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The truth and death of indexicality : subtitle photography, philosophy and cinema Pettit, Katherine V. 2002

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THE TRUTH AND DEATH OF INDEXICALITY PHOTOGRAPHY, PHILOSOPHY AND CINEMA By KATHERINE V. PETTIT B.F.A., Simon Fraser University, 1998 Diploma i n Film Production, University of B r i t i s h Coluirtbia, 2 0 0 0 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Theatre, Film and Creative Writing—Film Program) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 2002 © Katherine V. P e t t i t , 2002 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T h i s t h e s i s t r a c e s the c o m p l i c a t e d and c o n t r a d i c t o r y -h i s t o r i c a l o n t o l o g y o f photography by examining the myths o f t r u t h and death t h a t s u r r o u n d the medium. M u l t i p l e examples from contemporary n a r r a t i v e cinema o f d i v e r s e n a t i o n s , t ime p e r i o d s and genres are used t o e l u c i d a t e the t h e o r e t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s t h a t photography a t t r a c t s . In the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s t h e s i s , the " t r u t h " o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i n d e x i c a l i t y i s e v a l u a t e d . In Chapter 1, the myth o f t r u t h i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the h i s t o r i c a l development o f r e a l i s m . R e a l i s m and " t r u t h " are shown t o be m y t h i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , which i s demonstrated by the s e l e c t e d f i l m s t h a t focus on the p e r s o n a l use o f photography . C h a p t e r 2 examines the use o f photography as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l t o o l o f power. The f i l m s o f t h i s c h a p t e r show t h a t power and c o r r u p t i o n can be synonymous. In Chapter 3 , the m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f death t h a t s u r r o u n d photography are d i s c u s s e d . The i n d e x i c a l i t y o f photography i s shown t o occupy a t e m p o r a l d e a t h . In C h a p t e r 4 , the s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s between photography and f i l m are r a i s e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p . F i n a l l y , Chapter 5 examines the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f death i n p h o t o g r a p h i c c o n t e n t . The V i c t o r i a n c r a z e f o r s p i r i t and post -mortem photography r e v e a l s the s t r o n g p r e o c c u p a t i o n i n t h a t s o c i e t y w i t h i m m o r t a l i t y . In sum, i t i s the i n t e g r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d e x i c a l i t y t h a t both p r e v e n t s photography from p o s s e s s i n g an autonomous and s i n g u l a r i d e n t i t y w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g the medium t o have m u l t i p l e meanings i n d i v e r s e c o n t e x t s . i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Abstract i i Table of Contents i v Acknowledgements v Introduction. The Truth and Death of Indexicality 1 Chapter I. Photography as i t Concerns Truth, Realism and Self-Authentication 15 Chapter I I . The Ethics of the Archive 34 Chapter I I I . Photography's Multiple Associations With Death 56 Chapter IV. Narrative Death 73 Chapter V. Metamorphic Death: Post-mortem and S p i r i t Photography i n Narrative Cinema 94 Epitaph 1.15 Filmography 121 Bibliography 122 V A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S T h i s work c o u l d not have been e i t h e r begun o r f i n i s h e d w i t h o u t the i n s p i r a t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l suppor t o f the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e . I would l i k e t o express my deepest a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Karen Benbassa t , Z o s i a Dorcey , the Edwards f a m i l y , D r . Mark H a r r i s , Gwen Haworth, Mark J u r i c , Ranko and A g i c a J u r i c , P r o f e s s o r E . Ann K a p l a n , Sharon McGowan, P r o f e s s o r B r i a n M c l l r o y , P r o f e s s o r John 0'B r i a n , Heather O'Hagan, G a i l O e l k e r s , Andrew P e t t i t , I a i a n P e t t i t , and R i d l e y . You have a l l p l a y e d i n v a l u a b l e r o l e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I d e d i c a t e t h i s work t o the memory o f my mother and f a t h e r . 1 Introduction. The Truth and Death of Indexicality My i n i t i a l d u a l i n t e r e s t i n photography and f i l m o c c u r r e d w h i l e I was c o m p l e t i n g the f o u r t h y e a r o f my B a c h e l o r o f F i n e A r t s Degree . We were i n s t r u c t e d to deve lop one p r o j e c t f o r the e n t i r e y e a r , and thus a s i g n i f i c a n t t o p i c o r i s s u e had t o be s e l e c t e d . I d e c i d e d t o e x p l o r e the t o p i c , "the e t h i c s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " , i n response t o my t r i p t o A f r i c a the p r e v i o u s summer. On my t r i p , we v i s i t e d many remote t r i b e s t h a t were s l o w l y i n t e g r a t i n g i n t o modern s o c i e t y . The t r a d i t i o n s and customs o f these s m a l l e r t r i b e s were becoming l o s t t o u r b a n i z a t i o n . As a p h o t o g r a p h e r , I f e l t compe l l ed t o photograph the peop le due t o t h e i r unique and q u i c k l y d i s a p p e a r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e s . A t the same t i m e , I f e l t t h a t as a Western t o u r i s t , I had the power o f m o b i l i t y . In o t h e r words , I had the a b i l i t y t o e n t e r and l e a v e a c o u n t r y , w h i l e some t r i b e s were e x p e r i e n c i n g extreme d e s t i t u t i o n , p a r t l y due t o t h e i r l i m i t e d o p t i o n s . On the one hand, I f e l t t h a t I had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a photographer and a r t i s t t o c a p t u r e a r c h i v a l images o f d e c l i n i n g t r i b a l t r a d i t i o n s , so t h a t some t ime i n the f u t u r e , a f t e r t h e i r customs had d i s a p p e a r e d , t h e i r c u l t u r e s would l i v e on through my images . On the o t h e r hand, I f e l t t h a t I was o b j e c t i f y i n g the peop le because I had the power and p r i v i l e g e t o photograph them when and where I chose . I was 2 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n "the s a l v a g e paradigm", y e t e t h i c a l l y t r o u b l e d by r e p r e s e n t i n g the "Other" . I expres sed my concerns r e g a r d i n g the e t h i c s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f i l m Kenya . F o r t h i s p r o j e c t , I f i l m e d the s t i l l images t h a t I took i n Kenya , and wrote a v o i c e - o v e r n a r r a t i o n e x p r e s s i n g these i s s u e s . I "married" the v o i c e - o v e r w i t h the s t i l l images, and c r e a t e d a f i l m . T h i s p r o j e c t a l l o w e d me t o r e a l i z e the i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between photography and f i l m . A t the most b a s i c l e v e l , f i l m i s t w e n t y - f o u r s t i l l photographs per second . Even though f i l m would not e x i s t w i t h o u t photography , t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s between the two mediums. Photographs are taken from t i m e , and movies take t i m e . I t i s the n a r r a t i v e sweep o f mot ion t h a t a l l o w s us t o f o r g e t the i n t r i n s i c and dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i l m and photography . But what happens when a f i l m i s about photography , o r photographs are used w i t h i n the f i l m ? Suddenly , a s e l f - r e f l e x i v e moment o c c u r s , where the f i l m pays homage t o i t s b a s i c form of b e i n g , the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l image. When I began my r e s e a r c h on the t o p i c o f photography i n f i l m , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d w r i t i n g on the r o l e photography p l a y e d when used i n the c o n t e x t o f a mot ion p i c t u r e . I found two sources t h a t d i r e c t l y addressed t h i s t o p i c , G a r r e t t S t e w a r t ' s Between F i l m and Screen and an i s s u e o f Wide A n g l e , 3 c a l l e d "On Photography and F i l m " . Other we l l -known photography and f i l m t h e o r i s t s such as Ro land B a r t h e s , Susan Sontag and C h r i s t a i n Metz b r i e f l y compare and e v a l u a t e the two mediums. But t h e i r t e x t s are f o r the most p a r t focused on photography o r f i l m , not b o t h . With l i t t l e f i l m r e s e a r c h t o draw o n , I approached my t o p i c by d e l v i n g i n t o p h o t o g r a p h i c t h e o r y . I a p p l i e d the i s s u e s and concepts o f t h i s d i s c o u r s e t o f i l m s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s . I have p r o v i d e d a n a l y s i s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c t h e o r i s t s such as John Tagg , Ro land B a r t h e s , Susan Sontag , A l l a n S e k u l a and G e o f f r e y Batchen and used t h e i r concepts as a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f f i l m s t h a t use photography . These t h e o r i s t s take d i v e r s e s t a n d p o i n t s i n t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l approaches ; f o r example, Tagg a l i g n s h i m s e l f w i t h the M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e as i t concerns photography , w h i l e B a r t h e s takes a c o n t r a d i c t o r y phenomenolog ica l a p p r o a c h . Tagg i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and e t h i c s o f the c a p i t a l i s t system as i t engages photography i n an exchange o f power. B a r t h e s n e g o t i a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c v i e w e r . W h i l e the i d e o l o g i c a l camps o f these two t h e o r i s t s c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed, t h e i r i d e a s can s t i l l be a p p l i e d t o a r t i c u l a t e the c e n t r a l p o i n t t h a t photography has a m u l t i -4 f a c e t e d i d e n t i t y and t h i s s l i p p e r y i d e n t i t y a l l o w s the medium t o be used i n d i v e r s e ways f o r numerous p u r p o s e s . Without combin ing p h o t o g r a p h i c and f i l m i c d i s c o u r s e , I would not be a b l e t o a d e q u a t e l y and comprehens ive ly d i s c u s s the c o m p l i c a t e d medium o f photography . F i l m i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f m u l t i p l e a r t forms—combining drama, l a n d s c a p e , music and p h i l o s o p h y i n t o one c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , n a r r a t i v e f i l m i s the i d e a l medium t o demonstrate the m u l t i p l e uses o f photography . W h i l e t h e r e are o t h e r f i l m genres b e s i d e s the n a r r a t i v e f i l m t h a t c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o my t h e s i s , such as documentary and e x p e r i m e n t a l c inema, these genres a lone cannot demonstrate the complex use o f photography as a medium. The documentary f i l m form i s l i m i t e d i n i t s use o f photography , which i s u s u a l l y f o r h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h c l a i m p u r p o s e s , whereby b l a c k and whi t e p h o t o g r a p h i c i n s e r t s are used t o a u t h e n t i c a t e p a s t e v e n t s . E x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m s o f t e n c h a l l e n g e dominant c u l t u r a l myths , but t h e r e are v e r y few e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e the use o f photography , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f these f i l m s i s l i m i t e d , and a g a i n t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g i n t h i s f i e l d . By r e l y i n g on the d i v e r s i t y o f n a r r a t i v e f i l m s t o demonstrate the v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t s u r r o u n d photography , I am a b l e t o t a n g i b l y argue the impact and c u l t u r a l r e c e p t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s . 5 I have used t h e o r i s t s w i t h c o n t r a d i c t o r y p e r s p e c t i v e s t o d i s c u s s a c o n t r a d i c t o r y medium, and I have c r o s s b r e d p h o t o g r a p h i c and f i l m i c d i s c o u r s e t o demonstrate the power and i n f l u e n c e o f the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s o f the t r u t h and death o f i n d e x i c a l i t y . I have t r i e d t o r e c o n s i d e r the concepts o f photography and f i l m t h e o r i s t s by u n i f y i n g the two d i s c o u r s e s under the p h i l o s o p h i c a l u m b r e l l a o f T r u t h and D e a t h . To demonstrate the c o m p l e x i t y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between photography and f i l m , we can examine a n a r r a t i v e f i l m t h a t concerns the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f i l m from photographs . In B r i a n De Pa lma's Blow-Out (1981) , a sound d e s i g n e r , Jack T e r r i , makes h i s l i v i n g by r e c o r d i n g sound e f f e c t s f o r h o r r o r movies . When he a c c i d e n t a l l y r e c o r d s an automobi le c r a s h t h a t k i l l s a p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e , Jack q u i c k l y d i s c o v e r s a p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y . W h i l e J a c k i s l i s t e n i n g t o the sound tape t h a t r e c o r d e d the a c c i d e n t , he t h i n k s t h a t he hears two l o u d s h o t s . The f i r s t sound i s a gunshot and the second sound i s the blowout o f the t i r e . There i s no way of c o n f i r m i n g h i s s u s p i c i o n s u n t i l he watches the news h e a d l i n e s t h a t s t a t e t h a t a photographer was a t the scene o f the a c c i d e n t . The photographer was t h e r e l a t e t h a t n i g h t , and took a s e r i e s o f p i c t u r e s as the c a r swerved o f f the b r i d g e i n t o the r i v e r . The photographs were s o l d and p u b l i c l y p r i n t e d i n a magazine . 6 Jack buys the magazine and c u t s out each i n d i v i d u a l frame of every p h o t o g r a p h . I n i t i a l l y , he makes a f l i p b o o k o f the images, thumbing through them t o c r e a t e a crude i l l u s i o n o f m o t i o n . He then r e c o r d s each p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l image on f i l m w i t h an a n i m a t i o n camera. When the f i l m i s p r o c e s s e d , he s y n c h r o n i z e s the soundtrack r e c o r d e d from the t ime o f the a c c i d e n t w i t h the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s o f the a c c i d e n t t h a t are now i n f i l m form. When he s y n c h r o n i z e s the two mediums, h i s s u s p i c i o n s are c o n f i r m e d . A t the sound o f the f i r s t s h o t , which Jack thought sounded l i k e a gunshot , t h e r e i s a f l a s h o f l i g h t i n one frame. In the next frame, the f l a s h o f l i g h t d i s a p p e a r s . The f l a s h o f l i g h t i s i n s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n w i t h the sound of the f i r s t l o u d s h o t . T h i s l eads Jack t o b e l i e v e t h a t the f l a s h o f l i g h t i s g u n f i r e , aimed a t the wheel o f the c a r , which caused the c a r t o c r a s h . Jack d i s c o v e r s a p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y by r e c r e a t i n g the a c c i d e n t scene from p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s and r e c o r d i n g sound i n t o a f i l m form. T h i s example demonstrates how the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l was r e - c o n t e x t u a l i z e d . T h i s r e - c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l i n t o a f i l m form demonstrates the i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between photography and f i l m . However, t h i s example a l s o demonstrates how the i n d e x i c a l power o f photography and i t s r h e t o r i c o f t r u t h are c a r r i e d over i n t o the f i l m form t o prove a p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y . Photography , h e r e , s erves a d u a l p u r p o s e . As John 7 Tagg e x p l a i n s , i t i s p h o t o g r a p h y ' s l a c k o f a s i n g u l a r i d e n t i t y t h a t a l l o w s the medium t o be used i n d i v e r s e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y ways. He w r i t e s : "Photography as such has no i d e n t i t y . I t s s t a t u s as a t e c h n o l o g y v a r i e s w i t h the power r e l a t i o n s which i n v e s t i t . I t s n a t u r e as a p r a c t i c e depends on the i n s t i t u t i o n s and agents which d e f i n e i t and se t i t t o work" (63) . Tagg takes on a M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e t o demonstrate how the i n s t i t u t i o n a l use o f photography f u n c t i o n s as a t o o l f o r u n e t h i c a l power d i s p l a y s . W h i l e i t i s not my i n t e n t i o n t o e n t i r e l y take on such an i d e o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , I do agree w i t h Tagg ' s premise r e g a r d i n g p h o t o g r a p h y ' s l a c k o f a s i n g u l a r , "true" meaning. Whi l e Tagg ' s concept i s a c e n t r a l premise i n my t h e s i s , I agree more w i t h the tone o f G e o f f r e y B a t c h e n ' s l e s s dogmatic p e r a m b u l a t i o n s . He w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no n e u t r a l ground where photography can speak f o r i t s e l f , where i t can emit some e s s e n t i a l , u n d e r l y i n g "true" meaning. Wi th no f i x e d i d e n t i t y o r h i s t o r i c a l u n i t y , photography p o t e n t i a l l y be longs t o e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e but i t s own ( 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o A l l a n S e k u l a , "Because o f t h i s i n d e x i c a l p r o p e r t y , photographs are fundamenta l ly grounded i n cont ingency" (Batchen 9). In o t h e r words , as an i n d e x , the photograph i s never i t s e l f , but always by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , a t r a c i n g o f something e l s e . As my t h e s i s w i l l demonstrate , photography o c c u p i e s many f u n c t i o n s and purposes and i t i s used i n d i v e r s e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y ways. 8 The s t a t u s o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s i s due t o the medium's i n e s c a p a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n d e x i c a l i t y . P h o t o g r a p h y ' s i n d e x i c a l i t y a l l o w e d the medium t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the two p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y c a t e g o r i e s o f t r u t h and d e a t h . In t h i s t h e s i s , C h a p t e r 1: "Photography as i t Concerns T r u t h , R e a l i s m and S e l f - A u t h e n t i c a t i o n " t r a c e s how, h i s t o r i c a l l y , a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t r u t h were a t t a c h e d t o photography . P h o t o g r a p h y ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m e c h a n i c a l i n d e x i c a l i t y r e n d e r e d images o f r e a l i s m . R e a l i s m was c o n s i d e r e d o b j e c t i v e and , t h e r e f o r e , t r u e . However, the r h e t o r i c o f o b j e c t i v e t r u t h t h a t surrounds photography i s e a s i l y d e f l a t e d when the s u b j e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f photography are acknowledged. The t h r e e f i l m s t h a t I have chosen f o r t h i s c h a p t e r , P r o o f (1991), d i r e c t e d by J o c e l y n Moorhouse, Memento (2000), d i r e c t e d by C h r i s t o p h e r N o l a n , and Blade Runner (1982), d i r e c t e d by R i d l e y S c o t t , demonstrate how the p r o t a g o n i s t s , i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e i r p e r c e i v e d i n a d e q u a c i e s , use the e v i d e n t i a l f o r c e o f p h o t o g r a p h i c t r u t h . However, i n a l l t h r e e f i l m s , the " t r u t h " c l a i m s o f photography prove t o be f i c t i o n a l and e l u s i v e . Whi l e C h a p t e r 1 e x p l o r e s the myth o f t r u t h and how t h i s myth has had i n f l u e n c e s i n the p r i v a t e sphere , Chapter 2: "The E t h i c s o f the A r c h i v e " examines how the myth o f t r u t h i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h photography i n the p u b l i c s p h e r e . Chapter 2 9 looks at the role of photography i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n . At the time of the b i r t h of photography, a changing s o c i a l demographic brought on the need for the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p olice force. The unethical power display of the p r i v i l e g e d over the Other i s demonstrated by the way photography was used to ensure order and control. Photography was used to i d e n t i f y criminals and the archived images created an information system of surveillance which strengthened the power of the i n s t i t u t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , the films I have chosen for t h i s section, Peter Weir's Witness (1985), Paul Verhoeven's Basic Instinct (1992) and Spike Lee's Clockers (1995), reveal that photography worked to i d e n t i f y criminals who were not outside the i n s t i t u t i o n but within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Both Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the myth of truth that rests i n photography's q u a l i t y of i n d e x i c a l i t y . While some equated i n d e x i c a l i t y with truth, others equated i t with death. Photography's a b i l i t y to r e p l i c a t e r e a l i t y , or to create a double, caused the c u l t u r a l reception of the process to associate i t with mortality, the occult and the supernatural. In Chapter 3: "Photography's Multiple Associations With Death," I outline the seminal essays that concern photographic theory. I discuss the metaphysical death presented by photography due to the medium's unique rela t i o n s h i p to time and space. This tenuous representational q u a l i t y of temporal i n d e x i c a l i t y 10 causes the p h o t o g r a p h i c v i ewer t o e x p e r i e n c e m o r t a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y . The t h r e e f i l m s I d i s c u s s h e r e , C h r i s M a r k e r ' s L a J e t e e (1962), M i c h e l a n g e l o A n t o n i o n i ' s Blow-Up (1966), and Roger S p o t t i s w o o d e ' s Under F i r e (1983), demonstrate the m e t a p h y s i c a l death o f photography and i t s components o f t e m p o r a l i t y , memento m o r i and s p e c t a t o r phenomenology. Chapter 4: " N a r r a t i v e Death" examines the s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s between photography and f i l m as they r e l a t e t o t i m e , space and h i s t o r y . When the two mediums are p l a c e d t o g e t h e r , as i n the case o f a m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , t h e r e i s a p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r r e c o i l t h a t o c c u r s . In a l l t h r e e f i l m s , T e r r e n c e M a l i c k ' s Badlands (1973), A l a n J . P a k u l a ' s P a r a l l a x View (1974), and Tom Tykwer ' s Run L o l a Run (1998), I demonstrate t h a t the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e echoes the p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e n t o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , which i s concerned w i t h a p r e v a l e n t death d r i v e . In Chapter 5 : "Metamorphic Death: Postmortem and S p i r i t Photography i n N a r r a t i v e C inema ," I d i s c u s s the m a t e r i a l q u a l i t i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c death work. The V i c t o r i a n phenomenon of posthumous photography and s u p e r n a t u r a l photography r e v e a l the p r e v a l e n t need i n t h a t s o c i e t y t o a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y v i a the image. P h o t o g r a p h y ' s m e c h a n i c a l and i n d e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l e a d t o the uncanny a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the d o u b l e . 11 The t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera was thought t o possess s u p e r n a t u r a l powers . The immorta l d r i v e o f death i n p h o t o g r a p h i c c o n t e n t i s shown i n The Others (2000) d i r e c t e d by A l e j a n d r o Amenabar, The Asphyx (1973) d i r e c t e d by P e t e r Newbrook, and R i n g (1999), d i r e c t e d by Dong-g in K i m . F i n a l l y , I c o n c l u d e w i t h an e p i t a p h on p h o t o g r a p h y ' s growing s t a t u s as a d y i n g medium due t o the r a p i d development o f d i g i t a l i z a t i o n . The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f d i g i t a l imaging and i t s p r o c e s s o f manufacture t h a t does not depend on a r e f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s p h o t o g r a p h y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t r u t h and r a i s e s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l concerns on e t h i c s , knowledge and c u l t u r e . The f i l m t h a t I use t o demonstrate the complex in terweave o f t r u t h and death o f d i g i t a l imaging i s RoboCop (1987), d i r e c t e d by P a u l Verhoeven . P h o t o g r a p h y ' s q u a l i t y o f i n d e x i c a l i t y a l l o w e d f o r the medium t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n t r a d i c t o r y q u a l i t i e s o f T r u t h and Death . The f i l m s t h a t I have chosen demonstrate the d i v e r s e uses o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c image. As John Tagg w r i t e s , we cannot go through a day w i t h o u t s e e i n g a photograph (34). A d v e r t i s i n g h o a r d i n g s , news photographs , magazine c o v e r s , window d i s p l a y s and p o s t e r s o f a l l k i n d s s u r r o u n d u s . We c a r r y photographs i n our w a l l e t s , c o l l e c t them i n albums, and s t i c k them i n our p a s s p o r t s , bus passes o r s tudent c a r d s . They are images o f o u r s e l v e s , our f a m i l y , and our f r i e n d s - p o r t r a i t s 12 w i t h meanings and v a l u e s t h a t l i e i n numerous s o c i a l exchanges and r i t u a l s , which would now seem i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t photography . These v a r i o u s s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s are c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y e n r i c h e d by photography . The d i v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which photography i s used demonstrates the medium's m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s . With m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s t h a t c a r r y d i v e r s e meanings , photography can be used i n p o w e r f u l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y ways and i t can take on many d i f f e r e n t meanings . Perhaps the f i l m t h a t most o v e r t l y and p o i g n a n t l y a r t i c u l a t e s the m u l t i p l e uses o f photography and the medium's importance i n our everyday l i v e s i s the v e r y r e c e n t One Hour Photo (2002), d i r e c t e d by Mark Romanek. The c e n t r a l p r o t a g o n i s t , "Sy, the photo guy", works i n a s m a l l one-hour p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s i n g l a b i n a suburban m a l l . He has worked as a p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s i n g c l e r k and t e c h n i c i a n f o r over t e n y e a r s , and he has taken h i s job o f p r o c e s s i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , and p r i n t i n g n e g a t i v e s f o r h i s customers v e r y s e r i o u s l y . The r o l e s o f f i l m h i s customers b r i n g t o him t o be deve loped form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i s i d e n t i t y , so much so , t h a t h i s f a n t a s i e s are f o s t e r e d by o b s e r v i n g the f a m i l y photographs o f one young f a m i l y o f t h r e e : mother , f a t h e r and son . He keeps t r a c k o f the young f a m i l y ' s growth and development over the course o f t e n y e a r s by o b s e s s i v e l y p i n n i n g c o p i e s o f a l l o f t h e i r p r i n t s on 13 h i s l i v i n g room w a l l a t home and c r e a t i n g a v o y e u r i s t i c mura l i n t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s . The importance o f the r o l e photography p l a y s i n the r i t u a l s o f our everyday l i v e s , as Tagg n o t e s , i s r e i t e r a t e d i n S y ' s v o i c e over n a r r a t i o n . He s e n t i m e n t a l l y s t a t e s : F a m i l y photographs d e p i c t s m i l i n g f a c e s , b i r t h s , weddings , h o l i d a y s , k i d s ' b i r t h d a y p a r t i e s . People take photographs o f the happy moments i n t h e i r l i v e s . Someone l o o k i n g through our f a m i l y photo albums would c o n c l u d e t h a t we l i v e joyous happy l i v e s . No one takes a photograph o f something they want t o f o r g e t . Even though Sy r e a l i z e s t h a t peop le are c r e a t i n g a f i c t i v e i l l u s i o n o f f a m i l y happiness by s e l e c t i v e l y p h o t o g r a p h i n g p o s i t i v e moments, he p e r s i s t e n t l y imagines h i m s e l f as a member of the young f a m i l y and d e s p e r a t e l y wants t o be a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the moments they choose t o c a p t u r e . Sy f u r t h e r expresses the importance o f h i s c a r e e r by p r o v i d i n g the l o g i c a l argument t h a t "When p e o p l e ' s houses are on f i r e , what i s the f i r s t t h i n g they save a f t e r t h e i r f a m i l y and pe t s? T h e i r f a m i l y photographs" . T h u s , Sy has observed t h a t photography i s h i g h l y v a l u e d and t r e a s u r e d i n s o c i e t y . Sy a l s o a r t i c u l a t e s the p r o l i f i c use o f photography i n s o c i e t y by n o t i n g the d i v e r s i t y o f peop le who r e g u l a r l y r e q u i r e h i s s e r v i c e s . There i s one woman who b r i n g s i n a r o l e o f f i l m every week of her c a t s . There i s the i n s u r a n c e a d j u s t e r who c o n s i s t e n t l y b r i n g s i n r o l e s o f f i l m t h a t c o n t a i n images o f c a r a c c i d e n t s . There are the p a r e n t s o f a newborn baby who drop o f f dozens o f r o l l s o f f i l m a f t e r e v e r y weekend. There i s the nurse from the cosmet i c c l i n i c down the s t r e e t , who b r i n g s i n b e f o r e and a f t e r shots o f cosmet i c s u r g e r y . A n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e i s always the amateur p o r n o g r a p h i c a r t i s t . S y ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the types o f photographs peop le take and the d i v e r s i t y o f peop le who take photographs demonstrates t h a t photography c r o s s e s many s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d b o u n d a r i e s , such as c l a s s , r a c e and gender . I t i s p h o t o g r a p h y ' s s l i p p e r y q u a l i t y o f i n d e x i c a l i t y t h a t p e r m i t s the medium t o be used a c r o s s oppos ing c o n t e x t s . The wide scope o f f u n c t i o n s and purposes t h a t photography o c c u p i e s , t h e n , suggests as Tagg has t h e o r i z e d , t h a t photography has a c o m p l i c a t e d and m u l t i f a c e t e d i d e n t i t y . 15 Chapter I. Photography as i t Concerns Truth, Realism and Self-Authentication "The photo gives a l i t t l e t ruth" (Barthes 103). The h i s t o r i c a l ontology of photography i s complicated and contradictory. In t h i s chapter, I w i l l investigate the myth of truth that has been attached to photography from i t s e a r l i e s t beginnings. I w i l l deconstruct the r e a l i s t myth of truth that surrounds photography by locating the h i s t o r i c a l ontology of the s t i l l photograph i n the nineteenth century. I w i l l then demonstrate how these myths of truth are s t i l l associated with photography and are presently employed i n contemporary narrative cinema. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h i s chapter, I w i l l examine how the photograph i s used within the private, rather than the public realm. The contradictory myth of the h i s t o r i c a l ontology of photography has been ca r r i e d forward to the b e l i e f s about photography i n contemporary Western culture. Since cinema i s a c u l t u r a l product and an accumulation of diverse mediums and ideas, i t works very well to demonstrate current notions that surround the photographic image. In the three films that I have chosen - Proof, Memento, and Blade Runner - the protagonists of inte r e s t share a commonality of personal impairment. In Proof, Martin i s a b l i n d photographer; therefore, he never sees the photographs he takes. But v i a the act of photographing, he 16 f e e l s t h a t he i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v i s u a l w o r l d o f t r u t h , and t h i s i s an attempt t o bypass h i s f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy f o r b e i n g b l i n d . In Memento, She lby s u f f e r s from a n t e r i o r g r a d e amnes ia . He has no s h o r t - t e r m memory, so he takes P o l a r o i d s o f everyone he meets and every p l a c e he t r a v e l s . He takes notes on the photographs i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t h i s own p r i v a t e a r c h i v e - an e x t e r n a l memory o f s o r t s . In B lade Runner , Rebecca p r o v i d e s f a m i l y photographs f o r Deckard t o prove t h a t she i s human. In a l l t h r e e f i l m s , the p r o t a g o n i s t s use the myth o f the t r u t h o f photography f o r s e l f - a u t h e n t i c a t i o n due t o t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e i r own i d e n t i t i e s . The a u r a o f t r u t h t h a t surrounds the p h o t o g r a p h i c image can be u n d e r s t o o d by l o o k i n g t o Western systems o f i d e a s and the ways knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e are o r d e r e d . The o r i g i n o f e q u a t i n g v e r a c i t y t o the p h o t o g r a p h i c image can be c o n s i d e r e d i n a h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t ( L i s t e r 10-14). As John Tagg a s s e r t s i n The Burden o f R e p r e s e n t a t i o n (1985), the photograph came t o s tand as ev idence by a s o c i a l , s e m i o t i c p r o c e s s , not by any n a t u r a l o r e x i s t e n t i a l f a c t o f the medium (4). To unde r s tand the a s c r i b e d e v i d e n t i a l f o r c e o f photography , we must f i r s t l o o k a t the d e s i r e f o r a c h i e v i n g "rea l i sm" i n p a i n t i n g , a s t y l e which was most n o t a b l e d u r i n g the Rena i s sance w i t h the i n v e n t i o n o f the camera o b s c u r a . V i c t o r B u r g i n observes t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l system of 17 photography i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h a t o f c l a s s i c a l p a i n t i n g because both depend on the camera-obscura ( q t d . i n Batchen 19). As Andre B a z i n w r i t e s , i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Western p a i n t i n g s h i f t e d from p r i v i l e g i n g s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n i s m t o want ing t o a c h i e v e a complete i m i t a t i o n o f the w o r l d . The o b j e c t i v e o f t o t a l " i m i t a t i o n " was r e a l i z e d w i t h the camera o b s c u r a , the f i r s t s c i e n t i f i c , m e c h a n i c a l system o f v i s u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . The camera o b s c u r a p r o v i d e d the p a i n t e r w i t h the a b i l i t y t o r e n d e r s u b j e c t mat ter i n the t h r e e - p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e o f A l b e r t i a n o p t i c s , thus a p p r o a c h i n g a more a c c u r a t e and r e a l i s t i c l i k e n e s s t o the o u t s i d e w o r l d . The i l l u s i o n o f t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l space on a two d i m e n s i o n a l p l a n e appeared as our eyes p e r c e i v e the w o r l d (10-11). T h u s , the r e p l i c a t i o n o f our own p e r c e p t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d more r e a l i s t i c and " t r u t h f u l " when compared t o the t w o - p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e r e n d e r e d i n Western p a i n t i n g up u n t i l the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . B a r t h e s w r i t e s t h a t Rena i s sance p a i n t e r s have o f t e n been g i v e n c r e d i t f o r i n v e n t i n g photography , as the photograph u t i l i z e s Rena i s sance f r a m i n g , t h r e e - p o i n t p e r s p e c t i v e and the o p t i c s o f the camera o b s c u r a (80). However, B a r t h e s d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h i s l i n k a g e , as does John B e r g e r , who a t t a c h e s the i d e o l o g y o f p o s i t i v i s m and the development o f the camera t o g e t h e r , due t o t h e i r s imul taneous b i r t h s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y (Barthes 80; q t d . i n Robins 33). K e v i n Robins notes 18 B e r g e r ' s p o i n t t h a t when the camera was i n v e n t e d i n 1839, Auguste Comte was c o m p l e t i n g h i s Cours de P h i l o s o p h i e P o s i t i v e (33). P o s i t i v i s m and the camera grew up t o g e t h e r , and what s u s t a i n e d them as p r a c t i c e s "was the b e l i e f t h a t o b s e r v a b l e , q u a n t i f i a b l e f a c t s , r e c o r d e d by s c i e n t i s t s and e x p e r t s , would one day o f f e r man such a t o t a l knowledge about n a t u r e and s o c i e t y t h a t he would be a b l e t o o r d e r them both" (33). Robins c o n t i n u e s by s t a t i n g t h a t photography r e p r e s e n t e d a p r i v i l e g e d means f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the " t r u t h " about the w o r l d , i t s n a t u r e and i t s p r o p e r t i e s (34). He r e f e r e n c e s M i t c h e l l , who notes t h a t the camera has been r e g a r d e d as "an i d e a l C a r t e s i a n i n s t r u m e n t - a d e v i c e f o r use by o b s e r v i n g s u b j e c t s t o r e c o r d supremely a c c u r a t e t r a c e s o f the o b j e c t s b e f o r e them" (28). Wi th the removal o f human i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the p r o c e s s o f r e g i s t e r i n g and r e c o r d i n g an a c c u r a t e image, photography was c o n s i d e r e d t o be o b j e c t i v e l y n e u t r a l . As M i t c h e l l s t a t e s , "The p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e d u r e , l i k e . . . s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e d u r e s , seems t o p r o v i d e a guaranteed way o f overcoming s u b j e c t i v i t y and g e t t i n g a t the r e a l t r u t h " (28). P o s i t i v i s m can be seen as an attempt t o r a t i o n a l i z e the image. A i d e d by the camera o b s c u r a , Western p a i n t e r s were d r i v e n t o " imi ta te" the w o r l d . S c i e n c e and a r t appeared t o c o a l e s c e . The p h i l o s o p h y of p o s i t i v i s m determined the i d e o l o g y o f o b j e c t i v i t y , which f u e l e d the merger o f e m p i r i c i s m w i t h 19 photography , and i t s myth o f t r u t h . Wi th the s c i e n t i f i c o r i g i n s o f photography , o b j e c t i v i t y was assumed due to the m e c h a n i c a l r e n d e r i n g o f space and o f d e t a i l . H u l i c k quotes W i l l i a m I v i n s : "The n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y began by b e l i e v i n g what was r e a s o n a b l e was t r u e and i t wound up by b e l i e v i n g t h a t what i t saw a photograph o f was a l s o t r u e " (420). The myth o f t r u t h i s e l u c i d a t e d by B a z i n and r e i t e r a t e d by H u l i c k , who both s t a t e t h a t the F r e n c h word f o r l e n s i s o b j e c t i f , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the eye o f the camera, o r l e n s , sees o b j e c t i v e l y ( B a z i n 13; H u l i c k 420). Moreover , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o n o t e , as H u l i c k p o i n t s o u t , t h a t v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t mat ter i n n i n e t e e n t h -c e n t u r y photography was s c i e n t i f i c i n n a t u r e (425). The i d e a o f p h o t o g r a p h i c documents as t r u t h f u l r e p o r t s may be seen as f u n c t i o n a l t o the c u l t u r e t h a t i n v e n t e d i t : "Chemica l p h o t o g r a p h y ' s temporary s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f image making e f f e c t i v e l y s e r v e d the purposes o f an e r a dominated by s c i e n c e , e x p l o r a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n " ( M i t c h e l l 49). Diana H u l i c k e v a l u a t e s the d i s c o u r s e on r e a l i s m and the a e s t h e t i c s equated w i t h t r u t h . She w r i t e s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h y ' s a b i l i t y t o reproduce t e l l i n g d e t a i l s was a h a l l m a r k o f the V i c t o r i a n age (419). She notes t h a t Jerome Bump w r i t e s : " T h i s l o v e o f l i t e r a l r e a l i s m " was p a r t o f the s c i e n t i f i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the age (420). In p a i n t i n g , R e a l i s m , 2 0 Symbolism and P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m c o n v i n c e the v iewer o f the r e a l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n through d e t a i l . R e a l i s m , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the work of Gustave Courbe t and Edouard Manet , was a t i t s h e i g h t d u r i n g the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o d u c t i o n . The a e s t h e t i c s o f o b j e c t i v e , e m p i r i c a l t r u t h are m a n i f e s t i n the form o f n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a n r e a l i s m . As Tagg w r i t e s , R e a l i s m o f f e r s a f i x i t y i n which the s i g n i f i e r i s t r e a t e d as i f i t were i d e n t i c a l t o a p r e - e x i s t e n t s i g n i f i e d and i n which the r e a d e r ' s r o l e i s p u r e l y t h a t o f consumer (99). I t i s t h i s r e a l i s t mode w i t h which we are c o n f r o n t e d when we l o o k a t the photograph as e v i d e n c e . F u r t h e r , the camera's m e c h a n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c q u a l i t i e s a l l o w e d the image i t r e p r o d u c e d t o occupy a s p e c i a l v e r a c i t y and e v i d e n t i a l f o r c e . M a r t i n L i s t e r w r i t e s t h a t r e a l i s t t h e o r i e s gave p r i o r i t y t o the m e c h a n i c a l o r i g i n s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c image ( 1 0 ) . The m e c h a n i c a l arrangement o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c camera means t h a t " P h y s i c a l o b j e c t s themselves p r i n t t h e i r image by means o f the o p t i c a l and c h e m i c a l a c t i o n of l i g h t " ( q t d . i n L i s t e r 1 0 ) . Photos are spoken o f as "co-s u b s t a n t i a l w i t h the o b j e c t s they r e p r e s e n t " , " p e r f e c t ana logons" , " s t e n c i l s o f f the r e a l " , " t r a c e s " , o r as " r e c o r d s " of o b j e c t s o r o f "images" o f o b j e c t s ( q t d . i n L i s t e r 1 0 ) . As B a r t h e s w r i t e s , "that has been" was p o s s i b l e o n l y on the day when a s c i e n t i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e (the d i s c o v e r y t h a t s i l v e r 21 halogens were sensitive to l i g h t ) made i t possible to recover and d i r e c t l y p r i n t the luminous rays emitted by a l i g h t object (80) . Thus, a guaranteed causal l i n k with the physical world i s strongly asserted; photographic images are automatically produced and are passive i n the face of r e a l i t y . I t i s t h i s q u a l i t y of the photographic image that Barthes c a l l s i t s " t h i s -has-been" (107) . This i s the indexical source of the photographic image's special force as evidence ( L i s t e r 10) . Realism contends that the indexical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of photography provides the accuracy of veracity. However, r e a l i s t truth claims can be deconstructed with great f a c i l i t y . Susan Sontag reveals many q u a l i t i e s that contradict the r e a l i s t assertion of photographic truth. She writes: "The camera's a b i l i t y to transform r e a l i t y into something beautiful derives from i t s r e l a t i v e weakness as a means of conveying tr u t h " (112) . The presence of subjective interpretation thus destabi l i z e s the grasp of o b j e c t i v i t y . Barthes also acknowledges that photography i s both a l i m i t l e s s technique for appropriating the objective world and an unavoidable expression of the s e l f (103) . Every p o r t r a i t of another person i s a " s e l f - p o r t r a i t " of the photographer. Once the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the photographer i s recognized, the mechanics of the camera can be seen to occupy non-objectivity. 22 Hulick writes that the unquestioning acceptance of a photographic r e a l i t y ignores the s e l e c t i v i t y of the lens. She notes that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of diverse f o c a l lengths of lenses can render very d i f f e r e n t images of the world. Also, the optics are based on Renaissance perspective theory. As well, the random d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s i l v e r halides on the f i l m negative varies with changing chemistry and l i g h t . She further states that analog photography i s neither a true, nor an unchanging facsimile of the world. A true facsimile would reproduce a l l the v i s u a l l y apprehensible q u a l i t i e s of the object photographed, creating a complete one-to-one reproduction (421-2 2 ) . Furthermore, Geoffrey Batchen s i m i l a r l y notes that every photograph involves intervention and manipulation. He states that photography i s a manipulation of l i g h t l e v e l s , exposure times, chemical concentrations, and tonal ranges. Therefore, a r t i f i c i a l i t y of one kind or another i s an inescapable part of photographic l i f e (212) . Photographic Realists maintain a singular objective i l l u s i o n of truth by attaching e v i d e n t i a l force to the reproduced image. Yet, objective truth can e a s i l y be dest a b i l i z e d by the acknowledgement of the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the photographer and the many choices the camera has available i n rendering diverse perspectives. But perhaps the f a u l t of the Rea l i s t l i e s i n generalizations of photographic i n d e x i c a l i t y . 23 While s u b j e c t i v i t y must be accepted as a dominant presence i n the photographic process, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of photography's o b j e c t i v i t y cannot be completely denied. The photograph must be said to reference a r e a l i t y , rather than the r e a l i t y . The boundary of i n d e x i c a l i t y can be found temporally. In fact, the photograph does not depict the truth of an object i n the world, but a truth of a time i n the world. Barthes writes: "the photograph possesses an ev i d e n t i a l force, and that i t s testimony bears not on the object but on time" (89). The photographic p r i n t projects a temporal truth, rather than an objective truth. In On Photography, Susan Sontag puts forth that " a l l photographs", because they underline t h e i r subject's mortality (or temporality) by momentarily freezing i t , "are memento mori", and she l a t e r claims, "This l i n k between photography and death haunts a l l photographs of people" (70). Additionally, Bazin i s echoed by Sontag's reference to the photographic image as "a trace, something d i r e c t l y s tenciled o ff the r e a l , l i k e a footprint or a death mask" (154). Barthes gives great importance to the topic of photography and death i n Camera Lucida, writing that the photographic referent, or Spectrum, retains "that rather t e r r i b l e thing which i s there i n every photograph: the return of the dead" (9). Barthes evaluates the q u a l i t i e s of photographic reproduction to be unique. He writes t h a t the r e f e r e n t o f the photograph i s not the same as o t h e r systems o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , but r a t h e r , i t i s the r e a l e n t i t y t h a t has been i n f r o n t o f the l e n s . Without the r e f e r e n t t h e r e would be no p h o t o g r a p h . In photography , i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t the t h i n g "has been t h e r e " . B a r t h e s ' w r i t i n g s on t e m p o r a l t r u t h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter 3 . F o r the t ime b e i n g , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note the d u a l i t y o f t r u t h and death t h a t o c c u p i e s photography due t o i t s unique o n t o l o g y o f i n d e x i c a l i t y . The V i c t o r i a n r e a l i s t s a s s e r t e d t h a t t h i s i n d e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f photography gave the medium a s p e c i a l s t a t u s o f t r u t h and v e r a c i t y . As B a r t h e s has p o i n t e d o u t , t h e r e i s indeed a q u a l i t y o f t r u t h t o the p h o t o g r a p h i c image; however, the t r u t h o f photography i s t e m p o r a l , not m a t e r i a l . The myth o f t r u t h and i t s p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p r i v a t e r e a l m i s demonstrated i n the t h r e e f i l m s t h a t I have chosen . In P r o o f , M a r t i n i s a photographer who has been b l i n d from b i r t h . He meets Andy, who i s a s h o r t o r d e r chef a t a r e s t a u r a n t where M a r t i n f r e q u e n t l y d i n e s . The two men meet c o i n c i d e n t a l l y by way o f an a l l e y c a t . I t seems t h a t M a r t i n , w h i l e w a l k i n g down an a l l e y , knocked over garbage t h a t f e l l on the c a t . When Andy sees M a r t i n a g a i n , he shows M a r t i n the c a t and then they take i t t o a v e t t o g e t h e r . A t t h i s p o i n t i n the f i l m , the audience i s f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o M a r t i n ' s hobby o f photography . 25 He takes a p i c t u r e o f Andy i n the v e t ' s w a i t i n g room where, as a b a c k d r o p , t h e r e i s a w a l l o f photographs o f the v e t e r i n a r i a n ' s c l i e n t s and t h e i r p e t s . Andy i n s t r u c t s M a r t i n t o p o i n t the camera down and t o the l e f t so t h a t he i s i n the frame. A f t e r t h i s photograph i s t a k e n , t h e r e i s a montage o f snapshots c r e a t e d o f Andy w i t h the c a t , Andy w i t h the c a t and o t h e r pet owners w i t h t h e i r p e t s , and the c a t w i t h the v e t who i s examining the a n i m a l . The photographs are a l l i n f o c u s , as M a r t i n i s u s i n g an automat ic camera, but the f raming i s always c r o o k e d , w i t h h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s askew, and the c o m p o s i t i o n s p r e s e n t the s u b j e c t e i t h e r i n the bottom o f the frame o r too f a r t o the s i d e . In the next scene , Andy and M a r t i n d r i v e home from the v e t e r i n a r i a n c l i n i c . Andy remarks t h a t i t ' s g r e a t t h a t M a r t i n i s p r o d u c t i v e and has a hobby, r a t h e r than b e i n g u n p r o d u c t i v e and f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r h i m s e l f . M a r t i n e x p l a i n s t h a t h i s mother gave him a camera when he was a young boy . Andy t h i n k s t h a t t h i s i s c r u e l , but M a r t i n s t a t e s : "I thought i t would h e l p me to see ." Perhaps by engaging i n an a c t t h a t r e q u i r e s v i s i o n , M a r t i n ' s b l i n d n e s s d i d not seem as d i s m a l l y t e r m i n a l . In the next scene , the audience l e a r n s why M a r t i n takes the photographs and what he does w i t h them. M a r t i n e n t e r s the r e s t a u r a n t t o show Andy the r e c e n t l y deve loped p r i n t s from the day a t the v e t e r i n a r i a n c l i n i c . He asks Andy t o d e s c r i b e the 26 photographs i n less than ten words. Together, they formulate a descriptive sentence of each image, for example, "Andy holding limp cat i n waiting room at vet." Martin then uses a b r a i l machine to punch i n the words and then s t i c k s the sentence to the back of the p r i n t to l a b e l i t . Andy i s surprised and confused and asks Martin why he labels his photographs. Martin bluntly r e p l i e s : "Proof." Andy r e t o r t s : "Of what?" Martin explains: "That...what's i n the photograph, i s what was there...I was there Andy. I probably know more about what was i n that vet's waiting room than you would...but t h i s i s proof that what I sensed i s what you saw. The truth." Thus, by creating his own personal archive of labeled images, Martin believes that he i s accessing the v i s u a l world of truth, despite his blindness. Yet, he must t r u s t that Andy i s t e l l i n g the truth. This l a t e r becomes an issue when Martin photographs C e l i a , Martin's wicked housekeeper, and Andy together i n the park. Martin does not know that Andy and C e l i a are sleeping together, so when Andy must describe the incriminating image to Martin, he l i e s . Martin l a t e r finds out about the deception, but forgives Andy when he r e a l i z e s that truth i s not a stable, singular e n t i t y . There i s no objective truth, as the r e a l i s t s mythologized, but multiple meanings and interpretations of the world. Taking photographs does not allow 27 M a r t i n t o know the t r u t h about the v i s u a l w o r l d . M a r t i n r e a l i z e s t h a t i t i s not t r u t h t h a t he i s s e e k i n g ; i t i s t r u s t . M a r t i n ' s o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n i n t a k i n g photographs was t o prove t h a t h i s mother l i e d t o h im, "because she c a n . " M a r t i n f e l t t h a t h i s mother l i e d t o him because she was ashamed o f h a v i n g a b l i n d son . P e r h a p s , he a l s o wanted to take photographs t o prove t h a t he c o u l d do the same t h i n g s t h a t s i g h t e d c h i l d r e n c o u l d d o . In one key f l a s h b a c k moment, M a r t i n ' s mother i s d e s c r i b i n g the gardener and the garden t o h im. M a r t i n d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e r e i s no g a r d e n e r , and accuses h i s mother o f l y i n g t o h im. She i n s i s t s t h a t M a r t i n l i s t e n c l o s e l y , and he w i l l hear the gardener r a k i n g the l e a v e s . M a r t i n does not b e l i e v e h e r . In another f l a s h b a c k scene , M a r t i n ' s mother says t h a t she i s s i c k and t h a t she w i l l d i e soon . M a r t i n t h i n k s t h a t she i s l y i n g so t h a t she d o e s n ' t have t o l o o k a f t e r her v i s u a l l y i m p a i r e d son anymore. Even when she i s dead , he knocks on the c o f f i n w i t h h i s cane , and s a d l y sa y s : " I t ' s h o l l o w . " In the end , M a r t i n asks Andy t o d e s c r i b e the f i r s t photograph t h a t he ever t o o k . He s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a man r a k i n g l e a v e s i n a g a r d e n . The myth o f t r u t h r i n g s t r u e - M a r t i n ' s mother was t e l l i n g M a r t i n the t r u t h , and the photograph proves i t . Y e t , the image, which we do not see , does not prove t h a t t h e r e i s a s i n g u l a r o b j e c t i v e v i s u a l t r u t h , which M a r t i n so d e s p e r a t e l y s eeks . The 28 photograph proves that Martin's mother loved him. Here, a meaningless image of a gardener deflated Martin's suspicions about his mother's love for him. Thus, the image did not authenticate the v i s u a l r e a l i t y of truth; instead i t authenticated Martin's search for t r u s t . In Christopher Nolan's Memento, Shelby has anteriorgrade amnesia. He suffered a head injury while t r y i n g to defend his wife. He remembers everything up u n t i l the accident, and his mission i s to avenge the murder of his wife. His amnesiac state questions the s t a b i l i t y of memory and i d e n t i t y . The confused state of his i d e n t i t y i s suggested by the narrative structure of the f i l m . The movie begins with a man being k i l l e d by a point-blank p i s t o l shot, with the v i o l e n t action moving backwards. I t i s preceded by a Polaroid photograph i n reverse motion, displaying an image of the k i l l i n g before fading to blankness and retreating back into the camera that took i t . The narrative i s structured i n reverse, so that the audience learns the clues of the past experiences of the protagonist i n the ignorance mimicked by his memory loss . Shelby r e l i e s on photographs and tattoos to discover the truth about his wife's murderer. The realism of photography i s denied, as his Polaroids work to confuse him more than help him. Every time he learns something new, he documents i t , but what he learns may not be the truth. He takes Polaroids of 29 peop le and p l a c e s and w r i t e s e i t h e r f a c t s o r m i s i n f o r m a t i o n on the back of each snapshot . The p h o t o g r a p h i c c l u e s and t a t t o o s c l u t t e r h i s r e a l i t y , p e r p e t u a t i n g h i s s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n . In the end , i t i s r e v e a l e d t h a t he has k i l l e d h i s w i f e ' s murderer many t imes o v e r , but cannot remember because he has f o r g o t t e n t o document the key e v e n t . T h u s , photography i s a s s e r t e d t o be o n l y a p a r t i a l t r u t h , v u l n e r a b l e to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The photographs o f peop le and p l a c e s t h a t She lby r e l i e s on are fragments o f a p a s t r e a l i t y , but they are dead c l u e s i n t h a t he cannot c o n t e x t u a l i z e o r i n t e r p r e t t h e i r t r u t h s . As he r e f e r e n c e s each photograph i n o r d e r t o c l i n g t o a p a s t t r u t h , h i s own m o r t a l i t y i n the p r e s e n t becomes more v u l n e r a b l e . He c o n t i n u e s t o confuse t r u t h and f i c t i o n by r e l y i n g on the " r e a l i s m " o f photography , which p r e v e n t s him from c o n s t r u c t i n g a s t a b l e s e l f - i d e n t i t y . Wi th the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f amnesia and photography , Memento suggests the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s i s t e n t i d e n t i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n , a l i n e a r p a s t and a s i n g u l a r t r u t h . Whi l e the myth o f the t r u t h o f photography i s employed by the p r o t a g o n i s t s i n P r o o f and Memento t o compensate f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l impairments o f b l i n d n e s s and memory r e s p e c t i v e l y , R a c h a e l , i n B l a d e Runner , uses the f a m i l y snapshot t o a u t h e n t i c a t e her p e r s o n a l memories and t h u s , her "human" i d e n t i t y . In B lade Runner , bounty hunters are employed t o f i n d and k i l l " r e p l i c a n t s " i n the t echno-env ironment o f f u t u r i s t i c 3 0 Los A n g e l e s . " R e p l i c a n t s " are a r t i f i c i a l humanoids e n g i n e e r e d t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from n a t u r a l human b e i n g s . They have been manufactured t o serve as s l a v e s on space s t a t i o n s and are c o n s i d e r e d t o be dangerous i f they escape t o e a r t h . R e p l i c a n t s are programmed t o have a l i f e span o f f o u r y e a r s and are g i v e n memories , language , and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s . The r e p l i c a n t , R a c h a e l , r e a l i z e s s l o w l y and p a i n f u l l y t h a t she i s an a n d r o i d , and t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s when the myth o f the t r u t h o f photography c o l l a p s e s . Rebecca v i s i t s the apartment o f D e c k a r d , the B lade Runner who i s a s s i g n e d t o " r e t i r e " f o u r r e p l i c a n t s who have escaped t o E a r t h . Rebecca asks D e c k a r d : "You t h i n k I 'm a r e p l i c a n t , d o n ' t you?" She then p r e s e n t s Deckard w i t h a photograph o f a l i t t l e g i r l and a woman s i t t i n g t o g e t h e r on the p o r c h s teps o f a house . She says : "Look, i t ' s me w i t h my mother ." D e c k a r d ' s r e p l y i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o f Rebecca ' s c h i l d h o o d memories, from " p l a y i n g doc tor" w i t h her b r o t h e r t o watch i ng a nes t o f s p i d e r s b e i n g born and s u b s e q u e n t l y e a t i n g t h e i r mother . Rebecca c o n c u r s w i t h the d e t a i l s t h a t Deckard has d e s c r i b e d . He c o n t i n u e s by s t a t i n g : "Implants , those a r e n ' t your memories, t h e y ' r e somebody e l s e ' s . T h e i r T y r e l l ' s n i e c e ' s . " Rebecca c r i e s w i t h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t she i s not human. When she l e a v e s , Deckard looks once more a t the snapshot o f "Rebecca w i t h her mother ." He proceeds t o peruse through h i s 31 own f a m i l y p h o t o s . Wi th the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t photographs had been used as a u t h e n t i c a t i o n f o r Rebecca ' s a r t i f i c i a l memories, i t i s suggested t h a t perhaps D e c k a r d ' s f a m i l y photographs are a l s o i n a u t h e n t i c . The myth o f t r u t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h photography had c o n v i n c e d Rebecca t h a t she was human. When Deckard s t a t e s t h a t her memories are i m p l a n t s , so too are the photographs i m p l a n t s . The photographs are props t o c o n s t r u c t an a r t i f i c i a l memory a r c h i v e t h a t worked t o shape Rebecca ' s i d e n t i t y as a human. Her l a c k o f awareness o f b e i n g a r e p l i c a n t suggests t h a t perhaps D e c k a r d , t o o , i s a r e p l i c a n t , as he has memories and photographs j u s t l i k e Rebecca . Thus , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t the photographs are a r t i f i c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s u s i n g the myth o f t r u t h f o r s e l f - a u t h e n t i c a t i o n , r a i s e s l a r g e r m e t a p h y s i c a l i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g what i t means to be human. I f p e r s o n a l f a m i l y photographs are not a u t h e n t i c , then what i s ? The boundar i e s o f the r e a l i t y o f n a t u r e v e r s u s a r t i f i c i a l i t y are thrown i n t o q u e s t i o n . Perhaps we are a l l r e p l i c a n t s , s u p p l i e d w i t h g e n e r i c memories and fake photographs t o su p por t the i l l u s i o n o f b e i n g human, w i t h q u a l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , and u n i q u e n e s s . As i t i s my t h e s i s t o examine the m u l t i p l e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y o n t o l o g i e s o f photography , i t i s hoped t h a t the t h r e e f i l m s d i s c u s s e d have s p e c i f i c a l l y e l u c i d a t e d t h a t c o n c e r n i n g the V i c t o r i a n i d e o l o g y o f r e a l i s m , t h e r e are v a r y i n g 32 degrees o f t r u t h t h a t can be a p p l i e d t o the use o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c image. In P r o o f , photography does not p r o v i d e M a r t i n access t o the s i n g u l a r t r u t h o f v i s i o n t h a t he so d e s p e r a t e l y t r i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n . But photography , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the t r u s t o f h i s f r i e n d , a l l o w s M a r t i n t o r e a l i z e t h a t he must f i n d the t r u t h w i t h i n h i m s e l f . In Memento, She lby uses photography i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h hand w r i t t e n notes and t a t t o o s t o c o n s t r u c t an e x t e r n a l a r c h i v a l memory t o compensate f o r the impairment o f h i s s h o r t - t e r m memory. However, h i s photographs and notes c r e a t e an a r c h i v e o f c o n f u s i o n , r a t h e r than c l a r i t y . He does not know i f what he documents i s t r u e o r f a l s e , but he t h i n k s the mere a c t o f documentat ion w i l l b r i n g him the t r u t h . I n s t e a d , he c r e a t e s an a r c h i v e o f h a l f - t r u t h s , and r e l e n t l e s s l y c a r r i e s on w i t h h i s s e a r c h f o r the k i l l e r o f h i s w i f e . The myth of t r u t h c o m p l i c a t e s S h e l b y ' s l i f e , due t o the h i g h l e v e l o f c r e d i b i l i t y he g i v e s t o p h o t o g r a p h y ' s a u t h e n t i c i t y . F i n a l l y , i n B lade Runner , Rebecca has memories and f a m i l y photographs t o v e r i f y them, j u s t l i k e any o t h e r human b e i n g . Y e t , when Deckard d e c l a r e s the a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f her memories, the photographs l o s e t h e i r s t a t u s o f a u t h e n t i c a t i o n as v a l i d documenta t ion . The a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f the photographs changes Rebecca ' s i d e n t i t y from human t o c y b o r g . The myth o f t r u t h p r o p e l l e d her t o b e l i e v e t h a t she was human, and when the power o f the 33 a u t h e n t i c a t i o n o f photography was d e f l a t e d , Rebecca l e a r n e d t h a t she was not who she thought she was. 34 Chapter II. The Ethics of the Archive In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , I o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r i c a l o n t o l o g y o f photography t h a t shaped the modern myth o f t r u t h t h a t surrounds the medium. I demonstrated t h a t the V i c t o r i a n i d e o l o g y o f R e a l i s m a t t a c h e s p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i n d e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o the e m p i r i c a l T r u t h c l a i m s o f o b j e c t i v i t y . The f i l m s I s e l e c t e d t o e l u c i d a t e the use o f the photograph f o r a u t h e n t i c a t i o n demonstrated p e r s o n a l o r p r i v a t e methods o f overcoming s e l f - p e r c e i v e d impairment . In t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l ex tend the d i s c u s s i o n o f T r u t h i n t o the p u b l i c r e a l m o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l power. In the l a s t c h a p t e r , i t was shown how the p r o t a g o n i s t s o f the f i l m s used photography f o r s e l f -a u t h e n t i c a t i o n , but what happens when one group o b j e c t i f i e s another? Q u e s t i o n s o f power, p r i v i l e g e and e t h i c s immedia te ly come i n t o p l a c e . The photograph has been used as a t o o l o f power t o m a n i p u l a t e and oppress d i v e r s e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d g r o u p s -- t h e c o l o n i z e d , the i n s a n e , women and c r i m i n a l s have a l l been e x p l o i t e d s u b j e c t s o f e m p i r i c a l s c i e n t i f i c v o y e u r i s m . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l examine the h i s t o r y o f the development o f the c r i m i n a l body t o d i s c u s s the u n e t h i c a l power h i e r a r c h i e s t h a t are a t p l a y w i t h the use o f photography . The t h r e e cr ime genre f i l m s t h a t I w i l l be u s i n g as examples t o examine the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f photography a r e : W i t n e s s , B a s i c I n s t i n c t , and C l o c k e r s . 35 John Tagg i n s i s t s t h a t t o d i s c u s s the use o f photography by any p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n , the i n s t i t u t i o n must f i r s t be e v a l u a t e d . In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e was a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s e d d i s c o u r s e s i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , such as a n t h r o p o l o g y , c r i m i n o l o g y , m e d i c a l anatomy, p s y c h i a t r y , p u b l i c h e a l t h , urban p l a n n i n g , and s a n i t a t i o n . These d i s c i p l i n e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s used photography f o r i t s p r i v i l e g e d s t a t u s o f e v i d e n t i a l f o r c e . Tagg w r i t e s t h a t , l i k e the s t a t e , the camera i s never n e u t r a l . I t produces h i g h l y coded r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o w i e l d power by those who use i t . The p h o t o g r a p h ' s i n d e x i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l ends i t the power o f a u t h o r i t y t o r e c o r d and s u r v e i l (11) . Tagg b u i l d s on F o u c a u l t ' s i d e a t h a t power i s p r o d u c t i v e (87) . In the case o f photography , i n s t i t u t i o n s use the medium as an i n s t r u m e n t o r t o o l t o f a c i l i t a t e the i m p o s i t i o n o f power. Those i n power, such as agents o f the s t a t e , use i t on those w i t h o u t power, such as m a r g i n a l i z e d g r o u p s . Photography serves as a c o n d u i t t o a l l o w power less s u b j e c t s t o be r e p r e s e n t e d and oppressed by p o w e r f u l s u b j e c t s as o b j e c t s o f knowledge, a n a l y s i s and c o n t r o l . The work ing c l a s s e s , c o l o n i z e d p e o p l e s , the c r i m i n a l , p o o r , i l l housed, s i c k o r insane became the o b j e c t s o f knowledge because they were c o n s i d e r e d p a s s i v e and p o w e r l e s s . U n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups were s u b j e c t e d t o the s c r u t i n i z i n g gaze o f s u r v e i l l a n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e i r b o d i e s 3 6 were p a t h o l o g i z e d and measured and c a l c u l a t e d t o p r e s e r v e the s e c u r i t y o f the a u t h o r i t y o f s t a t e power. The Other p r o v i d e d the d a t a f o r the p o s i t i v i s t cont inuum. The o p p r e s s i o n t h a t o c c u r s due t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l employment o f p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n goes u n n o t i c e d due t o the e m p i r i c a l t r u t h - v a l u e s o f p o s i t i v i s m . Wi th the p h ot ograp h , o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i s n a t u r a l i z e d because o f i t s s t a t u s as n e u t r a l machinery (Batchen 8 ) . I t f o l l o w s t h e n , t h a t i f the photograph was c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e u t r a l and t r u e , the i n t e n t i o n f o r these images was t o c r e a t e a master a r c h i v e , a t o t a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f v i s u a l d a t a , an e x t e n s i o n o f the p o s i t i v i s t agenda. But as I p r e v i o u s l y ment ioned , the p h o t o g r a p h ' s s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h p o s i t i v i s m a l l o w e d the photograph t o be used " n e u t r a l l y , " even though t h e r e was a severe h i e r a r c h i c a l power imbalance a t work between those who photographed and those who were photographed . T h i s v i s u a l o p p r e s s i o n , o r the e t h i c s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , becomes p a i n f u l l y c l e a r when i t i s r e c o g n i z e d who has c r e a t e d the a r c h i v e and why. As Tagg s t a t e s : "the c o u p l i n g o f e v i d e n c e and photography i n the second h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was bound up w i t h the emergence o f new i n s t i t u t i o n s and new p r a c t i c e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g [...]" ( 5 ) . New t e c h n i q u e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n were deve loped w i t h the growth o f d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s — t h e p o l i c e , p r i s o n s , asy lums , 37 h o s p i t a l s , and departments o f p u b l i c h e a l t h , s c h o o l s and the modern f a c t o r y system. The new t e c h n i q u e s o f s u r v e i l l a n c e and r e c o r d i n g s e r v e d as a new s t r a t e g y o f governance f o r the d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n . Power can be the c e n t r a l i s s u e when c o n s i d e r i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on c l a s s , r a c e o r gender h i e r a r c h i e s . The d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n used the power and a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d t o the s t a t u s o f the documentary p h o t o g r a p h ' s t r u t h e f f e c t s t o m o b i l i z e a h i e r a r c h y o f dominat ion and s u b o r d i n a t i o n (Tagg 12) . T h i s i s why i t i s so c r i t i c a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the documentary photograph i s not o b j e c t i v e and n e u t r a l , as i t s u s e r s c l a i m i t t o be . N e u t r a l i t y i s , i n f a c t , v a l u e - l a d e n . The power g r a n t e d t o the documentary photograph was a f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Tagg 21 ) . The development o f a new s o c i a l body generated new k i n d s o f knowledge v i a means o f power and c o n t r o l . The body o f the Other produced d a t a w i t h the aim of g a i n i n g knowledge f o r the p r i v i l e g e d . F o u c a u l t c a l l s t h i s the p o l i t i c a l t e c h n o l o g y o f the body (Tagg 70) . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the photograph was a t o o l used by the s t a t e t o s erve a p o s i t i v i s t agenda o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a t o o b t a i n a s i n g u l a r t r u t h o f the w o r l d , and t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e d s e r i o u s e t h i c a l i s s u e s . We can now t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o the development o f a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n a r y 38 i n s t i t u t i o n . In the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the growth o f a p o l i c e f o r c e was i n t e g r a l t o the p r o c e s s o f change i n the s h i f t o f power from the monarch t o the s t a t e . The i n s t i t u t i o n o f the p o l i c e f o r c e o f f e r e d a means o f c o n t r o l . S u r v e i l l a n c e s e r v e d as a s t r a t e g y o f power t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over the u n r u l y masses. In the atmosphere o f p a n i c t h a t f o l l o w e d the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n o f 1789, t h e r e was a f e l t need i n B r i t a i n f o r a more e f f e c t i v e p o l i c e f o r c e . There was a c a l l f o r o r d e r , submiss iveness and the e r a d i c a t i o n o f v i c e . Reformers pushed f o r a more e f f e c t i v e p r e v e n t i v e p o l i c e f o r c e t o guard over p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . The common law u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r keep ing the peace i n the community was no l o n g e r f u n c t i o n i n g i n the new urban i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s . The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n c r e a t e d a new a r c h i t e c t u r e o f l i f e and work and caused the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f o l d s o c i a l p a t t e r n s . The i d e a deve loped t h a t "man" was the t r u e o b j e c t o f the s t a t e , r a t h e r than the monarch. Thus , t h e r e were demands f o r new k i n d s o f r e g i m e n t a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h o r d e r and c o n t r o l (Tagg 72). In 1829, the M e t r o p o l i t a n P o l i c e F o r c e , by A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n London. Under the A c t , t h r e e thousand b l u e - u n i f o r m e d men, i n s p e c t o r s and sergeant s were g i v e n j u r i s d i c t i o n over the a r e a o f a s e v e n - m i l e r a d i u s around C h a r i n g C r o s s . In 1835, the p o l i c e f o r c e expanded t o a l l urban 39 areas o f E n g l a n d and Wales . In 1856, an A c t o f P a r l i a m e n t a p p o i n t e d p o l i c e t o the r u r a l a r e a s . By t h i s same A c t , the c e n t r a l government took on p r o v i s i o n s t o p r o v i d e one q u a r t e r o f the c o s t o f pay and equipment , and a r e g u l a r i n s p e c t o r was s e t up t o r e p o r t on the e f f i c i e n c y o f the d i s p e r s e d c o n s t a b u l a r i e s . The h i e r a r c h y o f the p o l i c e f o r c e was d e r i v e d from the a n c i e n t common law o f E n g l a n d . The p o l i c e c o n s t a b l e was a member o f a d i s c i p l i n e f o r c e , s u b j e c t t o s t r i c t codes o f conduct and a h i e r a r c h y o f i n s p e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n (Tagg, 72 ) . The r a p i d growth o f r u r a l and urban communi t ies , due to the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , demanded a complex system of o b s e r v a t i o n and s u r v e i l l a n c e by the p o l i c e f o r c e . As a r e s u l t , a system o f documentary o r g a n i z a t i o n was deve loped t o m a i n t a i n s t r i c t c o n t r o l . U n t i l 1832, i n F r a n c e , the method o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r i m i n a l s was t o brand them w i t h a r e d - h o t i r o n . In 1840, photographs were f i r s t used t o i d e n t i f y c r i m i n a l s . T h i s immense p o l i c e t e x t t h a t began t o take shape was d i f f e r e n t from the t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w r i t i n g . A permanent account o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' b e h a v i o r was r e g i s t e r e d — e v e r y t h i n g from forms o f conduct t o a t t i t u d e s and s u s p i c i o n s (Tagg 73) . F u r t h e r m o r e , the e a r l y development o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s took p l a c e a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same t ime as the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the p o l i c e s e r v i c e i n A m e r i c a . F o r more than one hundred y e a r s , bo th p r o g r e s s e d i n tandem. The photograph 40 p l a y e d a c o m p l i c i t r o l e i n the growth o f the p o l i c e f o r c e w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n i t produced t o amass an a r c h i v e o f d a t a . The p o l i c e r e a l i z e d t h a t the photograph c o u l d be v e r y u s e f u l f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . From 1840 onwards, the p o l i c e employed c i v i l i a n photographers t o p r o v i d e p o r t r a i t s o f c r i m i n a l s . Not o n l y d i d the photographs c a r r y the assumption o f a c c u r a c y , due t o the r e a l i s t myth o f t r u t h , but they a l s o o f f e r e d a p r o c e s s t h a t was both q u i c k and cheap (Tagg 73). Between 1880 an 1910, the a r c h i v e became the dominant i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a s i s f o r p h o t o g r a p h i c meaning. P h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s were seen as c e n t r a l t o a range o f e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r p o l i c e purposes (Seku la 55). Photography became paramount f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s a f t e r 1901, when S i r Edward Henry i n t r o d u c e d an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system by means o f f i n g e r p r i n t s a t New S c o t l a n d Y a r d . The o n l y way to r e c o r d f i n g e r i m p r e s s i o n s found a t the scene of the cr ime was t o photograph them. T h i s system o f f i l i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p i c t u r e s w i t h f i n g e r p r i n t s i s s t i l l used t o d a y . In f a c t , governors o f p r i s o n s and d e t e n t i o n c e n t e r s are r e q u i r e d by the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A c t o f 1948 t o r e g i s t e r and photograph a l l persons c o n v i c t e d o f a cr ime (Tagg 75). I t was not u n t i l 1938 t h a t the Committee o f Crime D e t e c t i o n Repor t e s t a b l i s h e d an a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d i z e d format f o r p h o t o g r a p h i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Photographs o f c r i m i n a l s were 41 to be f u l l - l e n g t h , f u l l - f a c e and p r o f i l e views. This was seen as an e f f o r t to improve the qual i t y of prisoners' photographs so that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n could be made more e a s i l y . As Tagg observes, the standardization of the image i s more than a picture to i d e n t i f y a criminal: It i s a p o r t r a i t of the product of d i s c i p l i n a r y method: the body made object; divided and studied; enclosed i n a c e l l u l a r structure of space whose architecture i s the f i l e index; made docile and forced to y i e l d up i t s truth; separated and individuated; subjected and made subject (75). The standardized aesthetics of photographing the criminal body allowed for a more e f f i c i e n t image cataloguing system. Photography's e v i d e n t i a l force served as a to o l to map out the typology of deviance and s o c i a l pathology as the body of the criminal became a newly defined s o c i a l phenomenon. However, the standardization of photographic aesthetics intended for archival purposes was not randomly assigned. These aesthetic choices were heavily influenced by the ideologies of physiognomy and phrenology. Both shared the assumption that the surface of the body, e s p e c i a l l y the head and the face, outwardly indicated signs of the inner being. Phrenology, which emerged i n the f i r s t decade of the nineteenth century i n the research of Franze G a l l , sought to discern correspondences between the topography of the s k u l l and what were thought to be s p e c i f i c , l o c a l i z e d mental f a c u l t i e s seated within the brain (Lalvani 48). Phrenology proposed a map of the brain, which 42 i d e n t i f i e d s p e c i f i c p s y c h i c f u n c t i o n s . F o r example, H . Lauvergne devoted h i s s tudy t o examining the c r a n i a l p r o t u b e r a n c e s o f c o n v i c t e d c r i m i n a l s i n o r d e r t o v e r i f y whether they d i s p l a y e d a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o cr ime ( L a l v a n i 4 8 ) . A l s o , i n h i s Essays i n Physiognomy, p u b l i s h e d i n 1789, Johann Kaspar L a v a t e r a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e r e was a correspondence between e x t e r n a l , v i s i b l e s u p e r f i c i e s and the i n t e r n a l , i n v i s i b l e c o n t e n t s o f the person ( q t d . i n L a l v a n i 4 8 ) . The mora l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f physiognomy r e l i e d on f a c i a l f e a t u r e s , w h i l e the s c i e n c e o f phreno logy r e l i e d on the c o r r e l a t i o n between b e h a v i o r a l t r a i t s and c r a n i a l shape. In g e n e r a l , physiognomy and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , p h r e n o l o g y , l i n k e d everyday non-s p e c i a l i s t e m p i r i c i s m w i t h i n c r e a s i n g l y a u t h o r i t a t i v e at tempts t o "medica l i ze" the s tudy o f the m i n d . Both s c i e n c e s sought t o o r d e r h i e r a r c h i c a l l y the s o c i a l r e a l m a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s and mora l groupings ( L a l v a n i 4 8 ) . From these new s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , eugen ics was b o r n , whereby the i m a g i n a r y Other was seen t o be g e n e t i c a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o the whi te p u r i t y o f a " l o s t A t h e n s " . The Other c o n s t i t u t e d any m a r g i n a l i z e d o r u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d group , but G a l t o n c l a s s i f i e d " c r i m i n a l s , s e m i - c r i m i n a l s , l o a f e r s " as the worst o f the e u g e n i c a l l y u n f i t , r e s i d i n g a t the bottom one p e r c e n t o f the urban h i e r a r c h y ( q t d . i n S e k u l a 50 ) . The i n t e n t i o n was t o v i s u a l l y prove a p a t h o l o g i c a l t y p e . 43 The images o f the a r c h i v e d are o f an a e s t h e t i c o f o b j e c t i v e e m p i r i c i s m . Alphonse B e r t i l l o n , another p h o t o g r a p h i c p r a c t i t i o n e r who h e l p e d e s t a b l i s h a t y p o l o g y o f O t h e r n e s s , r e a l i z e d t h a t the semant ic v a l u e o f the photograph l a y i n i t s f u n c t i o n as c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e , aimed t o c r e a t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c r i m i n a l ' s body t h a t was " n e u t r a l " . The headshot o f a c r i m i n a l p o r t r a y e d b l u n t f r o n t a l i t y . The f o c a l l e n g t h o f the camera l e n s was s t a n d a r d i z e d and the body o f the c r i m i n a l was exposed under even and c o n s i s t e n t l i g h t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , the problems posed by c r i m i n a l s d i s t o r t i n g t h e i r faces f o r a p o r t r a i t so t h a t they were l a t e r u n i d e n t i f i a b l e , were a v o i d e d by the a d d i t i o n o f the p r o f i l e v i ew . The r e s u l t was t h a t w h i l e the p r o f i l e v iew s e r v e d i t s purpose i n t h w a r t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l c r i m i n a l ' s e x p r e s s i v i t y , the f r o n t a l v iew e n a b l e d both ease o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e t e c t i o n on the s t r e e t s by p a t r o l l i n g po l i cemen ( L a l v a n i 109-13). T h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l system s i g n i f i e d b l u n t n e s s and "natura lness" o f an u n c u l t u r e d c l a s s , but the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f the image i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l and phys iognomic methods h e l p e d t o c a t e g o r i z e the c r i m i n a l body as a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and i d e n t i f i a b l e t e x t ( L a l v a n i 66). B e r t i l l o n deve loped " a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l s i gna lment" , which i n v o l v e d s u b j e c t i n g the c r i m i n a l body t o e l e v e n measurements. The p a r t s o f the body 44 t h a t he measured were: the l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f the head and o f the r i g h t e a r ; the l e n g t h from the elbow t o the end o f the m i d d l e f i n g e r and t h a t o f the midd le and r i n g f i n g e r s ; the l e n g t h o f the l e f t f o o t and the s u b j e c t ' s h e i g h t ; the l e n g t h o f the t o r s o and t h a t o f the o u t s t r e t c h e d arms from the midd le t o the m i d d l e f i n g e r - e n d . U s i n g the s t a t i s t i c a l methods o f Q u e t e l e t , B e r t i l l o n deduced t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y o f two i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r i n g the same e l e v e n measurements was one i n f o u r . The s e r i e s o f measurements i n the " a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l s ignalment" were a l s o accompanied by a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f i d e n t i f y i n g marks , such as s c a r s or warts and by a p a i r o f photographs , one o f which p r o v i d e d a f r o n t a l v iew and the o t h e r , a p r o f i l e o f the c r i m i n a l ' s head. ( L a l v a n i 109) . F i n a l l y , the s t a n d a r d f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the l a r g e number o f c r i m i n a l photographs depended on Q u e t e l e t ' s average man. B e r t i l l o n i n v e n t e d a f i l i n g system whereby the " a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l s igna lment" o f each c r i m i n a l was p l a c e d on i n d i v i d u a l c a r d s . The c a r d s were o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o below average , a v e r a g e , and above average measurements. T h i s e f f e c t i v e system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a l l o w e d the s c i e n c e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t o be p r a c t i c a l l y a p p l i e d . T h i s f i l i n g system, as a t e c h n o l o g y o f knowledge and s u r v e i l l a n c e , p r o v i d e s a p o w e r f u l means f o r m o n i t o r i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g the c r i m i n a l body. The c r i m i n a l body w i t h a l l o f i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f 45 p a t h o l o g i e s and v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t the s o c i a l body, i s seen w i t h a he ightened view o f v i s i b i l i t y . The c r i m i n a l body becomes an easy t a r g e t f o r r a t i o n a l i s t and d i s c i p l i n a r y p r a c t i c e s ( L a l v a n i 113-15). The b i r t h o f the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n brought on changes i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l demographics . P o s t - I n d u s t r i a l s u r v e i l l a n c e r e f l e c t e d the b e l i e f t h a t the pun i shed c r i m i n a l r e p r e s e n t e d a c o n t i n u i n g danger t o the new s o c i a l body. M o t i v a t e d by the d e s i r e t o s e p a r a t e the dangerous c l a s s e s from the work ing c l a s s , the system o f s u r v e i l l a n c e p r e v e n t e d former c r i m i n a l s from l i v i n g i n i n d u s t r i a l and m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s , where they would l i k e l y f i n d work. As a r e s u l t o f the r i g i d r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t , the former c r i m i n a l was f o r c e d i n t o a l i f e o f c r ime i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e . Thus , the p e n i t e n t i a r y became a p e n a l q u a r a n t i n e r a t h e r than an i n s t i t u t i o n o f r e f o r m a t i o n . The system o f s u r v e i l l a n c e , i n e f f e c t , encouraged the cr ime i t was t r y i n g t o e l i m i n a t e ( L a l v a n i 119). F o u c a u l t argues t h a t w i t h the emergence o f the modern s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , such as c r i m i n o l o g y , demographics , and s t a t i s t i c s , the human b e i n g o c c u p i e s two b i n a r y p o s i t i o n s : an o b j e c t o f knowledge and a s u b j e c t t h a t c r e a t e s knowledge. Human be ings are e i t h e r i s o l a t e d o b j e c t s made v i s i b l e by the o c u l a r c e n t r i c d i s c o u r s e s o f the s c i e n c e s , o r n e u t r a l metasubjec t s o f knowledge engaging the v i s i b l e f i e l d o f the 4 6 s o c i a l ( q t d . i n L a l v a n i 197) . Human an imals became s u b j e c t s and o b j e c t s o f knowledge and v i s i b i l i t y . F o r the f i r s t t ime i n h i s t o r y , s o c i a l s c i e n c e p r a c t i c e s made the new s o c i a l o r d e r v i s i b l e through the i s o l a t i o n and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f b o d i e s , but a l s o produced s u b j e c t s who had p r i v i l e g e d access t o new l e v e l s o f v i s i b i l i t y ( q t d . i n L a l v a n i 197) . In the p o s i t i v i s t , e m p i r i c a l agenda, p r o d u c i n g knowledge and power t h a t r e s u l t e d from making the u n d e r p r i v i l e d g e d o f the new s o c i a l o r d e r v i s i b l e would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t photography . The i n t e g r a l r o l e o f p h o t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n o f p o l i c e enforcement i s demonstrated i n many cr ime genre f i l m s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are W i t n e s s , B a s i c I n s t i n c t , and C l o c k e r s , not o n l y because photography i s shown t o be a b a s i c component o f p o l i c e d e t e c t i v e work, but because photography i n these t h r e e f i l m s r e v e a l s the cr ime and c o r r u p t i o n t h a t o c c u r s w i t h i n the p o l i c e i n s t i t u t i o n . Photography i s a p o w e r f u l t o o l used t o i d e n t i f y c r i m i n a l s , but i n these t h r e e f i l m s , photography works a g a i n s t the i n s t i t u t i o n by s e r v i n g as a means t o i d e n t i f y p o l i c e c o r r u p t i o n . The power of photography t h a t was generated by the i n s t i t u t i o n t u r n e d inward on i t s e l f . T h i s demonstrates p h o t o g r a p h y ' s s t a t u s as a medium w i t h m u l t i p l e i d e n t i t i e s , which a l l o w s the medium t o be a p p l i e d i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n t e x t s . 47 Witness opens w i t h an Amish c o u n t r y f u n e r a l . R a c h e l , newly widowed, i s a young woman now f o r c e d t o r a i s e her e i g h t - y e a r -o l d son , Samuel , a l o n e . They l e a v e the farm t o v i s i t her s i s t e r and t o t r y t o r e c o v e r from t h e i r g r i e f . W h i l e i n the P h i l a d e l p h i a t r a i n s t a t i o n men's washroom, Samuel u n w i t t i n g l y w i t n e s s e s the b r u t a l murder o f an undercover p o l i c e o f f i c e r . When the p o l i c e f o r c e s a r r i v e a t the scene o f the c r i m e , d e t e c t i v e John Book r e q u e s t s t h a t he b r i n g Samuel t o the p o l i c e s t a t i o n f o r q u e s t i o n i n g . T h i s i s the moment when photography p l a y s a key r o l e i n the f i l m . F i r s t , Samuel observes a p o l i c e l i n e u p o f s u s p e c t s , but he does not r e c o g n i z e any o f them as the k i l l e r . Then , Book takes Samuel t o h i s desk , where they l o o k a t a b i n d e r o f mug s h o t s , both p r o f i l e and f r o n t a l v i e w s . W h i l e Book momentar i ly takes a phone c a l l , Samuel wanders around the o f f i c e . He t a l k s t o Book's c o l l e a g u e , who has c r i m i n a l photographs mounted on h i s desk i n the background . A handcuf fed c r i m i n a l beckons the l i t t l e boy o v e r , o n l y t o r a t t l e h i s c u f f s and s c a r e h im. Samuel wanders away and l o o k s a t a g l a s s case w i t h t r o p h i e s commemorating the h i g h achievement o f p o l i c e s e r v i c e . The c r i t i c a l moment o c c u r s when he n o t i c e s the newspaper c l i p p i n g t h a t i s p i n n e d up , w i t h a h e a d l i n e t h a t r e a d s , " N a r c o t i c s O f f i c e r McFee Honored f o r Youth P r o j e c t " . I t i n c l u d e s a head shot o f McFee—not u n l i k e the s t a n d a r d i z e d p o l i c e mug s h o t s , except h e r e , he i s s m i l i n g . As Samuel s t u d i e s 48 the image, the camera s l o w l y zooms i n . Book n o t i c e s t h a t Samuel i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h something , and as he approaches the boy , Samuel p o i n t s t o the image o f McFee. Book lowers Samuel ' s hand, and nods i n r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t McFee i s the k i l l e r Samuel saw i n the P h i l a d e l p h i a t r a i n s t a t i o n washroom. I t t u r n s out t h a t t h i s p o l i c e o f f i c e r has a r e c o r d of suspec ted cr ime and c o r r u p t i o n . When Book t e l l s another c o l l e a g u e about McFee, he suddenly f i n d s h i m s e l f i n s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l danger due t o a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f p o l i c e c o r r u p t i o n , and he must f l e e t o Amish c o u n t r y f o r s a f e t y . The s u r v e i l l a n c e and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f images o f the body s erve the purposes o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , which was the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n o f p o l i c e photography . In W i t n e s s , i t i s i r o n i c t h a t the s t a n d a r d i z e d p o l i c e photographs o f c r i m i n a l s were deemed u s e l e s s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the p e r p e t r a t o r o f t h i s murder . A l t h o u g h the i d e n t i f y i n g image was not a p o l i c e p h o t ograp h , i t was an a r c h i v e d image on v i s u a l d i s p l a y . Not o n l y d i d the photograph work t o i d e n t i f y the c o r r u p t i o n o f one p o l i c e o f f i c e r , as Book soon found o u t , i t a l s o l e d t o the knowledge t h a t a number o f o f f i c e r s were i n v o l v e d i n the s c a n d a l . Photography , which i s used by an i n s t i t u t i o n t o ensure power and c o n t r o l , i n t h i s c a s e , worked t o d i s p l a y the c o r r u p t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n a r y power. 49 A s i m i l a r s c e n a r i o o c c u r s i n B a s i c I n s t i n c t . Set i n San F r a n c i s c o , the s t o r y beg ins w i t h c o i t a l murder . The v i c t i m t u r n s out t o be a r e t i r e d r o c k s t a r and the prime suspec t i s h i s g i r l f r i e n d , C a t h e r i n e , a r i c h and b e a u t i f u l n o v e l i s t . Her l a t e s t book, Love H u r t s , happens t o be about a woman who murders a r e t i r e d r o c k s t a r w i t h an i c e p i c k . N i c k , the d e t e c t i v e i n charge o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e a l i z e s t h a t her n o v e l ' s b l u e p r i n t f o r the murder both i m p l i c a t e s her and g i v e s her an a l i b i - no k i l l e r would be t h a t o b v i o u s . He s p e c u l a t e s t h a t perhaps the k i l l i n g was a c o p y c a t cr ime i n s p i r e d by the book. Soon, o t h e r suspec t s emerge: Roxy, C a t h e r i n e ' s j e a l o u s l e s b i a n l o v e r , and B e t h , a p o l i c e p s y c h i a t r i s t t r y i n g t o r e i g n i t e her romance w i t h N i c k . As N i c k i n v e s t i g a t e s C a t h e r i n e , C a t h e r i n e i n v e s t i g a t e s N i c k . She b l i t h e l y in forms him t h a t she i s w r i t i n g her next book "about a d e t e c t i v e who f a l l s f o r the wrong woman." Without h i s knowledge, she p r i e s i n t o h i s dark p a s t , which i n c l u d e s ep i sodes o f a l c o h o l , c o c a i n e — a n d an eager t r i g g e r f i n g e r t h a t earned him the nickname "Shooter ." I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t i n the s t o r y t h a t photography e n t e r s the scene . By f i n d i n g newspaper c l i p p i n g s s c a t t e r e d on her l i v i n g room t a b l e , N i c k r e a l i z e s t h a t C a t h e r i n e i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g h im. The v a r i o u s h e a d l i n e s w i t h h i s j u x t a p o s e d image r e a d : " T o u r i s t K i l l e d by C o p , " " K i l l e r Cop Faces P o l i c e Review," "Cop C l e a r e d o f T o u r i s t S h o o t i n g . " The 50 i n c l u s i o n o f these photographs communicates N i c k ' s tumultuous p a s t and the f a c t t h a t C a t h e r i n e has m e t i c u l o u s l y dredged i t up , p l a c e s him i n a v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n w i t h a suspec ted m u r d e r e r . These a r c h i v e d images and h e a d l i n e s move the p l o t forward and add t o the c h a r a c t e r development o f bo th C a t h e r i n e and N i c k . The next p h o t o g r a p h i c e p i s o d e o c c u r s when N i c k i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e c e n t l y deceased Roxy, C a t h e r i n e ' s l e s b i a n l o v e r , who j e a l o u s l y at tempted t o r u n N i c k o f f the r o a d w h i l e d r i v i n g l a t e one n i g h t . A t the o f f i c e , he d i s c o v e r s c o n c e a l e d and h a u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Roxy. The f i r s t photographs are the s t a n d a r d i z e d p o l i c e images o f the p r o f i l e and f r o n t a l v iew of Roxy, who a t age s i x t e e n murdered her t w i n b r o t h e r s . N i c k then rev iews e i g h t by t e n b l a c k and whi te and c o l o r f o r e n s i c photographs o f the murder scene . Two boys are l y i n g i n a g r a s s y f i e l d , drenched i n b l o o d , due t o numerous s t a b wounds t o t h e i r b o d i e s . I t i s a gruesome murder w i t h a weak m o t i v e : "She j u s t s o r t o f d i d i t on i m p u l s e . The r a z o r j u s t happened t o be t h e r e " r e p o r t s one policewoman who r e t r i e v e d the s e a l e d o f f , a r c h i v e d f i l e . Not o n l y do the photographs r e v e a l t h a t Roxy was a dangerous and d i s t u r b e d c h a r a c t e r , but they cause C a t h e r i n e t o l o s e c r e d i b i l i t y , as Roxy was her l e s b i a n l o v e r . I t i s s l o w l y r e v e a l e d t h a t C a t h e r i n e ' s f r i e n d s were a l l murderers a t one 51 p o i n t i n t h e i r l i v e s , as N i c k ' s p a r t n e r p r o v o c a t i v e l y a s k s : "Have you ever met a f r i e n d o f hers t h a t h a s n ' t k i l l e d anybody?" The next o c c u r r e n c e o f photography concerns B e t h , the p o l i c e p s y c h i a t r i s t . Whi l e i n bed w i t h N i c k , C a t h e r i n e t e l l s him about L i s a Hoberman, a g i r l from u n i v e r s i t y who s t a l k e d h e r . N i c k i n v e s t i g a t e s the woman and, as i t t u r n s o u t , the d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e p i c t u r e t h a t appears on the s c r e e n under the L i s a Hoberman f i l e name i s o f B e t h , the p o l i c e p s y c h i a t r i s t and N i c k ' s former l o v e r . When N i c k c o n f r o n t s B e t h , she t e l l s him t h a t i t was C a t h e r i n e who s t a l k e d her a t u n i v e r s i t y . When N i c k a n g r i l y l e a v e s her apartment , i t seems l i k e he b e l i e v e s C a t h e r i n e ' s v e r s i o n o f the s t o r y . F i n a l l y , i n the l a s t murder o f the f i l m , N i c k f i n d s h i s p a r t n e r ' s murdered body a t the p o l i c e s t a t i o n head o f f i c e . The o f f i c e i s d e s e r t e d , but Beth m y s t e r i o u s l y a p p e a r s , wear ing a t r e n c h c o a t , and her hand i s s u s p i c i o u s l y g r o p i n g what l o o k s l i k e a weapon. N i c k commands her t o s top and t o put up her hands, but she p e r s i s t s on moving toward h im. He shoots and k i l l s h e r , o n l y t o f i n d t h a t she was h o l d i n g a s e t o f k e y s . However, when the p o l i c e a r r i v e on the scene they f i n d a w i g , a San F r a n c i s c o P o l i c e Department r a i n c o a t and a b l o o d y i c e p i c k . Photographs f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h a t Beth i s the s u s p e c t e d k i l l e r . The p o l i c e d e t e c t i v e s i n v e s t i g a t e B e t h ' s apartment where they 52 f i n d numerous photographs taken d u r i n g her u n i v e r s i t y y e a r s . There i s an e i g h t by t e n g r a d u a t i o n photograph , which shows C a t h e r i n e s t a n d i n g i n the f i r s t row o f s tudent s and Beth s t a n d i n g b e h i n d her i n the second row, over C a t h e r i n e ' s l e f t s h o u l d e r . The next photograph i s an e i g h t by t e n b low-up o f the same phot ograph , but the image i s a c l o s e - u p o f C a t h e r i n e ' s f a c e , and B e t h ' s face b e h i n d h e r . T h i s b low-up r e v e a l s t h a t perhaps Beth had o b s e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s d i r e c t e d towards C a t h e r i n e . T h i s would v a l i d a t e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t C a t h e r i n e has s a i d about B e t h , g i v i n g her c r e d i b i l i t y . Thus , a l l t h r e e i n s t a n c e s o f photography—the photos o f N i c k t h a t were i n C a t h e r i n e ' s p o s s e s s i o n , those o f Roxy c o n c e r n i n g the murder o f her b r o t h e r s , and those o f B e t h , i n c l u d i n g her d r i v e r l i c e n s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n photograph and u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t i o n p h o t o g r a p h s , m a i n t a i n the ambigu i ty o f the f i l m n a r r a t i v e . The use o f the f i r s t photographs suggested t h a t C a t h e r i n e had o b s e s s i v e t e n d e n c i e s i n r e s e a r c h i n g and i n v e s t i g a t i n g N i c k ' s p a s t . The f o r e n s i c photographs o f the b r u t a l k i l l i n g s o f Roxy ' s b r o t h e r s i n d i c a t e d Roxy ' s d e s t r u c t i v e n a t u r e and h o m i c i d a l t e n d e n c i e s , making her a suspec t f o r the murders . But f i n a l l y , i t i s the d r i v e r ' s l i c e n s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n photograph o f Beth t h a t i n d i c a t e s t h a t , not o n l y d i d she change her name, but perhaps she had another i d e n t i t y . Her photographs o f C a t h e r i n e c o n f i r m the s u s p i c i o n s o f B e t h ' s 53 c u l p a b i l i t y . She obsessed over C a t h e r i n e a t u n i v e r s i t y and i s now i m i t a t i n g the murders d e t a i l e d i n C a t h e r i n e ' s book i n o r d e r t o frame h e r . These a r c h i v e d images a l l s erve the purpose o f c o m p l i c a t i n g an ambiguous p l o t and ad d in g a deeper d imens ion t o the c h a r a c t e r development . And much l i k e i n W i t n e s s , the i d e n t i f y i n g photographs i n p o l i c e p o s s e s s i o n i n c r i m i n a t e i t s own members, i n t h i s c a s e , the i n - h o u s e p s y c h i a t r i s t . F i n a l l y , C l o c k e r s i s about young, l o w - l e v e l drug d e a l e r s p l y i n g t h e i r t r a d e i n an i n n e r c i t y hous ing p r o j e c t . S p i k e Lee uses photography i n an i r o n i c a l way t o suggest the c o r r u p t i o n o f the p o l i c e f o r c e . The f i l m beg ins w i t h a p l e t h o r a o f images o f f o r e n s i c photography o f b loody c o r p s e s , i n c l u d i n g c l o s e - u p s o f the b u l l e t e n t r y wounds. A l l the v i c t i m s i n the photographs are A f r i c a n - A m e r i c a n s who have been shot and murdered, e i t h e r on the s t r e e t o r i n t h e i r homes. The photographs have a c o o l , o b j e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c , as the b o d i e s are anonymous and nameless . The opening montage i n c l u d e s o t h e r urban i conography o f memorial murals f o r murdered a d o l e s c e n t s and t a b l o i d h e a d l i n e s r e a d : "Toy Gun, R e a l B u l l e t s " . The opening montage evokes an i n n e r c i t y w o r l d where v i o l e n c e and d e s p e r a t i o n are the norm. L i v i n g i n the P r o j e c t s i s l i k e b e i n g under c o n s t a n t s i e g e , and e s c a p i n g i t demands l u c k and w i l l power. The sheer number o f dead bod ie s d i s p l a y e d i n the montage o f m u l t i p l e images suggests the f r e q u e n t randomness o f s t r e e t murder . "Why?" i s 5 4 the q u e s t i o n l e f t t o a sk . Why are so many nameless b l a c k men dead on the s t r e e t ? The o b j e c t i v e gaze put f o r t h by the f o r e n s i c photographs i s f u r t h e r p e r p e t u a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g l i v e a c t i o n sequence. A number o f A f r i c a n - American youths are g a t h e r e d i n the p a r k . As they c a s u a l l y "hang out" they are s u r p r i s e d by an a g g r e s s i v e p o l i c e i n s p e c t i o n . The youths r e c e i v e a v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l i n t e r r o g a t i o n . They are h a r a s s e d by the p o l i c e and are f o r c e d t o undress i n the s t r e e t , so t h a t e v e r y p a r t o f t h e i r bod ie s can be examined f o r h idden d r u g s . The p o l i c e a r e c y n i c a l , contemptuous, c a s u a l l y r a c i s t , and have no c o n c e r n a t a l l f o r the peop le they s e r v e . They b e l i e v e t h a t the P r o j e c t s s h o u l d be dynamited and t h a t wanton k i l l i n g a c t u a l l y s erves the community because i t i s l i k e a " s e l f - c l e a n i n g oven". The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c l i n i c a l f o r e n s i c photography w i t h the o p p r e s s i v e power p r a c t i c e s o f the p o l i c e c l e a r l y s t a t e s i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n a r y c o r r u p t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , I have d i s c u s s e d the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f photography by d i s c i p l i n a r y f o r c e s and photography b e i n g used as a t o o l t o f a c i l i t a t e the p r a c t i c e and o p p r e s s i o n o f power. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p o l i c e f o r c e used photography t o i d e n t i f y c r i m i n a l s , and l a t e r deve loped i n f o r m a t i o n systems t o a r c h i v e the images . The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f the image and i t s a r c h i v e has s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e s from the p o s i t i v i s t i d e o l o g i e s o f 55 p h r e n o l o g y and physiognomy. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t w h i l e photography was used f o r i t s supposed n e u t r a l i t y , t h e r e was a h i d d e n agenda o f o p p r e s s i o n by the p r i v i l e g e d over the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . I have used the t h r e e cr ime genre f i l m s o f W i t n e s s , B a s i c I n s t i n c t , and C l o c k e r s t o demonstrate t h a t photography i s a t o o l w i t h a m u l t i f a c e t e d i d e n t i t y and when equipped w i t h power i t can s erve d i v e r s e means. In a l l t h r e e f i l m s , photography i s used t o demonstrate t h a t d i s c i p l i n a r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r c e c r e a t e d and p e r p e t u a t e d the cr ime i t i n t e n d e d t o p r e v e n t . H e r e , photography works t o demonstrate t h a t where t h e r e i s power, c o r r u p t i o n soon f o l l o w s . 56 Chapter I I I . Photography's Multiple Associations with Death In h i s book on the o n t o l o g y o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c image, G e o f f r e y Batchen c i t e s the many a u t h o r s , and t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t , who have w r i t t e n on the d i v e r s e themes which s u r r o u n d p h o t o g r a p h i c d i s c o u r s e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s John T a g g ' s w r i t i n g on the i d e n t i t y o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c image. As I d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , Tagg suggests t h a t photography does not occupy a s t a t i c i d e n t i t y o r s i n g l e c u l t u r a l s t a t u s (Tagg 63) . The t o p i c o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i d e n t i t y and i t s l a c k o f a s i n g u l a r t r u e meaning i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t h e r e , as i t i s my i n t e n t t o demonstrate the m u l t i p l e meanings and uses o f photography i n n a r r a t i v e c inema. I t i s my o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t due t o p h o t o g r a p h y ' s l a c k o f a s t a b l e i d e n t i t y , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r photography t o be used i n many ways t o s erve v a r i o u s i d e o l o g i c a l purposes i n f i l m . The m u l t i p l e uses o f photography can be c a t e g o r i z e d under the two c e n t r a l u n i f y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f t r u t h and d e a t h . W i t h i n each r e a l m , photography i s used t o s erve d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s . Under the c a t e g o r y o f t r u t h , I have d i s c u s s e d how p h o t o g r a p h y ' s myth o f t r u t h serves p r i v a t e p e r s o n a l purposes and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l power. Under the c a t e g o r y o f d e a t h , I w i l l argue t h a t photography i s used i n t h r e e main ways: as a m e t a p h y s i c a l d e a t h , a t e m p o r a l n a r r a t i v e d e a t h , and as a 57 metamorphic s u p e r n a t u r a l d e a t h . In t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l focus on the f o u n d a t i o n s o f m e t a p h y s i c a l d e a t h , w h i c h , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n c l u d e : t e m p o r a l i n d e x i c a l d e a t h , s o c i o l o g i c a l memento m o r i and p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y p e r c e i v e d m o r t a l i t y . I use the term m e t a p h y s i c a l death because the w r i t i n g s on the t h e o r y o f photography t h a t I summarize focus on the a f f e c t i v e m o r t a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t o c c u r s i n the p h o t o g r a p h i c v i ewer due t o the medium's unique r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t ime and space . T h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h has most s i g n i f i c a n t l y been i n f l u e n c e d by the w r i t i n g s o f Ro land B a r t h e s , Susan Sontag and C h r i s t i a n M e t z . T h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s on photography and death w i l l be o u t l i n e d h e r e , and the t h r e e f i l m s , L a J e t e e , Blow-Up and Under F i r e w i l l e l u c i d a t e t h e i r p o i n t s . I n i t i a l l y , B a r t h e s wrote on death and photography i n h i s a r t i c l e " R h e t o r i c o f the Image", where he s e m i o l o g i c a l l y demonstrates the m u l t i p l e meanings t h a t the p h o t o g r a p h i c image c a r r i e s i n d i f f e r i n g c o n t e x t s . He segregates the meanings o f photography i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t o f d e n o t a t i o n and c o n n o t a t i o n . The c onnota t ed message i s the s o c i a l meaning a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the image. Photographs c a r r y d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o the s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t , as can be seen by c o n t r a s t i n g the p r e s s photograph w i t h the a d v e r t i s e m e n t p h o t o g r a p h . The denota ted message i s the ana logon , o r the index t o which the p h o t o g r a p h i c image 58 r e f e r s . In the r e a l m o f d e n o t a t i o n , the photograph always c a r r i e s one u n d e r l y i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t i s , the " h a v i n g -b e e n - t h e r e " (Barthes 17-19). B a r t h e s r e l a t e s the concept o f " h a v i n g - b e e n - t h e r e , " to the p r o c e s s o f v i e w e r s h i p . I t i s p e r c e i v e d t h a t the photograph o c c u p i e s an unprecedented space - t ime c a t e g o r y . The v i ewer has an awareness o f " h a v i n g - b e e n - t h e r e " , due t o p h o t o g r a p h y ' s o n t o l o g y o f s p a t i a l immediacy and t empora l a n t e r i o r i t y . The photograph has an i l l o g i c a l c o n j u n c t i o n between the "here-now" and the " t h e r e - t h e n . " Thus , the photograph o c c u p i e s a r e a l u n r e a l i t y . The u n r e a l i s the "here-now" because the photograph i s not e x p e r i e n c e d as an i l l u s i o n , but as ev idence o f a t ime t h a t once e x i s t e d . The r e a l i s t h a t o f the " h a v i n g - b e e n -t h e r e , " as e v e r y photograph c a r r i e s the e v i d e n t i a l f o r c e o f " t h i s i s how i t was." The r e a l i t y o f f e r e d by the photograph i s not t h a t o f t r u t h - t o - a p p e a r a n c e , but r a t h e r o f t r u t h - t o -p r e s e n c e , a mat ter o f b e i n g , r a t h e r than resemblance (Barthes 44 -45 ) . The i d e a o f " h a v i n g - b e e n - t h e r e , " t h a t surrounds a l l p h o t o g r a p h i c images , i s f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d on and deve loped i n B a r t h e s ' Camera L u c i d a (1977). The t o p i c o f death surrounds t h i s book i n m u l t i p l e ways, as B a r t h e s not o n l y d i s c u s s e s the q u a l i t i e s o f death i n photography , but he was i n s p i r e d t o d i s c u s s the t o p i c a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g a "true" p h o t o g r a p h i c image 59 o f h i s dead mother . The book was w r i t t e n s h o r t l y b e f o r e B a r t h e s ' own death i n 1981. B a r t h e s d i s c u s s e s the p h i l o s o p h y o f p h o t o g r a p h i c death i n more d e t a i l i n the l a t t e r p u b l i c a t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g h i s own s u b j e c t i v i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o photography . He w r i t e s t h a t when he i s photographed , a c e r t a i n k i n d o f death i s e x p e r i e n c e d due t o the l imbo c r e a t e d from f e e l i n g l i k e a s u b j e c t t h a t i s i n the p r o c e s s o f becoming an o b j e c t . As a s p e c t a t o r , t o o , death i s e x p e r i e n c e d , but i n d i f f e r e n t t erms . As a v iewer o f the phot ograph , B a r t h e s d i s c u s s e s the s e n t i m e n t a l i t y and pathos he f e e l s . As a wound, the photograph a l l o w s him t o become aware o f h i m s e l f , "I see , I f e e l , hence I n o t i c e , I o b s e r v e , and I t h i n k " (Barthes 14). The p o w e r f u l a f f e c t i v e d r i v e o f some p h o t o g r a p h i c images causes B a r t h e s t o be aware o f the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f b e i n g human. B a r t h e s c a t e g o r i z e s the f e e l i n g t h a t a r i s e s from p h o t o g r a p h i c death i n t o the "studium" and the "punctum." The "studium" i s what i s c u l t u r a l l y connoted by the p h otograp h , which c a r r i e s w i t h i t emotions o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t and l i k i n g . The "punctum" i s what jumps out and p i e r c e s the v i e w e r . The punctum provokes the v iewer i n t o a s s o c i a t i n g the image w i t h what i s not t h e r e . I t may " launch d e s i r e beyond what i t p e r m i t s us t o see" (Barthes 59). The punctum i s what the v iewer adds t o the p h o t o g r a p h , due t o a p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y and 60 s u b j e c t i v i t y . The p e r s o n a l punctum d i s r u p t s the s t a b i l i t y o f the s o c i a l s tud ium. In an e f f o r t to f i n d a photograph t o remember h i s mother a f t e r she d i e d , B a r t h e s e v a l u a t e d p h o t o g r a p h y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e f e r e n t . A f t e r s o r t i n g through f a m i l y a r c h i v e s he w r i t e s : These p h o t o s , which phenomenology would c a l l " o r d i n a r y " o b j e c t s , were mere ly a n a l o g i c a l , p r o v o k i n g o n l y her i d e n t i t y , not her t r u t h ; but the W i n t e r Garden photograph was indeed e s s e n t i a l , i t a c h i e v e d f o r me, u t o p i c a l l y , the i m p o s s i b l e s c i e n c e o f the unique b e i n g , ( q t d . i n Sontag 14) Then , why i s i t t h a t i f e v e r y photograph o c c u p i e s the same r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s r e f e r e n t , one photograph r e n d e r s the s u b j e c t w i t h more t r u t h and s e n s i t i v i t y than another? T h i s q u e s t i o n provoked B a r t h e s t o r e v i s i t the term " h a v i n g - b e e n -t h e r e . " As I b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, i t cannot be d e n i e d t h a t the p h o t o g r a p h i c r e f e r e n t e x i s t e d a t one p o i n t i n t ime and space . The r e f e r e n t i s t h a t r e a l t h i n g which r e s i d e d i n f r o n t o f the camera l e n s , w i t h o u t which t h e r e would be no p h o t o g r a p h . I t i s the p r o c e s s o f v i e w i n g a p a s t r e f e r e n t i n the p r e s e n t , a s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f r e a l i t y and the p a s t , t h a t c r e a t e s the phenomenon o f " h a v i n g - b e e n - t h e r e . " By i m m o b i l i z i n g the r e f e r e n t , photography c r e a t e s a t empora l s h i f t between the p a s t and p r e s e n t . The r e f e r e n t i s t e s t i m o n y t o r e a l i t y , c a u s i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s o f l i f e and l i v i n g . But by i m m o b i l i z i n g the l i f e 61 o f r e a l i t y , o r the r e f e r e n t , the photograph suggests death (Barthes 7 8 - 7 9 ) . The p h o t o g r a p h i c punctum of death provokes the v i ewer t o ponder the i n s t a b i l i t y o f m o r t a l i t y . A s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h death are caused by the i m m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the r e f e r e n t , a t h i n g o f the p a s t t h a t i s viewed i n the p r e s e n t . B a r t h e s w r i t e s t h a t the date be longs t o the p h o t o g r a p h , because when v i e w i n g a r e f e r e n t o f the d i s t a n t p a s t , the next l o g i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s t o q u e s t i o n whether t h a t r e f e r e n t (person o r t h i n g ) s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y . Now, i f an image i s what s o l e l y remains o f the a n a l o g o n , one then t h i n k s , " W i l l I o n l y e x i s t as image one hundred y e a r s from now?" T h u s , the photograph provokes i t s v i ewers t o q u e s t i o n t h e i r own m o r t a l i t y , o r as B a r t h e s w r i t e s : "Why i s i t t h a t I am a l i v e here and now"(84)? When p o n d e r i n g an 1865 p o r t r a i t o f a condemned man, B a r t h e s observes t h a t the s u b j e c t d e p i c t e d t h e r e i s both dead and go ing t o d i e : I r e a d a t the same t i m e : t h i s w i l l be and t h i s has been [...]. The photograph t e l l s me death i n the f u t u r e [...]. Whether o r not the s u b j e c t i s a l r e a d y dead, every photograph i s t h i s c a t a s t r o p h e (Batchen 1 9 3 ) . With every p h o t o g r a p h , the p e r c e i v e r ' s own death i s i n s c r i b e d . I t i s the i m p l i c i t n e s s o f p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n t h a t denotes death and m o r t a l i t y w i t h i n the broader r e a l m o f metaphys ics (Barthes 8 5 ) . Thus , the punctum o f the photograph i s not n e c e s s a r i l y d e a t h , but t i m e . Due t o an awareness o f the p a s t i n the 62 p r e s e n t , the death o f the f u t u r e becomes p a i n f u l l y o b v i o u s . The s t r e n g t h o f the " t h i s - h a s - b e e n " pronounces t h a t " t h i s - w i l l -b e . " I f the " t h i s - h a s - b e e n " i s dead , e i t h e r t e m p o r a l l y o r m a t e r i a l l y , then i t i s o n l y a mat ter o f t ime f o r death i n the f u t u r e t o o c c u r . As a consequence o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s p e c u l i a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t i m e , e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l photograph i s a c h i l l i n g reminder o f human m o r t a l i t y . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y p o i g n a n t i n photographs o f B a r t h e s h i m s e l f . B a r t h e s s t a t e s , " U l t i m a t e l y , what I am s e e k i n g i n the photograph taken o f me i s Death [...]" ( q t d . i n Batchen 210). E v e r y photograph i s the c a t a s t r o p h e o f the a n t e r i o r f u t u r e o f d e a t h . Each photograph c h a l l e n g e s the v iewer by p r e s e n t i n g the i n e s c a p a b l e f a t e o f m o r t a l i t y (Barthes 96-99). P a r a d o x i c a l l y , as the photograph t a i n t s the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l i f e w i t h d e a t h , due t o the punctum of the " t h a t - h a s -been ," the photograph g i v e s l i f e t o t h a t which i s dead . The immediate c e r t a i n t y o f the t r u t h o f a p a s t t empora l r e a l i t y p e r m i t s the p a s t t o l i v e on i n the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e . Thus , the p h i l o s o p h i c a l death o f the t empora l t r u t h o f photography b r i n g s both death t o the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e and l i f e t o the p a s t by e x i s t i n g i n the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . F o r B a r t h e s , p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i d e n t i t y l i e s i n the p h o t o g r a p h ' s s imul taneous p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l i f e and death (Batchen 212). 63 W h i l e B a r t h e s takes the p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach o f phenomenology t o d i s c u s s photography and d e a t h , Sontag a l i g n s h e r s e l f w i t h a more s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . A l s o , i n the l a s t c h a p t e r I d i s c u s s e d Tagg ' s and F o u c a u l t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e s on the l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f power and how photography was used as a t o o l t o a i d i n the growth o f power o f the p r i v i l e g e d by o p p r e s s i n g and o b j e c t i f y i n g the O t h e r . Sontag p r o v i d e s a more s p e c i f i c a n a l y s i s o f the p e r s o n a l e t h i c a l p r o c e s s o f t a k i n g a p h o t o g r a p h . Her f i r s t a l l u s i o n s to death and photography o c c u r d u r i n g the d i s c u s s i o n on the u n e t h i c a l power r e l a t i o n s h i p between the photographer and the s u b j e c t . Sontag w r i t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a p r e d a t o r y n a t u r e i n the a c t o f p h o t o g r a p h i n g : To photograph peop le i s t o v i o l a t e them, by s e e i n g them as they never see themse lves , by h a v i n g knowledge o f them they can never have; i t t u r n s peop le i n t o o b j e c t s t h a t can be s y m b o l i c a l l y posses sed (14) . T h i s i d e a c a r r i e s v a l i d i t y as the p h o t o g r a p h i c image does e x i s t as an o b j e c t , as a memento m o r i p r o d u c t . The photograph as memento m o r i i s used f o r s e n t i m e n t a l r e a s o n s , remembering a p a s t "magica l" moment. T h i s c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as an e f f o r t t o l a y c l a i m o r own another r e a l i t y . Sontag w r i t e s : "Each s t i l l photograph i s a p r i v i l e g e d moment, t u r n e d i n t o a s l i m o b j e c t t h a t one can keep and l o o k a t aga in" (18) . In t h i s r e g a r d , photographs conserve a v a n i s h i n g p a s t , and pronounce the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f l i v e s heading toward t h e i r own 64 d e s t r u c t i o n . The above s tatements are r e m i n i s c e n t o f B a r t h e s ' d i s c u s s i o n on the phenomenon o f the " t h a t - h a s - b e e n " , except Sontag c o n t r i b u t e s an e t h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the concept by t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a power n e g o t i a t i o n between the photographer and s u b j e c t . The p r o c e s s o f photography i s v o y e u r i s t i c and the end r e s u l t can be a p r o d u c t o f p o s s e s s i o n and o b s e s s i o n . Thus , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n degree o f t r u s t t h a t the s u b j e c t must have i n the p h o t o g r a p h e r , and i f those boundar i e s are v i o l a t e d , t h e r e are e t h i c a l i s s u e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t s t a k e , as they c o n c e r n power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In h i s a r t i c l e , "Photography and F e t i s h , " C h r i s t i a n Metz takes a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c approach i n d i s c u s s i n g the phenomenon o f photography . Metz a l l o c a t e s some space i n the a r t i c l e t o e v a l u a t i n g p h o t o g r a p h y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to d e a t h . Metz w r i t e s t h a t photography shares two c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h d e a t h : i m m o b i l i t y and s i l e n c e . But photography i s l i n k e d t o death i n o t h e r ways, as w e l l . Metz notes t h a t photographs are used as s o c i a l p r a c t i c e , f o r , as Sontag ment ioned , photographs are memento m o r i . Photographs are kept t o remember l o v e d ones who are no l o n g e r a l i v e . Metz a l s o mentions B a r t h e s ' noted phenomenon o f " t h a t - h a s - b e e n " , by w r i t i n g : "Even when the person photographed i s s t i l l l i v i n g , t h a t moment when she o r he was has f o r e v e r v a n i s h e d " ( 8 4 ) . 65 As mentioned above, Metz has observed t h a t photography shares m a t e r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h death and i s used i n d e a t h - l i k e s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . Metz notes a t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shared between photography and d e a t h , which i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o S o n t a g ' s w r i t i n g s on the e t h i c a l n e g o t i a t i o n o f power i n p h o t o g r a p h i c p r a c t i c e between the o b j e c t i f i e r and o b j e c t i f i e d . Metz takes i n t e r e s t i n the snapshot , n o t i n g t h a t l i k e d e a t h , i t i s an i n s t a n t a n e o u s a b d u c t i o n o f the o b j e c t from the p r e s e n t i n t o the p a s t . Photography i s a b l e t o "cut i n s i d e the r e f e r e n t , i t c u t s o f f a p i e c e o f i t , a fragment , a p a r t o b j e c t , f o r a l o n g immobile t r a v e l o f no r e t u r n " (84) . Thus , by g i v i n g your image, you are g i v i n g a p i e c e o f y o u r s e l f . T h i s t h i r d p o i n t a l s o c a r r i e s s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h s p i r i t photography , where i t was b e l i e v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y by B a l z a c , t h a t every photograph removed a l a y e r o f essence from the s u b j e c t . So i f photographed too many t i m e s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the camera's vampire c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y k i l l i t s s u b j e c t . T h i s t o p i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n c h a p t e r 5. Photography and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h d e a t h , as put f o r t h by B a r t h e s , Sontag and M e t z , can be found i n n a r r a t i v e c inema. The t h r e e au thors note t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m e t a p h y s i c a l p h o t o g r a p h i c d e a t h : t empora l i n d e x i c a l d e a t h , s o c i o l o g i c a l memento m o r i , and the p e r c e i v e d m o r t a l i t y o f the v i e w e r . Three 66 f i l m s t h a t e l u c i d a t e these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f photography a r e : L a J e t e e , Blow-Up and Under F i r e . C h r i s M a r k e r ' s f i l m , L a J e t e e i s a h a l f - h o u r s c i e n c e f i c t i o n m e d i t a t i o n c r e a t e d a lmost e n t i r e l y o f b l a c k and whi te s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h s . In the p o s t - n u c l e a r s o c i e t y o f L a J e t e e , the s u r v i v o r s l i v e i n the underground of P a r i s , where they are exposed t o p r i s o n - l i k e c o n d i t i o n s and are s u b j e c t e d t o exper iments i n t ime t r a v e l by camp d o c t o r s . The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n the f i l m i s chosen f o r h i s f i x a t i o n on an image o f the p a s t . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s f i x a t i o n w i l l h e l p him t r a v e l t o t h a t moment i n the p a s t . T h i s s k i l l w i l l then a l l o w him t o t r a v e l t o the f u t u r e t o o b t a i n s u r v i v a l s u p p l i e s f o r the p r e s e n t . The t r a v e l l e r ' s image o f f i x a t i o n i s the r e s u l t o f a t r a u m a t i c c h i l d h o o d memory o f a woman's face seen j u s t p r i o r to the death o f an unknown man. The t r a v e l l e r ' s image e x i s t s so p o w e r f u l l y i n h i s mind t h a t he i s s u c c e s s f u l a t t empora l p r o j e c t i o n i n t o the p a s t . The camp d o c t o r s then send him i n t o the f u t u r e , where he encounters occupants who o f f e r t o l o o k a f t e r h im. He r e f u s e s and i n s t e a d r e t u r n s t o the image o f f i x a t i o n . Upon h i s a r r i v a l , he i s k i l l e d by a camp a s s a s s i n who f o l l o w e d him through t i m e , w h i l e r e a l i z i n g t h a t the death he had seen as a c h i l d had been t h a t o f h i s a d u l t s e l f ( H i l l i c k e r 5 ) . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the w r i t i n g s o f B a r t h e s , Sontag and M e t z , i n c o n t e n t and form, L a Je t ee e x h i b i t s f i r s t l y the 67 m e t a p h y s i c a l death o f t e m p o r a l i n d e x i c a l i t y . As B a r t h e s notes the m e t a p h y s i c a l s l i p p a g e o f t ime t h a t the photograph o c c u p i e s , i t i s q u i t e r e l e v a n t t h a t L a J e t e e i s a s c i e n c e f i c t i o n f i l m c e n t r a l l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h p o s t - n u c l e a r s o c i e t y and t ime t r a v e l t o both the p a s t and the f u t u r e . P h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s a r e the i d e a l medium f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g such c o n c e p t s . The n a r r a t i v e c o n t e n t o f the f i l m c o a l e s c e s w i t h i t s f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s t h a t c o v e r t l y convey a s s o c i a t i o n s o f death i n a l l t e n s e s . The memento m o r i q u a l i t y o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l can be demonstrated i n the n a r r a t i v e s e t - u p f o r t ime t r a v e l . The t ime t r a v e l l e r i s chosen because o f h i s image o f f i x a t i o n from c h i l d h o o d , which the v iewer a l s o w i t n e s s e s v i a a *i p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l . The t r a v e l l e r ' s memory o f a moment i n the p a s t i s m a n i f e s t as a p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l . He r e v i s i t s t h i s memory as i f i t were a photograph — which i t i s , t o the v i e w e r . F i n a l l y , human m o r t a l i t y i s suggested by the t ime t r a v e l l e r ' s c h i l d h o o d memory o f the murder and through the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the murder o f the man was h i m s e l f . Thus , m o r t a l i t y i s i n e s c a p a b l e by the trauma of t h i s memory and the event o f d e a t h . M i c h e l a n g e l o A n t o n i o n i ' s Blow-Up concerns a f a s h i o n photographer work ing i n "swinging" London who i n a d v e r t e n t l y photographed a murder w h i l e t a k i n g random shots o f an anonymous woman i n a park (Cook 614) . A f t e r the woman has v i s i t e d h i s 68 apartment t o r e t r i e v e the r o l l o f f i l m , he "blows up" the t e l l t a l e p r i n t s t o g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r s c a l e , so t h a t a human c o r p s e i s v i s i b l e , b a r e l y d e c i p h e r a b l e beneath the g r a i n o f the image. The photographer then goes t o the p a r k , f i n d s a body, r e t u r n s a g a i n t o f i n d t h a t i t i s gone, and subsequent ly p a r t i c i p a t e s i n a game o f mime t e n n i s . The p r o c e s s o f b l o w i n g - u p the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r i n t t o magnify a p o r t i o n o f the image t h a t b a r e l y r e v e a l s a human c o r p s e demonstrates the t e m p o r a l death o f " t h a t - h a s - b e e n " . As t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l m e t a p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f the photograph r e v e a l s , death r e s i d e s i n the p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e , w h i l e b r i n g i n g l i f e from the p a s t t o the p r e s e n t . The p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s a c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g the murder a t the park demonstrates how the photograph has the a b i l i t y t o b r i n g l i f e i n t o the p r e s e n t , f o r i f the photographer d i d not f i n d the c o r p s e i n the image, he would not have d i s c o v e r e d the body i n the p a r k . T h u s , a murder c o u l d have been s o l v e d . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the power o f the punctum o f death and the " t h a t - h a s - b e e n " provokes the photographer i n t o b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a body. However, upon r e v i s i t i n g the murder s i t e , the c o r p s e has v a n i s h e d . A l t h o u g h i t ' s b a r e l y d e c i p h e r a b l e i n the p h o t o g r a p h , the c o r p s e has d i s a p p e a r e d , throwing the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s tenuous r e l a t i o n s h i p t o r e a l i t y i n t o q u e s t i o n . 69 The memento m o r i q u a l i t y o f photography i s suggested by the anonymous.woman's need t o a t t a i n the r o l l o f f i l m t h a t l a t e n t l y c a r r i e s ambiguous i n c r i m i n a t i n g e v i d e n c e . Why she needs the f i l m , the audience does not know, but she i s d e s p e r a t e t o possess the f i l m t h a t has the p o t e n t i a l o f p r o d u c i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c images . Both Sontag and Metz note t h i s d e s i r e and p r a c t i c e t o possess the image. In B low-up , the u n e t h i c a l power p r a c t i c e o f the photographer i s d i s p l a y e d by h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o g i v e the woman, whom he photographed w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n , the unprocessed f i l m . He g i v e s the woman a dummy r o l e o f f i l m t o t r i c k h e r , so he can keep the p i c t u r e s . F i n a l l y , the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s m o r t a l i t y and sense o f r e a l i t y i s q u e s t i o n e d when he f i n d s t h a t the body i s m i s s i n g i n the p a r k and then l a t e r , meets a parade o f mimes who engage i n a game o f t e n n i s . T h i s sequence o f events suggests t h a t the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s dependence on photography has a l t e r e d h i s sense of r e a l i t y . H i s ease i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g w i t h the mimes demonstrates t h a t he has been r e s i d i n g i n a w o r l d o f i l l u s i o n . He wonders i f perhaps t h e r e never was a c o r p s e i n e i t h e r the image o r the p a r k . I t i s h i s own sense o f m o r t a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h a t has caused him t o p e r c e i v e death i n h i s env ironment . In Under F i r e , a p h o t o g r a p h e r , R u s s e l l P r i c e , takes an ass ignment i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , where he i s k idnapped and o r d e r e d by N i c a r a g u a n g u e r r i l l a s t o s i m u l a t e a " l i f e " 70 photograph of t h e i r recently gunned-down leader, Rafael, i n order to keep the revolution a l i v e . Up u n t i l t h i s point i n time, the rebel leader "has never been photographed," so no one knows exactly what he looks l i k e (Stewart 43). Thus, Barthes' notion regarding the simultaneity of the l i f e and death of photography i s a r t i c u l a t e d here. Paradoxically, the medium that brings associations of a dead past to the present, i n t h i s instance, hides the truth of death and provides l i f e i n the present for the future maintenance of the revolution. After t h i s f i r s t irony occurs, that of photographing a dead body to appear a l i v e and i n the present, a second photographic irony takes place v i a the u t i l i z a t i o n of photography as memento mori. Many of the photos of g u e r r i l l a s taken by Price have f a l l e n into the hands of government forces. The photographs are used by them as a kind of v i s u a l h i t l i s t (Stewart 46). This second irony of photographic death involves using photographs of people who are a l i v e , so that they can be k i l l e d . F i n a l l y , the photographer's own sense of mortality i s challenged when he witnesses the spontaneous assassination of his f r i e n d and fellow j o u r n a l i s t by the m i l i t a r y p o l i c e . Multiple r a p i d - f i r e photographs taken at the s i t e of his assassination are s p l i c e d together and broadcast on the news. The inherent s t a s i s - i n -motion of f i l m permits the i l l u s i o n of murder i n action (Stewart 46). The l i f e that i s brought to the photographs by 71 p r e s e n t i n g them i n an animated s e r i e s makes the photographer r e l i v e the e x p e r i e n c e o f the death o f h i s f r i e n d , a l l o w i n g P r i c e t o r e a l i z e the v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f h i s own m o r t a l i t y . The t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l p h o t o g r a p h i c d e a t h s , as o u t l i n e d by B a r t h e s , Sontag and Metz can be c l e a r l y demonstrated i n f i l m s from d i f f e r e n t t ime p e r i o d s , genres and c o u n t r i e s . L a J e t e e i s a F r e n c h New Wave f i l m from the 1960s, Blow-Up i s an I t a l i a n f i l m a l s o from the 1960s, and Under F i r e i s an American p o l i t i c a l t h r i l l e r o f the 1980s. By u s i n g f i l m s o f d i v e r s e o r i g i n s t h a t demonstrate s i m i l a r t h e o r e t i c a l uses o f photography , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t such t h e o r i e s c a r r y s i g n i f i c a n t meaning, weight and v a l i d i t y . Sigmund F r e u d h e l p s t o p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the u n i v e r s a l use o f photography and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s t o d e a t h . F r e u d wrote on the i n s t i n c t u a l death d r i v e o f T h a n a t o s , s t a t i n g t h a t the g o a l o f l i f e i s t o r e t u r n t o the o r i g i n a l s t a t e o f b e i n g , as i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r . The organi sm f o l l o w s i t s own path t o d e a t h , w i s h i n g t o d i e o n l y on i t s own t e r ms . In o t h e r words , the purpose o f the p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g i s t o d i e (Monte 128-29). Perhaps F r e u d ' s Thanatos t h e o r y can be used t o e x p l a i n the d e s i r e t o p e r c e i v e the p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e o r e t i c a l d e a t h . Death i s p r e s e n t i n the form t h a t we i n t e r p r e t i t t o e x i s t . As i n Blow-Up, the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s immersion i n h i s own r e a l i t y o f death and murder r e v e a l e d h i s own sense o f m o r t a l i t y . Thus , as p e r c e i v e r s and 72 i n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e w o r l d , i t i s o u r own awareness o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y t h a t a l l o w s a s s o c i a t i o n s o f d e a t h w i t h p h o t o g r a p h y t o e x i s t t a n g i b l y . 73 Chapter IV. Narrative Death For Death must be somewhere i n a society; i f i t i s no longer (or less intensely) i n r e l i g i o n , i t must be elsewhere; perhaps i n t h i s image which produces Death while t r y i n g to preserve l i f e . Contemporary with the withdrawal of r i t e s , Photography may correspond to the intrusion, i n our modern society, of an asymbolic Death, outside of r e l i g i o n , outside of r i t u a l , a kind of abrupt dive into l i t e r a l Death (Barthes 92). Catherine Russell begins her book, Narrative Mortality (1993), with the above quote by Barthes, to introduce the s o c i o l o g i c a l placement of death. She takes note of the contradictory re l a t i o n s h i p of death i n society by demonstrating that death i s feared, denied and hidden i n our everyday l i v e s , yet death has omnipresence i n the c u l t u r a l l y produced images of today (1). As I discussed i n the previous chapter, through the analysis of Barthes' writings, photographic images are themselves seen as a form of mortality. From the various texts of c u l t u r a l t h e o r i s t s , I argued that there are three ontological photographic death trends used i n narrative cinema: temporal indexical demise, s o c i o l o g i c a l memento mori, and phenomenological mortality. In t h i s chapter, I w i l l approach photography taxonomically within the context of the cinematic narrative structure as i t relates to the phenomenology of the spectator. The three shared categories of analysis concerning photography and f i l m 74 n a r r a t i v e a r e : t e m p o - m a t e r i a l s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t v i e w i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s as they r e l a t e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the r o l e o f the s p e c t a t o r , and the s y n t h e s i s o f the s t a s i s o f the photograph w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the p r o g r e s s i o n o f the n a r r a t i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s i n f l u e n c e on the p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . W i t h i n the f i n a l c a t e g o r y , I w i l l l o o k a t the phenomenolog ica l p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p t h a t o c c u r s i n n a r r a t i v e f i l m s t h a t use p h o t o g r a p h i c s t i l l s . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e causes s t a s i s and r e c o i l w i t h i n the s p e c t a t o r , which works t o h e i g h t e n and deepen the death d r i v e o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . I have chosen t h r e e f i l m s t h a t e x e m p l i f y these t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p : B a d l a n d s , The P a r a l l a x View and Run L o l a Run. Of the t h r e e t h e o r i s t s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , C h r i s t i a n Metz p r o v i d e s the most d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s on the d i f f e r i n g q u a l i t i e s o f photography and f i l m . The f i r s t d i f f e r e n c e o f note i s the s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l s i z e o f the l e x i s . The Dani sh s e m i o t i c i a n , L o u i s H j e l m s l e v , d e f i n e d the t erm " l e x i s " as the s o c i a l i z e d u n i t o f r e a d i n g , o r r e c e p t i o n . The space o f the l e x i s as i t a p p l i e s t o photography can be d e f i n e d as a s i l e n t r e c t a n g l e o f p a p e r . The c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c l e x i s not o n l y i n c l u d e s the huge r e c t a n g u l a r image p l a n e o f the t h e a t r e 75 s c r e e n , but a l s o the sounds and movements o f the f i l m image. In the r e a l m o f the a u d i t o r y , which i s absent from photography , t h e r e i s phon ic sound i n the c inema. One o f the q u a l i t i e s o f sound i s expans ion through space , whereas images c o n s t r u c t themselves in space . The s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between photography and cinema are i m m o b i l i t y and s i l e n c e w i t h the f o r m e r , thus c a u s i n g the p h o t o g r a p h i c l e x i s t o be much s m a l l e r than the c i n e m a t i c l e x i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the t e m p o r a l d i f f e r e n c e between photography and f i l m concerns the a spec t o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p . The p h o t o g r a p h i c l e x i s does not p r o v i d e a f i x e d t e m p o r a l s i z e , as the s p e c t a t o r determines the d u r a t i o n o f the v i e w i n g t i m e . On the o t h e r hand, the t e m p o r a l s i z e o f the c i n e m a t i c l e x i s i s de termined by the f i lmmaker i n p o s t - p r o d u c t i o n (Metz 81 ) . Whereas the v i e w i n g t ime o f a photograph i s c o n t r o l l e d by the v i e w e r , the f i lmmaker s e t s the v i e w i n g t ime of a f i l m , and the images are p e r c e i v e d o n l y as q u i c k l y o r as s l o w l y as the e d i t i n g p e r m i t s . A s t i l l pho tograph , which a l l o w s one t o l i n g e r over a s i n g l e moment as l o n g as one l i k e s , c o n t r a d i c t s the v e r y form o f f i l m (Sontag 81) . Photography and f i l m d i f f e r i n s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l terms due t o c inema's s t r u c t u r a l movement a c r o s s frames and the sounds t h a t accompany the images and i n the t e m p o r a l f i x i t y t h a t determines v i e w e r s h i p d u r a t i o n . A t h i r d d i f f e r e n c e concerns 76 the perceptive differences between photography and f i l m . Film includes photography, as f i l m i s e s s e n t i a l l y a series of photographic images that are projected at twenty-four frames per second. Film i s founded on a series of sequential pauses (Wolfe 5). Cinema i s the r e s u l t of perceptive features that are not used i n photography due to i t s qua l i t y of s t a s i s . The additional element of movement i n the cinema, which i s an i l l u s i o n , requires the e f f e c t of the phi phenomenon (Metz 83). Psychologist Max Wertheimer used the discovery of the phi phenomenon to demonstrate the Gestalt contention that perception i s h o l i s t i c . As applied to the cinema, there i s h o l i s t i c movement perceived between each frame, so that each frame i s continuous, blending with the one before i t . The i l l u s i o n of an image of movement i s created. Without the phi phenomenon, we would accurately perceive each of the i n d i v i d u a l twenty-four frames projected per second (Benjafield 172). In addition to the three d i s t i n c t spatio-temporal material differences of movement and sound, viewership temporality and the psychological perception process of the phi phenomenon, m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r a l differences and s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t between photography and narrative with respect to spectatorship. Again, there i s the spatio-temporal category, where photography and narrative u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t time structures, but share a s i m i l a r i t y with the construction of 77 space i n the manner that the role of the spectator i s constructed. Gilberto Perez outlines the temporal difference between the two i n The Material Ghost (1993), stating that the spectatorship of photography i s simultaneous, while i n the narrative, i t i s sequential. Photography may present a story within the frame, such as an ongoing event, but the story i s presented i n simultaneous form. According to Perez, the art of narrative resides i n the arrangement of sequences and the process of recounting the events of the story (51). Photography and narrative share s i m i l a r i t i e s i n material s t r u c t u r a l construction. A photograph depends on the referent. A material object or subject must be exposed on the f i l m plane to create the latent image. The photographic image i s a p a r t i a l view; i t i s only a section of space captured at a ce r t a i n time from a cert a i n perspective. For both photography and narrative f i l m , the dependency on the referent provides an incomplete presentation to the viewer. But the photograph i s not constructed from a sequence of events as the narrative i s ; i t i s a fragment of a potential sequence. The photograph i n v i t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of continuation, which has led to the art of the cinema, that i s , twenty-four frames per second (Perez 52). While photography and narrative cinema share s p a t i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s by presenting p a r t i a l views of the world, both 78 have a l s o been shaped by common h i s t o r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Western p e r s p e c t i v i s m has g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d the development o f photography and n a r r a t i v e , by p l a c i n g the v i ewer i n a p r i v i l e g e d and c e n t r a l i z e d p o s i t i o n . Jonathan C r a r y argues t h a t the model o f v i s i o n o p e r a t i n g a t the t ime o f the Rena i s sance o f f e r e d a c e n t e r e d human s u b j e c t i v i t y f o r v i e w i n g . T h u s , the v iewer was g i v e n the p e r c e i v i n g p r i v i l e g e o f b e i n g p o s i t i o n e d i n the c e n t e r o f the w o r l d . P e r s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s shaped the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Rena i s sance image space and the c o n c e p t i o n o f the s p e c t a t o r . F o r example, e n t i r e t h e a t r e s were b u i l t around the v a n t a g e -p o i n t o f the duke ' s o r c a r d i n a l ' s s e a t ; the s i g h t l i n e s o f o t h e r s ea t s were c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y d i s t o r t e d ( B o r d w e l l 6 ) . The i l l u s i o n o f c e n t r a l i t y was the i d e a l s p e c t a t o r p o s i t i o n (Heath 3 8 6 ) . The camera i s the c u l m i n a t i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h a t p r o j e c t e d U t o p i a . The images i t produced became the c u r r e n c y of t h a t v i s i o n , j u s t as the mathemat ica l c o n v e n t i o n o f Western p e r s p e c t i v e had been i n p a i n t i n g b e f o r e the i n v e n t i o n o f photography . P e r v a s i v e b e l i e f s about the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f " r e a l " space w i t h i n an image were f o r m u l a t e d by these codes o f v i s i o n (Heath 3 8 7 ) . The p u b l i c b e l i e v e d t h a t g e o m e t r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , so l o n g as i t d i d not i n v o l v e u n f a m i l i a r p o i n t s o f v i ew, was " true" , j u s t as i n the p a s t , i t b e l i e v e d t h a t the o l d geometry o f E u c l i d was "the t r u t h " . The m a j o r i t y o f photographs 79 today are s t i l l c o n s t r u c t e d by the r u l e s o f c e n t r a l p e r s p e c t i v e (Heath 387) . In N a r r a t i o n i n the F i c t i o n F i l m (1985), D a v i d B o r d w e l l o u t l i n e s a s i m i l a r h i s t o r y o f c e n t r a l i z e d Western p e r s p e c t i v e as i t r e l a t e s t o n a r r a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n . He notes t h a t t h e r e are t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways t o s tudy s t o r y t e l l i n g : r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , s t r u c t u r e , and p r o c e s s ( 4 ) . Of i n t e r e s t here i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l or mimet ic t h e o r y o f n a r r a t i o n , as i t s h i s t o r i c a l t ime frame c o r r e l a t e s t o the o p t i c a l development o f p a i n t i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the r u l e s o f image f o r m a t i o n i n photography . M i m e t i c t h e o r i e s u t i l i z e the a c t o f v i s i o n as a model : an o b j e c t o f p e r c e p t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d t o the eye o f the b e h o l d e r . T h i s model u n d e r l i e s the changes i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n t r o d u c e d by Greek t h e a t r e and p a i n t i n g and , l a t e r , i n s e v e r a l Rena i s sance a r t s . The Greek T h e a t r e r a i s e d and c o n f r o n t e d the c e n t r a l problems t h a t s u r r o u n d the mimet ic t r a d i t i o n : How i s the space o f the s t o r y t o be p r e s e n t e d , and where i s the s p e c t a t o r i n r e l a t i o n t o i t ( B o r d w e l l 4)? The term "perspec t ive" means "see ing t h r o u g h " , which acknowledges t h a t both the o b j e c t ( the d e p i c t e d wor ld) and the s u b j e c t ( the v iewer) are bound t o g e t h e r through the p i c t u r e p l a n e ( B o r d w e l l 4 ) . 80 I t has been demonstrated t h a t photography and n a r r a t i v e cinema have s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the s p a t i o -t e m p o r a l and m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s . I t i s hoped t h a t these p o i n t s o f c o n t r a s t and comparison w i l l h e l p e x p l a i n the p r o c e s s o f v i e w e r s h i p t h a t o c c u r s when a s e r i e s o f photographs i s p l a c e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the n a r r a t i v e f i l m . In an i s s u e o f Wide A n g l e , Raymond B e l l o u r w r i t e s e x t e n s i v e l y on the p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p t h a t o c c u r s when photographs are used i n n a r r a t i v e c inema. B e l l o u r c l a i m s t h a t the photograph i s much l i k e any o t h e r o b j e c t w i t h i n the m i s e -en-scene w i t h i n the f i l m , but as the photograph h o l d s f i l m i c t i m e , the f i l m seems t o f r e e z e , a c h i e v i n g the q u a l i t y o f s t a s i s t h a t o c c u p i e s photography . F u r t h e r , photography c a r r i e s i t s f o u n d a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s o f death i n t o the c o n t e x t o f the c inema, c a u s i n g the s p e c t a t o r t o r e c o i l from the p r o g r e s s i o n o f n a r r a t i v e sequence. T h i s causes a second t e m p o r a l c o n d i t i o n t o be b o r n , a p a s t o f the p a s t , which i n t e r r u p t s the f i l m ' s u n f o l d i n g n a r r a t i v e . Thus , w i t h i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e o f f i l m n a r r a t i o n , a m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e comes f o r t h . T h i s causes the v i ewer t o r e c o i l from the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , but u s u a l l y the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e t h e m a t i c a l l y echoes i t s p r e d e c e s s o r . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e may i n i t i a l l y seem t o be d i s r u p t i v e by i n t e r r u p t i n g the f low and p r o g r e s s i o n o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , but i t 81 i s thematically p a r a l l e l , thus enhancing and enriching the cinematic viewing experience on multiple lev e l s (8). Bellour describes t h i s phenomenon as a process of subtraction. Contact with the photograph allows l e i s u r e i n order to indulge i n retrospection and add to the meaning of the f i l m . The photograph subtracts the viewer from the f i l m , but adds to i t s interpretation. I would prefer to l a b e l t h i s viewing process as a distancing e f f e c t that allows the viewer to r e f l e c t on the cinema and thus invest more f r e e l y i n the meaning of i t s content. Or, as Bellour metaphorically writes: " I t helps me to close my eyes, yet keep them wide open" (7). The photograph haunts the f i l m , playing with the truth of the cinema. The " r e a l i t y e f f e c t " that the temporal progression of the cinema works to erase i s brought to the forefront by photography, temporarily shattering the meta-filmic narrative fantasy. Its s t i l l n e s s disrupts the foreword moving progression of the f i l m narration. This swerve of spectatorship of the meta-filmic narration allows for a momentary pause where the viewer i s also able to r e f l e c t on the cinema. This uncoupling of the spectator from the image allows the hurried spectator to pensively evaluate the layers of diverse images that make up the meta-filmic narrative and mini-photographic narrative (Bellour 9-10). 82 Garrett Stewart also writes e x p l i c i t l y on the process of spectatorship within the context of meta-filmic narratives that incorporate mini-photographic narratives. Stewart defines the key difference between photography and f i l m to be motion or lack of i t . He quotes Stanley Cavell: " s t i l l n e s s emphasizes the death i n mortal existence while motion emphasizes the l i f e of i t " (Stewart 11). As was discussed i n the previous chapter, photography has philosophical deaths that concern temporal-i n d e x i c a l i t y , s o c i o l o g i c a l memento mori and perceived e x i s t e n t i a l phenomenology. As Bellour points out, the power of photography's s t i l l n e s s i s brought forward i n the meta-filmic narration, interrupting i t s progression and p o s i t i v e forward moving sequences of l i v i n g and fantasy (7). While Bellour i s concerned with how the process of spectatorship halts and changes due to the motionlessness of the s t i l l image, Stewart d i r e c t l y address how photography's associations with death are brought forward i n the narrative. He writes: "The immediate difference of s t i l l n e s s from motion i n these two media may therefore serve i n the end merely to specify death's r e l a t i o n to both" (12). Metz i n s i s t s , l i k e Barthes, on "the sele c t i v e kinship of photography (not film) with death," since f i l m "gives back to the dead a semblance of l i f e " — a t l e ast, that motion associated with l i f e (qtd. i n Batchen 37). Photographic sta s i s exposes by association the cinematic system as a series 83 o f p h o t o g r a p h i c frames o f which i t i s c o m p r i s e d . Whereas photography engraves the death i t r e s e m b l e s , cinema d e f e r s the death whose escape i t s i m u l a t e s . The i s o l a t e d photograph o r photogram i s the s t i l l work o f d e a t h ; cinema i s death always s t i l l a t work (Stewart Between x i ) . I f the photograph m a n i f e s t s death and f i l m i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f photographs , then f i l m s m a n i f e s t d e a t h . T h i s s y l l o g i s m seems t e m p t i n g , but as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , the p h i phenomenon a l l o w s f i l m t o c a r r y the i l l u s i o n o f movement and t h u s , l i f e . More i m p o r t a n t l y , the h o l d i n g o f a c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h i c s t a s i s a g a i n s t n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n f r e q u e n t l y m o t i v a t e s i t w i t h i n the p l o t as a m e t a p h o r i c a l c o r r e l a t i v e o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e (Stewart Between x i ) . G e n e r a l mainstream cinema at tempts t o n a t u r a l i z e i t s s t o r y t e l l i n g a c c o r d i n g t o the t e n e t s o f the r e a l i s t code . Beneath the b land i shments o f the n a t u r a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , t h e r e may r u n a m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e which f u n c t i o n s as a p a r a - n a r r a t i v e c o u n t e r p l o t . I t i s from t h i s c o u n t e r p l o t t h a t the event o f s t a s i s i s u s u a l l y f o l d e d back i n t o the c u r r e n t o f mainstream p l o t t i n g as a v i r t u a l metaphor f o r death (Stewart Between 28 ) . The m i n i -f i l m i c generates m e t a - f i l m i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s . Three f i l m s t h a t demonstrate a m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e e c h o i n g the meta-f i l m i c death t h e m a t i c a r e : B a d l a n d s , The P a r a l l a x View and Run 84 L o l a Run. A l l t h r e e f i l m s demonstrate m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e s t a s i s , s p e c t a t o r s h i p r e c o i l , and m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c death d o u b l i n g o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . Badlands i s a f i c t i o n f i l m n a r r a t i v e about an a n t i h e r o ' s doomed v e n t u r e i n m e m o r i a l i z i n g the s e l f and a g i r l ' s awakening c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f f a t a l i t y . In the f i l m , K i t i s on a murder ing rampage w i t h h i s g i r l f r i e n d , who b l i n d l y f o l l o w s him a c r o s s South Dakota and Montana i n o r d e r t o escape c r i m i n a l punishment . They l i v e i n a romant i c f a n t a s y as t w o - l o v e s t r u c k f e l o n s on the r u n . The more they k i l l , the more they have t o r u n f rom, p r o p e l l i n g them i n t o a v i c i o u s c y c l e o f murder . N a r r a t i v e s t a s i s , s p e c t a t o r s h i p r e c o i l and m e t a - f i l m i c e c h o i n g o c c u r i n Badlands when K i t ' s g i r l f r i e n d , H o l l y , v iews s t e r e o g r a p h i c p r i n t s , w h i l e h i d i n g out i n the f o r e s t w i t h K i t a f t e r he murdered her f a t h e r . In t h i s scene , which i s midway through the p l o t , a l l moving images are d i s p l a c e d by the s t i l l images seen through a s t e r e o g r a p h i c s l i d e v i e w e r . H o l l y reaches a t random f o r a s e r i e s o f d o u b l e - p l a t e d , t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l p i c t u r e s and then s t u d i e s them i n the o l d - f a s h i o n e d a p p a r a t u s . Due t o the v i n t a g e q u a l i t y and t e c h n o l o g i c a l apparatus t o v iew the images , these photographs l i n k the v i ewer t o the d i s t a n t p a s t o f the t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y . H o l l y r e - c o n t e x t u a l i z e s the images o f the p a s t i n t o her own p r e s e n t . Her v o i c e - o v e r n a r r a t i o n w i t h i n the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e a r t i c u l a t e s : 85 "While t a k i n g a l o o k a t some v i s t a s i n Dad's s t e r e o p t i c o n , i t h i t me t h a t I was j u s t a l i t t l e g i r l , born i n Texas [...] and t h a t I had j u s t so many y e a r s t o l i v e . " H o l l y ' s i n s i g h t r e f e r e n c e s the B a r t h e s i a n i d e a t h a t was d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r — a phenomenolog ica l e x i s t e n t i a l i s m p e r c e i v e d by the s p e c t a t o r : I am the r e f e r e n c e o f e v e r y p h ot ograp h , and t h i s i s what generates my as tonishment i n a d d r e s s i n g m y s e l f t o the fundamental q u e s t i o n : why i s i t t h a t I am a l i v e here and now? (Barthes 84) H o l l y ' s encounter w i t h images o f the p a s t demonstrates B a r t h e s ' sense , a g a i n , o f how the " t h a t - h a s - b e e n " o f a photograph i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o " t h i s i m p e r i o u s s i g n o f my f u t u r e d e a t h , " the p o i n t a t which I w i l l be o n l y a photograph (Stewart Between 51 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , H o l l y removes h e r s e l f from the g r i t t y r e a l i t y o f murder and d e s t i t u t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a h a l t t o the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , and e n t i c e s the v i ewer i n t o the new r e a l i t y o f the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e . A l l photographs a r e , i n t h i s sense , posthumous and p o t e n t i a l l y m o r t i f y i n g ; t e l l i n g o f death t h a t was, they warn of the coming of d e a t h . In H o l l y ' s mind , these images i n s c r i b e the as surance o f her own doom. The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e t r i g g e r s her t o q u e s t i o n t i m e , m o r t a l i t y , and f a t e . Without r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o r p s e , v i o l e n c e , o r p a i n , these photos c o l l e c t i v e l y r a i s e the q u e s t i o n o f d e a t h . H o l l y c l o s e s the sequences: "For days a f t e r I l i v e d i n d r e a d . " Death o f the p a s t i n v o k e d by the 86 photographs exaggerates her f e a r s o f her f u t u r e f a t e . H e r e , the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e i s a compressed s e q u e n t i a l emblem o f the death d r i v e o f the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . The P a r a l l a x View e x h i b i t s a m e t a - f i l m i c death d r i v e as a p a r a n o i d f a n t a s y . I t i s an a b s t r a c t s t o r y o f an a s s a s s i n a t i o n -f o r - h i r e - c o n s p i r a c y . Joe F r a d y i s an o b s e s s i v e newspaper r e p o r t e r who i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the death o f s e v e r a l w i t n e s s e s o f the a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f a Senator who was a c a n d i d a t e f o r P r e s i d e n t . F r a d y d i s c o v e r s p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r the P a r a l l a x C o r p o r a t i o n , which i s s c r e e n i n g f o r p o t e n t i a l a s s a s s i n s . F r a d y passes s e v e r a l t e s t s and i s a c c e p t e d i n t o the C o r p o r a t i o n . When he i s found a t the l o c a t i o n o f the a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f another S e n a t o r , he i s accused o f b e i n g the k i l l e r and i s subsequent ly murdered by the P a r a l l a x C o r p o r a t i o n . The f i l m c o n c l u d e s , as i t began, w i t h the s tatement o f a committee i n v e s t i g a t i n g an a s s a s s i n a t i o n : no ev idence o f c o n s p i r a c y ; the k i l l e r a c t e d a l o n e . In the f i l m , c i r c u l a r m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e advances p a r a n o i d c o n s p i r a c y t h e o r i e s , b e g i n n i n g and end ing w i t h v i o l e n t murders . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e echoes t h i s death d r i v e i n a scene where F r a d y i s g i v e n a s c r e e n i n g t e s t a t the P a r a l l a x o f f i c e s . F r a d y i s i s o l a t e d i n a s t a r k and s t e r i l e room, where he must v iew a f i v e - m i n u t e s l i d e montage w h i l e h i s p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses are m o n i t o r e d . The montage 87 uses s t i l l p r o j e c t e d s l i d e images under the i n t e r - t i t l e headings o f L o v e , Mother , F a t h e r , Me, Home, C o u n t r y , God and Enemy. The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e beg ins w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l imagery r e f l e c t i n g the i d e a l s o f the Amer ican dream. Under each h e a d i n g , s t e r e o t y p i c a l images f o l l o w . A f t e r the i n t e r - t i t l e o f Mother , a woman changes the d i a p e r o f her newborn baby. A f t e r F a t h e r , a man l o o k s i n t o the eyes o f h i s s o n , h i s hand p a t e r n a l i s t i c a l l y r e s t i n g on h i s son ' s s h o u l d e r . A f t e r C o u n t r y , images o f Amer ican i conography are shown, such as The L i n c o l n M e m o r i a l , Mount Rushmore and the White House. A f t e r Enemy, t h e r e are images o f H i t l e r , F i d e l C a s t r o and Chairman Mao—communism i s the a n t i t h e s i s o f Amer ican democracy. But as the headings r e p e a t c y c l i c a l l y , the imagery becomes more d i s t u r b i n g and v i o l e n t . The images t h a t were shown under the head ing o f F a t h e r now f o l l o w the heading o f Enemy. There are shots o f the Vie tnam War, d e s t i t u t e c h i l d r e n , and c r i m i n a l s i n j a i l under the heading o f C o u n t r y . The American f l a g waving i n f r o n t o f the White House moves t o the Ku K l u x K l a n waving the same f l a g . T h i s m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e a t the s c r e e n i n g t e s t i s used t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t c a n d i d a t e s who do not have the p o t e n t i a l t o become a s s a s s i n s . I f the c a n d i d a t e does not evoke a p h y s i o l o g i c a l response t o the p r o g r e s s i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l , s t e r e o t y p i c a l imagery o f the American U t o p i a t o a complete r e v e r s a l o f imagery showing 88 c o r r u p t i o n , c r ime and g r e e d , then the c a n d i d a t e has the n e c e s s a r y i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o k i l l w i t h o u t r e g r e t . Thus beg ins the p r o c e s s o f t r a i n i n g v i o l e n t , amoral human b e i n g s . T h i s m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e sequence e x h i b i t s the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f n a r r a t i v e s t a s i s , s p e c t a t o r r e c o i l and m e t a - f i l m i c e c h o i n g . F r a d y i s i s o l a t e d and p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y moni tored i n o r d e r t o be under the f u l l i n f l u e n c e o f the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s s c r e e n i n g t e s t . F r a d y ' s s e c l u s i o n and b i z a r r e exposure t o the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e causes an abrupt removal from the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . The s p e c t a t o r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h F r a d y ' s i s o l a t i o n and v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o the s a d i s t i c m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e causes an e x p e r i e n c e o f r e c o i l . As i t i s F r a d y ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e t o d i s c o v e r the c o n s p i r a c y b e h i n d the P a r a l l a x C o r p o r a t i o n ' s a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y o f a m o r a l i t y t h a t i s evoked i n the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e deepens the r e c e s s e s o f death t h e m a t i c s . W h i l e Badlands and The P a r a l l a x View b o t h e x h i b i t e v i d e n t i a l themes o f death i n the m i n i and meta n a r r a t i v e s , Run L o l a Run e x p l o r e s the broader p h i l o s o p h i c a l themes o f f a t e , de t ermin i sm and chance . M a n n i , a c o u r i e r f o r a b i g g a n g s t e r , l o s e s a p l a s t i c bag w i t h 100,000 marks i n drug money on a B e r l i n subway, and a bum absconds w i t h i t . Manni phones h i s 89 g i r l f r i e n d , L o l a , i n a p a n i c . I f he i s t o s u r v i v e the wrath o f h i s gangs ter b o s s , she must b r i n g him a rep lacement sum i n 20 m i n u t e s . The same s t o r y i s t o l d t h r e e t i m e s , w i t h some p a r t i c u l a r s changed, and w i t h d i f f e r e n t e n d i n g s . W i t h i n each o f the t h r e e m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e s , t h e r e are t h r e e m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e s , except i n the t h i r d meta-f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e , where t h e r e are o n l y two. The t r i p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e o f the m e t a - f i l m n a r r a t i v e forms a d i a l e c t i c . In the f i r s t ( t h e s i s ) L o l a d i e s ; i n the second ( a n t i t h e s i s ) , Manni d i e s ; i n the t h i r d ( s y n t h e s i s ) , bo th Manni and L o l a l i v e . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e s echo t h i s d i a l e c t i c . W h i l e L o l a i s r u n n i n g on her ques t t o f i n d money t o save M a n n i , she e n c o u n t e r s , and n e a r l y runs down, p e d e s t r i a n s and c y c l i s t s . The f i r s t p e d e s t r i a n i s a bad-tempered woman w i t h a baby c a r r i a g e . L o l a then c r o s s e s paths w i t h a c y c l i s t who wants t o s e l l h i s b i c y c l e . F i n a l l y , i n her f a t h e r ' s downtown o f f i c e , L o l a g l a r e s a t a woman i n the h a l l w a y . As L o l a i s t e m p o r a r i l y i n the presence o f each c h a r a c t e r , t h e r e a r e r a p i d - f i r e f l a s h f o r w a r d s . These m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e s a r e composed o f a s e r i e s o f s t i l l photographs t h a t are accompanied by the s h u t t e r , c l i c k , and w h i r o f a s t i l l camera motor d r i v e . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e s r e v e a l the f u t u r e l i f e o f each minor c h a r a c t e r . As each m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e ends d i f f e r e n t l y , due t o the chaos t h e o r y ' s t e n e t t h a t the s l i g h t e s t 90 v a r i a t i o n can produce enormous changes i n the future, each mini-photographic narrative appropriately reveals d i f f e r e n t endings. For example, the three mini-photographic narrative sequences of a bad-tempered woman echo the changes i n the fate of Lola and Manni i n the meta-filmic narrative. In the f i r s t round, the bad-tempered woman becomes a s o c i a l welfare case, loses her c h i l d , steals another i n a park and i s l a s t seen being chased by the father and two other people. In the second round, she buys a l o t t o t i c k e t and wins, purchases a new car, and i s l a s t seen i n a lounge chair s i t t i n g beside her baby asleep i n a c r i b as she and her husband share a toast i n the front yard of her new mansion. In the t h i r d round, she encounters a Jehovah's Witness on the street and l a t e r prays i n a church, her husband takes communion, and she i s l a s t seen with another woman on the street o f f e r i n g copies of the Jehovah's Witness publications Awake and Watchtower. Each of the three rounds of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r mini-photographic narrative sequence demonstrates the three categories of narrative s t a s i s , spectator r e c o i l and meta-photographic narrative echo. Meta-filmic narrative s t a s i s occurs very obviously, as the mini-photographic narrative i s presented abruptly and without pretense. I t i s t o t a l l y unexpected that a minor character would suddenly be given s i g n i f i c a n t screen time by seeing t h e i r l i v e s f l a s h before our 91 eyes . S p e c t a t o r r e c o i l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because the m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e o c c u r s d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f urgency i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . There i s no smooth t r a n s i t i o n between L o l a ' s urgency and the bad-tempered woman's f a t e . The m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e echoes the t e n e t s o f chaos t h e o r y put f o r t h i n the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the t h r e e m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e rounds t h a t compose the f i l m . Each m i n i - n a r r a t i v e and meta-n a r r a t i v e proposes an e x i s t e n t i a l d i a l e c t i c a l d r i v e on the m u l t i p l e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f l i f e , which i s expres sed by t h e i r d i v e r s e and o p p o s i t i o n a l e n d i n g s . I t i s suggested t h a t e i t h e r chance o r f a t e w i l l de termine whether we l i v e o r d i e . W h i l e Badlands and The P a r a l l a x View propose an e x p l i c i t death d r i v e v i a the e x i s t e n t i a l c r i s e s o f the c e n t r a l p r o t a g o n i s t s , L o l a ' s chang ing f a t e i n Run L o l a Run a s s e r t s t h a t death s t i l l remains a m y s t e r y . In sum, the change i n the p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p t h a t o c c u r s w i t h a m i n i - p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e w i t h i n a m e t a - f i l m n a r r a t i v e i s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d by the s y n t h e s i s t h a t o c c u r s due t o the v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s o f photography and n a r r a t i v e f i l m t h a t c o n c e r n the c a t e g o r i e s o f the s p a t i a l -t e m p o r a l , the m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l , and e x i s t e n t i a l s p e c t a t o r phenomenology. W i t h i n the c a t e g o r y o f the s p a t i a l - t e m p o r a l , I have argued t h a t photography d i f f e r s from f i l m i n t h r e e ways. The f i l m i c l e x i s i s l a r g e r than the p h o t o g r a p h i c l e x i s because 92 o f the q u a l i t i e s o f movement and sound. As w e l l , photography and f i l m d i f f e r i n the r o l e o f t e m p o r a l s p e c t a t o r c o n s t r u c t i o n . In photography , the d u r a t i o n o f the l o o k o f o b s e r v a t i o n by the s p e c t a t o r i s not f i x e d , but i n the c inema, the p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s o f s p e c t a t o r s h i p r e q u i r e s the p h i phenomenon. W i t h i n the m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r y , photography and n a r r a t i v e f i l m share the s i m i l a r i t i e s o f dependence on a r e f e r e n t , which r e s t r i c t s them t o p r e s e n t o n l y a p a r t i a l v iew o f the w o r l d . They both share h i s t o r i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the p o s i t i o n o f the s p e c t a t o r due t o c e n t r a l i z e d Western p e r s p e c t i v e . These s p a t i a l - t e m p o r a l and m a t e r i a l - h i s t o r i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i t i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the phenomenolog ica l s p e c t a t o r s h i p t h a t o c c u r s when a m i n i -p h o t o g r a p h i c n a r r a t i v e i s c o n t e x t u a l i z e d w i t h i n a m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . The m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e i s t e m p o r a r i l y h a l t e d , c a u s i n g the s p e c t a t o r t o r e c o i l from the t e x t . T h i s pause a l l o w s the v iewer t o c o n t e x t u a l l y contemplate both the m i n i -and m e t a - t e x t , which works t o e n r i c h the o v e r a l l meaning o f death i n the m e t a - f i l m i c n a r r a t i v e . Thus , as B a r t h e s ' quote a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r s u g g e s t s , death i s i n the image t h a t p r e s e r v e s l i f e (photography) and the f i l m form works t o e rase d e a t h , v i a the n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n o f l i f e . Death cannot be e r a s e d , perhaps because , as F r e u d t h e o r i z e d about T h a n a t o s , t h e r e i s a death d r i v e i n every organ i sm t o r e t u r n t o 93 the o r i g i n a l s t a t e o f i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r . T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m must have an o u t l e t i n some c u l t u r a l form. S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , as B a r t h e s w r i t e s , death must be somewhere i n s o c i e t y (92) . I f i t i s not i n r e l i g i o n , o r the s o c i e t a l r i t u a l s t h a t no l o n g e r appear i n contemporary s o c i e t y , i t r e s i d e s i n the h i g h l y v a l u e d and consumed c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s o f the s t i l l image and the moving image. 94 Chapter V. Metamorphic Death: Post-mortem and S p i r i t Photography i n Narrative Cinema I t seems o n l y f i t t i n g , when d i s c u s s i n g the i r o n i c na ture of photography , t o end my t h e s i s w i t h a c h a p t e r on the a n a l y s i o f the e a r l y b e g i n n i n g s o f the medium. In my f i r s t c h a p t e r on d e a t h , I d i s c u s s e d the m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f death t h a t enve lop photography . In the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , I compared the v a r i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between photography and f i l m . In t h i s c h a p t e r , I w i l l t r a c e the s h i f t i n g i d e o l o g i c a l l i n e a g e o f death as m a n i f e s t i n the c o n t e n t o f photographs i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I have observed two c e n t r a l p o r t r a y a l o f d e a t h : post -mortem photography and s p i r i t photography . I w i l l demonstrate how c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s towards m a t e r i a l death s p i r i t u a l i s m / and t e c h n o l o g y are expres sed i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o n t e n t o f the c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s o f photography . Three f i l m s t h a t I have chosen t h a t use p o s t -mortem photography , s p i r i t photography , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m are The O t h e r s , The Asphyx , and R i n g . As G e o f f r e y Batchen (1999) w r i t e s , photography has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h death s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n . In s t o p p i n g t i m e , each i n d i v i d u a l photograph embodies the in terweave o f l i f e and d e a t h . A l l photographs bear the work o f death due t o the t e m p o r a l - m a t e r i a l q u a l i t y o f f r e e z i n g , mummifying o r c o r p s i f y i n g the c a p t u r e d body. T h i s t e m p o r a l - m a t e r i a l s t a s i s i 95 p a r t i c u l a r l y manifest i n the early beginnings of photographic technological development. Due to slow exposure times, the subject had to remain completely s t i l l for many seconds and even minutes to prevent the image from being blurred. The s t r a i n of motionlessness caused the subject's face to look sombre and morose. However, a solution became available for removing the physical s t r a i n from the subject. Special prosthetic devices were developed to constrain the subject. A neck and back brace was secured to the subject to ensure s t i l l n e s s and guarantee a detailed and clea r image. Garrett Stewart observes that i t was as i f the body had to become a sarcophagus before i t became a photographic e f f i g y (44 ) . This device transformed the l i v e body into the st a s i s of an embalmed e f f i g y . In order to appear l i f e l i k e , the technology of photography demanded that the subject act as i f deceased (Batchen 208) . P o r t r a i t photographers took t h i s corpse-like association with photography a step further and developed a l u c r a t i v e trade i n producing post-mortem photographs. Grieving parents could console themselves with a photograph of t h e i r departed c h i l d . The irony of photography becomes apparent again, as an image of the dead, as dead, somehow worked to sustain the l i v i n g (Batchen 208) . Jay Ruby (1995) writes extensively on the c u l t u r a l phenomenon of post-mortem photography that began i n 96 the mid-nineteenth century and i s s t i l l practiced today. Ruby's s o c i o l o g i c a l project i s to outline the s h i f t i n g c u l t u r a l attitudes toward death over the past one hundred and si x t y years i n America. Ruby writes that death was a topic of p o l i t e conversation i n the nineteenth century ( 7 ) . The grieving process was considered normal, as i s demonstrated by widowhood and i t s v i s u a l manifestation of wearing black i n public, which was a l i f e l o n g s o c i a l expectation for many women. Additionally, cemeteries were used as recreational s i t e s . But t h i s open and accepting attitude towards death became a forbidden topic for the American middle-class at the beginning of the twentieth century. The public display of mourning and di s t r e s s over the death of a family member was considered to be pathological. However, Ruby writes that t h i s repressed view of death i s changing, due to the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of gr i e f counselling and death education i n public schools. Grief counsellors often use photography as a t o o l for f a c i l i t a t i n g the healing process, as Judith S t i l l i o n reveals: This often helps c l i e n t s to r e - l i v e the circumstances of a p a r t i c u l a r period and can r e s u l t i n re-gaining or attaining o b j e c t i v i t y concerning t h e i r actions and decisions of that period. When c l i e n t s r e - l i v e the period with the help of photographs, they frequently can l e t go of feelings of g u i l t and regret over actions taken or not taken during that p a r t i c u l a r time (qtd. i n Ruby 8 ) . 97 Freud wrote that the mourning period i s a process i n which the subject learns that his or her loved one i s now gone forever. In order to survive and heal, the person must d i r e c t his or her attention towards someone or something else. Substitutive objects, such as belongings of the deceased, or an image of the deceased, can help ease the grieving process (qtd. i n de Duve 123). Due to i t s indexical nature, a photographic image may be more useful than a drawing or a painting. Moreover, the i n d e x i c a l i t y of the photograph causes a mourning process to occur with every image. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , as Barthes suggests with the "that-has-been," the viewer i s always aware that the subject or the object of the image once existed i n a ce r t a i n time and place, but i t does not exi s t i n the same way at the time of viewing the photograph. The temporal death of photography brings awareness to both the mortality of the content of the photograph, and a sense of mortality to the viewer of the image. Whether a post-mortem photograph or not, the viewer i s always engaged i n a process of mourning. As Sontag writes: " A l l photographs are memento mori. To take a photograph i s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n another person's mortality, v u l n e r a b i l i t y , mutability" (15). In short, the mourning process of the photograph f a c i l i t a t e s the healing process of grieving (de Duve 123). 98 Photographs o f death have a s o c i a l purpose (Ruby 9 -11) . Due t o p h o t o g r a p h y ' s c o n n e c t i o n to memory, and memory's c o n n e c t i o n t o g r i e f , a photograph o f a dead l o v e d one ( e i t h e r a l i v e o r posthumous) works as a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l f o r the g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s . The i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l use o f the photograph i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y e x e m p l i f i e s Sontag ' s w r i t i n g s on the photograph as memento m o r i . The image o f a l o v e d one o r a f r i e n d c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d and t r e a s u r e d as a memoria l keepsake . The photograph o f f e r e d the promise o f a m a t e r i a l i s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f e t e r n i t y . So , not o n l y d i d photography a i d i n the g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s , but i t gave mourners t a n g i b i l i t y f o r remembering the deceased . The p o p u l a r i t y o f post -mortem photography i s s i m p l y e x p l a i n e d by an i n c r e a s e i n death r a t e s i n the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s was a t ime o f s o c i a l , demographic , and c u l t u r a l upheava l i n A m e r i c a . The p o p u l a t i o n o f the c o u n t r y t r i p l e d between 1790 and 1830 and would t r i p l e a g a i n by 1860. As c i t i e s grew, communit ies l e f t the c i t y f o r more space . Death r a t e s due t o t u b e r c u l o s i s were ex treme ly h i g h i n areas t h a t were crowded o r o v e r - p o p u l a t e d . T u b e r c u l o s i s became i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the e v i l s o f urban l i f e , w h i l e the r u r a l l i f e s t y l e became a re fuge from the d i s e a s e and p o l l u t i o n o f the c i t y . A p o l a r i t y between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e d e v e l o p e d , w i t h i n c r e a s i n g importance b e i n g p l a c e d on the f a m i l y u n i t . A new V i c t o r i a n 99 ideology arose that sentimentalized the family and i t s r i t u a l s , from b i r t h to death (Stannard 84-87). Most photographs taken of the dead were of children, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r high mortality rate. Tuberculosis had the largest impact on women and the young. Babies and children under age f i v e were the highest risk-group for not surviving. Therefore, many of the photographs of t h i s time were of dead children. There was the V i c t o r i a n b e l i e f that the dead c h i l d was blessed with eternal youth and innocence, and the archival c a p a b i l i t i e s of photography f a c i l i t a t e d that b e l i e f (Stannard 73-74) . There are three styles of post-mortem family photography that are evident from 1840 to 1880. The f i r s t two styles attempt to portray the deceased as not dead, and the t h i r d s t y l e portrays the deceased with mourners. The f i r s t s t y l e can be labeled as "the l a s t sleep". The association of death with sleep can be traced back to c l a s s i c a l Greece. The mythical sons of the night were Hypnos, god of sleep, and his twin, Thanatos, god of death. Thus, i n the ideology of the late nineteenth century, people did not die; they embarked on the journey of eternal rest (Ruby 72). The second st y l e of post-mortem photography can be labeled as " a l i v e , but dead", portraying an attempt to conceal the notion of death or sleep. The body was not l y i n g h orizontally, 100 but p l a c e d i n an u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , o f t e n i n a c h a i r . The eyes were open o r p a i n t e d on as i f open, i n an at tempt t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t was a l i v e . The s u b j e c t may have been photographed as l y i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y , and then the photograph would have been t u r n e d and mounted on a n i n e t y - d e g r e e ang le so t h a t the body appeared u p r i g h t (Ruby 72) . The a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the f i r s t two s t y l e s o f p o s t -mortem photography u s u a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s o f the deceased , but a m i n o r i t y o f photographs showed the e n t i r e body. The body r e s t e d on domest ic f u r n i t u r e , such as a s o f a draped w i t h a sheet o r c o v e r l e t . The s e t t i n g was u s u a l l y i n the l i v i n g room o r the p a r l o r o f a p r i v a t e home. Sometimes, a dead c h i l d would be d i s p l a y e d as i f a s l e e p i n a buggy. There are p r a c t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the p o p u l a r i t y o f c l o s e - u p images o f the deceased sea ted on a s o f a i n the p a r l o r . F u n e r a l p a r l o r s were n o n e x i s t e n t , and c o f f i n s were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . T h u s , "the l a s t s l eep" and " a l i v e , but dead" poses demonstrate how t e c h n o l o g y and i d e o l o g y c o a l e s c e . A body photographed i n a c o f f i n would have d i s r u p t e d the i l l u s i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t was a l i v e (Ruby 72 ) . The t h i r d s t y l e o f post -mortem photography d e p i c t s the deceased i n the company o f mourners , u s u a l l y f a m i l y members. The c e n t r a l i t y o f the n u c l e a r and extended f a m i l y i n m i d d l e -c l a s s Amer ica was h i g h l y v a l u e d . Photographs f u n c t i o n e d t o 101 memorialize and i d e a l i z e t h i s s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Often, no photographs would have been taken before a family member, such as a young c h i l d , died. So, parents were depicted mourning t h e i r dead c h i l d — a n attempt to create a f i n a l family image. When the subject was a c h i l d , i t was held i n the arms or the lap of the parent(s), as i f the c h i l d were asleep. When looking at these images, i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the c h i l d i s asleep or dead. The display of g r i e f on the face of the parents does not indicate the status of the c h i l d , as a l l photographs of t h i s era portray sombre looking people due to the slow technology of exposure times. As was discussed e a r l i e r , people were placed i n re s t r a i n t s to ensure a clear, unblurred image. The re s u l t was an image of a person without f a c i a l emotion with a r i g i d , expressionless posture (Ruby 88-90) . Thus, the multiple associations of photography with death can f i r s t be seen i n the e a r l i e s t photographs, where the slow technology demanded that the subject be as s t i l l as a corpse. Then, r e a l corpses were actually photographed, which served a s o c i a l purpose i n aiding the healing process of mourning. So photographers started with photographing l i v e people who looked l i k e they were dead, and ended by photographing the t r u l y dead. The next step was to photograph the dead i n the state of the a f t e r l i f e , otherwise known as ghosts. However, photographing 102 the dead was not the only preliminary step that led to photographing ghosts. Cultural attitudes towards the technology of the camera allowed the process of photography to embody a powerful mysticism. There i s one central c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of photography that brings associations of black magic, the occult and supernatural power: the double. While photography c a r r i e d p o s i t i v i s t associations of truth, the medium was also experienced as an uncanny phenomenon. The mechanical reproduction c a p a b i l i t i e s of photography were interpreted as an a b i l i t y to create a p a r a l l e l world of phantasmatic doubles. The new mythology welcomed the d i s s o l v i n g e f f e c t s of modernity into the core of metaphysics. Tom Gunning provocatively suggests that the uncanny a b i l i t y of photography to produce a double of the subject allowed i t to embody associations of the supernatural (43). Therefore, I w i l l examine the lineage of m u l t i - c u l t u r a l thinking on the double, as outlined by Sigmund Freud and Otto Rank. Gunning recounts Freud's writing from The Uncanny (1919), stating that a fascination with r e p e t i t i o n led Freud to go beyond the pleasure p r i n c i p l e to a confrontation with the death drive and the c o n f l i c t between Eros and Thanatos (43-44). Otto Rank also writes on the theme of the double, which was inspired by German uncanny cinema, i n p a r t i c u l a r The Student of Prague 103 (1912), where the t r i c k e r y o f double exposure was employed. Both F r e u d and Rank demonstrate t h a t the double has a l o n g l i n e a g e , from a r c h a i c b e l i e f s t o the romant i c Doppe lganger . Photography worked as a new t e c h n o l o g y t o f u r n i s h a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g the uncanny. Rank's c l a s s i c essays i n The Double (1971) p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d account on the m u l t i - c u l t u r a l forms o f the double and the b e l i e f s t h a t are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Rank p o s i t s t h a t humankind's need f o r s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i o n o r s e l f - i m m o r t a l i z a t i o n , which i s p a r t l y a c h i e v e d w i t h the p h o t o g r a p h i c image, l e d t o the development o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . Rank o u t l i n e s the d i v e r s e b e l i e f s i n the need t o p r o t e c t one ' s shadow, which i s a form o f a double o f o n e s e l f . Another form of the double i s i n the r e f l e c t i o n , r e p r o d u c e d i n g l a s s o r i n w a t e r . Many t r i b a l peop les b e l i e v e d t h a t the s o u l i s embodied i n the image. T h i s was then c a r r i e d over t o permanent r e p r o d u c t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s , such as photography . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e r e has been a p r o l i f i c dread of one ' s own p o r t r a i t o r photograph found a c r o s s many c u l t u r e s , such as the F i r s t N a t i o n s , the American I n d i a n , and t r i b e s i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a , as w e l l as i n A s i a , E a s t I n d i a , and E u r o p e . I t was thought t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o u l was m a n i f e s t i n the image o f the s u b j e c t , and i t was f e a r e d t h a t the f o r e i g n p o s s e s s o r o f t h i s f i g u r a t i v e 104 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d l e a d the s u b j e c t to harmfu l or d e a d l y consequences (Rank 52 -65 ) . When the daguerreo type was i n v e n t e d i n 1839, t h i s f e a r o f the uncanny double was expres sed by an u n c e r t a i n p u b l i c r e c e p t i o n t o the new t e c h n o l o g y . A decade a f t e r D a g u e r r e ' s s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i m e n t s , B a l z a c ' s w r i t i n g s i n d i c a t e a d e a t h l y f e a r o f the r e p r o d u c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f photography . A photographer o f the t i m e , Nadar , w r o t e : "The l o w l i e s t t o the most h i g h [...] t r e m b l e d b e f o r e the daguerreo type [...]. More than a few o f our most b r i l l i a n t i n t e l l e c t s shrank back as i f from a d i s e a s e " (Nadar 9). He c o n t i n u e s by n o t i n g the response o f h i s f r i e n d , B a l z a c , who expres sed uneas ines s about the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s . Nadar summarizes B a l z a c ' s "Theory o f the S p e c t e r s " : A c c o r d i n g t o B a l z a c ' s t h e o r y , a l l p h y s i c a l bod ie s are made up e n t i r e l y o f l a y e r s o f g h o s t l i k e images , an i n f i n i t e number o f l e a f l i k e s k i n s l a i d one on top o f the o t h e r . S i n c e B a l z a c b e l i e v e d man was i n c a p a b l e o f making something m a t e r i a l from an a p p a r i t i o n , from something i m p a l p a b l e - t h a t i s , c r e a t i n g something from n o t h i n g — he c o n c l u d e d t h a t every t ime someone had h i s photograph t a k e n , one o f the s p e c t r a l l a y e r s was removed from the body and t r a n s f e r r e d t o the p h o t o g r a p h . Repeated exposures e n t a i l e d the u n a v o i d a b l e l o s s o f subsequent g h o s t l y l a y e r s , t h a t i s , the v e r y essence o f l i f e . (9) R o s a l i n d Krauss w r i t e s i n the r e l a t i v e l y contemporary e s say , " T r a c i n g Nadar" , t h a t B a l z a c ' s t h e o r y expres sed the d u a l i d e n t i t y o f photography . The q u a l i t y o f the double was e q u a l l y shared i n the p o s i t i v i s t ' s a b s o l u t i s m of mat ter and the m e t a p h y s i c i a n ' s e x i s t e n t i a l l i n k t o the o r i g i n a l s o u r c e . B a l z a c 105 wrote : "The e x t e r n a l l i f e i s a k i n d o f o r g a n i z e d system which r e p r e s e n t s a man as e x a c t l y as the c o l o r s by which the s n a i l r eproduces i t s e l f on i t s s h e l l " ( q t d . i n Krauss 35 ) . The c o n n e c t i o n s t o b i o l o g y o f t h i s model were meant t o c a r r y the a u t h o r i t y o f S c i e n c e , w h i l e the n o t i o n o f man as a s e r i e s o f e x f o l i a t i n g , s e l f - d e p i c t i o n images i s the model o f the s n a i l i n a p o e t i c and w h i m s i c a l form. A l s o around the t ime o f B a l z a c ' s w r i t i n g , t h e r e was a new c u l t u r a l development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s — t h e m e t a p h y s i c a l system o f S p i r i t u a l i s m . The S p i r i t u a l i s t movement r e l a t e d i t s wor ldv iew t o the modern changes i n t e c h n o l o g y and s c i e n c e , such as e l e c t r i c i t y , t e l e g r a p h y and new advances i n c h e m i s t r y and b i o l o g y . P h o t o g r a p h y ' s q u a l i t y o f the double i s what a t t r a c t e d the S p i r i t u a l i s t s t o the medium. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the t r i c k photography of the double exposure , a k i n d o f double w i t h i n the d o u b l e . A g a i n , i t was the i r o n i c q u a l i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i n d e x i c a l i t y and s imul taneous uncanniness t h a t a t t r a c t e d B a l z a c t o w r i t e about the medium and a l s o the S p i r i t u a l i s t s t o i t . P h o t o g r a p h i c l i k e n e s s and the t r a n s p a r e n c y o f ghosts demonstrated the uncanny q u a l i t y o f photography , o r , i n o t h e r words , i t s c a p t u r e o f a s p e c t r e - l i k e double (Gunning 4 7 ) . Photography s u b s t a n t i a t e d S p i r i t u a l i s m . A l l c l a i m s o f s p i r i t photography as e v i d e n c e o f an a f t e r l i f e r e s t on the 106 i n d e x i c a l c l a i m t h a t g h o s t s , i n v i s i b l e t o the human eye , are p i c k e d up by the more s e n s i t i v e c a p a c i t y o f photography . S p i r i t photographers d e n i e d they knew how t h e i r photographs o f ghosts were c r e a t e d . I t was p o i n t e d out by s k e p t i c s o f s p i r i t photography t h a t the ghosts t h a t appeared i n such photographs were o f t e n the exac t d u p l i c a t i o n s o f e x i s t i n g p h o t o g r a p h s . W h i l e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e s the method of p h o t o g r a p h i n g photographs t o c r e a t e the s p i r i t image, the S p i r i t u a l i s t s c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s d i d not r u l e out s u p e r n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s . S p i r i t photographs were thought t o be produced by s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s t h a t used images o f the dead as a way of communicat ing t o the l i v i n g (Gunning 64) . Whi l e S p i r i t photography o f t e n worked t o s u b s t a n t i a t e the s u p e r n a t u r a l c l a i m s o f the S p i r i t u a l i s t movement, these images a l s o s e r v e d a s o c i a l purpose v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the p o s t -mortem photographs . S p i r i t photographs were produced f o r the mourners t o ease t h e i r h e a l i n g p r o c e s s . Photographs o f the dead were g i v e n t o photographers t o superimpose over the photographs o f the mourners . These photographs were not used t o c l a i m ev idence o f an a f t e r l i f e , but t o c r e a t e a c o n s o l i n g image. The o n l y i n d e x i c a l c l a i m o f these photographs i s t h a t the image o f the f a m i l y l i v e s o n , even a f t e r the s u b j e c t s have d i e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , v i e w i n g these images today as c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s , g i v e s the contemporary o b s e r v e r a t a n g i b l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the 107 i d e o l o g i e s o f i m m o r t a l i t y t h a t were o p e r a t i n g i n the m i d -n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The a e s t h e t i c t e n d e n c i e s o f pos t -mortem, s p i r i t photography and t e c h n o l o g i c a l uncanniness are demonstrated i n t h r e e f i l m s t h a t I have chosen: The O t h e r s , The Asphyx, and R i n g . The Others u t i l i z e s two o f the t h r e e s t y l e s r e g a r d i n g post -mortem photography—"the e t e r n a l s l eep" and " a l i v e , but d e a d . " The Asphyx expresses the V i c t o r i a n S p i r i t u a l i s m t h a t empowered the camera w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . R i n g p r e s e n t s a contemporary view o f V i c t o r i a n S p i r i t u a l i s m , u s i n g the h a u n t i n g power o f the t e c h n o l o g i e s o f v i d e o , the t e l ephone and the camera. In The O t h e r s , Grace l i v e s i n a mansion w i t h her two c h i l d r e n and t h r e e s e r v a n t s . Her husband i s m i s s i n g i n a c t i o n due t o h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s o l d i e r i n Wor ld War Two. G r a c e ' s son and daughter are c h r o n i c a l l y a l l e r g i c t o l i g h t , and cannot l e a v e the house . They must r e s i d e i n complete d a r k n e s s , and t h e r e f o r e a l l the windows are c o v e r e d w i t h t h i c k d r a p e r y . In one scene , Grace i s s o r t i n g through c l u t t e r i n the a t t i c when she f i n d s a box o f p h o t o g r a p h s . She comes a c r o s s a b l a c k photo album, where a l l the s u b j e c t s o f the images are e i t h e r s i t t i n g u p r i g h t i n a c h a i r o r wooden bench , o r l y i n g down i n bed . They are a l l wear ing b l a c k and t h e i r eyes are c l o s e d . Grace asks her s e r v a n t , M r s . M i l l s , why everyone i n the photographs i s 108 s l e e p i n g . M r s . M i l l s t e l l s her t h a t what she i s l o o k i n g a t i s a "Book o f the Dead ." L a t e r i n the f i l m , Grace f i n d s a p o s t -mortem photograph i n her room, showing a l l t h r e e o f her s e r v a n t s s i t t i n g on a c o u c h , wear ing b l a c k and d i s p l a y i n g c l o s e d eyes . Grace r e a l i z e s t h a t her s e r v a n t s are g h o s t s . A t the same t i m e , the c h i l d r e n f i n d the s e r v a n t s ' t h r e e graves i n the garden and a l s o r e a l i z e t h a t the domest ics a r e g h o s t s . L a t e r , the g h o s t l y s e r v a n t s warn Grace t h a t "the o t h e r s " have her c h i l d r e n . Grace e n t e r s a room where the c h i l d r e n are h i d i n g t o d i s c o v e r a seance i n p r o g r e s s . Grace i s t o l d t h a t she and her c h i l d r e n are g h o s t s , t o o . In f a c t , when G r a c e ' s husband d i d not r e t u r n from the war, she smothered her c h i l d r e n w i t h p i l l o w s and shot h e r s e l f . The use o f post -mortem photography i s key t o the p l o t s t r u c t u r e , as i t i s the d i s c o v e r y o f the post -mortem photographs o f the s e r v a n t s t h a t l e a d s Grace to r e a l i z e t h a t she and her c h i l d r e n are a l s o g h o s t s . And Grace would not have r e a l i z e d t h a t the s e r v a n t s were dead i n the f i n a l post -mortem photograph i f she had not d i s c o v e r e d the b l a c k photo album e a r l i e r i n the s t o r y , when M r s . M i l l s e x p l a i n e d t o her t h a t the s u b j e c t s i n the photographs were not a s l e e p . There are n i n e photographs d i s p l a y e d i n the "Book o f the Dead ." The images range from medium shots t o l o n g shots and from the e l d e r l y t o i n f a n t s . The c o r p s e s are e i t h e r l y i n g i n bed t o p o r t r a y the 109 f i r s t s t y l i s t i c of post-mortem photography, "the eternal sleep", or the subjects are placed upright i n wicker chairs or wooden benches, portraying the second s t y l i s t i c of " a l i v e , but dead." The subjects are meant to look as i f they are a l i v e and posing for a photographic p o r t r a i t . The Others does not depict post-mortem photographs of the deceased with mourners, the t h i r d s t y l i s t i c of post-mortem photography. Some of the images depict more than one subject i n the image, though. For example, i n one photograph, there are two children seated on a wooden bench, holding hands. There i s also an image of three young men l y i n g together i n one bed. The f i l m i s not only accurately referencing two of the three s t y l i s t i c s of post-mortem photography, but i t i s also demonstrating the frequency to which people died due to the tuberculosis epidemic during the middle and late nineteenth century. A l l three servants, Mrs. M i l l s , Mr. Tuttle and Lydia are shown to have died at the same time, as the three of them are shown seated together. The photograph i s dated December 1891, which was, i n fact, during the tuberculosis epidemic. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that not only are the photographs depicted with h i s t o r i c a l accuracy, but the dialogue between Grace and Mrs. M i l l s also acknowledges the c u l t u r a l attitudes of the time. While Grace i s looking through the black book with Mrs. M i l l s , she finds the image of the two children t o g e t h e r . Grace d i s t r a u g h t l y expresses t h a t she f i n d s such a p r a c t i c e t o be macabre, and does not u n d ers t an d how "these peop le c o u l d be so s u p e r s t i t i o u s . " M r s . M i l l s had e a r l i e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t : "In the l a s t c e n t u r y , I b e l i e v e they took photographs o f the dead i n the hopes t h a t t h e i r s o u l s would go on l i v i n g through the p o r t r a i t s . " T h i s r e f e r e n c e s O t t o Rank's d i s c u s s i o n on the double and the f a c t t h a t some t r i b a l peop le b e l i e v e d t h a t the image posses sed the s o u l . A c h i e v i n g i m m o r t a l i t y through m e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i s f u r t h e r expanded on i n The Asphyx . The Asphyx ske tches the i d e o l o g i e s o f i m m o r t a l i t y and V i c t o r i a n S p i r i t u a l i s m i n p h o t o g r a p h i c exper iments and t h e i r impact a t the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . S i r V i c t o r Hugo i s a s c i e n t i s t who photographs peop le a t the moment they d i e . In p h o t o g r a p h i n g the s u f f e r e r s , he i s r e p e a t e d l y a b l e t o c a p t u r e a c e r t a i n smear on the p i c t u r e near the head o f the d y i n g . In one scene , he p r o j e c t s s l i d e images o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a t the p o i n t o f d e a t h , t o a s o c i e t y o f amateurs . He p o i n t s out t h a t i n every image t h e r e i s a b l a c k smear near the head o f the n e a r l y deceased . In o r d e r t o determine the d i r e c t i o n i n which the smear i s t r a v e l l i n g , he deve lops an a p p a r a t u s , whereby he can r e c o r d moving o b j e c t s . He must t r y t o d i s c o v e r i f the b l a c k smear r e p r e s e n t s the s o u l l e a v i n g the body, or i f i t i s a death I l l s p i r i t coming t o take the s o u l away. Thus , he i n v e n t s the m o t i o n . p i c t u r e camera. In t h i s f i l m , the V i c t o r i a n c r a z e f o r s p i r i t photography has been upgraded t o produce the image o f ghosts i n the making , o r death i n p r o c e s s . What S i r Hugo d i s c o v e r s i n a c t i o n i s t h a t the p u z z l i n g smudge he has been s t u d y i n g i s an e c t o p l a s m i c phantom, c a p t u r e d as i t a r r i v e s on the scene o f d e a t h . T h i s i s the Greek s p i r i t o f d e a t h , the Asphyx ( d e r i v e d from the term a s p h y x i a t i o n ) (Stewart i v ) . I t i s the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera, which i s more s e n s i t i v e than the human eye t h a t can c a p t u r e the asphyx i n a c t i o n . The Asphyx a c c u r a t e l y expresses the V i c t o r i a n S p i r i t u a l i s t i n d e x i c a l i t y c l a i m o f the p r e c i s i o n o f the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera. The d e t a i l and i n s t a n t a n e o u s q u a l i t y o f m e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n i s more f a i t h f u l i n r e p r o d u c i n g r e a l i t y than any human agency, so t h e r e f o r e the c o n t e n t d e p i c t e d i n the image must be t r u t h f u l , and i t i s the weakness o f the human sensory system t h a t cannot p e r c e i v e what the camera r e c o r d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the camera i s empowered w i t h m y s t i c a l s t r e n g t h , as i t s i n d e x i c a l a b i l i t y a l l o w s the u s e r o f the t e c h n o l o g y t o c a p t u r e the death s p i r i t f o r e t e r n i t y , and thus a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y . Wi thout the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the camera, the Asphyx c o u l d never be d e t e c t e d and t h e r e f o r e , never be c a u g h t . 112 F i n a l l y , the contemporary Japanese f i l m , R i n g , expresses a r e v e r s a l o f the V i c t o r i a n b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g the i m m o r t a l i t y t h a t i s l i n k e d t o the image as expres sed i n The Others and The Asphyx . R i n g proposes the n o t i o n o f impending doom t h a t B a r t h e s put f o r t h i n Camera L u c i d a and which was most n o t a b l y expres sed i n B a d l a n d s , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The i d e a i s t h a t v i e w i n g an image o f the p a s t , i n the p r e s e n t , c o m p l i c a t e s the v i e w e r ' s sense o f m o r t a l i t y . O r , as Sontag w r i t e s , the photograph draws a t t e n t i o n t o the r e l e n t l e s s me l t o f t i m e , announcing an i n e s c a p a b l e d i s m a l f a t e f o r the v i ewer (15) . In R i n g , the power o f the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera v i s u a l l y m a n i f e s t s t h i s impending death o f the s u b j e c t by d i s t o r t i n g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t . R i n g l i n k s the t e c h n o l o g i c a l apparatus t o the s u p e r n a t u r a l . The s t o r y r e s t s on the urban myth t h a t a teenage g i r l , Tomoko, watched a v i d e o , and then r e c e i v e d a phone c a l l t h a t she would d i e i n a week. A t e l e v i s i o n r e p o r t e r , R e i k o , i n v e s t i g a t e s the s t o r y . She f i n d s a p i c t u r e o f the teenage g i r l and her f r i e n d s . She i s provoked i n t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s t o r y f u r t h e r , when she sees the n i g h t m a r i s h image o f the b l u r r e d and d i s t o r t e d faces o f the f o u r t e e n a g e r s . R e i k o t r a v e l s t o the p l a c e where the teenage g i r l saw the t a p e . She watches the v i d e o and a l s o r e c e i v e s the phone c a l l . Her ex-husband takes a P o l a r o i d p i c t u r e o f h e r , and as the p i c t u r e 113 deve lops on the s p o t , R e i k o ' s face i s r e v e a l e d t o be c o n t o r t e d and out o f p r o p o r t i o n . The P o l a r o i d c o n f i r m s her f a t e ; she w i l l d i e i n one week, as d i d Tomoko, so she must s o l v e the mystery t o ensure her own s u r v i v a l . The photograph i s e s s e n t i a l i n push ing the p l o t f o r w a r d , as i t i s used t o c o n f i r m a d i s m a l f u t u r e , which m o t i v a t e s Re iko to s o l v e the s t o r y . By c o n t r a s t , i n The Others and The Asphyx , the use o f photography and the camera are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the V i c t o r i a n b e l i e f s o f i m m o r t a l i t y and S p i r i t u a l i s m , l i n k i n g m y s t i c power t o t e c h n o l o g y . But i n R i n g , the camera does not p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n chang ing a m o r t a l ' s f a t e ; the p h o t o g r a p h ' s i n d e x i c a l i t y r e v e a l s a doom t h a t i s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t . However, t h e r e i s the d u a l i s m o f p o s i t i v i s m and the d o u b l e , as the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera i s s t i l l p o w e r f u l enough t o r e v e a l the impending death t h a t mere m o r t a l s cannot p e r c e i v e . The l i g h t - s e n s i t i v e , d e t a i l e d image i s r e n d e r e d v i a the camera, which has the c a p a c i t y t o d u p l i c a t e a r e a l i t y t h a t i s unseen by the average p e r s o n . The ev idence o f the image a l l o w s Re iko t o take mat ters i n t o her own hands , and change her f a t e h e r s e l f . In c o n c l u s i o n , a l l t h r e e f i l m s a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y the s h i f t i n g methods i n r e p r e s e n t i n g death i n photography i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . From posthumous photography to S p i r i t photography , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g d r i v e towards a t t e m p t i n g 114 i m m o r t a l i t y . Posthumous photography s e r v e d as memento m o r i f o r the mourning , a l l o w i n g the deceased t o l i v e on i n the p r e s e n t i n the form o f an image. S p i r i t photography p o r t r a y s the d u a l i s m t h a t embodies the p h o t o g r a p h . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t r u t h f u l due t o i t s i n d e x i c a l i t y , y e t the g h o s t l y t r a c e o r double can a l s o r e v e a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e a l i t y t h a t i s not p e r c e i v e d by the human eye . The S p i r i t u a l i s t s were s t r i v i n g t o p r o v i d e ev idence t h a t l i f e does e x i s t a f t e r d e a t h . The power o f the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera b r i n g s i m m o r t a l i t y through p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the image, and thus the s o u l , as i s demonstrated i n The O t h e r s . Or the camera r e v e a l s the u n p e r c e i v a b l e ghost o f d e a t h , which can then be c a p t u r e d t o a c h i e v e i m m o r t a l i t y , as i n The Asphyx . Or the camera r e v e a l s a d i s t o r t e d image t h a t i m p l i e s impending doom, and thus g i v e s the s u b j e c t a view o f a d i s m a l f a t e , but t h i s f a t e can be changed v i a human agency, as i n R i n g . A l l t h r e e f i l m s suggest and r e p l i c a t e the V i c t o r i a n i d e o l o g y t h a t the s u p e r n a t u r a l power o f the t e c h n o l o g y o f the camera can b r i n g i m m o r t a l i t y i n one form o r a n o t h e r . 115 Epitaph To f o l l o w a d i s c u s s i o n on p h o t o g r a p h y ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s o f d e a t h , i t i s o n l y l o g i c a l t o end my t h e s i s on the debates t h a t c o n c e r n the death o f photography e n t i r e l y . As G e o f f r e y Batchen n o t e s , the o u t b u r s t o f debates on p h o t o g r a p h i c m o r b i d i t y stems from two r e l a t e d a n x i e t i e s . The f i r s t i s a r e s u l t o f the w idespread i n t r o d u c t i o n s o f computer d r i v e n imaging p r o c e s s e s t h a t a l l o w "fake" photographs t o be passed o f f as r e a l ones . The f a t e f u l p r o s p e c t i s t h a t v i ewers w i l l d i s c a r d t h e i r f a i t h i n the p h o t o g r a p h ' s a b i l i t y t o d e l i v e r o b j e c t i v e t r u t h i f they are unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h the fake images from the r e a l images . So t h e r e are two c r i s e s t h a t photography f a c e s — o n e , t e c h n o l o g i c a l ( d i g i t a l imaging) and the o t h e r , e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l (changes i n e t h i c s , knowledge and c u l t u r e ) . T o g e t h e r , these c r i s e s propose the death o f photography w i t h the "end" o f photography and the c u l t u r e i t s u s t a i n s (207) . But photography has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h death s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g . As I d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, the a e s t h e t i c s o f r e a l i s m borrowed from Rena i s sance p a i n t i n g gave shape t o the i n f l u e n t i a l r h e t o r i c o f t r u t h t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d p h o t o g r a p h i c i m a g i n g . Under the c a t e g o r y o f Death , I o u t l i n e d B a r t h e s d i s c u s s i o n on p h o t o g r a p h y ' s c h i l l i n g i n s i s t e n c e on human m o r t a l i t y due t o the p r o c e s s ' s p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t i m e . A n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e are the m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f 116 p h o t o g r a p h i c death i n posthumous and s p i r i t photography . E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y , the death o f t r u t h t h a t surrounds p h o t o g r a p h i c p r a c t i c e has been n e g o t i a t e d s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g . F o r w h i l e the p o s i t i v i s t s were a s s e r t i n g t h a t r e a l i s m was the a e s t h e t i c o f t r u t h , o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h i c p r a c t i t i o n e r s were b l a t a n t l y m a n i p u l a t i n g the image to produce s p i r i t imagery . But g i v e n t h a t death has been i n t e g r a l t o p h o t o g r a p h y ' s l i f e , what does i t mean now t o c o n s i d e r the t e r m i n a l d i s p l a c e m e n t o f photography by d i g i t a l imaging? The main d i f f e r e n c e between the o n t o l o g y o f photography and d i g i t a l imaging i s t h a t photography s t i l l o c c u p i e s a t e m p o r a l i n d e x i c a l i t y , w h i l e d i g i t a l imaging remains an o v e r t l y f i c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . D i g i t i z a t i o n abandons the r h e t o r i c o f t r u t h t h a t has been such an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s c u l t u r a l s u c c e s s . As the name s u g g e s t s , d i g i t a l p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y r e t u r n s the p r o d u c t i o n o f p h o t o g r a p h i c images t o the whim o f the c r e a t i v e human hand ( to the d i g i t s ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , d i g i t a l images are c l o s e r t o a r t and f i c t i o n than they are t o documentat ion and f a c t . But a g a i n , as I d i s c u s s e d the s u b j e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f the p h o t o g r a p h i c p r o c e s s , photographs are no more o r no l e s s " true" t o the f a c t s than d i g i t a l images are (Batchen 212). T h i s argument b r i n g s us t o the dilemma o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s o n t o l o g y , and t o the a n a l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s t h a t g i v e 117 photography i t s i d e n t i t y as a medium. Remember that Barthes has already discounted resemblance to r e a l i t y as a way of defining photography. In his terms, the photograph may not represent the subject exactly, but we are sure that he or she was once there i n front of the camera. We can be sure he or she, at some point, was present i n time and space due to photography's temporal i n d e x i c a l i t y . Reality may have been transcribed, manipulated, or enhanced, but photography doesn't cast doubt on r e a l i t y ' s actual existence (Batchen 212). Photography's p l a u s i b i l i t y has rested on the uniqueness of i t s indexical r e l a t i o n to the world i t images, a r e l a t i o n regarded as fundamental to i t s operation as a system of representation. As a footprint i s to a foot, so i s a photograph to i t s referent. For t h i s reason, a photograph of something has generally been considered to be evidence of that thing's being, even i f i t i s not e n t i r e l y t r u t h f u l (Batchen 212). On the other hand, computer v i s u a l i z a t i o n can produce photographic ae s t h e t i c - l i k e images with no d i r e c t referent i n an outside world. It i s t h i s photographic-like aesthetic product that d i g i t a l images create, but without the process of depending on a referent, that i s threatening to photography (Batchen 213). Contemporary philosophy raises serious questions about the conceptual s t a b i l i t y of the index on which photography's i d e n t i t y depends. Photographs are p r i v i l e g e d over d i g i t a l 118 images because they are i n d e x i c a l s i g n s , images i n s c r i b e d by the v e r y o b j e c t s t o which they r e f e r . T h i s i s t aken t o mean t h a t , whatever degrees o f m e d i a t i o n may be i n t r o d u c e d , photographs are u l t i m a t e l y d i r e c t i m p r i n t s o f r e a l i t y i t s e l f . But as D e r r i d a p o i n t s o u t , i n P e i r c e ' s w r i t i n g "the t h i n g i t s e l f i s a s i g n [...] from the moment t h e r e i s meaning t h e r e are n o t h i n g but s i g n s " ( q t d . i n Batchen 215) . In o t h e r words , the v e r y P e i r c i a n s e m i o t i c s upon which p h o t o g r a p h y ' s a n a l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y i s founded would have us r e w r i t e photography as a s i g n i n g o f s i g n s , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i t i s a t the same t ime a d i g i t a l p r o c e s s (Batchen 215) . Perhaps the f i l m t h a t b e s t a r t i c u l a t e s the d u a l i t y o f photography i n the c o n t e x t o f d i g i t a l i z a t i o n and computer imaging i s RoboCop. The s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n f u t u r i s t i c f i l m f e a t u r e s a r e s u r r e c t e d and r o b o t i c i z e d p o l i c e o f f i c e r . A l e x J . Murphy has a new, supercharged c y b o r g body and i t i s h i s m i s s i o n t o r e c l a i m h i s memory and avenge h i s own d e a t h . The p i v o t a l moment i n the f i l m o c c u r s when he l e a r n s t h a t he has a l r e a d y d i e d and t h a t he was once human. Murphy marches i n t o the computer r e c o r d s room o f the p o l i c e s t a t i o n . He uses h i s r o b o t i c arm t o bypass the computer s e c u r i t y system o f the C r i m i n a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n D i v i s i o n . The f i r s t c r i m i n a l appears on the s c r e e n , and t o i d e n t i f y h im, the computer scans the database o f f a c e s . F i r s t , the mouth i s 119 matched w h i l e random noses and eyes are s c r o l l i n g b y . Then the nose i s matched, f o l l o w e d by the eyes t o make the complete face o f the c r i m i n a l . T h i s patchwork of s c r o l l i n g and s c a n n i n g r e v e a l s the p o t e n t i a l f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f d i g i t a l i m a g i n g . Any body p a r t can be removed and r e p l a c e d by another t o e i t h e r match a face o r c r e a t e a f i c t i o n a l f a c e . The ease and seamless f a c i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g f i c t i o n w i t h d i g i t a l imaging i s what causes the p r o c e s s t o be under s e r i o u s s c r u t i n y . Anybody can be f o o l e d . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the computer imaging i s used t o access c r i m i n a l r e c o r d f i l e s , e f f i c i e n t l y and q u i c k l y . And a l t h o u g h the d i g i t a l p r o c e s s c a r r i e s the r h e t o r i c o f f i c t i o n , h e r e , the s t r e n g t h o f t r u t h o f the p o l i c e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d s overcomes these a s s o c i a t i o n s . As Murphy scans the d a t a b a s e , s t a n d a r d i z e d p o l i c e photographs o f the f r o n t a l and p r o f i l e views o f c r i m i n a l a c c o m p l i c e s appear . F i n a l l y , Murphy' s p h o t o g r a p h i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a p p e a r s , and as he r e c o g n i z e s h i s own s e l f - i m a g e , r e d l e t t e r s f l a s h on the screen—"Deceased ." The d i g i t a l images have proven t h a t he i s dead . T h i s example demonstrates the f a c i l i t y o f m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the image due t o the random image s c a n n i n g o f the c r i m i n a l d a t a b a s e , but i t a l s o shows t h a t the myth o f t r u t h t h a t surrounds photography i s p e r s i s t e n t l y a t t a c h e d t o the r e f e r e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f the d i g i t a l image. Perhaps i t i s because the d i g i t a l image i s an a r c h i v e d 120 image, t h a t Murphy g i v e s the a u t h o r i t y o f t r u t h t o h i s f i n d i n g s . P h i l o s o p h y g i v e s us one way t o t h i n k about the c o m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i s p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i d e n t i t y . Photography i s a l o g i c t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y r e t u r n s t o haunt i t s e l f . The e n i g m a t i c q u a l i t y o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s i n d e x i c a l i t y r a i s e s p h i l o s o p h i c q u e s t i o n s about the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f T r u t h and D e a t h . The b l u r r e d b o u n d a r i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h y ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s p r e v e n t the medium from o c c u p y i n g a s t a b l e and u n i f y i n g i d e n t i t y . As my many f i l m examples from d i f f e r e n t t ime p e r i o d s , g e n r e s , and c o u n t r i e s have p r o v e n , w i t h o u t a s i n g l e and c o n s i s t e n t meaning, photography can be used , m a n i p u l a t e d and r e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d f o r d i v e r s e and c o n t r a d i c t o r y p u r p o s e s . Filmography The Asphyx . D i r . P e t e r Newbrook, 1973. B a d l a n d s . D i r . T e r r e n c e M a l i c k , 1973. B a s i c I n s t i n c t . D i r . P a u l Verhoeven , 1992 B lade Runner . D i r . R i d l e y S c o t t , 1982 B l o v - O u t . D i r . B r i a n De Palma, 1981. B low-Up. D i r . M i c h e l a n g e l o A n t o n i o n i , 196 C l o c k e r s . D i r . S p i k e L e e , 1995. Kenya . D i r . K a t h e r i n e P e t t i t , 2002. L a J e t e e . D i r . C h r i s M a r k e r , 1962. Memento. D i r . C h r i s t o p h e r N o l a n , 2000. One Hour P h o t o . D i r . M a r k Romanek, 2002. The O t h e r s . D i r . A l e j a n d r o Amenabar, 2000 P a r a l l a x V iew. D i r . A l a n J . P a k u l a , 1974. P r o o f . D i r . J o c e l y n Moorhouse, 1991. R i n g . D i r . D o n g - g i n K i m , 1999. RobeCop. D i r . P a u l Verhoeven , 1987. Run L o l a Run. D i r . T o m Tykwer, 1998. Under F i r e . D i r . R o g e r Spot t i swoode , 1983 W i t n e s s . D i r . P e t e r W e i r , 1985. 122 Bibliography B a r t h e s , R o l a n d . Image, M u s i c , T e x t . New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1994. . Camera L u c i d a . New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1980. B a t c h e n , G e o f f r e y . B u r n i n g w i t h D e s i r e : The C o n c e p t i o n o f Photography . Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1999. B a z i n , A n d r e . What Is Cinema? B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1967. B e l l o u r , Raymond. "The P e n s i v e S p e c t a t o r . " Wide A n g l e 9 (1987): 6-11. B e n j a f i e l d , John G . A H i s t o r y o f P s y c h o l o g y . B o s t o n : A l l y n and Bacon , 1996. B e r g e r , J o h n . Another Way o f T e l l i n g . London: W r i t e r s and Readers , 1982. B o r d w e l l , D a v i d . N a r r a t i o n i n the F i c t i o n F i l m . M a d i s o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1985. Cook, D a v i d . A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f N a r r a t i v e F i l m . New Y o r k : W.W. Norton and Company, 1996. C r a r y , J o n a t h a n . Techniques o f the O b s e r v e r : On V i s i o n and M o d e r n i t y i n the N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . Cambridge: MIT P , 1990. De Duve, T h i e r r y . "Time Exposure and Snapshot: The Photograph as P a r a d o x . " October 5 (1978): 113-125. Gunning , Tom. "Phantom Images and Modern M a n i f e s t a t i o n s : S p i r i t Photogrpahy , Magic T h e a t e r , T r i c k F i l m s , and P h o t o g r a p h y ' s Uncanny." F u g i t i v e Images: From Photography t o V i d e o . E d . P a t r i c e P e t r o . I n d i a n a p o l i s : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1995. 42-71. Heath , S tephen . " N a r r a t i v e Space ." N a r r a t i v e , A p p a r a t u s , I d e o l o g y : A F i l m Theory Reader . E d . P h i l i p Rosen. New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1986. 379-420. H i l l i k e r , L e e . "The H i s t o r y o f the F u t u r e i n P a r i s : C h r i s Marker and J e a n - L u c Godard i n the 1960s." F i l m C r i t i c i s m 24.3 (2000): 1-22. 123 H u l i c k , D i a n a . "The T r a n s c e n d e n t a l Machine? A Comparison o f D i g i t a l Photography and N i n e t e e n t h - C e n t u r y modes o f P h o t o g r a p h i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " Leonardo 23 (1990): 419-425. K r a u s s , R o s a l i n d . " T r a c i n g N a d a r . " October 5 (1978): 29-48. L a l v a n i , S u r e n . Photography , V i s i o n and the P r o d u c t i o n o f Modern B o d i e s . S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f New York P r e s s : A l b a n y , 1996. L i s t e r , M a r t i n . " I n t r o d u c t o r y E s s a y . " The P h o t o g r a p h i c Image i n D i g i t a l C u l t u r e . New Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e , 1995. 1-28 M e t z , C h r i s t a i n . "Photography and F e t i s h . " October 34 (1985): 81-90. M i t c h e l l , W . J . The R e c o n f i g u r e d E y e : V i s u a l T r u t h i n the P o s t -P h o t o g r a p h i c E r a . Cambridge , Mass: MIT P r e s s , 1992. Monte, C h r i s t o p h e r F . Beneath the Mask: An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the T h e o r i e s o f P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t Brace J o v a n o v i c h I n c . , 1991. Nadar . "My L i f e as a P h o t o g r a p h e r . " October 5 (1978): 7-28. P e r e z , G i l b e r t o . The M a t e r i a l G h o s t . B a l t i m o r e : The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1998. Rank, O t t o . The Double : A P s y c h o a n a l y t i c S tudy . C h a p e l H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1971. R o b i n s , K e v i n . " W i l l Image Move US S t i l l ? " i n The P h o t o g r a p h i c Image i n D i g i t a l C u l t u r e , New Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e , 1995.29-50 Ruby, J a y . Secure the Shadow: Death and Photography i n A m e r i c a . Cambridge: MIT P r e s s , 1995. R u s s e l l , C a t h e r i n e . N a r r a t i v e M o r t a l i t y . M i n n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1995. S e k u l a , A l l a n . "The Body and the A r c h i v e . " October 39 (1986): 3-64. Snyder , J . and N.W. A l l e n . "Photography, V i s i o n and R e p r e s e n t a t i o n . " C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y 2 (1975): 143-69. 124 Sontag , Susan . On Photography . New Y o r k : F a r r a r , S t r a u s and G i r o u x , 1977. S t a n n a r d , D a v i d E . "Sex, Death and D a g u e r r e o t y p e s : Toward an U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Image as E l e g y . " A m e r i c a and the Daguerreo type . E d . by John Wood. Iowa C i t y : U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa P r e s s , 1991. 73-108. S t e w a r t , G a r r e t t . Between F i l m and S c r e e n . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1999. . " P h o t o - G r a v u r e : Death , Photography and F i l m N a r r a t i v e . " Wide A n g l e 9 (1987): 11-32. Tagg , J o h n . The Burden o f R e p r e s e n t a t i o n : Essays on P h o t o g r a p h i e s and H i s t o r i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s : M i n n e a p o l i s , 1988. W o l f e , C h a r l e s . " I n t r o d u c t i o n . " Wide Ang le 9.1 (1987): 11-31. 

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