indeed, the social networks of adolescents have long been known to be important facets of their lives. For example, Dunphy (1963) reported that a gradual transition from isolated same-sex cliques distinguishes the early adolescence years from that of late adolescence with fully integrated cliques based upon social status. Social knowledge of other adolescents is largely dependent upon social status within the cliques. Higher social status results in a broader reputation and a greater potential of being known by others, particularly lowerstatus peers. Social status in turn, is reported to influence dating ability through this greater respect and acknowledgement among peers. In adolescence, dating has a further purpose because it is often a means to enhance personal status through dating a particular individual or engaging in certain behaviours with him or her (Brown, 1999). Thus, it is from the initial homogeneous age and sex groupings that the friendships of adolescence spring, and these groups later become the basis for romantic pairings (Connolly & Goldberg, 1999). Friendship network size and social support from friends in early adolescence is positively related to the likelihood of romantic involvement in later adolescence (Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000). It is of no surprise to learn that the majority of dating during adolescence occurs between peers that are known to the groups and group members. This study proposes that in early adolescence the knowledge of a dating partner learned through a peer group is one form of adolescent social knowledge. One explanation for the relationship between early adolescent network size and later likelihood of dating is that dating partners come from former peer groups. However,  6 a more likely explanation is that the peer group serves as a means to introduce group members to potential dating partners through friends of friends (Connolly et al., 2000). Furthermore, adolescents meet and date within the social context of their peers, thus it is probable that the dating partners' actions towards each other are heavily influenced by the social knowledge that they have of each other (Seiffge-Krenke, Shulman, & Klessinger, 2001). Romantic relationships are the settings for the transition to the first sexual intercourse experience for the majority of adolescents (Traeen & Lewin, 1992). During adolescence, romantic relationships are frequently a prerequisite to sexual intercourse (Graber, Britto, & Brooks-Gunn, 1999). It should be noted that considerable variation exists in the forms of dating relationships that adolescents create when engaging in sexual intercourse, however for the majority of adolescents a more committed form of dating relationship is preferred (Traeen & Lewin, 1992). Graber et al. (1999) provide a detailed analysis of the role that romantic relationships play as a setting for the transition to initial sexual intercourse experience. Romantic relationships and the experience of sexual intercourse are frequently concurrent events for adults and adolescents. It is more likely; however, that adolescents first experience sexual intercourse with someone they care about, rather than someone with whom they are in love (Shulman & Seiffe-Krenke, 2001; Traeen & Lewin, 1992; Laumann et al., 1994). The degree and nature of sexual behaviours engaged in with a dating partner tend to increase with more time in the relationship and increasing levels of emotional involvement (McCabe, 1987). For this reason, sex and romantic relationships are interconnected events for most adolescents. Furthermore, romantic relationships as a  7 normative context for dyadic sexual behaviours are particularly likely to occur during the transition to the first intercourse experience (Schwartz, 1993). The finding that engaging in dyadic sexual behaviour is most likely to be approved by peers if it is within an intimate relationship emphasizes the role of the adolescent social environment in shaping the relational context of sexual intercourse (Katchadourian, 1990). The experience of sexual intercourse and the timing of that experience are considered important developmental events in adolescence, and an important component of the transition to dyadic sexual behaviour is experiencing romantic relationships (Bingham & Crockett, 1996; Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997). One of the primary differences found between a group of adolescents compared on the basis of whether or not they have experienced intercourse was that those females who had experienced intercourse reported that they had expected their dating relationship to last longer (i.e. the relationship was a romantic not a casual dating relationship) than those who did not experience intercourse (Rosenthal, Burklow, Lewis, Succop, & Biro, 1997). The NHSLS data (Laumann et al., 1994) confirms the role of romantic relationships as the setting for the transition to sexual intercourse with 53.2% of respondents retrospectively reporting that they were in love with their first sexual intercourse partner (Laumann et al., 1994). The role of love in the transition to first sexual intercourse is even more striking when the totals for respondents in all long term relationships are added. A total of 92.3% of the NHSLS respondents (Laumann et al., 1994) reported being in some form of long-term relationships (either as a spouse, in love, or knew well) with their first coitus partner.  8  In summary, there is empirical support for the notion that longer term or romantic relationships during adolescence are more often the setting for the initial sexual intercourse experience. Because long-term dating relationships lead to sexual intercourse and most initial sexual intercourse experiences in adolescence are within long-term or romantic relationships, adolescents in short term or non-romantic relationships may have a lower likelihood of engaging in sexual intercourse while in these short-term relationships. Some evidence shows that initial adolescent short-term relationships have a low likelihood of sexual intercourse (Traeen & Lewin, 1992) although after the first sexual intercourse experience subsequent sexual experiences may no longer require a romantic relationship to initiate further dyadic sexual behaviours. The reduced need for a romantic relationship as the setting for sexual intercourse in adolescence after the initial intercourse experience has not been adequately tested. That is, casually dating relationships may have much shorter durations of time to sexual intercourse in comparison to the duration for romantic relationships, and evidence suggests that this may be true in adults (Laumann et al., 1994). Among college students "hookups" or sex without commitment, emotional intimacy, or romantic involvement were actively pursued among total strangers to deliberately avoid social repercussions (Paul, McManus, & Hayes, 2000). A faster onset of sexual intercourse in casual relationships has been shown in the NHSLS data by Laumann et al. (1994) but has yet to be tested adequately with adolescent samples for whom the meaning and status given to types of relationships are defined by peer culture (Miller & Benson, 1999). Searching for evidence of delayed sexual intercourse in romantic relationships would suggest a pattern of dating relationships in adolescents that is similar to adult  9 populations. The literature from adult romantic relationships indicates that a delayed first intercourse experience in a dating relationship is an indicator of a romantic rather than a casual dating relationship (Laumann et al., 1994). Conversely, the transition to sexual intercourse among college students and adults is deliberately early if they are engaged in casual dating relationships (Herold et al., 1998). Further evidence for delaying sexual intercourse is also shown in late adolescence by Traeen and Lewin, (1992). In late adolescence a longer period of knowing each other before sexual intercourse is experienced with a romantic dating partner is compared with a short delay between first introduction and first sexual intercourse in casual dating partners (Traeen & Lewin, 1992) . This study adds to the existing literature by concentrating on the importance of social knowledge as a predictor of variability in the duration of time to sexual intercourse throughout the adolescent period. A second influence on the duration of time to sexual intercourse within an intimate relationship during adolescence could be how socially responsible the actors in the intimate relationship must be for their actions. A romantic relationship has a slow transition to sexual intercourse in part because that is how the immediate peer culture implicitly demands that the transition will be (Connolly & Goldberg, 1999). Engaging in sexual actions with people from the social arena of peers may result in implicit demands on the actors as the time required to develop and maintain a romantic relationship necessitates that the social arena will know of the relationship (Baxter & Widenmann, 1993) . However, engaging in sexual intercourse with others outside of the peer context could remove the need for a romantic relationship as the relational setting for sexual intercourse and reduce the resultant long duration of time within the relationship before  10 sexual intercourse occurs. Although evidence from adult romantic relationships supports the role of social knowledge in the duration of time to sexual intercourse, the pattern is not clear in adolescence (Laumann et al., 1994). Society regulates some sexual behaviours, including dyadic sexual behaviour of individuals, in a manner comparable to that by which parents regulate the lives of their adolescent children. Parents control and influence those areas over which they have legitimate authority and allow the adolescent authority over personal or less public behaviour (Gray & Steinberg, 1999). However, the distinctions between areas of parental and adolescent authority are ambiguous because the areas of authority are dependent upon the situation and the age of the child (Smetana, 1994; Nucci, 1994). Evidence for ambiguity in the regulation of sexual behaviour by society is shown because this type of behaviour is, by definition, a personal behaviour. However, individual sexual expression has public ramifications when those sexual actions involve others. For example, masturbation is currently a socially acceptable autoerotic behaviour as evidenced in nationally representative surveys (Laumann et al., 1994; Janus & Janus, 1993). When sexual expression is brought out from the private unsanctioned sphere, or domain of an individual, this expression can be conceptualized as becoming public. Individual sexual expression becomes public when another person is involved, as in dyadic sexual behaviour, or when the autoerotic behaviour is performed either in a public setting or manner in which it becomes public. The importance of the public arena in influencing dyadic sexual behaviour is shown in a study that examined motivational issues for engaging in a non-relationship romantic encounter, or casual sexual activity by Weaver and Herold (2000). Females  11 who were sexually inexperienced before the casual sexual encounter reported being fearful that their family would find out about their sexual activity, and females who were sexually experienced reported being fearful of future romantic relationship partners becoming knowledgeable about this casual sexual encounter (Weaver & Herold, 2000). Fears of repercussions for sexual actions illustrates that dyadic sexual acts have social ramifications because people perceive themselves to be publicly judged by others for their actions. Public sexual behaviour is heavily sanctioned. Laws, ethics, morals, culture, and other social forces result in a defined code of acceptable behaviours for public sexual expression or dyadic sexual behaviour. These social forces act on the individual through direct and indirect means to shape behaviour (Unger & Crawford, 1992). In childhood the forces of socialization are primarily directed at the child from the parents (Nucci, 1994). However, by adolescence peers have surpassed parents as the primary force of socialization for most daily interactions (Brown, 1999; Connolly & Goldberg, 1999; Shulman & Scharf, 2000). The role of peers in shaping adolescent behaviour is particularly salient during the transition to sexual intercourse (Brown, 1999). Dyadic sexual behaviour is strongly influenced by and interconnected with the sexual expression of peers (Rosenthal et al., 1997; Cohen & Shotland, 1996; Brown, 1999; Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000; Christopher & Roosa, 1991). For example, a recent study by Rosenthal et al. (1997) examined the role of the perception of friends' status of engaging in intercourse. In a list of the reasons for engaging in sexual intercourse "my friends were all having sex" (p. 241) dropped from being mentioned by 32% of the sample for their first intercourse experience to 14% for the last time that they  12 had intercourse (Rosenthal et al., 1997). Clearly the perception that adolescents' peers are sexually active is a factor in the decision to engage in sexual intercourse, and particularly for the first sexual intercourse experience. Adolescents orient towards sexually active peers after they themselves have experienced sexual intercourse (Christopher & Roosa, 1991). Furthermore, association with sexually active peers is positively correlated with the frequency of sexual intercourse among 15-19 year olds (Brenda, DiBlasio, & Kashner, 1994). The sexual lives of adolescents are taking place in the midst of an enveloping peer and social network that is vigilant and highly critical of individual actions (Thomson & Holland, 1998). Thus, adolescent dyadic sexual behaviour may be particularly vulnerable to the pressures from the social climate in which it is set. However, little is known about the influence that prior social knowledge of a dating partner has on the duration of time to intercourse with that partner. Evidence that prior social knowledge of a dating partner is related to the duration of time in a relationship with that dating partner before intercourse occurs can be found in adulthood. Data from the NHSLS suggests that adult dating relationships that were the result of low degrees of prior social knowledge were much more likely to have a relatively rapid transition to sexual intercourse and typically lasted for a shorter duration of time (Laumann et al., 1994). High social knowledge, on the other hand, resulted in a slower onset of intercourse and a longer dating relationship (Laumann et al., 1994). Underlying the relationship between prior social knowledge of the dating partner and the duration of time to sexual intercourse are the different meanings and experiences that surround sexual behaviours for males and females. A particularly striking sex  13 difference is the act of sexual intercourse. In order for sexual intercourse to occur the female has to deal with the unique experience of penetration and the ramifications of having someone actually enter their physical being (Thompson, 1990; 1994). The differences between male and female sexual experiences are the most pronounced and the least understood during the initial experiences with dyadic sexual interactions (Graber et al., 1999). However, the literature is in relative agreement over the magnitude of the differences that are produced for male and female adolescents over the transition to the first sexual intercourse (Leaper & Anderson, 1997; Miller & Benson, 1999). Sexual intercourse is infused with societal expectations and meanings that provide rigid structure and which outline the roles of both males and females (Unger & Crawford, 1992). It is no surprise that one of the most consistent findings in the fields of human sexuality and romantic relationships is that romantic relationships and sexual intercourse are qualitatively different experiences for females and males (Laumann et al., 1994; Thompson, 1994; Unger & Crawford, 1992; Vangelisti & Daly, 1997; Shulman & Kipnis, 2001). Evidence for sex differences in both the experience of sexual intercourse and the antecedents of it are found throughout the literature (Thomson & Holland, 1998; Laumann et al., 1994), although the magnitude of the differences between the sexes is decreasing (Herold & Marshall, 1996). Examples of recently reported sex differences in the experience of sexual intercourse are that men are more likely to report casual sexual experiences (Paul et al., 2000), they report a greater number of sexual partners than do females (Traeen & Lewin, 1992), and males expect sexual intercourse earlier in a dating relationship (Cohen & Shotland, 1996). Issues of being a virgin and losing virgin status hold much more of a stigma for females than males (Carpenter, 2001). Men are more  14 likely to want to lose their virginity and care less about the context in which they became non-virgins (Carpenter, 2001). A consistent sex difference in factors for interpersonal attraction is that men look more for sexual desirability and physical appeal whereas females are more likely to be attracted to the potential for emotional intimacy (Regan, Levin, Sprecher, Christopher & Cate, 2000; Shulman & Kipnis, 2001). After the initial experiences with sexual intercourse, the necessity of an intimate relationship as the setting for sexual intercourse decreases, although an intimate relational setting is still preferred particularly by females (Sprecher & McKinney, 1993). Males will more frequently admit to engaging in intercourse without affection; however, women are more likely to state that the relationships in which they had intercourse were characterized by emotional intimacy (McCabe, 1987; Laumann et al., 1994). A study of the factors affecting sexual decisions in the romantic relationships of adolescents and young adults by Christopher and Roosa (1991) found there are clear sex differences in perceptions of how sexual and romantic involvement should go together. Whereas males were more likely to pursue sex for pleasure without the need for a concurrent romantic relationship, females' degree of sexual involvement with a dating partner is heavily influenced by the emotional climate of the relationship. Females were also more likely than males to complain that their emotional needs were not met in an intimate relationship, underscoring the importance of the emotional climate of a romantic relationship for females (Vangelisti & Daly, 1997). Females are more likely to engage in sexual intercourse when they are in a relationship that is perceived as longer-term and characterized by emotional intimacy (McCabe, 1987; Rosenthal et al., 1997). Relationship longevity is an important predictor  15 of the intimate relationship as shown by Rosenthal et al. (1997) in their investigation on the reasons for engaging in first versus last sexual intercourse experience in young adolescent girls. Findings revealed that over half of the adolescent girls believed that their intimate relationship was going to last at least for several more months, and 36% of the sexually active sample believed that the relationship would last at least one more year (Rosenthal et al., 1997). Thus for females the emotional climate of an intimate relationship is an important predictor of sexual intercourse in an ongoing adolescent romantic relationship. Retrospective accounts of reactions to initial sexual experiences are also more positive if females had been in an intimate relationship characterized as being emotionally close and with a slow transition to sexual intercourse (Schwartz, 1993). Predictably, males have less investment in the experience of sexual intercourse and are socialized as the active, pursuing partners (Unger & Crawford, 1992). Primarily for these reasons, males are more likely than females to pursue sex for purely pleasure after the initial intercourse experience (Christopher & Roosa, 1991). Although the variations in perceptions and meanings for sexual intercourse are strongly influenced by the sex of the adolescent, the timing of the event in the adolescents' life and personal readiness are also essential elements in explaining the transition to sexual intercourse within adolescent romantic relationships. The experiences surrounding the first sexual intercourse event and the move to dyadic sexual interaction have shown that there are large variations in the timing and subjective interpretations of these experiences or developmental markers in adolescents. Some controversy exists in the literature over the most inclusive way to account for the variability in individual development that occurs at the time of the move to dyadic sexual interaction (Miller &  16 Benson, 1999; Bingham & Crockett, 1996). Regardless of the age at which they experience sexual intercourse, adolescents with a high degree of comfort and readiness for sexual intercourse have a different developmental trajectory with regard to future dyadic sexual experiences than adolescents who experience sexual intercourse but are not yet prepared for this experience (Thompson, 1990, 1994). The age of the adolescent is not an effective measure of sexual maturation and readiness because an adolescent experiencing first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 should have a different sexual and developmental experience than an adolescent that first experiences first sexual intercourse at age 19. Thus age is not a proxy measure for attempting to account for individual developmental experience with sexual intercourse. Furthermore, adolescents who had their first sexual intercourse experience at age 14 have lived with that experience for five years by the time that they are 19 years of age, and in those five years might have a developed a different approach to dyadic sexual interaction. The literature on casual sex among late adolescents clearly indicates that acceptance and experience with casual sex is positively related to the duration of time that an adolescent has been sexually active (Traeen & Lewin 1992; Weaver & Herold 2000). Thus the duration of time that has elapsed since the individual developmental experience of sexual intercourse should be controlled for when assessing the timing of sexual intercourse within adolescent dating relationships. Finally, in regards to the age of adolescents, the age of an adolescent should moderate the relationship between social knowledge and the experience of sexual intercourse. Essentially, Laumann et al., (1994) predicts a distinct or discontinuous model of adulthood and the role of social knowledge in romantic relationships, if the  17  adulthood model is correct, adolescents will approach an adult model of romantic relationships at some time later in their lives. On the other hand if Laumann et al. (1994) are incorrect, the model is continuous and adulthood is not a distinct time period in regards to the role of social knowledge in romantic relationships. In the continuous model of romantic relationships, the adult model of social knowledge applies to adolescents throughout adolescence. For this reason, it is crucial to test by the age of the adolescent when attempting to understand the role of social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships. In summary, the role of social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships will be analyzed using a comparison of competing models of social knowledge to determine the social knowledge models' ability to account for variance in the duration of time to sexual intercourse. Given the hypothesized gender differences this study will examine whether there is an interaction between age and sex of the adolescent on the relationship between social knowledge and the duration of time to sexual intercourse. The research model is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships  Sex of Adolescent Age of Adolescent  Prior Social Knowledge Social Embeddedness  Type of Relationship (romantic; casually dating)  Duration of Time to Sexual Intercourse  18 Hypothesis 1: The type of intimate relationship engaged in is hypothesized as being related to the duration of time in the relationship before the onset of sexual intercourse. Specifically, the context of a romantic relationship will lead to a slower onset of sexual intercourse in comparison to the duration of time to sexual intercourse with a casual dating partner.  Hypothesis 2a: In a casual dating relationship, low prior social knowledge of a dating partner will be related to a more rapid onset of sexual intercourse than high social knowledge. Hypothesis 2b: In the context of a romantic relationship, high social knowledge of a dating partner will be related to a longer duration of time before engaging in sexual intercourse than low social knowledge of a partner.  Hypothesis 3: It is expected that sexual intercourse is more likely to occur within a romantic relationship for female adolescents than for males. Furthermore, the experience of sexual intercourse will be less likely to be associated with the context of intimate relationships for males. It is also expected that males will report more sexual intercourse experiences within casually dating and casual sex relationships than females. Females, as opposed to males, are also hypothesized to report more sexual intercourse experiences with partners that were well known to them before the relationship began, thus illustrating the female social script that engaging in sexual intercourse is more appropriate within a romantic relationship. Similarly, it was anticipated that females would be more likely than males to show a need to know partners before engaging in  19 sexual intercourse with them (Herold et al., 1998). Thus to acquire this social knowledge, partners who did not know each other well prior to dating should to need to engage in a longer dating relationship before sexual intercourse. The expected pattern of social knowledge of a dating partner with females, whether this social knowledge comes from a long-term intimate relationship or from an extensive prior social relationship, is not expected to occur with male adolescents. As indicated previously, this is due to the acceptance among males for sexual intercourse without affection (Traeen & Lewin, 1992; Laumann et al., 1994; Herold et al., 1998; Regan et al., 2000).  Methods Add Health Design The proposed research project used Wave 1 of the public use portion of the data set collected for the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The Add Health study was designed to test a variety of health and lifestyle issues such as health status, contraception usage, peer networks, romantic relationships, and deviant behaviours in the context of the social worlds that adolescents live in. Add Health uses a multistage, school-based, cluster sampling design. The data set that has been created from the Add Health study forms a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the 7 to 12 grades in the United States. th  th  The Add Health data set is the result of systematically sampling 80 American high schools and 52 associated middle and junior high schools. This implicit stratification, or selection based on probabilities proportional to the schools' enrolment, was used to  20 obtain a nationally representative sample. All students from the schools completed the In-School Questionnaire, which measured social network data. The portions of the interview on more sensitive issues were conducted at the home of the adolescents. Health status, peer networks, decision-making processes, the ordering of events in the formation of romantic partnerships, sexual partnerships, and substance abuse were some of the topics covered in the in-home interview. Questions were presented to the respondents by way of an audiocassette recording that the respondents listened to on headphones. Answers to these questions were directly input into a laptop computer by the adolescent. Sample The data from a total of 6504 cases are available in the public use data set. Five respondents had to be excluded from analyses because these respondents marked the date of their first sexual intercourse experience as being on the same date as their date of birth. An additional two respondents did not have complete birth dates. An eighth respondent had to be removedfromthe data set due to missing data regarding their sex. Out of the remaining sample, 48% (n=3144) are male, and 52% (n=3352) are female. For both romantic relationships and casually dating partners, respondents were asked to indicate when their relationship with that person began. Analyses of the dating relationships were only analyzed if both a month and year of the dating relationship onset had been recorded in the Add Health data set. A l l relationship types that did not have complete month and year of relationship onset or first sexual encounter data were counted as missing cases for the analyses. The resulting  21  totals for the first, and second romantic relationships were 1635, and 545 respectively. For the first casual dating relationship there were 317 respondents for analysis.  Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of the Add Health data set. Characteristic  Males  Females  Frequency  %  Frequency  %  Yes  1302  33.8  1258  32.6  No  1791  46.5  2062  53.5  Ever have sex? (n=3853)  Demographics of those who reported having had sex Age (years) Less than 13  10  0.8  4  0.3  13 - 14  156  12  127  10.1  15 - 16  466  35.8  441  35.1  17- 18  612  47.0  649  51.6  More than 19  58  4.5  37  2.9  First romantic  693  27.1  942  36.8  Second romantic  240  9.4  305  11.9  First casually dating  140  5.5  177  6.9  Ever had () relationship:  22  Measures Questionnaire items referred to in the measures section appear in their unedited form in Appendix 1. Domain of Social Knowledge. Summing the numerical values assigned to the social domain(s) from which the respondent reportedly knew the partner prior to dating assessed domain social knowledge of a dating partner. For example, if a respondent knew a dating partner from multiple close social domains, this respondent would have a much higher domain of social knowledge score than another respondent who only knew their dating partner from one domain. The domains of prior social knowledge of the dating partner were measured from the responses to the question, "In what ways did you know () before your relationship began?" Respondents had the opportunity to choose more than one domain if they knew the relationship partner from more than one social context. Each response was coded to reflect degrees of social proximity and propinquity, thus probable knowledge of the partner. The first category represented the closest degree of social knowledge or friendship in the Add Health data set, and was composed of the response option "you were friends." In the index of social domain knowledge this 'friendship' category represented the greatest degree of social knowledge. The second category represents less social knowledge than category one and includes two response options "() was a friend of another friend of yours, and you were casual acquaintances." The first and second categories capture the importance of the friendship network due to the first category indicating that the dating partner is an actual friend, and the second category indicating that the partner is within the friendship network although removed by a degree or a link  23 of association to a friend of a friend. The third category is again less social domain knowledge than category two and this third category is a combination of two casual means of knowing someone. Category three includes "you went to the same school" and "you were neighbours." A fourth category is "you went to the same church, synagogue, or place of worship". The final category in the index is a single item that was counted as missing in the analyses; it is labelled "some other way" in the data set. Extent of Social Knowledge. The extent of prior social knowledge was measured using the question, "When your relationship with ( ) began, how many of your close friends knew ( )?" Response options were reverse coded in order to reflect an increasing extent of social knowledge with increasing numerical values "all of them" coded as four, "most of them" is three, "a few of them" is coded as two. The final two options of "one of them" and of "none of them" were coded as one or very few. The extent of social knowledge variable is a four-response set. Social Embeddedness. Social embeddedness assesses the current social knowledge, across peer and family domains, of the dating relationship. This index created by Bearman and Bruckner (2001), indicates the degree of concurrent social knowledge for the dating relationship under analysis. The index contains three items asking about dating relationship events: "you went out together in a group," "you met your partners' parents," and "you told other people that you were a couple." Respondents indicated whether or not each of these behaviours occurred for each dating relationship that they had engaged in. The individual items were coded so that a response indicating social knowledge of the dating relationship on one of the three measures resulted in the couple being given a score of one with multiple scores being added together to form the  24 final score. Social embeddedness is a summed index with respondents getting scores ranging from zero to three. As shown in Table 2, the embeddedness index indicates that respondents are clustered around the lower end of the index, or that adolescents are not reporting high rates of embeddedness. Social embeddedness was tested as a competing model against social knowledge as a predictor of the dependent variable of duration of time to sexual intercourse.  Table 2 Embeddedness Index for those respondents who reported that they have had sex Males  Females  (n=1302)  (n=1258)  Mean  SD  Mean  SD  Ever had () relationship: First romantic  0.53 (n=693) 0.50  0.75 (n=942) 0.43  Second romantic  0.18(n=240)  0.24 (n=305) 0.43  First casually dating  0.11 (n=140) 0.31  0.39  0.14(n=177)  0.35  Type of Relationship. The incidence of romantic and casually dating partners was measured by answering several items in the survey. Romantic and casual dating relationships were identified in the survey with the following question "in the last 18 months - since {month, year} - have you had a special romantic relationship with anyone?" Respondents were asked to identify a maximum of three relationships that they had engaged in. Adolescent self-categorization into relationships allows this study to  25 reflect the shorter durations of dating relationships in adolescence and thus it is hoped that this study will accurately detail the role of social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships. The proposed study is concerned with romantic and casual dating relationships. The occurrences of romantic and casual dating relationships were defined in the data set by the inclusion of data in the appropriate sections. The second type of partner was labelled a casual dating partner and was defined as a dating relationship characterized as having a low degree of commitment to each other and potentially differing levels of interpersonal attraction, dyadic sexual involvement, and emotional involvement. Analysis of the adolescent dating relationships depended upon creating a subset of relationships to analyze from the multiple relationship types that were available in the Add Health data set. Six variables were created to account for the possibility that a respondent could have a total of 3 dating relationships within any combination of romantic or casually dating categories. However, some combinations of dating categories contained so few responses that they were not included in the analyses. This study focussed on two romantic relationships and one casual dating relationship. Time to Sexual Intercourse (Dating Relationship only). The dependent variable of duration of time to sexual intercourse within a dating relationship assesses the period of time between the start of the relationship and the initial sexual intercourse with the partner. This variable was calculated through the use of responses to questions that indicated the date of first sexual intercourse within the relationship, and the onset of the dating relationship.  26 The duration of time within the relationship before sexual intercourse first occurred was calculated using the respondents' self-reported time of relationship onset and the timing of the first intercourse experience with the relationship partner. This duration of time to intercourse was measured with the question "in what month and year did you first have sexual intercourse with ()?" The duration of time within the relationship was derived subtracting the date that the relationship began from the date of the first sexual intercourse experience within that relationship. The date that the relationship began was the result of answers to the following question, "in what month and year did your relationship with () begin?" Recoding was necessary on the dependent measure of the duration of time to sexual intercourse. First, responses were recoded into increments of one month. Second, values indicating the respondent had experienced sexual intercourse with the dating partner long before the onset of a romantic or casual dating relationship were recoded to reflect a maximum value of negative two months (2 months prior to dating). The third necessary adjustment to the dependent measure was to transform the variable in order to reduce the skew. The variable was originally skewed due to the large number of respondents who had zero values because they had started both dating a partner and having sex with that person in the same month. Transforming the resultant zero duration values to one half a month was necessary for the variable to have sufficient variability to function as the dependent measure in subsequent linear regressions. First Intercourse Experience Ever (Respondent). The variable of the duration of time that had elapsed since the first sexual intercourse experience for each respondent was created using the responses to the questions indicating the month and year of the first  27  sexual intercourse experience for the respondent and subtracting that value from the date of the respondents' Add Health interview. Each interviewer recorded the month and year of the Add Health interview on the day that the interview was completed. The month and year of the first sexual intercourse experience was taken from the response to, "in what month (and year) did you have sexual intercourse for the very first time?" The duration of time that has elapsed since the respondents' first sexual intercourse experience is a measure that accounts for the maturation of sexual knowledge as a function of time from that first intercourse experience. Age First Intercourse Experience (Respondent). The variable of the respondents' age at the first intercourse experience was created to account for differences in dyadic sexual knowledge as a function of the age at which the respondent first experienced sexual intercourse. The two measures based upon the timing of the first sexual intercourse attempt to account for both the 16-year-old female who experienced sexual intercourse two years prior to the Add Health questionnaire as well as the 14-year-old female who also experienced her first intercourse two years ago. Unfortunately the variable of duration since first sexual intercourse does not distinguish between these two adolescents because the two adolescents will have the same two-year duration since first sex ever value. However, the two adolescents are not necessarily the same in terms of sexual knowledge and maturation because one of them experienced sexual intercourse at an early age for female adolescents, and the second experienced sexual intercourse at a normative age. Thus the second variable of age at first sexual intercourse experience differentiates  28 between the two adolescents. This second timing of sexual intercourse variable attempts to account for the difference in experiences that the two ages represent. The age at first sexual intercourse was created by determining the date of the first intercourse experience using, "in what month (and year) did you have sexual intercourse for the very first time?" and the age of the adolescent at the time of the questionnaire. Age. The age of the adolescent was calculated by using the self-reported responses that indicated the month and year of the respondents' birth date. Age at the time of the interview was determined by subtracting the birth date from the interview date. Age was separated into five groups with the first group of pre-adolescents being less than 13 years of age, the second group being early adolescents of 13-14 years old, middle adolescence is the third group at 15-16 years of age, late adolescence at 17-18 years of age, and the final group being more than 19 years old at the time of the interview. Sex. Sex of respondent was determined by self-report of the respondent if it was not obvious to the interviewer.  Results Preliminary analyses involved Pearson product-moment correlations between the independent variables of social knowledge in order to determine whether there was any overlapping of the social knowledge variables. (See Appendix 3). Analyzed separately by sex, these correlation matrices show low correlations or overlap between the three social knowledge variables. The most consistent correlations are between the extent and the domain of social knowledge indices. The embeddedness index was problematic and  29 had a trend towards being negatively correlated with the other social knowledge variables when the correlations were significant. Analyses of the research hypotheses were performed with a series of linear regressions. Regressions were conducted separately analyzing the sex of the adolescent, the age of the adolescent, and then the sex and age of the adolescent in order to determine which of the social knowledge variables was the best predictor of variability in the dependent variable of the duration of time to sexual intercourse. Although data weights were available for the data, unweighted data was used throughout analyses. One of the strengths of the Add Health data set is the sampling method and for this reason, the use of data weights to increase external validity was not deemed as important as maintaining internal validity.  Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 stated that the duration of time to sexual intercourse in a dating relationship would be related to the type of relationship that the dating partners were engaged in. The relationship between the type of dating relationship engaged in with an adolescent dating partner and the duration of time to sexual intercourse was tested with a simple comparison of the descriptive statistics for durations of time to sexual intercourse within each type of dating relationship. Results for hypothesis 1 can be found in Table 3. On average, the 1204 respondents reporting on their first romantic relationship waited three and a half months (SD = 4.7 months) from the time that the dating relationship began until the first sexual intercourse with that person. Less of a delay for first sexual intercourse within the second romantic relationship was reported with the  30 Table 3 Durations of time to first sexual intercourse within each relationship type  Relationship type Romantic First  Romantic Second  Casual First  N valid  1204  338  235  Mean (months)  3.6  2.6  2.4  Std Error  0.13  0.22  0.28  average duration being just over two and a half months (SD = 4.1 months). Finally, as hypothesized, the shortest delay for sexual intercourse within a dating relationship was for the casually dating relationships. The average length of time that adolescents reported in their first casual relationship was just under two and a half months with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.2 months before their first sexual intercourse within this relationship. From Table 3 it is possible to see that the largest mean duration of time to sexual intercourse occurred in the first romantic relationship; in this relationship, adolescents waited an average of over one month longer to have sexual intercourse than couples in a casually dating relationship. This supports the hypothesis that couples wait longer to engage in sexual intercourse when they are in a romantic as opposed to a casually dating relationship. The next step is to determine how social knowledge relates to the same dependent variable of duration of time to sexual intercourse. Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2 proposed that, within each relationship type, social knowledge would be correlated with the duration of time to sexual intercourse. Hypothesis 2(a)  31 stated that casual dating relationships would have more rapid transitions to sexual intercourse if the dating partners were not socially known to each other. Thus, the duration of time to sexual intercourse was anticipated as having a negative correlation with social knowledge in casual dating relationships. None of the correlations between the duration of time to sexual intercourse and the social knowledge variables approached significance in the first casually dating relationship. The second step in analyzing hypothesis 2 again tested for a relationship between social knowledge and the time to sexual intercourse, only this time romantic relationships were used in place of casual dating relationships. The results of the correlations between the social knowledge variables and the duration of time to sexual intercourse within each relationship type are available in Table 4. Hypothesis 2(b) proposed that within the context of a romantic relationship, there would be a positive correlation between the duration of time to sexual intercourse and the social knowledge variables. Thus, people with more prior social knowledge of each other are expected to wait longer to engage in sexual intercourse than are people with low prior social knowledge. The resultant correlations provided support for hypothesis 2(b) with a positive correlation between the sum of domains index and the duration of time to sexual intercourse in the first romantic relationship. The sum of domains index was also correlated with the duration of time to sexual intercourse within the second romantic relationship, which is again supportive of hypothesis 2(b).  32 Table 4 Intercorrelations between social knowledge and duration of time to sexual intercourse Variables  1  2  3  First Casually Dating Relationship (n=235) 1. Time to intercourse with partner 2. Domain of social knowledge  0.03  3. Embeddedness  -0.03  -0.04  4. Extent of social knowledge  -0.05  0.07  -0.21**  First Romantic Relationship (n=1204) 1. Time to intercourse with partner 2. Domain of social knowledge  0.07*  3. Embeddedness  -0.07*  -0.05**  4. Extent of social knowledge  0.06  0.10**  -0.03  Second Romantic Relationship (n=338) 1. Time to intercourse with partner 2. Domain of social knowledge  0.18**  3. Embeddedness  -0.04  -0.06  4. Extent of social knowledge  0.04  0.10**  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  -0.09**  4  33 The embeddedness index was negatively correlated with the time to sexual intercourse for the first romantic relationship. One of the social knowledge variables, the extent index, was negatively correlated with the dependent variable when the correlations were significant in hypothesis 2. Although these analyses indicated that the embeddedness index might be a questionable assessment device, the remaining analytical sections depended in the inclusion of the all of the social knowledge variables.  Hypothesis 3 The sex of the respondent was hypothesized as having a moderating effect on the relationship between the transition to sexual intercourse and social knowledge in adolescence. The moderating effect of social knowledge had to be significant above the combined effects of three control variables: the date of the first sexual intercourse experience for the respondent, the elapsed time since that intercourse experience, and the age group that the respondent was in. The control variables were entered in the first block of all subsequent hierarchical regression analyses to control for the effects of age and the possible maturation associated with prior sexual intercourse. The initiation of sexual intercourse within dating relationships was hypothesized to be less sensitive to social knowledge among male adolescents than females. In comparison, females were hypothesized as being more likely to engage in sexual intercourse within a romantic relationship rather than a casual relationship as well as being more responsive to social awareness of their dating relationships and relational behaviours. Thus social knowledge was hypothesized as being a more significant predictor of sexual intercourse for female adolescents than it was for males. Hierarchical  34 regression analyses results for hypothesis 3 are available in the following tables. Findings for females will be discussed first, followed by findings for males. For female adolescents in their first romantic relationship, the proposed model was significant. As can be seen in Table 5, both levels of the model are significantly predicting the duration of time to sexual intercourse.  Table 5 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' first romantic relationship (n—687) Variable  SEp  p  Age groups  0.66  0.01  Age at first sex  0.35  0.03  First sex ever  0.36  -0.11  Age groups  0.66  0.01  Age at first sex  0.35  0.03  First sex ever  0.36  -0.11  Social Domain  0.07  0.05  Extent knowledge  0.17  0.06  Embeddedness  0.23  -0.09*  R  R A  0.13  0.02*  0.18  0.03*  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  35 For females in their first romantic relationship, the transition to sexual intercourse is determined in part by the effects of time. However, social knowledge also has a small explanatory value that is significant above the effects of experience and time. The social knowledge step in the regression equation is statistically significant although it does not explain much of the variance. The only variable that approaches significance is the embeddedness index. The small amount of variance explained by the social knowledge models suggests that social knowledge of a dating partner predicts part of the variance in delaying the transition to sexual intercourse in female adolescents, and the experience of making the relationship socially known leads to a slower transition to sexual intercourse. Female adolescents might have a slower transition to sexual intercourse if the relationship is socially acknowledged, indicating the importance of others viewing one's sexual actions as appropriately timed. Female adolescents are again influenced by social knowledge of the dating partner in the results for their second romantic relationship as is seen in Table 6. In this second romantic relationship for females, the R-square change upon entry of the second block of the regression is significant, accounting for more variance in the dependent variable than was evidenced in the first romantic relationship. In contrast to the first romantic relationship, the significant predictor of the dependent variable is the sum of domains. In this second romantic relationship the importance of social knowledge is due to knowing the dating partner across a greater number and depth of social domains. The results of the social knowledge model were not significant for female adolescents in their first casually dating relationship F (6, 123) = 0.424, p = 0.86.  36 Table 6 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' second romantic relationship (n—190) Variable  SEp  P  Age groups  1.06  -0.07  Age at first sex  0.56  0.24  First sex ever  0.56  0.14  Age groups  1.03  -0.18  Age at first sex  0.54  0.38  First sex ever  0.55  0.30  Social Domain  0.09  0.27**  Extent knowledge  0.26  -0.03  Embeddedness  0.32  -0.12  R  R A  0.13  0.02  0.32  0.10**  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01 The linear regression table for females in their first reported casually dating relationship are available in Table 7. Males, on the other hand, are not influenced by social knowledge in the transition to sexual intercourse in their first romantic relationship as evidenced by hierarchical regression analysis (see Table 8). The proposed social knowledge model for the second romantic relationship with male adolescents did not reach statistical significance either F (6, 126) = 0.845, p = 0.54. Results for the linear regression analyzing the role of social  37 knowledge in the second romantic relationship for males are seen in Table 9. The final linear regression for Hypothesis 3 analyzed the role of social knowledge in explaining the duration of time to sexual intercourse in the first casually dating relationship for male adolescents. As can be seen in Table 10, this model was not statistically significant with F (6, 91) = 1.02, p = 0.42. In summary, the results from these regressions indicate that social knowledge does not account for variance in the duration of time that male adolescents report waiting before engaging in sexual intercourse. Table 7 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females 'first casually dating relationship (n-124) Variable  SE B  B  Age groups  1.45  -0.23  Age at first sex  0.80  0.44  First sex ever  0.76  0.34  Age groups  1.50  -0.24  Age at first sex  0.82  0.44  First sex ever  0.77  0.34  Social Domain  0.18  -0.06  Extent knowledge  0.41  0.02  Embeddedness  0.44  0.02  R  R A  0.13  0.02  0.15  0.02  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  38 Partial support for hypothesis 3 is found because the sex of the adolescent does dictate whether social knowledge of a dating partner has an impact on the duration of time to sexual intercourse. Simply stated, males did not significantly alter the duration of time to sexual intercourse as a function of how they knew the dating partner. The linear regressions for males in Tables 8-10 indicate that the hypothesized tests of social knowledge were not statistically significant. Table 8 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males 'first romantic relationship (n=428) Variable  SEp  p  Age groups  0.77  0.14  Age at first sex  0.40  -0.05  First sex ever  0.41  -0.05  Age groups  0.77  0.14  Age at first sex  0.41  -0.07  First sex ever  0.41  -0.05  Social Domain  0.08  0.07  Extent knowledge  0.21  0.00  Embeddedness  0.26  -0.02  R  P7A  Step 1  0.11  0.01  0.13  0.02  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  Females, on the other hand, did delay their first intercourse experience by a small amount of time if they had social knowledge of their dating partner in the context of a romantic relationship. Thus hypothesis 3 does support the contention that in adolescence social knowledge is moderated by the sex of the adolescent.  Table 9 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' second romantic relationship (n=127) Variable  SEp  p  Age groups  1.36  0.25  Age at first sex  0.71  -0.38  First sex ever  0.71  -0.52  Age groups  1.39  0.23  Age at first sex  0.72  -0.38  First sex ever  0.71  -0.50  Social Domain  0.17  0.08  Extent knowledge  0.36  0.05  Embeddedness  0.36  0.03  R  P7A  Step 1  0.18  0.03  0.20  0.04  Step 2  Note: */?<0.05 **p<0.01  40 Table 10 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males 'first casually dating relationship (n=92) Variable  SEp  (3  Age groups  1.47  -0.43  Age at first sex  0.77  0.64  First sex ever  0.79  0.79  Age groups  1.50  -0.46  Age at first sex  0.79  0.69  First sex ever  0.81  0.83  Social Domain  0.17  0.09  Extent knowledge  0.38  -0.03  Embeddedness  0.40  -0.05  R  Step 1  0.24  0.06  0.26  0.07  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  41 Post Hoc Analysis The lack of statistically significant findings prompted further exploration of the data. The final step for the test of social knowledge as a predictor of the duration of time to sexual intercourse in adolescence involved a series of analyses not originally planned in the hypotheses. A series of hierarchical linear regressions were performed separately for males and females with the regressions split by the age groups detailed in the measures section. This study did not test for an interaction effect between the variables of age and sex of the adolescent because it was decided that such a test would not be able to distinguish between the effects of two variables if both happened to be significant. Instead, the three relationship types were analyzed separately for males and females with divisions for each age group, resulting in a total of 30 regressions. (See Appendix 4). Significant findings from the age and sex split regressions are discussed next. Linear regressions were not performed for the pre-adolescents; the small N size with a total of 14 respondents in this first age group was not of sufficient size to analyze with a regression. The pre-adolescents never approached a significant group size once analyses were split by relationship type and sex of the adolescent. Tracing the effects of the first romantic relationship with female respondents, the social knowledge model was significant among the 13 to 14 year olds. As can be seen in Table 11, the second step of the linear regression is significant F (5, 45) = 2.66, p = < 0.05. Both the age at first sexual intercourse experience and the duration of time that had elapsed since this first sexual intercourse experience were significant predictors of the duration of time to sexual intercourse. Specifically, females were more likely to have a  42 more rapid transition to sexual intercourse if their own first intercourse experience had occurred at an earlier age.  Table 11 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 13 - 14 first romantic relationship (n=51) Variable  SEp  P  Age atfirstsex  1.41  -0.70*  First sex ever  1.49  -0.66*  Age atfirstsex  1.40  -0.76*  First sex ever  1.46  -0.72*  Social Domain  0.23  -0.23  Extent knowledge  0.57  0.15  Embeddedness  0.69  -0.18  R  R A  0.32  0.10  0.48  0.23*  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01 For the 15-16 year old group of females in their first romantic relationship, the social knowledge model was not a significant predictor of the duration of time to sexual intercourse. The second level of the regression was not significant in this case F (5, 217) = 2.128, p = 0.06. The embeddedness index in this second step of the regression was significant however, p = -0.17, p<0.05.  43 Results for the 17 - 18 year old group of females' first romantic relationship was significant at both steps of the regression. Table 12 indicates that the social domain (6 = 0.10, p<0.05) and extent of knowledge (P = 0.12, p<0.05) variables were statistically significant. Thus the results for 17 - 18 year old females supported the hypothesized relationship between social knowledge and the timing of sexual intercourse for this group.  Table 12 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 17—18 first romantic relationship (n=392) Variable  SEP  6  Age at first sex  0.46  0.20  First sex ever  0.46  0.04  Age at first sex  0.45  0.21  First sex ever  0.46  0.05  Social Domain  0.09  0.10*  Extent knowledge  0.22  0.12*  Embeddedness  0.32  -0.05  R  R A  0.16  0.03**  0.24  0.06**  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  44 The final group of female adolescents in their first romantic relationship were the late adolescents aged 19-21. For this group, social knowledge did not account for variability in the duration of time to sexual intercourse F (5, 15) = 0.32, p = 0.89. For the second romantic relationship, female adolescents did not have enough respondents aged 13-14 reporting a second romantic relationship to allow for analyzing by linear regressions (n=16). This group was not analyzed further. Female adolescents aged 15 - 16 in their second romantic relationship did significantly delay sexual intercourse due to social knowledge of their dating partner as seen in Table 13. The second step of the linear regression equation was significant F (5, 54) = 2.55, p<0.05. In this second step the sum of domains social knowledge variable is significant 6 = 0.32, p<0.05 as predicted. Thus females aged 15 - 16 in their second romantic relationship are more likely to delay sexual intercourse with a second romantic partner that they know well, and from multiple social arenas. The 17-18 year old females in their second romantic relationship do not show a significant delay in the timing of sexual intercourse due to social knowledge. The second step of the linear regression is not significant F (5, 102) = 1.66, p = 0.15. However, the variable of social domain of knowledge does show significance (3 = 0.22, p<0.05. The 19-21 year old females in their second romantic relationship did not have enough respondents to analyze with linear regression techniques (n = 5). Casually dating relationships among female adolescents did not provide evidence that social knowledge of a dating partner had a significant impact on delaying sexual intercourse. There were not sufficient numbers of 13 - 14 year old adolescents too put into a linear regression (n = 10). For the next age group, the second step of the linear  45 Table 13 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 15 - 16 second romantic relationship (n=60) SE (3  P  Age at first sex  1.09  0.37  First sex ever  1.07  0.12  Age at first sex  1.06  0.45  First sex ever  1.06  0.24  Social Domain  0.18  0.32*  Extent knowledge  0.51  -0.06  Embeddedness  0.62  -0.17  Variable  R  R A  0.27  0.07  0.44  0.19*  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01 regression was not significant for the 15 - 16 year old casually dating females F (5, 36) = 0.44, p = 0.82. Similarly, the second step of the linear regression was not significant for the 17 - 18 year old females in their first casually dating relationship F (5, 62) = 0.29, p = 0.92. The last group of casually dating females, aged 19-21, had too few respondents to analyze with a linear regression (n = 4). When the results from the casual dating regressions for females are considered in comparison to the magnitude of the romantic relationship regressions, the results from the casual dating relationship regressions are as expected. As stated previously, hypothesis 3 specified that the role of social knowledge would be less significant for casual as  compared to romantic relationships for females. In fact, fewer females experienced sexual intercourse in casual dating relationships, most females experienced sexual intercourse in romantic relationships as was predicted by hypothesis 3 and shown in Table 1. The results of the linear regressions for male adolescents of all age groups tested on the three types of intimate relationships can only be summed up as a complete and unreserved acceptance of the null hypothesis. Each of the regression analyses accounted for a remarkable lack of variance in the dependent measure. It is clear that social knowledge of the dating partner does not have an influence on the duration of time to sexual intercourse for male adolescents as measured in this study. For the first romantic relationship, males aged 13-14 did not show significance in the linear regression F (5, 20) = 0.39, p = 0.85. The same lack of significance was found for males aged 15 - 16 in their first romantic relationship F (5, 134) = 1.31, p = 0.26. The pattern continued with males aged 17 - 18 F (5, 232) = 1.38, p = 0.23 although the embeddedness index was significant 6 = -0.13, p<0.05. The results for males in this age group are detailed in Table 14. The 19-21 year old male adolescents in their first romantic relationship also lacked statistical significance when the linear regression was analyzed F (5, 17) = 0.23, p = 0.95. The results of the analyses for males in their second romantic relationship were also not statistically significant. The first group to have valid cases was the 15-16 year olds. The second step of the regression equation was not significant F (5, 37) = 1.43, p = 0.24. The second group, the 17-18 year old males in their second romantic relationship did not reach significance F (5, 64) = 0.16, p = 0.98. The final age group in the second  47 romantic relationship, males aged 19-21, did not have enough respondents to be statistically valid (n = 8).  Table 14 Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 17-18 first romantic relationship (n=238) Variable  SEp  P  Age at first sex  0.56  -0.04  First sex ever  0.56  -0.07  Age at first sex  0.56  -0.11  First sex ever  0.56  -0.12  Social Domain  0.12  0.08  Extent knowledge  0.30  -0.09  Embeddedness  0.43  -0.13*  R  R A  0.03  0.00  0.17  0.03  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01 The results of the linear regressions for males in their first casually dating relationship do not reach statistical significance on any of the regressions. The first group of males, aged 13-14, were not valid due to a low number of respondents (n = 5). The second group of casually dating males, aged 15-16, was not significant F (5, 23) = 1.03, p = 0.43. The third group, casually dating males aged 17-18, again lacked statistical  significance F (5, 45) = 0.69, p = 0.64. Lastly, the final group of casually dating males was not valid due to a low number of respondents (n = 6).  Discussion The purpose of this study was to map the role of social knowledge in adolescent dating relationships. This research project was undertaken in order to determine whether social knowledge can be used as a means of explanation for the timing of sexual intercourse and romantic relationship patterns in adolescence. It was anticipated that social knowledge would be an important underlying factor in adolescent relationships, and as such this organizing principle would help to fill the literature gap between early adolescence and early adulthood. Thus, this study compared models of social knowledge derived from adolescent and adulthood romantic relationship literature to determine whether adolescent romantic relationships were a distinct entity or an extension of adulthood models. Results indicated that the early and late female adolescent romantic relationships are unique. With respect to the role of social knowledge, adolescent female romantic relationships begin to resemble those of adulthood in late adolescence. The results indicate that adolescent females' romantic relationships begin to resemble an adult model that is influenced by social domain knowledge of the dating partner by late adolescence. The approach to the adult model is found either by age, at the end of adolescence in the first romantic relationship; or alternatively, by romantic relationship experience. The importance of social domain knowledge as found in an adult-like model of romantic  49 relationships is also found at an earlier age in female adolescents if they have already experienced a first romantic relationship. By extension, a second romantic relationship, or experience in romantic relationships matures females and female adolescents approach an adult-like model of romantic relationships at an earlier age if they have had a previous romantic relationship. In contrast, male adolescent dating relationships do not appear to be influenced by social knowledge as explained by variance in the duration of time to sexual intercourse. In conclusion, social knowledge does explain a portion of the variance in the duration of time to sexual intercourse for adolescent romantic relationships. The final corrected model for the role of social knowledge as a predictor variable in explaining the duration of time to sexual intercourse for adolescent romantic relationships appear in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2: Female early adolescent romantic relationships  Age at first sexual intercourse First Sex Ever  Duration of time to sexual intercourse  Figure 3: Social knowledge in late adolescent female romantic relationships  Domain of social knowledge A  A  Control Variables: -Age at first sexual intercourse -First Sex Ever  Duration of time to sexual intercourse  50  Thus future research using adolescent romantic relationship models needs to account for differences in relational behaviours that are due to the age and sex of the adolescent. Current models of adolescent sexual expression need to be updated to account for different individual romantic relationship pathways and learning experiences that lead to adolescent sexual belief systems. As can be seen from the results of this study, early sexual experience leads to changes in future relational actions by changing sexual expectations and desires. Males and females exposed to sexual intercourse earlier in their lives are more likely to have sex in future relationships more rapidly and without the context of intimate relationships (Laumann et al., 1994). The current study does not mean to indicate that context of a romantic relationship is necessary for sexual intercourse to occur, instead it is important to note that these adolescents with early sexual experience begin to initiate adult-like models of sexual behaviour at an early age (Traeen & Lewin, 1992). Difficulties may develop when there is an incongruity between the dating partners with regard to their models of sexual behaviour. When power differences exist between the partners the potential risk for forcing or coercing one partner to change to the adultlike model is increased. For example, males who have experienced their first transition to sexual intercourse many years ago might desire a rapid transition to sexual intercourse in a new romantic relationship, however the dating partner with a recent first sexual intercourse experience will most likely want a slower transition to sexual intercourse with this male. Males will also be less likely to worry about their social circle or their peers knowing whether the duration of time to sexual intercourse within a relationship is appropriately long or not. However as can be seen from this study, females will be more  51 likely to delay sexual intercourse with a socially known partner. Thus females are placed as the gatekeepers of sexual intercourse if they are dating socially known males in the context of a romantic relationship. Females are less likely to be gatekeepers of dyadic sexual behaviour if their needs are met in a relationship. For example, females looking for casual sex deliberately seek out people who will meet their needs by providing casual sex without the connotations that such behaviour would elicit among socially known people (Herold et al., 1998). In contrast, the present study did not find a consistent social connection between the female adolescents and their casual partners. The female adolescents in this study were having casual dating relationships both with people whom they knew and did not know. Comparing the results from this study to other studies that looked at the role of social knowledge in adolescents or early adults indicates that this study had similar results although the magnitude of the present results was smaller. One possible explanation for these less significant findings is due to the limitations of this study. The first limitation for this study deals with measurement issues. The most significant measurement issue is the dependent variable of the duration of time to sexual intercourse. The variable is marginally precise enough to measure the duration of time to sexual intercourse among adolescents because it is measured in months and years. The use of months as the smallest unit of measure restricts the range of the variable and obscures the differences between one, two, three or four weeks. In the context of adolescents, a few weeks could be a long duration of time. Unfortunately the unit of measurement for the dependent variable in this study lumps four-week increments into one unit. In this study, the transition to sexual intercourse was experienced in an average of less than four  52  months; the transition was more rapid for the second romantic relationship and for those who experienced a casual dating relationship. It is probable that a large amount of variability is hidden in the dependent variable. A more appropriate measurement unit would be in weeks or days. A second measurement issue concerns the standard errors as reported in Table 3. The standard errors are large in comparison to the reported means; this is also suggestive of measurement errors. The third measurement limitation is due to the restricted range of sexual behaviours tested in the Add Health study. Sexual intercourse is an activity that is expected in peer culture after a short period of dating. However, other forms of dyadic sexual expression such as oral or anal sex might be withheld because of feelings that these other sexual behaviours are not appropriate due to lack of comfort with the partner, lack of time with the partner, or engaging in these behaviours is not something that a person would want to be known among their peers. Concerns of sexual freedom are one of the reasons that females seek out casual sex relationships with strangers (Herold et al., 1998). Thus future research might also test for variance in the occurrence of sexual behaviours other than sexual intercourse due to prior social knowledge of the dating partner. The final measurement issue was due to the embeddedness index that was frequently suggestive of a low negative correlation with the dependent variable. The embeddedness index continued to defy logic and numerous coding rechecks by being negatively correlated. The embeddedness index was also largely insignificant in the results despite having a particularly strong basis in the literature. In contrast, the social domain knowledge variable had significant positive correlations with the dependent  53 measure for both female romantic relationships, suggesting that this social knowledge variable was more predictive of the dependent variable. Another limitation to the results of this study is due to the selection of only those adolescents who have experienced sexual intercourse. The first wave of the Add Health public use data set consists of 6504 adolescents. The dependent measure used in this study necessitated that the adolescents included in the sample had experienced sexual intercourse at least once in their lives by the interview date. When considerations were made for missing data on the social knowledge variables, only 1207 adolescents remained who had experienced afirstromantic relationship, 333 which had experienced a second, and 233 who had experienced a casual dating relationship remained in the Add Health sample. Although these sample sizes appear large, further divisions were necessitated when running regressions in order to split by sex and the five age groups. Unfortunately the resultant cell sizes were small and, when considered in light of the lack of sensitivity in the dependent measure, may reduce the ability to detect associations between variables. Other limitations to this study include the generalizeability being restricted to adolescents in the United States in the mid 1990's. The results were also not re-run with analyses for ethnicities or cultural backgrounds due to an extremely small n size once all of the criteria were met for data in the social knowledge and duration variables. Another reason for the relatively small amount of variance accounted for by the social knowledge model might be due to the nature of social knowledge in the younger adolescent years. Adolescents might not exist in entirely different social spheres, as do adults, and for this reason the measure of social domains might not be valid when tested  54  with the youngest adolescents. Early adolescent social worlds all remain interconnected through the school-based setting in which they exist, so it is possible that the adult-based measure of distinct social worlds is not valid in early adolescence. Furthermore, the social worlds of early adolescents are tied due to reputations and the threat of rumours. It may be that the role of social knowledge in adolescent romantic relationships does not have a large influence on behaviour because the public or peer setting of these dating relationships are much more salient to adolescents than they are for adults. Adolescents' self perceptions are that they are closely monitored, all behaviour is thought of as being a potential threat for judgement by peers. Similarly then all dyadic sexual behaviour is public behaviour to early adolescents, and thus dyadic sexual behaviour does not show the hypothesized adult-like variation in social knowledge of a dating partner. In essence, there may be a ceiling effect for social knowledge of dating partners in early adolescence wherein all dating actions are known socially due to fear of reputations and resulting social censure for actions. Early adolescents cannot remove themselves from the social stage when dating, in part due to the influence of reputations and in part due to the fact that most dating occurs in groups. The early adolescent dating scene might be less related to the person that the adolescent is dating, and more related to the immediate peer group. Over the adolescent period a maturing of intimate relationships might be occurring such that dating partners begin to exist less on the public stage over the adolescent years, and that they move to more of a private relationship that models the romantic relationships found in adulthood. Maturing of intimate relationships can theoretically happen in many ways. For example a more adult-like approach to intimate relationships could be learned from within one longer term dating relationship, through  learning over multiple relationships, or due to changing relationships with peers that also follow this pattern to individual intimacy. Future research should test for the effects of social knowledge in early adolescence by directly asking adolescents if they alter their relational actions for fear of their peers or their reputations.  Research should be more cognizant of the range of  sexual behaviours that could be selectively engaged in for fear of social reprisal. The impact of sex differences on the study of sexual intercourse cannot be underestimated. A primary concern derived from this research study is to test for males that are pushing the limits and boundaries of their partners' sexual expression. It is hoped that by continuing to look for the role of social knowledge in dating relationships researchers in the field of human sexuality can aid people to better attain their relational goals. People learn and can meet their sexual and personal needs whether they seek sexual adventure and social freedom from strangers or deep intimacy from people who are known to them. 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Have you ever had sexual intercourse? 3. In what month (and year) did you have sexual intercourse for the very first time? 4. In what (month and) year did you have sexual intercourse for the very first time?  Appendix 2 Romantic Partners Non-Relationship Romantic Partners (Casual dating partners) In what ways did you know ( ) before your relationship began? You went to the same school You went to the same church, synagogue, or place of worship You were neighbours You were casual acquaintances You were friends () was a friend of another friend of yours some other way You did not know () before your relationship began. When your relationship with () began, how many of your close friends knew () All of them Most of them A few of them One of them None of them When it began, no close friends 1. In what month (and year) did your relationship with () begin? In what (month and) year did your relationship with () begin? 2. In what year did your relationship with () begin? 25. In what month (and year) did you first have sexual intercourse with ()? In what (month and) year did you first have sexual intercourse with ()? Social Embeddedness of Romantic Relationship We went out together in a group. I met my partners' parents. I told other people that we were a couple.  65 Appendix 3 Intercorrelations between social knowledge and age related variables  Females' First Romantic Relationship Variables  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.07  3. Embeddedness  -0.09* -0.03  4. Extent knowledge  0.08* 0.14**  -0.02  5. A g e at first sex  0.11* 0.05  -0.12**  -0.03  6. First sex ever  -0.14* 0.03  0.05  -0.04 •-0.61**  7. Age  0.01  0.20** -0.14**  -0.13** 0.56**  0.27**  4  6  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01 Females' Second Romantic Relationship Variables  1  2  3  5  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.25**  3. Embeddedness  -0.14* -0.04  4. Extent knowledge  0.03  0.12**  -0.09  5. A g e at first sex  0.12  -0.05  -0.03  -0.04  6. First sex ever  -0.04  0.04  -0.05  0.01  7. A g e  0.01  0.05** -0.12**  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  -0.61**  -0.10** 0.56**  0.27**  7  66 Females' First Casually Dating Relationship  Variables  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.03  3. Embeddedness  -0.02 -0.09  4. Extent knowledge  0.00  0.16*  5. Age at first sex  0.03  -0.09** -0.01  6. First sex ever  -0.03 0.09**  0.10  -0.03  -0.61**  7. Age  0.07  0.12**  0.04  -0.05  0.56** 0.27**  4  5  -0.25** 0.02  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  Males' First Romantic Relationship  Variables  1  2  3  6  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.06  3. Embeddedness  -0.03 -0.06**  4. Extent knowledge  0.02  0.06** -0.03  5. Age at first sex  0.03  0.10**  -0.15** -0.07*  6. First sex ever  0.02  -0.05  0.06  7. Age  -0.08 0.15** -0.12**  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  -0.01  -0.77**  -0.15** 0.42** 0.16**  7  67 Males' Second Romantic Relationship  Variables  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.06  3. Embeddedness  0.08  -0.08  4. Extent knowledge  0.06  0.07  -0.08  5. Age at first sex  0.09  0.04  -0.04  0.02  6. First sex ever  -0.05 -0.04*  0.05  -0.12* -0.77**  7. Age  -0.05 0.04* -0.05  -0.15** 0.42** 0.16**  Note: */?<0.05 **p<0.01  Males' First Casually Dating Relationship  Variables  1  2  3  4  5  6  1. Sex with partner 2. Social domain  0.04  3. Embeddedness  -0.09 0.02  4. Extent knowledge  -0.07 -0.01  -0.18**  5. Age at first sex  -0.12 -0.07*  0.07  6. First sex ever  0.15  0.06  -0.10  -0.10  -0.77**  7. Age  0.11  0.07** -0.06  -0.08  0.42**  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  0.04  0.16**  7  68 Appendix 4 Females' First Romantic Relationship by Age Group Table A Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 13 - 14 first romantic relationship (n=51)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  1.41  -0.70*  First sex ever  1.49  -0.66*  Age at first sex  1.40  -0.76*  First sex ever  1.46  -0.72*  Social Domain  0.23  -0.23  Extent knowledge  0.57  0.15  Embeddedness  0.69  -0.18  R  R A  0.32  0.10  0.48  0.23*  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  69 Table B Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 15 - 16first romantic relationship (n=223)  SEp  P  Age at first sex  0.61  -0.03  First sex ever  0.63  -0.14  Age at first sex  0.60  -0.04  First sex ever  0.62  -0.14  Social Domain  0.12  0.04  Extent knowledge  0.33  -0.08  Embeddedness  0.42  -0.17*  Variable  R  R A  0.11  0.01  0.22  0.05  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  70 Table C Hierarchical  regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual  intercourse,  females' aged 17—18 first romantic relationship (n=392)  Variable  SE B  P  Age at first sex  0.46  0.20  First sex ever  0.46  0.04  Age at first sex  0.45  0.21  First sex ever  0.46  0.05  Social Domain  0.09  0.10*  Extent knowledge  0.22  0.12*  Embeddedness  0.32  -0.05  R  R A  0.16  0.03**  0.24  0.06**  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **^<0.01  71 Table D Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 19 — 21 first romantic relationship (n=21)  Variable  SEp  P  Age at first sex  3.83  -0.67  First sex ever  3.72  -0.85  Age at first sex  4.56  -0.89  First sex ever  4.39  -1.02  Social Domain  0.89  -0.15  Extent knowledge  1.19  -0.09  Embeddedness  1.86  0.25  R  R A  0.22  0.05  0.31  0.10  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note:  *p<0.05 **p<0.01  72 Females' Second Romantic Relationship by Age Group Age 13-14. (n = 15). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions.  Table E Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 15 — 16 second romantic relationship (n=60)  Variable  SEp  P  Age at first sex  1.09  0.37  First sex ever  1.07  0.12  Age at first sex  1.06  0.45  First sex ever  1.06  0.24  Social Domain  0.18  0.32*  Extent knowledge  0.51  -0.06  Embeddedness  0.62  -0.17  R  R A  0.27  0.07  0.44  0.19*  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  73 Table F Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 17—18 second romantic relationship (n—108)  Variable  SEP  p  Age at first sex  0.71  0.26  First sex ever  0.72  0.24  Age at first sex  0.70  0.31  First sex ever  0.71  0.32  Social Domain  0.14  0.22*  Extent knowledge  0.34  0.00  Embeddedness  0.42  -0.13  R  PJI  0.09  0.01  0.27  0.08  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **/?<0.01  Age 19-21. (n = 5). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions.  74 Females' First Casually Dating Relationship by Age Group Age 13-14. (n = 10). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions. Table G Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, females' aged 15 - 16first casually dating relationship (n=42) SEp  P  Age at first sex  1.43  0.28  First sex ever  1.31  0.26  Age at first sex  1.53  0.09  First sex ever  1.39  0.08  Social Domain  0.35  0.02  Extent knowledge  0.72  0.21  Embeddedness  0.72  0.11  Variable  R  R A  0.10  0.01  0.24  0.06  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: */?<0.05 **p<0.01  Table H Hierarchical  regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual  intercourse,  females' aged 17-18 first casually dating relationship (n=68)  Variable  SE 6  P  Age at first sex  1.06  0.48  First sex ever  1.01  0.46  Age at first sex  1.10  0.45  First sex ever  1.01  0.46  Social Domain  0.22  -0.03  Extent knowledge  0.58  -0.04  Embeddedness  0.65  -0.04  R  R A  0.14  0.02  0.15  0.02  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note:  *p<0.05 **p<0.01  Age 19-21. (n = 4). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions.  76 Males' First Romantic Relationship by Age Group Table I Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 13-14 first romantic relationship (n=26)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  1.49  -0.49  First sex ever  1.49  -0.53  Age at first sex  1.66  -0.27  First sex ever  1.66  -0.37  Social Domain  0.29  -0.18  Extent knowledge  0.78  -0.01  Embeddedness  0.93  0.17  R  R A  0.18  0.03  0.30  0.09  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  77 Table J Hierarchical  regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual  intercourse,  males' aged 15 - 16first romantic relationship (n=140)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  0.66  -0.09  First sex ever  0.71  -0.04  Age at first sex  0.66  -0.07  First sex ever  0.71  -0.02  Social Domain  0.12  0.16  Extent knowledge  0.32  0.13  Embeddedness  0.37  0.06  R  R A  0.05  0.00  0.22  0.05  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note:  *p<0.05 **p<0.01  78 Table K Hierarchical  regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual  intercourse,  males' aged 17—18 first romantic relationship (n=238)  SE P  P  Age at first sex  0.56  -0.04  First sex ever  0.56  -0.07  Age at first sex  0.56  -0.11  First sex ever  0.56  -0.12  Social Domain  0.12  0.08  Extent knowledge  0.30  -0.09  Embeddedness  0.43  -0.13*  Variable  R  R A  0.03  0.00  0.17  0.03  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note:  *p<0.05 **p<0.01  79 Table L Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 19 — 21firstromantic relationship (n=23)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  2.26  0.64  First sex ever  2.09  0.77  Age at first sex  2.63  0.64  First sex ever  2.38  0.74  Social Domain  0.74  -0.06  Extent knowledge  1.23  0.10  Embeddedness  1.19  0.03  R  R A  0.21  0.04  0.25  0.06  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  80 Males' Second Romantic Relationship by Age Group Age 13-14. No valid cases. Table M Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 15 — 16 second romantic relationship (n=43)  Variable  SE B  P  Age at first sex  1.31  -0.61  First sex ever  1.35  -0.86  Age at first sex  1.34  -0.56  First sex ever  1.37  -0.80  Social Domain  0.37  0.15  Extent knowledge  0.74  0.12  Embeddedness  0.74  0.01  R  R A  0.34  0.12  0.40  0.16  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  81 Table N Hierarchical  regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual  males' aged 17-18  intercourse,  second romantic relationship (n=70)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  1.01  -0.40  First sex ever  1.01  -0.43  Age at first sex  1.05  -0.38  First sex ever  1.06  -0.41  Social Domain  0.21  0.03  Extent knowledge  0.47  -0.01  Embeddedness  0.49  0.00  R  R A  0.11  0.01  0.11  0.01  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: */K0.05 **p<0.01  Age 19-21. (n = 8). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions.  82 Males' First Casually Dating Relationship by Age Group Age 13-14. (n = 5). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions. Table O Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 15 - 16 first casually dating relationship (n=29) Variable  SE B  P  Age at first sex  1.59  0.90  First sex ever  1.84  1.12  Age at first sex  1.80  1.14  First sex ever  2.04  1.59  Social Domain  0.50  0.24  Extent knowledge  0.77  0.03  Embeddedness  0.75  -0.15  R  R A  0.33  0.11  0.43  0.18  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  83 Table P Hierarchical regression analysis predicting duration of time to sexual intercourse, males' aged 17-18 first casually dating relationship (n=51)  Variable  SEP  P  Age at first sex  1.10  0.71  First sex ever  1.10  0.88  Age at first sex  1.17  0.73  First sex ever  1.12  0.92  Social Domain  0.21  0.06  Extent knowledge  0.55  -0.04  Embeddedness  0.56  0.04  R  R A  0.26  0.07  0.27  0.07  2  Step 1  Step 2  Note: *p<0.05 **p<0.01  Age 19-21. (n = 6). Regressions are not valid, violation of regression assumptions.  

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