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Squamish revealed Sadler, Heather B. W. 2003

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S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D by H E A T H E R B. W. S A D L E R B.A., The University of Gue lph, 1998 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN PART IAL F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S (Landscape Architecture Program) W e accept this thesis as conforming to the #required standard T H E UN IVERS ITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A Apri l 2003 © Heather B. W . Sadler, 2003 U B C Rare Books and Spec ia l Col lect ions - Thes is Authorization Form In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make it freely avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shal l not be al lowed without my written permiss ion. Department of U^\X>^^f£: fr&c&Kte&cwBgz The University of British Co lumbia Vancouver , C anada Date M&l, 2 ^ r ~ 2ee**> S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D a b s t r a c t The vast majority of current urban design is occurring on a massive scale without respect given to the social, cultural or physical surroundings. The resulting spaces are neither unique, nor differentiated; they are non-descript and homogenous. While the downtown of Squamish, British Columbia has maintained its unique spirit and appeal, a result of the spectacular natural setting, the social character and the industrial heritage, it is struggling to exist in behind the veneer of the Sea to Sky Highway. As Squamish is facing major new development opportunities, potential exists to re-orient development to revitalize the downtown area. In creating an urban design vision for Squamish, the social, cultural and natural characteristics were considered. Three principles that embody these characteristics - enliven the downtown, maximize on the natural surroundings, and maintain the industrial character - were adhered to. The resulting design vision proposes interventions ranging from population densification, an alternate entrance into the downtown, an open space framework, and street re-configuration. Each of these interventions contributes to the overall goal of creating a unique, differentiated and vibrant downtown core. UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A •• • MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s Abstract ii Table of Contents iii List of Tables iv List of Figures v Acknowledgements vii Thesis Introduction 1 Squamish Introduction 2 Project Goals, Objectives, Limits 3 Methodology and Approach 4 Principles 5 Frame of Reference 6 Site Inventory and Analysis 11 Synthesis Map 14 Existing Site Plan 15 Existing Site Structure 16 Proposed Site Plan 17 Proposed Site Structure 18 Proposed Concept Plan 19 Site Character,. 21 Street Conditions 23 Shoreline Conditions 25 Summary 28 Bibliography 29 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A . . . MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D l i s t o f t a b l e s Table 1: Daily Mean Temperature 13 Table 2: Precipitation 13 Table 3: Sunlight Hours 13 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A -MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D l i s t o f f i g u r e s Figure 1: Vancouver/Whistler 2 Figure 2:Site Boundaries 3 Figure 3: Maggee Hay Farm 6 Figure 4: Squamish Valley Logging 7 Figure 5: Present Day Dry Log Sort 7 Figure 6: Nexan Chemical Plant 7 Figure 7: New District of Sq. Logo 8 Figure 8: Travel Article 8 Figure 9: Sea to Sky University 8 Figure 10: Olympic Bid Flag 8 Figure 11: Squamish 2000 Plan - Draft... 9 Figure 12: Waterfront Potential 9 Figure 13: New Directions 9 Figure 14: 1949 Aerial Photo 10 Figure 15: 1957 Aerial Photo 10 Figure 16: 1976 Aerial Photo 10 Figure 17: 1994 Aerial Photo 10 Figure 18: Land Use Inventory 11 Figure 19: Land Use Analysis 11 Figure 20: Land Ownership Inventory.... 11 Figure 21: Land Ownership Analysis 11 Figure 22: Circulation Inventory 12 Figure 23: Circulation Analysis 12 Figure 24: Sensory Inventory 12 Figure 25: Sensory Analysis 12 Figure 26: Natural Systems Inventory.... 13 Figure 27: Natural Systems Analysis 13 Figure 28: Tidal Prediction Chart 13 Figure 29: Synthesis Diagram 14 Figure 30: Existing Site Plan 15 Figure 31: Vacant Store Front 15 Figure 32: Active Downtown Strip 15 Figure 33: Existing Site Structure 16 Figure 34: Downtown North 16 Figure 35: Downtown West 16 Figure 36: Downtown South 16 Figure 37: Downtown Commercial 16 Figure 38: Auto-Oriented Commercial... 16 Figure 39: Logging Industry 16 Figure 40: Vacant Land 16 Figure 41: Proposed Site Plan 17 Figure 42: Proposed Site Structure 18 Figure 43: Programming Diagram 19 Figure 44: Concept Plan 20 Figure 45: Site Section A 21 Figure 46: Site Section D 21 Figure 47: Site Section B 22 Figure 48: Site Section C 22 UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D l i s t o f f i g u r e s -Figure 49: Log Pulley 22 Figure 50: Existing Street Condition 23 Figure 51: Proposed Street Condition....23 Figure 52: Existing Block Layout 23 Figure 53: Proposed Block Layout 23 Figure 54: Railroad Right of Way 24 Figure 55: Railroad Right of Way 24 Figure 56: Drought Tolerant Grass 24 Figure 57: Rail Lines 24 Figure 58: Cobblestone 24 Figure 59: River Rock 24 Figure 60: PGE Train 24 Figure 61: Loggers Lane at Present 24 Figure 62: Riverside Dyke 25 Figure 63: Water Stairway 25 Figure 64: Carex lyngbyei 25 Figure 65: Eleocharis palustris 25 Figure 66: Working Waterfront 25 Figure 67: Log Booms 25 Figure 68: Cottonwood Boardwalk 26 Figure 69: Cottonwood Bench 26 Figure 70: Mamquam Blind Channel 26 Figure 71: Tree Canopy 26 Figure 72: Wood Boardwalk 26 Figure 73: Gabion Dyke 27 Figure 74: Industrial Lands Plan 27 Figure 75: Rock Gabions 27 Figure 76: Gravel Surfacing 27 Figure 77: Grass Pavers 27 *AII images authors own unless otherwise noted. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D a c k n o w l e d g m e n t s Thanks to each of my advisors, Don Luymes and Doug Paterson, both from the UBC Landscape Architecture Program, and Greg Smallenberg from Philips Farevaag Smallenberg, for their guidance and patience. Thanks to each of my classmates for their encouragement, humour and friendship. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D t h e s i s i n t r o d u c t i o n Present day development, more often than not, is occurring on a massive scale without respect given to the unique character, personality or spirit of its surroundings. This universalized development is occurring in spaces of vastly different climate and culture, all the while embodying the same principles, aesthetics and form. The resulting spaces are neither unique, nor differentiated; they are non-descript and homogeneous. The creation of such spaces has become so commonplace, so prolific, that we often fail to note the stark disregard with which these spaces have consumed our surroundings. The primary source of inspiration for this universal urban form seems to stem out of capitalism rather than the physical, human and natural surroundings (Hough, 19). Without giving thought or attention to the contextual meaning of the cultural and regional identity, this universalized concept of development cannot create a sense of place - that is, create a space which could clearly be identified with and from which one could orient themselves within the greater world. Without places that we can identify with, we are left with a landscape that does little to enrich our lives - in the words of Sinclair Gauldie " to live in an environment which has to be endured or ignored, rather than enjoyed, is to be diminished as a human being" (Relph, Place 63). UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D s q u a m i s h i n t r o d u c t i o n 0Cheakimus 11 Viradise valley woodfibre shannon ro8ntannia Beach ifurry Creek M^cNab Creek eEMns Point f Porteau Anvil (Island „campArtabahj QMount Gardner irunswick Beach lljons Bay0Montlzambert wyho Istrachan Creek :ahyon Height! North Vancouver cowans point '•""1 MillersAdinq . .. ^, „whytecliff • W^est Vancouver S^eymour Landing " '-^^i. iiij? Lynnm^  %Vancouv( .^university HU Pjiy-jar-squthiands^  RlleyJjgrSF'7 jSunse't-1 j . ^ndary Ro seafai B^ergs Johnson ocoldwell Beach B^untzen Bay Oorlomah Beach •Alder creek ,Deep Coue Blueridge „Woodhayen u^^ yan Heights •iAASiAy^ lew Waiftrhinstar sear-air 3 A - I port culchon,-f*T~*>Zr-Av .Fraser^  Heigh^  Jsqnnaught Heights 30 Ails : 72 AvaTi„. Surrey Musqueam 4„ % ^ p, T&EWn Figure 1: Vancouver/ Squamish/ Whistler Source: MapQuestion.com Inc., 2003 The great claim to fame for Squamish, most would assume, lies in the McDonald's, Taco Bell and Tim Horton's along the Sea to Sky Highway. Squamish has long been known only as the pit stop between Vancouver and Whistler, a highway stretch epitomizing the lackluster and homogeneity of current urban design. While this non-descript and homogenous highway sprawl is often thought of as the totality of Squamish, there is indeed a town of unique character and appeal, struggling to exist in behind the veneer of the highway strip. Squamish is situated in a spectacular natural setting at the head of Howe Sound where mountain, ocean and riverene ecosystems converge. While the natural setting is spectacular, it is the intertwining of the natural system with the built environment that gives this place its unique spirit. The historical base of downtown Squamish is rooted in the railway and logging industries, where incremental growth has enabled the industrial environment to become intertwined with the natural setting. While the natural and industrial landscapes seem to reflect and reinforce one another, the residential and retail configuration occurs in isolation from the both of these. However, as Squamish is facing major new development opportunities, such as the Sea to Sky University, Garibaldi at Squamish Ski Resort, residential development, business parks and commercial investment, as well as the possibility of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Whistler, potential exists to re-orient development. New development can reflect the natural surroundings and social history, resulting in a unique, vibrant and differentiated community. UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D p r o j e c t g o a l To create options for residential and commercial development that reinforces the life and character of downtown Squamish, providing meaningful and unique places in which to live, work and play while respecting and celebrating the spirit of the surrounding social, physical and natural landscape. p r o j e c t o b j e c t i v e s 1. To reinforce the vitality and life of the downtown area. 2. To develop appropriate access and transportation routes which will re-focus urban development away from the Sea to Sky corridor and back into the downtown area. 3. To reinforce the sense of place through site-specific design which reflects the industrial, social and natural surroundings of Squamish. 4. To reinforce the connections between the downtown core area, residential zones and the waterfront through the creation of a pedestrian pathway system. p r o j e c t l i m i t a t i o n s The physical boundary of the project has been limited to Squamish's downtown - an area bounded by the estuary, the Sea to Sky Highway, and industrial lands. Conceptually, this project has been limited by the premise that the downtown core provides the most appropriate zone for new development. The design process has not excluded development along the Sea to Sky corridor, but has focused on developing downtown as the means to achieving a vibrant community. Figure 2: Site Boundaries Source: MapQuestion.com Inc., 2003 UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D m e t h o d o l o g y As the universalized approach to design becomes further entrenched in our everyday landscape, it has become increasingly more important to respond to the historical, social and natural context in which design takes place. While the physical design, including linkages and structures, is important, an approach which emphasizes the intrinsic forms and details found within social, historical and natural contexts greatly enriches a space - "One cannot merely manipulate form to make space, but must create place through a synthesis of the components of the total environment" (Norberg-Schultz, 114). As such, the components of the total environment reflect the social and natural history of a place. The present day reality of the landscape reflects this history, just as the future will to reflect the present. This continuum needs to be established, linking today's reality into tomorrow's possibilities. The intentions and predictions of the proposed design must be rooted in the reality of the place as it stands today. This will be the guiding ideal throughout the design. u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s 1. Urban design should reflect and embody the local character, history, climate and ecology. 2. Urban areas should be diverse in their population and land use. 3. A network of accessible public spaces should physically define urban areas. 4. Urban form should be designed to allow for pedestrian, vehicular and transit use. d e s i g n a p p r o a c h S i t e S e l e c t i o n - The site was chosen due to a familiarity and love of the site, as well as an understanding of the changing demographics and character of Squamish. S i t e V i s i t s - Numerous site visits were undertaken, whereby the familiar was considered in a new light, with new objectives of seeing. S i t e H i s t o r y - The influence of past economic and social activities, as well as the natural systems, have left an indelible mark on today's present site structure. Site history was explored to gain an understanding of how the past has influenced the present, and how today's site structure could inform future possibilities. P r o p o s e d F u t u r e s - The future possibilities presented within the Squamish community are numerous, however, it seems that the essence of each proposal has a clear focus on the development potential of the waterfront. The support and enthusiasm of the community and council are important to acknowledge for this is what creates the momentum of change. S i t e A n a l y s i s - Site analysis considers both the physical and cultural systems affecting the site and was undertaken to discern specific opportunities and constraints. The cumulative results of these then provided the framework in which appropriate and relative design could take place. D e s i g n O p t i o n s - Design options were explored in efforts to articulate the most feasible design. There are numerous means to achieving the same ends, although some may be quite limiting and some provide a multitude of alternate options. A r t i c u l a t e d D e s i g n - The most appropriate and lively design option was articulated to provide a future vision for development. This design idea will be presented to the District of Squamish as an alternative development strategy. UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D p r i n c i p l e s Three principles were set as the guiding parameters for the whole of the design: 1. Enliven the downtown. 2. Maintain the industrial character 3. Maximize on the natural surroundings UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e The historical past has left a notable impression on both the social culture and physical landscape found within present day Squamish. This historical framework is important to establish as it provides a means to ensure a connection between the past, present and future generations and it is this connection which aids in creating a unique place in the world; a place which continues to develop in direct response to its physical surroundings, economic ODDortunities and social character. f i r s t n a t i o n s It is the native belief that people have been on the BC Coast since "time immemorial", which is likely to be 10 to 12,000 years ago. In early times, the Coast Salish Sko-mish people led a nomadic lifestyle, moving along the coast from the head of Howe Sound down to the Burrard Inlet. The Sko-mish traveled throughout this territory, stopping wherever food and shelter were best obtained throughout the year. However, as their population and need for resources grew, many permanent settlements were established. At least six village sites existed within the Squamish area - Kowtain (Garibaldi Way/ Government Road), Poquoisin and Skoman (Cheakamus and Squamish river junction), Yailwapsum (North Yards), Se-achaim (Eagle Run) and the largest, Stawamus, at the mouth of the Stawamus River and the Mamquam Blind Channel. While the First Nations people have a long history with this land, it wasn't until 1792 that the first Europeans, George Vancouver and the crew of 'Discovery', past through and "discovered" Howe Sound. a g r i c u l t u r e Despite earlier discovery, it took until the early 1870's, when the search for a cattle trail began from Pemberton to Howe Sound, that the first non-native settlers arrived in Squamish. Squamish was being touted as a rich agricultural valley and began attracting immigrants. However, it wasn't long after settling that these immigrants were faced consistent flooding. In response, farmers reinforced their fields with dykes, the remnants of which are still evident in the estuary today. The dyking of fields, mainly constructed by Chinese labourers, greatly increased the quality and amount of arable land. Major farming operations were established in the late 1800's, such as the Magee Hay Farm, located in the estuary, a 20-acre potato farm on the present day Garibaldi Estates and in Brackendale, the world famous Squamish Valley Hop Company. Agriculture occupied the leading role in the economy and it remained that way up until the start ofWWI in 1914. Figure 3: Maggee Hay Farm - Stawamus Chief in the background, circa 1890's Photo courtesy of Squamish Public Library Historic Archives U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D l o g g i n g As the agriculture base eroded in Squamish, efforts turned to both railroad and logging activities. The first efforts at commercial logging began in the 1890's, but it wasn't until the 1920's that wide-scale logging occurred. By this time there was a heightened demand for lumber on the international market and the pace of commercial activity in Squamish quickly accelerated. This pace was sustained right up until the Depression. During the Depression, the logging operations halted. The Pacific Great Eastern Railroad, which was built in 1915, slowed its activity between Squamish, Pemberton and the Interior. However, by 1936, logging activities were once again active - only to be halted by the start of WWII. Squamish remained relatively unchanged until the end of WWII. Figure 4: Squamish Valley Logging circa 1910 Photo courtesy of Squamish Public Library Historic Archives Figure 5: Present Day Dry Log Sort - Loggers Lane f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e c o r r i d o r By the mid 1950's, Squamish began to undergo major changes - the railway from Vancouver to Squamish was completed in 1956 and the Sea to Sky Highway in 1958. Up until this point Squamish had developed in relative isolation. Since 1902, when a new wharf, stretching a mile out into Howe Sound was built, the arrival and departure of the steamship had been the focal point of life in the Valley. Having both rail and highway connect Squamish to Vancouver within two years of each other led to large-scale speculations about the future. However, despite these major changes, the predicted influx of people and development never materialized. The development of both the railway and highway did however change the focal point of Squamish. The central focus of downtown shifted away from the Government Wharf and outwards towards the new Sea to Sky Highway. This re-orientation of the downtown resulted in a new focus, one seeking diverse industrial development. Developments, such as a sawmill, chemical plant, deep-sea port and railway car manufacturing plant, all reinforced the new notion of Squamish as a transportation and communications corridor throughout the 1960's and 1970's. Regardless of all of these developments and change in focus, it was still the logging industry that was maintained as the backbone of prosperity for the region. Figure 6: Nexen Chemical Plant. Source: Nexen Remediation Pamphlet, 2001 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D t o u r i s m Tourism had very humble beginnings when, in 1961, Jim Baldwin of Prince Rupert and Ed Cooper of Seattle came to Squamish to climb the Grand Wall of the Stawamus Chief, a 650m high granite dome overlooking Squamish. Their attempt took six weeks, but they succeeded and, in the process, garnered worldwide attention for Squamish. Since this time, Squamish has become a climbing mecca; a worldwide destination. As well, the Squamish winds have attracted worldclass windsurfers and the mild climate and terrain has garnered a place high up within mountain biking circles. Whitewater rafting, kayakers, hikers, fishermen and golfers also tout Squamish as having first-rate natural amenities. With the growing popularity and recognition of Squamish as an outdoor recreation haven, and with the change in the strength and longevity of BC's forest industry, the tourism and outdoor recreation industries are beginning to bring forth the major changes. I / ^ S U U A M I S H ^^^B^^^^JUT&OOIJRtcRSATION CAPITAL Of CANADA Figure 7: New District of Squamish Logo Source:mysquamish.com www.mvsauamish.com/ recreation/ Feeling a bit Squamish Figure 8: Travel article featuring Squamish Source: The Toronto Star. f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e p r e s e n t d a y Present day Squamish is facing major new development opportunities, such as the opening of the Sea to Sky University, the Garibaldi at Squamish Ski Resort, residential development, business parks, commercial investment and the possibility of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Whistler. While in the past, opportunity seems to have passed Squamish by, the newly elected council and people of Squamish seem poised to embrace change. The only question that remains is what character and spirit will be brought forth into the future. University dream takes shape in Squamish Itavkl Strangway has a $250-million vision for an exclusive private university Figure 9: Sea to Sky University Source: The Vancouver Sun. Figure 10: Olympic Bid Flag U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M L A T h e s i s - H e a t h e r S a d l e r - Apr i l 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e DRAFT District of Squamish Comprehensive Downtown Development Strategy Figure 11: Squamish 2000 Plan - Draft. Report courtesy of Squamish Planning Department The current perception of Squamish by residents and outsiders alike is important to understand; people's perceptions of Squamish as it stands today, and its potential, have a lot to do with the future direction taken. The general perception of Squamish as a great place poised on the brink of change is an important one to build upon. This perception creates the momentum for real change. present day squamish 2 0 0 0 plan - draft The Squamish 2000 Plan was developed for the District of Squamish as a comprehensive downtown development strategy, and while greatly favoured, the past council did not adopt it. The main premise of the Squamish 2000 Plan was to provide both an urban design vision and action plan to re-vitalize the downtown area. The main objectives focused on attracting business and investment into the downtown core area, as well as providing opportunities to live, work and play in the downtown. The design solutions focused on the restructuring of Loggers Lane around a central rail line, as well as commercial and residential development along the Mamquam Blind Channel. Public access to the waterfront would be limited to a boardwalk along the channel. While the Squamish 2000 Plan is still in favour to be adopted, revisions are required due to the altered reality of present day Squamish, namely the viability of the rail industry. The need for these revisions provides an opportunity to offer up alternative design solutions. new directions In November of 2002, Squamish voters made a collective statement for change by voting in New Directions to city council. The New Directions election campaign focused on a commitment to adopting and implementing the Squamish 2000 Plan. With a council promoting downtown and waterfront development, and a community strongly behind them, it is a clear indication that this is the chosen direction for development. UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A g MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 n... 1 lit A* Figure 12: Waterfront Potential THE RECORD. ^ § 1 •tMMWKMMW • Failure loaaocitsa 'failure ts fBKiraus H M U t l M m severance and legal lees unBtsft mmtam 2oeo mn Hf&le access \o rti« waiertroHS A TIME FOR CHANGE. SQUAMISH NEW directions A VOTE FOR CHANGE. For MAYOR SUTHERLAND tor COUNCIL WSM FENN n SQUAMISH, WE DESERVE BETTER. MEM PETERS W'Jt LEBAN5 Figure 13: New Directions Election Campaign Source: The Chief. S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e The historical legacy of past economic activities, social character and natural systems have left a notable impression on the physical landscape. These historical remnants are what inform our current landscape and ideas about the future. Figure 14 1949 Downtown Squamish is not densely populated but is visible by its grid system and dykes. Steamships, via the Government Wharf, are the sole means of travel south. Rail travel is limited, moving northwards to Pemberton and the Interior. Figure 16 1976 The era of Transportation and Communications Corridor has begun, signaled by the arrival of the Sea to Sky Highway (1958) and large-scale industries. The Valleycliffe suburb has been built, absorbing moderate population growth. The dyking of major river systems has begun. Figure 15 1957 Squamish has remained relatively unchanged, except for increased settlement within the downtown. The arrival of the rail from Vancouver, in 1956, will soon signal major changes, one of which is rendering the Government Wharf obsolete. Figure 17 1994 The majority of new development has focused around the intersection of Highway 99 and Cleveland Ave. The suburb of Valleycliffe has been expanded. There has also been infill and an intensification of land use within the downtown area. The main underlying structure remains the same. 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CO co" 3 § 1 3 3 C Q _ 3 T TJ CL O O ^ § C D 5 - w 2 co CO OJ. 3 rz _ * 2 _ . r r 3 co o CO < zr ra o> 2 < tB =' 2 -"1 co CO 0 o c —* 0 C L 3 0 co" 3 CL o 3 E? 0 0 CO CO 0 3 CO I c l S , CZ rt co zr cr 0 co' CO T3 3 rz CL CO zr 5' 0 C L CL O O CO -— CO o rz cf co CL CO zr co = co CO CT 0 0 3 < 1—* co ra cr 3 = co c 3 3 CO ^ 3' 3 ff 2 3 ' f f CO 0 ra S o 2 o co 3 cr. 3 2. sc SC CO TJ . T 3 o X 9 5 co CO co" 3 C L o _ o C Q C Q 3' C Q CO o o 0 a r 2 TJ o O C Q 3 . C Q o' 3' 3 C Q 2. ff rr o CD o co 2 CO C L Er! 9 CO 0 < - Q co 2_ c - O CO — 2 w cr 2. rr 0 ?i co CO T J ^3 2 0 < ra = sc 0 CO Et 9 3" 0 ° _ O o C Q CO C Q = 3 C Q CO 5'"2 CL O C CL ^ 2 " i f f CO 3 CO C Q cr. o 3' CO C Q CO 03 -D 0) 0 2 CD CO CO co' 0 —\ 3 s ? a o 0 TJ _ 0 <I 3 • cr. 3 o JD. 3 c CO CO s 1 =» 3 3" CL zr co « " 3 5 co; 3 0 5J 0 =», o o 3 0 C L CO CO 3 0) o Q 3 (D O O 3 a H I <•* • H I O 3 to CO D c > co X TJ m < m > r— m o S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D s u m m a r y Many factors contribute to the creation and maintenance of a healthy, vibrant and unique community. As Squamish faces new development opportunities, these factors must be explored and addressed to allow for a revitalization of the downtown community. The factors and issues addressed through this design, range from the historical character of Squamish, to the biophysical systems occurring within the site, providing the basis for a design rooted in the social, cultural and historical landscape. While the proposed design interventions ranged from a fundamental re-organization of the site structure to small-scale detailing of the water's edge, the overall effect was to create places unique to Squamish. The framework that was established, through the creation of the Victoria Street crossing, Loggers Lane re-configuration, the looping park system and population densification, will allow for a multitude of other design interventions. S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D b i b l i o g r a p h y Alpin & Martin Consultants, Hotson Bakker Urban Design, Coriolis Consulting Corporation and Creative Transportation Solutions Ltd. Squamish 2000 Plan - Draft. 2000. Colin, R. River, Coastal, and Shoreline Protection: Erosion Control Using Riprap and Armourstone. New York: J. Wiley, 1995. District of Squamish. Official Community Plan. 1998. Girard, D. "Feeling a Bit Squamish." The Toronto Star. 13 July 2002: K22. Hainsworth, D. Growth Management Options for Tourism-Led Community Development in Squamish: The Case ofBrohm Ridge Ski Resort. Thesis: School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. 1996. Heintzman, P. "Squamish Comes of Age." 99 North Magazine. Winter/Spring 2003: 48-51. Heintzman, P. The Squamish Odyssey. URL: http://www.district.squamish.bc.ca/squamish area/squamsih odvssev.htm (7Dec.2002). Hough, M. Out of Place. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990. Ian Sutherland. Personal Interview 28 Jan. 2003. McLane, K. Squamish. The Shining Valley. Squamish: Elaho Publishing Corporation, 2000. Morton. B. "University Dream Takes Shape in Squamish". The Vancouver Sun. 5 January 2002: B2. Nexen Chemicals Site Remediation Tour. 28 Jan 2003. Norberg-Schulz, C. Genius Loci. New York: Rizzoli, 1980. Pojar, J . and A. MacKinnon. Plants of Coastal British Columbia. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing, 1994. Relph, E. "The Landscape of the Conserver Society." Environmental Aesthetics - Essay in Interpretation. Ed. Sadler, B and A. Carlson. Victoria, B.C.: Dept. of Geography, University of Victoria, 1982: 47-65. Relph, E. Place and Placelessness. London: Pion Limited. 1976. Sea to Sky University. Community Open House. 30 October 2002 Statistics Canada. "Statistical Profile: Population Statistics for Squamish, British Columbia". Census 1996. URL: http://www12.statcan.ca/enqlish/census01/products/standard/popdwell/Table-CMA-C.cfm?CMA=934 (21 Jan. 2003). Steele, F. The Sense of Place. Boston: CBI Publishing Company Inc., 1981. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 S Q U A M I S H R E V E A L E D b i b l i o g r a p h y Thompson, Berwick, Pratt and Partners. Squamish. A Development Plan for a Site in the Town Centre. Vancouver, B.C.: Thompson et al, 1974. Trancik, R. Finding Lost Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1986. Wisnia, J . Bird Checklist: Squamish Estuary. British Columbia Wildlife Watch: Pamphlet. — A Centennial Commentary Upon Early Days of Squamish, BC. 1958. — Calendar of Events 2002/2003. Chamber of Commerce. — New Directions Ad Campaign. The Chief. 25 October 2002: A7. — Preliminary Squamish Heritage Inventory. 1993 — Spar Tree - Official Program of Squamish Days Loggers Sports. Squamish Days Loggers Sports Committee, 2002. — Squamish Estuary Management Plan. 1999. UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis - Heather Sadler - April 2003 

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