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Driven by nature : a holistic approach to analysis and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre Dupont, Paul Christian 2003

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DRIVEN BY NATURE A HOLISTIC A P P R O A C H TO A N A L Y S I S A N D D E S I G N OF THE WHISTLER NORDIC C E N T R E by PAUL CHRISTIAN D U P O N T B . A . S c , University of Ottawa, 1991  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF  MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of L a n d s c a p e Architecture  W e accept this thesis a s conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2 0 0 3 © P a u l Christian Dupont, 2 0 0 3  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an a d v a n c e d degree at the University of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the h e a d of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of L a n d s c a p e Architecture T h e University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  April 25, 2 0 0 3  Abstract Standard planning, engineering, architecture, and construction methods are too often a m e a n s of development for a generic site program and design unaware of the inherent site condition, context, and character. In r e s p o n s e , l a n d s c a p e planning and design must be receptive and adaptive to the natural character and spirit of the place, in order to e n h a n c e the social, e c o n o m i c , ecological, and experiential qualities of the site. T h e distinction of the Whistler Nordic Centre proposal of the V a n c o u v e r 2010 O l y m p i c Bid provides the opportunity to explore the realm of l a n d s c a p e design possibilities in light of a magnificent recreation park project. T h e site analysis integrated a multidisciplinary iterative a p p r o a c h of thorough scientific and experiential planning and design site investigations, observations, and hypotheses. T h e selection of three design hypotheses and the s u b s e q u e n t testing of these hypotheses against specific site design criteria formed the b a s i s for the selection and evaluation of a design solution in consideration of the intrinsic site conditions and intended site purposes. T h e p r o c e s s developed a c o m p r e h e n s i v e understanding of the landscape and program, in order to effectively determine the proper locations, orientations, and connections of the S k i J u m p , Biathlon R a n g e , and C r o s s Country Stadium. T h e meticulous planning and design considerations enlightened the development of a range of essential design imperatives to consider s e n s e of arrival, experience of place, experience of events, preservation of nature, preservation of character, vision of the whole, image of the g a m e s , seasonality of use, r e s p o n s e to climate, and legacy opportunities. T h e imperatives of design exemplified the level of detail consideration envisioned for the eventual s u c c e s s f u l design of the Whistler Nordic Centre. T h e experience of the project p r o c e s s provided recommendations for the importance of the vision of the project a s a whole, through the provision of a central lodge facility, the deliberate consideration of tourism planning and opportunities for the site, and the careful consideration a s to the location and proximity of the Olympic Village.  driven by nature ii  Table of Contents abstract  ii  table of contents  iii  list of tables  iv  list of figures  V  preface  vi  acknowledgements  vii  Chapter 1 1.1 1.2  Background Concepts Planning, Environment, and Place Parks and Recreation Precedent  1 1 4  Chapter 2 2.1 2.2 2.3  Planning Mission Olympic and Tourism Concepts Olympic and Legacy Programs Landscape and Community Visions  8 8 10 14  Chapter 3 3.1 3.2  Analysis Methods Science and Experience Process and Procedure  17 18 21  Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3  Site Analysis Physiographic Setting Environmental Framework Character Basis  23 24 26 30  Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4  Site Evaluation Landscape Narratives Proposal Description Criteria Selection Proposal Comparison  34 35 42 44 46  Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3  Site Planning Planning Concept Design Components Design Imperatives  48 48 49 59  Chapter 7 7.1  Project Summary Summary Conclusions  61 61  bibliography  63  appendix A  65 driven by nature  List of Tables 2.1 2.2 3.6 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9  Olympic Competition S c h e d u l e Paralympic Competition S c h e d u l e Project S l o p e Classification Criteria Whistler S W O T A n a l y s i s Callaghan S W O T Analysis Northair S W O T A n a l y s i s P r o p o s a l Evaluation Proposal Comparison  11 12 19 42 43 43 46 47  driven by nature iv  List of Figures 1.1 1.2 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8  Banff Springs Whistler Village Ski Out C a n m o r e Nordic Centre Whistler Nordic Centre Site Aerial Photograph Plants are indicative of their environment Plant associations reflect soil formation S k i J u m p Profile S l o p e C l a s s Profile Impact of snow movement on cedar trunk C o m m o n soil profile of the forest S l o p e and Elevation Digital Terrain M a p s Whistler Nordic Centre and Whistler Municipal B o u n d a r i e s C a l l a g h a n Valley W a t e r s h e d S c h e m a t i c s C a l l a g h a n Valley W a t e r s h e d Isometric Whistler Nordic Centre Site A n a l y s i s Z o n e C a l l a g h a n Valley E c o s y s t e m S c h e m a t i c Whistler Nordic Centre Site Isometric Image of C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y S c h e m a t i c Mountain Hemlock E c o s y s t e m S c h e m a t i c S e a s o n a l Wind Patterns S c h e m a t i c S e a s o n a l Solar E x p o s u r e Image of the dominant mountain hemlock tree s p e c i e s Image of the m o s a i c parkland landscape V i e w s of C a l l a g h a n L a k e and Mount C a l l a g h a n V i e w s of Brandywine Mountain and Metal D o m e V i e w s of the a b a n d o n e d Northair Mine S c h e m a t i c of L a n d s c a p e Features S c h e m a t i c of Surrounding Mountain P e a k s V i e w of A l e x a n d e r Falls V i e w down the gorge from A l e x a n d e r Falls Image of the wetland marsh Land Unit M a p Whistler P r o p o s a l Callaghan Proposal Northair P r o p o s a l Reflection G a r d e n R e d R o c k s Amphitheater J a s p e r Park Lodge Chin C a b i n Whistler Nordic Centre P l a n O l y m p i c Layout P l a n L e g a c y Layout P l a n Village Layout P l a n  - '  4 6 8 17 18 18 19 19 21 21 22 23 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 35 37 39 51 52 53 53 55 56 57 58  driven by nature v  Preface T h e s e e d of an idea for the planning and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre a s a graduate thesis project in L a n d s c a p e Architecture developed from the familiarity and interest in alpine design and the opportunity to participate in the project of a lifetime, the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Olympic and Paralympic G a m e s . T h e consideration of the project began in the winter of 2002, and d e v e l o p e d into a p a s s i o n after watching the Salt L a k e 2002 Winter G a m e s continuously for the duration of the events. T h e spirit of competition, the international goodwill, and the triumphs of athletes provided the inspiration and desire to pursue a vision for the Whistler Nordic Centre. A n admiration for the natural coast mountain environment and an enthusiasm for outdoor winter sport fuelled the aspiration to design an exceptional winter sport recreation facility. T h e thesis project finds its start with the excellent preliminary design work and site selection of the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid Committee, and specifically T o m Barratt and J a n J a n s e n , winners of the C a n a d i a n Society for L a n d s c a p e Architects National Honour A w a r d for their inspiring design of the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid Book. T h e project c o n s i d e r s the natural environment and precedents of park design a s a b a s i s for analysis and planning in a n attempt to e n h a n c e the image, function, and experience of the site a s a whole. T h e breadth and s c o p e of the entire project limits the depth of design exploration, relinquishing the final decisions to the Organizing Committee of the O l y m p i c G a m e s upon the s u c c e s s f u l outcome of the July bid d e c i s i o n . In acknowledgment of the potential magnitude and reach of the project vision, this work hopes to provide a s o u n d background for the eventual planning and design of a n extraordinary Whistler Nordic Centre, in the midst of an exceptional coast mountain setting.  driven by nature vi  Acknowledgements Thesis Committee Chair Will M a r s h  U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a  Thesis Committee Members Doug Paterson T o m Barratt  U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a T o m Barratt Ltd.  External Contributors Brent Harley  Brent Harley and A s s o c i a t e s  George McKay Gerrit T i m m e r m a n  L a n d a n d W a t e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Inc. M a c E l h a n n e y Consulting Services Ltd.  F r o m c o a s t to c o a s t f r o m s e a to s k y , w e a r e d r i v e n b y n a t u r e For over 10,000 years, our hands h a v e s h a p e d the land T h e l a n d in r e t u r n , h a s s h a p e d u s It h a s i n s p i r e d o u r a r t i s t s , a n d f u e l l e d o u r g r o w t h C h a l l e n g e d our explorers, and delighted our guests Nourished our ancestors, and fed our souls It h a s t e s t e d o u r limits o f e n d u r a n c e , j u s t a s it h a s p u s h e d u s o n to a s t o n i s h i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s In a c o u n t r y s o v a s t a n d s o w i d e , it is p e r h a p s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t o n e q u i c k l y c o m e s to b e l i e v e in a w o r l d of limitless h o r i z o n s a n d e n d l e s s possibilities A place where a hundred tongues and countless cultures h a v e both the s p a c e a n d the f r e e d o m to r e a l i z e t h e i r d e s t i n i e s in h a r m o n y w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a n d w i t h t h e l a n d A p l a c e w h e r e 3 0 m i l l i o n d r e a m s live B o u n d by the s e a , united b e n e a t h the s k y Driven by nature  The Sea to Sky Games Vancouver 2010 Bid Book  driven by nature  Chapter 1 Background Concepts T h e literature reviews and c a s e study precedents will serve a s a s o u r c e of i d e a s , beliefs, and concepts for the justification and implementation of the l a n d s c a p e analysis, planning, and design p r o c e s s e s . T h e foundation of the thesis premise builds upon the s o u n d background concepts and precedents of valued a n d respected l a n d s c a p e architecture theory and design practice to inform the thrust and focus of the design project.  Planning, Environment, and Place L a n d s c a p e Solutions T h e comparable physical structure and experiential quality of our surrounding global environment displays our gradual move towards righteous ideals, aesthetics, and ethics in the design of the urban milieu. C h a n g e s in technology, communication, agriculture, transportation, and lifestyle affect the manifestation of our situation, but the moral imperatives of society dictate the application of median design standards to our general surroundings. T h e professional disciplines of planning, engineering, architecture, and l a n d s c a p e architecture practice their craft through the guidance of standards, regulations, c o d e s , and ethics, often leading to the physical similarity and experiential mediocrity of the modern built environment. T h e typical a p p r o a c h to l a n d s c a p e analysis and d e s i g n a s a problem of definite parameters generally guides the development of the site program towards a conventional design solution. In r e s p o n s e , the facade of contemporary development m a s k s an inherently diverse and c o m p l e x l a n d s c a p e of variable physiography and ecological character reflective of environmental p r o c e s s e s that d e m a n d solutions responsive to their dynamic environmental settings. ( M a r s h , 1998)  Disciplinary Integration E c o l o g y , the study of the dynamic relations between a community of o r g a n i s m s and its habitat, often ignores the inclusion or response of humanity in the b a l a n c e , while e c o n o m i c s , the social s c i e n c e of the production and distribution of wealth, often ignores the existence or the value of the natural environment in the solution. T h e study of e c o n o m y , ecology, geography, geology, hydrology, literature, and art, a m o n g others, are essential to the comprehension and practice of l a n d s c a p e planning and d e s i g n . T h e contributions of these fields towards solving societal problems are e n o r m o u s , yet the applied professions of planning, engineering, architecture, and l a n d s c a p e architecture synthesize, reformat, refine, and adapt the knowledge b a s e towards viable and creative l a n d s c a p e solutions. In l a n d s c a p e architecture, the interests of artistic, s o c i a l , and environmental s c i e n c e s are bridged through a mutual c o n c e r n for r e s o u r c e s , land use, and nature. L a n d s c a p e planning and design in harmony and b a l a n c e with the surrounding setting is generally more e c o n o m i c a l , aesthetic, a n d efficient. ( M a r s h , 1998)  Design with Nature C l a s s i c philosophy tends to e x a m i n e man in isolation, or to e x a m i n e nature without noting the p r e s e n c e of m a n , rarely pondering the relation of humanity to its environment a s a whole. T h e modern a w a k e n i n g to nature drives the effort to determine the  background concepts  driven by nature 1  constitution of an environmental balance in support of human biological prosperity, social cooperation, and spiritual stimulation. T h e inspiration to design with nature c o m e s from the attempt to o b s e r v e the world from within, a s a participant and an actor, and not merely look at all nature and human activity from the external vantage point of ecology. T h e e m p h a s i s is neither on design nor nature, but on the preposition, with, through implications of h u m a n cooperation and biological partnership. ( M c H a r g , 1992)  Landscape Analysis T h e s o u r c e s of l a n d s c a p e design, existing site conditions and the intentions of land u s e , offer insight into the analysis and process of l a n d s c a p e planning. P u r p o s e d e p e n d s on site limitations, and site analysis d e p e n d s on purpose. T h e site investigation involves the examination of fitness for human purposes and the inherent rights of the natural living e c o s y s t e m . T h e observation and interpretation of site conditions, drainage patterns, and plant communities informs the interpretation of the site e c o s y s t e m . T h e topography of the site often determines the possibilities and limitations of the l a n d s c a p e plan, while plant s p e c i e s and communities are excellent indicators of climate, soil, water, and the history of a site. ( L y n c h , 1971)  Geography of P l a c e T h e sensitivity to the significance of characteristic p l a c e s is essential to the planning and design of unique and distinguishing l a n d s c a p e s . T h e eradication of distinctive p l a c e s and the production of standard l a n d s c a p e s result in a placeless geography, a labyrinth of endless similarity, where the development of environments are ordered by conceptual principles rather than by patterns of direct e x p e r i e n c e . "Nothing calls attention to itself: it is all remarkably unremarkable... Y o u have s e e n it, heard it, experienced it all before, and yet ... you have s e e n and experienced nothing..." (Relph, 1976) T h e geography of place is characterized by variety and m e a n i n g , where p l a c e s are fusions of human and natural order and are the significant centres of our immediate e x p e r i e n c e s in the world. T h e l a n d s c a p e of place begins with the assumption that e a c h place is different, that e a c h place must respond to specific virtues, and that apparently similar p l a c e s may require completely different solutions. T h e compelling principle of place represents a n opportunity for the creation of a place of significance, a n environment that reflects and e n h a n c e s the varieties of human experience. ( R e l p h , 1976)  Imageability of P l a c e T h e image of place references the relation to our surroundings, the s e q u e n c e of events, and the memory of past experience. T h e mobile elements of place, people, and their activities, are a s important to our perceptual image of place, a s are the stationary physical c o m p o n e n t s of l a n d s c a p e . W e are not merely observers of the s p e c t a c l e , but are also participants of the whole. T h e environment is an object of individual perception, of people of widely diverse class and character, ever changing in detail, with no final result, only a continuous s u c c e s s i o n of p h a s e s . T h e image of place s e e k s legibility, a visual clarity of recognition, and a comprehension of coherent patterns, a s a setting of delight, or an extension of the meaningfulness and richness of the world. Organization is fundamental to efficiency, where districts, landmarks, and pathways are easily identifiable and grouped into an overall pattern of distinction. T h e environmental image, an individual mental picture of the exterior physical world, is the product both of immediate sensation and of the memory of past experience, and it is u s e d to interpret information and to guide action in response to the setting. A good environmental image, familiar but distinctive, gives its p o s s e s s o r an important s e n s e of emotional security, and  background concepts  driven by nature 2  a harmonious relationship between himself and the outside world. A vivid a n d integrated physical setting capable of producing a sharp image c a n provide the s y m b o l s and collective memories of group communication, heightening the potential depth and intensity of the human experience. (Lynch, 1960)  Mountain Design T h e design of places for people in mountain environments f a c e s tremendous opportunities and constraints far different from those that characterize other l a n d s c a p e s . T h e proper design within the alpine setting requires a thorough understanding of the ecological p r o c e s s e s , the natural hazards, and the unique aesthetic qualities of the mountain environment. T h e mountain l a n d s c a p e s of c o m m a n d i n g p r e s e n c e and splendid visual character remain a magnetic frontier for our collective spirit manifesting potent sensory images mistaken for no other environment on earth. T h e dominant and unforgiving natural forces that s h a p e high mountain l a n d s c a p e s clearly influence the form of mountain communities, where villages counter the v a s t n e s s of nature with the security and comfort of human s c a l e . T h e appeal of traditional alpine communities lies in their manifestation of environmental w i s d o m , their ingenuity with limited r e s o u r c e s , and their emotional attachment to place. (Dorward, 1990)  Design P r o c e s s T h e image of the site guides the design; it d o e s not dictate the d e s i g n . T h e plan d e v e l o p s from the creative effort of the designer, in r e s p o n s e to the site conditions and context, allowing the designer to work with the grain of the locality, e m p h a s i z i n g the strong points, or to dramatically o p p o s e its nature in r e s p o n s e to a thorough understanding of the site complexities. Experience allows the preliminary selection and application of realistic purposes to a specific site in the a n a l y s i s and planning process prior to the comprehensive determination of land use. T h e purpose of the program and the nature of the site determine the final selection of analysis and design criteria. T h e repetition of analysis and of trial plans leads to the e m e r g e n c e of a stable site pattern, a b a s i c set of l a n d s c a p e forms, which is the e s s e n c e of the place for the purpose in mind. T h e flexibility to adapt a coherent pattern towards an alternate purpose, or to c h a n g e a purpose to suit a pattern, are essential in the development of alternate site proposals. T h e clear comprehension of the ecological relationships of a place are important to create a new l a n d s c a p e balance, in harmony with the surrounding setting and a s stable a s the previous natural balance, to ensure a favourable environment for the intended l a n d s c a p e purpose. (Lynch, 1971)  Design Exploration T h e careful consideration of the natural l a n d s c a p e environment and experience e x p a n d s the realm of possibilities to suggest and examine a wide range of opportunities inherent to the program of the site. T h e opportunity exists to e x p a n d our understanding beyond the abstract e c o n o m i c valuation of l a n d s c a p e and conventional c o d e s of construction practice to discover the meaning of place in our environment. T h e meticulous observation and interpretation of the site location, orientation, condition, context, and connection to the surrounding environment, both natural and built, informs the possibilities and limitations to the s c o p e and breadth of l a n d s c a p e intervention. T h e agile investigation of environmental experience and program potential p u s h e s the boundaries of possibilities towards the imaginative exploration of design ideas and l a n d s c a p e narratives. T h e l a n d s c a p e design of observation and imagination creates an environment of experiential wealth, intensity, and diversity. (Paterson)  background concepts  driven by nature 3  Parks and Recreation Precedent National P a r k s T h e establishment of the first state park, Yosemite (USA 1864), and the first national parks, Y e l l o w s t o n e ( U S A 1872) and Banff ( C a n a d a 1885), set the pattern of expectations a n d served as the model for subsequent parks in North America. The ideals, the settings, and the role of tourism relating to the establishment of these original state and national parks strategically informed the c o m p r e h e n s i o n and planning for preservation and recreation in contemporary wilderness parks. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e nineteenth century development of national i m a g e s of nature, wilderness, and m a n ' s activity in s u c h settings, by artists and authors s u c h a s G e o r g e Catlin, J a m e s F e n n i m o r e C o o p e r , Henri David T h o r e a u , and G e o r g e P e r k i n s M a r s h , drew attention to the loss of the natural environment, initiating a rethinking of the then-current approach to the environment, and a need for the introduction of the concept of conservation. T h e concerns over the impact of settlement and e x p a n s i o n on the natural l a n d s c a p e , in conjunction with an interest in landscape design and preservation, by the eminent park designer Frederick L a w O l m s t e a d , and the e m e r g e n c e of m o d e r n evolutionary s c i e n c e , by the prominent naturalist C h a r l e s Darwin, were influential in the establishment of the forerunner to the national parks, Y o s e m i t e Park in 1864. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e ideals of Y o s e m i t e , s e e n as an opportunity to preserve both the image of a w e s o m e nature and a l a n d s c a p e suitable for human relaxation, a n d the l a n d s c a p e i m a g e s of T h o m a s M o r a n , a m e m b e r of Ferdinand H a y d e n ' s 1871 Y e l l o w s t o n e expedition, did much to influence c o n g r e s s in the establishment of the first national park, Yellowstone, in 1872. T h e Y e l l o w s t o n e A c t (1872) withdrew more than o n e million a c r e s of land from settlement, o c c u p a n c y , or sale, for the dedication and setting apart 'as a public park or pleasuring ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people'. T h e ideals and language of the Yellowstone Act in the United States subsequently influenced the legislation establishing the first C a n a d i a n national park, Banff National Park, in 1885. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e growing need for s p a c e to be put aside for relaxation and recreation w a s a major influence in the establishment of the first national parks, for activities from hunting and fishing, to mountaineering, scientific endeavours, painting and writing, or simply travel, often by train, for the s c e n i c enjoyment of nature. Frederick L a w O l m s t e a d , in particular, w a s a strong proponent of the need to bring people to the outdoors, or, a s he did in  background concepts  driven by nature 4  Central Park, N e w York, to bring the outdoors to all people. T h e A m e r i c a n a n d E u r o p e a n elite were the early visitors to these parks, with a growing need for the provision of s u c h s p a c e , but it w a s clear that numbers were never envisioned to reach the current level of several million visitors to these parks. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e perception of economic benefits, which could accrue from the development of tourism, w a s another major influence in the establishment of national parks, in particular, Banff National Park. T h e railroads, pushing further west, needed income to finance their endeavours, while affluent A m e r i c a n s and E u r o p e a n s with time and money for those exotic expeditions into the new wilderness were engaging in a variety of recreation activities. T h e impetus for the establishment of Banff National Park c a m e by accident, with the discovery of hot springs by the engineers working for the C a n a d i a n Pacific Railroad, and their attempts to commercialize the hot springs. C o n c e r n in the nation's capital resulted in the initial stimulus for the establishment of a federal reserve of ten square miles, in 1885, surrounding the hot springs, where e c o n o m i c gain from tourism and the provision of recreation opportunities for C a n a d i a n s were of great importance in the founding of the park. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e three ideals of preservation, recreation, and e c o n o m i c s were central to the establishment and early expansion of the C a n a d i a n park s y s t e m . T h e R o c k y Mountains Park Act (1887) legislated the creation of the first C a n a d i a n national park, expanding the area to 260 square miles, noting the s p a c e w a s reserved 'as a public park and pleasure ground for the benefit, advantage, and enjoyment of the people of C a n a d a ' , and stating that there would 'not be issued any l e a s e s , l i c e n s e s , or permits' that would 'impair the usefulness of the park for the purposes of public enjoyment and recreation'. T h e statements clearly displayed the importance of the place of recreation in the establishment of these first national parks. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e creation of Y o s e m i t e , Yellowstone, and Banff national parks provided the precedent for subsequent national parks, by establishing the political feasibility of setting a s i d e large a r e a s to be protected and enjoyed a s part of a national heritage, by establishing an alternate public policy to the private exploitation of natural resources, and by demonstrating the national responsibility for the establishment and preservation of park land. T h e A m e r i c a n parks at Y o s e m i t e and Y e l l o w s t o n e focused on the attractions and s p e c t a c l e s of nature, from the soaring granite towers of Y o s e m i t e to the spouting g e y s e r s of Yellowstone, while the C a n a d i a n park at Banff f o c u s e d on the E u r o p e a n tradition of the s p a , from the natural provision of thermal hot springs and the therapeutic power of the mineral water, to the grand hotel, albeit against a spectacular s c e n i c mountain backdrop. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) T h e ideal images of ancient privilege, nobility, and land m a n a g e m e n t of eighteenth century English l a n d s c a p e s , featuring a mixture of woodland and pasture, wild and domestic animals, with stylized castles and mountain backdrops captured the imaginations of the N e w Worlds, and were influential in the development of North A m e r i c a n i m a g e s of nature and wilderness. T h e great desire for cultural equality or superiority with the Old World sparked the fascination and desire to match these images with creations of their own. While in C a n a d a ' s first national park, the building of the Banff Springs Hotel by the C a n a d i a n Pacific R a i l r o a d , s o m e three d e c a d e s after the creation of Banff National Park, modelled the magnificent structure after early nineteenth century Scottish baronial-style castles, the A m e r i c a n proponents of national parks were discovering a natural heritage of castles, fortresses, and ramparts in the A m e r i c a n  background concepts  driven by nature 5  landscape, in the gushing geysers and granite towers of Yosemite and Yellowstone. (Boyd & Butler, 2000) The original wordings of the Yellowstone Act (USA) and the Rocky Mountains Park Act (Canada) confirmed the dual mandate of parks, namely the conservation of park resources, as well as providing for the enjoyment of the public, establishing the basis of conflict within parks between protection and use, a conflict that continues to plague national parks to this day. Revisions in Canada and the U S A oriented more recent park policies towards the preservation of ecological integrity and cultural heritage, ensuring that recreational use did not threaten scenic beauty and wildlife. Emphasis in the current policy has shifted towards ecosystem-based planning and management, and the potential within parks to offer sustainable forms of tourism. (Boyd & Butler, 2000)  F i g u r e 1.2 W h i s t l e r V i l l a g e S k i Out  (Tourism Whistler)  Whistler Village The Resort Municipality of Whistler, 120 km north of Vancouver, at the edge of Garibaldi Provincial Park, has become the definitive hub of the scenic alpine region known as the sea to sky corridor, popular for winter and summer recreation activities. Whistler Village, the extraordinary pedestrian community, is the product of an outstanding natural setting, visionary local proponents, federal and provincial support, and comprehensive promotion strategies to become the authoritative model of alpine tourism design (Jensen, 1991).  Whistler Village nestles comfortably at the base of two adjoining mountain destinations, Whistler and Blackcomb. The village positions the heart of cultural interest and community interaction at the gateway to boundless alpine recreation activities. Whistler Village, the centre of tourism activity, displays the linkages, interaction, diversity, and vitality of a vibrant authentic community. The liveliness, sensory stimulus, human scale, and comfortable spaces of the village combine with the magnificent natural setting and west coast character to create an experience of place. The natural terrain of Whistler and Blackcomb Mountains provide the stunning visual backdrop to the compact aesthetic alpine architecture of the village (Dorward, 1990). The concepts that contribute to the success of Whistler are the pedestrian village orientation, the diversity, scale, and density of design, the reference to the natural landscape, the alignment of view and climate corridors, and the proximity to recreation activities. The community identity arises from a vision of Whistler as an international tourist destination and the desire to create a stable year-round economic base. The tourism market consideration requires an alteration in concepts of circulation, layout, form, and use. The conceptual priorities consider the proportion of structures and space, the sequence of discovery and experience, and the orientation to views and sun. The village design vision and intent, of visual continuity and spatial quality, subordinates  background concepts  driven by nature 6  individual and fractured concepts of structure and alignment, for a collective concept of the place a s a whole (Dorward,1990). The outstanding s u c c e s s of Whistler R e s o r t w a s the result of vision, planning, d e s i g n , and most importantly, the proper location of Whistler Village. T h e community prior to village construction featured few commercial amenities, sprawling cottage settlements, and little environmental control over sanitation and water. T h e original concept of Whistler Village located the town centre along the s c e n i c shores of Alta L a k e , a significant distance from Whistler and B l a c k c o m b Mountains. T h e situation would have separated the ideal winter m a s s tourism connection of village and mountain, creating a need for m a s s i v e parking structures at the b a s e of the mountains, and inevitably altering the quaint, compact experience of Whistler. T h e sensible recognition of the surrounding mountains a s a key element in the attraction of recreation tourists, and the position of the village at the pinnacle of that activity, created the outstanding tourism s u c c e s s of Whistler Resort ( J e n s e n , 1991). The human scale of the village structure creates a hierarchy of compact pedestrian streetscapes and open plaza s p a c e s . T h e primary choreography of the village unfolds a s a s e q u e n c e from the concealment of the Village G a t e entrance, to the vibrant o p e n gathering s p a c e of Village P l a z a , to the lively visual continuity and progression of Village Stroll, to the eventual revelation of S k i e r ' s P l a z a , the gateway to the alpine recreation experience of Whistler and B l a c k c o m b Mountains. T h e primary l e s s o n s learned w e r e the compact integration of commercial s e r v i c e s , recreation, and a c c o m m o d a t i o n , the importance of visual continuity and connectivity, and the s c a l e , density, and diversity of planning and design (Dorward, 1990).  background concepts  driven by nature 7  Chapter 2 Planning M i s s i o n T h e c a m p a i g n , obligation, and context of the Olympic M o v e m e n t , the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid, and the L e g a c y P r o g r a m serve to enlighten the form and function of the park planning and design project. T h e development and c o m p r e h e n s i o n of the complex site programs inform the s c a l e and quality requirements of the events and surrounding settings in light of the anticipation a n d expectations of the O l y m p i c G a m e s .  F i g u r e 2.1 C a n m o r e Nordic Centre ( X V Olympic Winter G a m e s )  Olympic and Tourism Concepts Olympic Movement T h e Olympic Charter defines O l y m p i s m a s a philosophy of life exalting and combining in a b a l a n c e d whole the qualities of the body, will, and mind, blending sport with culture and education, creating a way of life b a s e d on the joy in effort, the educational value of g o o d e x a m p l e , and the respect for universal fundamental ethical principles. T h e Olympic Charter states the goal of O l y m p i s m is to place everywhere sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with a view to encouraging the establishment of a peaceful society c o n c e r n e d with the preservation of human dignity. T o this effect, the O l y m p i c Movement e n g a g e s , alone or in cooperation with other organizations and within the limits of its m e a n s , in actions to promote peace. T h e Olympic Movement consists of the International O l y m p i c Committee, Organizing C o m m i t t e e s of the O l y m p i c G a m e s , National O l y m p i c C o m m i t t e e s , International Federations, National A s s o c i a t i o n s , a n d Olympic Athletes. T h e O l y m p i c Charter states the goal of the O l y m p i c M o v e m e n t is to contribute to building a peaceful a n d better world by educating youth through sport practiced without discrimination of any kind and in the Olympic spirit, requiring mutual understanding with a spirit of friendship, solidarity, and fair play. T h e activity of the Olympic Movement, s y m b o l i z e d by five interlaced rings, is universal and permanent, covering the five continents, a n d reaching its peak with the bringing together of athletes of the world for the great sports festival of the Olympic Games. T h e Olympic Charter states that the Olympic G a m e s are competitions between athletes in individual or team events, and not between countries. T h e O l y m p i c G a m e s bring together the athletes designated for s u c h purpose by their respective National Olympic  planning mission  driven by nature 8  Committees, w h o s e entries have been a c c e p t e d by the International O l y m p i c Committee, and who through their sports performances compete under the technical direction of the International Federations c o n c e r n e d . T h e International O l y m p i c Committee takes m e a s u r e s to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic G a m e s to the host city and country, and to ensure concern and m e a s u r e s for environmental i s s u e s in the activities of the Olympic G a m e s . T h e Committee promotes the consideration of sensible control for the s i z e , cost, and sustainability of the Olympic G a m e s , creating, where n e e d e d , simple, functional, and e c o n o m i c sports facilities in cooperation with national or international bodies, and supporting the organization of competitions at regional, national, and international level under the authority and patronage of the National Olympic Committees. A testimony from the Lillehammer G a m e s in Norway states that the quality of the Olympic G a m e s will be judged b a s e d on the experience and impression created in the minds of athletes, guests, and spectators. (International Olympic Committee, 2002)  Olympic Legacy T h e conclusions and recommendations of the International C o n f e r e n c e on Architecture and International Sporting Events, held M a y 2002, state that the permanent legacy facilities must be realistic for long term use and benefit to the host community, that s u c c e s s in creating big events c o m e s from quality planning and consistent decision making, and that the appointment of high quality design t e a m s results in better value and outcomes for the Olympic G a m e s . T h e consideration and inclusion of specialist expertise and previous event design experience strengthens the creative process and the transfer of knowledge from previous host cities. T h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n of facility function and operation is vital to the event and legacy planning, d e s i g n , and management. T h e careful evaluation of audience s i z e , perhaps moving towards a lesser venue s c a l e , will encourage the s u c c e s s of the event legacy. T h e concern for sustainability and care of the environment is important in the creation of healthy results for the future, while the consideration of temporary facilities in support of permanent v e n u e s is integral to the planning and design of the event v e n u e s . T h e proper planning, provision, and a c c e s s for people with disabilities and minority groups remains a vital component for spectators and participants at all levels. T h e opportunities for heritage and legacy buildings, which are special and unique, ensure a viable and vibrant life to the venue after the event. (International Olympic Committee, 2003) T h e conclusions and recommendations of the S y m p o s i u m on the L e g a c y of the O l y m p i c G a m e s , held N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 2 , suggest that the possible long-term effects, the benefits for the community, and the possible contribution of e a c h bid to the culture and continuity of the Olympic Movement to be considered a s key a s p e c t s of the evaluation of the bids. T h e concept of legacy is considered multidisciplinary and dynamic, changing over time, affected by local and global factors, and ultimately fundamental to the understanding of the mission of O l y m p i s m in society. T h e sustainable long-term legacy planning of the Olympic G a m e s attempts to a d d r e s s concerns for the environment, while benefiting social and e c o n o m i c development. T h e e m e r g e n c e and recognition of legacy a s p e c t s and dimensions beyond architecture, planning, marketing, sport infrastructure, tourism, and e c o n o m i c development broaden the s c o p e and importance of the legacies to consider intangible a s p e c t s and dimensions of the production of ideas and cultural values, multicultural and inclusionary experiences, popular memory, education, collective effort, volunteerism, sport adoption, and notoriety on a global scale. T h e formation of unique historical and biographical reference points in time and s p a c e are legacies not  planning mission  driven by nature 9  only for the citizens of the host city, but also for the citizens of the globe. T h e values of the non-governmental organization of the Olympic Movement promote the culture of p e a c e , athleticism, and education through the Olympic Truce and education programs. T h e contributions of International O l y m p i c Committee M e m b e r s promote and facilitate the organization of the G a m e s at the lowest possible cost and at the maximum benefit for the athletes and citizens. (International Olympic Committee, 2003) T h e V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid B o o k states that great care has been taken in the selection of the 2010 G a m e s venue locations to e n s u r e that the precious natural heritage of British C o l u m b i a is respected and not diminished. Construction and operation of the G a m e s facilities will ensure that significant local features and sensitive environments are protected through l a n d s c a p e buffers and careful land development practices. T h e S q u a m i s h and Lil'wat nations will participate in the development of the Whistler Nordic Centre to ensure that its development is respectful of their sensitive a r e a s and land use plans. V a n c o u v e r 2010 has conducted a preliminary a s s e s s m e n t of likely environmental, social and e c o n o m i c effects resulting from the development, operations and p o s t - G a m e s use of the v e n u e s and infrastructure. T h e environmental impact a s s e s s m e n t looked at potential impacts on g e o p h y s i c a l , hydrological, atmospheric, biological, land use and social conditions. T h e proposed v e n u e s will have negligible or low environmental effects a s a result of careful design, best m a n a g e m e n t practices and innovative mitigation and e n h a n c e m e n t strategies. Hosting the 2010 Olympic and P a r a l y m p i c Winter G a m e s will have a lasting positive influence on the region's e c o n o m y , enhancing the province's worldwide reputation a s an innovative, diverse e c o n o m y and a s an international tourist and convention destination. ( V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 , 2003)  Tourism Planning In light of the Norwegian testimony of experience, that the quality of the Olympic G a m e s will be judged b a s e d on the e x p e r i e n c e and impression created in the minds of athletes, guests, and spectators, the concept of tourism planning merits contemplation. T h e goals of tourism planning consider visitor satisfaction, e c o n o m i c development, sustainable resource u s e , and community integration, displaying considerable similarities to the planning goals of the V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 B i d . A critical approach to visitor satisfaction concerns the integration of the legitimate desires of site developers, of destination developers, and of regional developers, constituting a major challenge in the s u c c e s s f u l planning of tourism. Development s c h e m e s frequently consider tourism a s an additional justification of purpose and e c o n o m i c feasibility for many questionable projects, while the satisfaction of the customer is the ultimate end product of tourism. S u c c e s s d e p e n d s on the level and sustainability of visitor satisfaction, and not merely on the measurement of e c o n o m i c benefits. T h e recent a w a r e n e s s of the negative impact of burgeoning tourism on the natural environment d e m a n d s a new balance between tourism development and environmental protection, in constant vigilant regard for the satisfaction of the visitor. ( G u n n , 2002)  Olympic and Legacy Programs Olympic Program T h e proposed Whistler Nordic C e n t r e , located in the C a l l a g h a n Valley south of Whistler, is the official venue site of the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Winter Olympic G a m e s and Winter P a r a l y m p i c G a m e s . T h e O l y m p i c site program requires three separate facilities to host  planning mission  driven by nature 10  the disciplines of Biathlon, Cross Country, Ski Jumping, and Nordic Combined in a series of 22 independent events over 17 days in duration, from Friday, February 5 to Sunday, February 21, 2010. The Paralympic site program requires the use of two facilities to host the disciplines of Biathlon and Cross Country in a series of 15 independent events over 10 days in duration, from Friday, March 5 to Sunday, March 14, 2010 (Vancouver 2010, 2003).  OLYMPIC COMPETITION SCHEDULE DISCIPLINE EVENT bruary06,2010  Sunday February 07, 2010  4  Monday February 08, 2010 Tuesday February 09, 2010 Wednesday February 10, 2010 Thursday February 11, 2010  Friday February 12, 2010  9  Saturday February 13, 2010  10 11  Sunday February 14,2010 Monday February 15, 2010  12  Tuesday February 16, 2010  13  Wednesday February 17, 2010  14 15  Thursday February 18,2010 Friday February 19, 2010  16 17  Saturday February 20,2010 Sunday February 21, 2010  09:00 -10:30 10;00 -12:00 12:30 -14:00 10:00 -12:00 10:00 -13:00 13:00 -15:00 10:00 -12:00 13:00 -15:00 09:00 -10:30 12:00 -13:30 10:00 -11:30 13:00 -14:30 09:15 -10:30 10:00 -12:00 12:00 -13:00 09:00 -10:30 10:00 -13:00 11:30 -12:30 10:00 -11:00 13:00 -14:00 09:30 -11:30 10:00 -12:00 13:30 -14:30 09:00 -11:00 12:30 -14:30 10:00 -12:00 10:00 -13:00 13:00 -15:00 12:00 -14:00 10:00 -11:00 10:00 -12:00 13:00 -14:00 13:30 09:30 • 14:30 09:30 • 12:00 •11:30  Cross Country W 15 km Mass Ski Jump M K90 Individual (Q) Cross Country M 30 km Mass Biathlon M 20 km Individual Ski Jump M K90 Individual (F) Biathlon W 15 km Individual Nordic Combined M K90 Individual M 15 km Individual Nordic Combined W 10 km Individual Cross Country M 15 km Individual Cross Country M 10 km Sprint Biathlon W 7.5 km Sprint Biathlon M 10 km Pursuit Cross Country M K120 Individual (Q) Ski Jump M 10 km Pursuit Cross Country W 5 km Pursuit Cross Country M K120 Individual (F) Ski Jump W 5 km Pursuit Cross Country M 12.5 km Pursuit W 10 km Pursuit Biathlon Biathlon M 4x10 km Relay Cross Country M 4x5 km Team Relay Nordic Combined M K90 Team Relay Nordic Combined M/W1.5 km Sprint (Q) Cross Country M/W1.5 km Sprint (F) Cross Country M 4x7.5 km Relay Biathlon M K120 Team Ski Jump W 4x6 km Relay Biathlon W 4x5 km Relay Cross Country M 15 km Mass Biathlon Nordic Combined MK120 Sprint Biathlon W 12.5 km Mass Nordic Combined M 7.5 km Sprint Cross Country M 50 km Individual Cross Country W 30 km Individual Table 2.1 Olympic Competition Schedule  The central essence of the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games programs is the functional requirement for sports and athletes. The Vancouver 2010 Bid focuses on the needs of athletes, and the provision of world-class venues, facilities, and support technology, ensuring the best possible environment for competition. The site selection for sports venues requires a careful consideration of location, accessibility, physical amenities, and operational ability to provide a world-class competitive experience, with  planning mission  driven by nature 11  particular concern for v e n u e a n d village connections in r e s p o n s e to parameters of c o n v e n i e n c e , performance, and proximity. Communication with national and international sports federations, the Federation Internationale de S k i (FIS) and the International Biathlon Union (IBU), e n s u r e s the provision of optimal sports v e n u e conditions, a n d the a c c o m m o d a t i o n of all operational functions (Vancouver 2 0 1 0 , 2003). T h e sport concept of the O l y m p i c site considers a global analysis of the overall program requirements and individual sport a n a l y s e s , to achieve an optimum balance a n d density for the sports s c h e d u l e . T h e site concept attempts to minimize the environmental impact and maximize the benefits of v e n u e concentration in order to m a x i m i z e logistical efficiencies a n d e n h a n c e the event experience for the athletes, officials, m e d i a , a n d spectators. T h e O l y m p i c program considers the terrain of the C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y site suitable a n d economically viable for developing c o u r s e s and facilities that will meet the n e e d s of the O l y m p i c and P a r a l y m p i c Nordic events for the V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 Winter G a m e s a n d future sport possibilities (Vancouver 2010, 2003). T h e design of the Whistler Nordic Centre will feature three primary sport v e n u e s , the S k i J u m p Stadium, the C r o s s Country S t a d i u m , and the Biathlon R a n g e a n d S t a d i u m , in a convenient layout for accessibility and mobility. The s c a l e a n d seasonality of the O l y m p i c program requires the consideration of several temporary support facilities for medical a n d health, food a n d b e v e r a g e , water a n d sanitation, transportation a n d parking, a c c e s s and security, power a n d lighting, and communication and media s e r v i c e s . T h e program will require temporary event structures for guest services, e m e r g e n c y r e s p o n s e , doping control, security control, team training, equipment maintenance, print m e d i a , a n d television broadcasting. T h e international importance and visibility of the events a n d participants will d e m a n d the highest level of public safety, for athletes, officials, a n d spectators, with broad c o n c e r n s for transportation control, site security and accessibility, a v a l a n c h e control, e m e r g e n c y r e s p o n s e , and terrorism prevention ( V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 , 2003).  PARALYMPIC COMPETITION SCHEDULE DISCIPLINE EVENT  3 5  Sunday March 07, 2010 Tuesday March 09, 2010  Thursday March 11,2010  Friday March 12, 2010  10  Sunday March 14, 2010  10:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 10:0011:0012:0013:0010:0011:0012:0010:0011:0012:0013:00-  12:00 11:00 12:00 13:30 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00  Biathlon M/W' Biathlon M/W Mass Start - All Cross Country M 5 km Classic - All Cross Country W 2.5 km Classic - Sit Cross Country W 5 km Classic - Stand Cross Country W 5 km Free - Sit Cross Country M 10 km Free-Sit Cross Country W10km Free-Stand Cross Country M 10 km Free - Stand Cross Country M 3x2.5 km Relay - Sit Cross Country W 3x2.5 km Relay - All Cross Country M 4x5 km Relay - Stand Cross Country W10km Free-Sit Cross Country M 15 km Free - Sit Cross Country W 15 km Free-Stand Cross Country M 20 km Free - Stand  I  Table 2.2 Paralympic Competition Schedule  planning mission  driven by nature 12  T h e s c o p e of the Olympic v e n u e s p r o p o s e s a total site capacity of 15,000 guests, with a breakdown of 3,000 non-revenue tickets, 3,000 sponsor/broadcast tickets, and 9,000 general public tickets. T h e design of the site facilities will feature a seating capacity of 10,000 seats with an additional standing capacity for 5,000 people. Site transport and entrance facilities will require a mobilization and a c c e s s capacity for 15,000 guests within a brief timeframe constraint. T h e Olympic site transportation program envisions automobile a c c e s s and parking for a total of 845 vehicle parking s p a c e s , with a breakdown of 75 International O l y m p i c Committee (IOC) vehicles, 320 team v e h i c l e s , 350 broadcast vehicles, and 100 staff/volunteer vehicles, and an additional 560 bus parking s p a c e s , with a breakdown of 20 broadcast buses, 4 0 s p o n s o r b u s e s , and 500 spectator b u s e s (Vancouver 2 0 1 0 , 2003). T h e proposed Whistler O l y m p i c Village, located at the junction of the S e a to S k y Highway and the entrance to the C a l l a g h a n Valley, 12 km or 12 minutes south of Whistler Village and 123 km or 120 minutes north of the V a n c o u v e r O l y m p i c Village, will a c c o m m o d a t e 2000 athletes and c o a c h e s in an atmosphere of an intimate alpine community at an elevation of 550 metres a b o v e s e a level. T h e Whistler Nordic C e n t r e , 8 km or 12 minutes distance by vehicle from the Whistler Olympic Village, will feature the Nordic events of Biathlon and C r o s s Country on a plateau of rolling terrain, in a range of 850-900 metres in elevation, and the Ski J u m p on an adjacent steep slope, in a range of 900-1100 metres in elevation. T h e rolling terrain variability allows the flexibility to satisfy spectator and media desires for wider, shorter c o u r s e s d e v e l o p e d with 12 metre trail widths, and more traditional narrow, longer c o u r s e s in harmony with the coast forest setting. T h e ideal topography of the terrain allows the fit of the S k i J u m p Stadium to the natural slope of the hillside, including K 3 0 and K 5 0 training j u m p s , and K 9 0 and K 1 2 0 competition jumps ( V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 , 2003). T h e broad site concept envisions plans for an efficient, convenient, and responsible celebration of athletic e x c e l l e n c e , a model of compact urban and alpine sustainability. T h e provincial government, owner of the proposed site, has approved the development of the Whistler Nordic Centre in the event of a successful V a n c o u v e r 2010 B i d , with a construction estimate of $ 6 5 million ( U S ) . T h e initial stages of construction on the trail system are intended to begin the s u m m e r of 2 0 0 5 , with v e n u e completion for the winter 2006/2007 competition s e a s o n , well a h e a d of the V a n c o u v e r 2010 Olympic s c h e d u l e (Vancouver 2010, 2003).  Legacy Program T h e central concern for the Whistler Nordic Centre, beyond the requirements for the V a n c o u v e r 2010 O l y m p i c and P a r a l y m p i c Winter G a m e s , is the provision of a sustainable sport legacy, a d v a n c i n g the interests of athletics and competition for local, national, and international sports communities. The intentions of the Whistler Nordic Centre legacy are to increase interest and participation in sports, a key goal of the Olympic Movement, to facilitate National T e a m sport development, and to provide a greater concentration of winter sports facilities in North A m e r i c a . T h e intentions of the Whistler Olympic Village legacy are to provide an Athlete Centre, permanent guest athlete accommodation, and to provide non-market resident housing (Vancouver 2 0 1 0 , 2003).  planning mission  driven by nature 13  The philosophy of the Whistler Nordic Centre plans to create a balance with an accessible, world-class winter sport destination, displaying our national reverence for snow and ice, and our deep passion for winter sports, with a compatible outdoor recreation summer sport facility featuring hiking and cycling trails. The Whistler Legacy Society (WLS), a non-profit organization, will operate and maintain, under long-term tenure, the Whistler Olympic Village Athletes Centre and the Whistler Nordic Centre. The Whistler Legacy Society members include the Governments of Canada and British Columbia, the Lil'wat and Squamish First Nations, the Resort Municipality of Whistler, and the Canadian Olympic and Paralympic Committees. An Endowment Trust of $71 million (US), established by the Governments of Canada and British Columbia to support the Whistler Nordic Centre, Whistler Sliding Centre, and the Simon Fraser University Speed Skating Oval, will ensure the support of future operations at the Whistler Nordic Centre (Vancouver 2010, 2003). The Whistler Nordic Centre legacy requires a site capability of hosting annual World Championship and World Cup events, both prior and following the Olympic and Paralympic Games. The range of facilities endeavor to encourage and maximize seasonal use, adapt to recreational and professional activities, and provide outstanding theatres for sport. The proposed construction of the facilities encourages development in harmony with their setting and surrounding communities, enhancement of the biodiversity and habitat of the area, attainment of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards for new facilities, and exceedence of British Columbia Building Codes for spectator and athlete accessibility (Vancouver 2010, 2003).  Program Analysis The Olympic site combines all Nordic disciplines in a convenient location and terrain to suit all events. The site requires separate and direct access for all three venues, with little cohesion and difficult connection among the individual venues. The multiple and distinct site foci create a potential comprehension and direction confusion about site location and layout for the casual visitor. The Olympic program demands large-scale areas for temporary facilities, transport drop-off, and vehicle parking in excess 6 hectares. The critical factor in the long-term success of the facility will hinge upon the ability to foster interest and support in the non-event periods of time. The overall success of the facility will depend greatly upon seasonal visitors, with complementary activities to the site. The ski jump will be the primary visual feature, structural component, and experiential attraction of the legacy facilities from the perspective of the recreational visitor. The ski jump will be the primary year round facility, with the application of a summer gliding surface for off-season training. The attraction and experience of the site will vary in perspective dependent upon the type of visitor, where the professional athlete, recreational resident, or international tourist will experience and appreciate the site in a variety of different ways. The lodge, central focus and primary image of the site, will become the central attraction and facility for the site following the Olympic events. The governance and maintenance of the site facilities will require the ongoing support of staff. The fall might feature hiking season with interest in the colours of the season. The summer might concentrate on cycling, a destination for cyclists, and interpretive walking  planning mission  driven by nature 14  tours of the native forest. T h e winter might expand the recreational offerings to skating on the lake, a toboggan slope that may take advantage of the lift. T h e s t a d i u m s may feature theatre or s y m p h o n y in the park. T h e provision of infrastructure, water, sanitation, hydro, communication will be required for the legacy facilities a n d a potential lodge. T h e lodge, apart from serving a s an information s o u r c e , weather shelter, provision of water and sanitation s e r v i c e s , and interpretive facility, might also function a s a s o u r c e of accommodation for training athletes. The central lodge facility may serve a s a possible location to combine overlapping program requirements for w a s h r o o m s facilities, food distribution, security s e r v i c e s , and emergency medical services. T h e legacy of the site will require the continuation of administration with respect to a c c e s s and security, in close proximity to the v e n u e s , arguing for a central lodge at the site.  Landscape and Community Visions T h e l a n d s c a p e visions will s e r v e a s a tool to quickly explore the imaginary possibilities and opportunities of plausible site s c h e m e s , wilderness park, alpine community, and community diversity, irrespective of definite site selection and program determination. T h e power of the vision lies in the ability to allow the imagination to transcend the limitations and implications of predetermined site decisions.  Wilderness Park T h e dark green valleys of old growth forest, the expansive vistas to distant alpine p e a k s , and the rippling clear waters of mountain lakes and streams serve a s the setting for the Whistler Nordic Centre. T h e wilderness park is located at the end of a long winding journey travelling d e e p into the heart of the C a l l a g h a n Valley. C a l l a g h a n L o d g e serves as a distant s e c l u d e d destination and symbol of civilization in the vast surrounding wilderness. T h e lakeside lodge setting provides ideal accessibility to s e a s o n a l recreation activities of skiing, s n o w s h o e i n g , c a n o e i n g , and hiking, a s well a s a source of food and shelter in a wild environment. T h e location of the facility at the e d g e of the alpine e c o s y s t e m creates an ideal starting point for visitors to explore the surrounding o p e n e x p a n s e of high mountain peaks and glaciers, or the diffuse enclosure and majesty of the old growth forest and meandering streams of the lower valley. T h e wilderness park blends a p a s s i o n for sensitive recreation activities and pristine native environment into an experience of wilderness recreation. T h e park focus centres on the wilderness experience and a harmonizing interaction of humanity and nature, minimizing the visual and ecological impacts to the environment. T h e s u c c e s s of the wilderness park d e p e n d s on the isolation from civilization, the s c e n i c beauty of the setting, and a perception of a pristine natural environment. T h e surrounding context and commercial activities of the site directly affect the quality of the wilderness park experience for the visitor. T h e park lodge serves a s the central focus in a nordic sport facility of international calibre. T h e outdoor v e n u e s for the nordic events blend with the natural environment. T h e flexibility and scale of the site allow a range of adaptability from international sporting event to an individual experience of seclusion in nature.  Alpine Community T h e magnificent southern solar exposure, the breathtaking s c e n e of s n o w c a p p e d alpine peaks, and the thunderous waterfall at the heart of the village provide an ideal setting for the alpine community of C a l l a g h a n . T h e winding road a s c e n d s through temperate coastal rainforest to the subalpine valley location of C a l l a g h a n Village, providing  planning mission  driven by nature 15  distance and seclusion from the brisk pace of Whistler. T h e small community derives a n identity from a direct relationship to mountain culture and the integration of extensive recreation facilities throughout the community. R e s i d e n t s of the small community s h a r e in their p a s s i o n for the alpine environment and the recreation opportunities of the C a l l a g h a n Valley. C a l l a g h a n Village s e r v e s a s the central hub to a diverse recreation program of alpine culture, complementing the tourism wealth of Whistler, V a n c o u v e r , and British C o l u m b i a . T h e strength of the alpine community lies in the integration of recreation and culture both in the physical environment and in the social context of the whole. C o m m u n i t y and recreation blend together in a balanced relationship stronger than the individual components, derived from a vision of distinct identity and self-determination. T h e integration of the village and recreation facilities e n s u r e s the resident and visitor the requisites of shelter, s u s t e n a n c e , health, and safety in proximity to the recreation activity. T h e combination of community and recreation facility provides the efficient and e c o n o m i c distribution of services and infrastructure to the whole. Recreation diversity and participation i n c r e a s e s due to the direct relationship with the C a l l a g h a n Nordic C e n t r e , where mountaineering, climbing, and kayaking play greater roles in local recreation. C a l l a g h a n Village serves a s the central focal point to a vision of the C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y a s a unique alpine recreation community and tourism destination.  Community Diversity T h e picturesque winding valley, tremendous village structure, and renowned international s u c c e s s of Whistler serve a s an ideal setting for the Whistler Nordic Centre and Olympic Village. T h e diversity of terrain, ideal environment, and recreation focus of the community create a unique opportunity to locate additional facilities within the Municipality of Whistler. T h e nordic facilities build upon the wealth of tourism attractions in the Whistler Valley, serving to diversify the tourism offerings of the community. T h e wide range of services and support in Whistler ensure the s u c c e s s and legacy of the world-class recreation facility. T h e western lower flanks of Whistler Mountain provide a backdrop for the Whistler Nordic Centre. T h e proximity and adjacency to both Whistler Village and Whistler Mountain provide strong support for a southern expansion to the community of Whistler. T h e opportunity allows Whistler to design and develop a new gateway to the community, foster a b a s e facility in conjunction with the planned e x p a n s i o n of Whistler Mountain, and develop employee-housing facilities within the existing boundaries of the community. T h e Whistler Nordic Centre and Olympic Village provide a key focal point to the southern e x p a n s i o n of Whistler, creating a link between the communities of Function Junction and Spring C r e e k .  planning mission  driven by nature 16  Chapter 3 Analysis Methods T h e analysis methods serve a s perspectives of scientific and experiential observation and interpretation of the site condition and environment. T h e physiographic and biogeoclimatic methods of site interpretation form the b a s i s of scientific investigations into the formative p r o c e s s e s of the site and surrounding environment, while phenomenology and narrative methods of site exploration form the b a s i s of pragmatic interpretations into the experience of the events and their settings. T h e importance of multiple scientific and experiential perspectives in the analysis of the site lies in the thorough c o m p r e h e n s i o n and consideration of the site environment, context, and program a s a w h o l e .  Figure 3.1 Whistler Nordic Centre Site Aerial Photograph (source MacElhanney Consulting Services Ltd.)  driven by nature 17  Science and Experience Biogeoclimatic Zonation T h e concept of biogeoclimatic zonation determines a s s o c i a t i o n s of characteristic vegetation, wildlife, soil, and climatic conditions specific to g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . T h e determination of the ecosystem classification through the observation of vegetative associations provides a presumption of environmental site conditions. T h e dominant s h a d e tolerant tree s p e c i e s of the forest habitats characterizes the classification of the z o n e . T h e c o m m o n e c o s y s t e m z o n e s of the C o a s t Mountains are W e s t e r n H e m l o c k , Mountain Hemlock, and Alpine T u n d r a (Meidinger, 1991).  Indicator Analysis  Figure 3.2 Plants are indicative of their environment  T h e concept of indicator analysis identifies specific plant s p e c i e s a s site condition indicators, adapted to a range of environmental conditions, and restricted to sites within this range. K n o w l e d g e of the e c o l o g y of plant s p e c i e s allows the inference of site conditions from the vegetation present. Plant s p e c i e s p o s s e s s the potential to indicate o n e or more site attributes that represent environmental gradients or certain qualities. Plant s p e c i e s are c o n s i d e r e d good indicators of climate, soil moisture, soil nitrogen, and ground surface materials (Klinka, 1989).  Soil Classification  Figure 3.3 Plant associations reflect soil formation  analysis methods  Soils are products of their environments, reflective of climate, geology, physiography, and vegetation. The slope, aspect, vegetation, and elevation of the site determine soil type composition, variability, and distribution. T h e topography, climate, and vegetation of the C o a s t Mountains commonly produce thin acidic (Podzol) soils overlaying glacial till or accumulations of needles, twigs, w o o d , a n d bark (Folisol) overlaying very thin soil or bedrock (Valentine, 1978).  driven by nature 18  K120  JUMP PROFILE  Figure 3.4 Ski Jump Profile  SLOPE CLASS Figure 3.5 Slope Class Profile  Terrain Analysis Terrain analysis establishes and investigates a range of site planning land use limitations with respect to site slope gradients. The examination of plan landscape topography allows the determination of drainage course networks and watershed boundary delineation, as well as the determination of steep slope categorization in relation to the intended purposes and constraints of the site, namely, facility placement, road alignment, vegetative growth, ski slopes, and avalanche hazards. The analysis of suitable terrain considers the fit of the ski jump profile to the natural topography of the landscape as a deliberate goal of the project. Air Photo Interpretation The aerial view of the landscape allows visual identification of site condition, context, and change. The investigation of the site aerial photograph permits the identification and extrapolation of site conditions over time, namely, vegetative covers, landscape features, and land use patterns.  SLOPE CLASSIFICATION CLASS S L O P E GRADE  TERRAIN  CIRCULATION  LAND USE  VEGETATION  ALPINE SKI  AVALANCHE  fall line fall line cross slope cross slope cross slope cut and fill cut and fill cut and fill cut and fill uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon  intense intense intense moderate moderate moderate limited limited limited limited uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon  excellent excellent very good very good good good fair fair fair poor poor poor poor poor poor  flat beginner beginner beginner intermediate intermediate intermediate intermediate advanced advanced advanced advanced advanced extreme extreme  rare rare rare rare possible possible possible possible possible common common common common common common  —  2  3  4  10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100  10:1 5:1 4:1 3:1  2:1  1:1  gentle gentle moderate moderate moderate steep steep steep steep sheer sheer sheer sheer sheer sheer  Table 3.6 Project Slope Classification Criteria  analysis methods  driven by nature 19  Hypothetical Conjecture  Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes Oscar Wilde  T h e consideration of hypothetical conjecture derives from the realization that w e c a n learn from our mistakes. T h e theory of reason and experience a s s i g n s to rational arguments the modest and yet important role of criticizing our often mistaken attempts to solve our problems, and a s s i g n s to our observations the equally modest and important role of tests that may help us in the discovery of our mistakes. T h e theory stresses that knowledge c a n grow and that s c i e n c e can progress (Popper, 1963).  Phenomenology  Sensing is indispensable to being alive Kevin Lynch  T h e c o m m o n philosophical approach to the concept of place is phenomenology, the study of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the objects of direct experience. T h e site investigation of phenomenological experience and behaviour m e a n s to e x p a n d the b a s i s of knowledge and understanding a s to the relationship of the individual, the group, the environment, and the project. The consideration of phenomenological experience derives from the realization that the analysis of behaviour and experience are frequently technical and abstract, simplifying the world into easily represented structures or models that ignore much of the subtlety and significance of the everyday experience (Relph, 1976).  L a n d s c a p e Narrative  What we play is life Louis Armstrong  analysis methods  T h e landscape narrative attempts to w e a v e the nuances of scientific and experiential observation into a more fluid vision and description of the project. T h e consideration of the landscape narrative derives from the realization that conventional documentation, mapping, and surveys, or e v e n the formal concerns of d e s i g n , limit the breadth and subtlety of the imaginative landscape experience. Insights from literary theory, cultural geography, and visual art inform fascinating w a y s of knowing and shaping landscapes not typically a c k n o w l e d g e d by conventional m e a n s of scientific inquiry (Potteiger, 1998).  driven by nature 20  Process and Procedure Project Selection  The seed of an idea for the planning and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre as a graduate thesis project in Landscape Architecture developed from the familiarity and interest in alpine design and the opportunity to participate in the project of a lifetime, the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The consideration of the project began in the winter of 2002, and developed into a passion after watching the Salt Lake 2002 Winter Games continuously for the duration of the events, a significant statement for an individual who neither owns nor watches television. Site Investigation  Figure 3.7 Impact of snow movement on cedar trunk  Figure 3.8 Common Podzol soil profile of the forest  analysis methods  The site investigation began the summer of 2002, and extended into the fall season, until the winter snowfall impeded access to the site. The preliminary investigations consisted of general terrain familiarity, observation of site condition and features, and the determination of broad biogeoclimatic zonation. The detail scientific investigations of the site, namely, the determination of vegetative communities and their landform, ecology, moisture, and soil relationships, developed a significant understanding of the site condition and constituent processes for the purposes of landscape planning and design. The contextual and experiential investigations of the site expanded the scope to include the perspective of the Callaghan Valley and its relationship to the surrounding environment. The familiarity with the Coast Mountains and the alpine recreation experience was afforded by a 7 year Whistler residency and a passion for the outdoor experience. Site expeditions to the abandoned Northair Mine site, Alexander Falls, Callaghan Lake, Madeley Lake, Mount Callaghan, and Rainbow Mountain provided grounding in the present recreation perspective of the valley.  driven by nature 21  Color • • •  SLDPE CLASSIFICATION Range Beg, Ronge End 0.00 10.00 10.00 30.00 30,00 50,00 50,00 100.00 100.00 1000.00  Percent 23,4 38 8 23.9 12.6 1.0  Computer Generation Visual photographic analysis a n d digital terrain surface modelling were p r o d u c e d with a site aerial photograph a n d a 2-metre contour interval overlay derived from site aerial mapping by M c E l h a n n e y Consulting S e r v i c e s Ltd, dated D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0 . T h e visual analysis of site contour data in conjunction with t h e aerial photograph informed the identification of drainage c o u r s e s a n d l a n d s c a p e features. T h e terrain analysis, using A u t o C a d L a n d Development Desktop software, p r o d u c e d a digital surface m o d e l , a digital elevation banding m a p , a n d digital s l o p e classification m a p s for the p u r p o s e s of facility placement a n d road alignment propositions. T h e production of specific topographic sections w a s derived from the digital terrain surface model to aid in the a n a l y s i s a n d d e s i g n of the site, while a three dimensional model informed the production of the C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y a n d Whistler Nordic C e n t r e aerial perspectives. Narrative V i s i o n The exploration a n d production of landscape narratives followed the investigation and accumulation of conventional site information. The experiences of Callaghan Valley explorations a n d investigations informed the creation of l a n d s c a p e narrative visions in order to enlighten the conception of multiple site p r o p o s a l s . T h e l a n d s c a p e narrative subsequently s e r v e d a s a basis for the description a n d evaluation of these site proposals.  Color  • •  •• -  •  ELEVATION BANDING Range Beg Ronge End 650.00 750.00 750,00 850,00 850.00 950.00 950,00 1050,00 1050,00 1150.00 1150,00 1250.00  Percent 4.1 34.6 89,3 28.3 36 01  Figure 3.9 Slope and Elevation Digital Terrain Maps  analysis methods  Proposal Conjecture Three plausible d e s i g n proposals were suggested following the accumulation a n d assimilation of site a n a l y s i s information. T h e official V a n c o u v e r 2 0 1 0 proposal w a s one of the three s u g g e s t i o n s . T h e a d v a n c e m e n t of simple yet c o m p r e h e n s i v e criteria w e r e d e v e l o p e d in order to subject the design proposals to thorough evaluation a n d c o m p a r i s o n . T h e results of the p r o c e s s w e r e adjusted a n d integrated to c o n c e i v e the final design p r o p o s a l .  driven by nature 22  Chapter 4 Site Analysis T h e site a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e s the physiographic setting, environmental framework, a n d character basis of the broad C o a s t Mountain environment a n d the specific C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y setting. T h e objective of this section is to provide a portrait of the natural environmental influences of geology, landform, climate, a n d drainage, on the distribution a n d location of vegetation, soil, and s n o w patterns of the C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y . T h e description of environmental character e x p a n d s the s c o p e of the analysis to c o n s i d e r the context a n d e x p e r i e n c e of the site. T h e importance of thorough site analysis lies in the s u c c e s s f u l integration of a complex site program a n d a n inspiring natural setting, with respect for the biophysical conditions and p r o c e s s e s of the surrounding environment.  FY Mount Curry  A  Mount ;/ Callaghan  A  A A  2536  2285 Callaghan Lake?*, Rainbow, Mountain  Madeley • Lake  Powder Mountain • / /  Whistler* — - Kjoridic-j ii / Centre W AiexandenJjj.v-^1,  Brandywine Falls Mountain Metal ( I , A Dome \ i 2229 \ A S / V \ \ . \  7s  is  Emerald Estates  2328  A A  [pine *>")i Meadows-- ' . Northair Mine  S  Mount proatt  •/ Alt  1  -  xCfeen|  <9q  A  \ \ j <!V/  Wedge Mountain  P- ' / , • Lake -  A  2904  N  te*ter  /  ilackcomb W W ^ /  Brew Mountain  A  Brandywin J Falls  ~!  Creek \ \ Whistler j j M'buntaTrT | Whistler  Municipal Boundary i  BlackN Tusk  A 2318  2451  , \  ! ' / ' " Lake \  Peak A  Helm Peak I  ^v. Cheakamus / .." "Lake  f  T  Whirlwind Peak  A  A 2145  F i g u r e 4.1 Whistler Nordic Centre a n d Whistler Municipal Boundaries  site analysis  driven by nature 23  T h e C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y w a t e r s h e d is the p r i m a r y p l a n n i n g unit  Physiographic Setting Geology G e o l o g y is the foundation of natural history. T h e moving continents, rising mountain barriers, vast volcanic eruptions, and continental ice s h e e t s s h a p e d British Columbia's Coast Mountains. The C a l l a g h a n Valley terrain displays typical geologic formations of the C o a s t Mountains, namely, intrusive granitic rock, and layers of basaltic lava flows. In this broad context, the C a l l a g h a n Valley e m e r g e d a s an a r e a of high mineral and geothermal resource potential (Miller, 1979).  Landform Continental glaciation s c o u r e d and s h a p e d the present l a n d s c a p e formation, in a s l o w s e q u e n c e of erosion, transportation, a n d deposition of surficial glacial till, punctuated by s p o n t a n e o u s volcanic eruptions a n d flows of lava. T h e retreat of the glaciers provided the basis of l a n d s c a p e form, vegetation, in response to climate, terrain, and drainage characteristics. T h e C a l l a g h a n Valley site is comprised of several typical C o a s t Mountain landforms, namely, the lowland riparian corridors, the stepped upland plateaus, the mounded bedrock outcrops, the steep valley walls, and the jagged alpine p e a k s . T h e surface materials of the site consist of e x p o s e d bedrock, thick glacial drift deposits, and accumulations of granular alluvium deposits a n d colluvium rubble (Miller, 1979).  Climate  F i g u r e 4.2 Callaghan Valley Watershed Schematics s o l i d line - d r a i n a g e d a s h line - r o a d  site analysis  T h e C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y is representative of the moist maritime climate of the C o a s t Mountains. T h e high mountain ranges, d e e p valleys, and westerly winds from the o c e a n s along the C o a s t Mountains produce a climate of extreme rainfall, snowfall, and winds. T h e western s l o p e s of the mountains receive the brunt of the climatic assault, recording s o m e of the heaviest rainfalls and deepest snowfalls in North A m e r i c a , while the eastern lee s l o p e s of the mountains receive little precipitation. The Coast  driven by nature 24  F i g u r e 4.3 C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y W a t e r s h e d Isometric  Mountain climate is characterized by limited periods of sunshine and heavy s e a s o n a l precipitation. In winter, a s u c c e s s i o n of lowpressure s y s t e m s of moist air rises in contact with coastal s l o p e s , to produce cloudy, wet conditions, a n d vast quantities of snowfall that linger into m i d - s u m m e r at higher elevations ( C a n n i n g s , 1996). T h e site elevation (900 m) and location (lat 50 N long 123 W ) produces consistent winter s n o w depth (average 184 c m / 1 0 yrs), mild winter temperatures (average high - 1 . 0 C / 2 yrs), and gentle local wind m o v e m e n t (2.4 to 4.1 km / hr) travelling up the valley in the morning, and down the valley in the evening (Vancouver 2 0 1 0 , 2003).  Drainage  F i g u r e 4.4 Whistler Nordic Centre Site Analysis Z o n e s o l i d line - d r a i n a g e d a s h line - r o a d  site analysis  C a l l a g h a n C r e e k and its tributaries drain the C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y . This drainage s y s t e m originates from C a l l a g h a n L a k e (elevation 1200 m) at the b a s e of Mount C a l l a g h a n (peak elevation 2 4 0 0 m) and flowing south (length 18 km) to join the C h e a k a m u s River (elevation 600 m) a b o v e D a i s y L a k e , delineating the extents of the drainage watershed and primary z o n e of a n a l y s i s . A Callaghan Valley branch follows the Madeley C r e e k drainage, originating from Madeley L a k e (elevation 1000 m) and flowing south (length 5 km) to culminate at the dramatic A l e x a n d e r Falls (height 6 0 m), where the drainage joins C a l l a g h a n C r e e k (elevation 700 m) midway along its c o u r s e . T h e central valley location of the A l e x a n d e r Falls marks the entrance to the site, perched atop an upland plateau (elevation 900 m) at the western b a s e junction of R a i n b o w Mountain a n d Mount Sproatt. A central site ridgeline s e p a r a t e s two small drainage c o u r s e s flowing w e s t from two small lakes (elevation 1500 m) on the flanks of R a i n b o w and Sproatt. T h e R a i n b o w drainage course m e a n d e r s a c r o s s the rolling site terrain, through wetland m a r s h , to join M a d e l e y C r e e k (elevation 800 m) a b o v e A l e x a n d e r Falls, while the Sproatt drainage course travels south along the b a s e of the steep mountain s l o p e s to join C a l l a g h a n C r e e k (elevation 7 0 0 m) below  driven by nature 25  the falls. (Note: elevations a n d d i s t a n c e s are approximate)  Environmental Framework summer  Alpine Tundra Mountain Hemlock Western Hemlock  Environment  AT MH WH  F i g u r e 4.5 Callaghan Valley Ecosystem Schematic  T h e environmental setting of the western C o a s t Mountains p r o d u c e s three distinct climatic and vegetative e c o s y s t e m s , the Western Hemlock z o n e of the lower elevations, the Mountain H e m l o c k z o n e of the mid elevations, and the A l p i n e T u n d r a z o n e of the highest elevations. The C a l l a g h a n Valley (range 600 to 2 4 0 0 m) transitions through all three e c o s y s t e m z o n e s , while the mid valley site location (elevation 9 0 0 m) falls within the lower range of the subalpine Mountain H e m l o c k z o n e (range 900 to 1800 m). Short c o o l s u m m e r s , and long wet winters of heavy snow cover are characteristic of the c o a s t a l subalpine climate, where a short vegetative s e a s o n is the result of the lingering d e e p winter s n o w p a c k slow to d i s a p p e a r in spring (Meidinger, 1991).  W h i s t l e r N o r d i c C e n t r e S i t e Isometric  site analysis  driven by nature 26  Elevation  F i g u r e 4.7 I m a g e of C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y w e t l a n d b o g , forest s l o p e s , a n d alpine p e a k s  A s elevation i n c r e a s e s a b o v e the site boundaries, a shorter growing season results in a transformation of the e c o s y s t e m , influenced by an i n c r e a s e in wind e x p o s u r e winter s n o w p a c k depth, a n d a cooler temperate climate. T h e elevation of the valley, reflective of geologic, topographic, and climatic conditions determines the distinct vegetation and soil characteristics of specific site locations. In the Coast Mountain environment, a n i n c r e a s e in elevation generally results in a d e c r e a s e in forest productivity, with shallow less d e v e l o p e d soil profiles, a n d s l o w stunted vegetative growth at higher elevations (Meidinger, 1991).  lowland  plateau  slope  ridge  wetland  forest  forest  parkland  yellow cedar  p a c i f i c s i l v e r fir  mountain  mountain  mountain  p a c i f i c s i l v e r fir  p a c i f i c s i l v e r fir mountain  hemlock  hemlock  skunk cabbage  twistedstalk  blueberry  thick wet o r g a n i c  moderate moist  moderate  hemlock  moist  mountain  hemlock heather  t h i n d r y litter  F i g u r e 4.8 S c h e m a t i c M o u n t a i n H e m l o c k E c o s y s t e m a s s o c i a t i o n s of l a n d f o r m , e c o l o g y , v e g e t a t i o n , a n d soil  site analysis  driven by nature 27  Exposure  Figure 4.9 Schematic S e a s o n a l Wind Patterns  T h e microclimate of the site may exhibit surprising temporal and spatial variation d u e to the form of the topography, the surface material, the vegetative cover, the location of structures, and the proximity to water. The exposure to wind speed and temperature, and the e x p o s u r e to solar radiation in the native forest, will vary dependent upon the e x p o s u r e a s p e c t and material of the ground surface, and the s i z e , density, a n d type of vegetative cover (Lynch, 1997). T h e forested site, nestled in the valley at the toe of western s l o p e s , receives h e a v y precipitation while afforded wind protection from the proximity of the surrounding hillsides. T h e impact of wet winter south westerly winds, while moderate along the valley floor, protected by the extensive tree canopy and valley topography, i n c r e a s e s with elevation along the western e x p o s e d s l o p e s of the site. T h e e v i d e n c e of random windfall and tree topping at 30 metres displays the predominant southwest winter storm direction and the height of the forceful wind s h e a r line. T h e location of the site at the toe of western s l o p e s s h a d e s the a r e a from early morning s u n , with full e x p o s u r e to midday a n d afternoon solar radiation. T h e solar geometry of the site ranges from a low winter solstice solar altitude of 17 d e g r e e s to a high s u m m e r solar altitude of 64 d e g r e e s . T h e temporal range of solar e x p o s u r e varies s e a s o n a l l y from a minimal 8 hours of daylight at winter solstice to a maximal 16 hours of daylight at s u m m e r solstice.  Vegetation  Figure 4.10 Schematic Seasonal Solar Exposure  site analysis  T h e C a l l a g h a n Valley landform displays the typical d e n s e riparian vegetation and moist wetland bogs of the mountain valley floor, the heavily forested steep valley walls, and the high alpine rocky m e a d o w s of the C o a s t Mountain R a n g e of British C o l u m b i a . T h e primary tree s p e c i e s of the moist maritime Mountain H e m l o c k e c o s y s t e m are yellow cedar, predominant in wetlands, pacific silver fir, predominant in lower moist s l o p e s ,  driven by nature 28  F i g u r e 4.11 Image of the d o m i n a n t m o u n t a i n h e m l o c k tree s p e c i e s  and mountain hemlock, the climax s p e c i e s of the z o n e , predominant in d e n s e stands of old growth forest. T h e predominant shrub s p e c i e s of the site e c o s y s t e m , abundant in forest clearings, are oval-leaf blueberry, A l a s k a n blueberry, a n d black huckleberry, while deer fern a n d m o s s dominate the forest floor. S c a r c e tree s p e c i e s of the site e c o s y s t e m , found at lower elevations, are western hemlock, western red cedar, D o u g l a s fir, and western white pine, with succession tree species, of black cottonwood, and red alder found in a r e a s of disturbance. T h e representative vegetative site associations consist of yellow cedar, mountain hemlock, and s k u n k c a b b a g e in wetlands, mountain hemlock, pacific silver fir, and blueberry in forests, and mountain hemlock, pacific silver fir, a n d mountain heather in parkland. Mountain H e m l o c k forests are generally confined to the lower elevations of the z o n e , w h e r e increasing elevation thins the forest into a parkland mosaic of isolated and irregular tree patches along ridge crests, interspersed with subalpine heath, meadow, and fen vegetation (Meidinger, 1991).  Soil  Figure 4.12 I m a g e of the m o s a i c p a r k l a n d l a n d s c a p e  site analysis  The mountain landform, coniferous vegetation, high precipitation, and moderate temperature of the Coast Mountains generally produce very thin wet acid soils, with intense chemical and biological transformations. T h e C a l l a g h a n V a l l e y soils display the characteristic s e q u e n c e of bare rock or thin organic forest debris (Folisol) and thin mineral layers of high elevation slopes and ridge crests, the free draining moist acid soils ( P o d z o l ) a n d considerable glacial till deposits of the d e n s e mid elevation coniferous forest, and the thick d a m p organic acid peat (Fibrisol) or the thin unstable alluvial s a n d a n d gravels ( R e g o s o l ) of the low elevation valley floor wetland bog or riparian floodplain. T h e soil distribution within the valley a n d the site displays a pattern recurrence at multiple s c a l e s of observation, where the broad soil distribution pattern of the e c o s y s t e m is  driven by nature 29  reflected in the local terrain variability of the site.  Wildlife  Figure 4.13 V i e w s of C a l l a g h a n L a k e a n d M o u n t Callaghan from Callaghan Provincial Park  T h e Mountain Hemlock z o n e supports fewer and l e s s frequent wildlife s p e c i e s than the diverse and abundant habitats of the lower elevation W e s t e r n H e m l o c k z o n e . T h e site combination and p r e s e n c e of old growth forest, streams, m a r s h , a n d bogs increases the potential wildlife value of the site e c o s y s t e m . C o m m o n wildlife s p e c i e s typical of the site e c o s y s t e m may include Black-tail Deer, C o u g a r , B l a c k B e a r , S n o w s h o e Hare, Northern Flying Squirrel, D o u g l a s Squirrel, Great Horned O w l , G r e a t G r e y O w l , Blue Grouse, Northern Flicker, Pileated W o o d p e c k e r , Hairy W o o d p e c k e r , C o m m o n R a v e n , a n d potential s p e c i e s at risk of Grizzly B e a r , Mountain B e a v e r , and Tailed Frog (Meidinger, 1991).  Character Basis Context  Figure 4.14 V i e w s of B r a n d y w i n e M o u n t a i n a n d M e t a l D o m e f r o m the site l o c a t i o n  T h e C a l l a g h a n Valley land, owned by the provincial government, rests within the traditional territories of the Lil'wat and Squamish First Nations, serving the purposes of resource a n d recreation commercial activities under a crown land tenure s y s t e m . T h e heart of the site, o n c e considered a s a potential alpine ski a r e a b a s e , displays the remains of high grade logging practices, with the select removal of yellow cedar, leaving the scattered stands of the native mountain hemlock s p e c i e s . T h e surrounding environment displays large clearings of more recent forest resource extraction, and the industrial remnants of the a b a n d o n e d Northair Mine, at the southern extents of the site.  Recreation  Figure 4.15 V i e w s of the a b a n d o n e d Northair M i n e site and Mount Callaghan  site analysis  The mid mountain elevations of the Mountain Hemlock z o n e c o m m o n l y supports the potential for recreation activity growth of hiking and skiing trails, ski resorts, provincial and national parks. The commercial  driven by nature 30  recreation activities of the C a l l a g h a n Valley consist of ski touring a n d lodging, heliskiing, s n o w m o b i l e a n d all-terrain vehicle tours, and fishing expeditions, with supplemental informal activities of c r o s s country skiing, s n o w shoeing, hiking, c a n o e i n g , a n d c a m p i n g . T h e p r e s e n c e of C a l l a g h a n L a k e Provincial Park, M a d e l e y Lake Forest R e c r e a t i o n Site, and A l e x a n d e r Falls Forest R e c r e a t i o n S i t e demonstrate the quality and suitability of the C a l l a g h a n Valley a s a recreation a r e a .  Character  F i g u r e 4.16 S c h e m a t i c of L a n d s c a p e F e a t u r e s  T h e inherent character of the site derives from the particular a s s o c i a t i o n s of ecology, morphology, and climate, dependent upon o n e another, a n d the h u m a n perception of the l a n d s c a p e . T h e essential harmony and character of the living community displays a c o m m o n pattern, a c o m m o n history, and associations of common details. The landscape is a n equilibrium of surface, drainage, cover, a n d p u r p o s e , a natural balance of form and function. T h e decisive separation of transitory or disappearing features from more permanent or emergent characteristics favours a n d distinguishes the nature of the site. T h e aesthetic beauty of the landscape, areas of noteworthy ecological importance, and remnant patterns of cultural significance provide elements of intrinsic site atmosphere (Lynch, 1977). The Callaghan Valley mountain l a n d s c a p e s of old growth forests, wetlands, a n d s t r e a m s , punctuated by the thunderous A l e x a n d e r Falls, create a site of impressive innate diversity a n d interest.  Experience  F i g u r e 4.17 S c h e m a t i c of S u r r o u n d i n g M o u n t a i n P e a k s  site analysis  T h e behaviour and interaction of human beings toward o n e another and in r e s p o n s e to the l a n d s c a p e is a critical a s p e c t of the site analysis. The conceptual and experiential boundaries of s p a c e a n d time form the basis of h u m a n adaptation between physical l a n d s c a p e and behaviour response. T h e sights, s o u n d s , and scents of  driven by nature 31  the site influence the s e n s u o u s form of the place, while the history, context, and future vision instil meaning to the l a n d s c a p e (Lynch, 1977). T h e aural quality and experience of hidden rippling stream water creates a c o m p l e x mental image and air of mystery to the d e n s e forest l a n d s c a p e . T h e bog and m a r s h clearings alter the spatial context of the forest, creating a n o p e n e x p a n s e of s p a c e , with a distinctive vegetative texture, a definitive visual forest edge, and a complementary scenic background vista of s n o w - c a p p e d mountain ranges. T h e majesty, s c a l e , and girth of the h e m l o c k s , firs, a n d c e d a r s , a n d the s p a r s e vegetative understory of blueberry, fern, and m o s s , of the native old growth forest provides a unique s e n s e of spatial enclosure a n d continuity below the soaring d e n s e vegetative c a n o p y .  Figure 4.18 V i e w of A l e x a n d e r F a l l s  Clearing T h e select clearing of forest trees creates a visual complexity and diversity of s p a c e and light, extending visual a c c e s s to significant features, distant landmarks, and o p e n sky, recalling the experiential sensation of the natural parkland l a n d s c a p e of higher coast mountain elevations. T h e large open e x p a n s e s of c o m m e r c i a l forest cultivation, unsightly in visual and ecological aesthetic, provide opportunities for wide visual a c c e s s to the vast mountain terrain, and regions of ecological disturbance readily available for mitigation, restoration, or facility development.  Material  Figure 4.19 V i e w d o w n the g o r g e f r o m A l e x a n d e r F a l l s  site analysis  The delight of the natural surface textures of rock, water, a n d plants, set a harmonious visual character that unifies the s c e n e . R o c k , the primary b a s e material, in the form of cliffs, and outcrops, c o m m u n i c a t e s a s e n s e of m a s s and a feeling of connection to the surface of the earth, expressing strength and p e r m a n e n c e . Water, the elemental fluid, simple in nature yet extremely varied in effect, present in features of streams, lakes, and b o g s , altered in forms of mist, rain, and s n o w ,  driven by nature 32  Figure 4.20 Image of the w e t l a n d m a r s h  site analysis  mobile in actions of trickle, ripple, and surge, a n d perceived in s e n s e s of sight, sound, and touch, communicates an intimate connection with life. Water e v o k e s feelings of joy, serenity, sorrow, mystery, majesty, contentment, and sheer voluptuousness, creating a centre of interest in the l a n d s c a p e . T r e e s , shrubs, and herbaceous plants, the basic natural c o m p o n e n t s of l a n d s c a p e composition, complement the organization of outdoor s p a c e with a variety of colour, texture, and form, providing site structure, enclosure, and shelter in harmony with the surrounding l a n d s c a p e (Lynch, 1977).  driven by nature 3 3  Chapter 5 Site Evaluation T h e Olympic Narratives will serve a s a tool to critically e x a m i n e three site proposals, Whistler, C a l l a g h a n , and Northair, through the eyes of an O l y m p i c spectator. T h e power of the narrative thread lies in the ability to w e a v e the n u a n c e s of site form, function, a n d experience into a sequential story that is more readily c o m p r e h e n s i b l e by all o b s e r v e r s , in conjunction with a conventional plan presentation. T h e c o m p a r i s o n of the proposals will further consist of description, evaluation, and selection in order to inform the successful planning and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre. The land unit map, informed by the site analyis, identifies broad landscape planning zones suitable for the placement of venues and their supporting facilities  F i g u r e 5.1 L a n d Unit M a p  site evaluation  driven by nature 34  Landscape Narratives I m a g i n e , t h e y e a r 2010 of the V a n c o u v e r O l y m p i c G a m e s . . . T h e 2 hour travel from V a n c o u v e r on the Olympic b u s s e s to witness firsthand O l y m p i c history s e e m e d short due to the anticipation and jubilation of my fellow sport enthusiasts and the magnificent s c e n i c display of the C o a s t Mountain l a n d s c a p e . T h e boisterous atmosphere increased a s we turned off the S e a to S k y Highway to a p p r o a c h the Whistler Nordic Centre, site of all four Nordic events, C r o s s Country, Biathlon, S k i J u m p , a n d Nordic C o m b i n e d . W e s a w glimpses of the Whistler Olympic Village, temporary h o m e of the O l y m p i c athletes, a s w e pulled up behind the Finnish National T e a m v a n starting the winding 8 km road up the C a l l a g h a n Valley. The athletes would endure a m u c h shorter commute from the Whistler O l y m p i c Village located at the highway junction, a short 12 minute drive from the O l y m p i c Nordic facilities. T h e concept that with a single ticket we could witness several events in o n e d a y had us very excited, since most of us would only get one c h a n c e to s e e t h e s e popular events during the O l y m p i c G a m e s , and w e wanted to s e e it all. W e had planned our day to s e e a little of all three events. First, to s e e to the daring ski jumpers propel t h e m s e l v e s into oblivion in the morning, s e c o n d to watch biathlon trials while we ate lunch in the grand outdoors, and finally to watch the c r o s s country athletes in a freestyle event. W e b e g a n to observe our scenic surroundings as we travelled through glistening s n o w d r a p e d coniferous forests, catching postcard g l i m p s e s of majestic mountain p e a k s in the distance. T h e rising s u n b e a m e d rays of light a c r o s s the vast forest valley floor a s it crested the winter white alpine ridges of Mount Sproat a n d Rainbow Mountain. My companions on this journey began to stir anxiously a s w e knew w e w e r e now s o c l o s e to the much-anticipated Olympic s p e c t a c l e of our lives... Imagine, the W h i s t l e r p r o p o s a l T h e bus s l o w e d to take a sharp uphill corner, w h e n the sight of parking stalls lining the a p p r o a c h road and a m a s s flurry of people in the street alluded to the proximity of the O l y m p i c site. T h e bus p r o c e e d e d up the winding 2 km road and pulled into a large parking lot atop what s e e m e d to be a n elevated plateau against the western flank of Mount Sproat. T h e bus pulled up  site evaluation  driven by nature 35  alongside a s e a of similar b u s s e s , where thousands of anxious spectators w e r e milling about. W e followed the flow of the crowds towards a m a s s i v e gathering at the north end of the parking facility. W e were now facing the gates to the C r o s s Country S t a d i u m , and were informed the S k i J u m p and Biathlon R a n g e were a short walking d i s t a n c e north along the a c c e s s road. W e proceeded to undertake the walk towards the Ski J u m p , along a forested a c c e s s road, where v a n s m e a n d e r e d through the marching crowd, driving past with athletes and officials on board. T h e road, lined with towering coniferous trees, followed the toe of Mount Sproat, crossing below a skier bridge, where the looming hillside s h a d e d our walk on that cool winter morning. T h e promised short walk s e e m e d to drag on a s 20 minutes p a s s e d until w e finally caught a glimpse of the S k i J u m p facility in the distance. W e had heard of the impressive design of the S k i J u m p that w a s carved from the s t e e p mountain terrain. T h e S k i J u m p w a s a sight to behold. T h e jump ramps fit the natural terrain of the hillside, s e a m l e s s l y blending with the surrounding old growth forest s l o p e . W e p a s s e d a fork in the road that led toward the Biathlon R a n g e , noticing, in the distance, another skier bridge road c r o s s i n g , but no skiers were to be s e e n since the events had not yet begun. W e walked towards the looming ski jumps for another 5 minutes until w e approached the hoards at the gates to the jump v e n u e . O n c e w e had c r o s s e d the security gates, w e immediately proceeded up the slope to reach the coveted hillside s e a t s along the flanks of the ski jumps, w h e r e w e sat in a m a z e m e n t at the flying flashes of human daring. T h e mountain vistas to the west were spectacular, aglow in the late morning s u n that began to warm us a s w e sat against the hillside. W e were surprised at the lack of wind at this elevation and e x p o s u r e , likely due to the bowl s h a p e of the surrounding s l o p e . W e o p e n e d our site map to locate the Biathlon R a n g e , our planned lunch destination. W e observed how the range w a s nestled tightly against the toe of a southern slope aspect, to provide a backdrop for the shooting range and a favourable northern direction for target sighting. Although, after enduring a cool s h a d y morning, a long walk to the S k i J u m p , and pondering our present favoured location sitting along the sun drenched jump flank, we decided that the walking distance and north-facing spectator stands were unappealing on this cool winter day. W e summarily d e c i d e d to stay at the S k i J u m p v e n u e , and eat our pack lunch, basking in the warm winter s u n s h i n e . W e were more than happy we c h o s e to watch the K 1 2 0 S k i J u m p Final. T h e hometown crowd w a s euphoric to watch history unfold a s two C a n a d i a n jumpers finished in the top three, with the ever-powerful Norwegian jumper winning gold. T h e jubilant crowd b e g a n shuffling from their seats, and started the long half hour journey down the a c c e s s road, in anticipation of the afternoon 10 km C r o s s Country event. The return journey w a s more pleasurable than the dark morning march, a s we were now walking south, and the s u n w a s shining through the overhead forest canopy. If the distance w e r e not s o great, w e would have loved to watch a little of the Biathlon event, since w e had never s e e n the sport live, let alone the O l y m p i c Biathlon. A s w e reached our original morning arrival point, next to the bus parking lot, o n c e again w e were subject to waiting in line for security s e a r c h e s , a s we m a d e our way through the C r o s s Country security gates towards the stadium. W e o b s e r v e d the separate athlete entrance behind the security gate in the b a c k g r o u n d , with vehicle a c c e s s to the small international village of team huts located along the outside of the stadium, where skiers were warming up for the big event. At this point w e  site evaluation  driven by nature 36  decided to wait in line o n c e more for the portable 'blue box' w a s h r o o m facilities prior to making our way into the stadium. W e noticed how the long stadium a n d trail loop clearing in the forest o c c u p i e d an exceptional broad linear plateau in the midst of the surrounding rolling l a n d s c a p e . W e proceeded to our s e a t s , which f a c e d d u e east, placing the broad western flank of Mount Sproat a s a s c e n e backdrop with the s u n s h i n e at our backs. W e d e c i d e d to m a k e our way to the very top of the stadium, w h e r e w e could look back towards the beautiful western mountain vista and the glaring w a r m sunshine, between forward g l a n c e s at the C r o s s Country event. T h e eastern viewing direction w a s great for placing the athletes in the best sunlight e x p o s u r e , although unfortunately w e w e r e not allowed to bring our c a m e r a to the event. O n c e again the crowd went crazy a s our C a n a d i a n C r o s s Country Q u e e n , B e c k y Scott, w o n the gold medal in the 10 k m event, a n d her third straight O l y m p i c podium finish. O n c e the crowd s u b s i d e d , w e thought it would be great to crown this special day and s p e n d the rest of the afternoon on a sun s o a k e d patio enjoying the w a r m winter sunshine in celebration of our victories. T h e reality sunk in w h e n w e realized all that w a s left to do w a s board the bus for the long journey b a c k to V a n c o u v e r , with the strict prohibition of alcohol e n route, enforced by the security officers aboard e a c h bus. O u r celebrations would h a v e to wait for the evening indoor m e d a l c e r e m o n i e s at B C P l a c e Stadium. A s I look b a c k n o w in fond memory of the day, the S k i J u m p v e n u e stood out a s the premier O l y m p i c facility at the Whistler Nordic C e n t r e , and I only w i s h the facilities would h a v e b e e n a little c l o s e r s o I could h a v e s e e n all three events.  Imagine, the Callaghan proposal  F i g u r e 5.3 Callaghan Proposal  site evaluation  A h e a d in the distance, w e could s e e a glorious timber park lodge through the s e m i frozen bus w i n d o w s . W e slowly a p p r o a c h e d the lodge, following a train of b u s s e s into a terminal drop off z o n e , where w e would disembark, and the bus would continue on to a n offsite parking facility. A s w e s t e p p e d from the bus, onto a wide platform, w e could hear the thunderous roar of the nearby A l e x a n d e r Falls, and quickly ran to the e d g e to have a look at the c a s c a d i n g frozen s p e c t a c l e of myriad colours glistening in the s u n s h i n e . S e v e r a l ice climbers were b a l a n c e d on the s h e a r ice face in a slow meticulous display of p e r s e v e r a n c e towards the top of the falls, a demonstration sport for the amusement of the  driven by nature 37  awaiting crowds. T o the west, a wonderful vista of s n o w c a p p e d mountains s p r e a d forth before our e y e s , in full morning glory. While scanning the surrounding environment, in the far distance, through a clearing in the majestic trees, w e o b s e r v e d the top of the S k i J u m p v e n u e to the northeast, clinging to the side of Mount Sproat. T o the north, the wonderful lodge at the end of the short cliff top walkway, perched high atop the waterfall gorge, would be the central gateway and security checkpoint to the Whistler Nordic Centre. O n c e w e cleared the security gate, w e were free to partake in the festive lodge facility and activity distractions. T h e provision of complimentary warm coffee and tea w a s a w e l c o m e addition to our cool morning e s c a p a d e , and w e p r o c e e d e d to the shuttle service that would ferry us the 1.3 km distance up to the multiple O l y m p i c sport v e n u e s . A l o n g the short meandering drive, w e noticed a forest clearing with standing d e a d trees and a group of curious crows, obviously a marsh habitat that allowed a short glimpse of the mountains in the background. T h e road began to climb steeply along an e x p o s e d cliff face, rounding a corner to arrive at our destination atop a perched hillside plateau. F r o m the central drop off, all v e n u e s were in c l o s e proximity, and w e p r o c e e d e d to c o v e r the short 10 minute walk toward the Ski J u m p looming powerfully in our midst. W e immediately proceeded up the slope to reach the coveted hillside s e a t s along the flanks of the ski jump, where we sat in a m a z e m e n t at the flying flashes of human daring. T h e mountain vistas to the west were spectacular, aglow in the late morning s u n that b e g a n to w a r m us a s we sat against the hillside. W e were surprised at the lack of wind at this elevation and exposure, likely due to the bowl s h a p e of the surrounding s l o p e . W e w e r e more than happy we c h o s e to watch the morning K 1 2 0 S k i J u m p Final. T h e hometown crowd w a s euphoric to watch history unfold a s two C a n a d i a n jumpers finished in the top three, with the ever-powerful Norwegian jumper winning gold. T h e jubilant crowd b e g a n shuffling from their seats, and started the short ten minute journey down the brightly sunlit a c c e s s road, in anticipation of the afternoon 10 km C r o s s Country event. M a n y people c h o s e to board the shuttles to the main lodge for lunch, while we d e c i d e d to watch Biathlon trials, with pack lunch in h a n d , basking in the w a r m noon sunshine at the Biathlon R a n g e . T h e Biathlon R a n g e w a s carved into the east face of a knoll a s a backdrop for the shooting range, with a favourable morning s u n e x p o s u r e for target sighting, while the stadium seating faced west favouring a n afternoon sun e x p o s u r e for spectators. Although there were no official Biathlon events today, w e were glad to watch our national team m e m b e r s train, and we e v e n got the c h a n c e to meet the reigning R u s s i a n world c h a m p i o n , since he w a s feeling unrestrained at the moment, and there w e r e very few spectators present. H e w a s a great fan of our wild B C S o c k e y e s a l m o n , and sequestered recommendations from the crowd for their favourite Whistler restaurant, to which we responded without hesitation, Nirvana. W e walked the short 5 minute distance toward the C r o s s Country Stadium in great anticipation of the 10 km ski event. A l o n g our journey, w e d e c i d e d to use o n e of the portable 'blue box' w a s h r o o m facilities, conveniently located adjacent to all the v e n u e s , prior to making our w a y into the stadium. U p o n our entrance to the stadium, w e noticed how the long stands and trail loop clearing in the forest o c c u p i e d an exceptionally broad linear plateau in the midst of the surrounding rolling l a n d s c a p e . W e p r o c e e d e d to our seats, facing due west, with an outstanding visual composition of glistening white s n o w in the foreground, a majestic middle ground of towering mountain hemlock and silver fir, and a stunning alpine background vista of high alpine p e a k s and limitless blue sky. A c r o s s the stadium field lie the international village of white team huts, strewn the length  site evaluation  driven by nature 38  of the course along the tree line, with a bustle of h u m a n activity a s athletes prepared themselves for the big event. W e immensely enjoyed our afternoon in the stadium stands, basking in the late winter sunshine, and the thrill of international competition. O n c e again, the crowd went crazy a s our C a n a d i a n C r o s s Country Q u e e n , B e c k y Scott, won the gold medal in the 10 km event, her third straight Olympic podium finish. T h e jubilant crowd spilled from the stadium in festive fashion, in the determined direction of the sunny streamside lodge and its grand patio facility. T h e crowd flowed a s one down the bright hillside a c c e s s road to partake in an impromptu victory p a r a d e , past soaring cliff faces, e x p a n s i v e wetland clearings, to culminate at the thunderous A l e x a n d e r Falls, and the adjacent A l e x a n d e r L o d g e . T h e alpine lodge featured a n extensive outdoor lookout deck, which s e r v e d a s the V I P lounge for officials and athletes, overlooking the makeshift ground level winter patio for spectators. W e thought it would be great to crown this special day and s p e n d the rest of the afternoon on a s u n s o a k e d patio enjoying the winter sunshine in celebration of our victories. Upon the a p p e a r a n c e of B e c k y Scott on the upper level d e c k , the crowd burst into cheer and a moving rendition of the national anthem, which brought tears of joy to the e y e s of all. Later that afternoon, the crowd slowly began to dissipate a s people started to board the return b u s s e s for V a n c o u v e r , while we g a z e d at the spectacular red-orange s u n s e t between the p e a k s of Brandywine Mountain a n d Metal D o m e . W e boarded the last bus for V a n c o u v e r in the waning daylight, with fond m e m o r i e s of the day's events and a renewed appreciation for the spectacular natural winter bounty of the British C o l u m b i a l a n d s c a p e .  Imagine, the Northair proposal A s w e travelled the winding forest road, w e g l a n c e d uphill catching a glimpse of the soaring S k i J u m p v e n u e , and shortly following, another g l i m p s e of a rustic alpine lodge atop a clear promontory. T h e b u s s l o w e d a s w e rounded the corner to begin the ascent towards the Olympic sport facilities, and the drop z o n e at the central Northair L o d g e , serving a s the primary site destination and security checkpoint. T h e bus would continue a little distance beyond the lodge to a parking terrace cut along a lower western flank of the site, the location of a previous m a s s i v e forest clearing devastated by the commercial  site evaluation  driven by nature 3 9  logging industry. A s w e m a d e our way off the bus, the brush of a cool winter b r e e z e , and the e x p a n s e of the mountain l a n d s c a p e vista before us, a w o k e our spirits in anticipation of the marvellous day a h e a d . T o the southeast, we could clearly s e e the extent of the S k i J u m p nestled snugly against the western flank of Mount Sproat. With our first event destination in sight, w e proceeded to take our place in the long q u e u e before the security gates at the lodge entrance. O n c e we cleared the security gate, w e quickly m a d e our w a y through the lodge, with its souvenir vendors and food stalls, to the vast o p e n p l a z a b e y o n d . T h e Olympic P l a z a w a s a bustle of activity, with thousands of spectators enjoying the early morning s u n s h i n e and a warm cup of coffee. Directly a h e a d of us to the sunny east, lie the entrance to the Biathlon R a n g e , while to the north, lie the entrance to the C r o s s Country S t a d i u m . In the distance, the S k i J u m p lie to the southeast of the lodge, in full view of all spectators of an early morning sunrise. With S k i J u m p in sight, w e b e g a n the kilometre long journey toward the sport facility. T h e a c c e s s road followed the top of a natural ridge in the landscape, between the primary drainage c o u r s e of C a l l a g h a n C r e e k and a smaller riparian corridor at the b a s e of Mount Sproat. B r o a d visual distractions to the surrounding mountain l a n d s c a p e , and side g l i m p s e s of jump training in the distance, perceptually shortened the twenty-minute walk along the e x p o s e d linear ridge road. Upon our arrival to the jump facility, w e immediately p r o c e e d e d up the slope to reach the coveted hillside seats along the flanks of the ski jump, where we sat in a m a z e m e n t at the flying flashes of h u m a n daring. W e marvelled at the range of vision from our s e a t s , while w e pulled a blanket from our bag to warm our bodies and shield us from the cool southeast winter b r e e z e . After watching the preliminary jump training, w e d e c i d e d to warm up by hiking the thousand-step walkway.to the top of the knoll a b o v e the S k i J u m p . At the top of the mount, is a dramatic lookout promontory of idyllic position in the landscape. W e thought w e could s e e to the e n d s of the earth, or at least to the mouth of the valley at H o w e S o u n d . T o the south, lie the striking p e a k s of Garibaldi Provincial Park, and the arresting volcanic cinder c o n e , known a s the Black Tusk. Behind us were the remnant ruins of the Northair G o l d Mine and tailings pond, casually hidden under a fresh blanket of s n o w . After absorbing our majestic surroundings for a while, w e returned to our seats at the Ski J u m p v e n u e . W e were more than happy we c h o s e to watch the morning K 1 2 0 S k i J u m p Final. T h e hometown crowd w a s euphoric to watch history unfold a s two C a n a d i a n jumpers finished in the top three, with the ever-powerful Norwegian jumper winning gold. T h e jubilant crowd began shuffling from their seats, and started the twenty-minute return journey along the sunny ridge road toward Northair L o d g e , in anticipation of the afternoon 10 km C r o s s Country event. T h e open flanks of the s l o p e below us served a s the m a s s i v e stepped parking facility, where the s e a of cars created a n interestingly colourful m o s a i c in the foreground, although s o m e h o w oddly out of place from the surrounding alpine vista. W e returned to the Olympic P l a z a , where gargantuan barbeques were in full blazing heat, roasting an Olympic fare of wild s a l m o n and g o o s e for the ravenous crowd. T h e adjacent skating rink, and demonstration figure skaters, provided c a s u a l entertainment for interested spectators. W e d e c i d e d to take our lunch with us, and proceed to the Biathlon R a n g e , a mere skip and a jump away. T h e Biathlon R a n g e occupied a natural depression in the terrain, providing an opposing steep slope for the firing backdrop, a compact lowland area for the skier range, and an adjacent natural slope for proper seating placement and spectator viewing. T h e eastern a s p e c t of the range allowed us to enjoy the remaining late morning s u n s h i n e a s we ate our lunch in  site evaluation  driven by nature 40  the cool outdoors. Although there w e r e no official Biathlon events today, w e were glad to watch our national team m e m b e r s train, and we even got the c h a n c e to meet the reigning R u s s i a n world c h a m p i o n , since he w a s feeling unrestrained at the moment, and there were very few spectators present. He w a s a great fan of our wild B C S o c k e y e s a l m o n , and sequestered recommendations from the crowd for their favourite Whistler restaurant, to which we responded without hesitation, Nirvana. W e traversed the short distance a c r o s s the Olympic P l a z a toward the C r o s s Country Stadium in great anticipation of the 10 km ski event. W e d e c i d e d to quickly return to the Northair L o d g e to use the w a s h r o o m facilities prior to making our way into the stadium. W e o b s e r v e d the small international village of team huts located along the outside of the stadium, where skiers were warming up for the big event. U p o n our entrance to the stadium, we noticed how the long spectator stands and trail loop clearing in the forest o c c u p i e d a broad linear ledge between adjacent steep s l o p e s . T h e rising eastern slope provided the natural topographic setting for the stadium stands, facing due west, with a stunning alpine view to the mountain peaks in the distance, while the fading western s l o p e dropped to the e d g e of a glistening white clearing punctuated by s p a r s e yellow cedar, a beautiful wetland bog setting. W e immensely enjoyed our afternoon in the stadium stands, basking in the late winter sunshine, and the thrill of international competition. O n c e again, the crowd went crazy a s our C a n a d i a n C r o s s Country Q u e e n , B e c k y Scott, won the gold medal in the 10 km event, her third straight Olympic podium finish. T h e jubilant crowd spilled from the stadium into the nearby O l y m p i c P l a z a for the festive celebration of Olympic achievement. P e o p l e were o v e r c o m e with joy for the momentous a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s of our national athletes. W e thought it would be great to crown this special day and spend the rest of the afternoon at the O l y m p i c P l a z a . T h e sound of music from the lodge filled the plaza with life, a s people d a n c e d with excitement in the glow of a w a r m afternoon s u n . National flags of the victorious athletes were hoisted high a b o v e the plaza, to the thunderous cheers of the restless crowd. U p o n the a p p e a r a n c e of the C a n a d i a n flag, the crowd burst into cheer and a moving rendition of the national a n t h e m , which brought tears of joy to the e y e s of all. U p o n recent visits to the Northair L o d g e , the fond memory of past Olympic glory burns bright in my heart. T h e kids, too young to remember the events, stare in a w e at the s c a l e of the S k i J u m p , and love the steep ascent to the Northair L a k e s u m m e r swimming hole and winter skating centre. T h e greatest thrill for the kids is to stare d o w n the axis of the jump, and imagine, for a brief moment, I can fly...  site evaluation  driven by nature 41  Proposal Description T h e preliminary design proposal configurations will serve a s a tool to critically e x a m i n e the strengths and w e a k n e s s e s of three site proposals, Whistler, C a l l a g h a n , and Northair, in order to evaluate and compare plausible alternate design proposals for the p u r p o s e s of l a n d s c a p e planning and design. T h e power of the proposal evaluation procedure rests in the ability to critically a s s e s s comparative site form, function, and experience through the use of simple criteria indicative of broad imperative and program goals.  Whistler Proposal T h e Whistler P r o p o s a l reflects the official V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid Corporation site layout for the proposed Whistler Nordic Centre. T h e optimal site placement for e a c h event v e n u e w a s considered in the careful selection of facility locations by individual sport organizations and specialists. T h e resultant site planning generates a linear sequential progression to the site in r e s p o n s e to individual sport v e n u e placement, with extensive site distance between facilities, and multiple conflicts between site a c c e s s and sport facility networks.  WHISTLER PROPOSAL S T R E N G T H  W E A K N E S S  facility protection from wind ski jump topographic fit cross country stadium plateau location biathlon range aspect and slope backdrop preservation and restoration of valley international sport legacy valley recreation legacy  OPPORTUNITY  access and facility conflict lack of site image and identity long length of access road long venue walking distance lack of central lodge facility biathlon range susceptibility to drainage course difficult summer program success lack of tourist attraction interest level and proximity of commercial forestry extent of motorized recreation distance to village location  T H R E A T  T a b l e 5.5 W h i s t l e r S W O T A n a l y s i s  Callaghan Proposal T h e C a l l a g h a n P r o p o s a l reflects the desire to a d d r e s s the issues of site efficiency, connectivity, and experience while maintaining the approximate venue locations of the original proposal. T h e consideration of the site a s a whole w a s central to the theme of the proposal, relocating the site entrance road, and adjusting the locations and orientations of the c r o s s country and biathlon v e n u e s to increase positive climatic exposure, v e n u e proximity, visual connectivity, and ecological sensitivity. T h e C a l l a g h a n Proposal extended the boundaries to e n c o m p a s s the A l e x a n d e r Falls a s an entrance gateway and visual axis to the site in linear extension of the ski jump alignment.  site evaluation  driven by nature 4 2  CALLAGHAN PROPOSAL STRENGTH  WEAKNESS  facility protection from wind ski jump topographic fit cross country stadium plateau location site visual identity and entrance lodge facility venue alignment to mountain viewscape central site access and venue proximity spectator venue aspect and solar exposure recognition and connection to Alexander Falls integration of aesthetic wetland habitat exposure and interest for Alexander Falls preservation and restoration of valley international sport legacy valley recreation legacy  long length of access road lack of central lodge facility disturbance of wetland ecosystem difficult summer program success lack of tourist attraction interest level and proximity of commercial forestry extent of motorized recreation distance to village location  OPPORTUNITY  THREAT  T a b l e 5.6 C a l l a g h a n S W O T A n a l y s i s  Northair Proposal T h e Northair Proposal reflects the desire to imagine a completely alternate configuration in connection to the cultural heritage of the a b a n d o n e d Northair gold mine at the southeast extremity of the site. T h e proposal imagined the ski jump venue a s the bridge to the promontory of the gold mine site a n d the potential hilltop lake amenity, w h e r e extensive vistas to the surrounding mountain l a n d s c a p e provided an imageable headland position for the jump towers. T h e location of the c r o s s country and biathlon v e n u e s to disturbed l a n d s c a p e s in close proximity to the site entrance afforded an efficient road a c c e s s and s o u n d ecological u s e of brownfield sites.  NORTHAIR PROPOSAL STRENGTH  WEAKNESS  ski jump topographic fit proximity of biathlon and cross country venues site visual identity and promontory lodge facility venue alignment to mountain viewscape efficient site access and direction spectator venue aspect and solar exposure recognition and connection to Northair Mine site exposure to broad view corridor integration of cultural mine heritage preservation and restoration of valley international sport legacy valley recreation legacy  OPPORTUNITY  facility exposure to wind long venue walking distance visual exposure to forestry clearcut lack of central site identity -schizophrenic ski jump base encroachment on riparian corridor expansion or activation of mine site difficult summer program success lack of tourist attraction interest level and proximity of commercial forestry extent of motorized recreation distance to village location  THREAT  T a b l e 5.7 Northair S W O T A n a l y s i s  site evaluation  driven by nature 43  Criteria Selection T h e mountain setting, of unique ecology, geology, climate, and character, creates specific limitations to land use including transportation networks and structures, infrastructure source and supply, and building location and d e s i g n . T h e central challenge in mountain planning is the relation of design concepts to the natural l a n d s c a p e , with primary concern for the facilitation of movement and the retention of l a n d s c a p e quality (Dorward, 1990). T h e main components of the site program include sport facility location and d e s i g n , circulation systems and parking, a c c e s s routes and arrival points, the arrangement and connections of activities, and the s e q u e n c i n g of s e n s o r y experience. T h e conceptual plan evolves from the inventory and analysis of the program requirements and terrain constraints. While the path is rarely linear and the solution rarely apparent, the clarity and comprehension of site constraints informs the creative p r o c e s s towards site concept proposals. T h e derivation of multiple plan concepts involves a design p r o c e s s of learning, testing, rejection, and revision in the production of the master plan (Dorward, 1990). T h e comparison of concept alternatives involves the satisfaction of criteria for sport program development, l a n d s c a p e ecology and geology, site climate and character, e c o n o m i c efficiency. C o m m o n a p p r o a c h e s to criteria development include consideration of site density and layout, the extent of site disturbance, visual environmental impacts, and the relative costs of construction (Dorward, 1990).  and and the and  Landscape Criteria T h e site ecology criteria consider the sensitivity and susceptibility of natural e c o s y s t e m s for the preservation or restoration of l a n d s c a p e s . Wetland e c o s y s t e m s , riparian corridors, and old growth forests are crucial to the natural function, ecological diversity, and wilderness perception of the site l a n d s c a p e . T h e sustainability of l a n d s c a p e s d e m a n d s the preservation or mitigation of sensitive or valuable e c o s y s t e m s , minimal consumption or disturbance of land b a s e , and potential mitigation of previous l a n d s c a p e disturbance. T h e site geology criteria consider the capacity and constraint of surface deposits, soils, and rock formations. Soil bearing capacity, slope gradient, and slope stability are crucial to the structure and performance of site v e n u e s and facilities. T h e sport v e n u e s require the confidence of durability and e c o n o m y in consideration of ground settlement and slope failure possibilities. T h e site watershed criteria consider the capacity and constraint of surface, subsurface, and channel drainage s y s t e m s of the natural l a n d s c a p e . Riparian course profiles and vegetative habitat are crucial to the natural function of site drainage and the preservation of water quality. T h e preservation of valuable water resources requires the preservation of riparian habitat and natural drainage patterns in consideration of site water quality and facility susceptibility to erosion or flood d a m a g e . T h e site climate criteria consider the seasonality and intensity of solar, wind, temperature, and precipitation e x p o s u r e and variability of the site. S l o p e aspect, vegetative cover, and natural topography are crucial to the performance, comfort, and vulnerability of site facilities and o c c u p a n t s . T h e site occupants prefer exposure to w a r m  site evaluation  driven by nature 44  winter sunshine, protection from cool winter winds, and favourable viewing a s p e c t s with background s o u r c e lighting. T h e potential e x p o s u r e to high winds and tree windfall is a critical component of the ski jump facility placement. T h e temperature and precipitation capacity and predictability is a critical component of the sport facility quality a n d s u c c e s s .  Program Criteria T h e site sport criteria consider the suitability of the natural terrain for the development of sports venues and facilities. Site extent and grade variability are crucial to the strict guidelines for individual sport trails and structures. T h e ski jump requires a fit to the natural slope of the site in consideration of ecological and visual disturbance, r e s p o n s e to microclimate, and e c o n o m i c constraints. T h e V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid C o m m i t t e e site selection p r o c e s s determined the general suitability of the site terrain and climate for the purposes of Olympic Nordic sport requirements. T h e site program criteria consider the proximity and connectivity of individual sport v e n u e s and facilities, the availability and effectiveness of site safety, accessibility, and services, and the quality and quantity of a c c e s s roads and parking facilities. V e n u e proximity and accessibility are crucial to the appreciation and comprehension of the site a s a whole. T h e site layout and design requires a central site focus, minimal d i s t a n c e s between v e n u e s , and minimal conflicts between vehicle a c c e s s , and sport and pedestrian trail facilities in consideration of site efficiency and experience, ecological and visual disturbance, and e c o n o m i c constraints.  P l a c e Criteria T h e site place criteria consider the s e q u e n c e , imageability, and sensory e x p e r i e n c e of site components and entirety. S p e c t a c u l a r site features, imageable l a n d s c a p e vistas, and memorable cultural characteristics are critical to the s e n s e of site identity and p l a c e . T h e impressive site experience requires the physical exposure to natural water, vegetative, geological, and cultural features, visual extension to distant landmarks and glacial mountain p e a k s , sequential continuity and proximity in facility design and layout, and capacity to project a distinct memorable image of the site and l a n d s c a p e context.  C o s t Criteria T h e site cost criteria consider the quantity and complexity of site venue design and facility provision. T h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n of opportunities and constraints of l a n d s c a p e and program criteria are critical in the e c o n o m i c efficiency and performance of the site. T h e e c o n o m i c benefits of site construction and maintenance require the proper l a n d s c a p e placement of sport v e n u e s , the efficiency of site a c c e s s and mobility, and the effective provision of site infrastructure and sport s e r v i c e s .  site evaluation  driven by nature 45  Proposal Comparison The effective and efficient c o m p a r i s o n and evaluation of site proposals requires the selection of particular indicator criteria reflective of broad l a n d s c a p e , program, place, a n d cost characteristics. T h e specific criteria determinants d e v e l o p e d for the c o m p a r i s o n a n d evaluation of the site p r o p o s a l s were the fit of the ski jump profile to the natural terrain, the site quantity of road construction, the physical distance between sport v e n u e s , the area of facility s p a c e c o n s u m i n g wetland, stream, and old growth forest e c o s y s t e m s , and the qualitative a s s e s s m e n t of physical feature and visual l a n d s c a p e connections. it |  |  PROFILE section  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  NORTHAIR  A R E A cut  1850 m  2  1850 m  2  2000 m  2  A R E A fill  1250 m  2  1250 m  2  1600 m  2  3100 m  2  3100 m  2  3600 m  2  P R O G R A M total  CRITERIA section area measurement of jump profile cross section discordance with natural topographic cross section  E C O L O G Y disturbance VENUE plan  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  A R E A stadium  3.0 ha  3.0 ha  3.0 ha  A R E A ski jump  7.0 ha  7.0 ha  2.8 ha  3.5 ha  2.5 ha  2.5 ha  13.5 ha  12.5 ha  8.3 ha  A R E A range E C O L O G Y total  NORTHAIR  CRITERIA plan area measurement of venue disturbance of natural ecosystem habitat A R E A maximum plan venue area disturbance of 6.0 ha ski stadium, 7.0 ha ski jump, and 5.0 ha biathlon range WEIGHT ecosystem weighting of 100% wetland, riparian, old growth, 50% high grade, and 25% second growth  C O S T a c c e s s road STRUCTURE type ROAD distance ROAD bridge COST total  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  NORTHAIR  3.8 km  1.8 km  1.7 km  6 ea  4 ea  1 ea  $2,450,000  $1,450,000  $675,000  CRITERIA access road distance from site entrance to all sport venues, access road bridge requirement C O S T cost estimate of $250,000 per access road kilometre, $250,000 per access road bridge requirement  TIME venue loop PEDESTRIAN distance  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  NORTHAIR  DISTANCE stadium - jump  1.2 km  0.7 km  1.1 km  DISTANCE jump - range  1.1 km  0.5 km  1.0 km  DISTANCE range - stadium  1.5 km  0.3 km  0.2 km  76 min  30 min  46 min  TIME total  CRITERIA pedestrian distance to complete one loop between ski stadium, ski jump, and biathlon range TIME distance conversion based on average pedestrian walking time of 20 min/km  P L A C E natural amenities FEATURE type  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  NORTHAIR  C H A R A C T E R landscape  1 ea  1 ea  1 ea  CHARACTER climate  1 ea  3ea  2ea  CHARACTER viewscape  1 ea  3ea  2ea  3ea  7ea  5ea  FEATURE total  i  '  CRITERIA landscape - waterfall, wetland, stream, lake, cliff / climate - solar exposure / viewscape - moutain view  T a b l e 5.8 P r o p o s a l E v a l u a t i o n  site evaluation  driven by nature 46  Proposal Comparison The evaluation and c o m p a r i s o n of site criteria determines that two alternate p r o p o s a l s , C a l l a g h a n and Northair, e m e r g e a s strong contenders for the preferential arrangement of the site. T h e power of the proposal evaluation rests in the questions and l e s s o n s developed a s a product of the p r o c e s s , allowing the evaluation to t r a n s c e n d the quantitative c o m p a r i s o n and return to the final qualitative a s s e s s m e n t . T h e final a s s e s s m e n t c o n s i d e r s the key location and fit of the ski jump to the natural terrain a n d the central configuration and venue proximity of the C a l l a g h a n proposal to outweigh the lesser e c o n o m i c s a v i n g s in road construction and ecological disturbance of the Northair proposal. In the final judgment, the C a l l a g h a n proposal provided the best b a l a n c e of e c o n o m i c costs, quality of experience, and ecological harmony of the g r o u p , a n d w a s selected a s the starting configuration for the planning and d e s i g n of the v e n u e placement, orientation, a n d connections.  CRITERIA  P R O P O S A L final evaluation  WHISTLER  CALLAGHAN  NORTHAIR  3100 m2  3100 m2  3600 m2  13.5 ha  12.5 ha  C O S T access road  8.3 ha  $2,450,000  $1,450,000  TIME venue loop  $675,000  76 min  30 min  46 min  3ea  7 ea  5 ea  12  11  indicator  P R O G R A M jump topographic fit E C O L O G Y disturbance  P L A C E natural amenities EVALUATION overall  E V A L U A T I O N total of criteria score - 3 pts first place, 2 pts second place or draw, 1 pt third place  T a b l e 5.9 P r o p o s a l C o m p a r i s o n  site evaluation  driven by nature 47  Chapter 6 Site Planning T h e site planning portion of the project will attempt to integrate and elaborate on the ideas, concepts, insights, and knowledge gained from the p r o c e s s e s of analysis and hypothesis and d e s i g n . T h e functional a s p e c t s and experiential s e q u e n c e s of the events and their settings surface a s key factors in the development and determination of essential site specific planning concepts and design imperatives. T h e major m o v e s of the site planning p r o c e s s consist of the realignment of the site a c c e s s road, the relocation of the c r o s s country and biathlon v e n u e s , and the provision of a central site lodge a s an essential feature of the project.  Planning Concepts Site Opportunity T h e conception of the final project leads one to examine the presumptions of u s e and function inherent in the multiple perspectives of the project. At this point, it is o n c e again essential to consider the lifespan, possibilities, and opportunities of multiple site d e s i g n s with distinct visions of the site a s a host to international sporting events, a s a place for international athletic training, a s a destination for international tourism, and a s a complement to community recreation facilities. A s an O l y m p i c site, the planning and design for international competition overwhelms the consideration and manifestation of the project in its myriad future possibilities. All this to s a y , the level and extent of planning and design for the Olympic G a m e s will ensure the s u c c e s s of the v e n u e for that purpose, but the future s u c c e s s of the site m a y not be so certain. With this thought, it is essential to r e m e m b e r that the a p p e a r a n c e and experience of the site will weigh heavily in the final judgement a s to the quality and s u c c e s s of the O l y m p i c G a m e s . T h e proper site layout and design will e n h a n c e the s e n s e of place and visual connections to the surrounding l a n d s c a p e for visitors to the site and virtual spectators around the globe. T h e sight and experience of the Olympic G a m e s , transcribed from visual imagery and narrative s o u n d bites, will greatly influence the global perspective of the events and the v e n u e s . Ultimately, the proper layout and orientation of the facilities will not only e n h a n c e the experience of the visitor, but also provide the proper a s p e c t s and backgrounds for media coverage. In our haste to design for the O l y m p i c G a m e s , we must not forget the legacy of the site, for the proper layout and design a l s o has the potential to e n c o u r a g e aspiring athletes and international visitors to c h o o s e to experience the site in its memorial grandeur. A wide spectrum of legacy site possibilities ranges from the s a m p l e dereliction of the nearby a b a n d o n e d Northair M i n e to the outstanding tourism s u c c e s s of Whistler Village. Obviously, the s c o p e and s c a l e of the final site planning and design, the extensive details of the opportunities, and the multiple considerations of program choices are beyond the s c o p e of this thesis project. T h e final determination of the proper site form and function will require the input of multiple stakeholders and consultants to d e c i d e on an appropriate solution to the problem. Instead, this thesis project intends to inform the range of possibilities for the site planning and d e s i g n , and suggest ideal venue locations, more efficient site connections, better e c o n o m i c benefits, superior site e x p e r i e n c e s , and appropriate program considerations.  site planning  driven by nature 48  Site Program T h e nature of the sports e n c o u r a g e s a strong visual and experiential connection with the landscape, a s one glides through the forest and clearings over rolling mountainous terrain. A s a winter event, a blanket of fresh white s n o w layers the l a n d s c a p e with an image of purity and f r e s h n e s s , disguising imperfections in the detail and finish of the site. In contrast, the s u m m e r e x p o s u r e of the site reveals all the blemishes in the natural landscape, more difficult to restore due to the short growing s e a s o n and steep s l o p e s of the site. T h e s u m m e r program remains an essential component to the planning and design of the site. It is simple to suggest, the consideration of the s u m m e r a p p e a r a n c e and use of the site will greatly influence the long-term prospects for s u c c e s s of the project. It is more difficult to suggest the appropriate r e s p o n s e to that statement, a s a range of plausible opportunities awaits the exploration in d e s i g n . T h e natural attractions of alpine vistas, towering forests, serene wetlands, and rushing waters play an important role in the image of the site. T h e extensive trail networks and spectator v e n u e s provide a n opportunity to host s u m m e r sporting events of mountain biking, c r o s s country running, and biathlon, while the natural forest environment of the valley m a y a p p e a l to more traditional excursions of hiking, swimming, and c a m p i n g . T h e location of the Whistler Nordic Centre, at the b a s e of R a i n b o w Mountain, provides an ideal day hiking (Rainbow P a s s ) or cycling (Flank Trail) destination from Whistler Village, where a day lodge facility would certainly encourage the journey. T h e provision of a lodge facility could support both s u m m e r and winter events and training at the site and further tourism potential a s an alternate and complementary holiday e x p e r i e n c e to the Whistler product. Although, the s u m m e r vision of the Whistler Nordic C e n t r e might require the imagination of a simpler product, perhaps, a s u m m e r c a m p for groups of lower mainland children, or m a y b e , a camping destination for families, or e v e n , the location of an international boy scouts jamboree. T h e connections to A l e x a n d e r Falls, M a d e l e y L a k e , C a l l a g h a n L a k e , and the artificial Northair L a k e would certainly require consideration, a s swimming and fishing are essential s u m m e r pastimes. T h e provision of a local swimming hole, in proximity to the lodge facility, would be a certain draw, w h e r e kids could swing from a rope or jump from a bridge. Likely, the addition of a swimming pool, and possibly tennis courts, adjacent to the lodge, with good solar e x p o s u r e , would be a beneficial addition to the program of the site. T h e connection between rolling c r o s s country terrain and a golf course is an obvious outstanding match, although the present context of the valley questions the e x p e n s e and the possibility. T h e magnificent vistas and recreation activities might serve a s an exceptional location for corporate retreats or conferences in c l o s e proximity to Whistler and V a n c o u v e r . T h e winter legacy of the site, more s e c u r e in its vision, obviously offers extensive facilities for skiing, jumping, and biathlon that could easily consider additional training jumps, and a possible s n o w sliding a r e a to make use of the lift and appeal to more modest winter recreation enthusiasts. T h e consideration of a permanent lodge facility and team cabins might s e r v e a s athlete lodging for competition events, training c a m p s , and general tourism, while the ability to stay at the site, in a rustic winter cabin, holds a charm in keeping with the heritage of the Nordic sports. T h e diversity of the site might also consider the frozen surface of a nearby pond a s a skating surface, where a sunset skate in a natural forested area might be considered romantic for s o m e and a novelty for others.  site planning  driven by nature 49  Design Components Site A c c e s s T h e relocation of the road a c c e s s to the centre of the site creates a visual a n d functional axis that considers efficiency, image, and experience a s key factors for the c h o s e n alignment. T h e ability to create a lasting first impression is paramount to the m e m o r y and legacy of the Olympic G a m e s , and the future s u c c e s s of the site. T h e road a c c e s s develops a magnificent s e n s e of arrival to the site by meandering through the rolling terrain of the l a n d s c a p e , past mysterious bogs and m a r s h e s , majestic rock outcrops, and clandestine rippling c r e e k s , reinforcing the natural drainage spine of the site. T h e justification of the c h a n g e in road location lies in the u s e of the existing forestry road for much of the alignment, although a steep section along the cliff face may require slope moderation. T h e strength in the new road alignment lies in the improvement to s e n s e of arrival, the e c o n o m i c reduction in road length, and the more efficient a c c e s s to all v e n u e s with no conflicts between roads and facility trail networks.  Site Integration T h e consideration of the site in its entirety remains essential to the s u c c e s s of the Olympic G a m e s and its legacy. T h e quality of the e x p e r i e n c e derives from the feeling of the site a s a whole, where the individual events are considered c o m p o n e n t s of the complete site product. T h e relocation and orientation of the individual sport v e n u e s considers spectator and athlete connections a s key d e s i g n determinants for the final selection of locations. T h e quantity and profile of the athletes, officials, and spectators, with distinct site requirements and expectations, create a difficult situation of site integration. T h e spirit of the Olympic G a m e s creates a festive feeling and impression of unity, while the reality requires strict separation of athletes, officials, and spectators, for reasons of safety and security. T h e s u c c e s s f u l integration of visitor experience requires consideration of all s c a l e s in the layout and details of the site and facilities, while this thesis project merely begins this daunting task. T h e strength in the new site v e n u e layout lies in the enhancement of site mobility, the increase in proximity of site v e n u e s , the siting of a central site lodge, the strengthening of visitor experience, and the improvement to s e n s e of place.  Site Mobility T h e accommodation of the rapid flush of visitors for the O l y m p i c G a m e s remains a difficult task to the planning and design of the site. T h e e x c e s s i v e d e m a n d s for parking and visitor mobility through the site quickly overwhelm the s c a l e and consideration of the legacy facility. T h e provision of multiple mobility networks for the g a m e s remains the largest contributing element to the creation of a potential legacy l a n d s c a p e out of proportion with the reality of the program. T h e e n o r m o u s parking requirements for the O l y m p i c G a m e s d e m a n d a m a s s i v e clearing of land to a c c o m m o d a t e the volume of a s c a l e that will likely never be repeated. T h e temporary nature of this parking facility requires the careful consideration a s to permanent legacy parking d e m a n d and a proper solution for the e x c e s s of that d e m a n d . From this understanding, the smaller permanent parking facility locates in proximity to the lodge facility, with e a s y a c c e s s to all v e n u e s , while the larger temporary parking facility locates on an extensive natural plateau in the l a n d s c a p e at the entrance to the site. T h e conception of the temporary parking facility envisions the post-games restoration of the l a n d s c a p e , with the moderate maintenance program of a g r a s s y meadow. T h e m e a d o w would e m e r g e a s a naturalized field that  site planning  driven by nature 50  could host a large gathering s p a c e for the purposes of fairs, expositions, camping, or perhaps, e v e n the site of a n international boy scout j a m b o r e e . T h e future potential would always exist to use the m e a d o w a s an overflow parking facility in the event of a large international competition at the site. T h e consideration of additional parking for spectator b u s s e s along the extensive a c c e s s route to the site, or at offsite lots at A l e x a n d e r Falls and the surrounding valley, may alleviate the e x p e n s e of construction and disturbance to the environment. T h e strength of the parking facility a p p r o a c h lies in the adaptation of the large flat form requirements to the natural topography, the s a v i n g s in construction e x p e n s e from design decisions, and the consideration a s to the legacy potential of the l a n d s c a p e disturbance.  Ski J u m p T h e ski jump v e n u e e m e r g e s a s the anchoring element of the original design consideration, and the final design proposal, where the fit of the ski j u m p s to the natural terrain remain a central decisive factor and organizational element of the site. T h e contemplation and exploration of alternate jump v e n u e locations reinforced the choice of the original location a s the most suitable in terms of profile match, with a startling revelation that a good fit may still require a substantial (rough estimate 100,000 m ) volume of slope grading. T h e s c a l e a n d difficulty of the ski jump c o m p o n e n t of the project will undoubtedly prove to be the most significant and costly feature of the Whistler Nordic C e n t r e . T h e discovery of the positive visual jump a s p e c t in alignment with the entrance to the site at A l e x a n d e r Falls, the distant alpine peak of Metal D o m e , and the direction of winter sunset e n c o u r a g e d the selection of the final j u m p location and alignment. T h e ski jump, in its prominent visual and terminal prospect location, stands a s a key landmark for the site, and likely the most significant feature attraction for the legacy and tourism potential of the project. The b a s e of the ski jump sits atop an elevated plateau in the l a n d s c a p e with outstanding vistas to the southwest, overlooking the extents of the site and the valley, with a background of mountain ranges. T h e a d v a n t a g e o u s natural features a n d landmark status of the location e n c o u r a g e s the placement of a site lodge at the b a s e of the jump, creating a n ideal O l y m p i c facility and legacy opportunity. 3  C r o s s Country  F i g u r e 6.1 Reflection G a r d e n (The Bloedel R e s e r v e ) T h e s e n s i t i v e juxtaposition of the g e o m e t r i c form a n d the natural e n v i r o n m e n t c r e a t e s a s t u n n i n g s e n s e of p l a c e  site planning  T h e vision for the c r o s s country venue imagined a stadium carved from the l a n d s c a p e , in harmony with the natural form of the site. The undulating terrain of the site and the linear plateau features s e e m e d ideal as a location for the fit of a c l a s s i c stadium form reinforced by the natural s h a p e of the ground profile and the spatial enclosure of the surrounding forest. F r o m this vision, the c r o s s country venue emerges as an elongated c l a s s i c stadium form in perfect fit and alignment to the linear plateau and central d e p r e s s i o n of the natural l a n d s c a p e . T h e proper fit to the landscape minimizes the  driven by nature 51  disturbance of the site a n d the impact of construction a n d maintenance costs. T h e positive axial alignment to the southern aspect e n s u r e s the beneficial solar e x p o s u r e to the venue for the enjoyment of both spectators a n d athletes. T h e combination of fit a n d orientation to the natural l a n d s c a p e e n c o u r a g e s the intrinsic comfort of the visitor by providing a surrounding environment in harmony with the l a n d s c a p e . T h e choice of a stadium form e n c o u r a g e s the legacy u s e for multiple s u m m e r sporting events since the s h a p e e n c l o s e s the spatial requirements for a football / s o c c e r field. T h e strength of the new c r o s s country v e n u e lies in the d e c r e a s e in the cost of construction, the strengthening of the visitor experience, the alignment to positive l a n d s c a p e and solar aspects, the e n h a n c e m e n t of the s e n s e of harmony with the l a n d s c a p e , and the increase in the simplicity of mobility and proximity between the multiple site v e n u e s . Biathlon R a n g e T h e vision for the biathlon stadium imagined a depression in the l a n d s c a p e where a natural side s l o p e would s e r v e a s the range backdrop at o n e extremity a n d the opposing s i d e s l o p e would s e r v e a s a n elevated spectator vantage point to the range a n d the athletes. A d e p r e s s i o n a m o n g s t the protruding knoll features of the site s e e m e d ideal a s a location R e d R o c k s Amphitheatre (Red R o c k s Park)  for the fit of a reinforced by the  T h e fit of the theatre to the natural terrain d e m o n s t r a t e s  enclosure  U  of  the  biathlon natural  range spatial  surrounding  landforms. From this vision, the biathlon stadium e m e r g e s a s a n exceptional formation bridging the g a p between two natural m o u n d s , where the soaring building structures s p a n the entrance to the northern site v e n u e while reinforcing the s e n s e of spatial enclosure for the range. T h e positive orientation of the facility to the northwest aspect c o n s i d e r s the proper e x p o s u r e for the r a n g e , while aligning the v e n u e to natural background mound formations a n d the M a d e l e y C r e e k riparian corridor. T h e fill requirements to bridge the gap will materialize from the m a s s i v e excavation of the ski jump v e n u e , serving a s a site location for e x c e s s material d i s p o s a l , while greatly benefiting the e c o n o m i c and experiential a s p e c t s of the project. T h e complete enclosure of the biathlon range considers the safety a s p e c t s of firearm conduct a n d the physical barrier to s o u n d travel a c r o s s the l a n d s c a p e , while providing a n important threshold aspect to the facility by transforming the ridge into a gateway through which the spectator travels. T h e landmark position of the j u d g e s tower atop the entrance ridge s e r v e s a s a n excellent promontory for sport officials a n d a s a visual locator for the hidden facility. T h e strength of the n e w biathlon v e n u e location lies in the adaptation to the natural surrounding landforms, the e c o n o m i c benefits of e x c e s s site fill u s a g e , the alignment to positive l a n d s c a p e a n d solar a s p e c t s , the e n h a n c e m e n t of the s e n s e of place through the u s e of the ridge a s a threshold, the i m a g e a b l e promontory location of the judges tower, the d e c r e a s e in the e x p o s u r e of the facility to drainage a n d land stability risk, the preservation of sensitive riparian a n d b o g l a n d s c a p e s , a n d the improvement in the simplicity of mobility and proximity between the multiple site v e n u e s . the creativity a n d adaptability of the d e s i g n solution  site planning  driven by nature 52  Site Lodge T h e vision for the site lodge imagined a rustic alpine facility, in the tradition of national park lodges, acting a s a central gathering point and visual focal point to the site. T h e high ridges of the stepped l a n d s c a p e s e e m e d ideal for the location of a lodge facility sitting proudly in a prominent position overlooking the l a n d s c a p e and distant alpine vistas. From this vision, the site lodge e m e r g e s a s a key focal point for the site, atop a ridge at the b a s e of the ski jump, w h e r e the ideal location F i g u r e 6.3 provides a favoured visual connection J a s p e r P a r k Lodge (Fairmont Hotels and Resorts) T h e h a r m o n y of the l o d g e a n d the l a n d s c a p e to the ski jump, a c l o s e connection to d e m o n s t r a t e s a g e n u i n e fitness of form a n d function a nearby rippling creek, a promontory position overlooking the c r o s s country and biathlon v e n u e s , a n d a prospect point to the distant mountain vistas. T h e favoured position of the lodge in c l o s e proximity of the jumps r e c o g n i z e s the visual p r e s e n c e a n d attraction of the ski jump towers a s site landmarks to the majority of site guests. T h e slightly elevated position of the lodge allows positive visual a s p e c t s to the entire range of the j u m p profile, from jump tower to run out. T h e position of the lodge creates a n enclosure of s p a c e at the b a s e of the ski jump, providing the s c a l e and identity for an exceptional Olympic gathering s p a c e c a p a b l e of a c c o m m o d a t i n g all visitors. T h e provision of the lodge facility considers the ideal location for the O l y m p i c events and the legacy opportunities of the site. T h e lodge b e c o m e s the central arrival destination for guests with effortless connections to the multiple site v e n u e s . T h e l e g a c y of the site lodge considers the ability to provide services and maintenance for the facilities, a source of food and shelter for visitors, and a potential a c c o m m o d a t i o n facility for training athletes and guests. T h e strength of the addition of a lodge to the Whistler Nordic Centre lies in the provision of a visual focal point, the strengthening of site image and memory, the creation of a site gathering s p a c e , the e n h a n c e m e n t to s e n s e of place and guest experience, the improvements to the legacy of the site, a n d the ability to create a hinge point around which the sport venues relate.  Figure  6.4  C h i n C a b i n (Miller Hull A r c h i t e c t s ) SimDlicitv a n d adaDtabilitv in c o n t e m p o r a r v c a b i n d e s i a n  site planning  Team Cabins T h e vision for the team cabins envisions rustic alpine c a b i n s in the l a n d s c a p e , nestled in the native forest along a l a n d s c a p e ridge, with a prospect viewpoint to the mountain vistas. T h e rolling forest l a n d s c a p e of the site s e e m e d ideal for the team cabins to occupy prominent l a n d s c a p e positions in c l o s e proximity to the sport v e n u e s , and perhaps, with prominent v i e w s to the individual sporting events. T h e temporary nature of the Olympic team cabin  driven by nature 53  requirements considers the functional a s p e c t s of the cabins in support of the events. T h e legacy of the site might consider a more permanent solution to the placement of the team cabins, where proper relationships to the v e n u e s , the site, and the surrounding environment play an important role in the layout and design of the facilities. T h e simple and e c o n o m i c design of the team cabins might consider rustic provisions of minimal services, and a layout in support of O l y m p i c athlete requirements and a c c o m m o d a t i o n potential. T h e vision of permanent team cabins may follow two c o u r s e s , a village option that clusters the cabins around the lodge facility to create a concentration of development, or a legacy option that p l a c e s cabins in ideal support of the sport v e n u e s . T h e legacy of the team cabins may serve a s accommodation for training athletes and destination tourists, where the memory of the Olympic G a m e s and the athletes who participated could be preserved. T h e strength of the team cabin vision lies in the e n h a n c e m e n t to the s e n s e of place, the improvement to the legacy of the site, the support of the legacy athlete training initiative, the e c o n o m i c benefits of destination tourism, and the lasting image and memory of the O l y m p i c G a m e s .  Site Adaptation T h e haste and complexity of the bid p r o c e s s lead one to provide an expedient solution to the project design guidelines with regards to the numerous technical and program requirements of the individual events. T h e result is often a site that satisfies all the requirements of function, with little or no regard to the character and experience of the place. T h e findings of this thesis project confirm the appropriate preliminary selection of v e n u e locations, while slightly teasing and adjusting site connections, orientations, and operations in order to e n h a n c e the image, function, and experience of the site a s a whole. This observation of the p r o c e s s l e a d s one to believe that w e possibly disregard the questions in order to ignore the possible solutions in favour of the status quo. In r e s p o n s e , this thesis presents not only the site design layout, but also visions of alternate layout scenarios in reaction to the multiple program requirements. T h e Olympic Layout demonstrates the amount and position of temporary s p a c e requirements a s a possible solution for the Olympic G a m e s . T h e temporary nature and s c a l e of the events d e m a n d a large amount of disturbance to the site environment in light of the post-games capacity requirements. A n attempt to consider the legacy situation of the project provides two alternate visions of the site, the L e g a c y Layout and the Village Layout, that respond to i s s u e s of athlete training and destination tourism. T h e L e g a c y Layout attempts to a d d r e s s the issues of p e r m a n e n c e for s o m e of the facilities and cabins in order to provide a better integration of the O l y m p i c G a m e s memory and the legacy of the site. T h e Village Layout attempts to concentrate and integrate the athletic support facilities in order to create a s e n s e of community for the g a m e s and the legacy of the site. Both scenarios demonstrate a potential alternate vision for the site legacy that ultimately e n h a n c e s the image and experience of the O l y m p i c G a m e s . In the e n d , one hopes to inform the planning and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre through the adoption or adaptation of the visions presented in this design thesis project.  site planning  driven by nature 54  Site Plan  \  biathlon  t  .  Biathlon  trail n e t w o r k * ' ' v v > <  I If/)  R  a  n  9  e  / - v / A > \ C *  1/  wry  £  1/ :  Cross Country Stadium  .1 \ \ I ! i c r o s s country  I  \  l | \ \ \ t r a i l network  ;  1  v-  \  •  I  \ Wi •'  •  I  f  \  '•• ' - T ' -  /•  ' (/I  JI  / (j  >*'»  \  r-. '  \  VT i i  \ i\ . I  H  }.*''/  i  J II  t it  \y\ l  i i  > \\\\> if  1  III  1  ("V" 2 0 0  !  4 D 0  i  6 0 0  F i g u r e 6.5 Whistler Nordic Centre Plan  site planning  d r i v e n b y n a t u r e 55  Olympic Plan  F i g u r e 6.6 Olympic Layout Plan  site planning  driven by nature 56  Legacy Plan  team Cabins clustered  LOO  200  300  F i g u r e 6.7 Legacy Layout Plan  site planning  driven by nature 57  Village Plan  F i g u r e 6.8 Village Layout Plan  site planning  driven by nature 58  Design Imperatives T h e functional and experiential a s p e c t s of the design imperatives serve as a s u m m a r y of essential considerations for the s u c c e s s f u l planning and design of the Whistler Nordic Centre.  Sense of Arrival T h e s e n s e of arrival derives from the realization that first impressions are tremendously important to the image and identity of the location. T h e meandering a c c e s s drive follows the natural terrain of the environment, providing visual glimpses of the site constitution and character. T h e native mountain hemlock forest, wetland bogs and m a r s h e s , soaring rock f a c e s , and prominent ski jump towers generate key c o m p o n e n t s to the experience of arrival.  Experience of Place T h e identification and e n h a n c e m e n t of site sensation a d d s to the experience of place. T h e subtle n u a n c e s of sun and wind exposure, the visual and aural sensations of trickling water and snow falling, the spatial, tonal, and textural character of the surrounding environment, and the careful selection of site location and orientation e n h a n c e the experience of the dweller.  Experience of Events T h e complexity and scale of the O l y m p i c G a m e s and Events d e m a n d the insightful design of v e n u e s with meticulous regard to the multiple e x p e r i e n c e s of the athletes, officials, and spectators, a s well a s the extent and function of the post-event legacy. T h e safety and security of the events, participants, and spectators require the consideration of independent site a c c e s s and facility provision, while maintaining the positive unified spirit of the Olympic Movement. S e p a r a t e and Unite.  Preservation of Nature T h e preservation and e n h a n c e m e n t of the natural site balance in terms of water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife are c o n c e r n s in the s c o p e and s c a l e of the project. T h e choice of a site fully indicative of human disturbance, by select logging practice, allows a minimal intrusion to the natural valley e c o s y s t e m with an optimal preservation of standing timber a s parkland character. T h e identification and preservation of the quality e c o s y s t e m c o m p o n e n t s , of wetlands and native forest, informs a planning s y s t e m in harmony with natural site potential.  Preservation of Character T h e preservation and e n h a n c e m e n t of the natural site character in terms of native vegetative communities, inherent aesthetic a s p e c t s , and natural terrain characteristics are c o n c e r n s in the imperatives and programs of the project. T h e possibility exists to d e s i g n v e n u e s and facilities that reflect and e n h a n c e the character and culture of the site and the events.  Vision of the Whole T h e concept of the site a s a unique and distinct facility, in complement to the context of the site, the valley, and the region, are c o n c e r n s in the program and legacy of the project. T h e physical and visual proximity and connectivity of the individual v e n u e s and  site planning  driven by nature 59  events within the site are essential to the a c c e p t a n c e and comprehension of the cohesive whole. T h e selection of the ski jump a s the key legacy component of the site informs the scale, location, and orientation of the lodge proposal, in consideration of a c c e s s to all sport v e n u e s .  Image of the G a m e s T h e image and collective memory of the site and events is key to the judgement a s to the quality and s u c c e s s of the Olympic G a m e s . T h e knowledge and interpretation of site information and character is essential to the s u c c e s s f u l design and planning of the site form, function, and experience. T h e recognition a s to the exceptional visual resources and surroundings of the site, in conjunction with the a d v a n t a g e o u s siting of v e n u e s , allows the opportunity for the creation of lasting memories.  Seasonality of U s e T h e seasonality of the mountain environment alters the perceptions and perspectives of the site, with regards to the changing e x p o s u r e to sunlight, the level of the ground surface due to snowpack, and the m e a n s of terrain mobility and a c c e s s . T h e sensitive s u m m e r terrain of the wetland e c o s y s t e m , carefully delineated and preserved from s u m m e r activity, is fully a c c e s s i b l e in winter on skis without visible trace or measurable d a m a g e to the environment.  R e s p o n s e to Climate T h e severe climate of the coast mountain environment d e m a n d s the w i s e adaptation, in planning and designs, to the conditions of the site. T h e consideration of the volume and m a s s of s n o w in the design of structures, the direction, impact, and accumulation of s n o w shedding from v e n u e roofs, the e x p o s u r e of facilities and occupants to wind impacts and tree fall, and the location, capacity, and direction of natural drainage c o u r s e s are potential risks in the siting and design of v e n u e s .  Legacy Opportunity T h e tremendous facility investment, planning effort, and event exposure provide an exceptional prospect for the promotion and e x p a n s i o n of the site legacy opportunities. T h e consideration of athlete training, competition v e n u e , and tourism lodging potential in the latent planning and design of the Olympic G a m e s is essential to the legacy prospects of the site. T h e mere appropriate placement and design of the lodge facility has the potential to elevate the site to the ranks of great park destinations in British C o l u m b i a , and successfully complement the global attraction of Whistler.  site planning  driven by nature 60  Chapter 7 Project S u m m a r y The project s u m m a r y presents the observations and conclusions of the planning a n d design p r o c e s s e s , a s well a s the recommendations and imperatives of site program consideration and vision.  Summary Conclusions Method of A n a l y s i s T h e conclusions of the project are direct products of the multidisciplinary iterative approach of thorough scientific and experiential planning and design site investigations, observations, conjectures, and refutations in consideration of the intrinsic site conditions and intended site purposes. T h e careful site investigations are essential to the comprehension and speculation of the site purpose feasibility and possibility. T h e holistic approach to multidisciplinary observation e x p a n d s the realm of information and knowledge available to the planning and design p r o c e s s , attempting to consider a broad range of site characteristics, integrating the d o m a i n s of personal site experience and partial scientific perspectives. T h e p r o c e s s of conjecture and refutation, in planning a n d design, allows rigorous a s s e s s m e n t of hypothetical proposals, by specific site and purpose criteria, in order to determine appropriate r e s p o n s e s to the site specific situations. T h e complementary evaluation of criteria enlightens the process of d e s i g n through the clear identification of concerns and objectives of the site planning and design p r o c e s s , allowing the design progression to proceed in confidence of the analysis procedure and results.  Evaluation of Criteria T h e conclusions of the analysis are direct products of the vigilant consideration and selection of appropriate evaluation criteria, in consideration of the intrinsic site conditions and intended site p u r p o s e s . T h e effective and efficient comparison and evaluation of site proposals required the selection of particular indicator criteria reflective of broad landscape, program, place, and cost characteristics. T h e specific criteria determinants developed for the proposal evaluations were the fit of the ski jump profile to the natural terrain, the site quantity of road construction, the physical distance between sport venues, the a r e a of facility s p a c e consuming wetland, stream, and old growth forest e c o s y s t e m s , and the qualitative a s s e s s m e n t of physical features and visual l a n d s c a p e connections. T h e simple quantitative descriptors of site performance and e x p e r i e n c e m a s k e d the breadth of reach a s to the implications and considerations for the planning and design of the site, ultimately acting a s significant key determinants to the imperatives of l a n d s c a p e design.  Imperatives of Design T h e development of the imperatives of design is an indirect product of the analysis methods, the criteria evaluation, and the exploration of site design solutions, in consideration of the intrinsic site conditions, difficult program requirements, and potential site opportunities. T h e meticulous planning and design considerations enlightened the range of appropriate design imperatives to consider s e n s e of arrival, e x p e r i e n c e of  project summary  driven by nature 61  place, experience the whole, image opportunity. T h e envisioned for the  of events, preservation of nature, preservation of character, vision of of the g a m e s , seasonality of u s e , response to climate, and legacy imperatives of design exemplify the level of detail consideration eventual s u c c e s s f u l design of the Whistler Nordic Centre.  Imperatives of Vision T h e conservative ideas of the site potential severely hinder the imaginative and s u c c e s s f u l visions of the facility and program possibilities. T h e simple concept of a learn to jump program in light of the extensive sport facility production, with possible participants from around the globe, easily substantiates the conception of a lodge facility in support of the ski jump v e n u e . T h e further concentration of three international sport v e n u e s into a united concept of a unique and distinct Whistler Nordic Centre destination, beyond the vision of individual day use facilities, certainly supports the central lodge concept. T h e tremendous international s u c c e s s e s and e x p e r i e n c e s of Banff National Park and Whistler Village demonstrate the possibilities of imaginary community visions in support of wilderness and recreation tourism.  Completion of Project T h e planning and design of a project leads to a degree of ownership and e n t h u s i a s m for the product, in consideration of the level of involvement and the depth of personal attachment to the project. T h e experience of the project p r o c e s s provides recommendations for the importance of the vision of the project a s a whole, through the provision of a central lodge facility, the deliberate consideration of tourism planning and opportunities for the site, and the careful consideration a s to the location and proximity of the Olympic Village. T h e completion of this project permits and e n c o u r a g e s the consideration and criticism of the results and conclusions, on the sincere personal belief in the merit of the product, and in the anticipation of the exceptional d e s i g n and manifestation of the Whistler Nordic Centre. O n e hopes that this is the beginning, and not the e n d . . .  project summary  driven by nature 62  Bibliography Background Dorward, Sherry. Design for Mountain Communities: A L a n d s c a p e and Architectural G u i d e . V a n Nostrand Reinhold, N e w York, 1990. Francis, Mark, and Randolph T. Hester, Jr, e d s . The M e a n i n g of G a r d e n s : Idea. P l a c e , and A c t i o n . The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1993. L y n c h , K e v i n . T h e Image of the City. T h e MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1960. L y n c h , K e v i n . Site Planning. T h e MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1971. M a r s h , William M . L a n d s c a p e Planning: Environmental Applications. J o h n Wiley and S o n s , Inc., Toronto, 1998. M c H a r g , Ian L. Design with Nature. J o h n Wiley and S o n s , Inc., Toronto, 1992. Norberg-Schulz, Christian. G e n i u s Loci: Towards a P h e n o m e n o l o g y of Architecture. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New York, 1979. Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Nightlands: Nordic Building. T h e MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1996. R e l p h , E d w a r d . P l a c e and P l a c e l e s s n e s s . P i o n Limited, L o n d o n , 1976.  Precedent B o y d , S t e p h e n W . , and Richard W . Butler. Tourism and National P a r k s : Issues and Implications. J o h n Wiley and S o n s , Ltd., Chichester, E n g l a n d , 2 0 0 0 . J e n s e n , S h a r o n . Ski A r e a Development: The Whistler E x p e r i e n c e . Resort Municipality of Whistler, Planning Department, Whistler, 1991. E c o n o m i c Planning G r o u p . Whistler: Development of a Resort. E c o n o m i c Planning G r o u p of C a n a d a , Victoria, 1984. X V O l y m p i c Winter G a m e s Organizing Committee. X V O l y m p i c Winter G a m e s : Official Report. X V Olympic Winter G a m e s Organizing Committee, C a l g a r y , 1988.  Mission International Olympic Committee. Olympic Charter. International O l y m p i c Committee, Lausanne, 2002. International Olympic Committee. T h e L e g a c y of the O l y m p i c G a m e s : 1984-2000. C o n c l u s i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the International S y m p o s i u m on the L e g a c y of the Olympic G a m e s : 1984-2000, N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 2 . International Olympic Committee, L a u s a n n e , 2003. International Olympic Committee. Architecture and International Sporting Events Future Planning and Development. Summary, Conclusions, and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the International C o n f e r e n c e on Architecture and International Sporting Events - Future Planning and Development, M a y 2 0 0 2 . International Olympic Committee, L a u s a n n e , 2 0 0 3 . G u n n , C l a r e A . , and Turgut Var. Tourism Planning: B a s i c s . C o n c e p t s , C a s e s . Routledge, Taylor & Francis G r o u p , New York, 2002. Hall, Michael C , and Stephen J . P a g e . The G e o g r a p h y of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, P l a c e , and S p a c e . Routledge, Taylor & Francis G r o u p , N e w York, 2002. V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid Corporation. V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid B o o k . V a n c o u v e r 2010 Bid Corporation, V a n c o u v e r , 2 0 0 3 .  bibliography  driven by nature 63  Analysis C a n n i n g s , R i c h a r d , and S y d n e y C a n n i n g s . British" C o l u m b i a : A Natural History. Greystone B o o k s , Douglas & Mclntyre, V a n c o u v e r , 1996. Klinka, K., et al. Indicator Plants of C o a s t a l British C o l u m b i a . U B C P r e s s , V a n c o u v e r , 1995. Meidinger, D e l , and Jim Pojar, e d s . E c o s y s t e m s of British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of F o r e s t s , Province of British C o l u m b i a , Victoria, 1991. Miller, J a c k H.L. G e o l o g y of the Central Part of the C a l l a g h a n C r e e k Pendant, Southwestern B . C . Master of Applied S c i e n c e Dissertation, University of British C o l u m b i a , 1979. Pojar, J i m , and A n d y M a c K i n n o n . Plants of C o a s t a l British C o l u m b i a , L o n e P i n e Publishing, V a n c o u v e r , 1994. Popper, Karl. Conjectures and Refutations: T h e Growth of Scientific K n o w l e d g e . Routledge & K e g a n P a u l Ltd, L o n d o n , 1963. Potteiger, Matthew, and J a m i e Purinton. L a n d s c a p e Narratives: D e s i g n Practices for Telling Stories. J o h n Wiley & S o n s , Inc., Toronto, 1998. Valentine, K . W . G . , et al, e d s . The Soil L a n d s c a p e s of British C o l u m b i a . Ministry of Environment, Province of British C o l u m b i a , Victoria, B C , 1978.  Planning Bell, S i m o n . Design for Outdoor Recreation. E & F N S p o n , L o n d o n , 1997. Bell, S i m o n . L a n d s c a p e : Pattern, Perception, and P r o c e s s . E & F N S p o n , N e w York, 1999. Dines, Nicholas, and Kyle Brown. L a n d s c a p e Architect's Portable Handbook. M c G r a w Hill, Toronto, 2 0 0 1 . Dorward, Sherry. D e s i g n for Mountain Communities: A L a n d s c a p e and Architectural G u i d e . V a n Nostrand Reinhold, N e w York, 1990. F o r m a n , Richard T.T. L a n d M o s a i c s : T h e E c o l o g y of L a n d s c a p e s and R e g i o n s . C a m b r i d g e University P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1995. F o r m a n , Richard T.T., W e n c h e E. Dramstad, and J a m e s D. O l s o n . L a n d s c a p e E c o l o g y : Principles in L a n d s c a p e Architecture and L a n d - U s e Planning, Island P r e s s and the A m e r i c a n Society of L a n d s c a p e Architects, W a s h i n g t o n , 1996. L y n c h , K e v i n . Site P l a n n i n g . The MIT P r e s s , C a m b r i d g e , 1971. M a r s h , William M. L a n d s c a p e Planning: Environmental Applications. J o h n Wiley and S o n s , Inc., Toronto, 1998. O l s o n , S h e r i . Miller Hull: Architects of the Pacific Northwest. Princeton Architectural P r e s s , N e w York, 2 0 0 1 . S i m o n d s , J o h n O r m s b e e . L a n d s c a p e Architecture: A M a n u a l of Site Planning and D e s i g n . M c G r a w - H i l l , Toronto, 1998. Steiner, Frederick. T h e Living L a n d s c a p e : A n E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h to L a n d s c a p e Planning. M c G r a w - H i l l , Inc., Toronto, 1999.  bibliography  driven by nature 64  Appendix A Solar Geometry for Vancouver SOLAR GEOMETRY WINTER SOLSTICE  altitude °  SPRING EQUINOX  azimuth E of N  attitude  SUMMER SOLSTICE  azimuth E of N  azimuth E of N  altitude  sunrise 'i •  sunrise  2.6 6.0 9.1 11.8 14.0 15.7 16.8 17 3 17.2 16.5 15.3 13.4 11.1 8.2 5.1 1.6  W 123'10" W 122° 50'  US ...  I  131.1 137.0 143.2 149.6 156.3 163.2 170.2 177.4 184.6 191.8 198.8 205.6 212.2 218.6 224.7 230.6  •.. 1  .... • sunrise  2.1 6.8 11.6 16.3 20.8 25.1 29.0 32.6 35.7 38.1 39.9 40.9 41.1 40.3 38.8 36.6 33.7 30.3 26.5 22.3 17.9 13.2 8.5 3.7  91.8 97.5 103.3 109.3 115.6 122.3 129.4 137.1 145.4 154.3 163.7 173.4 183.4 193.2 202.7 211.8 220.3 228.2 235.5 242.3 248.8 254.9 260.8 266 5  2.4 6.5 10.8 15.4 20.1 24.9 29.7 34.6 39.5 44.2 48.8 53.2 57.1 60.3 62.8 64.0 64.0 62.7 60.2 56.9 53.0 48.7 44.1 39.3 34.4 29.5 24.7 19.9 15.2 10.6 6.3 2.3  4:07  55.5 61.0 66.4 71.7 76.9 82.3 87.7 93.4 99.5 106.2 113.6 122.2 132.1 143.7 157.3 172.4 180.3 203.3 216.7 228.3 238.2 246.7 254.1 260.7 266.8 272.5 277.9 283.3 288.5 293.8 299.2 304.7  iMJ.pi.JJ N49M5' N 5 0 ' 07'  Vancouver  whistler  adapted from United States Naval Observatory data  appendix A  driven by nature 6 5  

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